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EifTEKED according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by 


in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court for the Eastern District of 


• • • 

• • • 

pnnMDELPniA : 




In presenting the third edition of this Compeud to Medi- 
cal Students, the only apology which it is necew&iy to offer 
is the rapid sale of the two former ones ; and this has been 
con«dered as sufficient evidence that the work has proved 

The careful revision which the present edition has under- 
gone, together with the many additions made in the text, 
both in the aomber of subjects treated of, and in the enlar^ 
ing of those previously confined in it, as well as in the 
addition of numerous well-executed Ulustrations, makes the 
work much more complete, and gives it, the author trusts, 
higher claims to a favorable reception. 

The object is to furnish the Stndent of Medicine with a 
short and succinct view of the most important facts and prin- 
ciples which engage his attention during his pupilage, in 
order that he may refresh and fix more firmly upon his me- 
mory what he has read and heard, as well as to enable btm 
properly to arrange his knowledge so as to use it in the most 
advantageous manner. '' 

With such a Vade Mecum and Poceet CompaxiO!T, many 
leisure moments may be rescued from entire loss, whether 
occurring in the class-room, before or between lectures, while 
in attendance at the hospital, or elsewhere, and turned to 
good account. These short intervals of time, when singly 
considered, may seem of little value ; but, taken in the aggre- 
gate, and usefully employed, may be of great consequence. 







Muscles of the Upper Extbexitt, 
Muscles of the Shoulder, 49 

Muscles of the Arm, 60 

Muscles of the Forearm, 61 

Muscles or the IirpEAiom £x- 


Muscles of the Thigh, 


Muscles of the Leg, 


Organs of Digestion, 








Glands of the Month, 








Reoions or the Abdomeit, 


Chtlopoietic Vuceba, 






Small Intestine, 


Large Intestine, 


Assist A irr Chtlopoietic Viscexa, 67 

Liver, 67 

Gall-bladder, 68 

Spleen, 68 

Pancreas, 68 

Ubinart Oboaits, 69 

Kidneys, 69 

Bladder, 70 
Organs of Generation in the 

Male, 71 
Organs of Generation in the 

Female, 75 

Organs or Respibation, 77 

Larynx, 77 

Trachea, 78 

Lungs, 79 

Pleura, 80 


Heart, 82 

Arteries, 83 

AorU, 83 

Internal Carotid, 86 

External Carotid, 85 

Internal Maxillary, 86 

Arteries of the Brain, 86 


Subclavian Artery, 

Axillary Artery, 

Brachial Artery, 

Coeliac Artery, 

Superior Mesenteric Artery, 



Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 89 

Primitive liiacs, 89 

Internal Iliac Artery, 89 

External Iliac Artery, 90 

Femoral Artery, 90 
Anterior and Posterior Tibial 

Arteries, 90 

Vehoits System, 90 

Vena Cava Descendens, 91 

Vena Innominata, 91 

Vena Azygos, 91 

Subclavian Vein, 92 

Veins of the Superior Extremity, 93 
Vena Cava Ascendens, 93 

Primitive Iliac Vein, 93 

Veinsof the Inferior Extremity, 94 

Absobbent OB Lymphatic System, 94 

Lacteals and Lymphatics, 94 

Thoracic Ducts, 95 

Nebvoits System, 96 

Spinal Marrow, 96 

Brain, 97 

Nerves, 101 

Olfactory Nerve, 101 

Optic Nerve, 101 

Motor Oculi, 102 

Patheticus, 102 

Trifacial, 102 

Motor Externus, 103 

Facial and Auditory, 103 

Glosso-pharyngeal, 104 

Pneumogastric, 104 

Accessory, 104 

Hypoglossal, 106 

Senses, 107 

Eye, 108 

Ear, 109 

Geeat Sympathetic Neeve, 110 

Spinal Neeves, 112 




ITatusal Bodiei, 



OtBKnic md InorgSDic B<^iai 


KilarniJ Ab<orplioD, 161 

CbfJoiii, ISl 

■nd VesBUblai, 



Orguiic ElcmenU, 


Th« TiMtie., 




Ahikai. Fchctidm — Fmrcnom 


EipirBtioD, IM 



Ciaci7I.ATIOR, 109 

Senio of Touch— PilpiEion, 


Blood, 16fl 

SaiiM of Tute— GDMitiOD, 


AclioB of the Heart, 16 

Santa of BmaH— OJruUon, 


Action of the Artgiiei, 163 

6en« or HcKiDg— AnditioD, 


NuTKinoH, 184 

GanM Df Sight— VkiDB, 


Celt Doctrioe, 164 

HmcUL» HC.T.O,., 


ForiMtionofCelli, 16fl 

Table of the HukIw, 


Caloificatioit, Iff 

FunctioDi of EipmHion — 

SECBrrrai., 167 



Cil«rj UoiioD, 


Follicular Orgu., 168 

Nunmn rnncTioiit, 


GUndular Orgine, ISS 

Eihelitioni, 170 

rood- Alimant, 


Follicoler Bacrationi, 17 



GleDdaUr ggeretioni, 179 

RETBoDDcnri Fnncnoin, 17 




Aeu, ' 171 



IdDiviDUAi. DirmwicM akono 


Makiind, IT] 




Condactiop of C*1< 




Equal iutioR orTemperatni 
Elfccu of Meat on Halter, 
Specific Heat, 
Lileot ileat, 

Theoriai of Light, 
SoUt Light, 
TerreMriKl Light, 

Induction of mectricitf, 
Lejdeo Jar, 





Electrometeri and Electro- 

scopeiy 193 

Galvanism, 193 

Voluic or Galvanic Circle, 193 

Galvanic Battery, 194 

Electroiization, 195 

Electro-Magoetiam, 196 

Specific GRAvmr, 197 

Nomenclature, 197 

ArriNiTY, 199 

Symbols, 201 

Oxygen, 202 

Combuition, 204 

Hydrogen, 204 

Nitrogen, 206 

Compoanda of Nitrogen, 206 

Atmosphere, 206 

Carbon, 210 

Sulphur, 212 

Compounda of Sulphur, 212 

Phosphorus, 215 

Boron, 216 

Silicon, 217 

Selenium, 219 

Chlorine, 219 

Compounda of Chlorine, 220 

Iodine, 226 

Bromine, 228 

Fluorine, 230 

Ammonia, 231 
Compounda of Hydrogen and 

Carbon, 232 

Hydrogen and Sulphur, 234 

Hydrogen and Phoaphorus, 235 

Nitrogen and Carbon, 235 

Metals, 237 

Metals or the AiEaLiEa, 239 

Potaaaiuni, 239 

Sodium, 242 

Lithium, 244 

Ammonium, 244 

Metals or the ALKAUirB 

Earths, 245 

Barium, 245 

Strontium, 246 

Calcium, 266 

Magnesium, 247 

Metals of the Earths Profkr, 248 

Aluminum, 248 


Metals which decompose Water 

at a red heat, 250 

Manganeae, 250 

Iron, 251 

Zinc, 254 

Tin, 255 

Cobalt, 256 

Nickel, 256 

metala which do hot dbc0mp08b 

Water at ant temperature, 256 

Araenic, 256 

Antimony, 260 

Copper, 261 

Lead, 268 

Btamuth, 264 

MxTAu THE Oxides or which are 


Mercury, 265 

SUver, 269 

Gold, 270 

Platinum, 270 

Allots ahd Amaloami, 271 

Salts, 272 

Oraaitic CHCMiarmT, 274 

Vegetable Chemistrt, 276 

Vegetable Acids, 276 

Orgaitic Salt Baies, or Vegeta- 
ble Alkalies, 279 

Neutral Sub8tahcbb,thb Oxtgbv 



Oleaoihoits, Resinous, and Bitu- 
MiHoiTS Substances, 282 

Spirituous and Ethereal Sub- 
stances, 286 
Coloring Matters, 287 
Substances which do not belong 


Spontaneous chanobb or Vege- 
table Matter, 288 
Germination, 289 
Animal Chemistry, 289 
Analytical Chemistry, 290 
Table or Symbols, and Equiya- 
lents of Elementary Sub- 
stances, 291 



Hatemia Hidica — DeGoitioa, 2: 

Operatian of Holinliiei, X! 

Phmirf ud SecoDiJmrj Opo- 

UOD of Mrdicin«, 

Fonni of MwllcinH, 

Tail! or CLAHiriCATiOR, 

VioETASLE AmiHoEan, 

<Hk Buk, 







Blickberrj Root, 

Uti U™i, 

AceUW of Lead, 
Pdbe Bittku, 

PccuvUd Bark, 


Wild Cherr; Birk, 

Mineral Ac id I, 


Hod Pepper, 

Oil of TarpentiDe, 




Dcidlj Mghtihido, 


TmrUi Emelic, 
Sulphite of Zinc 


IpecneuaDht, 3 

Tnrtrite of AntiraOBj and 

Doiec'i Powder, 3 

BJick SDiki 


Mvrrh, ' 


' Spl^'i^h Fly, 




Table ofthi Alcoholic i 

or WiHxa, 
Taile ihowiitd the Din 

aEiwEiH Mttrua, Dbon, 

>w TAmiOD* Mediciital 
<r THE UniTED Statu, 306 

Ulccntiie iDaunmaUt 

FuruncuJo), or Boil, 
Anihni, or Cirbuade 
Pernio, or Chilbliin, 

lociUd Wonndi, 
Punctared Wuuodi, 
Paaelraling Wouodi, 
Coatmed Woundi, 
LAcariMd WoDodi, 
PoiMDcd Wound), 

Simpla Ulcar, 

Fnclura of (he Lower Ji 
Fracliiro of Iba Vartebrc 
Fnclore of Iha Hibi, 
Prmciure of tba Sternum, 
Frlclnre of [he Cliiicle, 

Fnctore of tfae Patella, 
Fracture or tba Thigh, 
Fnelure or ihe Leg, 
Compoond Fncture, 

Diilocalion of ttaa Lower Ja 
DiiWation of the Claoida, 
Diilocation of the Ann, 
Diilocalion of lh« Foranrm, 
Dialoeation of the Tbigb, 
Uiilocalion o( the Knee, 
DulocatioD of tha Ankle, 

MoJIiliei Oiiium, 
Rachilia, or Ricketi, 
Coialgii, or Hip Diaean. 
Fungoi Articuli, or White 

Bjdrtrthii*, or Dropij of * 

Honbla Caitilags, 
DnzAiu or yhe Abtebie*, 

Varicoaa Ananiiam, 
DUEAIU or THE Vsnti, 

Cinocele lud Varicocsle, 
Inllammition of Veina, or 



Fracture! of the Skull, 
CoDCUMion of Ihe Brain, 
Caotpreuion of the Brain, 
InflaDimalion of Ihe Brain, 
Fungua Cerebri, or Elocepha- 

DuiAiu or THE Ete, 

Canjuncti»l Ophthalmia, 

ScleratJc Ophthalmia, 

IniLc OpbthilmU, or Iritia, 




Optcilj df the Cornea, 

Ulcer of Ihe Cornea, 

Oblilaraied Pupil, 




Amaurotit, 455 

Fittola Lachrjmaliti 456 

Strabismos, 456 

Hordeolom, 457 
• Encysted Tumors of the Eje- 

lid, 458 

Entropion, 458 

Ectropion, 458 

Diseases or the Nosb and An- 
trum, 458 
Polypus of the Nose, 458 
OzoBna, 459 
Fungus, or Polypus of the An- 
trum, 459 
Diseases or the Mouth, 459 
Hare-lip, 459 
Ranula, 460 
Malformation of the Frasnum 

Lingus, 460 

Enlarged Tonsils, 460 

Elongation of the Uvula, 460 

Epulis, or Tubercle of the 

Gums, 460 

Diseases or the Neck, 461 

Extraneous Bodies in the (Eso- 
phagus, 461 
Stricture of the CEsophagus, 461 
Removal of Extraneous Bodies 

from Larynx and Trachea, 462 
Bronchocele, or Goitre, 462 

Torticollis, or Wry Neck, 462 

Hernia, 463 

Inguinal Hernia, 464 

Femoral Hernia, 4H7 

Umbilical Hernia, 468 

Congenital Hernia, 468 

ARTiriciAL Anus, 468 

DoEASES or THE Rectum, 469 

Prolapsus Ani, 469 

Hemorrhoids, 469 

Fistula in A no, 470 

Diseases or the Testicle 
Diseases or the Urethra 
Fistula in Perineo, 




Retention and Incontinence of 

Urine, 473 

Urinary Calculus, 475 

Amputation, 477 

Amputation at the Shoulder- 
joint, 478 
Amputation above the Elbow, 480 
Amputation at the Elbow- 
joint, 480 
Amputation of the Forearm, 481 
Amputation at the Wrist-joint, 481 
Amputation of the Leg, 482 
Amputation of the Thigh, 482 
Ligature or Arteries, 484 
Ligature of the Common Caro- 
Ligature of the External Caro- 
Ligature of the Humeral Ar- 

Ligature of the Radial Artery, 485 
Ligature of the Ulnar Artery, 486 
Ligature of the External Iliac, 486 
Ligature of the Femoral Ar- 
Ligature of the Posterior 

Tibial Artery, 
Ligature of the Anterior 
Tibial Artery, 

Hemorrhage rROM Leech-Bites, 
Club-foot — Talipes, 
Inversion or the Toe Nail, 








The Pelvis, 

Sacro-sciatic Ligaments, 
Divisions of the Pelvis, 
Diameters of the Pelvis, 


The Pelvis, 

Measurementa of the Superior 

Strait, 497 

Measurementa of the Inferior 

Strait, 497 

Axes of the Pelvis, 498 

Inclination of the Pelvis, 499 


Plua* or Iha Slrtiu, 4 

DiroBMiTT or the Purn, 6 

Tm FsTAL Hud, S 

DiuDelan of the ChOd'i Brad, 6 

SalorM and FiMiUB«U«a, A 

IfnmauATiaH, A 

Denn^meit of tbe Foiielian 

or HesMnilioa, 0< 

PaaawiHcT, fi 

The HembnBM, S< 

Th« PJtcanU, 5< 

Tha Paul Cireulttio*. b 

Changa la ttaa DurM rron 

Daielopmeat of tba Fatu*, 6 
Eitn-Dtsrine Pragoaocj, 6 

Sign* or Pngnincr. 6 

Tal>r« of lbs : 


Trcatntent durlDg Pregnane;, 

Action of the Uterua, 
RelrOTenion or the Utenii, 
Aaleienion of the Uteraa, 
Obliquiliea of ibe Utenia, 
Tifo or Ularo-geMaban, 

Stage* of Labor, 

I* or Preg- 

TioN a Natdkal, nrr ki 


Flooding, I 

Bad Poailion oT the Head, K 
Face PreMBUtiom, 6: 

Turning, K 

The Fomccn, 6 

Locked or Impacted Head, 6' 
UlBhne Hemorrhage, fr 

Accldenul Hemorrbaga, fr 

Unatoidabia Uemorrhikge, » 
PDerperal CoDinlaioD*, »■ 

InTeraion oftbe Utema, fr 

Twina, K 

PraaentalioD of tba Arm ud 

Shoulder, 6 

Prolapaut of the Umbilical 

Cord, & 

BuDlura or the Ctaroi, 6i 

Turning, or Vcraion, & 

Deliieriea perrormed by In- 
■tmmtnla applied either to 
the Mother or Child, 61 

Premttore Dalitery, M 

Puerperal or Peritoneal pBTar, « 
Poerperal Mania, « 

Phlegmaiia Dolana, N 

DnsuE* or CgTipaaa, N 

Gum naah, M 


■I Colic, 

ifDlHaeeia Chil- 



DniAiB, f>69 AcacnLTATioN of mi Canr, 


: and Fanctional Die- 



It RhjIbiD, 
Buitj of Ropirml 




Auscultation or the Chest^ 

Duration of Respiration, 681 

Prolonged Expiration, 581 
Alterations in the Character 

of the Respiration, 5S1 
Harsh Respiration, 581 
Bronchial or Tubular Respira- 
tion, 582 
Cavernous Respiration, 5S3 
Amphoric Respiration, 583 
Abnormal Sounds, 583 
Pleuritic Friction, 584 
RAles, 584 
Sonorous RAle, 584 
Crepitating R&ie, 585 
Sub-crepitating R&le, 585 
Cavernous RAle, 586 
Crackling, Crumpling, &c., 586 
Auscultation of the Voice, 587 
Physiological Phenomena, 687 
Pathological Phenomena, 687 
Bronchophony, 588 
CCgophony, 588 
Pectoriloquy, 588 
Amphoric Voice, 689 
Metallic Tinkling, 589 

AulCULTATIOlf or THE HcAmT, 589 

Physiological Phenomena, 589 

Pathological Phenomena, 591 

The Impulse, 591 

The Rhythm, 591 

The Sounds, 592 
Abnormal Sounds or Murmars, 592 

Anemic Murmurs, 595 

Pericardial Murmurs, 596 


Fbter, 587 

Intermittent Fever, 699 

Remittent Fever, 601 

Hectic Fever, 602 

Yellow Fever, 602 

Continued Fever, 603 

Typhoid Fever, 604 

Typhus Fever, 605 

Inflammation of the Aliment- 
ary Canal and AccEfsoRT Gr- 
oans, 606 
Stomatitis, 606 
Glossitis, 609 
Tonsillitis, 610 
Parotitis, 610 
Acute Gastritis, 610 
Chronic Gastritis, 6 1 1 
Acute Enteritis, 611 
Dysentery, 612 
Chronic Enteritis, 613 
Acute Peritonitis, 613 
Acute Hepatitis, 614 
Chronie Hepatitis, 614 
Organio Diseases of the Liver, 614 


Inflammation of the NsRyoui 

System, 616 

Cephalitis, 616 

Phrenitis, 61 6 

Arachnitis, 616 

Cerebritis, 617 

Inflammation of the Respira- 
tory Organs, 618 
Pneumonia, 618 
Pleuritis, 620 
Laryngitis, 622 
Acute Laryngitis, 622 
Chronic Laryngitis, 623 
Tracheitis, or Croup, 623 
Acute Bronchitis, 624 
Chronic Bronchitis, 625 
Phthisis Pulroonalis, 626 
Emphysema of the Lungs, 629 

Diseases of the Urinary Organs, 630 

Nephritis, 630 

Cystitis, 630 

Bright's Disease, 630 

Diabetes, 631 

Lithiasis, 633 

Diseases of the Heart, 6^ 

Pericarditis, 634 

Endocarditis, 635 

Rheumatism, 635 

Gout, 636 

Eruptive Fevers, 637 

Variola, 637 

Varicella, 638 

Rubeola, 638 

Scarlatina, 638 

Hemorrhages, 639 
Hemorrhage from the Nostrils, 640 

Hemorrhage from the Lungs, 640 
Hemorrhage from tlie Stomach, 641 

Phlegmasia Dolens, 641 

Diseases op the Brain and Nerv- 
ous System, 642 
Apoplexy, 642 
Paralysis, 643 
Epilepsy, 643 
Chorea, 644 
Convulsive Affections of In- 
fants, 644 
Asthma, 645 
Neuralgia of the Face, 647 
Mental Derangement, 647 
Delirium Tremens, 648 
Hooping-cough, 648 
Asphyxia, 649 

Diseases of the Stomach and 

Bowels, 650 

Diarrhoea, 650 

Cholera Morbus, 651 

Cholera Epidemieag 651 

FJatalent Colic, 654 


t Btoxacb awd 

Camoaic Dmirat er thk 6 

Ordar lat— Vaicnln, 

OcdoT Sd^Ballc, ' 


Order Sd.— Paalnl*, 


Order 6[h.— P>piil«, 

Ordar 6tl].~Sqaame, 

Ordar 7lh.— To be rcula , 

Ord ai Btb . — Mac u I b, 




E Pduohi, 


Narcotic Poiaou 


tic PoiaoBi, 



•1 Charcoal u a 


(br PoitODI, 




au. Fi.h, 


oD> Serpenta. 



ri. Vealcatoria, 

SaliTa or tlia Rabid Dof, 




Q. What ia Anatomy? A. The science of organiEsdon. 

How is it divided ? Into Vegetable and Animal. 

How is Animal Anntomj divided? Into Human and (^xnpara- 

What U Human Anatomj? The Anatomy of man. 

What is Comparative Anatomy f The Anatomy of all other ani- 
mals ezoept man. 

How is human anatomy divided ? Into Dtter^ioe, ta Speeudf 
Surykai, Gateral, and T\UhologKat. 

What is Descriptive at Special Anatomy T That wluch d«aoribea 
the form, aiie, position, and connections of organs in a healthy oon- 
dition of the body. 

What is Surgical Anatomy ? That which treats of the relation of 
one part to another, and has alao been termed Regional AntUovtjf, 

What ia General Anatomy ? That which treats of the struotnn 
of the nmple tiasuea of the body. 

What is Patholo^cal Anatomy ? That which relates to the dis- 
eased stmctore of the organs. 

Under wh&t divisions is human anatomy studied J Otteology, er 
a description of the bones. Si/ndtmiology, of the ligaments. Jfy- 
o/cffy, of the muscles. Sjilanehnolcgy, of the viscerK. Adenaiogy, 
of the glands. Angiology, of the vessels. Neurology, of the uervcfl. 
Dermohgy, of the skin. 

What are the ultimate <2nn«n^ of the body? Carhon, nitnfft*, 


oxygen, hydrogen, pJtosi^Iujrm, sulphur, iron, calrium, sodium, j^otas- 
stum, &c. 

What are the organic elements ? Gelatin, Jibrin, albumen, mucus, 
fat, &c. 


What are the organs of support to the animal frame? The hones; 
they give firmness and strength to the body, afford points of attachment 
for the numerous muscles, give shape to the animal, and afford pro- 
tection to some of the more important organs ; such as the enccpha- 
Ion, medulla spinalis, heart, lungs, &c. Their form and disposition 
are always adapted to the offices they are designed to fulfil. 

WTiat is the bony framework of the human body called ? Skele- 

What is the natural skeleton ? When the bones are held to- 
gether by their natural connections of ligaments, cartilages, &c. 

What is an artificial skeleton ? When the bones are held to- 
gether by artificial means. 

Suppose a line, called the median, drawn from the top of the head, 
downward through the middle of the skeleton, will these two sides 
be similar 1 Yes, the bones of the two sides will be perfectly alike : 
and where bones are divided, the two halves will be symmetrical. 

What are the regional divisions of the skeleton ? Ilead, Trunk, 
Superior, and Inferior extremities. 

What is the number of bones in persons of middle age ? For the 
trunk — twenty-four true vertebra9, one sacrum, four coccygeal, two 
innominata, twelve ribs on each side, and one sternum. For the 
head — eight in the cranium, fourteen for the face, and one hyoid. 
For the upper extremities — thirty-four to each side. For the infe- 
rior extremities — thirty-two to each side. In all, two hundred and 
eleven, not including the bones of the tympanum and teeth. In 
early life the number is greater, and in old age diminished, by the 
growing together of bones originally distinct. 

How are bones divided in regard to their sJiajuf Into long, short, 
Jlai, and irregular. The long bones are found principally in the 
limbs, and are composed of a shaft and two extremities. Short 
bones are irregularly cuboidal in form, spongy in texture internally, 


mth a thin cnist exIenMlIy. The Aort bones are the Tertehne, 
coccus, carpal sad tarsal bones, patellae and sesamoid bones. Flat 
bones consist of two laycts of dense bone with an intermediate! cel- 
lular Btmctnre, which is called diploe. Irregular bones are those 
which are not distinctly referable to cither of the above diytsians; 
bat are of a mixed character, being partly short and partly flat. 
The temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, snperior maxillary, inferior max- 
illary, palate, inferior turbinated bones, db hyoides, and sacram pre- 
sent examples of this class. 

What is an eminence on a bone called? Apophytit or pneem 
when united, and epiphy$i$ when separated by cartilage. 

What other names are applied to eminences of bone depen^ng 
upon theirshapc, situation, and use? Seads, when convex, ronndtsh, 
and smooth. Nixkt, when smaller at the middle, and increased 
towards the extremity. CondyUt, when the head ia large and un- 
equally rounded. Tulrrdet, or tuberonliet, when uneven, rough, 
and irregular. Spinet or tpinout procet$e*, when sharp or pointed. 
CritiK, when there are long and sharp elevations. Corcnwid, if 
the termination is in a sharp edge. M(uimd, itjfloid, ooraeoid, &e., 
from their resemblance to certuu other things. Oblique, trtauvene, 
&c., from relative ratuation. Trochanlen, when they serve to torn 
a bone. 

Wliat names are given to depremontf Cotyloid, when deep 
and cup-like. Alveoli, or sockets, as the sockets for the teeth; and 
f/knoid, when sapcr£cial. 

How are bones divided in regard to density f Into compact and 
eeUular; the former is situated externally, and the latter internally. 

What is the componlitM at bones? Animal and earfAy matter. 
The minute analysis of which is gelatin, 32 parts; phosphate of 
lime, 61 parts ; carbonate of Umc, 1 1 parts ; floato of Ihne, 2 parts ; 
phosphate of magnesia, 1 part ; and muriate of soda, 1 part. The 
bones also contain a little iron, manganese, ailex, alumina, and phoB- 
phate of ammonia. 

Upon which of these primary constituents does Uic hardness of 
the bone depend? Tho earthy, and maybe obtained fay cfdcina- 

How may the animal part be dcmonstnted F By immersion for 


lome time in dilate mariatic acid^ the earthy parts will be dissolved, 
seaying the animal. 

What is the structure of bones? They are composed of two 
structures, compact and cellular; the former is situated externally, 
and the latter internally. The compact structure is fibrous, but 
arranged in lamina. Eunning through these fibres we have the 
Haversian canals, which communicate with small lenticular ezcavar 
dons known as the lacunas or corpuscles of Purkingi, by pores or 
tubuli, which also connect these lacunae together. They are well 
supplied, through this arrangement, with blood-vessels, nerves, and 

What is meant by Periosteum f It is the fibrous membrane 
which surrounds bones except at their articular cartilages, and re- 
ceives the insertion of tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, &c. ] that 
portion of this membrane situated on the skull is called pericranium. 
Its use is also to conduct the blood-vessels to the bones, and give 
protection and shape to them. 

What is meant by the medullary membrane f It is a very deli- 
cate membrane lining the internal and cellular structure of bone 
which secretes the medulla, and serves the purpose of an internal 

Are bones perfectly ossified at birth ? No : the ends of the long 
bones are cartilaginous; the carpus and tarsus are nearly in the same 
state, and the processes generally are very imperfectly developed. 

What are the stages of ossification ? There are three. The first 
is the gelatinous or pulpy, which exists during the first month ; 
second, cartilaginous, commencing with the second month; and 
third, osseous, which commences at the end of the second month in 
some of the bones : when ossification commences, the color of the 
oarCSlage becomes deeper, and in the middle of a yellow color; the 
vessels dilate, carry red blood, and a red point is perceived in the 
centre of the cartilage, which is called punctum ossificationis, from 
which the deposit increases on its surface. The long bones com- 
mence by a small ring which extends itself. The fiat irregular 
bones commence by one or more points^ and radiate to the periphery. 
The short bones may have a single point or several, and they all 
grow by snocessive depositions on the outer surface or at the ends. 


At wfaat age are bones most dense ? At the middle period tit 
life; and as age advances the; grow lighter, mme ccUnlar and 
brittle, and the proportion of animal matter is diminished. 

What is the prooess of the formation of ealhit f When a fiac- 
tore takes phue, there is effusion of blood into it; the soft parts 
swell ; the blood is abeOrbed, and while this ia going on, there is an 
effusion of coagulating Ijmph ; an oeseons ring ia Uien formed 
around the seat of fractore, with a pin in ita centre. Next, the ex- 
tremities of bone begin to fiise themselves together; which when 
complete, the bony ring and pin, being enperflnons, ai« absorbed, 
and the cavity, oelloUr slznctnre, membrane, &c., are le-establiahed. 
The prooess is entirely similar, in other respects, to the formation Of 
new bone. In compound fractores, granulations frequently sjning 
np from the soriace of the bone in the same order as in the forma, 
tioo of new bone. Best is important for the perfect perfoimaiioe of 
this process, or a false jgint may resolt. 


What constitntes the Tmnk f The Spine, Thorax, and iVmk. 

Where is the tpt'ne sitnated 7 At the posteriw part of the tmnk, 
and extends from the head to the inferior opening of the pelvis. 

What composes it? Itconustsof twenty^eight or twen^-nine 
distinct pieces, of which the nppcr twonty-fbur are true or movable 
vertebrae, the twenty-fifth is the sacnun or pelvic vertebra, and the 
remainJcr are the caudal vertebrae. 

What are the curcatura of the spine f The ca-vicai portion is 
convex anteriorly and concave posteriorly : Aoradc portion concave 
in front and convex behind ; Iwnbar portion convex in front and 
concave behind ; pdvic and caudal concave in front and convex be- 
hind ; and depend upon the different degrees of thickncas of the 
bodies of the vertebne and the intervening cartilageB. 

How arc the true vertebra divided T Into seven cervical, twelve 
dorsai, and five lumbar. 

Wliat does a vertebra conaist off A body, two laminse, seven 
processes (two transverse, one spinous, and four oblique), and a hoi- 


low for lodging the spinal marrow which is formed by the 
anteriorly and the laminsD posteriorly and laterally. 

What characterizes a Cervical vertebra? Smaller than 
others; longest laterally; spinal foramen large and trianga 
spinous process forked ; transverse processes short, doable, and ; 
forated for the passage of the vertebral artery and vein. There 
also differences between these vertebras themselves. 

What is the peculiarity of the first cervical vertebra, and what 
name ? It has no body or spinous process, being a simple ring, a 
is called aika. 

What is there peculiar to the second cervical vertebra, and wb 
is its name ? It has upon its upper part a process called odontoia 
or densy and the vertebra itself is called vertebra dentaia, and ah 

What characterizes the Dorsal vertebras f Bodies longer anten 
posteriorly, and more cylindrical than the cervical ; their transvers 
diameter decreases from the first to the third, and then increases 
the upper and lower margins and points of transverse processes are 
marked with small articular faces for articulating with the ribs ; 
spinal foramen small and round, diminishing in size from first to 
third, and there increases to the last. The oblique processes are 

What characterizes a Lumbar vertebra? Body larger; long 
diameter transverse ; spinal foramen triangular, and larger than the 
dorsal; transverse processes long, and stand out at right angles; 
spinous process thick, horizontal, and terminated in an oblong 

What are the points of ossification of the vertebrse ? Except in 
the atlas, axis, and vertebra prominens, they are developed by three 
points, one for each lamella, and one for the body. Afterwards 
there are added to these six additional centres ; one for each trans- 
verse process, two for the spinous process, and one for the upper 
and under surfoce of the body. 

Where is the Sacrum situated, and what characterizes it? It is 
at the posterior part of the pelvis, forms part of its superior boun- 
dary, and is the pedestal of the spine. It is triangular, concave 
anteriorly, and irregularly convex posteriorly, where it is divided by 


spinoDB pTOceaset; arttenlfttee latenlly with tbe oem iDnomimta, 
and originally consisted of five pieces. It has four anterior and 
four posterior foramiDa; its canal ia biangolsr, larger abore tknn 
below, ifl oontinnous with the spinal oanal, and cootaioa the canda 

What aie the points of ossification of the sacnun F There are 
twen^-<ne points; five for each of the three first pieces, vis :^-ono 
for the body, one for each lateral portion, and one for each lamina; 
and tliree for each of the two last, vix : — one for the body, and one 
for each lateral portion. 

What are the characteristics of the CoctyxT It resemblefl the 
ncmm, only much smaller, consist of fonr pieces nniled by fibro- 
cartilage, corresponds with the tails of animals, and is aiticnlated 
snperiorly to the sacmm. It ia developed by fbor pointa of ossifica- 
tion, one for each |nece. 

What are the Mei of the vertebral colnmn ? It gives a aecnre 
lodgment to the spinal marrow, is a line of support to the trunk, 
and the centre of its movements. 

Where are the Oaa Innomittala ntnatedf They are two in 
nnmber and sitnated on either dde of the sacrtim, form the lateral 
and anterior parts of the pelvis, and articakt« with the os femoris 
on each side by the aoetabnla. 

What are the ori^nal divisions of each oe innominatom F ilium, 
ucAium, and puitt, all of which meet in the acetabnlnm. 

What eharacteriies the Ilium f It is the largest of the three, 
forms tbe upper and ro&nded part of the innominatnm, articulates 
with tbe sacrum, and forms two~fiftbs of the acetabulum, and may 
be described as divisible into an internal surface or costs which is 
concave, and an external snrface which is convex ind rongh, and 
gives ori^n to the glutei muscles, a crest, and an anterior and pos- 
terior bOTder. The anterior superior spinous proeen in front gives 
origin to tbe sartorins, and tensor vaginn muscles, and Foupart's 
ligament ; the inferior spinous process ^ves origin to the rectus 
muscle; the space between the two gives origin to the gluteus 
medius. The ileo-pcctineal prominence is below, in a groove above 
which pass tbe iliacns internns and psoas magnos muscles. The 


posterior superior and inferior spinous processes are posteriorly 

The crista has three lips; the transversalis muscle arises from the 
internal one; the internal oblique from the middle, and the external 
oblique is inserted into the external. The Sciatic notch is on the 
inferior border of the ilium. 

What characterizes the Pubis? It is the anterior part of the in- 
nominatum, and is the smallest of the three ; it is composed of a 
body and two large branches, one running downwards, called the 
ramus, to join the ischium — and the other backwards and upwards to 
the ilium, called the horizontal portion; it articulates with its fellow 
bj a flat surface called the symphysis; it forms one-flfth of the 
acetabulum, and contributes to the formation of the obturator fora- 

What characterizes the Ischium f It forms the posterior inferior 
part of the os innominatum, is next in size to the ilium, triangular . 
in form, its anterior extremity bends upwards to join the pubes 
which is the eras and the remainder is the body, the lower part of 
which is the tuberosity ; it forms two-fifths of the acetabulum. 

What is meant by the Thorax f It is the upper part of the 
trunk, and is formed by the dorsal vertebraD behind, sternum in 
front, and by the ribs and their cartilages intermediate. 

How are the Ribs divided ? Into seven true and five fiidse, on 
each side. 

What characterizes the ribs? They are paraboloid, have an in- 
ternal and external surface, an upper and lower margin, a sternal 
and vertebral extremity, an angle, head, tubercle, and neck. They 
are developed by three points, viz :^-one for the central part, one 
for the head, and one for the tuberosity. 

Where is the Sternum situated if In the middle front part of the 
thorax, and is divided into three portions, the lower of which is 
sometimes called x^hoid or ensiform cartilage. The points of ossi- 
fication, or development, vary from six to fourteen in number. 

The upper portion is thickest, and resembles a triangle with 
the corners removed, base upwards, a concavity above, one on each 
side for the articulation of the clavicles, and two smaller ones below 
for articulating with the first and second ribs. 


The middle portion is longer and narrower, and bas depresnons 
on its ndes for ardcnlation with several of the ribs. 


How are the bones of the bead divided? Into those of the cra- 
ni'vm Uid/ace. 

What bones oonstitnte the Cranium f The <m frontit, ot oedpi- 
tU, two ona parielalia, two ema Umpontm, o> ethmoida, and the ot 
gthaioida. These form the cavity for the bnun, which has three 
diameters : the anteropoeteriorj from the lower part of the os frontds 
to the protuberance on the middle of the inferior surface of the os 
occipitia, six and a half inches; the lateral inclodea the space between 
the superior margins of the ossa temponun, four and three-fourth 
inches; and the vertical, which is taken from the centre of the occi- 
pital foramen to the centre of the sntnre between the parietal bones, 
four and a half inches. 

What are the characterisdcs of the Ot Fnmlit f It forms the an- 
terior, & portion of the superior, lateral, and inferior parietes of the 
cranium ; external bee ccnvex, internal concave, symmetrical, and 
forms the upper and anterior part of the orbit. It has two internal 
and two external angular prooesses, a nasal process, two saperciliary 
ridges, a temporal ridge, two orbilar plates or processes, two elcva- 
tiona of the frontal sinuses, two supi^-orbital notches ; and it arti- 
culates with the parietal, ethmoidal, and sphenddal bones of the 
cnnium, and seveial of the hec. It is developed by two centres, 
one for each lateral half. 

What are the characteristics of the Ot»a Parietalia f They form 
the saperior and lateral parts of t&e middle of the cranium; they are 
quadrilateral, convex externally, and concave internally, and each 
of them has a parietal eminence and a parietal foramen — one 
of these marks the centre of ossification, and the other trans- 
mits a vein to the superior longitudinal sinus; they are developed 
by sioglo centres of ossification. They articulat« together, with 
tbo frontal, the sphenoid, the temporal, and the occipital hones. 
They have each a deep groove commencing at their anterior inferior 
angle internally, for the middle meningeal artery. 


What aro the chanoterislaca of the Ot OodpitiMT It ia 
lateral, rcBcmbliag & tnpeuam, conTez eztemallj, and oodc 
tcrnallj; both surfoccB are modified b; ridges and proocaaefl, 
on tlic external surface ia the saperior canred line, in the mit 
which ia the occipital prataberanco; about three-fonrtha (^ a 
below tbisia the inferior ciurcd line; there ia also aooadjloo: 
side for arUcnlatiog with the atlas; and the basilar proocas in 
of the foramen magnum. Upon its intenud aorfaoe is s c 
ridge, the internal occipital protuberance, and the jugular ernin 
It ia developed by four centres; one for the posterior portioa 
for each condyle, and one for the basilar process. It forma s '. 
portion of the posterior and Inferior parietes of the cranium, and 
a large foramen called fbramcn magnum, wbioh tranamita the 
duUa spinalis, nerri acceasorii, and the vertebral arteries and ve 
the anterior condyloid foramen, which transmits the ninth pai 
nerves; and the posterior condyloid, which transmits a cervical ^ 
to the lateral sinus. It articulates with the parietal, temporal, i 
apUcQoid bones. 

AVhat are the eharacferiatics of the Oua TemporumT Theyform 
portions of the inferior lateral parietes, and of the base of the cra> 
nium, have an irregular figure, and are divided into the ant«rior 
portion called squamous;' posterior, called mastoid,' and the middle 
or pelrous" portion. The mastoid portion has cells or uousea, which 
communicate with the tympanum. The elevations on each side are 



the mastoid, the zygomatic,* the sljloid," and the vaginal processes, 
the ridgo iaterooUy, and the petrous* portion. The dcpreasiona ore 
the glenoid cavity, the fissura GUeeeri, a fossa the digastric,' behind 
the moBtoid process, and the temporal; a groove for the lateral sintiH, 
and the occipital groove.' The foramina arc the meatus anditoriUs 
internns'*," and extemua, the carotid," the stylo- mastoid,*' the Eus- 
tachian canal, and the openings of the aqueduct of the cochlea" and 
vestibule." Thej aro counected to the sphenoid, parietal, malar, 
and oocipital bones by HQtnres; and arc each developed by five cen- 
tres of OBsificatioD ; one fur the equamous portion, one for the mastoid, 
one for the petrous portion, one for the auditory pn^esa, and one 
for the styloid process. 

Fiff. a. 

What are the characteristics of the 0» Sphmoiitaf It in Bym- 
mctrical, but very irregular, and placed across the middle of the 
base of the cranium. It consists of a body and largo processes called 
the lesser',' and greater*,' vinga, the former of vhich are the apo- 
physes of Ingrasaias. There arc also the pterygoid internal,** and 
citemal," anterior* and posterior' clinoid, sphenoidal or asygOB, oli- 
vary processes and ethmoidal spine.' The fiiiamina are optieum,* 
locenim supcrius' or sphenoidale,' ovale,* rotundnm,* spinole,*" and 
pterygoidenm.** The sella turcica" is on the upper sarfiice, and 
contains the pituitary gland. It articulates above and in front with 
the vomer, frontal, ethmoidal, malar, and parietal bones; laterally 
with the temporal; behind with the occipital,'^ and with the palate 
bones by the pterygoid proccsecs; and is developed by twelve ceu- 


trcs ; four being for the body, four for ihe wingBi two for the ea 
iiul pterygoid plates, and two for the sphenoidal spongy bones. 

What do these foramina severally transmit? The opticom tn 
mils the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery; the laoemm snpei 
transmits Uie third, fourth, first branch of the fifth, mnd the A 
pair of nerves; the rotundum transmits the second branch of the fi 
pair of nerves ; the ovale the third branch of the fifth pair; the s 
ualc tho middle artery of the dora mat^r ; and the pterygoideam t 
pterygoid nerve, which is a recurrent of the second branch of the fif 

What are the characteristics of the Os Ekhmoidett (See Kg. A 
page 27.) It is situated between the orbitar processes of the o 
frontis ) it is cuboidal, very light and cellular, and consists of a pex 
pcndicular lamella and two lateral masses. The part between th( 
orbitar processes superiorly is called* the cribriform plate,^ with the 
crista galli^ in the centre. The lateral masses are divisible into an 
internal and external surface, and four borders: on the internal sor- 
fucc is situated the superior meatus of the nose, above which is the 
superior turbinated bone, and below b the middle turbinated bone 
or process. The external surface is quadrilateral and smooth, hence 
named os planum ;" it also forms part of the orbit of the eye. These 
masses are cellular, and divided into anterior and posterior ethmoidal 
cells. This bone articulates with thirteen others ; two of the cra- 
nium, the rest of the face; it is developed by three centres, one for 
each lateral mass, and one for the perpendicular lamella." 

What is meant by the pyramids of Wlstar f They are triangular 
liollow pyramids on the posterior part of each cellular portion of tho 
ethmoid bone, consisting of a single cell; and the azygos process of 
the sphenoid bone is received between them. They are found in 
children from three to eight years of age. The pyramid towards 
puberty becomes a part of the sphenoid bone, and detaches itself from 
the ethmoid by a suture. 

What composes the Face? Fourteen bones; thirteen of which are 
in the upper jaw. They are the ossa maxUlaria superiora, ossa ma- 
lanim, ossa nasij ossa turhinata lu/eriora, ossa ^xi^^/, ossa un(/uis, 
and the iwtier. The fourteenth is the os maxUlarc in/erius. 


Fig. 3. 

What are the cliaraoteriatics of the Oaa MaziUaria Svperiorat 
They are dutiognlabed by their 
snperior eiie, and compoeiog nearly 
the whole front of the upper jaw. 
They also form a portion of the 
orbit of the eyes and hayo alveo- 
lar, malar,* nasal,* and palatine pro- 
cesses. They have also a large 
cavity in each, called the antrmn 
Hujhmnrianum, which oommuni- 
catcB with the nose, a foramen in- 
cisivnm opening behind the incisor 
t«eth, common to both ; and each 
bone has a canal called infra-orbi- 
tar, opening on the front by the 
infnrorbitar foramen,' which transmits the infrsrorbitar nerve and 
artery, and a canine' and enb-nasal* foasa. Tbey articnlate with the 
frontal," nasal, '^angniform, malar, and ethmoidal bones" superiorly; 
behind to the palst« and sphenoidal' bones;" in the middle to the 
vomer and to each other;"* and by the nasal snrfiuM to the inferior 
spongy ; and are each developed by sis centres — one for the body, 
one for each of the three processes (nasal, malar, and palate), and 
two for the alveolar process. 

What are the characteristics of the Ona Palatif They are placed 
posteriorly to the superior maxillary bones, between them and tho 
pterygoid processes of the sphenoid. — They are each divided into 
three portions ; the horiiontal or palate plat«, the vertical or nasal 
plate, and the orbitar or oblique plata. They have six articnlations, 
viz : — with the maxillary bones, sphenoid, ethmoid, inferior spongy, 
vomer, and with each other ; and each bone is developed by a Nngle 

What are the eharact«ristic« of the Chta Nattf They are two in 
number, and fill up the vacancy between the nasal processes of the 
snperior maxillary bones, and form what is Ifirmed the bridge of tho 
noee. They arlJculate with each other anteriorly, oe frontjs supe- 
riorly, upper maxillary posteriorly, and with tho septum narium 


wborc they unite together in front ; each bone is developed by 8 
single centre. 

What are the characteristics of the Ossa Unguizf They are -siiialli 
and are placed at the internal Bide of the orbit between the nasal 
processes of the upper maxillary bono and the planar plate of the 
ethmoid ; assist in forming the ductus ad nasum, articulate loosely 
with the OS frontis, upper maxillary^ planar plate of the ethmoid^ aad 
inferior spongy bone of the nose ; they are each developed by a single 
point of ossification. 

What are the characteristics of the Ossa Malaram f They are 
situated at the external angle of the orbit of the eye, and form the 
middle and external parts of the face. They are quadrangular, with 
irregidar margins, have superior and infeiior orbitar, zygomatio, and 
maxillary processes. They articulate on each side with the maxil- 
lary, frontal, sphenoidal, and temporal bones ; they are developed bj 
a single point on each side. 

What are the characteristics of the Ossa Spongvosa Inferiora f 
They are situated at the inferior and lateral parts of the nose below 
the opening into the antrum Highmorianum; they have a concave 
and convex surface, with the concavity looking towards the maxillary 

What are the characteristics of the V(jmerf It is placed between 
the nostrils, and forms a part of the septum. It articulates below 
with the nasal spine of the superior maxillary and palate bones, and 
above to the nasal lamella of the ethmoid and azygos processes of the 

What are the characteristics of the Os MaxUlare Infcrius? It 
forms the lower boundary of the face, and is capable of motion. It 
is composed of a body and two extremities of rami; has alveolar pro- 
cesses, two angles, condyles, and coronoid processes ; also two fora- 
mina, the anterior mental, which transmits a part of the inferior 
alveolar artery and ner\*e ; and the posterior mental, through which 
thciuferior alveolar artery and nerve enter; the middle union of the 
two sides is called symphysis. 

How are the bones of the Cranium united? By sutures; they arc 
the ro/onal, which unites the parietal and frontal bimcs; the sai/itlal, 
^YllitI» unites the two parietal; the lamUdij'uhilj joining the parietal 


and occipital; and tbe two tjuamout, conneoting the squamous 
part of the temporal and the parietal. la the lambdoidal are tre- 
qoentlj found small bones called osea Wormiafia, or Triqutira, and 
occaaionallj these are found in the other sutures. The uses of the 
sutures ore not fully settled among anatomists and physiologists. 

What arc the principal varieties of mticTett The lerrated, where 
the union is formed bj two borders of different bones possessing ser- 
rated edges. The tquamoiu, where the union is formed by the over- 
lapping of the bevelled edges of the two contiguoos bones. The 
harmonia, where there is a simple apposition of contiguous surfaces, 
being more or leas rough and retentive. The echindj/letit, where 
there is a reception of one bono into a sheath or fissure of another. 

What ia the structnro of the bones of the craoiamf They are 
composed of two tables united by cellular substance called diploe, 
which begins to show i^lf at two or three years of age. The in- 
ternal table is thin and brittle, and is called vHreota. 

How many bones enter into the eomposition of the Orbit 7 Seven ; 
the frontal, the molar, the superior masillary, the planar plate of the 
cthmmd, the nnguiform, sphenoid, and palate. 

What are the characteristics of the Nasal Cavity ? 

Irregular, separated from its fellow by a septum, And has three 
distinct meatuses or passages. 

The superior has the posterior ethmoidal cells,' the sphenoidal cells, 
and the sphcno-palatine foramen opening into it; its sitoation is be- 
tween the superior and middle* turbinated bones. The middle 


meatus is found between the middle and inferior turbinated bimea,^ 
with the frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal cells," and the antrom** 
opening into it. The inferior is between the inferior turbinated 
bone^° and the floor of the cavity, is the largest^ and has the nasal 
duct opening into it. 

The anterior opening is called the anterior nare^ and the poste- 
rior opening the posterior nares. 

Where is the Zygomatic Fossa situated? On either «ide of the 
head; and is formed by the parietal, sphenoid, temporal, and frontal 
bones ; the zygoma bounds it externally, and it is occupied by the 
temporal muscle. 

Where is the Pterygo-Maxillary Fossa ? At the bottom of the 
zygomatic fossa, and is formed by the superior maxillary, palate^ and 
Bphenoid bones. Its shape is triangular, base upwards; the ganglion 
of Meckel is contained in it, and gives off branches which pass 
through foramina opening upon thb fossa. 

Where is the Os Eyoides situated ? At the root of the tongue 
within the circle of the lower jaw, and insulated, having no coor 
ncction with any other bone except by muscles and ligaments. It is 
composed of a body, and a greater and lesser comu on each side ; 
and is developed by five points-— one for the body, and one for each 
comu; eleven pairs of muscles are attached to this bone. 

Superior Extremities. 

How arc the superior extremities divided ? They arc divided on 
cither side into shoulder^ arm, /orearm, and Iiand, 

What comjwses the Shoulder ? The cUividc and scapula, which 
occupy the superior, lateral, and posterior parts of the thorax. 

What are the characteristics of the Scapula f It is on the pos- 
terior part of the thorax, and extends from the second to seventh rib 
inclusive; it is triangular, has an anterior face called venter, and 
a posterior face or dorsum, a superior edge or costa, an external 
edge or inferior costa, and a posterior or internal edge, termed tho 
base ; has three angles — one superior, one inferior, and the other 
autcaior or external; a spine running from tho posterior edge 
obliquely towards the anterior angle, rapidly increasing until it 


rises and is elongated forwards and upwards, and overhangs tha 
ehonldcr-joint, wad is called the acromion process ; a cervix, coraooid 
process, and a glenoid cavity, for arUculatiag with hnmenis. It is 
developed by six centres; one for the body, one for the corocoid 
process, two for the acromion, one for the poaterior border, and one 
for the inferior angle ; articulates with the clavicle and humeroB ; and 
has uzteen mnscles attached to it, vii. : — snhscapnlaris, snpra and 
infra-spinatos, omo-hyoid, levator anguli scapnlie, rhomboidcus major 
and minor, Berratas magnns, long head of triceps, teres minor and 
major, long and short tendon of biceps, tmpezins, deltoid, pectoralis, 
minor and coraco-brachialis. The ligaments attached to the coracoid 
process are the conicoid, ooraco-clavicular, and humeral, and the 
costo-coracoid membrane. 

What are the characteristics of the Ciaokle f It is a long bone 
Htnated transTersel; at the eoperior agd anterior parla of the chesl> 
extending from the stemnm to the acromion procesa of the scapula ; 
it is compared in shape to the letter /, and is divided into body, 
Btcnial, and scapular extremitiee. It is developed bj two centres; 
articulates with the sternum and scapula ; and has ux muscles 
attached to it, viz.: — stemo-mastoid, trapezius, pectoralis major, 
deltoid, Bubclavins, and sterno^hyoid. 

What are the characteristics of the Hatnerutf It is cylindrical, 
both extremities enlarged; the superior is called its head, which is 
hemispherical, and attached to tho body of the bone by the neck ; 
it has two tuberosities, external and internal, between which is the 
bicipital groove ; two sigmoid cavities; one receives the coronoid, and 
the other the olecranon process of the ulna; and two condyles. Tho 
part between the extremities is termed body. It Is developed by 
seven centres; articulates with tho glenoid cavity of the scapula, and 
with the ulna and radius ; and has twenty-four muscles attached 
to it. 

What are the bones of the Farearmf The ulua and radius. 

What are the characteristics of the Ulna? It is situated on the 
inside of tho forearm with the little finger; nearly straight, much 
larger at the upper than at the lower extremity; tho upper or hu- 
meral extremity has an olecranon and a coronoid process, with the 
greater sigmoid cavity between them for articulating with the humerus, 


and the lesser on the radial sur£ice of the coroncud for articiiktiii{ 
with the bead of the radius; the lower extremity has a 8tyl<ud pro 
CC8S and an articular surface for articulating with the caq>iifl^ mud one 
for articulating with the radius. It is developed by four oenires ; 
articulates with the humerus and radius ; and has twelTe mnsdes 
attacliod to it. 

Wljat arc the characteristics of the Radius f It is the rotaij 
f^iuc of the forearm, shorter than the ulna, situated exterioriy to it^ 
and extends from the os humeri to the wrist; it is smaller ai the 
iip[>or than at the lower extremity ; and has a head, neck, tuberosity, 
and styloid process. It is developed by three centres ; articulates 
with the humerus, ulna, scaphoid, and semilunar bones; and has 
nine muHcles attached to it. 

What composes the Hand? The carpus, metacarpus, and pha- 
ffinf/f:H or dujlti. 

What are the bones of the Carpus? There are two rows : in the 
first are the scaphoides, lunarc, cunciforme, and pisiforme; in tho 
mudiA arc the trapezium, trapczoides, magnum, and undformc. 

Where is the Metacarpus situated? Between the carpus and 
[»ha]:in|rr;» of the fingers and thumb, and are five in number. 

How many Phahnujes are there? Fourteen; three for each 
fi[i;.^r-r and two fur the thumb; the bone adjoining tho metacarpus is 
the iir.-J, the middle is the second, and the other the third. 

Lnfeuior Extremities. 

What arc the bones of each inferior extremity? The os/emorU, 
fifjiiiy Jiff uftif jff iff ^i'l) (iirsuff mcfaftirsuSf and 2>halanf/cs. 

What arc the charaeteristics of the Os Fcmoris ? It is the largest 
)>on(! in tlic human body ; at its superior extremity it has throe well 
marked emineneeH, the head, and greater and lesser trochanters; the 
head is supported by tho ncek, which projects from the body of the 
bone })ctwcen the tnx'hantcrs ; the line between the trochanters is 
ealled the linca quadrate. Its inferior extremity is larger, and 
divided into two parts, the internal and external condyle. The linea 
aspora begins broad, rough, and flat, on a level with the trochanter 
mini •r J as it descends, it becomes more elevated, and its lower extrc- 


mitj divides into two miperfioiftl ridgee, one nmning to eaoh condyle. 
It ia developed by five centraa ; one for the shaft, one for each ex- 
tremity, and one for eadi troobaater ; «nd has twenty-throe maaelea 
attached to it. 

Whatue the bones of the iegf The tibia, _filnila, and pat^a. 

What are the characteristics of the Tibia f It is on the internal 
side fiX die leg, and extends from the thigh to the foot ; it ia the 
longest and largest bone in the body, except the femnr ; the superior 
extremity is mach larger than the inferior ; its inferior internal part 
is called the internal malleolus. It has also an elevation called 
splnona process, and another called the tubercle ; it is developed by 
three centres; one ica t^e Bhafl, and one for each extiemity; and 
has ten mnscles attached to it. 

What are the characteristics of the Fibula t It is at the external 
nde of the tibia, and extends from its head to the foot ; its inferior 
and external part is called the external malleolus. This bone is de> 
veloped by three centres ; and has nine mnscles attached to it. The 
tibia and fibnla articulate below with the astragaloa. 

What are the chuacteristica of the Patella f It is small, inter- 
mediate to the thigh and leg, and placed on the front of the knee- 
joint ; its anterior face convex and rough ; and its circunaferenoe is 
nearly oval, with the long diameter tranBrerse. 

How is the Joot divided? Into tanat, m^atartut, and toea or 

What composes the TamuJ Seven boneg, viz.; oi colds, the 
eutragahu, the naviculare, the cvhoida, the ewieifarme exttmum, 
oMeifonne medivm, and eutieiforvie internum. 


What are the characteristics of Carlilatfcf It is a snbstance of a 
white or pearly color, hard, flexible, very clastic, found in various 
parts of the body, especially on the articular sDr&cea of bones, the 
enii of the nose, the edges of the eyelids, the car, windpipe, end of 
ribs, Sx. It coDtains no red blood-vessels, nerves, noi lymphatics. 

How are the cartilages dieidedf Into artiadar, m those which 
cover the snrftoe of bones in movable joints; the interariieular, or 


those which are interposed between the ends of bones to form a 
movable socket; the connecting, or those which nnite the articalar 
surfaces of bones by an immovable nnion, as the sutores of the 
skull, the connections between the bones of the pelvis, &o.; and the 
cartilage of cavities, or those which form the larynx, trachea, part of 
the nose, &c. 

What is the membrane surroundmg cartikge called? Perlclumr 
(7 r turn, and it is similar to the periosteum. 

Of Ligaments. 

What are the characteristics of the ligamentous or desmoid Usnte, 
called ahojilrons tissue? It may be known by its whiteness, firm- 
nessy the unyielding nature of its materials, and its fibrous arrange- 
ment. It is very generally diffused in the human body, and has a 
very close connection with the cellular texture; it also serves the 
purpose of connecting the bones in their articulations. The sensi- 
bility of this system is extremely obscure; the usual mechanical and 
chemical irritants do not affect it; it may, however, be produced by 
a twisting motion, or when under a state of inflammation, as in 
gout, rheumatism, &c. There are two kinds, the white, found in 
tendons, fasciso, and most of the ligaments ; and the yellow, which 
is found in the ligamentum nuchsD, in many vessels and ducto, and 
is elastic. 

What is meant by Ligaments? They are those organs which tie 
the bones together, and in the movable joints are divided into the 
capsular, and the funicular. The first are open at the end, and en- 
velope the ends of the bones, extending from one to the other ; the 
second are mere cords, extending from one bone to the other, and 
may be flattened, round, or oval; they may be either internal or ex- 
ternal to the capsular ligament; their study is called syndesmologt/. 

What arc the diflerent forms of articulation that are met with in 
the human body called ? Si/n arthrosis, amphi-arthrosis, and diar- 
tlrnms. In the first of these, the bones are immovably connected 
with each other. Amphi-arthrosis is a joint intermediate, in apti- 
tude for motion, between the immovable synarthrosis and the mov- 
able diarthrosis ; it is of a mixed character, being partly lined by 


ajmovial membnue, &nd parti; bjr the interrenlioii of interoaBOOns 
ligaments. Ezunples of this union may be seen in the connection 
of the vertebne. DiaiihTtrnt is the moTable ar^culation : of which 
we have examples in the great nnmber of tho joints of the body. 

What is meant by a ^pwvial iKcmhranef It ii * membrane 
lining each movable articulation, reflected over tlie internal feoe of 
the capanl&r ligament and the BitJcnlarcartilSigea; it is a perfect sao, 
and dificn from the capBular ligament in having no opening in it; 
it is white, thin, semi-transparent, and soft, belongs to the class of 
serous membranes, and the fluid secreted by it is called synovia, the 
use of which ia to HiminipTi Motion, and facilitate motion. 

What are the strDotares entering into the oompoeition of a joint F 
Bone, earlilafft, Jlbrv<art3ag«, tigament*, and tynoviai Tnanbrane, 

What enters into the ArtiaUation of the Lower Jmof Besides 
the bones tipped with their cartil^es, there is a n^isnlar ligament, 
an internal, external, and stylo-maxillary ligament, and a Hmall 
triangalor ligament discovered by Galdani, two synovial membranes, 
an interarticnlar cartilage, and an erectile tissue. The movements 
of the lower jaw are depression, elevation, a forward and backward 
movement, and a movement from side to side. 

What are the Ligamattt of the Vertebrsef The inlervertd/rdl, 
anterior tad jxMlerior' verld/ral, a capndat'^ at the articulations dt 
the obliqne processes, inieroneousj ligameatum nvdim, ligamenta 
Jtava (23 pairs) ; between the occiput and atlas are the anterior and 
poUerior, between the second and first vertebrse and the occiput are 
the laeerli ISijumenlosi, trantvcrte,' mth the upper' and lower* appen- 
dices, oiilique, or moderator,^ and middle or tiraight ligamentt. 

Id of the PdvUt The anterior and i 

"r'" coccygeal, ilto-lumbar, tacro^inaan," tacro-Uiae,^ pottrrwr 
ii'm-Klatie,",'* anUrior Ktero-acialie,",'"' obluralor," anltrior jmbie 

tai'm-Klatie,",'* anUrior , 
and the /tub or intcr-pubic li, 

AVIiitt aro the Li'i/ammmai. the posterior articulation of the Riltt? 
Thu iinlrriiir or raili'atitii/* iHtcrarticular,* ftw arjmiiiir for the head 
of uarh, anJ one where they arc articulated with the transverse pro- 
eoKSCH of the vertchrte, tho mtr-rnal li-nim-ene," the rilvrnal {rant- 

i-crte, ami mi'lJle coslo-lraatecne liyiinfiit*. 



Fig. 8. 

What are the Ugunenta of Uie anterior articulation of the rxbif 
Tbero aro two, on anltrior,* a, 
potlcrior, and ihecoito^jjhoid 
liijiimentM; also a ajaovbl 
membnuic imperfectly deve- 

Wbat are tho ligaments and 
parts cooocmcd in the artjcu- 
lationg of the anterior cod of 
tbe clavicle T The eajituiar^ 
and (Hterc&imcu&tr'ligaincntB; 
an intararUatlar eartHage;* 
two^noroo/mombraacs; and the rhimbouP ligament oonnocting the 
fint rib with the clavicle. 

What ia meant b; the Artimlaiion of the Shoulder f It ia the 
jooction of the chtvicle to tlio upper part of the sternum and first 
rib; of the scapula to the clariclc; and of the humerus to the soo- 

What ligaments are concerned in the KapiUo-davicidar artv-tUof 
lionif The cajitular, the coraco-claricular' which Is divided into the 
conoid and trapezoid, bifid, caracoid,* and the triangular' Itgamenta 
or eoraeo-aervmialii.* 

What ligamenU are concerned in 
ibctapidoJtumeral articulation? The 
eapvJarf Uio lumj head of the hicepe^ 
ooraco-hameraP or liifamtiitum adtcili- 
tium,* and \ha<jlam{d ligament, which 
Burrouuds the glenoid cavity. This 
JMnt is capable of every variety of mo- 
tion, vii:^-of movomcnt forwards and 
bockwarda, of abduction and adduc- 
tion, of circnmdncUon and rotation. 

What are the Itgamettlt of the eHow- 
jointf The copwi/ar' {Fig. 10), an- 
nular,*,* and' (Fig. 11), or coronary 
ccternal' (Fig. 10), and internal late- 
ral*,- (Fig. 11), ligaments. 

Fig. 8. 


Wliat Kgammta are situated between the radivi ud ulna t The 
ialerosseoiu^ (Fig. 11), tie rouml* (Fig. 11), HgunentB (or liga- 
mcntum terei'), and the captufar' (Fig. 11), or lacd/orm at tbur 
lower eztremitieB. 

Fig. 10. 

Fig. 11. 

Pig. 12. 

What are the liijameiiU of tlie viritt-jointf The interval (Fig. 
12) and external lateral, captular,* (IutmI, nufio-vlnar,' and pal- 
niar^ ligiuucnts. The moTcmcnts of the joint are flexion, cztcn- 
aioD, adduction, abduction, anil circumduction. There are also 
ligaments ooDucctiiig the sccood row of the carpus with the meta- 
carpus;' a capsular llijamenfi for the carpo-metacarpal joint of the 
thumb, and one for the metocarpo-phaJangial joint,'" and an extvr- 
nal hlcraf* for the same joint; a capsular ligament" of the meto- 
carpo-phalangial arUculation of the index finger, latera}"," ligaments 
for Bimilar artieulations, and ivfirior palmar",'* ligaments. 


What He &a l^amaitt d Uie Uio-femorai or hip articulatwitf 
Fig. 13. 

lite eo^floid, whloh tips the nur^ of the aoetabulnm, the inUr- 
artteuiar ca rmmd, and the capiutaj' Kgament. The movementa 
are fleximt extennon, addnotion, abdnotioD, diotundaotioD, and rota- 
tion. The est repreeente the taero^vaiebrai,* the Hio-iumbarf' the 
anterior portion of the laeroMiae* The lower part of the onfeHor 
Mrtefcra^* Poypartt ;»^ni«7i(,*and that portion of it ealled Gvmher- 
mot*^ the aoBMorj^ at the hip-jmnt, and the obturator* ligaments. 
FIf . 14. Fig. 15. Pig. 10 


What are the ligaments and parts concerned in the knet^oi$Ut 
The capmlar ligament, or involucrum generale, the ligament of the 
patella^ (Fig. 15), a posterior^ (Fig. 14), or ligament of Windou;^ 
(Fig. 14), internal^ and eociemal^ lateral (Kg. 14), and ttoo cru- 
cial*,^ (Fig. 15) ligaments. This joint has also two aemHunar car- 
tilage^,'' (Fig. 15), and its motions are those of flexion and ez- 
tensioD. The superior peroneo- tibial articulation*^ (Fig. 15), and 
the interosseous ligament ;^^ the posterior superior peroneo-tibial 
ligaments (Fig. 14). Fig. 16 represents a longitudinal section of 
the knee-joint, showing the cellular structure of the lower end of 
the femur and tibiso/ the patella* with its ligament,* the large buraso^ 
under it, the ligamentum mucosum,^ the anterior crucial ligament^^^ 
and the tendon of the quadriceps femoris.* 

How are the tibia and JUnda united together? They are united 
superiorly by an anterior and posterior ligament, and a ^fnomal 
membrane; inferiorly also by an anterior and posterior ligament; 
and the bodies of these bones are united by an interoueom ligament. 

What are the ligaments of the ankle-joint f An imperfect capsu- 
lar, an internal, and an external lateral ligament 

What ligaments connect the os astragalus and of calcisf The 
interosseous, posterior, and deltoid ligaments. 

What connects the astragalus with the scaphoidesf 

It is connected above by a broad thin ligament; below by ttoo 
ligaments, internal and external calcaneo-scaphoid. 

What connects the ccdcis with the cuboides f The superior and 
inferior calcaneocuboid ligaments. 

Of the Integuments. 

What is meant by the integuments of the body? The cellular 
and adipose substances, and the dermoid covering. 

What are some of the properties of cellular tissue T It is an ele- 
mentary tissue, generally disseminated over the whole body; found 
beneath the skin; between muscles; connecting membranes and other 
parts ; entering into their composition ; indispensable to their tex- 
ture; and precedes them in the development of the footus. It is 
composed of cells which communicate freely with each other, and 

ANATOllT. 89 

maj be distended either with air or other flnidB, and from its elas- 
tidtf when the diBtenaioa is removed it will return to its ori^al 

Where is the adipote tirvcture found 7 Between the akin and the 
faaoiB, in the Ujers of condensed cellalsr Bnbel&nce, next to the 
musclee, as the &ce, neck, tmnk of the bodj, buttocks, limbs, palms 
of the hands, soles of the feet, &a. In chemical composition, it dif- 
fers from all other parts of the body in containing no nitrogen. It 
is enclosed by oellnlar snbetance. 

What is meant by the dermoid covering f The iJcin ; its tAaceout 
organ*; the naOt; and the hair. 

How many lamina does the skin conust of 7 Two, the cn<u vera, 
and the eutinja. What was formerly called rete mucoium, and 
which cont^s the coloring matter, is merely the deepest or more 
reoenily formed portion of the cuticle or epidermb. 

What is understood by the K&ocwut organtT The follicles and 
gilands which fonish the oily exhalation tliat lubricates the sur&oe 
of the skin. 

What are the natZi T They may be considered as a continuation 
of the cuticle, enj^ly ita place on the extremities of the fingers and 
toea, and correspond with the talons and hoofs of animals. They are 
dermd of oiganixatiou. 

What are the Aaw«7 They are cylindrical filaments found on most 
parts of the skin excepting the palms and soles. 

Or Muscles. 

What are the propertiea of muscles? They are the organs of 
motion, and an eharaoteriied by rednen, wfinem, irritability, con- 
bvetiH^, and by being formed of long, parallel fibres, which are 
arranged into &Bcicnli ; each fibre extending the whole length of the 
nnsole, ooosdering the length as represented by the tendinous be- 
^noing on oae hand, and the tendinous tennination on the other. 

How are they divided 1 Into voluntary and involuntary. 

What is meant by the m^t^t^of mosolesf It is their power of 
ooDtraction, elongation, and remaining fixed. 

What does a muaole consist off A belly and two extremities; 


the one that is fixed is called the head or ori^, and the other is the 
tail or insertion. Those which surronnd orifices are called tphinden. 
The belly or body is the fieshy part, and the extremities are tendin- 
ous. In the most simple mnscleS| the fibres run in the direction of 
their lengthy and are termed fusiform. Those which nm obliquely 
firom a tendon or bone are called mrni-pennaH. Those which con- 
yerge obliquely to a tendon in the centre are called pennati. Oihers 
again are formed of a congeries of smaller muscles^ the fibres of which 
run in different directions and intermix with tendinous mattef| as 
the deltoid and subscapular. Muscles are composed of bundles of 
fibres^ each consisting of filaments; the filaments are diyisible into 
fasciculi; and each &sciculus consbts of a number of primitiye par- 
ticles or mircaui elements held together by a tough^ delicate^ and 
elastic membrane called tarcolemma. They are well supplied with 
blood-vessels and nerves. Various stimuli applied to muscular fibre 
will cause contraction. 

Upon what does the strength of a muscle depend f Upon the 
number of its fibres ; so that those whose fibres run obliquely are 
stronger than those which run longitudinally. 

How are tendons distinguished? By their white and shining ap- 
pearance; they have no elasticity or power of elongation or contrac- 
tion ; they have two general shapes: funicular , or like cords; find 
vwnihranouSf* or resembling an aponeurosis. 



Where is the fucia superficialis ahdominii situated? Beneath 
the skin of the abdomen, and consists of a layer of condensed cellu- 
lar substance. It is laminated, admits of being dissected into layers, 
and encloses the lymphatic glands in the groin. 

What are the orit/in, ifuertiofif and use of the following muscles? 

Ohlupius externum** (See Fig. 17.) Origin, eight or nine inferior 
ribs. Insertion, ensiform cartilage, linea alba, pubis, Poupart's liga- 
ment,^« and anterior two-thirdn of the crest of the ilium. Use, to 
compress the abdomen. 

■nd extetnml thiid of Ponparf a ligament InaertuHif into the car- 
tilages of tbe Mven in&rior ribi, enofbrm cartilage, linea alba, 
gymphyaiB, md vppet edge of the pabia. TJae, to bend the body 
aad oompreaa the abdomen. 

CfremaHer. Origin, Ponparf a ligament and obUqnoB intemoa. 
InsertioQ, tunica nginaliB tesliB, and acrotom. 

Tranmenalit. Origin, &acia Inmbomm, crest of ilium, Ponparf a 
lipment, and aeven lower ribs. Insertion with the obliqana inter- 
DOB. Um, to compress the abdomen. 

Seetiu.' Origin, pnbis. Insertion, ennform cartilage, and to 


Um otftibgM of tlw flfth vtd rizth ribi. Vm, ^ Imd Dm tap^ 

ud oominMi the abdomen. 

J^/rtmidaiii.v Oiigia, palni. luntion, liiiM alba. 

Wlutotbari»rl«H«azhibitod1i7T!g.l7r Oammm teadoivt 
tbo inUnial oblique end trumntlU;'* enrol ankf/iueia Jakt 
ilBiDOrii;* l a p Ha M ii ifmAtg, miermU abdommal rmg,' nd Ab- 
part-. UgamffL** 

Whore I^ At jfopte i raii yn ti ' * ritntidl 

It ooreq % tfi^Ml^fBf 1)^ OiIb ^ n^ i«d i4 %«l of tfce 
peritoneoBi) lij M ep^tipwnir vMh »• iliM tmi^ i^U^ ■anooitde 
the pofterier pirt rf Mm p«iti>B*<>i'S *'■'' 4* piWs b^ib wUeh ei» 
round! tlUpoitionafjMftolpeiim IB tlwen^^-df die pelvii. The 
intenal abdaninal liog i> llfmttod In b. n« teem n<v it liaUe to 
bo mlflundentoodj i> iimwi"h|MM dmply flait pdpt iri»»e fte ftiah 
tnnivomlli oeiMe to mw tlia alidMMB, vtl eomnMnoai to oonr 
tho oord; It Uveiy thla^^phqi^'in&lJBivfifiaial dineatioB nuj 
roadil; 1am an openiqp or liqg vi^ « vril Ubied edge^ eltham^ 
it dooa not ezU in tht «rtqn|) KM* 4tl>4 PMk- 

^^'"P*"**" • (Kg- 18). Hia greater moaole. Origin, xiphoid 
cartilage, the oartilagea of the last trae and all tho fitlse ribs. Id- 



lertioo, cordifonn tendon. — ^The lesser mosole or eron*,". Origii), 
die bodies of the first four Inmbsr vertebrss. Iiuertian, oordj- 
form tendon. What parts are to be notieed aliotit tbe dii^diragmP 
The liffameitttHit arevatian,' point of ori^ of t|is {boh magniis,* 
tbe small trimugnlar spaoe behind the stemmn* oorered ml; fay 
serous membnne, and thiongh which heiija somdows pus; hiabia 
srticns," foiamen ffieopbageum," foramen qwdratpji,'* and a small 
opening for the lemer splanohnio nerves.' 

Qiuuiratut iurnbontm." Origin, Sfune of iUnm. D>sarti(lB, trans- 
vetse prooenes of Inmbar vertefara, and la^t don|}. l^ to bend 
the trunk to cms side and forwards. 

Aodj tnNKln.** Origin, the Inmbar and donal vertebne. loser* 
tion, oavitr of the pelvis, and leaser troehanter. 

llianu uUemiu. Origin, tnutsrerse process of last lombar verte- 
bra, crest of ilinm, and iliao ibesa. Insertion with the psoas mnscles 
into the femur. Use, to b^d the thigh and body. 

What are tho mnseles of the mofe periaeom 7 

Fig. ID. 

SpkincUr anij* sxftniiM and vUenmtf trtctor peniM,' arctlerator 
itrint^ or ^culatot mmw^ (nmiMrtM ftruia,* levator ani,* com- 

prator urt&rK, and eoecygau.' 

Vis. SO. 

^^^ «e the MMoIa, 


What tra the or^m, itutrtion, aod tue at the toUoimg aaadeBT 

TVapenW,*. Orifpn,ocoi|iitalbone, 
ligamentmn nuebie, last oerrica], and **' 

th« doml verteloK. Insertion, claTi- 
ole, acromion pooesB, ejune of Hie 
acapnia. Um, to dnw the parte ia 
the Beveral direotioiis of ite fibres. 

XiOtutittuu doni.* Ori^n, dorsal 
Bfone^ &M3a Inmbonun, Bacram, 
nium, and three or four last ribs. 
Insertion, homeras. Use, to draw the 
oe humeri downwarda, and InckwardB. 

RhotTibmdeiu major and minor.*'," 
Ori^, lipmentnm nnoha^ and dor- 
sal spnes. Insertion, base of the sca- 
pula. Use, to draw the scapula np 
and back. 

What other mnaolea are dtnated on 
the bade f Levator angvli Kapuiae," 
baH^ (Hg. 22), lonffimmvt dorti,* 
fnna/ti (fom* (Kg. 22), ■mantK ao- 
eemorH, ctrvicaitM detcaidaUf* frona- 
venaJu etrvidt,* Iradido-maUoidaiM^ 
eatgilexiu,* temi-ipmaUi eoB&^ and 
tbm," mvMfiduM g/inrnj" reetiucapi- 
A peniau majot^ amd minor ^ ofr- 

Kqnua tuperiar'* and it^fmor," wUorqma&t, iniertTanrvenarii,'' 
leeatara antammf*' ^malit doni,* terrabu m^or atuicut,^ and wr- 
rattu infirior poitiev^ (Ilg. 21). 

Thorax. (See Fig. 17.) 
What are the origin, uuertum, and uae of tile following muscles F 
Pa^oralit major.* Origin, atemal half of clavicle, anterior snr&oe 

(^ sternum, cartilages of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth tme ribs. 

Insertitm, hnmems, anterior edge of bicipital groove. Use, to dnw 

tbe aim inwards, fbrwaids, and to depress it. 


Peetaralu mfnor.* Origin, upper edge of fonrdi, fifth, and oxtl 
riba. InaertioD, coracoid process of sotpuU. Um, fa> dnw it is, 
and down. 

Suljdarna? Origin, Gist rib. InBertion, elsiTicle. 

Serratm magnv^,". Ori^D, eight at nine Hiperiar ribs. Imtr- 
tioD, base of snpala. Use, to dnw it forwuds. 

IntiiTeoitaiet extental.^ Origin, eleven inferior ribs nt thor Or 
temal, inferior edges. Insertion, superior edge of riba benoitli. 

Internal. Origin, eleven ribs intemallj, from the lower edge of 
each. Inser^n, inner lip of the rib beneath. Use, to drsw the 
riba together. 

Triangidarit lerni. Origin, lower part of stemnm. Insertion, 
cartilages of fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs. Use, to iTtitiinirtli the 
cavil; of the tbonz, pectoralu minor.* 


What arc the origin, inxHion, and we of the jiia^ytma tity- 
uUt*'" ("Fig. 24.) Origin, cellular membrane oror deltoid and 
fiiUml muscles, and Trom the clavicle. Insertion, chin and bscia 


of tbe lateral and inferior porta of the face. Use, to elevate the 
ekia of the neck. 

Slemo-ckido-mailoideuf",",". Origin, Bternnm and clavicle. In- 
BertioD, mastoid proceBs sod transverse ridge of the <MMupital bone. 
Uae, to draw the ohin towards the sternum. 

What other muscles are there of the neck, the names of which 
moetlj indicate their attachment f Sfemo-hyoideui,ilemo-tAyroideia, 
Ayreo-hyoideu*, omoJij/oid«ui, mt/lo-l^ideu»,'* ttj/h-ly/oidau,* ttyh- 
ghnut,* ttyb>^haryttgetu,'' ffeaio-hyndeut,* lone/tu eoSi, rtctut eapitU 
onfvcui VM.jvr, minor, and lateralit, xaJetrnt atUicat^ medium and 


What are the oriyin, intertion, and we of the oeeiplta-frvntalitf* 
Ongio, superior tnuuveree ridi^ of the occipital bone and mastoid 


prooesg. Luwrtkmi int^gumentB and mnfldfls of ejebrowB. ttm^ 
to oorrogato the fbrehoid and elevate the saperoilia. 

Corrvgator nforcOU. Ongn^ intenial angolar pme« of oa 
firontis. Inaertion, middle of ejelnow. UaOi to draw ihe ItnMr 
part of the forehead into tartaoal wiinklea. 

Chmpremoir nara.' Qrijpni root of ala naaL LiMrtlioiii into ita 
fellow, and lower part of oa nao. 

OiMsiiaiHBpcifdTainm.^ Qrig^ nttal prooeaa of oa nuadDaie 
saperiosy internal angular prooeaB of oa flnmtiay and flbom oa ntigiiia.' 
Insertion, orbitar and nasal prooeflMB of manllaiy Ixxie and pd^^ 
ligament UsOi to dose the eyelids. 

LevaJtoT laibU mgperioru et aim mm.* Onffn, nasal and okUv 
prooesses of superior maTillaiy bone. Inaertioni side of ala naaiy 
and upper lip. Uaei to drsw Ae upper lip and ala nasi n^waida. 

Levator amguU arit.^ Origini anterior part of saperior mazillazj 
bone. Insertion, oomer of the month. Use, to raise the ang^ of 
the month. 

^^gomaiieui majoit tftf niAtdH/. Origin, fore part of malar 
bono. Insertion, oomer Of tlie ihoath. Use, to draw the oomer 
of the month towards olieek bone: 

DepntKT hbU mftttioAt tj^alm- mn&L^ Qrijpn, inferkar part of 
upper mazillaiy bone. Luertioni side of' ala mud and oontigoooa 
part of upper Up. UM^-to depreas die i^per Hp and ala nasL 

Depreuor amgvU artt.^ Origin^ base of lower jaw. InaertioQi 
comer of mouth. Uae^' to drawthe oorUer of mouth downwards. 

Dqntnor Ubii mfsrSoA^ Qripn,basisof lower jaw. Inaertioiii 
side of lower lip. Use^ todiaw die lower lip downwards. 

Levator menH H UbU in^mionM. Qfipn, inoisive fossa of lower 
jaw. Insertion, int^gamenlii of the eUa. Use, to raise the integu- 
ments of the diin. 

Buccmaior.^ Origjh^ ooniioid proeeas of lowetr maziOa and baok 
part of upper maxilla. Insertion, ootner of mouth and oontiguous 
parts of upper and lower lips. 

Orhtcularii orw .* This is a sphineter musde whidi surrounds 
the mouth; oonsequently, it has neither orifpn nor insertion. 

Lower Jaw. 

Temjporalu. Oiipo, semioiraiilar rid^ on pirietal bone, temporal 
foan, ind ftaoik. Insertion, oonnuud prooeas of lower j»w. Uie, 
to pnll it directly np. 

JCmnfar." Origin, Bnperior maxillary bone and lygoma. lowr- 
tim, outer soiftoe of angle of lower jaw. 

RaygoideM MicnHM. Origin, intaiul ado of external pterygoid 
plate. Insertiaii, inner side of angle of loww jaw. Use, to dose 
tlie jaw and prodOM a grinding motion. 

Pterygoidana adtrmu. Origin, outer aide of ertemal pteiygmd 
|date. Inaeition,intefnalpart of neck of lower jaw. Use, nmeaa 

Digattriat^f (Fig. 23). Origin, groove at base of mastoid pro- 
oeflB ; is ita eovae it is attached to the oa hjoidea 1^ a ligament. 
Insertioii, umer ad« of base of jaw. Use, to open tbe montJt. 

TJppEE Extremity. 

What are the ori^rn^ iiuerti&n, and urn of the following mnsclesT 
(See Kg. 21.) 

Sdtoidti.* Orig^, tower edge of epine of acapnia, acromion, and 
onter third of davicle. Insertion, hameroa, near its middle. Us^ 
to raise the ann. 

Sigira^inaliu.'' Origin, ecspola above its Hfane. Insertion, 
great tnberoaity of hunems. Use, to ruse the arm and torn it ont. 

AJriupmatiu,™ Origin, acapnia below the ijHne. Inserlion, 
great tabercai^ of hnmeros. Use, to roll the arm. 

Tiramuior.'' Origin, inferior ooeta. Insertign, great taberod^ 
of the homems. Use, to rotate and draw the arm down and back. 

Tfera major." Origin, inferior angle of scapola. Insertion, 
inner edge of Ininpital groove. Use, to rotate the arm inwards, and 
draw it back. 

SvbtagMiarit.* Ori^n, sabecapolar foasa. Inaertion, small tn- 
berole of humerus. Use, to draw the ann down and roll it in. 


Bicep^,*,',",",*'. Origin, oonnoid prooeM and edge of glenind 
cavity. Insertion, tnberole of radiiu. Use, to flex the fraeum. 

Voraco-Braehiali*." Origin, coracoid procesB. Insertion, iaternal 
aide of humenu near the middle. Use, to draw the um np and 

Brnchialit inlemvt",". OrigiD, centre of bamcnu. InKrtion, 
coronoid process of ulnft. Use, to flexthc forearm. 

Triiept exiaitor cubili." Origin, neok of scapula, outer side of 
humerus, ridge lending to intenial condyle of humerus. Insertion, 
olecranon process. Use, to extend the foreann. 



Wlut olan of mnsdeB taike origin from the internal condyle and 
anterior put of ulna? Tho JUxonnai pnmaton. 

Wbat are the flezora snd pronators F Pronator radii lera,*J{exor 
carpi raditdtM,* paimarit longxu,* flexor carpi vlnarit." 

flexor digitorum tiiblimit perfarataiJ Origin, inner condyle and 
radinfl. Insertion, second phalanx. Ubb, to bend the second pha- 

Fkxor digitorum pro/undta per/bratu, Ori^, ulna, ladiiis, and 
interoaaeoiu ligament. Insertion, last phalanx. 

Flexor long^tt pc^ieii. Origin, radius. Insertion, last phalanx 
of thnmh. 

Pronator radii qvadralut. Origin, anterior snr&ce of nlna. In- 
sertion, anterior part of radios. 

What elaas of mnsoles take origin from the external condyle and 
poBterior part of ulnaf The snpinatots and extenBois. 

What an the tttpinalon and exfenaonf Sttpinator radii longut,'" 
exteiuor carpi radialii lonfftor and hrevtor, txtmtor carpi vlnarii, 
exieiuor digitorvm amuniMu, tupinatar radii brtvit, extentor omm 
metaeatpipoUieii mantu,** ertensor minor poUidi mamu, laajor pal- 
lid* mamMt, and indicator. 

Interiok Extsxhitt. 

What an tlie origin, iiitertion, and «te of the foUoning mnsolesf 

Taitor vagina femori^ (Fig. 28). Origin, ilium. Insertion, 

Sartariut.* Origin, anterior Boperior Bpinooa process of ilium. 
bisertiini, upper end of tibia. Use, to bend the leg and draw it 

Reel¥M femarit.* Origin, anterior inferior spinous process and 
margin <f acetabulum. Insertion, patella. 

RufM fldenHit.' Origin, below trochanter major and outer edge 
<d linea aapeia. Insertion, unites with rectus. 

YattH* uUemut.* Origin, on a level with trochanter minor and 
finm inaer edge of littea ai^en. Insertimi, unites witb reoto*. 

- CVwMiM. Ori^, interior ml (ctenuJ part of ftmcria. L 
tion, imitM with mrtu. Uae of thew finrto (statd tha lag. 

OracOit.^ Ori^, tjm^\ijst and deeoending nmiu of the |«lMk 
Insertioii, intan>l SBtbee of tibia. Un, to flax the lag. 

■AetNMiu.** Origbn, hoticonbd paction trf pabis. IJuwtioa, ^ 
per part of linea aspen. Use, to dnw the thigh irnnadi nd te- 

Addvoor longiu.'* Ori^aiiteriomrfkae«Fpalni. TiilJiii, 
middle tJiitd vS QiMa «paf^ 

Addvclar brevii. Origin, anterior inftrior m!hoe of psbia. TMr 
aertion, aapnior third nS linea asfwca. 

AMiteloe wiyiw.'* Oripn, ilnMwilwg mam ut pohi^ nana 


■nd tebenwty of the iaofaium. Itueition, internal condyle and ridge 
leading to linea aapen. Use, these three nraacles draw the thigh 

Olvltnu moxHRMf.* Origin, poeterioi third of Bpine of illntn, 
saonun, oe ooopygis, and saoro-soiatio ligament. Insertion, between 
trochanter and linea aspera, linea aspera and &8cia lata. Use, to 
draw the thigh back and ke^ the tnink erect. 

OliUmui meditu.' Ori^n, epae of ilinm and dorenm. Insertion, 
great trochanter. Use, to dr»w the thigh back and ont. 

OUUtea* mtmniiu. Origin, domun of ilinm. Inserdon, great 
trochanter. Use, to abdnot the thigh and rotate the limb inwards. 

I^frijbrmif C^S- 2'^}- Ori^n, aaorom, sdatic ligament, and 
ilinm. Insertion, root of trooluuiter major. Use, to rotate the 
limb in. 

Gemiati.™ Origin, one from root of the spine of isohinm, the 
other from taberoeit;. InaertioD, root of trochanter major. Use, 
to rotate the limb in. 

Obtw^tUor infemtu." Origin, pelvic margb of foramen thynn- 
denm, ita membrane and plane of the isehinm. Insertion, foesa of 
trochanter. Use, to rotate the limb out. 

Quadmhu femori*." Ori^, tuber iechii. Insertion, great fro- 
chanter and line leading to the lesaiar. Use, to rotate the limb ont. 

Obturator taiemat. Origin, ohtoiator ligament. Insertion, fossa 
at root of trochanter. Use, to rotate the thigh ont. 

SioqM flexor emru." Origin, long head, tuber ischii; short head, 
linea aspera low down. Insertion, head of fibula. Use, to flex the 

Semi-tatdinonu.'* Origin, tnber ischii. Insertion, tibia. Use, to 
flex the leg. 

Semi-membranotut. Origin, taber ischii. Insertion, external 
ooadyle of femnr, and heads of tibia and fibola. Use, to flex tiie leg. 

TSnaiu cmUichj* (Fig. 29). Ori^n, head' and spine of tibia, 
interoeseoDs ligament. Insertion, great cuneiform bone and first 
metatarsal. Use, to present the sole obliqnelj in. 

T longtu digitormn ptdi*.* Origin, heada of tibia, Sbnla, 


and interoBBeons ligament. IiuertiDn, laet 
tonul toes. Use, to extend the toes. 

phalanx of the fottr ex- 

Peroumii tertiut.* Ori^, fibula. Insertion, metstusal bone of 
little toe. Use, to bend the foot. 

Sxtenior propriv* poGicu pedii.^ Oi^in, middle third of fibula 
and tibia. Insertion, aeoond pbaUnx of great toe. Use, to ex- 

Peroneu* hmgiaJ Origin, head of fibula and tibia. Insertion/ 
metatarsal bone of great toe and internal ooneifonn. Use, to extend 
the foot and inoline the sole ontwardi. 

Peroneut hrtvit.' Oii^n, lower half of fibula. Insertion, base of 
metatanal bone of littte toe and cuboid bone. 



and ridge aboTe H. Iiuertion, ob oaloiB. 

Solau.* Origin, eztenul head from superior third of fibula ; in- 
ternal head, middle third of tibia, nnitee witli the above and foRDB 
tbe laido-Aefaallii. fnaertion, oa oalcoB. Use, to extend the ^t. 

Fbmlarlt. OrilpM, back fmit of f«AM>. Insertion, os Mich. 

I^ijilUeia.* Oii^n, depre§doa on outer condyle. Insertion, upper 
put of tibia. 

Fkxor lonffitt digilorum, pedit perJvraiuJ Origin, flat sorface of 
tibia, ftooia, Ao. Insertion, laet phalanx of fbnr lesser toes. 

Fkwrl<MgittpoltuApedu.* Origin, inferior part of fibula. In- 
oertioa, hat phalanx of great toe. 

'Hbviiupoitieut* Origin, tilna, flbnla, and ligament InMrtko, 


08 nayioulue. 

, to extend the foot, imd present the sole in- 


What are the orgaru of digationT The organs of digestion oon- 
eiat in an nnintermpted osoal extending from the lipe to the anna, 
and of nnmerons gUndnlar bodies phtced along its oonm. This 

Fig. 31- 

canal, called alimentary, is divided into three portions, the tupenor, 
middle, and inftrwr. The tuperior is oompoaed of the mouA, 
pharynx, and atcpkagut*,*; the middle, of the itomaeh' and tmaU 
tntatin^,*,*,*; the in/trior, of the large wi/«rfi'«««, ",",",",'•. The 

plandvlar hodia ue the taiivary glandt, panereai, liver, gpken, 
tnd a luge namber of mueiparoM glandt extending along the 
irhole coniM of the ouMtl. 

What are the cAanuArtMiM of the teeth ? Thej are the hardest 
portioDB of the body, and be*r an analogy to bone. The greater part 
of their length is implanted into the alveolar procesaea of the jaws ; 
this port is called the root; beyond this is a portion embraced b; the 
gnm called the neci; and the free or projecting part la the body or 

What is the nvmber of teeth in the adolt f Thirty-tiro; raxteen 
in each jaw, and are olasmfied from tiieir shape into eight incisors, 
four onspated, eight tu-onspated, and twelve molar. 

Of what are teeth compoaeiT Thc^ are composed of three sab- 
Btances, one of which is morg, or ioN»-Iike, called dentine;' one is 
tmarndf and the other is called enula petrota, or cementum.* The 
enamel fbrma the periphery at the body of a tooth, as is known 
by its whiteness, britUeness, semi-tisnsparency, and faardness. It 
is fibrons, and the fibres are plaoed so as to pass from the surface 
towards the centre of the tooth, so that ihe fiictlMt is applied 
against their extremities. Its composition is principally phosphate 
of lime irith a Mull portion of gelatin. The osseom pwtion is the 
most abimdNDt; ft feniS'tbeViXA, aeek, and body, ezeept the Anist 
of euOMl Ota He ^pheiy. 

The cement coreis all the surface of the tooth that is not invested 
with enaud. ^trtnUy Utere is a cavity,* filled with a soft pulpy 
matter, whieh reodTea an artery, a veiii, and a berre. 

The aMsrtei of tte iKtb of the upper jaw oome tttm ihe alveolar 
and iofrs-orbitar, and the n«rv«* from the second bnneh c( the fifth 
pair ; the aisries of the lower teeth oome ftom the intern^ maxilkiy, 
aad the nerves from the third branch of the fifth pair. 

What is understood by the deciduoiu teeih T They are teeth pe- 
collar to infante, and are twen^ in number, ten in each jaw ; on 
aAer stde are two inoisore, one cu^idatns, and two mcJaree. Some 
of diem bll oDt about the seventh year, and all of them hy the f«tf- 
teenth. The order of their appearance is as follows :— 

Two oeolnt iocaion, fron tha nzth to tha d^ith mntli. 

(Two iMnl indMn, fana the HvMfli to dw tonth month. 

The fint mdar od wch nde, from th» twaUth to the fimitMittb 

The cnapatad, from tha flfleenth to &b twaotieth month. 

The aeoond mdtt, (Iran the twmtieth to the thirtiath mooth. 

At biith then an tha rudiments of fifty-two teeth in the two jawa; 
twenty decidnona and thirtj-two pennftnaot 

How an the deoidnotu teeth lemofodf Bj the abaoiptioB of the 

Where ia the tmgoe aitoated f It extenda from the oa hyoidaa 
poateriorly to the imasor teeth anteriorlj. It ia divided into baa^ 
hody, and %. 


WiMrtiiMwrfMOompoie the tongue? Tbt liylogloma,' ^o^ghniu* 
genia-l^oglouu^f*,', and Ungua- 
li^ fbrm the principKl bulk; be- 
aded these there are the mper- 
Jicial Itngwd mtucle, tramverie 
lii^iial tmucfef," and the vertical 
Ungual mvteloj which aie email 
fibrei numiiig in diffarent direc- 
tione, u thoT names tDdicate. 

How are the papiUte of the 
tongue divided? Lito papiBee 
maximte (aeapiiatm,fnedite, vU- 
loue, toA JUi/orma ; and oocapy 
the anteritar two-thirda of this 

What other parts are there to 
remark about the tongue ? The 
/r^na^igloaidu, Jrtenvm lin- 
g*te, foramen eweiun, and n^hi. 

The tongue ia Enpplied with arteries principallj from the lingnal 
branch of the carotid ; and with nerrea ^m the h^'pogloeaal, the 
fifth pair, and the gloeso-pbaryngeaL 


What eompotet the pahUe ? It ia composed auteriorl; by the pa- 
latine prooenea of the niperior maxillarj and palatine bonea, covered 
by the Bning membrane of the month below, and pitnilarj membnne 
above ; posteriorlj is a membranooB portion called the toft palate, 
which has an oblong shape and continned from the hard palate pos- 
teriorly ; in its centre ia the vmtla, from which proceed the two cres- 
centic doablin^ called the Patera/ A<z^arcAM,whichBre divided into 
anterior and poeterior. In the depreauon between theae is the tonnl 
gland. The space bonndcd in front, and behind, by these lateral 
half arches, is the fotuet; and the anterior opening into it ie the 
itt/mnu of tfie /auce*. 

The nmaolee of the palate are the ttlhmi eoiutrictar favcium. 


paJatt>^Aaiyt>geta, eiroumjhm'*, oi tenmr palati, levator folatif Htd 
a^gos uwliE. 

How are the gUnds of the moutli divided 1 Dito mueijiamii aod 

What am the muiciparaiu glands f The; are die UAid, httaxi, 

hnguol, palatine, and the totutli. 

What an the taUvary glandtf The parotCd, its ezoretoiy dnoi 

is called the duel o/ Steno; it is tb« 

'^' mxQ of a crow quill, and opena opposite 

to the seoond laige molar tooUi of tbe 

upper jaw ; the mbntasexBary, its doot 

is called the dud of Whorton; and the 

mbHtigval, its doot is called thctm 


What are the eharacterittiet of the 
pharynxf It is a laige membraaotu 
oavi^, ntnated between the oemoal ver- 
lebne and posterior part of the nose and 
month, and extends from the base of the 
oraninm to the lower part of the cricoid 
oartilaga, and fifth oerrioal vertebra, 
where it is continued into the oesopha- 
gus; it has seven foramina opening into 
it, viz: posterior nares, two; Knsta- 
chiau tubes, two ; month, laiynx, and 
(esophagus. It oonsistB of ihree coatt; 
the external or mutcular is composed 
of three muscles on each ride, one 
above the other — a cdlular, iftUrme- 
diale, and an internal, or muoout coat. 
The muscles forming the muscular coat 
are the conitrie^trt inferior,* mediut,' 
and miperior.* The arteries which sup- 
ply it are the superior and inferior pharyngeal on each ride. 



Whftt are the charaeteriitict of the (EtopTiagv^ (^P'- 31 *^ 
87) F It is a tube continuoos with the pharynx, in &ont of the 
Biune, behind the trachea, ten or twelve lines in diameter, increosee 
in sise irom above downnards, and termlaates at the cardiac oiifioe 
of the stomach, at a point opposite the tenth dorsal Tartebra. In 
the thorax, it passes down in the posterior mediasdnom, with the 
aorta on the left, and the vena azjgos on the right. It has three 
coots, the maicuiaT, ctBular, and mticoug, and is united to adjacent 
parts by loose oellalar substance. The muscnlar ooat consiBts of two 
laminffi, the longitudinal and the circular. Its arteries are derived 
from the ui&rior thyroid, the thoracic aorta, and the ^trio. 

How is the abdomen boundedf Inferiorly by the iliaoi intwni, 

Fig. 35. 


the psoad; and levator ani muscles; on the front and sides by the five 
pairs of abdominal muscles ; posteriorly by the lesser muscles of the 
diaphragm, quadrat! lumborum^ the lumbar vertebrse, and the sa- 

How many kinds of viscera are contained in the cavity of the 
abdomen? Three: one is engaged in digestion and assimilation, 
another in the secretion and excretion of urine, and the third in 

How is the abdomen divided f Into arbitrary regions: consider 
a line or plane as extending across the abdomen about two inches 
below the umbilicus from the superior part of the crista of one ilium 
to the corresponding point of the other side%*. Draw on each side a 
line perpendicular to the first by commencing at the anterior inferior 
spinous process of the ilium, and carry it up to the diaphragm^ : 
then extend a fourth line across the abdomen parallel with the first, 
and intersecting the two last where they strike the cartilages of the 
ribs*/. It is seen that these four lines or planes, with the assistance 
of the parietes of the abdomen, furnish nine regions. The central 
one above is called the epigattric^y and the lateral the right and left 
hypochondridc^y^. The central in the middle is the umbUicaP, and 
the lateral the rights and leffi lumbar. The central below is the 
hypogastriffiy and the lateral the right^ and lefiy^ iliac. The sera- 
hiculus cordis, or pit of the stomach, is the hollow in the epigas- 
tric region. The regio puhis^^ is the region for two inches around 
the symphysis pubis. These two last are termed subordinate divi- 

What position relative to these regions does the liver occupy ? 
Nearly the whole of the right hypochondriac, the upper half of the 
epigastric, and the right superior part of the left hypochondriac. 

Where is the gpleen situated? In the posterior part of the left 
hypochondriac region. 

Where is the stomach^ (Fig. 36) situated? Moderately distended, 
it occupies the lower half of the epigastric region and the right in- 
ferior portion of the left hypochondriac. 

Where is the small intestinf? situated? Moderately distended by 
flatus, it occupies the umbilical region, the hypogastric, portions of 


the iliac on each side, and also the upper part of the cavity of the 
pelvis, when its viscera arc empty. 

Where ia the larye tntetiin^ sitnated f It be^ns in the right iliac 
re^an, ascends through the right lumbar and right hypochondriac, 
passes into the lower part of the epigastricj or upper part of the nm- 
Inlical, according to the state of disteoBion of the stomach, Iheuoe 
into the left hypochondrioCj left lumbar, and left iliac, passes into 
the pelvis, and descending in &ont of the sacrum, terminates in the 

Where is the pancreai? situated ? Transversely in the lower back 
part of the epigastric region, extending from the left hypochondrias 
to the right ude of the spine, and is placed behind the stomach, which 

Where are the kidneys and 
captulx renala situated ? In the 
posterior part of the lumbar re- 
gions on each wde of the spine. 

Where are the urinary Had- 
der," and rectum' situated? In 
the cavity of the pelvis, and be- 
tween diem in the female are the 
uterus, ovaries, and va^na. 

What is nnderstood by the peri- 
UmtufaT It is a serons membrane 
lining the abdomen and reflected 
over the peripheiy of nearly all 
the viscera. It u a complete sac, 
with no opening into it, except in 
the female through the Fallopian 

What are the procettia of the 
peritoneum? There are four, and 
are known by the general name of 
ommtum, epijiloon, or can/- They 
ftre called omentum mintu orhe- 
jMlieo-gaitrievm", omeitlum ma- 



jut or g<uln>^iaini",",",'*, omentum ci^ieum", and the omentum 
gattro-gptenicvm, beaidcH aome other smaller reflections. 

Whiit are the charaoteristioB of tefou» m«mbranet? The; are 
thin, trongpareiit, and vhite, rcBemblc cooiprcssed cellular mem- 
brane, invariably assume the form of perfect sacs, are distinct one 
from another, and secrete a serons Suid for the lubricaldon of their 
internal si 

CnTLOPoiETic Viscera. 


What are the characterUlkt of the stomach 7 It is a hollow vis- 

iis, situated in the epigastric region, of a conoidal shape, cnrred up- 


wstdai and presents two /aces, two on/ices^ two curvatures, and two 
extremities. The faces are called anterior and posterior. The ori- 
fices are named cardiac and pyloric. The curvatures are the smaU^ 
and great, or upper and lower. It has four ceats or laminse, viz. : 
peritoneal, muscular, cellular, and mucous. Its muscular coat is 
collected into fasciculi^ and pass in three directions^ longitudinal^ 
ciicolar, and oblique. The glands of Brunner are situated near the 
cardiac and pyloric orifices. It is very vascular; its arteries being 
branches of the coeliac; are the gastric^ right and left gastro-epiploic, 
and the vasa brevia. The first to the lesser curvature ) the second 
and third along the great curvature ) and the last, from four to six 
in number, to its great cul-de-sac. The veins terminate in the vena 
portarom. Its nerves come from the par vagum and the semilunar 
ganglion of the sympathetic. 


What is the length of the intestinal canal from the pylorus to the 
anus? From thirty to thirty-five feet; and is divided by anatomists 
into the small and the large intestine. 

What are the characteristics of the SmaU Intestine^,^,^,^? It com- 
mences at the pylorus, and terminates in the right iliac region by a 
lateral aperture in the large intestine. It is four-fifths of the length 
of the whole canal, being from twenty-four to twenty-eight feet, cylin- 
drical; the upper end is larger than the lower, decreasing gradually 
as you proceed downwards. It has four coats like the stomach, which 
have the same names. The course of its muscular fibres is longitu- 
dinal and circular. Its mucous coat is thrown into folds or dupli- 
catures, called valvuUe conniventes, in the direction of the circum- 
ference, and are segments of circles. 

On this coat are numerous small projections, called villi; hence it 
is sometimes termed villous coat. Each villus is composed of an 
artery, vein, and lymphatic, or lacteal. Its mucous glands are situ- 
ated in the cellular coat, between the muscular and mucous, and their 
ducts open on the surface of the latter. They are solitary and ag- 
gregated; the former are glandulse solitarise or Brunneri, and are 
found principally in the duodenum, and upper portion of the small 



intestine; the latter are called glaiidulee agminaUe or Peyeriy and 
exist in the lower part of the small intestine. 

How is the small intestine divided? Into duodenum^y Jefunum^y 
and Ueiim^) the latter two have no mark of distinction, and are some- 
times called the mesenteric portion. The duodenum is about twelve 
inches long, and is the commencement of this canal. The upper 
two-fifths below the duodenum is called the jejunum, and the lower 
three-fifths the ileum. 

What is the Mesentery? It is the process of peritoneum which 
serves to connect the small intestines to the posterior parictes of 
the abdomen, and extends from the left side of the second lumbar 
vertebra to the right iliac fossa ; this attachment is called the root, 
and is about six inches long. Its laminse contain the superior me- 
senteric artery and vein, lymphatic or lacteal glands and vessels, 
ramifications from the solar plexus of the sympathetic nerves, and 
cellular and adipose tissue. 

What are the characteristics of the Large Intestine? It exceeds 
in diameter the small, and receives the effete matter therefrom. It 
is not so regularly cylindrical; the surface is arranged into three series 
or longitudinal rows of projections, separated by transverse depres- 
sions. It commences at the inferior end of the small intestine, and 
terminates at the anus. It is divided into three parts ; the com- 
mencement, below the insertion of the ileum, about two inches in 
length, is called the ccecum'y or caput colt; the remaining portion^ 
until it reaches the pelvis, is called the colon*,^,^^, when it takes 
the name of rectum^. The appendix vermiformis" is a worm-like 
process attached to the inferior portion of the coecum. 

What is meant by Mesocolon? A duplication of peritoneum, 
which fixes the large intestine to the posterior parietes of the abdo- 

How many coats has the large intestine? Four, bearing the 
same name as those of the small intestine. The periiofieal coat has 
small duplicaturcs containing fat, and called appendices epiploicss; 
the muscular coat has two layers of fibres, the longitudinal, and 
transverse or circular; the mucous coat has but few villi, but its mu- 
ciparous glands and follicles are very numerous. 


Where is the ileo-cdlc value? At the junction of the ileum and 
caput coll or coecum. 

What is meant bj Mesorectum? It is that diiplicature of perito- 
neum which attaches the rectum to the sacrum. 

From what is the large intestine supplied witli b1(X)d? A part of 
the superior mesenteric, the whole of the inferior mcBenteric, and the 
internal pudic arteries; the veins empty into the vena portarum; 
the nerves are derived from the solar and hypogastric plexus of the 

What are the characteristics of mucous memhranes ? They line the 
internal surfaces of the hollow viscera, and form an internal tegument 
to the body, analogous to th(? skin. They are of a soft, spongy con- 
nstence, easily yield to mechanical violence, and are dependent upon 
the surrounding cellular coat for their strength. 

Assistant Chylopoietic Viscera. 

What are the characteristics of the Lircr ? It secretes the bile, and 
is the largest gland in the human body. Its whole superior face is in 
contact with the diaphragm ; on the left is the spleen, below are the 
stomach and transverse colon, and behind are the vertebrsB and as- 
cending cava. It is about ten inches in length, six or seven wide, 
and weighs in the adult four to five pounds. It is divided into lobes^ 
called right and left. The former is the larger, and has elevations 
on its Burfkce, called lobulus Kpigdli, and lohulus quart us. On the 
under sur&ce are five fissures, viz. : longitudinal, of the ductus 
venoiuSj transverse, one for the gall-bladder, and one for the vena 

What arc the ligaments of the liver? The falciform, or suspen- 
9ory, the ligamentum teres, the right lateral, the left lateral, and some 
anatomists give the name of coronary to that duplicature of perito- 
neum, at the junction of the suspensory and lateral ligaments. The 
liver has also a proper coat connecting it with the peritoneum. 

What are the bloodvessels f They are of three kinds : the vena 
portarum, the hepatic artery, and the hepatic veins. 

What composes it ? Acini, or granulations, each of which is com- 
plete in itself, huving the above-named bloodveRsels, the origin of a 


branch of the hepatic duct^ called poros biliarins, lymphatic YeeadSf 
and nerves. 

What IB the cap$uUot OUtmmf It is a condensed cellular fibrons 
tissue, at the bottom of the transverse fissure of the liver, which in- 
vests the vena portanim, hepatic artery, and biliary ducts, and follows 
them throughout the substance of the liver. 

Whatare thecAarac<eru(u»of the 6ra2^52'^^ It is a reservoir 
for the bile, fixed on the under sur&oe of the great lobe of the liver, 
to the right of the umbilical fissure; its shape is an oblong pyriform 
sac, and is about three inches in length. It has three coats, a peri- 
toneal, a cellular, and a mucous. Its artery is a branch of the he- 
patic; its veins emp^ into the vena portarum, and its nerves come, 
from the sympathetic. Its duct, called qftticj unites at an acute 
angle with the hepatic duct^ and forms the ductus communis chde- 
dochus ; these ducts have two coats: an external, fibrous, lamellated, 
and extensible; and a mucous. 

What are the AoraeteruticB of the Spleenf It is in the posterior 
part of the left hypochondriac region, bounded above by the dia- 
phragm, below by the colon, on the right by the great end of the 
stomach, and the pancreas. Its color varies firom deep blue to dark 
brown ; it is usually about four and a half inches long by two and a 
half wide. Its artery, called splenic, is a branch of the cooliac, its 
vein empties into the vena portarum ; the lymphatics are numerous 
and remarkably large, and its nerves are derived from the solar 
plexus. It has no excretory duct, and its use is not ascertained ; but 
it most probably serves as a diverticulum in case of congestion. 

What are the characierutki of the PancrtoMf It is fixed in the 
lower and back part of the epigastric region, bounded in front by 
the stomach which conceals it, and is between the two laminss of the 
mesocolon, about six or seven inches long, two wide, and flattened 
before and behind; its right extremity is enlarged into a head or 
tubcr^ sometimes called the Uuer pancreas. It is of a light gray, or 
pink color, and consists of lobules. The arteries which supply it 
come principally from the splenic ; the veins empty into the splenic ; 
and the nerves come from the solar plexus. It secretes a salivary 
fluid, and is the largest of this class of glands. Its excretory duct is 


called ductus Wi-nungii, which cither penetrates the ductus com- 
nmnis choledochus, or the duodenum^ very close to it. 


Urinary Organs, 

What are the urinarj organs ? The kidneys, renal cajmdeSj Had- 
dcTf vreterSf and urethra. 

What are the characteristics of the Kidneys f Thej are two 
glandolar bodies for the secretion of nrinc, situated on either side of 
the iqnDe, extending from the upper margin of the eleventh dorsal 
to the lower margin of the second lumbar vertebra ; the right is ten 
or twelve lines lower than the left; they arc hard, solid, of a brown 
eblory a compressed ovoidal shape, excavated on the margin, which 
is applied to the spine, and resemble the common kidney bean ; they 
are about four inches long, and two wide, and weigh each three or 
four oonoes, have no peritoneal coat, but have a well marked capsule; 
the arteries arc called the renal or emulgent, and are branches of the 
aorta; the veins take the same name as the arteries, and are equal 
to them in nnmber. The substance of the kidneys is divided into 
cortical* (fig. 38), and medullary or tubular^. 

The cortical, or secretory substance forms the circumference, and 
18 on an average about two lines in thickness. It consists of a num- 
ber of tortnous tubes of Ferrein, in which the urine is first formed. 

The tubnlar portion consists in from twelve to eighteen conoidal 
fudcoli called the medullary canes of Malpighi^j with their bases 
towards the cortical portion; their apices converge towards the 
centre, are free, and project so as to form the papillae renalc^. Each 
ftsdcnlns or cone is capable of subdivision into small pyramids of 
Ferrein^ and each pyramid consists of a number of straight tubes of 
BeiHni or tubuli uriniferiy into which the tortuous tubes of Ferrein 
empty. The apex of each cone is called papilla renales, and in the 
centre of each papilla is a slight depression caMed foveola ; it is re- 
ceived into the infundibulum, into which the urine is carried as it 
ooEes from the orifices of the papilla. 

What composes the excretory duct of the kidney ? The ureter', 
which commences in the centre of the kidney, by an enlargement 
called pdtvfi] this branches off superiorly into three or four por- 
tions called caltcef^, one above, one below, and one or two interme- 


dkt«. laA <£ tbcw caGen ■ iTiiihJ it ito hwe extRniitj into 

three or fimr ikxt « 1 -^pJ toMMtiioM, oOed mJitadOmk^. 

Tkae tB^aatkaB i iiiTwii i , evfa bj ita 

>0 M to pBwk As litter to pnjeet 
isto it, wi dWt ito vae tlnn^ Tbo 
pdvisof tk> kib^f H it ctoMgH from 
tka ftiiiiii kaeoaM n^Mad to % fljlin- 
AmIwmT, wtkk ii pniparif tk> w»- 
lu>\ it « sJtovt Ik* HB <f K gxm 

tntoi oUif^r t^ n^ << ^ U«^ 

dcr, ^ or t««h« ^M Idi^ ito md^ 
(T^ 39), aad m ciMytH, of two eoata 

Wte »» >W JwMrf gyrfM* (Fig. 
S&) f TWf ■• two nnU ka£a^ one 
OB cither wi^ |kBid ^sa the wffm and cf th« Hfcg, af > 7^- 

' — -^ ''- TTi [mill ritiii liifc nil, ^n it iir -'"j ^-*-— ' — 
the most ^KSatAf ^r^oftA m tk tmbm. TW atoria » do- 
rired fhn tW aocto, tk kmI, a^ phmic utona; tW ni> flf the 
ri^t aide captica iMto tk tcbb wra; that on tha Ul ada into the 
renal veiii. Th* Bnrca an applied ftna the leaai aad phnaic 

WbatanthenbmK*ri«ti<«oftbeJtadli«r(Rg.S9]T Uiithe 
reaervoir fcr Iha ansa, placed in th* pelTis jaat behind the i^pkjaiB 
ofthepabea. The aiyeriar and ia ailed Aenyw /w i J a^; the tower 
end the M,^rM>r/inwf>/} and between the two iatte io^; the nedfc 
is its place of jnoetioo with the oiethia. It mmi a to at finr inata, 
the per^o»mt, snueaJor, etOiAxr, aad mkcmm; aad ia retoined in 
ita place bj arant tr%t lipmento, via. : two oMlrrior, two taltral, 
(lo) um&ilical, and the mracltiia; and hjjbmryalm, m. : two aafc- 

The Gnt fbor are fi»ned bj the priTie beeta; the two '■—WKmI 
by the obliteiatiaa of the tUBbQical aiteriea of the fiatna; aad the 
Use ligaments are reflectioaa of the peritooaoB. The intvnal &m 
of the mocons coat prcaenti at ito inSuior part the aa riefe liiaaj/t^,*,*. 


irith its smooth centre' behind and below the neck, occupying the 
^Mce between it &nd the oriGcea of 
the meters. The umila vetiet^ is 'B- ■ 

ftt the interior angle of the triangle, 
which nmetimes presents an ob- 
D to the introdoction of the 

Orgatu of Generatioa in the Male. 

What do the male organs of gene- 
ntion consiat aff The (ettidet, and 
ibepaiit, with their appemiaga. 

How is the /Vni* formed? Bj 
eommon integaments, ccllnlar tis- 
■ne, the corpora caTemosa, and the 
eorpns spongiosnm nrcthrte. 

What are the charaeteriitia of 
Ute Urohra T It is a canal whose 
length nries, and extends from the 
neck of the bladder to the extremity 
of the glans penis. The first part 
penetoates the proitate gland", and 
is called the proaafk ^tion"; on 
its inferior surface is a doubling, 
which constitates the verumonta- 
nvmF or caput gaUinaginif. Be- 
tween the prostate and the hvlh'' 
is the membranout portion'^, about 
eight or ten lines long ; the ba- 
lance of the urethra is lodged in the corpus spongiosum from ita 
conmenoement at the deep perineal fascia to the meatus nrinaiius; 
this canal varies in its dimensions in different parts. 

What other parts are to be observed in Fig. 39 7 The iircfwrt 
onficeo/thtduetutejaeuiatorhi^, d wU" from the proilafe gland, with 
the nect of the Uaddrr abore, one of Cci^wr'* (jlaitda", with the ori- 
fiet* of their e^Ttlory duci^, corpora caecrtwia'', erector penit 
mvtdt^,*', accderal&r urinte maielt^,", and ptvataU glatuP^,"- 


What are the cJiaracteristics of the Vesicul^ seini7iale8 f They 
are two convoluted tubes, one on each side, two inches in length, 
placed on the lower fundus of the bladder between it and the rectum, 
and behind the prostate gland ) thej are composed of two coats. 
The excretory duct of each vesicle is about a line and a half long, 
when it joins with the vas deferens of the same side ; a common 
canal is formed called ductus ejaculatoriusy which is eight or ten 
lines long, runs parallel with its fellow, and opens at the lateral 
anterior face of the caput gallinaginis. 

What are the characterislics of the ProstaU gland^^^ (Fig. 39) ? 
It is a body about the size of a horse-chestnut, fixed on the neck of 
the bladder, and penetrated by the urethra. Its secretion is emp- 
tied into the prostatic portion of the urethra by fifteen or twenty 
excretory ducts. 

What is the situation of Cowper's glands ? They are two in num- 
ber, one on each side, situated in advance of the prostate, between 
the laminae of the triangular ligament. 

What are the characteristics of the Testicles f They are two in 
number, one on each side of the scrotum, of an oblong form, com- 
pressed laterally, an inch and a half long, one inch in breadth, eight 
or ten lines in thickness, and enveloped by the Krotumy dartos, 
tunica vagiwdis, tunica albugineay and tunica vaaculoaa. 

The scrotum is a continuation of the common skin, common to 
both testicles, symmetrical, and divided by a middle line, called 

The dartos is within the scrotum, and forms two sacs, one for each 

The tunica vaginalis is rigidly comparable to a double night-cap, 
cue portion adhering firmly to the tunica albuginea beneath, and the 
other loosely reflected over the testicle. 

The tunica albuginea^ is the proper coat of the testicle, and is in 
immediate contact with it ; it is dense, strong, white, and fibrous. 

The tunica vasculosa is the nutrient membrane of the testb; 
situated imnlediately within the albuginea, enclosing the substance 
of the gland, and sending processes inwards between the lobules. 

Tlie glandular portion of the testicles consists of a congeries of 
convoluted tubes called tuhuli semini/eri^,*, amounting to three 


Fig. JO. 

bundled in nnniber, and eacb nearly Berenteen and a half feet in 
length, forming hanks held together hy cellular substance. 

The vaua reclaf are termiuationB of the 
taboli Betoiniferi, which nnite near the 
oenin of the testicle, in a complicated 
aimtgnnent, called rete vaacnlosnm* testis. 

^e rata efferentia* (from twelve to 
ei^teen duets] proceed from the reU vat- 
eulanm iatufi, and penetrate the oorj>u» 
Hif/hmoriamim*,'. and tnnioa albuginea. 
Euk one ia then convoluted upon itself 
into a conical bod;, the conm vattadonif. 
Encb cone, at its base, baa its tube entering 
sneoesnvelj into the tube of which the epi- 
didymis is formed. 

The tpididj/mif is formed of a ungle 
ocmvolated tube of the fourth of a line in 
diameter; at the lower end it becomes less 
eonvolnted, turns upwards, and obtains the 
name of cot dtferen*'". 

What fbnns the Sptrmatic cord f It is a fiisaculns of about half 
an ineh in diameter, and may be felt passing from the upper end of 
tka testiclfl to the abdominal ring. It is formed by the vas deferens, 
Bpermatioartery, and veins, lymphatics of the testicle, and the nerves; 
eovened by a cellular substance called tunica vaginalis communis, 
and the cremaster muscle. 

Hm Cremaster muscle is derived from the internal oblique and 
tnnsvenalis, completely envelops the cord, and draws the testicle 
upwards. The vat de/erm^ is the proper excretory duct of the 
testicle ; it is a white tube, about a line and a half in diameter, and 
has a cartilaginoiu feel; from the internal abdominal ring, it dipe 
down into the pelvis by the side of the bladder, and terminates in 
the urethra, ai^r uniting with the duct from the vesicula seminalis; 
this common duct is called the dactm ejaeidaUfrtiu. 

What is understood by the Perineumf The space included be- 
tween the anus, arch of the pubis, and the tuberosities of the ischia. 

What are the Euoin and muHolea of the perineum ? Perineal 

&Ana",tiia triangaltr ligNiientfrfthe onUm**, uid the pdno&Kn^. 
The perineal &■»»<' b braMtb the BDpo&ial baeui, kod ia ileaM> 

thin, and tovgfaj in front it is oontinoona with the dutoiP, baUnd 
with the ban oT tha triangnhv ligunoil^ hj iti aatarior lamia^ 
alao with the anal lBBina>*, a portioB of the peine tmiaf. Beneath 
this the mnaiilM of the perinaam an aitaatad. 

The triangalarlipment^ooontneetheirehof thepnUa; theih^M 
is indicated bj the name. It is perfbnted bj the mambranana 
portion of de wedua ahoat an inch behnr the i^mphTsiB, >sd aepa^ 
ntea the pdna from the perineum ; it jtnna the perineal ud ana) 
&Mi»*'. Cbwper'a^and the pfoatategUikP is ritoated batmen Hi 
two laminsa*,", the poeterior of whioh ia UBoallj oalled the frieia of 
the prostate. 

What otiier parte are ezhilnted b; Fig. 41 f The Uufder', the 
ureter*, tioj defereiufi, right vetiaila ttminaiif, recHyvmi eal fiid of 
theperihmeum^, pnttate glatuP, neat of the liadder*, prodatie fOT' 
tion* of the vnAra, manbranoia portion?', detp Jaana",'*, levator 

The pelvio frada aurroonda that pwtion (rf the perit<»enm irtiioh 
lines the pelvis, and is oontinnoaa with the tranarenalia and iliao 
fiucise. Tho anterior ligaments of the bladder" (Elg. 41), obturator 
fas<»a, and reeto-vesieal fksoiB, are ptoeeeaes at this. The mnades 
are the erootor penis, aooelerator nrinsa, tranarerans perinei, aphino- 
ter aui, cooeygeoa, and levator ani. (See Fig^. 19 and 89.) 


Female Organ* of Geturatioa. 

What are tbe oi^ians of geoention in tbe female ? The vnlTa, 
TS^na, atenu, Fallopian tubes, and the ovuia. 

What oonetitntes the Vuiva f The Tnlva oonnBta in tbe inoae 
Toneiis, the labia externa, the labia interna, omTmphte, the ciltona, 
tbe Tostibolnm, the orificinm urethras, the fonrohette, and the fbesa 
lUTionlaiia. Theee are called the external organs. 

Where is the Menu Venerii and the other external organs sitoated f 
The rooDS Teneris is an aocnmuktloQ of ceUular and adipose anb- 
staaoe corering the pubes. 

The Labia externa are two bodies of a similar t«xtare to the moos 
reneria, running panllel from it in a downward and backward 

The Clitoru is directly beneath the superior nnion, or origin of 
the labia ; it consists of tro crura which unite and form its bod;, 
the external termination of which has been called its glans. 

The Hj/mphte, or Labia Ihtema, are two similar bodies depending 
from tbe clitoris, which separate and mn downwards towards tbe os 

Tbe Orifiee of the vrethra is foand between the inferior portions 
of the nymphn. The canal of the urethra is abont l} inches in 

The Orifiee of. the vagina is below the orifice of the urethra, and 
immedtatety tinder the symphysis pubis. 

