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Full text of "The medicinal plants of the Philippines"

MEDICAL 




PHAPMAHY 



IN MEMORIAE 
DR. M.H. SIMMONS 



MEDICINAL PLANTS 

OP THE 

PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO 



THE 

MEDICINAL PLANTS 



OF THE 



PHILIPPINES 



BY 

T. H. PAKDO DE TAYERA 

DOCTOR EN MEDICINA DE LA FACULTAD DE PARIS, COMISIONADO CIENTIFICO DE S. M. EN 

LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS Y DELEGADO GENERAL EN LAS MISMAS DE LA SOCIETE 

ACADEMIQUE INDO-CHINOISE DE FRANCIA, MIEMBRO FUNDADOR COR- 

RESPONDIENTE DE LA SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE HIGIENE, ETC. 



TRANSLATED AND KE VISED BY 
JEROME B. THOMAS, JR., A.B., M.D. 

CAPTAIN AND ASSISTANT SURGEON, U. S. V. 




PHILADELPHIA : 
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO. 

1012 WALNUT STREET. 

1901 



Copyright, 1901, by 
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & Co. 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 

This translation was undertaken with the especial object of 
facilitating the study of the native medicinal plants by the 
numerous medical officers stationed at small posts throughout 
the Philippines. In order to aid in the recognition of these 
plants, the botanical descriptions have been revised to the ex- 
tent of adding, where possible, the size and shape of the plant, 
English name, length of leaves, color of flowers, etc., in many 
instances supplying the entire botanical description where it 
had been omitted on account of general familiarity with the 
plant. Comparing the few analyses that I have had an oppor- 
tunity to make with corresponding ones in the native works 
from which Dr. Tavera has taken his botanical descriptions, I 
am impressed with the necessity for a revision of the Botany of 
the Philippines. However, as the therapeutic properties of the 
flora are of foremost interest to the medical profession I have 
not hesitated to publish the book in its present form as an enter- 
ing wedge, leaving to those better fitted the great work of classi- 
fying the flora of these islands in accordance with modern botan- 
ical science. 

Dr. Tavera has faithfully described the Malay and Hindu 
therapeutics of the present day, enriching his description by ob- 
servations founded on a long practice in Paris and* in his own 
native Luzon. From this potpourri of scientific therapeutics 
and ignorant, superstitious drugging the interested physician 
will elicit not a few useful data concerning the treatment of 
disease in the tropics, and at the same time gain a more inti- 
mate knowledge of both the people and plants of our new Asiatic 
possessions. 

I take this occasion to gratefully acknowledge my obliga- 
tions to Mr. A. P. Tonielli, stenographer and translator of the 
Supreme Court of the Philippines, for typewriting the manu- 
script of this translation. 

JEROME B. THOMAS, JR. 

MANILA, P. I. 



PREFACE. 

Commissioned by His Majesty's Government to study the 
medicinal plants of my native country, I returned there and 
spent two years in collecting data regarding the use that the 
Filipinos make of their plants in the treatment of disease. 
At the same time I collected and carefully preserved some 
with the purpose of taking them to Europe, to study their 
chemical composition in the laboratories of Paris under the direc- 
tion of the eminent men who had been my instructors in medicine. 

The work I did in the Philippines was preliminary, a prepa- 
ration for the more extended study of the subject which I 
wished to make in Paris, where I went with my notes and col- 
lection. Unfortunately, upon leaving Manila, I confided the 
mounting and pressing of my plants to an inexperienced person 
who stupidly placed in the midst of them several succulent 
tubers which decomposed during the voyage and spoiled the 
other plants. At the same time I received in Paris an im- 
portant collection of the vegetable drugs of the Philippines, 
sent by my friend the pharmacist, M. Rosedo Garcia, and des- 
tined for the World's Fair of 1889. I opened with great 
pleasure the wood and zinc box in which the collection came, 
anticipating that I should be able to carry out my plan of 
study and at the same time win for my friend, Garcia, a well- 
deserved premium. Imagine my disappointment upon finding 
that, by an unfortunate coincidence, his plants had arrived in 
the same condition as mine, having also been packed with 
tubers of ubi, gabi, etc., and several cocoanuts which had de- 
composed. 

Many times since then I have tried to obtain from Manila, 
through exchange or payment of money, a similar collection, 
but have been unable to secure a single leaf of the plants I so 

vii 



Vlll PREFACE 

desired. If in the future I have the good fortune to procure 
any, I shall make a study of those at hand and publish the 
results. 

I herewith publish the results of my investigations and ex- 
periments in Manila, where, especially in the neighboring towns 
of San Mateo and San Miguel, I often had opportunities for 
using, with good results, the plants of which this volume 
treats. I may add that in spite of the limited means at my 
disposal in Manila and the short time left me by my regular 
occupations I was able to conduct a few laboratory experi- 
ments owing to which this work contains some personal obser- 
vations reinforcing those quoted from medical literature. 

The flora of the Archipelago is known to-day through the 
works of Fathers Blanco, Llanos, Fernandez del Yillar and 
Naves, and of the engineers Jordano, the brothers Vidal and 
Soler and others who have brought such honor to Spanish 
science, preparing the way for the study of the therapeutic and 
industrial applications of that wonderfully rich plant life with 
which our islands have been endowed. Their works help us 
to recognize the plants whose medicinal virtues are herein de- 
scribed and it is to them I owe the botanical descriptions in 
this treatise. 

Father Blanco, in describing certain plants, mentions their 
medicinal uses in the Philippines, but his descriptions are few 
and very deficient as one would expect in a work of the scope 
of his Flora. A Jesuit of some reputation, Father Clain, pub- 
lished in Manila in 1712 a book entitled "Kemedios faciles 
para diferentes enfermedades ? " in which he speaks of the 
medicinal virtues of some of the indigenous plants, almost the 
same ones that appear in another work, a frank and pleasing 
little treatise written by Father Santa Maria. Father Mer- 
cado is the only one who has written a special treatise on the 
subject and his manuscript remained unedited until the Augus- 
tinian Fathers of Manila published it in the last edition of 



PREFACE IX 

Father Blanco's " Flora" ; but neither this work nor those 
of Clain or Santa Maria are useful to a physician, nor are they 
as accurately written as works of a scientific character should 
be. From time to time superficial articles have appeared in 
the Manila papers regarding the virtues of some plant or other 
and these books and articles comprise the whole literature on 
the subject up to this time. 

Some physicians regard with small favor the therapeutic 
application of plants by the Filipino "herb-doctors" (curande- 
ros) as being entirely empirical. This disparagement is un- 
justified because in all the most rational and scientific remedies 
that we make use of, the first step towards the final develop- 
ment of their relative position among remedies is due to em- 
piricism which is founded on daily experience, on observation 
of results obtained in specific cases, facts that are handed down 
from father to son for generations. The scientific explanation 
is lacking, but those first ideas frequently owing their origin to 
chance, or, perhaps, to superstition, have often been based upon 
the observation of facts which, although fortuitous, are none 
the less positive. 

Many of the plants mentioned in this book are official in the 
Pharmacopoeia of India and we see no reason why their use 
should be proscribed in the Philippines. Filipino physicians 
not only can but should employ many indigenous plants in their 
therapeutics; in many instances they would find them more 
useful than the exotics, which are not always fresh and are 
commonly reduced in strength by long keeping or damaged by 
some circumstance of voyage or climate. The price is another 
argument in favor of the use of native drugs. If the pharma- 
cists would prepare extracts and keep on hand the crude drugs 
most in demand the public would gain a great advantage and 
the druggists be well repaid for their labor. Physicians and 
pharmacists will surely understand these advantages and when 
finally one considers that the patients generally prefer to be 



X PREFACE 

treated with native plants, I feel justified in the hope that their 
use will spread rapidly in the Philippines. 

To employ therapeutically the drugs described in this work 
is not to experiment " in anima vilis," as some would have us 
believe. To experiment is to employ unknown remedies of 
unknown virtues and properties. 

In this treatise I am not attempting to fix the indications for 
this or that product, but simply make known the diseases in 
which the Filipinos and the natives of other countries employ 
the products. Any physician has a perfect right to prescribe 
these drugs, as have also the " curanderos " and even the laity, 
with this difference, however, that the physician is capable of 
observing results and guiding himself by the physiologic action 
of the drugs. His knowledge of the physiologic and anatomo- 
pathologic problems of the human body, will enable the phy- 
sician to make scientific inferences that would be hidden from 
the common " curandero." 

As neither the Manila nor the provincial physicians keep 
these medicinal plants in stock, with the exception of those 
that are official in the European and American pharmacopeias, 
it will be necessary for the physician who wishes to use them, 
to busy himself with seeking them and laying in a sufficient 
stock to serve him when the opportunity presents itself. It is 
necessary to preserve them by drying and this is best done by 
exposing them several days to the fresh air in a dry place 
for example, the corridors of the house being careful not to 
expose them to the rays of the sun, in which latter event the 
fleshy and juicy plants which do not desiccate rapidly, putrefy 
or ferment. 

A convenient way to get them is to visit the Binondo Square 
where there has been market for native drugs from time im- 
memorial. The gardeners from the neighboring towns, es- 
pecially those from Pasay and Singalon, regularly offer the 
plants for sale and will undertake to supply you with any that 



PREFACE XI 

may not be on hand. Inasmuch as the common names of the 
plants lead to many mistakes and much confusion, it is indis- 
pensable to acquaint one's self with the description of the plant 
and be sure that the actual product conforms in all respects to 
the description. For this purpose it is well to obtain flowering 
specimens, and bearing this fact in mind I have been careful to 
indicate the flowering season of each plant. By making ex- 
cursions to the towns of San Mateo and Angono I have ob- 
tained an abundance of whatever I sought and at the same time 
have learned by talking with the mountaineers and " curande- 
ros," what uses they make of their plants. The " curanderos " 
know a great deal concerning these uses, but become very 
reticent as soon as they are questioned about them. Whether 
it is dread of ridicule or selfishness or fear that silences them, 
the fact remains that it is no easy matter to glean any useful 
facts from them. And yet by tact and friendliness one may 
elicit much more information from them than first impressions 
would lead one to hope. 

Leaves should be gathered when fully developed, rejecting 
the old, dried and worm-eaten ones. 

The best time to gather bark is one month before the period 
of inflorescence, when it is rich in sap. The flowers are best 
gathered when about half expanded. The fruit is gathered 
green or ripe according to the active principle sought. The 
seeds should always be mature. 

Not all parts of the plant are equally provided with the 
active principle which may be localized in the root or the 
flower ; or distinct principles may exist in different parts of the 
same plant. Therefore the part indicated, and only that part, 
should be employed. 

In the root the active substance usually resides in the bark, 
sometimes in the parenchyma that envelopes the woody tissue 
and rarely in the woody tissue itself, as, for example, in " rhu- 
barb " and " pareira brava." 



xil PREFACE 

The stem bark is also a frequent seat of the active principle, 
of which the outer portion contains the greater amount, accord- 
ing to the valuable experiments of Howard. 

Some plants owe their therapeutic importance to their wood, 
others to their leaves or flowers, and regarding the localization 
of the active principle in these parts we have nothing especial 
to indicate. The fruit, however, may have a pericarp consist- 
ing of mucilage, starch, sugar and gum, etc., while the seeds 
contain fatty matter, fixed or essential oils or alkaloids, as is 
the case with coffee and cacao. In view of these facts, we re- 
peat that it is indispensable to use that part of each plant which 
I have indicated as applicable to a determined case or condi- 
tion. 

I earnestly hope that the physicians and pharmacists prac- 
tising in the Philippines may undertake investigations and 
experiments regarding the therapeutic properties of the plants 
of my native land, and that my endeavors may have acted as 
a stimulus or inspiration to the loyal and earnest study of the 
subjects that are now awakening such interest, not only in 
Europe and America, but in India and Japan. 

I should be pleased to receive notes, plants or reports of 
researches from any one interested in the subject matter of this 
book, and I shall consider it a pleasure, as well as a duty, to 
devote my forces, small as they may be, to aiding any one who 
may do me the honor to claim my assistance. 

T. H. P. DE TAVERA. 

PARIS, April, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



DICOTYLEDONOUS, POLYPETALOUS. 

