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IZ7 
M42 



Anglistische Forschungen 

Herausgegeben vou Dr. Johannes Hoops 

Professor an der Univereitat Heidelberg 

MEDICINA DE 
QUADRUPEDIBUS 

an early ME. version 
with introduction, notes, translation and glossary 

edited by 

Joseph Delcourt 

agr6g6 de rUniversite, professeur au Lyc6e et charg6 de conKrences 
a Universit6 de Montpellier 




Heidelberg 1914 

Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung 



fcVerlags-Nr. 1003. 



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Anglistische Forschungen 

Herausgegeben von Dr. Johannes Hoops 

Professor an der Universitat Heidelberg 
Heft 40 



MEDICINA DE 
QUADRUPEDIBUS 

an early ME. version 
with introduction, notes, translation and glossary 

edited by 

Joseph Delcourt 

agT6g6 de rUniversit^, professeur au Lycee et chargd de conf6rences 
a Universite de Montpellier 




Heidelberg 19 14 

Carl Winter's Universitatsbuchhandlung 



Verlags-Nr. 1003. 



121 

M^2 



Alle Rechte, besonders das Recht der tJbersetzung werden vorbehalten. 




iEmilio Senart indianistae 



Ihe Medicina de quadrupedihus, an early Middle-EngUsh version, 
has long been announced as one of the future publications of the 
Early English Text Society (Extra Series). Having failed to get it 
printed by the Society within reasonable limits of time, I asked 
Prof. Hoops's permission to have it published as one of the An- 
glistische Forschungen. My respectful thanks are due to him for his 
ready acceptance of the proposal for which I feel the more indebted 
as Prof. Hoops is, as I was informed after applying to him, pre- 
pariug the publication of a critical edition of the Medicina hiniself. 



Contents. 

Page 

Books referred to VI 

Introduction. 

A. General remarks VII — XX 

B. Phonetics. 

I. The vowels in accented syllables . . . XX— XXVI 

Short vowels XX— XXIII 

Long vowels XXIII — XXV 

Diphthongs XXV-XXVI 

II. The vowels in weakly accented and 

unaccented syllables XXVI 

III. Consonants XXVI-XXXI 

The semi-vowel tv XXVI 

Liquids XXVII 

Nasals XXVII 

• Labials XXVIII 

Dentals XXVIII 

Sibilants XXIX 

Gutturals and palatals XXIX — XXXI 

C. Accidence. 

I. Substantives XXXII-XXXVIII 

II. Adjectives XXXVIII-XL 

III. Numerals XL 

IV. Pronouns XL— XLIII 

V. Verbs XLIII-XLVII 

1.« Strong verbs XLIII-XLV 

2.0 Weak verbs XLV— XLVI 

3." Preterite-present verbs .... XLVI 

4.0 Verbs in mj XLVI-XLVII 

Summary of results XLVII — LI 

Text 2—25 

Glossary 26—40 



VI 



Books referred to. 



U. Berberich, Das Herbariiwi Apnlcii. Heidelberg 1902. 

J. W. Bright, The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon, wilh a glossary 

by Lancelot Minor Harris. Boston & London 1904. 
J. Bosworth & T. N. Toller (BT.), Anglo-Saxon Dictionartj. Oxford 

1SS2— 1898. 
K. Biilbring, Altenglisches Elenienfarhnch. I. Teil. Laullehre. Heidel- 

berg 1902. 
0. Coclcayne, Leechdoms, tvortciuining and starcraft of early England. 

Vol. I (text) and voL HI (glossary). London 1864. 
Fr. Kluge, Geschichte der englischen Sprache in Pauls Grundrifs. Strafa- 

burg 1S99. 
M. Loweneclj, TTepi bibdEeujv. Erlangen 1S96, 
R. Morris, Speciniens of carhj English (A. D. 1150 — A. D, 1300). 

Oxford 1887, 
L. Morsbach, Mittelenglischc Grammatik. Erste Hillfte. Halle 1896. 
J, A. H. Murray, H. Bradley & W. A. Craigie, xi new English Dictionarg 

(NED,), Oxford 1S84-. 
E. Sievers, Angelscichsische Grammatik. Dritte Auflage. Halle 1898. 
H. Sweet, History of English Sotinds (HES.). Oxford 1888, 

„ The Studenfs Dictionary of AngloSaxon. Oxford 1897. 
First Middle-English Primer. 2<i edition. Oxford 1899. 
, A7i Anglo-Saxon Primcr. Sth edition. Oxford 1900. 
E, Wulfing, Die Syntax in den WerJcen Alfreds des Gro/Jen. 2 vol, 

Bonn 1894 & 1901. 
Add to these the review of Mr. Berberich's work contributed by Prof. 

Max Forster to the Literaturblatt fiir germanische und roma- 

nische Philologie. 1902 no, 8, 9, 



vn 



Introduction. 



A. General remarks. 

§ 1. Object and method of the work. 

§ 2. Descriptioii of the ms. 

§ 3. A brief comparison with the other mss. 

§ 4. Spelling. 

§ 5. Dialect. 

§ 1. — The present publication is intended as a com- 
plement to those made by previous editors of the text of ' 
ms. Harl. 6258 (Brit. Mus.). The third part of this ms., 
entitled TTepi bibdHeuuv, was pubhshed by Mr. Loweneck in \ 
the Erlanger Beitrdge (1896) and the first, entitled Her- \ 
harium Apuleii, by Mr. Hugo Berberich in this series 
(Heidelberg 1902). It was at the kind suggestion of Prof. 
Napier that I undertook to copy out the second and 
shortest, namely the Medicina cle quadrupcdibus, which I 
bring out to-day with introduction, notes, translation and 
glossary, as a supplementary «these» for a doctor's degree 
in the University of Paris. My copy includes the whole 
text of the Medicina as given in the ms. without, how- 
ever, the § De heta which belongs to it, but which was 
rightly taken in by Mr. Berberich. The two hnes imme- 
diately before, viz.: Wid cafodece pollege . . ., omitted by 
him, are given here. 

Of the two pubHcations just referred to, the first only 
claims to supply students with a correct text, to which it 
prefixes a few remarks on the mss. in which the said text 



VIII Introduction. 

is foimd. The second, besides establishing the text with 
great care, gives a general description of the ms., foUowed 
by observations on its relation to the older Enghsh copies 
of tlie Herharimn, on its speUing, date, and dialect, and 
by a fuU account of its sounds and forms. My edition of 
the Medicina being intended exclusively for a contribution 
to the study of early ME. grammar, I have of course 
adopted the latter plan and considered it my duty to write 
an introduction similar to that of Mr. Berberich. I have, 
however, deviated from the model his work offered me in 
a few points where improvement seemed possible. In 
doing so I have paid special attention to the observations 
made on the matter by Prof. Forster in his able review of 
the Herharium.^ The main changes thus introduced are 
the separation, in the Phonetics, of the weakly accented 
and unaccented syllables from the others; the use of 
spaced itahcs in the Phonetics and in the Accidence to de- 
note the spelUngs which seem characteristic of ME.^, and 
the addition of a glossary where aU the words of the text 
are recorded with the forms under which they occur and 
numerous references to pages and Unes. 

The foUowing points are to be noticed by those who 
use the present pubUcation: 

1*^. The text has been copied out with the greatest accu- 
racy possible. However it has been thought useless to re- 
produce aU its features and principaUy its obvious mis- 
takes where they offer no Unguistic interest. Thus ivrip 
61 5 has been mormaUzed into ivrip and lcececrceftef 29, where 
the two ces evidently represent x and where the second f 



' cf. the list of books referred to p. VI. 

* In determining those spellings I have been guided priucipally 
by Bulbring's and Sievers's vvorks. 



General REMARKS. IX 

can only stand for s has been replaced by Ixcecrxftes. Yet, 
with the exception of the sign oe which has been silently 
norrnahzed into x wherever it occurs ^, I have never ven- 
tured to correct a word without mentioning it in its in- 
correct form in the footnotes, the form substituted being 
always that of ms. V, unless otherwise noted.^ Besides 
those necessary substitutions, which are regularly indicated 
by an asterisk, I have had recourse to ms. V wherever 
the obscurity of ms. made it desirable. In such cases 
I have inserted the reading of ms. V within brackets in 
the text (with no asterisk) and quoted that of ms. in 
the notes. Parentheses have been used only when a letter 
was faint or had altogether disappeared from the text, f. i. 
scinJaCc) I65. I have allowed myself a free hand with 
regard to the separation of words, often uniting what is 
separated and separating what is united: thus I have 
written tvif-pingiin lOie IO17 instead of tvifpingim which is 
the reading of the ms.; my principle in that respect has 
been to write as two words united by a hyphen the 
compounds which bear an accent upon the first element, 
f. i. setl-gange 62, heafod-ece IO2, and as one word those 
in which the first element, accented or not, is merely a 
prefix.^ The glosses and also the peculiarities of writing 



^ This holds good of Ihe Introduction and the Notes except in 
the case of Se where the correction made by the scribe would be unin- 
telligible without the os. The spelling of the ms. is also mentioned in 
the case of *l(ecedo»i 613 where it is not loecedon but laecedon. 

2 cf. p. XIII for a comparison between the ms. printed here (ms. 
0) and ms. V printed by Cockayne in his Saxon Leechdoms. My 
corrections are taken from Cockayne's printed text which has been 
coUated with the original and I follow his speUing whether it agrees 
with my principles or not. Words quoted from the ms. only in the 
notes are transcribed unchanged. 

^ However words in which the compound is less felt are written 
as one word: thus lacedome 222 *morheames 6ji. 



X Introductiox. 

in 

have been reproduced as they are in the ms., f. i. on 

lineo panno 

linnenon hrsejele 2i4, ylcan lOs and no special notice has 
been taken of them in the notes. Finally the use of dots 
over is and ys has been normalized and the accents of 
the text have been retained. 

2". The translation is copied from Gockayne's Leechdoms 
— at least where ms. agrees with ms. V, but some 
alterations have been introduced to render the text with 
greater precision. Latin has been preferred to English 
where the previous editor chose to adopt it rather than 
offend decency, but his unnecessary archaisms have not 
been retained. Explanatory words are added within 
parentheses f. i. (a herry) li and those which correspond 
to words taken from ms. V, or are otherwise required by 
the text, are supphed within brackets, f. i. {aware . . of 
thy virtues . . . 84]. 

3°. In the Phonetics and Accidence I have limited 
myself to comparatively few examples, except where some 
particular point required to be insisted upon, and I have 
exciuded from each the forms which show a peculiarity 
only from the point of view of the other. In the Accidence 
I have chosen the same word to exemplify the various 
cases of a noun or the various tenses of a verb wherever 
it was possible. When a word written in spaced italics 
in one of the two sections also occurs in the other, I 
have abstained from using that type where it was no 
longer justified. Of course when a word had had to be 
corrected in the text, it has nevertheless been quoted as it 
is in ms. 0. 

4^. In the glossary the order of words is strictly 
alphabetical, x being placed between ad and «/"; but initial 



General remarks. XI 

p follows t. All words are mentioned under their initials, 
except compounds in je which will be found under the 
simple words. All forms, either correct or not, and all 
variant spellings are entered, the starting-point, however, 
being only the OE. form which is quoted in spaced type.' 
When there is no difference betAveen that form and that 
referred to, it is not repeated, even if the latter represents 
a case or person which makes it different from the former: 
thus after opt. 3d. pl. ivexan (from 14i) is not quoted 
because wexan, being also the form of the infinitive, is 
written in the margin. Contractions are expanded, and it 
has been thought useless to reproduce the accents of the 
text. The gender of nouns is designated except when it is 
unknown to Sweet and BT; if it is doubtful it is written 
within parentheses.^ Numerals indicate the six classes of 
ablaut verbs (after Sievers's classification) ; w. 1, w. 2, w. 3 
the three classes of weak verbs ; pret.-p. the preterite-present 
verbs; anv. the anomalous verbs; rd. the reduphcative 
verbs. The case governed by the verb is mentioned if it 
is not the accusative. The parts of the verb are quoted 
in the following order: inf., pr. p., ger., ind. pres., opt. 
pres., imp., ind. pret., opt. pret., pp., no designation being 
used in the case of ind. and of pres.^ Here again paren- 
theses show that what they include has been entered with 

1 The entries placed within brackets refer to words not belonging 
to ms. 0. Those within parentheses are hypothetical forms: thus 
(dhi/ldan, fel-stijcce). 

'^ Parentheses are also used for explanatory words (cf. leoJit) and 
with the word Idpartus, my knowledge of which does not go beyond 
the word itself. 

^ This and a certain number of the otlier principles adopted in 
the glossary are borrowed from the glossary contributed by Prof. 
L. M. Harris to The gospel of St. John in WS. ; cf. the list of books 
referred to. One of the said principles is to add «etc» after references 
wherever at least two more examples might be adduced. 



XII Introduction. 

some hesitation: ihus picjaii which, althoiigh partly belonging 
to the fifth ablaut series in OE., only shows weak fomis 
in our text, is followed by (5). Minor distinctions are 
omitted; f. i. under se, seo, p{d)x{a)t, it has been thought 
sufficient to make it clear that the vowel of the neuter 
nominative or accusative may be se or a and no distinction 
is made between the places which have }{d)xt and those 
which have p{d)at. 

In conclusion of tliese preliminary remarks, I wish to 
express my deep gratitude to Prof. Napier who, besides 
setting me on the track of the Medicina, gave me a lesson 
in editing when I submitted him my copy of it and has 
since read through my introduction with great profit to the 
present publication.^ I shall be glad to hear of any sug- 
gestion tending to the improvement of my work which may 
have escaped the attention of that eminent scholar. 

§ 2. — The description of ms. given by Mr. Berberich 
in his introduction ^ appUes to our portion of it (pp. 44a — 51) 
in so far as it refers to the sections of the Herbarium 
which were left undamaged by the fire of 1731. As far 
as I can judge the text is written in the same hand from 
end to end, the hand belonging to a scribe who was not 
very particular about the exactness and correctness of what 
he wrote. The titles, isolated from the context, and a large 
number of the first letters of sections are written in red; 
such additional titles as occur in the margin are also in 
red, with one exception^, the places where red colour was 
to be used for the first letter of WiJ)(8) being sometimes 

* I need not add that I am alone responsible for its contents. 

2 p. 1-4. 

^ The titles written in red in Ihe ms. are reproduced in fat 
spaced type in the present edition. In the margins, however, the 
distinction has not been preserved. 



General remarrs. Xin 

marked by a (W) sign. The few glosses, either in Latin 
or in English, scattered in the margins or above the lines, 
are more generally in black. Both titles and glosses are 
occasionally framed in red. As to the dates to which those 
various additions are to be ascribed and to the hands from 
Avhich they originate I can state nothing precise. 

A few minor pecuharities are pointed out in the foot- 
notes. 

§ 3. — As pointed out above, a full comparison of the 
text of ms. with that given by other mss. lies outside 
the scope of the present work. ^ It may be of interest, 
however, to those acquainted with the Medicina as it is 
printed in Cockayne's Saxon LeecMojns'^, to have an idea 
of the chief differences between ms. and ms. V on the 
one hand, and mss. B and H on the other. 

Unlike the Herharium, the Medicina is transcribed in 
ms. in the same order as in the other mss. If we leave 
out of consideration a few titles and two portions of hnes 
which do not belong to the text^, it may be said that it 
dififers from ms. V in the following respects. 

l*'. It is considerably shorter, a nuniber of paragraphs 
which occur in V not being found in 0. Among the more 
important omissions are the following: 

^ My object being not to make critical a text of the Medicina, 
but to bring out the characteristic points of its early ME. form, I 
abstain from including here the lists of readings from mss. V, B and 
H which I have drawn up. 

2 Vol. I, p. 326 ff. I refer the reader to the preface of that 
work for particulars about the Latin source and the Enghsh mss. older 
than 0, as also about our knowledge of the remedies, charms and 
superstitions used among the ancients. I may add here that in that 
preface Cockayne expressed the opinion that ms. 0, which he had not 
thought it fit to collate through, might some day be printed in full as 
a contribution to the history of the English language. 

^ cf. note to p. 84. 



XIV 



Introduction. 



p. 610 the Greek words are replaced by: Ic nime pe 7 

Cefa, followed by plura nerba; 

p. 814 a paragraph (also containing Greek words) is 

omitted; 
p. 824 six paragraphs are omitted; 
p. IO18 two lines are omitted, the omission being ob- 

viously due to tlie fact that tnencg, or a similar word, 

occurs both in the portion kept and in the portion 

left out; 
p. 12i5 after jedrijede, owing to the omission of two hnes 

two recipes are mixed up; 
p. 2O26 more than one page is omitted,^ 

2^. Some passages offer readings different from those 
of V. I hmit myseff to a few striking instances: 



V 


B 


H 







we nemnad' 








man nemned 2io 


feranne 


farenne 






^efarenne 4i5 


ham to cyrrenne 








hale to cumende 

4l5 


heheald 








loca 612 


7 nseni^ nian 
ser mid cemde 


7 meni^ man xr 
mid aemde 


'jmgeni^manier 
mid ciemde 


7 na mare wr 
mid cemde 617 


her hufan 


her hufon 


her hufon 




her hefore IO3 


wanting 








nim pat ylcan 
7 IO3 


eft ^elice fon pe 
her hufan je- 
cweden is je- 








eftmmpa ylcan 
IO5 


nitn Pa ylcan 










^esoden 


^csodone 






gehrsede IO7 


gemyltcd drype 
fyre^atc 








gedrupc 7 je- 

mylted IO22 
wude-gete 142? 


onb ■ rge 








hruca 16$ 



^ See p. 2221 for a case in which, on the contrary, a few lines 
are erroneously omitted by V. 





Gekbral remarks. 


XV 


V 


B H 





hyt hifP gehxled 


wanting 


7 shuca hyt hyd 
gehieled IGe 


opp 




fort 16io 


hracfe hy fieoiY 




ra&e se (lewsa 


onwe^ fram 
him 




from hym ge- 
wite& 2O2 


oPP 




fort 2O9 


se wifman sc pe 




se ivifman pat 
2O24. 



It will be noticed that there are but few differences 
between V and BH. The latter texts having, as far as they 
go, none of the omissions pointed oiit above, it would be 
tempting to infer that while there is no necessary connection 
between VBH and 0, there is to say the least a possible 
one between V and BH. This, however, is a mere hypo- 
thesis. 

With regard to the dates to which the mss. may be 
ascribed, the date about 1050 given by Gockayne^ for V 
seems fairly correct and there is apparently no reason either 
to dispute the other dates given by him^, viz. about the 
same date for B and a little later for H. Ms. 0, on the 
other hand, though preserving many characteristics of OE.^, 
can safely be ascribed to about a century later. This is 
supported by the following considerations : 

1°. There are frequent cases of weakening and con- 
fusion of the unaccented syllables, cf. p. XXVI; 

2°. OE. y, whether «fast» or «unfast», is often re- 
presented by u: fot-swulan ISs, blod-rune Hg 14ii, hure 
826, ciisc I613 l()i5 I611; — also ylcan IO3; 

3". OE. X is often preserved, but a is also frequently 
substituted. The phonetics shows examples o^ pas, hdbhe etc; 



1 1: c. p. LXXIX. — M. c. p. LXXXIV. — ^ See under § 5 p. XIX. 



XVI Introduction. 

4^. The vocalism of leuiende 221 isME.; also that of 
hermen IO17, ferres 228 22i2; 

5". We perhaps see a proof of Norman influence in 
the use of u in leuiende^ 221; 

G". opper, odder (= mod. or) the first examples of 
which known to NED. appear in the TTepl bibdHeuuv^ and in 
the OE. Chronicle under the date 1127 is very frequent in 
our text. Two other examples of comparatively recent 
words are hefore in her-before IO3 of which NED. has no 
example without the termination in n before 1200^ and 
fort (= till) the first example of which to my knowledge 
occurs in the Ancren Biwle* (about the beginning of the 
IS^^^century). 

§ 4. — The chief points to be examined in connection 
with spelhng are P. the cases of confusion of letters, the 
additions and omissions; 2°. the abbreviations; 3*^. the ac- 
cents, doss etc. 

l^*. Confusion of letters; additions and omissions. 

As in the Herbarium, the cases of confusion of letters 
are numerous; they can be divided under three heads: 
a) those in which the confusion is merely graphic; b) those 
which can be explained by some association; c) those in 
which a pure scribal error has to be admitted. It need 
hardly be added that several reasons may have contributed 
to the confusion. 

a) The confusion seems to be merely graphic, viz. to 
be due to the resemblance of letters when we meet: 



^ It is true that spellings in ti occur in the word even as early 
as the lltb century (HES. § 589). 

2 cf. s. V. under a). The TTepi {)ibdEeujv is here dated 1200—25. 

* cf. s. V. 3b. biforr (Orm). 

* cf. Morris's Spectmens of early English IX, 31 1 etc. Of course 
the A. R. writes uort. 



Gengral remares. XVII 

X for a: hxle IO13, hxres SOs. 

X for e: fuper-fxte 4* 4i8. 

03 for «: rf<e? 48, tvambe-wyoece 142, etc. (As pointed out 
p. XI all the ces due to that confusion have been 
silently normaHzed into xs.) 

u for a: xscolupio 2-, pannum I220. 

u {u) for 0: teiirse I824. 

M for en: Zmw^tm 125. 

y for r: wamhe-ivyoece 142. 

Z for ^: Z^wra 4i3. 

r for 2<;: «rej 4i6. 

r for w: to&reomera 2222, 

?? for w: laecedon 613, win 143. 

/* for s: Ixcecrxftef 29, (/y/i^ (for (/^/^s^) 222o. 

f for t<>: W2/e I825, fif-pingud 22i3. 