The .^mcN is a membrafioos expansion at tbe orifice of the vagina, 
and partaaDy domng it 

The CarunevlsB myrtiformet ore email fleshy Taecnlar bodies 
atoated at the external orifice of the vagina, npon which in the virgin 
state the hymen appears to spread iteclf. 

The I^ntn^idte is a semilnnar fold in advance of the hymen. 

The Fona navicularit is between the hymen and fonrchette. 

The Phrinatm is the space directly behind the inferior termina- 
Ijon of the labia and before tbe anus, about an inch and a half ia 

What are the internal organs? Tbe vagina, utems, and uterine 

What are tbe eharacUHttict of tlie Vagina t It is a tbln mns- 


culo-membranoos cana!, leading from the vulva to the uterus^ from 
four to six inches in lengthy between the bladder in front and the 
rectum behind, flattened, so as to bring its anterior and posterior 
surfaces in contact, has three tunics, an external cellular, a middle 
muscular, and an internal mucous. At its anterior end is the corpu 
spongiosum vagin«, or pleocus retiformis. The sphincter vaginas 
muscle surrounds its anterior orifice. 

The Hymen is placed at the anterior orifice, for the purpose of 
closing it more or less perfectly. 

What are the characteristics of the Uterus f It is a compressed 
pjriform bodj, two and a half inches long, and one and a half in 
diameter at its widest part. Its posterior face convex, anterior 
nearly flat, about one inch in thickness, and divided into fundus, 
body, and neck. The fundtts is the part between the Fallopian 
tubes at the superior extremity, the neck is the lower cylindrical 
portion, and the body is the part intermediate to the two. Its 
cavity is triangular, with the sides convex, and the inferior angle 
presents towards the opening into the vagina, called os tinea. The 
mucous glands or lacunas, in the neck, are called ovtila Nahothi. It 
has three coats, a serous or external, a middle which is muscular, 
and an internal or mucous. The muscular coat is composed of 
longitudinal, circular, and oblique fibres. This organ is supplied 
with blood by the uterine and spermatic arteries; with nerves from 
the aortic plexus, and from the hypogastric nerves and plexus, being 
a mixture of sacral and sympathetic nerves. 

What are the Ligaments of the uterus ? The broad or lateral, the 
anterior y the posterior, and round ligaments. 

What are the Fallopian tubes? They are two membranous 
canals, one on either side, in the superior part of the broad ligaments 
of the uterus, four inches long, extending from the upper angle of the 
uterine cavity to the side of the pelvis, where their extremities are 
loose, and expanded into a trumpet-shaped mouth, called their fim- 
hriated extremities. 

What are the characteristics of the Ovaries? They are two in 
number^ one on either side, situated on the posterior face of the broad 
ligaments, of a compressed ovoid shape, about half the size of the 
male testicle. They have two coats : k peritoneal ; and the tunica 


oJ&Nj^uMa, which ooResponds with the same oo&t of the testicle. 
Their utenes ue the epeniiatice; and their nerree are from the 
qiermatio plexns. 1^ proper tiasne of the ovary (called its tlroma) 
oonnati of denoe oeQalar Babstanoe contaming within it^ areolaa a 
nnmber of ammll TeBicles caUed Graafian. 

"Fma whenoe do the female oi^ns of generatioD derive thair 
hioodreBaela and nerves 1 Frinoipally from the internal podic and 
Other branohes of the hypogastric arteries; their voids run into the 
hjp<^«tria } and their nerves come from the sacral and hTpogastrio 

OaoAHB or RESpntATioN. 
What are the organs of respiration 7 The larynx, trachea, aad 

What are tho tAaraOenttk* of the lar>iix" (Hg. 42} 7 It is an 
irregolar cartib^ons tube, forming the npper part of the windpipe; 
it is below the oa hjoides and root of the tongne, bonnded behind 
bj the phaiTOi:, and laterally by the primitive carotid arteries and 
internal jngolar Toios, and contributes essentaally to the formation 
of thevoioe. 

Five diitinot eattilages enter into ite atmctnre ; they are one (Ay- 
rvid, one erieoid, one ^igloUit, and two arytenoid. 

The tigroii is the largest, and foims the prominence in the upper 
part fd the neck, oalled pomvm Adami. It has two pTOoesaes on 
each aide; me called oornti majut, and the other eomu mtnti*. 

The erieoid ia below the thyroid, forme the base of the laiynz, and 
articniates with the trachea. It^ form is that of a thick ring com- 
pressed laterally, and is three times as high posteriorly as it is ante- 

The arytokoid eartHtufet resemble triangular pyramids curved 
backwards, are about six lines long, and are placed on the upper 
margin of the cricdd cartilage behind. 

The ^ngloaii ia situated on the posterior face of the base of the os 
hyoides ; its general shape is that of an oval disk. 

Tho ligammtt of the taiynx are the crico^ltyroid, the middU 


ih^eo-hyoid, tbe laUrcd thyreo-hyoidy and the thyreo-arytenoidj two 
in number; on each side of the larynx, one above the other, three 
lines apart. These ligaments also have the name of ligamentum 
vocale; and the portion of the larynx which b formed by them, and 
the poaches between them which are called the ventricles of GcUen, 
are the structures essential to the formation of voice. The opening 
between the two lower ligaments is called the ritna gloUidis ; and 
the space between the upper ligaments and the duplicature passing 
from the arytenoid to the epiglottis, is called glottis. 

The muscles of the larynx are the (hyreo-hyoideus, crica-thyroideta, 
crico-arytenaideus posticus, and lateralis, thyreo-arytenoideus, aryte- 
noideus-ohliquus, and transversus, thyreo^iglottideus, and aryteno- 

The nerves of the larynx come principally from the superior and 
inferior laryngeal branches of the par vagum. The arteries are 
branches of the superior and inferior thyroid. 


What are the characteristics of the trachea^ ? It b a cylindrical 
canal four or five inches long, and nine lines in diameter; it opens 
into the larynx above, and terminates in the thorax opposite to the 
third dorsal vertebra, by two branches called bronchiso. The struc- 
tures which enter into the composition of the trachea are cartilage, 
ligamentous fibre, muscle, glands, and mucous membrane. 

The cartilage preserves the shape, and consists of from sixteen to 
twenty distinct rings, which are deficient at their posterior third. 


The ligamentous structure exists between the proximate margins 
of the rings, and fills up the intervals between them so as to render 
the tube perfect. The deficiency in the rings posteriorly is supplied 
in part by condensed cellular substance. 

The muscular structure exists at the cartilaginous deficiency in 
the posterior third; the fibres pass in a transverse direction between 
the interrupted extremities of the rings; it is between the condensed 
cellular substance and the mucous membrane of the trachea. 

The mucous membrane lines the whole internal portion, from the 
larynx to the bronchise, throughout all their ramifications. 

Tbe bronchi have the same structure and arrangement as tbe tra- 


diett ; •fter ramifying into s namber of robdivisiooB, they termiDato 
ID the lobnlea of the lan^. 

Where is the Tigroid Gland sitoated F It is placed on the first 
mnd seooDd ricgB of the tncheft, and on the sides of the larynx 
united in the centre by its inhtnvt. 

Where is the T&ymm Gland sitoated? Between the trachea 
and upper extremity of the stemam. 

Fig. 42. 

What are the characlentticx of the lungs",","? They are essen- 
tially the seat of the process of respiration, and occupy nearly the 
whole cavity of the thorax. They are two bodies of a grayish-pink 
color, separated by the heart and its great vessels, and each forma an 
irregular eone with the apex above. 


The right lung is divided into three lohesy and the left into two. 
Each lobe is divided into distinct lobules, united bj cellular tissue. 
The lobules are subdivided into fine air-oells; these cells oommuni- 
cate laterally in the individual lobules, but not with the cells of dif- 
ferent lobules. These air-vesides are united together by cellular 
tissue, forming the parenchyma through which blood and air-vessels 
ramify. Each lobule has a ramification of the bronchial tube sent 
to it. 

The bloodvessels are of two kinds : the pulmonary';^; and bron- 
chial. The former is for the aSration of the blood; and the other 
for the nourishment of the lungs. 

The nerves come from the par vagum and sympathetic. 

What composes the Hoot of the lungs ? The root of each lung 
is formed by the pulmonary arteiy, and two veinS; the nerves, bron- 
chia), lymphatic vessels, and glandS| oovered by the pleura, where it 
extends from the lungs to the perksaxdiiim. 


What is the arrangemeiU of the pleune f They are two in num- 
ber, afford a perfect covering for each lung, and are reflected over 
the adjacent sides of the pericardium, and the interior periphery of 
the thorax. 

That portion of the pleura which oovers the lung b called jp^nira 
pulmoncdUj and that which lines the thorax is the pleura costalU. 
They receive blood from the bronchial and interooetal arteries, and 
nerves from the intercoetals. 

The pleurae divide the thorax vertically into two ports ; this sep- 
tum is called Medicutinumy and contains the heart with its coverings 
and great vessels. The mediastinum is divided into three portions. 
The anterior passes from the front of the pericardium to the pos- 
terior face of the middle lino of the sternum. The posterior passes 
from the posterior face of the pericardium to the dorsal vertebwe. 
The superior is within the circuit of the first ribs and sternum. 

What are contained in the posterior mediastinum? The ijioracic 
aorta, the cesophagus, the vena azygos, the thoracic duct, and the par 
vaguin nerve of both sides. 

What arc contained in the superior mediastinum ? A part of the 

chea ; after nnufying into a aimiber of nilxiiriBionB, they terminate 
in the lobnl« of the Inngs. 

When is the Tigroid Gland aitnated 7 It is placed on the fint 
and BecMid rinjp of the trachea, and on the sides of the larynx 
onited in the oentn by its itihmut. 

Where i§ the Thymut Gland sitoated f Setveen the tnchea 
and ui^wr extremity of the sternnm. 

Fig. 42. 

What are the charaeterittict of the lungs",","? They are essen- 
tially the seat of the process of respintjon, and occupy nearly the 
whole cavity of the thoras. They are two bodies of a grayish-pink 
color, separated hy the heart and its great vessels, and each forms an 
irregnlar cone with the apes above. 


tore of arteries. The bloodyesselfl which nourish the arteries are 
called vasa artencueum. 

Of how many coats are the veins composed ? Three : an 
external^ a middle^ and an internal coat^ analogous to the cor- 
responding coats of the arteries, bat more delicate in their texture. 


Where is the heart ntuaiedf In the thorax between the ster- 
num and spine, haying the lungs on either side, and the tendinous 
centre of the diaphragm below. 

It is surrounded by its proper membrane, the pericardium; its 
weight is about six ounces, greatest length about five and a half 
inches, and its base about three and a half inches in diameter. It 
is divided into four cavities ; two of which are called auridesj and 
two ventridei. The auricles ibrm the base of the heart, and the 
ventricles its body. The right auricle and ventricle form the right 
side of the heart, and the left auricle and ventricle form the left 

What are the eharaderittics of the righi (xwrid^f It is an 
oblong cuboidal cavity, joined at its posterior superior angle by the 
descending vena cava, and at its posterior inferior angle by the 
ascending cava. In front it is dilated into a pouch called nnt», 
the upper extremity of which is elongated into a process with in- 
dented edges, called aurtcfe, or aurwiilaT portion* On the septum 
between the auricles is the fossa ovalis^ which is surrounded by its 
annidits, or the isthmus of Vietusens; below the Jbssa ovalis is the 
Eustachian valve. At the orifice of the large coronary vein is the 
valvula Thebesii, The opening into the right ventricle is the 
ostium venosum. In this auricle are fasciculi of muscular fibres 
called musculi pectinati. 

What are the characteristics of the riffht ventricle f It is of the 
form of a triangular pyramid, forms the greater part of the anterior 
surface of the heart, and is about three lines in thickness. Its 
internal surface is covered by muscular fasciculi called cdumnas car- 
nese ; from some of these, small tendinous cords are sent to the 
valves, called chordse tendinem. The valves, three in number, 
between this ventricle and auricle are called tricuqnd. The open- 

ing for the pulmonftty utety is above, and fbmiahe'd with three 
valves called temHunar, or ttffmoid, whioh have in the centre of 
tfieir edges a bduII cutilaginow bod; called corpuKulnm avraTitii. 
Between the onter &oe of each valve and the artei; is a poaoh 
called the tiinu of Vaiialva. 

What are the daraclerMct of the leji auride? Its figure is 
more regularly qoadrangular than the right. Its tap or ear-like 
portion is aitoated at the left of the pnlmonary artery, and it is 
longer, narrower, more crooked, and more notched than the right. 
The opening between the left aoricle and ventricle is also called 

What are the eharaeterittic* of the left ventricle'? The shape of 
iti cavity rcKmbles a long ovoidal or conical body, with its parietcs 
abont eight lines in thickness. Its internal surface has the same 
VTangeme&t as the light ventricle in having the fleshy columns 
called oohmmee eamae. The ottiitm venomm on this side is fur- 
nished by valves called the mitrai, two in number, the margins of 
which are also fiirnished with chordae tendinete. The orifice of the 
aorta is furnished with three xmilunar vaha ooTTeapoiidiug exactly 
with thoee at the ori^n of the pulmonary artery, except that they 
are thicker and rtronger. 

The ttniuM of TalMolua also exist in tho same manner. 

What ore the Uoodveud* of the heart ? They are the right and 
left coronary arteries, and great and lesser ooronary veins. 

Where are the nervti of the heart derived from f Principally 
from the cervical ganglions of the sympathetie; they follow the 
coronary arteries in their distribution. 

What is nnderstood by the Pericardium f It is a membranous 
sac envelopng the heart It consiste of two layers, an external 
fibrous and an internal serous. The serous layer lines the fibrous, 
and is then reflected over the heart and roots of the vessels. 

What is the great trunk of tho arterial system called? Aorta. 
What are the (rancAei of the aorta ? Tho rljlu and left con 
nary arteric^,*, which go to the sul^taoce of the heart. 


From the artA' ; the arteria inaominaUi'f the left primitive 
earotid", and the UJt $ubelaviati arteries. 

From the tAoradc portion ; the brvttchial, one for each long, and 
sometimes two or more, the aaophageal, which arc five or six small 
twiga, the potterior arleriet of the mediattinum, and the inferior 
intercottaU on each tade, which supply the tea lower interooetal 

Fig. 43. Fig. 44. 

Vri'iii till' iiM -in jvriitKi ; the jArfMiV*', two in nnmber, the 
fic/r'.i.'. ilio iiijtnW miifnffrit*, the ra^mi/iir'. one or more on each 
sido. tlic emuli/ritts^, and g*Tni.if«-»», one Oil each »de, llie im/erw 



naatleric", tlie lumbar', five on eMh dde, and the muHie lacrat" 
arteries. It thes termuutea in tiieprimitive tUae*. 

How is the Arteria £imominata divided? Into right subckTian 
and right prinutive carotid. 

How an the Carotidi on each side divided ? Into internal and 
txtemal carotids, opposite to the oa hjoidea. 

What are the arteries given off by the Iniemal Gantid' f The 
QpmpoMc, the ORttnbr m^ingecU, the ophOudmie, 

Fig- 45. 

eating artery of WiUif, the dioroid, the anterior and the middU 

What are the branches given off by the External Carotid Ar- 
tery* ? The mperior thyroid*, the lingual, the JaciaP (which 
^ves off the $ubmeiUal', the in/erwr labial, the inferior coronary, 

86 AHATOHr. 

and the tuperior cormiarj^'), the mattoiil, the parotidean, the m- 
/erior phajyngeal", the orcipital"',",", and ^a poUeriar auricular", 
when it divides into two large trunks, the internal maxUlarj^, and 
the temporal?^. The occipital","," givea off tie cMrvioal". 

The temporal ^vea off the tramverM facials, the middle tem- 
poral''', and the antertbr" KoApotterior iemporal'^. 

The inlemal maxillary* (Fig. 46) senda off the following branches : 
the arteria tympanica', the arteria maiingea pana*, tie mtningea 
magna' or media, the maxiHaris or inferioT dent^, the tempondit 

profunda, two in nnmfaer, pterygoidete, hwxalis, maxiUari$ tupe- 
mr", infrarwhit(di*", palalttia superior", jAaryngea aiperior", and 
the Kpheno-palaUna?*, which is the terminating tmnk. 


Whftt mn the brancbes given off by the Subclavian arteriaP (Fig. 
47) on each dde ? The vert^raP, the inferior thyroid', which givea 
off the aKouilng or niperficial cervicaf, iiiperivr inlerrottal'*, inter- 
fud mammary", profanda eervieit", &nd potterior (xrvtcai^'; after 
pueing the BuhcUrian muscle, it is called axiUart/ artcn^ to the 
lower mtu^n of the arm-pit ; and from this place to the elbow-joint, 
it IB called iraehial^ (Fig. 48). 

What are the bmncbee of the Axillary Ariet^ (Fig. 48)? The 

ntpfrior leopuJar, four external mammary",", inferior tcapuiar^, 
and the anterior and jmsferior circumflex. 

What are the branches of the Brachial Artery" ? The profonnd",'* 


the ttH'iB prvfixukJ*, mmtr^iom*, and amatamiotk^; it then lainr- 
eates into the radiaf (F%. 49), ami tdmta" in front of the bnchi- 
alid intemos aaade. 

Whst are tk hnBrim of the RinHal Artery^? The nrvrrota 
radiiiU^, titjptrjinalU rajv, iwmdU earpi, magma feOieit, radiatu 
imiiicis^, aod the faimforit profitmJa, which fonna the aR«t jin>- 

What are the bnm^es of the Clmar" Artnyf The nrvrm* 
Hfn(irrj°*, the t k fc iuanu mtirriir and potCm-rr, and donalit MamuL 
Ie tbiiD forms the orrm fcbiiatit* {bom vhik-h branches are sent 
that ^pplj the Gngeis, ealkd dijitaT}, ami t^rmtDates hj a branch 
vhich joins the ulam ai^na poOieia- 

l\'hat are the branches of the Cdfiac Arter^.' It tliridcs into 
thrfjR trooks : the •/tutric', luyiti'*, and »j>/''hi*c". This division is 
Bomotimes called trlpuM SnHeri. 

Tlift 'jattric arirryi passes along ihe lesser earvature of the 

T]ic- hi-ii/itk iirien^ gives off the p^hrii.*, right •jaatrii: or gnttro- 
ij>ijil'/i':"f vhich is distributed to the right half of the great cumt- 
turc of the btomach ; the main branch goes to the transverse fissure 

of the liver, ind divides into the right uid hfi branches. The ey^ 
tic" is given off from the right 

The yfentc** 4rt4ry pves off the panerealic"', the left gailric", 
which is difltribnted to the left half of the great curvataro of the 
Btomacb, and the otua brevta", vhich are ^ven off just before tiiia 
vrteiy enters the spleen ; they are five or six in ntuober, and 
distribnted npcm the great extremitjr of the stomach, betvees the 
cardia and left gastrio artery. 

What are the branches of the Suptrior Maenteric Artery" T 
There are three rtOc arteriet, called iUo-colica, coticondexira, and 
colica-ntedia, beddes the principal distribution to the small in- 

What are the branohefl <^ the Inferior Ueaenlerie Artery f The 
ftperior, middle, and the inferior ixlic arteries ; and the luperior 

How are .the Primitiee lliac^ (Fig. 51) divided ? Into two 
tmnks, called tntemaP and exlemaP. 

What are the branches of the Internal Iliac Artery f The ilio- 
lumhar", iata^al tacral", obturator", middle haunorrhoidat", veti- 
eat^, uterine, glvteal^, and the itchiatic'. The iachiatic gives off 
the internal pudic'^, which again gives off the hacr hemorrhoidal"', 
perineal,",^ urethro-bulhar", ramv» iiiper/icialii, dorti jjctm, and 
the caremoui artery of the penis. 


What are the bTBnohefl of the Exiemai liiac t The tpigtulru^, 
and circumflex of the Hxum. 

What ia the extent of the Femoral Artery, 
Fig. se. mid what are its branches? It extends ftata 

the crcral arch to its perftHaticm of the ad- 
ductor magnns; and pves off the nqitt^icial 
mrter; of the abdomen, external pudie*, projm- 
da fimori* (which dindea into external and in- 
tental OTcninflex); the first, second, third, and 
foni^ perJvraHng, and the anadomoting arte- 

What is the extent of the Fopliteat Artery 
and its branches f It is a ctHitinnation of the 
femoral after its paaaage throngh the tendinous 
insertion of the adductor magnus; extends to 
the openiDg in the interoaseons ligament, and 
gives off the ulterior mterHoP, nperior rxter- 
naP, middle, inferior iniemid and inferior ex- 
ternal articuiar arteries, and ^t goMmcnemial ; 
it then divides into the anterior and poiterior 
tibial",'* arteries. 

What are the branches of the Anterior Tibial 
\.v[,. Artery f The recurrent tibial, internal and cc- 
temal malleolar, tartal, metalarmd, dortalnxtaj 
of the great toe, and joins with tho earlemal plan- 
tar in the sole of tho foot. 

What are the branches of the Po^erior Ti- 
hial",'^? The peroneal",", the internal and ex- 
ternal phnlar ; this last unites with the anterior tibial, artery, and 
forms the arcut planiarit, which ^ves off tho digital and the per- 
forating arteries. 

Venous Systesi. 
What i3 the office of the veins? To collect the blood from the 
arteries in all parts of the body, und return it to the Heart. 

What is their general arrangement? There are two accompanj- 


Fig. 53. 

ingeacbarterywUereTerthepartisiiiteiKled for locomotion; besides 
whioh there is ttn nbunduit olass of sapei&ial, or subcutaneooB veins, 
whiob form s TBScalsr net-work over the whole body. Those accom- 
panjing the arteries are termed venee 
comiitt, and take the names of the 
arteries which they accompany. In 
some other cases, two arteries empty 
into one vein. 

What is thdr ttmehm^ Their 
coats are much thinner than the arte- 
ries, bat similar to them in slmctnrc. 
The internal coat is thrown into dupU- 
catores or valres, which are more 
ahnndant in the superficial than in 
the deep-seated veins. 

What are the great trunks of the 
Tcnous system called? Vena cava 
oKtndenf, and detcendaa^ (Fig. 53). 

What Teins form the Yena Cava 
Dttoeadauf The two rmse innomi- 

What forms the Vena Innomj- 
naia 7 It is formed on either side 
by the jnnotion of the tu^avian* with 
the intenwdJMffuiaT^. 

What Tenons trunks discharge into 
the vena innomioata, or descending 
cavaF Inferior thyroidal, vertebral, 
nperior initroMtal, xnUrnal mam- 
mary, vena axygot, and some others 
of smaller size. 

What veins form the Vena Ajiygoifll The ten inferior intercos- 
tals of the right ude, and fonr or six of the left; it anastomoses infe- 
rioriy with some of the veins of the abdomen. Those on the left 
form the Hemi-As^got", and empty into the other by a branch". 

What parts are represented by Fig. 54 ? The externa/' and I'n- 
(erwf iliac vein», vena caia atcmdemfl and descenilent with the ter- 


miiutian of the Tens ujgoe into it?; middle and lateral taeraP,* 
vrins ; ori^' and trunk' of the greater aa/go» vein from the Inmbftr 
Tains; also that of the letter'^ or hemxaxyffo$, from the Inmbftr vdn^ 
of the left side, and its tennination" into the greater. The termi- 
nation of the Bapenor**,'*,** and right 
'^' ^' or nine inferior interooatalB'*,'*,** in 

the greater aiifgoe; the fire inferior 
intcrcoBtal","," rane opening into 
the lesser; tkt ree^)laadttm diyli'*, 
Aoraeie due^,",'", with its termina- 
tion'' in the angle formed between 
the left subclavian" and internal 
jugular"; right tAomcte dvel^. 

What forms the Internal Jugular 
Vein? (Fig. 53)? It extends from 
the base ef the cranium, where it com- 
municates with the lateral sinus on 
each side, to the internal moipn of 
the first rih. Its commencement is 
enlarged into what is called its gvlf, 
or sinus. 

What forms the External Jugu- 
ht' (Fig. 53), and where doca it ter- 
minate? It is a continuation of the 
temporal^ receives the fitcial and lin- 
gnal, and sometimes snperior thyroid 
and occipital veins. It nsually ter- 
minates in the subclavian. 

Where ia the Subdart^ra (Fig. 
53*, and Fig. 54") situated ? It ex- 
tends from the asillary to the vena 
innominata, and goes under the snb- 
clavian muscle, in front of the sub- 
clavian artery; and where it passes 
over the first rib, the Bcalenus anticns 
muscle IB between them, the vein 
being in front of it. 

What forms the Axilhiry Vein, 

and irbere is it ntoated ? The union of the hatilte with the brachial 
rein. It is in front of the axillary utery, inclnded in the same 
sheath, and involved with the axillary plesns of nerves. At the 
under sar&ce of the davicle it takes tbo name of sabclaTiau. 

How are the veins of the superior extremities ananged ? Into 
tleep uafed and mperficial The former take the names of the arte- 
ries which they aooompany, and are two to each artery. The latter 
are divided into two principal trunks; the cephalic and la»ilic. 

"What is the ntoation of the Cephalic Vein? It is the trank 
coming from the thumb and forefinger, receives several small branches 
on its course, and terminates in the axillary vein. 

WhatiatheBitoation of the £an?ic Vein? It begins by the trunk 
from tfac ulnar side of the hand, receives branches in its oourse, and, 
by its union with the brachial, forms the axtOarj/ vein. 

What is the ntuation of the Median Veia f It is in the middle 
and front of the forearm; its trunk ascends, and below the bend 
of the arm divides into two ; one branch going to the cephalic vein, 
and called median cephalic, and the other going to the basilic vein, 
and called median banlic. 

Where is the Vena Cava Aacmden^ (Fig. 53) situated, and what 
branches does it receive J In front of the spinal column to its right, 
and extends from the junction of the primitive iliac veins (which 
unite to iorta it oppodte the fourth lumbar vertebra) to the right 
aoriele of the heart where it empties. It receives the middle 
Kicral', lanUtar",", right tpermalic",", emtdgent", eap»idar, hepa- 
tic^, and phrenic veins. The left spermatic opens into the left emnl- 

What forms the Primitite Iliac Vein on each side ? The junc- 
tion of the external and internal iUacs opposite the sacro-iliao 

What fcHrffls the Internal lUac'"' or Hypotjaaric 1 etn f It arises by 
venous branches corresponding with the distribution of the hypogas- 
tric arteiy, some of which are termed plexuses ; and are the ksemor- 
rhoidal, retical, tacral, pudendal, uterine, and vaginal plexuaet; 
and the gluteal, obturator, and ileo-lumbar veins. 

What forma Hio External llia<fi Vein? It is a continuation of the 


femoral^ and receives the epigastric, and circnmfiex iliac veins, 
which correspond with the arteries of the same name. 

What is the arrangement of the veins of the inferior extremities ? 
Into deep seated and superficial. The former follow the coarse of 
the arteries, take the same name, and are two for every artery as far 
up as the ham, and also for the muscular arteries of the thigh. 

What are the superficial veins ? The saphena minor and major. 

What is the situation of the Saphena Minor f It commences 
near the external side of the top of the foot and external ankle ; the 
trunk ascends along the back of the leg superficially, and terminates 
in the popliteal vein. 

What is the situation of the Saphena Major f It commences 
at the internal part of the foot ; its trunk passes upwards in front of 
the internal ankle, internal face of the leg on a line with the posterior 
margin of the tibia, and is continued on a line with the posterior 
margin of the sartorius muscle ; it then terminates in the femoral 
vein about twelve or eighteen lines below Pouparf s ligament. 

From whence is the Tena Portarum derived? The viscera of the 
abdomen, and corresponds with the superior and inferior mesenteric 
arteries, and the cceliac, with the exception of the hepatic branch. 

What is meant by the Sinus Portarum f The vena portarum, 
when it reaches the transverse fissure of the liver, divides into a right 
and left branch, at right angles with the main trunk, but in a line 
with one another; these constitute the «2nt«por^arwm. 

Where do the terminating branches empty? Into the vense 

Absorbent or Lymphatic System. 

' What are the absorbents f They are small, pellucid, transparent, 
cylindrical tubes, whose office is for interstitial absorption, and also 
to take up the nutritious part of our food. 

How are the absorbent vessels divided ? Into lacteals and lymph- 
atics. The former are those which absorb the chyle, and the latter 
are found in other parts of the system; their structure is similar, and 
differ only in the fluid with which they are occupied. They are also 
'livided into superficial and deep seated. 

AHAXOMY. 95 ' 

What are lympbatio f^d* f They are fiattened, ovoidal bodies, 
of a reddisb-aBh color, indnnted, aad of a Tariable volume, through 
which the Ijmphalk vesBels have to paw on their way to the tbo- 
ladc dnot The Teasels Uiat ent«r them aie called vata in/erentia, 
and those that depart vom eferentia. 

Where are thej found ? In cloBtets, below tho occiput, under 
the ears and jaw, along the side of the neck, in the axilla, root of 
the lungs, mesentery, loins, pelris, &c. 

What are the main trunks caUed? Thoracic Duets", ^*. What are 
the oooise and arrangement of the tfao- 
mao ducts f Ihe left Aomeic ducP' is 
the ntuo trunk of the absorbent system. 
It begins about the second or third lorn- 
bar vertebik. Shmtly after its com- 
menoement, it is dilated, and this dila- 
tation is called the raenoir of Pecqu^ 
at TK^tastihtm chyU". The thoracic 
duct enters the thorax between the 
oruia of the diaphragm, ascends to the 
fourth doiBol Teitebra, when it inclines 
to the left aide, asoends into the neck 
near the head of the first rib ; it then 
turns downwards" and forwards, over 
the left Bubclavian arteij, imd discharges 
into the punt of junction of the left 
aubcUfian, and internal jugular veins. 
It is oommonl; about the ma of a 

The r^/b thoracic dud?*, or, as it is 
sometimes called, the rigid braehio-ee- 
fhtdiCj is about one inch long, and de> 
icends to empty itself into the junction 
of the right internal jugular with the 
right subclaTian veins. It is formed by 
the lymphatic trunks of the right ride 
of the head and neck, from the right 


upper extremity^ and the superficial lymphatics of the right side of 
the thorax, and parts adjacent to it. 

What else is represented by Fig. 55? The (wrta>^f) arteria 
tnnominata* ; left carotid^] left subclavian^) superior cavaf the two 
vense innominata^) internal jugulai*,^} vena azygos^^. 

Neevous System. 

How is the nervous system divided ? Into the central or internal 
part; composed of the brain and spinal marrow; and the extemalj 
or peripheral portion, which consists in the nerves of the brain and 
spinal marrow; and into the sympathetic system of nerves. 

The central portion is composed of two kinds of substance ; one 
called medullary f and the other cineritiaus. 

The peripheral portion, or the nerves^ are formed by parallel fas- 
ciculi, the finest filaments of which are composed of a tube filled 
with nervous matter. The sheath of the nerves is called neuri- 
lemma; it envelopes the nerves, and also forms an envelope for each 
particular fibre and fasciculus. 

There are three modes by which these fasciculi unite with each 
other : by anastomosis, plextLS, and ganglion. 

Spinal Marrow. 

What are the characteristics of the spinal marrow* (Fig. 60 and 
Fig. 5G) ? It is within the vertebral cavity, and extends from the first 
vertebra of the neck to the iurst or second of the loins, inclusive. 
It has four membranes — dura mater, pia mater, membrana dentata, 
and tunica arachnoidea ; its general form is cylindrical, flattened 
slightly before and behind; its substance is of two kinds— Ksineritious, 
and medullary. It is divided by sulci into four fasciculi or cords on 
each side, viz. : Anterior or motor columns, which give origin to the 
motor roots of the spinal nerves. Lateral columns, which are di- 
vided in function between motion and sensation, and have been de- 
scribed by Sir Charles Bell as the respiratory tract. Posterior, or 
columns of sensation, which give origin to the sensitive roots of the 



sphul nerves. Jfidion poUertar colnmna, which have no separate 
fhnction uaigned to them at present. 

The spinal munw g.yn off from f '«■ 58. 

its aidea thirty pain of nerves; 
eight of them are called cennetd, 
twelve Atrial, fire bimiar, and five 
KieraL The spiml nerves are form- 
ed from two roots— an anteriw* or 
motor, and a poflterioif or sensory, 
which are aepaiated \>j the liga- 
maUitm denticalatum, and after- 
wards unite to form a ganglia* 
from which the nerves proceed to their digtribntion. 

^e arteries of the spinal marrow are derived from the verlebrcdt, 
■intereoib^, lumbar, and laeral. 

What is nnderatood bj the enc^Aahn or brain T It is that part 
of the central portion of the nervous system contained within the 
bones 1/ the craninm ; of an oval shape, surrounded by three mem- 
hranes, the Sbtra mater, tunica araeknoidea, and pia mater. Its 
snbstanoe is divided into eineritiout and medvSary. 

The bnun is divided into MedvUa ObUmgata, Prvluberantia An- 
nvlarit, or Pimt VarvlH; Cerebrum and Certbeilum, each of which 
are syDunetrial, and consist in right and left halves, perfectly alike. 

What are the proeaia of die dnn mater? Falx eerdiri, tentori- 
um eertbeBi, vid /alx ctrdtdli. 

What are tho «iiiu«et of the Dura MalerF Superior longitudi- 
nal, lateral {o^ on each ^de),in/aior lonffitwiinal,iinut qaartiu or 
rtehti, peirovt (two on each side), the mperior and inferior, eavemout 
(one OD eaeh side], circular, and the occipital. The arteries that 
snpply tbe duia mater are tho anterior meningeal, a branch of the 
internal cvotid ; the middle meningeal and meninges parva, branches 
of the internal maxillary ; the inferior meningeal, from ascending 
pharyngeal and occipital arteries; and the posterior meningeal from 
the vertehraL Tho nerves are derived from the nervi molles and vor- 


tebral plexus of the sjmpathetiOy fipom the CaflBerian gaDglion, the 
ophthalmic nerre, and sometimes from the fourth. 

What is the Ibrcular Hierophilif It is the union between the 
longitudinal^ the fourth, and the lateral sinuses. 

What are the ohaiaoteristios of the MeduUa OhhngcUa* (I^. 67)? 
It extends from the superior mai;^ of the first oervioal vertebra to 
the middle of the basilar process of the oe occipitis. On its under 
surface, on each side, is the Corpus I^ramidaU^ (Ilg. 69). 

The Hkinantia OUvaria (Eig. 69" and fig. 60«) are two bodies, 
one on either side, at the external mar^ of the pyramidal bodies, 
with the corpus dentahim in the centre, and the dxvary tracts (Fig. 
60) which goes to the optic tuberdes. 

The Corpora RetHformia (fig. 69* and fig. 60^, one on either 
side, are placed at the lateral margins of the medulla oblongata, 
posterior to the oliyaria, and are a continuation of the posterior por- ^ 
tion of the medulla spinalis. Between the corpora restifiirmia on the 
superior fiEUM of the medulla oblongata is an ezcavation, named from 
its shape caZamus seriptoriuMf whidi forms a part of the floor of the 
fourth yentride of the brain. 

What are the characteristics of the Pons Varolii (Fig. 67^ fig. 
69', and Fig. 60^ ? It is a large projecting body, placed at the top 
of the medulla obbngata upon the junction of the body of the sphe- 
noid bone with the basilar process of the 00 occipitis, oonyex, and 
about one inch in diameter. Four crura proceed from it. 

What are the characteristics of the CarebeUvm^,* (fig. 60)? It 
is in the posterior fossa of the cranium, separated from the posterior 
lobes of the cerebrum by the tentorium, and connected with the pons 
Varolii by the crura of the cerebellum. It measures four and a half 
inches in the transverse diameter, two and a half in thickness, and 
about the same from before backwards. It has on its superior face 
the sulcus superior cerebeUi; another on the inferior suz£ioe, called 
the sulcus infirior cerebeUi. 

The superior middle ridge is called vermis superior^ the anterior 
extremity of which is from its elevation called moniicuius cerdtelli. 
The vermis inferior is a ridge occupying the deep sulcus which di- 
vides the cerebellum on its inferior surfiiKse into hemispheres. The 


centra] part of the oenbellum is formed b; the Tcnnis superior, and 
inferior, and is the fdndunental portion. 

The vaive of Vtamati arises from the cerebellnm nnder the an- 
terior part of the base of the monticnlua. 

Tho oorfrtu rhomboidewn, or daitatum, is in the middle of the 
trank of the arbor vitse. The cerebellum ia associated with the spinal 
cord and cerebmm by three pairs of pedicles, viz. — corpora reUi/oT' 
mia; pnxxma rerAello adfeOe*; and crura cerebtUi. 

What are the characteristics of the Crrehmmf It veighs aboat 
three pounds ; it is OToidal, meaaurea about six inches in its antero- 
poeterior diameter, five inches in breadth, and four or five deep. It 
is separated by the lon^tndinal fiaanre into hemi^hera, the right and 
left. At Hba bottom of this fiseare is the cmput caUotum, which 
connects the two hemispheres together. The hemispheres are each 
• divided on thoir under surface mto three lobes, anterior, middle, and 
potlerior. The anterior ia anterior to the Jature of Sylvtut ; the 
posterior rests on the tenteriam, and the middle is between these two. 
Tho periphery is formed into canvolutionB, called ^yri, and these 
are separated by fissures called gulci. 

IHie Crvra Cer^n-i" (Fig. 60) are two thick white cords which 
isBoe &om the pons Varolii, are about eight lines long, mutually di- 
verge to each side to enter the thalami lyitici, and are separated by a 
fissure, which is die third ventricle of the brain. 

The Sminentia MammiUarin, or Corpora Albicaniia' (Fig. 57), 
are two small bodies, one on each side, situated near the anterior 
extremities of the crura cerebri, and are connected with the thalami 
optici by two white cords; they are the anterior extremity of the 
cmra of the fornix. 

The Injuttdibidum* (Fig. 57) is placed immediately before the 
eminentia mammillaris. It is flattened, conoidal, half an inch long, 
baM upward, and it« apex going downwards and forwards. Its base 
is hirilow, and opens into the third ventricle, but the point is closed. 

The Pituitarj/ Gland is utuated in the sella turcica. 

The Tuler Cineream* (Fig. GO), or Font Tariui, is a portion of 
the under surface of the crura cerebri, and forms part of the fioor of 
the third ventricle. 

The Thalami Optic? (Fig. 60, divided vertically), two in number, 


called also Ganglia Postica, are situated on the superior face of the 
cms cerebri, about an inch and a half in length, and eight lines 
broad and deep. The thalami are medullary externally; cortical, 
and medullary internally, and united to each other by the commit 
sura mollis. 

The Corpora Striata, or Gaaiglia Cerebri Antica, are two pyri- 
form bodies, situated before the thalami, at the bottom of the lateral 
ventricles. They are two and a half inches long, convex in their 
upper surface, eight lines broad at the front, and taper backward to 
a point. The Sqitum I/ucidum is between them in front, but pos- 
teriorly they diverge so as to admit the thalami between them. The 
Taenia Striata is placed in the angle formed between the internal 
margin of the corpus striatum, and the external one of the thalamus 
opticus. It is a small medullary band commencing near the anterior 
crura of the fornix, and observing the course of the curved fissure 
in which it is placed; it goes to the posterior end of the corpus stri- 

The Corpiu CaUosum is placed at the bottom of the fissure which 
separates the two hemispheres, and may be brought into view by 
slicing them off to a level with it. It is then seen to be a medul- 
lary layer uniting the mass of the two hemispheres for two-fifths of 
the long diameter of the brain, about eight lines in breadth, marked 
by a middle line called raphd, and forms the roof of the lateral ven- 

The Fornix or Trigone Cerebral is placed immediately below the 
corpus callosum. It is triangular, the base of which is behind, and 
the apex in front, about an inch and a half long in its body, and one 
inch wide at the base, which is beneath the corpus callosum, con- 
tinuous with it, and gives the fornix the appearance of being a part 
of the same structure doubled on itself. 

The Septum Lucidum is a partition placed vertically in the mid- 
dle of the brain, and extends from the corpus callosum above, to the 
fornix below ; between its lamina is situated the ffth ventricle, or 
vent r tail us septi. 

The Pineal Gland is beneath the posterior margin of the fornix 
upon the superior part of the tubercula quadrigemina. 

The Yduyn Interpositum is a reflection of pia mater, separating 


the pineal gUnd from the fornix, and the fornix from the thalami 
nervonun opticonun. 

The Tuherevia Qvadrigemina are utiuted on the eaperior face of 
tlie cmia cerebri, and jnrt behind the thalami. Thej consist of four 
rounded elerations, sepanted by a oracial fiuTOV. The larger pair 
is above, and called tw^f*, and the other ib called testes' (Fig, 60). 

How many I%nfr-ticfe( of the brun are there? Fonr; /too lateral, 
placed one in either hemisphere of the cerebmm, the (AiW, between 
the two thalami, and the foortii under the eerebeUum. 

The Lateral VeiUHclei each consist of a body and three processes, 
called eomua. The cornua are named from their poaitjou attleriffr, 
poilerior, and lateral, or inferior. 

In the potterior comu are seen the hippocampus minor. lu the 
inferior, or lateral tomu, is foond the cornu ammoau, or ^ippo- 
eamput major, tenninated by the pei hippocampi. 

The Third TerUricle is bounded below by the pons tarini, crura 
cerebri, and the eminentiie mammillaresj and above by the velom 
interpoutum, and fornix. 

The fburA Ventricle is bounded in front by the tuber annulare, 
and medulla oblongata; behind, by the fundamental portion of the 
cerebollum ; above, by the valve of the brun and tubercula qnadri- 
geraina ; laterally, by the medullary proloDgations from the cere- 
beUam to the tubercula quadrigcmina, and is open below when the 
pia mater is removed. 


The following nerves are in ptura, and the description of one side 
applies equally to the other : — 

Where does the Olfw^ory Iferve arise from t By three fascicnli 
or roots from the basis of the brain at the corpus striatom, and coa- 
lesce in the fissure of Sylvius. They unite, and at the anterior 
extremity this nerve is enlarged into what is termed the bulb, which 
sends from ite under surface filaments to the Scbneiderian mem- 
brane through the cribrifonn plate of the ethmoid bone. 

Where does the Optic mn-^,'* (Fig. 60) arise from? It 
arises by a broad flattened root, a portion from the thalamus opti- 

cub' (Fig. 60), a&d another part ftom the tabercalA qudrigeinlnB ; 
it also adherefl to the cnu cerebri, and pxaes under h. The optic 
nerves of the two ndea are fhaed together, and form what is called 
their chiatm' (Fig. 67), or crouing; tStxn this, they separate, aod 
each one pasaes through the optic foramen of its reepecdve ade. 

Where does the Third Pair','^ (Figs. 57 and 60) of nerves, or 
M'ltor Oculi, arise &om ? From the internal face of the cnu cerebri" 
(Fig. 60), two lineB in adrance of the anterior margin of the tuber 
aoDularc^ (-^'S- ^7). It penetrates the orbit, through the sphenoidal 
fissure, and it is distributed to most of the muscles of tJie eyeball. 

"Where does the Fourth Pait*," (Figs, 57 and 60) of nerves, or 
Paltielicw, arise from? It arises hy two filaments &om the npper 
anterior face of the valve of the brain. It goes to the orbit through 
the sphenoidal fissure, and is distributed to the superior oblique 

Where does the F(/lh Patt*,'^,'^ (Figs. 57 and 00) of nerves, or 

Trif-ciol, arise from 7 By several distinct filaments from the me- 
dulla oblongata, but emerges from the pons Varolii' (Fig. 67), or 
tuber annulare. They unite, and form the semilunar ganglion, or 

gaxfflum of Oima* (Kg. 58), which senda off three bntDches, viz. : 
tiie fint, or ofMaimi^, through the Bphenoidal fissure; the second, 
or o^MrNw maxiHarj/', through the foramen rotunduin; and the 
Uiiid, or inferior maxiHar^, through the foramen ovale. Their 
geneni ditfaib n t i on is to the orbit, the face, and the tongue. 

What otlter parts of the fifth pair and adjacent parts are repre- 
sentad by Kg. 68f The orbif, anlrum HigAmorianum', tmgw, 
/ntUtd frratKA* of the ophthalmic nerve dividing into external and 
tHftnuU, lockynto^, na*a?', internal naial", external nowi", ex- 
ternal and iitlenK^Jrontai", i'n/ra-orbilar", poUerior dental'*, mid- 
dle dtMa^, anterior denial", labial and palpebral", pterygoids 
from He«tkfll'B ganglion, anterior branches'" of the third branch, 
Hufftia^, wftritir denial', ila menial hraachoF, auricular hranch&F', 

Where does the Sixth Pair";" (Figs. 57 and 60) of nerves, or 
Mm» Srtermtt, taite from 7 From the base or upper extremity of 
the oorpu pyramidale. It passes into the orbit by the sphenoidal 
fissure, and is distributed upon the abductor oculi muscle. 

Where doea the Seventh Piiir"," (Figs. 57 and 60) of nerves, or 




Facial and Avditory, Brise from f That portion of the seveath pur, 
called the fkcial, or pottio dtura, arises bjr tvro bnnchca from the 
medulla oblongata. It emeigeB through the stylo-maataid foramen, 
and is disbribated to the muscles and 
Bkio of the head, having the name of 

That potlion called the Auditory, 
or poriio mollis (Fig. 60), arises from 
the mednlluy strin on the sor&ce of 
the oalimm soriptoriiis, and from Uie 
mrpiu restifbrme. It penetrates the 
meatns aaditorins intemos, and is dis- 
taribated to the labyrinth of the ear. 

Where does the Eighth Pair" (Fig. 
57) arise fit>m T That portion of the 
eighth pair called (?&in>pAat;yM- 
gwU (Rg. 59«,V, and Fig. 60-), arises 
from the posterior cord* of the medolla 
oblongata. It emergctf throngh the 
foramen laoenun pOBterias, and is dis- 
tributed to the tongue and pharynx. 

That portion called Piuumoffa§- 
trie (Fig. 69'°,",", and Fig. 60"), 
arises from the corpus restiforme* of 
the medoUa oblongata. It passes out 
through the foramen laoemm posterius, 
and is distributed to ths organs of 
respiration, and to the stomach. 

That portion called the AeetMor^ 
nerve arises from the posterior frsci- 
culns of the medulla oblongata, and 
spinal marroiT. It is formed by the 
union of six or seven roots from the 
epiual marroir, and throe or four from 
the medulla oblongata, and posses in- 
to the cavity of the cranium through 
the foramen magnnm, passes out again through tlie foramen lacerum 



poflteiioB, and is cUabibated to the mnselw and iatogamaiia of the 

What other puia are re|Hesented in Fig. 59 f The ganglion" of 
the pDeomogaatrk^ its j)lexiyhrm ganglion'^ lower dovn, and its 
truni"; itajAarjpigatibitaeh, which, along with a branch from the 
ffttmo-pAarynfftafi and (upflrior larffngeaP', forms the pharyngeal 
We (hen have the mrdiat^ brasohea given off; also tho 
Fig. 00. 

recurrent laryngeal'', anterior^, and poilerior pttimonarj/^- It 

then fonns the amfihageal pkxtu^, ud tenniiuteB in the gatlru: 

Where does the JVmA i^ir**,'* (Biff. 67 and 60) of nervea atiae 
fromr By Mrenl fiudoali, from the finure vhioh Bepantee the 
oorpiiB pyramidxle* (E^g. 69) from the eorpns olivue*, on the me- 
dulla oblongata. It gets out (^ the nnuunm through the anterioc 
condjloid fbnman, and ia diatrlbnted to the moaoles of the tongue. 

Erom whence are the aiteriee of the brain derived f From the 
internal oarotida, and Tettebrals. 

The internal carotid paaaes into the oraninm through the carotid 
oan&l ; when it reMhea the anteiior elinoid prooeaa, it sends ofF the 
ophthalmio artery to the orlnt. It ia then distribated to the brain 
by the arteria ohoroidea, arteria ealloaa, or anterior cerebri, arteria 
oommnnicana anterior, and the arteria cerebri media. 

Fif. 61. 



The vertebnl mrteiies* (Fig. 61) are bnuches of the Babclavian, 
mod paaathroagh thetranarenepTooessesof theuxBuperioTTertehnB 
of the neck, enter the cnuunin tbrongh the oodpit&l fimmen, and 
coDtinoe till the; reach the poaterior nur^n of the tuber annaUre, 
when the two coalesce, and form a mngle tmnk called the badlar*. 
Before this oduhi, it lenda off the epinalia posterior* and anterior*, 
and the inferior oerebelli*. The basilar gives off the arteria superior 
cerebelli''; it then divides into the posterior artery of the cerebmm', 
one on each nde. These last arteries are joined by the arteria oom- 
mnnicans posterior*, which completes the circle of Willis. 

How is the Circle of Willit formed ? Anteriorly and laterally 
by the iatonul carotids",", and their branches : ibo posterior part by 
the basilar', and its bifurcation, and forms a tiw communication 
between the Teasels of the two udea of the brain. 

What other branches are represented by Fig. 61 ? The anterior 
etnbri^, middle eerebrtU", anterior communicant", and the ophthal- 

From what sooroe is tho pituilarj/ membrane supplied with 
nerrea 7 From the oUactory, or first pur, and &om the fifth pur. 


From what source are the hhodvesseU of the nose derived? 
From the internal maxillary^ and the ophthalmic arteries. 


What constitutes the organ of vision ? The haU of Ote eye, and 
its auxiliary parts. 

What are the auxiliary parts of the eje ? The eyelids, or po^ 
pehrse supercHia, ligamentum palpebrale externum, conjunctiva, 
glands ofMeibamius, cilia, musdes, lachrymal apparatus, consisting 
of the lachrymal glands, lachrymal duct, lachrymal sac, lachrymal 
caruncle, semilunar valve or /old, hnd puncta luchrymalia. 

The muscles are the levator palpebraB superioris, the Jour recti, 
and ttDO ohliq^ie. 

What nerves supply the orbit of the eye ? They are derived from 
the motor oculi, or third pair, the trochlearis, or fourth pair, the 
first branch of the trigeminus, or fifth pair, and the motor oculi ex- 
temus, or sixth pair. 

What arteries supply the orbit of the eye ? The ophthalmic, 
which has numerous branches. 

What forms the ball of the eye ? It is formed by concentric tunics, 
and humors contained in them. The tunics are the sderoticofl,* and 
comea^,^ (Fig. 62) externally ; the cltoroidea*,* and the iruP next 
in order ; and the retina^^ internally. 

The humors are the vitreous^, which constitutes the principal 
part of the eyeball ; the crystalline^'^, which is in front of the vi- 
trcous^,^^ ', and the aqueous, between the crystalline and the cornea. 

The choroid coai^^ is united at its anterior margin to the sclerotica 
by the ciliary ligament. 

The pigmentum nigrum is spread over the whole internal surface 
of the choroid, between it and the retina. 

The vitreous humor^ is composed of the tunica hyaloidea^^ and 
a thin fluid. 

What other parts are represented in Fig. 62 ? The ciliary ring 
or Ifgament^,^ with its internal surface", ciliary body'*, posterior or 
chamber^ of the aqueous humor, termination of the retina"*,", canal 
of Petit^^, and optic nerve^^ with its investment. 


Hov IB the ear dinded T Into the external ear, the ti/mpanum, 
and the labyrinth. 

Of what is the external ear composed ? It is formed of the ex- 
terior portioD commonly called the ear, and \>y a canal which leads 
internallj to the tjmpannm. The outer portion is divided into 
pinna and feSut; the fonner ia the eartila^nous portion, and the 
latter ia soft and pendaloui, attached to its inferior portion. 

The different parta of the external ear are, the concha, meatut 
audiloriut extemta, the fte?ir, antihelix, fona innominata, tragm, 
and antilrtaptt. 

The muicZea of the eiternal ear arc very feebly developed, and are 
hdicii mafor and minor, tragicut, aniilrajicui, Iraiitversut auri- 
eidee, attoikn» attricidsE, retrahena auriculae, and the anterior auri- 

What is the sitnation of the Tympanum? It is interposed be- 
tween the meatus anditorios and the labyrinth. It is three lines in 
depth, rix in the antcro-poeterior diameter, and the vertical measore- 
ment about the same. 

The membrana lympani is sitoated between the meatus extemua 
and tympannm, and is composed of four lamina. 

The floor of the tympanum is marked by a rising, called the pro- 
ntonton/, and openings called ^efiramea ovale soAJbramen rotun- 
dam; the latter in the dried bone is the opening to the cochlea. 

The ffnuuRAa •pgramidalii is a small eminence, projecting from 
the posterior pnt <^ the tympannm ; it is hollow, and commanicatee 
at the other end with the canal of Fallopim. 

The EiutaeAian tube is at the fore part of the tympanum, and com- 
moniaateaat the other extremity with the pharynx. 

The bones m the tympanum are the moMew, incut, orbkuiare, and 
Mapet, which are successively articnlated, so as to form a chain. Tho 
moscles which move these bones are the laxator lympani, temor 
^/mpani, ttapediui, and the laxator tympani minor. 

What is the sitnation of the labyrinth f It is placed on the in- 
ner side of the tympannm, and is divided into tliree portions, the 
vatibvlum, temieircvlar canal*, and the cochlea. 

The nerves which are spent in put or wholly npon the organ of 
hearing are die amdiloiyf portio durOf and tr^emuuttj or ^fi/ih pair. 

The Oreat l^mpaAetie Mrve. 
What is meant by tba i^mfiaAatic JVerw f It eonnsts of two 
chuna of ganglia extending from the haae of the onninm to the 
lower eztremi^ of the nomm. These ganglions ate noited together 
by an intermediate nemnu oord, and send off fikmenta to adjacent 
organs ; there ia one of them for each interr^tebral apaoe, except 
Aoae of the oeok. The ganglion of Ribea . 
Fig. 63. ^^ ^0 1^ htlna of the aympathetie 

■jatem saperiorly, and has been oonm- 
dered as its origin; inferiorly, they are 
muted by a ganglion on the median line 
of the ooo^z. 

It sappliee all the intenul organs of 
the body throng plezusee^whioh take die 
name of Hie artery which they aooompany. 
What is the arrangement of Uie S!P>^ 
paAttic at its upper portion F There ate 
nz aranial ganglia, the ganglion of Riba; 
gangUcm of Laumonier, called also gan- 
gHon carotieum, ta ganglion eaventonun; 
the lenMtvlar or cBiary ganglion; the 
^keno-palatirte gan^ion ttt ganglion of 
ikekd; the otic ganglion, or ganglion 
of Arnold; and the wbmaxiHarj/ gan- 

How many Cervical Gangiiont are 
there? Three, a saperior, middle, and 

The first is opposite to the tianBTerse 
process of the second cervical vertebra, 
and behind the internal carotid art«ry. 
It has many branches, some of which 
oommunicate with the anterior tmnka* 
of the flnt, second, and third cervical 


nerres ; sends a bnncb* also to the oarodd pleziu, and one to the 
second cervioal g&nglion; it oonnecta* ■lao with the facial, eighth and 
ninth nerves, and with the pharyngeal plexna. Some branches join 
to fonn the superior cardiao nerve,* which goes to join the cardiao 
ganglion. The middle is (^poeite to the space between the fifth and 
aizth oervioal vertebra. It is small, sometiines wanting, and rests 
upon the inferior thyroid arterf, and is often called tbjroid gan- 
glion. It joins the first and third oervical ganglion, and is oon* 
necAed to the anterior tnmks of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical 
nerves, and sends the nliddle cardiac nerve to join the cardiao 
plexus. The inferior ia formed in the interval between the head 
of the first rib and the transverse proceaa of the last cervical verte- 
bra. It joins tiie sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves; also 
the middle cardiac nerve' and cardiac plexus, hj means of the infe- 
rior cardiao nerve.' 

Whera ia the Cardiac Plexui Bitnatcd Y Between the arch of the 
aorta and the lower part of the trachea and bronchiie. It is formed 
prindpaUj from the branches sent bj the three cervical ganglions of 
the sympathetic of each side ; there are filaments also from the 
recurrent and the par vagnm. This plexus b distingnished by the 
Bofbies of ita toxtnre, and its branches may be divided into anieri&r, 
ptmlmor, and inferior. 

Bow many Thoradc Ganglion* of the sympathetic are there 7 
Twelve; tbey are placed on or near the heads of the ribs, are con- 
nected together by the nuun cord of the sympathetic, and receive 
filaments from the dorsal nerves. 

What are tlie Branch^ of the thoracic ganglions? The great 
^brndmie nenw" arises by small branches from the sixth, to the 
ninth or tenth thoracic ganglions, inclusive. 

The tmaU" tplanchnic nerve is derived from the tenth and eleventh 
thoracic ganglions. 

Where is the Semilunar Canj/wu" situated? On each side of 
the aorta, and is formed by an assemblage of several smaller ones, 
which receive their fasciculi from the great splanchnic nerves. 
These several ganglia are united together, and form the root of the 
solar plexus, from which proceed branches to the yiscera; viz., the 
cceluu^ <tt stomaobie plexus, to the liver, duodeoum, and pancreas, 


the splenic to tibe epleen^ &o./each following the aiieriei aa they 
proceed to their respective deetinationg. 

How many iMimhw Oangliom of the sjmpathetio are there I 
Fire oa either side, placed antmorly cm the side of the bodies of 
the lumbar yertebrn. 

How is the B^fpogculiifio Pleasw^ fcrmed 1 "Bj branches of the 
lumbar and aortic pleznses, and filaments firom the sacral gaon^ 
All the visoeia of the pelvis are sapplied firom it 

How many are there of tibe /Sbcro/ An^tbitf^ f Generally three^ 
sometimes four or fiye, on the anterior fadb of the sacromi near the 
corresponding finamina for the transmission of tibe saond nerves. 
The last of the sacral ganglions detaches downwards one or more 
filaments; which uiastomose with the corresponding ones of the 
opposite sides and form a sort of arch, or coccygeal ganglion, which 
is the termination of the sympathetic nerve. 

Spinal Nenm. 

How are the nerves of the medulla spinalis arranged? The an- 
terior or motor root unites with the posterior or sensitive^ in the in- 
tervertebral foramina; then a division takes place into posterior or 
smaller; which supplies the muscles of the back; and into anterior 
or larger, which connects with the ganglions of the sympalhetio 
nerve; and also form plexuses which furnish the principal nerves to 
the muscles of the trunk and extremities. 

What is the origin of the FTtrentc Nerve f It arises from the an- 
terior fasciculus of the second and third cervical; and generally by 
two or three filaments from the upper part of the brachial plexus 

What nerves contribute to form the Brachial Pleonu f The an- 
terior branches of the four inferior cervical norves; and the first dor- 
sal or thoracic. It extends from the scalcni muscles to the axilla 
on a level with the neck of the os humeri; and surrounds the axil- 
lary artery like the braids of a whip cord; from the clavicle to the 
OS humeri; below its head. 

What nerves proceed from the axillary or brachial plexus? The 
Kopufarj tlioracic, axillary, two cutaneous, radial, uinar, and me- 


WlatiaAtvambercilioracictrDormtipaaisitwvteJ TIkj 
cossbt <tf t««^ pun. 

Wiat '» At ammiba at Oit Mdomimat tfml vxn»r Hmr 
ve fin ImHlar, lad firc, Biinritiwm n nenJ, on okob aie. 

The aatKiv &«9eafi &n K pleiai fion the nppo' part cf the 
kiiM to die low pvt of the ■*'*'"■. oIU the pkzMt mvalit, 
wiaA hM beoi ^Titled bj ——"—"*■ into p&nu hm&o/u, formed 
1>y dte ter wapaifK hnabar narea, utd the pkxat itduadim$, 
tarmti 1^ the Iwt Inmbw, and the aeoL 

mm mt dK nores prat oB "by the Lamtbar Fltx*tT The 
ij 1 rfji aMerwr, Mmu oJiAimtDn'a^ k Isukdh nmnlag to j«na the 
Kiidr ftna^ ^ <i£diHR«(r<7vra/ bnzkdies, prma/Kw eHemiu, 
iwfiiwi edenw^ nfAnxwi MeA'w^ CNfaiwiit oafcrtor, and mlaMii* 

Wlat an the bandieB which are given off bjr the Sciatic /T&c- 
w <r iToMM bAiadiaaf The iKfri gtittei, lumu prndendaiti 
hmgm i»,feriar, mMHu femoraii*, aUaneut potterior, lurnu pitdat- 
dalii lomgm* mtparim; and the nn-ru tJcAuuftciu, or jreo/ teiatic. 

What ia the diriBoii of the great Sciatic Xerrrf TbepopiiUat 
arjKmltrior tOii^ and Oxperottral; and in its eoone g^vee off the 
evtoMou imiemu* tvperior, the cWaneiu rntenmi inferior, and a laige 
tnmlc ir three distinct branchei, which go to the addootor magaos, 
aenu-nwmbtanonu, bioepe, and semi-tendinoans. 

Thtperoatal nerve ^vides into two branches, the jwrvnnu txter- 
mv, and the tibialiM anterior. 

TikBpoderior tibial, or popiileal nerve, gives off the external »aph^ 
nu», and several amall branches to the mnades of the leg, when it 
fridea in die hollow of the os calds into the interval and external 
plantar nerves. 





Natural Bodies. 

How are bodies divided ? Into Inorganic and Organic. 

What are some of the properties of Inorganic bodies ? Thej 
possess the common properties of matter, and their elements are 
fixed under ordinary drcumstances. 

What are the general properties of Organic bodies ? They have 
properties in common with the inorganic, but also have others con- 
trolling the first in a remarkable manner. Their elements are 
undergoing constant changes, and the sciences which give us a 
knowledge of their structure and functions are called Anatomy and 

In what respects do they differ ? They differ in regard to their 
origin^ thape, wize^ chemical character^ texture, mode o/ preservation^ 
terminationj and motive forces. 

What are the objects of the Science of Physiology ? They are 
to explain the mode in which a living being is horn, nourished, 
reproduced, and dies. 

How are organic bodies divided ? Into Animals and Vegeialles, 

In what respects do these differ from each other ? In composx- 
tion, texture, sensation and voluntary motion, nutrition, and repro^ 

The distinctions between them is not so rigidly fixed as between 
the inorganic and organized. 

Both vegetables and animals are endowed with functions termed 
vegetative, plastic, or organic; but animals have other functions 
superadded, viz., sensation and voluntary motion, which distinguish 


them; and are termed animalj while the fonotioDS common to both 
are termed organic. 

They differ in composition, which can eagilj be detected by burn- 
ing; from the odor giren out 

Mulder says that cellulose (OH'^O^) forms the principal parts 
of the oellolar mass in phmts; and in animals U^e primary material 
is gelatine ((?»H»N«0»). 

The texture differs very much : floids predominate in animals, 
solids in Tcgotables. Only one elementary tissue, the veskvlar or 
areolar, exists in vegetables; while in the animal there are three, the 
areolar J the mtifcti^ar, and the nmn?ous. 

Nutrition is effected differently in the two classes. In animals, 
the food has to be changed so as to adapt it for nourishment. This 
change takes place in an internal organ called the stomach, and the 
process is termed digettion; absorption of the prepared material 
then takes fkob from its internal lining, by which a Bupjdy of 
nutriment is furnished. There are important diflbrences also in the 
steps which precede the reception of food, requiring volition, fto. 

In rqnvduetionf a dose analogy exists, but there are also 
differences connected wiih sensibility and voluntary motion, con- 
trolling the union of the sexes in animals, while in vegetables there 
is neither perception nor volition. 

What are the two kinds of elements which enter into the composi- 
tion of the human body ? They are the chemical or inorganic, and 
the organic, which are compounds, and are the product of vital 

What are the chemical or inorganic elements f Oxyyen, hydnh 
gen, carbon, nitrogen, photphortis, calcium; and in smaller quan- 
tity, sulphur, iron, manganese, nlidum, potassium, aluminum, 
chlorine, sodium, magnesium, &c. &c. 

What are the principal ultimate elements ? The animal bodies 
consist essentially of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and azote, as a 
general rule. 

How are the organic elements divided ? Into those which con- 
tain nitrogen and those that do not. 

What are those in which nitrogen is contained? Protein, includ- 
ing albumen, fibrin, caseum or ca»ein; globulin; pqmn; gelatin ; 

PHT6I0L0QT. 119 

mvevtj ur«a; vnc or lilhic acid; red 
tohring prmdpte of the blood (hematin or henwUonii); yeOoto tdhr- 
imff pritcyaU of the bile. 

What Bie the charaoteristJcfl of Ptvlan f lb is procured by dis- 
solnng dbnmen, fibrin, or caseiD in a moderately strong aolntion of 
CHutk potash, and adding acelia acid, when it will be separated in 
die tana of a gelatinous, translncent precipitate. It is the same, 
&DID whicberer of the above ingredients it may be obtained, and is 
sapposed to fenn the basis of all the tissnes ; benoe the neuae. It 
eoBaUoM with oxygen in definite proportions, forming a biaoxide 
■ad tritoxide, which are formed in the lungs from fibrin ; the fibrin 
ia iht blood in this way acting as a carrier of oxygen to the 
tuRus. In inflammation a, a much larger quantity of oxidiEed 
pnrtdn is oont«ined in the blood than exists in health, which gives 
lin to the htiSy coat. 

ABmmen, jibrin, and eaiein are modifications of this clement 
fimMd by oombination with a small quantity of phosphorus, or of 
aoli^nr, or both. 

ASMmtn is found ei^ier liquid or concrete : liquid, in tlie white 
of egg, aenun of the blood, chyle, lymph, and in some of the secre- 
tuns; solid is the brmn, spinal cord, nerves, &c. Heat, acida, 
■nd canosive sublimate ooagolate it. The kidneys sometimes in a 
diwMed state secrete it 

ISbrin exists in chyle, lymph, blood, and muscle, and is an 
abundant and important animal principle. It may be procured by 
beating blood with a rod, to which it will adhere in filaments. It is 
■oHd, white, flexible, elastic, insipid, inodorous, and heavier than water. 
It eraititatea the bn^ooat of Uie blood, ia secreted in inflammation, 
and called ooagulable lymph ; has the property of self-coagalation, 
■ad poMeaaes a higher degree of organizability than albumen. The 
Bbiin in arterial blood is more highly oxidiz^ than that in the 

Catein exists abundantly in milk, and is the basis of cheese, is 
fbond also in blood, saliva, pancreatic joice, pus, Ac. It is obtained 
by eoagnlating milk, washing the ooognlnm, and drying it It con- 
taina sulphor, but no phosphorus. 

120 PBVSMLiHir. 

GJohiiHn of the blood-corpusclca \iaa also bcea placed by some 
among tlie proteia iximpoanda. 

Pepsin has also bcea cluased nith tLcm, and poaeesses many pro- 
perties of albumun. Licbig doubts its ezisteQce us a distinct coui- 

Gehitiii ia tbe obief ingredient of cellulur tissae, skin, t^ndtms, 
ligamcuts, and cartilago ; it in found also in other stmctnres. It is 
obtained by boiling substanoc^ containing it, clarifying, conoentrat- 
ing, and drying the solution. It is known in commcroe by tbo 
names g/ue, itiiiiflait, ptirtahle mup, &.Q. Tannin precipitates it 
from its solution, and is tbe appropriate test. 

VKondrin is obtained by boiling the cornea, pormanent cutiUgoa 
and bones before osMfication. It resembles gelatin. 

Omuiiotns ezisia in tbe muscles, blood, and bnun ; it gives Savor 
to soups, and ia nutritivo and Btimulating. 

M«f'i» is a fluid secreted by mucous surfaces for their protectkiu. 

i'ff^a oztsta in the urine of mammalia in health. It is derived 
from the decomposition of the tissues in the procesi of nutrition. 

Uric or lithui aciit is found in tlie urine ft tn»n, birds, lerpcnts, 
&c. In the herbivoro, it is replaced by the hippurio acid. 

Hematin, or hetnalotin, \i the coloring principle of the blood, 
which, it has been Hupposcil, mi>; dofiCDd upon the sulphocyanite 
of iron. 

What are thoM vhuA (b not oontain oitnigea f OWn, atoraiD, 
&tty matter of tha brmin and Dcrvee ; aeetio aeid ; ozalio Mi; bab- 
loio acid; liotia add ; ngar of milk ; tngar <f di^Mtw; bitn or 
picromel ; obolestMia j and bilivsHm. 

Olein or Elam, and Stearin, an foand in Sx«d oili tuited with 
glycerin. Olein gives floidil;, and ateaiin the aolid «leiiMnlaof httj 

Marijarin ia also % oonstitnent of fat. 

In what forms are the component parts of the animal bodyfimndf 
Solid* and Jluid*. 

What are the mAuU of tbe homaa body ? Bone, earlHaffe, 
nmada, ligament*, ve**^ nerve*, ffangiion*, fiOide* or trjff^ 
gland*, membrane*, areolar, c^vlar,ot lammaled litKie, tad vitatt; 


this list is Uie most oomplex in the hmnsii body, and is the name 
fpYtn to organs contiuned in the splanohnio oavitiee. 

How sie membrmut divided f Into nmple and compound. 

What an the rimfle membranes f The lerouM, mueouM, and 

What an the compound membranes 7 They are the JtUro-terouMj 
mm-mmoov», vsiA fbro^nvarxmt. 

What an die primary tissDes or anatomical clemente t The td- 
hUar m laminated ^jv ot tiitue ; th.e muiadar fibre oi tUtue ; snd 
the naxoii^ V^JVi or meduSary fibre or tittue; to which another 
has been added byChanssierj called the allruffineout. These tisanes, 
hj uniting difienmtly, form the first order of sidids, and these a^n 
bj anion give rise to compound solida, from vhioh the different 
trg^aa, bones, glands, &o., an formed. 

What an the textons and other organised coustitoenta of the 
body T Blood, chyle, and lymph. Epidennic tissue, including epi- 
Stdium, evtCele, naUt, and hain. PigmetU. Adipone tiuve. Caviar 
(areo£ar tittue). Fibroua tiuue. Eltutic tUtue. Cartilage. Bone 
cr osMDHf fume. Muxidar tiuue. Nernoat tinue. Bloodveud*. 
Ahmthmt vetieU and glands. Serout and Synovial membranet. 
Mteom membranet. Skin. Secreting glandi. 

In what way an the solida arranged to form the different strno- 
tonsF la filamenttoT elementary fibret, liiiueSfOrgaJU, apparatutetj 
and ijfitenu. 

What is meant by a fibref A number of filaments united toge< 
ther. It is sometimes colled a tiitue, but this term is usually 
^iplied to a partionlar arrangement of fibres. An organ is a com- 
pound of several tissQes. An apparatut is an assemblage of organs 
tending tothe same end, as tho digettive apparatvt, which is formed 
by a variety of oi^ns of a dissimilar kind. A tyttem is an assem- 
blage ot org^aa poaseswng the same or an aoalogotu stnictnn. For 
example, all the muscles of the body have a common stmcton, and, 
taken as a whole, constitute tho mutcular ^em. The same with 
the vessels and nerves, which, taken colleotively, constitute the ixu- 
atlar and nervout ByBtems. 

What proportion do the fluids of the body bear to the whole 
weight? It b not easy to estimate the proportion, as it varies at 


different times and periods of life ; the younger the animal^ the 
greater the preponderanoe of the fluids. 

How have the fluids of the body been ehunfied ? Into five dash- 
es : 1; those produced by the act of digestion, the ehf^me and the 
ch^k; 2, the oiroukting fluids, the lymph and the blood; 8, the 
perqnred Jluidi ; 4, the follicular ; and 6, the glandular, — CAaiM- 

What are the phytical propeHies of the tissoes? I^extbtHt^j 
exUngihUi^y eUuUcifyf wadporonty. 

Ulastici^ is the property which causes a tisnie to react upon the 
withdrawal of a stretching or compreanng fivoe. 

We have ezamples of this property in the yellow ligaments^ in 
the middle coats of the arteries, &c 

ExtemibUUy is possessed by elastic tissues; but some tissues, as 
the fibrous, will yield to a slow continued distending force, that are 
not elastic. 

FlexibUiiy may exist without elasticity or eztenaibilityi as in 

Boroskjf is the property of permeability by fluids, possened 
by tissues after deaUi as well as during life ; ihe term imbibitum 
has also been given to this property. This property giyes rise, un- 
der certain circumstances, to the phenomena termed endotmote and 

If wo take a glass or other tube closed at one end by a piece of 
bladder or membrane, and place in it a solution of salt or sugar, we 
find that the solution permeates Uie pores of Uie membrane, but does 
not pass through it. If we then immerse the lower end of the 
tube in pure water, it is found to rise within the tube, sometimes to 
a considerable extent; while, at the same time, a portion of the 
solution in the tube has passed into the water. In this phenomena, 
the current from without to within is called endosmote, while the 
current from within to without is called exotmose. 

The circumstances necessary for the success of this experiment 
are, that an affinity must exist between the fluids and the mom- 
branc ; the fluids must bo mlscible with each other and of different 
dcimties. As a general rule, the current is the most rapid from the 


mer to the denser medium, and conlinuea antil their density is 

This property is purely physical, and not peculiar to organized 
Btraetone ; pbtes of slate, b&ked clay, and some wire textures will 
exhibit it. 

Albumen, of all soluble organio BabstaDccs, facilitates cndosmose 
vith the greatest force. 

No satisfactory explanation has yet been given of this physical 
law. The current is usually the most rapid from the rarer to tlie 
denser fluid, yet this is not always the case ; it is determined by tho 
sffini^ between the liquid and the dividing substance; and is from 
the liquid having the greatest affinity to the opposite side. Many 
|i]iejioinen&, usually looked upon as vital, con be explained by this 
property, in physiology, pathology, and therapeutics. 

Qata ue also subject to the same law, in respect to this property, 
that liquids are; and this double current takes place in the lungs 
dmiiig the Mt of respiratioD, through the walls of tho pulmonary 
lir^ells, and the minutely ramified capillaries on them. 

What is understood by the vital properties of the tittuet f They 
■re thooe belonging only to living organized products, and are found 
in muscular and nervous structures. 

The vital property of muscle is emtractilltif, and is characteristic 
of that tissue. The vital property of nervous structure is mani- 
fested in three ways: Jirst, by inducing contraction in tho muscle 
supplied by it ; leeoiidly, by exciting contractions in muscles not 
supplied by it, through a change produced in the nervous centre ; 
tkin^, by exciting sensation. 

All oi^anized beings do not possess the properties of contractility 
and sensibility. Ycgetablcs have no nervous system, and therefore 
the function of senubility is wanting ; although they have irrita- 
bHiljf or excitability developed, which may be conudcied to he the 
vital property common to all organized bodies. 


Functions ov Han. 

How are the fiinetions of man chunfied ? Into tibree claasea : 
Firtt. The Animai^ or those of RdaJtUm. Second. The Nutriiive. 
Third, ThQ Reproduc^ve. 

What is indaded under the first of these diyisions f SenaQnHt^ 
and muKvlar motion^ indiiding expresdon or langtuige. 

What under the seoond f DiffoHon^ ahtorpHon, retpiraiionf ctr- 
culationj nutrition^ cahnfiecUumf and tecreitan. 

What under the third ? Oeneration. 

What are the foroes which preside over the various funotions P 
They are either geMnd or tpecial; the former are p^tieai or 
chemical, and the latter or^anie or vikiL Some organs are examples 
of purely mechanical anangements^ as the eye, organ of Toicey the 
ear; and the circulatory apparatus, anangements for endosmose and 
exosmose, Ac. In many flmctions, chemical agency performs an 
important part also; while others cannot be explained on these 
principles; and are termed vUaL Many functions are perfianned 
through a combination of these forces. 

Animal Functions; or Functions of Eelation. 

What is understood by SensibHify t It is the function by which 
the animal experiences feeling; or has the perception of an impres- 
sion. It has also been applied to the property of living parts of 
receiviDg impressions ; whether attended by consciousness or not of 
the individual upon whom the impression is made. Wc; therefore; 
where there is consciousness; have animal sensibility ; and where 
there is none; it is termed crganic sensibility. 

By what apparatus is it that animal sensibility is effected ? The 
whole nervous system is concerned in it. 

What is included in what is called the Nervous System f It con- 
sists of three portions : first; the cerehro4tpinal axis ; secondly; of 
cards called nerves; and thirdly; of a nervous cord situated on each 
side of the spine from the head to the pelvis, forming ganglia oppo- 
site each vertebral foramen; and called the great sympathetic. 

What is Dr. Marshall Hall's division of the nerves? Into, 1. 


The eerebnti, or the KtUimt sad nfviUarf. '2. The true ^Hal, or 
eznito-matory. 3. The ffanylionie, or the »alriait and teertkyry. 

The bst q( these reoeiTes impresoos which are eonvejed bj 
ajwau aemt to the bnin, and prodaee a mental impreeaon. As 
> ranlt rf this, a motor impulse tnaj he tnosmitted along the e^mnf 
nam to particnlar miucles which are ezdt«d to contiaction. The 
eaoefhMi.oa and nerves oommnnicating with it are the organs for 

The aeocnd portion maj reoeive impreasons which are propagated 
■loog aperml fihree to ganglionic centres distinct ^m the Bensorinm, 
in which « r&z motw inflnesoe is excited, that is transmitlad 
almg ^rent bnnka ouuiocted with these centres, and excite mnacn- 
Iv ovtiaction, without the axetBary interrention of eensatios and 
ViditiaiL The otgane for this function are the gray matter of the 
Ifdnal cod, and the nerves connected with it. 

TIm offioe perfimned b; a nerve depends npon its connections, 
central and periph^rai, and may be BeccrtAioed bj an ezaininalioo of 
If it lose itself entirely in the substance of 
it is efferent or motor ; if on a membranoos 
Dsioa, that it is afferent or sensory; if on a surface adapted to 
raeeire special impressions only, it may be inferred that it is a nerve 
at Bpedal sensation. 

The tJiird divisiou has for its oliject to combine and harmoniEO 
the mnacolar movements connected with organic life. It influences 
the functions ot nutrition, secretion, &e., also. Much remains yet to 
be learned reelecting the physiology of the nervous system. 

What ^lenomena are included under the term sensibility 7 The 
aensoiMiu, properly so called, and the mfelleclual an-l moral man i/at- 

What is meant by a tenmHoa ? It is the pcrtseption of an im- 
preascB made on an organ ; it is by tbis means that we receive a 
knowledge of what is passing around and within ns; and from which 
resnlt AovglU vAjatlgment. 

How are the aensatioDS divided? Into external and infernal. 
Visioa and audition are examples of tho external, and hunger and 
thirst of the internal. 

Is the eocepbalon necessary to sensation ? It is. Tbe impres- 


MM most be rnrn^ on m dirtnl myaj aad wuniratrd to tike 

Hov maj Ab W pnmdf ^ cilAc or fattag « Hgitiiie 
MOQiid ftiictTt|n«rifagtowyHH3bk|ul; or, if tihe Imhi be 
pi«T»Wd ftwi acAig ii mj «ij, &en wiD W wo w&mm&KL 


b ewy jtti of tihe Imomi boiy ■d fcj wl t> MJlflHy f Bii^ 
titW in iMiM or dMH^ if m oiMft foAifo tihe oirtiak 

In wbail put of At hMi no tiho conknl oqgno of tihe MooeB 
l4oMil? Tfcrt fortit b rt w tihe owpom n w ilrigw i iM lad tihe 

th« Imb Ik* At Mrm of At MDOBB aio fe«id to oiHnBiQiilo. 

W^W vottU W tihe oftol of «hnfi^[ Atportnoriootaof tihe 
•pinalnmtoa^of tiheHApur? All ^Mwwrf WMnflily wooM 
be kol; b«^ if vo divilt tihe Mrat of At HHa^ Am* finoliom 
onlj »re deotarojod. 

bi wbat MttMT is Ab tnanuirioB ti/mg Ae Mi io t oorio and 
gpinil Bttnow dhcUd ? Wo mo wfnnmlei wiA At wfrial 
cbAnder of Ao nonon tnd or inftopaft wbiA pHno akag Ac 
nerres wiA smIi njidilj; and we ore ftvaio of ndi tnuannon 
only bj the nesnlls. WheAer il Is amimutl 9pini$ omelcd bj Ae 
brain mnd innntdlled akag Ae ncrfOB nnder Ae bum of nenomg 
jIftUy or wbeAer c&cied bj ribniiom or imflhribmof Ae marroaa 
cords, or wheAor il i» ptodneod bj Ae operalMMi damimai ekctrid^ 
or an rleviroiii or ^ramM ftmd, we will nol attempl to delomine. 
This la$t oxplanalion is poring Ae most popular one al picaenl. 

£xtemal SfnmtHmt, 

What are the external eensations ? Thej are Aoee perceptions 
that are occasioned bj Ae impresaons of bodies external to the part 

How are thej divided? Into the jfiuei properly so caUed, by 
which the different qualities of external bodies are ssoertained ; and 
those sensations which are caused by contact, but afford no informa- 
tion to the miod. The external senses are Ae oigans by which we 
become acquainted with bodies that surround us. 


Wliat are tiu external senses f Tact or IrmtA, tatU, »m^ hear- 
imff, amd vitioa^ They all eonaBt of two faiiB—phg$ical, or that 
vhieh modifies the action of the body which canses the inprMEdon ; 
sod noTOKi or vital, which reoeives the impressioii, and conveys it 

Hm senses may be exercised in two modes : aetivd]/, by directing 
tba attention ; and pauivdy, when the impression is received with- 
out the mind being specially directed to them. 

Hw aotivo exercise gives increased deUcaoy and vigor ; yet this 
mist not be too constant, or too intense, or Injoi; may result. We 
may also deaden a sensation Xfj volontarily diminlBhing the amount 
vi stimnhis applied to the sentient organ. The loss of one sense 
M usually attended by an increase of acatenera in those remaining; 
bdt t^ undoubtedly arises from their snperior education. 

Hm ssnses an all modifications of that of tact or touch ; the sapid 
body, the odcions partioles, the sonorous vibrations, and the ligbt, 
must impinge upon or touch the nervous position of the organ, 
n can be effected. 

Seiue of Ihct or Ihueh. — Pa^Mtion. 

What is meant by the sense of tact or touch F It is the general 
fMing, or sensilalilj ; and is more extensively diffused tlian any of 
the Other senses. 

Is there any diffigience between tact and touch ? The sense of 
taet is qiread generally in the organs ; and especially in the cuta- 
neons and mucous sur&oes : touch is tact joined to muscular con- 
traelion, and directed by volition ;— bo that the exerdae of tact may 
be eoondered as pamive; and that of touch active. 

What is the chief organ of touch 1 The skin, which is supplied 
by nerves from the poeterior roots of the spinal nerves, and from a 
portion of the fifth and eighth pur of cerebral nerves, and are the 
same as those of general sensation. They are distributed to the 
tactile painllse, which are small elavaticns enclosing loops of blood- 
Teasels, and branches of a sensitive nerve, Bitnated on the exterior 
snrfikoe of the cutis vera, and covered by the cuticle, which serves as 
a protection Ut the papillse. 


7^^ rst .T%. I) ttfm 




of bftijet * ne MBM of taet flrUM 

Doea ii mlwajs gne ^ m nmet n 
is Terr mud mfatawJ hj ike pwrioitj — »—- J— g tempcntKR', 
babit, ^ 

Is ihu eriridewii to be <nk of tlw most coIhb of thttemmaf 
I: if, perhaps, the leut sal>j«e( to enor of all tke aeBMS * Soae 
hare caUtsd it the rfsfmlalimf, the yuan ft I'cf hbk ; b«t tfak is 
^riiig it um ki^ a pontioD. It is capthte of ecuoriiBuy ae«»- 
neb* wd eertain^ Ij cdtmtMB, w in tbe caae of blmd ponooo. 

^liere is the bmm ddicaie ogu of toad niaslcd? b bm 
aL'i m-^kcTf, in the hand. In moet qnadnipeds, id the lips, stoat, 
or pn'lf/x'a ; in moUnscoas "'""''i in the lenianila ; aod in inxrl^ 

•%7Mf 'jf T-itUj or GuMatiun. 

\\')aX a the (Aiject of the sense of taste ? It uarbc« na the 
■)'j»)j'y ;f bodiefl called tapidili/. 

It th': ifTgan rjf (aste c^iable of reoraving other impns-HoDS than 
tli'-»- ',i taut/! ? It aWi possesses the power of tooch. nnd one of 

puTsioLoaT. 129 

theaa {wopeilieB may be lost while the other remaiiu; and ndther 
DIM cui sapplj the pbce of the other. 

What is the chief organ of taste f The tongue. The lips, inner 
waxbee of the cheeks, palate, and &nceB also participate in thia fdno- 
tion. The mocoos membrane of the tongue is highly oiganiied, 
K>d the pftpills, or proper organs of taste, are TCiy nomerous. 

Vkat dimmutanoefl are necessaiy that this fouctiou ma; be 
■atts&otorily exdcisedF The xaucons membrane of the mouth 
ahonld be is a state of integrity, the fluids poured into it should 
•litt in proper qnandt; and quality, and the substance to be tasted 
dbonld be soluble. It is improved also by bringing tbo tongue in 
flODtut with the palate. 

What nerve* are distributed to the tongnaF The ninth pur; 
the lingoal, and other branches of the fifth pair; and the ^osso- 

Which of these ia supposed to be the nerve of tasto? The lin- 
goal branch of the fifth pair. 

Is this sense capable of cultivation? It is, in a very high 

Stnte of Smeii, or Oljaclum. 

What is the object of this sense? To appreciate the odorous 

frapeitiea oi bodies. To do this, immediate contact of the odorous 

bod; is not necessary ; an odorous emanation from it which shall 

inpinge upon this organ of sense being sufficient. 

Fig. 3. 

180 PHY8I0L0OY. 

For the anatomical desoriptioii and references to thia figare, aee 
Anatomy y page 27. 

What is the organ of smell? It is a mncoiu membrane which 
lines the nasal cavities or tomtd^ called the Sckmidenwiif or 

What conditions must exist that the sense of smell may be doly 
exercised? The organ must be in a healthy cooditioD, aad the 
emanation from an odoroas body must impinge upon the piftoitny 
membrane with considerable force. 

What is tihe ordinary medium for the transmission of odostras 
particles ? The air. 

In what mode is ol&ction efifocted? In inspiration^ the air 
charged with odorous particles comes in contact with the pitoitary 
membrane^ through the medium of the nasal mu0us|y which arrests 
the odorous particles as they passy and also keeps the parte properly 
lubricated. The d&otory nerve, being distributed on this BMm- 
brane, receives the impresmons of these particles, and in this manner 
the sensation is accomplished. 

In what part of the ol&ctory organ does this sense reside in the 
highest degree ?" In the upper portion. 

What nerves are distributed to the olfiictory organs ? A portion 
of the fifth pair, and the ol&ctory or first pair. 

What is considered to be the proper nerve of this sense ? The 

Is this sense capable of improvement by education ? It is. 

Sense of Hearing j or Audition. 

What is the object of this sense ? It makes knovm to us the 
peculiar vibrations of sonorous bodies, which constitute wunds. 

How is the organ of hearing divided ? Into three portions : 1, 
the external ear, or that exterior to the membrana tympani ; 2, the 
muldle ear; and 8, the internal ear itself, which contains the 
auditory nerve. 

What office does the external ear perform in audition ? It col- 
lects the sound, which it transmits to the membrana tympani through 
the meatus auditorius extemus. To understand this properly, the 
laws regulating sound must be understood. 


What is the fbuotion performed b; the middle ear f The sono- 
raoa OBoillAtiODB are Teoeived by the membnuia tymponi, and tnms- 
mittod to die intonud ear throogh the medium of the middle, in 
three m^ : lat, by Ibe air contained in the cavity of tbo tympa- 
nam } ^^Ji by the chain of bones to the membrane of tbo foramen 
ovale ; and, Sdly, by the parictcs of the tympanum ; oscillations are, 
i, excited in the membranes of the foramen ovale and ro- 

What are the nses of the nuutoui ceils in hearing ? They a 

What are the nses of the ouida or miaU bona of the middle ear? 
They ftilfil two functions : they conduct the vibrations from the 
memlwanatympaiii; and also stretch or render more tense the mem- 
branea to which they are attached at their extremities. 

What part does the Huttachian tubt perform in andition ? The 
integrity of this tube is essential to hearing, and its closure is fol- 
lowed by Hft*fnftM ■ by it there is a maintenance of tbo equilibrium 
between the air within the tympanum and that withont, so as to 
allow of the &ee action of the membrane, by preventing inordinate 
|)n— mu and tension, which would be produced by too great or too 
little preesore on either udo ; the effect of which would be to im- 
pair the hearing. It has been supposed to be an avenue for sound 
to the internal ear ; but this is very questionable. It is thought 
also to act as a divertioulnm for the air in the oavity of the tympa- 
num when it ia agitated by too powerful soonds. It also serves the 
pnipoae of carrying mto the pharynx any secretions of tho tympa- 
num, thereby preventing accumulation, and keeping it in a healthy 

What is the function of the internal car in audition 7 Tho 
Tibrations reach the internal ear, as has been shown, by which tho 
membianee covering the foramen ovale and rotundum are thrown 
into vibrations, and communicate the impressions to the liquor of 
ColuKmiu, which fills the cavities of tho internal ear. The vibra- 
tioDS are then by this medium conducted to the auditory nerve, 
which receives the impressions and conveys them to the brain. Of 
the [vecise uses of the various beautiful parts of tho internal car, we 
are still ignorant. 



What is the nem of hearing 1 The portio moBi* of tite Benenth 
pur ; but it ifl ataemurj diat the nerre of spaoial geiiBlnlity, distri- 
bnted to the part (whioh u s Iwamhof the fifth pair), ■honld be in » 
state of intepilj, <a the hearing will be impaired or destoayed. 

Ib this aenae im|«OTed bj edaoation f It ia greatly improred bj 

What is the difference between Iteanug and Uttanmg f One maj 
be termed pamive, and tbe other aelm aiidition. 

0/Ae Sbmb of Sight, or VuitM. 
What ia the olgeot <^ thia senaef It ia to give na the notitm of 

light and color. 
What ia the organ of Tiaion f The eje ami ita aoceaaoiy arffaa 

or tntamina. 
Are an; ikya of light inaervient to Tiaion that &U on otber parta 

of the eye than the retinaf No; and it ia onl; that ptation falling 

on the oomea whioh paaaoa throogh the pupil diat caa twoh tlie 

retina, and afilNt the nerre of sight. 
What are the ehangea that « i»j of light vndeigoea in pawing 
through the ooata and homOTB of 
die eyef When it strikn the 
oomea*,* obliqaely, it ia re&aoted 
towarda the perpendicular, laised 
from the p<nnt of impaot, becaone 
it passes into a denser medinm. 
It is thereby rendered man oon- 
rergent or ^iproaohes the axis of 
the cone. In pasnng through the 
aqueous humor*,", little variation 
is produced, as it ia of about the 
game density as the cornea. This 
convergence causes a greater num- 
ber of rays to be collected towards, 
and enter the pupil, and of conne 
to pass through the crystalline 

lens"; whioh, being of increased density, the convergence is still 

more increased from the increased rcfractiTe power of the medinm 


Mid tlia convex!^ of the lens. After the ray haa passed tho ciys- 
tallins lens, it emerges into a rarer medinm (the Titreotu hnmor"), 
and ia, therefore, refi&oted from the perpendicidBr; bat the shape 
of the poeterior snr&ce of the lens is such that the convergeoce is 
farther increased, and meets the other rays at a focus on the retina**, 
and there presenting a picture or icpresentation of the object on the 
letiui in an inverted position. 

To what is the achromatic property of the eye probably owing? 
To the different refractive powers of the hnmors. 

What is the use of the Sclerotic coat of the eyef It gives form 
aad protection to it 

What is the use of tho Choroid* coat? Its nse ia chiefly owing 
to the blade pigment which lines and penetrates it. This ptg- 
tHottuBt n^ntm serves tho porpoee of absorbing the rays of light 
after they have passed through the retina, and by this means ob- 
nating the oonfouon that would arise from varied reflections. It 
also serves as a defenoe against too strong light. 

What is the nse of the Tupetumf Its function is not fully 
settled ; bnt M. DesmouUns is of the opinion that it acta the part of 
ft mirror, and, by rotuming the rays of light through the retina, 
mbjecta it to a double contact. 

What is the nse of the Jri^ in vision? It acts the part of a 
diaphragm of a lens or telescope, and its function mnst bo to correct 
the aberration of sphericity; which it does by diminishing the surface 
of the lens on which the rays impinge, ao that they may meet at the 
same focns on the retina. It is capable of contracting or dilating, 
so as to contract or dilate the pupil. Its Etmctore ia supposed by 
some to be muscular, and by others vascular and Dcrvous; the 
Tcsaela aod nerves being distributed on on erectile tissue. If mus- 
cnlar, it mnst consist of circular and radiated fibres, and the con- 
traction of the popil must be from the action of the circular fibres, 
while ita dilatation is from the radiated. If it ia erectile tisane, the 
dilatation and contraction are owing to the variation of the quantity 
of blood Bcnt to the part. Tho motions of the iria appear to bo 
very much under the influence of the opUc nerve ; for, if this nerve 
be divided, the pupil is rendered immovable and expanded. It also 
iq>pear8 to be much influenced by the other nerves distributed to the 

134 rKTBIOLOflT. 

eye. The exact agaMj of tmA. om it do» not Mem to be well 
nnderatood; bat we find that it eoatncts or dOata amocding to tW 
intensity of tho li^t that atrikci tta «js. Tba mm t£ its naea ia 
that it is partly the caaae of the edmnntiBit ct the eje; that h 
corrects the abemtion of ^hai d ty; nignhfaa the qnaolitj tf light 
admitted throa|^ the pi^ aad aewnmrnntlatti the ejv, to a o 
extent, to naa 

What is the flmction of the Setina' (Fig. 4) f It ia a nerre of 
Bpcoial sensibili^, and limited in its function to the appreciation of 

Ih it nccessaiy to the perfection of its function that the nerre of 
gonurol sensibility (a branch of the fifth pair), which ia distribaled 
to tlic parts, should be in a state of integrity? It is. 

Whiit arc the uses of the eydUUf They preserve the eyo in a 
n'Ant Htu(« by nictation, regulate the quanUty of light admitted to 
llio I'ji; whi'n too powerful or very weak, and preserve the eye from 
the auitiict unJ irritation of foreign matters. 

What arc the nscs of the musda of the cycballf They serve to 
compress the boll, and give the proper direction to it for vudon. 


Wbat an the nses of the UanT ^ey moiston the coDJunctiTS, 
and sore to remore extraneous bodies fh>m its surface. 

What aeoretes the tears? The lachrymal gland. 

Is the retina capable of visual impressions over its nholo surfiicc? 
It is; bnt Ok point ofditlinet vinonia theccDtral part of the retina, 
at thftt part in the direction of the axis of the eye. This point ia 
KadOj discriminated on looking at a printed page, vhcn it will be 
pereuTed that that part to which the axis of the eye is directed is 
alone sharply uid distinctly seen ; therefore, the axis of the eye is 
changed as we wish to change our attention from one letter or word 
to another. 

What conditions are necessary that Ihc image of an object may 
impren the retina, and be perceived by the mind ? It must occupy 
% Bpue on the retina sufficiently large for its various parts to ha 
^>preciated; the image must be distinct or sharp, or, in other words, 
the InminottB raya that form it must converge accurately to a focus 
m the retina; and the imago must be sufficiently illuminated. 

What angle must an object subtend to be visible f Tho sixticdi 
of a degree; bnt tho visual power differs greatly in individuals. 

Has the eye the power of accommodating itself to different dis- 
tances in vision? It has; but upon what this depends is unccrtiun. 

What connection between the nervous system and the eye is rc- 
preaented by Fig. 4? The optic nerves and chiasm', corpora albi- 
canlia*, pons Varolii*, medulla oblongata', and the origin of the 
thirf , fourth*, fifth*, sixth'*, seventh", eighth", and ninth" pur of 

Of Musculab Motion. 

What are the objects of tho function of mnscnlor motion? To 
execnte all the partial motions, that ore necessary for nutrition and 
reproduction, locomotion, &c. Sensibility and voluntary motion, 
strictly speaking, comprise tho whole of the life of rcla^on. 

How is this function divided ? Into hjcomot'dili/ and esjtreuioVf 
or language. 

What organs are essentially concerned in this function F The 
MoepAo/ott, the tpiiiof narrviE, the nerva, and tho mtucla. 


Moscles bsfe been tenned the atiiwe ofgUH of loeomotioa, in 
contri^iatinctMn to the liQne% tendoiii^ and BgamfntB^ vhidi are 

Maacolar tuBoe if of two kinds: the tbiaied or itr^ted, fonniog 
the moadefl of ammal lifS& } and the mom-tinated or muCr^pec^ fiMrmiiig 
the mtiscles of ofganie lile. 

Contnurtilitj if an inherent prupertj of nnifnikr Sbn, derired 
from its own ftractme, ind^iendent of the nerroof ajftefa. There 
are two forms of eontractiKty: one p rodnee f a eomttami tendeMj to 
Bhorteniogy independent of elasticitj, and if tenned tmieii^; the 
other acts at interralsy and bj the applieation of a stimnliu^ pro- 
dacing active oontrMtion. 

What is meani by tolmmiary motion? That which if effiseted bj 
the muscular system of animal life, or bj a contnetion of the nns- 
cles under the jnflnenfe of Tolition or the wiD. 

To what part does the fonction of ToIition belongf To the 
enoephalon — the inflnenwi of which is tnmsmitted along the ipinal 
marrow and nerves to the mnsdes. 

Where is the seal of the nenroos centre of mnscolar eo n tractionf 
The encephalic organs concerned in mnscular motion are the corpora 
striata; the thalami nervorum opticorum at their lower part, the 
crura cerebri^ the pons Yaroliiy the peduncles of the cerebellnm, the 
lateral parts of the medulla oblongata, and the anterior column of the 
medulla spinalis. 

Do the same nervous fibres convey the power of muscular motion 
that give sensibility? No: they may be enveloped in the same 
neurilemma or sheath; but the fibres are different In the case of 
the Hpinal marroW; the anterior column; and the nerves connected 
with it; arc inservient to muscular motion; the posterior to sensi- 
bility; while the middle column; in the opinion of Sir Charles Bell, 
is the source of the respiratory nerves. 

What are the phenomena of voluntary muscular contraction I' 
The nor\'ous influence emanates from some portion of the cerebro- 
ppinal axi."!, and under the guidance of volition; proceeds along the 
ucrvcH with immense rupidity; and excites the muscle to contraction. 
The mu.sclc; from being smooth; becomes rugouS; the belly more 


tumid, the ends approximate, and tlie whole organ Is rendered 
tlii^er, firmer, and shorter. 

It is generall; believed b; phygiologiats that the space occupied 
ty a muacle dating contraction, and the amount of blood in it at 
tbat tinH, are not increased, or the color altered. For a moBoIe to 
■et, it if neoeessr; that it poseeag a proper physical organization, 
and abo widowed with a vital property called irritalQitg or con- 

He BetTonB inflox is the ordinofy Btimnlos to oontracHon, 
althoogh it may bo excited by other etimulos. After a mnscle has 
been in aotion for some time, repose is necessary, even if the DervooB 
■timnlna should be directed to it. Contraetility remuns after dift- 
galnlion, bat much longer in many of the lower orders of animals 
than in the higher orden. This may be proved by the application 
of stimuli to the masdes or nerves. Sometimes portions of the 
body move after death, withoat the applicatioft of stimuli, as is seen 
ocoasionally where persons have died from cholera. When con- 
traction of a muscle takes place, a sensation instructs the mind of 
the &ct; thix has given rise to the idea of a mrucvlar tenie, by which 
we form ideas of force and resistance. 

In what manner are the phenomena of muscular contraction ez- 
pluned f It is essentially an organic and vital prooess, connected 
with an inhereat property of muscular fibre, and different from any 
jikyneal process with which wc arc acquainted; therefore, not to be 
explained by the ordinary properties and forces which operate upon 

Upon what does the force or inlenaiy of mtuctdar eontractum 
depend 7 The physical condition of the muscle, and tho energy of 
the hrun. 

Moacles of large, firm fibres will contract with more force than 
those with delicate looso fibres, the energy of the brain being the 
same ; whUe, in instances of great cerebral excitement, muscles of 
delicate structure may be made to exceed those of firmer orgmniu- 
tion. It is, therefore, where the organiiatios is firm and the 
excitement of the brain great, that we have the greatest intenntj 
of muscular contraction. A muacle is capable of exerting its 
greatest degree of force when at its first degrees of contraction, or 



when nearly at its foil length. Exercise, by impforing the phyacal 
condition, increases the capacity to forcible mnsenhur contractioiL 

The duration of mnsenhur contraction is greater in Tolnntary than 
in involuntary mnacles. 

The vdoei^ of mnsenhur contnction difisrs aecoiding to the 
stimnlns which sets it in modon. When ezdted by the will, it 
differs in obedienee to this stimnlns; and diffius gresUy by exercise^ 
and in different animals. 

The exietU of mnsenlar eontnusticm is regulated by Yolitioii and 
the length of this mnsde. 

Is a Gombinatioa of the actions of di&ient mnsdes nticessaiy in 
executing the Tsiioas morements of the body? It is. 


▲aaANGxn Airxa thi m Aincn or nn. babclat. AcooBnnro to 

THXim Acnoss. 


Ptatjsma mjroides, 
Sterno- maatoideiu^ 
Rectus anticas major, 
' * * • minori 

Assisud (trA/a tk€ l«m€t 
jaw isjixtd) ftfr 

Gen io-hyoifleu«, 


Firtof tmpesiaa, 
Splouoa eapiUs, 
Rectua poaticna major, 




Obliqaas capitia saperior. 


Fart of trapcsiaa, 
Spleniaa capitia, 

" colli, 

Foneards bf 

Platyama myoidea, 









Rnctus anticus minor, 

Loogui colli. 



Part of trapezina, 
Rhomboideus minor, 
8erratua poaticua aaperior, 
Spleniua capitia, 

" colli, 
Tranaversalia colli, 
Inter-apinalia colli, 
Seroi-apinalia colli, 
Rectua poaticua major, 

" " minor, 

Obliqoaa capitia auperior, 

*' *' inlcrior, 

Sralrni poatici, 
Ijcvator scapulae. 

LaUrailf fry 

Varinaa combinatinna of 
thoae muaclea which ae- 
porately more it forimrda 
and backwards, aasisted 
by the acaleni, inter- 
transveraalia, and recti 







Obliquu tatarovA, 

orrwI/onHrdl) »* Hulliadui ■ 

peliai, Setralui ougDui! Rhi|inbuid«i| 

P*rt ordcltoU, Pan nf deltoid, 

Put tt pesMnli) Ttrn nnjor, 

ntnaarrff »r -Sac, 

BiecH, Tricrpi, 

■rpi ladiali), 

Froaaloi quadral 

Ftnaanli bf Baeku^rili tf OitlKarii bg Imeardi bg 

Flciot caipi ndia- Eitcnaor urpi »■ Fluor carpi radia- Fluor lubliinii, 

Palinaria toBKna, Eilmanr rarpi' la- Eilcnwir caqii la- " prnruidiia, ' 

Flciut carpi uina- ExIiUHir iBc'uDdi Eiunior earpi' re- dlgilurom, 

Flinr Inrv l^iB 





FhrwmrdSyfJUxgd, BtuktcardSy or «x- 
hf Undtdy fry 

Tibialis aatieas, Gaitrocnemiaa, 

Extmaor prnpriaa Plnntaria, 

poUieia, Soleui, 

EztcBBor loogaa di- Flexor longui digi- 

gitorom, torum. 

Flexor longui poU 

ParoDeaa tertiaa. 

Tibial !■ poaticni, 
Peroneui longat, 
" brevis. 

Iiulitud inwardM 

Ezteoaor propriut 

Flexor loogns digi- 

Flexor longng pol- 

Tibialis poiticai, 

Outwards fry 

Peroneat longDs, 
** brevia. 
Extensor longaa di- 

gi torum, 
Peroneos tertius. 


Smdkwmrds, or /UX' Forwards ^ or ear- Inclined inwards by 

tended, fry 
Extensor longua di- Abductor pollicia, 

gi torum, Interoasei. 

Extensor proprius 

Extensor brevis di- 

Outwards by 

Adductor pollicis, 
Adductor digiti mi- 

Abdnetor pollicis. 
Flexor brevia digi- 

Abdaetor minimi di- 

Flexor loDgna pel- 

Flexor digitomm, 

Flexor accessorias, 


Flexor brevia poN 

Addoetor pollicis, 

Flexor brevia mini- 
mi digiti, 


What are the Attitudes which man is capable of assuming? They 
mre divided into the dctiveund the passive: the former require a 
muscnlar effort; the latter do not; as when the body lies in a hori- 
lontal position. 

Does the attitude of standing require muscular effort? It requires 
the action of the extensors. 

How are the Movements of the body divided? Into partial and 
locomotive; the former simply changes the relative situation of parts 
of the body, and the latter the relation of the whole body to the 

What are the Locomotive movements ? WaJkingy leaping^ run- 
ninQj swimmingy fying, &c. 

Op toe Function op Expression, ob op Lanquaqe. 

What is included under this head ? Those yarieties of muscular 
contraction by which man and animals exhibit their feelings, and 

* Quoin's Human Anatomy, by (^uain and SSharpey, Amcr. edit, by Leidy, i. 405, 
Philadelphia, ldl9. 



commQaiate the knowledge of sndi feelings to each other; and 
comprises two difinicnt ceta of aetiona. 

What ai« they 7 Those addre«eed to the ear, prodneing the ph«- 
BomeDA of voice; and those tfipreciati'd bj sight and hj lunch — or 

What is meant bj the Voirt, or Pkcmation ? It is the BOand pn>- 
duccd in the lajrynx while the air is p&sabg through it. 

The modificationa bj which speech is produced are effected in the 
cavity of the month, and in the fauces. 

What oryan* arc coaccmcd in the prodnction of the voice ? The 
inascles concerned in respiration, the larynx, the moalh, and nasal 

What are the comiila/ns oeccsfary to the prodaction of the voice? 
That air shall be sent ffain the lungs through the glottis, where it 
may throw certain parts into vibratian, and then make its exit by 
the mouth and na«al fossa:; volition is, however, abo required to 
cause the necessary action of the inosclcs of the larynx for its pro- 
duction and modification. 

What arc the enidenca that the voice is prodnccd in the larynx ? 
One is that, if an opening is made below the larynx, the voice is 
lost; another ia that the voice of an animal may be produced, or a 
resemblance to it, by forcing the air into the tracheal extremity 
towards the larynx, provided we approximate the arytenoid carti- 
lages; but if this b not done, no voice is produced by the air in 
pasMDg. AIm, if the miucles moving these parts aie paraljnd 
from any cmub^ the T<»ce if loet 

What nena preside over tiie mnsolea conaemed in the fonnation 
of the voice? The Buperior and inferior laryngeal nerves, the last 
of which is called recarreat. 

By whal^rAbn of the larynx is the voice prodnoedf The inf«- 
rior ligamentt, which vibrate distinctly during the productjon of the 
voice, and upon which it evidently depends. These ligaments are, 
therefore, eBBeoUally the organs of voice, and are called the diordte 
votalet. They are operated upon, and modified in their action, by 
the muscles appropriate for that purpose. 

Tho respective actions of the different mnsdes are as follows: — 



Gotwm at Fiiek t/lht Ktlti. 
(Dtpna thsOont of tlia tb<rroid cai 
( uojdeiii ud criflo-mrylflDoidei poitL 

■3 Crieo-MTIcnaiilei poatici 


3 Ciita-nrTtODOldaj Utemlti 

Thoee only whioh relax or Btretch these ligaments ue concerned 
in the production of the Toice. 

The inUntily or voIjitm of the voice depends mainly npon the 
force vith which the air is sent from the InngH, and the size of the 
imrjBX. The difference between the male and female voice depende 
enentially upon the difference in the siio of the Iotthz. The dif- 
ferent notes are produced bj different degrees of tension of the 
chordfe vocalcs, or ligaments. 

The li'mire or quality of the voice depends upon the condition of 
the cartilages of the larynx, and the aptitudes of parts of the organ 
for vibration, depending upon a variety of circnmstanccs connected 
with the larynx and accessory parts. 

CnjABT Motion. 

"What is understood by ciliary or vibratory motion ? Cilia, h are 
little huT-like processes which cover some forms of epithelium a, and 
are visible by the aid of a microscope. These cilia have the pro- 
perty of moving or being moved, resembling, when in motion, a field 
of wheat over which the wind is 

blowing, first depressed, and then 
retoming to its original state. It 
is of great importance in the 
animal economy. They move to- 
wards the outlets, and propel the 
secretions in that direction. 

* DDB(li>Dii'> PbTiioIoiTi ">' 

Fig 5 


The cavte producing this motion is not known; ik seems to be 
molecular J and independent of tbe Yitid condition and stimnli afiect^ 
ing ity such as nazcotics, electriciiy, &e. 

NuiBixiVE Functions. 

What are the nntritive fmictionsf Digestion, absorption, reep^ 
ratioD^ circolation, nutrxtioD, calorification, and seeretion — seven in 

What is eflbcted bj these fbnctionsf The oompositioa and de- 
composition of the body. 


What is digesticmf It is that process to which food is sobjected 
80 as to render the nntritive portion of it fit for absorption. 

What are the digestive oigansf They consist of a long canal of 
variable dimensions at its different parte, and communicating ex- 
ternally by two openings — the month and the anns. 

What is meant hjfood or aliment f All substances which, when 
received into the digestive oigans, are capable of being converted 
into chyle. 

How are animals characterized from the food upon which they 
subsist ? The camivarouSf or those feeding on flesh ; the pitcivarouSf 
on fish; the tfuectivarauafOn insecto; ihe pkytivorousy on vegetables; 
the ffrantvarou$j on seeds; the frugivonnu^ on fruito; the gramini- 
vorous and herbivorous, on the grasses; and the omnivorous, on both 
animal and vegetable food. 

To which of these does the digestive apparatus of man belong? 
Intermediate between the carnivorous and herbivorous; it is, there- 
forc; omnivorous^ although he is capable of living on either vegetable 
or animal diet; to the exclusion of the other; but when confined to 
one alone from infimcy^ the corporeal and mental development is 
generally inferior to that produced by a mixed diet of vegetables 
and animals. 

Will man or animals thrive and live when restricted to any single 
article of diet? They will not for any considerable length of time; 
a variety; whether animal or vegetable, or both, appears to be neccs- 


Moy to health. (For references to this figure, see Anatomy, page 

What is the diviura of atiments proposed by Dr. Fereiraf The 
Aqiuovi, MacUayiiwut or Gummy, Saccharine, Amyhceout, Lig- 
neov», Ptttinaceout, Acidahui, AkohoJk, Oily or Fatly, Protein- 
aceout, Gdatinovn, and Saline. From these simple alimenta our 
compound aliments are formed. 

Whftt forms tUc basis of all drinks? Water. 

Hon arc drinks classified bj Dr. I'crcira? 

1, MaciUiginotu, fariiiaceoH*, or laceharine drinks. 

146 PHT8I0L0GT. 

2. Aromatic or oiirinffeiU drinloi. 

3. Acululaut drinks. 

4. Animal brothsi or drinks oontaining gdaiine and tmnazome. 

5. Emuhive or mUky drinks. 

6. Alcoholic and other intoxicating drinks. 

Licbig divides aliments into azotized and nonrozotized. He con- 
siders the azotized to be for the nutrition and reparation of the 
animal tissues; henoe he calls them ^^jpkutic dementi o/ nutrition," 
The non-azotized are dengned to supply the materials for animal 
heat and respirationi hence called '' dementi of retpiration'* It has 
been proposed to call the fixst niUritive dements^ and the latter cole- 

What is understood by a Condiment f A substance which pro- 
motes digestion^ and is taken with food for that purpose; and also 
sometimes adds to its sapdity. 

What are the diffisrent parts of the digestive operadon ? Hunger j 
Prehension o/Jbod, Oral or Bwxal digeUion or maxtkation^ Deglu- 
titiotij Chymificatiionj the Action of the SmaU Tntatine, the Action 
of the Large Inteitinef and Defecation or the Mqndiian of thefecee. 
The first six of these belong to the formation of chyle; the others 
relate to the ezcrementitious portions of the food. The digestion of 
solids requires all these processes : that of liquids comprises only 
thirst, prchcDsion^ deglutition, the action of the stomach, and of the 
small intestine. • 

What is Hunger? It is an internal sensation, the seat of which 
is invariably referred to the stomach, and proceeds from changes in 
this organ. 

Wliat arc the general effects of hunger on the system ? Debility 
and diminished action of every organ, except, perhaps, of the ab- 
sorbents, which are supposed to be increased. 

From what source are the nerves of the stomach derived ? The 
eighth pair and the great sympathetic; but to which of these the 
sensatiun of hunger is referable is not clearly settled. 

What arc the organs of Prehension of FwhI? The arms and the 

Wliat portion of the digestive process is performed in the mouth ? 
The most important is Mastication and Insalivationj by which the 

PHYfllOLOQT. 147 

sotid food ia comminnted, and imbned with the Becretions of Uie 
mouth; thus, the first degree of aDimaliEation or approxiiuatioii to 
the animal it has to DOurish is effected. 

What organs are brought into action in Deylutitumf The 
mouth, pharynx, and ceaopbagtis. It has been divided into three 
stages : in the first, the food passes from the mouth into the pharynx; 
in the second, it dears the apertore of the glottis and naaal fossce, 
and attains the ceeophagus; in the third, it dears the oesophagus and 
enters the stomach. 

What are the nerrcs distributed to these parts? The glosso- 
pharyngeal to the mucous surface of the tongue and fauces, and is 
the excitor nerve; and the pharyngeal branches of the pncumo- 
gastric are the motors; there are also some branches of the fifth pair, 
which may be considered as associate excitor nerves ; and the asBo> 
date motors are branches of the hypoglossal. 

What is meant by Chym^'Jkation ? It is that part of the true 
■digestive action by which food is converted into a pnltaceous mass, 
termed chyme, and is exclusively a gastric act. 

What changes occur in the stomach after food is swallowed? 
The mucous membrane becomes florid; the different secretdons take 
place in greater abundance, and become mixed with (he food. 
After some interval, longer in some cases than in others, the 
pyloric portion contracts, which sends the food into the splenic por- 
tion, then it dilates, and this alternation goes on during the whole 
time of digestion, and is called peritiote; it is limited at first la the 
pyloric portion, but at length it is extended to the other portions, 
so that the whole Btomoch participates in this kind of movement. 
This movement, which is produced by alternate contraction aud re- 
laxation of the circular fibres of the stomach, facilitates the admix- 
ture of the food with Its secretions. The operations performed, 
therefore, in the stomach are the gentle oscillatory or vermicular 
motions, and the admixture of tlic food with the different secretions 
of the stomach, and upper portion of the alimentary canal, which 
ore the principal agents of the digestion performed in the stomach. 

What are the characteristics of ih^ ehyme? It is commonly a 
soft, homogeneous substance, of a grayish color, possessing acid pro- 

148 PHT8I0L0GT. 

periies; it^ however^ yaries according to the food that has been 

What have been the principal theories of ehymification 1 Ooditm 
or elixaiion, putrtfadUm^ trituration^ fermentation^ and ckemieal 

Which of these is the moat tenable f That of chemical aotioDy 
together with the exalted temperature and mechanical aotiona to 
which the food is sabjected. 

What ore the varioos agencies to which the food is exposed Aws 
ing chymification f It becomes mixed with the secretions; it is 
agitated by the movements of neighboring organs and the pecoliar 
motions of the stomach itself; and it is exposed to a temperature of 
100° F. 

What portion of the food is acted on^ or is converted into diyme 
first; in the process of digestion? The oater^ or that nearest to the 
surface of the stomach. 

What are the changes produced in food in the stomach? IHnL 
The azotized principles of the food are dissolved in the stomach and 
converted into albumen.. Secondly, The saccharine principles un- 
dergo a further change in the duodenum, by which they are partly 
converted into albumen and partly into oleaginous matter, and are 
absorbed by the chyliferous vessels in one of these states. ThirdUf. 
The oleaginous principles are either converted into albumen, or are 
absorbed without alteration. Fourthly, With the exception of cer- 
tain mineral substances, matters that cannot be reduced to either of 
these forms ore rejected as excrementitious. 

What becomes of the chyme as it is formed in the process of 
digestion? It is passed through the pylorus into the duodenum, 
and a new surface of the food is exposed to the action of the sto- 
mach, which in turn becomes changed, until the whole is converted 
and passes into the duodenum. 

How long a time is required for the complete chymification of a 
meal ? It varies much in dilTerent individuals, and under different 
circuiiLstances in the same individuals ; but four or five hours bos 
been supposed to be about an average. 

By what process is the chyme passed from the stomach? By its 
peristaltic action, which is accomplished by the longitudinal fibres 


which mn from ono orifice to the other, coDtracting and approxiraatiDg 
the tvo orifices. Tho pyloric portion then contracts bo as to propel 
the chyme towards the duodenam, and in this manner it posses from 
the stomach in snccessive portions as it is fitnDcd. 

Where is the process of Chj/lification effected? Id the small 

What are the agents bj which the conversion of ohjme into ofajle 
is effected f The fluids secreted from the mncous membroDo of the 
small intestine, and the biliary and pancreatic juices, aided by the 
temperature of the parts and the peristaltic action. 

Is chyle formed above the bile and pancreatic ducts? No; neither 
do cbyliferous vessels exist there. 

Is the formation of chyle of a chemical nature? It is supposed 
. to be so; yet the process has been termed organic and vital, from 
oar imperfect knowledge of the changes which occur. 

By what process is the chyme moved along the small intcsUnes? 
The peristaltic action; during which, the chyle b taken up by tho 
chylifcrons vesseb. 

What are the uses of the chyle? To renovate the blood, by add- 
ing to its nutritive properties. 

What becomes of the residuum after the separation of tho chyle ? 
It is tnosmitted to the large intestine by the peristaltic action in a 
very irregular mttnuor. 

What is the office of the Large Intettinef It acts as a reservoir 
mod excretory canal for the feces. 

Where is the fecal matter formed, and what does it consist of? 
In the large intestine, and consists of the excrementitious p&rt of 
the food, as well as of the juices of the upper port of the canal, 
which have been subjected to the digestive process ; of tho secretions 
poured out from the lower part of tbo intestines; and of the snb- 
atances which have escaped the digestive action of the stomach and 
Binall intestine. Tho chemical composition varies according to the 
nature of the food, its quantity, the kind of digestion, &c. 

What is meant by Deficaiwn ? It is the expulsion of the feces 
from the rectum. 



What is Thirttf It is the deflire for drink; and is an internal 
sensation resembling hunger, arising from the necessities of the 
system, caused by a constant drain of the fluid portions of the 

What are the exciting causes of thirst? Febrile and inflammatory 
diseases, loss of fluid from any cause, long speaking or sin^ng, oeiu 
tain kinds of diet, and habit 

Where is the seat of the impression of thirst ? Principally in the 
back part of the mouth and &uoes; but whether primarily there, or 
produced by sympathy with the condition of the stomach, is not 

Can the sensation of thirst be allayed by injecting water into the 
stomach without its being applied to the fauces, or by injecting it 
into the blood-vessels f It can. 

What change is produced in the blood by abstinence from liquids? 
It becomes more and more depriyed of its watery portions. 

Is the mechanism of deglutition of liquids the same as solids f 
It is. 

What changes occur in liquids when swallowed? They acquire 
the temperature of the stomach, and become mixed with the secre- 
tions contained in it; some of them undergo chymification in whole 
or in part^ and others do not; and of those that do not, some are 
absorbed directly from the stomach without change, and others are 
not, until they act upon the secretions of the stomach, by which 
tbcy undergo some change, and then they are afterwards absorbed. 
Those liquids which are converted into chyle are either changed 
wholly into chyme, or else a part of it is separated which undergoes 
this process, and the aqueous or fluid portion remaining is then 
absorbed without change, either from the stomach, or else from the 
small intestine. 

What is meant by eructation? It is the escape of gas from the 

What is meant by rfgurgUation ? It is when liquid or solid food, 
instead of air^ ascends from the stomach into the mouth. 

What is meant by rumination? It is the faculty of returning 
the food from the stomach into the mouth, to be again subjected to 
mastication and deglutition. 



What is Votniting f It is an inverted action of tlie fltomaoh b; 
which its contents are expelled, and is always preceded by both 
local and general disturbance. It differs from regurgitation in the 
sensation that precedes, the retching that accompanies, and the 
fatigne that generally succeeds it; regnr^tation is not osnall; 
accompanied by indisposition, while vomiting always is to a greater 
or less extent 

In what order are the phenomena of vomiting exhibited ? When 
it is cuised by snbstanoes taken into the stomach, the first impres- 
sion is made on its nerves, and transmitted from them to the brain, 
from which it is reflected to tho diaphragm and abdominal mnsoles 
in snoh a manner that they are thrown into contractioD, and press 
upon the stomach ', this organ also contracts from the pylorus to- 
waids the oardia; and by this combination of efTorta the contents 
are ejected firom the stomach into the ccsophsgus and out of the 


What are the different kinds of obsorptionf They are of two 
kinds — the external and internal; the former includes the absorption 
which takes pkce on extraneous matters from the surface of the 
body and the mucous membranes; and the latter, those that are 
efieoted internally on matters which form a part of the body itself. 

What kind of absorption is effected in the 
organs of digestion ? There are two kinds ^.^ , 

— one is where the matter absorbed is not 
subjected to digestive action, as liquids; and 
the other is where it has been subjected to 
a change, and fitted to be token up by the 
appropriate vessels for that purpose. 

Is there a peculiar apparatus for the ab- 
sorption of chyle F There is; it is called the 
C/iyli/erout Apparatus, and consists of the 
chyliferou* vtMuU or lacUtih, metenlerie 
fflaneU, and thoracic duet. 

The lacteals commence in the villi of the small intestines: each 


one in a villuS; by a dosed extremity (see Fig. 7); and the tnink 
issuing from each yillos is formed by the confluence of smaller 
branches, which anastomose freely with each other, and form loops, 
so that there is no open orifice or free extremity opening upon the 
intestinal mucous surface. 

How can chyle be obtained? By killing an animal while diges- 
tion is in full progress, after a full meal; it may then be procured 
by opening the thoracic duct. 