DILLENIACE.E Tetracera macrophylla 17-18 

MAGNOLIACE^E Illicium anisatum, Michelia Champaca 18-20 

ANONACE^E Artabotrys odoratissimus, Anona squamosa, A. 

reticulata, A. muricata 20-22 

MENISPERMACE^: Tinospora crispa, Anamirta Cocculus, 

Cissampelos Pareira 22-27 

NYMPH^EACE^E Nymphsea Lotus, Nelumbium nucifera 27-28 

P APAVERACEJE Argemone Mexicana 29-30 

CRUCIFER^: Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus 30-31 

CAPPARIDACE.E Cleome viscosa, Cratseva religiosa 31-32 

BIXINE^E Bixa Orellana, Pangium edule 32-34 

PORTULACACE^E Portulaca oleracea 34 

GUTTIFER.E Garcinia mangostana, G. venulosa, G. Cam- 
bogia, G. morella, Ochrocarpus pentapetalus, Calophyl- 

lum Inophyllum, Mesua ferrea 35-40 

DIPTEROCARPE^E Dipterocarpus turbinatus 40-42 

MALVACEAE Sida carpinifolia, Abutilon Indicum, Urena sin- 
uata, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, H. tiliaceus, H. Rosa-Sinen- 
sis, Thespesia populnea, Gossypium herbaceum, Bombax 

malabaricum, Eriodendron anfractuosum 42-51 

STERCULIACEJE Sterculia foetida, S. urens, Kleinhovia hos- 
pitata, Helicteres Ixora, Abroma fastuosa, Theobroma 

Cacao 51-57 

GERANIACE^E Oxalis corniculata, Biophytum sensitivum, 

Averrhoa Bilimbi, A. Carambola 58-61 

RTJTACE^E Ruta graveolens, Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum, 
Murraya exotica, M. Koenigi, Citrus acida, Bigaradia 

decumana, ^Egle decandra, Feronia elephantum 61-70 

SIMARUBACE^E Samadera Indica 71-72 

BURSERACE.E Garuga pinnata, Canarium commune 72-75 

MELIACE^E Melia Azedarach, Dysoxylum Blancoi, Sandori- 

cum Indicum, Carapa Moluccensis, Cedrela Toona 75-80 

CELASTRACE^: Celastrus paniculata 80-81 

RHAMNACE^: Zizyphus Jujuba, Rhamnus Wightii 81-82 

ANACARDIACE^: Mangifera Indica, Anacardium occidentale, 

Odina Wodier 82-86 

xiii 



XIV CONTENTS 



Moringa pterygosperma ............................... 86-88 

LEGUMINOSJE (PAPILIONACE^:) Agati grandiflora, Abrus pre- 
catorius, Mucuna pruriens, ErythrinaIndica,Clitoria ter- 
natea, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. Indicus, P. erinaceus, 
Pongamia glabra .......... .......................................... 88-95 

LEGUMINOS^: (CuESALPiNE^T-^Qsesalpinia Bonducella, C. 
Sappan, C. pulcherrima, Cassia fistula, C. occidentalis, C. 
alata, Tamarindus Indica, Bauhinia malabarica ........... 96-106 

LEGUMINOSJE (MIMOSEJE) Entada scandens, Parkia Rox- 

burghii, Acacia Farnesiana ....................................... 106-109 

CRASSULACE^E Kalanchoe laciniata ................................. 109-110 

COMBRETACE.E Terminalia Catappa, T. Chebula, Quisqualis 

Indica ................................................................... 110-113 

MYRTACEVE Psidium pomiferum, Eugenia Jambolana ........ 113-116 

MELASTOMACE^: Melastoma malabatrichum ..................... 116-117 

LYTHRACE^E Ammannia vesicatoria, Lawsonia alba, Punica 

Granatum .............................................................. 117-122 

ONAGRACE^: Jussisea suffruticosa ................................... 122-123 

PASSIFLORACE^E Carica Papaya ...................................... 123-127 

CUCURBITACE^E Trichosanthes palmata, T. anguina, T. cu- 
cumerina, Lagenaria vulgaris, var. Gourda, var. cour- 
gourda, var. clavata, LufFa ^Egyptiaca, Momordica 
balsamina, M. charanta, Citrullus Colocynthis .............. 127-134 

FICOIDE^: Trianthema monogyna ................................... 134 

UMBELLIFER^E Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Carum copticum, 

Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum .................... 134-138 

CORNACE^: Alangium Lamarkii ..................................... 138-139 

DICOTYLEDONOUS, GAMOPETALOUS. 

RuBiACE^as Hymenodictyon excelsum, Oldenlandia corym- 
bosa, Eandia dumetorum, Ixoracoccinea,Coffea Arabica, 
Morinda citrifolia bracteata, M. tinctoria, Psederia foetida. 

140-149 

COMPOSITE: Eupatorium Ayapana, Blumea balsamifera, 
Sphceraiithus Indicus, Spilanthes Acmella, Artemisia 
vulgaris, Carthamus tinctorius .................................. 149-155 

PLUMBAGINE^: Plumbago Zeylanica .............................. 155-156 

SAPOTACE^: Achras Sapota, Mhnusops Elengi .................. 156-158 

OLE ACE.E Jasminum Sambac ......................................... 158-159 

APOCYNACE.E Allamanda cathartica, Thevetia nerifolia, 
Cerbera Odallam, Plumeria acutifolia, Alstonia scholaris, 
Kerium odorum ...................................................... 159-167 

ASCLEPIADACE^E Calotrops gigantea, Tylophora asthniatica. 167-170 
LOGANIACE^: Strychnos Ignatii ..................................... 171-173 

BORAGINACE^: Ehretia buxifolia. . . 173 



CONTENTS XV 

CONVOLVTJLACE.E Ipomoea hederacea, I. pes-caprse, I. Tur- 

pethum 174-176 

SOLANACE.E Solanum nigrum, Capsicum fastigiatum, Da- 
tura alba, Nicotiana Tabacum 176-182 

SCROPHULARIACE^: Limnophila menthastrum 182-183 

BIGNONIACE^E Oroxylum Indicum 183-184 

PEDALIACE^: Sesamum Indicum 184-185 

ACANTHACE.E Acanthus ilicifolius, Barleria Prionitis, Jus- 
ticia Gendarussa, Adhatoda vasica, Khinacanthus com- 

munis 185-190 

VERBENACE^E Lippia nodiflora, Tectona grandis, Vitex tri- 

folia, Y. Negundo, Clerodendron infortunatum 190-194 

LABIATE Ocimum basilicum, O. gratissimum, O. sanctum, 
Coleus aromaticus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Anisomeles 

ovata, Leucas aspera 195-199 

PLANTAGINACE.E Plantago erosa 199 

NYCTAGINACE^: Mirabilis Jalapa 199-200 

AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus spinosus, Achyranthes ob- 

tusifolia 200-202 

CHENOPODIACE M Chenopodium ambrosioides 202-203 

ARISTOLOCHIACE^E Aristolochia Indica 203-204 

PIPERACE^ Piper Betle, P. nigrum 204-207 

CHLOR ANTH ACE^E Chloranthus officinalis 207-208 

LAURACE^E Cinnamomum pauciflorum, C. tamala, Cassytha 

filiformis 208-210 

EUPHORBIACE^E Euphorbia pilulifera, E. neriifolia, E. Tiru- 
calli, Phyllanthus reticulatus, P. Niruri, P. urinaria, Ja- 
tropha Curcas, Aleurites Moluccana, Croton Tiglium, 
Acalypha Indica, Echimus Philippensis, Ricinus com- 

munis 210-223 

URTICACE^: Artocarpus integrifolia, Laportea gaudichau- 

diana 223-225 

CASUARINE^E Casuarina Sumatrana 225-226 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

MUSACE^: Musa paradisiaca, M. sapieutum 227-228 

ZINGIBERACE.E Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Eletta- 

ria Cardamomum 228231 

AM AR YLLIDACE^E Crinum Asiaticum 231-232 

LILIACEJE Aloes Barbadensis, Allium sativum, A. Cepa 232-234 

PALM^: Areca Catechu, Cocos nucifera, Nipa fruticans 234-238 

CYPERACE.E Cyperus rotundus 239 

GRAMINE^E Zea Mays, Andropogon Schoenanthes, Saccha- 

rum officinarum, Oriza 240-243 

BAMBUSE^ .. 243-244 



EXPLANATION. 

For the common words of the different Filipino dialects I 
have adopted the orthography which in my various treatises on 
those dialects I have demonstrated to be the easiest, most 
rational and convenient. I should be inconsistent as to my 
own theories and convictions if I continued to follow the old 
form of spelling. For the benefit of those who are not familiar 
with the matter I will state that the consonants are pronounced 
as follows : 

g always as in get. 

h gutturalized aspirate. 

k as in English. 

w always as initial w in English, win, wan. 

g as ng in sing, hung, etc. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Bic. Bicol. Pan. Pangasinan. 

Eng. English. Sp. Spanish. 

Hoc. Ilocan. Sp.-Fil. Spanish-Filipino. 

Indo-Eng. Indo-English. Tag. Tagalog. 

Pam. Pampango. Vis. Yiscayan. 



XVI 



MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 



DICOTYLEDONOUS, POLYPETALOUS. 



DILLENIACEJE. 

Tetracera macrophylla, Vail. (T. monocarpa, T. 
sarmentosa, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Malakatmon, Tag. 

USES. The wood of malakatmon is one of the best known 
and popular drugs of the Binondo * market place. It is used 
as an infusion internally in the haemoptysis of consumptives, 
and externally in the treatment of sore throat, its action being 
due to the large amount of tannin it contains. It is also em- 
ployed in Malabar in the form of an infusion of the leaves of 
the species, T. Rheedi, to treat sore throat, mixing it with a 
decoction of rice called cange. 

The Filipinos do not distinguish this species from the T. Assa. 

Both are called malakatmon, and are employed indiscrimi- 
nately to accomplish the same results. The silicious concretion 
obtained from the leaves is used as a polish in the form of 
polish paper. 

DOSE. In infusion for internal use, 4 grams of wood to 1 
liter of water; as a gargle, 10 to 15 grams to the liter. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub with leaves alternate, 

oval, serrate, finely dentate with very short and stiff hairs. 

Flowers of a strong, rather agreeable odor, axillary, in panicles. 

Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla, 4 petals. Stamens indefinite, ex- 

1 A ward or Barrio of Manila. 



18 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

panding at the upper end and bearing 2 anthers. Carpels 3, 
with ovules indefinite in two series. Seeds with red arils. 
HABITAT. In the vicinity of Manila. Blooms in July. 

MAGNOLIACEJE. 

Magnolia Family. 
Illicium anisatum, L. 

NOM. VULG. Anis estrellado, Badiana, Sp.; Sagki, Tag. ; 
Star Anise, Eng. 

USES. Although this plant does not grow in the Philippines, 
the use of its fruit is so common there that it demands a place 
in this work. It is employed chiefly as a condiment in the 
preparation of food, and its essential oil is used to prepare the 
native " anise cordial " by mixing it with alcohol obtained 
from the palm or from sugar cane. 

The decoction of the fruit is given after meals as a tea-like 
beverage, to aid digestion or for its carminative effect in flatu- 
lent colic. 

Star anise has an aromatic taste, slightly bitter and acrid, and 
a very marked perfume of anise which with its star-like form 
gives the plant one of its names. It is a very useful stimulant, 
tonic, stomachic and carminative. 

It is official in all Pharmacopoeias and the pericarp is the 
part employed. 

The dose is from 1 to 2 grains to 100 of water in infusion, 
to be taken in one draught. 

According to Schlegel it contains the following substances : 
An essential oil 4.675 ; a green waxy material which melts at 
51, a resin, a gum and saponin. The essential oil is (almost) 
identical with that of anise from which it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish it chemically. The only difference is that the former 
has a blander odor and solidifies at 1.25 instead of 10, as 
does the oil of anise. 



MICHELIA CHAMPACA 19 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The plant grows in the moun- 
tains of Yunnan, China, and in Tonquin. The part used in 
the Philippines is the fruit, being indeed the only part known 
here. This is composed of 8 woody follicles arranged about a 
central column in the form of a star. These follicles open at 
maturity and reveal the seeds, which are shining, smooth, ovoid, 
hard, of a pretty chestnut-red color. In the Philippines they 
are sold even in the smallest food- vending shops. 

Michelia Champaca, L. 

NOM. YULG. Tsampaka, Sampaka, Tag.; Champaca, Fil.- 
Span. 