^ for ^: teop I65, ^ur^ I65, peop-wrace I82. 

sw for ^: s?<;a I813. 

li for ^: ^ara 4i9, he 129, awirph I625. 

b) It seems natural to explain by association a certain 
number of other confusions. I understand them to be 

a) letter associations. — Either a letter is anticipated: 
lelome for ^elonie 14i, fidfes for icidfes 20i7 2O202O21, 
fidfune for ivulfune (i.e. wylfene) 2O25, merurh for 
mearh — the a being moreover written m — 223 
deolfolseocne^se for deofolseocnesse 20i7, nxrdran for 
nxdran 82 — notice the curious neardran 227 vsrhere 
the erroneous insertion of r causes breaking (also 
due perhaps to eardien which immediately follows?). 
Add to these some cases of metathesis: sivyrdanan 
for sivydran 220, and nosprul I612 ; 

P) grammatical associations. — receles for recelses 128 may 
imply a tendency to understand recels as a gs.; in 

D e 1 c o u r t , Medicina de Quadrupedibus. 11 



XVIIl Introduction. 

hring-fingrum 65 the scribe must have erroneously 
understood the plural to be meant; in spiwan 208 
we have a case of substitution of the verb to the 
substantive; in sceppes (3*^ pers. sing.) 2i6 4i7 the s 
may be due to that of the 2*^ person. 
c) There is a considerable number of pure scribal 

errors: thus ofslean 2i3 stands for ofslea, hale 4i5 for ham 

etc. See the notes. 

2°. Abbreviations. 

a) and is always written 7. 

b) The sign ~ is always meant to represent an m or 
an n: jefremenne 2O4 — panc 220, nyhtu 49 — also ne: pon 222o. 
Guriously enough we find it in swyrdanan 220. Except in 
the case just mentioned the contractions thus marked by - 
are expanded all through the present pubhcation, thus 
gefremmenne. 

c) jJ represents either cj. pxt or pset nns. and ans. of 
the dem. pron. 29 2io etc, once pa the afs. of the same 
pron. I811, or cj. ponne 28. 

d) Other abbreviations , such as opf 2i4 222, seft^ 49 
need no special explanation. 

3^. Accents, dots etc. 

With the exceptions of egypHd 23 and aj'e lOio, the 
latter an obvious mistake, the accents and dots occur only 
over an i or an ij. Ex. : yfel 2i7, sy 42 — hiwind 2i4, dinum 
4i3, droivion 'il'i\ . It is clear from the examples quoted that 
they cannot be taken to mark length. They may be in- 
tended to distinguish an i or an y from a letter of the same 
height on the hne. 

A dot or several dots under a word or part of a word 
show a mistake; the word is generaUy re-written in its 



GeNERAL REMARK8. XIX 

correct form or the coirection is otherwise marked; cf. f. i. 

a y 

afy I flygennysse 226 and smere 122o. In one case we find 

the sign ^/ used twice to show inversion of order: /^fexe 
■^feallendum 12i9. The same sign also occurs sometimes in 
the text either in black or in red, to reler to a word added 
in the margin, f. i. above egypHd 23, Mng and rex being 
written in the margin (the latter twice), and after ivrip 615, 
on being written in the margin. 

The glosses and minor pecularities will be found either 
in the text or in the notes. 

§ 5. — If we leave out of consideration onfeahp I63, 
possibly an isolated Northern form\ and sceppes 2i6 4i7 
which has been explained otherwise, we may ascribe to 
our ms. a West-Saxon origin. The use of u for y, already 
noticed, the frequent occurrence of ea, eo, ea, eo due to 
breaking (cf. Phonetics), the no less frequent occurrence of 
<K (cf. ibid.) the monophthongization of ea into e in sellen 
1427, sellan 228 and scellan 22i2, of ea into e in sced 22ii^ 
are, in fact, clearly West-Saxon. How^ever some pecularities 
which are not characteristic of WS. but which cannot be 
considered as belonging exclusively to other dialects rnake 
the borderland between the West-Saxon (WS.) and AngHan 
(A.) — or Kentish (K.)— territories a more probable place 
of origin. 

l''. The addition of h initially before a vowel is not 
uncommon in all Southern texts.^ 



^ cf. Siev. 1. c. § 150 anm. 1. A few other forms might have 
been considered as Northumbrian ; cf. under the a stems p. XXXIV. 
2 Bulbr. 1. c. § 314 & 315. 
* Sweet HES. § 726; cf. also the refereuces of Sievers § 217 

anm. 1. 

n* 



XX Intboduction. 

2". The vocalism of sylf 20n and that oi smere 122o, 
jesmered 14i3 — m the last two of which, it is true, the 
accented e is corrected into i (y), — are found in WS., A. 
and K. ^; jereced I812 is A. and K.^ No special importance 
is to be attached to the non WS. jecnucad^ Ss, in which 
the a is sufficiently accounted for by the want of accent. 

3''. embe 621 I815 and embehwyrft 422 (also ymb- 
hwyrftum 413) are K*, etest^ 423, byon^ 624 and jebernedCe)'' 
811 2^22 are A.^ The vocaHsm of serfodum ^ 615 seems to be 
properly Mercian and the same may be said of hxfed'^^ 82, 
drig 82i,3edrijede 12i5 and forpricced'^^ I813. It is, in fact, 
well-known that the Saxon patois are rich in Mercian forms.^^ 

B. Phonetics. 

I. The vowels in accented syllables. 

Short Yowels. 

§ 1. a. 
OE. a in an open syllable before a guttural vowel re- 
mains a in hafast 224, hafad 206. 



I Bulbr. § 304 and § 186 anm. 1. 
« ib. § 184. - 3 Siev. § 414. 

* Siev. § 154; the vocalism in e can also be explained by the 
weak accent (Bvilbr. § 454). 

^ Siev. § 371 anm. 6, 7. 

« Bulbr.§ 118. 

' ib. § 180 anm. 1. 

* The use of mid with the accusative 16 u is another peculiarity 
of the same group of dialects (Sweet, Did. s. v.). 

9 Siev. § 1.58, 1. 
1» ib. § 416 anm. 1, e. 

II HES. § 688. The change of y, y to i, l in the Midland dialects 
seems to have begun before the end of Ihe OE. period (Kluge I. c. § 100 
and 101). 

^^ Forster 1. c. 



Phonetics. XXI 

§ 2. a (q) before nasals. 
Germanic a is more generally represented by a .• man 2io, 
nama 2i2, panne 2i3 etc, gewanap 2O23. However we meet 
with m 2i2, &one 220, comh 617, gesomne 620, wom I422. 

§ 3. «. 

OE. ^ in close syllables or in open syllables before 
palatal vowels is represented 

1°. by x: pxs 2i2 2i9 etc, xlmihtigon 2i2, lefter 45 I811, 
heafod-wraece 49, fsestende 426, ivaeteres 85, wxtere 12i2 20?, 
jebzmede Su etc, brxjen 14i, t6'Za?c I424, hrxdlice 16i4. 

2*^. by a: besides nappunge 208 and peo^-urace I82 
which occm- in OE. we notice ^as 221, &a^e 49, habbe 611, 
a/^^er 618 12ii I820, je barned 87 and ^ebarnedne 227, 
hradlice 820, fastende 12i2, watere lOii, brajen 122 
I65 I823 I825. 

iVbfe. — ^Besides a alternating with « in the verb hsernan we meet 
twice with the Anglian e: ^ebernede 811, ^eberned 2222. 

§ 4. e. 
1°. OE. e (original or mutation e) is preserved: cwecf ^^12, 
cned I82, feld-beona 229 — )wmned 2io, eZes 47, a/ie/e 66. 

^o^e. — The e of /"eZrf appears as feald in fcald-beona 14i3. 
2°. It appears as « in eelcor 22i2. 
3''. It appears as y in 5«/?/" 20ii. 

§ 5. i. 

1°. OE. «fast» i, viz. the sound originally represented 
by i in Gemianic or i due to mutation is represented 

a) by i: linnenon 2i3, jeflite 222, priwa 14i7; 

P) by 2/: %< 48 — tobrycp lOio. 

JVbies. — a) m in 7/^<Z 20i, (<>w?ie 243 is due to the ic and corres- 
ponds to the y in late WS. wyle. Notice also y^lcan IO3 and cy"ld I227. 



XXII Introduction. 

b) top-rima appears wilh the two vocalisms eo, ea: todreomera 
(for reomena) 2222, tep (for top)-reaman 142. Prof. Napier suggests to 
me that while the former represents an o mutation of i (Biilbr. § 235 
& 237), the latter is to be compared to seriptedro as against teoru (Siev. 
§ 43, 2), bearing a secondary accent. Another hypothesis proposed by 
the same authority is that reaman is perhaps due to confusion with 
reoma, reama = membrane. 

2**. OE. «unfast» i, viz. the sound resulting from older 
ie which regularly alternates with y is represented 

a) by i: scille IGs, smire 8i9 etc. (also jesmtred I423); 

p) by «/: smyre 49, syle ISs etc, mylt 223; 

t) by u: smure 224 817 I851, smura 122 I81, herp- 

huli^es 1426, hure 826. 

Note. — The ill-defined i of fiperfete is also represented by u: 
fuper-fsete Ai 4i8. 

§6. 0. 

V. OE. is preserved: hodede 2*, hors 224. 
2°. We find e inserted before 0, as regularly in OE., 
after a palatal consonant: jeowd! 422. 

§ 7. u. 

OE. u is preserved: pus 24, cumende 4i5 etc. 
iVo^e. — mscolupio % and «^^iYto I820 are mistakes for ^sculapio, 
wulla. 

§8. y. 

P. OE. «fast» ^, representing the i mutation of u, is 
preserved, being expressed 

^) by y: jelynde 224, ymbhwyrftum 4i3, hlod-ryne 149, 
cyrnlu I625, sivylas I83 I84; 

p) by i: hlod-rine I611, forpricced I813, 6nwe 22io; 

t) by ?(: drupe IO5, jedrupe IO22, druppe^ I85, 
curnlu IO12, fot-swulan 125, sivulas I810, grutta — 



^ In these words, it is true, the ?* may be due to the influence 
of ON. drupa 



Phonetics. XXIII 

a compromise between the vocalism of grut and that of 
grytt^ ~ \Q)22, pule 2O20, fulfune 2O25. The spelling 
in u after w in tvurmas 812 is regular in late WS.^ 
2°. For OE. «umfast» y cf. under i. 

Long vowels. 

§ 9. a. 
OE. a is preserved whether it represents 

a) Germ. ai: hatan 23, adle 4i, hares I823 etc. 
Note.—On. hxte lOe, hsele IO13 etc, hieres SOs 20u c(. Spelling 

p. XVII. 

p) WGerm. a: jelacnad' 14i9. We meet also with 
laecned 4i2. 

§ 10. X. 

OE. ^ representing i mutation of Germ. ai is preserved 
as «: aenije 4i, xni^un 44 614, jehseled 4io, «»* 62^ c?«Ze 616, 
clxnsunge 1236. However by-forms in a are not rare: 
ar 820, Aa?ec^ IO12, alcen 4*, c?awe 621 and geclansod 623 
show the vocalism of the adverb clane. 

Notes. — a) The a in hamede 16* is somewhat surprising as the gram- 
mars and dictionaries have only m; still as the vowel rests on Germ. 
ai, X being due to the verb hxman, a by-form in a is quite admissible. 

b) ealtewa 12i8 is no doubt a scribal error for edlteaw. For examples 
of ealteaw cf. BT s. v. 

§ 11. ^. 
OE. WS. ee (corresponding to A. and K. e) remains 
unchanged: faetelsa 4$, nxrdran 82, wsetan 83, jewieje 814, 
oferslxpe 122, pser-to 124, pxr-on 22ii, Uaedran 12i5, «t'*^'" 
we<? 1222, ease-hrsewas 16i4, Isecedom 20ii. Here again by- 
forms in a occur here and there: lacedome 222, j5are 622, 
parmid IO9 2O23. 



> Cf. Siev. § 284 anm. 4. 
2 Biilbr. § 280. 



XXIV Intkoduction. 

§ 12. e. 

OE. e representing i mutation of o, or a lengthened 
Germ. e, or the K. and A. mutation of m, is retained: 
sivetan lOii — stred 813 — sced 22ii — receles 128. 

Notes.—a) On fuper-fiete 44 4i8 cf. Spelling p. XVII. 

b) onfeahp I63 is probably a mistake, but it might also be an 
isolated Northern form (cf. above p. XIX). 

§ 13. l. 

1". OE. «fast» l, viz. the original Germ. l and the 
lengthened Germ. i are expressed 

a) by i'. xthrinan 2i5; 

P) by y: tyd 4i, wysa 4ii, sivyrpre 2O22. 

2°. OE. «unfast» i, viz. the sound resulting from older 
«e, which regularly alternates with y, is expressed 

a) by i: jedijest 223, alisede 4i5, eetiwdan 20i9; 

p) by ?/: alysed I619, Pystru 228 ; 

y) by m: frunde 24, Awre 813, cwse I613 I615 16ig. 

Note. — The difficult y vocalism of the numerals from 13 to 19 
occurs in seofontyne 62. 

§ 14. 6. 

OE. 6 is regularly preserved: wol-herende 2i7. 
Note. — The c*before in ^edeon 222» is an obvious mistake. 

§ 15. u. 
OE. M is preserved:^w 223, mule 43, brucan 425, 6m^z< I224. 

§ 16. y. 
P. OE. «fast» ^ representing the i mutation of u is 
preserved and is represented 
a) by y: fyre 4i7; 

p) by i: eZnj 821, jedrijede 12ir, etc, /irfts 22io; 
y) by m: nospurlo 14io, nosprul I612. 
2^. For OE. «unfast» ^ cf. under i. 



Phonetics. XXV 

Diphthongg. 

§ 17. ea. 

OE. ea due to the influence of a preceding palatal or 
to the regular breaking of a appears as: 

1°. ea: sceallen 821, earfodnyssa 826, weartan IO9, 
geallan lOis, ivdrme 12i2, gesceawen (for gesceafen) I223, 
ealtewa 12i8, fearres 226. 

JVo<e. — wirtan lOs can but be a scibal error for tveartan. 

2''. monophthong «: xrfodum 615. 

3°. monophthong e: 

a) before a; in /ea: 619, wexed I222; 

P) after palatal j, sc: jellan 228, jeWe»^ I427, scellan^'2,x2. 

y) in hermen IO17, ferres 228 22i2. 

§ 18. co. 

OE. eo due to breaking of e or to a u mutation of c 
appears as: 

l^. eo: seolfre 2i4, sefeohte 222, heortes 89, seofan 129. 

2^. ea: ^ears 2O5. 

3^ u in the group ^(;eor as in late WS.: ivurde 28. 
The later speUing (with y) occurs in dwyrcge-dwosle 242. 

4^ e: leuiende 221, smerw 827, terp (for ^eors) I62, 
herpena I823. 

§ 19. e-a. 

OE. ea appears as: 

1". ea: wea^e 44, readige 66. nead-pearf 613 for mer?- 
^ear/" seems to be due to the analogy of neadian. 

2". e after a palatal consonant: sced 22ii. 

Note. — I am unable to understand how OE seawe which occurs in 
its normal form in the other mss. appears in ours as sme 1423. 



XXVI Introduction. 

§ 20. eo. 

OE. eo remains: deor 2ii, dreo 46. The analogical coni 
is preserved 25. 

Note. — The io shown by byon 621 also occurs in OE. 

II. The vowels in weakly accented and unaccented 
syllables. 

§21. 

Although the OE. weakly accented and unaccented 
vowels are in the majority of cases retained unaltered, in- 
stances of confusion are numerous. Thus we meet with: 

l*'. e for a\ land-jemare 4i3, penije 84, sceallen 
821 IO9 IO13, gomane lOu. 

2°. a for e: wajunga 87, acivellap 812, lungane 
lOe lOu 123 I817, sworetunga lOio, also hruca IO19, 
sJiuca (for suca) IGe. 

T. X for e: jestijllseff 147, habhx 2O24. 

4°. u for e: fulfune {for wylfune) 2O25. Of course 
this may be a pure scribal error. 

5*^. y for ea: eah-sylfe 83. 

6^ a for 0: heafad 617. 

7^ (e for 0: innepes I825). 

8^ a for «f: mxneja 25, horsa 43, hurh-stapela 
4i3, fingran 65, ivifam 127. 

9". e for m: Ixcecrxftef (for Jsececrxftes) 29, «f;or<?e 221, 
hermen IO17. 

lO*'. (0 for w: mjow 2O22), 

III. Consonants. 

§ 22. The semi-vowel w. 
OE. «(; remains unchanged, both initially and medially: 
wol-herende 2i7, wexe& I222, fleivsan 61, smeruive I622. 



Phonetics. XXVII 

Notes. — a) On the substitution of f for to cf. Spelling XVII. 

b) The omission of w in se^hylce Se, flesan 89 is an obvious mistake. 

Liquids. 

§ 23. l. 

1°. OE. l is preserved: hselo 24, Ixcecrseftef (for laece- 
crxftes) 29. 

2*'. We sometimes find II written for l : till 42 4, wulle 243. 

§ 24. r. 

OE. r remains unchanged: rammes I810, earane IO4. 
iVb^e, — On the substitution of ij for r cf. Spelling p. XVII. 

Nasals. 
§ 25. m. 

\^. OE, w generally remains unchanged: inan 2i7, 
fremed 421. 

2°. m and wi» are used indifferently in the same word: 
wommas 22i6, tvomas 22i8. 

Note. — Besides the cases in which m with inflexional value is 
represented by n {alcen, niwen etc, cf. Accidence), final n also occurs 
sometimes for m. cf. SpeUing p. XIX. 

§ 26. n. 

l^. OE. 71 remains unchanged: nehbe 149, netelan I62. 
It is dropped in the unaccented ending ing when imme- 
diately preceded by an n: penige 84. 

^^. n occurs for nn in pane 610, done 2O21, gewin 420. 
Inversely ww occurs for n in linnenon 2i3. 

3°. Inflexional w is sometimes dropped: gs. sunna 62, 

mona 62, ds. nawa 2i2 221. 

Notes.—a) On a case of /• for n cf. Spelling p. XVII. 
b) do (for donne) 818 is probably a scribal error. 



XXVin Introduction. 

Labials. 

§27. p. 

OE. p remains unchanged: penije 84, dropfajum 14i8, 
apuldure 20i, xppel 64, upp 67. 

§ 28. b. 
OE. 6 remains unchanged: bodede 24, comS 617, hahbe 
611, >*e&6e 149. The loss of b in cemcZe 617 is OE. 

§ 29. f and v («*). 

1°. OE. f remains unchanged: furpur I620, hafe 2i5, 
w«/ire 623, gif 48. 

2". It is once replaced by u medially before a vowel: 
leuiende 221. * 

Dentals. 

§ 30. t. 

1°. OE. t is generally preserved: tyd 4i, jebrited 14io, 
ftw^ere 24$. 

2*^. It is dropped in ongyft (for ongyst = ongytest) 222o. 

S'^. OE. ^^ appears as ^ in sworetunga lOio, w^xten 12i9, 
w^xtan 208. In ^esetted 124 the ^^ seems due to the con- 
tamination of jese^^ with jeseted, both of which are regular 
in OE. 

§ 31. d. 

P. OE, (? is preserved: wyldeora 29, ^?/^ 4i, jyrdels 2i9, 
nxdran 812; priddan 128. 

2*^. It is dropped in anwUtan 615 818 142o, unhahven- 
licre 4ii. 

3^*. In gesedet 16i4 we no doubt have the regular 
change of d into ^ in unaccented syllables. It might also, 
of course, be a pure scribal error for geseted. 



Phonetics. XXIX 

§ 32. p (d). 

V. p and d are used indifferently to denote the open 
dental, either voiced or unvoiced, initially, medially and 
finally : 

P: Pan Ss, pinum 4i3, fuper-fxte 44, tep 2ii; sippan 2i3. 

&: done 22o, rade 42, liafad 206; cydde 28, siddan 18n. 

2°. ^ (d) occasionally interchanges with d: cived 2i2, 
cwed 221 — also wrip 6i5, jewryd I622. Notice also the oc- 
currence of d for original ^: zrfodum 615, bruced 83. As 
will be seen under the Accidence, the latter substitution is 
frequent in the 3^ persons, both singular and plural, of 
the present indicative. 

3**. d occurs for cm in wurde 28. 

Notes.-r-a) On sw for / cf. Spelling p. XVII. 

b) odder 12i3 22i2 and 243 is no doubt miswritten for off&er. 

Sibilants. 

§ 33. s. 
1°. OE. s is preserved: sar 87, ^eclansod 623, ^yrdels 
2i9; pissun 220. 

2°. pis occurs for pissum 24. 
Note. — sh is obviously for s in s/jttca IGe. 

§ 34. ic. 
OE. a; remains unchanged: wexe^ I222, /ea; 619 etc, 
tux 2221. Notice axan Si etc, the metathetic form of «sca 
(also xsca IO7). 

Gnttnrals and palatals. 

§ 35. c. 
1". c occurs both before front and back vowels: cemhe 
617, ahrice 4i8; aweccennc 821 — casere 24, Zoca 612; wm^^c- 
ftwcca 149. Also finally: wyrc 624, and before consonants: 
jecniden 1223. 



XXX Introduction. 

There is no instance of Ti. 
2°. It appears once as cs'- drencge 12i2. 
3^. Palatal sc occurs in /Ixsc 423, scenc Se, xsca IO7, 
jesceawen (for jesceafen) ISas, scurfum I819. 
Note.—englis 2ii 242 seems to be a scribal error. 

§ 36. 3-g. 
Initially. 

l''. Before vowels OE. initial j is generally represented 

a) by j before originally palatal vowels: sefoh^ 2ii, 
^earra 22i3, sit 222o; 

P) by g before back vowels and the mutated vowels 
corresponding to them: godes 2i3, gangas 126 — gyldene 165. 
Exceptions are: geallan lOis etc. (We find g used five 
times in this word against j used six times); joman 14i5 
—^yrdels 2i9. The capital used is G: Gif 48 424 (615)^ I625 
2O2, Gate 186. 

2*^. Before consonants we find g in grutta I622. 

Note. — On a case of l for g cf. Spelling p. XVII. 

Medially. 

l*'. Between vowels. — g and j are used indifferently, 
but the latter symbol occurs in the majority of cases: 
egypHd 23, ivitigan 220, bur-gaiun 4i4, jelipegap I824, tvude- 
gete I427; hrxjele '2i4. — selmihtijon ^12 , hajol ^ie, eenijun 4!i, 
misad 2O12, eason 2O22 etc. Of the two classical words in 
the text, one has g, the other j: androjinem 1224, pollege 242. 

Note. — Notice the use of e in ea^ean 1% showingthe palatal pro- 
nunciation of j. 

2^. After l we fmd j: siveljan 166. 

3°. Palatal j is regularly dropped before d : s^rec? 813, 

onjestreded 147, jeZec? 166 I818, aled I811. 



^ not maintained in the text, the punctuation having been corrected 
here. 