What arc the appearance and properties of chyle? It is a liquid, 
of a milky- white appearance ] limpid and transparent in herbivorous 
animals, but opaque in carnivorous; it is not viscid or glutinous to 
the touch ; the consistence is variable, according to the kind of food; 
neither acid nor alkaline, has a sweetish taste, spermatic smell, and 
specific gravity greater than distilled water. Its chemical character 
greatly resembles blood; the more nearly so, as it proceeds further 
along the vessels. It contains globules which have been supposed 
to be the nuclei or primordial cells from which all the tissues are 
formed. The constituents are water, fibrin, albumen, fatty matter, 
soda, chloride of sodium, and phosphate of lime. 

What is meant by Chylozu / It is the elaboration and absorp- 
tion of chyle. 

Does chyle exist in a separate state in the small intestine? It is 
first found in the chyliferous vessels, and must .be elaborated by 
them from the chymous mass formed in the intestine; this con- 
version or separation is a chemical process, but regulated by the 
laws of vitality in a peculiar manner. This function of chylosis has 
also been referred to the agency of cells, for the particulars of which 
see Carpent<3r's Physwloyy, 

Does chyle always possess the same essential character? It does; 
although it may vary slightly, according to the food and digestive 
powers of the individual. 

What is the course of the chyle ? Along the chyliferous vessels 
and through the mesenteric glands into the receptaculum chyli^'^, or 
the beginning of the thoracic duct*^, where it becomes mixed with 
the lymph, and is conducted into the subclavian vein". The 
motion of the chylo along the vessels appears to proceed from a 
kind of peristaltic action in them. 



Fig. 8. 

What is the compoeition of the chjla 
in the lacteals prior to its entiy iDto 
the meBenteric glands 7 Fat in large 
qaanlJty; albomen in small quantity; 
and fihrin klmofit wantiog. 

What in the ceotnl lacteals, or those 
between the meBeuterio glands and 
thoracic duct? Fit in medium quan- 
tity; albumen in large quantity; and 
fibrin in medium quantity. 

What is ita composition in the 
thoracic dnct? Fat in very small quan- 
tity; albumen in medinm quantity; and 
fibrin in maximum quantity. By this 
it will be seen that, in the process of 
animilation, &t or oil globules diminish, 
while fibrin is proportionally increased. 

As the diyliferons vessels are the 
exclneive agents of chylosis, and absorb 
nothing bat cbyle, by what meaas do 
fluids get into the circulation without 
ummilation f Through the medium of 

By what agents is Lymphom ef- 
fected? A system of vessels closely 
resembling the lacteals, and having tlie 
thoracic duct in common with them. 

How may lymph be procured? By opening a lymphatic vessel, 
and collecting it as it issues from it; and also by letting the animal 
&Bt several days, and then opening the thoracic duct. The former 
method is uncertain, and the latter does not give it in a state of 
entire purity. Obtained from the thoracic duct in this way, it is of 
a rosy and slightly opaline tint, spermatic smell, and saline taste. 

What is undentood by Ji/iiiphosU? It is the action of elabor^ 
tion by which lymph ia formed. 

What disposition is made of the lymph? It is emptied, along 
with tiie chyle, into the venous system. 





bumerons pet 

apparatus of Yeiiou. 

f Absorption f An extremely 

of vcasela 

, called veins 

, which commence in the les- 

'tUTM of thf 

ody by the capillary 

Tesaela, and terminate in the 

heart; tbej 

1 receiTe 

the products 

of their own absorption, and of 


and the lacteals. 

In venc 


n is there any vital elaboration, as in the 


liylo anil 

lymph ? Th 

10 weight of evidence is against 

it; it ia, 1] 

ore, BUpposed that vei 

nous ahsofption is effected by 


ilAl^pltf^r Theinl^. 


1 a -771(71(1 

By the first, the different 

textures of 

id conveyed into tbo mora 

of the Uo. 

>tion of the various floids 


BbsorptioD from the excrc- 

tioDB in the 


> tubes. 

What are 



ions? The lymphntios or 

Toins, or bi 

n the substaneo absorhed 


the veins, when no change 

or conyersioi 


irial absorbed. 

The SOU] o. IB matter appears to be this: the chyliferous and 
lympha^o vessels form and transmit only chyle and lymph, with 
some ulinc matters; wliilo the veins take up and trananiit overj 
liquid that ia soffioiently thin to permit imbibition throngb the ooats 
of the veins. 

What is meant by Aeeidtntal Ahtorption f It ia the absorption 
of Bubstanees adventitiously introdaoed into the body, or jdaoed in 
contact with some part of it. 

Can absorption take place from the cutaneona surface 7 It can ; 
but it docs not take place readily while the cuticle is entire, unless 
soaked by immei»on in a fluid for some time. 

What are other inatancca of accidental absorption? Where sub- 
stances arc retained in excretory ducta, or situated in parts not 
natural to them. For instance, when tht bile is arrested in \iK 
excretory duet, there is soon evidence of Its existence in the blood 
from absorption. Also where blood ia effused into the cellular 
mcmbrauo from any cause, it is fonud t« disappear by absorption; 
the serous portions first, and the more solid portions afterwarda. 


Do &11 tbe differeDt products of absorpdoa mizf Tbey do; from 
whatever source they maj be derived, or however different they mty 
be, utd form one mass which is converted into arterial blood by the 
changea which take place in the lungs. 

Vfiat IB the great object of respiration? To convert the venons 
blood with its absorbed matteTS into arterial blood, hy a function 
termed hemalosit. 

Where does this conversion take place? In the nir-cclls of the 
Inngs, the air of which comes in contact with the blood, and gives 
to it Bome of ite constituents, receiving other portions from the blood 
in retnm. The palmoDary apparatus and atmospheric air arc, 
therefore, essentially concerned in this function, and it is necessary 
that the action and properties of each should be understood. 

Are the muscles of respiration under the control of the will ? 
The; are partly under the control of the will, bat not entirely; they 
arc, therefore, termed nt,ij:ed, neither belonging exclusively to the 
voluntary or the involuntary. 

What is the cause of respiration ? It proceeds from an internal 
Reusation developed, probably, by the lung, through its ganglionic 
nerve, and carried to the bnun or spinal marrow through the medium 
of the pneomogastnc, which calls into action the muscles of inspi- 

What movements constitute respiration ? The dilatations and 
contractions of tho thorax, or ingpiralion and expiration. 

In what manner is impiraiioa effected? Gentle inspiration is 
produced almost entirely by the action of the diaphragm; but in 
deep and forced inspiration the respiratory muscles, which elevate 
the chest, are also called into action. In both coses, their action ia 
to enlarge the eavity of the thorax, and by tliat means air is caused 
to enter the lungs, producing inspiration. 

What quantity of air enters the lungs at each inspiration ? There 
is a great difference in different persons, and in the same person; 
depending upon whether the inspiration is gentle, deep, or forced. 

The average CBtimato is about from tbirty-Qvo to forty cubic 



iaohoB, irhich 

mir with the air already in the lungs after the pre- 

liotis erpiratio 

In what manner is expiration effected? By the elasticity of tho 

oartilngea composing tlie chest, and the yellow tisauo of tho broDchi&, 

to B certain extent, when the diaphragm and other musclea are 

relaxed; but thia is accomplished still further by the action of ap- 

pn^ato muscles, snch as the triangultiris st«nii, the broad abdo- 

minal muscles 

, rectus abdominis, socro-lunibolis, senutus posticus 

inferior, &o. 

Can the In 

en^rely emptied bj a forced expiration? They 


. It the I 

ished )y respiration? Itisdimi- 


.~li ear as oon be ascertained. 


iw ; in the Inogs after a forced 

leie are one hundred and 

twenty cubi* 

ireo ninety when in a natural or 

tpUMcent si 

d thirty in a distended slate ; 

BO tbnt aboi 

1 contents of the lungs is 

ohangcd by t 

[luu, ana tiint ilhcr more than two-third:) 

oan be cspelJeii by a forcible expiration. 

What is the lelktire time ooonpied by these diSnent ncminentfl 
of respiration? The inspirstion ooonpiea about fiTe-tentha of tbe 
whole time, the expiration about foor-teuths, and tiie inteml be- 
tween tbe expiration and the succeeding inspiration one-tenth. 

What is tbe number of respirations in a minute f Abont dghteen 
on an average; although it is subject to variation from this in dif- 
ferent individnals, and at different periods of life, and from some 
other circumstances. 

The ordinaiy numerical proportion between the respirator; move- 
ments and the pulsations of tbe heart is about one to four, and when 
this proportion is widely varied from, there is reason to snppoee that 
cither the nerroas system, or organs of respiration, are disordered. 

What other functions are concerned in the respiratory move- 
ments? Tho sense of smell; sucking; stnuning, or tbe employment 
of violent effort ; the expulsion of tbe various excretions, voluntary 
and involuntary — such as defecation, spitting, coughing, aneeiing, 

FHT8IOL0GT. 157 

Tomiting, aoooucbemeut, ke.; and the expKsaionii — as sighing, 
yavniing, UoghiQg, djiag, sobbing, &e. 

By vhat fiinotioD an tits changes prodooed on the venous blood 
wbioh rander it fit fer wttritjon ? The fauodoo of lanffuification or 

Wh«t ve the ohuiges efieoted upon the lur and blood by this 
fnnctioa T The air loses a p(^on of oxygen and aiote, and aaqniies 
carbonio add : the bulk of it aleo is diminished ; bat different cases 
present diSerent results in regard to the amount of these changes. 
The blood, in pasnng from the right Bide of the heart through the 
InngB to the left side, bec<»nes of a florid color, and this ia oausad 
by oontact in the longs with oxygen, wheio carbonio aoid la also 
giren off; bat not in so large a proportion as oxygen Is absorbed. 
This change, in the oonstitneutA of the air and the blood, is efieoted 
by paanng through the coata of the bloodvessels. Aqueous rapor, 
oontaioing albumen, is also discharged from the longs. 

What are the sourees fhim which the carbonio acid is derived f 
Irt. The oontinnal decay of the tiasnes; the amount of which is 
inflnenoed by a variety of ciicomstanoes. 2d. The metamorphosis 
peculiar to the active condition of muscular and nervous tissues. 
3d. By the direct convereioD of the carbon of the food; this last 
oouroe seeme to be peculiar to warm-blooded animals, and varies in 
qnantity with die amount of beat to be generated- 

What are the essential arrangements of all organs of respiration 7 
Tbo general plan is the same in all, and consistB of membranooB 
prolongatioas of the external surface, which b adapted by its vascu- 
larity and permeability to bring the blood and air, or a mediom 
containing air, into close relation. 

When the air is contained in water and respired, the organ con- 
sists of vascular tufis or fringes, called ffiUi; but whore the air is 
breathed as it exists in the atmosphere, the snrfiue is reflected in- 
wardly, forming chambers or passages, by which the air and blood 
are brought into the (Htiper relation. By one or the other of these 
arrangements, we find that sufficient snrface is provided for efiecting 
the respiiabny changes, in accordance with the wants of the animaL 

What are the relative proportions between the oxygen inhaled, 
and the carbonic aoid exhaled? They are inversely as the square 

168 PHTSiOLoay. 

roots of their Bpecific grayitiea; that ia, the qunutity of oxjgcn ab- 
Borbcd will exceed tho carbonic aciil given off in the proportjon of 
1174 to 1000. Carbonio acid containa precisely its own volamo 
of oijgeo; therefore, in 1174 porta of oxygen absorbed, 1000 arc 
thrown oS as carbonic acid, leaving 174 parts to be disposed of in 
some other way. A portion of this forms a union with sulphur and 
phosphorus In the body; the remainder of this moat probably unites 
with the hydrogen of tho fatty matter, and in this way forma a 
portion of the water exhaled from the Innga. 

The (|iiantity of carbonic acid exhaled varies greatly; the mean 
being about 160 grains of carbon per hour for an atiult. Thu 
amount is varied by the dcrelopment of the body, and by sex, being 
hirger in the male, in which the (|uan f increases from eight years 
to thirty; stationary nntil forty; an K^easee till old age, when it 
accords with that at ten very nearly. 'he ([luuitity is in proportion 
to mosculor dcTclopment. 

In females the increase agrees wi ,h that in tho male until 
paborty; remains stationary during eostrual life, and then tlc- 
creasos, after tho ago of fifty, as in men. During pregnancy, it 
increases, and also when the menses are snspended from other 
causes. Cold, exercise, a full meal, and some of the exanthemata 
increaae it. IKminidied in obroiuo diwuee CFf d>e rwpiratoiy 
organs, sloep^ and ^{dnu fever. It vsriea ^ao ia tine ot day; 
greatest at mid-day, and decreasing until midnight, and again 
inorsBBes. It is not fmmed in the lungs, theoe organs being merely 
the medium of its exit. Many ingenious theories have been ad- 
Tanocd to aocoont for the obange of color, but it ia not yet satis- 
factorily accounted for; wo know, however, that i( is connected with 
the action of oxygen on the red corpusclca. 

Is there any change produced in the blood by coming in contact 
with the air on the outaneons aur&ce? It is believed by some that 
there ia, but it is a matter not entirely settled. 

What is the effect of dividing the pneumi^aslrie nerves, or dghth 
pair of Willis? If both sides are divided, death is produced more 
or less promptly, the blood being less and lees changed ttom the 
venous to the arterial, aa time elapses, until life ceases. If the 
nerve of one ude only is dirided, then one lung only is affected. 


So that the pnentnogutrM nerra sapports tho funoUon of tha 
lUDgs by contribn^Dg to the chaage of blood from the vcnoiu to the 
arterial, besides iU agency in the different parts of tbo digestive 

What effect is prodaced by tying tbo phrenic nerre? AflthmaUe 
bi^atbing, perfbrmcd by the interooatals; and death in a Bhort 

Where is the central nervous point of the respiratory movements f 
It is supposed to be the upper part of tho medulla oblongata. 

O/the Cinmlali&n. 

What is the object of this function ? The distribution of the 
blood to the various parts of the body, and its return to the great 
central organ — the heart. 

What is the course of the blood in the circulation? It sets out 
from tho heart, and is first distributed to the lungs, there to undergo 
the changes pcnnted out under tho head of Respimtion; it is then 
sent to the opposite side of the heart, from vrbeuce it ia distributed 
to every part of the system by the arteries, and retomcd by the 
veins to the right side of the heart, from which it set out. 

Is the heart a nngle or double organ ? It is double, and each 
side of it is composed of two cavities : the one which receives the 
blood ftom the veins is colled the auricle, and the one which prc^els 
it is the ventricle. 

How are these two udes of the heart designated ? One of them 
is appropriated to tho venous blood, and is culled the venous hearts 
also the right or anterior heart. The other circulates only arterial 
blood, and is called tho arterial heart-^also the left or postcriOT 
heart, from the relative position of the two aides. The first is some- 
times also called the pulmonary heart, and the hitter the aortic. 

This arrangement also presents two circulations : one from the 
right side of the heart, through the lungs, to the left side, which is 
called the lesser or pulmonic circulation ; and the other, from the 
loft side along the arteries, through the whole system, and back by 
the veins to the right side, and is called the greater or systemic dr- 


What are the organB of the drcoIiLtioi] ? The Arnrt, arttries, 
eapillaria, and vans. 

What is tho quaotity of blood in the arteries and tc!db? It is 
difficult to form a correct estimate of the (|uaDtitj of the circnlating 
flojd, but the nearest approximation we have to it is, perhaps, that 
it coneislji of about one-fifth of the whole weight of the body, and 
tliat the proportion between the amount in the arteries and in the 
Terns is as four to nine. 

What arc the constituents of the blood? Living blood, or blood 
circulating in the vessels, cod- 
sista of liquor sangaims and 
red corpuacles (Fig. 9) ; bat 
when coagulated, it is separat- 
ed into two portions: one is a 
ycUowish fluid, called the sc- 
rum ; and tho other ia a red 
solid, called clot, cruor, eras- 
BamcDtum,coagulnm,&e. The 
proportions of these rary from 
•ereral circumslanoej!. The Bcrum contains water, Tarious salts, 
fiitty matters, extractive matters, and albumen; and the crassa- 
mcntum conaiats of fibrin, and the red corpuscles, called also cmorin, 
hematin, hemato^, &c. Tho coloring matter of the blood resides 
in distinct particles or globules, and, according to the best observers, 
in their envelope ; bnt upon what rlipmieal eompwund it depends is 
BtiU very uncertain. 

Upon what does the ftnnaljon of a elot depand f The fibrio, 
which, by assaming the solid fbnn, ^vee rise to the ooagolation of 
the blood. 

Ib the ooognlstion of the blood s ohemiool cor » vital proeess T It 
ia K disputed pcdnt among phynologiat^ Some chenuosl agents 
retard or destroy, while othen aooelente it. 

When was the drtnilalion of the blood disoorered f In 1619 the 
eelebrated Harvey obtained a full knowledge of the fact, bnt did 
not commnnioatfl it to the world until 1628. 

What was Harvey's doelrine of the circnlation F He taught that 
the veoons blood ia brooght Aram ereiy part of the body, and emptied 

PHTSI0L06T. 161 

JDto tlie right mnricle of the heart, from the right auricle it flotre 
into the right rentricle, by vhioh it is projected into tho pulmonuj 
artery, eaten the lungs, and puses throngh the capilhuiee into the 
pulmonary Teins. By these it is conveyed into the left anriole, and 
from thence to the oomsponding ventricle, which oontncts and 
sends it into the aorta, from vbiob it is carried to every part of the 
body, tbroogh the ultimate ramifications of the arteries — tJie ot^til- 
latiee; theae oonunonioate with the veins, which oollcct the Mood, 
and carry it to the right ride of the heart. The evidences in proof 
of this are niunenras. 

In what manner is die oiroolation effected in the heart? The 
blood is received into the two auricles Bynchrononsly, which contract 
at the same mcmieat on the two sides, so that the two ventrioles are 
filled, and by their ^nchionons contraction (which is continnona 
with that of the auricles), the blood is emptied into the corre- 
sponding arteries. Relaxation and dilatation in tho case of both 
auricles and ventricles succeed immediately their contraction on 
both sides of the heart 

How do these aodone of the heart take place in the order of tamef 
Experiments have proved that the ventricles oontraot and Hie auri- 
oles dilate at the same time, and occupy about one-half of the whole 
time required for contraction, diastole, and repose. As soon as tha 
systole of the ventricle termioateB, its diastole sacceeds and oconpiee 
about one-fourth of the whole time ; Bynchronoualy with which 
blood flows into it from the auricle. Tbo other fourth, the heart 
is in a state of repose ; but at the latter part the auricles contract 
with a short, quiok jerk, which drives the blood into the ventrioIe% 
and then contiaction is also transmitted to the ventricles in an al- 
most oontinuouB manner. 

What is understood by diastole and systole of the ventrioles f 
Thdr dilatation is called diastole, and their contiaoti<Hi systole. 

An there any sounds produced by the action of tlie heart? By 
applying the ear to the pra»:ordial region, with or without the 
stethoscope, we bear at first a dull, lengthened sonnd, synohronous 
with the arterial pulse; this is called tbo first sound of the heart. 
Then succeeds a sharp, quick sound, like the flapping of a valve, 
which is the seoimd sound of the heart 


What are the causes of the Jlrit mund of the heart, and at what 
period does it occur? The first Bound is believed to depend upon 
the niih of blood througli the comparatively narrow orifices of the 
aorta and pulmonary artflry, the paemije of l/'joif over the rough 
internal surface of the heart, the bruit mueadatre ot thu auricles 
and ventrielea in contracting, upon the sound produaod by /enitioH 
of the chorda iendinetE, and tbo clomtre of the auriculo-ventricolar 
Talyes ; so that it is not dependent upon a single cause, but from the 
combination. It occurs synchronously with the pulse (in the ves- 
sels near the heart), tbo impulse, and the systole of the ventricles. 
It is heard with the greatest intensity over the body of the ren- 

What is the cause of the aeeond eound of tbc heart? The second 
sound is referable eselusivcly to the c/oavre of the semilunar or sig- 
moid valves, and is, therefore, beard with the greatest iQl«QHity over 
the aorta. 

The following, from Curpenter, mny assist the memory: — 

Finl Sound. — Ventricular systole, and auricular diastole. Im- 
pulse Hgaiost the cbest. Pulse in arteries. 

So:ond Sound, — First stage of ventricular diastole. 

Jnlerval. — Short rcposc; then auricular systole, and second stage 
of Tentricnlu diastole. 

Are the arteiiea oonoenud in the progreedon of the blood, or is 
it owing enlarel; to tiie u^on of the heart f The blood is moved 
ia its oonrse partly by the oontraotion of the arteries. 

Wbat ia the nature of this arterial etmtraetionT It is partly 
&om the dadid^ of the middle coat, and partly from an (uA'm 
cotoraciion. In tbe large arl«riea the principal force exerted is 
from the elastidty, while the acUve contractile property increaws 
as wo recede from the heart. In addition to elastioity and con- 
tractility, arteries have also a power of iloai oontraolion, which is 
properly termed Ummty, differing from both these, and is a vilal 
property possessed by arteries. 

What part or agency have the cap^riet in the circnladon ? 
They possess a vital power of contraction, and they are also sup- 
posed to have a vital property of eipanaibility, or of becoming 
turgid. It is, therefore, infbrred that ^e ca|HUariee, by their o<hi> 


tnetion, oontribute materially to the cinnilatioii, b; propelling the 
blood forward into tbo veins. 

What are the fartxt that propel tbe blood in its circulation 7 The 
action of the heart, the elasticitj of the arteties, the contraetilo force 
of tiie amaller veaseU, particularly of the capUlariea, aod the alight 
elasticity of the veins, and perhaps they also have a small share of 
contnotili^. The suction power of the heart in dilating (^whether 
from its elasticity or an active dilatation, we will not decide) has an 
effect in bringing the blood to it; the suction power of the chest in 
inapiration also has au agency in causing the blood to flow to the 
heart by the reins; while, perhaps, expiration encourages the flow 
from it by the arteries. 

What are the modifying forces of the circulation? Frieti/m, 
gravity, cwtatara, and ana^mnote*. 

What effect haa friction T It retards the progress of the blood 
along the yessels. 

What eSect hse gravicyf It may be either an increasing or a 
retarding force, according to circumstances. Position, therefore, 
haa au effect upon the oiroulation, whether we take a portion of the 
body, or the whole. A knowledge of this &ct is often of importance 
in a therapeutic point of view. If the body is in a horizontal pou- 
tion, the heart beats with less energy and frequency than when 
erect, and the amount of blood is increased in a part by depresnng 
it below the centre of the circulation ; because the circulation by the 
arteries is inoreased, while that by the veins is diminished : on the 
conb«ry, if a part is elevated, gravity retards the circulation by the 
arteries and &oilitatcB that by the veins. 

What effect have curvaiuret? They retard the progress of the 
hlood in the drcniation. 

What is the cause of the pidu f Dr. Parry ascribes it to the 
impulse of distenaion ^veu by the blood as it passes through any 
part of am ulery, from the contraction of the left ventricle. 

What is the frequency of the pulsations or pulse? In the healthy 
adult male, the average is from seventy to seventy-Eve per minute } 
but temperament, habit of life, position, ke., vary this very much. 
The pulse of the adult female is nsoaUy from ton to fourteen beata 
quicker dian it is in the male, other circnmstanoes being similar. 

164 >BX«IO&OOT. 

What are the uses of the oireulatioa ? Principally to transmit to 
tbo luDgs the blood in a crude cuadition, so that it ma; be con- 
verted into arterial blood; and then to convoy this arterial blooJ to 
the different organs of tbo body for the purposes to trhiuh it ia 

Of Nalritwn. 
What ia iinilcrEtood by the function of nutrition? It comprises 
the cbnnges which arc constantly taking place in the body, both of 
absorption and deposition, and which effect the decomposition and 
reeomposition, or renovation of each organ or portion of organiEed 
liTing bodies. 

What is the apparaliu by which it Ib effected? The deposition 
ia supposed to be performed by a ect of minute Teasels, branchea of 
the capillaries, whose function is to exhale nutritive substances; 
and are, therefore, termed exlialanU or uiilrilirc exhaianla. The do- 
composition ia carried on by the ahaorleiiu. 

By what kind of nbaorption is decomposition produced ? By what 
is termed iiittnlitial, orgnnte, or 'Iccompoiing absurplicm. 

What portion of the abaorbent system is concerned in this ab- 
eorpllon ? Iba lymphatin are principally, if not entirely, oonoemed 
in the absorplioa of solids, which are broken down aod redaoed to 
lymph by a prooeoa with which we ue nnaoqnainted. 

Iq what oonditioR does the organic moleonle in ila simplest form 
exist? By some it iu believed to conaiBt of a cell) and by otlierB oF 
a fibre; perhj^ it existi in both ibrms. 

What is understood by the dodzine of oellsT It BoppoBos a 
matrix or organiiing material, called cyloblaatema or blartema, pre- 
pared for the formation of the tissue : in vegetables this is sapposed 
to be a liquid gam or vegetable mnens; and in animals the liquor 
sanguinis, which consists eaBentially of fibrin. In this matrix or 
blastema tninute granular points are exhibited, which increase in 
aize from the agglomeration of the minuter grannies Bround the 
larger, and constitut« nuclei, or cy tohlaste, or cell germs, which have 
within them, and formed before them, well-defined bodies, termed 
nnclcoli. From these cjtoblaata cells are formed, which are the 


primordial oeOs (see I^lg. 10). A transpuont vesiclo is seen to pro- 
ject from tine cytoblast or cell germ, as a 
watcli glass does from the dial ; this is the *' ^"^ 

commenoement of the cell, which extends 
and becomes so large that the cytoblast ap- 
pears like a small speck within, and on its 
walls. This redole or eell is filled with a 
fluid, and is irregular in shape, depending 
npon preasore, and the different forms in 
difierent tisBnes. So that the order of this 
p ro ec M is, therefore, a matrix or oiganizing material, called ct/to- 
Uattema hy some, and i^ttema bj others; which is a flnld in 
vhkh first nuoleoli are formed, then nnclei or oytoblasts, and then 
eells are developed. 

Under irhat dicnmstanees are these cells fonnedf They may 
(Riginate in two modes : either in an organiiable material under the 
influence and in contact with a living solid tissoe, or in the interior 
of prarionsly formed cells — therefore, mtdtipUed and increased in 
both these ways. According to this theory of cells, the process of 
nutrition consists in the growth of the individual cells composing 
the body; taA that these derive their support from the organic com- 
poonds which are snpplied to them by the blood; the different parts 
selecting, appropriating, and converting to their own structure such 
materials as are adapted to their growth. 

What ground is there for believing that a fibre may also be a 
primidve organic molecule? The advocates of the doctrine that 
cella are the only nmple organic molecule, believe that fibres are 
fbnned from cells being so arranged as to form the fibrous tissue ; 
while the advocates for the fibre organic molccnle contend that cells 
are not necessary to the formation of all tdssncs, since fine fibres are 
foond in fibrin that has coagulated out of the body; and tliat there 
is an analogy of stmctnre between &lse membiajie and fibrin coaga- 
lated after death, or after it has been removed from the body. The 
appearance of fibrils also so quickly after coagoUtion conld hardly, 
according to Qnlliver, take place or be produced, if they had to be 
formed by the process of cells. These are, however, points upon 
which phyriologists are not yet settled. According to Dr. Dun- 

168 rnTsioLOQY, 

glison, all we can assert ie, "that the vital property which exiala ia 
orgacizitblu mutters — in the fibriauus portioD of the blood, and in 
the blastema that ia furnisliod by the parenia at a fecundating 
union — gives occoBion to the formatioa of cells in some oases, of 
fibroH in othere; and that the ti^nea are farther developed tbroagh 
the agency of this celZ-fi/c ov fbre-l'/c, so as to eonatitute all the t«x- 
turos of which tlio body ia composed." 

Doea (ha action of nutrition affect the weight and size of UiB 
body ? It does, through all the periods of eiistenoe. The cauae of 
the developmeat or growth of organs, and of the whole body, and of 
the limiu assigned to enck development, ia dependent upon vital 
laws which are beyond our power to fathom. 

Is nutrition equally active in the different organs, or in the sama 
organs under oU circumstances f It is not j escrdse increases its 
activity, in tho muscles, for instance; and in the glands, muscUs, 
and skin, it goes on mncli mora rapidly than it does in the tcndonii, 
libroua membranes, bones, &o. 

The state of health, age, constitution, &c., also modify this pro- 
cess. JJi/pertropht/ or excctiive nutrifion occurs when the material 
for nourialiing the body is deposited more rapidly than required by 
the waste ; this frequently oooutb with particular orpns, and but 
very seldom in the tiAoie body. Atn^y is the reverse of hypo- 
trophy, being a oondition of diminished nutrition; this may also be 
confined to particular organs, but it is usually more general. 

When parte are lost, the reparative nntriUve opera^ons are ana* 
logons to what takes phu» in the first development, and ooour wiUi 
great rapidity. 

Inflammation is not neoessary to this prooess. 

The death of individual cells is termed molecular death ; while 
the death of the whole body is termed tomatic death. 

Nutritive proeesaes are not dependent upon nervous inflnonoe for 
their existence, but they are influenced by it; and it may be con- 
sidered essential to their perfect oondiUou. 

These processes are perverted in a great variety of ways in dieeaae, 
and may be produced by numerous oaases, of which the ^kolUy of 
tiie material fumiahed is frequently one. 

Is there any oertkinty aa to tbe period of time it requires to effeot 

pHTSiOLoaT. 167 

« complete ohuigfiin tho oonstitaents of the syatem? Wo have 
notliiiig oertAin oa tbis point. 

Of Calorification, 

What IB nndentood by this fimcdon ? It is that fdnction by 
wbieb bodies preseire the temperature peculiar to them, independeat 
of the soTronnding tcmpeiatnre, within ccriiun limits. 

By what means do living bodies preserre their temperature when 
placed in one below what is uatnral to them? The three great 
fnndjona of respiration, innerration, and circnlation appear to be 
neoesBaiy to Uiia end; it is a function executed in the intennediate 
system, or system of nntridon of the whole body, by a special 
cbemico-Tital action. No single act of this function in its extended 
sense can account for it; but it is to the whole of them combined, 
commencing with digestion, that we are to look for a solution of this 

The amonnt of heat produced seems to bear a direct proportion to 
the amount of oxygen taken into the system, and the carbonic acid 
disengaged, and is, no donbt, connected with this conversion. This 
function is influenced by age, sex, tetnperament, idiosyncrasy, Ac. 

The red corpuscles of the blood are important agents in this 

How is the natural temperature of tho body preserved in a high 
temperature 7 It is by the climipation of aqueous matter from the 
system, and its evaporation from the surface of tho body. 


What is understood by secretion ? It is a multiple functiun, 
which takes place in the tissue of our orgAQs, and separates IVom tho 
blood the various humors of the body. The term is applied both to 
the operation and the product. 

Do the (»gans executing the various secretory operations differ 
from each other? They do very much; they have, however, been 
grouped into three classes — the exhii/ant, the /olliailar, and the 

What is tho achalanl apparaltuf This function is attributed to 


a. Bct of vessels termed cxLalante, whicli arc rcgariled by many as 
notliiti^ itioro than tlio minute radicles of ordinary arteries. 

Wliat is meant by the follicular organs? A follicle or cn/pl is 
an organ having tho fona of an ampulla or ycsicle, Bituated in the 
Eubsbmce of the skin and mucous membranes; and Becretes a fluid 
for lubricating these parts, whiuli is discharged either by a eentnd 
aportare, or very short dnct or lacuna. 

What is a glawMar organ? A gland conaiata of an artery, an 
intermediate body, called parenchyma, which is the proper structure 
of the gland; of an excretory duct for carrying oif the secreted fluid ; 
of veins, lymphatic vessels, and nerves, which proceed from the 
gaoglionic system; these are all bound together by cellular mem- 
brane. They ait composed of lobules, each of which is composed 
of tiio above elements; these are held together with cellular sub- 
stance, and have a membrane investing the whole. 

The simplest form of secretory apparatus is, therefore, a simple 
capilhkry vessel, and animal membrane; and the foUicles and glands 
possess 0. more complex organization, but still essentially identical; 
every secreting organ possesses, as essential parts of its structure, a 
simple teitureless membrane, called pnmari/ or bitemaU memhrane 

Fig. 11. 

(a), r^h (U), and bloodveuelt (c), (Figs. 11, 12, and 13 A). Them 
three structural elements are arranged in various modes, and bavo 

been classed by some under one or other of two principal divLnons — 
metnliranei tad glajidt. In some the basement membrane ia ex- 


tended by evernon into prooeMeo (Fig. 12), bat morG generol); this 
extenraon is piodaoed b; inveinon tfid ooDTolutioi), as in Fig. 18, 
A, B, C, D. 

Simple fflandt ue repreeeotcd by Fig. 13 A, in three forms; 
Btrught tabe (y), sac (k), coiled tube (t ). 

Multilocular crjfpu by Fig. 13 B; of tabular form (ft), sacculated 

BacemoK Ot vetictiiar compound gUmiU by Kg. 13, C; entiro 


gl&nd eb owing branched duct &nd lobular structnre (m); a lobule 
(n), with a branch of duct ('.■). 

A comjxmnd tubular ijlasd by Fig. 13 D. 

la the phyBiology of this fuDCtion well understood? It ia not. 
AH we can with certainty say la, that eecretion lakes place in the 
porencliyma, or in the capillary system of the secreting organ. 

The mysteriouB agency presiding over this function has been a 
matter of controversy for a long time, and is not yet settled. It haa 
been explained by exclusive mechanical, chemical, and vital theories. 
Perhaps the truth is, that it is n vital process modified by mechanical 
and chemical laws and agencicB. 

How are the aecrdioiu divided ? Into whaled tecn-eioin or exJia- 
tatioiu, /ollicvlnr Kcretimis, and ijlanilular secretioni. Other divi- 
sions havo been adopted, but this one, founded on the nature of the 
secreting organ, has been adopted by Bichat, Mogcndie, and Dun- 
How are tho exhaiatioia divided? Into internal and exlemaJ. 
The former are recrementitial, and the latter racremcnto^xcro- 
mentitial. In the first class arc the serous exhalatjons, tho scroOB 
cihal.iti<m of the cellular membrann, the cshalulion of tbo 
cellular membntne, the exhalation of marrow, the aynovial exhaU- 
tioD, the exhalation of the coloring matter of the akin, and of other 
parts, and the areolar exhalation. In tbe aeoond ai« iJie exhalation 
of the skin, and Hie exhalation of mnooiu membnuea. 

What organs secrete the trout exhalations? The pleora, peri- 
cardiom, peritoneum, ai«ohnoid ooat of tbe brain, and tunica vs^- 
nalis l«stis. In health this fluid labrical«B these oavitiea, which 
appears to be its principal use, bat does not accumulate, being taken 
up by tbe abaorbenta; a change in the relation between exhalation 
and absorptiim may give rise to dropsy. This fluid is snppoeed to 
transude through tbe parietcs of the arteries, and to be taken up by 
imbibition through the coats of tbe veins. Tho serous exhalatdon 
of the cellular membrane is analogous to this, and appears to have 
the same uses, that of lubrication, and iacilitating the motion of the 

What is the organ upon wbicb tbe atlipote exhalation depends ? 


Tfae adipote membrane, which forms t, Tedcle ia which the &t is 
included; and it ia ktlached to the cellukr tiBsuc. 

What are the organio elemenla of fat f Ohin, itearin, margaria, 
and gljfeerin. 

What are the uses of iktf Thej are both general and local. 
The Gnt serves as a prOTimon in time of need, whether from indis- 
position or abstinence from food. The second are of a physical 
nature, dimluishiiig the effeots of pressure, forming a cashioQ, and 
by filling up the interstJoes bo as to give a rounded form and contour 
to the body. 

Upon what organ does the exhalation of marrow depend ? The 
delicate membnne which exists in the interior of bones, called the 
medolhu; membrane, and sometimes called internal periosteum. It 
periiaps serves the general purposes of fat, and also to fill up spaces 
that might otherwise be vacant. 

What organ secretes the a/noviat exhalation ? The synovial 
membnne, which is situated within the articular capsules and the 

What organs exhale the coloring maUer of the skin ? They con- 
sist of a glandular parenchyma, or organ of secretion, in the sub- 
stance of the true akin, a little below the papillse, with excretory 
docls, which deposit the matter between tliem. 

What is understood by the areolar exhalations? Those that are 
effected in parenchymatous BtructnreB— as the humors of the eye, 

What is the cutaneaut transpiration or exhalation termed when 
innsihle F The insenuble transpiration or perspiration : and when 
it is perceptible, it is called sweat. It is secreted by a glandular 
parenchyma, situated in the skin, which secretes the fluid, with ducts 
opening on the surface of the body for its discharge. The quantity 
of this fluid is varied by a great variety of circumstances. 

What is understood by the pulmonary transpiration? It is a 
aecretign thrown off from the surface of the air-passages and lungs, 
resembling very much that thrown off by the skin, and is nearly 
identical with it in chemical composition. 

How are ihe Follicular secretions divided? Into the mncoua 
and thee 

ITS f«tBt«M««. 

What is die prodact of the eecretnn ef the mncoos folticlM or 
ciypts called ? Mumr. 

What are examples of the follicular secretion of the skin? The 
accretion on the fai>?, which haa the appearance of worms when 
forced throng the external apertorc of the follidc; the humor of 
Meibomins, and of the caruncnla lachijraalb. 

What are the /ftmuitditr secretioiisf They are the milk, epenn, 
urine, bile, pancreatic juice, salira, and tears. 

What ECcretes the (tanf The lachrymal gland; bnt, as we ^ene- 
rvUy meet with them, they are mixed with the secretions of Uie 
wnjnnctiTa, canmcola lachrymalis, and IbllicleB of Mdbomins. 

What is the apparatus for the secretion of the taliva f A parotid 
gland, a submaxillarj, and a sublingual, on each ude. 

What secretes the panrreatic j^iceT The poocreaa, which re- 
sembles very mach the salivary glands. 

What is the apparatns tor the secretion of hffeT The Uver, 
hepatic duct, gall-bhdder, cystic dnct, and the dactus oommonia 

What pceoUantyie there in the etructuro of the liver? It b 
supplied with two kinda of blood — the arterial and the veaoos. 
From wbiob bf tbeie the bile is secreted is yet tmsettled. 

What are the sabstanoee fbnnd in tale F Cholalen$u, hOie add, 
bUiverdin, aod some eaHhy salts. 

What naes does the bile sobsBrre in the urimal eeosomyT A 
portion passes off with tiie excreroentitial part of Uis eonlents of the 
alimentary eaoal; anotiier portion renders fatty n 
capable of being absorbed by the laeteals, and probably o 
sugar into &tty matter. It oontuns hydro-carbon in large qnantity, 
the separation of which from iha blood is of importanee to Uie oon- 
dilJon of tliat fluid. 

What is the apparatus for the secretion of itritief The kidneys, 
nreters, bladder, and urethra. 

What is the object of this ft)noti<« 7 It appears to be to depunte 
the blood, by separatiDg from it &a elements of the snbstanoes of 
which the urine is composed. 

It is purely excrementidal, and it is the Bitrogcaous compounds 
that nro eliminated. 


Wtut is the aiuljns of healthy nrine, acoonimg to Beneliiuf 
In 1000 pftTlfl it conBiBta of: wmter, 933.00; urea, 30.10; sulphate 
of potassa, 3.71; snlpbate of aoda, 3.16; phosphate of Boda, 2.94; 
chloride of sodlom, 4.45; phosphate of ammonia, 1.65; mimat« of 
ammonia, 1.50; free lactio acid, lactate of aounonia, animal matter 
soluble in aloohol, and urea not separable from the above, 1714; 
earthj phosphates, with a trace of flaate of lime, 1.00; lithio add, 
1.00; nracna of the bladder, 0.32; ulez, 0.03. 

What aie the organs termed gltindiform gangliontf They are 
the apUen, thyroid, thymus, and supra-renal capsules. The uses of 
theee are not well settled. 


What is the object of these functions? The preservation of the 
species; and the difierent functions tending to this result are treated 
of under the following bead :— 


To what class of bodies b Uib function peculiar? To organiied 
bodies ezolnuTely. 

What is understood by unifocal generation 7 It is where gene- 
ration is effected by a process requiring the pre-existonce of an 
organised being; and equivocal generation is where generation is 
snppawd to take place spontaneously, by extraneous influences, 
widiont requiring a parent. This last theory is not generally ad- 
mitted, altbongh advocated by many. 

What is the dmplest form of generation? It is where as animal, 
at a certain period of its existence, separates into several fragments, 
each of which forms a new individual. This is called Jinipartnu 
generation, or generation by spontaneous division. 

What is meant by gemmiparoui generation ? It consists in the 
fbfination of bnds, sporulcs, or germs, on some part of the body; 
these become developed, drop off, and form as many new individuals. 
In both these forms generation is executed by a single individual. 
Higher in the scale we have separate organs, which are divided into 
the male and female; some organised bodies have both in the same 


individunl ; but as we ascend in the scale to the Eaperior animalfi, 
they are s<?parat«d, and belong to distinct individnala, in which case 
copulation becomea necefwary. 

What arc the varieties of this kind of gencratjon where copulation 
ia neccssaiyf In the firet place, the ovum may be fecundated, laid 
by the female, and hatched out of the body, which ia called oviparoua 

Secondly. The process of laying may commence, and the fccon- 
dated ovum pass eo slowly, that it is hatched before it is espclled. 
This is called ovo-fii'ijiaroia generation. 

Thirdly. The fecundated ovum may be detached from the ovary 
soon after copulation, and then deposited in a womb or uterus, there 
to be developed until the proper period for its expulsion, after which 
it may be further nourifihed by a peculiar and appropriate secretion 
furnished by the mother. This is vipipai-ou* generation. 

Laatly. There are animabi provided with pouches, into which the 
young, bom at an early stage of their growth, are received and 
nourished with a accretion furnished by Ihc mother from glands 
situated iii these pouches. These are the mansvpial, and the opos- 
sum may bo considered as the typo. 

The young an also Bometimea bom with the sh^w peodiar to 
them, and at oUien wi& forau which are changed nwteriallj, u in 
the papilio, or botteiflj. 

What are On different acta necesmy for repiodtnticD in die 
hnman Bped«ef ChpukUioii, orntqititM ot /teundatiiM, gaiiaiitm or 
prfffttatK}/, ddinery or aaeovekemaO, and laetatum or the aonruli- 
ment of the in&nt with milk. 

What are the male organa of generationf The two (oM; the 
exerttory ducu of these glands, oalled vata deferential the vmoiIk 
mmiftala; two isanak, called efaculatory ; and thepenti. 

What secToteB the iperm, or fecnndatjng flnid of the male? The 
testiolefl ; when formed, it is received into the tubnli seminiferi, and 
passes along them to the epididymis, the Tas deferens, and the 
veflicolie aeminales, where it is deposited, until it is discharged into 
the urethra during venereal excitement. 

What are the female o^uaf They are those inserrient to copu- 
lation and fecnndilion, and those for gestation and lactation. 


« ft eoatroDng agOK w Inne «Utk wgalMM 
Uwir ifimtj, difc i tl froM ifae <x^Mrf flmn of mmht. mA tkii 
tarn has been tcned eotmirj jilaMic, mitiu /jrwiatittm, let. k. 

What ia OBdtntoad bj eke lliMfj </ AoAif^ T Tb tkevr 
■a ppoae B ttiat the ■«« isdmdtBd puBHeriato m mhc Ae|ie >■ <■« rf 
the Kxea, bat nqoina to be TiriCed bj the other, i* the geueuUK 
aet, after which eoomMSce the derdop ft i or evofadioaa vhich 
teeolt in the fomutMD of a disthict being. 

How are the adTocates of tlua theory drrided? Some </ th^ 
BOppoae that the germ eziita in the onrj of the female, and reqnirai 
only the Tin^ring inflnence of the male tfom to cmne its erolnliaa. 
Then an ealled ovariaU. Others BoppoaB the male tform to oon- 
tun the mdimenta of the new being, aitd that the frmalft men^ 
afiords it a nidns and psbntnm dnring its dereh^menL The latter 
are called tfermatutt, leminutt, and aumalculiiU. 

What ia anderstood b; the doctrine of omae vimtm ex on, u 


advocated by 11' 
ovum, or i 
bum&n bei 
wanting on 
dace a livi 

What ' 
sexes, othi 
atioD to t 
a mateiix 
embiyo re 
from tho 
blancQ to • 

In vW 
some allegi 
along the 1 
of apeoial auann 
The farmer thoorj 


jr? It Bupposes all animals to originate from an 
that this is furnished by tho female. In tho 
are vesiulcB or ova, which exist in the ovaria, 
fecundated by the male to be cyolyed and pro- 

ist modern view of this subject, as adopted by 

is a modifieatton of the theory of epigcneais. 

must be a union of materials furnished by both 

I impofimble to explain the similarity of conform- 

creuuii of the male is united to 

r I m of tho female; and that tho 

a w tuese elements, impressed with life 

ui ad with a great4;r or less rcsem- 

ecundating fluid of the male reach the 

nspoted question amongst physiologists; 

m tho Tugina into the uterus, thcnco 

the ovaries; others suppose it to be 

the ovaries, through tho intervention 

[iiese have not as jet bcun proved to exist. 

the more probable. 

Is there any oosaoiooraeee of oonoeption on the part of the female 

at the moment of Ua oooorrenoe f There are no Bymptoms that can 

be depended on. 

At what period, in the human female, is oonoeption most likely 
to occur? Immediately before and after the menstrual period ; par- 
ticnl&rly the latter. 

What is the proportion of twin cases in this country ? About 
one in seventy-five. 


How are the different ages divided? Into in&ncy, comprising 
the period from birth until the second dentition; childhood, that 
between the seoond dentititm and puberty ; adolesoenoe, that between 
puberty and manhood; virility, that between youth and old age; 
and old age. 


How is Um period at infamt^ £ndedr hto tfcst thet Oe diiU 
is nshend into the worid imlil the Int itaJa^m, eoMptisng aboot 
■even montha. Seondlj. ne period of fait deatitioa, aad ii ood- 
ndered to include the period betawn Mren BOBtha aad two ymm. 
Thirdly. The baJame of the period of in&o^. 

Thtongfa what period doea (AAfieodextendT From the eereath 
to the fifteenth jt»x, or to the poiod of paber^. 

Throng what period doea adotaomee estend T Fnn abo«t the 
fifteenth to the twentj-fifth jear in moi, and ftom fifteea to tmraij- 
one m women. 

How ia the poiod of virOiig or mtanJiood divided? Into three 
periods — ereaoen^ eunfinned, and deoeaoent ririlitj. Hie fint ct 
theae extends from the age of twea^-five to thirtj-fire in the male, 
and from tweo^-one to thirty in the female; the eeeond, from thirty- 
fire to forty-fire in the male, and from thirty to forty in ^female; 
tiie third, frnm for^-fire to rixty in the male, and from forty to fifty 
in the female. 

What is anderstood by ctd agef It is the period when eTci^' 
thing retrogndes, and comprises three periods or stages : inctinent, 
or green old age, extending to aerenty years; oonfirmed old age, or 
cadodty, to eighty-five years; and decrepitode, frtmt eigh^-fire up- 

Indivipdal Differejices ahono Makkiud. 

How are the diSiirenece designated? By the terms tanperameiUf 
amttthaiimt, idwiy»cratia, acquired diffiermctM, and the varwlia of 
the human ^xeia, or Ae differml rata of mankind. 


What is understood by temperatnenUf They are those indi- 
ridoal difierenoea which consist in snch diaproportioTi of ports, as 
r^iards Tohime and Bcdvity, as to sensibly modify the whole onan- 
ism, but without interfering with the health; and, therefore, being 
a physiolo^cal eondltion. 

How are the tempcnunente divided F Into the Mx^titne, the 
bHiottt or chokrie, the melatujtolic, the phltt/maticf and the ni 


What are the character! stica of the nanyuine temperamentf There 
is a prcdemiDancc of the circulatory eastern, cLaructcrized by n 
strong, frequent, and regular pulae; ruddy completion; animated 
counleDance; a good and distinctly-marked ehapc ; firm flesh ; light 
hair; fair skin; hluo eyes; great nervous susceptibility; quick 
ooDccptioD; ready memory; lively imagination; odiliction to the 
pleasures of the tahle; and amorousness. The diseases of this tem- 
perament B generally violent; and are seated in the circulatory 
system — oi ers, inflammations, and hemorrhages. 

Whatoroti "' — '" ' '' ivf tha hi/ious or choleric leviperamaU? 
The pulse ii i, and frequent; the suheutaneous veins are 

prominoDt; ^ of a hrowa color, incliuiag to yellow; bur 

dark; body i. Ic muscles firm and noil marked ; the 

passions violeiiii •luu <^Jted; temper abrupt and impetuous; 

great firmii of character; boldncas in the concep- 

tion of proj u perseverance in their fulfilment. The 

diseases aru g .umuined with more or less derangement of 

the hepatic nliich is conaiJered to bo prominently devc- 

What lite the eh araotcri sties of the nfJanrlio/i'i- lemperiimenl? 
The vital fijnotions are feebly or irregoUrly performed; the skin 
ossomeB a deeper hne; the coantenaDce is sallow and sad; the bowels 
are torpid, and all the excretions are tardy; the pulse is hard and 
habitually contracted; the ima^nation is gloomy, and the temper 

What are the charaeteriaticfl of the phlegmatie, lymphatic, or 
pitailoiu temperamentf They are soft flesh; pale skin; fur hair; 
weak, glow, and soft pulse; figure rounded, but inexpiesuve; the 
vital actions more or less languid ; the memory not tenacious, and 
the attention vaoitlatiiig; with aversion to both mental and corporeal 

What are the diaracteristics of the nervout temperament f The 
nervous system is predominant. The muscles are small, soft, and, 
as it were, wasted; a slender form, generally; great vividness of 
sensation; and promptitude and fickleness of resolution. The dis- 
eases incident to a predominance of this temperamcht are of the 


bjBterical uid conmlaiye kind; or those nsuBUy denominated 

Theeo diatanoticnu an not almyt well marked, and the dlfi^rent 
tempemnents are nsaally blended togetber, so as freqaentl; h) ren< 
der it difficult to decide which one predominateo. 

ConttitfUitm and IdUoffrtcraty, dx. 

What is understood by the omtfidKibn of an individual^ It is 
the mode of organisation proper to that person; and they are ai 
namerooB as the indindaala tbemselvea. 

Wb&t is nndentood hj idioi^ncratgf Itis a term applied to the 
peculiar dispontioD which causes an individiud to be affected by 
extrsneoos bodies in a way different from that which they affect 
mankind in genoraL 






7IIT.'. ! U \ H ' 


What is Chemistry? It is the science which nukes knova the 
coropodtioa of bodies, and the manner in which they comport with 
each other. 


What ii nnderstood by the term ctUoricf It is the ctnoe or agent 
prodncing the sensatioa and phenomena of heal. 

What are acme of the properties of oalorio, or heat? It has bees 
sappoeed to be a subtle fluid, the particles of whieh repel each otherj 
and are attracted by all other anbstanoea ; it is imponderable ; ez- 
pandi, and ii present in all bodies ; transferable from one body to 
another; landing to an equilibrium in three wnys — by direct contact, 
by conduction, and by radiation. 

What are the principal conditions vhioh influence the eommnni- 
cation of beat by dinci contact t The degree of contiguity, and the 
ccHiducdng power of substances; electricity is excited as calorie 
passes from one body to another. 

How are bodies divided in regard to their power of amdwoing 
caloric f Into conductors, and non-conductors j among the former 
are the metals, and among the latter, or those which oonduct Tery 
imperfectly, are glass, wood, charcoal, and pcroua subetaoces gen^ 
rally. The best condncton of the metals are, first, sUver; then 
gold, copper, and tin; then platinum, iron, and lead. 

Are liquids good conductors? Liquids ore good conductors only 
from the mobility of tbeir particles, by which they change thor 
places, and thus carry beat through them n^idly, if it is applied at 


the bottom. But if it is applied at the top the coutlucting power is 
Tciy feoble. 

What is underetood by tbo radiation of calorio? When beat 
passes from one body to uiotber, independent of a taediuiu, tbero- 
fore in vacuo, it is termed radiation j and the heat bo distributed is 
called radiant or radiattd heat. 

Suppose a heated body suapcndcd in the wr is reduced to an 
cquilibrinm, what >ire the modes by nhicb it is accomplished? It 
ia done in three ways: first, by the conducting power of tbo air, 
which is very trifling; secondly, by the vwbilil^ of the air in contact 
with it ; and, thirdly, by radiation. 

How is beat distributed in radiation ? It is emitted from the 
surface of a hot body equally iu all directions, in right lines, like 
radii from the ceutro to the' circumfcrenw of a sphere ; and when 
they fall upon another body are distributed in three ways : reflectai, 
absorbed, or transmitted. In the first and third cases, the tempera- 
ture of the body on which the rays fall ia not afibctcd, in the other 
it is increased. 

In what proportion does beat decrease as wo recede from a body? 
It diminiiihes in tho ratio of the squares of the distances from the 
radiating body. 

Ib the radiating power of a body iafluenoed by the oatnm of tbe 
radiating Bor&oef It ii; a poUahed plate of metal ntdiatei ynj 
imperfectly ; if rooghened, its radiadng power ia increased ; and, if 
oovered with a thin layer of paper, iunghn, wax, or remn, it is 
greatly increased. 

The oolor of aurfiuxs has been tfaongbt to have a great effect on 
the radiating power; black radiating the most rapidly, red lesa, and 
whit« still less. This has been the most prevalent view of the nib- 
ject, although some recent experiments of Prof. Bacbe appear to 
prove that oolor alone, independent of the molecnlar atructore, does 
not influence the radiating power of surfaces. 

Can heat be reflected when aocompaoied with ItgbtF It can, and 
is subject to the same laws In this respect as light. 

Will a good radiating Eurfiuse makeagood reflector? Mo; neither 
will a good reflector make a good radiator, these properties being 
inversely to each other as a general rule. 


Wben heftt ttrikefl an (^»qae body, uid it is not reflected, what 
becomes of it ? It ■■ invsrUblj ailorbod; and then rnja are BBp- 
plemental to tha laya wluah may be reflected if any are reflected. 

What reUtion exiata between the abtorptiee and the refleetioe 
powera of bodiee 7 They are in on inveree proportion to each other. 
So that the man raya of heat that are absorbed by a body the fewer 
are reflected, and vice vend. 

What raUtion eziata between the radiant and aHaorptioe power 
of bodieaf Thoae ani&oes of bodies which have the sbaorpliTe 
power faaTv the radiating power directly proportional in most ia- 

So that one elaoi of enrfaoes are good abflorbers and radiators, 
while uiotber are good tefleeton and retainers; these qualities being 
in Tarioos proportions in different snr&oes. 

What is meant by troMmintbn of heatf It is its pas^e nn- 
flhanged, at nearly bo, throngb transparent media, or thrangb a 

Is heat snhject topo&irtzatumand dovhie r^raetiont It is; and 
also ^a depotaraatUm. 

By what means do bodies attain and keep up an equality of tem- 
peratmef Aoooiding to the theory of Prevost, all bodiee are con- 
stantly radiating heat, or calorific rays, and tbo temperature of a 
body falls when it ndiatea more than it absorbs ; on the oontiary, 
the cooler body becomes warmer when it absorbs more than it 
radiates; and the tcmpcmtnre is stationary when the qnaotilies 
emitted and received are equaL 

An instance of the first case is exhibited wben a hot body is sur- 
roanded by oolder cues; of the seoond, when a colder one ia sor- 
ronnded by warmer; and of the last, when the temperature of the 
bodiea near each other is equal. 

According to another theory, bodies of equal temperatnre do not 
radiate at all, and when the temperatore ia unequal, the hotter bodies 
alone radiate. 

What arc some of the effects of heat on matter f It is essential 
to vital actions, both animal and vegetable. It influcnccB the form 
of bodies, as regards their condition of loluliiy, Jtutdity, or eapor. 
It also powerfully inflnonccs chemical action and combination. 



Does heal invariably esepaiuf all bodies? Iftdoea, with the ezoep- 
iion of some flnidBi whioh are expanded alao at high temperatnreBy 
and are oontraoted as the temperature fidlsy until at a oerlain tem- 
peratare they again expand, finming an exception to the genetal 

UponwhatprinoipleiaaAsrmomeferfixindedf The expannbility 
of flaidB, and mercory is the one generally used. 

Upon what prinoi|de is the jpyromefer of Wedgewood fixmedf If 
we heat a mixtore of alominons earth and water or day, it eontneti 
from the expnUon of the water, and this oontgaetion is an indicatictt 
of the amount of heat to which it has been salgeoted. 

What is understood by 9fmfi& heaif It is the quantity ci heat 
which one body ccmtains compared with other bodfes of the same 
weight or balk, and at the same temperatmre« as indi c ated by a 
thermometer. Thus, if A takes four times as long to heat to the 
same temperature as B does, then its specific heat is four compared 
to B's, which is one; so that diflbrences in time of bodies in heating 
or cooling, similarly exposed, express their specific heat. 

If we take a pint of mercury at 100^, and a pint of water at 40®, 
and mix them, the resulting temperature is only 60^, and not tiie 
mean between them; the mercury has lost 40**, and the water has 
gained 20"*. 

If equal weights are taken, it is still more evident : — 

l5^:Sd:J:r7t**}S§o"}givoe a mixture at 102». 

The water has gained only 2^ while the mereury has lost 60^. 
Water has, therefore, a specific caloric compared with mereury of 
30, while mereury is 1, or in the proportion of 30 to 1. This dif- 
ference in bodies is sometimes termed capacity far heat 

What is understood by sensible and insensible heat? Sensible 
heat is that heat of which we can take cognizance by our senses; 
and insensible or latejit heat is that which is proved to exist in a 
body, but does not affect our sensations, or our means of measuring 

Latent or insensible heat may be illustrated by a simple experi- 
ment: Mix a pound of water at 174^, with a pound of water at 
32°; the resulting temperature will be the mean of the two, or 103° ; 


if, inatead of the miter Kt 32", a pmmd of bdow or ice of the same 
temperMuie he mlHtitoted, the resolting temperature will be only 
82° afta the melting of the ioe. Henoe, as much heat will have 
been rendaied latent m the mdting of Aeiee as wonid have nised 
an eqn^ wn^t oS water one hundrtd and /orlyttDO degreet. 

It is found also that one pooad of ateam will nuae ten pounds of 
water 100°, or if oo&oentcated in one ponnd, the rise of temperaton 
would he 1000°, or to about a red heat, if prerented from asBuming 
the aeiiform state. This heat imparted to the water exists is it in 
a latent state, or at lead all above what can be accounted for by a 
Iflmperatnre of 212°, which is the sensible temperature both of boil- 
ing water and steam. 

Haa BTeiy sabetanoe a specific heat peculiar (o itself? It has; 
and a change of oompoeition will produce a change of capad^ for 

When has a substanoe the greatest capacity for heat, in a solid, 
or liquid state? In a liquid condition. 

Doee the specific heat of a gas vary with the density and elasticity f 
It does. A diminntion of density increases the capacity, and vke 

Is the specific heat of solids and liquids the samo at all tempera- 
tores, when there is no change of composition T As the temperature 
increaaeB, the oapacity increases, but it is owing to their dilatation, 
aa in the case of gases. 

Doee a change in specific heat produce a change in temperature? 
Always; an increase of capacity, therefore, of the specific heat 
diminishes the temperatuie; and a decrease of capacity is attended 
with an increase of temperature. 

What determines the condition of bodies aa to their condition of 
iolidi^, liquidity, or gaseous state ? The relative intensity of eohe- 
tion lad rqmlium. 

To what is the property of repvltion owing? To heat; and the 
fiirm of bodies may be made to vary a» this is increased or dimin- 
ished. Every solid may be converted into a fluid, and every fluid 
into a vapor, provided our means for the production of heat are 
sufficiently powerful. 

b heal absorbed and rendered insensible, or cold produced, when 


hodies assume the liquid form? It ia; and of coono there ia nn 
inoreftsc of specific henL This increase of specific heat is eomctimcs 
colled the !iaxl of JiavlUy, aad seoma Doccssory to the change. 

On thia prineiple the cold produced hj Jrifforifie mirtara is bKi.-j 
plained. When aoow and salt ore mised, a temperature of xen> ifl.1 
produced, and ariaoii from the attraotioa betvoen the salt and water, 
produciog liquefaction, and thereby heat ia rendered lutcnt, and cold 
is the result. 

Ia heat ovolved, or made aenaiblo during the passage of a, liqoid 
into a solid f It is; and a familiar inatanco exists in the formation 
of ico, which never gets below 32° while changing from a liquid to 
a solid state, let the aurrounding temperature be what it may. 
And also in the dukini] of lime by water; which produces an eleva,- 
tion of lomperature from the water passiug into a solid state. 

How are aeriform substances divided? Into vapors and yiue^ 
and the differencea between these arc the relative foroee with whicb 
they real at condensation. 

Oosea ore more expansible than either liquids or soHda, and the 
rate of expansion is uniform, and the same in all gases, being abool 
the 480lh of their whole volume for every degree of Fahrenheit. 

What ii meant by a fixed bodj/t It ia a body which leaiata the 
strongest hekt we are oapabla of im)dii<uiig without T^xniaing. 

What ia meant by a vaiatUe body f It is a body which is eoft- 
verted into rapor by our means of producing heat. 

What is ebtUHtioitf It is where Tapor is formed i^idly, giving 
rise to a commotion in the liqnid; and the tempeiatnre at which 
this takes plaoe is called the boiUnff point. 

What is meant by evaporation f It ia where vapor ia formed 
quietly and insensibly, and ocouia at common temperatores. 

Is the boiling point of all liquids the same at the common prea- 
suro of the atmosphere? No; snlphnric ether boils at 8G° F., 
alcohol at 176°, and pure water at 212°, oil of turpentine at 316°, 
and mercury at 662°. 

What circnmstanccs modify the boiling point of liquids? Varia- 
tion in the pressure of the atmosphere is the principal one. The 
material of which the vesael containing the liquid is composed has 
an infiuenee; also the presence of foreign particles. Liqnids boil in 


Tscoo «t 140° lower tliao in the open air, and if eabjected to fnif- 
fioient pressore, may be heated to any extent withoat boiling. 

The difiorenoe in the boiling point of water from differenoe in 
fttmospherie preonire fhmiahes one of the best modes of ascertaining 
the height of moimtaina; a depression of one degree being eqnal to 
648 faet of elevation, from the amonnt of pressure of the atmospheie 
being diminished in that proportion as we ascend. 

A cnlnc inch of water, in becoming steam at the ordinal^ pressure 
at the atmosphere, expands nearly to a cubic foot in bulk ; and a 
large amount of heat ia rendered latent in the process. 

What cnrcnmstanoea influence the process of evaporation f Extent 
of waAjoo, and the state of the air, as to temperature, dryness, still* 
ness, and density. 

A diminudcm of temperature always resnlle when evaporation 
takes place, and ioe may under certiun circumstances be produced 
by this means. 

What are the lourea of heat? The snn, the interior of the earth, 
oMnbnstion, electricity, the bodies of animals dnring life, chemical 
and mechanical action. 


What is meuit by the science of Optictf It is that science 
which trettte of light and vition. 

What ii the nature of light t Aocording to Newton, it is an 
emanation of inoonoeiTably minute particles from luminous bodies; 
Tttj subtle, and travels in straight lines with immense velocity, 
being 195,000 miles in a second. According to the other theory, it 
is simply vibrations, or undolations, of a subtle ethereal medium, 
which ^ve rise to vision in a manner similar to what the undulations 
of the air impress the nerves of hearing. 

What is meant by a ray uf light? It is the smallest portion 
which can be separated from contiguous portions. 

In what proportion does light decrease as we proceed from a 
luminous object? As the square of the distance from the luminous 
object ii 





m liK>it tulU on n bod;, in what BUMr bit f^ ii j af! 

11 1. oi 


or primnry oolow, vis. : red, omig^ Tcflov, gittm, fcb^ ift- 

4l|i)M<l violet. ThUbuiforaloDgliiDebeaitlKnniTedfviuM, 


(Imrn I 

iM but lliriM) primftry colore, red, ycllaw 

,i>dU_; ndlla 

mhs* i 

iili'iiiU OT.'r 111" whiJu spoctrom, but bu 


Hi. <>1l« 

intrli (ioilicatuil Ii; thi< hoigbt of the curr« in thr dngBHi). 

F,«. 1, 
llhio, VHliw, R.ML 

M (^ n M 





TIluM BTii Hi*" r«y« of Iho (tpoolTUm termed cahri/u-, and r^mioj/, 
mul to wlik'b >n|iii' linvo mliliid tho m<iff»e{izmg. 

Tlio (TwiHl tYAuHtHMffn^; power of tbe apectram is about ila 
Htlilillo, nr UtWMn tht 7«llow «iid green; tlie greatot eeJorifie 
|Hiwpi' U ilia ml upwo, or bojrond It, nrjing witb the priam naad; 
t>lli> urMdWit fAfWt'rnf poww !■ In tha moe( reJrangiUe put of tha 


1tt||Kt Im neoMmry to vagotable ud animal exiateooe, and maoj 
tif llio |xlioniiiHi>nM tif tbe natural world oro dae toita inflnenoe. 

\Vlmt la umlnnliKNt hy ItrrrHrial ligbtF It is artifioai light; and 
ItiK tHiiiiiuiHt tUflliiMl uf itbtajulng it ii by combaation. 

Vi'Unl urn liiMlriimt<iitH tiftHwl thnt are designed for measnriDg in- 
toimllli'H of llghtr J'hiiMurltn. 


Wbnt is understood by oloctrioityF It is a principle called into 
action by rubbing Bufaetanoos called dectrici, such as amber, glaas. 


&0., with dry nUc or cloth, and whieh causes oontiguottB light bodies 
to move towards them or be attracted; uid the anbatance possesBiDg 
this [«opext; of attnctioa is said to be electrified. 

"What is this attnction called t Eleotrio attraction. 

What tikes fdaco wlien these light snbetanoes oome ia contact 
with aa eleottified body 7 They recede or are repelled, and tiiis 
propertjr is called electrio repnlsion. 

Can this pnq>erty or eleotridtj be oondocted from one body to 
another? It can bj some substances, but not by others, henoe 
bodies are divided into cocductors and non-condnctors. 

What are the conductonf Metals, charcoal, plumbago, water, 
and subfltances which contain water in its liquid state. 

Are electrics conductors f No; they may bo bandied without 
lodng their electriiuty, except at the parts touched ; on the other 
hand, conducting are non-eUctrics, because the clectfici^ is at once 
earned off. 

Can a o(»Miactor be electrified or exdled7 It can, by being insu- 
lated or cut off &om contact with the earth, either directly or indi- 
rectly, by means of a non-conductor. 





Futed nlu, 



FiisJ oils, 

AlkaHna nImkmB, 







Teptaltlg and aiumal bodiet. 



Why do electric experiments usually fitil in damp weather? 
Beoa&ae the atmosphere then acts as a conductor, and oondocts the 
«Ieetridty off. 

What are the different eonditiont of electricity? There is one 
oalled vitrwut, becansed developed on glass, and another called 
rmMnu, because developed on resinons substances. They are also 


termed positive and negative, the terms vitreous and pofiitive being 
used synonymooslj; as are resinous and negative. 

What relation do substanoes bear to each other, similarly elec- 
trified ? They rq>el each other. 

When dissimilar^ electrified ? They aUract each other. 

How is electricity excited f By friction, change of temperatorei 
ohemical action, contact, changes of form of a body by variations of 
temperature, and proximity to an electrified body, or by induction ; 
when excited by chemical means, it is called galvanism. 

^j friction is the most usual mode of obtaining electridty, and 
the ordinary electric machine is formed on this principle. 

That change of temperature is a source of electricity, may be 
proved by heating metallic rods to different temperatures at their 
extremities; thb is thermo-electricity, 

ProQcimity to an electrified body, or inductUm, is another mode of 
exciting it that is often resorted to. Electricity may be forced 
through space at appreciable distances, even should a non-conducting 
substance be interposed; it arises from the attractive and repulsive 
powers ascribed to electric fluids. If an insulated conductor be 
placed with its end towards a prime conductor, the end towards the 
conductor will assume a negative condition, while its other end will 
be positive, and any series of conductors will assume the same con- 
dition. It is an important principle in electricity. 

Electrified bodies attract light objects to them, because an 
opposite state of electricity is induced. When we move the hand 
towards the prime conductor of an excited machine, a spark is given 
out on account of the hand being made negative by induction, and 
the spark restores the equilibrium. A cloud charged with electricity 
passing near the earth induces an opposite state, and lightning is 
the result, which is an electric spark on a large scale. 

On what principle is the Ley den jar formed? That of induction. 
They consist of jars with wide mouths, coated internally and ex- 
ternally with tin foil. The mouth is closed by cork, through which 
a metallic conductor is conveyed to the inside coating, which is 
brought in contact with the prime conductor of an electric machine ; 
it becomes charged positively, while the outside will be negative by 
induction. If a communication be established by a conductor be- 


tweeo the two coftts, a spark ia prodnoed, and the eqnUibriam estab- 
lubed. The ooating merely Berrefl as « oondnctor, to spread the 
electricity over the snr&oe of the gliM. A aeriea of two or more of 
these jars may be smnged bo as to oonstitato a hatiery, by connect- 
ing their internal sur&oea together, and also their external snrfitcea 
with each other. In this way the effects may be increased by dis- 
charg^g them all at once, imitating the lightning, which la the 
same thing en a large scale. The object of lightning rods is to 
establish or pieserre the eqnilibrinm between the eland and the 
earth; they are poiiUed, so that tbia may be done aUeatly; if they 
presented a blunt extremity, it would produce a spark and shook 
which might produoe unpleasant effects. This is owing to the fact 
that electrioity will flow rapidly from points, while on a large surface 
it must aeenmnlate in large quandties before a discharge will ooenr, 
or a high degree of vUettnty must take place, which is meaaoied by 
the length of the spark. Eketrometert and dectroaxpa messnie 
intennty; pith balls suspended, and repelling each other when elec- 
trified, and the gtdd-leaf electrometer, are instances of these instm- 
menta. The quadrant measares intenuty by divergence of the 
[ath ball from the perpendicular. The balance electrometer mea- 
snres amonnt of excitation by the weights lifted by the attractire 


When and by whom disooTeredf In 1790, by Galvaiii. He 
accidentally noticed, in dissecting frogs, that, when the scalpel was 
in contact with the nerres, and excited by toncbing an electric 
machine, contraction took place in the moscles. He sapposed 
it to be the cause of all muscnlar motion. Volta denied this, and 
allied that the mnscle was only an electroscope, indicating the 
presence of eleetridty; it is, howerer, certainly on« of the stimuli 
that may indnoe moaonlar contraction. It la identical with ordinary 
eleotrieity exated by a machine; this latter, from being insulated, 
has great tntetutttf, but the quantity is small. In galvanic develop- 
ment, the yuaiUUg is Urge, bnt the Utttion is not great. 

What ia a stn^ roOoic or gaivank cirdef It may be formed 


hy a. piftte 
yeaselof v 
ooBtact at 
Ttaio CI""' 
from the 
fi>nner oi 
The i 


: and o. plate of copper, or other metals, plactil ia a 
rith Bulphuric aoid, and the two metola brought in 
edges, directly, or by means of a wire, and a gal- 
ill bo excited; hydrogen escaping at the copper 
DC oac nill become oxidized. The current sets oat 

the least ozidizable metal in Ae Kaler, and to the 


oxbibits a connection of three simple circloa, and 
Jie Diirrent : — 

If ammonb be OBod in this batteij instead of the dilnte i nlphurie 
Mid, the current will be reversed, on account of the copper being 
more readily act«d upon by the ammonia thitn the mac is, A 
chemical oiunge ia neoessary to the galranio excitation, and any 
metals may answer the pnipoae, so that one ia acted npon more easily 
than the other. 

Two liquids and a metal also may form a cnnole, provided raw 
liquid operates more strongly on one side than ihe other on the 
other ude of the plate. 

A battery coniists <^ a great many Toltuo oirolee, or mmpmtnd 
gcUvatiic circfet. 

Quantify is produced by the extent of snrfece ot the plates, while 
leiuum depends upon the number of the plates ; either may be 
increased to a great extent by augmenting the condition for its pro- 
dnction. The first is measured by its diemicai effect, and particu- 
larly by its power of decompoeition; the latter by its power o( 
passing through imperiect conductors. 

The magnetio needle is deflected from its meridian by a galvanjo 
current, and is a true measure of its energy; in &ot, it is a ffalva- 



nomtler, which is constraoted in tlie same way; the direcdon of the 
cnrreat is also indicated. 

Can heat be produced by galvanism ? It can, by increaung the 
Bor&ce ; plaUnom has been fiised by it with great rapidity ; char- 
coal has also been heated to wMteneaa in vacno, and it oaanot, 
therefore, be dependent npon combostion. 

EleetroiieaiioH, or eHectroiyni, is the decomposition of a flaid by 
galvanic action ; eUctrvda, or pole*, of a battery are the paints of 
the circuit where electrical phenomena are manifested, and are 
usually the extremities. 

EledrtHj/ltt are liquids which are capable of decomposition in this 
manner; and two conditions are necessary. The substance to 
undergo decomposition must be a conductor; and it must also be in 
a liquid fonn. Water acidulated with sulphurio acid is one sub- 
stance that may be thus decomposed; and is, therefore, an electro- 
lyte. When decomposed, the oxygen is found at the positive pole, 
and is, therefore, dttiro-negalioe, because opposite states attract each 
other; while the hydrogen is given off at the negative pole, and on 
the same principle must be dectro-potiiivc. If these gases should 
be oolleoted, it will be found that the oxygen is only one-half the 
bulk of the hydrogen, thus proving by analysis that two volumes of 
hydrogen and one of oxygen are combined in the formation of water. 
The manner of this decomposition is illustrated by the diagram. 

P and Z are the plates immersed ; W W the wires leading into a 
vessel of water; and H and arc the gases given off. 

The water is supposed to arrange itself in a molecular condition 
between the poles oi electrodes, a particle of oxygen is evolved at 


at oDoe to' 
oxjgeo, ai 
is throwi) 

There M 
pAy*! Chemf' 

Can mag 
^ven rise t" 
tridty be] 
pdarity 18' 
aronnd the 



Its particle of hydrogen, lastead of being trasBfeired 
Dpposite electrode, uniKs with the nest particle of 
jplaces the particle of hydrogen with which it waa 
d, which, on being displaced, unites with the next 
:n, and so on to the last, where a particle of hydrogen 

:n, a propagation of a polar foroe ihrongbout tli? 
le water, and all other eleetrolytoa, aad a series of 
impositioas and recompositionB produced. (See J/iir- 

>>' raniam? It can; and boa 
■*-n ti'tm. If a current of elec- 

e of iron or steel, magnetic! 
c current determining the 
irculate a number of tintes 
tnd an cstraordinary mag- 

Pig. 4. 

tided by a. coil of copper wire, 
boo form, and surrounded 
prevtouBiy witli eilK, bo &s to insulate it, and 
oonnec^g the two ends of the wire with a bat- 
tery, it will be fotmd tbat the two ends of the 
iron have powerful magnetio properties, capable 
of snstaining a great weight while the onrrent 
is dosed. 

The magnetism prodaoed in this way will 
exhibit the eame propertjes as that of a oommon 
magnet, of attraction and repnlgion. Magnetism 
may aleo be made to call into activity electrie 
currents, Take the two extremities of the coil 
of the electro-magnet above shown, and omnect 
them with a galvanometer; apply a steel horee- 
shoe magnet to the eude of the bar, and a cur- 
rent of electridty will be developed, as indicated by the deflection of 
the needle. When the magnet is removed, the polarity being 
destroyed in the iron, a second current is produced opposite to the 
Gist By osing a powerful magnet, and making an arrangement by 

ohbhibtk;. 19T 

which a bar wrapped with the ooU can be applied and remored irith 
rapidit;, or so that its polarity ma; be indncod and destroyed 
quickly, magneti^electric onrrenlfl may be prodnccd of great intenB- 
ity. This prinejfk has been ^iplied to machinery as a motive 
power, and promises oonsiderahle success. 

BvLcanc GaAvrry. 

What is specific gravity ? It is the relative weight of eqnal bulks 
of different bodies. 

How is it aBOertsinedf By dividing the weight of the body by 
the weight of the same hoik of water, wliich is assamed as tinity. 

How is the weight of a like bulk of water found ? By weighing 
the substance out of water, and in water, the differences will be the 
weight of the water displaced. 

Suppose the body is lighter than water. Then add the weight 
necessary to sink it to the weight of the body, and yon have the 
weight of an equal bulk of wat«r, which will enable you to find the 
tpedStt gravity in the usual manner. 

What are the instmrneuts used to ascertain the specifio gravi^ of 
liquids f £fydrometen. 

What is assumed as unity in osccrtuning the specific gravity of 
gases 7 The atmospheric lur; and their epccifio gravity is ascer- 
tained on the same principles as liquids and solids. 


What an the compounds of oxygen called, that do not possess 
acidity? Oxitiei. 

What are they called when they possess acitHtj/f Aeidi; and 
are nanted firom the substance acidified by the addition of tc. For 
insUnoe, sulphuric and carbonic acids are acid compounds of sulphur 
and carbon with oxygen. 

Suppose a base should form two acids with oxygen, what is the 
one called eontainiog the least quantity of oxygun ? It takes the 
name of the base with the addition of oiis, as sulphurous acid. 

By what name do we denote the simple non-metallic combustibles 


when united witL one another, with a metal, or u metallic osiiJe? 
Tbcy are known by the addition of uret, aa aulpliarct, carburet, and 
phospharet of iron, which denotes compounds of eulpbur, carbon, 
and pboaphorua with iron. 

How arc the oxides distinguished from each other? IVotoxiJe 
ia the first degree of oxidation ; hinoxiih the second ; ttroxide the 
third; and the t«rm peroxide is often applied to tbe bigbest degree 
of oxidation. Sesqui', one and a half, is used to an oxide the oxygen 
in which is to that in the first oxide as one and a half to one, or as 
three to two. 

Wbat is usually understood by the term ialtf A compound 
resuHang from tbe union of an acid with a base. The definition of 
a salt, aa giyen by Dr. Hare, is that it is a solnble compound, con- 
taining one or more acids, or corrosive ingredieate, the ([ualitios of 
the ingredients being either neutralized or modified ; tbe Dame is 
indicatiye of the composition. 

If tlio acid contains a maximom of oxygen, the name of the salt 
terminates in ate; if a minimum, in He. Thus the sulphate, carbon- 
ate, arscniate of potassa are salts of sulphuric, carbonic, and araenic 
with potossa. The terms enlphito, and arscnite of potassa, denote 
combinations of sulphurous and arscnious acids with potaasa. 

What is understood by iiailm/y sii^'ef, and £i:b sails? Salts are 
termed neutral, if tbe add and base neutraliEe eaoh other; n>f>w, if 
tbe acid is in ezoesB ; and mb, if tbe baae is in excess. 

Another manner of ezpressiDg the relation between adda and 
bases relates to the atomic oonstitulion of the salt. If there b an 
equivalent of the acid and alkali, tbe generic name of the salt is 
employed without any other addition. 

If two or more equivalents of the acid are attached to one of the 
base, a numeral is prefixed indicating its composition, as tbe n^phtM 
and bUidphaU of potassa; the oaedlale, hinoxalate, and qwutroxalate 
of potassa. When the base is in excess, or the acid deficient, it is 
proposed to use the Greek numerals, dit, trit, tetrakit, to indicate 
tbe equivalent of an alkali in a snbsalt. In other compounds, where 
two or more equivalents of a negative element enter, they are dis- 
tinguished by the Latin nnmeral, and tbe Qreek numcrala are 


applied to that element regarded u positiTe. For instance, a 
bidtioruU eoataing tvo eqaiTalenti of the negative element chlorine; 
on the oiher hand, a duAi(mde ngniSes that one equivalent of chlo- 
rine ia comhined with two of a pontdve body. 

Whkt ie an amjAiffot element f One which has the power of 
oombioing with others and fbrming both adds and basei, as oxygen j 
thus, it will oombine with iron, fonning a base FO; and nitrogen, 
to form an add NO'. 

What is meant by a haiogen salt? It is a erabstance having the 
properties of a salt that is composed only of two Bitnple sabstanoes. 
Iodine, chlorine, bromine, floorine, and cyanogen are the only simple 
Bdbetaneefl that have the property of combining with other simple 
substances, and forming this class of componnda. 

What is meant by kaiaiyUf It is the action of presence in 
prodndng deoompoeition ; as when a body, which possesses what has 
been termed catalytic foroe, reeolvea other bodies into new compounds 
l^ mere oontaot or presence, without itself experiencing any modi- 

What is meant by itomorphoui f It is a term applied to different 
bodies which have the same crystalline form. 


What is anderstood hy chemical q^nity, or attrattionf It is 
that affinity or attraction which is exerted between the minutest 
partioles of different kinds of matter, causing them to combine, and 
form new bodies, with new properties. 

Does it aot at tentible or intenttbU distances? It acts only at in- 
mntibU distances, or when in apparent contact. 

Whatis an instance of cA^mim^airraefion^ When we mix water 
and alcohol, or water and solphnric acid, a union takes place, which 
ia an example in ques^on. 

What is understood by lin^e decline affinityf Suppose we have 
a oompound formed by the nnion of ammonia and oil, and to this 
we add sulphuric add, the greater attraction of the ammonia for the 
solphnric acid tlian exists between it and the oil, will cause it to 
leave the oO, and unite with the acid; this is an instance of single 


elcctiTe affinity, so termed because ibere nppeais to bo an election, 
or ctioice cicrcised. 

Wlmt is meant bj douhk efec/Uc offmit^? Suppose two Bslta 
having iliffLTeot acids and bases, say carbonate of ammonia and 
hydrochlc.ral* of lime, be mixed together, tbe carbonic acid will ijuit 
the ammonia, and unite with the Umc; the bjdrocbloric acid will 
also leave the lime, and unite trith the ammooia; so that both ori- 
ginal salts will be decomposed, and two new ones formed; this ia 
an inslanec of doable elective affinity. The affinity which tends to 
resist a change is called qniexent affinity, ud tbe one which tends 
to produce it is called diiirSatt a£uity. 

What leading circumstances charaeterizo chemical action ? The 
loss of properties of the combining substances, and tbe aMjuisitJon 
of new once la the new compound; clianges of density, temperature, 
forra, and color. 

What circumstancea modify tbe operalion of affinily? Cahe»on, 
elasticity, quantity of matter, gravity, pressure of the atmosphere^ 
and the agency of the imponderables. 

Do bodies unite in definite or indtfinile proportions f Most bodies, 
in forming chemical combinations, unite in definite proporliouB. 
Some unite indcfiuitely, but with a feeble nffinity. 

Those subst&Dcw that noitfl is deGuite proportionB fi»m but few 
different compounds with each other ; some of them but one, some 
two, others agun nnite in three, four, fire, and even mx, wbidi is 
the highest number of oompounds that any two substances ai« known 
to produce. They are governed by ^ree remaikable laws ^— 

Firit lavs. — The oompoeition of bodies is fixed and Innriable. 

Second law. — The relative quantities in which bodies unite may 
be expressed by proportional numbers. 

Third taw. — When one body, A, unites with another body, B, 
in two or more proportions, tbe quantities of the latter, united with 
the same quantity of the former, bear to each other a very umple 

All substances contai&ing only two atoms are called binary com- 
pounds ; those of three, ternary; of four, juatemory; and so on. 

Substunces also unite in definite volumes, so that the lavrs of 
combination may equally well be deduced from the volumes or from 



the wughta of oombiniDg mbstanoes, and the compoeitiaii of g^aeong 
bodk« mftj be u well ezpreaaed by meaanie as weights. 

Whftt ii understood hj chemical equivalent f It is ■ nnmber 
r e pr c a e nting the least combining proportJoos of a body, which is 
eqninleut to anotha bodj, and may be snbstitnted for it in oom- 
binations. These combining proportiona may bo expressed by num- 
ben, in which hydrogen is represented as 1, and they represent 
relatire, and not absolute neights. 

What is meant by itomerie OT-metamenc bodies? Bodies are 
tenned isomeric or metamerio which contun the same chemical ele- 
ment^ and in the same ratio, and yet have chemical properties 
dHEsrent from each other, as the oU of lemons (C^S*), and the oil 
<rf copailM (CB*). 

What is the difierence between polymeric and melamerie bodies? 
A body is said to be polymeric of another when the relative propor- 
tion of its elements Is the same, but which has twice or thrice the 
eqniTalent nomber of the one below it. Thus, oil of turpentine 
{CS^^ is polymeric of the oil of calamns (CM*). 

How may the equivalent of compounds be determined? By 
adding together the numbers repreeenting the equivalents entering 
into the combination. These numbers are sometimes termed atomic 


What is a symbol ? The firat letter of the Latin name of an 
element, or if two elements be^n with the same letl«r, a second 
smaller one is added. Thus, N stands for nitrogen, and Ni for 
nickel. A symbol itself indicates one equivalent of an element, as 
CI, which implies one atom of chlorine. 

What are the symbols for the three physical forms of matter ? 
A tolid is represented in Roman type, as Zn for tine ; a li^id is 
represented is italics, as HO for water; and a^ot by a small luur 
letter, O for oxygen. 

How are the symbols of organic bodies distinguished from the 
inorganicf By having a line drawn over them, as . Pt, which 
stand for malic add and protein, respectively. 


Wliat rule is oli^crvcd in writing formulus ? If it be an ampLigen 
Bait, the base ia plaeeil before the acid, lu in sulphate of Botla 
(NaOSO'). If a halogen salt, the motallio rjdiuil is placed before 
the gait radical, as in the chloride of einc (ZnCl)- In all other 
caaes the bodj most reaembliog oxygen is placed on the right of the 
other element 

When a compound consists of several equivaknta of the samo 
elements, liow are they multiplied ? Bj placing small figures to 
the right of tfao symbols, as C^II^O, which Is the formula for 

Bow is an uncombincd element multiplied ? By placing a krge 
figure to the left of the symbol, as 40, which eigniliea four equiva- 
lenla of froo oxygen. 

When a large fignro is placed before a compound, bow far does it 
multiply ? To the first comma or plus sign, as 3NaO,PO', which 
is tribosic phosphate of soda; or, if the symbols arc endoscd in a 
parenthesis, it multiplies all within it, as 4(^0080'); which indi- 
cates equivalentfl of sulphate of iron. 

Is the entire formula of a componnd body always expressed 7 
No ; it is frequently abbreviated, aa Cy for eyauogon, instead of 
NO, which expresses its ultimate composition. 

How is the Bjmbol for oonstjtalion&l water distingniahed from 
that of wat«r of aTat&Uisation J Constitutional WKter ii printed in 
the symbols of ita elemente, thns, HO, as NaOCOHOCO*, whioh 
is bicarbonate of soda, tiie water in it being neoesBuy to its exist- 
ence. On die other hand, Aq is the symbol for the water of crys- 
tallization, as in Al*0*8SO,KOSO'+24 Aq, the formula for common 
alum, the cryBtalUne form of which is destroyed hy driving off the 
2 1 equivalents of water. 

When was oxygen dUcoveredf By Priestly in 1774, and by 
Scbccic a year or two aflcr, without a knowledge of its prior dis- 
covery. It was termed dephlogittkated air, empffrtal air, and vital 

IIow is oxygen obtained f It^may be obtained &om the peroxides 


of mftnganese, lead, and mercniy, nitre, and cUorate of potash, hj 
expontn to a red heat. It may be obtained from the former bj 
heating it to redness in a gnn barrel, or heating it in a flask with 
an eqnal weight of concentrated snlphnno acid, by meana of a 

What ia the rationak of these last two processes ? On applying 
a red heat to the peroxide of manganese, it parts with half an equi- 
valent of oxygen, and ia converted into the Bcsquioxide, thus : 

When mixed with sulphntio acid, the peroxide loses a whole cqui- 
nlest d oxygen, and is conTerted into the protoxide which nnites 
with the aoid, leaving a sulphate of the protoxide in the retort, 
thus: SOSCf+JiiiiO^UDOSO+MO+O. 

What is the rationale when procured &om the chlorate of potash 7 
A retort of gUsecontiuning no lead in its oompoaition should be used. 
The chlorate first becomes liquid, and on an increase of heat ia 
wholly leeolTed into pure oxygen gas, which escapes, and into a 
white compound, which is the chloride of potasunm, and remains in 
the retort, thus: K0C10>=ECl+60. Or thus:— 

Tia oijgeo is, therefore, derived partly from the potasaa, and 
partly frtnn the chloric aoid. Procured in this way it ia very pure. 

By the addition of the black oxide of manganese to the chlorate 
of potash, it may be obtained at a much lower temperatoie, and with 
▼617 nmple apparatugj the oxide of manganece, in this case, operates 
■imi^y by its presence without undergoing chemical change itself, 
n that deoompoeition is effected by katalysis. 

What are the propertU* of oxygen gas ? It is colorless, innpid, 
inodorous, refracts light feebly, a non^sondnctor of electricity, the 
moot perfect electro-ncgaliTe substance we poesesB, heaTict than 
atmospheric air, nnites with some snbetanoes which are said to be 
oxidised, and are divided into oxides and acids; supports combustion 
in a high degree, and is necessary in a diluted state to the respira- 
tion of animals; pure, it is deleterious. Its specific gravity is 1.102 ; 
equiralent 8 ; and symbol 0. 


What is uoderetood by comhiMlonT In its common acceptatioa, 
it mcana the rapid anion of oxygen with a combuBtib!e material, 
attended with the emisaion of light and heat. Bat the onion of 
many other suhstanoea ia uIbo chunLcl«rized hy similar phenomena. 

The lowest compound formed by oxygen is called the pjvloxide; 
the second, bi or detUoxide; the third, ter or tritoxidt:, &c. When 
the ratio of 1 to 1 1, or 2 to 3, exifrts, the term te^yui is employed. 

FeO, prolojtido of iron; FeO', the bioxide; FeC, tritoiido; 
Fe°0', the scaquioxide. 


"When was hydrogen diaxiverol f It waa first described by Caren- 
dish, in 17C6, ander the name of inflammable air. 

How is hydrogen prorureiif It may be procured tolerably pare 
by passing the vapor of water over metallic iron, heated to redness, 
and by puttjng pieces of iron or zinc into dilute sulphunc acid. 

What ia the ralioncife of these processes? In the former case, 
the osygen of the water unites with the red-hot iron, and the hy- 
drogen is set Kt liberty, thus : flFe+4£rO-FH)»+FeO+4H. In 
the latter, the oxygen of the water nnitoe with the metkl, and fbmu 
an oxide, whicb unites with the aud, and forms a salphste, wJiile 
the hydrogen of the water is set at liberty, thu> : ffOSO'+Za^ 
ZnOSC+H. Orthns:— 

Wttti i^ ^' •*riro«M. 

Snlphaiio Mid . (B^ 

— ^*'^ - ■ZbOBO'. BalpbaM of liso. 

What are the prcpertia of hydrogen gas ? It ia colorless, has 
neither odor nor taste, is a powerful refractor of light, the lightest 
body known, will not support respiration, a non-supporter of com- 
bustion, highly inflammable, hut, like other combustibles, requires 
the aid of a sapporter of combostioo, electro-positive, and prodnoes 
a remarkable alteration in the voice when breathed. If a jet bo 
thrown upon spongy platinum, it is ignit«d. Its equivalent is 1 ; 
symbol H; sp. gr. 0.0689. 

What is the product in the combostion of hydrogen? Water; 


wbicb will be exactly equal in veight t« the gases disappeuiDg; it 
gives off Tery little light in burning. When Id contact nith oxygen 
it may be set ou fire by flame, a solid body heated to redness, the 
electric spark, and spongy platinnm, if thrown on it in a jet. 

The amonnt of heat evolved is very great, as is best exhibited by 
Hare's compound blowpipe, which is arranged so that the oxygen 
and hydrogen, emitted from gasometers, are mixed at the point of 
ignition, and produces the greatest heat known. The Dmmmood 
light ia formed by a jet of this, ignited and thrown on lime. 

What are the chemical relations of water 7 It has tolvml pro- 
perties exceeding any other liquid. It exhibits Jeeb/e acid proper- 
ties by uniting with bases and neutralizing them in some degree, u 
in its union with potash. It also sometimes acts the part of a hoMt, 
and is neceuary to the existence of acidity; as an instance of this, 
dry sulphuric acid exerts no acid properties until united with water. 
It exists in some salte aa comfiCutional water, in which case it is 
necessary to their existence, and if driven off by heat, the salt is 
decomposed. Epsom salts ia an instance of this. 

It is found also in crystals, and necessary to their existence, in 
the form of what is termed leater of cryataJtisation. 

What is the proportion existing between the oxygen and hydrogen 
in the formation of water ? By measure there is two volumes of 
hydrogen to one of oxygen: by weight 88.9 oxygen to 11.1 hy- 
drogen, or nearly as 8 parts oxygen to 1 of hydrogen. Its symbol 

How many combinatioos are there of oxygen and hydrogen? 
Two; one in the proportion to form water, and another, which is the 
peroxide of bdyrogen, HO', and contuns twioe as much oxygen U 
is ooDtainod in water. 

The peroxide of hydrogen is a colorless, inodorous, tnnsparent 
liquid, and has strong bleeching properties. At a tempenture 
above 55° it efiervesoes with the escape of oxygen gas, and explodes 
violently at 212° ; has a metallic taste, and becomes thick by evapo- 
ration. Metals and their oxides decompose it 

Ozone has been supposed to be a new form of peroxide of hydro- 
gen, although it has never been isolated. 



NiTHOfiEN, OB Azote. 

How is nitrogen procured? Bj burning a pieco of pboephorus 
ID a jar full of air, inverted over water; the osygcn of tlic atmo- 
Bphere uniU ith tbo plioephorua, formiag mcta-phosplioric aoiil, 
vhioh is abi led by tlio water. Nitrogen remains in tho jar, in 
OombinatioE :b a small quauLitj of carbonic acid, wbicb maj bo 

removed by . 

tating it with a solution of pure potaasa. Or it may 

be prooured ». 

.J ■ r ..jMiltAiivi: 

'i will take the oxygen from 

the attnospbei 

the uiti 

It was first noticed by 

Kutherford, iL 

What £u 

? It ia colorless, devoid of 

taste or bo.. 


igativo characters than by 

any striking 

if combustion and reapira- 

tion, uid no< 

at is 14.0G; ep. gr. 0.072; 

symbol N. 

How many 

form with oxygon? Five, 

besides its c< 

e, whi^h ifl confiiJerod as a 

mechanical n... 

coMPonmis or hitsookit wits oxroxir. 

Bt Tolnme. 

N. O. Bfweight. EqaiT. UfmlHdi. 

Nitrons Oiide, 100 60 14.06+8 =22.04 NO 

NilcioOxiJe, 100 100 14.00+16—30.04 NO* 

HrponiliousAoid, 100 150 14.00+24=38.04 NO" 

NitcooiAcid, 100 200 14.06+ 32t=4e.04 NO* 

Nitrio Aciil, 100 9S0 14.06+40-^54.04 NO* 

What is nnderstood by the air or atmoipheref It is that mass 
of gaseous matter by which tbe enrtb is surrounded on all sides, 
and adheres to it by tbo force of gravity. Its pressure on the sur- 
fiice of the earth is equal to about 15 pounds to the square inch of 
surface, which rendera it capable of supporting a column of water 
34 feet high, and one of mercury 30 inches. 

Is the prcuure of tbe atmosphere invariably the same 7 No; it 
varies at different times, and according to tbe eloration above the 
level of tbe sea, as indicated by a barometer. 

What are the component partt of tbe atmosphere? It is com- 



poeed of oxygen 20 or 21 parts; and oitrogen 79 or 80 hj volome; 
it also oontaitu & little carbonio acid. By weight, it ia oxygen 23 ; 
nitrogen 76; carbonic acid, ammonia, and vatery vapor 1. The 
principal chemical properties are owing to the presence of oxygen. 

How is ihe jrrobxcide of nitrogen or nittvui oxide procured? By 
BnbjeoUng the nitrate of ammonia to heat, which is decomposed, 
and the products are protoxide of nitrogen and water. 

What is the rationale of this process ? The nitrate of ammonia 
is oompoeed of nitric acid and ammonia. The nitric add is com- 
posed of one equivalent of nitrogen, and five of oxygen ; and the 
ammonia of one of nitrogen and three of hjdrogenj making in all, 
two e(|nivalenta of nitrogen, five of oxygen, and three of hydrogen. 
By the addition of heat their relations are changed, ho that tho 
three equivalents of hydrogen nnilc with three of the oxygen, and 
form water, leaving two equivalents of oxygen and two of nitrogen, 
which unite and form the nitrons oxide, thns : NH'NO^Sf O-f- 
2N0; or, considering the nitrato of ammonia to contain one equi- 
Tilent of water, tfans :— 

What arc the properliet of nitrous oxide 7 It is a colorless gas, 
absorbable by pnre water, a supporter of combustion, produces exhi- 
laration when breathed, without being followed by depression or 
languor. It is what is termed exhilarating or laughing goi. 

How is the binoxide procured? By the action of nitric acid on 
metallic copper; the gas escapes and may be collected over water or 

What is the rationale of this process 7 One portion of nitric add 
is decomposed ; part of its oxygen oxidizes the copper, while another 
part is retained by the nitrogen, forming tlie binoxide or nitric 
oxide,thM: 4yO'+3Cu=3CuONO-|-NO«. Orthus:— 

EqaivaJeDt 30.04; formula KO'; sp. gr. 1.030. 

What are the properties of the biooxide of nitrogen? 

It L 

colorless gas; when mixed with any gaaeons mixture containing 
oxygen dense Buffocating acid vapors of a red or orange color aro 
produced, niuch are nitrous acid, and are copiously abaorbable by 
water. TLia poculiurity is a distinguishing lest for nitric oxide, and 
ia also a test for tbe preaenco of free oxygen. It is not poseeaeed 
of acid properties, and is irreepirable. 

How is hj/ponknnu acid produced? By adding binoxide of 
nitrogen to oxygen in excess, pure potasb being present, 100 mea- 
sures of oxygen combifle with 400 of tbe binoxiJe, and Lyponitrous 
acid is formed, whicli unites with the potash. 

What are ila properties? At 0° F., anhydrous 1i(|uid, hyponi- 
troQfl acid is oolorless, and green at common temperatoiea, Teiy 
volatile, passDg off in the form of an orange vapor; on admixture 
with water it ia converted into nitric acid, and Innoxide of nitrogen, 
thns : 3N0> and HO-NO and 2N0*. Formnla NO*; equivalent 
38.04; sp. gr. (of gas) 1.72. 

How is nitrouM acid obtained ? By introducing 200 measures of 
binoxide of nitrogen into a dry exhausted glass vessel, with 100 of 
oxygen ; also by subjecting the nitrate of lead, carefully dried, to a 
red heat, thus: PbONO'=PO+0+NO'. 

What are its properties? Its vapor is of an orange-red color, 
irrespirable, has acid properties, is absorbed by water, the binoxido 
of nitrogen being disengaged, and nitric acid remains in tbe water, 
thus: 3N0* yield SNO and NO'. Formula NO*; equivalent 46.04; 
sp. gr. (of gas) 8.18 ; of liquid 1.45. Its vapor raay be condensed 
by a freezing mixture, into a liquid, in which state it is anhydrous 
acid, and pungent to the taste, gives a yellow st^n to tho skin, and 
is very corrosive. At 0° it is nearly colorless, and at 32° it ia 


jellow. When mixed with a considerable qosntit; of mter it is 
inatantly reaolved into binozide of nitrogen, vhioh escapes with 
^erreKenoe, and into nitrio acid which unites with the water. 

How maj nitric add bo procnred? By adding binoxide of 
nitngoi alowly over water, to an exoess of oxygen gas. It is com- 
posed of 100 measures of nitrogen, and 250 of oxygen. For oom- 
meroe it is [ax>cnied by decomposing some salt of nitrio acid with 
oil of Titriol; and oommon nitre or saltpetre is generally employed, 

Oati nitrio aoid exist in as insulated state? Yes; but it is diffi- 
onlt to obbun it pnre ; it exists in a dry crystalliiie form, and exerts 
no add reaotious unless developed by water. In oommeroe it is 
geoenlly known by the name of aguafoniM. 

What are its propertiet f It is highly acid, largely diluted it 
reddens litmus paper permanently, unites with alkalies forming 
alts, which are called m'trates. In its purest concentrated fbnn it 
is etdnlsM, and has a specific gravity of 1.5 or 1.51. At 1.5 it 
oratains 20 per cent, of water, for which it has a great affinity, acts 
powerfolly on substances disposed to unite with oxygen, decomposes 
Tegetables, the oxygen of the add uniting with their hydrogen, 
forming water, and also with the carbon, forming carbonic acid. 
JJt the salts of nitric aoid are soluble in water. 

Niirio acid of $p. gr. 1,52— NO.+HO, J* pec cent, of woier. 
" - 1.50— NO^SHO, 20 " 

" 1.42— N0,+4H0, 40 " • 

What are the letU for nitric acid and the niirata? When nn- 
oombined, it is readily detected by its strong action on copper and 
merenry, emitting raddy fumes of nitrous add. 

Another, is to mix the Rupposed nitrio acid, or nitrate, with dilate 
sniphuria add, add to this eomo pure eIdc, and set fire te the hy- 
drogen as it is evolved; if nitric acid is present the flame will have 

210 0HBM16TRS. 

a. greenish white tint, vhich ta omng to the prcsenoe of the binoxide 
of uitrogca. 

Another, ia to add to the sopposod nitrate a drop of sntpbaric 
acid heated in a test tube, and then add a crystal of morphia, 
which, if nitric acid be present, will become of an orange red fol- 
lowed hj a yellow color. The eulphnric acid in this case Bhould 
also be tested previously. 

In what 
charcoal an 

Tho volaUK 
which is ca' 
animal cAu 

cd to ns ? In the form of 

to redneEs in a close TCGseL 
part remain^ 

sd instead of wood, 
inmond is found 1 

a pure 

What are ' It it highly oombuatible, 

hard, and bi , m, a good condnctor of elec- 

tricity, very reiract«ry in tJie lire if tbe air in esdudcd, absorbs air, 
or other gaaea, largely, and yields them again on the applieatioo of 
heat; the proportion, however, varyiog in difTcrcnt gases, and ab- 
sorbs the odoriferous and coloring particles of animal and vegetable 

Animal charcoal is moetly used when wa wish to deoolorbe fluids, 
by being finely pulreriied, and having the fluid filtered throogh it. 
The equivalent of carbon is 6.12, symbol C. 

What are the compounds of carbon and oiygen 7 There are two; 
carbonic oxide, CO, and oarbonio acid, CO". 

How is carbonic acid, or fixed air, procured f It may be expelled 
from common limestone or magnesia (which are carbonates), by the 
action of heat or acids, thus : CaOCO-hSO'— CaOSO+CO». Or 
thus : — 


It is iIbo formed dariiig respindon, fertneatation, and oombiulaoii. 
When it aocamalatea in wells, &o., it is called cJtoke damp. 

What are thepropertia of oarbonio add? It is colorleis, inodor- 
ous, eUslio, oondensible into a liquid under a pressure of S3 atmo- 
gphercs, BOtj be froxen into a wUte solid, will not support respiration 
or oombnition, inoombnstible, renders lime-water tnrbld by the 
foimatioa ot carbonate of lime, absorbable hy water, the qnantit; 
ahmrbed being very much increased hj pressnre; and, when the 
preasnre is removed, it escapes with an effeiresoence. The agreea- 
ble, lively taste of beer, porter, ale, mineral water, &o., is owing to 
its pnsenoe. It unites with alkaline substanoes, and the salts so 
finrned aie termed carbonaia. It is easily displaced from all ite oom- 
binations by the hydrochloric and the stronger acids, when it escapes 
with eSerresoenoe. Formula C0>; equivalent 22; sp. gr. 1.52. 

How is carbonic oxide procured f By ezpodng two parts of well- 
dried chalk and one of pure iron filings to a rod heat, and washing 
the gpa evolved with lime-water, or an alkaline solution, which ab- 
Htba the carbonic add and leaves the carbonic oxide. 

Another mode is to mix binoxalate of potash with five or ux times 
its wdght of sulphuric acid, and heat it in a retort ; an eBervescence 
■(Km mm'v, which is a mixture of carbonic acid and carbonic oxide, 
and may be separated in the same manner as in the preoediog 

What ia the raiioncUe of this last process 7 Oxalic acid is a com- 
pound of equal parts of the elements of carbonic acid and carbonic 
oxide, and they cannot exist in the form of oxalic acid, unless in 
combination with water, or some other substance. The sulphuric 
add then unites with both the potassa and water of the binoxalate, 
and the oxalic acid being thus set &ee is decomposed, thus : 
HOCX)'-*- SO'~H0SO'+CO +C0'. 

^CO. Catbonie oiid«. 

kCO*. CHtboDicicid, 

-SO>HO. SnlphBte of water. 

What are the properties of carbonic oxide ? It is colorless, 
inupid, has no acid properties, inflammable, burning with a lambent 



blue flame, and irreapirable. Formnla CO; eqnivaleDt 14 ; Bp. gr. 




ic Bcid (plioigene gBf) 


. CO+O. 
. 2C04-0. 
. CO+CI. 

. aco4-H. 

. 4CO+H. 

tn what 
region of 
talliscd; il 
copper, ant I 
'wiiicii U ca 
l)j oxposurt 

What art 

ihur ? It id found in tko 
vo state, sometimes crys- 
the metals, snch as silver, 
its combiDation vith iron, 
tKured in large qnantitiefl 
1, when it is sublimed. 

j solid, brittle, of a 

green ieh -yellow coior, aaa a peculiar odor wben rubbed, tasteless, 
crj-stallizablo, a non-conductor of electrieitj, negatircly eleclrified 
by friction, fused at 216° F.; if the temperature is raised to 3i20" 
it thickona and acquires a reddish tint, 428" to 482° it is so tena- 
cious that the vessel may be inverted without causing it to change 
its place, if raised still higher, to its boiling point, it again becomes 
liquid ; ut the temperature of 42S°, if poured into wat«r, it bocomea 
ductile. It is volatile at 550° to 600°, and is condensed unchanged 
at lower temperatures. Its equivalent ial6.1; symbol 8; 

What arc tho compounds of sulphur and oxygen? There are 
four: — 


NDs OF sDPnuR AND oiTOiir. 

Sulphur. Oiygen, Equiv. 


Siilpliuroiia n 

cid . 

. 16 + 10 = 33 


Sult'Kuiic DCi 

a . 

. Ifl + 24 = 40 

SCPor SOM-0. 


touaacid . 

. 32 4- IS = 4B 

S'O" or SOH-S. 

ic ocid . 

. 32 + 40 = 72 




Whit are the properties of nt^Nrovi aeidf It is gueoni, 
oolMleM, truisparent, hu a pongent Buffonling odor, an soid tute, 
and bleaching properties; it reddens litmns at first, and then bleaches 
it It has a strong affinity for oxjrgen, and will precipitate metals 
whioh hare a weak affioitjr for oxygen from their solutions. It 
eorafaiiMS witii metallio oxides, and formB salts called solphites. 
FmnnilaSO*; equivalent 32; sp. gr. 2.21. 

'How is itproeuredf It is formed bj the combustion of snlphur 
in the atmosphere, or dry oxygen gas ; it is also eToWed mixed with 
oaibonio arid when combustible substances, containing carbon, are 
heated with strong snlphnrio acid; and by heating snlphurie arid 
with most of the metals; with copper and meroary particalarly, it 
yields a very pate gas, thns: 250>+Ga— CaOSO+SOi. It may 
be obtained liquid, by titmsmitting dry, pnre gas through a glass 
tabe miTonnded by a freeing mixtore. When exposed to cold, in 
a mrist state, a crystalline solid is formed. 

How is tu^uric acid pncvredf One method is to snbjeot to 
a strong heat the sulphate of iron (copperas or green vitriol) ; the 
■nlphmio arid of the salt passes over in combination with the water 
which it oontains, thus: 4(FeOSO') 30=ffO> 2SO'+230'+ 

Fiooored in this way, it ia called the fuming lulpkurie add of 
Nordhauaen, on aoconnt of the whitevapors which it emits on ex- 
pome to the air, and from the place in Qermaoy where it is mann- 

Ani^TOut tfUphuric acid may be procured from this by heating 
it gently in a retort, and surronnding the receiver adapted to it with 
a mixture of snow and salt, in which it is condensed into a white 
crystalline solid. 

The moat common process for procuring snlphurie acid, is to bum 
■slidiar, mixed with one-eighth its weight of nitrate of potash, in a 
fitmaoe arranged so that the current of air supporting eombustion 
will conduct tho products into a leaden chamber containing water, 
which becomes saturated with the sulphuric acid formed in the 

What is tho rationale of this process ? The nitric acid of the 
nitre yields oxygen to a portion of sulphur, and converts it into 



Bulpbaric acid, whicli corabinCB with the potaesa of the nitre; at tlie 
a&me time tbe greater port of tbc Gidphur forms sulphurous acid by 
nnitiug witb the oxygen of tbc air. 

The nitric acid, by yielding & portion of ite oxygen to tbc sulphur, 
b converted into binoxJde of nitrogen ; which, coming in contact 
witb tbe mr at the moment of its ecparation, ia converted into red 
nitrous acid vapors. The gasooua product in tbo leaden chamber, 
therefore, is sulpburoua and nitrous acids, atmospheric air, and 
watery vapor. From these elements a crystalline compound is 
formed, consisting of sulpburic acid, byponitrous acid, and water; 
and, when tbis solid comes in contact with tbe water of the cham- 
ber, it is decomposed, tbe sulphuric acid is absorbed by tbo wat«r, 
and nitrous acid and binoiide of nitrogen escape ; the htut of which, 
coming in contact with tbe air, is converted into nitrous acid. Tbis 
nitrous acid ia again intermixed witb sulphurous acid and aqucoos 
vapor, and gives riso to a second portion of the crystalliae compound, 
which undergoes the same changes as the first. The foUowing 
diagram represents the formation of tbo cryBtalline compound:— 




NordbaoMfl . . 2S0*-(-H0 Speciao gnvilr l.QS 

Purem oil orvltiiol . . 80>+H0 " " 1.85 

SO»-f-3H0 " " 1.76 

S0»-i-4H0 » « 1.68 

What arc tbe properties of sulphuric acid ? Ab usually obtained, 
it is a dense, oolorloss, oily fluid; boils at 620°; apeoifio gravity 
1.847; very corrosive; sonr, reddens litmus, and separates all other 
acids from their union with the alkalies. Chloride of barinm, or 
any aalt of baryta, is a test for it and it« soluble oombinatioDS, and 
will form a white precipitate, the Eolphate of baryta. 



How is phosphorus procured? By igniting bones in an open 
fire until all the animal matter is destroyed^ leaving, only a white 
sabstanoe, which is principally the phosphate of lime; reduce this to 
a fine powder, and digest with strong sulphuric acid and water, suffi- 
cient to give the consistence of a thin paste. The phosphate of lime 
18 decomposed; a sulphate and a soluble superphosphate of lime is 
formed. The superphosphate of lime is to be dissolved in warm water, 
and separated from, the sulphate by filtration, and evaporated to the 
oonsistence of syrup, then mixed with one-fourth its weight of 
powdered charcoal, and heated in an earthen retort, with the beak of 
the retort put into water, in which tho vapor of the phosphorus is 
C0Dden9ed, of a reddish-brown color, owing to the presence of the 
phosphuret of carbon. It may be purified by a second distillation. 

What is the rcUioncUe of this process ? When the superphosphate 
of lime and charcoal are mixed, and heat applied, the oxygen of that 
part of the phosphoric acid, which constitutes the superphosphate, 
imites with the charcoal, and forms carbonic acid and carbonic oxide 
gues; phosphorus is distilled over, and phosphate of lime with 
redundant charcoal, remains in the retort. 

What are the properties of phosphorus? It is colorless and 
transparent when pure ; a soft solid at ordinary temperatures, has a 
waxy lustre when cut with a knife, distills at 550^, very inflam- 
mable, undergoes slow combustion at common temperatures when 
exposed to the air, and emits a white vapor of an alliaceous odor. 
Its eqmvalent is 15.7 or 31.4; symbol P; and sp. gr. 1.77. 

What are tho compounds of phosphorus and oxygen? Tho 
oxide of phosphorus, consisting of three equivalents of phosphorus, 
and one of oxygen, PK); the hypophosphorous acid, 2 eqs. of phos- 
phorus to 1 of oxygen, PK); the phosphorous acid, 2 eqs. of phos- 
phorus to 3 of oxygen, PK)^ ; and the phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, 
or metaphosphoric acid, which is 2 eqs. of phosphorus and 5 eqs. of 
oxygen, P«0. 

There arc several varieties of this acid which are isomeric bodies. 


PfaoaplioriD Bcid (dij) PO> 

Phosphoric acid Cmmraon) PO'+3HO. Trllwsio. 

Pytopbosfihotic add P0H-3H0. Bibasic. 

Metapboiphoric acid P0'+ HO. Monotasic. 

How ia phosphoric acid procured? By decomposing phosphnto 
of baryta vitb sulphnric acid. 

What use Ha properties? It ia vUcidj inodorous, colorless, liquid, 
reddens Tcgetable blues, and, when heated to redness, corrodes glo^ 
or porcelain. 

How many dasBcs of Balls does phosphoric acid form, and what 
are they ? The monohaiic, NaOP^O''; the bibtuie, 2Na0,P«O; and 
the trihaiic, SNaOjPKf; corresponding with the equivalenta of 
water held by each, as shown in the above tabic. 

Which claaa is the moat common ? The tribMJo ; which gives a 
yellow precipitate with citrate of silver. 

What class of phosphates exists in plants and animals? The tri- 

How many eeries of salta does the trlbasic acid form, and how 
are they capressod ? Thns, in the soda series wo have one with 
acid reaction^ Na02H0,PK>>; another MMfroZ, 2NaO,HOPK)>j the 
the third, oOcaline, 3NaO,F*0<. 

Of the above, the sabMlt is th« common phosphate irf w>da of the 
flhope. In all flnidji of the bodies of animals baTing an and re- 
action, the first of these salts is fimnd, and in those possessing an 
alkaline reaotiiui the last is found. 


How ia boron proenredf It was first obtained by sabjecting 
boracic acid to the action of a powerful galvanic batteiy. But it 
may be procured in larger quantities by heating boracio aoid with 
potassium, by which the boracic aeid is deprived of its oxygen, and 
the boron liberated, thus: BO+3K— 3K0+B. 

What are the propertiet of boron? It ia of a dart olive oolco*, 
has neither taste nor amell, and is a non-oonduotor of electricity. 
It is not soluble in water, alcohol, ethor, or oils, does not decompose 


mter, bean a stnmg beat id doae reaaeb without fiuing, or being 
ehuiged, azoept tlut ilM denaitj ia increased. If heated to 600° it 
takes file, ox^en disappears, and borama acid is fbimed. Ite eqni- 
Ttlent is 10.9 ; symbol B ; about 2. 

What an the ampouniji of boron and oijrgenf Boraoie add, 
BO*, ia the only compound of boron and oxygen. 

Wbere is it found, and how is it procured ? It ia fband, as a 
mtoral prodnot, in some of the hot spring and ia a constitnent of 
datolite, boiacite, and boiBX, which is a compound of boraoie acid 
and soda, and is a biborate. It is procured bj adding snlphnrio 
aead to a solnlion ot purified borax in four dmes its weight of boil- 
ing water. The sulphuric add unites with the soda, and the borarao 
add ii deposited, on cooling, in crystals, which may be purified bj 
wishing, diesolTiDg them in boiling water, and by recrystallisatiw, 
thus: NaO2BO'+5O'-Na0S0'+2BO". 

What are the pryiertia of boraoie acid ? In crystals it is a hy- 
drate, slightly soluble in water, very soluble in alcohol, and the 
■ohition, when set on fire, bums with a green flame, which is a snre 
teat for the presence of boradc acid ; sp. gr. 1.479, inodorons, Intter 
taste, reddens litmus, and, with alkaline carbonates, produces effer- 
TCaeeitee. In its hydrous state, if giadnaDy expoeed to a high boat, 
its water of OTataUisalion is expelled, and a fused mass remains, 
whiob will bear a white heat without sublimation, and on cooling, 
fimna a hard, tnuisparent glass, which is anhydrous boiacic acid. 
It absorbs water, and loses its transparency if exposed to the air. 
It is sometimes used as a flux, from its being very fusible and com- 
mnnicating this property to other substances. 


How is rilioon procured f It was first procured by Benelius, bj 
Uie aetton of potasaum on fluo«ilicic acid gas ; but a more conve- 
nient process is from the double fluoride of silicon and potassium, 
or sodium, prerionsly dried, and placed in a glass tube with potas- 
sium, to which a spirit lamp is applied. The potassium unites with 
the fluorine and the ailicon is set at liberty, thus : 2SiF',3KF+ 


6K=9KF+2Si. Tu render it perfectly pure, it sboald then bo 
heated to rcclacsa, BJid digested in dilute hydrofiuoric acid. 

What are the propertia of silicon ? It ie of a dark nut-brown 
color, without metallic loBtre, non-conductor of electricity, incom- 
bustible, not dissolved or oxidized by sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, 
or hydrofluoric acids; but nitrio and hydrofluoric acids mised dJs- 
Bolye it readily. Its efimvalent is 22.5; symbol Si. 

What ia the coroposition of tilicic acid? lu 100 parts there are 
48.4 of silicon, and 51.6 osygeu, by ircight. 

Where is the silicic acid found, and how is it procured? It 
exists in great profiision in nature, under the names of silica and 
nlicions eartbs. It forms a part of maoy raincrids, and, uD<lcr the 
name of 'juartz, forms mountainous masses. It is the principal 
ingredient in sand-slonea, flint, chalcedony, ttc. &c. It may be pro- 
cured by igniting pure rock crystal, throwing it, while red hot, into 
water, and reducing it to a fine powder. 

What are tho properties of silicic acid? As procured above, it is 
a light white powder, feels rough and dry when rubbed between the 
fingers, insipid and inodorous; Bp. gr. 2.09. It is very fixed in the 
fire, but may ho fiised by the hydro-oxygen blowpipe, insolnble in 
water, docs not affect tests for acidii, but, tn its chemical combina- 
tions, acta the part of an add, and displaces carbonic add from die 
alkalies by the aid of heat. The nature of its oombioadoiu witb 
the alkalies depends npon the proportions in which they are united. 
One of these oombinationB, which is one part siliaio add and three 
of carbonate potasaa, is deliquescent and easily dissDlved in water, 
in this condition it has been called the liquor offiwtU or liquor 

By reversing the proportions the result is the well-known article 
glass. Every kind of gloss is a compound of silicic acid with a base 
or bases; therefore, a silicate. The quality generally depending 
upon the purity of the materials, and in flint glass, besides the pnre 
ullcio acid and alkali, there is added some of the oxides of lead; it 
is, therefore, a double salt, composed of bisiticate of potassa, and 
bisilicate of ondcB of lead. Its equivalent is 46.5. 



How is Beleninm formod, and hov is it procured 7 It generally 
occoFB in oombinatiou iritfa iron pyrites, also in some Tolc&nic pro- 
ducts, aa a Bulphnret, and it ia sometimea found combined with 
several of the metals. It may be obtained from the snlphuret by 
mixing it with eight dmes its weight of peroxide of manganese, and 
expo^ng the mixture to a low red heat in a glass retort, the beak 
of which extends into water. The sulphur is oxidiied by the oxide 
of manganese, and the selenium is sublimed. 

What aro its properties ? It ia a brittle, opaque solid, hariog 
neither taste nor odor, of a metallic lustre when in mass, and when 
in powder of a deep red color. It softens at 212°, and may be 
drawn into fine threads; conducta heat ojid electricity imperfectly, 
and is insoluble in water. Exposed to the fame of a blowpipe it 
colors the flame of a light-blue color, and exhales a strong odor of 
decayed horseradish ; which may be considered as characterislic of 
the pfesence of selenium, whether alone or in combination. Its 
equivalent is 89.6; symbol Se; sp. gr. 4.3. 

What an the compounds of selcniom and oxygen ? There are 
Aree: the oxide of selenium, SsO; selenions acid, SO*; and selenic 
add, SeO*. The selenic acid is analogous in compoeitJon, and many 
of its properties, to sulphuric acid, and that similarity extends also 
to thdr oompounds with alkaline substances. 


How is chlorine gas obtainedf By the action of hydrochloric or 
muriatic acid, and the peroxide of manganese, in the proportion of 
two parts of the former to one of the latter; the chlorine escapes 
with elferveecence, without the application of heat; but much more 
rapidly when heat is applied. 

What is the rationale of this process ? The hydrochloric add 
consists of chlorine 2 eqs., and hydrogen 2 eqs.; the oxide of man- 
ganese consists of manganese 1 eq., and oxygen 2 eqs. In the 
reaction which takes place, 1 cq. of chlorine unites vrith the 1 eq. 
of manganese, forms the chloride of manganese, and 1 eq. of chlo- 


line Is set at liberty ; nod tlie 2 eqa. of oijgen and 2 cqs. of hydrogen 
UDito and form water. So that the result is etloride of manganese, 
WJXter, and cblorioc, nhicli ia set at liberty, tbus: 2JiCl +HDO't^ 
ZEO+MuCl+Cl. Or:— 

Wbat are tbe jn-opertiu of cblorino gas ? It has a yellowish- 
green color, astringent taste, and diaagreoabJe sincll. It is irrespi- 
rable, even if largely di1nt«d with air, and emits heat and light 
when strongly compresiied. By tbe application of about four atmo- 
Bpheres of presBure, it becomes a limpid liquid of a bright yellow 
color. It is absorbable by water, which yields it when healed. It 
prcsenld the phenomena of combustion when bronght in contact 
with Bomo BuhstoDces, sod the result is a chloride, or an acid cos- 
taiuing clilonue. It has a very Btrong affinity for hydrogen, is 
neg.itively electric, has no acid properties, has a great affinity for 
metals, snd a powerful Llcaching property. In its application to 
bleaching the presence of water i.f neccssiiry, and hydrochloric acid 
is generated dnruig the prooess ; from which we inCer thftt the mitx 
is decomposed, tiie hydrogen nniting with tha chlorine, utd Uie 
oxygen is libraetoii, which oocadona the hkaching. The oomponndB 
of chlorine, which are not Mid, are termed ohloridea. The test for 
chlorine is nitrate of the oxide of silver, which prodnoee a white pre- 
cipitate, lie equivalent is 85.42 ; symbol CI ; sp. gr. 2.47. 