USES. The bark of the trunk is well known as a febrifuge 
and emmenagogue in India. It is slightly bitter and aromatic. 
Dr. H. Folliat has used it with success in the Island of Mauri- 
tius in the treatment of the common intermittent fevers ; he 
administered the infusion (bark 30 grams, water 600 cc.) or 
the decoction (bark 30 grams, water 1,200 cc.) ; boil till reduced 
to 600 cc. giving a wine-glassful every hour just before and 
after the paroxysm. 

An astringent decoction made from the leaves is used as a 
gargle in sore throat. The root is emmenagogue and the seeds 
are used in the treatment of anal fissure. 

Dr. Hooper has found the following substances in the bark 
of the Champana : a volatile oil with a pine-like odor ; a fixed 
oil, insoluble in alcohol, melting at 15 and forming soap with 
soda ; a resin extremely bitter, acrid, brown in color ; tannin ; 
sugar ; a bitter principle, albuminoids, coloring matters, muci- 
lage and starch. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 15-18 high; leaves al- 
ternate, 6 x 2', stipulate, simple. Flowers fragrant, saifron- 
colored, hermaphrodite, solitary and axillary. The receptacle, 
conical at its base, becomes narrow, lengthens and then enlarges, 
forming a column which is bare at its narrow part. At its base 



20 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

is inserted the perianth composed of 6 overlapping leaflets ar- 
ranged in two series. Stamens indefinite, fixed in the base of 
the column of the receptacle on the superior portion of which 
are inserted the ovaries which contain many ovules arranged in 
two vertical series. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts (of the islands). 

ANONACEJE. 

Custard-Apple Family. 

Artabotrys odoratissimus, R. Br. (A. hamatus, BL; Uvaria 
Sinensis and Unona uncinata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Ilag-ilag de China, Sp.-Fil.; Alag-ilag Son- 
son, Tag. 

USES. A decoction of the leaves of this species is used to 
treat cholera in some of the islands of the Malay group ; in 
the island of Java they use for the same purpose a decoction of 
the leaves of the species A. suaveolens, BL, which is commonly 
called Susog Damulog in the Pampanga dialect. The active 
principles of these plants are so powerful that one must beware 
of giving a large dose, as hemorrhages, nervous phenomena and 
abortion may follow. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 15-18 high with leaves 
alternate, lanceolate, glabrous, and petioles very short. Flowers 
very sweet, axillary, solitary. Petals 6, fleshy, concave at the 
base. Stamens indefinite, closely packed, overlapping. Pe- 
duncle curved like a crook. 

HABITAT. Cultivated in gardens. 

Anona squamosa, L. (A. tuber osa, Rumph.) 

NOM. VULG. Ates, Tag.; Custard Apple, Eng. 
USES. The fruit of the mature ates is edible and is one of 
the most delicious that grows in the Philippines ; its white and 



ANONA RETICULATA 21 

delicately perfumed pulp has a delicious flavor. The unripe 
fruit is exceedingly astringent. The fermented juice of the 
ripe pulp is used in certain parts of America to prepare a pop- 
ular drink. The powdered seeds make a useful parasiticide 
especially when used on the scalp, but it is necessary to avoid 
getting any of the drug in the eyes on account of its irrritant 
effect. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree 8 or 9 high with leaves 
alternate, oblong, the edges pubescent. Flowers greenish-yel- 
low, axillary, solitary ; peduncle not curved. Petals 6, conver- 
gent. Stamens crowded, indefinite. Fruit fleshy, covered with 
scales or rather rounded tubercles ; beneath is the white and 
fragment pulp, covering the long-oval seeds. 

A. reticulata, L. 

NOM. VULG. Anonas, Sp.-Fil. 

USES. The fruit of this species is neither as much prized 
nor as abundant in the Philippines as that of the ates. When 
unripe it possesses the same properties as the latter. The 
large proportion of tannin which both species contain in their 
unripe state, makes them very useful in treating diarrhoea and 
dysentery. They are administered in the form of a decoction, 
by enema. The sap of the trunk is very irritating. The roots 
are used by the American Indians to treat epilepsy. Lemon 
juice is the antidote for the sap of this species. 

I wish to call attention to the similarity of the common 
name of this plant to another entirely distinct species commonly 
used in the Tagalo therapeutics ; namely, the anonag (Cordia), 
with which it must not be confused. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree 10 high with leaves 
lanceolate, pubescent. Flowers in a sort of umbel. Corolla 
like that of A. squamosa. Fruit without the plainly visible 
tubercles of the foregoing species, their presence being merely 
suggested by a sort of net traced on the surface. 



22 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

A. muricata, L. 

NOM. VULG. Guandbano, GoyabanOj Sp.-Fil. 

USES. The ripe fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties ; 
the unripe fruit is used in treating dysentery. It is said that 
the ripe fruit is used in diseases of the liver. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree with leaves oval, alternate 
and glabrous. Flower solitary, terminal, whitish. The fruit 
is much larger than that of the other species, is covered with 
scales that end in a soft point or thorn and has a very pro- 
nounced acid taste. 

HABITAT. All three species are common in all parts of the 
Archipelago. 

MENISPERMACE^. 
Moonseed Family. 

Tinospora crispa, Miers. (Menispermum crispum, L.; M. 
rimosum, Blanco ; Cocculus crispus, DC.) 

NOM. VULG. Makabuhay, Tag. 

USES. Makabuhay is one of the most widely known and 
used plants in the Philippines ; a sort of panacea applied to all 
bodily afflictions. Its Tagalo name means literally " you may 
live." A shoot deprived of roots and dropped in some moist 
place is soon covered with bright green leaves and adventi- 
tious roots. This peculiarity of the plant made it possible for 
me to take a large number of sprouts from Manila to Paris 
where they arrived perfectly fresh after a voyage of forty days, 
during which they lay almost forgotten in the ship and the cars. 

The stem is the part employed in medicine. A decoction is 
given internally in the various forms of malarial fever and of 
dyspepsia. Externally it is most useful as a wash for ulcers 
of all kinds, rapidly improving their appearance. 

In India the species T. cordifolia is used ; it differs but little 



TINOSPORA CRISPA 23 

from T. crispa. It is official in the Pharmacopoeia and has 
been introduced into Europe. T. cordifolia has given excellent 
results iii the mild forms of intermittent fever ; in general de- 
bility following long and severe cases of illness ; in chronic 
rheumatism, and in the second stage of syphilis. As the two 
species are so much alike we shall add the preparations and 
dose of T. cordifolia which we have used on several occasions 
with good results. 

TINCTURE OF T. CORDIFOLIA. Sterns of the dried plant, 
100 grams. Alcohol 21 (Cartier), 500 cc. Macerate seven 
days in a closed vessel stirring from time to time. After 
decanting add enough alcohol (21) to bring the quantity up 
to 500 cc., and filter. 

DOSE. 4-8 grams. 

MACERATION. Fresh stems cut in small pieces, 30 grams, 
water 300 grams. Macerate for two hours and filter. 

DOSE. 30-90 cc. a day. 

EXTRACT. Dry makabuhay in small pieces 500 grams. 
Water 2| liters. Macerate for twelve hours, filter the liquid 
and express the macerated drug which is then macerated a sec- 
ond time in 2J liters of water. Express again, unite the two 
liquids and filter. Evaporate in a water-bath to the consistency 
of a pill mass. 

DOSE. J-1J grams a day in fractional doses. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vine whose runners entwine 
themselves among the tops of the highest trees, giving oif 
many adventitious roots which seek the earth. The stem is cov- 
ered with projecting tubercles. Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, 
entire with five well-marked nerves. Flowers yellowish -green, 
dioecious, growing in axillary racemes. The male flowers have 
a corolla of six petals, the three smaller ones arranged alter- 
nately. In the female flower the stamens are represented by 
three glands situated at the base of the petals. Fruit, an ellip- 
tical drupe. 



24 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Anamirta Cocculus, Wight & Arn. (Menispermum Cocculw, 

(L.) Blanco ; M. lacunosum, Famk ; Cocculus lacunosus, 

C. suberosus, DC.) 

NOM. VULG. Laktay, Liktay, Suma, Lanta, Lintay bagiii, 
Tuba, Balasin, Bayati, Tag., Vis., Pam. 

USES. One of the uses to which the India berries (Cocas de 
Levante) are put in the Philippines, is to throw them into small 
sluggish streams or into lakes with the object of intoxicating 
the fish which soon come to the surface and float there as if 
dead. This custom is very extensive in Malaysia, in India and 
even in Europe, where, in order to avoid the cases of poisoning 
which this practice has occasioned in the consumers of fish taken 
in this way, it has been found necessary to forbid the sale of 
the berries except in the pharmacies. These restrictions are 
practiced in France. 

In the Binondo market in Manila the root of this plant may 
be found in abundance ; it is yellow and very bitter. The 
natives use the infusion (510 grams to 300 cc. of water) in 
fevers, dyspepsia and menstrual derangements. In India also 
the root is used in the same complaints. 

The fruit contains the highly toxic principle pierotoxin, and 
others as follows : 

Menispermin (C 18 H 24 N 2 O 2 ) is an alkaloid which crystallizes in 
pyramidal prisms, is soluble in alcohol and ether and insoluble 
in water. Hot nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid and a 
yellow substance of a resinous appearance. 

Picrotoxin (C 30 H 24 O 13 ) is not an alkaloid as may be seen from 
its formula. Its properties are not well known at the present 
time. It crystallizes in small quadrilateral prisms, white and 
transparent, or in needles grouped in stars. No odor, taste 
bitter, insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol and in ether, 
freely soluble in acids and alkalies. A solution in concentrated 
sulphuric acid has a saffron-yellow color. Nitric acid trans- 
forms it into oxalic acid. 



ANAMIRTA COCCULUS 25 

Picrotoxinin exists in picrotoxin in the proportion of 32 to 
100, and may be separated by boiling in benzine. It is bitter, 
poisonous, reduced by Fehling's solution and nitrate of silver. 
Sixty-six per cent, of picrotoxin consists of another bitter sub- 
stance, non-poisonous picrotin, which is insoluble in benzine 
and is reduced by Fehling's solution and nitrate of silver. 
Lastly, anamirtin is found in the mother water of picrotoxin ; 
it is not bitter, not poisonous, and not reducible by the afore- 
mentioned reagents. 

The fruit of the anamirta, the "coca de Levante" is an 
acrid, narcotic poison, which may not be employed internally ; 
its uses are limited to external medication. In the Pharma- 
copoeia of India is given the formula for a parasiticide oint- 
ment, highly recommended in the treatment of pediculi : 

Unguentum anamirtce : 

4 grams Cocculus berries, powdered, 
30 Vaseline. 
M. Fiat unguentum. 

In applying this ointment it is necessary to make sure that 
there is no wound or abrasion of the skin through which ab- 
sorption might take place. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vine with leaves alternate, 
entire, glabrous, broadly oval, pointed, with 5 nerves which 
unite at the base, long petioles. Flowers dioecious, in com- 
pound racemes. Male flowers consist of a perianth without 
corolla, the sepals arranged by threes in two or three whorls. 
The end of the receptacle expanded like a bead, bears a large 
number of stamens in 6 vertical series, with anthers sessile 
and 4-lobed. Female flowers analogous as regards the peri- 
anth, with 6-9 sterile stamens. Carpels formed of 5 ovaries, 
free, unilocular, containing one ovule each. Fruit, a drupe of 
a purple color, the size of a filbert, kidney-shaped, the albumen 
horny. 



26 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES. 

Cissampelos Pareira, L. 

NOM. VULG. Sansawsansawan, Tag.; Chinchaochinchauan, 
Sp.-Fil. 

USES. Although this plant formerly bore the Portuguese 
name of Pareira brava, the U. S. P. and B. P. recognize now 
under this title only the root of Chondrodendron tomentosum. It 
is diuretic and tonic and apparently exercises an astringent 
and sedative action upon the mucous membrane of the genito- 
urinary organs. The root is used in acute and chronic cys- 
titis. 

In Brazil it is used as a diaphoretic and as such is employed 
in cases of venomous snake bites. It is also used there as an 
emmenagogue and diuretic, in intermittent fevers, dropsy and 
suppression of the lochia in women recently confined. 

It is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. 

DECOCTION. Root of cissampelos, small pieces, 50 grams. 

Water 600 " 

DOSE. 30-100 grams. 