Phonetics. XXXI 

4°. In the combination ng we find g: strang 2i6, hring- 
fingrum 65 etc, also cg: mencg lOis and gc: jemengc 14i4, 
mengc I617. 

5^. As in OE. the double sound is regularly repre- 
sented by cj in picje 426 815, dicsean 12i7. We find gg 
once before a guttural: migga I624. 

Finally. 

Only j occurs at the end of words: ares (for awes) 

4i6, (?rij 821, /^^«mj I824. It is dropped in twi 621, liuni 12i3. 

iVo^g. — fire-gate I65 (BT has firgen-g&t, firgin-gdt) seems to be 
a scribal error. Other scribal errors are a^e for awe$ lOio and sylefaest 
for sy^efsest 223. 

§ 37. /i. 

A. Initially. 

h occurs regularly, as in OE. : 

1° before vowels: Tiatan 23, hxlo 24, horn 87. aivyrfp 
812 and owaw I67 20i3 are not exceptions as both weorfan 
and hweorfan, oman and homan are recorded, but eafodece 
242 deserves notice. There are, on the other hand, cases 
n which h occurs without being justified: hifeles 424, hyr- 
nende 425, hermen IO17, hys 12i8. 

2*^. before consonants : hrxjele 2i4, /«Z^i^re lOs, hring I65. 
It is, however, dropped in rade 42 etc, nappunge 208. 

B. Medially and finally. 

1°. There is no special remark to be made here. 
Examples are: jefeohte 222, lichaman 69, eahhrxc 2O21 — 
je/b/i 2ii, ^wri^ 45. 

2°. h is lost in hur-gatun 4i4. 

A^o^e. — On ^ for h cf. Spelling p, XVII. 



XXXn Introduction. 

C. Accidence. 

I. Substantives. 

Observations. 

1". A well-known peculiarity of ME. is to be noticed 
here. The forms of the substantives and adjectives show 
some confusion when compared to the OE. declensions. 
By the side of the full inflexions, which are generally pre- 
served, we meet not infrequently with reduced ones and 
they are sometimes dropped altogether. The cases in which 
a full ending is used where no sucli ending occurs in OE. 
are rare. 

2*^. As in other e ME. mss. the distinction between the 
dative and the accusative singular is particularly difficult 
after the prepositions which govern both cases, as wid and 
mid. The one may be admitted as well as the other when 
there is no difference of form between the two, viz. in the 
a stems, in the i stems with an originally short root- 
syllable, or in the weak declensions. However as in the 
majority of cases where the distinction is possible the da- 
tive is certainly used, I admit it wherever a clear accusa- 
tive form does not occur. In one case, viz. Wid earena 
sar 7 siveje 1422 I am tempted to understand the unin- 
flected sar as a dative, for siveje cannot possibly be an 
accusative. Gf. the note. 

§ 38. stems. 

[Here and in the following §§ (38 — 44) it has been 
thought useless to separate, when necessary, the nouns 
with originally long from those with originally short root- 
syllable otherwise than by the sign ;]. 

l^ Masculine nouns. 

Singular. — N. hagol 2ic, gyrdels 2i9, wol 4ic, korn 8i. 



ACCIDENCE. XXXni 

G. godes 2i3, morbeames 621, sceos IO23, innopes I617. 

D. ifole 44 (which might also be considered as an a 
stem), 7mipe 45, hed-clade 143. hring-fingmm 65 is obviously 
a case of confusion Avith the plural. 

A. dxg Se, lust 823, 67fe/eZ 20u. 

Plural. — N. gangas 126. 

G. tvif-lusta 425 — penije 84, fZ«je 12io. 

D. hundun 4x8, seow 420 — fingran 65 — hermen IO7 — 
hurp-stapela 4i3 — w«?e 43 — liececrxftef (for Isece- 
crxftes) 29, clxnsiing-dxjes 422. 

A. ^«jes 426, tvearres I813. 

^*'. Neuter nouns. 

Singular. — N. «?/^ew 2io, tungol 2i6, frecne 4i7, 2^'?/?- 
c^eor 421. 

G. «//eZes 2is; c?eom 45, receles {for recelses) ISs. 

D. ?//e?e 45, jenipe 228; Jice 2i5, golde ^14., geivinne 4:19. 
Also with a: iville-tvxtera 426, hunia 22». 

A. ^wi 621, je««w 420. rece?5 I62, heafed I610, scinlac 222. 

Plural. — N. scinlac 20i9. 

G. ivyldeora 29; tfi/a S26—la7id-jemare 4i3, ?i^e 222. 

D. hur-gatun 4i4, xrfodum 615, «forc^Hm 24, »ieYe»«?im 
4i8 — ivifam 12? — horsa 43 — «rorfZe, 221. 

A. tforc? 611, earfedu 827, 5ar I823, seinlac 22i. 

§ 39. jio stems. 
Mascuhne nouns. 

Singular. — N. casere 420, C2(se I613 etc. 
D. casere 24. 
Neuter nouns. 

Singular. — D. gode-ivehbe 612, ?^e?;6e 149. 
I. ^eivx^e 84. 

Plural. — A. cyrnlu I625, curnlu IO12, fel-sacceo (? for 
fel-sticceo) 4i9. 

D e 1 c u r t , Medicina de Quadrupedibus. III 



XXXIV Intboduction. 

§ 40. wo stems. 
Neuter nouns. 

Singular. — D. treowe 63, siwe (for seawe) 1423, sme- 
rmve I628. 

A. smeru 827. 

Plural. — G. cneowa 222. 

§ 41. a stems. 

Singular. — N. lifer lOs, 60^ 817, sealf I82 — acZZe 42, 
lungane lOe, sealfe I221, ivamhe I619, 6o^e^ I614. On 
lungum 125 cf. Spelling p. XVII. 

G. wambe 86. 

D. c«/^^e 28, ac??e 4i, sea^/e lOi, clsensunge 1226 — 
wajunga 87. 

A. Z«/re 4i2; ivamhe 616, 5ea?/e IO5 — sworetunga lOio — 
wamha I220. 

Plural. — D. sceppum 125. 

§ 42. ^a stems. 

Singular. — N. heornysse (for heortnysse) 14i3. 

G. fulfune (for wylfune) 2O25. 

D. selynde 224, dimnesse 12i3, dimnysse 14i6, heorh- 
nesse (for heorlitnesse) 14i2, heardnysse I617 I618, deolfol- 
seocnesse (for deofol-seocnesse) 20i7, « flysennysse 226. 

A. selinde IO22 2O9. 

Plural. — A. earfodnyssa^ 826, sc?7?e 168, griitta I622. 

§ 43. w^a stems. 
Singular. — A. s^owe I811. 
Plural. — G. S2/w« I85. 



^ I hesitate to admit that these forms have anything to do -svith 
the Northumbrian confusions mentioned by Sievers § 252 anm. 5. 
"^ perhaps a dative with final a for um (?). 



ACCIDENCE. XXXV 

D. stowum 826. 

A. sifw, lOu, stowe lOi. 

§ 44. i stems. 
Masculine nouns. 

a) with originally short root-syllable. Singular. — N, 
onhrine 2i8. 

G. des 4?. 

D. ele 827, top-ece 1424, Uod-ryne 149 etc, stice I63, 
hrine 22io. 

A. Uod-rune 14ii, 2>?*Ze 2O20. 
Plural. — D. fot-swidan 125. 
A. swylas I83, swulas I810. 

b) with originally long root-syllable. Singular. — N. 
d«? 48, drenc 20-. 

G. her^-hulijes 1426. 

D. (/«Ze 67, drenc^e 12i2, s?i;eje I422. 

A. emhehwyrft 422, <?«Z 822, drmc 8g4, 5«d I62. 

Plural. — D. ymbhwyrftum 4i3. 

A. ivyrmas 810 wurmas 812, eaje-hrxwas I614. 

Neuter nouns. 

a) with originally short root-syllable— /aiZs. 

b) with originally long root-syllable. Singular.— A. 

flxSC 423. 

Femmine nouns. 

a) with originally short root-syllable — fails. 

b) with originally long root-syllable. Singular.— N. 
tyd 4i, hid 4i7. 

G. hyde 4i9. 

D. mihte 45, gesihpe 20i7. 

Plural. — D. hysnum 25. 



m* 



XXXVI Introduction. 

§ 45. u stems. 

Masculine nouns. 

xppel follows the declension of the o stems. Cf. Glossary. 

simor occurs in the dative singular: sumera 22i9. 

Feminine nouns. 

Singular. — D. lianda G4; nose I611. 

Plural. — D. handum I814. 

§ 46. n stems. 

Masculine nouns. 

Singular. — N. mona 61 — s^alle 14i2 etc. 

G. ivitigan 220, monan 62, lichaman 69, haran 12? — 
tvif-gemanon 822 — hara 122, tvudu-hucca 14i8 — dore IO20 — 
lichamas ^i^—lichames 224, Zeowes 22i (also leon 223). 

D. ^uman 65, anivlitan Sis — croccen 4? (which might 
also be considered as feminine)— 52«w?a 2i2, lichama 22i6— 
geaJle 142o. 

A. amvlitan 615, ivid-jemanan (for ivif-gemanan) 820' 
geallan lOis — geallen 1425, ivid-gemanen (for tt^i/"- 
jemawcw) 22u — migga I624. helima 222o is an obvious 
mistake for hivelpan. 

Plural. — G. gomena 14i4, fod-reomera (for tod-reomena) 
2223 — gomane IO14. 

A. joman IO15, tep-reaman (for top-reaman) 142, Ae?aw 143. 

Neuter nouns. 

Singular. — D. mjow 2O22. 

A. eare IO5, eaje 2O22. 

Pkiral. — N. mmw 2O2, eajene 12 14. 

G. eagena 123, earena I422 — eam lOis, earane IO4 — 
eagene 144. 

A. eamw 1424 — ea^en 145 — eajean 229 — eare 1022- 

Feminine nouns. 



ACCIDENCE. XXXVII 

Singiilar. — G. eorpan 422, nxrdran (for naedravi) 82, 
sunnan 820, netelan I62 — sunna Q2—aj)uldure 20i. 

D. tyrivan lOi (which might also be considered as 
masculine) — asca IO7 — 7»«^e I613, hutere '^^. Notice Pystru 
228, indeclinable in the singular. On pannum I220 cf. 
SpelUng p. XVII. 

A. Jieortan 4i4, dwyrcje-dtvosle M2, pollege 242. Jiaslo 24 
and unhxle 2O13 belong to the indeclinable series. 

Plural.— G. feld-beona 229. 

A. axan 84, iveartan IO9. 

§ 47. Other consonantal declensions. 
[The reader is referred to the Glossary for references.] 
(Isolated) masculine nouns. 
Singular. — G. manes. 
D. men. 
A. fot. 

Plural.— N. tep. 
G. fota, topa. 
D. fotun. 
A. fet, tep. 

(Isolated) feminine nouns. 
N. gat. 

G. (wudu-)gate^ meoluc—ivude-gete. 
A. meoluc. 
Plural. — D. nyhtum. 
A. niht. 
nd stems. 

Singular. — D. frunde. 
os, es stems. 
Singular. — D. hamede. 
. [The foregoing list omits, besides words with no special 
interest which are all recorded in the glossary, besmer IO17, 



XXXVni Iktroduction. 

an as. (of the o declension) given by Sweet as mn., wiirm 
(for wyrms) 203 (of the o deciension ?) whicli has the same 
two genders, and sceallan 12^6, sceallan 425, sceallen 821 
IO9 IO13, all of which are ap. belonging to the n stems, 
but the gender of which cannot be determined as they 
occur only in the plural.] 

II. Adjectives. 

The strong adjective. 

§ 48. stems. 
Singular. 

N. Masc. yfel 2i7, eal 4i6, hxl 20ii, oper 20u. Fem. 
god IO22, hlac I810, snml I817. Neuter cup 4i7, god 423, 
hal 22*. 

D. Masc. dropfajum 14i8 — scearpun I69 — alcen 44, 
ealden 827, swete 815, gode I220, foreivearde 22i9. Fem. 
ungewendedlicre (for tmjeivendendlicre) 4u, unhalwenlicre 
(for unhahvendlicre) 4ii. Neuter oJ5n(>« I814, scirum 129— 
cwicun 2u — ivearme 12i2. 

A. Masc. htvitne 66, /w?we 86, gyldene I65 — ivurde 2$. 
Fem. A??«^re IO5. Neuter ivxpned 122 2, (?ea<? 2O24. 

Plural. 

N. Masc. /^aZe 4i5, A«?e IO13. Fem. gode 12i9, /i«? I610. 
Neuter hxle 46 — Aa? I83 — sara 2O3. 

D. Fem. ■im<'"er(?Z?cwm 826 — maenega^b. Neuterea??«m4i8. 

A. Fem. lerena I622. Neuter sare IO12, ealle 142i I824. 

§ 49. jo stems. 
Singular. 

N. Masc. hryce 67, hehefe 63, wi«fe I613. Fem. hrice 4i8, 
c?awe 621. Neuter ivol-herende 2x7. 

G. Fem. swetre 20i. 

D. Masc. niwum 1423 — wizt-ew 47 (which may also be 
considered as feminine) — swetan lOu — sivete 815. 



. ACCIDENCE. XXXIX 

A, Fem. nife (for nitve) I825. Neuter niwe 168. 

Plural. 

A. Masc. (?) drise 22n. 

§ 50. wo stems. 
Singular. 

N. Neuter ealtewa (for ealteaiv) 12i8. 

A. Fem. nearwe lOio. 

Plural. 

A. Fem. lireaive 12i8. 

The weak adjectiye, 

§51. 

As the article is not of frequent occurrence before ad- 
jectives, the latter seldom occur with weak forms. Only 
the following are to be mentioned: 

Singular. 

N. Masc. unhala 2O20. Neuter ylca 14i4. 

G. Masc. xlmihtijon 2i2. 

D. Neuter fuper-fsete 44. 

A. Fem. ylcan IO3, sara 18n. 
Neuter ylce 823, y^^-lcan IO3. 

Degrees of comparison. 

§ 52. Gomparatives. 
Singular. 

N. Masc. jearra 22i8, ^''ledra 22i3. Neuter li^ere I821. 

D. Masc. mjperan 69. Fem. ivynstran 64. 

A. Masc. furpran 220, sivyr$anan (for swy&ran) 22o. 

Add to these the irregular adverb pi Ixs IG4. 

§ 53. Superlatives. 
Singular. 

N. Masc. halgusta 420 and the irregular ytemesta lOic. 



XL Introddction. 

Plural. 

A. Masc. mxste 2i2. 

III. Numerals. 

[Gf. the Glossary for references.] 

Cardinals. 

an. — N. Fem. ane. A. Masc. ane. 
iivejen. — D. Masc. ttvam. A. Masc. twegen. butu N. 
Neuter butu. 

prie. — D. Masc. and Fem.^r^/fi)»^. A. Masc.^n. Fem. ^reo. 

/?/, seofan, seofontyne, priti^. 

Ordinals. 

Singular. 

N. Masc. pryddan, prindan (for p-idda). 

A. Masc. priddan. 

Numeral adverbs. 

priwa. 

IV. Pronouns. 

[See the Glossary for references.] 

§ 54. 
Personal. 

1. Sing. — N. ic. 
Plur. — N. we. 

2. Sing.— N. pu. D. pe. A. pe. 

3. MascuUne. 

Sing. — N. he. G. lii(y)s. D. hi(y)m. A. hi(y)ne. 

Plur.— NA. hi(y). D. hi(y)m. 

Feminine. 

Sing. — N. heo. GD. hyre. 

Plur. — N. hy. G. hure. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — NA. hi(y)t. G. hi(y)s. D. hjm. 



ACCIDEKCE. XLI 

Plur. — N. lii(y). G. hyra. D. hym, 
Reflexive. 3. Masculine. 
Sing.— N. he sylf. 
Possessive. 

2. Masculine. 
Sing. — D. pine. 

Plur. — N. pine. D. dinum^ pine. A. pine. 

Feminine. 

Sing. — D. pinre. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — D. j^ine. 

Plur.— G. linra (for pinra). 

3. hi(y)s, hyra already mentioned with the personal 
pronouns. 

Demonstrative se, seo, pxt. 

Masculine. 

Sing. — N. se, pe. G. p(d)x(a)s. D. pam, p(d)an. A. 
/awe, p(d)one., pana. 

Feminine. 

Sing.— N. seo. Qi.hara {^ov para). D. pare. A.pa,pe,p. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — N. p(d)x(a)t, p. G. pas. D. pam, pan. A. pat, 
p, pa. I. pi. 

Plural— N. pa. D. i^am, pan. A. ^('i?^. 

^ls, ^eos, pis. 

Masculine. 

Sing. — N. pes. A. pisne. 

Neuter. 

Sing.— NA. pis. 

Plur.-— D. pissun, pis. A. pas. 

i(y)lca. 

Feminine. 



XLII Introduction. 

Sing. — A. ylcan. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — N. ylca. A. ylcan, yHcan, ylce. 

Relative se, seo, pset. 

Sing.— N. pat, p. 

The indeclinable j5e occurs as: 

Masculine. 

Sing. — N. D. A. In this case pa occurs for pe. 

Plural.— N. D. A. 

Feminine. 

Plural— N. D. 

Neuter. 

Sing.— N. 

Indefinite xlc. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — D. alcen. A. xlc. 

se(a)ni^. 

Feminine. 

Sing. — D. xni^e. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — G. anijes. D. xnigun. A. aenig. 

mviht. 

Sing. — N. atvyt. 

hiva, hiv^t. 

Masculine. 

Sing. — N. hiva. D. hivam. 

Neuter. 

Sing. — N. hivset. A. in siva hicset swa. 

hivylc-gehivylc-x^htvylc. 

MascuUne. 

Sing. — A. hivylce, seghylce (for xjhtvylce). 

Plur. — A. ^ehwilce. 



ACCIDENCB. XLUI 

Feminine. 

Sing. — D. hivylcere. 

Neuter. 

Sing.— D. jewylce. 

man. 

Sing. — N. man. 

V. Verbs. 
[As will be seen immediately OE. final p is frequently 
replaced by d in the 3*^ persons singular and plural of the 
present indicative. On li for p cf. Spelling p. XVII.] 

1". Strong yerbs. 

§ 55. — P* class (l — d, i — i). 
Inf. — gethrinan 2i5. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 3 ^ewytep 43 — todrifd ISi. Plur. 3 
arisap I85, migad 2O12. 

Opt. hrine 613, jegnide 20i4. 

Imp. Sing. aris 67, ivrip 615, ^ecnid IO9, hrin 14i5. 
Pp. Sing. N. masc. jegnidon 2222; — fem. jegniden 146. 
Plur. A. fem. tosUtena 18i3. 

§ 56. — 2*^ class Teo or u—ea, n — 0). 

Inf. hrucan 425. — Pr. p. Sing. N. neuter hreosende I64. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 3 bruced 83, hrucad 83. Plur. 3 /Zeo^ 8u. 

Opt. Sing. 3 seo^e425; hruca 166, s^Mca (for 5/<ca) 166. 

Imp. Sing. 2 seo^ 2O9; onlut 6s. 

Pp. Sing. N. fem. jesoden lOu 14i, tojene 16i9. D. 
fem. healfe-sodene (for healf-sodene) I816. A. neuter 
^esoden 423 — jesodan 14i. — Plur. N. fem. jesodene 12i9. 

§ 57. — 3*^ class Ce, ^— a, w — u, 0). 
Inf. siveljan 166. Ger. drincanne 145. Pr. p. Sing. 
D. neuter hyrnende 425. 



XLIV Introdxtction. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 3 sweJje& 12i8, awyrfp 812, drincecf 1224, 
awirph (for aimrpp) 122 — drinced 2O25. 

Opt. Sing. 3 jeswince 615, hyrne 168, ^inde I621, drince 
2O2 2O10 2O12. Plur. 3 drincen I223 — tvinnon ^n, sivincon 12ii. 

Imp. Sing. 2 &e(^e?/' 4i2, drinc 85 8n. On drince 86 cf. 
the note. 

Pp. Sing. N. masc. sedruncen I87; — fem. jestungen 14ii 
— tocorfan I818. 

§ 58. — 4^^ class (e, i — a, ee — 0). 

Ger. cumende 4i5, nimen 22i6. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 1 nime 610. 3 ofjenime^ 22i8, tobrycp 
lOio, c?/m^ IO22 — cymed 817. 
Opt. Sing. 2 »i2/**ie 610. 
Imp. Sing. 2 Se/* 143, nim 4i2, c?tme 63. 

§ 59. — 5*^ class (e, i — a, x — e). 

Inf. etan 20i8 {&icjean 12i7). Ger. etanne 20i3. Pr. p. 
Sing. N. masc. civepende 24. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 2 etest 423 [pigest 423). 

Opt. Sing. 3 (//cje 426)— e^a I617. Plur. ete 22i. 

Imp. Sing. 2 cj<;€(? 2i2 cwe<i 221, cned 82 (j^icje 815). 
Pp. gecweden 611. 

§ 60. — 6^^ class (a — 0, 6—a). 
Ger. jefarenne 35. Pr. p. Sing. A. neuter standende 621 . 
Pr. ind. 1 ofslean (for ofslea) 2i3. 2 /ars^ 422. 3 «(;i^- 
standep I612 — sce^Jbes 2i6 4i7. 
Imp. Sing. 2 a/ic/e 66. 
Pp. Sing. A. neuter gesceawen (for jesceafen) 122 3. 

§ 61. — 7^^ class. (Reduplicative verbs.) 
Pr. p. Sing. D. neuter feaUendum 12i9. 



ACCIDEKCE. XLV 

Pr. ind. Sing. 1 ahc^^te 2i3. 3 wexed I222, mifeahp I63 
(cf. p. JlX)—slseped 2O21. On hsetad Q>id. Spelling p. XVII. 
Plur. 3 wexap I420. 

Opt. Sing. 3 aho G20, gehealde 622. Plur. 3 wexan 14i 
— wexon 2221. 

Imp. Sing. 2 heald 48. 

Pp. Sing. N. masc. hatan 2.3, geheaten 89, ahangen IO17. 

2*. Weak yerbs. 

§ 62.— pt class. 