What compound does chlorine form with hydrogen f It forms 
the hydrochloric or muriatic acid, which is 1 cq. of chlorine to 1 of 
hydrogen, HCl. 

How may this acid be prq>ared? In a gaseous state, it may be 
procured by putting a strong liquid solution of the acid into a glass, 
and heating it until it boils, when the gas is evolved, and may bo 
collected over mereory. Another method is to mix equal weights 
of liquid Bulphurio acid and sea salt, and apply heat. 

What is the nxtianaUot these processes 7 In the former, tbe 
acid dissolved in water is simply expelled by heat. 

In the latter the water is decomposed, its oxygen unites with the 


Boditim rf tiie oMoride of Bodinm, or sea salt, and ftrmB soda; the 
hydrogen unites with the chlorine and fonns the hydrochloric aoid, 
which eocapee, and the snlphnrio add nnitcB with the eoda. The 
water in this process is sappliod fay the snlphnrio add. The leBolt, 
therefim, is snlpfaate of soda and hydrochlorio add, tbos : NaCl+ 
HOSO'-NaOSO+Hai. Or :— 

^NiOSO>. SalpblM or Hda. 

Ckloridtofudliuo. 1^', y^^ °'»- ChloKJiydticeW. 

Under what dronmstances will the elements of hydrochloric add, 
when brought into contact, unite f When an electric spark is 
paawd throngh the mixture, by the presence of flame, a rod hot 
body, or spongy plstinnm. By exposure to difiiised light they unite 
slowly, but the direct solar rays, like electricity, flame, &o., produce - 
a sadden inflammation accompanied willi an ezplodon. 

bi what manner is the add procured in a liqwd state F By pass- 
ing a cnrrent of gas into water as long as any of it will be abBorbed, 
wa proonre a concentrated aqueous solution. 

What are the prcper i ia of hydrochloric add f In a gaseous state 
it is odorless, has a pungent odor, and an acid taste. In a tempe- 
rature of 60°, and under a pressnre of 40 atmospheres, it is liqnld. 
It is irrefl{arable, incombustible, and a uon-supporter of combustion. 
Heat will not alter it chemically, but galvanism will decompose it; 
hydrogen will be found at the negative pole, and chlorine at the 
poeilive. It has a powerful attraction for water, which causes a 
white olond to appear, where it is liberated into the atmosphere^ 
owing to its combination with the aqaeoos vapor; ice also liquefies 
instantly, if introduced into a jar contuning it, and the gaa is rapidly 
absorbed. On introducing a jar containing the gas into water, the 
absMptiDn takes place so rapidly, that the water is forced up with 
the same rapidity as if it were a vacuum. During the absorption, 
heat is given ont. 

How can we determine the quantity of this add contained in its 
BolutioDsf By ascerlaining the quantity of pure marble dissolved 
by a given weight of each. Every &0.6 grains of marble correspond 
to 36.42 of real add. 

What are the pwpertia of the hydrochloric acid of otnnmeroe ? 

29S OJOMUtKt. 

It has a yellow color, and conlains impurities, which are nsoally 
nitric and sulphuric acid, and the oxide of iron. If pure, it in a 
colorless liijuid, emits wliit« vapors if exposed to the !ur, very sonr, 
reddens iitmus, and neutralizes alkalies. It froeies at 60°, and 
boils at 110°, giving off the pore hydrochloric acid gas freely. 

It is decomposed by subatancca yielding oxygen euily. 

What combination of hydiochloric acid is used in dissolving gold 
and platinam ? It is a mizttue of two parts of the hydrochlorio 
nnd one of the nitric acids, and is commonly termed aqua regia. 

^Vhat chemical action tukes place in forming a solution of gold 
by this mLztore? The nitric and hydrochloric acids decompose 
each other, and produce water, nitrous acid, and chlorine ; ibo boI- 
vent power is dependent on the chlorine, wbich ia liberated. 

What are the compounds of chlorine and OKygen ? They are the 
hypochlorous add, CIO; the chlorous acid, C10*j chloric acid, CIC; 
and the perchloric acid, CIO'. 

How is JiffpoelUoruut aci'J procured? Hypocblorous acid, or «u~ 
chlorine, may bo beet procured by pouring peroxide of mercury, ia 
fine powder, and mixed with twice its weight of distilled water, 
into bottles Glled with chlorine gas. By agitation, the cbloriuo ifl 
oom^etely abiorbed. The oxide of menniry is dMompooed, botli its 
oonBtitaentfl oomluniitg with ohlanne,'tho maraniy fbnning vanam 
sublimate, and tlifl oxygen hypoohlorons add, thus: HgO+SGl^ 
HgCl+C;a The add may then be sepuated by distillatiao, 
which should be done at a temperature below 212°, as it is decom- 
posed at that heat; or it may be best perftomed under lednoed 
preasure. The add thus procured may be oonoentrated by a second 

What are tiie projpeHiet of hypoohlorons add 7 It is a trans- 
parent liquid of a slightly yellow color when ooncentiated; has a 
strong penetratiug odor, an exceedingly active action on the skin, 
similar but greater than that of nitric acid ; high bleaching pro- 
perties, when oonoentrated very liable to be decomposed, chlorine 
being evolved, and chloric acid produced ; this effect is promoted by 
light, and produced instantly by the direct rays of the sun ; also, by 
agitation with angular bodies; a portion of pounded glass produces 
brisk decomposition, vben thrown into this soid. It is a powerful 


opjiiing agaat, partionlu'ly of the iKaMnetaUie «lementa, which an 
rautQy htonght to their highwt degree of ozidntioii. 

How it cUorvut aad pncani f By nuking 60 or 60 grains of 
chlorate of potasn into a paste with etrong mlphoiic add, pntdng 
it into ft glaaa retort, and applying heat by mean§ of warm water 
kept Mow 212°, when * gas of a bright jellowiBh-green color is 
djaengiged, iriuoh has an anMuatic odor without the amell of chlo- 
rine, and is i^idly alworbed by wat«, to which it impaita ite tint. 
Thii gpe IB the ohlorons add. 

What is the rationale of this process f The snlphnrio add de- 
eamposes ft part of the chlorate of potassa, and liberates chloric aoid, 
iriii^, at the moment of separation, resolTea itself into chltaonB acid 
and oiygen ; the Ust of which passes ovei* to the add of the nnde- 
oompoeed chlorate of potassa, and is conrerted into perohloric acid. 
The resulting componnda are bisolphate and perohlorato of potassa, 
and dklonnis add, thus : SKOC10>+4SO'»2KO*SO'+EOC10'+ 


What an the pivperiiet of ohloroiu acid ?■ It unites with alkaliea, 
aod alkaline earths, forming salte soluble in water, and hanng 
l)kiftriiing propoties. Phosphorus takes fire with an explodon when 
iattodomd into this gas. A temperature of 212° causes a Ti(^ent 

How is cUorie acid procured ? To a dilnto solution of chlorate 
of baiytft add weak Bnlphnrio add, predsely snffident tot comluning 
with the baryta ; an insoluble sulphate of baryta is formed and pro- 
dptated; and pnre chlorio add remains in tiie liquid, thus: 
BaOClO-l- 5O-Ba08O+ CIO. 

What are the propertia of chlorio add f It reddens T^etable 
Use colon, has a sour taste, and forms neutral salts with alkaline 
bassa called chlorates. It has no bleaching properties, a drcum- 
stanoe which distinguishes it from chlorine, hypoohlorous adds, and 
chloroos adds. It does not give a precipitate with a solution of the 
nitnte of silrer. It may be concentrated by a gentle heat te an 
oily consistence. In this highly concentrated state it has a yellow- 
ish tmt, an odor of nitric acid, sets Gre to dry organic matter, and 
couTerle alcohol into acetic acid. 

It is esdly decomposed by deoxidising agento. 

2M csimsnT. 

It maj be distinguisbcd by forming a salt irith potassa, which 
orystAUlzcs in tables, baa a pearly lustre, deflagrates like nitre when 
thiOTU on burning cbarcool, and yields chloric acid by tbe action of 
conc«Qtratcd solphnrio acid. 

How is perchloric acid procured 7 By adding dilute sulpburio 
acid to percblorate of potassa, and applying heat to tbe mixture; 
white vapors arise that condense as a colorless liquid ili tbe receiver, 
which ia a solution of perchloric acid, thus: E0Ci0'+5(5'™ 
KOSO'+ CIO'. It may be obtained iu a Bolid form, by tnixJog it 
with strong sulphurio acid and distilling. It hisses when thrown 
into water, similar to red hot iron; forms a compound with potassa 
very slightly soluble in water, which ia tbe percblorate of potassa, 
and may be distinguisbcd from tbe chlorate by not becoming yel- 
lowish on the application of hydrochloric acid. The primary form 
of its crystal is a right rbomboidal prism. 

How is tbe quadrochloride of nitrogen procured ? Dissolve an 
ounce of bydrooblorate of ammonia in \'l or IG ounces of hot wat«r, 
when it bos cooled to 90°, invert a wide-mouthed glass botUc, full of 
cbloriac, into it. The chlorine is absorbed, it aciaires a yellotr 
color, and in a few minutes globules of a yellow fiuid float like oil 
vpon its Enr&oe; when thej acquire the die of % enudl pea, they 
sink to the bottom of the liquid, and should be oolleoted in a leaden 
saucer plaoed under the month of the bottle. 

What is Uie rotuMtafe of tbu procesa T The ammonia is deoom- 
poaed by the chlorine, hydrochloric acid is generated bj the hydro- 
gen of the ammonia uniting with a part of the chlorine, while the 
nitrogen of the ammonia unites with another part of the chlorine, 
thus: NH'Cl+TCl-iirCT+WC;'. 

What are the praperlia of the quadrochloride ef nitrogen f It is 
one of tbe most explosive compounds known. It is not congealed 
by a mixture of anow and salt, may be distilled at 160°, czplodes 
between 210° and 212°, contact with some combustibles causes de- 
tonation at common temperatures, particularly oils, both volatile 
and fixed. The products of the explosion are chlorine and nitrogen. 
This compound is 4 eqs. of chlorine to 1 of nitrogen, or, as stated by 
Bcrzelius, 3 eqs. of chlorine to 1 of nitrogen. 

What are the oam^owiAt of Ahrmt with carlonf The per- 


chloride of curboD, OOl* ; the protochloride, GCl ; and the dichloride, 

How 18 penMoride of carbon procured ? By exposing olefiant 
gas to ohlorine ; a combination takes place between tbem, and an 
oily liquid is generated, which is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, 
and chlorine. Pat this into a yessel containing chlorine gas, and 
expose it to the direct rays of the sun ; the chlorine decomposes the 
liqnidi hydrochloric acid is liberated, and the carbon unites with the 
chlorine at the moment of separation. 

What are the properties of the perchloride of carbon ? It is solid 
at common temperatures, has an aromatic odor, a non-conductor of 
electricity, and a powerful refractor of light ; sp. gr. 2 ; fuses at 
32(P ; it may be distilled without change, and assumes a crystalline 
form when it condenses. 

How 18 the protocMonde of carbon procured ? By passing the 
Taper of perchloride through a red hot ghiss tube filled with pieces 
of rock crystal, it is partially decomposed; chlorine and proto- 
chloride of carbon being the result. 

What are the propertiei of protochloride of carbon f It is a limpid, 
odorless liquid, has a density of 1.55, does not congeal at 0°, and 
is converted into vapor at 160° or 170°. It may be distilled, but 
exposure to a red heat resolves it into its elements. 

What are the characteristics of the diMoride of carbon f It is 
of a white color, in the shape of small, soft, adhesive fibres, and 
has a peculiar odor resembling spermaceti. 

What are the compounds of chlorine and sulphur f The dichlo- 
ride, S*Cl; and the protochloride, SCL 

What are the compounds of chlorine and phosphorus? The per- 
chloride of phosphorus, P^l^; and the sesquichloride, PK31'. 

How is the perchloride of ptu)sphorus procured ? By inflaming 
phosphorus in dry chlorine, the perchloride collects inside of the 
vessel. It is white and very voktile. By heating it under pressure 
and cooling, it yields transparent prismatic crystals. 

How is the sesquichloride of phosphorus procured ? By heating 
the perchloride with phosphorus ; also by passing the vapor of phos* 
phorus over corrosive sublimate contained in a glass tube. 

What are the properties of the sesquichloride of phosphorus ? It 


is a clear liqaid, like water, of sp. gr. 1.45, emits acid fumes nhen 
exposed to the air, owing to the decomposition of atjueous Tajior. 
Oa misiDg with water a mntuul decompOEltioD tnkca p\a<x, heat is 
evolved, and a solutjon of bydroohloric and phosphorous ncida ii 

How ia rldoroearh/mic acid, or photgene gas procured? By 
exposing equal parts, hj measure, of chlorine and carbonic oxide 
gases to suaahinc, a combinatioa ensues, and a contractioD to half 
the volume takes plaee. 

What arc the propciiia of chloro-carbonic acid gas? It is color- 
less, has a strong odor, and reddens dry litmus paper, combines with 
gaseous ammonia, and forms a white solid salt, therefore, baa acid 
properties. Water decomposes it, and tbe result is hydrocblorie and 
carbonic acids. 

What compound does (JJorinc form with honmf It forms the 
tereblorido; and it is procured by putting recently prepared boron 
into cblorine, when it takes fire spontaneously, and a colorless gas, 
the chloride of boron, is formed, wbicb ia absorbable by water, and 
undergoes double decomposition at the some moment, the result of 
■which is hydrocblorie and boracic aeids. 

What oompound does chlorine form with tHieonf The ter- 
cbloiide, which may be procured by heating silioon in a ourrent of 
ohiorins gu. The product ia condensed into a oolorless liquid, 
which, by the addition of water, is oonTorted into hydrochlorio and 
silicic acids. 

Is chlorine a umple or compound BubBtanoe f It is a umple body, 
because it cannot bo decomposed by any known means. 


TT/ieir is iodine found? It is fonnd in many mineral springs, in 
combination with sodium and potaseinm; it is also found in the. 
water of the Mediterranean, in tbe oyster, and aomo other marine 
molluscous animals, in sponges, and in most kinds of sea weed. 
It has alao been found in the mineral kingdom in combination with 
How is it procuredt It is procured from kelp, an impure car- 


booftle of Bodfty obtamed by IncineratiDg sea weeds. Carbonate of 
soda is prepared from the ](elp ; and the residual liquor contains 
iodine in combination with potassiam or sodium, which may be 
sepanUed by the addition of sulphuric acid and binozide of man- 
.ganese; by the application of heat the iodine is then sublimed; and 
may be collected in cool glass receivers ; thus : with iodide of sodium, 
2SO»+MnO«NaI=MnOSO»+NaOSO»+I. Or:— 

Iodide of «kii«m isssTm*:::::::!:;;;^ •.^«'»°«- 

a«*:« m»iA J Sulphuric «»«*«'<< 

mlplinric acid ^ gnj Jhuric acid ~ZI^^^^^ Sulphate of loda. 

Peroxide of man- (Oxygen "-■ (Sulphate of inanga- 

ganeae . . . ( Protoxide of manganeie \ nese. 

What are the properties of iodine ? It is soft, fnable, solid, has 
a bluish color, metallic lustre, and crystalline appearance, resembling 
micaceous iron ore. It is fused at 225^, and ebullition takes place 
at 847^. K moisture is present, it is sublimed rapidly at a tem- 
perature below boiling water. Its vapor is of a rich violet color, 
from which it derives its name. 

It is a non-conductor of electricity, and negatively electric. It is 
very sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol and ether. 
It has a strong affinity for the metals and most of the non-metallic 
(xranboBtibleSi producing compounds, termed iodides. 

The ieii for iodine is starch; but the iodine must be in a free 
(condition, and the solution cold. Its equivalent is 126.3 ; symbol 
I; 4.94. 

What compound does iodine form with hydrogen ? It forms the 
hydriodic add, which is 1 eq. of iodine to 1 eq. of hydrogen. 

How is hydriodic cund procured ? It may be formed by the 
direct union of hydrogen with the vapor of iodine transmitted 
through a porcelain tube at a red heat. It may also be procured 
by the action of water on the iodide of phosphorus, which gives the 
hypophoephoric and hydriodic acids, the latter of which passes over 
as m colorless gas, thus : PP+2HO»2HI+PO*. . 

What are the properties of hydriodic acid gasf It has a sour 
taste, reddens vegetable blue colors, and produces white fumes when 
mixed with the air. 


What is its octioD on tbe metallic oxidcB? Watfir and ui iodide 

of the mctai is formed, thus: K0+^l=Kl+30. 

Its salts are called iodides. 

'What are the compoanda of iodino with oxygen ? Tie oxide of 
iodine, iodotii acid, iodic and penaiUc acid. 

How is the oxide of iodine and iodooe acid procured 7 By mix- 
ing the vapor of iodine and oxygon gas conaiderabty heated, a 
yellow matter of the conHistence of solid oil is produced, which is 
regarded as the oxide of lodiae ; and, if the mipply of oxygen be 
continned, it is converted into a yellow liquid, which is the iodoue 

How is the iodic acid procured? By decomposing iodato of 
bnrjloa by moans of sulphuric acid. The following is the rationale : 
Ba010> + SO=. BaOSO^ + lO. 

What are the properlia of iodic acid? It is a white, aemi- 
transparent solid, has a strong, astringent, sour taste, inodorons, and 
is anhydrous. Ita compounds are called iodat^a. 


How is bromine procured? From bittern; by the action of chlo- 
rine, which, by its superior aCEnity for tbc metallic radicals, liberatca 
the bromine. The bromine is then taken up by other and octed on 
by potash, which is converted into the bromide and bromat«, the 
bromate being conrerted into bromide by meang of heat TEie 
potaaeiani ip aitod on by snlphorio aoid u4 p*roxid« of manganeae; 
ths following change oootnmg : 290*+HtiO'+KBrBUDOSO*+ 

What are the prt^iertiet at bromine T At common tAmperatorea 
it is a blackish-red liquid. Its odor is retj disagreeable, and re> 
sembles chlorine. It !■ congealed at 4°, and is brittle. It emits 
at common temperatnres led-oolored nport, resembling nitrons aoid, 
and boils at 110.5°. It resembles, oxygen, chlorine, and iodine, in 
being negatively electric. It is soluble in water, aloobol, and ether, 
supports combustion under some cirouiBstonoeB, and is very de- 
Btmctive to life. It has not been decomposed, and is very aualogons 
in il« chemical relations to iodine and chlorine. It can generally 


be detected by meuis of chlorine, wbioh dupUocB bromine fttnn ita 
compoDDda. Its eqiuTalent u 78.4; sp. gr. 2.9; symbol Br. 

What eompmmd doeii bromine form with hydrogen f The hydro- 
bromifl add, and may be produced by mixing the vapor of bromine 
with hydriodio acid, hydrosulphniio add, or phosphnretted hydro- 
gen gu, vhen decomposition takes place, and hydrobromio acid is 

What are the properties of hydrobromic acid? It is a colorleM 
gaa, of an aud taste and pungent odor, irritatea tho glottis, and when 
mixed vith moist air yields vhite vapors. It is decomposed by 
fihlniite; hydrochloric acid gas is produced, and bromine is deposited. 
The salts of bromine are colled broraides. 

What compmtndt are formed with bromine and oxygen F The 
hromie acid is the only known compound. 

How is it procurttlf By decomposing a dilnte solntion of the 
bromata of baryta with solphurio acid. The sulphate of bsryta ia 
pred^tated, the hromio acid remains in solution, and may be oon- 
oentrated by slow evaporation, bat cannot be entirely deprived of 
water without being decomposed. The following is the rationale ; 

What are the properliet of bromic acidf It has an add tast«, 
bat not corrosive, very little odor, reddens litmus at first, and then 
destroys its color. It is analogous to iodic, chloric, and nitrio adds. 
Its compodtion is 1 eq. of bromine to 5 eqs. of oxygen. 

How is the chloride of bromine procurcdF By pumng a coireDt 
of chlorine through bromine, and oondensing the resulting vapora 
by a freesing mixtore. 

What are the pn:perlie$ of chloride of bromine ? It is a volatile 
floid of a reddish-ydlow color, disagreeable taste, penetrating odor, 
and erases a discharge of tears from the eyes. Metals bum in its 
T^or, and chlorides and bromides are formed. 

What other oonyxmnd* does bromine form f It forms two com- 
pounds with iodine, two with phosphoras, one with carbon, and on« 
with silicoQ. 




H"ow 18 fluoritie procured? By passing fluoride of boron orer 
minium lieated to redneas, and collecting the gas in a dry vessel; 
another mode is to mis Suoride of caleinm and peroxide of manga- 
seBQ with sulphuric acid. 

What aro the propert let of fluorine ? It Is a yellowiBh-trowTi gas, 
rescmblca chlorine in odor, bleaches, u negatively elccbrie, and has 
a poirerinl affinity for the metals and hydrogen. Its equivalent is 
18.68; sp. gr. 1.2; symbol P. 

What compound doea fluorine form with hydrogen ? The hydro- 
fluoric acid, which is 1 eq. of fluorine to 1 of hydrogen. 

How is it procured? By adding oonccntrated snlpbaric acid to 
fluor spar (which is a fluoride of calcium), redoced to a fine powder. 
The acid distils over on applying heat, and most he collected in a 
leaden rccei»er Bniroandcd with ic«. The result is hydrofluoric acid, 
which comes over, and the sulphate of lime remains in the retort, 
thus: ^O.S'0»-l-CaF=CaOSO»+i7/'. 

What aro the properties of hydrojtuortc add f It is ft coIorlesB 
Uquid at 32° ; if esposed to the air, it flics off in dense white fumes', 
produced by its combination with the atmosphere ; has a powerful 
affinity for water, and a very pungent vapor. It is tho most de- 
structive to animal matter of all known substances, its application 
being followed by a malignant ulcer ; it corrodes gloss, and fluosilicio 
acid gas is produced. 

When diluted with three or four timed its weight of water, it is 
Buitahle for etching on glass. It has the properties of a powerful 
acid, reddeofl litmns, has a strong sour taste, neutraliEes alkalies, 
forming salts. caHed hydroflnates, or unites with melola forming 
oompoondr, IliUed fluorides. 

How is Jlviboric acid go* obtained T By heating & mixture of 
12 parie of oalphurio acid with 2 of fluor spar and 1 of vitrified 
boracic acid, in a flask. It may also be obtained by heating hydro- 
fluoric and boracic acids in a metallic retort. 

What are the propertiet of fluohorio acid gas ? It is colorless, 
has a penetrating pungent odor, reddens litmus, and forms Baits with 
alkalies, called flaoboratcB. It has a very strong affinity for water, 



vlnoh it will take from any gu oontaining aqueotiB vapor, thns 
■llbc^g ft delicate test for it in gases. Water absorbs it, and foms 
• itioiig oanatio eolntion. 

How ii Jbunlicie acid proonrcd T By mixing 2 parts of strong 
vglpknria add, 1 of floor spar, and I of Band, or ponnded glass; on 
the ^iplieation of heftt, it is disengaged, and may be collected oyer 
meroory. The following are the changes: SSO'+SiO*+8CaH» 

What are the propertia of flnosilicio acid f It is a colorless gaa, 
does not mpport oomboatioo, destooys animal life, and unites with 
the watery Tapor of the atmosphere, forming a white clond. 


Whatifl thecompodlionof afflmoniaco/^a^ It is a componnd 
of nitrogen J 1 equivalent to 3 of hydrogen. 

How is it procurtdf It may be procured from any salt of am- 
monia by the action of a pure alkali, or alkaline eiuth. Eqoal 
parts of the hydrochlorato of ammonia and caustic limo ore generally 
employed; heat is applied, the ammonia is gjvcn off, and the residue 
is chloride of caldam and lime, the lime being added in excess. 
Thus: NHHCl+CaO=CaCl+3.HO+NH'. Or:— 

.^NH<0 or NUmO. AmmiMia. 

A highly concentrated solution of ammonia is ohtuned by trans- 
mitting a current of the gas into water, as long as it will absorb it. 
To exhibit the gas pore, it must ho collected over mercury. 

Wbat are the prrpertia of ammonia? In a gaseous form it is 
oolorlen, powerfully pungent, irritates the eyes and nose, irrespi- 
lable when pure, a non-supporter of combustion, slightly combastiblo 
in oxygen gas, and a mixture with oxygen detonates by the elcctiio 
Bpark, water being formed, and nitrogen set free. The gas may be 
Uqnefied at a temperature of 50°, and under a pressure of 6.5 atmo- 
spheres, forming a transparent colorless liquid. It is highly alka> 
line, forms salts decomposable by being heated with the fixed 
alkalies or alkaline earths, or by a red beat. If combined with a 


Tolatile acid, the compound may bo sublimed uDcbaDged. Tt bag a 
powerful affinity for water, whicb absorbs 780 timea ita bulk, tbe 
Bp. gr. of wbicb Is diminished to 0.ti3tJ. The liquid eolution ia 
clear, colorksa, and poBieasea the peculiarities of tba gas itself. 

How mny freR ammonin be detected ? By the odor, its tempo- 
rary action on turmeric paper, which it Btains brown, and the color 
soon reappears owing to ita volatility ; and by ita forming dense 
fomca when a glass rod, moistened with hydrochloric acid, is brought 
near it; these whit« fumes are the hydrochlorate of ammonia. 

How many compounds of nitrogen and hydrogen are there 1 
Three ; as follows : — 

NllrogMi. Hfdtogcn. 

Amiitogen . . . N + 2H or NH'. Symbol A<1. 

AmimiDift . . . N+3HotNH>. Formuli Ad+H. 
Ammoniura . . . N + 4H ot NH. " Ad+aH. 

What is ammonium? It ia a hypothetical metal, the base of 
ammonia. It baa never been isolated, but has been inferred to 
exiat, because an amalgam is formod with mercury, by a galvanic 
current, which resembles an amalgam formed with a metal. The 
base of the salts formed of ammonia is supposed to be an oxide of 
this radical, because oxy-acids do not unite with bases which contain 
no oxygen, while ozy-acids do unite with ammonia and form am- 
moniacal salts. Its formula would bo NH'j and that of its oxide 
NH'+O; cq. 18+8=26. 


What are the known compounds of hydrogen and carbon T L^t 
carbweUtd k^rogtn, oUfiant go*, elherine, parojffme, eupione, rose 
oil ttearine, wax oil, benzoin, nopAlAa, oil of turjieniint, citrine, cam- 
phene, oil of ecpaiva, juniper oil, lemon oil, »avin tree oil, black 
pqper oil, naphthaline, paranaphthaline, and idrialine. 

What is the proper chemical name for light carbareited hj/drogen ? 
The dicarbvret of hydrogen. Other names, frequently used, are 
heavy inflammable air, the inflammable air ofmanhet, and hyilro- 

Where is it foond, and how is it obtained f It is formed in 


itiginBt pools, from the deoompooition of vegetable sutttOT, and mi^ 
be ^ocnred by stirring the mud at the bottom, and colleoting it ia 
iimrted Teasels u it riaes. Obtained in this way, it oontuns a small 
qnantitj of oarbonio aoid gu. It may also be obtuned by heating 
aeetata of potash -wUh hydiate of buyta. The folloiring is the 
ratumab: KOC«H*0'+BaOHOBEOGO*+BaOCO+2CU* 

Wliat are its propertiaf It ia colorless, tasteless, has ^tsrj litUs 
I, a non-sapporter of oombostion or respiration, inflam- 
1 boms with a yellow flamQ. With a suffident portion of 
air, or oxygen, it forms a detonating compound, water 
and oarbonie add being formed when it is detonated. 

The jtre damp, so destnictiTe in ooal mines when ignited, is com- 
posed of this gas. 

Upon what prindple is Sir Humphrey Davy's safety-lamp con- 
stonoted to prevent the explomos of this gas ? It is foond that the 
flame eannot pass throngh a narrow tnbe, however shor^ provided 
its diimeter is mffioientiy reduced. Now a piece of wire ganze may 
be regarded as an assemblage of these tabes, and flame will not 
penetrate it; tlierefi»«, if a common oil lamp is surrounded with a 
pisBS cf this game, it will bnm in the explosive mixture, without 
eommonioating combustion to the gas externally. 

What is the oompontion of oUJiant gat, and why is it so called? 
It is composed of 2 eqs. of carbon and 2 eqs. of hydrogen, united to 
firm 1 eq. of the gas ; and is called olofiaut gas, becaose it forms aa 
oil-lilce Uquid with chlorine, Formula C'H*; equivalent 14; sp. 
gr. .980. 

How is it procured f By heatmg a mixtore of alcohol and sul- 
phoiia add, in the proportion of one part of the fcnrmer to four of 
the latter; effervescence ensaes, and defiant gas passes over. 

What are the properties of olefiani gat? It is colorless, tasteless, 
and inodorous, a non-supporter of combustion and respiration, in- 
flammable, burning with a dense white light, and forms an explosive 
mixture with oxygen, or atmosphcrio dr. It is decomposed by a 
soooesdon of dectrio sparks, and by being transmitted through red 
hot porcelain tubes. A mixture of two parts of chlorine, and one 
of olefiaut gas, takes fire on the application of flame, the result of 
which is hydrochloric acid, and the depodtion of ohatcoal; but if 


tbey are allcired to remain at rest, tliej enter into direct combination, 
and a jellowiah oil is produeed. 

Upon what does tlie flame of candles, lamps, gas lights, cuUuory 
fires, &c., depend ? The compounds of carbon and hjdrogen. 

How may they bo procured for the purpose of gas lights ? By 
the destructive distillation of bitumiaouB coul, wood, oil, tor, or other 
inflammable substances. 

Upon what docs the Uhiminating pmeer of these compounds prin- 
cipally depend ? This power is in proportion to the quantity of 
carbon condensed into a volume, provided there is. a sufficient supply 
of o*ygou to consume it; otherwise, the excess of carbon renders the 
flame smoky. 

Hydkcwjes and Sulphur. 

Wliat ara the compoimdi formed by hydrogen and sulphur 7 
There ore twoj hydrosulphuric ooid, HS; and the persulphuret of 
hydrogen, HS'. 

How is hi/drotulpharic acid, or »uipkureUed h^rogai, as it is 
generally called, procured ? By heating gesi:[uisulpburct of antimony 
witli fiiur or &.sa ihaex ila weight of hydrochloric acid. 

What is the ratitmah of this process f The ohlorine of the hydros 
chlorio add nnitcfl with the antimony of the seflquisnlpburet, farming 
ft sesquichloride, and the hydrogen of the hydrochlorio acid unites 
with the sulphur of the sesquisnlphuret, and forms hydrosulphuric 
acid, thus: Sb'8»+8B(?i=S'Cl'+3HS. 

It may also be obltuned by the action of on acid with water on 
the sulphuret of iron (iron pyrites). When cblorohydric acid is 
osed, the following is the reaction : — 

CbEorohydricmcid. j g' -—^^VtCl. Chlnlde of Iron. 

>.I19. SulphnnLigd br<>[og« 

When sulphuric add is used, it is as follows : — 

Bujphuric sciit . . O" . ,r-rfl"' HulphBta of iroa. 

Sulph-roioflton. V^' ^.-^ 

1 O-^ '■■ -Sulpliuratteil hjilrog™. 

Formula, H8; equivalest, 17; sp. gr. 1.18. 




What ftre the properties of h jdrosnlphario acid ? It is a colorless 
gas, reddens moist litmus, has a Tery offensive taste and odor, similar 
to putrid eggs, a non-supporter of respiration and combustion, com- 
bnstibley water and sulphuric acid being the products, and sulphur 
18 deposited. It may be readily distinguished by its odor, tarnishing 
bItoFi and the character of its precipitate with solutions of arsenious 
add| tartar emetic^ or salts of lead. Its salts are called hydro- 


How Is photphuretted hydrogen procured? By the action of 
strong hydrochloric acid on phosphuret of calcium. The following 
18 the reaction when water, lime, and phosphorus are heated to- 
gether: — 

Phoiphnretted hydrogen. 
Water, 3 w]!. 

Phoq>honAi, 4 
eqi. . . . 


Lima, 3 aqi. \ CaO^ 


Hypophotphoroui acid. 


CaOPO ) 

CaOPO > Hypophosphite of lime. 

^aOPO ) 

What are \\& properties f It is a transparent, colorless gas, of an 
offensive odor and bitter taste; it is a non-supporter of combustion 
and animal life. It detonates with oxygen at the temperature of 
300^, by the electric spark, and by diminished pressure. 

K the beak of a retort from which this gas issues is pluugcd under 
water so that bubbles of it may rise through the liquid, each one, 
on reaching the surface, will burst into a flame, and form a ring of 
dense white smoke, which enlarges as it ascends, presenting a 
beautiful appearance characteristic of this gas. It has been known 
as the Wiil^*'tlie-wisp. 

Nitrogen and Carbon. 

What compound is formed between nitrogen and carbon? Ct/a- 
nogen or hicarhuret of nitrogen. 


Formula, NC, or Cy; equivalent 14+12=.26; sp. gr. 1.81. 

How is cjfanogen pineured? Bj heating bicyanide of mercurj 
in a porceilun retort, and collecting the product oyer mercury. 

What are the prtyptrtiet of cyanogen? It is a colorless, trans- 
parent, iiTCspirable gas. It \a limpid, liquid at the temperature of 
45", and uniler a pressure of 3.6 atmoBpheres. It will not support 
combnatioD, bat buma with a beautiful flame. It ia carbon 2 eqa., 
and nitrogen 1 eq. It has a strong tentleocy to nnite with eleiDcnt- 
ary substances, in this respect resembling chlorine; it ia a halogen 
body, and its compounds are called cyanides. 

What compound ia formed by cyanogen and hydrogen ? ffj/iiro- 
fyanic or prustie acid. 

Formula, CNS, or Cyff; equindent, 26+1=27; ap. gr. 
(liquid) 0.G767. 

In what docB this add exist in nature? In the learGfl of IbutqI 
and peach trees, and in the kernels of ecveral fruits. 

How ia it obtained, and what are ita propertjea ? By the action 
of hydrochloric acid upon cyanide of mercury, tljua: HgCy-f HCl^ 
HgCl+HCy. Cyanogen will also unite with hydrogen under tha 
same circumstanoca that chlorine does ; as foUowa : — 

It is colorlesB, liquid, has an odor resembling peuh leftvee, vary 
Tolatile, highly poisonous, and pMsesses slight acid properties. 

q,anie Acid. C*NO, or 6>0; equivalent 34. 

If cyanide of potoBeinm is heated in the air, both the elements 
take oxygen from the air, and a oyanate of potassa ia formed (CyO, 
KO). The potassa may be removed and the cyanic acid left with 
water. It ia analogous to many other compounds of carbon, nitro- 
gen, and oxygen, which are said to bo isomeric with it. 

Cyanate of Ammonia. Thia compound has some interest on 
account of being isomeric with urea, one of the organic constituents 
of the urine. Ita formuh U VgO,NS*-\-B.O, or C'NO,NH*+0; 
and corresponda with the formula of urea, C'N'H*0'. 

Fidminic Acid. Formula Cy'O'; equivalent 68. It ia formed 
by the action of h^ponitrons add on alcohol in the presence of a salt 

0HEMI8TRT. 287 

of nher or meioory. It has not been isolated. The fdminate of 
nbfer is formed by putting silver in nitric acid; and; when dissolved; 
adding aloohoL The latter becomes oxidized; being converted into 
aldehyde and oxalic acid; while the nitric acid is converted into 
hjpoiiitrons add; by imparting a portion of its oxygen to the alcohol; 
which then reacts on some undecomposed alcohol; forming hypo- 
nitroiiB ether; water; and fulminic acid ; this latter then unites with 
the oxide of silver, which crystallizes out in small white plates; which 
is ihefidminate o/nlver, and is one of the most explosive mixtures 
known to the chemist. 

What are the tests for cyanogen ? It has the odor of peach blos- 
floms. The soluble salts of silver give a precipitate by hydrocyanic 
add; of a white color; which is the cyanide of silver, and becomes 
Uadc by exposure; it is necessary; however; to be sure that neither 
ohlorine nor bromine is present. If a compound containing cya- 
nogen be heated with an alkali and a persalt of irou; a blue pred- 
pitate is obtained. If a fluid containing cyanogen be placed in a 
capsnle over a flamC; and a solution of sulphuret of ammonium 
added; the heat will cause the cyanogen to rise in vaporS; which will 
unite with the sulphur and form sulphocyanogen ; this unites with 
the ammonium; and forms the sulphocyanide of ammonium. Then 
place a drop of a solution of a persalt of iron on this, and a blood-red 
spot is obtained; which is the sulphocyanide of irou; and is a certain 


What are the characteristics of metals ? They are conductors of 
electricity and heat; electro-positive; opaque, generally good reflect- 
ors of light; and possess a peculiar lustre called metallic. 

What is the number of the metals ? Forty-two. 

What metals possess the property of malleability? Gold, silver, 
copper, tin, platinum, cadmium, lead, zinc, iron, nickel, potassium, 
sodium, and frozen mercury. 

What are the metals which possess the property of ductility ? 


GM, tHrer, troa, tad eopper mv &e od^ «ns aipitili of Icmg 
dnwn into win vilb frciBly. 

WlntMnaal bjrlfcetetBcalrr II a ft» yofcn rf the ad- 
datioB of a aetel vhn haled m ihe «ir. 

TTTiir ill i nmrt I13 flir if T'" -' - -r*-'* Itvtbepmeen 
1? vliid neUfie M Mpo—a i mc ifanged ta diar mctdfie rttf*. 

WbktHBOeMMM wed iandnaBg metals r H<^ ths nnittd 
age«7 of iMirt na «wbii«aiB mUw, Oe eOniric WICS7, Hid I7 
the ictioii rf dea rridiM g i g Mte aa Ihcir HtntiaaB. 

What are the oxides at metab tilled vhkli are ea^MUe of awtiag 
wtili acids and fanmic taltif TheT ws cKlfed f^^*iTT or —*'***■*■ 
bases, sad sre geoenHj the pntende. 

Have m^ab n aSnitj for Morlmef Tiuy bsTe a powerfiil 
affini^, and is ntany '"?*■■'''— niule eo u to fffeeeal (be pbeoaineiM 
of combostion ; and niO fnqaeaHj displace oxjgen &oai its vaioa 
witb tbc metals, ' 

Wbat ue tbe general thamiieriiiia of the taeUlUe elilaridea !" 
Bloet of them are solid at cotzunOD tempentares, ftiable by beat, 
and nystallize on cooling. Some of tbem maj be Eublioied witboot 
change ; tbej arc for the most port colorless, bare no nMtallic Instre, 
and bare the tf^tmataot of aaUa. 

Have the mftaln aa affini^ tat ioAhuT 'Rkj ban % Strang 
affinity, and moat of tbew cconpoimda are not deeonpoaiUs bj a 
red beat in doae Tenels. 

Have the metals an affinitj for wu^tirT They have a strong 
tendency lo nnita vitb it, and the union may be aooomplisbed by 
beating the metal with solphnr, by igniting a mixtnre of a metallic 
oxide and anlphnr, and by serei*! other prooesaes. 
How are the metals divieUdf Into (too claaaes. 
CloM \a. Those which yield alkalies and earths by oxidation. 
Clou 2d. Those the oxides of which ore neither alkalies nor earths. 
The fira dam comprises thirUen metait, which have been airuiged 
into three orders :— 

Order lit. The metollio bases of the alkalies. They ara polauitim, 
aodiam, lithium, and ammonium. 

Order 2d. The metallio bases of the alkaline earths. These are 
barium, tinmtiumj caZm'um, and mo^ntnunt. 

CHBmeiET. 289 

Order Sd. Tlia metallio boseB of the «uf^ They ore aluminum, 

^HcMtiin, j/tlTHtm, thorinwH, aad zu-coniuM. 

The mcond daa compriBes tieenty-nine metal*, uid ma; be Kiranged 

into three orders : — 

Ordir 1«(. The metals which deoompoee mter at a red heat. 

The; an manganae, iron, sine, cadtnium, tin, oobalt, and nict^. 
Order 2d. The metals which do not docompoeo water at an; tem- 

pentore, and the oxidea of which are not reducible to a metallic 

state b; heat alone. They are anmic, chromium, vanadium, 

wmfybdeMim, hatgtten, oofum&tum, antimont/, uranium, cerium, dw- 

wMtd, titanimm, itUurium, copper, and lead- 
Order &d. The metals the oiides of which are rednced to the 

mntillin state by a red heat. They are ntercury, tilier, gotd,;pia- 

tin/umt paBadiwn, rhodium, otmium, and iridium. 


How is potasuum procured f It may be prooarod by subjecting 
mnstened hydnte of potossa to a galvanic battery, and the polas- 
nnm will be foond at the negative pole. A more abundant supply 
may be obtained by bringing fused hydrate of potassa in oontaot 
with tominga of iron heated to whiteness in a gon-barrcl. Another 
nathod is to mix iron filiogs and charcoal with potasaa, in an iron 
bottle; ia both oases, the potassinm is sublimed, and may be ool- 
leeted. The rationale ia that the iron and charcoal abstract oxygen 
from the potassa, and the potassium is liberat«d. 

But the method now more commonly practiced is that of obtain- 
ing it from ignited or carbonized cream of tartar, intimately mixed 
with oharcoal in coarse powder, which, on the appUcatiou of heat, 
iaresohed into carbonic oxide and metallic potassium; the latter of 
irtiich should be received in naphtha. The following is the ra- 
timaU: KOCO"+2C=3CO+K. 

What are the propertiei of potassium f It is solid at common 
temperatures, perfectly fluid at 150°, soft and malleable at 50°, and 
brittle at 32°; undergoes sublimation at a low red beat without 
change, provided there is no oxygen present, and is similar in lustre to 


mercury. Its prominent chemical property is its affinity for oxygen, 
which it Bombines ivith rapidly in the air, and by contact with ice or 
fluids containing oxygen, bo that to preserve it, it mnet bo kept in 
tubes hcrmcUeally eealed, or under the Borfoce of liquids which 
contain no oxygen, auch ae naphtha, oil of copaiba, &c. Its equiva- 
lent ie 39.15; sp. gr. 0.86; syiubol Po, or K. 

What are the compounrh of potasaium and oxygen? Thoy are 
the protoxide, KO; and the teroxide, KO". 

What arc the properties of the protoxide of potauivm, potath, or 
potataa ? Anhj/droia potassa ia a white solid, highly caustic, fuaes 
at a temperature a little above redness, ond is not decompoBod or 
volatilized by a very high heat. It has a great affinity for water, 
and forms three compounds with it, with the disengagement of heat 
during the combination. These conipounds arc called h>/dratet. 

The hydrate of potcma, K0 + 110,aiso called eauftie polaua, and 
polai»a /u»a, ia prepared by adding lime to the solution of the car- 
bonate of potassa ; the carbonato of lime being precipitated while the 
potash remains in solution ; this is concentrated hj evaporation, and 
poured into moulds. It is a white, very ddiipie»cent eolid, soluble 
in water and alcohol. It may further be distinguished by adding 
tartaric acid in excess to a salt of potassa dissolved in cold wat^r, 
and a «hit« preoipit>t«, the bitartnte of potuaa, is formed. It may 
alflo be predpitsted by peiafalorio add, the perohlomte b^g nearly 
inBolable ; and a sotntioD of the chloride of platinum prodnoes a 
yellow precipitate. There ia alao a light gelatinous precipitate by 
nlioated hydrofluoric add. 

Hoir is the teroxide o/potattium formed F By burning potasdom 
in the open air; ot in oxygen gas au orange-oolored substanoe ia 
formed, which is the teroxide of potassium. 

How is the iodide o/potattium procured f It may be formed by 
heating potasdnm in contact with iodine ; the union of which takes 
plaoo with the evolu^on of light and heat. But for procuring it in 
quantity, the preferable mode Is to add iodine to a hot solution of 
pure potassa, until the alkali is neutralized ; by this process iodide 
of potassium and iodate of potassa are generated ; evaporate this to 
dryness, and expose in a platinum orudble to a red heat, which will 
decompose the iodatej leaving the iodide of potaBsinm, thus : 6K0 + 


6IaBKOIO'+5KI; which, on being heated, is resolved into iodido 
of potaaamn, thus: EOIO+6KI«6KI+60. 

What are itke properties of the iodide of potassium ? It is easily 
fiunble^ rises in vapor at a heat below redness, very soluble in water 
and alcohol^ and deliquescent in a moist atmosphere. 

What are some of the most important salts of potassa ? Carhon- 
aietf mafyhaUf niiratey and chlorate. 

The common poi and pearl aahes are an impure carbonate^ pro- 
euTBd by liziyiating the ashes of inland plants, and evaporating to 
dijnesi; purified by redissolving and boiling. 

The 9aU of tartar is a pure carbonate^ prepared by the decom- 
position of cream of tartar at a high heat. EO+CO. 

The bicarbonate, E0+2C0^ may be formed by passing a stream 
of carbonic acid through a solution of the carbonate ; it is less soluble 
than the carbonate. For commerce, it is prepared by exposing the 
earbcmate to carbonic acid and moisture by spreading it thinly on 
frames, by which it absorbs water and carbonic acid, and increases in 
weight about 84 per cent. In this form it is known as sal seratus. 

The mt^phaie, EO+SO, is the residue remaining in the retort 
after the preparation of nitric acid. The bUuIphate, E0+2S0^, is 
more solable, and has acid properties. 

The nitratej EO+NO, called also nitre and saltpetre, is found 
in some soils, and is also manufactured from artificial nitre-beds. 
Crystalsy six-sided prisms, very soluble, contain water confined 
mechanically; hence the decrepitation when thrown upon hot coals. 
If heated, it is converted into a nitrate, and oxygen is given off, but 
by a high heat entirely decomposes it. It is an important portion 
of gui^Mnoderj by imparting oxygen to the other ingredients, char- 
coal and sulphur. When gunpowder is burned, the oxygen of tho 
nitre unites with the carbon, and forms carbonic oxide ; with the 
sulphur, forming sulphurous acid gas, and nitrogen is set free ; the 
sulphuret and the sulphocyanidc of potassium are also formed. 

The chlorate, EO+CIO', possesses remarkable deflagrating pro- 
perties, and yields oxygen largely when heated. 

Silicate, E0,SO* ] silicic acid unites in different proportions. If 
the alkali be in excess, the salt will be soluble in water, and the 


solution is called tlic liquor nf fiints, or Boluble glasfi. If tlie silicic 
Bcid be in excess, the salt formed is glai*, wliicb, when pure and 
colorless, is essentJoUj a silio&te of pot&sh uid lime. It m:iy bo 
made to assnine b; metoUto oudes a great variety of colors. 

How is sodium procurcif By the same pixweases by which we 
obtain potassium, substituting eoda for the poUssa. 

What are the proprrtiet of sodiam t It has a strong metallic 
lustre, iu color similar to silver, is soft at common temperatures, 
fuses at 200°, and is vaporized at a red heat. It is oxidized by 
water like potMBiara, Its equivalent is 23.3; 0.972; symbol 
So or Na. 

What arc the compound* of sodium and ojygen? They are the 
protoxide, NaO; and the sesquioxide, Na^'O'. 

How is the proltantle of sodium, or soda, obtained, and what are 
ita propertiei? It may be obtained hy the oxidation of sodium in 
air or water, from the ashes of Bca weeds, or common salt. Anhg' 
drout, it is a gray solid, difficult of ^Jon, and very similar to 
potussa in both its sensible and chemical properties, hnt may bo 
distinguiKliL'd from it by iU funning with sulphuric acid a ^U easily 
recognized as Glauber's salt, or sulphate of soda. Ita salla are all 
soluble in water, cannot be precipitated, and, on exposing them hy 
means of a platinnm wire to the blowpipe, a rick yellow color ia 
imparted to the flame. 

How is the teiquioxide of sodium obtained ? By heating sodinm 
to redness in oxygen gas. It is of an orange color, with neither acid 
nor alkaline properties, and is decomposed by water into soda and 

How is the chloride of todium procured ? It may be formed by 
burning sodium in chlorine, by heating sodium in hydrochloric acid, 
and also by neutralizing soda with hydrochloric acid. It is found 
in nature nndcr the name of rock salt, and in sea water, of which it 
forms a large prt; also in many saline springs. 

What are the prtipertia of the chloride of sodium ? It has an 
agreeably saline taste, fuses at a red heat, forms a transparent brittle 



Soda. Acidg. 

Carbonate . 

. NaO,COM-10HO 


. NaO,CO«+HOC02 


. NaO,SOH-10HO 

Bisulphale . 

. NaO,SOs+HOS03 


. NaO,No« 


. NaO,Cl05 

Phoephate . 

. Polybasic. 


. NaO2BO3+10HO 

mass on cooling, deliquesces in a moist atmosphere; but not in a dry 
one, and is decomposed by snlphnrio acid, hydrochloric acid being 
set at liberty, and sulphate of soda formed. It possesses the pro- 
perty in a very high degree of preserving meat from putrefaction, 
and is used eztensiYely in the arts. 

What are the oxyiolU oftodaf They are the following :~- 


31.27+112 =143.27 

40.27+ 44 =: 84.27 
31.27+ 40+90=161.27 

40.27+ 80 =120.27 

31.27+ 54.04 = 85.31 

31.27+ 75.41 =100.68 


The carhanjait is obtained from the ashes of sea plants by lizivio- 
tion and evaporation ; also from common salt, by the addition of 
sulphuric acid, the sulphate of soda is formed, from which the car- 
bonate may be procured. The crystals usually contain 10 equiva- 
lents of water. It effloresces; melts in its own water of crystallization 
when heated; and, although a neutral salt, has a powerful alkaline 

Bicarbonate^ called also supercarhonate, may be prepared by pass- 
ing a stream of carbonic acid gas through a saturated solution of 
neutral carbonate. It is a double salt, consisting of carbonate of 
soda and the carbonate of water. The carbonate loses 9 equivalents 
of water in becoming bicarbonate, and becomes a white powder. 

SulpJtate, commonly called Glavher^s salt, exists in sea water, 
and is a residue in the preparation of hydrochloric acid, by the action 
of sulphiirio acid on the chloride of sodium in water. Sulphuric 
acid, added to carbonate of soda, will produce it pure. Crystals are 
four-sided prisms, with dihedral summits, efflorescent, melt in their 
own water of crystallization by heat, and soluble in twice their 
weight of cold water. 

Nitrate, obtained naturally and artificially in the same way that 
nitrate of potassa is obtained. Crystal, rhomb, docs not effloresce, 
because it contains no water of crystallization, but is deliquescent. 

flf I II IMiwIlllll |[ llTlMlltll lir[llllWM ill in IIIHMll 

Tbe Bidaii Mflk t^mihm am tbe eiioriJt, w£^ AnmuA^ fat. 

Wtiu uettMof miiani* 
only qan Ikliia IB ba ■■-■ *—tV with thuH oi 
ft jellow CiDgB to fane. Ilea 

Mot. TTiii MiililiiiiilB V iililiiiiiw lliiiM II iiiMwiiitift wnii | 
nut not with tait. TIw onlj Jawhthlfl sit of Bodft b tba hM^- 
moDmM ; vhila tfaa atuitnoaiitc of poOah a wlabie. 

Bav ia Utbiam ^rvearoif Bf deeanipostng Ihfaia bj omum of 
finWBB- It is B wliite-aiiand ibcbI, naeniUing — J-™*! mi iM 
e^Bvaleat, aocoRlmg to Bswliaa,» 0.44; sjnbol L. 

WW oompmmd doe* lithium form with osjgea? It &iim Iwt 
DOB cnrnpnoDd, whirii ia I eq, of gadt, and ia ealkd fifAui. 

WItu 3je dw pfoftrtia ef litliia ' It eloaelj^ naniaUa iotia ood 
potaan ia ita rhmnirtil rebtioiu. Its salia, when hmfciil om a pU- 
^om wire I)e£ve a blowpipe, tinge the flame of a ted color. 

What ia amoDnDB? The kjpothetkal r^eal, or aatal, vUdb 
iithebaaeofamaann} eqvnloit 18.06; ajmbolKH*. Ammo- 
KM is tbe prctoxide, NH«0; eqamlent 26.06. 

It ia gaseooi, obtained fron th« chtarida of aamoonna bj adding 
qnicklime, and a^jiag beat. It baa a potgnt odor, ooloriMa, 
alkaline reaetioD, ccmdeiisible into a liqnld by a priwnnre of 6.5 
atmoapberea at 60* F. Water ahaorbe 700 times its own Toinme 
of ammonia, aod tbe lolntioii is ca^ed hqaor amvuMtx ; density 
875. It ia a poverfnl allcali, and b amnged with soda and potasea. 


Cnrbonala , . NH,0,CO« 26 06 -f- 53. =4S06 

SulphnW . , NH,0,SO»+H0 2806+19. =7506 

Nilr»tB . NH,O,N0» 26.064.54.tM=80.10 



Oarhonatej that so called in the shops, is a MnquxearUmaie^ and is 
prepared by subliming chalk with the chloride of ammonium; the 
result is seequicarbonate of ammonia and chloride of calcium. It is 
conTerted into the bicarbonate of ammonia (NHH);2C0*) by ezpo- 
Bure, from the escape of ammonia. The s^quicarbonate is soluble 
in water, insoluble in alcohol, has the odor of ammonia, an alkaline 
reaction, and an acrid, hot, alkaline taste. 

SidpkaiUj obtained by adding sulphuric acid to carbonate of am- 
monia, or to coal-gas liquor, to saturation. 

NUrcUe^ prepared by adding nitric acid to carbonate of ammonia. 
The protoxide of nitrogen (or laughing gas) is prepared from this. 

Metals of the Alkaline Earths. 


How is barium procured? By decomposing the carbonate of 
baryta by means of galvanism, and forming an amalgam with mer- 
cury, which amalgam may be decomposed by heat in a vessel free 
from air. The mercury, being volatilized, leaves the barium in its 

What are the properties of barium ? It is a dark-gray colored 
metal, attracts oxygen from the air, and yields a white powder, 
which is baryta, and decomposes water, hydrogen escaping, and 
baryta is formed. Its equivalent is 68.7 ; symbol Ba. 

What are the compounds of barium and oxygen ? The protoxide, 
BaO; and the peroxide, BaO. 

How is the protoxide of barium, barytes, or baryta, prepared f It 
is produced by the oxidation of barium in air or water, and may be 
prepared by decomposing the nitrate of baryta at a red heat, or by 
subjecting the carbonate to an intense white heat with charcoal. 

What are the properties of protoxide of barium ? It is a gray 
powder, sp. gr. 4., difficult to fuse, has caustic alkaline properties, 
converts vegetable blues to green, and neutralizes acids, has a strong 
affinity for water, and an intense heat is produced by the union. It 
is distinguished by its alkaline solution, by all its soluble salts form- 
ing white precipitates ; the carbonate of baryta, by the addition of 
alkaline carbonates ; and the sulphate of baryta, by the addition of a 



aolnblc sulphate or sulphuric acid ; and bj Uie characteristics of 
chloride of bnriuni, formed hy the action of the hydrochloric acid on 
baryta. The carbonate of baryta is soluble in dilute acid, anil is 
poisonous in a soluble Btate, whether the solution is formed from 
acid in the stemoch or out of it. 

How 18 tho peroxide of barium procaredf Bj posung dry 
osygcn gas over pure baryta at a low red heat. This oside is oscd 
in forming tho peroxide of hydrogen. 

What are the oxr/saltt of baryta ? They aro :— 

CarbOMW . . . BoO,CO> 76.55+22 = 38.55 

Bolphats .... &0,S0< 7fl.SS-t>4a =1I6.»S 
NitniM .... BiLO,NO< Tfl.SS-}- 54 .04^=130.59 

What are the hatoid wlta of barium? They ara:— 

Chloride . . BfiCI 68.55+35.41=103.08 

How ifi strontiaiii oVtainedT By a proctss analogous to that 
eraployed in procuring barium. 

What are the prcpertia of Btrontium f It ia a heavy metal, 
similar in pn^rties to barium. Its eqaivaleat is 4S.8 ; symbol Sr. 

What are tke obmIm of atrontinmf They an iha protoiiiie, 
SrO; and the peroxide, SrO. 

Hov is tho protoxide of strontium, or stroatia, prepared f From 
the nitrate and oarbonate of stronlda, in the same mamier as baryta, 
which it resembles in most paiticulare. Its salts are not poisonons; 
when heated on a plaUnnm wire before a blowpipe, it oommnnioatea 
a rod tint te the flame. 

How is the peroxide procured F In the same way « peroxide of 
barium, and it is possessed of simlhu- properties. 


How is calcium procurtd? Its existence may be shown in the 

same manner as barium. It is of a whiter color than either barium 

or strontium, and union with oxygen converts it into lime. Its 

equivalent is 20.5; symbol Ca. 


Hov many ttNi^xNfniii are there of oaldum and oxygen ? Two; 
the protoxide, CaO ; and the peroxide, CaO^ 

How is the protoacide of caldttm, Um/e^ or guicldimty procured ? 
By mbjeeting carbonate of lime to heat aofiBoiently strong to expel 
ita caibonic add. 

What are liApropertiaf It ib a brittle, white, earthy aohatanoe, 
flomewhafc alkaline, phoephoreflcent when heated to redness, fiudblo 
with great difficulty, slightly soluble in, and has a strong affinity 
for water, which produces an increase of temperature by the union, 
and the result is ddked lime, which is a hydrate; it parts with its 
water atared heat 

The most delicate tat for its presence is oxalate of ammonia or 
potaasa^ the oxalate being insoluble. The nitrate yields prismatic 
ayBtaLi, is yery deliquescent, and soluble in alcohol, which proper- 
ties distinguish it from baryta and strontia, the nitrates of which 
crystalUie in octohedrons, and are not deliquescent^ or soluble in 

How is the penxtide of calcium procured f In the same way as 
the peroxide of barium, and possesses similar properties. 

What are the oxysalts of lime ? They are the carbonate, GaO, 
CO"; sulphate, CaO',SO; phosphates, polybasic. 

CarhoncUej found plentifully under the various forms of lime- 
stooe, marble, &c. In some cases amorphous, and in others crys- 
talliied. It is found in solution in waters with an excess of carbonic 
add, from which it is often deposited, by parting with this excess, 
in the form of dalagmites, itcdactUes, &c. 

&i^>hate may be formed by adding sulphuric add to the car- 
bonate. It is called selenite when occurring natiTO, in a crystalline 

Pkuter of Paris and gypsum are sulphate of lime. It contains 2 
equivalents of water of crystallization, which it loses when ground 
up and heated, and becomes an anhydrous white powder; it is used 
for making casts by mixing with water, which enters again into 
combination with it, becoming a solid hydrate. 

How is magnesium procured f By the action of galvanism. It 


may also be obtained by the action of potassium on the chloride of 

What are its properliex? It has a brilliant metallic lustre, a 
iTliil« color, is very malleable, anil fuaee at a rod beat. It boroB in 
oxygen gus when heated t« redness, and magnesia is formed. It« 
equivalent is 12.7 ; symbol Mg. 

What couipound does magnesium form with oxygen ? The prot- 
oxide, MgO, known as magnesia. It may he procured by exposing 
the carbonate of magnesia to a high red heat ; and is called calcined 

What are the properlics of magnesia? It has feeble alkaline 
properties, except in forming neutral aalte with acids. Its sulphate 
ia very soluble, which serros to distinguish it from the other oUcaliue 
earths. It is precipitated from its salts as a hydrate by pure allca- 
liea, and may bo distinguished and separated from lime by the oxa- 
late of ammonia. 

It forms several mlu with acids. 

Carhoimte, the moffiiesia allia of the ehops, may bo prepared by 
adding carbonate of potassa to sulphate of magnesia, by which pro- 
cess it is precipitated as a lino white powder. Its formula is MgO, 
CO*; equivalent 42.67. 

SidjAate, MgOSO*-t-7HO; equivalent 128.67. 

Eptom tait$f fonnd in some mineral springs, and in sea water; 
rery soluble; crystala are foni-raded pynunide. It it the type of a 
la^ class of metallic salts, MgO^SO*, H0+6H0. The one equi- 
valent of water is eonstitutioiial, which, if eepanted, destroys the 
salt, unless its place is supplied by another salt. This may be done 
as in sulphate of magnesia and potash, MgO,SO'(EO,80>)+e.ffa 

The best tett is to form the ammonia-magnesium phosphate by the 
addition of ammonia to a solable phosphate of magneua. It also 
forms, by the addition of snlphurio acid, the Epsom salt, having its 
characteristic bitterness. 


How is alaminom procured 7 By the decompoution of the 


ohloride of olnminam b; potassium. Tbe changes ore as fbllova : 
Al«Cl' +3K-3KCH- 2 Al. 

Wbat aro tho propertie* of alaminiim t It is a gray powder, 
reBembling platinotn, or in small scales or spangles of a, metallio 
lustre; > eoadactor of electrioit; when fitsed, hot not in powder, and 
fanble at a temperature above die fiiring point of east iron. BnrsB 
in the vpva ur when heated to redness, and forms a white alnminouB 
earth. Ila equivalent is 18.7 ; STrobol Al. 

What IB the oompoeition of alumina, or ahtminoiu earA* It 
is a »eig«uxeide of aluminum. 

How is alumina proeuredT By dissolving purified alnm, adding 
an ezsess of carbonate of potassa, the alumina is precipitated, and 
may be eolleoted on a filter. 

Whatare the proptrfie* of alumina 7 It is tasteless, inodorous, in- 
Bohible in water, very infiisible, and has a powerful affinity iat water. 

It may be disdngoished by being separated liom tie aolds as a 
TtjfdraU, by tho alkaline carboDDt«a and ammonia; by being prcd- 
[ntaled by pure soda, or potassa, and the precipitate ledissolved by 
an excess of the alkali. 

S^jAate, AKMjSSO*; eq. 171.88. It is dccompcwd in solu- 
tion by all the alkalies; it will unite with other salts, and thereby 
form double ones. 

Sviphate of alumina mApotatta, Al»O+K0,S0'+24H0; eq. 
474.67. This is the common alum, which is procured from a clay 
eontaining sulphnret of iron. The sulphur forms snlphnric arid, 
nnitea irith the alumina and iron, and the iron may be displaced by 
adding ehloride of potassium ; the result then will be sulphate of 
alumina and potassa, and tbe chloride of iron. Crystals are octo- 
hedrons, and then water is easily expelled by heat. 

SufiJiate of alumina and soda, A\'0^3SO>+iila.O,90'+24ffO. 

Stdphate of alumina and ammonia, AW 85'0»+NH*0,5'O+ 


These are analogous to common alum, and are formed in the same 

The other metals of the earths are Glucinum, Yltrium, Thori- 
num, and Zirconium. They are unimportant. 

Manganae, or Mi>ji>/a7iesium. 
How is manganese pTOcKiTf^? It is procured from the oxide, hy 
liemtjng it in contact with oil and charcoal. 

Wbat are tbe propertia of tnaogaocae? It is of grnyisli-wliite 
color, granular t«xture, difficult of fusion, tarnishes bj exposure to 
the air, and burae if heated to redncBS in open vessels. Its equiva- 
lent is 27.7; symbol Mn; specific gravity 8. 

What are the compounds of manganese and oxygen? The prot- 
oxide, MnO; the seajuioiide, MnO'; the biuoxide, JlnC; man- 
ganic acid, MnO"; pcnnaogonic acid, Mn'O'; rod oxide of manga- 
ttcse, Bln'O"; and varvacilc, Mn'O'. 

Edw is ^eprokatide of manffanete procured? Hj exposing the 
peroxide, sesquioxide, or red oxide of manganese to charcoal and 
heat combined, or to heat and a current of hydrogen. 

What arc tbe propertUa of the protoxide of manganese ? It is of 
a light green color, attracts oxygen from tbe air, and unites readil; 
with acids. 

Uow is the saifufozuft of manganae procured X It is found io 
nature, and may be ibrmed by exposing the peroxide for some time 
to a moderate red heat. 

How is the binoxide, peroxide, or black oxide of numganese pro- 
onredf It ia found in nature mixed with silioious, or aluminous 
earths, oxide of iron, and carbonate of lime. It may also be formed 
artifidally, by enbjeoting the nitrate of the protoxide of manganese 
to a low red heat until the nitric acid is expelled. 

What are its pTopertia? It is unchangeable by exposure to the 
air, insoluble in water, does not unite with acids or alkalies, and 
yields oxygen gaa when boiled with sulphuric acid; or, if hydro- 
chloric acid is used, chlorine is evolved. 

It is much used in the arts for manufacturing glass, and in pre- 
paring chlorine for bleaching purposes. 

How is the red oxide procured ? It is found in nature, and may 
be arlificially formed by exposing the peroxide or scsquioxide to a 


white heat Of the same degree of fineness it is brownish-red 
when eold, and black when warm. 

How is the varvacite procured ? It is only procured as a natural 
production among some of the ores of manganese. 

What are the ietU for manganese ? If fused with borax by the 
blowpipe^ a bead of an amethyst color b formed; the peculiar chame- 
leon properties of manganic acid are the best test. Ammonia throws 
down a precipitate which becomes flesh colored^ and is insoluble in 
excess of precipitant 


How is iron generally ybt/ncZ in nature? In large quantities in 
combination with oxygen and sulphur^ called ores of iron ; but it is 
diffused almost universally in greater or smaller quantities. 

How is iron procured? By subjecting the ores, roasted and re- 
duced to coarse powder^ to the action of charcoal^ or cokC; and lime 
at a high heat 

What is the rationale of this process ? The carbon deprives the 
ore of its oxygen, and the lime acts as a flux by combining with the 
impurities^ and forms a compound, fusible mass, called slag, which 
allows the melted particles of iron to descend through it; and collect 
at the bottom. If the iron is in the condition of a silicate, the fol- 
lowing occurs : FeOSiO + CaO + C = CaOSiO^ + Fe + CO. 

What are the properties of iron ? It has a gray color, strong 
metallic lustre, susceptible of polish, is ductile, malleable, and very 
tenacious. It is attracted by the magnet, and may be rendered 
magnetto, a property possessed by no other metal except nickel. It 
has a strong affinity for oxygen, but does not take it from a dry atmo- 
sphere ', but, if moisture bo present, it oxidizes or msts; if heated to 
redness in the open air, it absorbs oxygen rapidly, and is converted 
into black scales, which are the black oxide of iron ; and if in oxygen, 
it is attended with vivid scintillatious. Its equivalent is 28 ; symbol 
Fe ; sp. gr. 7.788. 

What are the compounds of iron and oxygen f The protoxidci 
FeO; the red, per, or sesquioxide, FeK)*; the black oxide, FeH)*; 
and ferric acid, FeO*. 

Where is the protoxide of iron found, and what are i\a properties? 

It is tho base of tlio nfttive cnibonate of iron. It ia formed when 
metallic iron is placed in dilute Bulpbario acid; and is precipitated 
as a wAife ht/Jrate, from its suits, by pure alkalieB. Its ealta, wbeu 
in Bolution, absorb oxygen from the air. A solution of galls does 
not produce a change of color, but alkaline hydrosulp hates caose a 
blwk precipitate, the proto^lpboret of iron. 

How is the i-ed, or letquioxu/e, of iron procured? It is a natural 
product, Icnovrn as red hiematitc, and is found massive, Sbrons, and 
in rhomboidal cryatals. It may be formed by dissolYing iron in 
nitro-hydrochloric acid, and precipitating with au alkali. In this 
Btate it ia a hydrate. 

What are the propa-lifs of tbo red, or seaquioxide ? It combincB 
with most of the acids, forming salts, which are genenJiy red; and 
it may be precipitated from them by pure alkalies as a hi/dralt. 
Prussian blue is formed by the addition of fcrrocyanuret of potassium 
to this oxide, and a blood-rcd color is produced by sulphooyannret 
of potassium, and a black color by the infusion of galls. These laat 
reagents may be considered aa nnerriog tetU for the minutest qaaa- 
tity of tho sesqnioxide, and any other oxide may be converted into 
this by nitric acid. It is not iittriicted by the niognct. 

Where is tlie black, or magnetie oxide of iron foaod, and what ia 
its oompoeition f It ia foand native, often crystallised in regnUr 
octohedren and dodecahedron form ; it ia attraotod by the magnet, 
Mid may become magnetic. It ia bIbo formed vhen iron ia beat«d 
to redness in the open ur, or in contact with aqneons vapor. It is 
compoaad of Jhe protoxide, and the red or aeaqoioxidb oombined. 

What are the ox^U of iron 7 The tu^ihale o/pre4ox<de, FeO, 
SCHO + GHO; commonly called coppera*, or green vitrioL May 
be formed by the action of sulphnrio acid and water on iron ; but, 
for commercial purposes, by exposing iron pyrites (the aalphuret) to 
tur and moisture. It effloresces by exposure, and the sesquioiide is 
formed on its surface. 

Scsqui, or Pertulphalf, FeK)', ZSO*. May be obtiuned by adding 
stilpbnrio acid to the sesquioxide; an alkali or an alkaline carbonate, 
added to its solution, precipitates tho aesquioside, because carbonic 
acid cannot unite with it. 


l/kmie of FnHoatide^ FeO, NO^^ mmj be obtainod by dilate nitrio 
jMsid and iron. 

jRfPy or SaquiMtiratej FeK)*, SNO*; fbrmed by addbg an exoesB 
of mine add. 

CMtmaie of Pntozidt^ FeO,00'-f HO, may be formed by add- 
ing a adlation of carbonate of soda to a solution of the protosnlphate 
of irooy frcmi which it is precipitated. It absorbs oxygen, is eon* 
Terled into sesqnioxide, and carbonic acid is liberated, because it will 
not form a union with the per or sesquioxide. This increase of 
Qgjdatkm may be prevented by incorporating it as soon as formed 
with honey or sugar. 

What are the haJUnd 9alt$ oi iron7 Jhvtockhnde, FeCl; may be 
foi— J by dissolTing iron in ohlorohydrio add, and by putting iron 
in a state of minute divinon into chlorine gas. 

SfUpMlorickf Fe'Cl'; may be formed by adding two parts of 
chloiohydric add and one of nitric, to metallic iron. 

Proknodide^ Fel; formed by heating an excess of iron in a solu- 
tion of iodine, and preserved by sugar or iron dippings. It is 
Mteemed as a remedial agent very highly by many. 

SmqwMidej Fe'P. 

What are the compoundM of sulphur and iron? The tetrasul- 
phuret, F*S; the disulphuret, Fe^; the protosulphuret, FeS; the 
seequimilphuret, Fe^'; the bisulphuret, FeS"; and the magnetio 
pyrites, Fe'S', which is a compound of the bisulphuret and the 

It is found in nature in combination, called uvn pyriteiy which is 
ehemieaUy the bisulphuret, called, also, fool's gold, from its hard, 
shining, yellow appearance. 

FMatulphuret, FeS ; obtained by burning red hot iron in contact 
with sulphur. It is magneUc, and of a daric color. 

Farrocyanide of PbUmium. Ydlow PrumUUe of IhUuk, Fe,Cj* 
2K, or Fe(CW»), 2K. 

It is manufoctured on a large scale by placing carbonate of potassa 

and iron in contact with animal matter, as old leather, bones, hair, 

&c., and subjecting them to a high heat The cyanide of potassium 

is first formed, which forms a union with the iron — ^the ferrocyanide 



of potaKitim. This salt may then be diaaolved out and crystallized 
in beautiful, largo, yellow, octohcdral crystaia, 

Ffrroa/aiiiiho/Inm; /"ruwian t;ue,3(FeCy']4Fe'Cy',4Fe; pro- 
pared by adding ferrocyanide of potassium la solution tti a seequi- 
ealt of iron, for instance, the scsquisulphate. 

=^3(FeCy')4Fe. Praiiiu blu*. 

*H}(KO,SO')- e«qi. afiDlphalsofprXaiu. 

phiK of iro 

What arc the compounds of carbon and iron? There are three 
distinct compounds; graphite, cast, or pig iron, and sled. 

Where is graplUle (called also plumbago and himrk had) obtained ? 
It is found as a natural production, and may be formed artificially 
by exposing iron with an excess of charcoal to a violent and long- 
contbued heat. It contains about five per cent, of iron when" pure. 

How is zinc /</and is natore, and how is it procurttl f It is 
found native as a carbonate, called caiamiiie, and as a tulphurtl, 
called ziiic-hkinh. It is procured by exposure to heat and corbon 
from the calamine, and from the blende by the Bame prooeBS, after 
roasdng or expomire to air at a low red heat. The metal is distilled 
by a prooesa t«nned distillation by descent, and may be puiiGed by 
being again distilled. 

What are the proptrtie* of zinc ? It has a metallic lustre, bluish- 
white color, a LimiDateff teztnre, is bard and brittle, and, by cipo- 
sure in close vessels to a white heat, it is sublimed unchanged. It 
absorbs oxygen, and forms the white oiide or flowers of zinc, if 
heated to fusion in open vessels, or, if heated to redness in a closed 
vessel, and the cover removed, combustion takes place with a white 
light. Its cfjuivalent is S2.3 j sp. gr. 7 ; symbol Zn. 

What are the compowieh of zinc and oxj/ijen f There arc two, 
the protoxide, ZnO; and the peroxide, the composition of which is 

How is i\ie protoxide ot li'ae procured f By the addition of dilute 
sulphuric acid to zinc, and by collecting the flakes which arise dur- 
ing the combustion of zinc. 


What are the properliet of the protoxide of line 7 It is inaolable 
ID water, fonns regular salts with acids, and combines vith eome of 
the alkalies. It is precipitated from its BoIatioDs as a white hydrat« 
hy pure potaiaa or ammonia; as a carbonate, by the carbonate of 
ammonia; and is redissolved by the addition of an excess of the 
pfedpitant. Alkaline carbonates precipitate it as a white carbonate, 
and hydroeulphate of ammonia preoipitatcs it u a hydratcd snl- 

Sulpk^e, ZnO,SO*, H0+6I10; this ia tehite vilriol, and ma; 
be prepared by adding sulpburio acid to zinc, water being present 

Carbonate, ZnO, CO'-^HO; may bo prepared by adding the car- 
bonate of an alkali to a solution of the sulphate, and it will be 
precipitated. It is fonnd native as calamine. 

CUoride, ZnCl ; may be formed by baruing zino filings in chlorine 
gas, or dissolving eidg in cblorobydrio acid. 


How is tin generally /ound in nature, and how is it procured/ 
It ooonrs native as an oxiile; from which it may bo procured by 
heat and charcoal. 

What ore the properties of tin ? It resembles mlver in its ap- 
pearaooe; itBhrilliancyisIost slowly by contact with the atmosphere ; 
it ii malleable, inferior in dactility and tenacity, soft, inelastic, and, 
when bent backwards and forwards, produces a peculiar crackling 
noise. Its equivalent is 58. 0{ sp. gr. 7.291; symbol Sn. 

What aro the eompounJt of tin and oxygen f The protoxide, 
SnO; the sesquioxide, SoK)^; and the binoxide, SnO*. 

What is ^apurpk of CamiitF It is a combination of tho bin- 
oxide of tin and protoxide of gold, produced by the action of the 
protoxide of tin on a solution of gold. This property of forming a 
purple precipitate with a solution of gold is considered nauletttoi 
the protoxide of tin. 

What is nnderstood by tlannaieif They are combinati<»is of 
binoxide of tin, which poaacascs feeble acid properties, with the 

What is the composition of the fuming liquor of LStaviutf It 

it the bkilurtde of tin, and die dense white fumes emilted irhoi it 
it exposed U Ute air are caused bj its union vith moisture. 
Tin h&9 two ddorida and two tu^urcM. 

H(rw ii cobalt fimnd in nature ? It is generally foand in eoni- 
IliiiAtion with arBcnic. Its eopivalent is 29. & ; sp. gr. 7-S34 ; sym- 
bol Co. 

What are the compounds of oxygen and cobalt 1 The protoxide, 
CoO ; the scs<imoxide, CoKV ; and the complex oxide, CoH>. 

The teiii for cobalt are, that its suits are generailj rod ; the pre- 
cqtitate of the protoxide by an alkali is alwaji blue ; aniltx is a 
■alicate. Tlie cbloride is red in solution, but becomes blac bj 

How is nickel yt>«n(/ in natareF Generally as a copper-colored 
nuseral, which is the ane»iv.rtl of rtic/xl, containing email portions 
of sulphur, copper, cobalt, and iron, and called kupfemUkfi by the 
miners. The process for procuring it is somewhat complicated. 

What are the propertia of nickel f It is whitiaii, intermediate 
between tin and nlrer, hw a Btroog metallic Initn, and it dnetile 
and malleable. It is attncted by the magnet, and may be ren- 
dered magnetic, but itt oxides an nob Its equiralent it 29. & ; ap. 
gr. 8.279; 8ymba]Ni. 

The salts of nickel are generally green ; the protoxide is precipi- 
tated from any of ite salla in solution by an alkali, as a beandfnl 
green hydrate, and snlpburetted bydn^n gives a black sulphuret. 

Metals which do not dboompose Watee at ant Tempeba- 
tube, and the oxldes op which are not reducible to the 
Metallic State by heat alone. 

How is arsenic found in nature? Sometimes native, but gene- 
rally in combination with other metals. 

How is It procured f By roasting the ores, it is Tolatiliied, com- 


IniNS with oxygen, ud is oondensed in cakes, which are the white 
oxide. From this the metal may be prooored by heat and charooal, 
the pure metal being eablimed, and may be collected in a proper 


What are the prtpertiei of araenio J It is brittle, has a metallic 
Iiutre, a whitish-gray color, and crystalline. Its equivalent ib 37.7 ; 
sp. gr. 6.8843 ; symbol Aa. 

What :are the compound* of araonio and oxygen ? There are 
two; the arsenions acid, As*0; and the arsenic acid, AbH>. 

How Is anmioiM acid prepared? It is generated when arsenic 
is heated in open vessels, and it may be prepared by digesting it 
with dilute nitric acid, or the white arsenic of commerce (generated 
by roasting the ores of arsenic and cobalt) ; may be purified by & 
BeocHtd mblimation. 

What are the propertiet of arseniona acid ? It ia meetly sold ia 
the state of fine white powder, bnt when first snblimed it is in brittle 
misBca of a Titreona lostro. It is sublimed at 380°, and may be 
condensed on cold Bur&oes. It ia susceptible of two different crys- 
talline forms, and is, therefore, termed dimorphous. It reddens 
vegetable bine colors feebly, combines with salifiable basea, forming 
Mils, termed arsenites, and is a virulent poison. 

What are the important letlt for aiaenions acidf The ammo- 
niaoal nibate of silver, ammonioc&l sulphate of copper, bydrosul- 
phnrie acid, hydrogen gas, and the metallic copper test of Reinsch. 

The Jint of these produces a jftitow prtdpitaie, the arsenito of 
oxide of silver. This teat ts liable to some dtgeotion when sea salt 
or animal and vegetable infusions ore present, from the arsenite of 
ailver not subsiding at all, or in snch an impure state that it cannot 
be reoc^nised properly. 

The Moond, the ammoniaeal ttdphale of ef^iper, produces a tfreen 
pree^ntate, known aa Sehe^e'i ffreen; yet there are drcnmatancea 
nnder which a greenish precipitate may be formed with ammoniacal 
snlphate of copper, that may be mistaken for Soheole's green where 
no aigenic ia present, and under other circumatanoes it may be pre- 
sent in minute quantity, and no precipitate be formed. It may, 
therefino, be considered a fallacious test when applied to mixed 

Si8 oiiKinir. 

finidA, bowerer Eore it maj be trben the ArscDiooB add is difEoIvcd 
in pore «&ter. 

The third, the hydrotuijAuric acid, prodoces a j/tlhwitk color ia 
the liquid when this gas ia passed through it, from the formation of 
vrpimaU, or the aoequlsolpbarct of araenio. When this testis used, 
the liquid ahonld not conbuD a &ee alkali; and, to avoid it, a liule 
acetic acid should be added. Thus far this t«9t tnaj be con- 
sidered fallaciooB, as the some colored precipilat« may- be pro- 
dnoed iritb selenium, cadmium, lin, and antimoDj. Bat the 
precipitate, the laqtMtilplturft of arsenic, formed hy thii process, 
may be distinguished from all other Eubstances hy beiog dried, 
mixed with black fiux, and heated in a glass tnbe to redness; 
decomposition takes placo, and the metallic arsenio ia deposited 
of an iron-gray color citernslly, and ciystailine internally, on the 
cool part of the tube. Additional evideDce may be had by con- 
verting the metal into orsenioiu acid, which inay be done by hold- 
ing that part of the tube in vhicb tlie metal ia deposited over a 
spirit-larap in mich a manner that the metal may be sublimed 
slowly, and oa it is vaporized it combines with oxygen, and is de- 
posited in another portion of the tabe in bcantiful oclobedrnl crystals, 
that may easily be deleoted by a practiced eye. In this experiment 
the tube ahonld be clean and dry. 

The fourth, the ^plioatioD of h^roffoi. An araeDiaretted hydro- 
gen ia fermed, wfaioh ia a gueona oompoond that yields metallio 
anenio or aneniona add, and water in oombnstion; Hie metallic 
anenic or arsenioos add being deposited aooording aa the anpply of 
oxygen ia more or less abundant, each with ite pocnliari^ei. 

The apparatus for oondncting this process is called Marsh's. 

The araeniuretted hydrogen is prepared by adding a fluid eonlun- 
ing arsenic to the ordinary apparatus for generating hydrogen. So 
that, if a suspected fluid contain arsenio, and is added in this way, 
we will have this product. 

The nuUillic copper test conmsts in boiling clean strips of copper 
in the liquid supposed to contain arsenic, which should previously 
be acidulated slightly with acetic or hydrochloric add. If arsenio 
be present, it will be predpitated on die bright surface of the cop- 


par, and preaeiit tha lustre of matallio anenio. This precipitate 
maj be fiorther tested bj the various processes for testing arsenic. 

A good plan to porsoe is the following, vis. : Boil clean strips of 
copper Ibil in dilate muriatic acid, for the porpoee of testing the 
freedom of tbe matm-ials from araenic; then add the suspected fluid, 
and contmiie the boiling; if arsenic be present^ the copper will soon 
be coaled over, presenting the appearance of rolled sine. Take the 
copper and deposit; introduce them into a subliming tube of French 
gbwSy dosed at the lower end; apply a spirit-lamp until the copper 
beoomes bright, when a steel-colored crust will be formed on the 
cooler portion of the tube. Then open the lower end of the tube, 
io as to admit air freely, and apply heat again, so as to resublime 
the emst, which will be deposited in the form of a white ring, 
instead of a metallic one, in consequence of having become oxidised, 
or changed back to arsenious add. Take the subliming tube and 
contents, and boil in distilled water; test the solution with sulphate 
of copper and nitrate of diver, and expose to the vapor of am- 
monia, which will give the characteristic reactions. 

We have hero a series of processes -having the advantage of orcti- 
racjf, Micacyf and simplicity, and combining all the best tests. No 
special apparatus is necessary, and the whole may be gone through 
with in a short space of time. This is the plan pursued by Dr. 
Raymond, as a modification of Beinsch's method. 

The best ataidote is the hydrated peroxide of iron. 

What are the eompouiids of sulphur and arsenic ? There are 
three. The protomtlphuret, or realgar, is found in the mineral king- 
dom, and may be formed artificially by heating arsenious acid with 
about half its weight of sulphur until it fuses. Its equivalent is 

The aetpdwipkuret, or arpiment, is also found in nature, and may 
be prepared by fiismg together equal parts of arsenious acid and 
sulphur. Thb is the coloring principle of the paint called Kifu/i 

The permdphurtt, which may be prepared by pasdng hydro- 
sulphuric acid gas through a solution of arsenic acid. It resembles 
orpiment in color. 


How is aaiamtmjjbtmdm nktanf It is gnttnlfrf ftnud u ft 
rolpfanret, uid called erode utimonj; althoi^ it w et un w oooon 

How in it proeuredF 'Bj hcatiug tbe enlphurct id a covered 
crucible with half its weight of iron filings, or by mixing with it 
two-thirds il« weight of cream of tartar, and one-third nttre; and 
throwing the mixtare ia suiall portions snccesstvely into a red hot 

What arc the propert'ia of antimony? It is brittle, white, ron- 
DiDg into biuish gray, has considemble metallic lostre, fuses at S10°, 
and is volatiUzed at a very high temperature. ltd equivalent ia 
129-04 ; sp. gr. 6.702 ; Eymbol Sb. 

What are the compounds of antimony ? They are : — 

TeroiiJo SbO» 129 .01+ 3* =1^.04 

Aniiinonious Bciil .... SbO< ia9O4-|-39=161.04 

Aniimonle acid .... SbO^ 139.01-4-40=1139.04 

Ten-'hlorido SIjCI» 

Penmclirorida . . . ' . . SbCl« 

Totiuliibaiat S[>S> 

SulphanlimonloDi acid . . S1>S* 

PantaBulphuret,or HilphantimoDie acid SOS* 

Tariraie of aniimony and pouisa . SbO*, EO, CiH'°CH4-!H0. 

How is the teroxide of antjmonj procured f By gnblinution 
daring the combustion of kntimonjj and by adding cwbonate of 
potama, or soda, to a solution of tartar emetic. 

What are the propertita of the sesqnioxide of antimoDy T It ia a 
white powder of a somewhat dirty appearance; when heated, it ac- 
quires a yellow tint, and, if protected from the atmosphere, it may 
be sublimed without change. Heated in contact with the air, it 
absorbs ozygcn, and, if heated suddenly, it takes fire and bnms ; in 
both cases, antimonions acid ie generated. It is the only combina- 
tion of oxygen and antimony which forms salts with acids, and is 
the base of tartar emetic, or the tartrate of antimony and polaua. 
Its salts are insoluble in, or decomposed by water, except tartar 
emetic. The insoluble salts of antimony are rendered soluble by 
oxcesE of tartaric, or hydrochloric acids. Tbe presence of antimony 


in sohtlMMi maj euily be detected by bydronilphiirio aoid, which 
prodoees in omige-colored precipitate, h^raUd tetquindphuret of 
amiiaumjfj odled Kermei mtneral 

Ibftraie of a$Uinumy a$id potatm, SbO>,K0,0»H»0«+2H0; or 
imriar ewutiCf may be prepared by boiling the teroxide of antimony 
wilhenamof tartar. 

It 18 a bflbaoo salt; in cream of tartar, we have the tartaric acid 
united to two bases (potassa and water); when <iie teroxide ia 
boiled with it^ it takes the place of the water, and this salt is 
fe naed« 


How is copper Jbund in nature? It is often found natiye, but 
generally in combinaUon with sulphur, as the native sulphuret, 
which is sometimes combined with sulphuret of iron. 

What are the propertiei of copper? It is of a red color, which 
distinguishes it from all oiher metals, except titanium; it is ductile, 
malleable, tenacious, hard, elastic, and sonorous. It does not 
diange in a dry atmosphere, but rusts in a damp one, and is con- 
certed into a green carbonate of the black oxide of copper. Its 
eqoiyalent is 81.6; sp. gr. 8.895 ; symbol Gu. 

What are the compounds of copper and oxygen ? The dinoxide, 
Cn'O; the black or protoxide, CuO; and the peroxide, CuO*. 

Which of these oxides unites with acids and forms salts ? The 

What are the oocytalts of copper? 

Nitrate CuONO»+3HO 

Sulphate CuOSO*4-5HO 


What is Hue vitriol f It is the mlphate of coppery formed by 
boiling sulphuric acid upon copper, Cu,SO'+ ^iTO. 

The crystals contain five equivalents of water, isomorphous with 
solph. magnesia. It contains one equivalent of constitutional water, 
which may be replaced with another salt^ forming a double one. 
The addition of ammonia to this salt in solution produces a preci- 
pitate of the protoxide, which, on continuing to add the ammonia. 

S8S CHEUisTny. 

is rcdissolved, and amiDODi:il«d copper is formed, or a doabIi> salt, 
the sulphate of ammonu and copper, of a deep-blae color. 

Sulphate of copper may be rendered anhydrous by heat, and be- 
comes nearly white, aud ia decomposed at a high temperature. 

now are the tail* of copper diitinffuiJied f They have a green 
or blue tint; hydrosulphnric acid precipitates n dvk browu euI- 
phuret, and ferrocyoQuret of potasaiiun precipitates a reddish-brown 
ferrocyanurct; and it ie precipitated in the metallic state by a rod 
of iron or zinc. 

What is crude verdlijrUT It is a miituro of neuti-al acetate or 
tubarebile of copper with imparities. 

What are the cryuali of Fenuj? It is a crystalliEed naUml 

How is lead fmind in nature? As a sulpburet, the gaicna of 
mineralogists ; as an osidc ; and ns a salt. 

How ia it procured? By roasting galcns at & moderate tempe- 
rature, by which it is oonverted into the sulphate of lead, which ia 
then intimately mixed with another portion of the ore, and the tem- 
perature rapidly increaaed, by whioh sulphnroiu add ud metallic 
lead are formed, thm: PbOSO»+PbS-2SO«+2Pb. 

What are tbe propertia of lead T It has a bluish-gray color, a 
strong metallic lustre, tarnishes by expoatire to the air, and aoquiiCB 
a thin coat of the carbonat« of the protoxide. It fuses at 612°, and 
is ductile in large masses. Its equivalent is 103.6; sp. gr. 11.352; 
symbol Pb. 

What are the compounds of lead and oxygen 1 Tbey are : — 

SuboiiJe PbK) 207.13+ 8=dl5.I3 

Oxkle PbO 103.56-t- 8=111.50 

Bioiide PbC 103.56+16=119.58 

Mitiiiim, or red lead . . PbO, PbO" 

What are the eharacterittici of the dlnoxt^t, or tnhoxidef It ia 
generally known as droit; it is of a dark-gray color, and ia unim- 
portant in its chemical relationa. 

How is the protoxide procured f By collecting the gray film 


which tonoB on the sor&ce of melted lead, and ezposlDg it to heat 
and air until it becomes yellow. 

In the state of powder, it is called mcustcot; but, when partially 
fnaedy by which it is vitrified^ it is called litharge^ and contains a 
ali^^t mixture of red oxide. 

What are its properties f It has a lemon-yellow color ; it is in- 
aolnble in water, fused at a bright red heat, and unchangeable in the 
fire, but may be reduced by heat and combustible matters. It is 
the base of all the salts -of lead, and these are generally of a white 
color. It acts in some cases as an acid by uniting with alkalies. 

lUd leady or minium^ PbO,PbO', is formed by passing air over 
maflncot without fhsing, but at a considerable beat. It is a mixture 
of the hi and protoxide. 

What are the properties of the red oxide T It docs not unite 
with adds, gives off oxygen when heated to redness, and is con- 
certed into the protoxide j it is resolved into protoxide and peroxide 
by nitric acid. 
• What are the oxytatts of lead ? 

Nitrate PbO, N0» 

Sulphate PbO, SO> 

Carbonate PbO, C0« 

Chromate PbO, CrO* 

Acetate PbO, OH«a»4-3HO 

Tribasic acetate 3PbO, OH^+HO 

&c. &0. 

Nitrate of Leadj VhO yNO^) may be obtained by adding nitric 
acid to metallic lead. It is soluble, and crystallizes in opaque anhy- 
drous octahedrons. 

Acetate of Lead, PbO,C*H30' + ^HO; may be prepared by 
boiling litharge in acetic acid. It may be crystallized, and contains 
8 equivalents of water. It is known as sugar of lead, and is very 
soluble in water and alcohol. Its taste is sweet and astringent, and 
in large doses it is poisonous. 

The Suhacetate, 3PbO,C*H''0« + HO; prepared by boiling the 
acetate with litharge; called, also, Goulards extract. 

Which salt of lead is the most poisonous ? The carbonate ceruse, 
or wldte lead, so that any salt of lead, as the acetate, which is easily 


ah&ngcd into the c&rboiuite, maj also be poiBonoos bj convemon 
ioto the carbonate in the atomach. This may be obviated by ad- 
miDistering aa excess of vinegar, or acetic acid, with tHo acetate. 

What are the laU for lead ? The hydrosolphaiic acid, ^rhich 
gives EL black precipitate. The sulphates give a white precipitate 
with lead, that is ingolablc in oitric acid. Hjdriodate and cliromBte 
of potash give yellow precipitates, the iodide and cbroraate of lead. 
It U also separated from its salta in tbe metallic form by iron or zinc 
Tlie lead is deposited, forming the arbor Satumi. 

How is peraewfe of lead f rocurerf ^ By the action of nitric aoid 
on miniom, which dissolves tbe protoxide and leaves the peroxide ; 
and by passing a current of chlorine throagh a solution of acetate of 
lead. This oxide is of a pure brown color, insoluble in water, does 
not unite with acids, and is resolved into a salt of the protoxide and 
oxygen gas by strong ox-acids. 

What are the haloid sa/u of load ? Ohloride, PbCl ; bromide, 
PbBr; iodide, Pbl. 


How is it /outtd in nature ? In combination with sulphur, 
aiseiiic, iron, and «opper. Equivalent 70.95; sp. gr. 9.90; symbol 
Bi; and mells at 497°. 

May be obtatMad pore by heating the nitrate. 

What are its propertia f Beanlifnlly oryatalline, a. rteel-like 
lustre, undergoes little change by exposure, and, when heated in the 
open air to 500°, takes fin sod burns with a Mnish-white flame, and 
copious fumes sre emitted, which Is the protoxide of bismatb ; and 
nitric acid is its proper solvent. Rotiitf\mbU m^al is composed of 
8 parts of bismuth, 6 of lead, and 8 of tin; and melts at 212° F. 

What are the oompoundi of bismuth 7 They are :-~ 

Suboxide .... BlK) 141.90+ 8 


Proloiide . . BiO 70.0i+ 8 

= 78.95 

Chtorida . . BiCl 70.94+35.J 


Miimi BiOJ)0'+3HO 

Subniiraie .... 3BiO,NOH- HO 

TheprotoxiWe, BiO, is the base of the oxysalta. 


CUoride, BiCl; proenred by mtrodMohig bismath in powder in 
oUoriae gas; it wu formeiij railed the Imtter o/biimvih. 

Ifitrate o/BitmuA, SiO^O+8ffO; prepared by wldiiig nitrio 
Bctd to bimmth. It fonu tmiapuent colorlew ciyBtaU, wbich, 
when thrown into water, are deoompoaed, and conrerted into a $tiper- 
nitrate, whioh remains in solntios ; and a nbnUraie, which is pra- 
cipit&ted, and is BometimeB called ma^tj<»;jro/&utR«cA, 3BiO,NO*+ 

What are the tola for bismatb F By the addition <^ water to the 
pTotosalts the sabpalts are preei[Htated ; .and Bolphnrettcd hydrogen 
ptodtioes an intense brown precipitate from the salts of this metal. 

Hbtals, the Oxides as which are reduced to the Metallic 
State bt a eed heat. 

Mercury, or Quiclmlver. 

How is meroniy/niNd in natore ? It is found native, oombined 
with snlpfanr, as ctnnoiar, which is its most abundant form; snml- 
ganmted «i& nlver; and as a chloride. 

How is itproeured, and from wheref By heating the sulpburet 
with lime, or iron filings, by which means the meronry is volstiliied 
and tite sulphur retuned. To purify it it may be digested witli 
Bulpbuiio acid. It is brought principally from Spain, Hungary, 
Asia, and South Amerioa. 

What are iiajircpertiett It is flnid at common temperatures, of 
a tin-white color, and hu a strong metallic lustre. It freetes at 39 
W 40° below teroj boils at about 662°, and does not tarnish by ex- 
posure to the air if perfectly pore. It is acted npon by nitrio and 
hot snlpburic acids. Its equivalent is 101 ; sp. gr. (fluid) 18.5S8, 
(frocen) 15.612; symbol Hg. 

What are the eompoundM of mercnry and oxygen f There aie 
two, the tubazide, Hg*0; and the protoxide, HgO. 

How is the nboxide of mercnry procured T By mixing calomel 
briskly with an exoess of potassa, the oxygen and chlorine ezchEinge 
places, and chloride of potassium and the suboxide of mercury are 
formed. It may also be procured by adding an oUcaline solation to 
the nitrate of the suboxide of mercury. 


What are the propertiaoi the suboside of mercnrj? It is a 
black powder, easily deoompoEcd, UDitcs 'with aciils, bnl ia a weak 
base. Tbe nitrate is decomposed by alkaUeSj which throw down 
the suboxide; by alkaline carbooates throwing down tho wbile car- 
bonati;; by hydrochloric acid, or any soluble chloride, and the eub- 
chloride, or calomel ia formed ; and by hydroaulphuric aeid, and the 
black protosulphuret ia produced. 

How is the protoxide procured? By tbe aotion of heat and air 
combined; by dissolving mercury in nitric acid; and by exposing 
the nitrate to a heat sufficient to expel tbe nitric acid. It ia the 
red precipitate of popular language. 

What are the properdet of tho protoxide? It is in shining cryB- 
talliDc scales, when hot it is nearly black, and red whi^n cold, finely 
powdered it ia of an orange color; when heated to redness it is 
rcBolTcd into metallic mercury and oxygen. It is ecpuratod from 
aeida by ammonia and ita carbonate, as a white precipitate. 

What are the compouixh of chlorine and mercury? They are 
tbe subchloride or calomel, which is 2 eqs. of mercury, and 1 cq. of 
chlorine; and the chloride, or corrosive sublimate, which is 1 cq. of 
mercury, and 1 eq. of chlorine. 

How is the mihddoride, or cdUmd, H^l, proonred? It ia gene- 
rated when mercniy and chlorine oome in contact at common tem- 
peratures; by the onion of meronry and the chloride, which ahould 
be sublimed; and by mixing the nitrate of the suboxide with hydro- 
chloric acid, fxc a aoluble chloride. It is usually proonred by nib- 
bing the dry Bolphata of tbe red or protoxide with as much metallio 
mercury as is contained in the solphate, and ft quantity of common 
salt, until the globules disappear and the mixture becomes nniform. 
Subject this to sublimation; carry the vapor of calomel into an 
atmosphere of steam, in which it becomes condensed in a state of 
minute division. 

CdoKwi, hck:i. 

What are iixpropertiett It is whita, cTystalline, oompact, taste- 


leai, iDodonnu, and not altered hj expostm to the atmoBplieTQ if 
light IB ezehided; bat by this it ii rendered black and partiAlIj 
rednoed to the metalUo itftte; alkaline solationB render it blaok by 
tbe formation of the soboxide. It eometlniM oontune porliooa of 
the chloride, whiah wonld be a dangeroiu combination when em- 
ployed in medicine; and may be detected by boiling with water, and 
adding oaastio potash to tbe filtered liquid, wbioh will ^re a yellow 
precipitate if oorromve sablimate be present. 

How ia tbe cUoride, or oorraiive tuilimaU, procured F By heat- 
ing mercury in chlorine gaa, and by snblimiDg a mixture of 1 eq. 
of the nilphateof the red oxide of mercniy with 1 eq. of the chloride 
of sodium. The prodoota of this last fKKxea are 1 eq. rf the chlo- 
ride of mercury, and 1 eq. of the snlphato of soda. The action may 
be explained as follows : — 

1 «. HlptKM 

of lureutT 

^Bvlphat* of aodl. 

What are its prt^iertie* f It ia white, semitransparent, crystal- 
line, and poisonoQs; has an acid, bnming taste, and leaves a nan- 
seoQB metallic one. It is slightly soluble in cold water, and highly 
soluble in hot water and alcohol. By the addi^on of ammonia to 
its Boluljon, the white precipitate is formed. 

What are the tettt for corrosive sublimate 7 Hydrosulphuric acid 
precipitates the black sulpburet of mercury ; lime-water and the pure 
fixed alkalies a yellow peroxide of mercury ; hydriodat« of potassa 
precipitates the iodide of mercury, which is of a scarlet oolor, and 
resembles no other iodide; protochloride of tin causes a black pre- 
dpitate with the salts of mercury, which is perhaps the most delicate 
test we possess for them. Another is to phwe a drop of the sos- 
peoted liquid on polished gold, and touch it through the liquid with 
a peoe of iron wire or point of a knife, when the part touched 
instantly becomes white, which is caused by an amalgam of gold. 
Albumen or white of eggs produces a white flocculent precipitate, 
which is a compound of calomel and albumen, and is inert; there- 
fore, white of eggs is an antidote for poisoning by corrosive subli- 


What are tlie iodulet of mercury ? They are the tx^iodiih, 
vbicli is mercurj 2 eqa., and iuJino 1 et)., Ug*!; and ia oblwoed by 
mixing the nitrate of tbo suboxide of mercury with the iadido of 
poUsgium. It is a greenish-yellow powder, insoluble in water. 

The iodide, wliich \% I eq. of mercury and 1 eq. of iodine, Hgl; 
and Ib obtained by adding the iodide of potaBeinm in eolution to th« 
nitrate of the protoxide; or to the chloride of mercury. It ie pe- 
cipitatcd aa a rich red colored powder vicing in beauty with ver- 

Wb&t ore the wmpoundi of mercury and iulphur? The nb- 
nJpltufel, which is 2 eq«, of mercury to 1 eq. of sulphur, Hg^S ; and 
may be formed by passing hydrosulphuric acid gas through a solu- 
tion of the nitroto of the suboxide of mercury, or through water with 
calomel suspended in it. 

The sulphuret, which h 1 e<{. of mercury to 1 eq, of sulphur, 
IlgS; and is formed by fusing snlpbur with ux times its weight of 
mercury, and subliming in close vessels. This i&fctilioua cinnabar, 
ond, when powdered, it forma the beautiful pigment vainiliott. 

What is etkiopt mincraif It is a mixture of sulphur and the 
aulphuret of mercury, and is formed by triturating together equal 
parts uf mercury and sulphur. It is the subsulphuret, Hg'S. 

What compound does mercury form with cyanogen t A cyanide, 
HgGy, obtuned by heating the red oxjde of meronry with Fnusiaa 

The ttdti of mercory are all volatilized or decomposed by a t«m- 
perature of ignitjon ; those that do not yield the metal by simply 
heating, may be caused to do so by the addllioB of dry carbonate of 
soda. The metal is displaced from its soluble combinations by a 
plate of copper, and also by a solution of protoohloride of tin iu 
excess. Sulphuretted hydrogen gires a black precipitate. 

Lime-water and the alkalies give a black precipitate with the salts 
of the suboxide, and yellow with those of the oxide. 

AUoys of mercury are called amalyam*; it unites with many of 
the metals and forms a solution, some of which afterwards become 


How ifl alrer Jhund in nature, and whera T It is found nadve, 
and in oombimlion with mlpliTir in galena, abo combined with gold, 
antimonj, oopper, fto. Nearlj all the lead of oommense oontajna 
traces of rilrer. It is finind in Hexioo, Fern, Hnnguy, and in the 
United States. 

How is it p rocured f Bj amaJgamatiim and eapdhtion, de- 
pending upon the form of Me used. It maj bo obtained pnre from 
coin b; diasolTing it in nitrio add, and decomposing the nitrate. 

What are its propertiet T It is the clearest white of the metals, 
reodTes a hesntifhl poUsh, is yerj malleable, ductile, quite tenacions, 
soft when pnre, and, when fhsed in open vessols, it absorbs oxygen. 
It is blackened by snlphnr and chlorine. Its equivalent is 108; sp. 
gr. 10.51 ; symbol Ag; melts at 1873°. 

What are the mmpowndt of iHver and oxygai f They are the 
suboxide, Ag*Oj the protoxide, AgO. The last is obtained by de- 
compomng the nitrate by potash or Boda. It ie of a deep-olive 
color, Bolnble slightly in water, and forms a fiilminating compound 
with ammonia. It is precipitated in the metallic state by most of 
the metals; when mercnry is employed it assumes an arboresoent 
appearance, called arbtyr Diante. And the peroxide, which is 
onimpCTtant in its chemical relations. 

How is die nitrate o/iilver, AgO,NO', procured 1 By the action 
of nitrio add on diver; when it has been fused it is called Ivnar 

What is the best tett for silver? Chlorine, and the muriates, 
which form an insoluble chloride. 

How is the chloride of silver, AgCl, prepared? It sometimes 
occurs nadve, and is caUed horn tih-er; it is generated when silver 
is heated in chlorine gas, and may be precipitated by adding hydro- 
ohlorio add, or a soluble chlondo to the nitrate of silver. 

What are 'tiA-propertietf It is white, iosolnble in water, slightly 
soluble in adds, bnt very soluble in ammonia, and is decomposed 
by hydrogen. 

How is the iodide of tflier procured? By adding tho iodide of 
potasdum to a solution of the nitrate of silver. It is greenish yel- 
low, and is soluble in water and ammonia. 

370 cvswazkv- 

How is the xulph^ret of iihfr procured? Silver imit«H with sul- 
phur on esposure to L;droaulphuric acid, and by transmitting this 
gas through a solution of tbo nitrate, wben it subsides aa a dark- 
brown precipitate, the sulpburet of eilver. 

FiilminatMg tilver is prepared by dissolving the precipitated 
oxide in ammoniu; and poascsses esceedingly dangorous eiploMTQ 
properties ; wben dry, the touch of a featlicr being sufficient to cause 
it to explode. The reason of this esplosive property is that tbe 
silver has a feeblo affinity for osygeo, while the hydrogen of the 
ammonia lias a powerful affinity for it, so that a slight disturbing 
cause is sufficient to cause the oxygen and hydrogen to unite. Tbe 
products of this action are water, nitrogen, and metallic silver. 

Solutions of silver are reduced U) the metollio state by iron^ 
copper, mercury, &c. 


How is gold found in nature, and where ? It is found pure and 
in combination with other metals, in North and South Ajnerica^ 
Hungary, and Liberia. 

How is gold obtained pure? By amalgamation with mercury, 
and then distilling off the mercury; by making n solution in uitro- 
LydrncLloric acid and precipitating it by the sulphate of iron. 

What are the pnpertia of gold? It has a yellow color which 
distinguishes !t from all other simple metals, ia very malleable and 
ductile, but inferior to seTeral in brilliancy and tenaoity. It has 
but little affinity for oxygen or sulpbur. Its equvalent ia 99.4; sp. 
gr. 19.257; symbol An. Ite tolveni is oUorine, to which the nitro- 
hydrochloric acid owes its solvent powers. 

What are the oxida of gold 7 The protoxide, AuO ; the binoxide, 
AuO*; and the terozlde, AuO'. 

What is the te>t for gold in solution? The protochloride of tin, 
which throws down the jJurpfe of Caaivt. 

How is platinum f>uiid in nature, and where? In the metallic 
stale, associated or combined with other metals. It is found in 
South America, and in the Uialian mountains. 

CH1MIBT»>. 271 

Sow ie it obtained f By disBolving the ntdve greins of pl&tiDnm 
in aqua regia, or nitro-IiTdrochlwM acid, and adding to it a solotion 
of sai ammoniao, which afibids as orang»-yellow precipitate. This 
is to be washed, dried, and exposed to a led heat, which isolates the 
metal in a porous state, called j)icUina iponge; which may be oon- 
eoUdated by mechanical pressore, heat, and hammering. 

What are the propertiet of platinum T It has a white color, with 
a lustre InfMor to nWer, is malleable, ductile, may be welded at 
high tempetatores, and is £ffcult of oxidation or fusion. Chlorine, 
or Bohttions which afford it, la its proper lolTent. It is the heaviest 
of known metats, eqaivalmit 98.8; sp. gr. 21.6; symbol Fl. 

What are the eempomidi of platinum f There are three oxides, 
two chlorides, two iodides, and two sulphuretB. 

What is the tert ft>r platinum f Frotochloride of tin, which 
throws down a darat-colored preciptate. 


Whatismeantbyaifeiytandama^anM/ ,.4/%« are oombtnations 
of the metah with each other, and, when mercury is a constituent, 
they m called atiut^mt. 

Under what drenmstAnoes do metals combine with each other T 
It is neoeoary that at least one of them should be liquid, when they 
will unite if the attraction is energetic. 

Do they combine in definite proportions only F They unite in all 
proportions; yet there appears to be a tendency to unite in definite 
proportimu, aa some compounds of this kind occnr native. 

What are the general pmptrtin of alloys T They resemble the 
metals, are opaque, possesa metallic lustre, and are good conductors 
of heat and electricity. The color is sometimes changed from that 
of its constituents ; the hardness is generally increased, consequenUy 
the sooDTOusnesa is in general increased; the malleability and duc- 
tility are nsoally impaired; the density is sometimes greater, some- 
times leas; the fusibility is greatly increased, and the tendency to 
unite with oxygen augmented. 



How is the class of salts divided ? Into amphigen and halogen 

What are the halogen salts ? They are those salts formed by the 
onion of a salt-radioal with a metallic-radical, as common salt 
(NaCl); and are binary in constitution, and included under the 
compounds of chlorine, iodine, bromine, fluorine, and cyanogen. 

What are the amphigen salts ? They are those formed of ele- 
ments which have the power of generating both acids and bases, as 
sulphate of soda (NaOSO"). In this instance oxygen confers acid 
properties on the sulphur and basic on the soda. 

The amphigen salts are divided into sub or basic salts, where 
there is an excess of base over the acid; neutral^ when there is one 
equivalent of base and one equivalent of acid, whether they be acid 
or alkaline. The general rule in the formation of a neutral amphigen 
salt is: that there are cu many eguivalenU of acid cu there are 
equivalents of oxygen in the base to tohich it is attached. Thus one 
equivalent of acid is sufficient to neutralize a protoxide ; but two 
equivalents of acid are necessary to form a neutral salt with one 
equivalent of a deutoxide. Super, or acid salts, are those in which 
the acid is in excess; that is, there may be two equivalents of acid 
to one of base. 

Double saks; these may belong to either of the above classes ; 
thus chloride of sodium will unite with the chloride of mercury, and 
a double haloidal salt is formed; and sulphate of alumina, united 
with sulphate of potassa (alum), is a double amphigen salt. 

All of the salts are characterized by their taste and form of their 
crystals, which are simple or compound. 

Cleavage is the tendency of crystals to split in particular direc- 
tions, and is an indication of a regular structure within. 

They are isomorphous when tjiey have the same crystalline struc- 
ture, but differ in chemical composition ; and dimorphous when the 
same substance may have two crystalline forms. Goniometer is the 
name given to an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. 

What is meant by ddiquescent salt ? It is where a salt attracts 
mobture from the atmosphere, and becomes liquid. 


Wlut by tn efforacmt Bait? It ii wbtte & nit locu its water 
of ciTstallizatioii by expwora to the AtnuMpbare, kdA falJa down into 
« whitd powder. 

Wliat is the water of etyi lalli mi t uM ^ It is water wbieh onitei 
vlth a salt in ciyBtallintJOQ, and fbrms a part of the cr}«t»l, bat if 
not aa emoitial ingrediest to tlie exuteme of the salL 

What U meant by oa^talttf Thow of which both the adds and 
baaea ocatain oxygen. 

What ai» the Aarveterutia of the n^Jtalaf They forat white 
predintat«fl with the salts of baryta, Bticntia, and ieod, whioh are 
insoluble in nitrie acada- Of theae teste baryta is eouodered the 
beat for snlphnrie acid, either free or oomloned. 

They are soluble, with the exception of the snlphatea of baryta, of 
the oxides of tin, antimiKiy, l»smath, lead, and menmiy. Those 
sparingly soluble, are the solphateB of atrontia, Hme, liroonia, yttria, 
and of the oxides of oeriam and nlver. The other Bnlphates are 
quite soluble in water. 

What are ihe diaraeterittia of the tuIjAUetf The Bolphuric, 
bydroohlorio, phospborie, and arsoua aoids decompose the solphites 
whh e&erresoenoe, owing to the liberation of BulphniouB acid gag ; 
they ate ontTwted by nitric add into eolphatea. 

What is the {vominent oharacterisdo of the nitralaf They are 
deoomposed inTariahly at a high temperature. 

What is the prominent obaiacteristio of the niUiUtf By the 
addition of a strong acid the red ftunes of nitrons acid are disen- 

What is the eharaeleristio of the cA&m-oAm J They an decom- 
posed at a rad he^ oxygen gas is evolved, and a chloride is formed. 

What chamDteriaes the Monte* f They are soluble in water, and 
poasen high bleaching and oxidising propertiea. 

What eharacterises the vtdatett They are similar to the chlo> 
rates, iodides being formed of coarse, instead of chlorides, when 

What oharacteriiee the arttmiamf When beated to redness 
with charcoal they are decomposed, and mebdlie arsenic is set at 

What cbaraoterites the ckromata f They are generally either of 


B red or yellow color, are decomposed by heat, and tte acid ia re- 
solved into green oxide of chrominm and oxygen gas. 

What cLaracteriaes the earhimaUsf Their decomposilion with 
efferrescence by Dearly all the acids, aod most of them are decom- 
posed by beat. 

now may the salts of ammonia be diatinguished ? By the addi- 
tion of pure potassa, when the odor of ammonia ia given off. 

How may the h^droaalphaUs he diatinguiahed ? By hydrontl- 
phuric acid being expelled with efferveBcence by other adds. 

What ia understood by mtlpharsaltt? Tbey are double sulpbu- 
Kti, as the osysalta are double oxides; the salphurct of one metal 
acting aa an acid, while the sulphuret of another metal aota as a base. 
Kermes mineral, for instance, ia an example of a sulphur salt being 
BuJphuret of antimony united with salphurct of potassium. 


What is undentood by organic chemistry F It comprehends th« 
history of those compounds which are of animal or vegetable origin. 

What are the simph Yemeni* coming under notice in orgaoio 
chemistry? They are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, 
with traces of phosphorus, sulphur, iron, silicic acid, potassa, lime, 

The mode of union difien front tliat in the inorganic Idngdom. 
In that, unioo takes pUoe by^ira of elements; thuB— «opper and 
oxygen oomlnne to fi>nn oxide of copper; potasrium and oxygen to 
potash ; sulphur and oxygen to Eolphnric acid ; solphnric aoid then 
combines with o^de of copper and of potamum ; by which a pair 
of salta is formed, that are again capable of nniting to form a double 
compound, CaO,80*+KO,80*. The moat complicated products 
may be formed in Hiis way. In oi^;anic chemistry it is different; 
the union of the elemente, no matter how complex, seems to be 
Bimuitaneous. In sugar, C"H"0", or morphia, C«H»NO, and 
numerous other similar cases, the elements are bound up together 
as a single whole, which may ent«r into combination with other 
Bubfltanocs, and be disengaged with properties nnchanged. 



Are orguiio sabsbuioeB liable to deeompotitim f Yea; the; are 
very prone to decompoalioo, the tendency of carbon and hydrogen 
being to appropriate to thenuelves aa mneh oxygen as vill form 
carbonic add and water; and, when die oxygen ia inenffident, car- 
bonic oxide and carbnietted hydrogen are formed. When the 
organic snbstanoe contains nitrogen it ia very prone to decompou- 
tioQ, and water, carbonic acid, hydrocyanic add, and 'ammonia are 
formed. They are all decomposed at a red heat, and nearly all 
below this temperature. 

What aro the particular tiharaeterUtia of organic produote f They 
are composed of the same elements, undergo spontaneous decompo. 
eition wi^ &oility, cannot be formed by the direct union of their 
elements, and are decomposed at a red heat. 

The mora complex the constitution, the greater the liabili^ to 
decompoullon ; tluB dispodtion is less where the elements laturate 
each other. Animal matter is generally ^aternary, and more 
liable to decompodtion than vegetable, which is usually temary. 

Homeric bodies are numerous, and this condition is supposed to 
depend upon a diJeretU arrangemeni in the constituent atoms, the 
number bdng the same. 

What is understood by the term compound radiele$f They an 
combinations that perform the functions of elementary bodies. The 
following are the- most important examples of this class : — 

Caibonic oxide, or piotoiide of carbon 
Cjruwgen, or bicaibaret of nilrogan 
Helton, or Kiqiucaibiiiet of niuogen 
Bensrile, benzule, or benzyle . 
Cinnamrl, 01 

Saljcjle, or talicale 
Aceiyl, 01 Bcetale 
Formfl, or rornmle . 

Eibjrl, or etbule 
Melbjl, ot methu 
Cetrl, or oetnls 
Glyceryl, or glycerule 
Amfl, or ■mule 

Kacodjl, or kaoodule 






Wliat are the si'mpfe elements of vegct&ble substanceB? Oiygen, 
hydrogen, carbon, aad a few contain nitrogen. 

Whut is meant by tho jtroximale, or ijnmedinte principle of Tege- 
tables? Tbey are compounds which eiist ready formed in plants, 
suoh as sugar, starch, and gum. 

What ia meant by the proximitc analysb of vegetables? It is 
the process of separating the proximate principles from each other, 
and the redaction of the proximate principles into their simplest 
parts constitutes their ultimate analysis. 

How may vegetable anhstancea be arranged ? Into the vegetalh 
acicli, the vegdahle alkaliet; neutral tuhitaiura, the oryyen and 
hffdmgeii of jchuA are in the raliit to Jiirm witer; the oteagiuoun, 
retinout, and Liluminoiapriitciplet; the tptn'tuoai and efhtrea! pn'n- 
ciplet; eolorinff mailer; and coinpnuiuli which cannot be cloned under 
t&e preceding headt. 


What are the vegetable arads f They are componnds poesesting 
acid propertiea, whioh are products of Togetation. 

What ore the general propertiet of vegetftble adds 7 They are 
decomposed at a red heat, less liable to epontaneons deoomposition 
than other vegetable substances, deoompoeod by hot nitric aoid, by 
which they are converted into oarbonio aoid and water, and nearly 
all are polybasic. 

Is oxygen always in a proportion above that for forming water in 
vegetable acidsf Generally, but not always; sometimes it is even 
in a less proportion, as in benioio acid; but when there is more 
oxygen than suffices to form water with hydrogen, the vegetable 
substances are always acid. 

Where is Oxalk aeid, C'OrHO, or CO+CO,BO,lo\ind? In 
several plants ready formed, as in the rttmex acetosa, or common 
torrd; the oxaltt aeeloidla, or vxxid lorrel; and it may be prepared 
by digesting sugar with nitric aoid. 


WhattLrethe^rapentet of oxalic ftcid? It CTTstaUizcs in slender, 
flattened, fonr and six-uded prisma, tenninated bj six-sided Buminits, 
bnt the primaiy form is an obliqne, rhombio prism; it has a sour 
tsBte, leddens litmus, and forms nentrU salts with allcalicB, and is 
Tery soluble in water. It is powerfully poisonous, and is frequently 
taken by mistake for epsom salts, wHoh it resembles. Chalk is ila 
aiUidoU, with which it forms an insoluble oxdlaie of Hme. It is 
diatiogniBhed from all other acids by the form of its crystals, and 
by its solntaon giving, with lime-water, a white insoluble precipitate. 
It conluns the elements of carbonio acid and carbonic oxide, into 
which it is decomposed by the action of a strong add. It ia mono- 
basic, but will unite In more than one proportion Ut a single equiva- 
lent of base. 

The laiu t>t oxalic add are neutral oxahUe of ptHatKi, EO,C'0', 
HO; bifMxalale of potaua, called tall oftorr^, and exists in oxalia 
ocebMri&c, or torrfi, and in garden rhubarb. Formula K0,2(C'0') 
+8H0. Quadoxalale of potaua, KO,4(CH>)+7HO. Oxalate 
of ammmia, NH*0,O0^-f HO. This last is used as a test for 

Whero is Aettic acid, C*H>0* -f HO, found f It exists in the sap 
of many pluita, either free or combined ; it is generated by the de- 
BtruotlTe distillation (^ vegetable matter, and is produced by the 
acetous fermentation. It is best obtained pure and conceDtnt«d by 
deoompoeing the acetates by solphuric acid. For chemical purposes 
it is obtuned by the destructive distillation of wood, and sold under 
the name of pjfroliffneoM acid. 

How is acetic add dutinffuuhedf By its flavor, odor, and vola- 
tility. Its salts are called acelatet, and are all soluble in hot and 
most of them iu cold water; formula, 1{0,C*H*0*. 

Where is Laelie acid found ? In sour milk, and in the beet root; 
fwmula, SOfCS'O. 

Where ia Kinie acid found? In cinchona bark, in combination 
with lime, qninia, and dnchona ; formula, 2H0,CH'O'. 

Where is Maiic acid found? In the addnlous fruits, Buch as 
grapes, orsngea, currants, apples, &c. ; formula, 2H0,(?H*0". 

Where is Citric acid found ? In the juice of the limo and lemon; 
formula, 8H0,C'*HH)". 


From what is Tarkirie add piooared f It ensta ia the jnioe of 
same of tha Mukdoos frnid, b^t geneally in oombiiuUion with lime 

or potassa. 

It is prepared by taiziog chalk with crcatn of tartar, from which 
the tartrate of lime ia thrown down, and the tartrate of potasea re- 
miuua in solution; to the tartrate of limo aulphurio acid is added, 
and the tartaric acid is sot at libcrtj. 

What ant tbo propertiea of tartaric acid ? It has on agreeable 
SOOT tosto, reddens litmus, aod forms with alkalies neutral salts, 
called tartrate!. It is distinguiabcd by forming a white procipilatc, 
tbo bitartrate of potaaaa when mizod with any of the salts of potassa; 
it, therefore, separates potossa from the other acids, and produces a 
precipitate with limo, which is soluble in aa excess of the acid. It 
is remarkable in forming doable salts, the moat important of which 
are those of pota*sa and »oda, or the liocjujk tall, and of oxiih of 
anlimony and fioltusa, or tartar emetic; formula, SHOjCH'O'". 

What is the eream of tartar of the shops ? It is the hiUirtrati 
of pofassn; in an impure state known by the name of tartar, or 
argol, it is found encrusted on the sides and bottom of wine eoidcii} 
being insoluble in alcohol, it is deposited as alcohol ia formed duriug 
the vinous fermentation; formula, llU,HU,OHHJ'°. 

Tartrate of potoMa, 2K0,OU*0<°; or tolvbU tartar. Tarlrale 
ofpotatta and toda, or Bochtile tali, KO,NaO,CH'O"+10HO. 

Where is BmzoK acid foond f In gam benioin, storax, balsam 
of Peru, Tola, &o. ; also in the urine of the oow and of ohildron. It 
is generally procured from gum benzoin; formula, HO,C"HH>. 