Boil 15 minutes; filter and add enough water to bring the 
total bulk up to 600 cc. 

EXTRACT. Root of cissampelos in powder .... 500 grams. 

Water 5 liters. 

DOSE. .5-1 gram. 

Digest the powder for 24 hours in 500 cc. water, pour the 
mixture into a filter and add water gradually until the percolate 
amounts to 5 liters. Evaporate the percolate in a water-bath 
to the consistency of a pill mass. 

FLUID EXTRACT. This is prepared in the same manner as 
the extract and is allowed to remain in the bath until reduced 
in bulk to 400 grams. It is then removed and 100 grams of 
alcohol (36) are added. 

DOSE. 1.75-7 cc. 



NYMPH.EA LOTUS 27 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. Fliickiger has isolated a bitter 
principle analogous to berberin ; also buxine and paracine, which 
latter received the name pelosine from Wiggers in 1839. The 
former chemist proposed the name buxine for all these analogous 
principles. Pelosine or buxine is precipitated by a concentrated 
solution of HC1, by sal ammoniac, by potassium nitrate and 
potassium iodide. He also discovered a neutral substance, 
deyamitin, which crystallizes in microscopic tablets ; sulphuric 
acid added to these gives a pretty dark blue color which changes 
to green. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A climbing shrub with cylin- 
drical woody stem, with leaves simple, alternate, entire, petio- 
late, ovoid, broad at the base. The inferior surface of the leaf 
is pubescent, especially in the intervals between the ribs. 
Flowers dioecious, small, racemose. Calyx of 12 sepals ar- 
ranged in 3 whorls, the inner ones broad and petaloid. Corolla 
of 6 petals arranged in 2 whorls. Stamens sterile or rudi- 
mentary in the pistillate flower, the staminate flower bearing 
6 ; anthers innate, 2-celled. Drupes oval, 2 or 3 cm. long, 
black, closely resembling a grape seed. 

NYMPILEACEJE. 

Water-Lily Family. 
Nymphsea Lotus, L. 

NOM. VULG. Lawas, Talaylo, Tunas, Gaway-gaway, Tag., 
Vis., Pam.; Water Lily, Eng. 

USES. The anaphrodisiac virtues attributed to this plant 
and to all the water-lily family are purely imaginary. Its juice 
being slightly bitter and astringent is used in decoction as an 
injection in gonorrhoea. It possesses mild narcotic properties, 
for which some use the juice of the whole plant, rubbing the 
forehead and temples with it to produce sleep. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An aquatic plant, with leaves 



28 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

solitary, terminal, floating on the water, dentate, glabrous, broad, 
deeply cleft at the base, with a very long petiole. Flowers 
solitary, persistent in the ripe fruit, oval. Stamens indefinite 
in fine whorls or verticils. 

HABITAT. Common on the shores of the Laguna de Bay. 

Nelumbium nucifera, Gaertn. (N. speciosum, Willd.; N. Asi- 
aticum, Rich. ; Cyamus Nelumbo, Sm. ; C. mysticus, Salis.) 

NOM. VULG. Bayno, Tag. ; Sukaw, Hoc. ; Sacred Lotus, 
Eng. 

USES. An infusion of the flowers is used internally in 
dysentery. In India they use, for diarrhoea and vomiting, the 
viscid juice obtained from the petioles and the peduncles of the 
flowers. The rootstock contains a large quantity of starch 
which has been utilized for food in the periods of famine which 
have desolated India and Egypt. This flower was the Sacred 
Lotus of the Egyptians and the people of India have dedicated 
it to Lakshmi, the goddess of health and prosperity. 

INFUSION. Petals, dried 5 grams. 

Water 250 

Sig. To be taken during 24 hours. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An aquatic plant with fleshy 
rootstock which creeps along the muddy bottoms ; from its 
nodes spring the stalks of the leaves and flowers. Its leaves 
are alternate, polymorphous, some above and some below the 
surface of the water, concave in the center whence ribs separate, 
shield-shaped. Petioles very long, bearing soft, short spines. 
The flowers white or pink, solitary ; peduncle long and, like 
the petioles, covered with soft, short spines. Calyx of 4-5 
unequal sepals, imbricated. Corolla with an indefinite num- 
ber of unequal petals, the inner ones shorter. Stamens indefi- 
nite, inserted in the base of the receptacle. Receptacle expanded 
above the androccium, in the form of an inverted cone, con- 
taining a large number of alveoli with circular openings. 



ARGEMONE MEXICANA 29 

PAPAVERACEJE. 

Poppy Family. 
Argemone Mexicana, L. 

NOM. VULG. Kasubhag-aso, Hoc. 

USES. Padre Blanco says that the yellow juice of this plant 
' ' is used by the natives (Filipinos) to treat fissures of the cor- 
ners of the eyes." 

The negros of Senegal use the decoction of the root to cure 
gonorrhoea. The milky juice to which Blanco refers is used 
in different countries to treat various skin diseases, including 
the cutaneous manifestations of syphilis and leprosy ; to re- 
move warts, and as an eye wash in catarrhal conjunctivitis. 

The English physicians of India state that it is dangerous to 
use the milky juice as an application to the eye, although Dy- 
mock claims the contrary. 

The flowers are narcotic by virtue of a principle resembling 
morphine, perhaps identical with that alkaloid. 

The seeds yield a fixed oil on expression, which is laxative 
and relieves the pains of colic, probably by virtue of its nar- 
cotic properties. Physicians in India praise this oil highly ; 
not only is it a sure and painless purgative, but it is free from 
the viscidity and disgusting taste of castor-oil ; besides it has 
the advantage of operating in small doses, 2-4 grams. Its ac- 
tivity is proportionate to its freshness. Dr. W. O'Shaughnessy 
does not value this oil highly, but the experience of many dis- 
tinguished physicians of India has proved the purgative and 
other properties that have just been mentioned. Possibly the 
differences of opinion may arise from the fact that oils from 
different plants were used in the trials. 

The seeds yield a fixed oil, yellow, clear, of sweet taste, den- 
sity 0.919 at 15 ; it remains liquid at 5 ; is soluble in an 
equal volume of alcohol at 90 ; characterized by an orange-red 
color on adding nitric acid. From its soap Frolicher has ob- 



30 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

tained acetic, valerianic, butyric and benzoic acids. Charbon- 
nier claims to have found morphine in its leaves and capsules. 
Dragendorf has isolated from the seeds an alkaloid which pre- 
sents the principal characters of morphine. It is, then, prob- 
able that morphine is the narcotic principle possessed by this 
plant, which is not hard to believe when one considers the 
family to which it belongs. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant of American origin 
nowadays acclimated in almost all warm countries. Its stem is 
green, pubescent, 30-40 centimeters high. Leaves alternate, 
thin, sessile, lanceolate, covered with rigid green thorns. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, terminal, yellow. Calyx, 3 sepals 
with conical points. Corolla, 6 rounded petals. Stamens in- 
definite, free, hypogynous. Ovary free, triangular, Capsule 
expanded, oblong, angular, thickly set with prickles : it opens 
inferiority by 5 valves. 

CRUCIFERJE. 

Mustard Family. 
Brassica juncea, Hook. & Thorn. (Sinapis juncea, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Mostaza, Sp.; Mustard, Eng. 

USES. The seeds are used in the same way as those of white 
or black mustard (Sinapis alba and S. nigra, L.). 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Plant with a glabrous stem, 
leaves sessile, glabrous, lanceolate, the upper ones serrate, the 
lower ones almost entire. Flowers in racemes. Calyx, 4 sepals. 
Corolla, 4 rounded, unguiculate petals. Stamens 6, two of 
them short and the other four longer and united in pairs. 
Ovary flattened. Seed vessel quadrangular, nodular, glabrous, 
containing many oval seeds. 

Raphanus sativus, L. 
NOM. VULG. Rdbano, Sp.; Radish, Eng. 
USES. Used principally as food ; it possesses the antiscor- 
butic properties common to the greater part of the CruciferaB. 



CLEOME VISCOSA 31 

It is an herbaceous plant, the root of which is so commonly 
known that its description would be useless. 

CAPPARIDACEJE. 

Caper Family. 

Cleome viscosa, L. (C. icosandra, L.; Polanisia 
viscosa, DC.) 

NOM. VULG. Balabalanoyan, Apoyapoyan, Tag.; Wild 
Mustard, Eng. 

USES. The seeds possess the same properties as those of 
mustard and are used in place of the latter in Manila. In 
America the leaves are used as a poultice in otitis. their action 
being rubefacient. In India the seeds are given internally for 
their anthelmintic and carminative effect ; the dose is one tea- 
spoonful twice a day. The juice of the leaves mixed with 
cocoanut oil is used in the form of eardrops in suppurative 
otitis. 

The natives give the same common name to the Gynan- 
dropsis pentaphylla, DC. (Cleome pentaphytta, L.; C. altiacea 
or C. alliodora, Blanco), which is distinguished from the former 
by its six stamens inserted on the pistil and its violet-colored 
stem. Its therapeutic properties are identical with those of the 
Cleome viscosa. Dr. Sir W. Jones believes that the plant pos- 
sesses antispasmodic properties, basing his belief on its odor, 
which resembles asafetida, though not so disagreeable. In 
India the juice of the leaves is a popular remedy for earache. 
It is also used there as a rubefacient. 

BOTANICAL, DESCRIPTION. An annual, the stem channeled 
and bearing glandular hairs. Leaves compound, alternate ; 
leaflets lanceolate with glandular hairs. Calyx, 4 sepals. Co- 
rolla, 4 petals, yellow. Stamens 14-16, encircling the pistil. 
Seed vessels cylindrical, with channels and glandular hairs. 
The whole plant is sticky and emits a garlicky odor. 



32 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Cratseva religiosa, Forst. 

NOM. VULG. Saligbobog, Tag.; Balay-namuk, Hoc. 

USES. It is in common use in India as a tonic and stom- 
achic. It seems also to possess laxative and diuretic proper- 
ties. In Concan the juice of the leaves mixed with cocoanut 
oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism. 

INFUSION. Leaves, fresh 50 grams. 

Water 500 " 

DOSE. 50100 grams a day as a tonic or stomachic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub 15-20 high with com- 
pound trifoliate leaves with long petioles ; leaflets lanceolate, 
acuminate, smooth, dark green. Calyx of 4 imbricated sepals. 
Corolla of 4 unguiculate petals, between white and straw color, 
V long. Stamens indefinite, violet-colored. Ovary unilocular, 
many-ovuled. Berry spherical with many seeds buried in pulp. 

HABITAT. Blanco has seen the plant growing in Ilocos and 
Imus. 

BIXINEJE. 

Bixa Orellana, L. 

NOM. YULG. Atsuiti, Achuiti, Tag.; Achiote, Achuete, Sp.- 
Fil.; Annatto, Eng. 

USES. The principal use of the seeds is in cookery and 
everybody knows the yellow color which Filipino cooks im- 
part to almost all their dishes. In medicine the fine powder 
that covers the seeds is used as a haemostatic and internally as 
a stomachic. On account of the astringent qualities of the 
coloring matter it is used in some countries to treat dysentery, 
a fact which suggests its possible therapeutic or rather hygienic 
usefulness as a condiment. It seems to effect a cure in dysen- 
tery in the same manner as ipecac. 

In India, Brazil and the Antilles the natives make a sort of 
paste of achuete known under the name of roeu. There is a 



PANGIUM EDULE 33 

hard, odorless form of rocu and another soft, unctuous, of a deli- 
cate red color and an odor rendered highly disagreeable by the 
urine added to it to keep it soft. Hocu is the preparation of 
achuete that has been subjected to chemical analysis. Its com- 
position is as follows : Two coloring matters, bixin (C 28 H 34 O 5 ), 
of a red color, resinous, soluble in alcohol, ether, alkaline solu- 
tions and benzine, crystallizing in microscopic laminae, quad- 
rangular, red, of a metallic violet lustre ; orettin, yellow in 
color, soluble in alcohol and in water. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A well-known tree growing to a 
height of 5-7 meters, with leaves alternate, simple, oval, heart- 
shaped at the base, sharply pointed, glabrous, short petioles. 
Flowers in panicles. Calyx, 5 rounded sepals, tuberculate at the 
base, imbricated, caducous. Corolla of 5 rose-colored petals. 
Stamens very numerous, free, inserted on the receptacle. Cap- 
sule round, dark red, bristling with stout hairs of the same 
color. The seeds are covered with a fine, yellowish-red powder. 