Pr. p. Sing. N. masc. faestende 42 6. Plur. D. neuter 
fastende 12i2. Ger. aiveccenne 821, hepienne 146, jefrem- 
menne 2O4, acivellanne 812 — acwellen 811. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 2 Zi/es^ IO17, jefelest 420. 3 freme^ 421; 
sestilled 14ii, secyrred I611 — gestyllx^ 147 — cm^ 1224 — 
nemned 2io; ahyldep 4i, /<«?«'(^ 4i2, ^ehselecf lOs, &e^e^ 123 — 
/i«Z^ IO21, jehselp 188 — adrijed 815, A«?ec^ 820, jehseled I84; 
acivellap 812. 

Plur. 3 ^eheorhtijed 12i4 — jeunstillap 20i9. 

Opt. Sing. 2 jeZi/e 421. 3 cemfte 617, cewne 2222, me^e 
I65, druppe I815. 

Imp. Sing. 2 &e^e?e 4i4; wewj 43, (?Wj 821, jeic;^^ lOu, 
&«m 22io, also s^re^ 813 — adrije 127, sm«/re 49, s«/Ze 12», 
wM^Ze 243 — hewyrc 2i5, ^«''«/rc 624, «(-'m? 20i — smyra 14i7 and 
smura I81. 

Pret. Sing. 3 cemde 617, cemhde 618. Plur. 1 ferdon2i. 
3 setiwdan 20i9. 

Pp. Sing. N. masc. gehseled 4io, jeheted 61, ^eharned 87, 
gemenged 12i4; jesmired 12i4, jeZec? I616;— fem. aZf/se^^ I619, 
jehrxded 2O12, also otijestreded 14^;— neuter jereced I812; 
gesmyred 2O23. A. masc. jehsernedne 8iB—jehernede 811 — 
sehierned 816; — fem. jemenged ^025;— neuier gedrijed 1223 ; 



XLVI Introduction. 

togeled 22i7. Plur. N. masc. alisede 4i5, ^ehselede ISe. A. 
iem. s^drigede 12i5 — jemenged ^Oi. 

§ 63.— 2*1 class. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 3 jelacna^ 14i9, aclmisa^ 142i, ^elipejap 
16t6, wundrap2,0ii — clxnsad I620, jeli^egad \^%A.—laecned 4i2. 
Plur. 3 prowiap 827 — drowiad 22i. 

Opt. Sing. 3 readige 66, gesomne 620, jepoli^e 620, Zosie 
127. Plur. cfrowion 22i, eardien 227. 

Imp. Sing. 2 fxtelsa 48, Zoca 612. 

Pret. Sing. 3 hodede 2*. 

Pp. Sing. N. masc. jecwMcac? 823; — fem. jecnucod IO7; 
— neuter ^eclansod 623, clansod 624, bedruwod 819. A. neuter 
getawod 20i8. 

§ 64.— 3«^ class. 

[In this and in the following §§ see the Glossary for 
references.] 

Pr. p. Sing. G. masc. leuiende. 

Pr. ind. Sing. 2 hafast. 3 7i«/*e^, hafa^. Plur. habhad. 

Opt. Sing. 2 hahhe. 3 hahhse and hahhan (both for 
^ a & & a). 

Imp. Sing. 2. /^a/a, Aa/e. 

3". Preterite-present Terbs. 

§65. 
P* class: wa^. — Ger. jewitene. 
5^^ class: W2«j. Pr. ind. Sing. 3 mxj. 
Opt. Sing. 3 wjaje. Pkir. 3 mx^en. 
Pret. Sing. 4 mihte. 



a) &eow. — Inf. %on. 



4". Verbs in w/. 

§66. 



Phonetics. XLVII 

Pr. ind. Sing. 1 eom. 2 hyst. 3 hijd—hyd, is, ys, hys 
(for ys). 

Plur. heo^ — slnde. 

Opt. Sing. 1 si, sy. Plur. 3 sin. 

b) willan. — Pr. ind. Sing. 1 ivylle. 
Opt. Sing. 2 ivylle. 

c) Cje, a) don. — Ger. done, dotme, do. 
Pr. ind. 3 de^. 

Imp. Sing. 2 do. 

Pp. Sing. N. neuter. jedon. 



We may summarize the ME. peculiarities which occur 
in our text in the following tables. (The references will 
be found under the paragraphs devoted to the various 
sounds and forms — f. i. for OE. x cf. § 3, for dative plural 
in -a of the mascuhne stems in o cf. § 38, etc.) 

Phonetics. 
I. The vowels in accented syllables. 

OE. x represented by a: pas, hade, hahhe, after, je- 

harned and geharnedne, hradlice, fastende, 

watere, hrajen. 
OE. «unfast» i repres. by ti: smure and smura, herp- 

hulijes, hure. Add fu^er-faete. 
OE. «fast» y repres. by u: drupe and jedrupe, druppe, 

curnlu, fot-sw'ulan, swulas, grutta, pule, ful- 

fune. 
OE. X repres. by by-form in d: alcen. 
OE. «unfast» % repres. by u: frunde, hure, cuse. 
OE. «fast» y repres. by u: nos^urlo, nos^rul. 
OE. ea repres. by e: hermen, ferres. 
OE. eo repres. by e: leuiende. 



XLVni Introduction. 

II. The vowels in weakly accented and imaccented 
syllables. 

OE. a repres. by e: land-^emare, penije, sceallen, 

gomane. 
OE. e repres. by a: ivajunga, acioellap, lungane, 

sivoretunga. 
OE. e repres. by x: ^estyllsed, hahhse. 
OE. e repres. by u: fulfune (for wylfune). 
OE. ea repres. by y: eah-sylfe. 
OE. repres. by a : heafad. 

OE. u repres. by a: mxneja, horsa, hurhstapela. 
OE. u repres. by e: Ixcecr xftef [ior Isececrxftes), worde, 

hermen. 

III. Consonants. 

OE. l repres. by II: till. 

OE. f, V repres. by u: leuiende. 

OE. j repres. by je in eajean. 



For Accidence cf. next page. 



ACCIDENCE. 



XLIX 







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1 






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c 


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O 



m 

O 



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OJ 



C 

■^ 2; 





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cc 


s 



g 


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^ 


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co 


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f 


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Delcourt, Medicina de Quadrupedibus. 



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Delcourt, Medicina de Quadrupedibus. 



Incipit de singlis feris medicamcntum 
. . . singlis medicamentum. 

oc *y"«^P .g..^^ |jg egypta [cyning] J)e Idpartus wses hatan Octauiano |)an 
casere hys frunde hselo bodede J)is wordum |)us cwej)ende: 
5 Meene^a bysnum ic eom [^ewis {)inra mse^ena 7 snytro, 7 
liW8eJ)ere ic wene |) J)u naefre to dus mycles mae^nes laecedomum 
become swylcww swa ic ^efre^n da] we fram *^scolapio 
ferdon. Ic |) |)a for |)inre cy9de 7 |)e wurde wyste l)is to ^e- 
witenne, t> is be wyldeora Isececrseftes. 
10 Sum nyten ys |) man nemned taxonem, |) 5's *broc on 
englis. Gefoh pat deor 7 him of cwicun {)a te|) ado fa I)e 
he maeste *hcebbe, 7 pus cwe9 : On nama J^aes selmihti^on 

a 

godes ic |»e *ofslea 7 {)e I)ine te{) of abete, 7 {)anne hy si|)- 

in lineo panno 

|)an on linnenon hree^ele biwind 7 on golde o|)|) on seolfre 
o(?) maiMs homo bewjTC, |) h}^ ue uiae^en {)ine lice aethrinan. Hafe h}' mid 

tonitruMTO 

16 \)e, I)awne ne sce{)I)es {)e ne tungol, ne ha^ol, ne strang 

storm, ne yfel man, ne wol-berende *awiht, ne {)e ani^es 

[Cock. p. 328] yfeles onhrine dered, o{){)er ^if [{)e] hwoet yfeles byd 

[hra{)e hyt b}'d] tosliten, swa wges *Abdias gvrdels |ȣes 

20 witigan. Nim {^awne {)ane *swy|)ran fot done fur{)ran pissun 
worde 7 {)us cwed: On nama {)as leuiende godes ic pe 

to 

nime lacedome. Pmne on [swa] ^ehwjlce ^eflite o|)|) ^efeohte 
swa {)u byst ^si^effest, 7 {)u |) ^edi^est ^if fu {)ane fot mid 
pe hafast. Mid his ^elynde smure da hors {)e sinde on 

5 bysnu»;] ms. hysnum hysnum (sic) || [^ewis {)inra .... — da] 
ms, je wysgra 7 Iwcedomes 7 hecotne on pusse. — 7 *^scolaplo (the 
capital not in V)] ms. eescolupio. — 8 The sentence is incomplete as in 
the othcr mss. |I laececrffiftes] ms. lieceawftef. Sum fuper fete, the last 
three words struck off. — 10 ms. some illegible words in red in the 



Translation. 

The king of the Egyptians who was called Idpartus 
sent [a message of] health to the Caesar Octavianus his 
friend, thus saymg: «I am [aware] by many examples [of 
thy virtues and prudence, and yet I think that thou never 5 
camest to know leechdoms of thus great power or such as I 
learn are those] which we obtained from ^Esculapius. 
I then [make] them [known] for thine instruction and [for 
that] I knew thee worthy to know this, that is of leech- 
crafts of wild beasts.» 10 

There is an animal which is named taxo, that is badger 
in English. Take that beast and do off the teeth from it 
[while yet] aUve, those which it has biggest, and thus say : 
«In the name of the almighty God I kill thee and beat 
thy teeth off thee», and then subsequently wind them up i6 
in a Imen garment, and work them in gold or in silver, 
that they may not touch thy body. Have them with thee, 
then thou shalt suffer damage neither from heavenly body, 
nor from hail, nor from strong storm, nor from an evil man, 
nor from aught [of] pestilential, nor shall the touch of 20 
any evil hurt thee, or if somewhat of evil be [to thee, it 
shall soon be] torn asunder, as was the girdle of Abdias the 
prophet. Then take the right fore foot with these words, 
and thus say: «In the name of the living God I take the 
as a leechdom»; then in whatever conflict or fight thou 25 

margin. — 10 *broc] ms. broce. — 12 *haebbe] ms. habban. — 13 *of- 

tonitruum tonitruuwi 

slea] ms. of slean. — 16 tungol] ms. tungo tungol. — 17 awiht] ms. 
awyt. — 19 *Abdias (the capital not in V)] ms. abUas. — 20 *swyl)ran] 
m?. swyrdanan. || fur|)ran] ms. for fw-pran. — 23 ^si^efaest] ms. 
sylefasst. 



4 OF THE BADGER, THE BENEFITS OF ITS TEETH, FOOT, FAT, BLOOD, ETC. 

fefore o|)l) on aenige adle ; heo [him] fram ahyldef) 7 life^ tyd 
hym ofer byd, 7 Jteah hit micel adle sy, ra9e heo awe^ 
^ewytej). Meng his blod wi9 Htel sealte horsa 7 mule 7 
alcen fulDer-fgete neate {)e on wole winnon o|)|) on seni^un 

5 yfele, do 9urh horn on mupe sefter {)as deores mihte 7 
efne embe 9reo niht; hy beod haele. His bra^en ^eseod 
on |)rym sestrum eles on niwen croccen *od dat *f)rydda 
dsel si bewealled ; fastelsa, 7 heald hyt. Gif hwa si on 
heafod-wrsece *after ba9e smyre mid {)am on {)rym nyhtuw^, 

10 he byd ^ehasled, eac {)a fet, 7 |)eah man sy on hwylcere 
^un^ewendendlicre adle 7 *unhalwendlicre, seo *wise hyne 
haeled 7 Isecned. Nim hys lifre 7 todsel 7 bedelf set |)an 
ymbhwyrftum *|)inra land-^emare set dinum burh-staj)ela, 
7 J)e heortan set 9inum bur-gatun behele: {)awne |>u 7 

15 J)ine beo9 alisede hale to ^efarenne 7 *ham to cumende ; 

[cock. p. 330] eal wol byd *awe5 7 astyred, 7 |) ser ^edon wses naht ne 

scel){)es, 7 byd litel frecne fram fyre. Gu{) [ys] eac |) his hid ys 

^" '^^''dnr'^" t>nce hundun 7 eallum fuj^er-faete nitennum wid woles 

jewinne on to donne. Hafa *{)8ere hyde *fellsticceo an pinum 

20 *sceon, ne ^efelest {)U ^ewin {)ine fotun. ©u halgusta casere 
ic wylle |) {)U ^elife t> {)is wyldeor wel freme9 ^if [{)u] {)ine 
claensung-dse^es |)ar {)U farst ^eond eor{)an embehwyrft his 
flaesc ^esoden etest 7 {^i^est : hyt byd god {)e 7 {)ine wepe- 
dun till. Gif hwam hwset hifeles ^edon byd f) he ne ma^e 

25 his wif-lusta brucan seode {)amie his sceallaw on hyrnende 
wille-wsetera 7 on huni^e 7 {^ic^e ^anne fsestende {)ri dse^es; 



5- sefter] ms. ^f lefter — 6 embej ms. a embe. — 7 *od] ms. to || 
*{)i7dda] ms. pryddan. — 9 *after] ms. agft\ — 11 ungewendendlicrej 
ms. un^ewendedlicre \\ *unhalwendlicre] ms. unhalwenlicre || *wise] ms. 
wysa. — 13 *{)inra] ms. Hnra. — 15 *ham] ms. hale. — 16 ^awe^] 
ms. arej. — 18 brice] ms. hyr hrice, hyr struck off. — 19 *{)sere] ms. 
hara \\ *fellsticceo] ms. felsacceo7 — 20 *sceon] ms. seon. 



OF THE BADGER, THE BENEFITS OF ITS TEETH, FOOT, FAT, BLOOD, ETC. O 

shalt be [thou shalt be] victorious, and thou shalt do 
well in it if thou hast the foot with thee. With 
its suet smear the horses which are in a fever or in any 
ailment; it shall retire from [them] and the hour of Ufe 
shall be prolonged to them, and though it be a great ail- 5 
ment, it shall quickly depart away. Mmgle its blood with 
a httle salt for horses and mules and any foor-footed beast 
which are strugghng with pestilence, or \^dth any e\1l; put 
[it] by means of a horn on the beasfs mouth after its 
strength, and so for about three nights ; they will be whole. 10 
Boil its brain in three sextaru of oO in a new pot, till 
the third part be boiled away ; bottle off, and preserve it. 
If any one be [troubled] with head-racking pain after the 
bath, smear [him] therewith for three nights, he will be 
healed, — and also the feet, and though a man be in 15 
any chronic and incurable disease, this manner will heal 
and cure him. Take its Hver, divide it, and bury it at 
the turnings round of thy land boundaries, at thy borough 
wall-foundations, and hide the heart at thy borough gates : 
then thou and thine shall be released [so as] to go about 20 
in health and return home ; all pestilence shall be driven 
away, and what was done before shali cause no injury, 
and there shall be httle danger from fire. [It is] also 
kown that its hide is useful to hounds, and to aU four- 
footed beasts, to put upon [them as a preservative] against 25 
the peril of pestilence. Have fell pieces of the hide on 
thy shoes ; thou shalt never feel distress in thy feet. Thou 
hohest Gaesar, I wih have thee beheve that this wild beast 
benefits weh if [thou] on thy cleansing days, when thou 
travellest through earth's circumference, eatest and takest 30 
its flesh boiled: it shah be good to thee and wholesome 
to thy hosts. If anything of evil has been done to any one 



b OF THE MULBERRY-TREE. 

sona he b}^d ^ebeted. Wid blodes flewsan Ijawne mona 

sy seofontyne nyhta eald, sfter sunna setl-gange, ser mona 

upryne, cume l)anne to J)an treowe *{)e man h8Bta6 

morbeam 7 of {)an nim aeppel mid {)inre wynstran handa 

5 mid twam fingran, f) ys mid {)uman 7 mid hring-flngrum, 

hwitne seppel |)e panne ^yt ne readi^e. Ahefe hyne {)awne 

upp 7 up aris: he by|) bryce to I)an uferan dsele J)3bs 

lichamaw. Eft do hine *adune 7 onlut: he byd behefe to 

[Cock. p. 332] dan ny{)eran daele I)as lichaman. ^r |»an {)U {)isne seppel 

10 nyme cwe{) {)ane *{)as word : Ic nime {)e 7 ceiera. 

plura nerba 

©ane {)u {)as word ^ecweden habbe ^enim fane seppel 
7 hyne ^ewind on weolc readum gode-webbe 7 loca |) pes 
*laecedom ne hrine waeteres ne eor|)an. fawne nead-{)earf 
sy 7 se ufera dsel {)ses lichamas on seni^un sare o{){>e on 
on 15 serfodum ^eswince wri{) on {)ane anwlitan ; gif hyt si on 
"^muiiMiT P^^ nyperan daele wri{) on {)a wambe. Wid wifes flewsan 
nime {)ane comb *{)e heo ane hyre heafad mid cembe 7 
*n8eni5 *man ser mid cemde ne after mid ne *cembe. *Mc 
under {)an treowe morbeame cembe {>aer hyre fex, {)at par 

20 on {)an combe ^efoli^e ^esomne, 7 aho on up standende 
twi {)8es morbeames 7 eft embe hwile clane *hit to^esomne 
7 ^ehealde : |) hyre b}'{) laecedom {)are {)e hyre heafod {)are 
cembe9. Gif I)u wylle {) wif ^eclansod sy fe naefre ne 
mihte clansod byon, wyrc hyre sealfe of {)an fexe 7 

25 hyt aethwe^a adri^ 7 do on hyre lic ; {)awne hjd heo 

jeclaensod. 

2 ms. here some illegible words in red in the margin. — 3 {)anne] 
ms. panne anne \\ *{)e] ms. /«. — 7 bryce] ms. by hryce. — 8 *adune] 
ms. xtdun. — 10 *{)as] ms. {)us || Ic nime {)e 7 ceiera] refers to the 
Greek words found in V. — 12 weolc] ms. seolc, in the margin. — 
13 *l£ecedom] ms. laecedon. — 16 ms. A sort of Q before: Ad flaxnm 
in the margin, probably for W. — 17 *{)e] ms. pa. — 18 ^nseni^ *man] 
ms. na mare. \\ *cembe] ms. cembde \\ *Mc (not in V)] ms. ^t. — 
20 aho] ms. aho in. — 21 *hit (not form V)] nis. him. 



OF THE MULBERRY-TREE. 



so that he may not enjoy his sexual lusts, let him boil a 
badger's testicles in running spring-water and in honey 
and let him take it then fasting for three days; he ^vill 
soon be better. Against flux of blood, when to all men 
the moon is seventeen nights old, after the setting of 5 
the sun, come then to the tree which is called mulberry- 
tree and take from it an apple (a berry) vdih thy left hand 
with two fingers, that is with the thumb and the ring- 
finger, a white apple, which as yet is not ruddy; then 
lift it up and up arise : this is useful for the upper part 10 
of the body. Again put it down and lout down over it: 
it is profitable for the lower part of the body. Before 
then thou take this apple, say then these words: «I take 
thee» etc. 

When thou hast said these words, take the apple and 15 
wind it up in a fine piu-ple cloth, and see that this leech- 
dom touch neither water nor earth. When there is need, 
and the upper part of the body labours in any sore, or 
any difficulties, bind [it] upon the forehead; if it is on 
the lower part, bind [it] on the womb. Ad mulieris fluxum 20 
let her take the comb with which she alone combs her 
head (hair), with which no other person combed it 
before nor ever shall comb it after. But under the mul- 
berry-tree there let her comb her hair, let her gather 
what is lost in the comb and hang it on an upstanding 25 
t-^ig of the mulberry-tree, and again after a Avhile. when 
clean, let her gather it [from the t^vig] and preserve it: 
that shall be a leechdom for her, for the one who there 
combs her head. If thou wish a woman to be cleansed 
who never might be cleansed, work her a salve from the 30 
hair and dry it somewhat and put it on her body; then 
shall she be cleansed. 



O OF THE BENEFITS OF A HART S TESTICLES; OF A FOX S LIMBS. 

Medicina de cervo. 

e 

[Cock. p. 334] Wy|) *n?edraii slite hortes horn haefe9 mae^en eac selcne 
waetan to adri^enne: for ^an man hys bruced on eah-sylfe. 
Wid heafod-sare heortes hornes axan fif peni^e jewae^e 
5 drinc mid ane sester wines 7 twe^en waeteres; nuii daes 
*«5hwylce d^e^ scenc fulne 7 drince. f*es drenc eac wambe 
sar 3eha{)eraJ). Wid to{)a wa^uwga hortes horn ^ebarned 
7 ^ecnucad |)a tep ^etrymed ^if his man wislice brucad. 
Wid wifes *flewsan heortes horn to duste ^ebeaten 7 ^e- 

10 drucan on wine: sona h}Tn b}'d sel. Wid w\Tmas to 
acwellen hortes horn ^ebernede drinc on haten watere: 
i)a wurmas he acwellaj) 7 ut awyrfj). Nadran eac to a- 
cwellanne nim J)as hornes axan 7 stred |)ar hi sinde: 
hy fleo|) sona aweg. Wid miltan sare hortes horn ^ebaernede 

15 l)ic5e on swete drence : he J)a miltan adri^ed 7 {)at sar 

[Cock. p. 336] onwe^ afyrred. Wid teter hortes liorn ^ebaerned meng 

wid ecede, smiire mid J)an; hraedlice h5'm c^^med bot. Eft 

wid teter of anwlitan to do, heortes horn ^ebaernedne meng 

wid ele 7 smire ; pawne |) bedruwod si, eft |)u hyt ^enywa. 

Ad libidinem ex- —^ . i tt i i i i i ■i.-xtT-p 

citan dam Do {)is ar sunnau upgange: hradhce nji haeied. *Wii- 

item ad jdem 

21 ^emanan to aweccenne nim heortes sceallen, dri^, wyrc 
to duste, do his dael on wines drinc: |) awecced wif-^emanon 
lust. Wid {) }'Ice nim heortes scN^tel 7 cnuca to duste, do 
on wines drinc: hit hssled |)at ylce. 