Where is Meeonie acid found ? It ia found only in opium com- 
bined with morphia. It is known by forming with the sesquisalts 
of iron a blood-red color, which renders it valuable as a lest for 
opium ; formula, 3H0,CH0". 

Where is tannic acvl, or Tannin, found ? In the excrescences 
of the oak, called gall nuts, in the bark of most trees, in kino, 
catechu, tbo tea plant, sumach, ura urai, and in astringent plants 
generally; it is the principal cause of astringency in TCgctables. 

What are the properf tea of tannic acid? It is colorless, inodorous, 
has an astringent taste, no bitterness, and may be kept in the solid 
state. It is soluble, reddens litmus, and decomposes the carbonates. 


It strikes a deep-bine precipitate with the scsqui-salta of iron, but 
not with the proto-salta, which distinguishes it from all other sub- 
Btances except gallic acid, and Iroiii this it may be diBtingmshcd by 
yielding, with a solation of gelatin, a white, flaky precipitate, soluble 
in a solution of gelatin, but insoluble in water and gallic acid. This 
compound of tsnnio acid and gelatin, called tanno-gdatin, is the 
basis of leather; formula, 3H0,C'*H'O='. 

Where is GaRie aeul found 7 In most substances which contain 
tannic acid, and is probably developed by the oxidation of that acid. 
It does not precipitate gelatin or the salta of tho vegetable alkalies; 
formula, 2H0,CH0'. 

How is the Succinic acid obtained F By heating powdered amber 
inKretwt; formula, H0,OHK>*. 

Oeganio SaiiT Babes, or Veoetable Alkaues. 

What is understood by vegetable alkalies F Thoy are those proxi- 
mate vegetable principles which posBCaa alkaline properties. They 
all contain nitrogen, are decomposed by a moderate heat, and ore 
bat slightly soluble in water. 

What is their compotition f Carbon, hydrogen (in greater pro- 
portion than to form water), nitrogen, and oxygon ; and they always 
exist in combination with an acid. 

How are they generally procured 7 !rhe substance contuning the 
alkaline prindple is digested or macerated in a largo quantity of 
water to dissolve the salt, of which the alkali is the base. Then 
add a powerful salifiable base, which unites with the acid, tho alko- 
Une base is set at liberty, may be collected on a filler, purified by 
solution in boiling alcohol, and evaporated to dryness. 

What are some of the most prominent vegetable alkalies ? — 

Morpbia CWHWNO" 

Codeia C»a»'»0» 

JJ^}«On,pt«i.ion not known. 

NaroMi™ C"H"KO' 

CoTwia . ■ Ci'H'N 

Nicoiia C'"H"N 


Quinitt ammO' 

Cincbonia C*H"NO 

Aricina CWH^NCP 

Sirychnia C"H K^ 

Btupia C"H ti'0< 

Voralria C»'H»»NO« 


Tlic-In"l OHSN'O" 

* TlieobromLii CH«N=MD" 

Where is Mirphia, CH^NO*, fouDil in nature? It is the medi- 
cinal Bgiint of opium, in wUicU it ia combined with meconio and 
Ealphurio acids, and other foreign matters. 

What are thtj properties of morphia ? Colorlosa crystals of a 
briHiant lustra, and in irregular, sis-sided prisma, may be obtained 
from tbe alcoholic BoluUon. It is insoluble in eoldj and slightly in 
tot water, tasteless when pure, but very bitter when dissolved in 
alcohol, or rendered soluble by means of an acid. Strong nitria 
acid converta it into oxalic acid, and with a sesquisalt of iron it 
strikes a blue tint. It is almost inert when pure from its insolu- 
bility, but when in soJiitiijii il :ict:- wiili !:"'!it onir^^. By deoom- 
poeing a salt of morphia when taken into the stomach, by ammonia, 
the effcota of an over-doee may be prevented. It decompoaes iodte 
acid, and eetM iodine free, which may he recogniied by starch, its 
appropriate test; one grain of pure morphia in 7000 grains of water 
may be recogoized by this test. 

It forms a lulpkate, an acetate, apho^ihate, a chloride, kc. 

Where are CiwJumia and Quinia found f In the dnchonla bark, 
in union with kiaic acid. 

How are they procured T By taking up the soluble parts of the 
bark by hot water acidulated with hydrochloric acid; concentraf* 
tho solution, and digest with sncccssively added portions of slaked 
limo until tho liquid becomes alkaline. The precipitate is carefully 
collccl«d, and the vegetable alkali separated by boiling alcohol. 

What are the properties of cinchooia, C"H"NO ? When pure it 
crystallizes in colorless, quadrilateral prisms, insoluble in cold, 
slightly soluble in hot water, and very soluble in boiling alcohol. 


It has « TCTj bitter taste vhen disMlved by alcohol, or on acid ; and 
foTiDB salts with acida. 

What ue the propertiea of qmnia, or qmnine, CH^NO"? It is 
pr«upitated from ita solntiona by alkalies in white flocks, which do 
not cryBtalliie ; Tcry Bolnble in alcohol and ether, but very slightly 
BO in water. Its medidnal Tirtnes are more powerful than those of 
cincbooia. It forms salts with acids, the most important of which 
is the ditu^Kaie, and is prepared in large quantities for medicinal 
purposes, crystallising in dolioate white, needle-shaped orygtals. 

The sulphate of qninia is frequently adulterated ; and the sub- 
stances generally employed are water, sugar, starch, gum, ammo- 
niaoal and earthy salts. When pure it should only lose 8 or 10 
per eent. of water of crystalliEation by heat Tho other impniities 
may be deteeted by the appropriate means. 

Where is iSfryetoto, (>*H"N«0', found ? In the fruit of the 
ttryekitot iytiatia, and the ttrycknot mix vomica, and has also been 
extracted from the f^xu. 

What are the pnpertim of strychnia 7 It is soluble in boiling 
alcohol. Mid by evaporation it is procured in fonr-sided prisms. It 
is a Tindent poison, producing death in a very short time if taken 
in snffident quantity. Its action is accompanied by tetanic symp- 

Gajkin, or Thein, (>H*N*0*, found in tea, coffee, and matte, may 
be p re pared by adding snbacotate of lead to a decoction of tea, cof- 
fee, or matte ; then removing the lead by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and adding ammonia. The caSein crystallites out in tufts of white, 
silky needles, which have a bitter taste, and sublime without dccom- 

NzuTRAL Substances, the Oxtoen and Htdrooen op which 


What sabstances are included in this class? 

Lignin C'H'O' 

Gam Aiabic 
Cane augnr 



S,.gar of milk .... 

. CiiH'W 

Sngar of ergol 

. C'»H''0'» 

GlucBie, or sugar of grspes 

Sugar or slSTcb , . . 

. C»H'H)'» 

Diabetic iugar 



. C^WO* 



. CflPO* 

Oleaginous, Bgsinous, and Bitdminods Substances, 

WbaC is remarkable in tbis class of bodice? Tlieir combnalibility, 
besides other proportics common to cocL. They generally contain 
hydrogea in a larger proportion than is necessary (o form water 
with their oxygen, and they exert a feeble affioity for other bodies. 

What are the characteristics of 03a? Xhcy are imflammable, 
have a peculiar unctuous feel, and are insoluble in water. They 
arc divided into fized and volatile; the former gives a permanent, 
greasy stain to paper; and the latter produces one which disappears 
by a gentle heat. 

Where an fixed oitt usually found? In animals and in the seeds 
of plants, but olive oil is prooored from the pulp which suironuds 
the atone. These oils are obtained by roasting the seeds, and sub- 
jecting the pulpy matter to pressure and a gentle beat. 

They absorb oxygen, and become rancid when exposed to the 
atmosphere, or to oxygen gas ; they also unite with alkalies and 
form soap. 

What are their component parts? Stearine and margarine, or 
the hard portion; and eliune or olelne. 


Stearic acid C^H-C+aHO 

Maigirkacid C"H««0<+aHO 

Oleic acid C*«H'<>*+aHO 

Glycerine C«H»0*, or CifliCAfHO 

Slearau, CHH)", the Bolid oonslitnent of fitt, may In obtained 
b; melting mntton suet in ether, and allowing the whole to cool, 
when the steuine will cryBtalliKe. It is white, friable, insoluble in 
water and alcohol, but soluble in boiling ether; melts at 130° F. 
Ghemicall; it is a ttearaie of g^fceriite. 

Suarie acid, G^H*'0'+2H0, ma; be obtained by saponiffing 
stearine, and then adding an add, which separates it from the gly- 

Margarine may be obtained from the ethereal Bolation of mntton 
Boet after the removal of the stearine. It resembles stearine, but is 
more fuable; melts at 116°. It is a margariu o/glycerine. 

Margarie acid, G"H"0'+2H0, resembles the stearic, but is 
more aolnble in alcohol. Melts at 140°, and has one more eqaiTa- 
lent of oxygen. It is obtained from margarine by saponification. 

Ofeuie may be obtained from paper, by which it has been ab- 
sorbed in ia«paring mai^rine; also by filtering the fixed oils at the 
freesing temperature. Besembles oil in appearance, colorless when 
pure, and congeals at 20° F.; soluble in boiling alcohol and ether^ 
insohtUe in water. It is an oleate of gljfcerine. 

Okie aad, O*H*°0<-|-2H0, ia procured also by the saponification 
of olein, which it resembles very much. It is void of color, lighter 
than water, has aoid properties, and is soluble in alcohol. 

(3§W!m^ C'H'O", or C*H'O-l-H0, the base common to all fiits; 
obtuned by forming an ineolublo soap with olive oil, oxide of lead, 
and water. The ole».margaiate of the oxide of lead is formed (lead- 
plsBter], and is precipitated while the glycerine remains in solation, 
from wUch it maj be obtained by evaporation in vacuo ; void of 
color when pure, viscid, sp. gr. 1.27, sweetish taste, soluble in water, 
and is converted by nitric acid into oxalic acid. It is siud to be a 
hydrated oxide of a byppthetical hnw railed glyffrilf. Thns : — 

3M O&kKlSCftT. 

Glycerjle, C"H'; oside of glyceryls, C'H'O*; glycerine, the hy- 
draWd oxide of glycoryle, C^n'O'+HO. 

Acroline, CH* 0% may be obtained by the destructive distilla- 
tion of fat^, in a gaseous form, wbich, vhco condensed, forms a 
volatile poisonous liquid. 

Butj/rii:, caprie, and caprvlc acida, are found in butter in addi- 
tion to tbe other ingredients found in fata. 

Wax is analogous to fats; it is eompoaed of cfn'nc, which is solu- 
ble in alcohol and water, and will form soap; and of myrii-aie, 
wbieb is ioEoluble in water and alcohol and will form a soap. 

Where are wlalile, or atentiai oi'U touudl In aromalio plants, 
from wbich they are obtoinud by distillation. 

They will not leave a greasy spot or st^n, are converted into 
vapor at slight elevations of tbe temperature, colorless when pure, 
powerful odor, pungent, burning taste, do not saponify, when ex- 
posed to tbe air absorb oxygen, and are conveTt«d into re^oa, and 
they aUo deposit a crystalline matter called tiearnpten, when stAnd- 
ing some time. Tbey bare been divided into those which contain 
oxygen, and those having sulphur and nitrogen in tbcir oOmpoaitioa. 


Oil of LemoDi C<*H* 

" Capaiba CH' 

" Calamiu CMU* 

'■ Turpentine C^H" 

" Savin C*H" 

" Clove. C*H» 

*■ Bliiek pepper, 4c C*H" 

- Cubeb. C"H» 

" Junipar dH" 

" Rohm CH 


Oil of Pennyroyal C'WQ 

" Rosemnry C'"H'-t-2H0 

" Bergsmot C'oHH-SHO 

" Peppermint C»HM-aHO 

" CampUot C^H'-O 

Anificinl camphor C*H"CI* 


ilcHiutanl C«U'°N«S<0> 

I ContBin inlpboT and niu^en, bnl have 

■**^'*^ f Dqt ret been .nalr^ed. 

What oil is procured from bUier alnumdt f When bmisod and 
snbjocted to compression they yield a pore Sxed oil ; but when dis- 
tilled with watw a poiaonoua volatile oil passes over which contains 
hydrocyanic add. 

What are Setiruf The inspissated jnices of plants, either pnrfi 
or in combination with eeaential oils. They are solid, brittle, 
inodorous, insipid, and generally of a yellow color ; semi-transparent, 
non-oondootors of eleotrioity, and negatively electric when robbed. 

The most important of the resins are common rout, ecpal, lae, 
tandaraehj maitxtJif elemi, and dragoitt-blood. 

Rain, or eoU^hony, la the best representadve of this class. It is 
the reddue after distilling oU of torpentine, and is composed of two 
adds, the pinic and ^oic, the composition being the same, CH'K)' ; 
the pinic is more soluble in alcohol; thus affording a means of sepa- 
rating them. 

ChouttAoue is the product of Heveral trees of tropical countries, 
which exode a milty juice that hardens by exposore to the lur. 
When pore it is nearly white, the usual dark color is owing to smoke 
and impurities. Naphtha or chloroform dissolve it perfectly, and are 
its proper scdvents. It mclte at a temperature above boiling water, 
bat does not resume its former elastioity. 

ChtUa percha resembles caoutchouc, and is the concrete jnice of a 
tree growing in Borneo. It softens at a high temperature, and may 
be moulded into any shape, resuming its solidity on cooling. Dis- 
solves in other, volatile oils, and chloroform. It promises to afford 
many usefol applications. 

What are Baltamt f They are compoonds of resin, volatile oil, 
and beuoiD acid. 

What are Gvm-raim? They arc the concrete jnice of plants 
which contain resin, esienlicd oil, ijum, and extractive mailer. Their 
proper solvent is proof spirit. Under this head arc aloa, ammo- 

S86 flBkkisTftT. 

niacum, aesa/atida, eupJiorhmm, ganjawim, gamhoge, mffrrh, tcatn- 
mtmr/, and yuaiaeum. 

How are BUuminou* itihUancu divided? Into bilumen and pit 
eoal; under the ylrri head ate lu^plaJui, jtttrdeum, mineral tar, 
(ogihaltum , mineral piuJi, and rctinn-sfihaUum ; and under the latter 
head are braum coal, uommon or black ami, and glanre roal, or an- 


Is alcohol the intoxioating ingredient in all epiritaoua and rinonn 

liquors? It is; and ia alwaya a product of the vi^umt fi:nnenfation ; 
therefore, does not exist ready formed in plants. 

How is the alcohol pr^ured pure ? By the addition of heatod 
carhonate of potash (or any other aubstanco having a strong affinity 
for wafer) to spirit of wine; the pol^h unites with the water, sub- 
Bides, and the alcohol may be decanted pure. The chemical term 
for aloohol is the hi/ilraled oxide of dkyk, C'H'O+IIO. 

How is ether prooured? By heating tiiQ stronger aeida vith 
ftlcohol; tbe diSerent kinds are distingniBhcd by the name of the 
wnds used in their preparation. 

Ether oontaina CSO; in referenoe to acids, it resembles a baae, 
which has been supposed to be the oiide of a metalloid or hypothe- 
tical radical, called eth^, analt^ns to cyanogen and kakodyle. 

Etlylo, symbol Ae, 0*H». Oxide of cthyle; ether, OH*. Hy- 
drate of the oiide of ethyle; alcohol, CHK)-f-HO. Considering 
ether to be an oxide of ethyle, it is found to be capable of uniting 
with osy-acids, and forming with them salts; while the halogen 
bodies unite directly with the radical as they do with metallic 

How is chloroform oblJuncd ? By distilling alcohol with chloride 
of lime, or bleaching powders. 


What ore its propertia f It ia a oolorlese, transparent liquid ; sp. 
gr. 1.48, of the vapor 4.199. It is not combnstiblo; its vapor is 
decomposed at red heat; it is insoluble In water, but is leodil; in 
alcohol and ether. Formnb, C'SCf, or FhOP. 


What are the prevailing colors of vegetables ? Red, i/eBow, Hue, 
and green, or Uidr mwdtm. 

Does vegetable coloring matter occur in an insnkted stalo ? No; 
it is alwajrs attached to some proximate principle, such aa mucila- 
ginous, extractive, or resinous auhatances, by which its properties 
are inBaenced. 

It is generally decomposed by the combined agency of the sun's 
rays, and a moist atmosphere ; and all of tbem are destroyed by 

What is meant by laka f They are inaolnbb compounds formed 
by coloring matter with some of the metallic oxides. 

What is meant by the term mordant, or batiiT It is a substance 
having an alEni^ both for the coloring matter, and the article to be 
oobred ; which, by combining with each at the same time, causes 
the dyo to be permanent. 

Those coloring substances which adhere to the oloth without a 
bsms, are called nbtlantive colors, and those which require a haua, 
adjective oolors. 

What substances produce the Hue dya f Indigo. 

What the redT Oochinetd, lac, archil, madder, hraziltoood, log' 
wood, and waffovxr. 

The y^ava f Quercilron lark, turmeric, wild American hickory, 
^fiutic, and taffron} all of which are adjective colors. 

The Hackf The same ingredients as writing ink; and is, there- 
fore, essentially ixcide of iron with gaUic acid and tannin. 



What are the articles belonging to this class ? YegetaliU all/U' 


■men, gluten, ycasl, agpara'jm, hassortn, cathaiih, /uiujiii, ivhcrin, 
tilmin, lupulin, inuUii, meduMin, piperiUf olivile, tareoaiU, rhuhar- 
harm, rhaponticin, ixiocyntin, herherin, biymiin, i/eitlianin, xantha- 
pterin, tciUitin, tenegin, taptmin, arihanatin, phimhagin, chlorcjihffk, 
■amj/gdalin, aalicin, popiilin, meconin, caiumbin, datin, nnapisin, 

Spostaneocs cnANQES OF Veqetable Matter. 

Wbat ill Fermentation ? It is ccrtaiQ apontancouB cbangos whicli 
vegetable anbatancea undergo nhea the vital principle is cstinct. It 
is divided into four distinct kinds, viz. : tbe aaccharine, i-inout, ace- 
tout, atiH jMttrc/activc. 

Wbut substances nadergo the saccharine fermentation f Slarcli 
is tbe only one known to bo subject to this fermentation, which 
tokcs plnoe when it is kept in a moist state for some time ; and sugar 
equal to half the weight of the starch employed is formed. 

What circumataaces are necessary to tho vinous /ermentation ? 
Tbe presence of sugar, inafer, yeast, or some ferment, and a oertain 
teoqicrature. Tbe cbanges which take place are the disappearance 
of sugar, the formation of alcohol, and the escape of oarbonic acid 

Under what oiraumBtanoes does the acetoui fermentation take 
place f When a liquid which has undergone the vinous fermenta- 
tion is mixed with yeast, and exposed to the open air. In this pro- 
cess oxygen is absorbed, and oarbonio acid gas is disengaged. 

What circumstances are necessary to the putrefactive fermenla- 
tion? The aooompanying circumstances which enable this process 
to take place, are moisture, air, and a certain temperature ; the most 
favorable temperature is between 60 and 100 degrees. 

The principal prodacia aro water, light carburetted hydrogen, 
carbonic acid, and, when nitrogen is present, ammonia. Tho solid 
remains aro charcoal combined with oxygen and hydrogen. 


'What ODoditionB are neoeBSaiy to germinalioii 7 Movlure, & cer- 
tain temparatitn, uid oxygen gat. lagbt, which is fa?oTable to the 
subBeqae&t lUgM of Tegetatioo, u injurious to germinatjon. 

Ahihal Cheuistkt. 

What ifl meant by proxif»aU animal principles 7 The; aie dis- 
tinct oomponnda derived &oni the bodies of animals. 

Hoir an they dMugviilud from Tegetable matter 7 Sy the 
pNaanoa of nitrogen, their strong tendency to putrefy, and the 
offenave {ffodncts of pntre&dion. Some regetablo prindplee con- 
tain mtrt^en, bat they do not putrefy readily. 

What an the tttaUiai amtlituenta of animal compounds? Carbon, 
oxygo^ igdrogen, and nitngen; besides, some of them contain j(Ac»- 
jakonu, ntipAwr, iron, earthy and taline malten. 

What c&ot has heat upon them vben applied in a close vessel? 
They yiold vmleTf carbonic oxide, carhuretUd hj/drxigen, carbonate 
and hjfdroq/oMOle of ammonia, a Jetid, thick oil, and earbonaoeout 
matter, wluch is a powerful decolorizing agent 

What is the principle of tho mode of anali/zing animal and Tege- 
tabls nhatanoes 7 It is to oonvert the whole of the carbon con- 
tained into carbonic add, and the hydrogen into water. 

What is understood hy protein oompoandif Substances which 
contun protein; the principal ones are albumen, Pt^+S'F; fibrin, 
Ft«+8F; and casein, Pt>°+S. 

I'ivteM, C"H«NK)"+P+S, symbol Ft. It may be obtwued 
by dissolring bodies in which it is contained, in caustic alkali, and 
then adding an excess of acid (the acetic usually) ; a snow-white 
preajntate is thrown down, which is protein. It is tasteless, inso- 
luble in water and alcohol, but soluble in acetic acid, and in salu- 
tiODS of the alkalies. It acts both as an acid and a base. 

Howaro animal products divided? let. Into those which ore 
nather addnoroka^ous; 2d, the acids; and, 3d, the oils and&ts. 

290. OHIHI8TKT. 

What Bubstances are included id tbo first division f Fibrin, albn- 
meii, casein, gel&tin, urea, sugar of milk, and sugar of diabetes. 

In what does Fihrin, Pt'^+SP, csistf In muscle, chjle, and 
blood. It is solid, white, iflsipid, and inodorous. 

Where ia Jffi«men,Pt"'-(-8'P, found? In tie while of eggs, and 
in the senim of tho blood. 

What ue the properties of albamen 1 It is preoipitstod by oor- 
rosivc sublimate, wliich ia its best test; and it is coagulated by heat, 
ftlcobol, and the stronger acids. 

Where Js Gelatin found ? In the skin, cartiiages, membranes, 
and bones. . 

What are \ta properlieif It is readily soluble in water, and forms 
a jelly when cool; it is known in commerce by the name of glue; 
tannio aoid is its appropriate test. 

Where is Vrca found? It ia procured from fresh nrinc. 

Where is Peptin found ? Called also gatleraie, and exists in the 
epithelial cells of the mncons membrane of the stomach. It is found 
in tho gastrio juice, held in solution by the acids of the stomaeb. 
It may be obtained by dissolving the mucous membrane of the sto- 
mach in acidulated water, and adding a sTibucciato of lead ; tho 
pepsm ia precipitated with lead and albumen; tho lead may be 
removed by Bnlphoietted hydrogen, and the albumen by heat, leav- 
ing the pepsn. 

What are ^'a proximate prineipU* of animal oils? The same as 
are formed in the regetable. 

What circnmstancei are necessary to the pufrtfactitm of animal 
substances 1 Water, air, and a certain temperature. 

What are tho product* of putrefaction 7 Water, ammonia, car- 
bonic and acetic acidi, earituretted and niphurelted ht/drogen, and 
pKo^kuretted hydrogen in some cases. 


By what process do you analjrze a gaseous mixture containing 
oxygen? Introduce into the mixture a quantity of hydrogen, more 
than sufficient to saturate the oxygen present, carefully meaenre the 



whole, pus ui electric spar^ through it, or introdnoe into it a pieoe 
of spoDgy platinum, and note the diminatjon ; divide the diminu- 
tion by three, and jou have the qoanljty of oxygen originally in the 

What ia the process when the quantity of nitrogen, is to be de- 
termined? The method is to withdraw all other gaaeona Babstanoea 
with which it is mixed. 

What is the mode of determining the quantity of carbonic add 
in gaseous mixtures f Sy agitating the mixture with lime-water, ac 
a solution of canstic potassa, and noting the deficiency. 

What is the mode of determining the quantity of h^/drogen? By 
causing it to combine with oxygen by the electric spark, or platinum. 
The principle is the same for the inflammable ^sea, chlorine being 
used for some of them instead of oxygen. 

What is the geneial mode pursued in the analysis of aiyanie 
bodietf It is to present oxygen to the organic body and apply 
heat; the carbon is thns converted iuto carbonic acid, and its hy- 
dn^n into water; when nitrogen is present ammonia is formed. 
The best means of supplying the oxygen is by means of the black 
oxide ot oopper. 




















WHA.T is Materia Medioat It in th&t Bcienca which treats of 

Wh&t is Pharmacy f It is the art of preparing them for use. 

What is Therapattiaf Therapeutios comprises the principles of 
nudidnal admlnistrntion, uid the indioationa which ardcIeB of the 
materia medica are calculated to fiilfiL 

What are Medidnetf The; are Embstaiicea capable of produdng 
u an Cffdinai; result, and hy their own inherent power, certain 
modifications of the vital ^notions, which render them applicahio to 
the ente of diseaae. — Wood. 

What an the objecti of attention in the study of medicines? 
Tbdr origm; modt* of eoHeelion and prtparation; ecmmerciai Jii$- 
tory; leiuible prapertiet ; chemuxil compotilttm and r^atiom; phgtio' 
hgicai adion and tomcohgical hiUory; effect* in diteattt and the 
indieatioiu Ay are eaieuiabd to atuwer in tlieir treatment ; partiadar 
aj^tlieattont in oaaee not falling under any general mle ; and data, 
mode of adminiitraium, and the extemporaneoat or officintd prepa- 
ralumi to wlucb they may be subjected. 

How may their operation be divided f bito their primary and 
tecondary operatitxi. 

In what way may the primary influence of medicines be exertedf 

Ist. By nervoui commwticaticm, 

2d. By eiUertnff the bloodveudt, and acUng through the medium 
of the circulation. 

3d. By acting exclusively in the neighborhood o/ their applieation. 

Have mcdidncs in their operation an affinity for one port more 


tluui another? They have. Some BubeUnoes sot on the oumiUlOTy, 
nervous, or tlie abBorbent BjBtem, and fron^ die general distributioii 
of these ajTBtems their aotion appean to be general OHieiB act 
npon the stomaob, bowels, akin, kidneyB, lon^, fto.; the primary 
aotion of whiob is oonaidered to be looaL This di%renoe in thdr 
mode of action fumisbca a basis for their dinEioD. 

What influences afiecting tlio system maj modify the acUon of 
medicincai' They are diteaK, dimate, mode of life, habil, age, sex, 
temperamenC, {dw!<i/ncra»ie!i, and menial operations, which should oil 
be attended to in making prescriptions. 

What general rule is applicable in the doics of medicines accord- 
ing to a'jc? For children under twelve years of age the doses of 
mo6t medicines should be dimtoished in the proportion of the age to 
the age increased by 12. Thus, at 

2 yeara to 1-7 ; viz. : —^ — = 1-7 : at 4 years, to 1-4, tib. : . — 

2 + 12 ^ ' 4-1-12 

= 14 A full dosa to be given at 21 years of age. — Pari^ Phar- 


Some medicines, such as castor oil, calomel, &c., may require 
larger proportional doses, and opiatt's smuller. 

DmaK, by modifying the susceptibility, often requirea ns to 
modify the qnantity of medicine administered, to produce a given 
effect The instances of this are numerous, and shonld be attended 
to in each particnlar case that may arise. 

Climate, and also summer and winter in different climates, cause 
medicines to act differently. Narcotics act more poweriiilly in hot 
than in cold climates; therefore, smaller doses should be given; it 
is the reverse in regard to some other medicines. 

iScc. Women require smaller doses than men; they ore more 
rapidly affected by purgatives than men, and the condition of the 
uterine system should always be taken into account. 

Temperament. Stimulants and purgatives more readily affect the 
sanguine than the phlegmatic; and, consequently, the dose should 
be modified. 

Iliihits. A knowledge of these is important; persons habituated 
to the use of stimulants and narcotics, require larger doses to affect 


tbem when diseuod ; while penons in tlie habit of nring ealine por- 
gativea roqnire smaller daeea of this olua to operate on the bovela. 

When opinm ia habitoally oaed it Teqnires larger doses of this 
Article, hot not of other narootiM. 

^oiyiuratitt. Thms, of conrse, can only be known by experience 
with each particiilar indindnal and article of medicine; but, when 
known, it sbonld goTcm as accordingly. 

What is meant by the iteondarj/ fffecb of medicinea ? They are 
dianges which take plaoe, not tnaa the immediate operation of 
medicines, but depend upon certain laws of the system which modify 
the primaiy actions and conditions ; and are Tory important in the 

In what Jbrmt are medicines nsed ? In powden, piUt, trtxKa, 
tbctuarut, eottfixtiont, mixtum, tolvitont, decoctimu, infunont, xoinet, 
UiKtura, vmegan, ^frvp»y honest, oxym^, linimeaU, ceralet, mtU- 
■unb, flatten, catapiatmt, and in the itale of copor. 

iWtfen shonld be formed by drying the sabstance, braiHing it in 
an iron mortar, and passing it through a sieve ; and shonld be kept 
in wdl-olosed Tcssels. Medidnes that are not Tery bulky or disa- 
greeable, and that are not corrosive, are given in this way. 

Pill is one of the moet convenient fonoH of medicines, both for 
preservatum and administration. In their prepantion, the mass 
should be of a conmstence to cohere properly, and yet firm enough 
to retain the globular form. Its composition should not permit it 
to mould, oontraot mtnstore, or harden too quickly and firmly. The 
ece^nnUt, or snbetanoes with which they are mixed, vary in some 
measore with the oompoution. Bread crumb, hard soap, extract of 
litpiOTioe, mucilage, ayrup, treacle, conserve of roses, &o., are the 
subetaooes usually employed. If pilla are to be kept some time, 
treacle and conserve of roses are best ; if nsed early the others do 
well. When resins are nsed, the addition of alcohol prevents hard' 
ening. To prevent pills from adhering, use liquorice powder, flour, 
■tarch, or lyoopodinm. To cover them, gelatin answers well. Pilla 
are best preserved in close bottles or tin boxes. The efficiency of 
flmall pills is greater than largo ones, the same quantity of material 
being nsed. 

Troche*, or LtxettQei, are often used; the basis conaiste of sugar. 


gnm, or Uqaotioe extract, which ire combined with such articles of 

activity aa maj be desired. Care should bo taken to avoid too great 
beat in preparing them. 

Electuariet, Con/eeliont, and Coiiieri-a, are all essentially the same, 
and are in uBe as a vehicle or form for the administration of reme- 
dies which are butky and insoluble, and can be disguised in taste by 
Bwcet fiuhstances, 

Xixturei, or EmvJtiant, are convenient modes of administration 
of remedies. They are generally composed of one or more sub- 
stances which are insoluble, and Gusponded in water by the inter- 
TcntioQ of gam, sugar, or yolk of egg. Much care is ncceBSary in 
forming a good niistyre or emulsion, so as to be of a uniform 

Decoction: thb is a form much in vogue, but is improper when 
the Bubstaoco contains a vohitilo oil, starch, or gmn, unless these 
latter arc necessary for the purposes designed by the preparation. 
In some cases chemical changes also oecar at the boiling point, by 
which the composition is entirely changed. The vessels used for 
decoctions sboold bo covered, so as to prevent the escape of steam, 
and the process should he coutinued as short a time as suffices for 
extracting the desired materiaL Care should be taken that the 
vessel should be composed of a material not acted upon by the snb- 
stance to be boiled. 

InfuiioM are prepared either with cold or hot water, bat are not 
boiled ; and is a convenient mode of administering remedies of tbe 
vegetable kingdom. They are UBually prepared as wanted, but may 
bo kept some time, provided tbey be put into a bottle filled to tbe 
top and well corked. Many substances yield their active principles 
to cold water by percolation or displacement, which is becoming a 
favorite mode of obtaining them at the present time. 

Tiiictara are formed by macerating substances in alcohol or proof 
spirit for seven days or more, and then stnuning or liltcriog; or by 
ditplaccmenl of the active ingredients hj pcrcoiation, a method now 
generally preferred. This form is favorable to the preservation of 
the active constituents of drugs without alteration. 

Sj/riij's; where medicinal substances are preserved in a solution 
of sugar. Somotimea resorted to for tbe purpose of covering disa- 


greeable taste, but mora generally to preaeire them in a conveDicnt 
shtipe for makiDg mixtnreB. They ira timple or tnedicaled; the 
former consista of white ragar, 2i poandB to a pint of water; the 
latter are prepared by dinolving the sngnr in a watery solution of 
the dmgs, or by adding the tinctnre to simple symp, and driving off 
the heat by a sand-bath. Heat ahonld, however, be employed in all 

Vinegan is whera vinegar is nsed as a solvent, and is often an 
eligible preparation. 

Homeyt are not now mach In nse. 

Oxymdt are where honey and vmegar is combined in preparation. 

LmiminU are oily compounds intended for eztemal applications ; 
they ara softer than either cerates or ointments. 

Ointment* melt at the temperatnra of the sar^e of the body, 
bat are harder than liniments and softer than cerates. 

Ceratet are harder than either liniments or ointments. Simple 
oante is composed of fresh lard and white wax. Some of these last 
prepantjons are made by simply mixing or triturating; others ro< 
quire the aid of a moderate heat, and a^tation while cooling. 

PUuter* are solid at ordinary temperatures, and require the aid 
of heat to render them in a condition to be spread. 

Obtapliumt, or Fbudticet: these ara preparations having properties 
of softness, or emollient properties, moisture, and heat or elevation 
<€ tempentmre in some cases. They are mostly prepared from 
bread and milk, flax-seed, slippery elm, &e. 

Vt^ori many articles may bo applied to the snrfaoe of the body 
and lungs, at bnnchial tubes, in this way, and affords a means of 
active medication in some cases. 

To what part of the body are medicines applied 1 To the itomach, 
rtctvm, tkm, hrmchiai tabfx and pulmonary air-cdlt, tuutrilt, inside 
ofiht moKd, and by injtetitmt into the Voodvetttit. 

What are the obfeeU in the application of medicines to the redvm T 
Ist To prodvoe alvine evacnations. 2d. To obtain their peculiar 
effects on the system, or on the rectum itself 

In the latter case it should be given in small bulk, so that it may 
reinun in the bowels. The relative dose administered in this way 
should be three times the ordinary quantity, as a general rule. 

800 JlftlA MEBIOA Air» niA&KAAT. 

Medicioca applied to tho rectum are called wuf^ioiilorla, nhea solidj 
aod, when lieiuid, d^stvTs, iiyectioM, or enema/a. 

What aro the ma/a of application to the «/:in? They ore vatioiu. 
Tho skin may be retained or remored; the medicine may Ik) used in 
the form of vapor, liquid, or a soft solid, and may be applied to tho 
whole surface of the body, or a part. 

How ore mediciaes applied to the hronduat tuba, &c. ? In the 
state of vapor. 

What ohJei:U are to be gained by their application to the nealninf 
A powerful esciteuicnt of the brain, and a strong revulsion from 
neighboring parte. 


Upon what principle is the preferable mode of elaadiftmtiun 
founded 'I On the relations which mediuines bear to tke Immoa 
system iu a healthy state, or upon their phyaiologioal uffeota. 

What is the first grand division in olaesiGcatiou f Into medioines 
which act on the litliig butli/, and those which aet upon Jt/reign 
malCen contained in the body. 

How is the first gnmd divisioQ diTided f Into thoae aobslaDoes 
which act generaUy, and those which aot loeaRg. 

How are the general restedies divided t Into atitnydanti or ezci* 
lanU and tedative*. 

How are stimalanta divided f Into penmateiH and diffmiUe. 

Smr are the permanent sdniuknta dirided? Into cutringenta 
and tonics. 

How are the difinrible edmulanta divided? Into arteriai ttimu- 
lantt and cerebro-nerooiu Uimulantt. 

Tho latter may be agun divided into cerebral UanulanU or uimu- 
laiU narcotic*, and into riervom ttimulant* or anti-epatmodict. 

How are sedatives divided ? Into arterial ledativa or rf/riyer- 
ants, and nervous tcdalioa or xdative narcotici. 

How are the heal remedies divided? Into those which affect the 
functions, those which affect the organisation, and those which are 
mechanical in llieii action. 


^1006 Bfibotmg the frmotion of a part an ; Ist BnutUa; 2d. Co- 
AarHet; Sd. Diuraict; 4th. Diaphoretia; 6th. ilcpecfttratUi; 6th. 
Emmmagogv^; 7th. Sialagogva; and, Sth. Brrhintt. 

TloBe afieoting the orgamxatjon of a part are : let. ifuie^idsnM; 
2d. .^NfNuMet; ftnd, 3d. ^bcAorottci, 

ThoM operating mechuiioaUy are: Ist. Demvlcenttj 2d. EmoU 
Uenti; and, Sd. DUuenO. Then there are m«reury, wx/iiw, ortmtc, 
mtx Domtro, and eiyot, which cannot be oonveniently classified. 

How is the second grand diviaion divided? Into, let. Antaddt; 
and, 2d. AnthelmintKt. 


L Sitltlancei uAtcA act on tii 
General Remedies. 

Permanent atimnlaQta. 

Kfiiuible Btimnlants. 
Arterial stimnlante. 
Cerebro-nervons Btimulanta. 

Cerebral stimnlantB, or atimulant narootics. 
Nbttohb stimolanti, commonly called antispasmodics. 

Aiteiial sedatives, or lefrigennte. 
Nervous sedstivee, or sedative nareotica. 

Local Bwnedies. 
Afleoting the fiuictions. 




Affecting the oTganinlJM 


Hedinacs inaosceptible of accurate clasaificalioi 

n. Suhttaiu:awhiehaeto>iJoreiffnmaa«rtcoHtaiii*JieitkinAtboti^. 
ADtacids, AnthelniiDtics. 


Wlutt is an aabingent T A medicine which prodocea contraction 
of the living fibre. 

What are the general effrctt of astnngents ? They prodnce greater 
finnnesB of moacle, diminiahed calibre, greater rigidity of the blood- 
vessels and absorbents, and a diminntion or closnre of secreting 
orifices and secretions generally. They prodace moderate and per- 
maaent excitement of the organic life, but do not inflnenoe the 
ueiTons system much, or the functions of animal life. 

When arc astringents indicated? In unhealthy discharges from 
the bloodvessels, or secreting orifices; and in cases generally which 
depend upon relaxation of the tissues. 

When are they contra-indicaUd f By the existence of any mor- 
bid condition of which the discharge is a mere effect, and which it 
is calcu1aC«d to relieve; and by the existence of any considerable 
local or general excitement. In cases of excitement, if it be desira- 
ble to suppress a discharge, they should be preceded by bleeding', 
or other depleting measures. Their external use is governed with 
some modifications by the same rules, but may be admissible locally, 
when their internal use would not be justifiable. 


In wbat partictUar diaeatet, attended with nnhealthy dischargei, 
an utringenti applicable f Diarrhoea, chronio dysenteiy, diabetee, 
oatarrh of the bladder, ezoeeaive sweating, and all the hemorrhages, 
alwajfl mbjeot ta the oontra-indicatiiig oircnmBtancee. 

Under what drcmnttanca may astringents be used locally in oases 
of inflammation f In the oommasoement of inflammation before 
the ezoitalnlity is mnoh increased, or in the latter stages after it 
has beoome in some measure exhaoated; and are applicable in in- 
creased mocoos secretion, after the snbudence of inflammation, as 
from the urethra, rag^na, rectum, and nostrils; m ezoesuve perspi- 
ration, in hemorrhages from porta within reach ; and in cases of local 
relaxation, as in venoos distensions, prolapsed anus, uterus, and 
ttvnla, and in flabby ulcers. 

How are astringeota divided f Into the vtgttahle and mineral. 

The former have an identity of character depending upon a 
amilarity of oompositioD, the latter agreeing only in the property of 


Upon what proximate principle do vegetable astringents owe their 
peculiar property f Tannin, or tannic acid; and they difCar only 
in the proportion of this principle, and in the character of the other 
ingredienta aaeociated with it. 

What are the mtuihle properfia of tannin 7 It is solid, nnciys- 
talliiable, while or slightly yellowish, strongly astringent without 
bitterness, and it precipitates many of the metallic salts, with iron 
forma a black compound, and ia incompatible with gelatin, with 
which it forms a precipitate. 

It is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, reddens litmus, and 
forms salts with bases. 

What is its dott f From 2 to 5 grs. eveiy 3 or 4 hours. 

QaUic add is produced by an alteration of tannic acid by the 
addition of oxygen. It has been preferred to tannin by some as an 
astringent. The dote is the same as tannin. 

QcEBcce, U. S. 
What are the officinal species of Qnerous in the United States, 


from which oak bark is derived? The Qucrr.jui alia, or whiU) oak, 
and the Querela tim-toria, or black oak, are the odI; odcb officinal 
Id the United States ; but this gcntu ooDtaioa ubout eighty Gpcoics, 
thirty OT forty of which are found in the United States. 

They contain tannin and gallic aaid; are powerfully aetringont, 
and adapted well to oases requiring astringents, both intcmallj and 
externally; although not need much internally. 

The black oak contains a coloring principle, called quercitrinf, 
which renders it valoable aa a dye. 

How ia the oak bark used ? In poirder, dccoeiiin, and extract. 

What is the dote? Of tho powder, 30 grains; the decoctjon, 
f Jij i extract, 20 grains. 

Galla, Galls. U. 8. 

What are Oalls, and where are they procured ? Escrcscencea on 
the joung branobea of the Querev* in/ixtoria and other species, pro- 
duced by the puncture of tho Cj/nipt qaercim/ulil ; tho best are 
gathered early, and are called libie, green, or black galls j tho inferior 
arc gathered later, and are called tho vihile galls. 

They arc brought from Asia Minor and neighboring countries. 

How are galls generally wieilf Ab a local application eiternally, 
bat nuj be naed is powder, infunan tx deeoctxan, and Hnetwe. Sow 
(rf the powder 10 to 20 gnuos; of the infiiuoa (made ^aa to Oj) fjij; 
of the tincture fSss to f5i>j- 

What an ineompcU^ttet f Snlphorio and mnriatio adds, gelaUn, 
preparatioDB of iron, tut. 

Kino, U. S. 

What are the varieties of Kino ? They are the African, Jamaica, 
Botany Bay, and BaMt India or Amb<»/na kino. The East India 
is the kind most used. 

What are its general charafterislictf As found in the shops, it 
is in small, irregoUr, angular, shining fragments, of a dark reddish- 
brown or black color, and easily pulveriEable; contains tannin and 
estractive matter. 

What are its m&lical properties and tiies ? It is powerfully astrin- 
gent, and is one of the best articles of this class where astringents 
are indicated. It may be given in powder, infusion, or dissolved in 


dihited ftleohol. Dom of powder tnm 10 to 80 gniua; of infaaion 
(made by 5'j eztnct, uid boiling vater ttt^) fjj. The amount of 
aleijid in the tasotDre renders it objeolionable. JnoompaiS>Ut sune 

Catechu, D. S. 

From what ia the Catechu prvcuredf It is an extract of the 
wood of the Acacia Catechu, and comes from Hindostan. 

What are the general eharaeieri of catechaf It comes to ns in 
maeaes of different shapes, of a mstj brown, varying from a reddish 
or jeUowiah-brown to a dark-liver color; contains tannin, extractive, 
and mndlage. 

What are its medical propertiei and uia f It is tonic, powerfoll j 
astringent, and maj be given where astringents are indicated. Lorn 
from 10 grains to 5^, and repeated frequently. Ineompatiblet game 
M galls. 

Rdatany, Krameria. U. S. 

Ftom what is Rhatany obtained f From the root of the ^ra- 
merut triandria. It is a native of Peru. 

What are the general character* of rhatanj 7 It comes to us in 
[Heces of various shapes and dimensions, often cylindrical, and two 
or three feet in length. The mineral acids, and most of the mineral 
salts, are ineompatible. Cold water, by displacement, extracts all 
the Bstringenoy from it. 

What are its mediei»al propertiei and uses^ It is a gentle tonic, 
powerfdl astringent, and may be given where astringents ore indi- 
cated. Dom of powder from 20 to 30 grung; of infusion or decoc- 
tion (made by Sj of bruised root to Oj of water) f^jj of extract 15 
or 20 grains; tincture f5j to fSiij; and syrup f^ss. 
LOOWOOB, H«iRaloxj/lon. U. S. 

From what is the Logwood procured f From the Htematoxykn 
Campechianvm, and is brought from Campeachy, the shores of 
Honduras Bay, snd other parts of tropical America. 

What ore tbe general dtaraelerittict of logwood ? It is hard, 
compact, heavy, of a deep-red color, becomes dark by exposure, and 
has a sweetish astringent tasle. Its peculiar principle is hematine. 


What are its mfdlcal propertiet and H*w / It U a mild aafrin- 
gent, well adopted to relaxed and enfeebled conditions of the bowels. 

It u given in decoction and cxlraclj both of vhich are offidual. 
i7o«f of the decoction fjij ; of the exlnct 10 to 20 grains. 

COANSSBiLL, (7mtmum. U.S. 

"Bma what is the Cnmeabill deriixdf From tho Geranium 

maaUtUum, an indigenous, perennial, hcrbaoeons plant, growing in 



modi. inanjotiBtheputaBed, aodahonldbeoolleotedinaatiimn; 
Mtm pnndple tanni*. 

yfisMi are ila medical properties and utetf It ifl a powerful a»- 
tringent, utd may be employed where ihey are isdioated; it is very 
free ftom nnpleaBuit qualities, wMah rendere it servioeable tu 
infimti^ and may be g^ven in $Ub»taitce, dtooction, tincture, or <d> 
trati. Dam of powder 20 or 80 grainaj decoction (made 3j to QJM 
InOad to Oj) from fjj to fjij. 

It ia freqoaDtly ^ren to ohildren boiled in milk. 

Blaosberby Boot, Rvinu TiSonu. U. S. 

DiWBKEKY Boot, Rvbm Trinaiit. V. 8. 

Wbat is the offimnal name of the plant fbmiBhing the Bhukberry 

Boot and the Dewberry Boot? The £w&uf TiUonu and Rubut 

mmoHt, the Yirtnee of which reoide in the bark of the rooi 

What are thdr medidnai propertitt and wiea f Tonio and strongly 
aatoiogent. The decoction is prepared the same as the preceding 
article, and given in the same dose. Dose of powder 20 to 30 grains. 

Uta Uosi, Arcto>taphi/loi Uva Uni. D. S. 

What is the plant fdmishing the Ura Urn 7 The Arbutut Uva 

Fig. 8. 


Crti, or ArctaOaf/hjfhn Cm CrtC, a BtnuU, trailing, erergreen sbmb, 
growing plentiiullj in the United States as far Boutli as New Jersey. 
The leaves are the part used. 

What are the ^OMro/^Hvperftei of the leaves? They are inodorous 
when &esh, amoll like hay when dried, have a bitterish taste, strongly 
astringent, and afterwards sweetish. The active ingredients arc 
Amnin, biUer txtraciipe, rrMn, ffum, and gallic acid. 

What are its •medical itroperiia aiaA uses? It is astringent, tonic, 
' and thonght hj some to have a specific direction lo the urinary 

Fig. 3, 


otpns. Ikm ^powder is firam 3j to 5J ; ddoodion H to Sijy 8 of 
4 times ft day. 

PIPSISSKWA, ChimaphSa UmbdUUa. U. S. 

Wbai portion of the Pipdaseway <^ Ghimaphila umbellata (Fig. 8), 
IS used m medicuief The lesyes and stem. It is a small, indige- 
nonSy ereigreen plant, growing in the north of Europe, Asia, and 
America; inhabiting the woods. 

What are their general propertiet f The taste is pleasantly bitter, 
astringent^ and sweetish. Boiling water and alcohol extract the 
nathre prope rti es of the plant, which are tannin and bitter extractive. 

What are its medical properties and U9e»f Diuretic, alterative, 
tonie, and astringent It is generally nsed in decoction (Jj to Ojhs 
of water boiled to Qj), and taken in 24 hours. 

Red Bosbs, Roea ChUica. U. S. 

What portion is used ? The petals. It is a native of the souUi 
of Eun^, but is introduced into the United States, and is exten- 
sively enltivated. The active principles are tannin, gallic acid, and 
coloring piatter; not much used except in its preparations, as a 
vehiele for other articles. 

Oompowikd in/unon is sometimes used when an astringent is re- 
quired, but more frequently as a vehicle for sulphate of magnesia. 

OonMervCy formed with the petals, sugar, honey, and water; which 
is mosdy used in the formation of pills. 

Persimmon, Diotpyroi Virginiana. U. 8. 

What portion is used ? The unripe fruit, in infusion, syrup, and 
vinoDS tincture; and the bark. 


In what diseases has creasote been used as an astringent ? In 
hsBmoptysis and hsBmatemesis ; also in leucorrhoea and bronolior- 
rhosa. It has also been used as a local application in hemorrhage, 
and in a diluted state to relaxed inflamed sur&ces ; and to check 
vomiting in cholera, pregnancy, &c. Dote, as an astringent, one or 


two dropS; several times a day, well diffused in mucilage. A floi- 
drachm contains 150 drops of creasote. Pill is said to be a good 
form of exhibition. One part to 80 of water is a good strength to 
begin with as a local application. 

Seyeral articles, as \oood toot, pyrolignecms acidy tar-water^ &c.; 
owe their principal virtues to the presence of creasote in them. 


Alum, Alumen, U. S. 

What is the chemical composition of Alum? It is a sulphate of 
alumina and potassa. 

What are the inconvpcUiblaf The alkalies, lime, magnesia, and 
their carbonates ; tartrate of potassa and acetate of lead. 

What are its medical properties and wes f Astringent in ordi- 
nary medicinal doses, but purgative in large doses. It is used 
internally and locally. It forms an excellent local application to 
chronic congestive inflammations, and particularly in leuoorrhoea. 
The ordinary dose is from 10 to 20 grains, repeated every two or 
three hours. 

Alum curd is made by rubbing up alum with the white of an egg. 

Alum whey; prepared by Jij of alum in a pint of milk, and then 
straining. Dose ^ij. 

Lead, Plumbum. U. S. 

What are the preparations of Lead used medicinally ? They are 
the Litharge, or Plumbi Oxidum Semivitriumy the Carbonate, the 
Acetate^ and Subacetate, 

What are the effects of the combinations of lead? They are 
sedative and astringent, and produce poisonous effects, if taken in 
large doses, or long repeated. The sulphate, and probably the ace- 
tate, are exceptions to this. Sulphuric acid, sulphate of soda, and 
sulphate of magnesia are antidotes. 

What are the general properties of the Acetate of Lead f It is a 
white salt, crystallized in brilliant needles. Its taste is sweet and 
astringent. It is liable to be decomposed by water containing car- 
bonic acid, but is redissolved by acetic acid. 


Whftt an it> {merrmpaiiUaf It is deoampoaed bj M iddi, 
soluble adta, the Bcdds of which prodoce iDSoInble or qauinglj xdn- 
ble oompoimds with the protoxide of IcmI, lime-water, anunooia, 
potaBaa, and aoda. Snlphnratted hjdrogen gives a black predpitate, 
and iodide of potasstom a jrellow one. 

WiatanitBmedieaiprejiertiaandtuaT In medidna] doeee, it 
is pow^'full; astringeot, sedadTe, and in large ones an irritant 

It is admiustered in hemorrhages of the longs, intestines, and 
ntems. Bj ^ving acetic acid combined with it, the formation of a 
carbonate is prevented, npcm which its poisonous qnahtiea are Bnp> 
poBod to depend. 

Zkne is firom 1 to 3 grains, repeated as reqoiivd. 

What is the uAite leadf It is the carbonate; and is onlj em- 
ployed extemallj, being used as an ^plication to nlcen and exco- 
riated surfaces. It is the most poiaonons of the preparattons of lead, 
produoing the disease called toUea pictonitm. 

What is GtMiartT* ejtraet of kadt It is a toltaitm of the lub- 
actlale of lead, formed bj the acetate of lead Jzvj, semiritrified 
oxide of lead Jixas, distilled water fonr pints, boiled and filtered ; if 
diluted in the proportion of f^ij to a pint of water, it fbrms the liquor 
fiUmbi tubaettoM dStUiu, or Goulard"* vtffdo-mineral toater. 

QmUarett cerate is formed b; heating together the extract with 
white wax, olive oil, and camphor. 

The nitrate of iHver, tut^aU of copper, tiiuture of Mmde of 
irom, pemitrale of iron, wtUphate ofirvn, tulpkaU of ztnr, and some 
other articles, are nsed for their local astringent efleots, bnt they 
will be found nnder other heads, as they have other properties also 
besides that of astiingency. 


What are meant by Tonics ? They are medicines which produce 
gentle and permaueat cxcitemcDt of the vital actions. 

When are tonics injurioutf In the healthy state, and in diseases 
of excitement. 


Tbey 1 niaiah excitability, or natural Iioallhy power; or, 

pndoca «■ tion which may be followed by iDflammatioD. 

They A lever be given in a state of Bound health, with th« 

Tiewof in TgtreDgtb, or of rendering the ByHtem lees aeoeeaible 


Under jiroumatancea are tonics indicated f In casea in 

wkioh the ictions arc depreescd below the Etandard of health. 

They inTig* the system in a twofold manner: Ist, by increuing 
t]n flurgy lO etomaoh ; and, 2d, by a direct influenco over the 

whole &■■ 11 the vital actions. 

Thej ui making a decided imprcs- 

aoa on the '■ 'u Jc up diseases which ocenr 

in puoxyn 

Hoirm u 1 jmre bitter* ; bitten pecu- 

liar A» At! s; mineral lonict. 

What m t Pure ktertf They increaae the 

Kppetitef in '•> ve litii influence over the circula- 

tjoi, onhfl izbibit lut little evidence of action 

on thencv 

What are Uivcuectsol Bilterspetvfinr in tkeirprfjiertietf They 
ore generally more atimaladng than the pure bitters. 

What are the eSeale of the Atvmatiet f They depend npoD the 
presence of volatile oil, are more stimulatJag than the bitters, and 
approach nearer to the diffiuible atimulante. 

What are the pecnliarities of the Mineral Thnietf They have 
no common pecnliarity except the tonic property, each having pecu- 
liarities which serve to distingaish it from tho otbers. 


Quassia, U. S. 

From what is Quassia d^ivedf It is the wood of the Quattia 
exceUa and Quaseia amara, trees of the West Indies. 

What are the general characterittict of quassia? The wood is 
whitish, and yellowish by exposure ; has a purely bitter taste ; the 
active principle is guauin. 



What ara its mtdieai pTOpertit$ and utat It h&s the propertiw 
uf the simple bittets in their higbeGt degree. It is partionlorlj dm- 
fill in dyspepsia from debility of the stomach. It is given in in/u- 
tion in the proportion of 5>j to Oj cold water. Doie f^ij, S or 4 
times a day; of extract, from 2 to 5 grains ; of tincture, f 5j to f 5ij' 

GOLDTHBEAD, Coptit. U. S. 

From what is the Goldthread prtxuralT It is the root of the 
CojUii tri/olia. 
What are its malical propertiet and vaei f It is a simple tonic 

hitter, clonely analogous to quassia. Dose of powder 10 to 30 grains; 

Gesti.\n, Gctium,. U. S. 
From what is Gentian pronarcd? It is the root of the Gealiana 



lat«a, wbich growa on tbe Alps, &nd other mountains; the sctire 
principle of which is genttanin. 

yih.a,l arc t)xe ijenerid properties of th.bVMll The taste is stightij 
Bmeetish, and intensely bitter Water and slcohol extract the t^ete 
and medical virtnes from it. 

What are ita medical properlU» and utei? It possessea ia a high 
degree the tonic power of the eimple bitters, excites the appetite, 
invigorates the power of digestion, inereaaes the temperature of the 
body and the force of the circulation. 

It is giyen in potai iilnsj in infusion (358 to 

Oj), fgi to fgij; of ti>. m 1 of tMraet, 5 to 30 gnuns. 

Sabbatia Asgularis, U. S. 
What portion of the Sablatia anrpilarii, or Aniertcan Centaury, 
is Qsed f The whole plant. It grows 
^'»- ^' in the Middle and Southern States, in 

low meadows, and should be collected 
when in flower. It is prescribed in the 
same coses as gentian, and is generally 
given in infusion (5J toOj); in powder, 
the dole is Jss to Jj. 

What are its medical properliei and 
HIPS ? It Las the tonic properties of 
the BJniplu bitters. Dose of the in/a- 
^io.. (Si to Oj) fSij. 

Colombo, CWomfcn. U. S. 

Prom what plant is the Colunibo ife- 
rivcd? The Voecuhit palmatnu. The 
root is the part used, and is brought 
from Africa. 

What arc i\» ijeneral propcrtiaP 
As it comes to us, it is io flat, circular, 
or oval pieces, of a bitter taste, and 
slightly aroraatio odor. Active prin- 
ci^ilo coiamiin. 


Wh&t are its medical praperiitt and vtetf It is a luefiil mild 
tonic, no astringenoy, and but slightly BtimnlanL Used in povider, 
in/ution, and tincture. Do$e of the pomder, 10 to 30 grains ; of tn- 
/tuion (made is the proportion of jra to Oj), from f^j to f ^ij ; of 
tinclure, f5BS to f5i- 


PxHunAN Bark, Cfuuhona. U. S. 

From what is the Peranan Bark obtaitiedt Bifierent spedes of 
the Cinchona, broDgh( from the western coast of South America. 

There are three officinal Tarieties : 1, pale bark ; 2, jftSoio hark; 
and, 3, red bark. 

The^Hi^e cmbraoea the Tarietiea called Loxa and Lima; the yd- 
loK is called in commeroo C^iia^ bark, and of which there are 
two varieties, the quSled and ^L The red is divided into the 
quilled and t}ie_flat also. 

What are the ao^Te prindplea of bark 7 Quinia, and Cinthona 
combined with kinie add. 

What prepora^on of bark is generallj nsed 7 The wulphale of 

What are the medical propertie* and viei of dnchona 7 It is one 
of tile most valnable tonice we possess, as well as anti-intermittent. 
The best mode of giving the bark is in snbstance ; dote of the pow- 
der Jj. 

What is the comparative power of sulphate of qninine compared 
with the bark 7 10 to 14 gruns is equivalent to | j of good bark. 
The different varieties of bark differ in the relative proportions of 
the active principles which they contain. The pale bark contuns 
a mnch larger proportion of cinchouia than of quinia. The yellow 
bark oontains a large proportion of qoinia, with very little cinehoma. 
The red bark contains condderable quantities botii of quinia and 
cinehoma. It is given as an antiperiodic in intermittents, in doKt 
of 12 to 18 grains, in the interval of the paroxysm. As a mere 
Ionic, t to ) a grain 3 or 4 times a day. 


Dogwood, t'omus Florida. U.S. 
From wbat ilti W9 jm/cure tlie Dogwood b«rk ? From tbe CSthw 

Pig. c. 

FhrxJa, AB indigeooits tree. The dose and mode of usiog similar 
to the Peruvian bark. 

Wild Cherry Bark, />unuc ^rgi'm'ana. U. S. 
What ia.the officinal name of the tree from which the Wild 
ChciTj bark is procured? Prun'os yinjiniana — indigenous to this 

What are the active principles? ITydroci/anic acid, tannin, and 

What arc its medical pnipcrties and Vfff? It is tonie and seda- 


tive; lesseDB the Kction of the heart and uteries; and is QBeFal in 
the hectio fever of scrofiils and oongomption. Dote of poteder, ^BS 
to 5J t of the infuxiott, f Jij S or 4 tamea a day. 

Ohamohiu, Awihemv ifobSu. U. S. 

What is the offioinal name of the Chamomile^ Anthemi* nobilii; 
the flowers ore the porta used, although all parts of the plant are 
active. The active principle is hitter extractive and volatile oiL 

In small doses it is (onie, and in large ones emetic. The edd 
in/iuion is best when naed as a tonic in dosee of fjij ; dote of the 
powder, ^bb to 5j- 

BoNXSxr, Bupalorium. V. B. 
Wliat are the mtdieal pnyiertie* and ttm of the 
Fig. 7. 



/olUUum, or Thoroughteori ? It is touic, diaphoretic, and taken in 
large doses it acts as an emetic and aperient. As a tonic it Bhould 
be administered in Bubatancc or cold in^uon. Dote of the povnitTf 
20 or 30 grains; and of the in/nsiim, fgi frequently repeated. As 
a diaphoretic, it should be given warm. As an emetic and cathartic, 
in doses of one or two gills of the strong decoction. 

VmoiNiA Snakeeoot, Serpeniana. V. S. 
What are the medical propertiei and me» of the ArUtolochia Ser- 


fwN/aria, or Virginia Smakeroet f It uindigeDOiu; tho root is the 
part lued, and its active ingrediaDtB are a bitler priueiple and Wa< 
t3a oiL It is a rtitnnlant toaie, aoting also as a diaplioretic or 
Emetic, aocording as it is administand. 

Dote of thejwwiar, 10 to SO gmns; iiifutitm, f^j to f^ij every 
2 or 3 hoDiv; offieimt tineUut, i^i to f5ij. 

MZBBHA, JtigTrha. U. S. 

From wliat ia Hjiih proatrtdf It is oo exudation from tlio 
AmyriM ifynia. There are two Tarieties, the India and Turke;. 

What are ilB madical propaiiet and uwi f Its acdve principle is 
a Toin and volalSe oU. It is a utimnUnt tonic, vith a tendency to 
the longs, and also to the uterus. Employed in discasea of theso 
ot]ganE where there is no febrile excitement or acute inflammation. 
U»ed'mpo¥)dertnApiR\a dose of 10 to 30 gnina; of the tuicture, 

f 3- to f 5J- 

AnoiraTUBA, U. S. 

What are the medieai propertia and luei of the bark of tbo Ga- 
lipea offidnaUt, or Aw/ualura f Its active parts arc liller exirartive 
and volatile o3. It is a stimulant tonic, but little employed in the 
United 8Ut«a. 

Aueof thejwm&r, 10 to 20 grains; infanon,ttiy, tincture, f^ 
to fSij. 

Fait Angmibvti hark has poisonous properties ; its active ingre- 
dient i* bntda. 

CAflOAJHiJiA Bask, Camarilla. U. S. 
What are the medical properties and naet of the bark of the 
CVoftM EleutJuria, or CoKariila f It« acUvc iogredients are kt- 
tractive and volatile oil. It is an aromatic tonic, and is now only 
emplojed where a gentle stimulant tonic is desired. Dote of the 
povder, 20 to 80 gruss; of the infasiow, fjij. 


What arc the general jiroperties of aromatjo tonics? They owe 


their characteristics to volalilo oils, are more Elimulant than tonics 
generally, and more local in their action than diffusible Btimalants ; 
leElevc paina in the stomach and bowels, expel flatulence, &c. De- 
coctions and extracts objcc^onable. 

What arc the medical properties and %ue» of Orange Peel, or 
rind of the fruit of the C'tlrug Aurantium? It is a mild tonic, sto- 
machic, and carminative; given in infation. 

What are the propcrlie» of the prepared hark of the Launa Ci»- 
namomam, or CiNKAMON? There are two variotiea, the Cn/lon 
ctnnamon and 6'Aina cinnamon, or cassin. lU active principles are 
vofafile oil and lajiniii; ils medical ufle the same as aromatics in 
general, applicable in casee requiring astringents. 

Dose oi powder, 10 to 20 grains; tincture, f5J- 

What are iiie propertie* of the bark of the Oanella Alba ? Its 
active ingredients are volatile oil vai. hitter extractive ; used gene- 
rally combined with other articles. It is an ingredient in tlia pow- 
der of Alms and Canrlla, or hiera picra. 

From what are CL0TE8 derived? They are the unexpasded 
flower buda of the Eugenia Cart/o^iyUata, or Carj/ophj/Uu* aro- 
malicun; brought from the West Indies and the European colonies 
of 0-niana. 

What are their medical propertiet f Their active principle is a 
volatile oH. They are used where a stjmnlant aromado is indicated. 
i>i>seof thejxwt^, & to 10 grains; infution made with (^ij to Qj) 
fjij ; oil, 2 to 5 drops. Used in several officinal preparations. 

From what is the NnxuEa procured? It is the kernel of the 
fruit of the Mt/riitica Moichata, growing in the Moluccas. 

What are its medical propertie* and use). ^ The active principle 
is a volatile oil; it also yields a fixed oil, called the Oil of Mace. It 
combines narcotio with aromatic properties. Dose of powder, 5 to 
10 grains; of volatile oil, 2 or 3 drops. 

From what is the Black Pepper obtained? It is the dried ber- 
ries of the Piper Nigrum. 

What are its properties and uses? It contains a volatile oil, an 
acid concrete oil, and piperin. Its activity depends upon its oils, 
and not the piperin, which is inert when pure. It is a warm car- 
minative sUmulant, and used where such properties are indicated. 


From what are Ciibebb oblainedT It ia the dried fruit of tiie 
Piper Cubeba, a vine growing in the East Indies. 

What an ite pnyiertut and tuetf Ita aotiTe ingi<edieiit ie a vola- 

It 18 arotna^) and dioretie. Dote at the pmeder, ^bb to ^iss 3 or 
4 times a day ; of the volatile oH, 10 to 20 dropa. 

Prom what is the Pthento obtainedf The Jtfytiw Pimerda. 
The aotiTe properties reside in a volatile and Bzed oil. Do$e of the 
oil 3 to 6 drops. 

What are the propertiet and met of Cabdahom, or the frnit of 
the Alpinia Cardamomum f It is a warm aromatic, less heating 
and stimulating than some others. It enters into a number of 
officinal preparations. Do»e of the compound tincture f 5j. 

What other aromatic seeds are used in medicine T Fen^, Cara- 
way, Coriander, Anite, 

What is the doie of the compotind qiirit of Lavender t The dose 
is f5ss to f 3j. 

What is the offidnal namo of the Pefperuint ? Mentha Pipe- 

Fig. 9. 


rila. Dote of the oil, 1 to 8 dropa; of the enente, 10 to 20 

Wbat is the officinal name of the Spgakmint 7 Mentha Viridi», 

and poasesBes properties Himtlair to the liuit. 

What other herbuDeoas aromaticH are used in medicine Y The 
Hedaoma pvlegioida, or Penntroyal; Mdiua offixinalii, or Baijm^ 
Oi-iijanum I'ui/ojr, or Origanum; and the Gaiiltlierta prociimhmt, 
or Pabtbidoe Bebbt (Fig. fl 


From what is Oinoer procured f It ia the root of tlie Zingiber 
opexHoie, an herbaoeona plant, natiro of the East Indies, and calti- 
Tated in the Weat Indies. 

What are its propertia and tu« f It is aromatic, apioj, pungent, 
hot, and biting. Its virtues are axtraoted bj water and alcohol. 

It is a grateful stironlant, and oarminative; and may be given in 
potcder, in doses of 10 to 80 gruna; in infaiion, fgij ; in h'ncft*re, 
f5J or f 5ij. 

In what doses is the Acorub GAi.AMiia, or tvxet flag (Fig. 10) 
used? Its um, modei of adtniniiiralion, and dote* are similar to 
those of the ^nger. 


Ibon, Ferrum. U. S. 

What are the properliet of the preparations of Iron ? The; are 

highly tonio, ruse the pulae, promote the sccretioQB, and increase 

the ooloring matter of the blood. The diseases in which they are 

most need are chloroda, bystoria, fluor albus, gleet, scrofula, rickets, 

What are the do»e» of the different preparations of Iron T The 
I^tjigt—Samenta Jerri — in doses of 5 to 10 grains. Scaler — 
Sgaamxfirri — 5 to 20 grains. Pr^ared Carbonate — Ferri Car- 
botuu PrmpartOut; Precipilated Carbonate — Ferri Carbonas Free- 
eipilaUu. Dote of the last two 5 to 20 grains; in neural^c cases, 
from 5ss to 5j, S times a day, and increased. 

Sulphate — Ferri tulphai — Green vitriol — Copperas — in dosct of 
from 1 to 6 grains; of the dried, from } to 8 grains, 3 or 4 times 
a day. 

What are the inoompatibles of the snlpbate ? The alkalies and 
alkaline carbonates, muriate of lime, and baryta ; nitrate of silver ; 
acetate of lead, tannin, &c. 

JHnetttrt o/ the Muriate— Tinctura Ferri JUunatu»—di)90 \0 to 
30 minims, 3 or 4 times a day. Tartrate of Iron and Ihtaua — 
Ferri et P^attae Tartras — dose 10 to 30 grains. Fho^hale, 5 to 
10 grains. 


COPPIR, Ot^nim. U. S. 

What is the effect of the proparationa of Cojiper on the system ? 
Id its pure state it is inert, but id combination highly poisoDOua; in 
small (|uantiCie9 but little sensible effect is produced, except a elightly 
tonic and astringent influence. 

When taken in poisonous doses, they produc« a coppery taste in 
the mouth, nausea, vomiting, violent pain in the stomach and bowels, 
black aud bloody stools, irregular pulae, faintings, thirst, difficulty 
of breathiag, cramps, convulsions, and death. The best trciitmcnt 
in these coses is to administer white of eggs in water in krgc 

Whkt are the doia of the difierent officbol prepuatioos of Cop- 
per ? Sv^>hate— Ot^tri Su^hat—Blw vitriol. Doee } of > grun 
2, 8, or 4 times a diy, given in pill, and omitted if the atomacb 
becomes irritated. Ammoniated OopptT'—^Ciqn'um Ammonialum. 
Doie i a giaia twiee a day. 

ZlSO, Zmeum. U.S. 

What an tka prepantitna of SIboo osed inediaiadlyf The SiU- 
phaie, Oxide, impure Oxide, and Carbortate. 

What are the medicoi proper(i» and u»e» of the Sulphate of Zinc? 
It is tonic, astringent, and, in large doses, a prompt emetic Do»e 
as a tonic, ) a grain to 2 grains; as an emctio, 10 to 30 grains. 

What are the incompalilileg f Alkalies and their carbonates, 
hydrosulphates, lime-water, and astringent vegetable infusions. 

Bismuth, U- S. 
What preparations of Bismuth are used medicinally ? The Suh- 
niiralc, or While Oxide; it is tonic and antispasmodic. Ihic 3 to 
30 grains, in powder or pill. 

Silver, Anjcntum,. U. S. 

What preparations of Silver are used medicinally 1 The Nitrair, 
Oxidt; and Chloride. 

What are the medical properlii-s of the Nitrate of Silver '( As an 
intcniiil remedy, it is touie aud antispasmodic. It has been em- 
ployed in epilepsy, chorea, angina pectoris, &c. Externally, it in a 


veooant, BtJurolant, and esobuotic. Date Ith of ft grun increued to 
4 or 5, three times a dkj, ia pills. The proper antidote tot a Ui^ 
doM is comnuMi adL 

Whkt are ita inoompatAki f Its incompatibles are common nit, 
alkaUes and their caHxmates, lime-water, minenl arida, astringent 
T<^etable infnnons, &o. 

What preparation of SmfHtnuo Aoid is nsed medioinally t The 
DOUed and the Anmatte. Dot of each 10 to SO drops. Thej 
InoreaBe the appetite and promote digeatiot). 

What are its tMoompatibltt f \\» incompatibkB are the alkalies, 
alkaline earths, tbeir carbonates, ko. 

What are the t^tA and r/oe of Nitbic Acid 7 It is tonic, and 
refrigerant when dilated ; concentrated, it is a corrosive poison. 
Do»e 2 to 5 drops in water. 

What are its ineotiq>atil/la f Its incomp&tibles are the alkalies, 
alkaline eardis, their carbonates, sulphate of iron, the salts of lead, 

What is the dote of the Nitbomubiatic Ads 7 From 2 to 10 
drops, 8 w 4 times a day. 


What is nnderstood by Arterial Stlmukntsf llieyare medidnes 
which excite the cironlaUon, with bnt little inflnence on the nervous 

Under what conditions of syat^m are tbey applicable f lu caaes 
of great prostration, when sufficient energy of the system remains 
to Bostain it at the p(nnt to which it may be elevated. Great core 
is often necessary in their nse, oven in some cases where they are 
indicated; or too great reaction may occur. 

Gatenns, oe Red Peppes, Capiiaim. U. S. 

What ore the medical propertia and wet of tho Cayenne Pepper, 

or Capsicum Annuum? It is a powerful stimulant, without being 

narcotic; useful in enfeebled and languid stomachs; active principle 

886 'MIA •M1I»I0A4.A»»- rHAMMOT. 

capiiciri. Dose of p&ieder, 5 to 10 grains; otinfuxion (Jij to Obb), 
f^Bs; of tincture, f5j to f3ij; used also as a gargle.^ 

What aro the medical properties and uses of Sheits OF Tij&pen< 
TINE, or Oil of TobpentineF It is stimnlatit, diuretic, anthel- 
mintic, and, in large doeea, cathartic. Dose 5 to 20 drops, repeated. 

What itt the rftwe of pHOSpnoRXiS ? It ia y'jth of a grain, in tu 
oleaginous, or ethereal solotion. 

What are the properties and dose of Cabbomate OP Ammonia. F 
It is stimnlant, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. The dose as a 
Btimulont is from 5 to 10 grains, in pills or emulsion, and repeated. 
It is one of oar beat stimulants in low fevers, &o. 


What is understood bj Nervous Stimulants? Thcj are mediciuea 
that not only affect the heart and arteries, but also superadd an ex- 
citant influence over the nervous ejsUjni. 

Under what conditions of the systum are they applicable ? Id 
deranged conditiona of the nervous system not connected with 
inflammadoii or arterial excitement, and particularly if associated 
with general debility. They are termed antispasmodics from thdr 
power of relieving spasm, when it is the result of irregular distri- 
bution of nervoiu iofloenoe dependent upon debility, or other cause 
not connected with inflammation. They are nseful in morbid vi^- 
lance, restlessness, dejection of mind, hypochondriasis, and some- 
times in mental derangement. 

From what is Mubil obtiuned? It is obtained from the Mo*(^\u 
MoKhi/erus, an animal resembling the deer, found in Asia. 

What are its medical propertie* and uks? It is stimulant and 
antispasmodic, and used in cases where these qualities are indicated, 
particularly in low states of the system. Given in pill and emulsion. 
Dose 10 grains. 

How is artificial musk prepared ? By the action of nitric acid on 

From what is Castor obtjitncd 7 It is a peculiar product of the 
Castor fiber, or Beaver. It is not much used. Dote in sulatance, 
10 to 20 grains; in tinelure, f^j to f5ii. 



From whfttnB Aanfietida pnxwtdt It ia the iiupssated jnioe 
of tbe Fervia Aua/eetida. 

Wliat ue its mediral prt^>ertiet tad tttet f Ilfl ac^TO part is s 
renn and voiatHe oiL It is a moderate BtimiilBnt,powerfiil anti- 
Bpaamodlo, an expeototant, and feebly laxadve. Bote 6 to 20 grains 
in pill; ernvUbn (Lac anaftxtida), f Iw to f^j ; <tf tbe Htutme, f^}. 

Yalebiah, Valeriana. U.S. 

Fromwlutia Valerian o&fatiMcJ? It ia the root of tbe Valeriana 
offidnalit, a native of Enrope. 

Wbat are its medieai prvperiiet and via f It iB a gentle stdmn- 
lant, vitb a narootio effect. It is tued in bjBteria, bypochondriane, 
Ac. AotiTO prinoiplee a volatile oil and ixlatile add, cttllod vale- 

i>aMOf the jxwder, 80 to90 gruna; of die wi^wum (Jj to Qj), 
f|ij ; of the tinctuTt, fjj to f5iv; of the ot"^ 4 to 6 dropa. 

What >ra Ae pra^ertia and uaet of the Oil OP AmbxbT It ta 
atimnlant and antiapaamodic, and naed aa a liniment Dote & to 10 
drops in emnlnos. 

What other aerTons sMmulanta do we poaaeeaf Qariie, Tea, 
Ccffie, SkurJe Cabbage, &o. 



What is understood bj Cerebral Stimulants? Thej are medi- 
cinea which not only stimulate tbe circulation, bat also conjoin a 
peooliar determination to the brain. They are also called narcotica, 
from the atapor tbey occasion in large doaea. When taken in 
■nSoient doaea \o destroy life, it ia oocaaioned by the anspension of 
respiration, consequent npon Impaired cerelual influence. Their 
inflnenoe ia rapidly diminiabed by babit, and must, therefore, bo 
rapidly increased in dose to keep up any required effect, provided 
their long-continued use becomes necessary. Caution is always 
J in their use. These are called narcotic*, from f-' "r 


they occasion; aaodi/nes, from their influence in relieving pain ; and 
topojijkt, or hi/pnotiix, from their effect in inducing elecp. 


How ia AXaa^ioX prodiiced? B; the vitiouf fermentatiim. 

What arc its medical propertia and fita? It is a powerful 
stimulant, and is tbc intoxicating ingredient in all tpirituous and 
rinous Ii(|uor8. It is not used in medicine in a pure state ; dilated, 
it is extensively used as a menstmum. 

When a decided stimulus is required, Irrandy is preferred; bnt, 
wlien a more modcnit« one, malt liqvjre or wine is used. 

Wliat Wines are used medicinally ? Madeira, Teneriffe, and 
Sherry i Port when an astringent ia indicated. 

Wine-whfy is a coUTcnient and good form of giving wine ; it may- 
be made by adding to a pint of boiling milk half a pint of wbntcvar 
wino may be preferred; separate the curd from the whey, and flavor 
to euit the taste if wished. 

MaU liijiiort poGsciJS tonic, alterative, and nutritiaus properties, 
and may be used more freely than wino. Porter and ah, are said to 
be the best. 

When the pnlso becomes fuller and slower, the skin moist, and 
delirium abates under the use of alcoholic remedies, the influence is 

How is SuLPHUBio Etker procured 1* By the distillation of 
alcohol and sulphuric aoid. 

What are its medical propertia and vtetf It is a transient, 
powerful, diffnuble stimulant; and given where such medicines are 
indicated. Dok f^ea to f5J' 

Opium, U. S. 

From what is Opium obiainedf It is the concrete juice of the 
Pi^paver »»nni/erum, or /%)^. 

Of what is it composed ? Morphia, narcotina, eodeia, meconic 
aci'l, gum, extractive, retin, &c. 

What are its incompatihlet? All vegetable infusions containing 
tannin and the alkalies. 

What are its medical pn>pertle» and vxeif It is a stimulant nar- 
cotic. It diminishes the peristaltic action of the bowels, and all the 



18 except of the Bkinj aUayBmonluwteiiiiisonlu-oontTnctioiis, 
kod genenl nemnu irritation. Mei^aia dote in tulttaneeial grain ; 
of the linetitrt, 26 drope; of the camphorated tindure, t^i; f Jj of 
vhich contains 2 gniaa of opinm ; of the aedaled tineiure, 20 dropa, 
which is equal to 1 grun of opinm ; of the tulphale, acetate, and 
mtinate o/morphia, }th of a grain is eqnal to 1 grain of opinm. 

The best (oCi for the presenoe of morphia aro the tegquiehloride 
of iron, which oansea a blue otdor; and nitric acid, which produces 
a blood-red oolor. 

From what is LAOrnOASlUK procnred? It is the inspissated 
miUc; jnioe of the Lactvea taiioa. Doie 2 to 3 grains. 

HXNBANX, Hj/otiyamut. U. S. 
From what ia Henbane proeuredf From the Sj/ctcj/amut Jfiger, 
Learea and seeds officinal. 

Fij. 11. 


What are its propertUt and utes? Ita actiTe principle is ftyo»- 
cy/amia, or hi/ixryaviia. It is narcotic in large doeee; in email ones 
it gently acoeleratea the circulation, &nd increases the general 
irannth ; it iloca not constipate. 

Dole of leaws, 5 to 10 grains ; of extract, which ia moBtij used, 2 
or 3 gmns; of linelure, fjj. 

Hops, HumxdM. U- S. 
From what are Hops procured f They are the strobiles of the 
HumuluM Lupuliii. 

The active principles are a vohtHe oil and a pervliar liitter pr!n- 

What is Jjupulinf It IS a yellowixh powder, obtained separata 
by rubbing and sifting the strobiles. Its bitter principle is called 
lupulile, or /iipuline. 

What ore theb medical propertia and ute*? Tonic, moderately 
narcotic, and used in diijcascs of debility where morbid vigilance 

HoK of the in/ution of bops (mode with Sb3 to Oj of water) la 
fjij ; of the lincltirr, fji to f 3*8; of the hipulin 6 to 12 grains, in 
pill ; of the tincture f5j to f 5ij- 

Gampbob, Camphetra. U. 8. 

From what is Camphor derivedf From the Lavrm Camphora, 
an evergreen, growing in China and Japan. It is procnnd by sub- 
limation from the roots and smaller branches. 

What are He propertia md ma f It is very volatile, and maybe 
sublimed unchanged. The medium dote is 5 to 10 grains in emul- 
sion. It enten into the compoddon of several liniments. 

DuDLT Nightshade, Belladonna. U. S. 

What is the active principle of Atropa Belladonna, or Deadly 
Nightshade ? An alkaline principle called atropia. 

The leaves of the plant are the part used. Dose of the powdered 
leave* 1 grain, night and morning; of the in/ution OJ to Ji of 
water) f 5j to f|ij ; of the extract, which is the inspissated juice, i 
to } a grain, twice a day, and increased if necessary. It is used in 


the form of pluter, and as an applicatdon to the eye, and the oe 

Thoritaffli, i^ramoKUim. U. S. 
What part of the DaOmi SHramoKiwin, or Thornapi^, a used 

medidnally ? The leaves and the Beeds. The aotiTe alhaline prin- 
raple it (Jofurui. 

What are its medietU prcpertiet and vaetJ It is a powerful nar- 
ootic, and BDinetiiiies used in epilepsy. Dote of the teed*, 1 grain; 
of the Kcfttid from seeda, i to i agnun; of thejXHmf«refI&ai>a^2 to 
8 gruns; of tlie (t'nciim, 10 to 30 drops; of the extract of the leares, 
1 giain. Used also as an ointmeitt. 

"BmxBSWici, Dulcamara. U. S. 
What is the dowe of the Doloamarm, or Bittersweetf Of the 
offidnal decoction fjij, 4 times a day; of extract, fi to 10 grains. 
Active prindple tetania. 

Hemlock, Coniam. U, S. 
What is the dote of the Conium macviatwn, or Hemlock ? Of 

Fig. 13. 

the powdered havet 3 or 4 gniinB ; of the extract, or ioBpiaaatcd juice 
of the leaves, 3 gnuoB; ttnciure ^bb to 5j- 


What u meant by Sedatives? MedicineB whioh, by theu: imme- 
diate influence, prodaoe a reduction of the vital actions. 

Arterial sedatives are those that operate more particularly upon 
the heart and arteries. Those that reduce both arterial and nervous 
power are called nervous sedatives. 

Under what circumstances are arterial sedatives indicated ? In 
iDcreased vaaonlar action arising from an iocrcascd display of the 
vital energies. RefrOjerant remedies belong to this class. 

What preparations of Antimony are employed medicinally 7 Tbe 
tartar emetic, precipitated sii/pkttivl, and antimoni'al poiix/er. 


What lire the prtpertiet and vaet of Tartar Emetie, at the T<tr- 
trate of Antimtmj/ and Foiaua f It is the most importBiit of the 
■atimonialB. Its genenl aoti<»i is aedadVfi on the dioul&tioii, while 
it ezdtes manj of the secretioDS. It ma; prodnoe &d altentiTe, 
di&phoretic, diuretic, expectorsat, porgatiTfl, and emelao effect, ao- 
ooiding as it ifl adnusistered. Applied eztenulljr it acts as a 

Its dote, Bfl an alterative^ is from ^^ to -^th of a grain; as a 
diaphor^ie, or ayteetorant, from ^,th to Jth of a grain ; as a natt- 
maUng tudorific, from i to 1 a grun, repeated as oocasion reqoiree; 
aa a purgative, |th of a grain oombined with Epeom salts ^, and 
repeated every two or three hours ; as an emetie, from 2 to 4 grains 
given in divided portions at intervals of 10 or 15 minntes. 

The antimonial wins oontains 2 gnuns of tartar emetio to f^j. 

What are its tneoti^atiMa f Mineral aoid^ tbe alUiea and 
their carbonatefl, Bolphorets, lime-water, and ratable astringents. 

Whatisthec2t>M0f the/Vwi}>£cal«I SuljAttretf As an alterative 
1 lo 2 grains ; as an emeto-oaUiartia 6 to 20 gruns. 

What is the dote of the AntimoTtial Fbwder, nsed in imitation of 
Jamei powder f From 8 to 8 gnins. 

What other medicines are used as arterial sedaHves f Nearly all 
the neutral aikaiine ledu, and those in which the add predominates; 
the; are usually called refiTgeraiits, the most prominent of which is 
nitrate o/potatta. Dote 5 to 10 grains every honr or two, in pow- 
der or solution. It is frequently combined witii tartar emetio. 

The Yeg^oMe (tcidt are also refrigerant or arterial sedatives. 


What ia nnderatood by Nervous Sedatives ? They are remedies 
that rednoe the nervous powers as well as the force of the circulation. 
They all affect the functions of tbe brain, and rank with those 
medioinee nsoally called narcotia. 

To what class of diseases are nervons sedatives applicable 7 To 
complaints attended with nervous disorder, and unhealthy exdtement 
of the heart and arteries. 

8U MlblA JtlBZeA An. JniAMAOT. 

FOZOLOVK, Digitalii. U. 8. 

Wbat are the medicinal properiie* and vat» of the le&vee of die 
DigitalU piirpttrea, or Foxglove? They are Dorcotic, sedative, and 

It is heat given in euhOance. Dose \ grain twice or three times 
a day; of the officinal Vn/uiiwnjf 3 as; of the (iWfurc, 10 drops, which 
is equivalent to 1 grain of the suhstancc. It reqaircs cantiou in its 

In what preparations is the HrDHOCTANio or Prdssio Acid 
found r In the Cherry Lawrd toater, and in the OH of Bitter At- 

What are its prcperties and usei? It is a deadly poison; one or 
two drops of the pure acid is sufficient to prove fat&l. The medi- 
cinal article is diluted, and may be given in doses of from 1 to 6, 
or 3 drops in distilled water, gum water, or syrup. It should be 
administered with caution, commencing with the smallest dose. The 
anti'lofee arc chlorine, omntonia, cold aSusion, and artificial respi- 

What is the active principle of the Nicotiana labacum, or To- 
bacco ? NimlUi, or Nicotin. 

What is the qnanUty given as an injection 7 Infiuuon, nuda of 
5bb to Osa at a time. 


What are Emetics ? Medicines capable of producing vomiting in 
certain doses, and as an ordinary result. 

What are the therapeutical effecli of emetics ? Evacuation of the 
stomach, mechanical pressure on the abdominal viscera, reduction 
of arterial action during the period of nausea, muscular relaiation, 
promotion of the secretory functions of the skin, liver, and lungs, 
powerful agitation of the whole frame, purgation frequently, revul- 
sion to the stomach, depletion, and irritation of the stomach. 

What are the circumstances contraindicating tbe use of emetics ? 
Acute inflammation of the stomach, bowels, or neighboring viscera; 
strong sanguineous determination to the brain; and pregnancy in 


the adnnoed etages. CaotioD Bhonld also be obseired ia oases of 

How are emelias vsnall; atbhiniitendT IKfinsed in water, in 
doses repeated ereij 16 or 20 rm'imtffi until Tomiting occurs. When 
the object in merely to ersoiiate the stomach, warm diloent drinks 
should be freelj given, chamomile tea is rery good; if we wish a 
powerful imprenon made on the '^stem but little drink shonld be 
allowed. If vomiting should be ezoesaiTe, applj a unajusm over 
the epigastrinm, and laudanum intenallj, which will generally 
relieve it : a laudamnm injection is also beneficial. 

Ipxoaouahsa, U. S. 

From what is Ipecaooanha obiainedT It is ^o root of the €»• 
fihdU IprxxKMmKa, growing in Sontfa America. 

What are its propa'fMS and tun/ In large doses it is emetic; in 
smaller, diaphoretic and ezpoiAanmt; in still smaller, Btimolant to 
the stomach, promoting its healthy actions. Its active prindple is 
emttia. It ia mild, and certain in its operatiim. Doie as an emetic, 
15 to 30 grains; as a nattseon^ 2 to S gruns; as a diaphoretic, i to 
2 grains; as an ahamive, i grain, mpetiui 2, 3, or 4 times a day. 

The Wine of IpeoaataiAa is emetio in doees of f 3j to an adult, 
and f5j to an inftnt. 

What is the dose c^ the root of the GiUenia trijbliata, Indian 
phj/tie, ot American fyKoouanhat From 20 to SO grains. 

LoBDJA, U. S. (Fig. 14.) 
What are the;>rqp«rti«( and umi of the Lobdia infiala, or Indian 
Tobacco f Besides emetio, diaphoretic, and expectorant properties, 
it has narcotic properties. The whole plant is active. It bears a 
■ilose resemblanoe in its efiecte to tobacco. It is too powerfnl and 
distresong, ss well as haaardous in its operation, for ordinary use. 
Dote of the fowder from 5 to 20 gnins, as an emetk ; of the f inriwrs 
'5J ^ ^'j every two or three hours until it acts. 

Muk-Wced, Euphorbia CoroRata. U. S. 

Where does the Euphorbia grow ? In vuiooB parte of the United 
Stetee. The dried root is emetic in date* of from 10 to 15 gnina. 

What other vegetable substances possess the property of pro- 
ducing Tomiting, and are occasionally used for that pnrpose ? The 
root of the EupKorbia Ipecacuanha, in doia of &om 10 to 15 


Fig. li 

Bldodboot, Sanguinaria. U. S. 

Tlie root of (he Sanffuiitaria Canaden*i»; ocliTe ingredient 
tangninarina. Dote of the powder from 10 to 20 grama ; of the 
lineiurt f5iij to JBS. An acrid emetio. 

The Squill ; in dote of 6 or 8 grun§. 

TOBAOOO ; dote of the powder 5 or 6 gnuna. 

Hdbtabd in powder; <ibM 5j. 

What is the eharaeier of Tartar Emetic as an emetic f It is 
chuacteriied by oertunty, Btrength, and pcnnanency of operation. 
It remuuB in the atomach longer than ipecacnanha, and exerta a 
more powerftil impression on the syat«m generally. 

DoK 2 to 4 gruns given in divided portions; I giua with 10 of 


ipeoaonanha, repented if ncccsanr;, makes a good emctio; of the 
Fig. 16. 

wine f Isa to f^i, repeated if nccesBory; for a child of 1 or 2 years 
old, 20 to 40 dropa. 

What are the characUrulic* of the Sulphate OP Zinc aa an 
emeUc? It is characterized bj promptneBs and oomparativel; little 
naosea. Used chiefly as & mere eraooant of the Btomach in oasea 


leqniring a prompt wad energetic emetio ; u in naioodc poiaoui, 
wlien it shoold be oombined with ipeoacnuihft. Dote 10 grains to 

What are the charadavtic* of the Sijlphate or Coppia u an 
emetic 1 It Is cfaancteriied bj promptness >nd slight nmsea, more 
prompt uid pcnrarfol than Uie lut article. Seldom nsed except in 
narootio poisoning, vhere it is pres in doses of 5 to 15 giuns. 


What are Catharties f They are medidnee which produce encn- 
ationa from the bowels. They opente ; I . By irritating the mmxna 
membrane of the bowels; 2. By stimnlating the exhalant Tesseb 
and mnoona follicles; and, 3. By stimolatiog the liver. Some Mt 
one way and some another, and some by a oombined aotion. 

Do they opente on all parts of the alimentary canal alike f No; 
some operate on one pwtion, and some on another, and others on 
tiie whole. 

What is meant by a ijfdragogve eathartief A oathartio which 
[ffodnoes large watery eraonationB. 

How are oathaitioe divided F Into taxatioet, purge*, and driutici 
a draUie purgn. 

In what way are oathartios naefdl in disease? Th^ eraenate 
the bowels and relieve constipation ; they directly deplete from the 
bloodnasels; promote absorption; act asTeTnlsiTee; and aome by 
increasing the Moretions from the liver, and thereby relieving con- 

Is the aotion of Cathartics modified by combination f It is ; by 
mixing several drastics together they become milder withont loss of 
purgative power. Small doses of emetic Enbstaaoes promote their 
operation ; the same efiect is also prodnoed by bitters. Their tend- 
vaay to gripe may be lessened by aromatics. 

What airoamstances affect the operation of cathartics ? They 
operate more favorably and speedily when given on on empty sto- 
mach. Susceptibility to their action is diminished dnriag sleep and 
increased by exercise. Mild diluent beverages, such as molasses 


ud watatf haAtj or rioe-wkter, oatmeiJ gruel, fto^ form proper- 
drinks to be taken before nad during tiie aptnUtm of a orthMtio. 
ESzoesaTe or J^penxitAartu nuy be oheoked hj ft few drops (tf ko- 

tegetable 0. 

JIanna, U. 8. 

From what is Maaos procured ? It is tbe concrete juice of tlie 
Fraxinuf Omus, growing in tho eouth of Europe. There aro three 
varieties ;_/(«for, onimtui, aaH/at manii'i. 

The ^/«f, or Jlakc, ia tbe result of spontaneous exudation; the 
eomnum is produced when the eeoson is more advanced, by iucisions; 
tiia/at is obtained GtiU later in tho seoeon ; they arc to be preferred 
in the order named. 

WiioXaieitsmeiinal properties and ttscs? It is a gentle laxative. 
Doic gj to gij. Active principle nmnnile. 

PUROING Cassia, Cassia Fislula. U. 8. 

What are tlie pit^rties and jikh of tbe Cattirt Fi«hda, or Piirij' 
ing Camia f The pulp of the pods is the medicinal portion. It u 
gently laxative, and ^ven in cases of habitual coativeness. It is an 
ingredient in the confection of senna. - 

Dote See to Jj. 

Castor Oil, Oleum Sidni. U. S. 

What plant prodnces tbe Castor Oil ? Tbe Sidntu Communis, 

a native of Africa, but cultivated in Europe and in this country. 

The oil is obtained from the seeds by expression. 

What are ita medical properties and uses ? It is a mild cathartic, 
speedy in its action, and good to remove accumulation of feces id 
the bowels. 

Dose for an adult fgj ; children requiring more in proportion than 

Rhubarb, Rhcitm. U. S. 
From what is Ububarb lAtaincd? It is the root of different 


Bpcoies of Rheum ; of which wo get three nrieties : the Human, 
Chinae, and JSuroptan. The Chinese is the most used, but; the 
RoBoan is the best The aotiTe principles are rhubarbarin ind 

What are its medical propertiet and uki / It combines a cathardc 
and aatriogent power; it is tonic and stomachic in small doses; 
roasting incTeaoM its astringent and decreases its purgatiTC efleots. 
Doie as a stomaohic and lazataTO 6 to 10 grains, as a pnrgatiTe 20 
to 30 grains; of the European variety the doee should be doable. 
There are nameroos officinal preparations of rhnb&rb. 

InjMum Shei (5i to Oas), dose f gi to f Jij ; POulm Ehei (Rhei 
5ij, sapon. 5tj, dir. in piL); P3vUe Rha Cbmp. (Rhei gi, Aloea 
■{▼i, Mjnrh ^ss, 01. Hentb. Tip- f5ss, Symp. Auiant. q. s. div. in 
pU.); Ss/rup. Rh^ Arom. (Rhd Jiss, Caryophyll., Cinnain., Si Jss, 
Myristic. 5>ii Aloohol, dOnted, Oy, Syrup Ori), or i^aixd i^nqt 
of Rhubarb; TuKtura Rhei (Rhei Jiij, Gardam. gsi, Alcohol, di- 
luted, Oij} ; ToKtwa Rhei et Aloei (Rhei 5z, Aloes Jvi, CanUm. 
^BS, Aloohol Oy], or Elixir Sacrum; Tinctura Rhei ei SeTtnee, or 
Wanur'a OmU Cordial; Fluid Extract of Rhubarb (Rhubarb 
Sviij, Sugar Jt, Tinct. Oinger f 3bs, 01. Fennel, OL Anise, a& ntiv, 
Muted Aloohol q. s.}. Dose f5J to fSsa. 

SsssA, U. 8. 

From what ii Senna obtained f It is the learea of BeTeral species 
of Camia. Then tm three commerdal Tarieties — Alexandria, 
Tr^aoli, and £tdia Senna. 

What an its propertiet and met f It is a |aompt, effident, and 
safe purgatire. 

Its active principle is eathartin. Dote of the powder 5j ; gene- 
rallj given in infution, which is officinal Jj to Oj, and given in doaes 
f5ii every 4 or 5 boors. The dixir tcdutit ia a tincture of Senna 
and Jalap. Dote f 5ij to f^Bs. Its tendency to gripe may be ob- 
viated by aromatics. 

Fluid Extract of Senna (Senna ibiiss, Sugar Jxx, 01. Fennel 
f 51, Comp. Spt. Ether f5ij, Diluted Aloohol Oiv.) Dote gss to 3i. 

Bote of Cott/tftion of Senna 5j to Sss. 

t42 flftlA KBDIOA AND 7HABHA0T. 

AuEiOAS SxHHA, Coma Mirilandiea. U. S. 
Wlut an the prepertia and doie of the Osna Harilandicft, or 

American Senna? It is similar in properties to senna, but weaker; 
dose one-third greater. 

HCTTERNUT, Jiiglani. U. S. 

What are the propertia and ttsra of the cxtrnft of the Juglana 


dnem t It u a mild oath&rtio, operating vithont pun, and evacu- 
ating tho Alimentary oanal without debilitatiDg. 

Itoie 20 to 30 gnina aa a pnrgatiTe, and 10 or 12 gnuns as a 

Alois, U. 8. 

From whtXu AloBB procured t It is tbs inspianted juioe of dif- 
ferent specaes of Ahe. 

There are three oammerasl varietiaa^ Qye, Soeotrine, and Be- 
patie Aloet. 

What u« ita propertiei and waeiT It is oathaitiOj operating 
slowly, but oertainly, and has a peculiar affinity for the large intes- 

It also has a tendency to the uterine Byetem. Dote as a laxative 
from 2 to 6 grains ; as a pu^tive 10 to 16 grains. It is usually 
^ven in pill. There is a large niunber of officinal preparations of 

PiMte Aha et Aaoft^ida. (Aloes, Assafsdda, Saponis, iia). 
PduUe Aha (Aloes, Saponis, »»}. PHviee Aha tt 3^/rrhm (Aloes 
3ij, Myrrh 5j, Croci JsB, Syrnp q. B.), or Rufu^ PiSt. Pulv. 
Aha et CmuOa (Aloes fttj, Canella Siij), or Biera Plera, or S)fy 
Bitter. Tinetura Aha et MyrrTue (Aloes 3i>ji Tr. Mynh Oij), or 
Elix. Proprietali: 

Jaup, Jetiapa. U. S. (Fig. IS.) 

From what is Jalap obtained? It is the root of the ^xmuea 
Jalapa, tx Ipomeea purga, a vine, native of Mexico. 

What are its prcpertia and laei T It is an active cathartic, ope- 
rating hiiakly, and sometimes with pun, producing copious watery 
stools. Ptdv. Jcdapee Comp. (Jolap ^1, Potassa Bitart. $'}}.) 

Dote ot tho pOwder, 15 to 80 grMDH; of the nutn c/ya^ji, 8 to 10 
gruDs; of the extract, 10 to 20 grains. 

Hat-Appli, Fbdophs/Hum Feltalum. U. S. (Elg. 19.) 

What are the properliet and uia of the PodopKj/Uutn, pdtatum f 

It ia an active, certain cathartic, prodacea copious liquid discharges 

without much griping, or other unpleasant effect. It resembles 


jitUp in its operation, and u applicable wbenever a brisk cathartic 
is required. The doie of the powdered root is about 20 gnuos. 

It contains a prindple, obtained by Mr. Hodgson of Philadelphia, 
called pod^hiUine, whioh ^tcs the peculiar property to the root 
mainly ; it is analogons to salicine, populinc, &o. 

SCAUHONT, Seammonium. U. S. 
From what is Scammony obtained f It is the inspissated jaice 

of the Convolvuiui Scammonia, growing in Siberia and Asia Minor. 
There are two varieties in commerce, the Aleppo and Smyrna 

What are the medicnl propertia and uses of scammony 7 It is an 
energetic cathartic, apt to occasion griping, and luay be used in cases 
where a powerful impression is desired. It is seldom given alone. 
Dum 5 to 10 grains. 


Fig. 19. 

Black Hellebore, IMthorvt. U. S. 

Wbat are the properties aDd uk> of the root of the SeS^orut 
mger,Qt Black Hellebore? It is a draatio hydragogne cathartic, 
with eauDcnagogne powers; the freah root applied to the skin will 
inflame and vesicate. I>ok 10 to 20 graias. 

It ia seldom gJTCD alone. It is somelinies called Melampodium. 

COLOCTHTH, Coloe^hit. U. S. 

From what is Colocynth proairetl? It is the fruit of the Cucu- 

8M n^^SMH«A AK» «S*«1IA0T. 

mu CobtynthU deprived of its rind. It ia aa aanual plant, beaiing 

conndenble resembUnoe to tho common cncnmber; uid Is s iMsn 
of Turkey. 

'Whftt are its medical propertiei and imm/ The pn]p u a poirer- 
ful, draatjo, bjdngogne cathartjc, producing all the effecia of cathar- 
tics of this class. The dose is 5 to 10 grains. The active principle 
is coloryuthin. It Is seldom given alone. The most common form 
of its exhibition ia the eompfrurul extract (Colocjnth Jvi, Aloes 5*''> 
Cardamom Ji, Saponis siij, Alcohol, dilute, cong), which is offi- 
cinal. Dose 10 to 15 grains. 

G.*.MB0OE, Gambtyia. V. S. 

What is Gamboge ? It is the inspissated juice of a tree supposed 
(o bo Sla/iKjmitit CumliO'jioiJes, or Gurciiiea Camhogla, natives of 

M'hnt arc its proj>erti<a and vsetf It ia a powerful, drastic, hj- 


dngogne cathattio; apt to nauseate and Tcanit, and used in casea 
where such propnrtiea are indicated. Dote 8 to 6 gnina in piB or 
emviiion. It ia a oonatitaent in the compound ctUhartic pili (Ext. 
Golocynth. Comp. Jbb, Ext Jalap., Hydrarg. Chlor. Mit, a& 5iij, 
Gamboge 3ij), the dose of whioh is 3 pills. 

Elaixbium, U. S. 
What is Elaterinm prodooed from f The Momordiea 1 

or S^irimg Oueumber, a nafive of Eorope. The fruit has the 
sh^ie of a soiaU oval ooonmber, abont 1) inohea long, covered with 
stiff luur, or prickles. The elaterinm is the subatanoe spontaneoualy 
depoaited by tiie joioe of the fruit, reeidea in that part whioh bot- 
ronnds the seeds, and ma; be obtained without expression. 

yfhMt are its prttpertitt and vtaT It is a powcrfdl hTdragogne 
oathartic, and, in large doaee, will excite vomiting. 

Hie dote of ordinaiy oommeroial elaterium is frxim 1 to 2 gnuns, 
given in i gnin portions, repeated every half hour, or boor, ontQ it 
operates... Of the pur^ |th of a grun is a dose. The active pris- 
Ikm I'fth of a grain. 


Cboton On,, Oki'm Tiglii. U. S. 
From what U tho Croton Oil procurtdf It is tlo oQ of the sceda 


ot the Croton Tu/lium, a native of the East Indies; obtained by 
eipresaion of the seeds after having been deprived of their shell. 

What are its pivpcrlia and j(m»? It is a powerful hydragogue 
purgative, producing violent effects if given in an over-dose. J)ose 
1 or 2 drops, administered in pill with a crumb of bread. Applied 
externally, it infiames the skin, and produces a pustular eruption. 


bohkkal cathabti08. 


What kra the pmpertui aad um of Fbioen of Sulphur T It is 

UzatiTe, di^oredc, and altentive, ia evidently abaorbed, uud paaaes 

off by tlie iUn. i>DW u a laxaliTe, 5j to ^'j- It ia used ext«nutUy 

aa an ointmeiit, and in vapor. 

How ia Lae Salphuru prepared J By boiling snlphor and lime 
in water, filtering, preoipiladng by moriatio acid, and waahing the 

Maqnesu, U. S. 

What an the propertiei and uaei of the Carbonate of Mofftietia t 
It is antacid, and by combining with acid in the atomaoh becomes 
cathartio. Dot, 5aB to 5ij. 

What arc the properties of C€dcined Magnena, or McLgnena tuta t 
It ia antacid and laxative; used very much among children. Doie 
fuse an adult, 3j; for a child two years' old, from 10 to 20 graina. 


What ia the general character of Saliae Cathartics? They ar« 
intermediate in power between laxatives and purgatives, prodnoe 
Viteiy evacuationa, operate as arterial sedatives, and do not act 
hanfaly. These propertiea adapt them to inflammatory and aetire 
febiile comptainte. They closely reaemble each other in properties. 

What are their doteiT Sulphate of Soda, or Qlauber't lalt; 
of the cryatalliied salt, ^j to ^ij ; cffioresoed, half the qoantity. 

Sulphate of Magnesia, or Epmm laiu; dote, Sj to Sjsa. 

Sulphate of Fotabsa; dote, Jas to |jbb. 

SUFEKTAaxBATE OF P0TA88A, Called also cream of tartar; dote, 
^aa to Sj- It la frequently combined with jalap aa a hydragogne. 

Tartrate of Potassa, or toiuble tartar; dote, Saa to ^j. 

Tartrate of Potassa and Soda, or RocheUe tait; dox, |j to 
JJsa. It enters into the composition of the SeidliU Powder$, which 

850 uc^u attmuA akd fhabmaot. 

U8 tartrate of potassa and soda 5ij, and bicarbonate of Boda ^ij, in 
a nbite paper; and tartaric acid, grs. xxxv, in a blue paper. 

Phosphate or Soda; dose, 5j to gij. 

Citrate of Maonesia, mnynaian lemonade (Acid. Citric, gas, 
Magnoa. Carb. 3j, Sjrup. Anrant. fgij, Aq. destil. fjij). Effer- 
vescing solution of Citrat* of Magnesia (Acid. Citric, jss, A»j. destil. 
f5J, Sjrup. Anrant. f.^ij); to be taken with f^i of Dinneford's aoln- 
tion of bicarbonate of magDcsia in cffervesccacc. 

What is tlie officinal name of Calomel? Mild Chloride of Mer- 
cury — Ei/drargyri Cliioridum Mile — sometimca improperly called 
Submvriate o/ Mercury. 

What are the test* of jmrityf It sublimes freely on the applica- 
tion of heat, and strikes a black color, free from reddish tinge, by 
the action of fixed alkalieH. The presence of corrosive subUmate 
may bo tested by ammonia. 

Wbat are its incompatihUt? The alkalies, alkaline earths and 
their carbonates, bydroeulpbates, &c, 

Eoward't ealumel is prepared by bringing steam in contact with 
it while in a statu of vapor, which converts it into an impalpable 
powder, and washes it from corrosive Bublininte. 

What are the medical propertiet and taa of calomel? In addi- 
tion to the general properties of mercnrials, it unites those of a pur- 
gative and anthelmintic. 

It is employed to a great extent, and is the most valuable of the 
mercurial preparations. 

An a cathartic, its tendency to increase the secretory ftinotions of 
the liver is ita chief value. 

As an alterative, the dose is J a gnln every other night, or every 
night, keeping the bowels at the same time gently open. To produce 
salivation, the dose is } to 1 grain, 3 or 4 times a day, increased if 
necessary. If it purges, it should bo combined with opium; aa a 
purgative, the dose is 5 to 15 or 20 grains. Larger doses are rocjuired 
in proportion for children than adults. 

Calomel is frci^uently combined with other purgatives. 



For what purposes are Enemata employed F To haaten, facilitate, 
or increase the action of cathartics, to operate on the howels where 
medidnes cannot be properly used or retained by the stomach, where 
there is too great a debility to sostain the action of a pnrgative, or 
tliere is great feoolent aooomalatioa in the lower bowels, and in 
habitual constipation ; also to obtain the pecnUar local or general 
effects of medieinal articles on the body. A eolntitni of oommon 
salt, molasses, and lard, combined, is in common use; wann water 
alone, or soap and water, also form very good injections. If a more 
' powerful remedy is required, castor oil and oil of turpentine, or 
senna tes, are very proper. An emnlnon of assafetida is often used 
in tympanitio oonditions of the bowels. When the peculiar efiects 
of remedies are wished, artioles adapted to the case should be se- 
lected, and administeied in some oonvenient vehicle, suoh as starch- 
water or flaxseed tea ; and the bnik ahonld be small, so that they 
may be retuned. They are a valuable class of remedies. 


What are IHoreticB? They are medicines which increase the 
secretion of nrine. 

How do they operate F In one or more of three ways — by enter- 
ing the circulation, by a Bympathetic im^ession, or by promoting 

Squill, SdUa. U. S. 

From what is the Squill obtaintdf It is the bulb of thp SdBa 
maritima, growing on the borders of the Mediterranean. Its active 
principle is called tciUUin. 

What are its medical prapertict and uaaf It is diuretic, expec- 
torant, and, in largo doses, emetic and purgative. As a diuretic, it 
b generally combined with calomel, anil used when there is not 
much inflammatory action existing. Dok as a diuretic or expecto- 
rant, 1 to 2 gnuns, repeated 2 or 3 times a day, and increased in 
quantity until its action is evinced. As an emetic, from 6 to 12 


Meadow Satfros, Chlc7iie«m. U. S. 

Wtftt are the proprrlies and i'M« of the bulb and seeds uf tbe 
Cokkicum aulumnafe, or Mt-adaic Saffron t Tbey prodncc sedative 
effects upon tbe nyrvoua ejattio aa well aa alimulate the secretions. 
Given in sufficient doses, tbcy produce disorder of tbe stonocb and 
boirela, yomiting and purging eoTcrclj'. When not carried off by 
tbe bowels, diuresis and diaphoresis are proclneed. They arc need 
in rbeumutism and gout. Doee of the bulb, or seeds, from 2 to 8 
grains } but it is uanitUjc admiuiatcTcd in the form of wirc. 

Tbero are two officinal viiwm tiucturee. 



The Ftnum CokKid Radieit, the date of which is from 10 drops 

The Ftnum CoieMci fSeminu. Dtm, fjM to fjj. 

Iksian Hchf, Apoej/Kwm CaKnabiwum. U. S. (Fig. 23.) 
What are the propertta and tun of the root of the Apocynvm 

Cannabaium, or Indian Hemp f It Ib diuretic, powerfully emetio, 

and cathartic. 

Used in deeoetum made irilh $m to Ojss of water, and boiled to 

Oj i dote of which is f jj to f Jiji 2 or 3 times a da; ; of the povder, 

15 to 30 ffMBt; of the txtmei, 3 or 4 gnuns. 

DAJfOHJOS, Taraxaattn. tj. S. 

What aie the pnpaliei and tua of the LeotUodon Tanaacvm 

Fig. 34. 

or Daaddiont It is slightly dinretie, tonic, and aperient; and ia 
thonght to have a Hpeoific action on the liver. Its properties adapt 
it to diseases of the digestive organs, and dropucal affections depend- 
ing upon them. An irritable condition of the stomach and bowels, 
and acnto inflammation, coatca-indicate its nee. .Z^oteof the officinU 
deeoetioH, f^ij 2 or 3 times a day; of the extract, SIO or 80 grains. 

Juniper BERaiES, Juniperui. U. S. 
What are the propertia and vtet of the fruit of the Jumpenu 


rommi'iu, or Juniper herriet? The actlvQ ingredient is a volatile " 

The berries are BtimQlant and diuretic, and, in large doses, pro- 
duce irritation of the urinary passages; tbej aro generalij used h£ 
an adjuvBut to more powerful diuretics. It is a native of Europe. 
Doie of tbe i»/atioa (Jj to Oj) one pint daring the day, ofteo com- 
biaed with cream of tartar ; of the o3, 5 to 15 drops. 

Wild Caeeot, Carota. U. S. 
What are the properties and titet of the seoda of tbe Dtxurv* 
Carota, or Wild Carrot? Thej are gently stimulant and diure^c, 
and may be used in nephritic affection b where tlic stomach is en- 
feebled. The active ingredient is a volatile oil. Dok, 5ss to 5j 
of the bruited teeth; or one pint of the infuxioa., made with |j» to 
Oj of water, in the 24 hours. 

PARSIJ:r Root, Pe/roselinam. U. S, 
What are the properliet and awa of the root of tbe Apium F'trn^ 
leVmum, or Parget/ f It is diuretic and aperient ; used in strangury. 
Dok of the iji/ution indefinite. 

luaPlMTUiX, TerAinthina. U. S. 

From what is turpentine obtained f It is the jnice of different 
species of tbe genen Fintu Ahte*, and Larix, and consists of a 
rain and volatile oil. 

There are two kinds used in the United States. The common 
while turpentine, derived principally from tbe Pinui paluitris; and 
tbe Canada tafpentine, derived from the Abie» ba/sami/era, or Bal- 
Mtn of fir. Their virtues reside in the volatile oil. 

What are their mtdical properliei and uses? They are stimulant, 
diuretic, anthelmintic, and laxative. If long continued, they pro- 
duce irritation of tbe mucous membrauo of the urinaty organs. 
Dose, 10 grjuns to 3J, in pill or emulsion: 

The fototi/e oil, or rpirif of lui-pentixc, i? generally Tised J tbe dose 
of which is 10 to 20 drops, and repeated. It is also usud externally 
as a rubefacient. 


COFAIVA, fVlt^M. U. S. 

From wb&t is the B&lsun of Gopura derived* It is the jaice of 
the Copat/era ogiditalia, and Other spedes of the Oc^i/era, grow- 
ing in Bmil and Gnuuia. 

What are its pn^iertits and tuetf Its coDstitueots are a resin 
and a volatile oil. It is gently etimulant, dinretic, and lazatlve. 

It is nsed in gonorrboea, leucorrhcea, gleet, chronic dysentery, and 
in chronic bronchitis. Dote, 10 to SO drops, 3 times a day; of the 
votatiU oil, 5 to 15 drops. 

Tab, Fix Injaida. U. S. 
What is tar? It is an empyreumntic prod act, and consists of 
redo held in solution by acetic acid and an empyreumatic oil ; colored 
by carbonaceoDs matter; slightly soluble in water. Used in agueota 
»ottUi&n (tar water) and vapor. In ointment, it is useful in many 
cutaneous affections. Crttuole is an active ingredient in it. 

OANTBAKlQEa, CanOiarit. U. S. 

What are the medical propertiet and wet of Canthari* vaicatoria, 
CaiUharida, or Spanith Fliet?' Administered internally, thej are 
powerfolly stimulant, and exercise a peculiar influence over the 
urinary organs. In moderate doses, diuretic. Externally applied, 
they inflame and vesicate. Dok, 1 or 2 grains of the powder 2 or 8 
times daily; of the tincture, 10 drops as often. 

What are the doses of the Carbonates or Potabsa ? The car- 
bonate is nsed in doses of 10 to 30 grains 3 or 4 times a day. 

The bicarbonate is used in doses of from 56s to 5J- 

What are the tnedical properiia and wa of the Acetate of 
P0TAS8A, or Sal Diureticus? It ist^iur^tcin dosesof from9i to 5J) 
eveiy 2 or 3 hours. In large doses, it is eaAartie. 

What are the properties of BiTAaxRATB Of P0TA88A, « Cream 
of Tartar? It is diuretic, cathartic, and re&igennt. In small doses, 
it is a cooling aperient; in large oacs, it is a bydragogae cathartic, 
which renders it useful in dropsies, as well as on account of its 
diuretic properties. 

The tloK is from gj to 5ij as an aperient; and from saa to $j as 
a k]/dra</offue cathartic. 


What are the medical properties and asa of the Nitrate of 
PoTA^SA, or SaUpelref It is diuretic, refrigerant, and diaphoretic. 

Dote as a diuretic, from 10 to 20 grains, repeated. 

What are the medical properties and uses of Spirit of Nitric 
Ether, or Sweet Spirit of Nitre f It is dioretio, diaphoretic, and 

Dose in febrile diseases as a diaphoretic aboat 1 teaspoonfuL 

When giyen as a diuretic, it should be given in larger doses* 


What are Diaphoretics? They are medicines which promote 

How do they exert a beneficial effect in disease ? By removing 
constriction of the cutaneous capillaries; by depleting from the 
bloodvessels; by revulsion to the surface; by promoting absorption; 
and by eliminating noxious matter from the blood. 

What circumstances should a patient be subjected to if free per- 
spiration be required? He should be confined in bed, well covered, 
clothed with flannel next the skin, and warm diluent drinks freely 
given. If there is high inflammatory excitement, the lancet or 
other depleting remedies should be premised. 

How are diaphoretics divided ? Into nauseating, refrigerant, and 
alterative diaphoretics, 


What are some of the Nauseating Diaphoretics ? Ipecacuanha, 
and Tartrate of Antimony and Potassa. 

With what is ipecacuanha usually combined ? With opium in 
the form of Dover* s Powder, which consists of ipecacuanha 1 grain, 
opium 1 grain, and sulphate of potassa 8 grains. Dose 10 grains, 
repeated every 4 or G hours. 

What is the dose of tartar emetic as a iUaphorcticI From -j'^th 
to Jth of a grain. 



What are soma of the Rerrigenmt Diaphoretics ? Citkatk of , 
P0TA88A, Acetate of Ammonia, Nitrate of Potasba, and 
Spirit of Nitric Ether. 

How is the Citrate of Potaua nsed f In two forms ; the nentfat 
mixture or saline dranght, and tiie effervescing draught. Dcte of 
the former, fjss every hour or two; of the latter, f^ss of the alka- 
line solution, with f588 of the leraon-joice or the acid solutJOD. 

They are sometimes combined with tartar emetic, and also with 
spirits of nitre. 

How is the Acetate 0/ Ammonia nsed? In the form of the 
officinal solution called liquor ammonia acetatu, or Splritut Min- 
dereri. Dote, fgsB to f |j, repeated every 2 or 3 honra. 
. How is Nitrate of Potaua nsed ? It is nsnally oomhined with 
tartar emetic, jtb of a grain to 10 or 15 grains of the nitrate. 

How is the Spirit of Nitre used ? It is used in fevers where 
there is nervous derangement, or a typhoid tendency, and in chil- 
dren. Doie, 20 drops to f 3j, repeated. 


What are some of the Alterative Kapfaoredcs? The prodnets of 
the Ovaiaeum offkinaU, Msxerwn, Saaafrat, and Sanaparilia. 

Gdaiac. TJ. S. 

What are the products of the Gvaiacvm o£ieinaUT The Guai- 
acnm wood, or /tj/num vitm, and the Guaiac, a concrete juice. The 
medicinal properties of the wood are owing to the guaiac which it 
contains. It grows in the West Indies and South America. 

What are the propertiet and uk» of guaiac ? It is stimulant, 
alteradve, and promotes the secretions, particularly of the skin. 
DoK of powder, 10 to 30 grains, with sweetened wnter or mucilage. 
There are two officinal tinctures. Ihx of either, f 5J, The wood is 
used in decoction, and is an ingredient in the ComjtounU Decoction 
nf Sanapariila. 


MezEBEON, ifczcrcum. U. S. 

From wiiat is Mczereon obtainedf It ia the bark of the root of 
different species of Daphne; a native of Enropo. 

What are its j>mperlie» and u«es^ The recent bark, applied to 
the skin, ioflames and vesicates. Given intcrnully, it ii gtimulftut, 
nbich may be directed to the skin or kidneys. Do*e of the bark, 
in substance, 10 gnuos. Generally given in decoction with liqoorice 
root, which is officinal, JDose, a teacupful four times a day. 

Sassafras. U. S. 

What are the officinal portions of the Laurut Satsafrasf The 
bark of the root [Saisafras RofUcts C'orla), and the pith of the 
tvigs (iSonq/nu MaivUa). 

What ftre the medical propertiet and tun of the baA f It is 
Btimnlant uid du4)horetio. Ita ac^ve principle u a mlatiU oit. 
Dote, from 2 to 10 drops. The iofnuon may be giren ad libittimt, 

HjmiApmTT.T.A. U, S. 

What are the pnpertiea and tua of Sani^ariUa f It ia the root 

of different species of the Smitax, growing in Mexico, West 

Indies, and South America. Ita active principle ia larsapari/lin. 
It acts upon the aecrctioos, and thereby produces alterative effects. 
There are numerous officinal preparationa. Ihae of the powder, 3ss 
to3j; of thect>m^>oun(/tiecoc{ion(Sarsap. ^vj; Sassaf., Guaiac., Gly- 
cjrrhiz., ail gj; Mezer. 5iij; Aqua) Oiv), fjiv; of the compound 
sj/riip (Sarsap. ibij; Guaiac. Jiij; Ros. centifol., Sennso, Glycyrrhiz., 
aa Jij; 01. Sassafras, 01- Anisi, iia iTLv; 01. Gaultheria miij; Al- 
cohol dijut. Ox; Sacchr. Ibviij), |iis3; of the akoIioUc extract, 10 to 
20 grains; of tlie^«i(/ «;(/■«(■( (Sarsap. S^vj; Rad. Glycyrrhiz., Had. 
Sassaf., Ha 5ij ; Mezereon 3vj ; Sacohr. 5xij; Alcohol dilut. Oviij), 


What arc Espcctorants? They arc medicines which increase the 
pocretion from ihc mucous membrane of the air-cella and air-pas- 
sagca of the lungs; or facilitate its discharge. 


What oiroumBtuiceB ahoald > patient be subjected to while unng 
expectorants? The iorface ahoald be kept ynxm, and flannel worn 
next to, the skin. 

Are emetio robetanoes mnally expectorant in small dogea f Yea ; 
ipecacuanha in doeea of 1 to 2 grains ; tartar emetic in dose of |th 
of a grun ; and their preparations also in this proportion. 

What are the propertia and vta of Squill as an expectorant 7 
It stimnlates the vessels of the Inngs ; and where there is much 
inflammation it shonld be preceded b; blood-letting. The offiranal 
preparations are the vinegar, tyrup, oxymel, and tincture. 

Dote of w'neyor, fgas to fjj ; of ^nip and oxymd, from f 3j to 
f^ij ; of tincture, from 20 to 40 drops. 

What are the prepertiet and uiei of the bulb of the Allitu 
Satitdm, or GartieF It is a general stimulant, and promotes 
expectoration in debilitated states of the lungs. The expressed 
jnice is often given to children with sugar. Ihie, f^ss to f3j. 