Pangium edule, Reinw. (Hydonocarpus polyandra, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Pangi, Tag. 

USES. All parts of this tree are anthelmintic. The seeds, 
fruit, leaves and bark all possess narcotic properties dangerous 
to man and the symptoms following an excessive dose are 
sleepiness, headache, a sort of intoxication or an attack of de- 
lirium that may end in death. These narcotic properties have 
been utilized in Java to stupefy the fish in the rivers by throw- 
ing the bark in the pools and quiet portions of the stream. The 
juice of the leaves is used in the treatment of chronic skin 
diseases. In Amboina the natives eat the seeds, the toxic 
quality of which is removed by brushing and macerating in 
pure water for a certain time. After such treatment they may 
be eaten with impunity and an oil may be extracted from them 
which is useful as a food. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with leaves 5' long, al- 



34 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

ternate, ovate, broad, entire, glabrous, palmately nerved. Pet- 
iole long with 2 persistent lateral stipules. Flowers dioecious, 
the male ones in panicles, the female solitary. Calyx 
gamosepalous, dividing unequally when the flower opens. The 
male flower has a corolla of 5-7 petals, violet-colored, concave, 
half oval, with pubescent borders ; at its base a flat scale. 
Stamens free, numerous, thick filaments, anthers bilocular. In 
the female flower the perianth is the same as in the former, the 
stamens sterile. Ovary unilocular, with 2-4 parietal placentse 
with many ovules. Fruit as large as a man's head, with thin 
woody pericarp and many seeds embedded within its pulp. 

PORTULACACEJE. 

Purslane Family. 
Portulaca oleracea, L. 

NOM. YULG. Verdolagas, Sp.; Olasiman, Kolasiman, Tag.; 
Purslane, Eng. 

USES. The entire plant is edible, in the form of a salad or 
as a condiment with meat or fish. The leaves are succulent 
and acid, and the juice expressed from them is used as an eye- 
wash to remove corneal opacities ; it is also used in superficial 
erysipelas and other skin affections. The bruised leaves are 
used as a poultice for abscesses, contusions and on the temples 
for headache. The juice is given internally to check hemoptysis 
and in diseases of the lungs and bladder ; the seeds also are 
used in these complaints. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with prostrate stem. 
Leaves fleshy, wedge-shaped. Flowers small, sessile, terminal, 
pale yellow. Calyx of 2 large teeth, deciduous. Corolla, 4-5 
petals with a notch at the end. Stamens 9-14. Style of 
equal length with the stamens. Stigma in 46 divisions. The 
seed vessel, which dehisces horizontally, contains many small, 
heart-shaped seeds. 

HABITAT. It grows in all parts of the islands. 



GARCINIA MANGOSTANA 35 

GUTTIFER-E. 

Gamboge Family. 
Garcinia mangostana, L. 

NOM. VULG. Mangostdn, Sp.; Mangosteen, Eng. 

USES. The seed of the fruit is astringent and is given inter- 
nally as an infusion in dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. The 
decoction is very useful as an injection in leucorrhcea. 

The following potion has given excellent results to Dr. Ed. 
J. Waring in chronic dysentery and the diarrhoeas of tropical 
countries : 

Dried peel of mangosteen 60 grams. 

Cumin seed 5 " 

Coriander 5 u 

Water 1,200 

Boil till reduced to 600 grams. Take 120 grams twice a 
day. Tincture of opium may be added. 

An analysis of mangosteen peel by W. Schmidt demonstrated 
a large quantity of tannin, a resin and a crystallizable principle 
named mangostin (C 20 H 22 O 5 ) which exists in the form of fine, 
golden yellow laminae, tasteless, soluble in alcohol, ether and 
the alkalies, insoluble in water. With the perchloride of iron 
it gives a blackish-green color, and sulphuric acid colors it red. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The mangosteen grows only in 
the southern islands of the Archipelago and its delicious fruit 
is the part of the plant known in Manila. The peel is at the 
present time almost universally employed in medicine. The 
fruit is about the size of a small Manila orange, the pericarp a 
dark red or chocolate color, tough and thick, crowned with the 
remains of the calyx. On breaking it open the edible portion 
of the fruit is seen, consisting of 6-18 seeds covered by a white, 
sweet pulp, cottony in appearance, of a delicious slightly acrid 
flavor. 



36 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

1. Garcinia venulosa, Choisy. (Cambogia venulosa, Blanco.) 
2. G. Cambogia, Desrouss. (Cambogia binucao, Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Binukaw, Tag., applied to both trees, though 
the first is also called Gatasan puld in Tagalo and Taklag-onak 
in Pampango. 

USES. The fruit of the second species, the true name of 
which is binucaw, is acid and edible. The fruit and the trunk 
of both species, when cut, exude a gum-resin very much like 
gamboge which is obtained from the G. morella or G. pedicel- 
lota, Desr. These gum-resins, however, seem to be much 
inferior to gamboge ; they contain an essential oil which does 
not exist in the latter and their color is paler. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The G. venulosa is a tree with 
leaves opposite, lanceolate, acute, entire and glabrous, the in- 
ferior surface covered with nervelets which converge at the 
apex. Petioles short and flattened. Flowers tetramerous. 
Calyx, 4 persistent sepals. Corolla, 4 petals, overlapping, 
fleshy, ovate, of the same color as the calyx. Stamens numer- 
ous ; no filaments ; anthers round and very small. Style very 
short and thick, stigma peltate, divided into 10 parts. Fruit 
globose, depressed, no well-marked ridges when ripe. 

G. Cambogia differs from the foregoing in the leaves which 
present no nervelets on the lower surface and the fruit which 
presents 8 angles or rounded ridges. 

HABITAT. Very common throughout the islands, abound- 
ing in the mountains of San Mateo and Morong. Blooms in 
August. 

Garcinia morella, Desr. 

NOM. YULG. I do not know the name given by the Fili- 
pinos to this tree, which Yidal and Soler have seen in Montal- 
van, Tiwi (Albay) and San Mateo (Province of Manila) ; but 
it is highly important in medicine as the true gamboge is ob- 
tained from it. Gamboge Tree, Eng. 

The Gamboge of the U. S. P. and B. P. is obtained from 



GARCINIA MORELLA 37 

6r. Hanbuni which differs somewhat botanically from G. 
morella. 

USES. All parts of the plant contain a thick, yellow, milky 
juice which constitutes the gamboge. In Malabar, Ceylon, 
Canara and Singapore the following method of extraction is 
followed : At the beginning of the rainy season a spiral inci- 
sion is made around the bark of about half the tree trunk, and 
a piece of bamboo is fixed in place to collect the juice which 
slowly exudes from the cut for several months, soon becoming 
viscid and then solid after contact with the air. One tree, as 
a rule, yields enough sap to fill three internodal segments of 
bamboo, each 50 cm. long by 3-5 cm. in diameter. 

Gamboge is a laxative in doses of 10-15 cgm., produces 
abundant evacuations with violent colicky pains in doses of 
30-50 cgm., and is an irritant poison in large doses. In other 
words it is a highly energetic hydragogue cathartic, especially 
indicated when we wish to drain off the fluid element of the 
blood, as in dropsy, asthma, pulmonary and cerebral congestion. 
It is also used as a vermifuge. 

It is rarely given alone, but is combined with calomel, aloes, 
jalap, rhubarb, etc. 

It is official in all pharmacopoeias. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 10-20 meters high, with 
leaves opposite, elliptical, lanceolate, narrowed at both extremi- 
ties, acuminate, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, 1012 cm. long 
by 3-4 cm. broad, with short petioles. Flowers dioecious. 
Male flower axillary, solitary or in groups of 3 6, pedunculate 
with small bracts. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla, 4 petals, orbicu- 
lar, thick, fleshy. Stamens 30-40, sessile, adherent at the base. 
Anthers unilocular. Female flower sessile, solitary, axillary, 
larger than the male ; calyx and corolla equal ; staminodia 
20-30, jointed at the base, forming a membranous corolla from 
the upper edge of which spring a few short filaments which 
support each a suboval sterile anther. The ovary is superior 



38 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

and almost spherical, with 4 cells each containing 1 ovule. The 
fruit, almost spherical, is 2J cm. in diameter, corticate, bearing 
at its base the persistent calyx ; each of its 4 cells contains a seed. 

Ochrocarpus pentapetalous, Blanco. (Tovomita pentapetala, 

Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Namakpakan, Tagudin, Hoc. (?). 

USES. An oil expressed from the fruit is used in Ilocos for 
illuminating purposes. The flowers are astringent and are used 
in infusion in cases of diarrhoea. The oil of the fruit is also 
used locally in rheumatism, tumefactions and other painful con- 
ditions. In some countries of Malaysia the oil is used in the 
same way especially in beriberi and the periarticular inflamma- 
tions incident to puerperium. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Straight trunk about 8' in diam- 
eter, with milky sap. Leaves 1 \' long, sessile, opposite, ovate, 
expanded, minutely notched and glabrous, with a small downy 
swelling at the base, superior and glued to the branch. Flowers 
terminal, in racemes, with opposite pedicels. Calyx white, of 
2 rounded leaflets bent downwards. Corolla white, 5 petals 
(not 4), oval, concave, twice as long as the calyx. Stamens 
numerous, joined to the receptacle. Filaments slightly longer 
than the corolla. Anthers oval, 2-celled. Ovary superior, 
oval. Style longer than the stamens. Stigma peltate, some- 
times bilobed, sometimes 4-lobed. Fruit about the size of an 
acorn, oval, fleshy, containing a milky juice ; it is 2-celled and 
each cell contains a solitary, hard seed ; of these one aborts. 

HABITAT. It grows near the sea. Blooms in December. 

Calophyllum Inophyllum, L. 

NOM. YULG. Palo Maria, Sp.-Fil.; Bitanhol, Tamawian, 
Dankalan, Dinkalin, Tag.; Dankalan Bitaoy, Vis., Pam., Bik. 

USES. From the seeds of the fruit there exudes a yellowish- 
green oil, bitter and aromatic. It is used in some districts for 



MESUA FERREA 39 

illuminating purposes. Its density i& 0.942 and its point of 
solidification 5 above zero. In India it is used by inunction 
in rheumatism and in the Philippines locally over the stomach 
in indigestion and colic. The bark of the tree when incised 
exudes a green resin of a very agreeable odor, which is used as 
an application to wounds and old sores. In India it is used in 
the same way. This resin is fusible and dissolves completely 
in alcohol. It has been mistaken for the tacamahaca of India, 
which, however, is a product of the C. calaba, L. Mixed with 
equal parts of pitch and wax it is applied to the chest as a 
plaster in bronchitis. A decoction of the leaves is used for 
purulent ophthalmia in some parts of India and Mauritius. 
The pounded bark is applied locally in orchitis and epididymitis. 
We have had occasion to use a mixture of equal parts of the 
resin with white vaseline spread on linen and applied between 
the shoulder blades ; in the persistent cough of senile bron- 
chitis the relief was marked. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree with beautiful, dark 
green leaves 4-5' long, opposite, entire, large, oval with nerves 
numerous, fine and perpendicular to the midrib. Petioles very 
short. Flowers large, white, sweet-scented, axillary, in racemes 
of 7-9. Calyx white, of 4 sepals. Corolla white, of 4 petals. 
Stamens numerous, polyadelphous. Ovary rudimentary in the 
male flower ; unilocular and uniovulate in the female. Style 
single and large. Drupe superior, with a hard, bony pit, con- 
taining a thicker, softer substance which envelopes a seed of like 
consistency. 

HABITAT. It is found in central Luzon and in the Prov- 
inces of Tayabas, La Union and Ilocos. Blooms in November. 

Mesua ferrea, L. (Calophyllum apetalum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VuLG.Malabukbuk (?), Tag. 

USES. We do not know to what use the Filipinos put this 
plant, but in India the sweet flowers are dried and sold in the 



40 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

bazars under the name of Nag-Kasar or Nagesur, which is used 
as a mild stimulant, but especially as a perfume. 