25 Medicina de vulpe. 

fcock^p.^338] Wi9 wifa earfodnyssa {le on Iiure inwerdlicum stowum 
earfedu {)rowia{), foxes lipu 7 his smeru mid ealden ele 7 

2 nsedran] ms. tnerdran || eac] ms. 7 eac. — 4 A lai"ge portion ot 
the ms. here torn oflf. The ruhng of this page stops a little higher 
than that of the others. The foUowing words, only partly in- 
telligible, are here written by the scribe in the lower margin : 



OF THE BENEFITS OF A HART's TESTICLES; OF A FOX's LIMBS. 9 

Against a snake's bite hartshorn has also power to 
dry up every wet; hence it is used asan eye-salve. Against 
headache, drink the weight of five pennies of ashes of 
hartshorn with one sextarius of wine aiid two of water; 
take a cup full of this every day and drink. This drink 5 
also restrains sore of womb. Against wagging of teeth, 
hartshorn burnt and pounded steadies the teeth, if one 
wisely uses it. Ad mulieris fiuxum hartshorn beaten to 
dust and drunk in wine: she shall soon be well. Against 
worms, to kill [them], drink burnt hartshorn in hot water : lo 
it kills and casts out the worms. Also to kill snakes take 
ashes of the horn and spread them where they (the snakes) 
are : they shall soon flee away. Against sore of milt take 
burnt hartshorn in a sweet drink : it shall dry up the milt 
and remove away the sore. Against tetter, mingle burnt 15 
hartshorn with vinegar, smear with that; amendment soon 
comes to it. Again, to get a tetter off the face, mingle 
with oil bumt hartshorn and smear; when that is dried, 
renew it again. Do this before the rising of the sun: 
quickly it cures. Ut coitus appetitus excitetur, sume cervi 20 
testiculos et siccatos in pulverem redige, partemque in vini 
poculum indito: ita coitus appetitus excitatur. For the 
sarae take a harfs dung and pound it to dust, put [the 
dust] into a drink of wine: it will cure the same. 

For troubles of women, who suffer troubles in their 25 
inward places, work for them into a salve a fox's limbs 

contra omnQm j ^pentes 7 hu 
niorem aqtitum. Valet. 
6 ^ae^hwylce dae^] ms. xghylce dse^. || drince] Thus also in V; pi-o- 
bably an error for drinc in both cases. — 9 *flewsan] ms. flesan. — 
14 ^ebasrnede] ms. je hrancl br. hxrnecle. — 19 bedruwod]. ms. he 
drupod druwod. \\ eft] ms. esl eft. — 20 * Wif] ms. Wiff. — 22 on] 
ms. on on. \\ awecced] ms. a wecceif s. \\ ^emanon] ms. ^emanent — 
27 earfe6u] ms. earfoffu? 



10 OF THE USE OF ITS SINEWS AGATNST SORE OF THE JAWS. 

mid tyrwan wyrc him to sealfe; do an wifa stowe: ra9e 
hjt pa earfej)u ^ehseled. Wid heafod-ece, |)an ^eUce ^e 
hit her-before ^ecweden is, nim |)at ylcan 7 smure J)at 

[Cock. p. 340] heafod : hyt hseled wunderhce. Wid earane sare eft 

5 nim {)a ylcan sealfe hlutre, drupe on |)at eare: wunder- 

hce hyt hseled. Wid miltan sare foxes lungane on haete 

3Bsca *3esoden 7 ^ecnucod 7 to drence ^edon : J»a miltan hit 

wuwderhce ^ehseled ; swa de|» his hfer |) ylcan. Wid *weartan 

nim foxes sceallen, ^ecnid swi|)e oft |)ar-mid J)a weartan: 

10 hra{)e hyt hi tobrycj) 7 *on *we3 del). Wi9 nearwe swore- 

tunga foxes lungane ^esoden 7 on swetan wine ^edon 7 

^eseald: *wunderhce hit haled. Wid sare curnlu foxes 

sceallen ^enim 7 ^egnid mid ^elome: hrade hy byd haele. 

Wid gomane sara foxes sina ^enim 7 on huni^e ^ewget 7 

15 gnid mid *{)a goman swi{)e oft : sona hym byd sel J)as 

broces. To wif-|)ingun foxes tse^eles se ytemesta dsel on 

hermen ahangen : {)u hfest |) {)is sy to wif-{)ingun on besmer 

[Cock. p. 342] ^edon. Wi9 eara sare nim foxes geahan, mencg [wid ele, 

drype on {)a earan: hyt wel ^ehselef). Wid ea^ena dym- 

20 n}^sse ^enim foxes ^ealian ^emenc^ed] mid dore huni^e 7 

on ea^en ^edon, hit hselj). Wid earane sara nim foxes 

^elinde 7 ^edrupe ^emylted on *{)a eare: him cymd god 

r 

hsele. Wi9 fota wsece ^if se inra dael {^aes sceos by9 
fixen-hyd 7 ^if hit [sy] fot-adl smire mid ele 1>r fet: hy 
25 habbad {)aes {)e leohtran gang. 



7 *3esoden] ms. gebriede. — 8 *weartan] ms. tvirtan. — 10 tobrycf)] 
ms. to hy hrycp \\ *on ^we^] ms. a^'e \\ The words ivi& nearwe swore- 
tunge written again partly in the margin and partly (on top of a page) 
above the words wine ^edon. — 12 *wunderlice] ms. wundelice. — 
15 *|)a] ms. pam. — 17 to vvif-|)ingun] ms. to ti wif pingun. — 
22 7 ^edrupe ^emylted] ms. ^edrupe 7 gemylted \\ *{)a] ms. pan. — 
24 smire] ms. smu smlre. 



OF THE USE OF ITS SINEWS AGAINST SORE OF THE JAWS. 1 1 

and its grease with old oil and with tar; apply [thatsalve] 
to the women's places : it quickly cures the troubles. Against 
headache, take that and smear the head with the like to 
what is said here above : it cures wonderfuUy. Against 
sore of ears, again, take the same salve [when] clear, drip 5 
[it] into the ear: it cures wonderfully. 

Against sore of milt, a foxes lung roasted in hot ash 
and pounded, and reduced to a drink; it cures the milt 
wonderfully ; so does its Uver the same. Against warts, take 
a fox's testicles, rub the warts very often therewith : it quickly lo 
breaks them up and removes them away. Against oppres- 
sive harg-drawn breathing, a fox's lung boiled and put 
into sweet wine and administered : it cures wonderfully. 
Against sore kernels, take a fox's testicles and rub often 
therewith ; they will soon be whole. Against sore of the 15 
jaws, take a fox's sinews and wet them in honey and rub 
the jaws with them very often: he (the sufferer) will soon 
be well of that disease. Ad congressus cum muUere, the 
extremest end of a foxs tail hung upon the arms: thou 
beUevest that it is done as a mockery upon the sexual 20 
business. Against sore of ears, take a fox's gall, mingle 
[it] with [oil; drip into the ears; it cures weU. Against 
dimness of eyes, take a fox's gaU mingled with] honey of 
dumble dore, and appUed to the eyes: it cures. Against 
sore of ears, take a fox's fat and drop it into the ears 25 
when once meUed : good health will come to them. Against 
pain of feet, if the inner part of the shoe be vixen-hide 
and if it [be] gout, smear the feet with oil : they will have 
so much the Ughter walk. 

Against oversleeping, a hare's brain [in wine] given as 30 
a drink: wonderfuUy it amends. Against sore of eyes a 
hare's lung set on and bound thereto : the sore wiU be healed 



12 A HARE's BRAIN TO BE USED AGAINST OVERSLEEPING, 

Medicina de lepore. 

Wid oferslaepe hara bra^en [on wine] ^eseald to drince 

wunderlice hyt bete9. Wid ea^ena sare hara lungane on 

^esetted 7 I)jer-to ^ewryl^an: wunderlice {)at sar b\'9 ^e- 

5 haeled. Wid fot-swulan 7 sce{)J)um hara *lungm ufan 7 

neo{)an to^ewril^en: wunderlice J)a gangas beo6 ^ehaelede. 

f*an wyfam {)e h}'m hyra beordor losie haran heortan adri^e 

7 w}TC to duste 7 |)riddan dael receles dustes, syle drincan 

seofan dae^es on scirum wine. Pam {)onne *{)e hit oft 

[Cock. p. 344] o|)fealled l>nii^ dse^e ^e on wine 50 on wyrtunge. ©on 

11 J)am wifum {)e after beordre on sumuw stowuw^ swincon 

e 

p 5'lce do to drencje fastende on warme wsetere : sona hit 

by9 ^ehseled. Wid ea^ena dimnesse hara ^eallen wid huni 

^emenged 7 mid ^esmired: {)a ea^ene ^ebeorhti^ed. Wi9 

15 blaedran sara hara syna ^edri^ede [7 mid sealte ^ebraedde 

7 3eh}Tste sceaf on his drinc: wundorlice hyt haelej). Wi6 

attorcoppan bite haran sina 5^5}^^] 7 him sile dic^ean; 

eac hit *is *£eltaewe ^if hi man hreawe swel^e^. Eac wid 

1 
waeten hi beod gode ^esodene. Wid feallendum fexe hara 

y 
20 wamba seod o{)l)e braed on *pannan on gode ele, smere |) 

fex 7 1) heafod : panne nimed t> fex to 7 seo sealfe ^en^^ded 

|) hit wexed. To {)an |) w}'f cenne waepned c}ld hara 

hrif ^edri^ed 7 *5esceafen o9der ^ecniden on drinc drincen 

butu; 5yf |) wif ane hit drinced, l>a.nne cen|) heo andro^inew: 

[Cock. p. 346] ne byd |) to nahte, na|)er ne wer ne wif. Eft to |)an 

26 ylcan hara sceallan wife *8efter h} re clsensunge sile on Avine 

drincan : {)an cen{) heo waepned cyld. Wid |) cylduw butan 

r 
4 5ewry|)an] ms. gewy \ ivri/pan, the second part of the first word 

underlined. — 5 *lungen] ms. luiigum. — 9 *|)e] ms. he. — 10 ©on] 

ms. Da Don. with hars across the second part of the D in both 

cases. — 1.3 ^eallen (V has ;^eallan)] an error for ^ealla. — 18 *is 



ITS LUNG AGAINST SORE OF EYES, ETC. 13 

wonderfully. Against foot-swellings and scathes, a hare's 
lung bound on above and beneath: the steps are healed 
wonderfuUy. For the women whose foetus perishes, dry 
a hare's heart and work [it] to dust with a third part of 
frankincense dust; administer it to be drunk for seven 5 
days in clear wine. Next, to those from whom it often 
gets loose [administer it] for thirty days, either in wine 
or in a preparation of worts. Next, for the women who 
after childbirth are ill-at-ease in some places, reduce the 
same to a drink, for them fasting, in warm water : [the 10 
case] will soon be healed. Against dimness of eyes, a 
hare's gall mingled with honey and smeared with: the 
eyes become bright. Against sore of bladder [shred into 
the man's drink] a hare's sinews dried, [and roasted with 
salt, and fried; it cures wonderfully. Against bite of spider, u 
prepare a hare's sinews] and give them [the man] to take; 
it is also good if one swallows them raw. They are also 
good against nausea, if boiled. Against falling hair boil 
or roast on a pan in good oil a hare's womb: smear the 
hair and the head : then the hair holds on and the salve 20 
compels that it shall grow. In order that a woman 
may give birth to a male child, a hare's belly dried and 
cut into slices or rubbed into a drink: let them both (man 
and wife) drink [it]; if the wife alone drinks it, then she 
will give birth to an hermaphrodite, that is as naught, 25 
neither man nor woman. Again for the same, after her 
cleansing, give the woman a hare's testicles to drink in 
wine: then will she conceive a male child. In order that 

*aeltaewe] ms. his ealtewa. — 19 ms. fexe feallendum , fexe between 
two [] signs, obviously meant to mark that it is to be placedatter /'eaZ^fMc^Mw. 
— 20 onj ms. an^i \\ *pannan] ms. pannum. — 23 hrif] ms. ri hrif. \ 
*5esceaf'en] ms. ^esceawen \\ o9der] ms. od&er. — 24 hit] ms. hit hyt. — 
25 na{)er ne] ms. naper to ne. — 26 *aefter] ms, afte. 



14 OF THE USE OF A HARe's BBAIN FOR CHILDREN's TEETH. 

sare tef» wexan hara brae^en ^esodan jegnid *3elome mid 
{)a *tod *reoman: hi by9 clane 7 unsare. Wi9 wambe- 
wraece *nim haran helan, ber on {)ine hed-cla9e: wunder- 
lice hit hjeled. Wid ea^ene sare haran lifer ^esoden ys 
5 god on wine to drincanne 7 mid {)an bro9e {)a ea^en to 
bepienne. Wid blod-rune ^ebaerned haran lifer 7 ^egniden 
7 on^estreded: rade hit ^estyllsBd. 

[cock. p. 348] Medicina de hirco 7 cap. Ad sanguinem de naribw.^. 

Wid blod-ryne of nebbe fir^in-buccan |) js wudebucca 

10 o99er gat, {)aBs lifer ^ebrited wi9 ecede 7 on nos{)urlo 

ad ocriios ^estungen : wunderlice racie hyt |)at blod-rune ^estilled. To 

ea^ena ^beorhtn^^sse wude-buccan ^ealle ^emenged wi{) 

feald-beona huni^e 7 on ^esmered: seo *beorhtnys hym to- 

cumed. |) ylca mse^ wi{) gomena sare: ^emengc J)ane 

15 ^ealle 7 huni^ tosomne, hrin l)a ^oman mid, hit haeiled. Wi9 

ad ocMios ea^ena dimnysse wudu-gate ^eallan 7 litel wines meng to- 

wip dropfasum somne, smyra mid l^riwa: ])B.nne beo9 hi ^ehaeled. Wi9 

dropfa^uw 7 wlatan wudu-bucca ^ealle o99er gate ^emeng- 

ed wi9 waetere 7 on ^esmyred : ra9e hit 5elacna9, Wi9 

20 nebcorn |)a wexaj) on anwljtan smyre mid gate gealle : 

ealle {>a nebcorn he of {)an anwlytan aclaensa9 7 ealle 

^^°''a/o«S!s I^ane wom he ^ej^innap. Wi9 earena sar 7 swe^e 

wudu-gate ^ealle mid niwum ele o99er *aeppeles *seawe 

wlaec ^emenged 7 on {)a earan ^edon: hyt haeled. Wi9 to{)- 

25 ece wudu-gate geallen meng wyd ele, smyre mid swi9e 

^elome : {)anne beo9 hy hale. Wi9 herjj-buli^es sare o99er 

wunde wude-gete ^ellen meng wy9 huni^, do to {)an sare, 

1 *5elome] ms. ieionie. — 2 *tod *reoman] ms. tep reaman \\ wambe- 
wraecej ms. wanihe wysp.ce. — 3 *nim] ms. nin. — 4 The words: Mediciua 
de hirco 7 capra are here written in the lower margin. — 8 sistendum 
is here written in the upper margin. — 9 fir^in-buccan (V fir^in buc- 
can)] an error for firgin hucca. — 12 *beorhtnysse] ms. heorhnesse. — 
13 beorhtnys] ms. heornysse. — 22 ms. after ad ocwlos more words in red 



OF THE GOAT. 15 

the teeth of children may grow withoiit sore, a hare's 
brain boiled ; rub frequently the gums therewith : they will 
be clean and unsore. Against pain of womb take a hare's 
heels, bear that on thy frock : it cures wonderfully. Against 
sore of eyes a hare's liver boiled is good to drink in wine, 5 
and [it is good too] to bathe the eyes with the broth. 
Against blood-running, a hare's liver burnt, and rubbed, 
and spread on; it quickly stills [it]. 

Against blood running from the nose, a mountain-buck, 
that is a wood-buck or goat, a Hver of this, broken up ic 
with vinegar and thrust into the nostril: wonderfully 
quickly it stills the blood-running. For brightness of eyes 
the gall of a wild buck mingled with field-bees' honey and 
smeared on: the brightness comes to them. The same 
has power against sore of jaws : mingle the gall and honey 15 
together, touch the jaws therewith— it cures. Against dimness 
of eyes mingle together a wood-goafs gall and a Httle 
wine; smear therewith three times ; tlien they wiH be cured. 
Against a spotted face, a wood-buck's gaH, or a goafs, 
mingled with water, and smeared on; it cures quickly. 20 
Against pimples which grow upon the face, smear with a 
goafs gaH ; it wHl cleanse aH the pimples off the face and 
diminish aH the unsightHness. Against sore of ears and 
sounding [in them], a wood-goafs gaH mingled with new 
oil or with apples' juice and lukewarm and put into the 25 
ears: it cures [them]. Against toothache mingle a wood- 
goafs gall with oil, smear very frequently with that; then 
they (the teeth) shaH be whole. Against sore or wound 
of the orchis bag, mingle a mountain-goaf s gall with honey, 

in Ihe margin, illegible || sar] possibly for sare which is the lesson of V. 
— 23 *aeppeles *seawe] ms. aeppes sitve. — 25 wudu-gate] The words : 
oppe fire are here written above the hne in the upper margin. 



16 OF THE USE OF ITS BLOOD; OF ITS CHEESE. 

hyt hseled wel. To *wifes willan I)ses buccan ^eallen meng 
wid recels 7 wi9 netelan ssed, smyre |)ane *teors mid set- 
foran to {)as reste-^emanan: t> wif onfeahl) {)aes willan on 
|)an hamede. Pi laes ci[l]d sy hreosende |) ys filleseoc ol)|) 
5 scinla(c) mete fire-gate bra^en *teoh *{)urh gylde(n)e hring, 
syle dan cilde swel^an ser {)an hit m(e)oluc bruca 7 *suce : 
hyt byd ^ehseled. Wid oman nim gate horn 7 le^e to fyre 
t> he byrne on fyre, do |)awne of {)a scille on niwe fset, 
cnuca hy J)ane swi|)e wi6 scearpun ecede, do on da oman 

10 fort hy hsel sy. To slsepe gate horn under heafed ^eled: 

[Cock. p. 352] wseccen he on slsep ^ecyrred. Wid blod-rine of nose *adry3 

gate blod 7 gnid to duste, do on |) nos{)rul: hit wid- 

stande|). Wid ea^ene hsete 7 wid stice niwe gate cuse 

^ofer^eseted mid {)a ea^e-brsewas : hym by|) hraedlice bote. 

15 Wid heafod-ece niwe gate cuse {)ar-to 5ewri|)en: hit hseled, 
Wid fot-adle niwe gate cuse on^eled |) sar 5eli|)egap. Wi9 
innopes heardnysse swa hwset swa he eta *menge wi{) 
{)ane wsetan, 7 {)one ylcan *drince wid {jses inno{»es heard- 
nysse |) seo to^ene wambe sy alysed : swa he [ma] drinced 
rcock. p. 354] swa hit fur{)ur clsensad. Wid {)ane wsetan do him eac |) 

21 he drince gate blod : wel {) hine hsele9. Gif inno{) {)inde 
nim gate blod mid hire smeruwe 7 berena grutta gemeng 
7 on wambe utan ^ewryd: *wundorlice hit haeled. Wi9 
earane sare gate migga do on t> eare {) sar ^elijegad. 

25 Gif I)ar *wyrms inne *bid *hit t> ut *awyrpd. Wid cyrnlu 

1 *wifes] ms. wifef. — 2 recels] ms. rise recels \\ *teors] ms. terp. 

— 4 ci{l)d] Here and in the following lines the letters betvveen paren- 
theses guessed rather than read || hreosende] nis. hres hreosende. — 
5 *teoh *{)urh] ms. teop purp. — 67 *suce (not in V)] ms. 7 shuca. 

— 8 on niwe] ms. on wine niwe (slc), the second word underlined 
and struck off. — 11 ^adry^] ms. adrigd. — 14 ^ofergeseted] ms. 
ofer gesedet. — 17 *menge] ms. mengc. — 18 *drince] ms. drincan. 

— 23 ^ewryd] ms. je tvy tvryd \\ *wundorIice] ms. tvundelice. — 
25 *wyrms . . *bid *hit] ms. tvurmas inne heoffhi (which makes sense).|| 
*awyrp9] ms. awirph. 



OF THE USE OF ITS BLOOD ; OE ITS CHEESE. 17 

apply [it] to the sore: it cures well. Ad mulieris volup- 
tatem [augendam]. cum ture capreoli fel commisceto, et 
cum urticae semine: hoc unge veretrum ad praeparandum 
coitum : sic in ista copulatione mulier voluptatem percipiet. 
Lest a child be falling, that is be sick of the falling sick- 5 
ness, or dream of an apparition, draw a mountain-goafs 
brain through a golden ring; give [it] to the child to 
swallow before it takes and sucks milk: it will be cured. 
Against erysipelas take a goafs horn and lay it to the 
fire 80 that it may burn at the fire; then remove the in- 10 
crustations to a new vessel; then pound them thoroughly 
along with sharp acid; apply [them] to tlie erysipelatous 
eruptions, till they be whole. To get sleep, a goafs hom 
laid under the head turns waking into sleep. Against blood 
running from the nose dry a goafs blood and rub [it] down 15 
to dust; apply [that] to thenostril: it withstands. Against 
inflammation and against pricking of eyes new goafs 
cheese laid thereon (i. e. on the eyes) with the eyelids: there 
will quickly be amends for him (the man). Against headache 
new goaf s cheese bound thereto : it cures. Against foot- 20 
disease, new goaf s cheese laid on relieves the sore. Against 
hardness of the inwards, whatsoever he eats, let him mingle 
[it] with the water^ and let him drink the same against 
hardness of the inwards, that the tightened womb may be 
relieved : the [more] he drinks, the more it cleanses. Against 25 
the [evil] humour, have him also drink goaf s blood : that will 
wellcurehim. If the inwards puff up, take agoafsbloodwith 
grease of the same, and mingle barley groats and bind 
[this] outside on the womb : it cures wonderfully. Against sore 



1 «The water» obviously refers to a goafs urine mentioned by V 
in a paragrapb immediately preceding this (/ waeter pe innan g%t hyp 
.... pone ivaitan . . .). 

Delcourt, Medicina de Quadrupedibus. 2 



18 A goat's dung to be used against thigh-pains. 

gate tord meng wid hiini^e, smura mid: sona b}'d sel. Wid 
*|)eoh *wr3ece gate tord cned swi|)e |) hit sy sw}'lce sealf 
7 smyre mid |)a |)eoh : sona hi byd hal. Wi9 swylas gate 
[Cock. p 356] tord, smjre mid |)a swylas : hit hi todrifd 7 ^ehaeled 7 
5 ^edej) t> hi eft ne arisa{). Wid syna ^eto^e gate tord 
meng wid ecede 7 smire mid: f) sar byd ^ehseled. Gate 
^ealla on wine ^edruncen wifa halan liim of adejD 7 h}" 
^ehselj). 