Senkqa. U. S. 
What are the prapertiet and v*et of the root of the Ri^ala 
Senega, or Senekaf Its aodve principle is Knegin. 

Fig. 35. 



It u a stimnUting expectorant^ and dinretio ; it also aota. aon 
or IsBB on all the aeeretiQiu. 

7>ow aS powder, from 10 to 20 grains; of dteoetioAf made ifj boil 
iog 3j of ^« TOOt with 3j of liqnoriee root ia QjH of mter to Oj 
given indoaea of f^j tof3ij)8or4timeBaday. It ia an ingndMi 
in Cox^t StM Syrup. 

BlACK Snaksduxw, Oimieifiiffa. U. 8. 
What ore the proptrtiet and uses of the root of tba C f imt e ^iifa 


racemoia, or black tnakerootf or ccAoAf It stimnl&teB the fiecre- 
tjons, nnd partionUrl; thoee of tiie ikin, kidneys, and bronchial 
maooiu membrane. 

Dote otpotoder, 10 to SO gnuna ; deooetion, fjj to f |ij, repeated 

AUMONIAO, Ammoniacum. TJ. S. 

From what is Ammonioo oblamedf It u the inspissated jnico of 
the Dmrema Ammoniacum, an mnbelliferona plant, growing in 
Persia. It comes in tears and masses. 

What are its propertiei and utaf It is a stimdant and expeo- 
torant gum resin; mostly naed in ohronic catarrh, asthma, and other 
pectoral diseases. Do$e, 10 to 30 grains in emulsioD or pill. 

Lae Ammoniaci (Ammoniac gij ; Aqute Oaa) 3ss to |j, when 
^ren alone; it is, however, more freqaently given in combination, 
or forms a vehicle for other remedies. 

Absaketida. U. S. 

What is the character of Assafoetida as an expectorant? It is an 

effident expectorant and moderate atimnlant. Dote, 5 to 16 or 20 

grains, in pill or emulsion. Jfufura Amafietida, Lae Aaafixttda 

(Assafoe^da 3ij ; AqiueOBs), 3sb to^ij for an adnlt. 

Balsam of Tolu, Toiulanum. U. S. 

From what is the Balsam of Toln obtained f The Mfrotxglon 
3htui/inun, a tree growing in tropical America. Its essential oon- 
■dtuenta are a resin, volatile oil, and benioio add. It is procored 
by incising the tnink of the tree, and oollectlag the juice. 

What are its mtdical properlie* and v»eiT It is a gently stimu- 
lating expectorant. 

Doie, 10 to SO grains in emuhiion; of the tinelurt, fgj to f 3ij. 

Balsam of Peru, Myroxyhn. U. S. 

What are the propertia and uom of the balsam of the Myroxi/loR 

Penti/erum, or Peruvian Balsam ? Its constituents are a resin, 

volatile oil, and benzoic acid. It is a warm, stimulating tonic, and 

expectorant. Dox, f5sE. 



Storax. DoKj 10 to 30 grains. 

Benzoin. i>o<e, 10 to 30 grains. 

Copaiba. Doscj 20 to 30 dropS; in emulsion. 

Mteeh. Stimulating expectorant. Dosej 10 to 30 grains. 

Oalbanum. Dose 10 to 30 grains. 

EleoampanE; or Invla. Dose of decoction (^ss to Oj), fSj 
to f 3ij. • 

Wood Naphtha. Dose, 10 to 40 drops; three times a daj; when 
an excitant expectorant is needed. 

The Demulcent Expectorants are: (xum Arabic, MarshmaUow, 
Almonds, Olive OH, Spermaceti, Sugar, Liquorice, Flaxseed, IVa- 
gacanih, Benne, Sassafras, Slippery Elm Bark, Iceland Moss, &o. 


What are Emmenagogues? Thej are medicines which promote 
the menstrual secretion. 

How do emmenagogues act ? They may act either through the 
medium of the circulation; or by an impression being made else- 
wherC; and extended sympathetically to the uterine vessels. 

How should they be given so as to produce their full effect? A 
short time before the regular period of menstruation. The state of 
the system should be carefully considered ; if the system is plethoric, 
they should be preceded by depletion, and the milder ones of the 
class should be used. If debility exist, those of a tonic or stimulant 
character should be used ; and if constipation attend, the cathartic 
emmenagogues are indicated. 

What are the properties of the Chalybeates as regards their 
emmenagoguo power ? They are considered to be inferior to no 
other remedies in this respect, and are applicable where there is no 
local inflammation or general excitement. They are often combined 
with aloes. 

What are the properties of Aloes as an emmenagogue ? It is 
very effective, and believed to exert a specific influence on the 
uterine vessels, independent of its cathartic property. Dose, 1 or 2 


grains 2 or 3 timea a day. It may also be giTen in enema about 
the period when menatmation ahonld come on. 

Whatia the dote of Black Kellebooe as an emmenagoguQ? 
From f 5ss to f 51 of the tincture, 2 or 3 timea a day. 

What ore the properlia of GtUAIAC as an emmenagogae ? It is 
applicable in cases associated with rheuma^sm, particutarlj in its 
neural^c fonns. Used in djsmeaonhrea either in the timple or 
amnumiated ttnelare. Dote, f^j, 3 or 4 timea a day. 

What are the jnvperfiet of the leaves of the JuNiFERtrs Sabtka, 
or Savintf They are highly stimulant, increase moat of the seore* 
tions, and particularly those of the uterus. 

The active principle ia a volatile oil, colled oil oftavine. It shoald 
be avoided in pregnancy. Dok of the powder, from 5 to 20 grains, 
2 or 3 timea a day ; of the oU, from 2 to 5 dropa. The plant b a 
native of Europe. 

What are the properliei of GANTHARiDEa as an emmenagogae? 
They exert a powerful stimulant effect over the urinary and genital 

Dtue of the tincture, 10 to 30 drops three times & day. 


What are Epispastjcsf Medicinea that produce a blister when 
^plied to the skin. They are called also vuicalorteg. 

How do they exert a remedial inSucncef By acting indirectly 
as general Btimnlanta; by their revulsive action; by substituting 
their own acUon for a diseased one in the part to which they are 
applied; by their local stimulus ; by producing local depletion; by 
the pain they occasion, which may be useful in hypochondriacal 
cases; and they are employed to separate the cuticle for the pnrpose 
of applying medicines. 

Spanish Fly, Cantharit. U. S. 
What are the offidnal preparations of the Cantharit veticatoria, 
or SjnniA /Vj, as an epispastic ? The Cerate of Spanith Fliei, 
oommonly called Bliileriii'j Flatter. Used for blistering. 


The Ointment, used for laamtainiug a discharge. 

The PiatUn- of PltcJi with Spanish fliea. Used aa a nibefacient 

The Liniment of Spanish fllea, genenJlj called Decoction of Flics 
in Oil of Turpentine. Used as an external stimulant. 

What are the remedies for stramjury produced by oanthariJes? 
The milder diuretics, such as uva ursi, sweet spirit of nitre, maci- 

Where are eantharides procured ? In Spain and Italy, Active 
principle i-antlutriilin. 

What fire the properti'-i of the inilit;enoua inpect, the Canihari» 
Vittataf or Ihlalo Jfy t They ore similar tathe Spanish fiies; the 
ohemioal compoaitioa and oaes the same. 


What are Rahefodents ? They are medicines irhich inflame tlw 
skin, and produce redness without ordinarily vesicating. 

What are the Indioations for the use of this class in preference to 

blislcrB ? In cases where a sudden and powerful action is necessary ; 
and in cases where a slight. hut long-continued action is desired — in 
which case the milder articles should be employed. 

Will you enumerate the rubefacients commonly employed ? The 
seeds of the Sinapit alba and S nigra, distinguished as vihite and 
black muelard; Cayenne Pepper; Oil of Turpentine; Burgunily 
Pilch, which is the product of the Ahle» Communie, growing in the 
north of Europe ; Semloc/c Pilch, or Pix Camnkmin, very analogous 
to the Burgundy Pitch; and Ai^ua Ammrmiee, which is much used 
in combination with sweet oil ns tuhitUe linimfiil. 


WJiat are EacharoUcs? They arc substances wliii'Ji destroy the 
life of tlio part to which they are apjilied, and prnduce sloujrbing. 
They operate by chemical agency, or by influencing llio vitality of 
tl'" ■"■»ct]y. 


What BubstftDces aro used for this purpose 7 The Aduai caulery ; 
Moxa; Potatta, or common cauUic; NUratt of Silver, or Lunar 
eauttic; Arteniout Acid, or the while oxide; Sulp?uUe of Copper; 
Chloride of Mercury, or Corrotive tublimate; Burnt Alum; and the 
Mineral Aeidi. 


What are Dcmnlcenta? They are bland Bubstanees vhich form 
a viscid Bolution with water. 

How do demnloents act? When applied to an inflamed sur&ce, 
they protect it against irritating matters. Mixed with acrid Bal>- 
Btances, thej blunt their aorimonj, which are thereby rendered less 
irritating to parts with which they come in contact. 

What medicines are used as demulcents ? fTutn Arabic, the pro- 
duct of several species of the Acncia; Tragaeanth; Slippery Elm 
Bark, or the inner bark of the Ulmii»/alva; Flaxseed, or the seeds 
of the Linum utiialiuimHm ; Liquorice Root, or the root of the 
G/yryrrhiza glahra; Icdand Most, or Lichen Iilandicut; Iruh Mou, 
or Carrageen; Sago, the product of the SagutRumphU; Tapioca, 
the product of the Jatropha Munikot of tropical America; ArroK- 
Root, the product of the Maranta arundinacea of the West Indies; 
and the Barley, called commonly pearl barley, or hardeum palatum. 


What are Emollients f They are Bnbstanceg which retain moisture, 
and form a soft mass, without irritating properties. 


What are Dilnentsf They are liquids which dilute the contents 
of the stomach and bowels, GU the bloodvessels, and increase and 
dilute the secretioDS. Water is the great diluent, to which addi- 
tions are made to give it flavor. 



Ekoot. U.S. 

From what is Ergot obuuned? It is a prpduct of the Stoale 
cereah, or common rye. 

Wbat are itfi propertie* and vta? It yields ila virtues to watw 
and alcoliol. Its acUve principle is ergotiii. U exhibiu a strong 
tendency to the uterus, and operates with energy upon ita contractile 
property ; and reduces the frequency of the pulse. Bread made 
from rye contaminated with it, and long used will, it is supposed, 
produce dry gangrene, typhus fever, diseases of the nervous system, 

It IB adapted to lingering cases of labor, where the os uteri is 
dilated, the oxtcruul portii relaxed, and no mecbiuiical impediment 
exists; the delay being ascribablo solely to a want of energy in the 

Duit of the powder, 10 to 20 grains; of the in/agion, .^j, matlu 
irith^j of the ergot to f^iv of water, to be repeated every 'l\i minuttu 
until its peculiar offoots are produced, 

Nux Vomica. U. S. 
From wbat is the Nax Vomica obbuned 7 It is the sood of the 

Strffchnoe NiiX Vomica, a tree growing in the East Indies. The 
active ingredients are itiychnia and brucia. 

What are its pn^ierlia and uses ? In very small doses, it is tonic, 
and operates upon the secretions. In larger doses, so as to produce 
a decided effect, its action is chiefly directed U> the nerves of motion, 
producing a tendency to permanent, involuntary, muscular contrac- 
tion. It is sometimes used in paralytic affections, and its action 
appears to be particularly directed to the parts affected. It has 
also been recommeuded as an anlipcri'otlic; supposed by some to 
possess more permanency of action than quinine in the cure of inter- 
mittculs. Dom of the powiler, 5 grains ; of the akvliolic r.ctract, from 
i to 2 grains; of slri/r/i»ia, from ,'jth to ^tb of a grain. 

Arsenic, ArKnitiim. U- S. 
What arc the pmperl in and h«s of Arsenicum Acid ? Internally, 


it IB altenlire, febrifuge, and tonic, and pecnliarlj Applicable in 
diEeues of a periodical character. The effsote should be carefully 
noted, and vhen there is any disposition to oedema prodnced, espe< 
cially of the face and eyeUds, or a feeling of stiffness, tenderness of 
the mouth, prickling in the eyelids, &c., it should be discontinued 
immediately. It has been need in soirrbaB, anomalous ulcers, inter- 
mittent fever, diBesses of the bonce, uid in cutaneons discasea. It 
is an ingredient in nearly all empirical, external remedies for cancer. 
DoK -^th of a grain in pill, and taken 3 times s day ; of Fotnta^t 
lolutUM, 10 dropB, 2 or 3 times a day. 

MSBCnaY, E^rargyruin. U- S. 
What are the preparations of Mereurt/ that are used medicinally, 
and theirdosesBsa^terafitsetoritd^ij^ufi? Mercurial Oinlment,or 
Vngventum Bydrargtfri; Mercurial Plailer, or Empliulrum Hj/drar' 
gyri; Mercurial I'illj, or Pilu/ee JIgdrargyri, commonly called Uue 
pm$. Z)o*«, I pill 8 times adayaBa>i(i/n^iN^(e;levery night, or every 
other night as alfcrafive. The officinal i)i|] neighs 3 grains, and 
contains 1 grain of mercury ; Mercury \cilh chalk, or Hydrargyrum 
eum Cretd, dose 5 to 20 grains twice daily; Black Oxide of Mcr- 
emy, or Ifydrargyri Oxidum Nigrum, dose 1 to 3 graina 2 or 3 
times a day ; Red Oxide of Mercury, or Ilydrargyri Oxidam Ru- 
brurti, commonly called rtd precipitate, used externally as an eicha- 
rotic and ttinvulanl — tho officinal ointment called Unguenlum 
Bydrargyri Oxidi Rubri; Mild Chloride of Mercury, or Ifydrar- 
gyri Chloridum Mile, commoBly called cahmel, dose from J a grain 
to 1 grain 3 times daily j Corrosive Chifyride of Mercury, Ilydrar- 
gyri Chloridum Corrotivum, commonly called corrosive tuhlimate, 
doee from j^th to |th of a grain 3 or 4 times a day ; YdloK Sulphate 
of Mercury, or Ilydrargyri Sulpka» Flavus, commonly called Tur- 
peth mineral, doae, aa an alterative, from i a grain to 1 grain, and 
from 2 to 5 grains ns an emetic — seldom used — sometimes aa an 
rrrhine, dilated with five parts of starch ; Ammoniakd Mercury, or 
Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum, commonly called v>kite precipitate, 
used csternally; Nitrate of Mercury, used only as an ointment, 
called the Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury, or Unguenlum Ilydrar- 
gyri M'tratit, commonly called citrine ointment; Red iiulphuret of 


Mereury, llydrur^ri HiJphvrttam. Ruhram, eommonly called ct'i*- 
no&ir, tiBcd only for fumigation ; BUtek SuljJtaret of Mercury, or 
Sydrargi/ri fiiiJphurtium Nigrum, formerlj colled Elhiops mineral, 
aaieeiy ever used at present. 

loPJKE. U. S- 

Wbat aia the jimpertia and uea of Iodine ? It operates &a b 
general cscitant, but particoloily of the gliuidDlar and nbeorbent 

If Jong continued, or given in very large doKep, it gives rise to 
denmgetiicnt of the nervous fyslcm, restless aees, palpitation, n sense 
of bamiog ftlong the gnllet, exoesdve thirst, aonte pun in the Bto> 
mach, violent crumps, mpid and great emaciation, and freqacat 
puUc. The condition of tlie system in which any of these poieonoua 
effects are exhibited ifl called iodimi. It U used in glandular en- 
largements aud morbid growths. Dote ] to } of a grain 3 tjmcs h 
day. It is naver uaed in powder, but dissolved in alcohol or a 
watery solution of the iodide of potassium. Do$e of the officinal 
tinrturc, 10 to 20 drops. 

The 7"/;./p <./ [htnttlum is officinal. Ik.f, 1 to 2 grains. Lvff'J't 
SoJulion is iodine 3j, iodide of potassium ^ij, and water jvii. Dote, 
6 drops, repeated. Iodine ointment, 3j of lord and 3j of iodine. 
Also iodine gr. t, bydriod. potasses 9J) ung. bydrarg. Jj, rubbed 
well together. 


What arc Antacids? Substances capable of combining with and 
neutralizing acids. 

What substances arc used as ontacids ? The carbonates o/j>o(atta 
and s'lilu, nmnwnia, lime, and Tiuii/iicsia. 


What arc Anthelmintics? Substances which operate on worms 
in the alimentary canalj and render them easy of expulsion. 


PiNKKOOT, Spf^elia. V. 8, 
From wbat is Pinkroot obtained ? It is the root of the Spig<iia 
Marilandiea, tad is the Ou)j part of the plant which is officinal. 

What are its propenia and uiaf It is considered to be one of 


the most powerful of the antiielmictics. In OTer-do»C3, it determines 
to tLe bmn, giving rise to vertigo, dimnesa of vision, Epasms, &c. 
Doie of the pcwilar for a cbild from 2 to 4 years old, 10 to 20 grains, 
repeated twice a day, and followed by a cutiiartio; Eometimea it is 
combined witli calomel; of the iiifution, for a clild, f 393 to f Jj, 3 
or 4 times a day, made with .^3S of the root to Oj of water; often 
given with Ssa of ECtma added, in the same dose. 

Pride or Chika, Axdarach. V. S. 

What are tho pro])erlies of the bark of the root of the Mdia 

Axedarai'h, or Pride of China? Used io i^ecoclion, made by boiling 

Oij of water with siv of the fresh root to Oj. Buse for a child, ^sa 

every 2 or 3 houre, and followed by a cathartic. 

W0KM8EED, Chenopodium. U. S. 

From what is Wormsrcil obtained? They are the seeds of tho 
Chenopodium AnlMminl-icum. 

What is the (Zose? In mibtlancf, bruised, 9j to 9ij for a chllJ ; 
of the volatile oil, from 4 to 8 drojis for a phild, repealed twice a day. 

What arc tbcjii'';^5cr'/cs and H.(ft?of Cowoagk ? 'flie Kpiculic are 
vermifuge, and act mechanically on tho worm. Doie of the eUe- 
tuary for an adult, |s8; for a child 3 or 4 years old, 5j. 

What is the doae of the oil of turpentine as an anthelmintic ? For 
an adult, from f 3ss to f JiJ, or oven more, followed with castor oil; 
for children, in proportion. 

What is the dote of Stannum, or Titi, as an anthelmintic? 
From gj to 3j. 

What are the properties of Pomegranate Hark 1 The baric of 
the root is powerfully anthelnuulic; used in tho expulsion of to}>e- 
tcorm. Used in decnciiim (gij in Oij of water boiled to Oj), one- 
third to be taken every half hour. 







Of each. 


Libra vel libne. 

A pound or pounds. 

Uncia rel undo. 

An oum» or ounce*. 


A drachm or drochma. 

Scnipulm vel «crupoIi. 

A «cruplo or scniplaa. 

Octariui vel octarii. 

A pint or pinM. 


A fluidounce or fluidoimces 

Fluidrachma vel flaidrachmtB. 



CfaattuJa vel cbarlulB. 

A small paper or paperi. 


Cochleai ret cochleacift 



An eyewater. 


Congiiu vel coDgii. 

A gallon or galloii-L 


A decoction. 






A gargle. 


Granum vel grana. 


Guua vel guiue. 

A drop or dropL 



A draught. 



An infusion. 









A mijtli>re. 


PLIula vol pilulte. 

A pill or pills. 


Pulvii Tel pulverei. 

A powder or powders. 


Quanlum lufficit. 

A ■ufEcienl quBDiiiy. 



Write. ■ 




S. Antimonii et Potaian Tftrtratis 

gr. i- 
Pulveri* Ipecacaanb» 9L 
Fiat pulvis. 
S. To be taken in a wineglaasful of 
sweetened water. 
An .active emetio. 
B. Bydnipn ChUxndi Mitis, 
Pulveria Jalapee^ ftft gr. z. 
S. To be taken in •]rmp or molaases. 
An excellent catbartio in tbe com* 
mencement of bilious feyers, 
and in bepatic congestion. 
S. Pnlveris Jalapas gr. x. 
PbtassaB Bitartratis 5ii« 
S. To be taken in sjrmp or molasses. 
A bydragogae cathartic, used in 
dropsy and scrofulous inflam- 
mation of tbe joints. 
K* Sulphuris 31. 

PotasssB Bitartratis ^ii. 
S. To be taken in syrup or molasses. 
A laxative, used in piles and cuta- 
neous diseases. 
B* Pulveris Rbei gr. x. 
MagnesicB ^ss. 
Fiat pulvis. 
S. To be taken in syrup or molasses. 
A laxative and antacid, used in 
diarrhcea, dyspepsia, &c. 
JL* Pulveris Scillse gr. xii. 
PotassoB Nitratis ^i. 
Fiat pulvis, in cliartulas sex divi- 
dend us. 
S. One to be taken twice or three 
times a day in syrup or mo- 
A diuretic, employed in dropsy. 
£• PotassoB Nitratis ^i. 

Antimonii et Potassae Tartratis 
gr. i. 

Hydrargyri Cblorid. Mitis, gr. ti. 
Fiat pulvis, in cbartn|as sex dlTi- 
S. One to be taken every two boon 
in symp or molasses. 
A refrigerant, diaphoretic, and al- 
terative, used in bilioiis ibvert; 
nsnally called nUrouM jntwdm, 
K* Pulveris Guaiaoi ResinsB^ 
PotasssB Nitratis, U ^i. 
Pdlveris Ipecac, gr. iiL 
Opii gr. ii. 

-Fiat pulvis, in cbartalai mx divi* 
S. One to be taken every tbr«e houn 
in syrup or molasses. 
A stimulant diaphoretio, used io 
rheumatism and gout after taf* 
ficient depletion. 
K* Ferri Subcarbonatis, 
Pulveris Columbes, 
Pulveris Zingiberis, U ^L 
Fiat pulvis, in chartulas sex divi- 
S. One to be taken three times a day 
in syrup or molasses. 
A tonio, used in dyspepsia and 
general debility. 


R. Pulveris Aloes, 

Pulveris Rhei, aa ^ss. 
Saponis ^i. 

Misce, et cum aqua fiat massa in 
pilulas viginti dividenda. 
S. Two or three to be taken daily, at 
bedtime, or before a meal. 
An excellent laxative in habitual 
R. MassoD Pilularum Hydrargyri, 
Pulveris Aloes, 
Pulveris Rhei, &a ^i* 
Misce, et cum aqua fiat massa in 
pilulas viginti dividenda. 
S. Three to be taken at bedtime. 


An BlleratiTe and Inxalive, asarnl 
in conaiipBtiDn with deranged 
or deflcient bepalic ucratioiL 
B. FiilTerit AlcHw, 

Exlracti Quauiie, U gL 

Oiei Anisi %x. 

Gfrupi q. >. 

Miic0, e( flat maua in pilolai ici' 
ginW dividenda. 
S. Two to ba taken ODoe, twice, or 
three timet a daj. 

A laxalive, ionic, and cnrmiaaliTe, 
oMful in dytpep^a. 
B.. PulT. Rhei, 

Sapa Alba, 


AiMfisiida, U gu. 

Miace, el ^t maua in pilnlta tri- 
ginia divideada. 
S. One or (wo lo be taken after each 

Dwrul in pTOmOiing digeition, and 

relieving pain and uaeaiineis 

B. PnlTeriiScillngi. 

Hydnunrri Qiloridi Milia gr. x. 

PulTeria Acacise, 

Sjnapi, U q. I. 

Miace, et tiat maua in pilules 
deeetn diridenda. 
8. One to be taken two oi three Umei 

A diareiia and alieratiTe, moch 
uaed in dropsy, etpecially when 
eamplicaied with organio vis- 
ceral disease. 
B. Pelveria Opii gr. iv. 

PoUeri* IpecacoanljK gr. xvii. 

Pulierii Acacia, 

Syrnpi, U q. «. 

Misce, et fiat masaa in pilalai duo- 
deeim dividenda. 
S. One lo be taken after each si 

An anodyne diaphoretic, use. 
dysentery and diarrhcea after 
the use of laxative*. 
B. Pulveri. Opii, 

Pulveris IpecacDanfae. ii gr. iii. 

Hydiaigyri Cblotidi Mitii gr. iv. 

Pulveris Acaeiie, 


Misce, et fiat massa in pilulas trei 
S. One or more to be taken at bed- 

time, or according to eimim- 

An anodyne, diaphoretic, end al- 
terative, very useful in diarrh(B>, 
dysentery, typhoid pneumonia, 
and various other disease*. 
. Plambi Acelatis in pulvarem triti 
gr. liL 

Pnlveri* Opii gr. L 

Pulv. Acacin, 

Synipi, U q. s. 

Ct Bet masie in pilutu tex divi- 

S. One every two, three, or four hoars. 

An aitringenl much eoiployed in 

biemopiysis and uterine hemor- 

Syrapi rji. 

Tt-re simul, et effunde. 
AquEB Acidi Carbonici fSiv. 
Fiat hauslua, 
S. To be taken at a dnaKht,the raix- 
ture being well shaken. 
An agreeable mode of adminjuer* 
ing mefpeiiB. 
R. Mann»3i. 

Fanicnli contusi Si. 
Aquce bullienlls fjiv. 
Fiat infusum et cola ; dein ndjiue, 
Magnesia Caibonali* X'i- 
S. One-ihird to be taken every three 
or four hours till it operates, the 
mixture being sheken. 
An eicelleni carminative and mild 
laxative, in Salulence aitd pain 
in the bowels. 
B. Olei Ricini r^l. 
Pulveris Aoii^ia, 
5a<vbari, ii ^d. 
AquGB He nibs Piperita fjiii. 

uncia dimidia aqun menihs 
terej dein oleum adjice, et con- 
lere; denique aqunm leliquam 
paulalim iafunde, et omnia 

S. To be taken at a draught, the mix- 
lure being well shaken. 
B. Olei Ricini fji. 
Titellum ovi unina. 



Tere simul, et adde, 

Syrupi f^ss. 

AqusB MenthaB PiperitsB f Jii 

Ft. haast. 
S. To be taken at a draught, the mix- 
tnie being well shaken. 

This and the preceding Ibrmala 
afford conTenient modes of ad- 
ministering castor oil, when the 
stomach is irritable. Any other 
fixed oil may be giren in the 
same way. 
St. Olei Ricini f^'m. 

Tinctures Opii IIV^xxz. 

PuIt. AcacisB, 

8aochari, U ^ij. 

AqusB MenthsB Viridis f^iT. 

Acaciam et saocharum cum palulo 
aquse menthsB tere; dein oleum 
adjice, et iterum tere; denique 
aquam reliquam paulatim in* 
funde, et omnia misce. 
S. A tablespoonful to be taken every 
hour or two hours till it ope- 
rates, the mixture being each 
time well shaken. 

Used as a gentle laxatire in dysen- 
tery and diarrhoea. It is usually 
known by the name of oUaginow 

Jji, Elaterii gr. i. 

Spiritus ^theris Nitrici f Jij. 

Tinctures Scillse, 

Oxymellis Colchici, && f^ss. 

Syrupi f^i. 

Ft. Mist. 
S. A teaspoonful to be taken three 
or four times a day in a little 

Diuretic, used in Ferriar dropsy. 

Jji. Ck>paibeB, 

Spiritus LavandulsB Com p., && 

Mucilaginis Acacios f ^ss. 
Syrupi f Jiii. 

Simul tere ; dein paulatim affunde, 
AqusB f |[iT. 
S. A tablespoonful to be taken four 

times a day, or more frequently. 
Given in chronic catarrhs, and 

ohronio nephritic affections. The 

dose most be larger in gonor- 


Nadral Miztun. 

R. Acidi Citrici fgii. 
Olei Limonis tT\,i. 
Simul tere, et adde, 
Aquse fjir. 
Liqua, et adde. 
Potasses Carbonatis q. s. ad sato- 

Misoe et per linctum oola. 
B. Snoci Limonis recentis f|[iT. 
Potasses Carbonatis q. t. ad sato- 

Misce et cola. 
S. A tablespoonful to be given with 
an equal quantity of water every 
hour or two hours. 
An excellent diaphoretic in fever. 

Efferve$cing Draught, 

R. PocasssB Carbonatis ^ii. 
AquoB f ^iv. 

R. PbtasssB Bicarbooatis ^iij. 
Aquse f Jiv. 
S. Add a tablespoonful of the solution 
to the same quantity of lemon 
or lime juice, previously mixed 
with a tablespoonful of water ; 
and give the mixture, in a state 
of effervescence, every hour or 
two hours. 
An excellent diaphoretic and anti- 
emetic in fever, with nausea or 

Brown Mixture. 

R. Pulv. Extract Glycyrrhizap, 
Pulv. AcacisB, &A 7ii. 
Aqus fervent is f Jiv. 
Liqua, et adde, 
Vini antimonii f^ii. 
TinctursB Opii n\,xx. 
Ft. Mist 
S. A tablespoonful to be taken occa- 
Expectorant, demulcent, and ano- 
dyne, useful in catarrhal affec- 
R. Antimonii et Potassas Tartratis 



SfTupi Sdlln, 

Liqnoris M(»pbiB SalphmtU, U 

Pulveiii Acmcin JiL 

AqoEB nuvislii fji*. 
Ft. Mitt. 
8. A tablMpaonTiil lo be taken OOO' 

An eipectonot and aiMdrnaMagb 

K. Acidi Nicrod f^L 
Tinctnin Opii go. j\. 
Aqnte CunpborB f JtuL 
S. One^oanh to be takeo ererj thiee 

or foot boon. 
Hope's mixture, naed in djaenlery, 

dtarrhcBa, and ebolen. 
B. CamptianB JL 
MynbcB ^u. 
PuIt. Acacias 
Seccbari, U jiL 
Aqnw f 3»'' 
Campboram cam alcobolii paoluki 

ia pnlTecem tore; t' 

mTTfba, acacia, at noc 

tere; denique oom aqua paula- 

A DOnTeoient rorm Ibt adnuQi^ 
lering campbor, 
B. CrBtaprepaiataiSiv. 

MaMB FiL HTdraii p. riiL 
Tioctune Opii gu. viiL 
FnlTeiii Acacia, 

Aqua CiDnamomi, 

Aqim, U f 3. 

Soiida limut Ure, dein liqnida paa- 

Jaiim inter terendum adjioe, et 

omnia miice. 
A leaipoonrul to be taken for a 

doie, the mixture being well 

An BiKBcid and alleraliire Tniitnie, 
veil adapted to inlkndle diar. 
rhma with while ilooli, Tlie 
IB Tor a child a 

B- PnlTCrii Eino giL 

Aqun bullientJB fjri. 

Fiat infuium et cola; dein Mcan- 
dura aitem admiice. 
K. Crela pneparata Siii. 


Bpiritui LavaadalB omnpoaiti 


Palrerii Acaoia, 
Sacchari, U 311. 
8l a tableapoonrul lo be taken foi a 
dOH, ibe mlztnie being well 

Aatringent and antacid, tuefol in 

■ Magneiiai Sulpfaatia Jj. 
Bjiupi Limonia f^i. 
Aqua Acidi Carbmiici f^Ti. 

To be taken at a dnaght. 

An agreeable mode of adrainlitei- 

iog mlphate of magneria. 
. Potaaiffi Nilnlit zi. 
Aotimonii el Poiatia Tatttati* 

gt. i. 
Aqua fluiialii t^'iv. 

A tableipoonful (o be taksa eTsijr 

two boon. 
A refrigerant d 

year or two old, a 
repealed foor or lij 
iwenijr-lbat boon. 

A taUeipaonful la be taken everf 

Uieful in fever*, 
t, Quinin Sulphatiigr, xii. 

Acidi Suiphurici Aromalici ll\,xx. 

Syrapi r3». 

Aqua Mentha PiperiMf Ji. 

S. A tpaspoonful to be taken aveif 
bour or two bouri. 
A good mode of adminiateriag lul- 
pbate of quinia ■□ •olulioD. 


Sive a l«ncu[>rul STerf ihiM at 

four lioura lill ii openil«. 
An ricellent pUT^live in febrile 

,. fsn. 

. Eiglrl drops four limps b daylonn 
inTMl a jeac otd, in lioopinE- 
«.u^l,. (Bufiland) 

:. An, fiEnicuii rs'"- 


Exi, liyoKynm, gr, iij. 

E,t,,p. .»!.:,<. r jju. 

A icaapmnlul every two houn lo 

an inranl from *U ■□ iwelTa 

''"'"'' ""("ij'-) 

B,. Exl. bellndonniB f^r. j. 

Af. detiill. 3j. 
S. To iDlknla live draps Ibar timei a 
day, in booping eough. 

H. MagncjiiB 9i. 

TincL r<£ikl. ft. Ix. 

AquiE roni. Igj. 

M. Tweniy drops loa child from two 

wceki ID one nwnib, in colic; iC 

not relitfred in liniran bour.ten 

drops more — iucreaaing ibe rjota 

froquetiily, if it opoialei loo 

a. Mngn. carb. S«>. 

An cxcellenl remcd/ in Jytpvptis 

Willi contllpalion and Oalulence. 

Syrup. Blih.flJ. 

Spigeli^ |m. 

M. Sit miilura. 

S,-.i.iaf gn. 

S. A tnnpoHifal tvttj hoar Ibr m> 


infiinl of £11 Rionthi, irDubled 

Fonieoli giL 

Willi Boidiijf of iha iiMnaeh. 

Aqua bnllienlii (K. 


Mncern per boram in tbis IcTiler 

E. A-iuto fosniculi 3>-ij. 

A wlneglasiful lo be given to a 

Byrupi fgj. 

cbilil from (wo lo four year« old, 

tbree or four limea a day. 


A powerful am hcl mimic. 

B.PotBBHB bicarb. TM. 
At,, dulill. f 3i«. 

PulveriiCinelionB. Bubna.^i. Sulpbnrici Aroraalici fji. 

AqillE Oi. 

S. Ten to forly drop* daily, in infan- 

ill lie Bgilnna. 

A wineglaeeful of Iho clear liquid 

<o be taken for a doe. 

fi. CretngT. iij. 

PeniTinii bark in eoU intlirion. 

Moicli. gr. 99. 

EiL HjfoicyBm. gr. i. 

Croci fir. 1. 

Fi. mil». ilanl. ibI. doa. No. iv. 

S. Onac' 

ir for Bi 

S- Xfosclii gr, vj. 

AmmoM. MSfiuicarh. gr. ii 
Suecliari albi Xiij. 
Misce lerendo, ei adde, 
Aq. flor.simbuci Jijti. 
M. Sit miilura. 


B- Pol'' IpecMDaalM, 
CakKiiehuwa. U gr. X. 
SuAar. alU gt. zx. 
S. One ortwoBiaiiuaTsrrisDoiidca' 
thiid baiiT,u an espaoiomit ' 
broacbial Itriouioa. 

(OsMM oad JfoMudL) 
B. Deooet. pirirg. Mm«s. fgiijtfc 
OzfUMl. nillB f gij. 
Villi ip«au. f ^j. 
Andm. tan. gr. j. 
S. Ten iniiiinii lo b Ksrnple, u 

R. MiM. Kui* f|i«. 

Aqua pnm f JijJHt 

Synipi f Jas. H. 

8. A teaapoonrul eveiT two or Aree 

boon, fiw an infiuit fhNB (bar to 

■ii Qumthi (rid. 


loroi. in ■. q. mq. ftrvtd. per i bor. 

coUtoT riiv. 

Ammoaiv brdmohL zn. 

Srrnp. AitbBB f |j. 

8> A UMpOOnTal everr (wo honrt to 

an iD&Dt. ( ITcikU.) 

B- Polaa. Oit. 3J. 

Vin. iDtiin. r^u. 

AqoM aneibi 'H- 

OxjmeL Killn r ju. 

Ew. ilyoyirh. gj". M. 

8l One or iwo uatpoonruli 

inftnt of twelve or e 

mODihi, in cannhBl reri 

B- PqIt- ipecac, gr. iij. 

Megaes. carb.U 51*. 
SMiduri albi Si- M. 
Ft. pulvii divid. in xij nqmlei 

B. A powder ewty 

booping congh. ( Valgtr.) 

Suoc glycyrrb. Jiij. 
PiiIt. g. Bcacie^j. 
Aiiuas feiTeoL fSvj. 


oongh. (2>ntiKi.) 

I. EmaUio amrgd. J it. 
8^p. nmpL 3j> 
Gum. tragacanth, gr. vL M. 
To be given b; the teatpoooraL 

,. Hrdr. c. creta 3J. 
PuIt. ipecac comp. ^ij- 
MattD. carb. gia. 
T«o bene liniaL 

Four (o liz grains, ai a aedatiTe Tor 
inlanu. (C<^land,') 

Tinot. (hebaic gt sx vet xis. 

01. ei 


Soochar, alb. Zij. 
Aq.fcnLr3ij: M. 
A teaipoooful vtaij two, three, or 
fimr boura. (Dtttttt.) 

EzTiaa» ArrucATiowa. 
. Antim. lart. gj. 

Aq. ferT. f 3j. 

Tinct. eantharid. fj]. 

Ad embrocaiioD in taoopin^coagh. 
. 01. nlir. rjij. 

01. anccin., 

01. caryoph, Ul ^n. 

An embrocBlion ia booping-coogh. 
. Sulpb. cupri 31]. 

Pulv. cinchon. JM. 


To be applied twice a day to a 
gaogreoe of the cheek. 

(_Dr. CoaUt.) 

. Polaum inlphDr. Jij- 
Aqoes Bj. 

Tfaig bath diffen from the ani- 
flcial Bar^e water, iupntaining 
half theqaBnlilyof i^ibaret of 

Used in paoni. IH. dn Enfarti.) 
. Sulpb. sublim., 
Acetalii plumU, Su ^j. 
Zioci ealpb. ^m. 
Uaed in paora. (KtUla Udtarn.) 




BL. Synip. papav. f zij. 

Decoct, amyli fj viij. 
S. In diarrbcBa of infants. 

H. Cap. papav. No. j. 

Decoc. lini Ibiij. 

(K de la Matem.) 
B. Cap. papav. 3!]. 

Aquae nj. (£11 det Enfans.) 

E. Amyli ^j. 

AqutB nij. (H. des Enfans.) 

R. Flor. anthemidis ^ij. 

AquGB nj. 
S. Ft. enema. For infantile colio. 


B. Pulv. rad. jalap, gr. xziv. 
Calomelanos gr. iv. 
Sacchari alb. ^ij. M. 
Ft pulvis divid. in zij partes 
S. A teaspoonful twice a day for a 
six months' infant, in obstruction 
of the bowels. ( Wtndt.) 

B* Calomelanos gr. iij. 
Pulv. rhei, 

Oleo-sacch. foenio., ft& 9 j. 
Ft. pulvis. 
S. One-third of the above quantity is 
a dose for an infaiit, as a laxa- 
tive. {Fischer.) 
B» 01. ricini f ^iij — iv. 
Pulv. acaciaB q. s. 
Aq. foBnic. f Jij. 
Mannae ^ss. 
Fiat emulsio. 
S. A dessertspoonful, repeated every 
hour till it operates. (Btrtndi.) 

B* 01. ricini f^ss. 

Syrup, rosaa f Jss. 

Vitel ovi un. 

Tinct. sennfB f^iss. 
S. One or two spoonfuls for an infant. 
B< MannsB Jss. 

Emi^Up arab. f Jss. 

Syrupr violsB f^ij. 

Bene admisce, et adde, 

Aquae menth. fjj. M. 
S. From f 3J to f Jij every third hour, 
until an effect is produced. 

{EvansoH and Mamuell,) 
B* lolUsi senne Jj. 

Aquae roenthae ^ss. 
Magnesiae 9j* 
Mannae ^ii. 
TincL rbei ^j. 
Syrup, rosae gij. M. 
S. From 3J to Tjj every third hoar. 
(Evanstm and MaunstlL) 

B* Mag. calcin. ^ss. 

Pulv. rbei gr. vj. 

Sacchar. albi ^j. 

01. menth. gt. vj. 

Aquss f Jiss. 
S. A dessertspoonful every two hoars. 

{K d^Jnur.) 


B* Vini antim. f Jss. 
Syrup, althaeae f ^j. 

S. A teaspoonful every quarter of an 
hour to a child three or four 
months old. ( Wtndt.) 

B* Pulv. ipecac, gr. xij. 

Syrup, simpl. f Jj. 
S. A teaspoonful every quarter of an 

hour to an infant fiv« or six 

months old. 

B* Vin. antim. ^ss. 

Oxymel. scillae f^ij. 
S. A teaspoonful for an infant at the 
breast. {FranktL) 

B. Aquae fjj. 

Vini ipecac, f Jss. 
Syrupi fjss. 
S. One or two drachms fVequently, 
till vomiting ensues. 

(Evanson and MaunstU.) 

Tomes Avn Stixulahts. 

B. Ferri tart. 3J. 

Syrnp. simpl. q.s. 

M. Ft. bol., No. iij. 
S. As a tonic for debilitated infants. 

(H, det En/ant.) 

B> Cinchonas Jss. 
Aquae Ibj. M. 
S. To be used as an enema when 
the stomach rejects cinchona. 

(H. det Enfans.) 

B* Aquae destillat. f^i^s. 
Quinae disulph. gr. ij. 
Acid, sulpb. aromat. gtt. xvj. 
Syrupi caryoph. f Jss. M. 


S. From one to two dnchtns tbrioe 
B day. {Evatimntnd MmmMll) 
B. Sal. mnrlis gr. ij. 
Acid, aulph. gt. z. 
Sacchari aJbi Tj. 
Aqnm font. M. 
DoM, 3} in cbroniii Maget of cboleia 
inlknluni. (Chapmaii) 

WiHB Wnr. 
B. Lactii T>c. On.|j«l3ii. 
B. Boil the milk, tban add tha win*. 


L AinjoATiina. 

B. tJngiMiit. cetaon 3j. 

Oxydi zJDoi, 

Pulr. Ijrcopodii, U 9>i. 
S. nwfulinolceiatioaorthsaralidi. 

B- Croci satiT. Jj. 

Aqpa fnveni. JiT. 

S. Anodyne oollyrium. To be omi] 
when (beta it great pain. 


B. Ftore* aathemidii, 
AceL cotnmaD., U Jit. 
A conunm Tanliive. 

(fi. At A/imt.) 

B- Cataplaiin. emol. S>i}. 

Ung-towDo^Jj. M. 

tJiefol to basien the ■□ppomtlon 
of a phlegmononi tumor. 
B. Pulv. liEi. q. g. 

Secoc rad. alih. q. a. M. 

An email ieni calnplaun. 
B. Catsplaim. emol. |iT. 

ForiniE sinap. ^ir. M. 

tJaed al a lavuliive. 

{H. da Ell/ant.-} 


B> 8p. ammon. arom. f Jia. 

Syrup, altbss. 
AquK flBDtculi r^j. M. 
S. A iBBspoonful roi an inftnt sTcry 
hour. iFnaihi) 


B. Cklomelanoi p. itj. 
Amyli ^u. 
Saccb. albi pit. M. 
Ft. pulTii dirid. in xii partei 

S. One Ibrice a day in iorBnlile ayphi- 
li«. CHWtt.) 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. (7.8:, ImuL, Ed., Dot. 
d. OnTtce*. Dncbmi. Scroplei. Gi 

9 1 = gr. ao 


Gallon. Pint!. Fluidonncaa. Fluidiacbmi. Minimi. Cubic Inchci. 

Cong. 1 = g EX 138 =, 1024 _ 61440 = 231 

1= IG — 198 a 7680 s S8.875 

f| I B 8 =* 4S0 ■> I.8U4T 

r;? I = m, 60 =. .2356 



White biKuit 21v, waXar (Xt, boil down one half, alraln, evaponte lo O], 
Bild white sugar tbj, rod wiae §iv, cinnamon ctsMt 3J, In debililr of tba 
digeitive organs. 

hartshor\ jelly. 

Hnrtsbom liiavitifs 3J. wateT Oir, boil to Oij, Uraia; warm again with 
orange juioo gj, while imtai 3'ji >l>"ty 3". 


HeiTlihcirn ahavings Jvili, water Oiv. boil, etraio, add while wine and lugar, 
each Jin, or, if n very clear jolly is rerjuired, eyrup of vinegar ^vi; clarify 
with the white of iwo egg9, and Birain, flavoiing with cinnamon or lemoD 

SoaV meo in water Rn an hoiir. pour it oS', adding more, boil till the sago 
is trauiparenc, ibeo add wine and aueai. 

Soak it in water fbt nine hours, then boil il gently til] quite clear, and aild 
lemon.juice and peel, wine, sugar, and ciniiainon. 

Rice, sago, pearl barley, bartahorn shavings Rad. Eriugii, each Jj, bcnl in 
Dliij of water lo Ibj, and strain; nutritive, dissolved in broth, wine, or milk. 

flweel almonds, blanched, §i, white sugar ^vj, water ^iv. Bub into an 
emulsion, strain, and add melted barlshom jell/ ^viii, orange flower water Jj, 
essence of lemon gll. iij. 

Ground jalap Jii, water Oxii, calcined magnesia ^iii, boil to a jelty j not 
Bubjecl to grow mouldy. 

Rice three ipoanfulg; boil in two pints of water to one, strain ; add sweet 
almonds No. x,, bitter almonds No, v., make an emulsion with sugar, a lillla 
cinnamon or orange.Qower water, and drink it wncm in the morning. 


Isinglass Jii, water two pints, boll lo one, strain, and add milk one pint, 
while sugar candy Ji. Nutritive. 


Cut a cbickcn into small pieces, bruise the bones, and pul the whole inio 

a ilono jar with ■ cover that will make it water tiglii. Set tbe jar in a large 


ketlte of boiling walrr, and keep it baiting Ibr three boan. Then itiain off 
Iba liquid, and Haaon it alightly wiih wli, pepper, and macej or with loaf 
■iigur and lemon-jaice, according to tbe condition or ihe palienl for wboni it 
i« intended. 

Mix B qauter of a pound of rice, picked and waahei!, with Ibu of loar 
■Dgar, and jun ranicienl watei to cover iL Boil till it becomei a glulinoui 
man) then ilimin and teaxon with whaiever may be thought propei. 

le-third of a ail penny 
jhl brown. Then put 
it into the water, place il on hot coali in a cofered pan, and boil ii |ientlj,till 
joo find, by polting Kme in a ipoon lo coot, iliat the liqaid baa become a 
jelljr. Strain ifaroogb a cloth, and tet away for uae. When il ii to be nlien, 
warm a teacupful, aweelen il with augar, and add a little grated lemon-peel. 

Mil three Bbleapooarula of the ben Beimudn Brrownnt in a leacDpfuI of 
water till quite imoolb; coTcr it, and let it atanJ a quarter or an hour. Put 
tbe yellow peel of a lemon into a pint of water, and boll to one-half. Then 
lake out the lemonpeel, and pour in the ditaolved arrowroot, while tbe water 
il aiill boiling ; add aufficieni while angar to aweeten it well, and let il boil 
together fot five oi fix minutei. It may be iweetened, if ihoughl necesaary, 
wiih two teupoonfula of wine and some grated nutmeg. It may be boiled in 
milk inttead of water, or in wine and water, according [o Ihe condition of the 


Melt ii of isinglau in a little warm water, atir il into a pint of port wine, 

adding gij of engar candy, ^j of gum Arabic, and half a nutmeg, grated. 

Mix all well, and boil il ten raioutea, or till thoroughly diaiolved. Then 

Main tbrougb muilin, and cool. 

Take of lapioea two ipoonfula, wnier one pint; boil gently for an honr, or 
tiotil it atanmei a jelly-like appearance. Add augar, wine, and nutmeg, with 
lemon.juice to auit ihs laate and the natare of the caae. (Thii ia improTed 
by waihing ibe tapioca well, and allowing il to Bleep for five ot aix bouii, 
ohanging ibe wsler ihiee timea; then proceed aa before.) 


Waab in two or three water*, and let it loak for two or three boura. To 

m teaenpfut of cage, allow a quart of water, and aome of tbe peel of a lemon. 

Simmer till all the graina loc^ iraniparent. Then add wine and nulmeg,Bnd 

boil togelbel for ■ few minute* (or plain, with milk). , 


Waah clean aome pearl barley.and to ^ij of barley add one quart of water. 

Add a few taiaina, or a - ' - ■ ■ 

duced one-half. Then at 


U> tf in Sj : ««* k nn, »d -U tn <r«M> iT « 
T mimit£m^ Atm mid Mipr m1 dmb(«. n bo 

ncDLur catiTEL. 

large l»wl ; wh »i* ■wa m l m m m n . ■! ■ m h t* *« wM M ifce «»1 
esi ik^ fad ftrlBUtl ■iiMi^*tiiiiiiK mB *B wfaUBj aild ■ linfa ak; 
una and imiii«iB, lilim ■ ttlli faMWri, iriia. ■iml ■iitiai|. rf rlii IWM 
liR. Il thoaU be MkcB wano. OMtarrf Onrf wj he pi J pMied is ib* 

Mcf nA bread in a qoan of « 


Take >] cf fioa floor, be it np at lichi a* ponible in a linen ng; dip k 
rieqaeoUr in ooM waier. and dm^ ifae oouide with flout till ■ eniM ii 
formnl on il Tbeo boil antil il beconiei ■ hmrd drj imaa. 

This anj be frated and prrpand in the same fnaimer as anowfoot, foe 

Cut Bj of lean beef ian shreds, and boi[ jbr lwenl]r raioDtes in one <)Dajl 
of water, taking off the scum as it risei often cooling ; stnia. Very itoarish- 
ing and palatable, 


Fat a pODDd of lean beef, ihinlf sliced and eligbtlf nlled, into a porter- 

bottle, or jar, clowlj corked. Place this in a vessel of cold water, and boil 

for an hour ot more. Then decani and skim Ibe liquid. Chicken lea maj- 

lie made in the same way. 

Take half a chicken ; slrip olT all the Tai. an J break the bones ; add two 
quirts of water, boil for fiAeen or Iwenijr minutes, and season with salt. 


UuntHf BROTH. 
To one pound of baa miinoa, illow ona qiiert of water; traaon with a 
liitl« wll, and Bma p«nl«7, and pat in tome large pieoea o( the emit of 
bread. Boil (lowl^ Ibr two m three hoori, ■kimniing nrefullf . Beef, veal, 
or chicken broth may be made in the nme manner. Tegetablea, barlej, rice, 
Ik., can be added, if eipediml. Mutton iMoth may be made mora ipeerlily, 
by taking three ahap*; beat the meat on both tides, and ilice thin ; put into a 
■anos-pan with apint of watar,a little «ali,aiid *ome eruitsof breBd.orwme 
panlej, and * hdbU onioa ilioed thin. Cover the «iuce-pan, and boil Ail ; 
■kiia, and in hair an boor it will be ready for ate. It renUen tnntMHi brotli 
more palatable lo trail the chops before boiling. 

Take the gnxmd malt Oj,hot watai Oiij. InAiie Ibt two bour^ andiiiaio. 
Add inpr or learaD-JoiDS if neoeBaatT. 


Boil a pint of milk, and, when boiling, add a large wineglau of Sherir or 

Madeira wine. Lot it bi^ apun, and than mnove ii IVom the Sre and let it 

■land m Ibw minntei. Then lemOTe the card, pour lbs whey into a bowl, 


Waih a nnaU bit of rennet, about two iucheg aqnaia, in cold water, to re- 
move the nlL Pot it into a leecap, and pour on lukewarm water enough to 

qnut of warm milk. Cover it, and eel it near the fiie, till a firm ourd ii 
Ibnned. Pont off the whey, and it will be found a very cooling and pnlalabla 

THlke two calvei' feet, and add lo them one gallon of water, which rednoe, 
bf boiling, to one quan. Strain, and when c»Id ikim orefully. Add the 
wUtN of OX or eight eggi, well beaten, a pint of wine, half a pound of loaf 
ngar, and the juice of fctu lemona, and let them be well mixed. Boil the 
irbo4e for a few minutei, itirring connantly, and pan it through a flannel 
Uiainer. (Wine thoold be omitted in K>me casai.) 

j, nnaamon 3J, Water Oij. Boil for Ibtty minute*. 

Take of fVesh wheal bran Qj, water ibree qnani. Boil down one-third; 
•tnun, and add tugar, boney, oi molaaset, according to the lute of the 

Take of fresh lemon-jutce Jir, freah lemon-peel ^la, white sugar ^iT, 
boiling water three pinta. Let them stand till cold,' and then Miain off foe 
nsa. In fitvers, a little spirila of nitre may be added. 




Put tamarinds into a pitcher or tumbler, till it is one^third full; then fill 
if up with cold water, cover it, and let it infuse for a quarter of an hour or 


Put into a sauce-pan a pint of best molasses, a teaspoon ful of powdered 
white ginger, and a quarter of a pound of fresh brntter. Simmer on hot coals 
for half an hour, stirring frequently. Then stir in the juice of two lemons, 
or two tablespoonfuls of vinegar; cover the pan, and let it stand by the fire 
five minutes longer. 


Boil two ounces of good cocoa in a quart of water, and as soon as it boils, 
set it on coals to simmer gently for an hour or more. To be used hoL 


Toast some pieces of bread brown (not burnt), then put them into a pitcher, 
and fill it up with boiling water. Let it stand till cold, then strain it, and put 
it into a decanter. 



Linimentum Opii 

PilulsB Saponis comp. • 

Pilulse Styracis comp. . 

Pulv. CretSB comp. c. epic . 

Pulv. Tpecacuanhse comp. . 

Pulv. Kino compositus 

Tinctura Campborae comp. 

Tinctura Opii 

Vinum Opii 

Tinctura lodinii comp. contains 

Unguentum lodinii comp. " ^ 

Unguentum Hydrarg. Fortius contains ^j of mercury 

Unguentum Hydrarg. Mitius ** 3J " 



of Iodine 

. in f 3iv. 

. in gr. V. 

. in gr. V. 

. in 9ij. 

. in gr. X. 

. in ►)]. 

. in n\^xix. 

. in n\^xix. 

• in f 3J. 

. in !5J9S. 

. in 31J. 

. in 3vj. 


'Op thk Aloobolic Sturoth or Wuna. Br Cbusiimii. 

eobnl br 

■I>lrit t^ 

Pan, wrakeil 

mean of wven winei 




White Port 

Sbercy. weaken 

roeBii or 13 winei, includitig thoM verr } 

long kept in cuk J 

■^— strongMi 

in ihe Eaal Indiee . t 


Madeira, Mrongnl ) kepi long in caik ia Eall ) 

weakeai < Indie* . . .( 

TeneriBe, long in cuk at Caleutu 



16 14 

S3 65 

ClBreC,B Qrit growlh of 1S1I .... 
Chaiean Latoi.r, Bnt growth of 1828 . 
Roiau.»ciDnd growth of 1838 .... 
Ordinary Claret, a euperior " Tin ordinaire" 





Gilci' Edinburgh ale, before bottling . 

The nme ale two ye>i« in bnile 

Superior London Porter, (bur monihe bottled 





The reaulu of the above table were obtained by ditliltalion, which wa* 
applied with luch coninTance for accurary, ihel nearly the whole apirit and 
water were diililled ovei without a trace of empyreuma. and without the 
loai of moie than between two and fix gralni in VOOO. From the quantity 
and deniiiy of Ihe epirit, Ilie wtighl of abrolute alcohol ot (he deuaiiy T93.9, 
«* well ai the volumi of proof ipirii 6( the deniiiy 9-^0, wei calculated from 
the lablea of Rii^htrr, founded on Iboee of Gilpin. Dr, Chriitiran remarks 
lliat the alcobolio strength of vaiioiu rnmples of the lame kind of w 

It would bo indicated by ibe latte e 

, and 19 often very diffi-ti 

u ufai 

uperienced wine- 




SHowm o nn DnmsiiOB mri ' wiui MmmB, Biops, axd 6&jjim or tauoub 
MxDicniAL Liquid Pekpakatioks of ths Phaucaoopooa of tsk Uhitkd 
States, &c. Ofrom £<liB»r«<f imif FoMMMtcr'f « itfoiMMi/ <^ JMalirM Mtdi' 
coj" edited bjr bn. Togro and Dukamd.) 

Sulphuric add . 
Sulphuric ether • . v 
Rectified aloobol 
Nitric acid . 

Acetic acid rarjstallizable) 
Muriatic acia 

on of wormseed (Chatop. JmUul) 
• peppennint, of aniseed 

— — sweet almond, olire, palma 
christi . 

- doves 
■ dnnamon • 
Copaiba • 
Diluted akxkhol . 
Tincture of hydriodate of potassa,*^ 

cantharides, kino, digitalis, assa 
foetida, sulphuric acid, colcbi 
cum,opium, valerian, guaiacam ^ 

Tincture (volatile) of valerian, ofj 

Tincture of muriate of iron 

Wine TTeneriffe) 


of opium (Sydenh. lauJan.) 

- of oolchicum root 

of oolchicum seeds 

Vinegar (distilled) 

of opium (black drop) 

— ^-^— of oolchicum 
— ^— ^— of squill 
Water (distilled) 

- solution of hydrocy. acid* 

solution of sulphuric acid 


solution of nitric acid, do. 

solution of ammonia (strong) 

solution of ammonia (weak) 

solution of hydriod. of potas. 

■ solution of arsenite of potaa. 

No. of 

drops in 


No. of 














90 drops. 
















No. of 

drops ia 

90 grains. 
















17 5 




No. of 
90 drops. 


















• Prepared according to the process of the London Apothecaries' Hall. 





What is InflimmfttioD F It is « txindition of bypenemik, or of 
too mnoh blood ia a part, with its motloa putlj inoretBed, and 
partly diminished. 

What are the ^ympA»nt of inflammatioa ? UoiURial rtdnai, heai, 
Midling,pain; and the function of the part is also perverted or ar- 

The Ttdneu is produoed by an increased quantity of blood, or a 
relatively increased qnantity of the red oorposclea, or both together. 
The hoe and degree vaiy according to the iatensi^, and with the 
tusnee affected ; and an permanent. 

Seat is prodnoed by the increased quantity of blood, and the 
more rapid oxidation of the tisanes. 

Su^^^tg depends npon increased qn&nli^ of blood, and from 
effusion of lymph, serum, pus, &o. 

I\iin depends upon pressure upon the nerves, and the fnnotion 
of sensibility is also exalted. It is increased by presaore of the 
hand, or otherwise; aud varies with the part affected. 

Sometimes these Bymptoms are not all present; one of them may 
be absent, and yet inflammation exist. 

How has inflammation been divided f Into aeule, tAnmie, 
ieait^, and unhealthy. 

How many ttaget are there of iuflammationf Two; the cold 
and the hot. In the first there are coldness, langaor, uansea, and a 
small, quick pulse. In the second, the skin is hot, pulse full and 
hard; there is thirst, and the part becomes swelled and punful. It 
is not, however, always accompanied by constitutional symptoms. 


What ire the remilii of inflammation ? There are eight : rttoU- 
titm, adhetiott, fffation, suppuration, vl<'eTalion, ffraittdatum, cicatri- 
talion, and mortification, vbich constitute a aeries of stages in some 

What are the eauia of inflammation ? They are chemical, m«< 
chanical, and viCal. Among the former are cxcessiTe heat, cold, 
cold and moistnra combined, atmospheric air, noxious gasee, acide, 
alkalies, hliaters, rnbefitcicnts, animal pobona, contagious and specific 
diseases. Among the mechanical are contusions, lacerations, puno- 
tures, fractures, luxations, pressure, and numerous other agents. 

Is every part of the body subject to inflammation ? Nearly every 
part, but in an unequal degree ; the liability is generally in prepor- 
lion to the seusibiltty of the part. 

How are the rocans of arresting inflammation divided ? Into 
conititutional and local. Among the former, are general blood- 
Idling, puTgativa,diajihortticx, mercury, r^ium, and lote diet; among 
the latter, ore topical btood-ltUing, blistering, cold, acetate of lead, 
tincture o/iodine, nitralt of silver, rest, imd position. 

What objects are to he obtained by cmMitutional treatment f A 
reduction of the quantity and quality of the blood, by which it is 
rendered less stimulating, and a general sedative influence is pro- 
duced upon the system. Some of the means which operate consti- 
tutionally also act by derivation or revulsion. 

Suppurative Inflammation. 

What are the symptoms of luppyratumf The redness assumes 
a brightor hue, the swelling increases, becomes pointed and softer, 
pain is increased, and there is a sensation of pulsation and throb- 
bing. Rigors or shivering often occur, and are looked upon as a 
sure indication that pus is formed, or about to be. 

When the pus is once formed, pain and redness diminish, the 
swelling fluctuates, and a cavity usually exists which encloses the 
matter, and is called an abscess. 

What are the characteristics of heallhi/ or laudahh pus t It is of 
alight yellow or cream color; made up of small globules which 
float in a watery fluid. 


Unliealtliy pns is called iehor when it is thin and acrid. Sanim, 
when it is a fedd ichor nixed with blood. Sorda, when it is of a 
leaden color, thick, and offensiTe. MalignaiU, vhen generated in 
pestilential diseases. Omtaffimu, when it has the power of pro- 
ducing a disease of the same character. 

What is the treatment of sappnrative inflammation? If the 
patient has been mnch enfeebled by eracuations, we sabstittite a 
better re^men, employ tonics, mineral acids, and opium. As local 
means, we use fomentations and warm poultices. Poultices should 
be ooDtinoed after the discharge of matter, nnless it is kept np too 
profusely, when oUier mild dressings should bo employed. 

What inles should goveru us in regard to opening abscesses F 
Abscesses, where the matter is widely diffused, when it produces 
great pain, when its presence is likely to occasion additional harm 
in any way, snch as by bursting into any cavity, laying bare a por- 
tion of bone, or of a large vessel, or by borrowing under fasda a 
great way before its arrival at the sur&oe, and when utoated on the 
&oe, or near joints, shonld be opened Mvly. In other eases, tbey 
should be left longer. The best instrament for opening them is a 
narrow, sharp-pointed bistoury, which should be passed in slowly 
until yon find by the feel that it is in the sack ; then cut forward so 
as to make a free incision. 

The part at which the opening shonld be made usually, is where 
there is the greatest fiuetuation, or where pointing occurs ; some- 
times it is necessaiy to open st the most depending port, even if 
fluctuation should not be so evident in that position. If the edges, 
after being opened, tend to unite, a tent should be introduced. 

Ulcerative Injlammation. 

What is meant by ulcerative inflammation, or ulcerative absorp- 
tion f It is that morbid process by which the continuity of the dif- 
flerent textures of the body is destroyed. 

What parts of the body ore liable to ulceration? Every texture 
is liable; but the skin and mucous membranes suffer more readily 
than other parts. Pain alnaya attends this process, and is gene- 
rally lancinating. 



Wiat ia mortification ? Ganffrene is that condtlion wtich imme- 
di&telj preocdca the destnictioa of a part. Sphacflus denotes tiie 
complcto death of a part ; aad the term mvrtiJieaCion designates both 
BtagoB of the complaint. 

What are the different kintf» of gangrene ? They are the «** and 
dry ; and tbe idiopathic and traumalie. 

The idiopathic ia conBtitutional, and the traumatic results from 
an injury. 

What are the causa of mortification ? It is generally the result 
of inflammation. It may be caused also by poisons, n deficieat 
supply of arterial blow), any cause which will enfeeble the circula- 
tion, deposits in the arteries, ergot, &c. 

What are the f^mptoma f The part loses its sensibility, heal, and 
color. These cbaogcs seldom take place suddenly, but arc preceded 
by an increase of pain and swelling ; the blood circulates only in the 
larger Tessels; the akin becomes soft, and of a dark-red or parple 
color, and vesicles containing a thin serum are formed under the 
cuticle. When it is complete, if you press upon the part the blood 

vill not return. Along mik these symptomB the pnlae beoomei 
quick «nd tremnloiu, of a typhoid chancter, tongue Sty and brown- 
ish, akin hot, the patient restless, nneasy, and freqaentlj vith deli- 
rium, sahonltau, nansea, and hiccnp. 

What is the Inatment f When there is high inflammation which 
is likely to terminate in gangrene, the antiphlogistic treatment 
should be adopted; bat if gangrene has taken place, a different 
practice mnst be pnnued. The bowels should be gently opened, 
and tonics, and nntritions food given. Opinm, carbonate of am- 
monia, camphor, &c., will be found beneSci&l. Iiocal remedies are 
of use only where the mortification i^ incomplete ; when soaiifioa- 
tiona, emollient poultices, blistera, &c., have been recommended. 
In «eni2e gangrene, opium is on important remedy. To prerent 
sloDgluBg or bed-sorea, from long confinement, the parts, when they 
are first discolored, should be washed with a solution of nitrate of 
sUver, 10 gra. to 3j of water, 3 or 4 times a day, then covered wiA 
bland adhesive plaster. The hydrostatic bed is highly recommended 
by Dr. Hossey, as a preventive. Where the sores have formed, 
dress with adhesive pkster, and change the position of the patienL 

Amputation is seldom resorted to in cases of mortification before 
ft line of eepatation is formed, although it is sometimes in traumatic 
gangrene; but it ahonld never be in the idiopathic variety. 

What are the symptomB of dry mortifieationT The toes and 
feet lose their heat, and become shriveled, discolored, and converted 
into a hard, dry, insensible mass, of a dark-blue or black color, with- 
out previous swelling, redness, pain, or fetor. 

What is the treatmeatf AmjiiUation. 


What are the tymplomt of erysipelas 1 The surface of the part 
affected is elevated, varies from a bright scarlet to a purplish color, 
hu an abrupt termination, and is accompanied with a bnming or 
itching sensation. There is geaeially more or less rigor, fever, 
nausea, &c., preceding the complaint. The symptoms are some- 
times slight, and sometimes very severe, particularly in the epidemic 
form, and when it attacks the head and face. 

What are the cawet of erysipelas ? The causes are not always 


obvious; in other oases, it may bo traced to the application of 
poisona, wounds, oxpoBure, derasgemeat of the digestive organs, &c. 
What ia the treatment? In the commenceraent, if indicated b; 
the general symptoms, recourse should be had to blood-letting, pur- 
gatives, diaphoretics, and low diet. Sometimes a contrary plan be- 
comes necessary during the course of the disease, and opium, bark, 
camphor, &c., may be indicated. The local remedies in use are 
tincture of iodine, sulphate of iron, nitrate of silrer, and acetate of 
lead in solution; incisions, mercurial ointment, British oil, starch, 
flour, &c. The nitrate of silver, applied with a pencil so as to sur- 
round the inflammation, is frequently resorted to. 

Furuncuhis, or Boil. 

What are the in/mploms of fumnculus? It is a hard, painful, and 
highlyinflamed tumor, conical, base below, and apex above the level 
of the skin J and contains a disorganized mass, called a core. 

What is the treatment f Encourage suppuration with warm poul- 
tices, and as soon as the apes becomes soft make an opening into it 
largo enODgh to remove the core. 

Anthrax, or Carhunde. 

What are the a/mptomt of anthrax ? It is a deep-seated, dnmm- 
scribed, hard, and painful swelhng, of a livid hue, attended with 
itching and a burning heat, and terminates by sloughing. The 
constitutional symptoms are often very severe, particularly loss of 
appetite, fever, prostration, &c. When on the scalp, they nearly 
always prove fatal. 

What is the treatment? Emollient poultices in the first stage, 
until vesication, or a discharge of bloody scrum, appears ; it should 
then be freely covered with caustic vegetable alkali, as recommended 
by Dr. Physick. Other surgeons recommend that it should be 
opened early by free incisions, and stimulating applications used. 
Opium should be freely employed to assuage pain and procure sleep. 

Pernio, or Oliililain. 

What are the sj/mploms of pernio ? It is the result of cold, and 

" ^et with in the extreme parts of the body. At first the skin is 

pole and BhriTOled, which is moceeded by rednera, tame&cfioii, 
pain, praritos, and radema. In serere oasee, the akin becomea pni< 
pliah, the itohiog Teiy violent; vesioation takes place, and forms an 
ill-conditioned sore. The mild form frequently disappears in eam- 
mer, and returns in the winter. 

What ia the treatment f The application of soap liniment, spirit 
of turpentine, aolphate of copper, and tincture of cantbaiides ia re- 
commended. The 1>eet remedy ia to smear the part with the balsam 
of copaiva. Nitrate of Btlver is also a uaefnl application. 

What are the ^mptomi of frostbite ? The exposed part be- 
comes benumbed, stiff, and insensible ; these symptoms are succeeded 
by heat, swelling, pain, lividity, and by suppuration, which occors be- 
tween the sound and living parts. When the oold is long continued, 
00 as to tSeet the internal organs, drowsiness, shivering, rigidity of 
the limbs, diminution of the circnlation, and profound sleep, teimi- 
nadng in death. 

What is the treatment f Snow and ice water should first be 
^plied, and the parts carefully handled; when the natural tempe- 
ratnre is restored, it should be treated according to the circumstances 
of the case in regard to inflammation, tendency to morUfication, 
Ac When the patient is inseoKble, the indicatioua are to leatore 
the res^ratioD and circulation by stemutatories, volatiles, &ic- 
ticflu, &o. 


How are bunu divided, and what are their ^/mplomt t They 
are divided into nqierjiciai, vkerated, and earbuncuhui. In the 
first, there is simple erythema; in the second, veucation; and the 
third is where the ontia and adjoining parts are disorganiied, with 
severe constitutional disturbance in proportion to the extent of the 
injury. In the second variety, the constitutional disturbance may 
be great also, in proportion to the extent of surfiwe involved. 

At what period may bums prove dangerous 7 When the shock 
is first received ; from reaction or inflammation ; and at the suppu- 
rative period. 

896 6UBGERY. 

What is the treatment? In saperficial burns, the application of 
carded cotton is highly extolled ; also cooling applications, either bj 
the direct application of cold, or bj evaporating lotions. The 
essence of peppermint, before vesication takes place, is one of our 
best applications to assuage pain, and prevent the effusion of serum. 

In the second variety, emollient applications should be used, and 
a liniment of lime-water and flaxseed oil, or sweet oil, spread on 
cotton batting, is as good an application as we can make. In the 
third variety, the stimulant plan, internally and externally, should 
be adopted, until reaction takes place, when the antiphlogistic sys- 
tem may become necessary. Opium is generally necessary to relieve 
pain and constitutional disturbance. 

The after-treatment of ulcers should be governed by the circum- 
stances of the case, always bearing in mind the strong tendency to 
contraction of the cicatrices, which should be counteracted by splints, 
rollers, &c. The treatment of these cicatrices has been recently 
much improved by means of plastic operations. 


How are wounds divided? Into incised, punctured^ penetrating, 
conttuedy lacerated, poisoned, and gunshot. These may be divided 
into wounds of the head, face, neck, cJiest, heUy, and extremities. 

Incised Wounds. 

What are the dangers of incised wounds ? These are the least 
dangerous of the wounds except from hemorrhage, which may be 
troublesome when a sharp instrument is used, or large bloodvessels 

What is the proper treatment? It is to suppress the hemor- 
rhage, clear the wound of all foreign matter, and retain the edges in 
contact The object is to have them heal by adhesion, or union hy 
the first intention, as it was formerly called. It is produced by the 
effusion of coagulable lymph, or fibrin, which becomes organized, 
and incorporates the cut surfaces together. 

Another mode of healing b by growth, reparation being made, as 


in tbe ordiiuur; notridve prooess, without inflanrnittJon or sappn- 

The modelling prtxeu is ramilsr to this; the gi^ beiDg filled np 
with Ijmph gradnallj. 

ChaKidati(m is what has been termeil vmrn ty Ike teamd t'ntot- 

"Whftt are the meaas of BnppreBBiDg hemorrhages F Ligatura, 
compnmiM, i^ptict, eold, eUvatai potUion, tud the actual cautery. 
The tenacDliiEQ, needle, and fbroepe are the instruments em|do7ed 
to secnue bleeding Tessels. Ugatures are made of thread, nllc, or 
leather. OompKnon may be performed b; the tonmiqoet] or bj 
rolleis and pledgets. 

The actoal eanter; shonld never be employed when the bleeding 
Teeeels can be eeoored. 

What are the means osed for retuning the edges of the wound in 
contact f Adheriot tbrapt, bandage*, and tutura; the objeot of 
which is to prodnoe adhesion. 

There are two satnrea in use; the twiited and the inierrvptod. 

How is the interrvpted satore formed 7 By paasiDg a needle and 
thread through the akin and sabcntaneous oellnlar texture from 
withont inwards on one side, and from within outwards on the other, 
at aboat one-finirth of an inoh distance &om the mar^, and fasten- 
ing the ttida of the thread with sofficieut tightneea to preveat the 
surftoee &om Mparating. They should be pkoed about an inch 
apart; and, of oonnc, the proper namber is proportioned to the 
■iie id the wound. The intervals should be supported by adhesiTe 

How is the twilled Butoro formed ? By pasmng a common sewing- 
needle dirough the shin and other texture from one side of the 
woond to the other, and twisting a thread over each end of it in the 
fnrn of a figure 8, with a suffident degree of tdghtnesa to keep the 
parte together; where several are used, the thread may also be passed 
from one needle to another. The points should then be clipped off. 
Needles eomposed of gold, silver, &c., have been recommended, but 
they possess no advantage over the common sewing-aeedlc. 



Pundured Wounds. 

ILow BTe^wnctared wounds produced? Bj sharp narrow instrn- 
mentS; such as needles, pins, thorns, splinters of wood, nails, &c. 

What are the dangers from punctored wounds? Tetanus, and 
large collections of matter under the fascia. 

What is the trecOmentP A soft poultice is generally sufficient; 
but, if there are indications of the formation of matter, or nervous 
symptoms arise, the wound should be freely dilated, and kept open. 
The use of opium may become necessary. 

Penetrating Wounds, 

What are the characteristics of penetrating wounds ? They are 
more extensive than punctures, and generally produced by the small 
sword, bayonet, or dirk. 

What are the dangers from penetrating wounds f They may be 
dangerous firom entering large cavities; injury to important blood- 
vessels, nerves, or viscera ; or they may cause extensive collections 
of matter in deep-seated parts. 

What is the treatment f The first object is to suppress hemor- 
rhage, which may require extensive incisions. If the bleeding 
vessel is in the chest or abdomen, deep-seated, the plan is to 
diminish the general activity of the circulation by blood-letting. In 
other respects, they are to be treated as the constitutional and local 
symptoms may demand. 

Contused Wounds, 

What are the dangers from contused wounds ? Gangrene is very 
liable to take place when they are extensive and severe. 

What is the treatment? They should be treated on common 
antiphlogistic principles locally and generally. Adhesion is not to 
be expected. 

Lacerated Wounds. 

" What are the dangers of lacerated wounds f They are dangerous 
from their extent, and the parts involved. They bleed sparingly; 
but are liable to geoondary hemorrhage and to gangrene, and do not 
heal by adhesion. 

What ii the treatmtiUf Bring the partB u oetr together u 
poesible, uid treat the oonstitational effeots « the ocnditios of the 
patient ma; demand. 

/bucvuii Woundi. 

How are poisoned wcmoda prvdwxdf Qenenllj by inseoti, Bei^ 
pe&ta, rahid mnim^lrij Ao. 

What is die Inaimmtf In the nting of bees or wasps, the looal 
application of eommon salt, eold water, aqna ammonisa, Ao., ate nse- 
fiil. In the bites of serpents, olive oil, aqua ammonisa, aiaenio, &o., 
have some repntation. The application of a cnpping-glaas to the 
part has proved useful. When oalled earl;, the part should be re- 
moved entiielj. In dissecting wounds, apply lunar caustic, after 
washing clean, and take a merourial purge. The effects of inflam- 
matioa may require attention on general prinNples. 

OimAoI Woundt. 

What are included under the head of gunshot wounds t All inju- 
ries occurring from firearms, explosion of shells, rockets, Ac., and 
are of the nature of lacerated and contused wounds. 

What eiroumstanoes render gunshot wounds dangerovtT "SSb 
extent of the injury, the parts involved, from their indispodtion to 
heal by the first intention, their dispoation to slough, and secondary 

What is the general trmtmetU f It is to suppress hemorrhage, 
and axtnot the foreign body when it can be done withont too much 
injoi; to surrounding parte, and attend to the general state of the 
ayitem. The applioationB ^onld be nmple, suoh as water-dressings, 
with sugar of lead and opinm. Amputation is frequently re- 


What is the IraatnuiU of Abtcat of the Antrum f It is to remove 
one or more teeth oorresponding with the Soor of the antrum ; if 
the matter is not then dJBcbargcd, pass a stitet or small trooar into 
the cavity from where the tooth has been palled, and push it into 


the iiiitrnm g idnally. Ubo nstringent injeotioas fanr or Sve tnnes 

a day, and 1 :> a bit of bongic or tent in the opening uotil the dis- 
charge and .. ammFitioD Bubside. 

What ia th* tTcatmcnl of Mammary Ahireu? The first step is 
to prevent tl i, if possible, by the repeated spplicataons of mim 
TinegBT, topi . blood-IcttiDg, and a general antiphlogistic course. 

If we find Suppuration must take place, apply warm poultices, and 
open in a d iding part when flnctuation is perceived. 

Whut art .-J K/mplom* of Lumbar Abfcesa f Pain in tbo lombor 
region, ostending from &= i-i-i^ey •i'™i to the outeidc of the thigh, 
testicle of the side drawn up, and pain in the spcrmatio cord. 
ThcBC arc followed by rigors, loss of appetil«, and hectic. It some- 
times points below the groin, sometimes it passes through the 
ischiatic notch, and, in other coses, passes down near the rectum. 
The discharge ia gCDerally thin and glcety, mixed with small floccuh 
resembling curds or cheese. 

What is the treatment f Very few recover. In the early stages, 
the antiphlogisdc course should be adopted; but, when matter is 
formed, an opposite course should be pursued. 

When the abscess is opened, it should bo dona by a small Talvnlor 
incision, then closed for a time, and again opened, bo as to draw off 
the matter in n grodnol manner. 


How are ulcers dividedf Into heallhj/, tathecUiJij/, and ipecifie. 
The first comprehends but one species, the simple oloer. The seoond 
contains two species, the irritable and indolent nicer. The third 
contains several species, the principal of which ore ulcers from 

scrofula, cancer, fungos heematodes, syphilis, and syphiloid, scor- 
butic, herpetic, Inpns or noli mc tangcrc, &c. 

Simp/e VUtr. 

What are the causes of the simple ulcer? Injuries done to a 
sound part by wound, contusion, abscess, or bum. 

What are the cheiractcrisiict oi a simple ulcer? . It ozbibits a 
florid appearance, owing to the small, pointed, and numerous bright- 


nd gniuilatioBi whtoh oorer it Then ia & ^aebarga of healdiy 
pas in inull qtunlity, mnd the tendency ii to heaL 

Wbat ia tlie treatmaUf Simply keep the part in a pn^)er pod- 
tion, and ooTei the sore with some mild, freah (nntment, qiread on 
lint or linen ng. Dry lint ia also a good af^ilieation. 

^rilaiU Ulcer. 

What are the tAaraeterutiet (^ the irritable nioerf The edges 
of the sore are ragged, nndermined, and Bomefimes almoat sernted. 
The parte beyond the nicer are rod and inflamed ; the bottom of the 
nloer exhibita irregnlar hollows which contain a thin, gieeniah, or 
red acrid matter; and, in plaoe of healthy graniilationa, may be 
finmd a dark-red, spongy maaa, painfhl, and bleeding on the slight- 
est tonoh. 

What are the eatua of the irritable nicer f It proceeds &om 
local causes, influenced by the state of the conslituldon and habita 
of the patient The digestiTO organs in particular are generally 

What is the treatmentf The conatitutional condition should be 
attended to ; and, if the digestive organs are affeoted, resort should 
be had to steady pnr^g and antimoniala, if not contra-indicated. 

The |ffoper local applioationa are pooltioea, fomenlaljone, cream, 
a weak solution of the nitrate of silver, and opium mixed with ponl- 
(does or sprinkled over the sore. The limb should be elevated, and 
pressure and bandag^g avoided. 

Fhagtdttnie nicer is iirt^lar in form, edges ragged and abrupt, 
snrfaoe uneven and brown, pain burning, and constitutional dia> 
turbanoe generally great More or leas slongbing usually occurs, 
and the eitenaion rapid. 

Constitutional and local treatment are both necessary. Correct 
the secretions, allay irritation, and invigorate the system with fresh 
ur and good diet. Apply nitric acid, nitrate of mercury, &e.; then 
poultices, solutions of chloride of lime or soda, &c. Mercurials are 

Indolent Ulcer. 
What ore the lymptumt of the indolent ulcer? The granulating 


enrfocc has a flat shiuing :tapect, and is partlj covered with a pelr 
lido or cruet of a nhitiali or {I&rk-graj color. Someliiiies the sup- 
face is dry, but generally there ia a discharge of a yiacouB cohesire 
fluid. The odgce arc elevated, smooth, and rounded; beyond the 
ulcer the parts ore swollen and indurated. The pain is trifling. 

What is the ircalmeiU of the indolent ulcer ? Where an nicer 
shows a digpositioD to become indolent, resort should bo had witlioat 
delay to cscharoUcs, adheeive straps, or the roller. If these da not 

Fig. 3. 

effect a core, the edges should be pored away, and the whole sorfitce 
pencilled with the vegetable or lunar oanstic. The oak-bark ponl- 
tioe, followed in a few days by the adhesive strips or roller, will 
sometimes onrc. These ulcers frequently require stimulating appli- 
cations, such as lunar caustic, savine powder, cantharides, capsicum, 
corrosive sublimate, &c. Dr. Fhysick considered a combination of 
3j of simple cerate, and 5ij of Jiritish oil as the beat cicatriier. 
The dressings should he changed repeatedly. 

Constitutional remedies also exert a powerful influence, and snch 
remedies as blue pill, and other mercurials, should be resorted to. 

In healing chronic ulcers, care should be token to establish an 
■*wue in some part of the body; otherwise, the stoppage of a long- 

eatubliahed dixdarge may give riae to apoplazy, or other eerioiu 

Varieote nkert will nsosU; heal with adhesiTe attapB, the roller, 
or laeed stocking; but in many instanocB the enlarged vans ean 
oalj be raliered by an operatioD. 


What are the premoniloiy t^tu of ecrofiilar A delicate oom- 
plexioD of a lively-red color, mixed with a clear white, the lips red, 
and the upper one espeoiaUy thick and protuberant The pupils of 
tho eyes largo, and the oo^junctiTa free from Tessels. These are 
some of the symptoms which denoto the Borofnlons constitation. 

GhildTen are more subjeot to it than adults. 

What are the ^mpfomi of sorofdlaF A acTofalons tumor is first 
a vmple enlargement without pun, or nnnatnzal heat; in a short 
tim^ it beoomee tender on pressure, and the heat is augmented ; 
*"*!»■"""*■"» then generally sets in, and it terminates in absoeea and 
oloeration, but not always. The matter discharged fi^m abBoesaeB 
of this kind is this, gleety, and mixed with flooculi. 

What are some of the most obvious cataei of scrofula ? Gold and 
moisture, hereditary influence, irr^ularities of diet, meagro and 
unwholesome provisions, an impure or tainted atmosphere, defident 
olothing, fevers, filth, &(jgue, mental anxiety, &c. 

What is the proper a-ealmetU for eerofiila? Invigorate the gene- 
nl iijBtem by a light nourishing diet, tonics, and such other means 
aa the general state of the health may require. Flannel should be 
worn next the akin, and moderate exeiaise persevered in. Iodine 
and its oompounds, both generally and locally, are valuable in the 
treatment of most oases of scrofula. Cod-liver oil has been found 
of much value in this disease. 

For the Borofnlous ulcer, diy lint, the iodine cataplasm, astringent 
washes, and moderate preeanre, are recommended. 


What are the ^mptoms of gonorrhcBa? They are a slight titil- 

latiou of tho glans penis, tumidity of the lips of tho urethra, and 

more or less inflammation of the glans and prepuce. These are 


followed by a diBcbargc from the urethra of a thin whituh fluid, 

epeedily changing into a yellow purulent matter, of a peculiar Btnell, 
attended with pain along the coarse of the urethra in diachargiag the 

It conaiats of an acute inflammation of the lining membrane of 

the urethra, ciLused by the application of matter from another dar- 
ing the eexual connection. The time of its appeoronoe is variable. 
Ohordee sometimes occurs, in which there is erection with great 
pain, and the penis is bent, wilh the concavity downwards, in conse- 
quence of the effusion of lymph into the corpus spongiosum urethne, 
preventing its expansion. 

Various other complications may occur, such as phymosis, para- 
phjmosis, excoriation, bubo in the groin, abscess in the perincam, 
sweliing of the testicles, and pains in the joints. 

WItat is the treatment? The abortive plan of treatment has been 
recommended by some, prior to the suppurative stage, by injecting 
a strong solution of the nitrate of silver, with a glass syringe, into 
the urctlira. The constitutional trcalnicnt in severe coses is blood- 
letting, purgatives, and low diet. Stimulating diuretics, especially 
balsam of copaiva and cuhebs, arc bcneficiiU. When the ardor urinse 
and discharge diminish, we may use aatiingent injeodous, which 
should be very mild. 

What is nnderstood by the t^pkUiHe virm f It k a specific 
morbid poison, which, applied under certain conditions to any por- 
tion of the human body, will there determine definite and charac- 
teristic local phenomena, and, if absorbed, contaminate the aystem. 

How is syphilis divided? \uWiprimary or heal, of which chancre 
is the exponent. And consecutive, general, or eorutitutional, which 
is always the consequence of chancre. 

What is chancre? It is a primary venereal sore, produced by the 
direct action of the syphilitic virus on the inoculated part. 

What are the different ways that chancres may be developed ? 
By pustule, ulceration, and small abscess. 

What arc tho stages ? There arc two ; one of ulceration, and the 
other of cicatrization. 


Whftt is Hie difiereooe in the propertiea of the matter in these 
two stages? Id the first it is iDocnlable, aad in the seoond it is 

How are ohanores divided as to locationf Into external and 
larvated, or ooneealed. 

How are the; divided in regard to their chaiacteriBtics F Into 
ybBiealarf induntied, phagedanic, and /umnm&nM. 

What is the index of ooastitatioDal affection ? Indnration of a 

Are bviboa classed among the primary or seoondory Bymptoms 
of syphilis J The primary ; and may oocor both from sympathy and 
absorption. If from absorption, they are inoonJable, and are in- 
olnded in Hie term Ammcnlons chancres, or ohancroos buboes. 

What is the treatmxni of ohanere 1 As it is at first porely a looal 
afibotion, the apeoiSo sore should be oonverted into a ample one by 
the ai^li<stion of cansde. Nitrate of silver, piotonitrate of mer- 
onry, sulphate of copper, potaasa com caloe, Sm., are nsed tor this 
pwpoM, some preferring one, and some another. After the separa- 
tion of the eeohar, nmple dresungs, such as weak solntiona of sul- 
phate of copper, black and yellow washea, aromatic wine, &c., will 
be proper dresdngs. larvated nrethral ohancree may be canteriied 
by Lallemand's instramcQt. 

How should buboes from ahmrptwn be treated F By onliphlo- 
gistics generally ; leeohes, blisters, succeeded by a solution of cor- 
rosive sablimate, and other antiphlo^tio applications locally; after 
uloeiation, they should be treated like ohanores. When suFpurotion 
takes place, they shoold be opened early. 

What is the proper IrealmaU for chancre when it becomes indu- 
rated F Induration being the index of absorption, which is followed 
by oonstitntional symptoms, oonstitational remedies become neces- 
sary, and meroniy, pushed to the extent of a veiy slight impiession 
on the glands, is the beet remedy. 

What are the eoiutttutional, or aoamdaiy symptoms f Cutaneous 
eruptions, inflammation of the eye, infiammstion and ulcerations of 
the palate and fancca, induration and ulcerations of the glands of 
the skin, inflammation of the osseous and fibrous tissues, neuralgia, 

Are thpse afTeotions pnpable of hereditary transmifltdonT "^cy 
are; but the primaiy are propagated from one to aootiier only bj 

What is tlie treatment f By alteratives ; among which mercury 
atinds first; iodide of poUasium, saraaporillo, arsenic, &c., are olao 


What IB anderBtood by a Tamor ? A Bwclling or now prodnotion, 
and not a piirt of the original composition of the body. 

IIow arc tUQiors diviiUdf Into lotid and enfyHed. The solid 
arc goDcrally eOTeloped by a deuBo oellular sheath of snrronnding 
ccUuUr substance, which divides them from BUrroiuiding parttt. 
Othore, liowevcr, have no suoh limit, and involve Burroimding parts 
as they enlarge. 

What is undoratood \>y Adipose Tumoref They appear to be 
ooniposcd of fatty matter insinuated amongst extended and delicate 
cellular substance; generally lobulated, and found only in the oel- 
lular and adipose tissues. 

What is understood bj Fibrou* Tumort f They are formed in 
various textures, are oompoeed of a substance of a dirty-gray color, 
with considerable density, through which firm ligamentous bands 
ramify. They do not mingle irregularly with surroundiug parts; 
thus differing from malignant ttunora which contain fibrous matter. 

What is understood by Eactphaloid Tumort t They are deci- 
dedly malignant, and called Encephaloid, or Medullary Sarcoma. 
They are not like brain or spinal marrow in their intimate structure, 
as the name might indicate ; perhaps fungoid would be a better 
term. They consist of a homogeocoua matter resembling the sub- 
stance of braiu in color and consistence ; always soft, but more Bo 
in some parts than in others ; general softening occurs in advanced 
stages. The manimce, testicle, and cont«nts of the orbit in children 
are the parts most liable to this disease. 

What is understood hy ^fd'lnoi•^ Tumors? They are of rare 
occurrence, originate in the cellular tissue, and most frequently 
attack the viscera, sometimes the eyeball. The external appearance 

8UKQSKT. 407 

ie genemlly Bhining and mottled ; internall;, they couBirt of a homo- 
geneoiu blai^ nutter, infiltrated into the oellidar tiane. Ooc»- 
noiull; thej are firm, in other oases soft, broken down, and semi- 

What ia understood by Carvitu/maion* TWmon f They are the 
most malignant and intractable of tnmors. The term »cirrhu» is 
often nsed i^onymouily with oarcinoma, while cancer is a term 
[wet^ indtsoriminately employed to denote their ooudilitm after nleer- 
alioQ. They are oharaoteriied by a preternatural danuty or indu- 
ration of the soft parte, diffioult of reaolution, and prone to nloention. 
Unequal in sur&oe, uncommonly heavy, and the skin covering them 
puckered, and of a banX, blalah or leaden hue; with a vehement, 
peculiar, lancinating pain in the part. Their internal structure eon- 
tuns firm ligamentous bands, traversing in various directions, and 
oommumoate a grating feel to the knift when cutting tiiem. 

What is understood by FuMgiit Beemaloda t It is a term ap- 
plied to those fongons growths which have hemoiruage proceeding 
from them to a greater or less degree, and with more or len fre- 
quency. The term is often applied to medullary aarooma. 

What is understood by Bn<yiled Tumon t They are superficial, 
oonsiat of an external cyst, which is sometimes thin and delicate, in 
Other oasee dense, thick, and fibrooa, or almost cartilaginous. The 
internal Btmotnra varies veij much in different cases. They are 
Bometimea designated from the nature of their oontents: Aihero- 
vtabnuf containing onrdy matter; Miictroiu, oontaining a sabatanoe 
like honey ; and iSScoiomatoui, oontaining fatty matter. It is diffi- 
eslt, however, to thus designate them all properly. 

What is the proper treatment for tumors? Extirpation with the 
knife is the only remedy to be depended upon ; and even this will 
often fail when the tumor is malignant, although it gives the best 
ohanoe for success. 

How are Fractures divided? Into timpile, compound, and conv- 
fiieattd, and again into trantvene, oblique, committiUed, and longi- 
tudinal. A limp/e fraotiue is a mere separation of the bony fibres. 

unattended with severe contuBion or eiternal wound. A eompovnd 
fnicturc is accompanied witli an external wound or protroded bone. 
It is called comp/icatcii wlien the bono is broken in more than one 
plikcc, combined with luxation, laceration of largo vessels, or rupture 
of Ugamcnts, tendons, &o-, or other ext«Dsivc injury. A fracture is 
traiavfrte when its direction is perpendicular to the asie of the bone, 
oltique when it deviates from the perpendicular direction, emnmi- 
niited when the bone is broken in several places, and loru/iludinal 
when it runs parallel with the axis of the bono. 

What are the tymplomt of fracture ? Generally there is crepitus, 
and when it exists can be relied od. There is also usually deformity, 
pain, swelling, tnd inability to use and move the timb. Bonce ia 
young subjects arc sometjmea bent, only a few of the bony fibres on 
the convexity giving way. 

What is the pnxpiona in fractures 1' It will depend much upon 
the extent of the injury, constitution, and age of the patient, the 
kind of fracture, and the bene broken. Complicated and compound 
fractures are the most dangerous. An obhquc fracture ia more 
difboult to manage than a transverse one, owing to muscular con- 

What is the treafBtent for fractnieB f ' The general indicataons are 
to prevent or subdue inflamm&tion, and to ooaptat« and retain the 
fragments in oontftct, until they are restored by callus. 

The former is beat aooomplished by the antiphlogislje oonrse and 
porilion ; and the latter by extouion, countoT'Cxtennon, podtjon, 
eplinta, oompressee, and bandages. It requires from two to eight 
weeks to produce consolidation; and someUmcB longer, before com- 
plete restoration takes place. 

Fracture of the Lower Jaw. 

What arc the symptoms oi fraeturoof the lower jaw? Crepitation 
ean generally be detected, and the teeth will be found irregular, and 
often loosened. It generally occurs in the mental region, or middle 
of the horizontal ramus ; but it may occur in any part. 

What apparatw is necessary f A compress, and a bandage united 
in the centra and divided at each end, near to the middle, so that 
each loose end may be tied to the one of the opposite side ; one of 


them over the top and die other at the back part of tbe bead ; tbo 
united portion of tbe bandage covering the compreas and fracture. 

31ie patient must be nourished with broth or other thin fluid bo- 
tween tbe teetb. 

Fracture of the VertehrK. 

Wbat are tbe tj/mplomt of fracture of tbo Tcrtebnt.' ? It is rare, 
and vben it does occur, must be tbe result of great violence. Diug- 
noeis is sometimea difficult, as paralysis may occur fVom conousaion 
withoat fetctnre. If it occur above the fourth cervical vertebra, 
deatb takea plaoe at ouce, from injury to the phrenic nerve. 

If immediately below the fourth, the upper extrcmitiea are para- 
lysed, there is difficult reBpiration, and death occurs in a few days. 

When the dorsal vertebrce are the aeat of fractures, paraJyus of 
the lower extremities, and intestinal torpor occur, iritL gaaeous di»- 
teniion, and death in a few weeks or sooner. 

If it be the lumbar vertebra, tbe bUdder and rectum are para- 
lysed, and the mine and feces pou involuntarily, tbe lower eitremities 
ue paralyzed, and death follows sooner or later. 

Fractures of the spinous processes are not serious, unless acoom- 
panied by ooncnauon, or some other injury. 

Pivffnati* ia un&vorable. 

What is the trtatment for fracture of tbe vortebnef If tbe patient 
should survive tbe immediate effect of tbe injury, tbe aniiphlogiatic 
course should be adopted, particularly one to relieve inflammation 
of the spinal marrow ; and the urine must be drawn off frc({uently 
by tbe catheter. 


Fraelurt q/ Ike KiU, 

What are tbe tympOmit of fracture of tbc ribs? Tbe^ are oat 
tlways dUtiact unluss crepitus exists; there is geacrall^r little dis- 
placemoDt ; but uenally pain on rcBpiration (especially in the recmn- 
bent posture) at the scat of th« injmy, which is increased upon 

What is the treatment T A roller 6 or 7 inches wide sbould be 
applied tigbtlj round the chest, so as to cause the patient to breatbe 
by the diaphragm. The general symptoms ahonld be att«odeil to 
at the SHine time. 

Fracture of the Sttmvm. 

What are the rymptomtf An incessant grating of the fragments 
upon each other during respiration. The direction of the fracture 
ia commonly transverse. 

Whftt is the treatment f The indications are to prevent or sob- 
due inflammaUon, and to appease the incessant coogh uid difiieiilt 
respiratiea that usually attend. A roller should be applied aim, as 
in fracture of the riKs, and a compress if necessary. 

I^actwe of the Clavicle. 

What are the tj/mptomt f Orepitation, depresdon of the homenl 
beneath the sternal fragment, the shoulder falling below the level 
of the opposite one, and the peculiar inclination of the head and 
body towards the a^ted side. 

What is tbe treatment f The indications in fracture of the 
claTiclo are to carry the shoulder upwards, outwards, and back- 
wards; and to retain it in this position by appropriate apparatus, of 
wliicli there is a variety in use, some surgeons preferring one, and 
some another. The plan of Velpeau is recommended by Prof. 
Mussey, in which the forearm is brought across the chest, with the 
band resting on the shoulder of the sound side, and secured in this 
position by proper bandages and compresses. 

"Tbe last and best apparatus is that of Dr. Fox, which oonsisla 
in a sling for the elbow, made of stout linen, or other material; 
this should be in length about two-thirds of the forearm, and deep 
enough to embrace the forearm ; it can easily bo made out of a piece 


BUSaSBT. 411 

of staff, ont into a pantlleli^iTam twice the width of the Ibrevm, 
and two-thirds of ila leogth; this is to be doubled in its Bhortest 
diameter, and one end sewed ap; at the upper angle, and tlie oormt 
of each ald^ a strong loop of tape is attached. A ring of Uncn, 
staffed with carded cotton, is made to embnoe the ahoolder and 
axilla ; a wedg&^i^)ed pad, which shonld be three inohea tluok at 
the base, six inches long, and foor or five wide; throe stcong [aeoes 
of tape or bandage complete the apparatus. The ^lplicalion at It 
is as follows: The baae of the pad is placed in the axilla of the 
injured side, and temporarilj secared bj being held, or hj tapee tied 
around the neck ; the arm of the sound side is passed through the 
padded ring, which rests in the axilla and over the shoulder : the 

sling is applied to the forearm, the elbow pbced firmly in its angle, 
aad the arm is now brought down to the side, the fracture eoaptaled; 

412 BmoBBT. 

tapes Iinviiig been passed through the loops attached to tlie tH'mg, 
nre now carried tbroogh the ring ut the boudcI slioolJer, tbe tape at 
the elbow cttrried behind tbe chest, and those at the wrist in froat; 
tbesc uro firmly dmnn bo as to place tbo ebonlder &nd clavicle id 
proper position, tbe tiand being pot into a sling. Raw cottnt 
filiould be placed under the tapes wbere they touch the ekin, to pre- 
vent exooriBtJnn, With this npparatuB I have treated a child only 
twenty mi old without iocoavenienoe or deformily, but it is 

nooesaary to i id much prcgmire in each yonog snbjocte, as well as 
to exercitt are in protecting akin from excoriation ; in 

tbiti ca«e, a lew ctroolar turne of a roi ere pami^ round the cheat 
and forearm to prevent motion — an addition unnecessary in the 
adult. This apparatits is easily applied, and can be worn without 
incoDTcnieDco, and probably answers the indications better than any 
tiftt baa yet been proposed." — Haaiugi Siayery. 

TracturcR of tbe scapula con generally be treated by the eams 
position and appamtUE aa those of the otaviclc. 

Fig. n. Pig. 8. 

StTBQBBT. 418 

/Vortw» of the Arm. (Rgi. 6 ud 6.) 

What are the ^mploTiu t Orepibition, mobUhj of the fragmenti, 
and angidar diiplaoement, or % tendeno; to it. A fraotnTe of die 
neck of the hnmeniB, besides the ordinary symptoins of fraotiii«, 
may be diatingaiBhed &om dislocation by the rotoudity of die 
shoulder being preeeived; vhile is dislooatioa there is a hollow 
under the acromion, and a tumor in the axilla. 

What is the apparattu necessary for the treatment f A long 
roller and four narrov aplinta when the shaft is the seat of fracture. 

When the condyles are fraotnred, a roller and two angnlar splints 
are neooseary. 

When fraotnre of the lower extremity of the hnmems occnra just 
abore the condyles, much care is necessary ta diBtingnish it from 
dislooalaon of the radins and ulna backwards. In fracture, crepita* 
tion may be prodnoed; the deformity is easily removed by extenuos, 
and returns when discontinued, and the length of the arm is short- 
ened, which is not the case in dislocation. 

Pig. 7. 

The roller and «n gnlnr gpUntB are also appropriate for this injary ; 
one qtlint should be placed in fr^mt and the other behind the arm, 
with the horiiontal limbs of the splinta resting npon the upper and 
lower nirfiHKS of the forearm, and attached to it by the roller. 

Fracture of (he Forearm. 
What are the tymplomtf Crepitation, deformity, and the mo- 
bility of the fragments. 


t mafia frnctttnil apoa the Esme Utrel, or at difierenl 
a BUj be fractoTcd ; the radias being moro 

Tho nlftrranon process of the uioa may bo fractured by direct 
violence, or by the action of tho triceps luusclc. 

The coi-oiioiil process is aonietimcs, although rarely, fractured. 

When the coronoid process is broken, there is dislocation of the 
ulna backwards, with the characteristic projection, and difficulty of 
bending the elbow. 

Fracture of the lower end of the radius may easily he mistaken 
for dislocation of this bono at the wrist-joint, and great caution 
should bo observed in making a diagnosis. 

In fracture, crepitus may be produced, and (he deformity is easily 
removed by pressure, and redinis when left free. 

What c^paratiu is neoeBaaiy in the btalnunlf Two long com- 
presses; tvo Bpliots 2^ inches wide, and long enongfa to extend 
from the elbow to the poista of the fingera; and a roller. 

The soft parta of the interosBeooa apace shoiild be made to aerre 
as a splint^ hj the arraDgementa of the compresees, ao as to force 
the ftagments ontwarda, and keep them in appodlion. 

If this precaution ahoold be n^ected, pronatioB and aapination 
may be destrojed, as may be seen bj I^giue 12. 

Fi(t. 12. 

Fig. 13. 

418 eUROERT. 

In fracture of tlie lArxrmiion, the elbow Bhould be etraighteoed 
and baoda^d bj circalar &nd reversed turns of a roller &om the 
hand to the injured joint; the fragment should bo brought down 
and adjusted] the roller passed above it and around the joint, in the 
form of figure of 8, nntil it is firmly fixed. (^Fig. 13.) A splint 
ifi then to be plao d in front of the joint, of eome length, and secured 
by a roller. In hiec weeks the joint should be moved pasairdy so 
as to prevenl bylosis. The union will bo hgamcntous. 

la &act iie ooronouJ^roceM, the joint must be pat in proper 

position, nglv^, — jroperij, and ^daced in a 


Fractures arput, melaearpv*, and phalani/u require no 

special directi :ral principles in n&rence to fractures govern- 

ing inallcaeee. 

Frarlun of the Patelia. 

What are the rymptcvisf The transverse fracture, which is the 

most common, is known by the 

'^' upper half being moved upwards 

on the thigh, and the patient is 

unable to rise or to walk. 

What is the btatment and ap- 
paratvtf The limb should be 
placed in an extended position 
and flexed on the pelvis. The 
apparatus is a spUnt two inches 
wide, long enough to extend from 
the tuberosity of the ischium to 
near the heel ; two rollers, each 
six yards long, and three inches 
wide ; and compresses. 

Pass the roller by circular and 
reversed turns from the foot to 
the lower fragment; bring the upper one down in contact with the 
lower; pass the roller around the knee in the form of the figure of 
8, and with circular turns in such a manner as to retain the frag- 
ments in contact. The rolier should he passed so as to confine the 

mosolefl of the thigh ; a Gtraight splint applied behind the limb, and 
quietude enjoined. 

The naion is generally ligamentoiu. 

Fractwre of the Tlagh. 
At what part of die J\%c% do firaotnrefl occtirT Both vithin and 
external to the capanlar ligament \ bnt fracture within is more com- 
mon, although rare in persona under My years of age, and is mostly 
met with in old women ; the bone undergoes changes in advanced 
life, which render it more liftble to this accident. There is a de- 
ficiency of earthy matter, and sponginess of the cancelli ; the neck 
becomes abvphied, shortened, and sank from the obliqne to the 
horizontal position. 

Fig. 15. 

The proipton» is very unfaTOrablo ; nnion takes place slowly, if 
at all. 

What arc the lymptonu of the fractnre of the neck ? The limb 
is generally shortened ; its length can be restored without difficulty, 
and reoBcends as soon as the extension is removed. Upon rotating 
the thigh, aud placing the band on the trochanter, it will turn, as it 

were, upon & [Hvotj whereas, id tL« loaod bone it describes the aroh 
of a circle, tbe radius of whieb ie formed 
Fig. 16. by the neck, aod crepitus may be produced. 

Wbat is the proper treatment ? In very 
old Bubjects, place tbe patient in bed, keep 
tbe limb quiet, by a splint if necessary, For 
a few weeks, when tbe patient may be al- 
lowed to use cratcliea. If tbe patient bo 
young, it mny unite by bone, and be sbould, 
tberefore, be placed in a proper apparatus 
for keeping it in place. 

The Troduinler MaJ'/r may be iractured, 
and 18 known by its being drawn upward, 
and by crepitus. When this occurs, the 
displacing muscles should be relaxed, aud 
the recumbent position assumed. 

The iha/l may be separated from the 
epiphysis in young subjects, and should bo 
treated by extennon, connter-extennon, and 
fixing tbe limb by splints. 

What part of the thigh is most liable to 
fracture ? The middle in young subjcets. 

Wbat arc the synipliims of frtwture of tbe 
Ska/i r There are tbe general symptoms 
of fractnre with shortening of the limb, un- 
less it is trans7enK>, in which ease the ends are supported against 
each other. 

Wbat are t^ indications of treatmaitf Tbe principal indica- 
tions ore to keep up extension, counter-extension, and coaptation, 
for which there is a great variety of apparatus in use. 

DetauUt apparatus has been very popular, and consists of aa 
outer splint, three or four inches wide, reaching from the crest of ihc 
ilium to four inches beyond the foot, each extremity having a bole 
in it; an inner splint reaching from the perineum to the sole of the 
foot, and an upper splint reaching to the knee. A counter-extend- 
ing band is passed over the perineum and through the upper hole 
in the splint. Extension is produced by a band or handkerchief 


applied to the ankle, and made faet to the lower eod of the splint 
through the hole. 

Di. rhj'Bick modified D^sault'a apparatus by extending the outer 
BpUnt to the axilla, in which extensioD b made in a line more nearly 
panllel with tbu axis of the bodj. A block is also placed on the 
inner side of > le same splint, below the foot, so as to prevent ob. 
liqoity in th' line of e^ctcneion. Bags of bran or oat chaS* are 
placed on ea side of the limb, so as to prevent excoriation, and 
keep up steady pressure; the whole is then to be secured by band- 

IdBton's apt 
io the Ggoro 

Dr. GibsoL 
liimBclf, as soi 

Pbysick's m 

the outer splint alone, as seen 

,„ji's apparatus as modified by 
re. (Fig. 18.) 
. s is more popular than any other 

re o/lhe L»j. 

What are th un varietiaf Oblique and transverBO 

fractures of the — le, uut it is liable to every variety, and ia any 

part. Sometimes one bone is broken, and at others both. A va- 
riety of apparatus is used in their treatment. The chief pnrpoae of 
a splint being to enable a surgeon to keep, effectually, the fractured 
surfaces of a bone in the closest apposition during the time tequi- 
site for reunion, that one, of course, should be adopted, that will 
best answer this purpose; and it will be found that in some cases 
one kind will answer best, and in others another kind; depending 
upon the kind of fracture, the tact of the surgeon in its application 
and adjustment, Sec. 

The fracture-box and pillow has high authority to recommend it. 
It should have a foot-board to which the foot can be secured by 
bandage so aa to prevent lateral inclination. 

Two splints, the length of the leg, applied on cither side, also 
answer the purpose well; care being taken Io support the foot by a 
bandage or handkerchief, aa seen in the figure. (Fig. 10.) 

The Jt -B often fractured near the 

ankle-joint, tai often aoooinpanied with dis- 
location of the foot. The foot \a tamed ont- 
wardB, M seen in Figt. 20 and 21. 

Dupnytren's or Phyedok'B appantiu is 
preferable to any other, and oondeta of a 
ungle splint placed on the inner aide of the 
leg, and reaching beyond the foot. A wedge- 
shaped pad reaching only to the ankle, with 
the larger end applied to the internal mal- 
leoluB, ehonld be used; and a bandage ap- 
plied BO as to produce inversion of the foot, 
and retention in that position. 

The iulemal malleolui is also sometimes 
fractured, including more or loss of the tibia. 
(Fig. 22.) It is easily detected, and requires 
the same apparatus and treatment as fracture 
of the fibula, only the application should bo 
on the opposite side of the limb. 


Oi/mpotmd Fracture. 

A compound fractare is where an external wooud oommui 
vith the fracture, and may be prodnoed by the means eansiug the 
broken bone, by the protmdon of the bone itself, or by nloeration 
Bubeeqnently. The dttngen reonlt from shock, hemorrhage, tetanus, 
Buppnralion, hectic, ta typhdd fever. 

If the bone is much comminated, or a Urge joint opened j if 
Urge arteries are torn; if the soft parts are extensively injured; and 
partionUrly, if oonjdned with age, or disease, ampntstion may be 

When an attempt is made to save the limb, we ahonld endeaviw 
to convert the oomponnd into a nmple fracture, by arresting hemor' 
rhage, clearing out the wonnd, and bring^g the parts together pro- 
perly, BO that adhesion may take place. 

* The general prinoiples of treatment applicable for inflammation 
and its resnlta in different stages, must be resorted to, and yet 
eeoondaiy amputation may be necessary. 


What is a Ivxaium or didocaium f It is the removal of the 
head of a bone from its corresponding articnUting cavity. 

How are the varietiei of dislocation dongnsted T By the tenna 
tHnpfaand compound; primitive and cotuecutivt; rtcent and old; 
am^lete and incomplele. 

Simple Inxation is where there is a mere removal of the head of 
the bone; con^/ound, when an external wonnd communicatee with 
the cavity of the joint; primitive, when the head of the bone eon- < 
tannes in the unnatural position it first aasamed; eomecuiive, wbn 
it is lonoved and becomes fixed in another : nemt and oid, relate 
to the duration; eon^lete and incomplete, denote total, and partial 

How may InxatiotiB be diitingnitAed from'fractures? By want 
of crepitation, by the peculiar distortion and rigidity of the limb, 
and the shape of the joint. 

4S1 StlRr-ERY. 

What are the meani gcnerall; eniplojed ? ComcUutioHal knd 
local means are both often necessary. Among the former are bluori- 
Jetting, warm-haOt, nauKating emetu-a, &c. The latter are extension 
and eotinler-extentio7t. 

A partial reaiuTal of the head of the bone from its articntating 
surfoco is te I tub-luxation. 

If a dislo in is connected with a wound in the iDt«gunieiits, 
fraotore, or -ation of large vessels, it ia called compound liii/ttca- 
tion, and th do general prindplea govern as in compound fracture. 

In bow ma 

he sjinpto: 

(Ae er Jaw. 
Lower Jaw be luxated, and what ai 
'anteriorly. The eondyleB are di 


placed, the mouth is thrown open and cannot be shut, and the coro- 
noid process projects under the cheek bone. (Fig. 24.) 

What is the treatment? Tho surgeon places his thumbs deep in 
the mouth, and resM them upon the posterior molar teeth, while the 
fingers are carried beneath the chiu and biisc of the jaw. Pressure 
should be made downwards by the thumbs, and the chin elevated 
at the same moment; by which reduction may bo effcclcd. 

When it depends ui>on relnsation of the ligaments, Sir Astley 
Cooper recoramends blisters before the car, shower bath, and the 
internal use of ammonia and steel. 

Didtxatton of the Clavick. 
How many ways may the Clavicle be lozatedf It may be lux- 
ated at either end; and the sternal portion in three directions—;/^ 
wardt, hackward*, and vpmardt. The; are all eauly diBtingaished 
by their pecnliar deformity. 

Fig. 25. 

What is the Ircafment? Tho 

Diilixation of the Arm. 

How many i may the Atih be luxated? Downwartit, for- 

iBardi, hackmax and a oonBecutiTO dbloeation npicnrde. 

How eliould tbe reduction be aocompIiBhed ? The patient ahoold 
be Bcated io i ; a strong band, eight or ten inches wide, paeeed 

around the ci 1th its middle close to the injured part, and its 

two ends given i 
should encircle t 
another ossistanl 
as to bend the e 
make extension 
applied, tho hu 
with a kind of 
Another mo 
the axilla, and 
the wrist, and 

!t roller may be ]im 

Tsite eidej another cloth 
1 fixed and ontruated to 
hold of the extremity bo 
"iTua while the assistants 
Vlicn BuScient forc« is 
into the glenoid cavity 

t his back, place a ball in 

> bis heel on the ball, seize 

reduction. If neaesattry, 

". above the elbow, and an 

extending band applied, upon which greater tractive force can be 


Sometimes it is netxssary te apply pnlleTs, as shovii in Ytg. 27, 
parlicnUrl; io old cases. 

A dislocation of this joint should not be attempted sfler having 
existed twelve weeks. 

Didoeation of Ae Forearm.. 

How ma; the Forearm be lozated? Badcwardt, lateraBy, and 
forwardt by a prcTioas fraotare of the olecranon. 

The nlna may bo dislocated backward*, the radios fjrward and 
also backward. 

Wliat are the tj^mpbimnf When both bones are throfrn back- 
Whrde, there is a projcctioD posteriorly; on each sdo of the olecranon 
Aere is a hollow; the lower extremity of the humcnia can be felt 
at the forepart of the joint ; the haod And foresjrm are fixed in the 
npine position, faile the joint is nearly immoTable. 

Fig. 39. 

The trealf J] i sorgeOD should place his 

knee in the ih:uu j of the wrist, and make ex- 

teoaion; this will taa' i ante the radiuB and ulna 

from the humerus, and bring them forwards into their proper posi- 
tion. The foreann ehonld then be pUoed in a aling after rednotJon. 

When the ulna ie dislocated haeheardt, there is a oon(ortJon of 
the hand and forearm inwards, and the olecranon process projects 
behind the humenis. The foreann cannot be extended, neither can 
itbeflexed beyond a right angle; these are the distingniahing marks; 
it is easily rodaced by extendon and oonnter-cztonsioQ. 

In dislocatjon of the radiui fanoardt, the head occnpiea the hollow 
above the cxt^Tmal condyle of the hnmems. (Fig. 30.) 

The forearm is slightly bent, bnt cannot be flexed to a right angle, 
nor extended completely; the hand is pronated; the head of the 
radius may be felt inside the external condyle, rotating, if the hand 
be rotated; and there is a sudden check if the elbow be flexed. 

In reducing it, extend the wrist and sopinate the hand; at the 
same time, press with the thumb on the head of the radius. 

Dislocation of the radxut hackwardi IB known by feeling the head 
of the bone back of the external condyle ; and there is partial loss 
of movement in the joint. (Fig. 81.) 

RedtKtion and Iraifmvnl same as in previous injury. 

Tho radirt* &Dd ulna ma; be dislocated at the wrist, both bach- 
■wardt and fonoardt. (Fig. 32.) 

RedtKtion is effected bj extenEdon,coiiDlcr-exl«Dsion, and preBsara; 
the wrist and forearm shonld then be placed in splints and sling. 

The radiut at the wrist may bo dislocated aiUerwrfy, potteriorly, 
and lateraJIy. 

The w/na may be dislocated at the wrist, and may easily be known 
by the change of position of the styloid process, projection of the 
nloa, and twisting of the hand. It may be reduced by extension and 
pressure; it should then be eonBned by compresses, fipliata, aod 





niptore of tlie ligaioeDU. 

The thuml maj be dulocated bofhitanh, md abo in the oppotile 

Pi,. 33. 



In reducing it, a cloTe-MtcIi ehonld be placed npon the first ph»- 
Unx, and extenrioD mode, with some forcible and steady flexion, 
towards tbe palm of the band; and preesoie mode by tlie thumb 
npon the head of the bone, wtiich will naoally nioceed. 

Fig. 35. 

What I 
UvianU ' 

Didocation of the Thigh. 
:o tlio ilifforent loxationsof tlie Thighf I'pipard* and 
(1 tlio dorsum of the ilinm; downieard$ and intcrd* into 

the fonnen ovale (Fi^ 36 bimIST); upvartts mad Jfmearda cm the 
pabefl ; btuJciDarJt iaio the isctuatie notch, and iJoKmirardi uader the 
taberamtj of the iMkiam. (Figs. 3d and 39.) 

The Jim may be known by a pramineooe near the saperioir spitMiiu 
pn)cc» of the Utiun formed by the great trochaotcr, together with k 
shortemng of the limb, aad an inclinatioa of the foot iamids. 

The Kcmd by the limb being lengthened two or three inches; 
the foot is tnmed ontnarda, and the head of the bone in thin sub- 
jects may be felt in the foramen ovale. (Fig. 41.) 

The third by a hard tumor above Fonpart's Lgament; the limb 
is shortened about an inch, the foot is turned oatwards, and the tro- 
chanter major is in front of the anterior superior apinona process of 
the ilium. (Fig. 42.) 

The fourth by the limb being shortened half an inch, and the 
foot slightly inclined inwards, (Fig. 43.) 

WluU ia the tnatmentf Extension b; pulleys, waA oonnter-ex' 
tennon by a band paidng over the perineum and restiDg agunat 
the taber of the iocjunm. 


Bleeding, warn bath, and tartar emetic, so as to prodooe relaxft- 
tioD, frequently hare to be resorted to. The mode of acdng and 
arraD^g the meuis of effecting redaction in the ffiemit fiffms, is 
weU exhibited bj Rgs. 44, 45, 46, and 47. 

Duioeation of Oe Knee. 

In vhatWBjimkf thefnMbelnxatedf b fbor directioiu, Aoolk 

ixtrdt, Jbnoardi, mmiTdt, and outwardM. (tiffL 48, 49, 60, uid 51.] 

Fig. 48. 

Pig. 49. 

The diagntm* b earil; made in these cases. 

Aednctum is Booomplislied by extension and direct preonie. In* 
flammatioa is apt to be Bevete, and most he oomhated b; aotiTe 
means, and rest enjoined for several weeks. 

How may the Patella be luxated? Outieardt, inmtrdt, and up- 
loardM vheu the ligament of the patella is mptaied. 


Fig, 50. Fig, 5 

Ditivcatim of the AnUe. 

In wbat direction may the Ankle be luxated ? InKordt, outicartii, 
/orvMTiIt, and backward*; all of which may be eftsilj reoogniied. 

RednctioH is accomplished by eilension of the foot and flexion of 
the leg, so as to relax the gaetrocDemius moaole. It is a very serions 
injary, and ampatation will often be neoesaaiy. 

The Ailraffaitu is sometimes dislocated, and may be either for- 
ward or backward. 

Reduction is difficalt, and cannot always be accomplished, in 
which cose excision or amputation may be necesBary. 

Diseases of the Bones and Joints. 

To what diseases are the Bones liable? C'ariet; necroa 
as; spina ventosa ; oitcoiartoma ; mollitia and fraijUlla. 
and rachitis. 


What IE 
The soft o 

What are the symptoms? The affected part swells, 
soflening of the bone, and it crombles away; there is also a discharge 

It is an ulceration of bone, 
r spongy bones are the most liable to caries. 

8DBQBKY. 48f 

of fetid M^Viah matter, and & hiznriant growth of pak foDgotu 

Whftt is the InaimaUf When it is dependsnt upm & ijphilitie, 
wirofnloai, aaorbntie, or my oonBtitotiraial diMtder, genenl lemediea 
should be resorted to. When it proceeds from local injarj, tbe io- 
dioaliotti an to oomfattt inflanunktion, keep the parts at rest, and 
remove disessed portionB of bone as thejr become loose. Hmeral 
soids, and gastrio joioe have also been applied with ben^t Blistern, 
inoes, setons, and steed; purging are servioeable in constitutional 
caries. Fresh air, tonics, and alterativee are proper in advaoced 

Carta (^ At lupine. 

Whftt are the ^yntpfoinj/ The patient eomphuns of numbness w 
an uneasy sens&tion in tiie lower ezfaBmilies, is langoid, essily tired, 
sod i^ to trip or stumble in walking. 

There is ofleq flatolenoe, nok stomach, and derangemetit of Hm 
digestiTS organs. Panlyms of the lower extremities occurs in the 
advanced stages of the diaesse. There is more or less protuberance 
at some portion of the spinsl column ; the B|»nonB processes at which 
project, and create oonnderable deformity. The most common seat 
is the dorsal Tertebna. 

What is the treatmeiUf In the commencement benefit may be 
derived firom leeches, blisters, and caustic issues ; the latter of which 
it is oflffli neceisaiT M continoe for a long time. The condition of 
the bowels, snd diet of the patient should be Btrictiy attended t(^ 
the reonmbent posture eiyoined, and at tbe same time the benefit of 
tnA til should be given. 

What is neavntf It is where there is destruction of the vitality 
of boDe, and dlfifers from oaries as sphacelus differs from ulceration. 
The term mqueaira is given to dead portions of bone thrown off. 
ClotKK is a name for openings in the case of new bone which is 
thrown out. The pain is deep seated, loDg continued, and severe. 

What is the treatment^ It is to remove the dead pieces of bone 
when formed. Constitutional remedies are often required. 

Wliat ■ exatlBKtf It b &ii enlargemeDl of tbe haaj stnuitDrc, 
^ti m iliiMrJ lata iMmdtateA, dmnumbed, taibavakted, utd spi- 
mmbcxosUmm. Tbe boneB gemenHj afleeted >n tboM cf Ifae on- 
■nn, Iowa jtv, sterniiBi, riba, «ad e itwiitiw 

What is tbe fmdinmf? Wbeo it b«eann tmbkaoae, ito icno- 
valriMold beattenipud bygGoenlreiDedieajaailloirdieL 'Iftbese 
fidl, it ihmiU be exliipated, if neoeaafy for tbe eomibrt or aafe^ of 

jJpMC TealMi.. 

Wbat are tbe QrmpMMi of qiin& reatoia? It is a tamor jutoIt- 
ing tbe trbole circnmfennoe of a bone, conssting of an oaseoos sbell 
perforated vitb noiDeroos boUa, contajniiig sometlmee a thin sanies 
niixed witb portunu of Ijmph or a cbeesy eobnaoce. 