A dark oil is expressed from the seeds, its density 0.954 and 
its solidifying point 5 above zero. In northern Canara it is 
used locally in rheumatism. The incised root bark exudes a 
resinous sap which is a good bitter tonic. The infusion of the 
wood is equally good. The dried flowers, finely powdered and 
mixed with oil or lard make a useful ointment for acute hemor- 
rhoids. The fruit is acrid and purgative. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with leaves long-petioled, 
oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, rounded at the base, thick, coria- 
ceous, upper surface lustrous, lower surface greenish or covered 
with a waxy, ash-colored powder. Flowers terminal or axil- 
lary, solitary, yellowish. Calyx 4 imbricated sepals, orbicu- 
late, slightly pubescent. Corolla 4 persistent petals, wedge- 
shaped, short, with rounded points. Stamens indefinite, free, 
in 56 series. Ovary free, 2-celled, each cell containing 2 
ovules. Style bilobed. Fruit nearly unilocular, ovate, acumi- 
nate, encompassed at its base by the sepals, the lower part of 
the petals, and crowned by the style. Pericarp woody, dehis- 
cent at the tip by 2-4 valves ; contains 1-4 seeds, slightly or- 
biculate, coriaceous. 

HABITAT. Common in the forests. 

DIPTEROCARPEJE. 

Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gaertn. (D. Indicus, Bedd.; D. 
MayapiSj Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Mdyapis, Tag.; Gurjvn, Kanym, Indo-Eng. 

USES. This tree yields an oleo resin, used in medicine and 
known under the name of bdlsamo de gurjun. Other species 
of Dipterocarpus (D. alatus, Roxb.; D. incanus, Roxb.; D. 
trinervis, Bl., etc., etc.) produce the same substance. Balsam 
of Gurjun is a stimulant of the mucous membranes, especially 



DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS 41 

those of the geni to-urinary tract, and is diuretic. It is also in- 
dicated in bronchial catarrh and as a local application in ulcer. 
The first to recommend the use of gurjun as a substitute for 
copaiba was Sir W. O'Shaughnessy in 1838, and in 1852 this 
property was confirmed by Waring with highly satisfactory re- 
sults. Dr. Enderson of Glasgow employed it in cases that re- 
ceived no benefit from copaiba, giving a teaspoonful t. i. d. in 
emulsion. Dr. Rean also classed it as equal to copaiba in effi- 
ciency. 

The daily dose ranges from 520 grams, in liquid or pill. 

The following is an excellent formula for an emulsion : 

Cinnamon water 125 grams. 

Sodium carbonate, crystals 2 " 

Balsam of gurjun 25 " 

Syrup of gum 25 " 

Sulphuric ether 2 " 

Mix and shake. 

DOSE. 6-12 large spoonfuls each day, for the declining 
stage of gonorrhoea. 

In Burmah they extract the balsam by the following method : 
A large hole is cut in the trunk of the tree and a fire is built 
in this cavity and kept up till the wood of the trunk begins to 
burn, by which time the oleo resin has collected in abundance 
in the segments of bamboo placed to receive it. When the 
exudate diminishes, fire is again placed in the cavity and one 
tree may tolerate 2, 3 or even 4 of these cavities. The exu- 
date on standing separates into 2 parts ; a solid called " guad " 
which forms the lower layer, and a supernatant liquid which 
is the balsam. It is dense, viscid and very fluorescent ; opaque 
and gray-green by reflected light. It has an odor similar to 
that of copaiba, is bitter and aromatic. Its density is 0.964. 
It is soluble in benzine, in bisulphuret of carbon, chloroform, 
the essential oils and less so in ether and acetic acid. It be- 
4 



42 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

comes turbid and coagulates if it be kept at 100 for some 
time and it solidifies at 200 , while copaiba remains liquid at 
this temperature. 

A specimen of the balsam examined by Fluckiger con- 
sisted of 54.44 parts semifluid resin and 45.56 volatile ma- 
terial. Upon distillation it yields an essential oil, of slight 
odor, straw-colored ; formula C 20 H 32 (Werner). If purified its 
density is 0.915. It is soluble in amylic alcohol, scarcely so in 
absolute alcohol. Hydrochloric acid colors it a beautiful blue. 
The resin remaining after distillation, dissolved in alcohol 
0.838 with the addition of ammonia, yields as a precipitate a 
crystalline acid (gurjunic acid), C 44 H 64 O g , soluble in alcohol 0.838, 
in ether, in benzol and bisulphide of carbon. It melts at 220 
(Werner), solidifies at 180 and is decomposed at 260. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A very large, handsome tree 
with leaves about 5 r in length, alternate, ovate, broad and lanceo- 
late, entire, glabrous and membranaceous. Petioles very short. 
Flowers terminal, paniculate, handsome, fragrant. Calyx free, 
5 lanceolate sepals, of which 2 are slightly longer than the 
others. Corolla, 5 yellow oblong petals longer than the sepals. 
Stamens numerous, attached to the receptacle. Filaments very 
short. Anthers of 2 divisions each ending in a long beard. 
Ovary half buried in the receptable. A single thick style. 
Three simple stigmas. Seed vessel of 3 cells, seeds in pairs. 

HABITAT. In Luzon in the mountains of Tala, Angat and 
San Mateo ; in Mindanao, Paragua, Balabac and Negros. 
Blooms in June. 

MALVACE.2E. 

Mallow Family. 

Sida carpinifolia, L. (S. acuta, Burm.; S. stipulata, 
Cav.; S. frutescens, Blanco.) 

VULG. Wawalisan, Eskobayhaba, Pamalis, Hic/ot- 
amalis, Tag., Vis., Pam. 



ABUTILON INDICUM 43 

USES. The root is emollient and bitter. The decoction is 
used as a lotion for ulcers, and internally as a sudorific and 
tonic-astringent. The physicians of India prescribe the pow- 
dered root with milk for fevers and for nervous and urinary 
diseases. The leaves are used locally in ophthalmia. 

The juice of the root is employed as a wash for all kinds of 
sores and ulcers and the juice of the entire plant is given for 
spermatorrhoea. After experimenting with the root, the com- 
pilers of the Bengal Dispensatory announced their uncertainty 
as to whether or not it possessed antipyretic properties ; how- 
ever, they pronounce it diaphoretic, an exciter of the appetite 
and an excellent bitter tonic. In Goa the Portuguese consider 
it diuretic and use it especially in rheumatic affections. 

The root of S. carpinifolia gives a blue color with the salts 
of iron. It does not precipitate gelatin and contains asparagin. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2-4 high with woody, 
branching stem, leaves alternate, oblong, pointed, serrate, un- 
der surface neither hoary nor tomentose as in some other species 
of Sida. Petioles very short, curved near the leaf, 2 stipules 
near the base. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx simple, in 5 
parts. Corolla, 5 petals notched obliquely. Stamens nu- 
merous, inserted on the end of a column. Anthers globose. 
Styles 5, mingled with the stamens. Stigmas globose. Cells 
of the same number as the styles, verticillate, with solitary 
seeds. 



HABITAT. Common in Luzon, Panay, Mindanao, Paragua, 
Cebu and Balabac. 

Abutilon Indicum, Don. (Sida Indica, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Kuakuakohan, Gilig-giligan, Tag.; labig, 
Mails, Dulupag, Pilis, Vis.; Malvas de Castilla, Sp.-Fil. 

USES. The trunk bark is slightly bitter, and in decoction 
is used as a diuretic. An infusion of the leaves and flowers is 
used as an emollient in place of mallows. The infusion of the 



44 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

root it used for the same effect, as a lotion or injection. I 
have often had occasion to employ this plant and would never 
use the Philippine mallow in place of it. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 3-4 high, all its parts 
covered with hairs, simple and tomentose. Leaves heart- 
shaped, angular, obtuse, unequally serrate, smooth, soft, the 
lower surface hoary and bearing 9 well-marked nerves. Pet- 
ioles longer than the leaves, with 2 stipules at the base. 
Flowers yellow, axillary, solitary. Peduncles long, with a 
node near the end. Calyx, 5 sepals, as in all the Malvaceae. 
Corolla, 5 petals with a small notch at the end. Stamens very 
numerous as well as the styles. Both arise from the summit of 
a very short column and twist in all directions forming a tassel 
or tuft. Fruit much higher than the calyx, of 10-20 cells or 
carpels which are broad, compressed, hairy, the walls united 
toward the center, each containing 23 seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon, Panay, Mindanao and other 
islands. Blooms in September. 

Urena sinuata, L. ( U. morifolia and muricata, DC.; U. multi- 
fida, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Kulutan, Kulutkulutan, Molopolo, Tag., Vis., 
Pam. 

USES. The infusion of the root is used internally as an 
emollient and refrigerant ; externally in skin diseases accom- 
panied by smarting and inflammation. The boiled and pounded 
leaves are used as a poultice in inflammation of the intestines 
and bladder. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A spreading plant 4-6 high, 
with straight stem, leaves cleft at the base, serrate and hairy; 
the larger ones have 5-6 lobules which subdivide into smaller 
ones and bear a small gland in the inferior surface of the mid- 
rib. Petioles short. Flowers terminal and racemose. Calyx 
double, composed of 5 narrow sepals externally, and 5 colored 



HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS 45 

sepals internally alternating with the outer ones. Corolla, 5 
petals. Stamens numerous, inserted about a small column. 
Styles 10, on the end of the column. Stigmas thick, covered 
with little spheres. Five united carpels, kidney-shaped, brist- 
ling with short stiff hairs, containing solitary seeds. 
HABITAT. Common in all parts of the Archipelago. 

Hibiscus Abelmoschus, L. 

NOM. VULG. KasMi, Kastio, Kastiogan, Dalupan, Tag.; 
Marikum, Dukum, Marukum, Marapoto, Vis.; ! Marsh Mallow, 
Eng. 

USES. The bruised seeds emit an odor of musk, and for 
this reason the plant has received the name Kastuli, signifying 
musk in Sanscrit. They possess antispasmodic and stimulant 
properties, and the infusion is diuretic. Bonastre 2 analyzed 
Kastuli seeds as follows : 

Water and parenchyma 52.00 

Gum 36.00 

Albumin 5.60 

Fixed oil, resin, crystals and odorous principles 6.40 

Total 100.00 

The fixed oil is greenish-yellow, fluid, but gradually solidi- 
fying in the air. The crystalline material is white, of an 
agreeable odor, soluble in ether, where it crystallizes in rays, 
fusible at 35. The odorous principle is a bright green, non- 
volatile liquid of the odor of musk. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 5-6 high, the stem 
hairy and with few branches. Leaves heart-shaped, cleft at the 
base, with 5 large pointed lobes, serrate, pubescent. Petioles 
long with two awl-shaped stipules at the base, and a large vio- 

1 In the U. S. P. and P. G. Marsh Mallow is a synonym for Althcea offi- 
cinalis, the root being the part of the plant which is used. 

2 Journal de Phar. et de Chim., XX., p. 3811. 



46 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

let spot in the axil. Calyx double ; the outer sepals 8-9 iii 
number, awl-shaped ; the inner ones are larger and separate 
unequally when the flower expands. Both sets are deciduous. 
Corolla very large, yellow. Stamens very numerous, inserted 
around a column. One pistil. Five stigmas. Ovary very 
large, downy, ovoid, 5-angled, with 5 compartments, each con- 
taining many kidney-shaped seeds with numerous grooves con- 
centric at the hilum. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus, L. 

NOM. VULG. BalibagOj Tag., Pam.; Malabago, Vis. 

USES. An infusion of the leaves is used as a wash for ulcers 
and indolent sores. The flowers boiled in milk are used to .re- 
lieve the pain of earache (Blanco), the warm milk being dropped 
into the external canal. The powdered bark in dose of 3 grams 
is emetic (?) (Blanco). 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree 6-12 high with 
leaves 4-6' long, alternate, 7-nerved, cleft at the base, abruptly 
acute, scalloped, pubescent. Petioles long. Flowers axillary, 
in panicles of very small flowerets. Calyx double, the outer 
portion divided into 8-9 teeth, the inner into 5 longer parts. 
Stamens numerous, inserted about a column. Style 1. Stigmas 
5. Ovary of 5 cells, each containing 2 seeds. 

HABITAT. Abounds in all parts of the islands. 

Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis, L. 

NOM. VULG. Takumgan, Aroganan, Kayaya, Tcipulaga, 
Gumamila, Tag., Vis., Pam.; Rose of China, Eng. 

USES. The flowers are emollient and are widely used by the 
Filipinos as a domestic remedy ; they are bruised and applied 
to boils, tumors and all sorts of inflammations. The decoction 
is much used internally in bronchial catarrh for its sudorific 
effect. 