Medicina (de) ariete. 

10 Wid wearras 7 wid swulas blac rammes *wul on waete 
^edifed 7 «fter |)an on ele 7 siddan aled on p sara stowe: 
|) sar heo onwe^ afyrred 7 5}f hit byd mid ^ereced pa 
toslitena wunda heo for{)ricced. I^a wearres 7 *J)a swylas 
de beo|) on manes handuwi o|>|)e on o|)rum lime ol){)er 

15 embe J)ana utgang smure mid {)an waetan {)e druppe of 
*healfsodenre rammes lungene: rade heo hi^ onwe^ afirre9. 
Wid wund-sprin^uwi on anwlitan rammes lungane smael 
tocorfan 7 to dan sare ^eled: sona hit ^ehaled. Wid 
scm-fuwi rammes smeru nim 7 meng ^dgerto sot 7 sealt 

20 7 sand 7 hit *wulla onwe^ 7 after smyre: hit byd eft 
li|)ere. 

[Cock. p. 358] Medicina de apro. bov(e). 

Wid aelc sar bares bra^en ^esoden 7 to drence ^eworht 

on wine: ealle sar hit ^eli^egaj). Wid her|)ena sare 7 

cuiii 7 ueretri *teorses bares bra^en meng wid huni^ 7 \vry|) on : wunder- 

26 lice hit hjeled. Wid innepes flewsan *niwe bares lifere 7 

1 tord] ms. to tord. — 2 *{)eoh *\vraece] ms. peop wrace. \\ swi|)e] 
ms. mid stvipe \\ sealf] ms. seallf sealf. — 10 *wul] ms. iculon. — 
11 aefler] ms. ef 7 xfter. — 12 |)a toslitena] ms. pato slitena. — 
13 *|)a] ms. swa. — 16 *healfsodenre] ms. 7ee«Z/e sorfene. — 19 rammes] 
ms. p. rammes \\ meng] ms. meng \\ ^daerto] ms. to. — 20 *vvulla] ms. 
willa. — 23 bra^en] ms. bla h-a^en. — 25 *teorses] ms. teiCrse. — 
26 *niwe] ms. nife. 



A ram's black wool against warts, etc. 19 

of ears, apply a goafs mie to the ear: [it] relieves the sore. 
If matterbe therein, it casts that out. Against kernels, mingle 
a piece of goafs dung with honey; smear thereAvith; [it] 
will soon be better. Against thigh-pains, knead thoroughly 
a piece of goafs dung so that it be as it were a salve, 5 
and smear the thighs therewith : they will soon be whole. 
Against sweUings a piece of goafs dung; smear the 
swelhngs therewith: it drives them away and cures them 
and brings about that they do not rise again. Against 
spasms, mingle a piece of goafs dung with vinegar, and 10 
smear therewith: it cures the sore. A goafs gall, drunk 
in wine, removes women's afterbirth for them, and cures 
them. 

Against warts and sweUings a ram's black wool dipped 
in water, and after that in oil, and then laid on the sore 15 
place: it removes away the sore and if it (the sore) is 
fumigated with [it], it contracts the lacerated wounds. 
Smear the warts and the swellings which are on a man's 
hands, or on another hmb, or about the anus, with the 
wet which drops from the half-boiled lung of a ram : it 20 
quickly removes them away. Against ulcerous wounds 
on the face, a ram's lung carved up small and laid to the 
sore soon cures it. Against scurfs take a ram's grease, 
and mingle therewith soot, and salt, and sand, and wipe 
it away with wool and afterwards smear: it will be smoother 25 
after this. 

Against every sore, a boar's brain boiled and worked 
into a drink in wine: it relieves all sores. Against sore of 
the testicles and of the yard mingle a boar's brain with 
honey and bind it on : it cures wonderfully. Against flux so 
of inwards boil together a new liver of boar and some 
sweet apple-tree rind mingled in wine and let [the man] 



20 OF THE USE OF A WOLF's FLESH, HEAD, ETC. 

swetre apuldure rinde wul tosomne on wine ^emenged 7 

drince : rade se flewsa fram hym ^ewited. Gif earan sin 

innan sara 7 |)ar *wyrms sy on do {)a ylcan sealfe: heo 

ys swide god. To |)am weres willan to ^efremmenne nyme 

5 bares ^eallan 7 smira mid l)ane *teors 7 J)a herdan: J)ane 

ad caducos hafad he micelne lust. Wid fylle-seocum men bares ^eallen 

wirc to drence on wine ol)|)er on wsetere: se drenc hine 

1 
[Cock. p. 360] ^ehaled. Wid *spiwdan 7 wsetan 7 nappunge nim *bares 

^ehnde 7 seod on l)rim sesterum waeteres fort *se *5ridda 

10 daBl *sy *beweallen [do] {)ar-to bares fam 7 drince : he byd 

hsel, 7 he sylf wundra|) 7 wene|) |) hit sy ol)er Isecedom |) 

he drince. t^am ]ie under hy mi^ad bares blaedre ^ebrseded 

7 ^eseald to etanne: J)a unhsele heo ^ehseled. Wid oman 

*bares scearn 7 swefel ^egnide on wine 7 ^elome drince: 

15 J)a oman hyt ^ebetej). 



Medi(ci)na (de) lupo. 

ad demoniacos Wid *deofulseocnysse 7 wid yfele ^esihj^e *wulfes 

flsesc wel ^etawod 7 ^esoden syle etan J^am |)e J)earf sy: 

|)a scinlac fia hym ser aetiwdan ne ^eunstillaj» hy hine. 

20 To slsepe *wulfes heafod le^e under J)ane pule : se un- 

'■^**^ wes ^^^^ hala slseped. ^Ea^wrac onwe^ to done ^emin *wulfes 
*swy|)re ea^e 7 hyt tosting 7 wry{> to J)an ea^on: hit 
^ewanal) |) sar ^if hyt ^elomelice |)ar-mid ^esmyred byd. 
Se wifman fat habbae dead bearn on inno|)e, ^if heo 
25 drinced *wylfene meoluc mid wine ^emenged ^ehce efne, 
sona hyt haled. 

2 flewsa] ms. flew fleivsa. — .3 *wyrms] ms. wwrm, a confusion 
with wyrm. — 5 *teors] ms. tears. — 8 *spiwdan] ms. spiwan || *bares] 
ms. bxres. — 9 *se *&ridda (erroneously written dridda) . . . *sy *be- 
weallen] ms. p prindan dasl heo weallen. — 14 *bares] ms. hseres. — 



OF THE USE OF A WOLF's FLESH, HEAD, ETC. 21 

drink : he is soon free from the flux. If ears are within 
sore, and matter be there, apply the same salve: it is 
very good. Ut viri voluptas perficiatur, sumat apri fel et 
ungat penem et testiculos: ita ingentem Hbidinem habebit. 
For a man who has the falling sickness, work a boar's 5 
gall into a drink in wine or in water: the drink will 
cure him. Against spewing and nausea and napping, take 
a boar's suet and boil [it] in three sextarii of water 
till the third part is boiled away, add thereto boar's 
foam and let [the man] drink: he will be whole, and 10 
he himself will wonder and think that it is some other 
leechdom that he is drinking. For them who mie under them, 
a boar's bladder roasted and given to be eaten: it cures 
the disease. Against erysipelas let [the man] rub into 
wine a boar"s dung and sulphur and drink [that drink] 15 
frequently: it amends the erysipelas. 

Against devil-sickness and against an ill sight give 
to eat wolfs flesh, well-dressed and boiled, to him who 
is in need of it: the apparitions which previously appeared 
to him shall not disquiet him. For sleep, lay a wolfs 20 
head under the pillow: the unhealthy [man] shall sleep. 
To remove away eye-pain, take a wolfs right eye and 
prick it to pieces and bind it to the [suffering] eye : it makes 
the sore wane if it is frequently smeared therewith. The 
woman who may have a dead child in her womb, if she 25 
drinks the milk of a she-wolf mingled with wine in .Hke 
quantities, it soon cures. 



17 *cleofulseocnysse] ms. deolfolseocnesse (or deolfolswcnesse^i^W *wulfes] 
ms. fulfes. — 20 *wulfes] ms. fulfes. — 21 ^Ea^maec] ms. Eah hrsec\\ 
*wulfes] ms. fulfes. — 22 *swyj)re] ms. swyrfre. — 25 *wylfene] ms. 
fidfune. — 26 ms. The words: a pe sclnlac ffrowyon efa leones fiees 
(cf. p. 22i) are here repeated In the lower margin. 



22 OF lion's flesh. a bull's horn to be used to remove snakes. 

t)e <le scinlac fjrowion 

[Cock. p. 364] Pa pe scinlac drowion ete leones flsesc : ne drowiad hy 

ad neruos ad genua 

[Cock. p. 366] ofer J) [sBni^] scinlac, Wid sina 7 wid cneowa lij^e sare nim 
leon ^elinde 7 heortes *mearh mylt 7 meng|tosomne, smire 
mid |) sar {)8es lichames: sona hjt hjd hal. 



5 Ad serpentes fugandos, 

Wid *n8eddrena eardunge 7 afly^ennysse fearres horn 
^ebarnedne to axan stred J)3er *nsedran eardien: hy fleo9 
awe^. Ferres ^ellan wid ea^ena |)}^stru 7 ^enipe meng 
wid feld-beona hunia, do on pa ea^ean: wunderhce hit 
[Cock. p. 368] ^ehaled. Wid wgeteres brine o{){)er fires bsern fearres 
11 gor 7 sced |)8er-on, *Wif ^^emanan to done nim dri^e 
ferres scellan, wyrc to duste odder aelcor gnid on wine 

r 

^^ TawdTOi^^"" 7 drince ^elome : he by{) I^e ^earra 7 *{)e hsedra to *wif- 
{)in5um, 

15 Ad maculas corp(or)is toUendas. 

(W)y|) ^ehwilce wommas of lichama onwe^ to nimen 
ebur ^enim ylpen-ban mid huni^e ^ecnucod 7 to^eled : wunder- 
lice hit {)a womas of^enimej). 

De canibus 

W}'!) ealle sar, ^jf {)u on forewearde sumera {^i^est 

20 hwylce *hwelpan 'ponne ^it ^un^eseondne, ne ^on^itest 

{)u seni^ sar, Wid {) te{) wexon butan sare hundes tux 

[Cock. p. 372] ^eberned 7 smale ^egnidon 7 on *5edon *toJ»reomena swylas 

5edw8esce{), 

1 & 2 ms. The red text, rather faint, on the same line as the black 
one. — 2 The words: Ad neruos ad genna on the same line as: Wid' 
sina. — 3 *mearh] ms. merurh. — 6 *najddrena] ms. nardran \\ 
afly^ennysse] ms. afy afli/gennysse. — 7 *naedran] ms. neardran. — 
8 The following words, from which I can make no sense, here occur 
in the margin: ad ocles ne oc . . , . com.hva.diCmiem ignosfan (?). — 



A HOUNd's MOLAR AGAINST SVraLLINGS OF TOOTHROOMS. 23 

Let those who suffer apparitions eat hon's flesh: they 
will not after that suffer any apparitions. Against sore 
of sinews and of knee-joints, take a hon's suet and a 
harfs marrow, melt [them] and mingle [them] together; 
smear therewith the sore ofthebody: it will soon be whole. s 

Against the dwelhng [by one] of snakes and for their 
removal, scatter a bulFs horn burnt to ashes where the 
snakes dwell; they will flee away. Mingle a buirs gali 
with fieldbees' honey against obscurity and darkness of 
the eyes; put [it] upon the eyes: it cures wonderfully. lo 
Against a burn caused by water or fire, burn a buU's 
dung and shed [it] thereon. Ad concubitum perficiendum, 
sume testiculos tauri siccatos in pulveremque redactos, aut 
eosdem in vino comminue et crebris [ille] haustibus ebibat 
[qui hoc philtro indiget] : ita promptior ad vererem erit 15 
atque citatior. 

Against any spot, to take it from the body, take ivory 
pounded with honey and apphed: it removes the spots 
wonderfully. Against aU sores, if thou in the early part 
of summer takest for food any whelp, being then still 20 
bhnd, thou shalt not feel any sore. To make teeth 
grow without pain, a hound's molar tooth burnt and 
rubbed small and apphed extinguishes swelhngs of toothrooms. 



11 *Wif *5emanan] rns. Wiff^ jemanen. — 12 o9der] ms. odffer. — 
13 byf)] ms. hijp he hy$. || *J)e] ms. /a || *\vif{)in5um] ms. fif pin&i 
pingurad \\ excitaHdam rather guessed than read in the margin. — 
17 ylpen] ms. ylpen, the word struck ofif in red. — 19 ms. De cani- 
bns on the same line as sumera. — 20 *h\velpan] ms. helptia. 
Cock. writes hiveljxm though Y has hweljma \\ un^eseondne] ms. ^esodena\\ 
^on^itest] ms. on gyft. — 21 Wi& J» te|) . .] The reader may be puzzled, 
in case he should here refer to Cockayne's text, by the omission of the 
beginning of the sentence. It is very similar in V to what it is in 0, and 
Cockayne's omission must be due to a mistake. — 22 *5edon] ms. 
gedeon || *lo|)reomena] ms. toffreomera. 



24 PULEGIUM AGAINST HEADACHE. 

Ad dolorem capitis. 
[Cock. p. 380] Wid eafod-ece pollege 1) [is] on englis dwyrc^e-dwosle 
wulle on ele odder on clane butere 7 smyre J) heafod mid. 

2 The last four lines not in V || dwjTc^e-dwosle] ms. perhaps 
dricre^e dwosle? — 3 odder] ms. od&er. 



PULEGIUM AGAINST HEADACHE. 25 

Against headache, boil in oil or in clean butter pulegium, 
that [is] in English dwarfdwosle, and smear the head 
with [it]. 



26 



Glossary. 



A list of the principal abbreviations used in 
the Glossary. 



cj. = conjunction. 

comp. = comparative. 

dem. = demonstrative. 

i. = instrumental. 

Lt. = Latin. 

n. = neuler. 

nm. = neuter and masculine. 

nns. = nominative neuter sin- 

gular. 
npl, = nominative plural. 
ns. = nominative singular. 



Abdias prop. Ahdias (?) Neither 

Jer. XIII nor I kings XVIII nor 

the Book of Obadiah can clear 

up the passage gs. abbias 2i9. 
abeatan rd. beat off imp. 2d. s. 

abeate 2i3. 
acljensian w. 2 cleanse 3d. 

s. aclaensa9 142i. 
acwQllan w. 1 kill ger. acwel- 

lanne 812, acvvellen 811; 3d. 

s. acwella|) 812. 
adle f. disease ns. adle 142; ds. 

adle 4i 4ii. 
adon anv. talce off 3d. s. ade|) 

I87; imp. 2d. s. ado 2ii. 
adry(i)gan w. 1 dry up ger. 

adri^enne 83 ; 3d. s. adri^ed 815 ; 

imp. 2d. s. adri^ 625 I611, a- 

dri:;e 12;. 



pl. = plural. 
pp. = past participle. 
pr. p. = present participle. 
pret. = preterite. 
pret.-p. = preterite-present. 
pron. = pronoun. 
prop. = proper name. 
sup. = superlative. 
w. = weak. 

wa., wd., wg. = with accusative, 
with dative, with genitive. 

adun adv. down «tdun 6«. 

sec cf. also aet (sic) 618. 

«fter adv. afterwards after 618 
I820 il prep. wd. after 62 I811, 
a?ft' 49, after 12ii, afte 1226— 
accor-ding to 4o. 

te^hwylc adj. eac7t ams. aejhylce 

86. 

36 lc adj. each dns. alcen 44 ; ams. 

felcne 82; ans. I823. 
Klcor cf. elcor. 
aelmihti^ adj. almighty gms. 

aelmihti^on 2i2. 
^ni^ adj. any gns. ani^es 2i7; 

dfs. aeui^e 4i; dns. aeni^un 4i 

614; ans. 2221. 
seppel m. apple gs. aeppes 14^8; 

as. 61 66 etc. 
S (a)r comp. adv. before 4i6 618 20i9 
II cj. before 166 |1 prep. wd. before 

62 820. 



Glossary. 



27 



aerfoj) cf. earfo 9. 

aesce, axe f. ash ds. assca 10? ; 

apl. axan 8« 813 2!27. 
iEsculapiusLt. prop. ^sculapuis 

abl. s. .^scolupio 2:. 
aet prep. vvd. at 4i3 4i4. 
aetforan adv. beforehand I62. 
aethrinan 1 touch \vd. inf. 2i5. 
aethwega adv. somewhat aethweja 

625. 
setle(i)wan w. 1 a/j/)ear wd. pres. 

3d. pl. aeliwdan 20i9. 
afie(i, y)rran w. 1 remove 3d. s. 

afirred I816, afyrred 816. 
aflle(y)3ennys f. removal ds. 

a 

I fly^ennysse 226. 
ah^bban 6 lift imp. 2d. s. ahefe 

66. 

ahon rd. hang opt. 3d. s. aho 620 ; 

pp. ahangen IO17. 
ahweorfan 3 drive awaij 3d. s. 

awyrfj) 812. 
(ahyldan) w. 1 ttirn aicaij 3d. 

s. ahylde|) 4i. 
al^cgan w. 1 lay pp. aled ISn. 
aliesan w. 1 liberate pp. alisede 

4i5, alysed I619. 
an prep. wd. on 4i9; wa. on lOi. 
an num. one nf. ane 617 1224 ; am. 

ane 85. 
and conj. and written 7 28 2n etc. 
andro^ines lat. hermaphrodite 

as. andro^inem I224. 
anwli(a)ta m. face as. anwlitan 

615; ds. anwlitan 818 142o etc, 

7 wlatan 14i8. 
apuldure (f.V) apple-tree gs. 20i. 
arlsan 1 arise 3d. pl. arisaj) I85; 

imp. 2d. s. aris 67. 
astyrian w. 1 drive away pp. 

astyred 4i6. 
[attorcoppe f. s^nder gs. atlor- 

coppan 12i7.] 



aw^ccan w. 1 raise ger. awec- 
cenne 821; 3d. s. awecced 822. 

awe^ adv. away are^ 4i6, a^e 
lOio. 

aweorpan 3 fhrow 3d. s. awirph 
I625. 

awiht ind. pron. aught ns. awyt 

2l7. 

B 

ban n. bone as. 22i7. 

bajrnan w. 1 burn imp.2d.s. bsern 
22io; pp. ^ebaerned 816 14«, 56- 
baernedne 818, ^ebcernede 814, 
^ebarned 87, ^ebarnedne 22?, 
^eberned 22^2, ^ebernede 811. 

baef) n. bath as. bade 49. 

bar m. boar gs. bares I823 etc, 
baeres 2O3 20i4. 

b e prep. wd. concerning 29. 

bearn n. chiJd as. 2O24. 

beatan rd. beat pp. ^ebeaten 89. 

[becuman 4 come pret. 2d. s. ? 
become 27.] 

bedelfan 3 bury imp. 2d. s. be- 
delf 4i2. 

bedruwian w. 2 dry up^T^.he- 
druwod 8i9. 

behefe adj. suitable nms. 68. 

behQlian w, 1 cowceaMmp. 2d. s. 
behele 4i4. 

beon anv. be inf. byon 621; Ist. 
s. eom 25; 2d. s. byst 223; 3d. s. 
byd 42 4i6 etc, byd 2i8 4^3 etc, 
is 29, ys 2io [4i7] etc, hys 12i8; 
3d. pl. beod 4o 4i5 etc, sinde 2j4 
813; opt. 3d. s. beo 20io, sy 42, 
si 48 etc; 3d. pl. sin 2O2, sy I610. 

56 b e r h t i 5 a n w.l become bright 
3d. pl. ^ebeorhti^ed 12i4. 

beorhtnes f. brightness ns. beor- 
nysse 14i3 as. beorhnesse 14i2. 

beordor n. foetus ns. 127 ; child- 
birth ds. beordre 12ii. 



28 



Glossary. 



beran 4 tcear imp. 2d. s. ber 143. 
beren adj. of harley afp. berena 

I622. 
(5e-)betan w. 1 hetter 3d. s. beted 

l;^^, 5ebete|) SOis; pp. ^ebeted 61. 
b e {) i a n w. 1 hathe ger. bepienne 

146. 

beweallan w. 1 hoil pp. be- 

wealled 4s, weallen 20io. 
bewyrcan w. 1 ivorh imp. 2d. s, 

bewyrc 2i5. 
bie(y)rnan 3 hurn opt. 3d. s. 

byrne IGs. 
b i s m e r mn. insiilt as. besmer IO17. 
[bite m. hite ds. 12i7.] 
biwindan 3 tvrap, tvind up imp. 

2d. s. biwind 2i4. 
blaec adj. hlack nfs. blasc I810. 
blffidre f. hladder ns. 2O12; gs. 

bltedran 12i5. 
b 1 o d n. hlood gs. blodes 61 ; as. 

43 I622. 
blod-ryne m. fiux of hlood ds. 

149, blod-rine 16n, blod-rune 146 ; 

as. blod-rune 14ii. 
bodian w. 2 send pret. 3d. s. 

bodede 24. 
bot(e) i.remedy ns. bot 81-, bote 

16l4. 

brsedan w. 1 roast imp. 2d. s. 

braed 1220; pp. ^ebraeded 2O12, 

^ebraede IO7, [^ebraedde I215]. 
br8e(a)3en n. brain ns. 122 14i 

I823; as. 46 I65 I825. 
bri(y)ce adj. useful 4i8 67. 
brine m. hurning (ds.) 22io. 
broc m. hadger as. broce 2io. 
broc n. disease gs. broces lOie. 
bro|) n. Iroth ds. bro9e 145. 
brucan 2 wg. nmTce use of inf. 