Wbal is tbe treatment f A care may soinelimea be produced b; 
long-continned pievoie; aiutber mode of treatment is to make an 
opening into tbe esTity, and tbrow in stimaladng injectionR, or bj' 
catting infitrnmeDte excite eudi a degree of imtatioo aa to canoe it 
to fill up with granuIatioDB. If this hi), anpntntioo most be re- 
■orted to. 


Wbat is oatoo-nrcoma f It i> a malignant disease of the bones. 
Tbe tamor fonning tbe diaeaaed part is composed of tbin bonj 
plates, arranged so as to form celts wbtch contain a cbeee»-like or 
fleshj matter, or a tbin gelatioons floid. 

Wbat is tbe treatment? In tbe early stages, oons^tntional reme- 
dies may avail sometbing; of wbich tbe compound decoction of 
Bsrsaparilla with corrosive sublimate is perbaps the most efficient. 
Leeches and blisters bave also been applied locally. Ampntation, 
wbon pmctioable, is the only remedy likely to be permanently bene- 
ficbl; even this often fails, and the disease returns, and attacks some 
of tbe internal organs, or another part of the osseous system. 

MoUities Osiium. 
What are the >ym^tns? The bone loses its natural firmneaa; 

both the uunul and saline parta diminish until more shells are left, 
wliioh are Teiy soft. It is a Teiy me disease. 

What is the treatmaUT Treatment ie of litUe lue ; and all that 
can be aooomplished is to mpport the patient's strength by tonics, 
and DuCrilioTU diet. 

Raehitit or i 

What are the ^fmptonuT Disorder of the digestive wgans, 
svdling of the abdcoDen, emadation, drTness or disoolmatioD of ^m 
akin, and blacknen of die teeth. These symptoms are followed by 
dist^^on of difierent parte of the body, vhioh in bad oases become 
very mnoh defbnned. 

What is the trtatmaU f To strengthen the system by tonics, and 
keep the stomaeb and bowels in proper condition. Qood nutritious 
diet, oonNBting of animal food, has been recommended, aim fiic^ons, 
and frequent bathing in salt water. 

Coccalgia or Eip DUeaie. 

What are the terms nscd to denote this disease ? JI&trbuM eoaarim, 
udUtu, iponianeout luxation of the oi fimorU, tcrofuloat earu* of 
the A9), and ahKo* of the hip-jmtu. 

Wltat are (he ^/mf^mu T The fint Bymptom is a slight pun in 
the knee, and emamtioD of the limb; then pun is felt about the 
trochanter and gnnn, which Tariee in different cams, and is increased 
by presBore upon the hip-jmnL In some eases, anchylosis is estab- 
lished apparently without the fbrmation of pns; while in others 
there is a large abscess formed, which discharges itself by one or 
more opening — During this process, the patient is sometimes worn 
out by hectic, and dies ; at other times, anchylosis takes place ; the 
openings heal np, and a core is accomplished with considerable 

What is the trtatmentt The habit of bending the thigh on the 
pelvis, and the leg on the thigh, should be corrected by curved 
splints gradually changed for stmighler ones. — Before the abscess 
forms, blisters, cupping, and issues should be used, conjoined with 
steady purging, vegetable diet, and perfect i«Bt. 

During the suppurative stage, the strength of the patient should 


]te supported, and such other constitutioiuil remedies employed sa 
are indioatcd. 

fundus Artie\di, or WkiU SvxiUng. 

What ia comprehended nnder these terms? lnjlammation of the 
ry no vial membrane. 

Morbid change of structure IQ the Kfnoviai membrane. 

V&xration of the cartilaget o( pinls. 

Scroftdoat diieate of tiiejoinu, haciag its origin in the canceBoiit 
strachire of tho bones. 

What is the treatment of the Jlrst variety? In the acute form 
bloodletting, purgativca, low diet, &o. The affected part should lie 
kept in a stale of quietude, and elevated — As internal remedies, 
mercury and sarBaparillii arc often indicated. 

What is the treatment for the vxond variety? Amputation ia 
generally the only remedy, and this docs not always snc«ccd. 

What is the treatment for the thinl variety. Canstio issues, 
blisters, setons, and absolute rest: anchylosis generally takes plnoe, 
and may be considered as the safeguard of the patient 

What is the Irmlmatl for the fovrlh variotj? The remedies for 
scrofula should be resorted to; also rest and adhesive stripe. In all 
these Tarietica, when matter is formed in the joint, it should not be 
let out, but on efbrt made to prodocc absorption. 

Sj/drarlhtit or Drap^ of a Joint. 
What ia the treatment f Blisters and well-regulated pressnre 
will generally be appropriate treatment. 

Morahle Cartilage. 
What is the treatment ? If a laced knee-cap, bandages, Ac., have 
been tried without relief, recourse may be had to an operation for its 

IIow is it (Ili-iiJcil? Into cimplcle and inromithte. 
In the incomplete variety, the ligaments, tendons, and surrounding 

SnROBRT. 441 

ealloUr membrane are iDTolred, and there is partial movement of 
the joint. 

In the oomplete form, Uie extremitieB of the bones o^n become 
perfectly united and identified. 

What is the trtatmauf Friction with stimnUting artioles, and 
jndidouB morement of tiie joist, in the inoomplete Tariety. 


To what diaeaies are arteries mbjeot? To isflunmation, rappn- 
ration, nloeration, ^baoeliu, oaloareona ooncntionB, unifiirm dilata- 
tion of the ooatfl, and anenrigm. 


What is an anenriam ? It has been defined to be a pulsating 
tumor formed of arterial blood. 

What are the varieties of aneurism F TVm, faiM, dreumtenbedf 
d^iued varieom omeurum, and aneuriim by amulomotU. 

By true aneurism is nnderstood a simple dilatation of all the 
ooate of an artery, or the internal and middle ruptured, while the 
oellnlar coat remuns entire ; hj /idte aneurism, a rupture or wound 
of the three costs, so that the blood is extravasated among the sur- 
rounding parts ; the sac is formed by cellular tissue or a now deporit 
of lymph, Bs seen in the figure. 

Fig. St. 

The term drtumtcr^itd and dijiued relate to the form of swell- 
ing, or extent of extravasation. 

What are the symptomt of aneurism ? The tumor is first small, 
tree &om pain, and disappears easily by pressure, but retains when 



the pressure ia removed. As it enlarges the pulsatjon ib lessened, 
and when much enlarged the integumeats cOTcring it become pain- 
ful, livid, crack, ulconite, and hemorrhage, if not airestcd, sooner or 
later destroys fhe patient. 

What in trealmait ? Somo benefit may accrue by Frequent 

and repea e^g ; rigid abstinence ; confinement to a horizontal 

poMtioa; ttie mtumal use of digitalis, astringents, and refrigerants; 
these remedies cannot be depended on, bat should be poraued when 
the ligatnrc from any cause is impracticable. The ligatnie may be 
considered as the only means npon which reliance can be placed, 
and even this often fula, and secondary hemorrhage is the oonae- 
<juence. Compression has sometimes sncceeded. 

What ore the mica for the application of the ligatore in aneurism ? 
The surgeon should cut for a sound part of the artery above the 
sac ; penetrate cautjously until the pulsations of the artery are dis- 
covered; pass an aneurismal needle round, armed with a ligatnrc, 
detaching it as UtUe aa possible from its connections; the ligatoro 
shoald be firmly tied, one end cut off, and the other Icfl ban^ng 
from the wound, which should be brought together by adhcsiva 

Attmtritm iiy AnaOomoM. 

What are the ^mptomtf It is ft tamor formed by a oMgeriea 
of small arteries and veins with an intermediate oellular straetare; 
as it enlarges, it acquires a thrilling pulsatile or jarring motion. 

What is the trealmentf Compression, and ezoimon are the 
means proposed for coring this disease ; they may also frequently be 
cured by exciting inflammation ia the part by vaooinatioQ, canstic, 
needle and twisted thread, hot wire, &o. — Some surgeons preferring 
one mode, and some another. The frequent appltoatjon of collodion 
has been useful in some cases by producing gradual compression. 

Vari/'Oic Ane^trism. 

What ia varicose aneurism? It is that form of disease in 

which a communication ia established between au artery and a vein. 

It may be produced in any part of the body where a large artery 

■od Tein ue sou each other, and h&^wn to be pmutored at tba 
nine time. 

Whmt is the trealmauf ComprcBmon^.uid the ligature, i 
meaoB rooommended. 


What ue the diseaaw of the Teine f &flammatiiMj and vaticote 

Tarieote TemM. 

What ue the tya^plotiut The ^aease iv almost entirel; eon- 
fined to the veins of the lower extremities. la the oommenoement, 
numerons small circnmacribed swellings maj be obserred; at length 
the whole Tenooa trunk and branches beoome enlvged, run in & 
serpentine ooorse, and appear knotted. As they enlarge, the aup- 
port afiraded bj the valves is diminished until they are entirely lost 
The snnomiding oellnlar membrane becomes inflamed, and g^ves 
rise to punfdl nloeiations. 

What is the treatment f CompressioD with a roller or laced 
stookiDg; asfaingent washes ; an elevated position of the limb j and 
oblitetation of the diMased vein by an operation, of which there have 
been several kinds proposed and practised; vii., the ligature, the 
aeotioQ, and the extdaion of the vein — all of which are attended with 
more or less danger. 

Cinocde and VanaxxU. 
W hat are the ^fmplomi f Cirsocele is an enlargement or vari- 
cose state of the veins of the spermatic cord. Yaricooele is a varicose 



Btate of the rei 

DB of the Bcrotom. When examined, tie whole cord 

appeurs lilce a 

bundle of knotted and tortuouB Teina; and feel IJto 

a btmoti of wO) 

rma wrapped round and twisted together. The tu- 

mor subddee i 

m assuming the borixontal position, and reappears 



tTtaimentt A bag truss should be worn that will 


(ticlefi, and give them a firm support. Cold astring- 

en 1 


iractised for this disease, upon which the profe^on is 

not yet v 

" -sd. 

/ Vei>u.—Phlch{tit. 


edume ? It may be acule or tulcu^vle. 

There isi 

1 mibacuU form ; it generally affects 
f i. Swelling tmd tenderness 
aboat tl I exist. 

BMt, le , cold lotions, elevation of the limb, 

and porgi , frictions and pressure an the 

proper o 

The ('<.. g.^v al- Ft may bo caused b; wotmds, 

llgatnres, braises, eryupelas, &o. 

There are rigors, weak rapid pulse, anxiety of countenance, de- 
piQsaion of spirita, swelling and tenderness over the vein, tongue 
fdried, brown, dry, or bUck; skin sallow with prostration, low deli- 
rium, and bilious vomiting, and death often occurs in two or three 
days. CoDBecutive abscesses are ^ry apt to ooenr in some joint, 
preceded by excessive pain, and followed by absoesBes also in the 
lungs, liver, &c. 

Leeches, repeated and followed by fomentations to the part; bow- 
els opened and pain allayed, are proper to be done; and the abscesses 
should be opened early. General depletion may be neceseary in 
some eases; stimulants and tonics in others, according to the condi- 
tion of the patient. Mercury may bo resorted to unless great depres- 
sion exist. 


Fracture* o/Ae S&uB. 

What ue the varietia of fracture of the akoU ? There are seve- 
ral : _fitture, amrUerJmure, dtpreued, doable d^eMted or eameraitd, 
ttdlaUdj and punctured fnctnre. 

/Vnure is a simple crack or divisioD ; counter Jature is s sepua- 
tiou prodnced at a point opposite to that where the force was 
applied; d^rrtted fracture is when the booes are forced below their 
□atoral level; camerated when the udea decline towards the cen- 
tre; udlated when it ladiates from a centre resembling a star ; and 
punctured when produced by a pointed instrument. 

What is the treatment f In umple fraotore, where the brun or 
membranes are uninjured, little or no treatment is neoeesaiy. The 
role in all cases is not to interfere unless the oontente of the skoll 
are affected, and of this the symptonis must be our guide. In 
cases, however, where sharp points, or ragged edges of bone exis^ 
they may be removed by appropriate instnunents to prevent tJiem 
from irritating the dura mater, or other adjacent soft parts. In- 
flammation shoold be guarded against in all oases. 

Concuuion oftht Brain. 

What are the ^mptomt? In slight cases there is vertigo, siok- 
nesa <tf the stomach, trembling of the limbs, dimness of viuon, &o. 
In severe cases there is insenaibility, coldness of the skin, relszatioa 
of the limbs, feeble and irregular pulse, difficulty of breathing, (not^ 
however, generally stertorous,) and dilated pupils. 

Theae symptoms may, after a time, subudo gradually, when a 
delerminadon of blood to the brain follows, of greater oi less 

What is the treatmmt f If called early, be carefol that the im- 
portanities of the bystanders do not determine yon to bleed before 
the pulse rises and reaction is established, when it may be proper. 
Content yourselves with luimiuisteriDg a little cold water, or, if the 
depression is very great, wine in small quantities, and with caution. 
Generally, external stimnknls, such as mustard plastere, will be 


sufficient to rouse the system, and arc Irce from tho injurious effects 
of alcohol upoD the hmin. If iDflummatorj sjmptoiuB come oo, 
bloodletting, purgatives, low diet, &c., nith cold to tbc bead, nu 
eleT&t«d position of it, and blisters, become highly ncocssury. 

Oompram'on of fhe Brain. 

What are the caaset and st/mptomtf It may arise from do- 
presned fracture, effused or extravasat^d blood, and from suppura- 
tion within the brain, or its membranes. 

When symptoms of comprossion come on from cxtmTn^ation, 
there la generally an interval between the injury and the app<>ar- 
once of the symptoms; and when this occurs, may be considered as 
oharacteristic of compression &om extravasated blood. ^Slicn these 
Bymptoms are catised by matter, it is the result of inflammation, 
and docs not follow immediately an injury of the skull. 

If compression arise from cither of the preceding causes, it may 
be known by the pulse becoming slow, and regular; the pupils 
dilated, and insensible to the strongest light; breathing stertorous, 
alow, and diffiuult; the limbs loose, or yielding, perhaps paralytic; 
sometimrs flcsion of ono or both furearms, nnd insensibility. Tlicsc 
symptoms will be sufficient to diatingnish it &om concussion, where 
the distinotion is well marked ; but often the symptoms are inter- 
mixed BO as to creftte confiiBion and donbt in the mind of the 

What in the treaimenif Bloodletting, pnrgatires, &c. will often, 
alone, relicTe Bymptoms of compression. 

When the bones are depressed, they should be elevated ; or if 
produced by extravasation the trephine must be resorted to, and tbc 
ooogulom removed. 

What are the inttruments required for operations on the skull ? 
Two or three trepbiues, tbc largest about an inch iu diameter, and 
the smallest half an inch; a Hey's saw; a lenticular; raspatory; 
trepan forceps; two elevators, a small brush, tooth-pick, or probe; 
tenacula; sponges; crooked needles ; ligatures, and a scalpel. 

What arc the objects to he attained in the application of the tre- 
phine ? To make an opening for the removal of coagulated blood, 
and for the introduotion of the elevator beneath a depressed bone. 


¥at the formeT a U^ fa«phine ahoald be used, aad for the latter « 
small oDe. It is not, bowever, always neoeesarj to use tbe trepbine 
in depressed bone, m Ibere is often soffident spoee to pais the ele- 
vator between the fragmentB and restore them to their proper poedtion. 

To what parts of the skull ma; the trephine be applied ? To all 
parts, except to tbe oooipital bona. 

When it is neoessary to trepbine the inner table of the frontal 
sinus, two trephines ahonld be employed'; a large one for the ex- 
ternal portion, and a small one for the inner. 

Ltfianunatiom of Su Sram. 

What are the ^fmptovu t The &oe beeomes flnshed, the eyes rod, 
and tender to light, pninls oontnoted, skin hot, pnlse hard and qnick, 
and tbe tongue diy. The pain in the head is also severe, and -the 
wooud, if there be one, disehargee a aaniooa matter. Bigore follow, 
which are daogerons symptoms. Detirinm, hemiplegia, and coutuI- 
nons may also come on in the latter stages of tbe disease. 

What is the treatmaU t The most active anidpblogistio course 
shonld be pttrsned ; bloodletting, generally, and locally, pnigativea, 
blisters, &>. If sappuration take place, the trephine may be used ; 
bat the ohanoe of the patient's recovery is very small. 

FiMipu Certitri, or Eneephabiede. 

What are the ^/mplomtf It is a tumor having the appearance 
of a vasenlar organised growth, which spronta &om the bnun after 
extenrive frsctnres, or the operation of the trephine; fills np the 
Openisg of the bone, and projects beyond the scalp. 

What is the trtatmentt Light dressings, with moderate pres- 
sure npon tbe ttunor 

This disease is generally fittal. 


Conjunctival Ophdialmia. 

What are the ^/mplotnif A sense of uneasiness or itching, an 

impatience of light, difi'nsed redness of tbe conjunctiva, pain, beat 

448 stTROEBr. 

and swellmg of the globe of the eye ; an iDcreased Bccretion of Man, 
and a feeling as thongh there was a lodgment of sand in the eye. 
If the inflaDimation proceeds, there is violent pain in the eyeball 
and forehe&d, oocompanied \>j ferer and other general tndispodtion. 
Sometimes the conjouctiva throws out a fungus beyond the margin 
of the cornea, and at others suppuration takes place, followed by 
deetmction of the cornea, and evacuation of the humors of the ojv. 

There an several varieties of conjunctival ophthalmia: the catar- 
rhal, purulent, yonorrhasal, and icTofuhu*. Some authors, however, 
adopt difierent divisions of the disease from this. 

What is the treatment t In the early stage of simple inflamma- 
tion it may be easily removed by bloodletting, general and local, 
purgatives, anttmonials in nauBeatiog doses, low diet, blisters, 
lotions of t«pid water, a. Rolution of opium, or acetate of lead, or 
Bulphftto of zinc. If it runs into the chronic stage, cold astringent 
washes, and stimulating ointments may become necessary. 

For the catarrJial variety the proper remedies are moderate deple- 
tion at first, followed by highly stimulating collyria, and ointments. 

Thepunifoif variety should be treated upon common antiphlo- 
gistic principles, and moderately astringent washes, of which the 
liquor of the acetate of lead is one of the best. 

The gonorrhceal variety may bo treated npon general principles, 
but it is seldom cured. 


Fig 55 

The teroJvUotu Tuiety does not generally require maoh mtipMo- 
giatio treatment, but rather & touio courae will be indicftted. A 
blister on the nape of the neok kept open, and weak eolatioiu of the 
nitrate of Bilver, aulphUe of sino, Ac., applied to the eye, will be 
found benefioiaL 

Sclerotic Ophthalmia. 

What are the ^pnpUmtt It is an inflammation of the Bolerotio 
coat sometunes called rhenmatio ophthalmia, The pun in the oom- 
mencemant is generally seated in the temple, and extends to the eye- 
brow and cheek of the side afieoted, 
being meet severe at night. There 
ia no ponilent diachai^ or intole- 
rance of light; the eolerotio ooat is 
of a dingy briok-dost tinge; there 
ia more or less fever and derange- 
ment of the digestive organs. 

WhatiBtbe(Ka£m«n/7 The in 
dioatknuare to restore the fdnctions 
of the stomach, biliary organs, and 
ikin, by emetiw, purgatives, and 
antimoaial diaphoredos, after which 
bark may be employed to advantage. The best local ^[diaationB 
are a blister behind the ear, and the vinous tinctnie of opium as a 
ot^ynsm. ^ 

Iritic Ophlhali 
What are the lyriiptvnuT 8ovi 
from the eyebrow to the orbit, and 
the optio nerve; extreme impatience 
The conjunctiva does not' IMpnt 
but then are nnmemM nAcrceseli 

Iliil [j^h fta jWriiiii. il ■ 

loees it ImlGaav, md ehanges to a 
pupil becomes eontracted, irregular, 
toward the crystalline lens: lymph 


!mia or Iritit. 

lancinating pain, extending 
through the globe of the eye to 
of light, and morbid senaibili^. 
;he appearance of inflammation, 
on that part of the sclerotica 
taatsriar jpart of the iris, which 
reddish or greenish hue. The 
and its edge is tuned backward 
is deposited on tho outer larf&ce 

450 euRuERT. 

of the iris in spots, and Bometiraes so copionsl; as to oVSie 

What is the tTeolmenl? The aDtiphlogistie course should be car- 
ried to its ftjilcat extent. Obliteration of the pupil shoulil be pre- 
vented by breakiog up any bands of coagnlablc lymph which may 
have formed, with the extracts of belladonna or straiuonium, applied 
to the outer surface of the eyelids, or over the eyebrows, two or 
three times a day, and kept on for half an hour at a time. They 
should not, however, be applied during the height of the inflamma- 
tion. When it has a eyphilitic origin, mercury, followed np with 
sATsaparilla, should be used. 

Psorophtluilm la . 

What is psoroBJithalmiii !* It is nn ioflammatioQ or ulceration of 
tfcfe eyelids; whethor caused by smallpox, measles, scrofula, erysi- 
pelas, or any other cause. 

What are the ^mplotmf Children of serofiilous habit are most 
liable to this disease. The inflammation commences on the edges 
of the lids, and extends along the conjunctiva, with pain and violent 
itching ; suppuratioo and ulceration sometimu occur, and arc very 
troublesome. The Meibomian glands arc always involved, and pour 
out an adhesive fluid. 

What is tie trenlmi'nl? In the early til;ig^, pu^gativ^B and \o^ ' 
diet, with the local application of solutions of acetate of lead, sni* 
phate of zinc, or snlphate of copper. In the chronic stage, the 
ungncDtum hydnr^yri nitrati, applied to the edges of the lida, wiU 
relieve the itching, and dispose the ulcerated snr&oeB to beal. If 
the disease resists every remedy for a long time, bliEters behind the 
ears and a course of mercury may bo tried. 

What is pterygium ? It is a thin membranous expansion, situ- 
ated on the conjunctiva; gCDcrally occupying the inner angle of the 
eye in the shape of a triangle, the apex of which looks towards the 
cornea, and sometimes extends to its centre. A pannus is a ptery- 
gium on eaoh side, which meet in the centre of Ihc cornea. There 
are two varieties, the mrmhmnmis, and rfrj/iy. 


Wbat isdie treatment f Wlian it becomee troublesome it Bhonld 
ba disseotod oB with « pair of onired ecoMon. 


What is eDcanthis? It ib an enkrgement of the lachiTmal ca- 
ninole, and semilunar fold. It is sometimes malignant^ bat it is 
not a freqneat disease. The oaranole presenle a granulated and 
livid appeannoef If the disease oondnne a long time, adjoioiiig 
parts become involTod. 

What is the treatmentt Exdaon of the diseased parts. 

Opacilg of the Ckimea. 

What are the varioUt of opacity of the oomea 1 Nebukt, aUmgo, 

Ifdtula is a superficial opacity [iTodaoed by ohronio ophthalmia, 
and does not entirely interrupt vision. 

Albvgo occupies the lamella or sahstanoe of the oomea; it is of 
a white cv pearl color, often accompanied by ophthalmia, and is 
always the reeult of an effauoo of lymph. 

Leueoma is a dense calloos speck on the cornea, of a pure white 
or chalk color, and has a polished appearance. It is generally 
piodnoed by a weond or nicer. 

What is the treatment f For the first variety astringent oollyria, 
and Buoh other remedies as are proper in cbronio ophthalmia. The 
treatment of albugo is generally difficult, and requires highly stimu- 
lating applieadoos, of which one of the best is the ungnentum by- 
dnrgyri nitrati, applied by a camel's krir pencil to the surfuje of 
the speck, once or twice a day. Washing the eye with diluted 
vin^ar has also been recommended. 

X«nooma is perhaps seldom or never removed by any treatment. 

Ulctr 0/ At Cornea. 

What an the ^/f^plomif It is oommonly the rcsnit of the dif- 
ferent varieties of ophtiialmia. Sometimes it occupies the whole 
cornea, and at others it is a simple cavity not larger than the head 
of a pin, on some particular part of the cornea. 

What is the treatmentT The sore should be gently touched with 

4^ S l< £ R E R Y . 

nitnto of BUrer, until an egcbar fohns on its snrboe; and when it 
drops off, tbe caustic should be renewed. When tJio ulcer assnines 
a beallihy appearance, discontinue the caustic, and ueo mild ooUyria 

or ointmentB. 


What u staphyloma? It is n thickening and opaoity of tbe 
layers of tbe eomea, with a projection of ite anterior aurfaco. It 
may be produced by smallpox, purulent ophthalmia, wounds of llto 
eye, &c. 

What is the treatment^ There is no remedy; except that an 
operation may bo performed to evacuate the humors of the eye, 
which will prevent the pain and inflammation caused by dust And 
other extraneous bodies. Blindness, of oourac, always ezista, whe- 
ther tbo eye is operated on or not. 


What is hypopioQ, and its nymplovitf It is a colleotion of puru- 
lent matter, formed within the posterior or anterior chamber of Ibc 
aqaeous humor. 

There is redness of the conjunctiva, and a yellow spot may be seen 
at the bottom of the anterior chamber, which inoreweB id sise ODtil 
the whole cavity is filled. 

Fain, intolerance of light, la:., are very sevcro. In some oaece, 
the inflammation mibsides, and tbe pus is absorbed. In others, uloer- 
ation and sloughing of the cornea may take place, followed by « 
destruction of tbo eye. 

What is the frcatmenf^ A prompt antiphlogistic course is the 
proper treatment. 

Ifi/tlr"jt>i//ia Im in , 

What ia hydrophthalmia? It is a dropsy of tlie eye, and consists 
in B gradual enlargement of the globe, without, at first, much piiiii 
or injury to vision; but, as the disease advances, there is pain, im- 
paired vj.iion, &e., which may terminate in irritation, suppuration, 
and the loss of the eye. 

What is the treatment? When it is nccumpauied with general 

dropBj, digitalis, Eqnill, ToUtile tjnetnre of gmiacnm, uid calomel, 
may be proper. If the aocnmnlalion it large, paracenteiOB should 
be performed. 

Obliterated Fupil. 

What are the ^pi^lointt The iria beoomea wrinkled, and tlie 
pnpil either entinlj e&oed or oontiaoted to a very email omapasB. 

What is the trtatmeiaf An operatioa dividing a portioa of the 
iris is the onlj [ooper ooune. 

I^raddaitia Iridit. 

What is prooidentis iridia 7 It is a projection of the iris through 
an ulcer or wound of the oomea. The pun and intoleranoe of light 
are ezcesBiTe. 

What is the treatmaU f When it follows a wound of the oomea, 
it may be replaced; but when it prooeeds from an nicer, it cannot be 
retained in its natural situation while the nicer exists. The ulcer 
should be tonohed with the nitnte of nlver, and healed as soon as 

What is cataract, and tlie mfmptomtJ It is an opacity of the ct;^*- 
talline lent, or ita eapiule, or of the Morgania* Jtuid, separately, or 
conjointly. They diftr in color and conn8t«nce. Some are fluid, 
and called milky; others are called gelatinous, caseous, or hard, ac- 
cording to their oondBtenoe. When the oiqisnle is opake, and the 
lens remains transparent, or is absorbed, it is called capsular cataract. 
If a cataract exist from birth, it is called congenital. Meet cataracte 
are of a bluish, or pearl color; some are gray, or green ; others 
while; and in some rare instances black. There are four Tarieties; 
the UnticvJar, eaptttlar, Moiyanian, and the ei^mtlo4enticidar. 

The ^/mptom* are a dimiuulion of sight; objeota appear as if 
enveloped in mist, or smoke; and vimon is very imperfect when 
saddenly exposed to a strong lighL In a dull light the vision is 
improved; and when the lens ie opake, its color will generally in- 
dicate the nature of the disease. The diseases with which it is liable 
to bo confounded are amanrosis and glauooma. 


The catoptric examination gives tha raoet certain diagnostic signs 
of catAToct. When a lighted candle ia hold before a bcalthj or 
amaorotic eye, three distinct images of it may be observed. Firu, 
an erect image, which moves upwards when tlic candle ia moved up- 
wards ; this is caused by reflection from the surface of the oomeo. 
Second, another erect image may be seen produced b; reflection &om 
the anterior surface of the lens, whicb also moves upwards when the 
candle is moved in that direction. TliM, a very small torerted 
image is seen, that movc« downwards when the candle is moved up- 
wards, and ia a reflection from t*-- -"sterior surface of the lens. In 
cataract, this inverted image ia the first rendered indistinct, 

and is soon abolished; and tb" ^ wt one ttoon disappears also. 

What is the treatmenC ion is the only treatment to 

be depended upon. 

What are the ojieraiious in use for cataract? Couching or itf- 
preaion; ar-lractiim; and the absorbent practice. 

The first ia done with a needle, and eonsista in removing tbe 

crystalline lens downwurils and bai'fcwards into the vitreous humor. 

Fiff. M. 


JSxtraOion is perfonQed with a. knife; uid the' opening is .made 
into the oorneft. -M 

The abioTbeiU practice ifl founded upon the solvent power of the 
aqoeons hnmor; the operation Ib to break up the crystalline lens, 
and bring it in contact with the aqneous hnmor in the anterior 
charober. It is done in two wajs : one is to introdnoe the needle 
anterior, and the other posterior to the iris, so that in one caae the 
cornea is penetrated, and in the other the eolerotica. In oil inataDces, 
preriotts to the performance of any operation, the STstem shonld be 
prepared by purging, diet, &o.; and Btramoninm, or belladonna 
ahould be a|^ed to the parts abont the eye. 

Congenital Cataract. 
What is the trealmtnt T An early operation. 


What is amaoroeis, and what are the (ymptomi/ It ia on inaen- 
able state of tbe retina. 

The pupil is changed in color, greatly expanded and irregnlar in 
shape, has tindulating edges, and the etrongeet light prodaccs no 
perceptible oontractios. 

The pupil ia oooaoonally oontraoted, and in some instances its 
motions are partially retuned. The natural lustre of the eye be- 
comes diminbbed, or lost It is easily distinguished irom cataract 
by Ibe catoptric test. 

456 suBQBEr. 

What ia the treatmatt* When it arises from aaj orgcutic defect, 
the probaibUity of afibrdiug relief ie small. If it proceed from ^utrie 
derangement, emetics and pargativea will prove QBefa], followed by 
toaics. ErrbiDcs may also be found beneficial; beginning with the 
milder, and afterwards using the Turpctb mineral combined with 
powdered lifjnoricc. 

Fisluia Lachrj/maltM. 
What is GBtnla kcbr}inalis ? It ie an overfiow of tears prodaccd 
b; an obetruction of the mi^ ^"~' ithcr in consei^uenoe of ac-ulo 
or chronic inflammation, whici )e produced by a great variety 

We should endeavor to remove 

obgtnic \\\ 1 
it m, L ,. .. ; 

liich pan generally be dona : if 
resorted to. This consista in 

passing . 1 

below *>■ 

ict, introducing its point just 
palpebrarnm ; by pres^g it 
until it enters the duct: tho 

remain c ist bo overcome by puaing k 

probe. _- kept open by a catgut or silver 

style, with an enluged end, to prevent it from sinking too deep, and 
of Hufficient length to reach from the cornea of the eye to the ter- 
mination of the nasal duct. It should be removed and cleansed 
from time to time. 


What are the eaiucs of etrabismus? It consiata cither m on over- 
action or paralysis of some of the muscles of the eyeballs, and may 
be con'jcnital, the result of imitation, or produced by gattric, mtet- 
linal, or cerebrai irritation. 

If caused by sympathetic disturbance, the Irailmcnt should be 
purgatives, alteratives, and anthelmintics. Division of the muscle 
will generally relieve the deformity, but not always. The operation 
ia Birople, and easily performed. The head should be supported, the 
eye turned outwards, the lids aepamtod with an elevator (PelJier's 
answers welt), or by the fingers of an assistant. Then catch the 
eye with a double booli, about midway between the edge of the 

conieft and canihnB; raiBe the coDJDiiotiT& &t the notlitui b; a pair 
of forceps, and divide it aloQg with the sabjaoent cellular tietne; 
pass the hlont hook nnder the tendon of the mmolc, laJse this on 
the hook, and divide it with the Missore. 

Remore the doable hook as iood aa the blunt hook is paused. 
The diviaion of the tendon tenninates the operation. SometimeB 
the inleMmtietUttrfiacia, or Bome fibres of the tendon, ma; prevent 
the e^e from beooming straight, in which ease, pass the hook again 
and divide them, taking care not to divide too freelj, or there may 
be reversion of the eje. 

The eye should be jdaoed at rest, and inflammation combated if it 
■rise. If anj exuberant granulations appear, they should be touched 
wilb nitrate of nlver, or clipped off wilh Bdaacm. 

What is hordeolnmf It is a red, inflamed, punful tumor, involv- 
ing one or more Meibomian glands nsnally seated on the lower eye- 
lid, near the inner angle. 

What is the treatment f Pnrgatives, and attention to diet If it 
becomes indolent, apply lunar caustic. 

BnryiUed tumon of tlie Ei/did. 
What ia the titatmentf Estirpation. 

What is entropion? It is an invereioo of the tarsas or its cilia. 

What is the titntmeiU? When there is simply an uniiatunil di- 
rection of the eyelashes, thej should be removed with a pair of 

When the tarsus ia inverteJ, and the skin of the ejclid relaxed, 

there should be an oral piece remoi , and the sides of the woiuid 

brought together. Other operatione are alao practised. 


What ia eetropion? It is the reverse of entropion; the eyelid 
being turned outnords instead of inwards. 

Wliat is the trmlmeit? A portion of the lid of the shape of the 
letter V should be removed from tho outer angle; the thickened 
conjunctiva should then be dlsseirted off, and the edges of the wound 
brought together with a fine suture. 

Diseases or the Nose and Antrusi. 
PoJyptit of the Note. 

Where are polypi of the nose generally attached? They may 
arise from any portion of tho Schneiderian membrane; but are 
mostly attached to the superior, or inferior spongy bones, and ara 
not malignant. 

What is tho treatment? They should he removed with the 
polypus forceps by a twisting motion rather than by pulling in a 
straight line. To prevent their return after removal, the application 
of the white precipitate ointment, softened, and applied by means 
of a brush, to the part from which the polypus has been removed, 
is highly recommended by Sir U. Brodic. 

What is oscenaT It is ao ulceratioD of the lioiDg membrane of 
the noBtrils, having a feljd discharge, and sometimes followed hj 
destracdoii ot the cartilages and bones of the nose. 

What is the trtatmeiuf Bark, iron, mineral acida, muriate of 
lime, sorsaparilla, and antimony have been recommended. If there 
is a syphilitic tunt connected with it, mercury will be proper. Lo- 
cally, a solution of opinm and acetate of lead may be used with 

J^ngut or Ihfyptu of the Anlnan. 

What an the tjfnqHonu / It is generally a formidable afiection. 
The tumor sprouls from the lining membrane of the antrum, and 
grows until it fills the whole cavity ; pain ia then experienced in the 
cheek and eye of the afiected side, and the Isoe becomes enlarged. 
These symptoms are followed by distortion of the noee, projection 
of the eye, enlargement of the gums, profuse discharges of sanious 
matter, &o. 

What is the IreatnunUT As soon as the nature of the disease ia 
asoertuned, it should be completely removed. 


Lahium Ltporijium, or Bare-Lip. 

What are the varietiet of hare-lip ? The nnffle and the double. 

What ia the treatmentf An operation. Some snrgeona recom- 
mend that we should operate immediately afler birth, or within a 
few weeka, others thst we should wait until the child is two or three 
years old, or after the period of the first dentition. It ia often com- 
bined with a defidenoy in the palate and maxillaiy bones ; in which 
case their closure is more perfect with an early operation. The 
prindpal danger of an early operation is a liability to convulsions. 
The operation consists in paring tbc edges of the fissure in the lip, 
and bring them in contact by the iDterruptcil suture, or pins and 
figure of 8 bondage. 

410 SVRGE&t. 

Wlukl is naola ? It is an obetmetioa of one or more of the daets 
of tbe anbljngaal gUodg, and gi«c8 rise to « tumoi- or cysL 

What ifl the irtatmtiUT Iaj the cnt open ftee);, sod remove 
a portioa of it vitb idBors. 8cnne4Jin«3 the applicatioii of ««iutic 

JUat/ormitlKHi o/ the Fraenum Linguae. 

What is the maJforniatuni of the firsranm tinguie !* It is some- 
times too short, so aa to prevent E^ncking. 

What U the lnatm«nlf A etight diTtson of the fnenam, which 
should be done carefulljr, so u to avoid hemoriha^, ^d also not to 
aUow the tongue to full baekwuds into the pharynx. 

Eiilari/ed ToTuilt. 

What are the tympl^m* ? A hoarse, hnsky voice, BBoring during 
sleep, exceesirc wheezing when laboring nnder cold ; and apou in- 
Bpection they will be foaod to be enlarged. 

Wbat is the Irealmtnl? Bemoral either with the knife or Uga- 

What irutrumenU are nsed for removing them t Fahnestock'a, 
Pbysick's iuBtramcQt modified by Gibeon, and Cbamberlin'a excisor, 
the latter of which is to be preferred. 

Ehmjation of the Vrula. 

What are the ^mplomif Irritation abont the throat, natiaea, 
vomiting, and baemoptysis in gome eases. 

What is the treatment 7 Removal with a hook and common 
Bciasors, or other suitable instrument. 

EjrulU, or Txhcrck ../the Gum,. 

What are the tym]A'/mt,? It is often a malignant form of tumor, 
which sprouts from tLe sockets of ibe incisor tcctb of the upper juw, 
or from the gum between teeth. 

What is the Irealmenl? Kxtirpation in its vcryincipiency is the 
only chance for a permanent eurc. 


What diseases are included under this head F Lodgment of 
/oreiffii hodiet m the pharynx, larynx, trachta, and atopkaffui; 
ttriclure of the aaophagu*; ttlceration of the ghttisj bronchocde; 
vjry neck, 4o. 

Extraneout hodiet in the (Exiphagut. 

In what manner maj extraneons bodieB in the cesopfaagas prodace 
death ? By producing spasmodio action of the mnBcIeH of the glot- 
tis ; from distension of theoeeophagos so as to press upon the trachea, 
and close it ; or by producing inflammation or gangrene from the 
cootinned pressure; or bj violent attempts in removing them. 

What is the treatment f When the substance is large, it gene- 
rally sticks in the pharynx, from which it may be removed by the 
finger, or a pair of forceps. Articles that can be digested, provided 
they have no hard, rough points, should be pushed into the stomach 
by a probang, unless they can be eodly reached. Coins and sharp 
ragged bodies should bo extracted by forceps, probang, hook, or some 
other contrivanoe, when practicable ; but when it is not^ they should 
be pushed into the stomach. 

When it becomes necessary to push any of these articles into the 
stomach, purgatives and mucilaginous draughts should bo taken. 
Dr. Fhynck prescribed boiled rice in large quantities, for the purpose 
of defending the coats of the stomach. 

Stricture of the (Efophayui. 
How are they divided f Into tpatmodic and permanent, which 
ore sometimes combined. Its most common seat is at the com- 
mencement of the oesophagus. 

What are the tymptomif Difficulty of swallowing, pain in the 
stomach, nausea, troublesome eructations, and pain in the fauces. 

What is the trtatmcntf Bougies, with or without lunar caustic. 

In the spasmodic variety, caniphnr, npiurii, and ctlier are serviceable. 


Remorai n/ extriinsmi hodiafrom the Larynx and S 

What operations are perfonaeiJ f >r this parpose F 
and trifheoUrm^. 

The former is the one gcncnillj adopted. 

la perfonuiDg tliii operation, Bhoidd the inct^oa be made &t ooet 
into the liirynx ? No ; the integuments eboald first be divided, and 
the hemorrhage cntirclj stopped ; then the crico-thyroid membrane 
may be divided. 

In what other cases are laijngotomy and tmcheotomj resortett (oT 
Sometimes from substances lodged in the cesopLagiis, for cronp, teg 
enlargement of the tongue and tonsils, ulceration of the glottis, && 

Bronchoctit, or Goitre. 
What is broncbocelef It is an enlargemcat of the whole, or a 
part, of the thyroid gland. Its causes are not satjsfactoiily uoder- 

Wbat is the treatment? Iodine, inl^rnally and cxternoDy. 

TortimllU, or Wry Neek. 

What Uc the cavta? Contraetions of the platysma myoides, or 
Bturno-clcido-niastoidous, cicatrices of bums, pnrilysis, Ac. 

What is the irealmenlf When it prooeeds from morbid Mm- 
traction of the rouBclea, they shonld be divided, and the head brongbt 
into a proper position. 


What is hernia? It is a protmsion of any of the contents of the 
abdometi, covered by peritoneum, through the parietes of the nb- 

What arc the <Ui!miint of hernia ? Hernia is divided into refiu- 
cUile, irreilvcihh, and tirani/iihiteJ. It may also be termed, from 
its conlonls, enleroce/e, cpipl'Kde) and fiilero-epiplocde. 

Jlaluci'blc hernia is when it is easily replaced. 

Irralacihle bemia, when there is permanent protrusion. 

Slningvlated hernia, when the parts are confined by stricture. 

ihileiixele, when the protrusion consists of intesline. 

Epipiorele, when it oonsists of omentum. 

EnUro-tp^toale, vhm it etmaUti at intMtiBa ind (HEestun to- 

Thera ue idfo punea given £n>m tlie posititq) the; oocnpj. 

BubotioceU, or inguinal bivniK. 

OieAeocA, « aorotal h^iti*. 

MtraetU, vnatX op famontl Iteniia. 

MeomfAalot, or wbilioal lurnia. 

CoHgentlai, whao it e^iato at birth. 

TaUralj when the protrudoD oooun in difierent parte (tf the ab- 
domen without reference to natural openings. 

Ventnhinffitiaalf vhev thare ia a oomhinatJon of the two varieties. 

Whmt is the KM of a iwniaT It ia the peritoneal investment 
which smroonda the protraded viaoen. That portiim ooBunimioat- 
ing direotlj with the ■bdoiwn ia called ite month ; thatportiea meet 
remote is its fdndna; and ^ part aammnded bj the aperture in 
the tendinous parietes, tha neck. 

What an the cmua of beniia J The exiting oaoses are aevere 
exerciae, lifting heavj weights, playing on wind instnuoents, vomit- 
ing, ooetiveness, coughing, jumping, &o. 

The predupomg are hereditary conformation, and pretonatuial 
lazitj of the abdominal parietes. 

What are the yn^Annj of redncible hernia? The tumor de- 
Boenda in the erect poeition, and retiree by gentle prevora, or a le- 
oumbent poetius. 

If the aao oontuna intaiine, ita reduction ia accompanied by 
gurgling; the tnmor will also have a tense, elastic feel. Omentum, 
on the contraiy, ooauBunicatea a donghy lensation, and ia restored 
to the abdomen with greater difficulty. lUdndble hernia is larger 
after a meal, and an impulse is communicated to the Anger when 
the patient is directed to cough. 

There ia generally mora or less disorder of the digestive e^ns. 

What are the cavta of a hernia becoming irreduoiblef It may 
arise from adhesion between the sac and itaeontenta} ftom mem- 
branooi bands ; and from extraordinary enlargnnents of the omentum 
or iucreasc in the volume of intestinea. Slow inflammatiDn is the 
most frcqueut cause of hernia being changed from the reducible to 
the irreducible condition. 

Whit are the ^mp^mit of straogalated bernia? Id adifiUoti to 
Lhc other sjniptomg of hernia, there b obstdoate costJveDesa, general 
Boreness of the abdomen, pun aitnmd the navel, sickness of ibc 
rtomacli, and severe pain In the tamar. These Bjmptoin& may be 
followed by bilioos or stercotaceons vomiting, hiccup, quick, hard 
pulse, cold sweats, and great ansictj of coaatenaiice. If relief is 
not obtained, the poise becomes thready, the pattent easy, the tmnor 
crackles when pressed upon, and asnmes a leaden color; enonnoui 
dist«nBimi of the abdomen takes pbice, the pulse becomes fluttering, 
and death ensacs. 

What is the Ei?ncrd trralmttit of beniiaT For rediicthle hernia, 
an appropriai ■ -"T^per tre*i ^nt; and the patient shoalil 

never be < "f ret 5 the tomor. 

For i, -"miflop ' the tamor by a bag truss, 

and strict i iha m be done. 

For sir horrii prone remedies are bloodletting, 

purging, c mi imonlaUons, ponltices, cold, 

the taxis, tjirtai iections, nnd an o[icration. 

J Tmil Jln-nla. 
ngs do the contents of on ingoinal hernia 
pass J Through the internal abdominal 

ring, inguinal c&nal, and the external abdo- 
minal ring. It may be obliqiie, as when it 
follows the course of the spermatic cord ; or 
dirrt:!, as when it docs not follow the course 
of the cord, and is not therefore covered by 
the cremastcr muscle, but bursts through the 
conjoined ttndon of the inttmal oblitiUL and 
transversjlis muiclci opposite the eslcmal 

Suppose a dihscctinu la madi. rf the 
coverings and contc.ut>" of an m^iml 
hernia cimmcncing at the pltin, what will 
wf, find' The mtcgumenla huperCiml 
fusel I, crcraaster muscle, hernial sic, orain 
turn, or iiitistinc, or both 

Through what opci 


How is the opendon for ingoiiial faemia performed J The patimA 
should lie on his baok, kneei uid shotdden elevated ; the migeon, 
standisg in a eonTenient pontion, shoold nuke an indaion through 
the Bkin over the neok and bodj of the tnmor, its vpptr iB MlMMMy 
being near midnvy tM^weon the anterior saperiOT wfbwmt jntmt it 
the ilinm and the taboroeity of the pnbee, and its lower alwnt midway 
of the loratviB ; oAX^dwde tbe«^1lli?i>)«i>>baitw,Aa.,M>H to )r,j 
bare the wK^ iji tIw^ vuii» A cmII ^p«fiim M>tioni)7; 9t4 tbM 

Fig. «■ 



Fig. 64. 

lay it open freely with a probe-pointed bistonry ; pass tbe apex of the 
fiwefinger of the left hand to the neok of the sac, and the bistouiy laid 
flat upon it; the latter should be inrinuated cautiously beneath the 
stricture; which must be divided by turning the edge and pushing it 

Fig. 65. 

upwards and forwards, so as to cut the anterior part of the sac and 
other structures assisting in tho formation of the stricture : the knife 
being withdrawn, the bowel should be pushed gently upwards until 
it reaches the abdomen; then stitch the wound and cover with a 
thick {MToad compress, which should be retained by means of a roller. 

How is inguinal hernia distinguished from hydrocele? The 
tumor of hernia commences above or at the external abdominal 
ring, and descends towards the scrotum ; whereas, hydrocele com- 
mences below, and gradually ascends. 

How is it distinguished from drsocdef Place the patient in a 
horizontal position, press firmly on the upper part of the ring, then 
direct him to rise ; when, if it be cirsocele, the tumor will reappear, 
with an increase of size ; on the contrary, hernia will not show itself 
until the finger be removed. 

What is meant by concealed inguinal hernia ? It is a hernia con- 
tained within the canal leading from the internal to the external 


Iq operating for ingmnsl twniik, what paria aie divided f Thg 
iotegumente, superficial fascia, oremaster muacle, and the sac. 

Where is the teat of strioture Id inguioal hernia? In very old 
and lai;ga ones the external tiog, but in recent gbbcb the intenial 
ring; these striotoreg should be divided upwards in all cases so as to 
avoid wounding the epigastric artery. 

Femoral ffemia. 

Throngh what opening are the contents of a femoral hernia pro- 
truded f BeoeaUi Fonparfs ligament, through the crural ring. 

How is the lisg boundtdf On the outer or iliaa side by the 
femoral veia; on the inner or pabic side b; Gimbemat's ligament; 
anteriorly by Poupacf s lif^diMit^ and posteriorly by the pobes. 

In diaseeting a fem<x«l hernia oommeuoing at the bend of the 
thigh, what part* will be presented? The int^uments, superficial 
fkaoia, &aoia propria, whioh was origioally loose cellular membrane, 
occupying the orifice of the eniral ring, and the hernial sae. 

What is the tre^mattt For rtducibltf an appropriate truss. 

For itranffulatid, the treatment must accord with the general 
prindples proper in hernia. 

Where are the ptnnta of Btrictore of femoral bemia ? At Bey's 
ligament, in the crura] sheath, at Oimbemat's ligament, or at the 
mouth of the bbo. In dividing these strictures, the knife should be 
turned upwards, and slightly inwards in making the incision. If 
turned ontward, the oiural vein and epigastric artery might be in- 
jured, or, if too bi inwards, the obturator artery may be endan- 

How is the operation for femoral hernia performed? The patient 
should bend the thigh upwards on the pelvis, lie in a horizontal 
position with the ohest elevated. An inoision should be made three 
inches long over the tumor, the dissection should be done cautiously, 
and, whatever may be the thickness of the coverings, they must be 
divided ; when the sao is opened, the finger should be passed to the 
stricture with the (wobe-pointed bbtoury advancing beyond it, and 
turned towards the stricture in such a manner as U> make an inci- 
sion sufficient to admit of the reduction of the contents of the sac. 

VmbHical Hernia. 

Thioagli *bat opening do the contente of ombilical hernia pn- 
T ' ! umbilical ring, either &t its centre or edges. 

OB the outer covering of congenital ombillcal hcrtiia! 

S oe membrane that oonnecta the veBsels of the cOT<d ; (he 

inner, or eac, is a portion of peritoneum. 

What forms the covering of the protruded Tiscora of young snt 
jccts and adults in nmbilical hernia? The common integuments, 
saperficial fascia, and peritoneal coat. 

What is the irealmeittl The congenital variety, anVsa there t» 
Bomo considerable deficiency of paris or morbid complicatioBs, mij 
bo often cured by a handle ; or by reducing the int«atiiies, and sof. 
rounding the bbo with a firmly draint ligature, so as to prodwe 
sloughing, and cause the edgea of the ring to cicatrize. 

For umbifical hernia of young subjects and adults, a properly con- 
trived truss is the proper treatment; or a small comprefs, retained in 
its proj^er place by a bandage or adhesiTc straps, 

Fot ttrangviated umbitical hernia, the usual remedies shonld be 
VMi, foA, if tiiey fml, on operation mast be rcBOH«d to. 

Comgmital Inguinal Smna. 

In whbt feBjKol does eongenital hernia diffef from comtnon ingtti- 
naif It is dMtitute of a distinct peritoneal aU, in being lodged in 
the tanica fiiginalit in contact with the testicle, and the epenaatie 
Mrd and artei7 lie behind the hernia. 

What is the treatment? A nell-contrived tmss, and, when stran- 
golated, on operation may be required unless relieved by the osn^ 

Ardjicial Anns. 

From what docs it proceed ? A mortified int^Btlnc in strangulated 
hernia ; in which case the sound portion adheres to the neck of the 
sac, the portion protruded sloughs, is thrown off, and the feces are 
discharged externally; it may also be caused by a penetrating wound, 
or an abscess or ulceration of the inU;BtineB. 

What is the tr«atmeiif ? Nature often effects a cure; jt is not 

best therefore to be too officioiu in the euly stogea, but nmply &p< 
ply a trun wiUi a broad pad to the opening which will retun the 
feces. In this disease, the upper and lower portion of intestine 
lie side b; nde ; and a very ingeoiooB operation wu soggest^d and 
piactised sncoenfiilly by Dr. Phjaick ; the prindple of which is, to 
produce adhedoo between these two portions, then divide the barrier 
between them, and by that means establish a commnnicatioa between 
the upper and lower portions, and suffer the external opening to 
close. This adhesion was prodnoed by passing a crooked needle 
armed with a ligature withio the orifice of one gut, and bringing it 
out at the other, traversing in its passage the coals of each ; the ends 
of the ligature were tbeo tied in a loose loop. 


Pn^ptut Am. 

What are the caittet of prolapsus ani, or iDverrion of the lining 
membrane of the rectam ? Habitual costiveness, stnuning at stool, 
diarrhoea, dyscm^ry, hemorrhoids, strictures, stone, drastic purga- 
tives, ktt. 

What is the tttattnentf The parts should be returned as soon as 
possible by gentle pressure. If there is much inflammation, blood- 
letting, general and local, mild cathartics, cold poultices, astringent 
washeo, Ac, should first be resorted to. Where the parts become 
indunted, and incapable of redaction, it may become necessary to 
remove them, either with the ligature or knife. 

Htmo rrhoids. 

What are hemorrhoids 1 They are tumors situated about the 
rectam, sometimes distinguished as interna/ and external, from their 
situation; htind and Ueeding, according as they are attended or not 
with hemorrhage. 

They may oonsist of varicose enlargemeata of veins, or from blood 
poured into cysts farmed by cellular membrane, or from a more or- 
ganized growth. 

What is the trcalmenlf To palliate urgent or present symptoms, 
recourse may be had to leeches, cold astringent washes, aBtrinrent 


ointmento, net, &o. Thej may, by becoming large and tronbleeome, 
or irroducible, require aa opemtion, either by tlie knife or ligature 
Whea tbey conaist of varicose enlargcmcnls, the ligature sboold 
always bo used ; on the contrary, in the othtir kinds, the knife may 
be proper. 

Futaiii in Ano. 

What is fistnia ia ano ? It is an abaccsa about tbe verge of the 
auuE, with ODO or more Bmall openings. If the opening comniiiiii- 
outcB vith the reetuin, and not with the integumcnte, it is called in- 
ttmal fistula; if it opens upon the Barliteo of the integaments, it b 
an external fistula ; and if there ie an opening both internal and ex- 
ternal, it ia called a compfete fistula. 

What is the treatment ? Absolute rest, moderate diet, and mild 

When the diaeose is long establiiihcd, an operation becomes ne- 
cessary, unliisa oonsnmptiou exists, in which cu£e the fistula ought 
not to be healed. 

''A better and easier mode of performing the opera^on is by pass- 
ing a grooved director (hrough the stricture, ugniiipt or into the in- 
testine ; then pass into the rectum a smooth rounded stick, like a 
rectum bougie, the size of the thumb, the stiek having a groove upon 
one side as wide as the finger ; this being passed up and held firmly 
by an assistant, the surgeon lakes the director and impinges it firmly 
against the groove in tbe stiek ; be now takes a sbarp-poinled knife, 
and runs it forcibly down the groove of tbe director ; the moment 
it comes in contact with the rectum stick, be makes a strong incision 
outwards against this, and thus divides the fistula at one sweep. 
This operation is pcrfunned in half the titiic that the other if, and 
with much less pain to the patient, and greater convenience to the 
surgeon. Any one who performs the operation once this way will 
not he likely to employ tbe other mode. The French surgeons, 
many of them, after dividing the fistula, dissect out its walls ; thus 
cutting out a tube of the indurated soft parts." — llaithiijn' Suiyvry. 


What ifl bjr4n>oele ? It is a collection of water in the tunios 
Tugiiulia ; and forms an elastic pyriform tamor, which at first oocn- 
pies the lower part of the scrotnm, and gradnallj extends opwardi. 

What ia the tmtmeiUf An operation is genaratlj required; and 
is either palliative or radical. 

The palliative operation is simply the evacnatJon of the fioid by 
a lancet or small trocar. 

The operation for radical cure may be performed by laying open 
the tnuioa vaginalii; by paaaing a seton through it; by applying 
caustic; by extirpating a part of the tunica Tagioalis; by the intro- 
duction of a tent; and by injection, after the water has been eva- 

The last operation is the one nsually performed, and generally 
with success when properly done. There are several different arti- 
clea made nse of for the purpose of injection. 



How is the operation for tapping in hydrocele performed ? The 
sorotura should be seised in the left hand, raised and eqaeczed, so 
OS to render the akiu tense in front; the point of the trocar, held in 
the right hand with the forefinger close upon it, should be thrust 
into the front of the swelling midway between the ends. Wheo 
eQtfiredj the Sngcr mast be raised; und as the trocar is withdmwD 
the otnula should bo pushed farther in, nhcre it should be allowed 
to remain until the fluid has run off. When injections are used, 
thej may be introduced tbrougli the canula. 

What ia hamatooelef It is a colleotioD of blood, tttLar in tbo 
tnnioa va^nalia testis, within the tniiioa albuginea, at !n tlio oelhiW 
membnune of the Borotam. It may proceed from injory of ons or 
more of the bloodTeaaela of tlio scrotam. 

What ia the trtatmentf If the extnvasalaon ia amall, it will 
probably be ab«oH>$d in a short time. If it ii not, an iDouion 
abould be made, and the blood eraooated. 


What is phymosisf It is where the prepuce is contracted in 
front, and cannot he drawn over the gkns penis. 

There are two varieties ; the jiatuTal, when it exists at birth; and 
the prelfrnalura/, when it occurs at any other period of life. 

What is the (realment? An operation; either by slitting up the 
prepuce, or removing a small portion bj circumcision. 

In preternatural, when attended with high infiammation, the best 
reniediea are local bleeding, emollient poultices, fomentations, &c. 

What is parapbyinosis? It is where the prepuce is firmly re- 
tracted behind the corona, leaving the glans penis uncovered, and 
sometimes producing great conslrietion and swelling. It may be 
congenital or acquired. 

What is the irmfment? Cold, the antiphlogistic course, and 
steady pressure kept up for several minutes. In estreme circum- 
stances, the stricture must be divided. 


D1BBABX8 OS TBI Ubtthba and Bladdeb. 
Stricture of the Urethra. 

How are the; dividedf Into pemuuient, BpoBmodio, and a com- 
bination of the two. * 

What put IB the common seat of Btrictore? Usnally behind the 
bulb, abont seven inches from the extretnit; of the glans; also, at 
the distance of four or five inches, and three and a half inches; 
sometimes the oriGoe iteelf is the seat of striotnre. 

What are the ^/mptonuf The oonstitational Hjmptoms are dis- 
order of the digestive fonctions, general irritebility, severe chiUa, 
followed by high fever, and profdse perspiration ; the febrile pana- 
yam is not, however, an invariable ittendont. 

The local symptoms are a slight discharge of matter from the 
nretiint; a freqnentdesira to urinate; the nrine issues in drops, or in 
a fOTked, twisted, wiry, or thread-tike stream; nocturnal emissitmsj 
scalding of the urine, &e. Kxoess in eating, drinking, and cold, 
aggravate all these symptoms. 

What is the treatmtntf The first object is to ascertain the por- 
tion and extent of the strictnre; which may be done by a bougie, 
catheter, or urethra sound. 

There an three methods of cure. Dilatation by bougies, destruc- 
tion by eaastics, and division by a stilet. 

FUtuta in Perinw. 

What is fistula in perineo? It is an absoess communicating ex- 
ternally, and with the urethra internally. It may proceed from 
strictures of the urethra, or from blows or other injuries. 

What is the trtatmmt? If it depend upon stricture, the first 
indication is to get rid of that; if the canal anterior to the fistula 
becomes obbtorated, it can only be accomplished by an operation. 
When t^ fistula is pervious, it should be dilated with bougies, or 
snch other means as the case may require. 

Retenlion and Tiicoiilineiirc of L'riae. 
What are the caiuea of retention of urine? Seven 


Btriotares of the urethra, enlarged prostate, apaam of the neok of (3m 
bladder, stotie, hemorthoids, fistula in ano, stimulatiog diuretice, 
blisters, &c. 

What are tbe remedia for retention of urine? The warm batk, j 
bloodletting, purgatives, opiate enemata, the catheter, forced iujoo- % 
tions to overcome obstructions, and pancture of the bladder. 

The following plan ia reoommenJed by M. Cazenave, and pnb- 
lished in Rank!n</'s Abslrart, No. 10, December, 1849. 

"When called to a patient bbonng under complete or incompleta 
retention of tirine, I immediately cause the large bowel to be empuo) 
by an oily clyster, or prescribe a purgative one, if there bas been no 
motion, for fifteen or eighteen houra. When tbc 6ret clyster has 
been returned, I make use of another, lesa in bulk, of cold water, or 
(what ia better) bladders, filled with ronghly-pounded ice, are plaoed 
around tbe penis upon tbe perineum, thighs, anus, and bypogastrium. 
If the patient do not pass more or less water, after half an boar of 
this treatment, I have him laid on the edge of tbc bed with a water- 
proof cloth under him, and then subject him fur twenty or twenty- 
five minutca to a cold ascending douche, in a smajl continuoua streaoo. 
At the end of this time I give another eold lavement, and continue 
reftigeranta, and in an hour I have generally been rewarded by 

When it is neoeasarj to puncture (he bladder, it should be done 
either through the perineum, above the pubea, or through the rectum; 
the operation of puncturing above tbe pubcs is the one generfttlj 

How are these difierent operations per/hrmetlf When opened 
above the pubes, lay the patient on a table, ahoutdera and kneea 
alightly raised; make an incision about three inches long above the 
aymphysia, through the skin and Hnea alba, when the cellular tissue 
in front of the bladder will be e.ipoaeJ, and this organ may be 
opened with the point of a knife, or, what is better, with a trocar 
and cannla; the canula or an elastic catheter should remain in the 
wound for some days. If the opening is made in the perineum, it 
may be done as in lithotomy. 

If it is done through the rectum, a curved trocar and canula, 
about seven inches long, should be introduced into the rectum on 

SCEOBfiT. 475 

the ooneavitj of the forafinger of the right hand; the ptnot should 
be plftced on the triangular epoce behind the prostate ; and then be 
forced thtongfa the tnuics of the rectum and bladder, and the trocar 
vithdrawn; when the nrine will flow throngh the tnbe; a flexible 
catheter may be introduoed throngh the oanola, and allowed to re- 
main. Qreat cue should be taken not to introdnoe the instrnment 
high enough np to wound the peritonenm, which might be fatal. 

What is the treatment for ineoniinence of urine? The internal 
use of oantharides, mnriated tincture of iron, bark, opium, cold 
bath, and bliaten, either einglj or conjoined, in such manner as 
may be indicated. 

UrinaTj/ CalcuJut. 

Where are urinoij calculi ^^unefif In the kidney, ureter, bladder, 
prostate gland, or urethra, but they are mostly foand in the bladder. 

Whfttare the^^j>tom«of stoneinthe bladder? Frequent desire 
to make water, and severe pain on voiding the last drops of it; sud- 
den stoppage of the urine while passing, sod flowing again frequently 
by change of posture; and tenesmus. Sounding is, however, the 
only positive symptom, and should always be done before a course 
of treatment is adopted. 

What is the treatment for nrinary calculus ? When there is a 
calcaloB passing the ureter, decisive treatment should be adopted. 
Blood should be drawn fieely if the patient is robust, and a brisk 
purge given ; the warm bath and spirits of turpentine, or spirits of 
turpentine and opium, may be used with benefit ; the tincture of the 
pc^beny juJoe has also been recommended. When the bladder 
eootains a stone, the operation of lilhofomy, lilhotrity, or iilholrip^ 
must be performed. 

What drcomstances are considered adverte to the,success of lilho- 
Iritjf f The smallness of the diameter and greater irritability of the 
nrathra before puberty ; or sny obstruction to the free psssage of in- 
stmments, as strioture, enlarged prostate, &o. ; a sacculated cooditton 
of the bladder ; and an unusually irritable condition of the urethra 
or bladder. 

What circumstances are considered as favorable for its employ- 
ment? A large and callous urethra, a capaoions an'' ■nnthetic 


bt»]der, tritli a gnodiDuscnkTpowcr; a health j proslite, and > smalt 
or moderately uzed stoae. 

The iDstrumcnte for pcrfonuiog this operation are varions, some 
Eurgeons preferring one, and eome another. 

Under what eireumEtancee should UOiolomg be preferred 1 Always 
(when any operation is performed,) where the ctrcumetsocea esbl that 
are adrerBe to the success of lithotrity; although the existence of 
these only give a negative advantage to liiliotomy. 

In what manner should the operatdoa of lithotomy be perfonned ? 
The patient should be placed in a favorable <>onditiQn for the opera- 
tion, the perineum shonld be shaved, a clyster of warm water admi- 
nistered aD hour before, and hia urine should aUo be retained for that 
period at least. A firm table and a chair of tbe proper height abouM 
be selected, and all the apporiitus should be in perfect order, and 
placed eo 03 to be easily procured when wanted. The first Bt^ ia 
W) iutrodaeo the staff, which should be as large as can be done with 
ease ; and having the groovo pret^cutud a little to the left side of tlu! 
urethra ; the atone should then be felt with the instrument, and the 
latter given in charge of an assistant. Tbe patient should next be 
securi^d ; a piece of brnad worsted tape, three yards long, should bo 
doubled and formed into a loop, which should be fastened od the 
wrists; he should bo directed to grasp the outer margin of the feet; 
the ends on each side should then be passed ronnd each hand and 
foot, so es to secure tbem firmly. Two assistants, one at each knee, 
will be required to support them and hold the thighs properly apart 
The breech should be placed at tbe margin of tbe table. The assist- 
ant should bold tbe staff in the left band nearly perpendicular, with 
the concavity of tbe curve resting on the upper part of the triangular 
ligament; and he should draw tlic scrotum bliglitly upwards and a 
little to tbe rigbt side, and he should stand on the right of the pa- 
tient. The Rurgcnn should bo seated in front of llic perineum ; the 
condilion of the prostato should bo examined, and the exact situa- 
tion of the rami of the pulics, and iMcbium, and the tuberosity should 
be traced. Tbe knife ruconiracndcd by Fcrgusson should be used, 
and held much in the manner of a euuinmn biptnury. The point 
should be entered about one inch and three-fourtiia in front of (be 
anus, about a line's breadth left of the raphe, puHlied through the 


skin, and canjed by a kind of nwing motion down to tlie left aide 
of thu pcrinenm, about on incb beyond the anus ; the middle of the 
incision being at equal distances from the latter part and the tnbero- 
Bity ; the blade should then he run along the enrface of the exposed 
cellular tissue ; the forefinger of the lefl hand should be thrust down 
into the wound, and placed upon the memhranous portion of the 
urethra; if resistance b offered, the resisting parts should be divided 
by the knife. The groove in the staff being felt by the finger, the 
knife should be pasaed along it, and made to perforate the urethra 
about three lines ia front of the prostate, and then slid along the 
groove until it has entered the bladder, having slit open the side of 
the urethra and notched tlie niar^n of the prostate. If the stone 
is supposed to be la^, the opening in the bladder should be enlarged 
slightly on withdnwiog the knife. The forefinger of the left hand 
should be gently introduced into the bladder along the staff, so as to 
dilate the parts, and, when in the bladder, to search for the stone 
and to retun it near the neok. The staff should then be removed 
by the aMistaDt, and the forceps introduced slowly and oareftilly, aa 
the finger is removed ; the stone should then be aeiied and extracted 
by a slow, ngaog movement; which being done, the operation Is com- 
pleted. The interior of the bladder should be examined by the finger 
or a proper instrument, so as to ascertain whether there are any 
others remuning. The patient, being loosed, should renuun in bed 
either on hid back or right side. The after-treatment should be regu- 
lated by orcumatances. The wound generally closes in about three 
weeks, sometimes earlier and at other times later. — Ihyumm. 


What are the injnriee for which Amputation is resorted to t Oun- 
Aot wouftdi andfractuTa, Tttvrti/iealum, tumon,dUea»edjoinU, and 

What droumstanoeB influence us in regard to the propriety of am- 
putation in gutuhot inoaadi and fracturet f When the chief arteries 
of a limb are divided, the muscles lacerated, and the bones badly 
broken, amputation should be performed ; also when complicated 
with severe injury of the joints. 


What /umim may render amputation neoessfiry ? Osteosarcoma, 
spina veDtosa, esostosia, fungas hataatodce, &o. 

What are the different model of jutrfortnjng ampatation ? Bj the 
drcjiJar incision, and by what is tenned the flap operation. Some 
surgeons prefer one mode, and some the other. 

How is the cireidar iiperatiim performed ? An aasistant, or the 
left hand of the operator, should grasp the limb and retract the skin 
as iar aa possible ; the knife should then be made to encircle the 
limb, the edge sinking through the skin ; the intoguments should be 
further retracted, and parte preventing this should be divided; the 
knife should be made to sweep round the limb ng:uD close to tbe 
retracted gkin, to the depth of about half an inch or more thitragfa 
the Qponearosis and superficial muscular fibres : the parts aiioald be 
still further rclroot«d, and the knife again applied so as to divide all 
the muscles and textures down to the bone; a retractor Bbould then 
he applied t.i the part so aa to cover the wound, (two ends, if one 
bone ; and three, if two bones,) and drawn firmly upwards ; and any 
muscle adhering to the bone and preventing retraction ehoold be 
divided close to the clotb, at which point the saw should bo applied 
to the bone. Great care should bu taken to procure suEGcicnt soft 
ports to efiectually cover the end of the bone. The wonnd should 
then be dressed aft^r the arteries are secured in such a manner as to 
produce union by the first intention, and the line of junction may 
be transverse, vertical, or oblique, according to the fancy of the sur- 
geon ; the parts should then be retained by stitches, straps, and 

This description is a general one, and will apply to any of the 
limbs on which the circular operation may bo performed. 

How is amputation at the Sftoiililcr-juini performed by the Jiiijt 
operation f There are several modes recommended; some make 
vertical flaps, while otjiers form horizontal ones. A good mode is 
to make a semilunar incision from a little behind the root of the 
acromion towards the coracoid process, and thus make a fiap from 
the skin and deltoid; which being ntised, the joint may be opened 
from above ; and another fiap preserved from the rpmaining parts 
below the hone. The arteries should then be secured, and the wound 
dressed in the usual way. (Fig. (ST.) 


How is amputation above the elbow performed ? The elbow Ehonld 
be scparihKl from tba side, and a. tourniquet applied, or preseore 
made with the hands; the arms should be traDsfixed thrws inches 
above the external condyle with a Boitable knife, which should be 
carried obliquely downwards and forwards, so as to make the inner 
surface of a semilunar flap two or three inches in length; divide 
the opposite side in the Eamo manner; draw the tno flaps upwards, 
pass a knife around the hone, which sliould next be sawa through, 
aod the removal is flnished. The arteries should be secured, and the 
flaps brought in contact and retained bj the proper dressings. (Fig. 

IIow at the Elbow-join 
hrough the soft parte on 

ilunar incision should be maiic 
r and upper part obliquely lo- 

6DBQBET. 481 

wirda the jmnt, which must be oat into; bend the limb bMkwirds 
BO as to allow the knife to be carried mtobs to the pmtenor nirfaoe, 
where ft flap most be left, which, with that in front, will ooret the 
slump ; in forming the posterior flap, the triceps must be cut through, 
or else the olecnnoD prooen divided with the saw or foroepa. 

How is ampntadon of the fbrearm performed? The elbow 
slightl; bent, the hand pronated; pass a blade about aiz inches long 
from one side to the other behind or above the bones ; let it be carried 
obUqnelf, bo as to come out one Inch and a half lower down ; raise 
the fliap, pass the knife across (Jose in front of the bones, and cany 
it obliquely downwards, when a second flap is formed; draw these 
aput, divide all the teztnres on and between the bcHies, apply a re- 
tractor, and saw off the bones doee to it. (Fig. 69.) 

How at the Writt^ouuT Hold the hand in a horiionV' 

baok upwards; take a sciilpel or a large biskniry, carry it in a eemi- 
lunar coarse down to the bones from one aide to the otber, about an 
inch or more below tbo articulation ; dissect up the fiap, open the 
posterior part of the joint, bending the hand downwards at the tame 
time; the textures on encb side of the wrist should tbca be cat 
through, and a fiap mode similar in sise and shape to tbo one 
already formed. (Fig, 70.) 

At what point should amputation of the Lerj he performed ? At 
the middle, when a choice can be had. 

How should it be cloue? Apply a tourniquet or other cotnpres- 
sion; place tho patient on a firm table, supported and held by assist- 
ants, one of whom should support the part to be remoTed ; the aor- 
goon should pass an amputating knife, sereu or eight inches long, 
from one fade to the other close behind the bones, cut a flap from 
the back part of the leg, three or four inches long; next draw the 
knife across the fore part of the leg with a semicircular sweep be- 
tween the points transfixed by the knife ; the flaps should be drawti 
up by the retractor, and the remaining parts divided upon and be- 
tween the bones close to it, where the saw should be applied, and 
the sepanttioi: 

How should amputation of the T/iii/h he performed? The 
femoral artery should be controlled by a tourniquet or by compres- 
sion. The surgeon, standing on the outside of the limb, should grasp 
the outer side of the thigh between his fingers and thumb, draw it 
from the side of the bone, pass the knife from before backwards, 


and cut downvards and oatwards so as to form a flap; next>, intro- 
duce the knife in front and can; it backwards as before, bnt on the 
other Bide of the bone, when, by cutting agiun obliquely towards the 

surface, the inner flap is formed: use a retraetor, divide the n 

484 gUBflBBT. 

ing porliona on tlio boao cloeo to it, and uae the saw. Soiw ECT- 
geons muke the fliipx from iLe uutorior noil jxiHterior portioBS of ihe 
thigh instead of the kteral; nnd tbia mcthi^d appears to poeaoi 
Boiue advantagcB, particuJarly for tha upper portion of this limb. 
LisloD prefers the anterior and posterior flaps, as shown in the Ggura. 
(FigB. 72 and 73.) 

How shoald 3nipatation of the FeiiU be performed ? It should be 
grasped in tho left baud, and separated by otic stroke of the bistoury 
or oatlin. The hemorrhage may be rcstminod by the pressure of 
an asoislant until iho ar'"-ii"' """ ^ °""",red. 

b0 8< 

should b 

ould the SubclatnaH Arlerg 
int on the oater (acromiiJ) 
Bittent on his back, head 
oppoiito; shoulder of the 
and forwarda. The incision 

Malenus anticus inus( 
lightly turned to the 
operated on drawn downwat 
o made tbreo or four inches long, half an inch above and 
panillel with the clavicle, extending from the clsTicular portion of 
the stemo-mastoid to the anterior margin of tho trapezios; the 
parts next to be divided are the platysma myoides and ocllnlar tex- 
ture; the external jugular, when exposed, should be pressed to one 
side; and the dissection through tat and cclluhir substance down to 
the omo-hyoid should be carefully mode; draw this muscle (o one 
side with a blunt hook; dissect again carefully with a blunt imple- 
ment, dividing carefully any muscles in the way, sufficiently to give 
room ; by then passing the finger down, the artery may be perceived 
pulsating; it should then be more exposed, and the aneurism needle 
passed under it from before backwards, and the ligature can then be 
made to encircle the artery ; the identity of the artery should be 
proved before making the ligature tight, by compressing it, and 
noticing the effect on the pulnc. Leave the ends of the ligature out, 
(after tightening it,) and dre#rt the wound properly. 

In what manner should the Arlrri-r Jnnomiiiiil 
Make an incision four inchc) in length, commencing ' 
of tho upper part of the steTnum oiie inch below i 
jiassing upwards parallel with the inner border of ibe st 

! secured ? 

the middle 

i margin, and 



The skin, fibres of the pkiyama myoid, superficial fascift, a poftian 
of the Bterno-masbHd, cellular substance, the stenio-h joid and sterno- 
thyroid shonld all be carefully divided; the Tessel should then be 
looked for in the cellnlar membrane oppoute the upper margin of the 
Bternam, and when found, the ligature may be passed round it. 

In what manner should the ComTtton Carotid be secured? The 
npper third should be selected when practicable; the patient on his 
back, shoulder slightly elevated, bead turned to the opposite side; 
commence the incision one inch and a half below the pomum 
Adami, over the inner margin of the stemo-mastoid, and carry it 
upwards three inches or more, parallel with its fibres. The skin, 
platysma mytudes, and superficial fascia should all be divided to this 
extent; the fibres of the stemo-mastoid should be drawn slightly 
outwards, and the cellular tissne forming the sheath to the vessels 
cautiously opened with the knife, opposite the middle of the thyroid 
cartilage; the artery can then be seen and felt; carefully dissect the 
outer mar^n of the artery from its attachments, and then pass the 
needle round it, kerping thejioinl cIok upon the veuel, from without 
inwards, and the operadou may be finished as in other caees. 

In what manner should the Bxtemal Carotid be secured ? Place 
the patient as above ; make a lunated incision, convexity backwards, 
between the mastoid process and the body of the byoid bone ; the 
skin, plm^sma myoides, and superficial fascia, should all be divided 
to the same extent, and the lower part of the parotid gland brought 
into view, which should be turned slightly upwards, and the external 
carotid may be exposed by separating the digastric and stylo-hyoid 
muscles; a ligature can then bo thrown around it, carefully avoiding 
to include other parts. 

la what manner should the Humered Artery be secured ? The 
lower third of the arm should be selected if possible. Moke an 
incision three inches long through the skin and intervening textures, 
along the inner margin of the biceps; carefully separale the nerves 
and veins that lie along with it, and pass a needle around the artery 
without including any of them. 

In what manner ahould ihn Rwli-d Artfi-yhc pucured? The moat 

favorublc point is three inches abuvo the wrisl, where its pulsutiuns 

can be distinctly felt. The forearm should he placed in a supine 


48C i;uBuERr. 

position, on a firm table ; umke ud inciHiua two iuvhcs in lenirtb, 
about half an inch on tlie niilial margin of the t«tidoD of tlic flcicr 
carpi radiolis; tbc skin, aponeurosis, and a little ccllubir subeUace 
being divided, the arterj can be readily detected and securtd. 
Uigber tip, thia artery may be exposed between the supinator longiu 
and tbc pronator tcrea. 

The Ulnar Artery may be secured roost convetiiently above tht 
wrist about two inches ; in which place it is accompatued by two 
veins and a nerve; its situation is between the flexor carpi ulnarii 
and the fiexor subiimie, and may be c loscd by dividing the skin, 
iascia, and cellular eubstaoee between mem. 

Jn what manner should the External Iliac Ariery bo aecuredf 
Patient on a table, shoulders and knco slightly elevated; make an 
incision three and a half inches long, about an inch above mid parallel 
with Poupart's ligament, one end being opposite the anterior BDpcriot 
spinous process, the other a little above the opening in the teadon 
of the external oblique; the skin, fascia, and superficial epigastric 
vessels bciag divided, the tendon just named should tlien be out U 
a similar extent; — now the lower margins of tbc internal oblique and 
transversalia museles must be looked fur, iiud the point of tJu' (id^lt 
or the director passed beneath them ; thoy should be divided about 
half an inch upwards, when the fascia transversalis will be exposed 
almost exactly over the internal abdominal ringi make here a slight 
■crateh or opening large enough to permit a view of the iliac fascia 
where it covera the psoas muscle, when the artery will be discovered 
on the soft brim of the pelvis, covered with a thin layer of oellular 
substance, forming a kind of sheath for it and the vein, which lies 
close upon the artery; make a slight opening into the sheath, and 
insinuate the point of a needle from witUio outwards so as to avoid 
the vein, and the operation should thea be completed in the usual 

In what manner should the Fvmoriil ArUri; be Hcturcd ? It may 
be dune in the middle or higher up; the patient should lie on his 
back, with the leg bent :it the knee, and the thigh slightly rotated 
outwards, and buut upon the pvlvis. Make an iiieisiun iu the middle 
of the thigh three or four inches in Iciigth, parallel with the vessel 
and with the sartorius muscle. The skin, subcutaueous cellular 
textures, and aponeurosis being diviiiid, the sartorius iniiy be seen, 


which mBj be turned either outwards or inwards, and at the bottom 
of the space between the vastas interaos and the adductor longns the 
Tessel may be discorered in dose contact with the vein and saphena 
nerve; poaa the needle on either side of the reasel which may bo 
most convenient, but in close contact bo as to prevent wounding the 

Id what manner should the FiMerior Tibial Ariary bo secnredf 
If the situation of the ligature can be selected, it should be where the 
veBsel lies between the malleolus and calcanenm. Make an incision 
two inches long midway between this process and the insertion of 
the tAndo-Achillifl, diriding the skin and aponeurotic fibres, which 
wUl expOM the artery in company with two veins, which msy bo 
separated and the vessels secured. If we should wish to secure it 
four inches above the ankle, it may be done by making a free inci- 
sion about half an inch posterior to the margin of the tibia dividing 
the skin, cellnlar Bubstance, and fascia; the artery may then be found 
on the flexor oommunis and tibialis posticus muscles, with a vein on 
each side. 

The Anterior Tibial Artery may be secured over the arch of the 
foot by an incision one or two inches long over the convex part of 
the foot, eommencing in front of the ankle and extending to the 
space between the metatarsal bones of the great and second toes ; the 
skin and strong aponenroeis must be cut through, which will expose 
the tendoiu of the extensor poUicis and extensor longna communis 
mnseJes, and the vessel will be found lying between them close to 
the bones, with a vein on each side; they may then be eauly sepa- 
rated, and the artery secured. 

This vessel may also bo secured above the instep by making a 
free ioduon, and searching between the l«ndons already named; if 
more than a hand's breadth above the ankle, the artery will be found 
between the extensor communis and tibialis anticus muscles; low 
down, it lies on the snr&ce of the tibia, higher up on the inter- 
osseous membrane. — Fert/uaua, 


c opoRition ot pnraccnicsiaalHlomiiiii performed? Tho 

488 suRaERT. 

patient seated on the margin of a chair; the upper part of the ab- 
domen encircled with a wide band, the middle oyer the Btomach, and 
the ends made to cross behind, and each given to an assistant^ who 

Fig. 74. 

should be directed to pull them with moderate tightness. Pass a 
trocar and canula into the abdomen through the linea alba about an 
inch and a half below the umbilicus; then withdraw the trocar, and 
allow the fluid to pass through the canula; at the same time keeping 
the band drawn tensely. The trocar may be pushed in by a kind 
of plunge, but guarded by the finger from entering too far; or the 
skin may be first divided with a lancet, which will render less force 
necessary. The wound should be closed with a strip of adhesive 
plaster, and the bandage placed firmly around the patient. 

How is paracentesis thoracis performed? Patient on the margin 
of a bed or table, leaning slightly over on the sound side; the point 
selected should be the seventh and eighth rib, a little in front of the 
angle; draw the skin upwards so as to bring what was opposite to 
the lower margin on a level with the upper; make an incision through 
the skin, cellular texture, and intercostal muscles, until the pleura 
is reached, which should be opened with the point of a knife or 
trocar. When the fluid is evacuated and the skin let go, it will 
close the opening, which should always be made at the upper edge 
of the rib, so as to avoid wounding the intercostal vessels. Great 
care should be taken to prevent air from entering the cavity of the 

Wliat are etcharotict or caiutictT Substances that exert a che- 
mical action on the materials of which the organizatioii is compoeedj 
so as to destroy its textore. There ia a great diversity in the action 
of different substances of this daaa. 

What is the proper caustic to applj in cases of fungous gnmulft- 
tions, commonl; oaDed pnmd flaihf Nitrate of sUver ia generally 
sufficient : when it is not, take verdigris, sulphate of copper, nitric 
oxide of mercury, of each two drachms, bichlmride of mercoiy, one 
drachm, hogs' lard, enough to blend them well together; spread this 
OS lint^ and apply- — Brodie. 

In what manner are issues made by causticsf For this purpose, 
the caustic potash, or strong nitric acid, ia the best. When the 
former is used, cut a hole in some spread adhesive plaster, of the 
proper nie to form the sore, and apply it on the akin; rub the pot- 
ash on the skin surrounded by the plaster, until it has penetrated 
through the skin ; then disoontinue it. If nitric add is used, apply 
it by means of lint on the end of the probe, and rub for some 
minutes. If nitrate of nlver ia used, make it into an ointment, and 
lay on the part If the issue tends to heal, touch it oocaaionally 
with caustic potash. 

Hehobbhagb ntoM Lsech-bjtbs. 

How may this be ehttkedf Press into the hole small pledgets 
of lint dipped in spirits of wine, or muriat«d tinctnre of steel, or 
tondi them with a pointed piece of lunar caustic. Another, and an 
excellent mode, is to cut a small i»eoe of common glased card, say 
about the «ie of half a dime, and apply it to the wound immediately 
after wiping it^ bold it firmly on the pert for five minntes, and it will 
then adhere If necessary, b fine stitch must be passed through 
each of the bleeding orifices. 

Cldb Foot. — Talipes. 
What is meant by club foot? It is a deformity of the foot, pro- 



duced b; irregolsr maficular contnction ; wbich nu; be 
nerrooB distnrbaiice, imperfect nntritioD, injuriea, 
nutiwn, Ac. &o. It iha; be eonffe»ital, or aequirtd. 

Whkt &re the varietietT There ara four. Talipa JEtfKintu, in 
which the foot recto od the ball, or the toes. The Bhorteniog is 
produced in this variety by the coDtraction of the muscles ineertod 
i&to the 08 colcis. The plantar bscia is also thickened. (Fig. 75.) 

Fig. 75. 

Fig. 76. 

Talipei Yiinis, which is the most common variety, is where the 
foot is turned inward and rests upon its outer edge, or on the dorsum 
of the foot; the heul is also raised. The degree varies greatly in 
different cases. There ia no dislocation propcriy speaking, although 
the bones deviate from their natural position. The tendons of the 
tibialis anticua and posticus, and the tendo-Aehillis are most con- 
tracted, and the pcronci are relaxed. The ligaments on the inner side 
are shortened, and those on the outer side are relaxed. (Fig. 7G.) 

Talipet Vulijiit. In this variety, the foot is evcrted,and resta on its 
inner side. The pcronei muscles are contracted, and the tibialis 
onticus and posticus are elongated. There is relaxation of the inner 
ligaments. It is a rare form. 

TaJipe* Culcaneui is a rare variety. 

The foot reels on tbe back part of the heel. 
What ie the proper treatmentf In ehildren, the application of a 
F%. 77. 

proper shoe or boot, or a rectification by tbe proper application of 
adhesiTe Btrips, will generally mffioe for a cnre. If not, the tendons 
of the oontracted mtucleB should be divided, by putting the tendon 
on the stretch, while a narrow, sharp-pointed knife is thrust through 
the skin beneath tbe tendon with ita cutting edge towards it; it 
ahonld then be brooght against the tendon and withdrawn, dividing 
tbe tendon as it escapes. The patient is then prepared for the 
proper meohauical means, to be applied in three or four days. After 
the foot is brought to a strught position, it requires attention and a 
prtfier shoe for a long lime, to perfect a cure. 

Invxrsion op Tok Nail. 
What is tbe proper freaimentf If much inflamed, poultice, and 
touch with nitrate of ulver. As soon as the tenderness will permit, 
introduce some lint under the comer of tlic nail, Ui raise it from its 
imbedded position, after having scraped or soaked it so aa to render 
it soft. Tbe whole should then be enveloped by adhesive plaster. 
In some cases, it may be necessary to remove a portion of the nail. 




Thk Pelvib, 

Where !b the pelvis ntualed, and of what is it compoted f It is 
. between the last lombar vertebn and the superior extremilieB of the 
thigh bones. 

It is eomposed of four bones in the adnlt; on its posterior and 
inferior parts by the sacmm and coo^; and on its lateral, infbrior, 
and anterior parts by the OBsa innominata. 

What are the charaetenitia of the SaoruhT It was originall; 
composed of five pieces — ^Ita Jiffun is triangnlar, with the base up- 
wards; has fooT tur/iiea, an anterior, posterior, and two lateral; and 
is pieroed bj four holes on each pde for the passage of the sacral 
nerves. Svperiorl; it is attached to the last lumbar vertebra, and 
laterally to the oeaa innominata. Ite kngih is (torn fbnr to four and 
a half inches, brea^A about four inches, and the depth of its con- 
cavity is about three-foDiths of an inch. 

Wliatare the tAaracterittia of the CoooTxf It is li inch in 
length, pyramidal, has its base upwards, articulates with the sacnun, 
and is composed of three or four bony portious. 

What are the characierulie* of the OssA Ixnohinata F They 
are on eaoh aide divided into three portions which were ori^ually 
distinct — the tZtum, ucAtum, and pvhet. 

The nJUH on each side forms the highest lateral portion of the 
pelvis; the superior edge is nearly semicircular, tipped with carti- 
lage, and called the tpine ; the esternal surface is convex, and called 
the dorsum; the intcnial is coucavc, and called the foua. It has 
two anterior, and two posterior ipinoiu pructtse*, forms with the os 


pnbia llie linea Uio-pectinca, and with the pubes and iacUtun the 


The IsoaiUM is the lowest of the three bones, on each side; il 
termiiiateB in a tvhcr below, &om which a process miiB npwanU lo 
join the pubis. 

The Pubis is the smallest of the three; its longest |>Drtion forms 
a port of the acetabulum ; it then diminishes in size, stretches over 
to join its fellow of the opposite side, and sends a branch down- 
wards t« unite with a portion of the ischium in such maimer as to 
leave an opening, the /orcimen avaJr,. 

The innominata are joined posteriorly to the Eacrum by cartilages 
and appropriate ligaments; the auterior junction ia called the ^m- 
phi/sis of the pubes. 

Where are the Sacro-SCIATIO Ligaments atuated F TbepoUenor 
arises from the posterior inferior spinous process of the ileum, &otn 
the lower margin of the sacrum, and from the first bone of the 
coccyx; is inserted into tho internal margin of the tuberodty of 
the ischium; and ia estondcd along the internal face of tho cms. 

The anterinr is placed in front, and arises from the marg^ of the 
lower part of the sacnim, and the lateral margin of the coccji ; 
the fibres converge, and are inserted into the spinous process of the 
ischium. This ia the arrangement on each aide of the pelvis. 

How ia tho pelvis divided 1 Into the large and tmall, or falm 
and (rue J or the pelvis above and below the brim. The line of 
demarkation being the linea ilco-pcctinea at the sides, the crista of 
the pubis in front, and the promontory of the sacrum behind. 

What is the distinction between the male and female pelvis f 
The male pelvis has a contracted brim of a rounded form or tri- 
angular shape, with the promontory of the sacrum projecting. The 
female pelvis is spacious, of an oval shape, with tho sacrum slightly 
prominent, and greater space is afforded for the passage of the child. 
The cavity of the male pelvis is deep, while in the female it is 

In the male, there is a contracted angular arch of the pubes ; in 
the female, there is ii spacious and well-rounded arch, and the tube- 
rosities of the ischia are much wider apart. The length of the 



UCTO-stiltio lig&mmt, and the moMlitjr of the cocojx upon tbe 
BaonuQ serve also to distinguish tbe female pelvis. 

What are the parte of the pelvie the diameters of which are 
important? The brim, cavity, aid oulitt. 

What are the sgperior and inferior openings sometimea called f 
The tuperior and inferior xtraitt. 

What are the diameters nsoaUy roaamrcd of the brim, cavity, 
and outlet f The ttraiffktae mtero^otlerior j tbe tranmene; and 
the dlique. 

What are tbe meatmra M nU of the hrim at nqierior traitf The 
antero-pOBterior firoin tte promontory of the Memm (A) to tbe sym- 
physis (a) ia 4.3 inehea ; the tntnBrerse from the middle of the linea 
ilio-pcctinea ot one ilium (s) to the other (b) is 5.4 inches ; and the 
oblique from one sacro-iliac 8ymphy&B(o) to the acetabnlam oppo- 
site (o) is 4.8. 

What are the meatarementt of tbe cavUj/ f The antero-posterior 
from tbe centre of the hollow of tbe sacrum to that of tbe sym- 
phyus is 4.8 inches ; the transverse from the point correBponding 
lo the lower margin of the acetabulum on one side to that of the 
other is 4.3 inches; and the oblique drawn from tbe centre of the 
free apace formed by the socro-sciatic notch and ligaments oa one 
side to the foramen ovale of the other is &.2 inches. (Fig. 1.) 

What are the meaturemcnts of the outlet or inferior Urailf 


Ibe astaroposterioT from tbe point of the coccyx (a) to the lower tip 
of tbe a;Diphysts pubis (a) is 3.8 incbeB, bat durioglabor the mobiii^ 
of the coccyx may allow this diameter to be increased one inch, at 

to 4.8 inches ; the transverse from one tuberosity of tbe ischiDin Cb) 
to the other (b) is 4.3 inol and the oblique from tbe middle of the 
lower edge of the sacro-aniour of one side (c) to the point of 

union between the 1 iding ramus of tho pubes on 

tlie other (c) is 4.8 inches. j,.^. Jig- '2.) 

What is meant by the axes of the pelvis ? They Kre lines drawn 

at right angles with the planee of the stmitB through tbeir centres. 

Fig. 3. 

What relation does the axis of tbe superior strait War 

OB8IBIAI08. 499 

horiioa 1 It fonnB an angle between 60° and 60°. A line draim 
from the mnbilioiu (a) to the point of the oooojx (() (Fig. 3} will 
represent the azia of the superior etrait. 

What is meant bj the tneZutatton of the pelvis 7 The angle 
which the axis of the superior strait forms with the horiion, when 
a woman is in the upright podtion, marks what ia caUed the incli- 
nation of her pelvis. 

What relation does the axis of the injerwr strait bear to ibe 
atperiart It ibnns with it nearl; a right angle; and is represented 
b; a line drawn from the saorum jost below the promontory (y) per- 
pendicnlar to the plane of the inferior sinit (/). The angle which 
the axis of cme strait forms nith the horiim is invoiBe to that of the 
other. (Pig. 3.) 

What is the shape of a line that will represent the axis of the 
pelvis ? It will be a oorred line {jg h) (Pig. 4), the shape of a male 
catheter pasmng throngh the centre of a series of planes extending 
from the sacrum to the pnbes, from the linea ileo-pecdnea to the 
coccyx and sub-pubic ligament. 

Fig. 4. 

What is the airangemeDt of the two lateral inclined planes within 
the pelvis on each side 1 They are divided into anterior and poite- 

The anterior commences near the sacrn-iliac symphysis, extends 


to tkv a^p))< pabis, paaiies doimwards sad fop w a r ift f in ftMtfrf 
dte Bian<] of scbiam, &Dd orar the o4>tvntor fognnen, lowui- 

ittg on tbe atiu ir txlge of the raraos of the pubis uid MohJUM. 

HiejMurcruT. ommences at the BBcro-JUae jtuMtioD, eKkafa U 
tlw niddlo ff tlio sacram, passes downwards aad baekvirit 

behind the i of tli« ischiam over the Bsero-eciatic fomnai, al 
8a(704cbtic ii icnts, terminattog on the posterior edga of tk 
taberoutica of 9 i^ehium, the lower edge of tho rmrn mnitlw Sp- 
awDt, md poi <f the eoeeyx. Tbeae pLsnes infineDce die irrif^ 
ing pari of th ' " ' 1 is bronght in conlart •i* 

tiu pelria ai iadumn, it wiH paw ion 

apon tba anterio, lerge under tbe aich of tbt 

pubes ; Iiub if it e. the sptno of tbe isduam, it 

IB liable to pass dowu ined plane, rotate into lb 

hollow of the sacnim, a tuo posterior i 

tbe Tnlfa. 

Or Defoemitt of ; PELV^s. 

What is tneant bj a Deformity of tlio Pelvis ? Any dcTialioai 
from its healthy dimensioDs, either by cxoess or diminntion. 

What are the evils ansing from an excess in size? PrecipilatJoo 
of the uterus, within the pelvis, during gestation, with its conse- 
rjucnocs; and during parturition a too rapid labor, which may aase 
alarming hemorrhage. 

What are the rcmalics for the difficulties arising from an eiecss 
ill size '{ For the first, a proper sized pessary, or a utcro-abdominal 

I'ur tjii; second, foi'ljidUing the woman to bear down during labor; 
opposing the too rapid csca])o of the ehild by pressing on its head, 
or ihu periiituiii of ilio mother; and hemorrhage may be much 
diuiiiiislieii by bri.'^k fric-tiiins oa the abdomen over the uterus, aud 
1,, „,K„l. 

What arc tliu usual causes of the distortions of the pelvis? 
Hacliilis in infaney, and. niidaeostcon in old age. 

Whiit jiortiim is geiicriilly ilistoi'ted? Tlic upper slrait, and 
this in its unterO'poslcrior diameter ; when the inferior slrait is 



distorted, it is genenll; in ita tnuisvene diameter, by the approu- 
matioB of the tabere of the iaohia. 

There ia not, however, any portion but what is liable to devialioD 
from its healthy meaanrementB. 

What ia the amaneetantero- ^^-^' 

poBt«rioT diameter of the ro- 
p«rioT strut that will allow a 
labOT to be tenninated ancoesa- 
fully to both mother and child f 
Three inchea j if there is eren 
three and a half, labor ia ren- 
dered tedioos, painful, and nn- 

In what position would you 
keep a child afiected with rick- 
' eta, to prerest deformity of the 
pelvis t In a horizontal one, 
and permit it to exercise its 
limbs freely upon a bed or mattress. 

To what other deformities is the 

J the mcaos proposed for measuring the pelvis? The 


pdvtmeteTy intra-pdvimeter, caUipers, the introdaotion of the finder 
against the most projecting part of the base of the sacnmiy the intro- 
daotion of the hand in time of labor^ and placing the fingers edgewise 
between the posterior part of the symphysis and the projection of 
the sacrum. The finger and the hand are most to be depended upon. 
(Figs. 5, 6, 7.) 

Of the Child's Head. 

What arc the principal diameters of the child's head P The ob- 
lique, from the symphysis of the chin to the posterior and superior 
extremities of the parietal boneS; or the posterior extremity of the 
sagittal suture^ measuring 5 inches to 5}; the longitudinal, from the 
centre of the forehead to the top of the lambdoidal suture^ measuring 
4 inches to 4} ; the perpendicular^ from the summit of the head to the 
base of the cranium, measuring from 8 to 8} inches; and the trans- 
verse, from one parietal protuberance to the other, measuring from 3 
to 8} inches. 

Are these diameters ever altered during the progress of labor ? 
They are liable to be from the suppleness of the bones of the head 
of the foetus ; but all cannot bo diminished or increased at the same 
time ; if one is diminished, another must be increased. The extent to 
which these changes may take place varies in individual cases, owing 
to the more or less perfect ossification of the bones. 

What are the sutures of the foetal head which are interesting to 
the accoucheur ? The sa<ji(tal, or the line of union from the occipi- 
tal bone to the root of the nose, connecting the parietal and the two 
sides of the frontal bone with each other; the coronal, which con- 
nects the anterior portions of the parietal and the posterior portions 
of the frontal bone; the lamldoidal, which connects the posterior 
portion of the parietal and the anterior portion of the occipital bones. 

What forms the anterior or hrcgmatic fontanelle, and how is it dis- 
tinguished y It is formed at the points of decussation of the sagit- 
tal and coronal sutures. It is distinguished by four bony angles, 
the edges of which are tipped with cartilage, and are smooth, soft, 
and yielding. 


What fbfiDS tlie po^trior fotOtxneUe, and how ie ii diBtingnished F 
h is fonned at the poiotii of jnuction of the poeterior end of the 
sagittal with the centre c£ the lambdoidal mtore, and hu three bony 
angles; two b; Uh parietal, and (me by the occipital bones. 

What parta <tf the head an of moet importance to undentand, in 
order to determine the [vesentations? The nUun» onA fontandUi. 

To what extent ma; the head be rotated on the trunk with safety 
to the childf One quarter of a circle, and not more. 

Of TDK QsNiTAL OooASB. See Anatomy. 


What is meant by Menstmation f It is that function in which the 
utems periodically secretes a sangainolent fluid. 

What part giTCS oriffin to this secretion? The internal coat of 
the uterus. 

What are the (AaraOerutia of this secretion 7 It resembles blood, 
has a peculiar quality and odor; it is not coagolablo, nor does it pu- 
trefy readily. 

At what period does menBtraation take place 7 It takes place at 
puberty, or that period at which the animal ia capable of propagating 
its species; the age raries under the influences of climate, constitu- 
tion, and modes of life; earlier in hot than cold countries, sooner in 
cities than in Uie country, &o. 

What are the ^n^jdnnt which precede menBtruation 7 The mam- 
mse increase in mie, the voice is changed, the pubesare covered with 
hair, the best proportions ate developed, and the mind is rapidly 

Beudes these, there is headache, dulness of the eyes, pains in the 
pelvic region, laentode, whimucal appetite, Icucorrhcea, &c., which 
(pves place to a disoha^ from the vagina. 

What is the mendnunu periodf From four to six days; and 
dnring this time from four to six ounces of fluid are diMthargcd. 

What wteffcuertU tymptoms diiring the menstrual flow? The ap- 
petite becomes capricious, the person is liuijjuiJ, pule, or hectii^lly 


florid^ dark under the eyes, and frcquenUj there is a dragging sen- 
sation about the hips and loins. 

At what age does it cease ? From forty-five to fifty. In this 
dimate at about forty-six or seven. 

Does the regular appearance of the menses, in a healthy manner, 
every twenty-eight days, indicate a capability for procreation or re- 
production ? It does. 

Is the uterus influenced by any of its appendages in this function ? 
The ovaries appear indispensable to it ; as their absence, either na- 
tural or by removal, prevents the appearance of the menses. 

Is menstruation a physiological or a pathological condition ? It 
is strictly a physiological function. 

Is the cause of menstruation well understood ? It is not ; there 
have been many theories formed to account for it, but they are not 
satis&ctory. ^ 

Derangement of the function of Menstruation, 

To what derangements is this function liable? To a ft>o tardy 
appearance of the menses. 

To its interruption after having been established. 

To excess of quantity. 

To menorrhagia. 

To dt/smenorrJwea or painful menstruation. 

And to irregularities towards the decline of life. 

At what period of life in this country does menstruation take 
place ? From the fourteenth to the fifteenth year. 

Does age of itself present an indication for interference in regard 
to this function ? No ; there should be other evidences of woman- 
hood ; and when these arc absent, the girl should never be tortured 
by emmenagogucs. These signs are enumerated under the head of 

What should be done where these signs to a greater or less extent 
exist, and menstruation does not appear, with a delicate state of 
health of the patient ? There should be a regular course of exercise 
instituted when the patient can bear it ; such as riding on horseback, 
walking, skipping the rope, &c. The dress should be attended to ; 
and the diet should consist of easily digested food, both animal and 


T^etable; all stimulaUDg driolu should be aroided. Tincture of 
cantbarides, particularly if lencorrh<e& attends, uny be given in doses 
of thirty drops three times a day. Keeping the bowels regolarly open 
wiili aloetio pitU, with or without the sulphate of iron, is beneficial. 

What is to be done when a chronic disease exists ? Attention 
should be given to the disease wbeu we havo reason to suppose the 
absence of the menses depends upon it. 

What is understood by «u^j-ewton of the menses? It is the want 
of Tctum of this discharge at the accustomed period, iift«r it baa 
been establishod, when not interniptod by pregnancy or suckling. 

What are the eaute% ? Gold, applied either in the interval or 
during the flow. 

What are the symptotOMf Paleness, cmacialion, debility, nerrons 
symptoms, palpitation of the heart, difficulty of brealJiing, and a 
disturbance of the circulation ; to which may be added fluor olbui, 
and mere or less pain iit the loins and pelvis. 

What is the treatment? It will depend upon the state of the 
circulation; if the palae is disturbed, we should prescribe blood- 
letting, purging, low diet, &c., until it is corrected; and then we can 
safely give cmmenagogues; among these aloctio and ferruginous pills, 
and the ammouiated tincture of guaiacum, stand first. 

What is nnderstood by di/amenorrkcea ? It is a menstruous dis- 
charge accompanied by piun of a forcing and bearing down kind, 
and a discharge of membranous substance or coagula. 

What is'the treatment? During the paroxysms, the pain should 
be relieved by anodynes and antispasmodics, such as camphor, and 
camphor and opium, with perfect rest. In the intervals, use altera- 
tives and tonics after proper depletion. The pathological condition 
of the uterus and its appendages should be attended to in all oases. 


What changeg take place after the period of impregnation f . The 
ovum increases in size, and is prominent on the ovarium; absorptios 
of its peritoneal coat takes place ; it is embraced by the fimbriatod 
extremity of the Fallopian tube, and carried towards the cavity cpf 
the uterus. 


At nl: the ovum found in the ntcnis? About tvM; 

dnj'S uftbi ition. 

What i arnnce of the ovariam after the ovum is reuond! 

First, aa i ' blood into the cavity from whence the ovom tm 

n^movmt, t. s followed bj a corpus lutfium. 

The Membrases, Sc. 

What tokos 

The int«mal sunaco t' 

membmna decidua; 
inWrnal oa uteri, remiii 
mciliuDi of contact h 

What aro the me, 
chorion eitornally, and 
embryo and the water in 

What takes place when 

during this time in the cavitj of tie ntenu ! 

' - tJKBae which is tenuol tic 

' the uterus domi to lb: 

progtia,iicy, and forms tl« 

i tho ovmn. 

a ? There are two ; lb< 
rnallj. Thoy enclose tbe 

at the uterus ? The orum 

decidua (c), and CMsa 

a wiD ( that part with which it 

couics iu Cu, tact, and ia called the rf^ 
ndua reflexa ; so that the decidtui is then 
dirided into that portion lining and in 
contact with the uterus called deadwi 
t«ra(c); and th&t porUoa ia oootaet 
with the ovntDj and called Seddva rt- 
.^era(EB); this arrangement coneepoods 
with that of the pleura palmoD^iB and 
costatis; they come in contact aboat the 
fourth month. 

What are the tisen of tho amnion and chorion ? The amnion fur- 
nishes a quantity of fluid for the protection of its contents j the 
chorion furnishes a means of communication with the uterus, and is 
thought by some to form the basis of the placenta. 

What then does the ovum consist of afttT its entablishment within 
the uterus? The dciihin, dcci'iim rFjfrxii, cliorioii, amnioii, liquor 
ainnii,/a:/a>, and umbilirtd cord, with one extremity attached to 
the umbilicus of the child, and the other to the Qiembranee, which 
for the present answers the purpose of the placenta. 



Wh&t are the taet of the liquor amnii f Perhaps ita uses are 
not entirely kaown : but it allows space, and facilities for motion, 
development, Ac., of the ftstna. 

What compoKM the nmbilical cord t It oonsista of tvo arteries, 
a vein, a layer of amnion, and perhaps also of the chorion ; tbe 
arteries are a continuation of the primitive iliacs ; the vein passes 
under the edge of the liver, and euterB the vena cava. 

Thb Placenta. 

What is the j)lacenta and its ckaracterutiaf It is that vascular 
mass by which the circulation is muntained between mother and 
child, and the latter is nonrisbod. Its diameter Is six or eight 
inches, and its tfaicknees ts fkim a few lines at its edge to one inch 
or more at its centre. It has two sur&ces ; the uterine, which is 
rough, spongy, traversed by sulci (and it is believed by many that 
the decidua lines its whole surface); and the /eta/, which is smooth, 
and lined by the amnion. 

Fig. 10. 

What is the ttrueture of the placenta? It is essentially vascu- 
lar ; the vessels being connected by weak tissue analogons to ccUu- 

These vessels are dependencies of the vascular systems of both 
mother and child, but have no direct conuection with each other. 


Suppose an injectioD passed into the umbilical arteries, ivhat be- 
comes of it ? It passes into the veins of the placenta, and the whole 
plexus may be filled. The arteries may be filled in the same manner 
by injecting the umbilical vein. 

Can an injection be passed into the foetal vessels from the uterine 
arteries ? It cannot. 

What are ihe/inicfionB of the placenta ? It is an absorbing and 
respiratory organ. 

What is meant by embryo ? It is the new being during the first 
three months of gestation ; during the balance of its intra-uterine 
existence it is called foetus. 

The F(etal Circulation. 

What are the peculiarities of the circulatory apparatus of the 
foetus ? There are five : 1st. The vena umhiliccdls, 2d. The due- 
tM venoms. 3d. T\ie foramen ovale, 4th. The ductus arteriosuM, 
5th. The arterim iirnhilicales. 

What is the Vena Umhilicalis f It arises firom the placenta, 
enters the abdomen through the navel, passes along the anterior 
margin of the suspensory ligament of the liver, is connected with 
the sinus of the vena portarum, and a great portion of its blood is 
distributed to the liver. 

What is the Ductvs Viuomts? It arises from the vena portarum, 
and empties into the left hepatic vein near it« junction with the 
vena cava ; it arises directly in face of the umbilical vein, so that 
a probe may pass readily from one to the other. 

What is the Foramen Ovale ? It is a large aperture between the 
two auricles of the heart, furnished with a valve, which closes when 
respiration begins. 

What is the Ductvs Arfcriosm? It is a canal leading from the 
pulmonary artery into the aorta, and discharges into the aorta, at 
the lower part of the curvature. 

What are the Artci'm^ rmhiliailcs? They Jire two in number, 
and arc a continuation of tlio external iliacs ; they pai»s through the 
navel, in company with the umbilical vein, twist spirally around it, 
and are distributed to the placenta. 


What is the eourte of the fatal circnlalioi) t It is from the plfr- 
centa through the umbilical Toin and dnotns venosoB into the ascend- 
ing cava, which dischai^ea the Uood into the right auricle of the 
heart. The euatachian valve tarns the greater part of the blood 
into the left aariole, through the fonmen ovale. The left auricle 
may then be siud to be distended wiUi blood from the ascending 
cava, while the right is disteuded with the blood of the descending 
cava. The auricles contract together, and fill the ventricles. The 
ventricles also contract together and fill the pnlmoooij artei; uid 
aorta. The blood of the right ventricle, having got into the pulmo- 
nary artery, is prindpally disoharged by the ductus arterioHus into 
the descending aorta. That of the left side, by being driven into 
the aorta, is mostly sent through the arteria innominata, the left 
carotid, and the left subclavian, to the head and upper extremities; 
what remains, being mixed with the contents of the desoending aorta, 
goes to the lower extremities ; but by far the greater portion of the 
blood of the desoending aorta passes through the umbilical arteries 
to the placenta, where it is rendered fit for the nutrition of the foetus, 
taken up by the umbilical veins, and repeats the same round until 
respiration is established. 

Chanoeb in the Uterus ntou Ihpreqitation. 

What are the ohuiges whioh take place in the parietes of the 
ntems itaelf from impregnation ? There is an increased quantity of 
blood sent to it, which increases with gestation ; the vessels, from 
being small and convoluted, become enlarged and straighter. 

The fibres of the uterus become developed so as to be recognized 
as mnscnlar ; the organ increases in sise with perfect Regularity, 
and its position and distension give us a pretty accurate knowledge 
of the advancement of pregnancy. For the first three or four months 
the aleraa is found lower in the vagina than when unimpregnated ; 
after the fourth or fifth month, the fiindus can be felt at the pubic 
region ; at the sxth, half way between it and the umbilicus ; at the 
seventh, at the umbiliuua; at the eighth, half way between the umbili- 
cus and the scrobiculus cordis ; at the nioth, about the same, owing to 
the more perfect development of the neck. The neck of the uterus 

610 UB8TBTRIC8. 

nndergoes changes also after the uzth month ; it beo(»Des ehorter 
and shorter, and at the ninth month is entirely oblitemted ; tar- 
niBhtng then the principal increaso of space for the fmtna. Of the 
body and tiiadus, the posterior portjons contribute the mo«t apace, 
and henoe the Fallopian tubes at the latter part of pregnancy ue 
foond in advance of tbe Dteros. 

Of tee Development of the F(ETD8. 

In what order is the product of conception developed T To the 
fifteenth day it is a gelatinous, semi-transparent, floccnlent, psyish 
man ; at thirty days, it is the siae of a large ant, vaiying from throe 
to five lines in length; at six weeks, it is ten lines in length, about 
the Eise of a bee, and some of the rudiments of organs an visible; 
at two mon^, it is about- two inches long, ^e weight is two onooes, 
and ossification has commenced in some parte ; at the third month, 
it is about three and a half inches long and weighs nearly three 
ounces, the umbilical cord is fonned, and tbe genital organs are dis- 
tinct ; at the fourth month, it is from five te six inches long, and 
weighs from fonr to five ounces. 

During tbe fifth month, mo- 
tion is perceptible by the mo- 
ther, tlio length is from seven 
to nine inches, and the weight 
nine or ten oanccs; at the sixth 
month, tbe parts arc more per- 
fectly developed, it weighs from 
one to two pounds, and its 
length is from nine to twclvo 

At the seventh month, all 
parts arc more perfectly deve- 
loped ; the eyelids, which until 
now have been united by tho 
mcmbruna pupillaris, are sepa- 
rated; the hair and nails grow, 
tho weight is from two to throe 
pounds, and the length is from 

0B8TBTRICB. 511 

tweWe to fourteen inehefl. At eight months, tho weight is from three 
to five poands, the length sizteen inches or more, md all the parts 
ehow a much more perfect condition of development. At the ninth 
month, the hetul has considerahle finances, ossification is mora com- 
plete, all the organs are capahle of poforming their appropriate 
ftmctionsia a more perfect manner; the length of the fbetne is abont 
20 inches, and the average weight is abont 7 pounds !n this country. 

Eztba-Utxsinb Phxonanct. 

What are the varietia of extra-nterine pregnancy f Ovarian 
prtgnawy, or when the embryo is developed in the ovaiy. 

Ventral or ahdomiadl pregnancy, when the embryo beeomee de- 
posited and developed in the cavity of the abdomen. 

Tuhai prtffaancy, or when the embiyo becomes developed in the 

Inlerttitial prtffnanty, or when the omle becomes deposited 
between the layeis of the muscolar fibres of the nteroB and is 

What are the roruequmcei of extra-uterine pregnancy f The con- 
teqnenoea ara nsnally seriovs : irritation, inflammation, sappuiatiou, 
ulceration, internal hemorrhage, and sloughing are all liable to hap- 
pen, uid often to the extent of causing death to the mother. 

What is the proper treatment f Generally, a palliative treatment 
is the best. 

Oastrotomy has been reoommended by some authors. 

Op the Signs or Preonanct, 

How are the signs of pregnancy divided? Into the rational 
or lympaihetie, and the pontioe or pht/sical signs. 

What are the rational tigm of pregnancy ? Suppression of the 
menses; the nipples and papilUe become enlarged, tumid, dark- 
colored, and Burroanded by an areola; morning sickness; enlarge- 
ment of the abdomen, kc. 

Are these signs jwtiVtV« .^ No; they are all fallacious, and may 
be prodaced by other causes than pregnancy. 

likniu touSe, aad to tfaeae sh^ beaUrf^ 1 

^^^ '■■ff-'- ■ ^e° ^ ^ inwiaUj r^ed i^os! Sr, | 

Il^^^m^^ '^jMOiom^ Aa fatal itawtta be relied vpoaT 1^ 
,g^ . ^ ^.£ wtm hmtAi wUdi on ■Imau inmaUj W 4* 
^ 1^ IgfiHiMj ^i», iAer tfce fi»itfa moatk, altfao^k « Aii ' 
l^y /^^ ereat ore is required. Tlie point wbe>« H ■■? <fc> 
/^ i» abgot roidnj betwwn tfe aoabiealns eonlii sad q» 

^ inbif , M pertu^m i 

8 Cnqpentlj a liule to tbe iA rf (!■ 

' ^Itf line. Them polnUunn taaj be diBUBgniabed bj tbor qaik- 
^[Viiich WK from 130 lo 150 in ft numls. In omm of ^lUc 
^^anaj, Uie Kmnd <tf both £bu1 beaitt may imatllf ba bwri a 
F ^ bat wecl« of fngtmaej. 

IVbat u meant by ballooemmt, and what is ita importance ti * 
^■gnostic of pregDADcj ? The process of bkUottement is perf««ed 
bj paBSDg tlie finger to tlie moBtk of the utenu, or midvaj benm 
it sod thf, eympbyeia pubis, while the other hand is applied nqMo 
the abdomea to the foudm ; the finger ^onld be auddenlj pnshoi 
up against the aterus, while the p^iliu of the otbcr band is fheri 
oa iLc abdomea to receive mf impn^t^n vhich such a afaod w»j 
produce; the finger in the vagina ts to be kept applied to the ntenu, 
HO that it may determine whether any floating body descends opon 
it. Hy these means wc can determine whether the uteros cont^n^ 
a floiitiiig body; but it docti not give us abioluie knowledge of wb*i 
that floating body consista. The woman should be in the erect p<in- 

Arc there any other fj/mjilums of pregnancy .' Yes ; the presence 
of Ic'i-J-iii': in tlie urine is looked upon as affording a uytuptom o( 
vnluc, not alvruya to be depetidiHl upon, bowever, aa it may exist ia 


; but, tBkeo id connectjoa with other symptomB, it 
n coming to a conclusioD. ' 

xhHiting ike Si'jnt of Pregnane^ at (he different Periodi. 


First and s/eonJ «om1A>. 

a. Nnuieii— rouiiliim. !- Dficeninf rtoorjun. 

3. Slighl SaOKH rflhB hypogailrio n- 3. The woml. iiit" movnble. 

4.'o^tM.ionof Ihenmbilic-liing. 4. Ill wslliiliaTHheeoiiiiilMiMof ombI- 

i. TumeAetion and lendarnaii oT llit B. Thg neck ii dirccied downward, ror- 

S. The oiiRcB or llie 0* (inen l> rovaded 

otheia w£a haVe had childrra. 
7. A ilight aDruning In tbn mueoDi mem- 

braiu appear! ffidemBtani- 

Tkird ami fourth montki. 

1. Sum»euii» ot ih« nMue* (a few ei- I. Th« ruodni otcci tiaei lo Ihc level of 

eepUtMW). the lupariDi unit towania the end of 

Ihe Ihird monlb, and ia perceired al Ihe 

•. FnqDcvIlr, Ihe apiiaritim et the enn- S. A perceptible flatneii on peccnuion la 

tiaaaa t i at the Tomjliui. the hyivigB'itic region. 

>. A BBall prolDberance U the hypona- 3. A roondcd lumoT, ■• laige ■■ a rliild'a 

0. Ansmenled iwElliiiir of Iha 

)r Ihe periphery of 
illy of the finge^: 

FiJUi and aixlh menl/m. 
1- 8B^iaieB><>( UsRMBiei (Hme n» I, Thefunduauteii laoneGngec'a breadth 

itafiDMaloflhewhnle 3. The tir 



Fifth and sixth months* 


4. A eonyez, fiactuating, roanded abdomi- 
nal tumor, snlient, particularly on the 
middle line, and sometimea exhibiting 
the total irregularities. 

6. The umbilical depression is almost 
completely eflaced. 

0. The discoloration in the areola is deeper 
--glandiform tubercles ; areola spotted. 
7. fiuiMteine in the urine. 


4. Ballottement. 

6. A tumor is felt at the anterior-soperior 
part of the vagina, which is sometimea 
soft and fluctuating, at others rounded, 
hard, and resisting. 

6. The inferior half of the cerriz uteri is 

7. The whole nngneal part of the first 
phalangeal bone can poietrate the cavity 
of the neck in m«iltpaf«. The latter is 
softened to the lame extent in primi- 
paras, but the orifice is closed. 

Seventh and eighth months. 

1. Suppression of the menses (the excep- 
tions are Ytry rare). 
S. Disorders of the stomach (very rare). 

3. The abdominal tumor has the same 
characters, except that it is more volu- 

4. A complete effaeement of the umbilical 
depression, the dilation of the ring, and 
sometimes a pouting of the navel. 

6. Numerous discolors tions on the skin of 
the abdomen. 

6. Sometimes a varicose and osderoatous 
condition of the vulva and inferior ex- 

7. Vaginal f^rannlations — abundant leu- 
corrhoeal discharge. 

8. Deeper discoloration of the central 
areola, and an extension of the spotted 
areola. Sometimes there are numerous 
stains on the breasts; flow of milk; 
complete development of the glandiform 

0. Persistence of kiesteine in the urine. 

1. Increased size of the abdomen. 

2. The fundus uteri is three fingers* 
breadth above the umbilicus at the 
seventh month, and four or five at the 

3. The organ is nearly always inclined to 
the right. 

4. More violent active movements of the 

6. Bruits du coenr and de soufflet. 

6. Ballottement is very clear during the 
seventh month, but more obscure in the 

7. The ramoUissement extends along the 
neck, above the vaginal insertion. In 
primiparse, the cervix is ovoid, and 
seems to have diminished in length ; in 
others it is conoidnl, the base being be- 
low, and safhciently patulous to admit 
all the first phalanx. The neck nod its 
superior fourth is still hard and shut up. 

First fortnight of the 7iinth month. 

1. The vomitings frequently reappear. 

2. The abdominal tumor has increased — 
the skin is much stretched, and very 

3 Difficulty of respiration. 

4. All the other symptoms persist, and are 
inereased in intensity. 

1. The fundus uteri reaches the epigastric 
region, and gains the border of the false 
ribs on the right side. 

2. Active movements. Bruits du copur 
and de soufflet. 

3. Often there is no proper ballottement, 
but merely a kind of rising of the tumor 
formed by the head. 

4. The neck is softened throughout its 
whole length, excepting the circumfer- 
ence of the internal orifice, which still 
remains closed and resisting. In wo- 
men who have previously borne chil- 
dren, the finger may be introduced into 


II fortnight of tkittinlkuiontk. 

HUDi et ■ pbnUu 

by tha iulenil miGca, wUeli 
■ nd WTJBkled, thongh ia h 
■Inadr Ixviiuiiig lu open. 

l^itt furlnighl of tlu ninth Monrt. 

1. Th« rondDi Dtori hai HBk lowar Lhia 

in the firit fortnicht. 

9. TI>e>l>doauiiUra1leii. 

4. Mon difflcDhy in walkus. 

<. The heul own or Uu enciigcd ia thg 

■Dftnaanddilitei; tls lager Mn Ihni 

IxnelniM Ihronch a CTl'oder (■• it war.) 

■D JDCb ud a half in XtOfVt,, and ccnna 

MnulromainicloHd. BnAnf tka l*at 

Dui at tha iBtanal orifiee, Iha ; 

BATfty of tk« naak baeonwi aoafoaaded 

vritli thai of tha body, and tha finger, in 
BugrarBUlinaa of tha mchiag; th* BHDbnnaa,onlr trareraa 

Mitremiririi."'""'* ' ° " ' " " colUrlalhe D°tfeti,'of • Tariabla''ui"iok. 

Tbkathxht ddbino Pksohanct f 

What ia the proper treatment during pregnsDcy ? All excite- 
ment should be avoided; the exercise sboald be moderate, aod of a 
kind calenlsted to invigorate the general health ; the diet should be 
flimpte and onirritatiDg; and both diarrhwa and coativenesi shonld 
be avoided or relieved. Castor oil, or pills of rhnb&rb and soap, 
form the beat aperient. Sickness of the stomach ma; often be 
relieved bj lime-water and milk. Anj complication oocnrriog 
should reorave its appropriate treatment. 