THESPESIA POPULNEA 47 

The Chinese use the trunk bark as an emmenagogue, calling 
it Fu-yong-pi. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree about 7 high com- 
monly called Gumamda in Manila ; the leaves are ovate, acute, 
with about 5 nerves, serrate from the middle to the apex, hairs 
growing sparsely on both surfaces, with a small group of dark- 
colored, deciduous hairs growing on the lower part of the mid- 
rib. Petioles short with 2 stipules at the base. Calyx double, 
the outer part divided almost to the base into 6-8 parts ; the 
inner cylindrical, divided in 5. Corolla large, splendid scarlet- 
red, often double, on slender peduncles. Styles numerous. 
Fruit identical with that of the Hibiscus tiliaceus. 

HABITAT. Universally common in the Philippines. 

Thespesia populnea, Corr. 

NOM. VULG. Babuy or Bobuy gubat, Tag. ; Bulakan, Vis. 

USES. The fruit yields a yellow juice which is used locally 
in the itch and other cutaneous troubles, after first washing the 
affected part with a decoction of the roots and leaves. The 
bark is astringent and is used as a decoction in the treatment 
of dysentery and hemorrhoids. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree of the second order with 
leaves 4-5' long, sparse, 5-nerved, heart-shaped, broad, acute, 
entire, glabrous, 6 small glands on the lower face of the base. 
Petioles of equal length with the leaves. Flowers large, axil- 
lary, solitary. Calyx double, the outer portion deciduous, con- 
sisting of 3 small, acute leaflets inserted on the base of the 
inner calyx ; the inner is bell-shaped, larger than the outer, 
with 5 inconspicuous, persistent teeth. Corolla four times 
longer than the calyx, of 5 fleshy, fluted petals, their borders 
overlapping, much broader above. Stamens very numerous, 
arranged around and along a column. Filaments long. An- 
thers of half-moon shape. Style 1, very thick. Stigma cleft 
in 5 parts, which are twisted in spiral form. Seed vessels 



48 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

about the size of a filbert, 5-sided, with 5 apartments each con- 
taining 5 ovoid seeds attached by separate seed stalks to the 
central axis of the ovary. Seeds not woolly. 
HABITAT. Mandaloya Tayabas, Iloilo. 



Gossypium herbaceum, L. (G. Indicum, Lam.; G. 
Capas, Rumph.) 

NOM. VULG. Algodon, Sp.; Bulak, Tag.; Cotton, Eng. 

USES. The root bark is antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, and 
according to Daruty l is a substitute for ergot in uterine hemor- 
rhage. The leaves are used in bronchial troubles and the seeds 
are sudorific. The negroes in the United States use the root 
bark in large doses as an abortifacient ; but a dose of 60 grams 
to 1,200 of water in decoction is proper and useful in treating 
dysmenorrhoea. 

For a long time the seeds went to waste but industry has 
learned to obtain from them a brownish-red oil which is used 
as a substitute for olive oil, from which it is hard to distinguish 
it, if the latter is adulterated by mixing the two ; for both have 
the same density and a very similar odor and taste. For this 
reason the production of cottonseed oil is very considerable 
nowadays. It is cheap and excellent for domestic, industrial 
and pharmaceutic use. 

The seeds are used in North America in dysentery and as a 
galactagogue, and the juice of the leaves as an emollient in 
diarrhoea and mild dysentery. The pulp of the seeds, after 
the oil is extracted, yields a sweet material called gossypose, 
which is dextrogyrous and has the formula C 18 H 32 O 16 -f- 5H 2 O. 

The cotton itself, the part used in commerce as a textile, is 
also the portion of the plant most widely employed in therapeu- 
tics ; not only the fiber from this species is used, but also that 
of others that grow in the Philippines, the G. Barbadense, L. 

1 Daruty, loc. cit., p. xxvi. 



GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM 49 

(nom. vulg. Pernambuko, Tag.), and the G. arboreum, L. (Bulak 
na bundok, Bulak net totoo, Tag.). 

Cotton is used extensively in bacteriological laboratories as a 
filter of liquids and gases. This property possessed by cotton, 
of retaining in its fibers the germs of the air was utilized by 
the famous French surgeon Guerin in the treatment that bears 
his name. The denuded surfaces exposed to infection by air- 
borne bacteria are completely protected against them when, ac- 
cording to the Guerin treatment, they are enveloped in large 
masses of fresh, raw cotton, presumably free from microorgan- 
isms. To avoid the possibility of infection by the cotton itself, 
it is now the practice to sterilize it either by means of chemicals 
such as carbolic acid, iodoform, etc., or by physical means such 
as high temperatures. 

Raw cotton is used in compounding gun cotton or explosive 
cotton, also named pyroxylin, and this is used to make collodion, 
so extensively employed in medicine. 

Pyroxylin is made by treating cotton with equal parts of 
nitric and sulphuric acids, then washing with water till the 
latter ceases to give a precipitate with chloride of baryta ; then 
dry in the air. 

Collodion is made by dissolving 5 grams of pyroxylin in the 
following mixture : 

Sulphuric ether, rectified 75 grams. 

Alcohol at 95 20 " 

Filter. 

Elastic collodion : 

Canada Balsam 1.50 grams. 

Castor oil 50 

Collodion 30.00 

Mix. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2-3 high, of herba- 
ceous stem, branches sparsely covered with small, black points ; 



50 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPIXKS 

leaves cleft at their base, with 5 lobules and a small gland on 
the midrib. Petiole long with 2 stipules at the base. Flowers 
axillary, solitary. Calyx double ; the outer portion divided in 
3 parts, heart-shaped, and each with 59 long, acute teeth. 
Corolla bell-shaped, of 5 petals, pale yellow or turning rose 
color, purple at the base. Stamens many, inserted on a column. 
Stigma in 4-5 parts. Ovary of 3-5 compartments. Seeds en- 
veloped in the fiber. 

HABITAT. Batangas, Ilocos. 

Bombax malabaricum, DC. (B. Ceiba, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Taglinaw, Bobuy gubat, Tag. ; Talutu, Vis. 

USES. In India the roots are used to obtain an astringent 
and alterative effect and form part of a well-known aphrodisiac 
mixture called Musla-Samul. If the trunk is incised, an astrin- 
gent gum exudes and this they use in diarrhoea, dysentery and 
menorrhagia. Dose of the gum 2J-3 grams. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree covered with sharp, 
conical and tough spines. Leaves alternate, compound, digi- 
tate, caducous ; leaflets 57 with long common petiole. Flow- 
ers solitary or in axillary cymes, hermaphrodite, regular. 
Calyx gamosepalous, cup-shaped, with 5 acute lobules. Cor- 
olla violet, with 5 deep clefts ; aestivation convolute. Stamens 
numerous, united at the base in 5 bundles, free above, bearing 
unilocular anthers. Ovary of 5 many-ovulate compartments, 
with a style ending in 5 short branches. Capsule woody, ovoid, 
loculicidal, with 5 valves. Seeds numerous, black, covered 
with cottony fibers. 

HABITAT. Angat, Iloilo. Blooms in February. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC. (Bombax pentandrum y L.) 
NOM. VULG. Boboy] Tag. ; Doldol, Vis. ; Buldk kastila, 

Pam. 

USES. The principal use made of this plant in the Philip- 



STERCULIA FCETIDA 51 

pines is to stuff the pillows with the cotton that it yields. The 
leaves, pounded with a little water, yield a mucilaginous juice 
highly prized by the natives as a wash for the hair, mixing it 
with gogo. The root bark is emetic in dose of 1.25 grm. The 
cotton yielded by this tree should be used for the same thera- 
peutic purposes as that of gossypium, and being of an exceed- 
ingly fine fiber it would give better results. The Filipinos 
use it to treat burns and sores. I have often used it, being 
careful always to impregnate it thoroughly with some antiseptic 
solution. In the treatment of burns it has been my custom to 
envelope the part in a thick layer of this cotton, after bathing 
it with a tepid 1-2,000 solution of corrosive sublimate and 
dusting with a very fine powder of boracic acid. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 40-50 high. Trunk 
somewhat thorny, the branches horizontal, arranged in stars of 
3-4. Leaves compound with 7 leaflets, lanceolate, entire, 
glabrous. Flowers in umbels of 8 or more flowerets. No 
common peduncle, the individual ones long. Calyx, 5 obtuse 
sepals, slightly notched. Corolla, 5 fleshy petals, obtusely lan- 
ceolate and bent downwards. Stamens 5. Anthers of irreg- 
ular shape, peltate, with the borders deeply undulate. Stigma 
in 5 parts. Pod 4-6' long, spindle-shaped. Seeds enveloped 
in very fine cotton fiber. 

HABITAT. Exceedingly common in all parts of the islands. 
Blooms in December. 



STERCULIACEJE. 

Sterculia Family. 

Sterculia foetida, L. (S. polypliilla, R. Br.; Clompanus 

major, Rumph.) 

NOM. VULG. Kalumpay, Tag.; Bagar, Hoc. 
USES. A decoction of the leaves is used as a wash in sup- 
purative cutaneous eruptions. The fruit is astringent and is 



52 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

used in Java as an injection for gonorrhoea. In western 
India and in the Philippines it is an article of diet. The 
seeds yield an oil that is used for illumination and as a co- 
mestible. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree of the first order 
with digitate leaves of 6-8 leaflets, broad, oval, very acute, 
tough, glabrous, growing on a long common petiole. No pet- 
iole proper. Flowers of a foetid or feculent odor, herma- 
phrodite, in compound racemes. Calyx fleshy, soft pubescent 
internally, bell-shaped, in 5 parts. Corolla none. Nectary 5- 
toothed, on the end of a small column. Stamens 15, inserted 
on the border of the nectary by threes, forming a triangle. 
Filament almost entirely wanting. In the midst of the sta- 
mens is visible a small, hairy body of 5 lobules which are the 
rudiments of the ovaries. The style protrudes and twists 
downwards. Stigma thick, compressed, of 5 lobules. Fruit, 
five woody pods, semicircular, joined to a common center, 
each enclosing many oval seeds inserted in the superior 
suture. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Iloilo. Blooms in 
March. 

Sterculia urens, Roxb. (8. cordifolia, Blanco ; Cavattium 
urenSj Schott. & Endl.) 

NOM. VULG. Banilad, Tag. 

USES. The root bark is pounded up and applied locally in 
orchitis and in severe contusions with supposed fracture of the 
bones ; native charlatans pretend to cure the latter condition by 
this treatment. 

The trunk exudes a sort of gum, which with water forms a 
sort of colorless, odorless gelatin which dissolves at the boiling 
point. I do not know to what use this gum is applied in ther- 
apeutics, but it is often found mixed with the Senegambian 
gum acacia. 



KLEINHOVIA HOSPITATA 53 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with leaves bunched, 7- 
9- veined, heart-shaped, ovate, broad and entire, glabrous upper 
surface, short white down on lower surface. Petioles of same 
length as the leaves. Flowers small, yellow, numerous, polyg- 
amous, growing in large, terminal panicles covered with a fine, 
sticky down. Calyx bell-shaped, 5 acute papyraceous divi- 
sions, each bearing a small gland near its base. No corolla. 
Stamens 10, united in a column, the upper ends free. Five 
pods joined at one point, half-moon shaped, with woody shell, 
glabrous within and with a short down on the outer surface. 
Three or four kidney-shaped seeds, the testa thin and crusta- 
ceous. 

HABITAT. Cebu, Iloilo. 



Kleinhovia hospitata, L. 

NOM. YULG. Tanag, Tag., Vis.; Hamttanago, Vis.; Pan- 
ampat, Pam.; Bttnog, Hoc. 

USES. The decoction of the leaves is used, according to P. 
Blanco, to cure the itch. It is also used locally in all forms of 
dermatitis, and the tender leaves and sprouts are cooked and 
eaten. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree 25 high or more, with 
leaves alternate, heart-shaped, pubescent, almost entire. Petioles 
long with 2 stipules at the base. Flowers red, axillary, in large 
panicles. Calyx, 5 sepals, almost linear. Corolla the same 
size as the calyx, 5 linear petals, the lower shorter and curved. 
Nectary bell-shaped, of 5 parts, each 3-toothed ; set on a col- 
umn ; at its base a wavy fringe with dentate edge. Stamens 
15. No filaments. Anthers seated on the 15 teeth of the nec- 
tary. Ovary within the nectary, 5-angled, 5 apartments each 
containing an almost spherical seed. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Mindanao, Panay, Cebti, Jolo. Flowers 
in March and September. 