425; 3d. s. bruced 8s, brucad Ss; 

opt. 3d. s. bruca 166. 
bryttian w. (1) hreah up pp. 56- 

brited 14io. 



bucca m. huck gs. buccan I61. 
burg-geat n. horoitgh-gate dpl. 

burgatun 4i4. 
burh-sta|)ol m. horough-foun- 

dation dpl. burh-stapela 4i3. 
butan prep.wd. tvithout 1 2272221. 
butere f. hitter ds. 243. 
butu num. hoth 12^4. 
bysen f. example dpl. bysnum 25. 



casere m. emperor ns.^o; as. 24. 
c Q m b a n w. 1 comh 3d, s. cembed 

623; opt. 3d. s. cembe 617 61$; 

pret. 3d. s, cembde 618. 
c^nnan w. 1 hear (child) 3d. s. 

cen|) 1224 1227; opt. 3d. s. ceune 

1222. 

ci^(y)rran w. 1 convert 3d. s. 

^ecyrred I611. 
cle(y)se m. cheese ns. cuse 16i3 

I615 I616. 
ci(y)ld n. child ns. I64; ds. cilde 

166; as. cyld I222, cyld I227; 

dpl. cylduw 1227. 
clane adj. clean nfs. clane 621; 

nmpl. clane 142. 
clsensian w. 2 cleanse 3d. s. 

claensad I620; pp. ^eclaensod 625, 

clansod 6:4, ^eclansod 623. 
clfensung f. cleansing ds. claen- 

sunge 1226. 
clansung-dae^m. cleansing day 

dpl. claensung-dae^es 4^2. 
cneow n. knee gp. cneowa 222. 
c n e d a n 5 knead imp. 2d. s. cned 

I82. 
5e cnidan 1 ruh imp. 2d. s. 56- 

cnid IO9; pp. ^ecniden 1223. 
cnucian w. 2 poiind imp. 2d. s, 

cnuca S23 169 etc; pp. ^ecnucad 

Ss, ^ecnucod IO7 22i7. 
comb m. cotnh ds. combe 620; as. 

617. 



Glossary. 



29 



crocca nif. eatihenware vessel ds. 
croccen 4:. 

cuman 4 come ger. cumende 4i5 ; 
3d. s. cymd IO22, cymed 81-, cu- 
med 14]4; imp. cume 63. 

cuf) adj. well-known nns. 4i7. 

cwe|)(d)an 5 say pr.p. cwej)ende 
24; imp. 2d. s. cwed 2i2, cwed 
2si; pp. ^ecweden 611 IO3. 

cwic adj. alive dns. cwicum 2ii. 

cyrnel n. kernel, sivelled gland 
apl. curnlu lOiz, cyrnlu I625. 

cyddo f. knotvledge ds. cydde 28. 

D 

dae^ m. day as. Ss; gpl. daeje 

12io; apl. daj^es 4^6 ISg. 
dsel m. 2?«'*^ ns. 48 lOie; ds. dsele 

67; as. 822. 
dead adj. dead ans. 2O24. 
deofol-seocnes f. demoniacal 

possession ds. deolfolseocnesse 

20i7. 
deor n. animal gs. deores 45 ; as. 

2ii. 
derian w. 1 hurt 3d. s. dered 2i8. 
5edle(l)gan w. 1 carry out in 

safety, do well in 2d. s. ^edi^est 

223. 

difan w. 1 dip pp. ^edifed ISii. 
dimnys f. dimness ds. dimnesse 

12i3, dymnysse 14i6. 
<5e)don anv. put ger. done 2O21 

22ii, donne 4i9, do 813; 3d. s. 

de|) lOs lOio, 5ede|) I85; imp. 

2d. s. do 45 6s etc; pp. ^edon 

4i6 IO19 IO21 etc, ^edeon 22^2. 
dora m. humhle-hee gs. dore IO20. 
d r ^ n c m. drink ns. 20? ; ds. drence 

815 IO7 etc, drenc^e 12i2. 
drinc m. drink ds. drince l^s; 

as. 822 824. 
drincan 3 drink inf. drincan 

128; ger. drincanne 14»; 3d. s. 



drinced 1224, drinced 2O25; opt 

3d. s. drince 20» 20io 2O12 etc; 

3d. pl. drincen I223; imp. 2d. s. 

drinc 83 811, drince 80; pp. ^e- 

drucan 89, ^edruncen I87. 
dropfag adj. spotied dms. drop- 

fa^UOT 14i8. 
drygan w. 1 dry imp. 2d. s. dri^ 

821 ; pp. ^edri^ede 12i5, ^edri^ed 

1223. 
dry^e adj. dry ap. dri^e 22ii. 
(50) dryppan w. 1 drop, drip opt. 

.3d. s. druppe I815; imp. 2d. s. 

drupe IO5, ^edrupe IO22, [drype 

lOlDJ. 

dust n. dust gs. dustes ISs; ds. 

duste 89 822. 
^edwsscan w. 1 extinguish 3d. 

s. 5edwaesce|) 2223. 
dwyrc^e-dwosle f. pennyroyal 

as. 242. 



eac adv. also 4io 4i7 etc 
eafod-Qce cf. heafod-^ce. 
ea^e n. eye ds. ea^en 2O22; as. 

2O22; npl.ea5enel2i4; gpl.ea^ena 

123 12i3 etc, ea^ene 14^ IGis; 

dpl. ea^en IO21 ; apl. ea^en 145, 

ea^ean 229. 
ea^e-brEew m. eyelid apl. ea^e- 

braewas I614. 
eah-sylf f. eye-salve as. eahsylfe 

83. 
eah-hrsec m. pain in the eyes 

as. 2O21. 
eal adj. all nms. 4i6; dpl. eallum 

4i8; anpl. ealle 14^1 I814. 
eald adj. old nms. 62; dms. ealden 

827. 
ealteaw adj. good nns. ealtewa 

12l8. 

eardian w. 2 dwell opt. 3d. pl. 
eardien 22?. 



30 



Glossary. 



eardung f. in-dwelling ds. eard- 

dunge 2i26. 
eare n. ear as. eare IO5 I624; 

npl. earan202; gpl. earena 1422, 

earane 10* IO21, eara lOis; apl. 

earan 1424, eare IO22. 
earfoQ n. trouhle dpl. ferfoduw 

615; apl. earfedu 82- IO2. 
earfodnys i. disturbance (of wo- 

men) apl. earfodnyssa 826. 
earm m. arm apl. hermen IO17. 
Qced m. vinegar ds. ecede 817 

14io etc, 169. 
efne adv. eqtially Ae 2O25. 
eft adv. again 63 621 etc. 
Egypt m.Egyptian gp. egypta 23. 
elcor adv. else aelcor 22i2. 
ele m. oil gs. eles 4?; ds. 819 827 

etc. 
embe prep. wa. after 621 — about 

46 I815. 
embehwyrft cf. ymbhwyrft. 
«jnglis n. English ds. 2ii 242. 
eorj) f. earth gs. eorJ)an 422 613. 
etan 5 eat inf. 20i8; ger. etanne 

2O13; 2d. s. etest 423; opt. 3d. s. 

eta I617; 3d. pl. ete 22i. 
et cetera Lt. etc. 610. 



fasstan w. 1 fast pr. p. fasstende 

420, fastende 12i2. 
faet n. vessel as. 168. 
ffetelsian w. 2 put into a vessel 

imp, 2d. s. ffetelsa 48. 
fam n. foam as. 20io. 
(5e)faran 6 «70 ger. ^efarenne^is; 

2d. s. farst 422. 
feallan rd. fall pr. p. feallenduw 

12l9. 

fearr m. hull gs. fearres 226 22io, 

ferres 228 22i2. 
feax n. hair ns. fex I221; ds. fexe 

624 12i9; as. fex 619 I221. 



fefor m. fever ds. fefore 4i. 
5ef elan w. 1 feel 2 s. ^efelest 42o. 
f e 1 d - b e tfield-bee gpl. feldbeona 

229, fealdbeona 14i3. 
(fel-sticce) n. fell-piece apl. fel- 

sticceo 4i9. 
^efeoht n. fight ds. ^efeohte 222. 
feran w. 1 obtain (Cock.) pret. 

Ist. pl. ferdon 28. 
flf num. five 84. 
fif-J)ing cf. wif-|)ing. 
finger m. finger apl. fingran 65. 
firgen-gat f. mountain-goat gs. 

fire-gate I65. 
fir^in-bucca m. mountain-buck 

ns. fir^in-buccan 149. 
fixen-hyd f. skin of the she-fox 

ns. 1024. 
fliSsc n. flesh as. 423 20i8. 
fleo^an 2 fiy 3d.pl. fleoI)(d) 8i4 

227. 
flewsa m. flux ns. 2O2; ds. flew- 

san 61 616 I826, flesan 89. 
^eflit n. confiict ds. ^eflite 222. 
5e f o n rd. take imp. 2d. s. ^efoh 

2u. 
for prep. wd. for 2s. 
foreweard adj. front dms. fore- 

wearde 22i9. 
fort cj. till I610 2O9. 
for{)ryccan w. 1 contract 3d. s. 

forpricceQ I813. 
fot m. foot as. 220 223; gp. fota 

IO28; dp. fotun 420; ap. fet 4io 

IO24. 
fot-adl f. gout ns. IO24; ds. fot- 

adle I616. 
f o t - s w y I e m. swelling of the foot 

dp. fot-swulan 12^. 
fox m. fox gs. foxes 827 etc. 
fra(o) m. adv. away 4i || prep. wd. 

from % 4i7 2O2. 
frecen n. danger ns, frecne 4i7. 



Glossary. 



31 



[^efre^nan 3 leam Ist. sg. ^e- 

fre^n 2;.] 
(5e)fremman w. 1 benefit ger. 

5efre?/imenne 20^; 3d. s. fremed 

421. 

freond m. friend ds. frunde 2*. 

f u 1 f cf. w u 1 f. 

fulfen cf. wylfen. 

full adj. full ams. fulne Se. 

furj)ra comp. adj. more in front 

as. fur|)ran 22o. 
furj)ur adv. further I620. 
fy(i)lle-seoc adj. ivho has the 

falling sickness ns. IG4; dms. 

fylle-seocuj/t 206. 
fy(l)r n. fire gs. fires 22io; ds. fyre 

4i7 IGs. 
fy{»erfete adj. four-footed dns. 

fuj)er-faete 4* 4i8. 

G 

gang m. gait, steps as. IO20; npl. 
gangas 126. 

gat f. goat ns. 14io; gs. gate 142o 
16? etc. 

5e cj. and ^^..56 hoth..and 12io. 

5(g)ealla m. gall ns. 18;, ^ealle 
14i2 1423, ^eallen 12i3; ds. gealle 
1420 ; as. geallan lOis 14i6, geallen 
1425 I61, ^ellan 228, ^elleu 1427. 

^earo adj. readij comp. ns. ^earra 
22i3. 

jeond prep. wa. through 4i2. 

[3e5ie(y)rwan w. 1 prepare imp. 
2d. s. ^e^yre 12i7.] 

^if cj. w. ind. if 2i8 223 615 IO24. 

3ie(y, I)t adv. as yet 66 2220. 

(3e)gnldan 1 rub opt. 3d. s. 36- 
gnide 20i4-, imp. 2d. s. gnid IO15 
I612, ^egnid IO13 14i; pp. ^e- 
gniden 146, ^egnidon 2222. 

god m. God gs. godes 2i3 221. 

god adj. good nfs. IO22 2O4; nns. 



423 ; dms. gode I220; nfpl. gode 

12l9. 

gode-w^bb n. precious cloth ds. 

gode-webbe 612. 
gold n. gold ds. golde 2i4. 
g(5)0man mpl. Jaws gpl. gomena 

14i4, gomane lOw; apl. lOis 14i5. 
gor n. dung as. 22ii. 
grytt f. grain apl. grutta IG22. 
gylden adj. golden ams. gyldene 

I65. 
5yrdels m. belt ns. 2i9. 

H 

habban w. 3 have ind. 2d. s. ha- 
fast 224; 3d. s. haefed 82, hafad 
206; 8d. pl. habbad IO25; opt. 
2d. s. habbe 611; 3d. s. habhfe 
2O24, habban 2i2; imp. 2d. s. 
hafe 2i5, hafa 4i9. 

(3e)hgelan w. 1 cure ind. 3d. s. 
hasled 4i2 823 I621, hael]) IO21, 
haeled 820 IO4 etc, haled 2O26, 
haled IO12, ^ehaeled IO2 lOs, 
5eh8el|) 188, ^ehaeled I84 2O13, 
^ehaled I818, ^ehaled 208 ; pp. 
^ehaeled 4io, ^ehaelede 126. 

h £e 1 f . (raessage of ) health as. 24. 

hsemed n. sexual intercourse ds. 
hamede I64. 

hgete f. inflammation ds. I613. 

ha^ol m. hail ns. 2i6. 

hael adj. %vhole nms. hael 20ii; 
nns. 224; nmpl. hale 4i5 1426, 
haele IO13; nfpl. hael I610; nnpl. 
haele 46, hal I83. 

hala va.. afterhirth as. halan I87. 

h a 1 i 5 adj. holy sup. nms. halgusla 

420- 

ham m. home as. hale {sic) 4i5. 
hand f. hand ds. handa 64; dpl. 

handum I814. 
hara m. hare gs. 12^ 12i3, haran 

127 143. 



32 



Glossary. 



hat adj. hof dfs. hfete lOe; dns. 

haten 811. 
hatan rd. caJl 3d. s. hsetad 63; 

pp. 23. 
ge h a J) e r i a n vv. 2 restrain 3d. s. 

5ehaJ)eraJ) 87. 
h e pers. pron. lie ns. 812 ; gs. hi(y)s 

43 4i2; ds. hi(y)m 2u 22i7; as. 

hi(y)ne 4ii 2O19; npl. hi(y) IO13; 

apl. hi(y)m 4i IO15; apl. hi(y) 2i5 

lOio, hi^ I816. 
heafo(a)d n. /lertrf as. IO4, heafad 

617; as. heafod I610. 
heafod-ece m. headache ds. IO2 

16i5; eafod-ece 242. 
heafod-sar n. sore of head ds. 

heafod-sare 84. 
heafod-wraec n. headache ds. 

heafod-wrsece 49. 
^5e) h e a 1 d a n rd. preserve imp. 2d. 

s. heald 4» ; opt. 3d. s. ^ehealde 

622. 
healf sodenadj. half-boiled dfs. 

healfe sodene I816. 
heardnys f. hardness ds. heard- 

nysse I617 I618. 
hed-clad m. frock ds. hed-clade 

143. 

hela m. heel apl. helan 143. 

h e pers. pron. she ns. 4i 617 ; gs. 

hyre 617 622; ds. hyre 622 624; 

npl. hy 227; gpl. hure 826. 
h e o r o t m. stag gs. heortes 82 84 

etc, hortes 87 811. 
heort f. heart as. heortan 4i4 127. 
her before adv. here above IO3. 
herm cf. earm. 
her|)an pl. testicles gpl. herf)ena 

I823; apl. 2O5. 
her|)-byli5 m. scrotum gs. her|)- 

buli^es 1426. 
hy(i)d f. skin ns. 4i7; gs. hyde4i9. 
hi(y)t n. pers. pr. it ns. 42; gs. 

hi(y)s 83 822; ds. hi(y)m 810 817; 



as. 4$; npl. hi(y) 46 14i7; gpl. 

hyra 127; dpl. hym 42 127 14i3. 
hlutor adj. clear afs. hlutre IO5. 
hnappung f. droicsiness ds. nap- 

punge 208. 
horn m. horn ns. 87; gs. hornes 

89; as. 45 226. 
h o r s n. horse dpl. horsa 4^ ; apl. 

hors 224. 
hraed adj. gw/cA; comp. ns. hraedra 
! 22i3. 
hraedllce adv. soon 817 I614, 

hradhce 820. 
hrae^el n. cloth ds. hrae^ele 2i4. 
hraf)(9)e adv. soon lOio IO13 etc. 
hreaw adj. raiv afpl. hreawe 12i8. 
hreosan 2 fall pr. p. hreosende 

I64. 
hrif n. belly as. 1223. 
hrinan 1 touch wga. opt. 3d. s. 

hrine 613; imp. 2d. s. hrin 14i5. 
hring m. ring as. I65. 
liring-finger m. ring-finger ds. 

hring-fingrum 65. 
hund m. dog gs. hundes 222r, dp. 

hundun 4i8. 
h u n i 5 n. honey ds. huni^e 426 lOu 

14i3 181, hunia228; as. 14i5 1427, 

huni 12i3. 
hwa indef. pr. any one ns. 4^; 

ds. hwam 4i4. 
hwaet indef. pr. wg. something ns. 

4i4; swa hwaet swa whatever 

I617. 
[hwaej^ere adv. nevertheless 26.] 
hwelp m. ivhelp as. helpna 222o. 
hwlt adj. white ams. hwitne 66. 
(5e)hwylc indef. an?/ dfs.hwylcere 

4io ; ams. hwrylce 222o ; ampl. ^e- 

hwilce 22i6; ^ehwylc .. swa 

whatever; dns. ^ehwylce swa 222. 
[hie(y)rstan w. 1 fry pp. 56- 

hyrste 12i6.] 



Glossary. 



33 



I 

ic pers. pron. / ns. 2$ Se 2i3 etc. ; 

npl. we 27. 
Idpartus prop.m. (Idpartus)ns.23. 
ie(y)rnan 3 fun pr. p. hyrnende 

425. 

i(y)lca adj. same nns. ylca 14u; 

afs. ylcan lOs; ans. ylce 823 824 

etc, ylcan lOs, jflcan lOs. 
innan adv. within 2O3. 
inne adv. within comp. inra 

adj. ns. IO23. 
innof) m. intesUnes, inwards ns. 

I621; gs. inno{)es I617, inne|)es 

I825; ds. inno{)e 2O24. 
inwerdllc adj. inward dp. in- 

werdlicum 826. 



laececraeft m. medicine dpl. laece- 

craeftef 29. 
lEecedom m. remedij ns. laecedom 

613; ds, lacedome 222 [dpl. laece- 

domum 26.] 
(5e)la(Ee)cnian w. 2 cure 3d. s. 

laecned 4i2, gelacnad 14i9. 
Ises adv. less |)i laes I64. 
land-^emare n. boundary gpl. 

4l3. 

l^c^an w, 1 imp. 2d. s. le^e 16? 

2O20; pp. 3eled I610 IGie I818. 
leo m. lion gs. leoues 22i, leon 223. 
leofiau w. 3 live pr. p. leuiende 

221. 
1 e h t adj. light (not heavy) comp. 

ams. leohtran IO25. 
lic n. hody ds. lice 215; as 625. 
^ellce adv. eqiially 2O25. 
llchama m. body gs. lichaman 

69, lichamas 611, lichames 224 ; 

ds. lichama 22i6. 
lif u. life gs. lifes 4i. 
(3e)lifau w. 1 helieve 2d. s. lifest 

10i7; opt. 2d. s. ^elife 42i. 



lifer f. liver ns. lOs 14^; as. 146, 

lifre 4i2, lifere I825. 
lim n. limb ds. lime I814. 
linnen adj. of linen dns. linnenon 

2l3. 

Ii]) adj. smooth comp. nns. li|)ere 

I821. 
lij) n. limh gp. IiJ)e 222; apl. h{)u 

827. 
3eli{)egian w. 2 assuage, relieve 

3d. s. 5eli{)ega|) I616 I824, ^e- 

Ii|)eged I624. 
locian w. 2 look, see imp. 2d. s. 

loca 612. 
3e lome adv. often IO13 14i etc. 
36 lome llce adv, often 2O23, 
losian w. 2 perish opt. 3d. s. 

losie 127. 
lungen f. lung ns. lungane lOe 

lOii 123 I817, lunguOT 125; ds. 

lungene I816. 
lust m. lust as. 823 206. 
5ely(i)nd f, fat ds, ^elynde 224; 

as. ^elinde IO22 2O9. 
ly(i)tel adj. little nns. 4i7; a little 

ds. 43 — wg. as. 14i6. 

M 

[ma adv. more I619.] 

m ae 3 pret. p. may, have power 3d, 

s. 14i4; opt. 3d. s. ma^e 424; 

3d. pl, mse^en 2i5; pret. 3d. s. 

mihte 624. 
m ae 3 e n n, virtue, power gs. mae^- 

nes [26]; as. 82; gpl. mse^ena [25.] 
maeni^ adj. man^dpl. misne^a 2&. 
ui a n noun indef. one, a man ns. 

2io 4io 613 12i8. 
man(n) m. man 2i7; gs. manes 

I814; ds. men 206. 
m e a r h m. marrow as, merurh 223. 
(3e)m^n[c]gan w. 1 wia? opt. 3d. 

s. mengc I617; imp. 2d. s. meng 

43 816 etc, mencg lOis, ^emeng 



Delcourt, Medicina de Quadrupedibus. 



34 



Glossary. 



1622,3emengc 14u; pp. ^emenged 

12i4 14i2 etc. 
meoluc f. tnilk gs. IGe; as. 2O25. 
metan w. 1 dream of opt. 3d. s. 

mete I65. 
mi(y)cel adj. ^rm?, hig gns. my- 

cles [Se] ; ams. micelne SOe — sup. 

m £6 s t ampl. maeste 2i2, 
micga m. urine as. migga 1624. 
mid prep. wd. with 2i5 223 etc. ; 

wa. 16u II adv. therewith IO15 

12i4 14i7 2O5. 
m i ^ (y) 1 1 a n w. 1 melt pp. ^emylted 

IO22. 
mlgan 1 »iake water M. ])\. mi^- 

aa 2O12. 
miht f. sfrength ds. mihte 45. 
milte mf. spleen gs. miltan 814 

lOe; as. miltan 815 IO7. ' 
mona m. moon ns. 61; gs. 62. 
morbeam m. mulberry-tree gs. 

morbeames 621; ds. morbeame 

619; as. 64. 
mul m. mule dpl. mule 48. 
mu|) m. moiith ds. mupe 45. 

N 
n a (m a r e) adv. no more 618. 
naedre f. snake gs. naerdran 82; 

npl. neardran 22?; gpl. uardran 

226; apl. ntedran 812. 
ngefre adv. nerer [%] 623. 
naht ne adv. not 4i6 n. — ds. (lo) 

nahte as naught 1225. 
nama m. name ds. 2i2 22i, 
nappung cf. hnappung. 
n a |) e r ne . . ne cj. neither . . nor 

1225. 

ne cj. not 2i6 I225 22^0 ne .. ne 
neither . . nor . . nor 2i7 613. 

nead-|)earf f. need ns. 613. 

nearo(w-) adj. narrow afs. nearwe 
lOio. 

neat n. animal ds. neate 4*. 



n^bb n. nose ds. nebbe 149. 
n^bcorn n. pimple apl. 142o 142i. 
uQmnan w. 1 call 3d. s. nemned 

2io. 
neopan adv. beneath 126. 
n^tel f. nettle gs. netelan I62. 
3enie(y)dan w. 1 compel 3d. s. 