1 rstood by abortion ? The expobion of tlie vntm ■! 

I to iLe sixth month : after that period, it b tctwd 

'. The caiua maj be violent mental emoUcu; 
kbit; anything which increases tlie relocitj ^ ik 
le blood; diorrhtca, Bjrphilis, acute disease of iIhi 
ii I, ■■.•J , TiolcDt esercise, blons on the abdomen, tmu 
purges, Ac. &c. 

What are the itytu of abortion 1 jsence of tlic moming niffc- 
ness, which also very often occurs wben the foetos ia dead ; wbeo 
tliis existfi, we may infer that the chi . is alirc ; Sac«idtty of the 
breasts ; tenesmns, paios of the ba domen, and weight and pain 

in the region of the uterus, expnlsi< is, and hemorrhage ; this lisl 

symptom cannot exiiit without the * iott of a portion of the omn. 

What are the meaos of its precu t In plcthorie women, me 
small and repeated bleedings, with a nerol antiphlogistic oeone. 
Weak women require, on the other nand, tonics, wine, bark, xbA 
cold bathing. Violent exercise Bhoald be avoided, the mind kept 
composed, and mild aperients used, but purging should be carefully 

What is the proper trenlment ? Bleeding when plethoric, eooliog 
and saline draughts with laudanum proportioned to the amount of 
paio, keep the patient cool. Laudanum, opium, or morphine will 
often, when given in full doses, either by the mouth or by the rec- 
tum, quiet the symptoms and put a stop (o its further progress, 
unless considerably advanced. Entire rest should be slriclly en- 
joined, and, if hemorrhage csi!^t, acttate of lead should be given, anJ 
ice used internally and esternaily, and the vagina plugged if neces- 

The best (((Hiji'in or }ilwj is probably fonncd by ivbat is termrtl 
the kii(-tuil phiijj-viWch consists of small strips of soft muslin, unitid 
together by a small eorJ. The lainpnn should only be used whoa 
there is litllc or uo h.ipc of saving the contents uf ihc uterus, auJ 
hemorrhage exists. 


Op thb Aotiom ot thb Utkeos. 

What are the adioiuof thentenuf It has two. The Sret tends 
to reduce it to its original site after baring been distended ; this is 
called its tonic action. It is accomplished b; all the fibres gathering 
themselres to a common centre, bat partJcnlArly by tlie circular 

The second acts only wben attempting to expel something, and is 
allemate in its action ; it has been termed the tpatTnodie arpain/al 
coDtraotion of the ntems ; and never takes place unless the tonic 
action is perfect, or nearly so. 

Bbtbotbbsion of the Utxbus. 

What is meant by Retroversion of the uterus? It is vhere the 
fimdas is predpilated backwards, and places itself between the 
rectum and bladder; while the neck is mounted up behind the 
symphysiB pubis. 

At what time may this diq)lacement take place? Either in the 
onimpregnated or the impr^nated state ; bnt nsnally in the latter. 
It occurs mostly between the second and fourth months of pregnancy. 

What are the anuaf Wbat«Ter tends to depress the fundus ; 
such as blows, pressure, sudden exertion, violent efforts to vomit, 
coughing, an over-distended bladder, and an accumulation of feces 
in the rectum. 

What are the tymptomtf When suddenly prodnced, the symp- 
toms may be severe ; and immediate iutermption to the flow of urine, 
or to the passage of the feces, alternat« pains, bearing down, dia- 
poaition to &int, &o. When slowly induced, the symptoms are the 
same, only less urgent and severe, but increase in intensity as the 
uterus is developed, until relieved. The diagnosis should be veri- 
fied by the touch ; and the disease may easily be distinguished by 
the vagina interposing between the finger and the tumor, the neck 
being mounted up behind the symphywa, and by its being obstinately 
fixed in its position. 

What is the ireatmcnlf The catheter should be used, and the bowels 

emptied daily; If this plan does not succeed, it should be replicH 
by mochaaical means. The pl&n then to be pursued h to empij 
tl... lv.HQ)a niiher by iEJeetiona or a cathartic ; ilnt« off the orint 
I "1 thetcr ; and bleed to fainting, or ncart; bOj if nere-- 

p""- hould be prepared in auch a matiDcr that the palJiiii 

I back, with the pcrinonm free from the edge of llie 

b lar i should be well lubricated with oil or lard. When 

faintnesa '" ■""'■n^d by bleeding, the womiin should be pU«ed in the 
above p ho fingers should be placed so as to form a sbaigbi 

line at their "»*' a; i i be gently pressed agniD!t 

the base of in the i > as to move it backwaidi 

and upwards, along tbe hollow of rum, until it is placed abottr 

the projecljon of this bone; the liand i<hoold be withdrawn a p» 
eary introduced, and the woman kept q let in bed for some diya. 

Anteversion or thk Uterus. 

What ia Anterersioo of the uterus? It is where the fundus a 
thrown forward and downward, so as to press against the postmcr 
and inferior portion of the bladder, while the nock is carried baifc- 
wards towards the projection of tbe eacmm. The symptoms are 
not BO severe as in retroTersion. It may generally be relieved by 
opening the bowels and drawing off the urine. 

Of the Obliquities of the Uteecs. 
How are they divided f Into right and left lateral, and the an- 

■\\'hat ia the treiitmcnt for these displacements of the uterus? 
Before labor, the woman should wear a bandage or supporter. 

Duriug labor, the axes of the uterus and pelvis should be made 
to correspond, by placing the patient on the side opposite to the 
oblicjuily, and bringing the fundus into its proper place. If this 
docs not accomplish the object, the os uteri should be booked down 
by the finger, and brought to correspond with the asis of the pelvis. 


Of Tira Term of Utebo-oestation. 

What ia the Krenge term of utero-gestttion ? Aboat nine cden- 
■Jar inontfaB or fbrtj weeks. 

Wh»t is the moat favorable period for oonoeption F Immedi- 
atelj after the meiutnial evacuatioii. 

Or Labor. 

What is understood by the term Labor 7 It ia the expnluve 
efforts of tbe ntents uid mother in cvacaatjng die contents of the 

Is its cause well understood f It cannot be ezpluned in the 
present state of onr knowledge. 

Has the mind may inflaence on l&bor? Mental impresuons ma; 
exeit« labor in some cases, and in others suspend or prevent it 

Is the fcatoB active, at ptutive during laborT It b entirely pas- 
uve; being acted upon by the utems mainly, assisted by the volnn- 
toiy powers of the mother. 

What are the tymplotivi of labor f They are rigors, and nervous 
symptoms, frequent incllna^on to make water, or a suppression of 
it, tenesmus, the subsidence of the abdominal tumor, secretion of 
mncuB, dilatation of the mouth of' tho uterus, and its alt«mate con- 

What is understood bjjalte paint f The ^ns are false when 
the oa uteri is entirely unaffected by them ; which may be ascer- 
tained by on examination. When these occur, they should be 
quieted by an injection of laudanum with starch, sufficient in quan- 
tity to accomplish the object, after evacuating the bowels. 

By what set of fibres is the os uteri opened ? By the loagiludinal, 
which are opposed by the cireular. 

Into how many tiaga is labor divided ? Three. Tfae^rtf is the 
period nf dilutation of tho os uteri sufBcicnt to permit the child to 
pas.s, and occupies about ten-twelfths of (he whole duration of labor. 
(Fig. 12.) 

The tecond is the period of ejrpitUion of the child from the uterus, 
and occupies about one-ninth. (Fig. 13.) 


Tho ihinl stage inclndeB the compile tupaltion of the membrant* 
and placenta, and oocupies about ODe-tweDty-fonrth of the whole 
duration of labor. 

Are the active daties of the accoucheur nnmeroiia in a natural 
labor f No; he shoald watch with care ita progrcM and attendiog 
lymptoQiB, BO as to be able to render assiBtanco promptlj in eaie of 
difficulty ; but should not interfere when the case ia a natural one. 
To be able to discriminate where interference in neccsearv requires 
an accurate knowledge of a healthy labor, and the deriations tn 
which it may be liublo. 

What ahuuIU be the pini'tujii of the woman during labor? She 
Bbould be placed on bcr left side at tbe foot of the bcJ, in such a 
manner that tihe may fii ber fi'ct firmly against the bedpost ; ber 
hips within ten or twelve inches of the edge of the bed, with tbe 
lower extremities flexed, and the head supported by pillows. 

The bed should be properly protected by folded blankets from the 

What time would you choose for making an examination of the 
progress of labor? The fiogcr should be introduced into tho vagina 
during a pain; thecxaminntionof tbe presenting part and of the con- 
dition of the OS uteri should be made both during pain and in its 

Should the inembmnea be ruptured during lobor? When tho 


membrancB remain entire, and the pains axe efficient, with tlie ob 
uteri fullj dilated or dilatable, they should be raptured hy presBing 
the Gnger against them, or hy eatting tbeni with tbe nail. 

When tbe head is emerging onder the iroh of the pubes, what are 
tbe duties of tbe aocooobenrT He should support the perineal 
tumor vith the palm of tbe left band, and retun it there until the 
bead is freed from the Tulva. 

Whan tbe bead is in this position, is it proper to act upon it, and 
extract the fcBtnar No; the delivery should be trusted to the 
action of the nterus, unless it should become suspended, and there 
is danger of the life of the child. Bj a too soddeu delivery, alarm- 
ing hemorrhage may result 

What is the first great object as regards the child after delivery ? 
To establish respiration, which generally takes place spontaneously; 
if it does sot, meaauies should be taken to produce artificial respira- 
tion ; and heated cloths should be applied to the obild rather than 
the warm bath. 

What are the means employed in produdng artificial re^iralioHF 
Tbe nostrils should be closed, and air forced into the month either 
by tbe bellows, or from the mouth of the accoucheur; and again 
expelled by gently pressing upon tbe thorax. 

To what period after birth may respiration be suspended, and yet 
the obild live? For thirty, or even forty minutes in some instances; 
■0 that our efibrts should be continued so long as then is any ehanee 
of life. 

At what time is it proper to put a ligature on the cord, and cut it? 
When the obild ories, or respires freely; and there is evidence of a 
proper snpply of arterial blood. 

How many ligatures are necessary ? One; except there be twins, 
in whieh case two are necessary. 

After the child is separated from the mother and given to the 
nurse, what should then be attended to 7 The condition of the uterus 
should be ascertained by examining it through the pariet«s of the 
abdomen, when it will be found either contracted or relaxed. 

If contracted, the placenta may be in the vagina, and easily booked 
down with the fingers, and drawn by the cord; when it bos passed 


the 06 externam, it shall be grasped and twisted seyeral times Toand, 
00 that the membranes may be entirely withdrawn. 

If the nterus is relaxed^ frictions should be made over the abdo- 
men so as to produce contraction. 

The condition of the uterus should be watched until its permanent 
tonic contraction is well established. 

If there is a retention of the placenta after tonic contraction has 
taken place, rubbing and pressing the belly may excite a greater 
degree of it, or, perhaps, alternate contraction sufficient to expel the 
placenta : but if this does not take place, the hand may be intro- 
duced, after waiting an hour or two, which should then be done by 
introducing it into the uterus in the form of a cone ; the placenta 
should be carefully detached, without leaving any portion behind^ 
and the hand may be slowly withdrawn. 

What is understood by putting the patient to bed? It consists 
in the removal of wet things and substituting dry ones; in being 
lifted where she is permanently to lie ; and in the application of a 
bandage over the abdomen. 

At what time should it be done? If she is not in a profuse per- 
spiration, is not liable to, or has no hemorrhage, or not much ex- 
hausted, it should be done immediately. 

Upon what do after-pains depend, and what is the remedy ? After- 
pains arc produced by coagula in the uterus, which arc caused by a 
deficiency of its tonic contraction. The proper remedies are evacu- 
ation of the bowels, camphor, opium and its preparations, and the 
extract of hyoscyamus. 

What should be the diet of a woman after delivery? Gruel of 
oatmeal, tapioca, sago, mush and milk, rice, weak tea, coffee, and 
chocolate. Animal food, spirits, wine, cordials, and all stimulating 
articles should be strictly avoided. After the first week, she may be 
allowed some oysters, eggs, beef tea, &c. 

When should the child be put to the breast ? If there is danger 
from hemorrhage, it should be applied as soon as possible; and at 
any rate as soon as it can bo done conveniently without too much 
annoyance to the woman. 

If the bowels should be confined, at what time would it be proper 
to give a cathartic? On the third day; previous to this, unless 

OBSFEiBias. 528 

there ia some particolar indication to fiilfil, the bowels should not be 

The state of the bladder shonld also alwajB be attended to. 

What is meant bj the lochia? The discharges which take place 
from the utenu after deliverjr. 

Is it neoefiury to administer pargatives to jouag children t It is 
necessary that the bowels should be thoronghly cleansed of the me- 
conium,,either bj their natural action, or by some laxative as mo- 
lasses or castor oil ; bat as soon as there is a change of color produced 
in the evacaations, they should be discontinoed. 

The eondi^oa of the bladder of the chOd should also be attended 
to, and lelieved if urine shonld accnmnlat« in iL 

Is it proper to feed very young children F Provided the mother 
does not fiimish a supply of milk sufficient, bat not otherwise; the 
child may then have a little fteah cow's milk, diluted with one-third 
water, and sweetened with loaf sugar. 

Laceration of the Perineum. 

What preventiua may be adopted to avoid laceration of the pe- 
rineum during labor? Support should bo ^ven to the perineum 
during the passage of the child's head and shoulder out of the va- 
^na, by placing the palm of the hand firmly agunst it, and so cause 
the head to descend downwards and forwards. 

What is the proper treatment when it occurs? When recent, 
effitrts should be made to unite the parts by the firat intention, and 
to accomplish this the patient should keep quiet, with her limbs close 
together. Some surgeons suggest the employment of sntures, pro- 
vided the laceration is extensive. When the case is of some stand- 
ing, or the parts indisposed to heal, the edges should be pared as in 
the hare-lip operation, and brought together so as to form a union. 

What is the proper treatment? Ileduce the in6ammation by ge- 
neral uud local means; use Pratt's artificial nipple and Bhield, and 


if the ulcerations become deep and chronic, touch them with nitrate 
of silver lightly. The above artificial nipple of Pratt's may be used 
with little or no pain/causes but slight disturbance of the BoreSi and 
of course, the principal impediment to cicatrization is thus removed. 
Glen tie astringent washes, in the chronic stage, are also beneficial; of 
these, the sulphate of zinc and the tincture of catechu are proper 

Of Natural or Unassisted Labor. 

What is meant by a natural labor f Every labor may be con- 
sidered natural, in which the woman might be delivered safely with- 
out help. 

What conditions should exist that natural labor may take place ? 
There should be regular contractions of the uterus, a favorable pre- 
sentation, the pelvis of a proper size, a proportionate head, and the 
soft parts relaxed. 

What are considered to be the natural presentations f There are 
four : Ist, of the head — 2d, of the feet — 3d, of the knees — and 4th, 
of the breech. 

Of these, which is the most frequent and the most favorable ? The 
presentations of the head. 

How are the presentations of the head divided ? There are six. 

What arc their positions, and how arc they distinguished ? The 
fir&ty which is known by the posterior fontanelle being behind the left 
acetabulum, and the anterior before the right sacro-iliac symphysis. 

The second, distinguished by the posterior fontanelle being behind 
the right acetabulum, and the anterior before the left sacro-iliac 

The ihirdy distinguished by the post<3rior fontanelle being behind' 
the symphysis pubis, and the anterior before the projection of the 

The fourth, distinguished by the anterior fontanelle being behind 
the left acetabulum, and the posterior before the right sacro-iliac 

The Ji/th, distinguished by the anterior fontanelle being behind the 



right acetabnlam, and the posterior before the right ncro-ilioc 

And the tixih ia the reverse of the third. 

To remember these presenbitiDns easily, notice that the let, 2d, 
and 3d presenlatioDB are represented bjr the poeterior fontsnelle ; and 
the 4th, 5th, and 6th, bj the anterior fontanelle; and that we con- 
stantly follow theii numerical order, commencing with the left aoe- 
tabnlum, then with the right, and then go to the eymphyBis pubis; 
each fontanelle following the same roate and order. 

What are the dittiitffuiihiiiff marla of the presentation of the 
head? Its ronndnefls, firmness, satnree, and fbntanelles. 

The particular position of ibe bead relatively to the pelvis is de- 
termined b; the sitnation of the sutures and fontanelles. 

MxcHAMSH or Labor. 

What is the meehanitm of the firU pretmtation f The head 
enters the superior strait obliquely, in the position described in the 
first presentation. 

Fig. 14 



The he fiax^, witfa tlie ckiti M tfie beast, and dnee^ b 

this [roudoi the axis uf the tnpeiior stnit. (Kg. 14.) WW li 

arrives at Uie eb iro-sduic Kgaments, raWim n periiic^wd Ifj dw k»l 

of 1-6 of & Gir<:Ie, «hUe the bodj remuiH in tte mubc |fH l i» - the 

ccntreoftlu idptUl bone viU then be S 

eymphjBu | s, and t]>e n|iuaj ntnre with tl 

meter of thi elvis. As the h««d advinoes, th« chin denntt frM 

the bre&st, the vertex MiTanoe8,BC] "" " 

towards the mims Teneti 

backwards' **•!« 

perfect, joi 

>ooa OS the 

angles with the gb""!''*' 

this is called ren 

Bcco that the email i 

diameters of the pcl..^ 

fiaiim, dacatt, rt/tatioa, atauian, and ralilulton. 


Am, qovteror mmii 
fUM, and ma; be ttxmimi 
I pcTioeom. (Fig. 15.) As 
f, it ukes a pontioB at right 
posilioatnrelatioiB la thtn; 
la tLi>se motions, it win be 
id correspond wilb the saaB 
iMUtes fire motiona, that sf 

Fig. 16. 

Wliicb shoulder presents at the sjmphjsia pubis in this presenta- 
tion ? The right shoulder. 

What is the mechanwm of the second pretratationf It is the 
same as the first, if we place the head in the positioa of the second 
preseatataon at the sapeiior strait; aod the left shoulder passes out 
noder the arch of the pabes. 

What 14 the mechaniim of the third pretentationf In the third 
position, the head is presented at the Bupcrior strait with its longitu- 
dinal diameter, corresponding with the autero-posterior diameter of 
the pelvis; it deteenda in this manner, and porforms the motions of 
fiexion and extaition, hat not those of rotation and restitution. 

Which shoulder presents to the symphysis in this presentation ? 
There b no certainty whether it will be the right or left. 

Whatii the tnecAoiiuni of the.^r(Apo(i'(ion^ The head present- 
ing with the anterior fontanelle at the left acetabulaoi descends until 
a portion of the right parietal bono rests npon the inferior part of 
the sacrum when rotation takes place, and the forehead is placed 
under tho arch of the pubcs; the anterior fontanelle will be found 
in the middle of the arch; the posterior above the point of the 


sacrum ; the occiput continues to advance over the coccyx and peri- 
neum until it is cleared from it ; the occiput then turns backwards 
towards the anus of the mother, and the face disengages itself from 
under the pubcs. In this and the fifth, the forehead of^^en rotates 
into the hollow of the sacrum. 

Which shoulder presents to the arch of the pubes ? The left. 

To what position may this be changed with advantage ? To the 
second ; and the fifth may be reduced to the first. 

How is this accomplished? The uterus must be well dilated, the 
membranes ' ruptured, the head occupying the lower strait, and 
the labor active. The point of the forefinger must be placed against 
the edge of the sagittal suture, before or behind the anterior fonta- 
nelle ; in the absence of pain, press the part towards the left sacro- 
iliac symphysis, maintain it there during the next pain, and this 
must be repeated again and again until we succeed. 

What is the mechanism of the fi/th presentation? The relations 
of the child's head to the pelvis are the same as in the fourth, only 
the anterior fontanelle at the superior strait is placed at the right 
acetabulum; and the right shoulder presents at the arch of the pubes. 

What is the mechanism of the sixth presentation f This pre- 
sentation is the reverse of the third ; and in addition to the great 
diameter of the head being parallel with the small diameter of the 
upper strait, the forehead has to come under the arch of the pubcs ; 
so that the first part of the labor resembles cases of the third pre- 
sentation, and the latter part cases of the fourth or fifth. 

Presentatian of the Breech, 

What is the order of frequency of the natural presentations ? The 
breech is next in frequency to the head ; then the feet and knees. 

What is the principal danger in these cases where the body of 
the child is first delivered ? It arises from delay in delivery of the 
head, and compression of the umbilical cord ; consequently, breech 
presentations, from the perfect manner in which the external parts are 
dilated, preparatory to the passage of the head, are less dangerous 
than the feet and knee presentations, although it may be a little 
more tedious to the mother. 

What arc the symptoms of a breech presentation ? It may be 
known by the soft tumor wanting the characteristics of the head ; 



having neitber its sntureB, hardnefls, nor rongliness. A deep groove 
is observed leading to the anna and parts of generation, and af^r 
the ruptnre of the membranes a discharge of meconinm will oorro- 
boratc, but not positively confirm the diagnoaia. 

What are the varielU* of breech presentations ? There are four. 
In tbe/rtf, the lower part of the spine and eacrnm offer to the left 
acetabulum, and the abdomeo looks towards the right sscro-iliao 
Hymphysls. (Fig. 17.) The following figures represent the first pre- 
sentation of the breech in its various toms throagh the pelvis, or its 

Pig. 17- 

Fig. 18. 

iDtheaectmt/, the bade of the child answers 
to the right Boetabnlnm, and the belly to 
the left sacro-iliac junction. (Fig. 18.) 

In the thini, the spine is behind the 
sympbyria pubis, and the belly towards the 
projection of the sacrum. (Fig. 19.) 

The.^r(A is the reverse of this last. 

What is the proper manar/emenl of cases 
of breech presentation ? It is not to in- 
terfere, unless complicated with some cir- 
cumstances which may render it neces- 


I'retenlnlioa of tko /Vrf. 

What ore the rharacierittia of feet pre^tntatioos f The; w 
easily ttdd by tbe projecting lieelii, the ebort toes, and from tlic 
hunilf, to wliicli alooe they bear any analogy by the aLaence uf llie 

What ore the presentations of the feet ? There axe /avr. In ibc 
jint, the heels are anterior to the left acetabulum, nod the toei an 
directed towards the right Bucro-iliae symphysis. In all these case*, 
the legs ore flexed upon the thighs, and the thighs on the pclvif. 

In the tecoad, the hecla are ,■ he right auetabolum, and tiid 
toes look towards the left sacro-iliac symphysis ; in nil these taigs, 
the other parts of the body correspond to the position of the fi*l- 

In the third, the heels are at the symphysis pubis, and the toes w 
(he eacrum. 

Inthe/jart^jthepowtlon ie reversed; the heels are to thencrusi, 
and the toes to the pubes. 

Pretenlalimi of Oie Kaea. 
What are the presentations of tl ineesf Then am A«r. la 

lhe_^/-ii/,thclog3ureto the left side of the mother, and the thigbst" 
the right. 

In the Kcond, the legs are to the right, and the thighs to tbe 

In tbe thinl, the legs arc under the arch of the pnbee, and ibe 
thighs towards the sacrum. 

Tbe/uurtA la the reverse of the third. 

Of Laboiis in ivhich tiik Presentation is natural, bl"t 
11kn1>eueu difficult ob preteknatural. 

Wliat iiro the cause." which may rcnJor a natural labor prci-rnii- 
film!? Tbey arc 1st, /(o'li/iny; 2d, cuiiin/xioiis ; dd,tj/iicf'pc: 4tb, 
Jieriiio: Stli, oLU'iuili/ <f the ulrnis ; (1th, jxirtUtl coi.triiflioiu or 
the utirua: 7th, iom}hiUHil pn-jmmey : Sth, ihsrcnt of the cord: 'MK 
too dioH a c;r.l: lOtb, hu<l posUwn of the hoil: 11th, i-j(hiiiistivn : 
12tb, fu^murehages from tlie laiujs or ot/icr or-jaiis. 


Flooding at a eompltcatuM of Natural Lahor. 

Under what amditioiu of the os atcri majr hetnorrhage take place 
during labor t It may be either partially dilated and rigid ; or it 
may be dilat^id, or eaulj dilatable. 

What abonld be the treatmaU when the oe uteri is rigid f There 
should be no hasty or rash interference, and it would be the hei^t 
of impradence to enter the ntenu and attempt turning. The dis- 
charge ahoald be controlled by rest, a horixontal posture, by blood- 
letting if indicated, large doeee of acetate of lead, cold applications, 
and the tampon. In some cases, when the above means fail, benefit 
may be derived from promoting the contractions of the ntems by 
mptorit^ the membrmnes. 

What should be the treatment when the oa uteri is dilated or 
dilatable ? We should at once proceed to tnraing, unless npturing 
the membranes should abate the discharge, or the activity of the 
labor promise a speedy deliveiy. If the labor is hr advanoed, the 
forceps may be necessary. 


What amne should be pursned in coDTuhdons as regards deli- 
very f If the OS uteri is rigid, delivery should not be attempted ; 
bloodletting, cathartics, and snch other means as may be called for 
should be resorted to, until the uterus becomes relaxed ; when wo 
may proceed to turn, unless the natonl powers of the uterus are 
sufficient to accomplish a deliveiy. 

When the uterus is dilated or easily dilatable, we should at once 
proceed to turning, after a copious bloodletting. In cases where 
the waters have been long druned off, and the head low in the 
pelvis, we should use the forceps. 

What courte should be pursued in cases eomplieated with syncope? 
The can»e should at once be sought out ; and if it depends upon a 
peculiarity of the nervous system, little need be done. Itut, if it 
proceed from internal or concealed hemorrhage, wo should deliver 
immediately, unless the state of the os uteri prevent 



When a hernia is in danger of becoming strangulated, what course 
should be adopted ? Turning, if the os uteri is in a proper condi- 

Bad position of the Head. 

What may be considered bad positions of the head, particularly 
when the head is relatively large, or the pelvis relatively small f 
When the head presents at the superior strait, as in the third and 
sixth presentations. 

When the chin departs from the breast too early. 

When the face presents from excessive departure of the chin from 
the breast. 

And when some part, as the hand or arm, accompanies the head. 

What is the remedy for the first of these difficulties? The head 
shall be grasped so that the thumb may lie on one side, and the 
fingers on the other ; it shall then be raised, and in the third pre- 
sentation the vertex shall be turned towards one of the acetabula ; 
if the right hand be used, turn it towards the right acetabulum, and 
if the left towards the left acetabulum ; then trust to nature. The 
sixth presentation should be changed either to the fourth or the 
fifth, which will be as much rotation as the neck will bear. 

What is the remedy for too early departure of the chin from tJie 
breast.^ It is to restore it by pushing up the forehead in the ab- 
sence of pain, and retain it there with the points of two or three 
fingers until a pain comes on, and the vertex is found to descend ; it 
may then be trusted to nature. 

What are the varieties of face presentations ? There are four : 
in the 1st, the forehead offers to the left, and the chin to the right 
side of the pelvis ; the 2d is the reverse of this ; in the 3d, the fore- 
head answers to the symphysis of the pubes, and the chin to the 
sacrum ; the 4th is the reverse of this. The following figures re- 
present the positions of the head in the pelvis, where the face presents 
in the first position, or the mechanism of that position. (Figs. 20, 21, 

How may face presentations be distint/uisJied P By the pre- 
sence of the eyes, nose, mouth, and chin. 

Pig. 90. 


At what period, and how may they Iw remedied f When the 
uterus 19 dilated or dilatable, 
aad the bend has not passed the 
superior strait ; with tho waters 
recently expended. Pass the 
band which is on the side on 
which the vertex and forehead 
are placed; in the first and 
second presentations, put the 
back of the fingers to the poa- 
terioT part of the pelvis, and 
place them on the side of the 
bead, wbilc tbetbnmb is placed 
■gainst the opposite side ; the 
head is then to be raised, the 
fingers carried over the vertex, 

and the thumb to the forehead ; while the fingers are made to draw 
the vertex downwards, the thumb is to press the forehead upwards. 
This is to be done in the absence of pNn, and retdncd until a pain 
eomes on, and the head takes the proper direction. 

Fifr. 21. Fig. 23. 


In the third and fourth presentations, taming is the proper remedy 
when the condition of the uterus will admit it. 

What is the proper remedy when the hand presents with the head ? 
It should be prevented from descending by placing the point of the 
forefinger between the fingers of the child, and supporting it during 
a pain, at the same time directing it towards the face ; as the head 
descends, the hand may in this way be made to retire within the 
cavity of the uterus. 

What is the remedy in the other cases of complication of a natural 
labor requiring interference ? Tumhig, when the condition of the 
06 uteri will admit of it ; but in no case is the uterus to be entered 
unless the os uteri is either dilated or easily dilatable. The forceps 
should be used when the head is low in the pelvis. 

What is the proper |x>nV/o;i of a woman for turning? The back 
is the best 3 with the lower extremities over the edge of the bed, and 
the feet resting on chairs, so as to leave the perineum and coccyx 

What time should be chosen for the introduction of the hand, and 
how should it be done? It should be formed into a cone, with the 
thumb looking towards the symphysis pubis, and introduced into the 
vagina during a pain^ and into the utcnis during its absence. 

Is it proper to turn a child after it has passed the os uteri ? No ; 
it should be done as soon as possible after the first stage of labor is 

When the hand is in the uterus, to what part should it be passed ? 
The hand should grasp the head with the fingers on one side and the 
thumb on the other, raise it in the axis of the superior strait, and 
place it in the iliac fossa towards which the palm of the hand looks ; 
where it must be retained by the wrist and forearm, while the fingers 
trace the side of the child to the feet, which should be grasped firmly, 
and both acted upon at the same time when practicable. (Fig. 23.) 

In what direction should the feet be conducted when bringing 
them down ? So that the toes should always look towards the abdo- 
men of the child. (Fig. 22.) 

Is it proper to attempt to turn a child during a pain? No ; the 
uterus might be lacerated. 

Is it proper to complete the delivery in cases of turning, or bring 


down the feet and permit the natural powers to finish ? When com- 
menced, it shonld be completed bIowI; and steadily. 

When the feet are brought through the extornal parts, what should 
be their positJon ? The toes should look towards the anns of the 


motber; snd wben it is dflivcrcd boyond the umbilicuj<, it shoald b« 
made to pass through the arch of the pnbes with its spine looking 
towards, or pressing against either the right or left leg of the pobes, 
thai the head may enter the Kupiirior strait obliquely. (Figs. 25,26.) 
'When the oxillro appear at the os externum, what fihoold be dooe? 
The one Qcst the Kacrum. should be first delivered, by po^og a 
finger or two upon the point of the 
ehouldcr, and pressing it dowrtwaids, 
tracing the arm to the elbow, wbich maj 
hi- preRsed upon downwiirds and fonranls 
towarda the face of the child, where it 
will ulmiist always bo disengaged. To 
dcUvtr the second arm, turn the shoulJer 
of that arm to that side of the pelvis to 
which the face of the child looks; and 
it will inslantjy become diae a gaged from 
the head, at the Email diameter of the su- 
perior strait, and may be brought down io 
the same manner as tlie first. (Fig. '27.) 
\Vliet) the child ia all delivered except 
i!ie hcud, what should then be attended 
In? Tlio pohilioii RlumJd first bo a-'.-cr- 
taitied ; and if it does not already exist, 
a proper relation should be estublished between the diameters of the 
pelvis and the head of the child ; a little force should now be applied 
in the direction of the axis of the superior strait. When in the infc^ 
nor slrait, the proper relation should again be ealublisbed between 
the diainettrs of tiiu head and this part of the pelvis. (Fig. '2S.) 

Till! mnlhcr should now ho directed to assist by her voluutarv 
jKiwiis, and thu ihild iiiaj he aeted upon ia the direction of ilie 

und a 

of Ihc' hnnl nod cl..^ 


vitb the puns of the mother when ihej exist, and the whole should 
be co&dacted coolly and delibentely . 

Which hand shonld be employed in omcb of taming? Alwaji 
nsc that hand which will look towards the face of the child. Id the 
first presentation, it will be the leji hand ; in tho second, the riyJU ; 
and for the third and sixth either hand will be proper, or the one of 
which we have the greatest command. 

Or. THE Forceps. 

What kind of forceps ore generally nsed ? There are two ; tho 
Aorf, and the lon^. 

The i/u>rt are preferred when the head ia very low in tho pelvis, 
and the long when high np. The long forceps are, however, better 
adapted to both conditions, and should on the whole be preferred. 
The " eclectic forceps" of Profesaor Hodge are to bo preferred, on 
many accounts, to any others. (Fig. 30.) 

What do the forceps 7-esemhle, and when are they vidicntedf 

They maj be compared to a pair of artificial handB, and are indicated 
when the powers of the uterus cannot accomplish delivery, when 
the case is coraplicaled rof|uiring immediate delivery, and the head 
passed the os uteri. They are, however, sometimes applied at the 
commencement of the Bccond stage of labor, but it sbould only he 
attempled when turning is practicable, by a person well skilled in 
their use, 

''(I'oii of tbo woman for the npplicalion of the 

KUTiii'uded for turning, 
of tlio bladder and rectum bo atlendod to? 

nptied before tlio forceps are used; the es- 

struiiK'iits hhuuld also be coaled with hog's 


What is the 
forceps ? The 

Should (ho ( 
Tliej should hoth be em 
teniiil ['arts and the ins 

What should be thi) c 

of the 

nd membranes ? 



The OB uteri sod external parts should be relaxed, and the niem- 
braaeg raptured. 

What is the mode of procedure in the first preseuteUon, aud the 
head low in the pelria f 

One or two fingers of the right hand should be introduced careMl; 
into the vagina, so as to separate the soft parts from the foetot head on 
the left ride of the mother ; the male blade should then be seized 
bj the left hand, aa we hold a pen, held obliquely over the right 
groin, and its blade introduced along the finger towards the left sacro- 


iliae ^fmpbjris. As the blade passes up, its handle will of couiso 
be depressed and gndnallj brought towards the median line of the 
bod; antJl it lies back against the perineum and thcro retained in that 
position by an asristont. (Fig. 31.) The introduction of the fomale 
branch should then be accomplished iu a similar manner, only the 
poritiomi of the hands is reversed, the left being introduced into the 

Tagina, and tbe right holding the female blade of the forceps. (Fig. 

The poaition of the forceps, when applied, will be represented bj 
the two following figures. (Figs. 33 and 34.) 




To what) parts of the head shoold 
the blades of tbe fonepo he applied ? 
To the aidea of the bead over the 
can of the child in the diiectioD of 
its oblique diameter; and so that 
their concave edges will come under 
the arch of the pnbee at the last 
period of labor. 

In cases of difficnlty in causing 
the handles of the iustnunent to 
join, should they be brought together 
by force ? No ; the canse of their 
not locking mnet be isoertaised, and 
remedied; force should never be 

What are the moda of action of 
the forceps f They have two modes 
of action ; that of eomprewum, and Uiat of traction and eomjtrt*- 

May the life of the child be destroyed by oompreaeion from the 
use of tlie forcepsf It may; care shoold be taken in this respect, 
and, after each tractive effort, the forceps should be permitted to 
expand themselves. 

In what manner should tiaotion be made 1 It should be mads 
from blade to blade, so that each may act as a lever upon the head. 

The extant of this motion of the handles mnst be governed by 
the distance of the head from the external parts ; the less the head 
is advanced, the more cucumscribed should be the motion, and the 
reverse. The general direction of this traction should correspond 
with the axis of tliat part of the pelvis through which the child is 

Should a labor be completed by the forceps in all cases where 
their application is necessary ? They may be removed when the 
bead has nearly passed through the external parte, provided the 
pains continue, but not otherwise. 


Of Locked or Impacted Head. 

What are the varieties of locked head ? Theie are two : — 

Ist. Where the head is jammed with its greatest length between 
the pubes and sacmm. 

2d. Where its thickness cannot pass, owing to the narrowness of 
the pelvis. 

In the Jirst place, the points of pressure are the forehead and 
ooeipat ; and in the second, it is the parietal protnberances. 

What are the causes f Long continued and vehement action of 
the uterus, and a disproportion between the diameters of the pelvis 
and head ; either from malposition of the head, its size and solidity, 
or from deformity of the pelvis. 

What are the attending ^/mptoms of a locked head ? Immobility, 
accompanied by swelling of the hairy scalp of the child, thickening 
of the OS uteri, a swelling of the vagina and external parts. 

What arc the dangers f The mother is exposed to inflammation, 
sloughing, and gangrene, and the child to almost certain death. 

What are the indications f The delivery of the child ; which 
should be effected by the forceps if the child is living, and if dead 
the crotchet may be employed. 

Uterine IlEMORRnAGE. 

How is uterine hemorrhage divided? Into the accidental and 
the unavoidable. 

What is meant by accidental Jiemorrhage f It is that which 
occurs at any period of pregnancy from a detachment of the pla- 
centa, when situated at the body or fundus of the uterus. 

What is mQtixxi hy unavoidahle hemorrJutge ? It is that which 
occurs from the situation of the placenta over the mouth of the 

Accidental nemorrhagc. 

At what period of pregnancy may accidental hemorrhage take 
place ? At any time after the first month. 


What is the period of the greatest dangerf As a general rale, 
it is in proportion to^ odTancement of pregnancy. 

What IB the dlTision of accidental hemonhage for practical pur- 
poses? There are ,^r divisions : — 

Ist. Hemorrhage which occurs at the period when the omm is 
entirely sarroimded by the decidna and decidna rcflexa; compre- 
hending the firat four or four and a half months of pregnancy. 

2d. That which occurs daring the remuning period of ntero-ges- 

3d. That which occars between ttie birth of the child, and the 
Gxpalsion of the placenta. 

4th. That which occnrs sabseqaent to the expalsion of the pla- 

What are the attachments of the omm daring the first period ? 
It is attached to the parietes of the nlenis at all points of its sur- 
face ; and when separated endre resembles an ovular, spongy, fleshy 
mass. Bemoirhage may occor, therefore, from its separation at any 

What is the coodition of the neck of the utems indicating abor- 
tion 7 When it becomes dbtended so as to resemble in feel the ex- 
tremity of an egg, abortion will take place most certainly. 

The cessation of morning dckness, a dimination of the abdominal 
tamor, the painfal distension of the mamnue with milk, followed by 
flaccid breasU, also almost certunly indicate that abortion will take 
place. Neither pain nor flooding Is a positive symptom that abortion 
will follow. 

What are the indicatioja in the treatment daring this period f 
To arrest the bleeding, sabdue paia if present, and prevent a recor- 
lence of the hemorrhage. 

By what meant may these be accomplished 7 By perfect rest of 
body and mind; the bed should be a mattress, or sacking bottom. 
Feather beds should be avoided. The room shonld be ventilated, 
the patient thinly covered, the drinks cold, and everything of a sti- 
mulating nature entirely prohibited, either for food or drink. 

Bloodletting may be used or not, according as it may or may not 
be indicated by the force of the arteriul Byst<;m. 

Acetate of load should be given in doses of two or thrc -—■■"" 


goarded with opium eyerj half hour, or twej^ or thirty grains with 
a drachm of laudanum dissolved in a gill o^iater, or starch maj be 
used as an enema, and repeated if indicated. 

If pain exist, opium should be given so as to create a decided 
impression upon the uteruS; or else it proves itself unavailing. 

Ice-water may be applied to the pubes when the discharge is pro- 
fuse, but our greatest reliance should be on the tampon. 

In all cases where the hemorrhage is alarming, whether there is 
a certainty that abortion will take place or not, we should use the 
proper means for arresting it, and the tampon will almost certainly 
do it. 

At what period may the ovum be pierced for the purpose of ar- 
resting hemorrhage? Never before the fifth month; and, when it 
is ruptured before this period, the treatment of the case is more 
tedious from the retention of the placenta. 

When the ovum or placenta is partially expelled, and hemorrhage 
is kept up by their presence, what course should be adopted? It 
should be removed by the finger, Dewees's hook, or by forceps 
invented for this purpose. 

Sometimes ergot will act efficiently in removing them, and may 
be given when the hemorrhage is not violent. 

AVhat are the indications in the treatment during the second 
period? They arc the same as for the first. 

The same rules and treatment should be put in practice at once, 
and the tampon used early if necessary. 

Suppose these moans fail, what should be done ? We should rupture 
the membranes, and proceed to deliver if necessary, provided the 
OB uteri is in a proper condition ; when it is not, we should rely upon 
the tampon until it becomes so. Kupturing the membranes will, in 
the majority of cases, be sufficient to arrest the discharge. 

In what other condition would it be improper to efiect delivery? 
When the woman is reduced to the last extremities of weakness, 
and the discharge suspended ; but if it continue, it is the only chance 

What are the limits of the beneficial application of cold ? When 
it has controlled arterial action, and perhaps produced some con- 


tiactioDS of &e nterns ; these being accomplished, little benefit c&n 
be derived from its continouioe. 

What are the modes of delivery to be resorted to ? Torning, and 
the use of the forceps under the restrictions heretofore mentioned. 

Can hemorrhage take plaoo at any time without a sepoiation of a 
part or the nhole of the placenta T It cannot 

What are the immediaie cauta of hemorrhage ajier ddivery f A 
separation of the placenta, and atony or imperfect tonic coutraadonB 
of the utems. 

What are the varietietf It may be external) or internal and con- 

What are (he ijfmpiom* of concealed hemorrhage ? 

There is a flaccid condition of the utems, except of the neck, 
wbicli is contracted ; it becomes enlarged, and may even equal the 
size which it had before labour ; the effects of the Iobs of blood are 
also soon exhibited, nnlesa the hemorrhage is checked. 

What are the ffleoM used for hemorrhage a^r deliveryF The 
oontiacdon of the ntems should be excited, and continued. Fric- 
tion with, the tips of the fingers over the fundus will generally 
produce it, but if it swell we should giasp it with a sadden but 
moderate force. The hand should be introduced into the uterus if 
this does not at onoe arrest it, and the placenta delivered; a dose of 
ergot should then be given, which will insnre its contractions after* 

The excitement of this prooess will also have a tendency to pro* 
duce a permanent contraction. The sndden applicstiou of cold, 
frequently repeated, also has a beneficial effect in this way, applied 
either by wet cloths, by a donche on the abdomen, or as an Injection 
into the uterus. Firm, steady pressure over the utenia, but above 
all the application of the child to the breast, will almost always bring 
about permanent tonic contraction ; upon which alone the safety of 
the woman depends. The introduction of the hand into the uterus 
for the purpose of exoitingits oontractions, and extracting the oosgnla, 
is also recommended after the placenta is expelled, if necessary. 

^Vhat means may be adopted before delivery to prevent he- 
morrhage lit women subject to it By evacuating the watera, and 
diminishbg the force of the circulation, by making the woman pre- 


serve a horizontal position; by the interdiction of stimuli of ererj 
kind, and the exhibition of ergot just before labor is completed. 

What are the si/mptoms of encysted pUicenta firom hour-glan con- 
traction f It may be known by the fondos of the ntems reaching 
higher than common, by being smaller in its transverse diameter ; 
by an elastic feel of the cord ; by the absence of pain, by the pla- 
centa not being within reach of the finger; when the hand is intro- 
duced, the cord is found to pass through a small aperture, and the 
placenta is felt lying within the cavity formed by this contraction. 

What is the treatment f As soon as discovered, the woman should 
be placed in the position for turning, the hand introduced into the 
vagina, and then passed along the cord until an entrance is gradually 
effected through the stricture ; the mass should then be separated if 
adherent, apd brought away by a gentle, cautious motion of the 

Unavoidable Hemorrhage. 

At what period of utero-gestation may unavoidable hemorrhage 
occur? It generally occurs first between the sixth and seventh 
month, and gives us the first knowledge of the situation of the pla- 
centa over the mouth of the uterus. 

AVhy does it not occur earlier? Because the neck of the uterus 
is not unfolded before this period ; therefore the placenta is not dis- 
turbed, or separated. It does not necessarily follow at this time, or 
before labor commences, but the patient is unavoidably liable from 
the mechanism of the expansion of the neck of the uterus. 

What are the symptoms of unavoidable hemorrhage ? When the 
full time arrives, hemorrhage comes on suddenly, and often alarm- 
ingly, without pain; or, if attended with pain, it is increased at 
every pain. This should lead us to suspect a placental presentation 
or placenta praevia. The hand should be passed into the vagina, 
and the finger into the os uteri, where the placenta may be distin- 
guished by its firmness and fibrous structure from a coagulum ; to 
which alone it bears any resemblance. If a case of placental pre- 
sentation be left to nature, in what ways may it terminate ? In one 
of two modes : the pains may occur with great rapidity, and delivery 
be successfully accomplished; but death is nearly always the result 


from ezccBUTeliemorrliitge; this last resnltwonld be the tuubIodo^ 
therefore, the rule is to interfere in all cases. 

What is the trtatmenif In slight cues, ftt the early periods of 
pregnancy, the ordinary treatment of hemorrhage may be sufficient; 
but when pntfdse, and having asoertaincd it to be a placental pre- 
sentation, the condition of the mouth of the ntems should be as- 
certained. If it is rigid, ve should use those temporixiog means 
adapted to the case, among which the tampon stands first; and if It 
b dilated or dilatable, reconTse sboold be had to tvming, subject to 
the rules formerly mentioned. The membranes should bo preserved 
entire; the band should be insinuated between the oa nteri and pla- 
centa, at the part where the separation has taken place ; then passed 
up between the ntents and membranes before rnptoring tbem. They 
may then be ruptured, the feet eeiied, and the child delivered ; this 
operation should, however, be performed with the greatest care. 
Another method of procedure has been recommended by Dra. Simp- 
son, of Edinburgh, and Badford, of Manchester, which b to detach 
and extract the whole placenta before the child. The grounds for 
this recommendation are: Ist. That the entire detachment and re- 
moval of the placenta before delivery of the child are not usoally 
followed by any great hemorrhage. 2d. That any that may have 
previously existed nearly always ceases as soon as the placenta is 
•perftcUy and entirely detached from the uterus. Sd. That the dis- 
continnance of the hemorrhage is explicable on the mutaal vascular 
orrangeinent of the ntems and placenta, and that the bleeding prin- 
cipally oocors from the partially detached suriaoe of the latter, and 
not from the uterus; therefore, the cessation does not depend upon 
the pressure of tho child's head upon the uterine vessels. 

This practice is condemned by many eminent men, who recom- 
mend turning, even if the placenta be detached, so as to terminate 
the labor. If this oonrse is adopted, and turning is not resorted to, 
a dose of ergot may be proper for the purpose of hastening delivctj. 

Of Pderperal Cosvulsions. 
At v\i3iX, period of utcro- gestation may a woman be attauhcd with 


puerperal convulsions? At any period, but more particularly after 
the sixth month. 

How are puerperal oonyulsions divided f They are di?ided into 
the epUeptic^ the apoplectic^ and the hysterical. 

Do convulsions take place Buddenly, or are they preceded by pre- 
monitory symptoms? They are generally preceded by |>reiiu»it^07;y 

What are the premonitory symptoms? In the epileptic and apo- 
plectic species, they are a strong determination of blood to the head, 
producing headache, ringing in the ears, temporary loss of vision, 
giddiness, &c. 

What is the proper treatment for this stage ? Bloodletting, brisk 
purging, and low diet; which will generally prevent an attack. 
The longer the premonitory symptoms exist, the milder will be the 
attack; the cases which are attacked very suddenly are generally 

What arc the symptoms of the epileptic variety? After a longer 
or shorter continuance of the premonitory s3rmptoms, the woman 
may be seized with quickly repeated spasms, violent agitation of the 
&cc, eyes, and the whole body. The face becomes flushed, livid, 
black, and the tongue is thrust between the teeth. The respiration is 
disturbed or suspended, the carotids beat violently, and froth issues 
from the mouth. The pulse in the beginning is full, frequent, and 
tense, but becomes rapid, small, and imperceptible ; a cold, clammy 
sweat appears, and the fit begins to decline. When the spasm goes 
off, the patient sometimes remains comatose and insensible, with 
stertorous breathing. 

These paroxysms may follow each other in quick succession. 

There is also a variety of epileptic convulsions which are called 
anwmic; proceeding from a very different condition of the system, 
and may be distinguished from the above by the pale face, glazy eye, 
shrunken features, colorless lip, cold moist skin, and other symptoms 
indicating a collapsed condition of the system. 

The treatment in these cases should of course be of a directly 
opposite kind. 

What are the symptoms of the apoplectic variety ? The premoni- 
tory symptoms are of shorter duration than the epileptic, and those 

0B8TEIBIOS. 649 

fbllowiDg &re more violent It tnftjr be conndered as im exalted 
degree of the epileptic. 

What are the ^/mptomt of the hgtterical Tsriety ? We have not 
the same premonitoTy Bjmptoms u we have in the epileptic; but 
we may have ringing in the ears, palpitation of the heart, globus 
ht/iUricM, &c. The convnlraons are not u violent, the &oe is lc» 
flashed, and the mnscleB on the posterior part of the body are gene- 
rally violently contracted. This last oircamstance ia conndered by 
Pr. Dewees aa strongly characteristJo of this varied of convulnons. 
It also attacks women of delicate and nerrona habits. 

What is Hie proper treatment in the epileptic and apoplectic Tari&- 
tiea ? Bleeding should at once be bad reooarse to &om a large ori- 
fice, and repeated as circumstances may indicate. Cathartics and 
purgative encmata should be ^ven, cold applied to the head, and 
blisters or sinapisms to the eilTemities. After the adoption of the 
above means, so &r as they may be indicated, Prof. Ohapman plaoes 
great reliance in the prompt exhibition of opinm, sufficient to pro- 
duce sleep. Whenever the os uteri is in a proper condition, we may 
finish the labor, if it have commenoed, by turning, or the forceps; 
OUT choice depending upon the stage of labor, and the ciicnmBtances 
regulating the application of each. 

^ What is the treainumt for the hysterical variety? A moderate 
bleeding in most instances, followed by tincture of aasafetida and 
laudanum, cold dash, &c. 

Of Inykbsion of the Utebus. 

What is meant by Inveruon of the Uterus f It is where the 
fdnduB is forced down into the cavity of the uterus, and through 
the OS uteri into the vagina, or where the whole uterus is turned in- 
nde outwards, and the fundus appearing at the os externum. The 
former is termed partial, and the latter complete inversion. 

Under what n'rcunutoncef ma; inversion of the ulems take place 7 
In certain cases of polypus and immediately after delivery. ' 

What are the cautet? Any force applied to the fundus, whether 
by the cord, or externally, immediately after having been emptied 


euddenly, riolont etraining, attempts at congting, sneciing, or li 
any eudden iiution of the abdomiaal muscles. 

How may an inversion be d'atin^wfied ? In the partial, it mi 
be known by tiie abscnco of the hard, spherical tumor of the fondu 
above the pubes, and by the presence of a globular, flesbj body! 
the 08 uteri, which is uensible to the tODcb. 

The patient complains of a dragging sensation In the grtnns iii< 
lumbar region, compelling her to strain violently; there is hemoi 
rhago, an oppressive Bense of sinking, with nausea, or vomiting, ool 
sweats, fuintings, and ot^n convulsions. 

In the complete, the hemorrhage and violent pain are atweot 
althoDgh death may suddenly follow from the shock received bjr tlu 
nervous system, or from fainting. 

What is the treatmeal? It should be rctomed immediately, ui 
the difhoulty of doing thii will be in proportion to the time elapiM 
from the accident. A\'hen the placenta is adhereot, there is a diflit 
ence of opinion wbelier we should remove it, or return it with ibt 
uterus, and allow it to be thrown off afterwards by the contnc^oi 
of this organ. In cases of complete iovcrsioD, the better pnctioe ii 
to separate itj as there is comparatively little danger from hemor- 

Id the partial, perhaps, it would be better to attempt to replace 
the uterus with the placenta; but, if it offer much resistance and 
delay to the reductioD, it should be at once removed. 

What is the manner of reduction ? The tumor should be firmly 
grasped, and pushed up bodily in the direction of the axis of the os 
uteri ; and we should endeavor first to return that portion of the 
uterus which was cspelled last from the os uteri. When it has 
ascended so high that we are no longer able to grasp the tumor, wc 
should spread the fingers at equal di.^tanccs round it, and thus apply 
the jiressure over a largo space ; the direction of this pressure will 
vary with the asis of the pelvis ; when the fundus passes the os uteri, 
it usually recedes suddenly. It' we find the uterus contracted ahove 
the pubcs, the hand may be withdrawn ; hut if it is flaccid and soft, 
the hand should he introJuccd into the uterus so as to excite aclivi.' 
contractions, and prevent a return of the fuudu?. The patiiut 
ehould tLcQ be kept (juiet, and not allowed to make any sudden ex- 


ertioD. When the uterus ia partially ioTerted, and cannot be le- 
ploocd, it is prefbrable that vb should make the inTeraion oomplet«, 
as recommended by Dr. Dewees. In some cases of these chronic 
□B, the ntenu has been removed by ligature. 

0? TWINB. 

AVhat is the areragc proportion of Twins in this country ? About 
one in seven ve. 

now are twins utoated in regard to each other? They may be 
enclosed in one common covering of membranes, and float in the 
same waters. In other instances, they may each have a separate 
amnion, while the chorion may be common to both ; or each may 
have its own membranes, waters, and placenta. — Deaea. 

How may a case of twins be known after the birth of the first 
child ? The abdominal tumor docs not subside as it does in a case 
of a single child. The child may be felt throogh the abdominal 
and uterine porietes; there is generally a renewal of the pains, and 
the child can be felt per vaginam. 

After the birth of the first child, and it is ascertained that there 
is a second, what is to be done 7 In the first place, two ligatures 
should be applied to the cord; then divide it between them. Fun 
will either come on and deliver tbe child, (in which case we sbonld 
conduct the case as though it was an ori^nal labor,) or there will 
be a suspension of pain. 

How are we to proceed when there is a suspension of pain ? In 
this case, the uterus will be either contracted or nnoontrscted. If 
in the first condidon there may be bemonhage, we should treat it 
as any other case of hemorrhage, and deliver if necessary; or he> 
morrbage may be al»ent, in which case fiiotjon should be made 
until it contracts. 

If contracted, and pains do not pretty soon follow, say In half an 
hour, it will be better to proceed to delivery ; but in no case where 
hemorrhage is absent, without this tonic contraction being secured. 
After delivery, hemorrhage should bo carofullj guarded against. 



Wbat are the presentations of the Arm and Shoulder 7 They may 
present in foar different ways at the saperior strait 

The podtiou of the Bboolder will be difficult to distinguish nnleaa 
the arm ia also down ; in which case, it will serve to indicate the 
position of the shonlder. 

In thejint position, the head and ude of the neck of the child 
are to the left ude of the pelvis ; and the right arm down, with the 
back of the hand anterior, and the palm posterior. 

In the second, the head and side of the neck will be to the left 
ride of the pelvis, the palm of the hand will look ontwards and the 
bock to the posterior port of the pelvis. 

In the third, tbe bead and side of the neck will be to the right 
nde of the pelvis ; tbe left arm down, with its back looking ontwai^s, 
and the palm inwards. 

In the/ovrth, the right arm will be down, with tbe palm looking 
outwards, and the back inwards. 

These positions are somctimcB distingnished aajirtt and teeond for 
the ri'ffht sboaMer, corresponding with oui^firtt tcad/tmrlh; o.nAfirtt 
and ttcond of the lefi shoulder, corresponding with our seamd and 
third. In the first of each, the head is on the left side of the pelvis, 

Fig. 3C. 



and in the second of each it is on tbe right. The preceding figures 
refer to this division, and may easily be underetood hy the above 

When turning is resorted to, which hand shonld be used in these 
presentations? In the ^ra(Bnd,^rr&,thert^A(haDd most benaed; 
and in the mtmd and third, the left. (Figs. 35, 36, 37.) 

What nse shonld be made of the arm in shoulder presentations 7 
It offers no indications except that it points out the sitnation of the 
shonlder. There can be no ma- 

Fiff, 37. 

ncenvre performed upon it to ad- 
vantage, BO that traction, ampu- 
tation, &c., should be entirely 

Supposea shoulder presentation 
be left to the unassisted efforts of 
nature, vhot will be the result f 
The efibrts of the utems wll mp- 
tnreite own stmctnre, which would 
be fiital ; exhaustion and death 
will occur by continued effort; or 
the child will pua doable, or by 
the " tpontaneovt evolution." 

What are the indiealiont in 
these presentations? They are 
to biing down Uie feet, and deliver. 

There are, however, four modes pursued in these cases : One is to 
torn, and bring down the breech to the brim of the pelvis, or the 
feet into the vagina. Raise the shoulders, and bring down the head, 
or oephalio version. Wait for Bpontaneous evolution. Use cutting 
instruments to the child. 

Turning and bringing doim iTie breech oi/eet is the safest for the 
mother, and this proceeding is the one most likely to succeed; 
although the chances of saving the child are lees than in cephalic 

Bi-inyinif down the head, or ciphaUc ivrsion, is s-ifcr for the child, 
but more dangerous for the mother, on account of the difficulty in 
accomplishing it. 



Spontaneous evolution sometimes takes plaoe^ but cannot be relied 

upon in practice. 

The use of cutting instruments is only to be resorted to irhen 
taming is impossible. 

In what does spontaneous evolution consist f 

''By thd continuance of the powerful uterine contractions, the 
whole of the arm is protruded externally^ the shoulder and chest 
being propelled low into the pelvic cavity. The acromion then 
appears under the symphysis pubis ; and as the loins and breech 
descend into the pelvis at one side, the apex of the shoulder is 
directed upwards towards the mons veneris. Further room is thus 
gained for the complete reception of the breech into the cavity of 
the sacrum, and that part of the child's body is eventually expelled, 
sweeping the sacrum, and distending the perineum to a vast extent. 
As, during the whole of this process, the head remains above the 
pelvic brim, it is evident that, the apex of the shoulder being ex- 
ternal, the clavicle must be strongly pressed against the under sur- 
face of the symphysis pubis; on which point, indeed, the foetal 
body partially revolves, as on an axis ; the other shoulder and arm, 
and the head, being expelled last.'' — RamAotham. 

The first should always be practised when it is possible to do it, 
and the earlier (when the os uteri is in a condition to permit it) the 

When the waters have been long drained off, and the os uteri and 
other parts of the uterus are firmly contracted so as to oppose the 
introduction of the hand, and the parts are pushed down low in the 
pelvis, turning cannot be permitted. 

This condition should be counteracted by the free use of the 
lancet and opium; as soon as relaxation is induced, we may turn, 
unless the shoulder is too firmly wedged to permit it to be raised. 
When the child is dead, and in this condition, we may deliver by the 
use of instruments. 

Prolapsus of the Umbilical Cord. 
What danger is to be apprehended from prolapsus of the cord? 


It majr be comprossed, uid the life of the ehild destrojed b; th« 
interruption to circulation. 

How ma; it be dittingviihedT Sefore the rnptnre of the mcm- 
branes, we nutj poaaiblj feel a pnlsating, projecting mass, like a 
finger; vheo the membranes are raptured, the cord cornea down, 
and ma; fonu « Ui^ coil. 

What 18 the IrtatmeiUt When left to itself, the child is gene- 
rally destroyed, nnless then is a very quick labor. 

The lemediei ue gonendly turning and ddiverj/ ly the fonep*. 
It is also advised to make attempts at replacement, bat it does not 
always aooceed. It may be well, however, to attempt it by pasnng 
it above the brim of the pelvis, and retaining it there by the intro- 
daction of a soft piece of sponge. When the kbor advances very 
npidly, sometimes perhaps the cord may be protected, by placing it 
in that relation to the bead and pelvis where it. will be least pressed 

Or RupTDAs or the Utbbus. 

What are the eauiet of niptnre of the atenis7 Blows, violent 
BcUon of the nterae, violent preMore, ill-condncted attempts to tnm 
the child, mal-adrat use of instraments, the nneqnal soriaoe of the 
child, a contracted pelvis, an nnnsnal sharpness of the linea ilio- 
pectines, exostoses, tomore, soirrhi, and ulcers. 

In what portion does it nsaally happen F It most commonly hap- 
pens at or near its junction with the vagma, bat may occur at any 
part. It n&y be more or less extensive, and may be complete, or 
pariuil. In the first case, the ntems and peritonenm are both 
raptured; in the second, the uterus alone is iuTolved. 

What an the ^Tttptamtf Then is sadden acute pain at the 
point of the rupture, a discharge of blood, a cessation of uterine 
oontraotions, great consternation, the presenting part recedes, the 
face becomes pole and cold, the respiration harried, and vomiting 
takes place; loss of sight, fiuntncss, convulsions, and death follow. 

What ia the trfntmmt? Delivery should be effected as speedily 
and gently as possible. 

Gostrotomy may bo performed when the whole child has passed 


into the cavity of the abdomen^ and it is impossible to seizo the 

Or TuENiNG, OE Version. 

What is meant by Taming^ or Version ? Bringing down one of 
the two extremities of the foetus to the superior strait ; it presents 
two varietieSi pdvic version and cephalic version. 

The cephalic version was practised by Hippocrates^ and after him 
until the time of Ambrose Pare^ when it fell into disuse^ and was 
afterwards revived by Osiander. 

What precautions are necessary to be observed in turnings of both 

1st. The patient should be made acquainted with the kind of 
operation to be performed, the nature and objects of the same, and 
remove her fears as to the result, as far as possible. 

2d. She should be placed in a proper position, respecting which 
a difference of opinion exists ; we prefer the back, with the feet over 
the edge of the bed, or the same as recommended when the forceps 
are used. 

3d. The coat of the physician should be removed, he should be 
protected properly, and napkins should be at hand. 

4tb. The position of the child should be ascertained immediately, 
before proceeding with the operation. 

6th. The proper hand should be chosen before proceeding, and 
greased on the dorsal surface only. 

Gth. The OS uteri should be dilated or dilatable, and the operation 
commenced when the bag of waters is still intact or recently rup- 
tured, provided we have the privilege of selecting our time. 

What is understood by cephalic version ? It consists in bringing 
the summit of the head to the superior strait. It may be proper in 
irregular vertex presentations, when it is simply a correction of the 
head; in forehead presentations; in trunk presentations, before the 
rupture of the membranes; in breech cases, prior to the rupture of 
the membranes, where a vice of conformation exists, if it be possible. 

This operation is difficult of performance, and many condemn it 


entirely; nben it on be accomplished, it is mft tor the chUd, bat 
Icsa safe for the mother than briDgiog down the feet. 

What is nnderatood hj pdvie vertumT It eooslBlfl in bringing 
the pelvic extremity to the Bapoior stiut. 

What conditions are necessary in oases of vernon by the lower 
extremities r The o« uteri Bhould be dilated or dilatable, the pre- 
senting part should not be too long engaged in the excavation, and 
not cleared the neck of the ntems, and no disproportion exist between 
the else of the bead and the pelvie dimenmons. The neck may be 
considered as properly dilated when its orifioe ofiers nearly two inches 
in diameter; or dilatable, when it will be found thick, soft, snpple, 
and easily distended. If the part has descended low or escaped from 
the OS uteri, it will, at leas^ endanger the intcgri^ of the maternal 
stmctores to press it upward prior to the rersion; if snob a proceed- 
ing be not in fact impossiblo. It Bhoold not be resorted to if dis- 
proportion exist, on account of the anestatioD of the head after the 
body is delivered, and the liability to death of the child. If the 
small diameter of the pelvis is lese than 8{ inches, it will be improper. 
For rufe*, to be attended to in the operation, see pages 534 to 537. 

Whatare the (2i2^cti&i«( that may be met with in performing pelvic 
Tersion 1 On the part of the mother, there may be excessiTe narrow- 
ness of the vnlva, an obadnate resistance at the nterine (sifioe, 
spasmodic retraction and mobility of the body of the womb, and tlie 
insertion of the placenta over tho nterine orifice. On the part of 
the child, there may be a shortness of the cord, nnnsual vdnme of 
the shoulders, orossiDg of the arms behind the neck, and extension 
of the head. 

The rmilaiKX of the vulva can be overcome by care in introducing 
the hand, unless old adhesions exist. When the vterine orifice offers 
raiitanee too great for the introduction of the hand, and necessity 
for immediate delivery exists, we should resort to venesectioD, if 
pleUtoric; tepid bathiDg, fumigations, &a.; if these do not produce 
relaxadon, or then is not time for their action to take place, it is 
recommended that inciaions ahonld be made into the cervix. For 
relrartiim and ipaimoilic action of the body of tho womb, venesection 
and tepid batbiog are our most reliable meaos. For moliilili/, tho 


fundus of the organ should be kept steady by directing an assistant 
to place both hands over its superior and lateral parte. 

The mode of overcoming the difficulties presented by thepUuxnia 
over the mouth of the uterus is given when speaking of unavoidable 

For brevity of the cord, the best mode^ when it draws strongly on 
the placenta^ is to cut and tie it. 

When the volume of the shoulders is too great to permit an easy 
passage at the superior strait, oblique movemento should be given to 
the portion of the child which is disengaged, by carrying the breech 
towards the groin of one side, and then towards the sacro-sciatic 
ligament of the opposite side, successively; and in this way cause 
an inclination of the bisacromial diameter, so as to engage it, one 
end at a time, in the superior strait 

Should the arms cross behind the neck, the mode of disengagement 
will depend upon their particular position. 

Op Deliyeries performed by Cutting Instruments applied 


What are the causes which may render one or the other of these 
expedients necessary ? Defurmify of tJie pdvis, and deformity of 
the child. 

What may be considered as the resources of our art in cases of 
deformity of the pelvis f Forceps j cephalotomyy Caesarian operation, 
premature delioery, section of the pules, and regimen durimj prey- 

What is the smallest diameter of the pelvis at the superior strait 
in which the forceps may be safely used? Three inches; then the 
head of the child should be of moderate size, yielding, and the for- 
ceps skilfully used. They are preferable to turning in most cases 
of deformity. 

Under what circumstances may Enihiyotomy or Ccphalotomy be 
resorted to? We may resort to the perforator and crotchet in cases 
where the antcro-pojsterior diameter is IJ inch or more, and is so 
small that the head cannot be delivered by the forceps if the child 
is dead. 


If tho child is living, ve should choose between this and the 
CKsariaD operation. A decided differoDoe of opinion preraOs be- 
tirecQ the English and French anthoritiGe, u to which of these ex- 
pedients should be resorted to vhen the child is living. The English 
uBuallj advise cephalotomj, where delivery is imptaolicable without 
diminishing the siie of the head, or lesortlng to the ose of cutting 
instminents applied to the woman, provided the above diameter of 
the pelvis exists; restricdng the cases applicable to the Gtesarion 
section to those oases only where the diameter is less than the above ; 
while the French generally prefer the Csosarian secUon. 

Acudental canses may render embryotomy necessary occafiionally, 
sach as hemorrhage, oonvnlsions, and other anomalous states imme- 
diately and seriottsly threatening tho life of the mother, and safe 
delivery be impracticable In any other mode. Never, nnder any cir* 
Gumstances, should this opcr&^on be performed unless the mother's 
safety imperatively demands it ; and this generally occurs from a dis- 
proportion between the uie of the pelvis and the child. Sometimes 
perforation of the cranium alone will canse it to collapse by the pres- 
sure of the nterui, so as to permit expulsion by the natnral powers, 
provided the puns be strong and freqneut. The initruTtientt required 
are of two hinds — ibe ptr/oratinff, 

and extracting. For the first, 5ni«^ ^«- ^ *'«-^- 

li^t Kiuort, (Figs. 38, 89,) and for 
the second, the eroteheli a variety 
of forceps have also been used, to 
assist in extracting the child after 
perforation. In perfiirming this 
operation, it is not necessary to 
wait until the os uteri is fully di- 
lated, although it is better that it 
should bo BO. The rectum and 
bladder should be emptied; and 
the woman plaoed in tho position 
for turning and ibe forceps. Two 
Sogers of the left hand should be placed against the most depending 
portion of the foetal bead ; ibe perforator, warmed and greased, should 
be directed along tho groove between the fingers until it comes in 



oMtMiwith tlie head, vhioh it Bhonld be iiud« to ponetate by ft HBi. 
nMfiry or boring motion, nntil it panetntea aa &r u tba pngeaticna 
OB the bladca will permit; then the baadki almid be aqanted. n« 
onttbig ed^ ahoold then he plaoed at right an^ and agHB aapft^ 
ntad^aoaatamakaaaradalinaaHm. ItihooldtboibapaaediaBa 
iitobr«aknp«nnpUtal7theBtraotD»ofthawholahtaiii. (ng.4&) 

The crotchet may thou be used, being vor; careful at the same 
time to guard the soft parts of the mother. If not practicable with 
the crotchet, some of the varieties of forcepe in use should be re- 
sorted to. 

Under what circumxtannt should the CiDaariin operation be per- 
fbrmed ? When the antcro-poeterior diameter of the sapeTior strait, 
or the transvereo diameter of the inferior, does not exceed 1 ( inch, 
which precludes delivery per vioM naturala. The British practi- 
tdoners never sabstitDto it for craniotomy by choice, bnt only have 
reooorse to itwhen no other mode of deliveiy is piaotioabla in order 
to save the U& of the mother. 


How should the Ctetarian operation be performed 7 The vomaa 
should bo laid on a firm .table or mattress, with the Bhoulders ele* 
yat«d: moke an inoiaion six inches ia length throngh the abdominal 
parietes; hj moat operators, the linea alba is preferred for this inci- 
sion, in which cara it should extend from the lowest portion of the 
abdomen npwarda; the opening through the peritoneum should cor- 
respond with the external incision. The utenis will then bo exposed 
to view, through the ude of which make an inci^on, commencing 
at the fundus, of sufficient extent to remove the child ; this being 
done, the placenta should be removed, when the ntema will contract 
and sink into the pelvis. The bowels should bo carefully protected 
bj an assistant, and their protrusion prevented. The external 
wonnd sboold be carefully closed by satores, adhesive straps, a com- 
press and bandage. 

What ar» the smallest diameters admitting of delivery per via* 
Maturaks hy the crotchet? One and a half inch in the antero- 
posterior, and three or three and a half in the tnuisverse. 

What is understood by I^vmatare Delivery f It con^sts in in- 
ducing labor artifid&Ily, at a period of pregnancy when the child is 
sufficiently developed to exist after birth, and jet so small, and the 
bones of the head bo soft, as to pass throngh the contracted pelvia 
of the mother. 

What is the proper ^eri0<f for its performance? The mosteli^ble 
time is between the thirty-fourth and thirty-sixth week of utero- 
gestation ; or, if the deformity be very considerable, we may commence 
operations as early as the thirty-second week. The opemtion should 
be delayed in all cases as long as it can be done safely, as by so 
doing the labor will more nearly resemble a natural one, and the 
chances of the child are increased. 

What is the mode by which it is accomplUhedf According to 
the directions of Dr. lUgby, we should first give a full dose of calo- 
mel and colocynth, so as to effectually clear out the bowels; then a 
worm bath ; ergot should then be administered in scruple doses of 
the powder, and repeated every half hour for five or six timca. 
These means will generally bring on labor; if they fail, a catheter 
bhuuld be passed, and the membraocs separated from (be uterus for 
some distance; if this fail, then the membranes should bo ruptured. 


Others advise the rapture of the membranes^ or their separatioii 
from the uterus, to precede all other means. 

What are the benefits likely to result from a tectum of ihe pubes ? 
It is an operation that is now almost universally oondemned, and 
therefore not practised. 


What are the nature and tymftomi of this disease? It is an 
affection of the peritoneum, infectious, and generally commenees on 
the third day after delivery. The pain of the abdomen is slight at 
first, but soon becomes so violent as scarcely to admit of the patient's 
being able to bear the weight of the hand, or even the bed-clothes, 
upon the abdomen; and the feet are drawn up so as to flex the thighs 
on the pelvis. The face is flushed, afterwards becoming pale; there 
is irritability of the stomach, dark^ loose, and offensive stools ; breasts 
flaccid, lochial discharge suppressed, breathing laborious, fever during 
its progress, which, if not so at first, becomes typhoid; and the 
teeth are covered with sordes. 

What is the treatment ? When the pulse b full, quick, and hard, 
the abdomen swelled, hard, and painful, the patient should be bled 
from the arm freely. Sometimes, when this disease prevails as an 
epidemic, and the fever is of a typhoid character, local bleeding by 
leeches should be substituted for general, and a hot poultice applied 
to the bleeding orifices. Calomel and opium should be freely ad- 
ministered until a decided constitutional effect is produced ; and the 
patient should also have the bowels freely moved with a purge of 
castor oil and spirits of turpentine, after a few doses of calomel and 
opium have been used. The diet should be light and unirritating, 
the room should be freely ventilated, and the patient kept quiet. 

Puerperal Mania. 

What are the si/mptoms of this disease ? There is great volubility, 
and a disposition to use improper and indelicate language. It may 
be in most instances distinguished from phrenitis by the great 
throbbing of the vessels leading to the head, full and quick pulse, 


^knmce of light, uvd punfal and Eoffiued eyes, which attend 
is latter disease. 

What is the proper treatmetUi The condition of the system 
lould be careAilly attended to; if there are sjmptomB deaotang 
17 degree of inflammation or of congestion, with a fiill pulse, bleed- 
ig should be practised, either general or local, depending npon the 
reater or less degree of plethora and inflammatory symptoms. 
jlie bowels shonld be opened, and mild preparations of mercniy, 
rith hyoscyamuB and camphor, shonld be administered ; and in other 
'«Bpects the condition of the system should furnish the indications 
W our piooedare. 


"What are the courte and t^tapiomt f It often occurs a week aftor 
lelivery, and consists in a swelled condition of the leg and thigh ; 
the skin becomes tense, smooth, and shining, tbij sensitive and 
isdematous. It mostly affects but one limb, scmietimes both. Its 
troe pathology is involved as yet in some obecority. It may tome- 
times bo arrested in the beginning by the application of leeches to - 
the painiul part, and giving a brisk purge of calomel and jalap, or 
senna. In the more advanced stages, leeches should be applied; 
pn^tlTeB administered ; and tartar emetic Bhould bo given in slightly 
lumseating doses, combined with nitrate of potassa or liqoor of the 
■oetate of ammonia. The swelling will remain for some time after 
the painful irymptems and fbver have subsided^ and may sometimes 
be relieved by bandaging the limb. 

Diseases op Childkxn. 

Gvm RaA. How trtaUdf By aperients. 

Jawidice. How tnaUdf Give small doses of calomel, and 
follow them with castor oU. 

Flatulent Colic. How treated f By warm bath, friction over the 
abdomen; change the none, and give Dcnccs's carminative, nhicb 
is composed of tinctore of assafetida, calcined magnesia, a small 


proportion of laudanum; and of water ; the dose and proportions to 
be adapted to the case. 

Convulsions, What are the causes, and how treated f The cause 
may be dentition, worms, an overloaded stomach, indigestible food 
in the stomach, hydrocephalus, or the non-appearance of some erup- 
tions; an irritable or highly developed condition of the nervous 
system may be considered to be a predisposing cause. 

If they proceed from an overloaded stomach, an emetic of ipecac, 
should be given; a warm bath at 97^, with cold to the head and spine; 
bleeding by leeches from temples, mercurial purges, and reft-igerants 
will all in their place be proper remedies to apply : if from teething, 
and this is a very frequent cause, the gums should be freely divided. 

Dentition, What are the symptoms, and how should it be treated f 
Fretfulness, heat and swelling of the gums, starting in the sleep, a 
free flow of saliva, and the fingers are constantly in the mouth : this 
condition may cause convulsions, diarrhoea, inflammation and con- 
gestion of the brain, fever, &c. The gums should be freely lanced 
quite down to the tooth, and the conditions produced by dentition 
should bo treated on general principles, or as the symptoms may 

Diarrhcca, What are the causes, and how treated? Teething 
is a frequent cause, and, when it is not, indigestible food may very 
often be found to be, or an over quantity of that which is pro- 
per; or it may be induced by high temperatures, particularly if 
conjoined with close, confined, and impure air. The cause should 
be sought out and removed, and with this the disease will often dis- 
appear. When it does not, mild mercurials, as hydrarg. c. cretil, 
combined with a mild opiate, so as to correct the secretions, and 
diminish the exhausting discharge from the bowels at the same time, 
will be found highly beneficial : a mild oleaginous purge, conjoined 
with or following this prescription, is also often required. 

Aphtha, or Thrusli, What is the proper treatment? When 
diarrhuca attends, it should receive the principal attention ; the best 
local applications to the mouth are borax and pulverized sugar, or 
honey; Armenian bole and honey; and chloride of soda in solution, 


Ea&lt S10N8 or D18BASX IN Cbiwbxs. 

What BigDs of diaeue are preaented by the Jhee f Fun oocvniiig 
Bttddenlj, and in intermissioas, is genenllyfrom spasm in the bowels ; 
when more permanent, it oomea cm gradnallj and inudloasly. Wbea 
seated in the head, the brow is oontracted; in the belly, the npper 
lip is elevated ; in the chest, there is sharpness of the nostrils. The 
change of expieauon of the oountenance should be carefully noticed. 
Before convulsions oocur, the face becomes conTnlsive, the upper 
lip is drawn, there is often alight squinting, or a singolar movement 
of the eyes. 

Siifiaum of the fiuM denotes fever, and diseases of general ez- 

Bx/iaialuM is denoted by alternate flushes and heat, with pale- 
ness and cold, the pallor being more permanent; there is also a 
l^azcd and waxen appearance of the oonntenaDoe. 

What ngna of disease are presented by the gtiturat Convulsions 
■re indicated by the thumb and fingers being drawn into the palms, 
and the toes towards the soles, while the back part of the hands and 
feet are pnfied and tumid ; partial rigidity of other mnscles is also 
indicadve of spasms. 

Spatmodii; pain yiiH cause forcible muscular oontractions, while in 
inflammatory pun muscular efforts are avoided because pain is in- 
creased. The arms and hands are rused in pains of the head \ when 
seated in the abdomen, the legs are apt to be drawn upwards. 

Sleep. Fun and uneasiness will cause the brow to contract, and 
the mouth will be drawn ; in the first, the pain is seated in the head ; 
in the second, in the bowels. 

Serration. We should become familiar with the natural state 
of infantile respiradon. It is accelerated in fever. When there is 
inflammation of the ur tubes, there is difficult rattling or wheeling, 
or a cooing sound produced. 

In alt chest inflammations, the breathing is mostly abdominal ; 
wLilc in abdominal inflammations the cheat is moved more freely. 
If the breathing is less audible on one side than the other, it indi- 
cates inflammation of the substance of the lung, or effusion of ' 

506 0B3TBTBICS. 

The Cry, if loud and free, indicates health. Perpetual crying ia 
a Bjmptom of pun. Inflammatory pains of the head, cheat, or 
belly, check crying. A husky cry atteoda exhaustion. 

The Breath. When fetid, the gums should be examined ; it is aki 
a. sign of disordered slomaeh and bowels. Tbe far od tAe tonaur is 
inoreased in disease; the lip is diy in fever, and in Bcarlct fever th« 
papilln are enlarged, red, and promincut. 





How may diseues b« divided f Into orgatiie ind /imetional. ' 

Wb&t is the chancter of the Jint clasB T Then is ■ Aaago which 
is appreetable by our aensM, in die a t rae tn re of one or more organs. 

What is the chancier of the meond das F The disotderad fono- 
lion is not attended by any appreciable ledon. 

Each of thenr may agun be diyided into acuta and chronic, and 
general and loeai affediofM. 

Which of the Citd chases is generallj the mcavfiualf Organic 
diseases ; bnt sereial of the /iatetumal are extremely mortal, as 
tetanns and hydrophobia. 

What is meant by local organic diieatat Those in which the 
important symptoms are loeal, and are neariy in proportion to th« 
anatomical lesions firand after death, wh«i it takes plam. lliej 
may be acnie or chronic. 

What are the general organic dimatmf They are often chronic, 
as tnberonloiu and oanoerons diseases. The acute are eertun efn- 
demio dysenteries, feven, scarry, and gangrene. Tnberdea are, 
however, sometimes aonte. 

Which an the more nanaget^, tiie general or the loeal dis- 
eases f The locaL The general can be rarely ont short by reme- 
dies ; the treatment fer these is mora nsefol in otmating the second- 
ary inflammations that so often accompany them and prove the 
immediate cause of death, than in absolutely terminating the affeo- 
tion itself. Treatment is, howerert important, as it enables us fre- 


qucntlj to conduct diaease to a favorable torraination whidi uj^ 
otherwise prove ffttol. 

May /imelioiial i/«ei«a be eitber acnt« or chronic F Ym; m 
they oonstituto a lurge clans of nffectians. Sometimes tiiaj m 
Bjmptom of au orgnnic disease. 

Do acute functional disorders ever nmvlatc inflammationa ? Tb( 
do; and it requires care and experience to discrimiimte them. 

What are )Wonr«whcre they may be confounded ? Pleurodjn 
i(itb pleari^y ; and local p^ns occurring in hysteria with the aeoi 
phlegmasiiB of the viscera. 

How are they dUlinijuiskeil ? Acute funcUoDal disorden oon 
toonly Bssniuo the form of neuralgia, in which tho char&ctor of (I 
p!un eoDtrast«d with the slight vascular difiturbance is sufficient I 
point out its true origin. 

Are these acute affections always limited to pain ? Thej at 
not; they assume at times every variety nhich the change in tli 
fuDction of aa organ can produce, and axe oUcn difficult of diagiMKi 
and treatment. 

How is a iUiignoiis to bo mode in these doubtful cases f By « 
dmion ; and by tliis incaus we fan froi|iiciitly aflirm that tho abscDi: 
of unequivocal signs of organic lesion is conclusive proof that tfa 
disturbed function depends upon a cauBO which is coDnccled wit 
the nervous organization of a part, and not with a material chang 
of the structure. 

Are the chronic functional disorders sometimes mere symptom 
of a distant local affection ? Tbcj are ; and at other times iade 

What are some of the chronic functional disorders? Most case: 
of mania, hysterical affections, many cases of dyspepsia, &e. 

Are the functional disorders numerous 'I They ore aa numerout 
as the organic lesions, and much more difficult to manage. 

Is classification arbitrary ? It is; and the nomenclature also in 
many instances. 

What enhances this difliculty? Tlic eircumstiincc that many 
lesions which arc separated as distinct diseases froiu others of a 
similar nature ate in reality the effects, and not the cause of diseaaoii 
action. Thus, the term h^dwOuirax is now seldom used ; tho symp' 


toms to whioli it was ^plied ue atill obMrved ; but it ia now knawn 
that thej depend apon m diaeue of the heart, and the effojuon of 
aenuQ into the ottitj of the chest is onlf a oonseqnenoe. It is 
neoessai;, however, for ecaiTBitienee, to name, classify, and anange 
the difTerent fbnna ot diseaM according to the &olf we now poeaess. 

Seueioloqy and Duonobis. 

What is meant by temeioiogyT The STmptoms of disease studied 
with referenoe to the internal ohangea with which they correspond. 

What ia dtagnatu t It is the art of distingaishing one disease 
from all othen, and ia baaed npon the comparison of the symptoms 
we obserrs in a pnrlicnlar individnal with those known to exist in 
other cases, in connccUon with the order of time at which they 
appear. A more refined kind of diagnosiB consista in determining 
the particnlar varie^ and stage of the disease, which inclades prog- 
notit or the art of determining the reeolt 

What are the tigfu ot disease 7 They are the pin/ncai, or those 
derived from a knowledge of the physical condition of the organs, 
obtained by physcal examination ; and the/uHf(u>Na^ to which the 
term symptom u nsoally confined. 

What class of diseases admits of both these means of diagnoeis ? 
The organic ; the functional can only be distingniahed by the 

To what part are the phydcal rigns particolarly ^plicable F To 
diseases of the thoracic oavitj, bnt they are by no means entirely 
confined to it. 

From what are &% jiluftieal tignt derived? From an inspection 
of the exterior, from palpation or touch, and from auacnltadon and 

What does iiuprt^ion. of the exterior of the body indicate f Dis- 
tension, when a change of straotore in the organs is sufficient' to dilate 
the parietM. As in dropsy, tympanitis, extreme enlargements of 
the liver and other abdominal organs, emphysema, pericarditis, and 
pleurisy with large effusion. Pleurisy after adhesion has occurreJ, 
and phthisis, cause con traction. 

What ore the benefits otpaipationP It assists ocular inspection. 


We can better cetimate sligbl elcvatjone, and also the i 
sensibility of the Burfaco &nd internal yisoera. If the d^Hl^tl 
sensibility of the viBcen is wished for, we press gently and Mpdjf 
with the whole hand ; if of the Borbce, we pass the tips of the Bapn 
lightly over the ekin. It also ^vea ua a knowledge of the dcaaxj 
elasticity, and most of the physical properties of parts. 

Of PEscussion. ^^M 

What liind of knowledge is d-'-'-ed hy pereuanonf It mBh 
us to distinguish the density of tuu part or organs beneath ; u be 
tween a gas which gives a clear resonant sound, and a liquid or solie 
mass which yields a flat sound. We are therefore obliged to reMlI«ci 
what sound the part yields by pcrcoBsioa in a normal state, to de- 
termine the deviations in disease- 
To what j}nrti of the body has percoBSton been apph'ed? To (b« 
thorax and abdoman. 

Do all ports of the chest yield equally clear sounds c 
in a state of health? No: the sound is more obscviro in the n 
of the heart, and of the liver, along the vertebral columo, and era 
tbe scapula:. 

What are the morfe* of performing percnssionF By the direct 
application of it to the surface of the body, oatled immediate or dind 
percussion; and by applying some solid between the part peroossed 
and the percussing body, and called mediaU percussion. In per. 
cnssiDg, the ends, and not the pulps, of two or more fingers should 
be used, being preBscd together firmly; the strokes should be made 
with some force — however, so as not to give pain ; they should bo 
given in quick succession, and perpendicular to the surfaoe of the 
body. When mediate percussion is used, the substance interposed 
is termed a phximeler, which is made of various materials, such as 
ivory, gum elastic, &c. : the forefiuger of tbe left hand makes the 
best OQC, as it is always at hand, and is uniformly of tbe same 

How should the patient be siiiialcd during its performance ? The 
walla of the part should bo made tense, and to do this, when the 
anterior part of tbe chest is examined, the bead should be raised and 


the shoolden Uiroini back ; when the poiterior part is examined, the 
head should be itooped uid the arms anmed; when the dde is ex- 
uuiacd, the aim of that nde ihonld be niaed and the body inclined 
to the opposite dde. If the part is ooyered dnrisg percosuon, the 
coTering should be drawn tight. 

How ia the thonwio snr&oe divided for penmsnoD 7 lAenneo baa 
divided it into fifteen r^jjioaa, twelve of which are donble. 

Subeiavitm rtgitm. This indodea the portian oonesponding to 
the clavicle ; it jields a dear sound about the middle and sternal 
extremity; whilst the hnmeral extamity yields a doll sound. 

^nteromperil^ region. Bounded by the olavicle above, and fimrth 
rib below ; the sound is naturally clear. 

Mammary rtgioit. B^inB below the fonrth rib, and terminates 
with the eighth ; yields only a mediom sound on acoonnt (& the thick- 
ness of the pectoral mnscle. 

fS'u&tnamma'y kj^wm. — Extends from the eighth rib to the carti- 
laginons border of tJhe false ribs : on the right side, it gives almost a 
dull sound on aooount of the aiie of the liver ; on the left ude, it 
sometimes yields too ok«r a sound, almost tymponilie, on acoonnt 
of a distended ei»idiliixi of the stomach with gas. 

Sternal r(ffionM.'^Siq>trior, middU, and injmior. Over the 
whole extant of the stemnm the sonnd is dear as at the sternal end 
of the clavicle. 

AxiUary rtgwn. Commences at the upper part of the axilla, 
and terminates at the foortb rib indusve ; it yields a dear aonnd. 

Latenl region. Commowes boieath the fonrth rib, and ter- 
minates at the eif^ith; yields a dear sotrnd on the left side; on the 
right, frequently less so, on account of the liver rising higher than 
wdinary ; the healthy liver sddom rises higher than the sixth rib. 

Inferior loieml region. Extends bam the eighth rib to the bor- 
der of the caitilages of the talse ribs; the right aide here also, and 
for the same teastms, yields amaeh duller somtd than the left, which 
is sometimes too loud, even when the lower part of the lung may 
be engorged, or the pleura oonttuns a liquid. 

Acromial region. Comprised between the clavicle and the upper 
edge of the trapezius muscle, head of the humerus, and the inforior 
part of the neck. 


Superior tctipiilar region. Corresponds to tbe snpra-spisa! ttws 
of the scapula, and yields but little soand. 

luftriar Ka/pvJar region. Corresponds to that portioa of fc 
scapula below ita troasvene spine, and here also bot little KmiB 

Inler-Kapufar rfffion. Comprised betweeo the hiBer mai^ oi 
the scapula and the E|une, whon the arms are crossed on tbc Inut. 
not mucli sound obtained from it except in thin persons, and rtd 
the arms are forcibly croescd ftpd head bent forworfs. 

Inferior donal nyum. Con »a at the inferior an^e rf b 

scapula, and tenmnates at Ifth dorsal vertebra ; somtd ii 

this region ratbcc obscure. 

How does the Datura] sifflsnn 'portB rarjin diseosef ll suj 
be cither diminuh&i or int 

What causes it to be dii An increase of densit; of lb- 

part; and it may be inorem increase of gaseons matter. 

What alterotjons mov le sabstanoe of the long tbi 

give rise to duiaeisf a (in pneamonia), pulmonsr 

apoplexy, and oedema, tu 9, aiid foreign growths. 

The alterations extern^ to the snbataaoe of the long iliat ma 
prodooe it are efiiisions into the pleura, or into the pericu^on 
tumors dereloped into the cavit; of tbe pleura, hjrp^tropby ot tb 
heart, aaeuriBm of the aorta, &a. 

la what cases is the natural raonance incrtaiedf In pnlmoDju^ 
emphysema, and in pneumothorax. 

What are the normal soondB obtained by percnsaing the abdtnnen ! 
On ita anterior suriace it is half-dear, superiorly and on the righl 
side it is dull from the situation of the liver, this dull sound ceases 
at the lower edges of the ribs ; on the Ic^ the spleen yields merely 
a slight dulness to the extent of one or two tigers' breadth in ihc 
region of the last false ribs; posteriorly, the sound is more dull in 
the region of the kiducys. If wo wish to examine the parts near 
the skin, the pleximeter should be held superficially ; but, when deep- 
seated organs are to be examined, considerable depression should be 
made. When examining the abdomen, the patient should lie on his 
back, and the muisclcs of the abdomen relaxed by flexing the legs 
on the thighs and the thighs on the pelvis, and mediate percussion 

PBAOTIOa or HBDX^IKl. 575 

Bhonld be enployed. Fennnion pvte xa no indic&tioii in regaid 
to the bUdder, ntems, or onrio, in a liealtb; stste, eo th&t, when 
the redone ooireeponding to these organs gno k diJI sonnd, it ia « 
morbid sign. The natural ngns, together with the ntnation of each 
oigan of the abdomen, Hhoold be oaiefiilly studied on the healthy 
snbject, bo bb to be able to detect any depaiture from health in 
tiieir pbjaical oondilion. 

In thia manner, enlargements of the liver, spleen, abdominal 
tumors, distended bladder, &o., may easily be detected by percns- 

What are the difierent sonnds yielded by percnssion f They may 
be ^ftnpanitu^ dear, obieure, or dvU; there is also the tilverj/ or 
metaUic lountt. 

Under what circnmstanoes is the tywgmnitic sonnd prodnoed J In 
the thorax, in emphysema and pnenmothoiaz ; and in the abdomen, 
in cases of meteOTism. The dear sonnd is that presented by the 
parts of the thorax mentioned. 

The obaeure sound is heard on percnssiDg the cheat when pneu- 
monia is passing from the first to its second stage, and when the 
resoldtioa of hepatiaation is going on; in broDofaitis, when the 
lungs are engorged with mncos, &o. The obscnre sound is usually 
the nonnal sound of the anteiior r^on of the abdomen, when the 
abdominal parietee are of a medium thiokneas, and when the intes- 
tines are not distended with considerable gas. 

The dtdl sonnd is beard when the lung is bepaUaed, or there ii 
considerable efiiision. There are different shades of dnlness that it 
is necessary to recognise. 

The tilveiy or wtdaBic sound is a name given to the souad yielded 
by percussing the subclavian regions when they become \he Beat of 
tuberoolouB cavities. This sound also received the name of the 
i/ruU depot/ilU,the sound of a oracked vessel. It is also produced 
on perousung the abdomen, whether gases and liquids exist together 
in a portion of intestine; <x whether each of these bodies is found 
separately in contiguous portions; or whether tbe gas Is contained 
in the intestine and the liquid in the peritoneum. 

The dentiti/ of the tissues percussed, and the elasticity of the ports 
near the surface may be ascertained by percnssion. 



Of Auscultation. 


Wliat ia meant by avtnilrationf It is the art of diat 
b; tbo ear bouqiIb produced in porticulitr parts of tba bodjr >i 
aud disease. 

Wliat are the r/mer-il rule* for auscultation ? TLey are dJliU 
i&to tbose baviog reference Ui the patient, and into those to b« ok 
served by the physician. 

Rulta rdative to Ote Patient. The pnjt explored should be nikc^ 
or covored with Eome tbin, pliable material ; thick and wooUea aru 
clcB Ebould not be used. 

The patient shonld be placed in a convenient position, whicb nm 
vary avoordiog to his affection. 

Rules relative to the Phytician. Place himself on the tiile ti 
mshcs to examine generally; BomotiineB the contrary ia prcfenblc 
the right and left aide should be explored without change of pwtioii 
anless the case ia one of doubt. Ou the same uJe, apply oai> cut 
the front and the other to the back, bo oa to be accustomed to th 
■uw. of euuh organ indifferently. The oar siuijily, or the eteihctici)]" 
may be used ; when the ear alone is used, it is called immediate 
when the stethoscope, mediate. Both of these methods have the! 
peculiar advantages, and the selection must depend upon circun 
stances which vary. Immediate auscultation, for instance, cannt 
always be employed in cases of females, or in certain regions, as tb 
supra and subcluvicuUr, the axilla, groin, &o., where the ear coul 
with difficulty be applied, especially in thin people j there are als 
otlier circumslancoa which may give the preference to the stethc 
scope. Both metiiods isliould be practised, and one or the other usc< 
according to circumstances. 

If the car is preferred, apply it accurately, so as to follow ihi 
movements of the chest, without friction. 

If the stethoscope, it should be held like a pen, and placed evcolj 
and pcr|>cndicu]arly on the part lo be csauiincd ; the pavilion o: 
the ear should be ap]iiicd to the horizontal plate of the instrument 
whieh should press moderately on the part under cxaniiuation. Tin 
two ^ides should be comparatively explored, as it will better enabli 



tho anscnltator to detect differences of Boimd. Great care Bhoold 
bo taken in making the examination ; eTeiytbiDg Bhoold be quiet 
aronad ; tbe different sonnda shonld be oarefoUy analyzed, and those 
sought after and carefnllj distinguished that belong to the organ 
under examination, to the exclusion of the other soonda that majr 
be often heard ; tho attention should be abstntcted from everything 
except that which pertains to the sound^ and the pathological ex- 
planation of them. 

To what parta may auscultation he applied T The cheat, neck, 
abdomen, head, and limbs ; but it is to the ohest where it is parti- 
cularly applicable and useful. 

Auscultation of thx Chest. 

How is this divided T Into ausoultation of the Rt^ratory and 
of the Circulatory Apparatut. 

Auscultation op tih Bksfiiu.tobt Afpaaatus. 

Upon what parts is this perfonned T The cheat, and the laryngo- 
tracheal tube ; and has for its objects the phenomena furnished by 
the raptratory miirmvr, the voice, and cough. 

Rapiratory Mvrmvr. 
How should an examination of the respiration be made? ^e 
position of the patient should vary with tbe parts examined ; if 
anterior, he may stand, ut, or lie on his back ; if potUrwr, he may 
stand or ait, with tbe arms folded or crossed in front ; if lateral, the 
patient may lie on the opposite aide, sit or stand ; and the arm 
should be sepaimted from the body, and snatained in that position. 
The patient ahoold breathe freely, but without any exaggerated 
effort ; the movements of the thorax should be obeerved and taken 
iato account in making up on opinion of tbe degree of strength of 
the respiration. In some cases, it may be necessary to cause a deep 
and quick inspiration, for the purpose of producing sounds suffi- 
ciently auiliblif to be properly judged of. 


The physician should be conveniently and easily situated, with 
his head not too low: for the upper and anterior part use the stetho- 
soope; lower down^ employ the ear direct, except in females; poste- 
riorly and laterally, use the ear : the examinations should be made 
on both sides, and the comparisons made in corresponding points ; 
it should also extend oyer the whole chest. 


Normal Respiration. 

What are the characteristics of normal or healthy respiration f 
If every part of the function of respiration is properly performed, 
and the ear is prc^rly ^plied, a soft regular murmur is heard, 
analogous to Uie sound produced during a tranquil slumber, or by a 
deep sigh ; this is the natural respiratory or veticvlar sound, or 
murmur. It is principally heard during inspiration, which is con- 
sidered to bear a proportionate intensity and duration to the expira- 
tion, that would be represented as 8 to 1, so that there are two 
distinct sounds, one of inspiration and the other of expiration. It 
is heard over all portions of the chest, but varies in intensity in 
different parts, and under different circumstances of age, strength of 
constitution, and frequency of respiration. The intensity is greatest 
over parts corresponding with dense arid superficial masses of pulmo- 
nary structures ; as in the hollow of the axilla, lateral, antero-supe- 
rior and postero-inferior parts of the thorax; quick breathing, 
bodily exertion, mental emotions, &c., will also increase it. 

AVLat is understood by the traclieal and laryngeal respiratory 
iounds? They are sounds produced in the trachea and larynx during 
inspiration and expiration, and may be heard by applying the stetho- 
scope over these parts. 

So that wo have sounds produced in different portions of the pul- 
monary system, varying according to difference of texture, laryngeal 
in the larynx, tracheal in the trachea, bronchial in the bronchia), and 
vesicular in the air-cells; all of which may be modified by disease. 



How are the patholo^oal modific&lioDS of the leBpiratoiy sounds 
art^nged ? lato altentionB in intetuity, in rhythm, in tharaOer, and 
tiiose caosed by abnonnal toundt. 

What are the Tariedes of tnteng&yf Loud respiration; /teble 
respiration, and abiaU leapintion. 

What are tiieTsrieties otrJ^tKmT Theyrelate to the^Vejtwncy, 
eontvuuity, and duration of the tcepiration. 

What are the Tarkties of dtaracterf Earth, bronchial, cavemmu, 
and amplumc reqiir^on. 

What are die varieties of abnormal toundt? Sound of friction 
and Hile*. 


Loud Retpiraiion. 

What are the ^nonyme* and eharacieruticM of load respiration 7 
The ^fnonyme* are puerUe, exaggtraud, tuppUmentary, and hyper- 

The eharaderittia are, redcnlar murmur of greater intennty than 
natural, with the natural softnesB; the inspiration and expiration are 
more noisj and lengthened, but their relative duration remuns the 
same. It may be confounded with the harsh, and possibly with the 
bronchial or cavernous respiration. In the harsh, the expiratory 
Bouud is relatively longer, also in tho bronchial. 

What tignijication has it f Deficient action in the other lung, or 
some other portion of the one examined ; which may be caused by 
pleuritic effusion, tubercles, or anything that may render their air- 
cells less permeable. It indicates disease, but does not point out its 
seat or nature. 

/leMs Rapiration. 
What are its characteristictf A diminution from the natural 

respinitioD, either slight or couBiderablc. 
What ii(ptificatiim has it? It may bo produced by pleuritic cffu- 


eionS; and pulmoDary adhesions on the same side; by plearodynia, 
emphysema, partial obstruction of the air-passages, and by comipres- 
sion of the bronchise from tubercles, cancer^ melanosis, &c. It occotb 
in numerous affections, and its value as a diagnostic most depend 
upon its relation to other signs. 

Absent Respiration, 

What is understood by absent respiration? It is when no sound 
whatever can be perceived on the application of the ear to the chest. 

What signification has it? Almost the same conditions exist as 
in feebleness, except that an advanced degree of abnormal lesion ia 
indicated. It may, like feeble respiration, also be local or general, 
momentary or permanent. 


Frequency of Respiration, 

What is the natural firequency of respiration ? In adults, eighteen 
to twenty-two in a minute ; and, in children, twenty-two to twenty- 
six. Disease may cither increase or diminish the^number. 

What signification has it? None that is precise; pathological 
slowness is generally connected with disease of the cerebro-spinal 
system ; great acceleration only indicates extensive or serious lesion 
of the thoracic organs, without indicating the kind. 

Contimiiti/ of Respiration: 

How is this affected by disease ? In the normal state, the vesicular 
murmur is continuous in both acts of respiration. In disease, it is 
sometimes interrupted, constituting what is called abrupt respiration. 
It is chiefly observed in inspiration, and takes place at intervals. 
Sometimes without alteration in intensity and character, and some- 
times with feebleness or harshness; it may be occasional, and at other 
times always discovered w^pn an examination is made. 

AVbat does it indicate ? It may be caused by intense pleurodynia 
and asthma ; but if it cannot be attributed to either of these, a tu- 
berculous affection accompanied with pleurisy may be suspected ; and 
detected, if it exist, by its appropriate signs. 


Dura^oit of Reipiralw*. 

Wbat are the aiterationt in dontion? SometJmeB the abeolate 
dnratJon is duuged, withont change in the normal relatioDS of the 
duration of inspiration and ezpiralaon; and Bometimes the relaliTe 
duration of inspiration and expiration is changed. 

The moflt important alteratioiu are in the relative dtuation of the 
tvo acts. The inspiration may be longer or the ezpintion shorter, 
which Tariety is of little valne in diagnosis. On the other hand, the 
expiration may be prolonged, vhile inspiration is normal or short- 
ened; and this constitutes an important Tariely, termed pn^onged 

^vlongtd Expiratvm. 

What are the characUriUiat The expiratory sound is increased 
in duration, and, as it progresses, approaches to that of inspiration, 
and, finally, surpasses it, and prodnoes an inrerse proportion betveen 
the two acts as they occur in the phynological condition. 

What ngnifieation has this sign ? It occurs permanently in the 
first stage of phthisis, and in emphysema. In emphysema, the change 
is prindpelly in the dnration, with a sitnlant rhonchns; while in tu- 
bercles, hanhness ftirms an important portion of it, and it is often 
the first stethoooofno sign of phthids; which renders it Taloable. 


What are theyf They are dcagnated as the harA, htvnchial, 
eavemottt, and amj^rie. 

Harih Rmpiration. 
SynmyrM. Grating reipiration. 

What are the characterutict T It presents different degrees of in- 
tennty, dnration, and dryness. The alteration may affect both acts 
or one ; the expiration is prolonged, and first becomes harsh ; which 
harshness afterwards extends to inspiration. The phenomenon occu- 
pies principally the upper portion of one or both sides of the chest, 
is gcncraJly pcnaancnt, docs not vary rapidly usually, although somc- 


times it advances with great rapidity, and conlinaes to augment until 
it approaches the character of the bronchial. 

What signification has this sign ? It is caused by thickening of 
the walls of the air-cells, induration of the pulmonary parenohyma, 
or, more rarely, dryness of the mucous membrane of the bronchi». 
It is a very common modification of morbid respiratory sounds ; it 
occurs sometimes in the commencement of acute bronchitis; in em- 
physema, with thickened walls of the dilated air-cells ; in incipient 
phthisis; and, in short, in every case of induration of the subetanoe 
of the lung. When it continues and is accompanied with dulness 
it is almost a certain indication of phthisis ; but if with excessive 
Bonoreity, of emphysema. 

Bronchial or Tuhidar Rexpiration, 

Synonymes. Tubular blowing, bronchicU blowingy Mowing, htouy- 
ing respiration. 

What are its characteristics? There is an increase of intensity, 
and a higher tone, which is well imitated by blowing through the 
nearly closed hand, a roll of paper, or a stethoscope ; the diiSerent 
degrees of it being produced by the quickness and strength with 
which this is done. It has several degrees of intensity, extending 
intermediately from simple harshness to the true blowing sound. It 
may extend over every part of the chest, but affects chiefly the pos- 
terior and inferior regions. Its phenomenon is continuous and per- 
manent : when not well marked, it is difficult to distinguish it from 
harsh respiration. 

What is the signification of this sign ? It may be caused by a 
silence of the vesicular murmur; by the air traversing the bronchial 
tubes rapidly j and by increased elasticity of pulmonary tissue from 
induration, which renders it a better conductor of sound. It is heard 
in cases of uniform dilatation of the bronchise ; in cases of indura- 
tion of the lung from any cause, as tubercles, inflammation, cancer, 
melanosis, apoplexy, &c. ; also in some cases of pleuritic effusion. 
This becomes a valuable sign in diagnosis, when taken in connection 
with other symptoms, physical and functional. It generally indi- 
cates induration ; and of the different indurations, those from tuber- 
cles and pneumonia arc by far the most frequent. 


B C^vemout Be^tiratim. 

Sifnonyma. Cavernoua hiomng, boBow rapiratum. 
I What u« ila eharaetervliaf It lesemblM the aoimd produced 
I b; bloviog into a hollow spaoej it is genenlly found at the apex of 
the chest on one or both ndes, rarely at the base ; it is of limited 
extent, permanent, and when well marked haa a particular tone. It 
is produced by ur arriving in abnormal oavities, which may be caused 
by a ponoh-like dilatation of a pret^ Ivge bronohia ; or by the exist* 
enoe of a cavern in the sabetanoe of the lung, a knowledge of the 
cause of which must depend upon the history of the case, and other 
symplonu; as a oavem may be produced by difierent pathoto^cat 
oonditiona, although in nine cases oat of ten it is the result of the 
breaking np of tubercles. 

Amphoric Re^ralion. 

Synonyma. Amphoric liotoing, amphoric htazing, melaBic hloto- 

What are its eharaeterittict f It is a resonant sonnd of a metallic 
tone, that may be imtloted by blowing into a jug three parts empty, 
or into a glass bottle with a narrow neck. It supplants completely 
the vencular murmnr, and is heard better dnriug the first act of in- 
spiration. It almost always coincides with metallic tiakling. 

What does amphoric respiration indicaieT A large cavity, either 
in the aubstanca of the lung ; or formed by the pleon, and commu- 
eating with the bTonchiee by a narrow^ orifice, and containing air. 
It a generally moet perceptible at the middle of the chest ; and ex- 
ists in pneumothorax, pncamo-faydrothorax, and in extensive pul- 
monary excavations, whether occurring from tubercle or gangrene. 


How are ^ty divided f Into those occurring in tiie bronchise 
and pulmonary tissue, which are termed rila ; and that produced 
at the snrfoce of tbc Inog, and termed the Friction tovnd. 

What arc the Friction toundtf Pleuritic friction. 

How are the RSia divided ? Inte two groups : the Dry, and 
the jtfoirf. 


What are the dry rMes ? The Sibikmi and Snoring, included 
under the term Sonorous, 

What are the moist rales? CrepUcUing rdle. SuihcrtpUating 
rdle. Cavernous rdle. To which may be added Orciekling, and 

Pleuritic IVidion. 

What are the characteristics? It resembles the friction of two 
hard substances, which glide slowly over each other. It is mostly 
heard during inspiration, but sometimes in both ; or only at the end 
of long inspirations ; and is continued or intermittent. 

What does it indicate? A roughened condition of one or both 
surfaces of the pleura, and which is generally produced by &lse 
membrane deposited on its surface as a result of inflammation. 


How are they defined? They are defined to be ''all abnormal 
sounds which the current of air may produce during the respiratory 
act, either by traversing liquids, which are present in the bronchia) 
or the pulmonary tissue, or owing to a partial stricture of the air 



Sonorous Rale. 

Synonym^i, The dry sonorous or bronchial rdle, comprehending 
two varieties — the acute soiiorous, or sibilant rale, and deep sonorous 
or snoring. 

What are their characteristics ? The sibilant rale is a musical 
whistle of an acute tone, which accompanies or disguises the respi- 
ratory murmur ; sometimes it is short and clacking ; at others pro- 
longed, and resembles the cooing of a turtle dove. The snoring rale 
has a deeper musical sound, similar to the snoring of a person asleep, 
or a bass sound. The sibilant is the most frequent, but it may be 


oambined or all«niKte with others. Thia r&le may be lievd in in- 
spiration, or in ezpir&tion, or in both. 

What does it tndieatef Acute or chronie inflammation of the 
broncbue, without much secretion ; tam(»m in the oonrse of these 
canals ; or emphyuma. In the majimty of cases, it indicates bron- 
chial ii 

OGOin) OKOUP. — KOIBT Kal.13. 

CkfpUating RSlt. 

SyntMjftne. Yeticular riU. 

What are its lAaraeteriMtict f It resembles fine rapid crepitation 
in the sensation prodaced on the ear. It has been compared to the 
crepiution of fine salt when thrown on the fire; the friction of the 
hur mbbed between the fingers ; the soond produced on oompreasing 
the tissne of a health; long filled with ur, &o. ; and is beard only 
in inspiration. 

What does this rSle tndieaU f It is beard in pneumonia at the 
oommencement, and when resolution begins to occnr; in active 
forms of pulmonary congestion, oedema, and in apoplexy of the longs. 
From the comparaliTe rarity of the other aSections, it may be con- 
sidered as almost pathognomonio of pnenmonla, at the period of 
congestion, the particular seat of which it also points out. 

Sub-cr^tating RSie. 

Synonymet. Mucotu rile, moitt bnnehial r&le. 

What are its eJtaracterutict f It resembles the noise caused by 
blowing with a reed into soapy water, and lite this vanes according 
to the diameter of the reed, the denmty of tbe liquid, and the force 
of the blowing; this difierenoe has caused the divinon of this r&Ie 
into three varieties, according to the quanti^ and site of the bnbblcs. 
In some cases, the number and fineness of the bubbles cause it to 
approach tbe crepitating r&Ie, and then it is called fine aub-crepilat- 
ing rate ; in other cases, they are larger, less numerous, and less 
equal, and called intermediate subH^repilaUng rile; again they are 
large, rare, and very unequal, amounting to ffur//li»^, and are called 


the Bub-crepitating rCQe wiih large babbles. At one extreme this 
rCde may be easily confounded with the crepitating ralo; and at Uie 
other with the cavemons. 

How is it distinguished from the crepitating? It is heard both 
in inspiration and expiration, occupies a larger snr&oe; and is not 
accompanied or followed by bronchial blowing. 

How from the cavernous ? By the cavernous coinciding with the 
cavernous respuratioU; cough, and voice. Sometimes all these differ- 
ent rtlea may be heard in the same case at the same time, and render 
the discovery difficult 

Under what circumstances may this T§le occur ? It is produced 
by a current of air passing through liquids (blood, mucus, or pus) ; 
and may be heard in the second stage of inflammation of the bron- 
chial mucous membrane, the different species of catarrh, haemop- 
tysis, dilatation of the bronchise with increased secretion, certain 
forms of congestion, and in phthisic at the commencement of the 
breaking up of tubercles ; the first and last of these are the most 

Cavernous RQh. 

Synonymes, Gurgling (^GargouiHement), 

What are its cJiaractenstics ? The bubbles are less numerous 
than in the sub-crepitating rale, large and unequal, and mingle with 
the cavernous respiration, and may occur cither during inspiration 
or in expiration, or in both acts. 

What does it indicate ? A cavity or cavities hollowed out of 
the pulmonary structure, and containing both liquid and air ; they 
may be the result of tubercles, gangrene, abscess, or of the soften- 
ing of an apoplectic deposit \ it may also be caused by a pouch-like 
bronchial dilatation. If it exist with a cavernous voice, it indicates 
a tuberculous excavation almost certainly. 

Crackling^ Crumpling ^ etc. 

Under what circumstances do these sounds occur ? They appear 
to be connected with the existence of pulmonary excavations, but in 
what precise manner seems not to be well understood. Crackling is 
a succession of small and generally not numerous cracklings, which 


are heard only daring iiupratioii, and nioallj at the eamiuit of the 
chest ; and when moist, indicate aofiening of tubeicles. 

How dHHild thia be perfonned J The postore shonld be u is 
aoscallation of the loDgs; the patient should speak with a certun 
nnifomi energy, and intenaity of sound ; and to which we shoutd 
become aoonatomed by canaing him to read alond and congb. The 
ear alone is preferable in bronchophony, and in oegophony ; in peo- 
toriloqny, the stethoacope should be used, and care taken not to press 
the head too firmly against the inatnunent, neither too lightly, bat 
moderately and iini£>rmly. 


What are they f Orer the larynx, when speaking, there is ob- 
served a pealing resonance which traverses the tube of the stetho- 
■cope, and strikes tho ear forcibly ; the same in the lateral portions 
of the neck ; the resonance is loud at the Bub-stenial portion of 
the trachea, and diminiahea in the large bronohiie ; when the tho- 
racic organs are in perfect order, we hear over the chest only a con- 
fused boudng, Tsryiug in intensity according to the parts of the 
chest, tone of voice, &G. 


How is the voice modified ? When the phydcal condition of the 
lungs, &o. is changed, it produces a correapODdiug modification of 
the voice ; the density being increased, the resonance is also increased 
in proportion. Cavema in their sabstanee, eSnsioas into the pleura, 
&o., cause their corresponding modifications also. 

What are the pathological modifications of tiie voieeF Sraggt- 
raled retunarKe. Brondiial voice, or hrondwphong. Bkaiing voiee, 
or ayoplion}/. Catemom voice, or pKtorilo^uj/. Amplionc voire. 

Of tiiecough? Bronchial 01 tulalui: C'averiwua mi Amj>lu/ric 


Exaggerated Resonance of the Voice. 

Synonyme. Weak Bronckophony. 

What are the characteruttcs ? It is an increase of the resonance, 
bat does not amount to real bronchophony. Its signification is the 
same as bronchophony, in a less degree. 

Bronchial VouXj or Bronchophony, 

Synonymes, Tubular Voice, Buzzing Voice. 

What are the characterittics f There is a loud resonance of the 
voice in the interior of the chest; sometimes clear, at others trema- 
loos, and more frequently heard posteriorly than anteriorly ; and is 
of variable extent. It is distinguished from pectoriloquy by being 
widely spread, and by the absence of cavernous respiration and rale. 

What does it indicate? The same condition as exists with bron- 
chial respiration, viz. : dilatation with induration of the bronchiie, 
in which cases percussion is clear, increased density of the pulmo- 
nary parenchyma from crude tubercles, inflammation, cancer, &c., in 
which there is dulness ; the tubercles and inflammation are much 
the most frequent condition. 

Bleating Voice, or (Egophony. 

What are the characteristics? It is a resonance of an acute, tre- 
mulous, and abrupt tone, analogous to the bleating of a goat; which 
accompanies the articulation of the words, or rather follows them 
like an echo. 

What does it indicate f True (Ugophony indicates a liquid effu- 
sion into the cavity of the pleura, through which the Tibrations arc 
transmitted to the ear; it therefore is produced by pleurisy or hydro- 

Cavernous Voice, or Pectoriloquy, 

What arc its characteristics? The voice seems to issue directly 
from the chest, and to pass through the hollow of the stethoscope to 
the car. 

What does it indicate? It usually indicates a tuberculous exca- 
vation, although cavities may occur in the lungs from other causes ; 
for a cavity to produce pectoriloquy distinctly, it should be super- 

tg P&AOTIOB or HBI>ICIHB. 589 

■^j fioial, not laige, smooth, aeuiy empty, and turn thin, bat Bolid walk; 
Although imperfect varieUes mty oocnr viUwot all of tfaese ooDdidoDB- 

' Amphoric Voice. 

What ore the c^mcterittictf It resembles or ii precuoljr Bimi- 
lar to the metallia aod ottveriKMis bnisiiu raodnood bv speakiiu| u^to 
the month of a jug, which is three puts empty. 

What does it indicaUf The aame aonditioiiB th^t prodnoe am- 
phoric respiration. 

Metallic TinMing. 

What is miderstood by metoUio tinkling F It is a Boaad aooom- 
panyiog the recitation, roice, and oongh; it generally coincides 
with inspuatioD ; and the sonad has been compared " to that emitted 
from a cap (£ metal, ^aas, or porcelain, when stnek gently with a 
pin,0T wbenagrainof nndisdrt^pedintoiL" The voaeeuid cough 
more constantly ezdte it than respiration ; it is Bometimea perma- 
nent^ or i»odoced wheoerer the patient ^eaks or oonghs, mA at 
others <mly by a violent paroiysm of oooghing. 

Under what aicnmstanoes is it produced f There most exist a 
large cavity containing liquid and gas ; and there most be a move- 
ment imparted to the fluids eoelosed in it j it is therefore found in 
pnenmo^ydrothorai, whether simple or oomplioated, with fistulons 
communication between the pleura aod braoohisB, aod in a large 
exeavati(»i hollowed ont in the centre of the pulmonary parenchyma. 
TubercnlouBezcBTationsarerarely of asiseandkind to produce it; 
And it may be considered as pathognomonic of a triple lemon, rii. : 
<£ pneumothorax, liquid effusion, and fistulous eonununicadon of the 
pleura with the bronchise. 

Adscultatioii or thk Hubt. 


What are the physical circumstances to be observed in the aos- 
Gultation of the beort ? I(a impuUe, its rhythm, and its *oundt. 
What is understood by its impulie / It ia a shock perceived by 


the examiner on placing the hand on the left side of the chest below 
the nipple, or by the points of the fingers upon the space between 
the fifth and sixth ribs anteriorly ; and is caused by the stroke of 
the heart against the parietes of the chest. It is nearly or quite 
synchronous with the pulse at the wrist, and with the systole or 
contraction of the ventricles. It varies with the strength of the 
individual ; and it is also variable in frequency. 

What is understood by the rhythm of the heart ? In ansculting 
the heart; certain sounds are heard which occur with regularity, 
occupy a certain uniform time, succeed each other in regular manner, 
and have a given and uniform interval occurring between them, in 
each complete circuit of the heart's action. This regular division of 
the time constitutes its rhythm. The length of time occupied by 
these sounds, and by the interval, may be altered in disease, or from 
other causes^ which constitute derangement or irregularity of the 
rhythm. The rhythm, of course, depends upon certain regular 
actions and conditions of the heart, and its appendages. 

What is understood by the sounds of the heart ? They are sounds 
heard on applying the ear to the chest over the region of the heart; 
they are two in number, and have been represented by some as a 
tiotac. Williams employs the word lubb-dup or Ivhh-tub. Others 
think that the syllables too-to — too-to — represent these sounds. 
They may easily be heard in a healthy person, and this constitutes 
their best description. 

What arc the causes of these sounds? The second stmnd is caused 
by the sudden closure of the sigmoid valves after the contraction of 
the ventricles has ceased, or during their diastole. The jirst sf^inid 
is believed by some to depend entirely upon the closure, in like 
manner, of the auriculo- ventricular valves. But, by the majority of 
experimenters and physiologists, it is believed to depend upon the 
bruil musculaire of the auricles and ventricles in contracting; upon 
the sound produced by the chrrdx tcndhiew when put upon the 
stretch; upon the closure of these valves, and the friction of the 

Is there any difference in different persons in regard to the extent 
over which these sounds arc heard 't There is : they are heard more 
extensively in a thin than in a fat person; in a small than in a large 


penon; in a perBon of irritable diapoution than in one of a ctklm 
temperament; in females more than in males. Tbo extent is also 
changed in certain diseases, both of the heart and longs. 

Tbo first sound is beard moat distinctly over the junction of the 
fifth rib with its cartilage ; while the second sonnd is most clearly 
aadibte on tho sternum near the third interoostal space of tho left 

The TmpaUe. 

What relation docs the impulse bear to the pnlse? Unless some 
mechanical impediment ezbt to the course of the blood, they will be 
found to correspond both in time and strength : when the pulse is 
strong and vigorous, so with the impulse; when the former is weak 
and tremulous, the latter will be feeble also. 

Under what etrcutntUmca is the impulse xncrtaiedf In hyper- 
trophy, with some exceptions; and particularly when diUtadon is 
connected with hypertrophy. In these cases, it is full, strong, and 

What does a Aarp and tmari impulso indicaUt It exists in 
nervous and exciUbte persons who labor under chlorous, or amenua 
from other canses; and should be carefully distinguished from a 
powerful impulse, as it is indicative of an entirely different condition. 

Under what circumitanea is there ndiminithed impulse? When 
the parictes of the heart are thin and weak, pale and flabby, or loaded 
with &t; and when there is effusion into the pericardium. It may 
also exist even in hypertrophy, when the action of the heart is ham- 
pered by obstruction of the valves, and its contractions overpowered 
by an accumulated fluid. Under some cironmstances, therefore, a 
powerful heart may present a feeble impulse; and very frequently a 
Cecble heart will present a smart smacking one, but without power 
and fulness. 

Under what circunttfancet is the Kbytbm of tbc heart changed? 


It may occur from great or sadden emotioBB of the mind, and also 
from physical causes ; or by anything that will cause an interruption 
of the regular successions of contractions and dilatations (^ the 
auricles and ventricles. 

What are the organic changes that may afSwt it? Disease of the 
Talyes; thinnesS; dilatation, or weakness of the parietes of the ven- 
tricles ; and effusions into the pericardium. 

The SouncU, 

What are the general changes that may occur in the sounds of 
the heart? They may be unna^ralljf increcued, tmnafuro^ dtmi" 
nished, or altogether almormal in their characters. 

Under what circumgtances is there an increase of the sounds? It 
may occur when the surrounding lung is consolidated, and where the 
chambers of the heart are dilated, or the parietes thinner than natural. 

When the sounds are loud, as well as clear, it will generally be 
found that there is enlargement of the cavities : when clear or shrill, 
without being particularly loud, the parietes are commonly thin, but 
not dilated. 

Under what circunutanees is there a decrecue of the sounds? 
Anything which interferes with the fr^e action of the heart itself, or 
impedes the free motion of its valves. The physical conditions 
causing it are, ovcr<Kiistcnsion of the organ ; effusion into the peri- 
cardium ; stiffness or want of pliancy in the valves, even when insuf- 
ficient to produce a murmur : and they may be obscured by murmurs 
of one of the valves, pericardial murmurs, and bronchial rattles, or 
they may be destroyed by these altogether. An unnatural thickness 
of the walls or hypertrophy may also prevent their being heard