3enyde9 I221. 
n I e (y) t e n n. animal ns. 2io ; dpl. 

nitennuw 4i8. 
niht f. night dpl. nyhtuw? 49; 

apl. 46. 
(3e)ni(y)man 4 take ger. nimen 
22i6; Ist. s. nime 222 610; 3d. s. 
^enimej) 22i8; opt. 2d. s. nyme 
610; 3d. s. ni(y)me 617 20*; imp. 
2d. s. nim 4i2 64, nin 143, ^enim 
611 IO14. 
^enip n. darkness ds. ^enipe 22». 
niwe adj. netv nms. I613 1615; 
dms. niwum 1428, niwen 47", afs. 
nife I825; ans. 168. 
^eniwian w. 2 renew imp. 2d. s. 

^enywa 818. 
nos|)yrl n. nostril as. nos{)rul 

I612; apl. nos|)urlo 14io. 
nosu f. nose ds. nose I611. 
nyJ)or adj. lower dms. ny|)eran 
69 616. 



Octavianus Lt. prop. m. Octcc- 

vian ds. octaviano 23. 
of adv. off 2i3 168 1| prep. wd. off 

64 Sii—from 624 149 etc. 
ofer adv. thereon I614 — orer (\et\) 

42 II prep. wa. after 222. 
o f e r s 1 se p m. oversleeping ds. 

oferslaepe 122. 
ofslean 6 kill Ist. s. ofslean 2i3. 
oft adv. often IO9 IO15. 
oman fpl. erysipelas apl. 16? 169 

2O13. 
on adv. on 4i9 12^ I616 etc. || prep. 



Glossary. 



35 



wd. in i2i4 4? etc, metaph. 2io 

2u etc. — on 4* 620 etc. — duriny 

4io; wa. in metaph, IO17— o»i 6i5 

6j5 — into 822, metaph. I611. 
o n f n r6^.receive 3d. s. onfeah|) I63. 
ongietan 5 wa. feel 2d. s. ongyfl 

2220. 
onhrine m. contact ns. 2i8. 
onlutan 2 how down over (some- 

thing) imp. 2d. s. onkit 68. 
onstredan w. 1 sprcad pp. on- 

^estreded 14;. 
onwe^ adv. away Sis I812 etc. 
[od dat cj. till 4?.] 
o{)er adj. otlier nms. 20u; dns. 

o|)rum I814. 
o{)feaIIan rd. fall aivay 3d. s. 

o|)fealle9 12io. 
o|)f) cj. or 2i4 222 etc. 
o|){)(dd)er cj. o;- 2i8 14io 14^6 

18i4 22i2, odder 12^3 22i2 24^. 



panne f. pan ds. pannuw I220. 
peni^ m. penny gp. peni^e 84. 
pollege f. pulegium, penny-royal 

as. 242. 
pyle m. pillow as. pule 2O20. 

B 

ramm m. ram gs, rammes ISio 

18i7 etc. 
rade adv, soon 42 lOi 14? 14ii. 
readi^an w. 2 become rcd opt. 

3d. s. readige 66. 
recan w, 1 steam pp, ^ereced I812. 
recels n. incense gs. receleslSs; 

as. I62. 
reste-^emana m. scxual inter- 

coursc gs. resle-^emanan I63. 
r i n d f. 7-ind as. rinde 20i. 



sffid n. seed as. saed I62. 
sand n. sand as. I820. 



sar n. pain ns. 12« ISe; ds. sare 

614 etc, sara 10i4 IO21 etc. ; as. 

816 1422 etc ; apl. 182« || adj. 

sore afs. sara I811; nnpl. sara 2O3. 
scadan rd. shed imp. 2d. s. sced 

22ii. 
sceafan 6 shave [imp. 2d. s. sceaf 

12i6]; pp, ^esceawen I223. 
s c e a 1 1 a n npl. testicles apl. sceallan 

1226, sceallan 425, sceallen 821 IO9, 

scellan 22i2. 
scearn n. dung as. 20i4. 
scearp adj. sharp dms, scearpun 

I69. 
sc^nc m. cup as. Se. 
sc^{){)an 6 scathe 3d. sce|)|)es 

2l6 4l7, 

scq{){)u t.injury dp.sce{)|)UJH 125. 

scille f. shell apl. scille 168. 

scinlac n. phantom npl. 2O19; 
apl. I65 22i 222. 

scir adj. pure dns. scirum 129. 

scoh m. shoe gs. sceos IO23; dpl. 
seon 420. 

scurf m. scurf dpl. scurfuwi I819. 

scytel (m.) dung as. 823. 

s S , s e , {) (d) ae (a) t dem. pron. & 
mod. art. thut, the nms. 6u lOia, 
J)e 23; nfs. 4ii 1221; nns. 12«, 
5 29819; gms. |)(d)aes 21221985, 
|)as 221 etc, gfs. hara 4i9, gns. 
|)as 4» IO15, {)a3S |)e with comp. 
the IO25; dms. |)am 20i8, {)(d)an 
67 616 etc; dfs. {)are 62«; dns. 
{)am 49, {)an 63 67 etc. ; ams, 
{)ane 220 223 etc; {)(d)one 220 
I618, {)ana ISis; afs, {)a 616 lOs 
etc, {)e 4i4, {) I811; ans. 2ii 824 
etc, {) 2io 223 etc, {)a 6» ; i. {)i 1 64 ; 
npl. {)a 1420 2O19; dpl. {)am 129 
12ii 2O12, {)an 4i2 127 ; apl. l>{d)s. 
27 2ii I69 etc II rel. pron. that, 
which nns. 619; ams. {) 20ii; dpl. 
tJiat which nns. {) 4i6. 

3* 



36 



Glossary. 



sealf(e) f. ointment iis. l"22i I82; 

ds. sealfe 10 1; as. sealfe 624 IO5. 
sealt n. salt ds. sealte 43; as. I819. 
sel adv. ledl 810 IOib. 
sQllan w. 1 give imp. 2d. s. sy(i)le 

128 12i7 1226 166; pp. ^eseald 

IO12 122 20i3. 
seofan num. seven 1%. 
seofontyne num. sevenfeen 62. 
seolc-read cf. weolc-read. 
seolfor n. silver seolfre 2i4. 
(5e)seo|)(9)an 2 boil opt. 3d. s. 

seode 425; imp. 2d. s. seo9 2O9, 

3eseo&46, seod I220; pp. ^esoden 

423 lOii 1^4 I823, ^esodene 12i9, 

^esodan 14i. 
s e s t e r m. measure, pitcher ds. 85 ; 

dp. sestruwt 4?, sesterum 209, 
seaw n. juice ds. siwe 1423. 
setl-gang m. setting ds. setl- 

gange 62. 
s^ttan w. 1 put pp. ^esetted 124, 

^esedet I611. 
^esihj) f. sight ds. ^esihpe 20i7. 
si(y)nu f. sinew gpl. si(y)na I85 

222; apl. si(y)na lOu 12i5. 
siJ)J)(dd)an adv. aftertvards 2i3 

I811. 
sljep m. sleep ds. slaepe I610 2O20; 

as. I611. 
s 1 ge p a n rd. sleep 3d. s. slaeped 2O21. 
smael adj. fine afs. (taken adver- 

bially) smsel I817. 
smale adv. finely 22^2. 
smeru n. grease ds. smeruwe 

I622; as. 827 I819. 
smie(i, y)ran w. 1 anoint opt. 

3d. s. smira 2O5; imp. 2d. s. 

y 
smi(y)re 4^ 819 IO24 etc, smere 

1220, smyra 14i7, smure 2^4 817 

etc, smura I81; pp. 5esmi(y)red 

12i4 14i9 2O23, ^esm^red 14i3. 

[snytro f. prudence gs. 25.] 



^esomnian w. 2 gather opt. 3d. 

s. ^esomne 620. 
sona adv. soon 61 8io etc 
sol n. soot as. I819. 
spiw|)a m. vomiUng ds. spiwan 

208. 
standan 6 stand pr. p. standende 

621. 
stice m. pricking sensation ds. 

I613. 
stingan 3 thrust pp. ^estungen 

14ii. 
storm m. storm ns. 2i7. 
stow f. place as. stowelSu; dpl. 

stowuw 826; apl. stowe lOi. 
strang adj. strong nms. 2i6. 
stredan w. 1 spread imp. 2d. s. 

stred 813 227. 
5esti(y)llan w. 1 assuage 3d. s. 

5estille9 14ii, ^estyllaed 14?. 
sucan 2 such opt. 3d. s. shuca 16$. 
sum adj. some nns. 2io; afpl. su- 

muwi 12ii. 
s u m o r m. summer ds. sumera 22i9. 
sunna f. sun gs. 62, sunnan 820. 
s w a cj. as %, correl. of swylc [2^] 

correl. of hwylc cf. (5e)hwylc || 

adv. so 108; swa hwaet swa 

whatever I617; swa . . . swa so 

much . . . so much I619. 
swefel m. sulphur as. 20i4. 
s w e 5 m. noise, sounding ds. swe^e 

1422. 

swel^an 3 stvallow inf. 166; 3d. 

s. swel^ed 12is. 
swet adj. sweet dms. swete 815, 

swetan lOii; gfs. swetre 20i. 
(5e)swincan 3 labour opt. 3d. s. 

^eswince 615 ; 3d.pl. swincon 12ii. 
swlj)(9)e adv. very IO9 IO15 etc. — 

stronglt/, thoroughhj I69 I82. 
s w i |) r a comp. of s w 1 1) right 

ams.swyr9anan 220; ans.swyrf)re 

2O22. 



Glossary. 



37 



sworetungf. hard-drawn breath- 

ing as. sworetunga lOio. 
swylc adj. such as (like) nfs. 

swylce 182; [dpl. swylcum 2?]. 
swyle m. abcess apl. swylas I83 

I84 etc, swulas I810. 
sygefaest adj. victorious nms. 

sylefaest 223. 
sylf refl. pron. preceded by he 

ns. 2O11. 

T 
tae^l m. tail gs. tae^eles lOie. 
taxo Lt. ra. badger as. taxonem 

2io. 
t a w i a n w. 2 prepare pp. ^etawod 

2O18. 
teon 2 draw imp. 2d. s. teoj) I65; 

pp. tojene I619. 
leors m. membrum virile gs. 

teu'rse 1825; as.tears 2O5, ter|) I62. 
teter m. ringworm as. 818, 
till adj. good nns. 424. 
to prep. wd, for{= as a) '222—into 

89 822 etc.—to (marking motion) 

63, (object) 14ii I610 (with object 

of a verb) 14^7 I67; wg. (object) 

I63— forming ger. 4i5 4i9 83. 
tobrecan 4 break up 3d. s. to- 

brycj) lOio. 
toceorfan 3 ctit in pieces pp. 

tocorfan I818. 
tocuman 4 come 3d. s. locumed 

14l3. 

todselan w. 1 divide imp. 2d. s. 

todael 4i2. 
tDdrlfan 1 drive away 3d. s. 

todrifd I84. 
jetog n. tugging ds, ^eto^e I85. 
to^esomnian w, 2 gather opt. 

3d. s. to^esomne 621. 
(tol^c^an) w. 1 apphj pp. to- 

Seled 22i7, 
toniman 4 hold on (Gock.) 3d, s, 

nimed . . . to I221, 



tord n, piece of dting as. t8i I82 

etc. 
toslltan 1 tear asunder pp, to- 

sliten 2i9, toslitena I813. 
tosomne adv. together 14i6. 
tOstingan 3 prick to pieces imp. 

2d. s. tosting 2O22. 
to{) m. tooth npl. iep 14i 222i; 

gpl. to{)a 87; apl. tef) 2u 2i3. 
toJ)-^ce m. toothache (ds.) 1424. 
t5|)-reo(ea)ma m, gum gpl, tod 

reomera 22^2; apl. te{) reaman 

142. 

tDwri{)an 1 bind on pp. to^e- 

wri{)e» 126. 
treow n, tree ds. treowe 63 619. 
^etrymman w. 1 make strong 

3d. s. ^etrymeS 88. 
tungol n. heavenly body ns. 2i6. 
tux n. tusk ns. 222i. 
t w e g e n num, ttvo a. 85, d. twam 65. 
twig n. twig as. twi 621. 
tyd f. iime ns. 4i. 
tyrwe mf. tar ds. fyrwan lOi. 



J) cf. {)aEt & {)onne. 
{)^(a)r(e) adv. there 619 619 622 

II cj.tvhere 422 813 227. 
{)^r-on adv. thereon 22ii. 
|)£e(a)r-to adv. thereto 124 I615 

2O10 [daerto I819J. 
{)8et, J) cj. that [%] 421 etc; so 

that 2i5 I619. 
|)ae(d)ann(an)e, {)an, {)on adv. 

then 28 2ij 2i6 12io etc. || cj. when 

426 610 611 — after comp. than 66 

166. 

{)ar-mid adv. therewith IO9 2O23. 
{)e adv. with comp. the 22i3, |)a 

22i3. 
|) e rel. pron. ivho, which nms. 23 

nns. 623; dms. lO^; ams. {)a6i7; 



38 



Glossary. 



npl. 826 I814; dpl. 127 2O18; apl. 

2ii etc. 
J)eah cj. though iz 4io. 
|) e a r f f. need ns. 20i8. 
{)eoh n, ihigh apl. I83. 
J)eoh-wraec m. pain in ihe thigh 

ds. |)eo{) wrEece I82. 
J)es, {)eos, {>is dem. pron. tMs 

nms. 612 Se; nns. 421IO17; ams. 

{)isne 69; ans. 28; dpl. |)issun 

220, {)is24; apl. |)as6ii, {)us 610. 
{)ic5(e)an (5) take inf. dic^ean 

12i7; 2d. s. {)i5est 423 22i9; opt. 

3d. s. pic^e 4^6; imp. 2d. s. pic^e 

815. 
{)in poss. pron. thy dms. {jine 14$; 

dfs. {)inre 28 64; dns. {)ine 2i5; 

npl. {)ine 4i4; gpl. {)inra [25], 

linra 4i3; dpl. {)(d)inum 4i3 4i4, 

{)inum 4i9, {)ine 42o 42i; apl. {)ine 

2l3. 

{) i n d a n 3 szfj^ZZ opt. 3d. s. {)inde 

I621. 
5e {) o 1 i 5 a n w. 2 remain opt. 3d. s. 

jefjolige 620. 
{)rie, {)(d)reo num. three d. 

{)ry(i)m 4? 49 2O9; am. {)ri 426; 

af. 46. 
{) (d) r i (y) d d a num. adj. third nms. 

{)rindan 2O9 {jryddan 4?; ams. 

{)riddan 128. 
{)riti5 num. thirty 12io. 
{)riwa adv. thrice 14i7. 
{)(9)rOwian w. 2 suffer 3d. pl. 

{)rowia{) 827; 9rowiad 22i; opt. 

3d. pl. drowion 22i. 
{)u pers. pron. thou ns. [26] 223 

elc; ds. {)e 2i3 [Qis] etc; as. {)e 

28 2i3 etc. 
{)uma m. thtimb ds. {)uman 65. 
{)urh prep. wa. through I65, durh 

45. 

{)us adv. ^Tws 2* [^e] 2i2. 



(^e) {) y (i) n n i a n w. 2 diminish 3d. 

s. ge{)inne{) I422. 
{)ystru f. obsciirity ds. {)ystru 228. 

u ■ 

ufan adv. above 125. 

under prep. wa. under I610 2O20. 

[un^eseond pr. p. blind ams. 

un^eseondne 222o.] 
u n h s 1 o f. disease as. unhaele 20i3. 
unhal adj. used as a subst. un- 

sound ns. unhala 2O20. 
unhalw^ndlic adj. incurable dfs. 

unhalwendlicre 4ii. 
^eunstillian w. 2 disturb 3d. 

pl. 5eunstilla{) 20i9. 
un^ew^ndlic adj. chronic dfs. 

unjewendedlicre 4ii. 
lip(p) adv. up 67 67 620. 
upgangm. rising ds. upgange 820. 
upryne m. rising ds. 63. 
utan adv. outside I623. 
ate adv. sup. ytemest adj. ex- 

treme ns. ytemesta lOie. 
ut gang m. amis as. ISis. 

W 

w ae c c e f. sleeplessness as. waeccen 

I611. 
5ew«5e n. weight is. 8*. 
wsepned dA].male as. I222 12^7. 
w^t n. tcater as. waete I810. 
wseta m. wet ds. waetan ISis — 

(ewil) humour as. waetan 83 16is 

I620. 
^ewsetan w. 1 ivet imp. 2d. s. 

^ewaet IO14. 
waeter n. water gs. 6i3 209 etc. 

ds. W8e(a)tere 811 2O7. 
\va5ung f. shakvig ds. wa^ujiga 

87. 
w amb f. tvomb ns. wambe I619; gs. 

wambe Se; as. wambe 616, wamba 

220. 



Glossary. 



39 



w a m b e - w r a c f. pain of womh ds. 

wambe - w}'aBce 142. 
jewanian w. 2 dinnnish 3d. s. 

^ewana|) 2O23. 
wat pret. pr. know ger. ^ewitenne 

28. 

wearm adj. wann dns. wS,rme 

12l2. 

wearr m. callosity apl. wearras 

I810, wearres I813. 
wearte f. ivart dpl. wirtan lOs; 

apl. weartan IO9. 
wel adv. tvell 421 I61 etc. 
w e n a n w. 1 ween [1 st. s. wene 26] ; 

3cl. s. wenej) 20ii. 
weolc-read adj. crimson dns. 

seolc readuw 612. 
wer m.man ns. 12^5 ; gs. weres 2O4. 
werod n. host dpl. weredun 4^3. 
wexan rd. grow 3d. s. wexed I222; 

3d. pl. wexaj) 142o; opt. 3d. pl. 

14i, Avexan 222i. 
wif n. ivoman ns.62j etc; gs. wifes 

616 I61; ds. TOfe 1226; gpl. wifa 

826 I87; dpl. wyfam 12?. 
wif-lust m. sexual lust gpl. wif- 

lusta 425. 
wifman m. wmnan ns. 2O24. 
wif-jemanam. sexual intercourse 

gs. wif-jemanon 822; as. wid- 

^emanan 820, wid-^emanen 22ii. 
wif-|)ing n. sexual intercourse 

dpl. wif-J)ingun IO16 IO17, fif- 

I)ingu»id 22i3. 
wi(y)ldeor n. wild beast ns. 421; 

gpl. wyldeora %. 
willa m. tvill ds. willan as. willan 

I61 2O4. 
wi(y)llan anv. tvish, desire Ist. s. 

wylle 421 ; opt. 2d. s. wylle 623. 
w i 11 a n w. 1 boil imp. 2d. s. wul 

2O1, wulle 243. 
wille wseter n. spring ds. wille- 

waetera 426. 



wln n. wine gs. wines 85 822; ds. 

wine 8io 12io etc. 
^ewindan 3 wind ujj imp. 2d. s. 

^ewind 612. 
^ewinn n. hardship ds. jewinne 

4i8 ; as. ^evvin 42o. 
wiunan 3 suffer opt. 3d. pl. win- 

non 4*. 
[^ewis adj. certain ns. %]. 
vvi(y)se f. ns. wysa 4ii. 
wislice adv. wisely Ss. 
^e w i (y) t a n 1 depart away 3d . s. 

^ewytej) 43 2O2. 
witiga m. prophet gs. witigan 22o. 
w i d prep. vvd. teith is 816 etc. — wd. 

against 82 20i7 etc, wid 4i8 IO23 

11 12 125; vva. 826 IO12 I617 183etc 

— for wd. 206; wa. 823; wid J) in 

order that 1227 222i. 
widstandan 6 op2>05e 3d. s. wid- 

standej) I612. 
wlasc adj. luTcewarm nms. 14^4. 

w I se 1 1 a m. nausea ds. waetan 20$, 

waeten 12i9. 
wol mf. pestilence us. wol 4i6; gs. 

woles 4i8; ds. wole 4*. 
wol-berende adj. pestilential nns. 

2l7. 

vvom m. spot, hlot, unsightliness, 
as. 1422; apl. wommas22i6, vvom- 
as 22i8. 

vvord n. word dpl. wordum 24, 
vvorde 221 ; apl. word 6u. 

vvorms nm. matter, pus ns. wur- 
mas (!) I625 wum 20s. 

wracu f. acute pain ds. wjBce IO23. 

(3e)wri(y)|)an 1 bind imp. 2d. s. 
wrip 615 616, wry|) 2O22, ^ewryd 
1622;pp.3ewri|)en I615, ^evvryj^an 

124. 

wude-bucca m. wild goat ns. 
149; gs. wudu-bucca 14i8, wude- 
buccan 14i2. 



40 



Glossary, 



wudu-gat f. tvild goat gs. wudu- 

gate 14i6 1425, wudegete 14^7. 
wulf m. loolf gs. fulfes 14? 14io 

20i7. 
wull f. ivool ns. wul 18io. 
wullian w. 2 wipe with wool imp. 

2d. s. willa I820. 
wund i. ivound (ds.) wunde 14^7; 

apl. wunda I813. 
wunderliceadv. wonderfully lOt 

IO5 etc, wundelice IO12 I622. 
w^ u n d r i a n w. 2 wonder wg. 3d. s. 

wundra|) 20ii. 
wun d-springm.M?c<;rdpl. wund- 

sprin^uwi ISie. 
wurd adj. worthy ams. wurde 28. 
wylfen f. s/ie-jfo/fgs. fulfuneSO^s. 



wynstre f. adj. left ds. wynstran 

Gi. 
wyrm ra. worm apl. wyrmas 810 

wurmas 812. 
wy(i)rcan w. 1 work, make imp. 

2d. s. wy(i)rc 621 2O7 22i2; pp. 

:;eworht I823. 



y(i)fel adj. had nms. 2i7; dfs. yfele 
2O17 II n. evil gs. yfeles 2i8 2i8 
hifeles 424; ds. yfele 45. 

ylpen-ban n. ivory as. 22i7. 

y m b h w y r f t m. circumference, 
turning as, embehwyrft 4^2 ; dnl. 
ymbhwyrftum 4i3. 

ytemest cf. ute. 



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