54 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Helicteres Ixora, L. (H. chrysocalyx, Miq.; H. Roxburghii, 

G. Don.) 

NOM. YULG. (?); Indian Screw Tree, Eng. 

USES. I am ignorant of the use that the Filipinos make of 
this plant, though it is very possible that they do not employ it 
at all in medicine, which is usually the case with those plants 
to which they have given no name. In India the peculiar 
spiral form of the fruit has suggested its application, according 
to the theories of the doctrine of symbolism. Ainslie says that 
the Hindoos use it to treat diseases of the external auditory 
canal. On account of its emollient properties and probably on 
account of its twisted form, it is used internally as a decoction, 
in flatulence and the intestinal colic of children. It is indis- 
pensable in the marriage ceremonies of the caste of Vaisya, 
among whom it is customary for the groom to wear on his 
wrists in the form of bracelets, strings of this fruit combined 
with that of Randia dumetorum. 

The root yields a juice which is employed in skin diseases, 
in abscess, and in cardialgia. In Jamaica the juice of the 
leaves is sometimes used for constipation. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree with leaves alter- 
nate, simple, entire, irregularly nerved or veined at the base, 
petiolate. Flowers of a handsome red color, hermaphrodite, 
regular, axillary. Calyx gamosepalous, tubular, of 5 parts. 
Corolla, 5 free petals slightly dentate at the point. Stamens 
numerous, united on a free column on the cusp. Compound 
nectary of 5 unilocular, many-ovuled ovaries. Styles 5, joined 
at the base. Fruit of 5 carpels, thin, twisted on themselves in 
spirals, forming a cone, pubescent, of a greenish-brown color, 
each containing a single row of angular seeds. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Pan ay. 



THEOBROMA CACAO 55 

Abroma fastuosa, R. Br. (A. angulata, Lam.; A. communis, 
Blanco ; A. augusta, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Anibog, Tag.; Anabo, Vis.; Perennial Indian 
Hemp, Eng. 

USES. The root bark is used in India as an emmenagogue 
in the congestive and neuralgic forms of amenorrhoea. It seems 
to act as a uterine tonic. The dose is 2 grams of the juice of 
the fresh root mixed with pepper which also acts as a carmina- 
tive and stomachic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub 3-4 meters high with 
hairy branches. Leaves opposite, oval, oblong, serrate, tomen- 
tose. Flowers purple, solitary, terminal. Calyx, 5 sepals. 
Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, united in the form of a tube. 
Ovary sessile, with 5 many-ovuled compartments. Styles 5, 
united in the form of a tube which divides into 5 stigma-bearing 
branches. Capsule membranous, 5-angled, truncate, dehiscent 
at apex. Seeds albuminous, covered with filaments of cotton. 

HABITAT. San Mateo, La Laguna, Batangas, Iloilo. 

Theobroma Cacao, L. 

NOM. VULG. Cacao. 

USES. The roasted bean ground with sugar constitutes 
chocolate, one of the most generally used foods of the Philip- 
pines. 

It is very nutritious by virtue of the fat and sugar it con- 
tains, but all stomachs do not bear it well and its use is the 
unsuspected cause of much dyspepsia. The custom of drink- 
ing it very hot and following with a large quantity of cold 
water is a very common cause of dilatation of the stomach 
in the Philippines. The seed of the cacao contains several 
substances : cacao butter, albumin, theobromine, starch, glucose, 
gum, tartaric acid, free or combined, tannin, and mineral sub- 
stances. Of these the butter and theobromine are the most im- 
portant. 



56 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS' OP THE PHILIPPINES 

Theobromine (C 7 H 8 N 4 O 2 ) is a weak alkaloid, crystalline, 
slightly bitter, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in 
hot water, less soluble in alcohol and ether ; stable in the air 
up to 100 ; sublimes without decomposition at 290 in micro- 
scopic crystals of the form of rhomboid prisms ending in an 
octohedric point (Keller). 

This alkaloid is very little used in therapeutics and its 
physiological action is said to be analogous to that of caffeine 
but weaker. It is better to use the salt of the alkaloid, and 
that most frequently employed is the salicylate of soda and 
theobromine in doses of from 2 to 6 grams daily in solution or 
pill. Lately, however, Dr. Gram has maintained that theo- 
bromine is a powerful diuretic operating when other diuretics 
fail and further that this effect is produced without injuring the 
heart. The double salt is non-toxic, though sometimes in ex- 
ceedingly weak patients it produces vertigo. Dr. Gram ad- 
ministers 6 grams a day in one-gram doses. 

Cacao butter is a white substance, slightly yellowish, unctu- 
ous to the touch, brittle ; with the agreeable odor peculiar to 
cacao, and a sweet and pleasant taste. Its density is 0.961, it 
melts at 30-33, and solidifies at 25. It dissolves in 20 
parts of boiling alcohol, in 100 parts of cold alcohol and in 
twice its weight of benzin. Cacao butter is obtained by grind- 
ing or mashing the roasted seeds in a hot apparatus and mix- 
ing the mass Avith a fifth or tenth of its weight of boiling water. 
It is then pressed between two hot iron plates and the butter 
thus obtained is refined by boiling water. It is then put aside 
in earthen pans, or still better, in moulds, where it solidifies. 
It does not easily become rancid and, for this reason, enters 
into the composition of many ointments and pomades, or is 
used alone. It serves as the base for suppositories and is, 
finally, a highly valued cosmetic. A common substitute is 
made by mixing oil of almonds, wax and animal fat. 

Before going further let us describe the composition of 



THEOBROMA CACAO 57 

Spanish chocolate according to the French chemist Bous- 
singault : 

Cane sugar 41.40 grams. 

Cacao butter 29.24 " 

Starch, glucose 1.48 " 

Theobromine 1.93 " 

Asparagin a trace 

Albumin 6.25 " 

Gum 1.42 " 

Tartaric acid 1.98 " 

Tannin and coloring matter 0.022 " 

Soluble cellulose 6.21 

Ash 2.34 

Water 4.36 " 

Undetermined material 3.27 " 

100.00 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree about 10 high, 
with leaves broad, 6-12' long, hanging or drooping, lanceolate, 
entire, and somewhat pubescent on both surfaces. Petioles 
very short with 2 deciduous stipules at the base. Flowers in 
clusters on the roots, trunk and branches. Peduncle very long. 
Nectary divided in 5 parts, straight, awl-shaped and 2-nerved. 
Calyx, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals curved upward in the form 
of a bow as far as the middle, where they form a hollow with 
two little horns ; then curving downwards, then upwards, 
widening at the end, the edge finely dentate. Stamens 5, in- 
serted on the nectary, and alternating with the lobes of the lat- 
ter. Anthers 2 on each filament, concealed in the hollows of 
the petals. Ovary globose. Style awl-shaped. Stigma cleft 
almost to the middle, 5-parted. Fruit broad, spindle-shaped, 
4' or more long, dark reddish, warty, 10-ribbed, with 5 com- 
partments each containing many compressed, ovoid seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in orchards and gardens throughout 
the islands. 
5 



58 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

GERANIACEJE. 

Geranium Family. 
Oxalis corniculata, L. (0. Acetosella, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Taigan dogd, Susokayoli, Tag.; Darasig, Vis.; 
Malabalugbug dagis, Ayo, Kongi, Yayo, Para.; Indian Sor- 
rel, Eng. 

USES. The part of the plant used in medicine is the leaf 
which is acid by virtue of the potassium oxalate which it con- 
tains. The decoction is used internally as an antipyretic in 
fevers and in dysentery. Mistaking the properties of the plant 
it is given for vesical calculus which, if composed of oxalates, 
would be increased instead of diminished by the treatment. 
In fact the salt of sorrel in the leaves contains a large quan- 
tity of oxalic acid mixed with potassium oxalate. In China, 
India and the Philippines the entire plant is used as an anti- 
scorbutic. 

The cold infusion of the leaves is given internally in doses 
of from 30 to 60 grams, but it is not a medicine to be given in- 
discriminately, because in addition to its power of adding to 
the bulk of calculi of the oxalates, the contained potassium 
oxalate is poisonous in doses of 25 to 30 grams. If a concen- 
trated solution is taken, it operates as a corrosive poison, produc- 
ing violent pains in the stomach, vomiting, faintness and great 
weakness. If the solution is dilute its absorption is rapid and 
it operates very energetically. When a patient is poisoned by a 
concentrated solution, the stomach-pump is contraindicated, be- 
cause the mucous membrane of the organ is corroded and ulcer- 
ated ; if by a dilute solution, use the pump to remove as much 
of the poison as possible. The best antidote is a watery solu- 
tion of a soluble salt of lime, i. e., the saccharate, which forms 
an insoluble salt with oxalic acid. 

The juice of the leaves is an antidote for the Datura (Stra- 
monium). In India they make a decoction of the plant, mix 



BTOPHYTUM SENSITIVTJM 59 

it with onion juice and apply it to the head as a fomentation in 
hemicrania. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 1 high, with a creep- 
ing, glabrous stem, leaves horizontal, ternate with common 
long petiole. Leaflets sessile, obcordate, with downy borders. 
Flowers axillary or terminal, from 1 to 3 in number on a com- 
mon long peduncle. The pedicel is also long. Calyx common 
to the family. Corolla, 5 petals ending in small claws. Sta- 
mens 10, monadelphous, the 5 shorter ones bearing each a small 
gland on the outer surface of the base. Ovary large, fluted. 
Styles 5, short. Stigmas hemispherical. Seed vessel pyram- 
idal, containing many seeds enveloped in an elastic aril by 
which they are ejected when the fruit opens. 

HABITAT. Abundant in Luzon, Panay and Cebu. 

Biophytum sensitivum, DC. (B. cumiagianum,, Turcz. ; Ox- 
alis sensitivum, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Makahiya, Damoghiya, Tag. ; Mahihiin, Hoc. 

USES. A decoction of the leaves is used internally as an 
expectorant. The bruised leaves are used as an application to 
wounds and contusions. In Java the decoction is used inter- 
nally in asthma, phthisis and snake bites. 

The peculiar property which this plant possesses of closing 
its leaves when touched, has caused the natives of India to 
attribute to it mysterious virtues. Symbolism has determined 
its therapeutic application and the Hindoos pretend that it en- 
dows with delicacy and modesty women who lack these virtues 
and that it restores virginity. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 7' high. Stem 
straight, nodose and without branches. Leaves abruptly pin- 
nate, the place of the odd leaflet taken by a stylet. The leaf- 
lets nearly linear with a small point at the apex, 1113 pairs, 
2 stipules to each pair. Common petioles long, cleft at the 
base and disposed in whorls around and on the end of the stem. 



60 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Flowers sessile, verticillate, on the ends of several very long 
peduncles which rise from the midst of the petioles. Calyx, 5 
sepals. Corolla, 5 petals, clawed, rounded at the end and 
slightly notched, forming a tube. Stamens 10, free. A small 
gland on the outer surface of the base of each short stamen. 
Styles 5. Seed vessels ovate, 5-angled, containing many seeds. 
HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands. 

Averrhoa Bilimbi, L. 

NOM. VULG. KamiaSj Kalamias, Tag.; Kilingiwa, Vis.: 
PiaSj Hoc. 

USES. The small fruit of the camia springing from the 
branches and trunks of the trees is widely known in the Phil- 
ippines, where they eat it green, pickled, and in salad; and 
when ripe fresh and preserved. Its qualities and therapeutic 
applications are the same as those of the following species. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 4-5 meters high with 
odd- pinnate leaves. Leaflets 12 pairs, ovate, linear, acute, soft 
and downy. Flowers small, pinkish or purplish, on trunk and 
branches. Stamens 10, five alternately longer. Pistils diver- 
gent. Fruit oblong, obtuse at the end, with five broad ribs. 

HABITAT. Very common throughout the islands. 

Averrhoa Carambola, L. 

NOM. VULG. Bilimbin, BalimMn, Tag. 

USES. The common name of this tree, whose fruit is so 
common, causes it to be confused with the name which Lin- 
naeus gives to the former species. Balimbin is a fruit of an acid 
taste, agreeable when ripe, serving the same uses for food as the 
camia. Its acidity is due to the presence of oxalic acid, which 
makes the green fruit useful for removing ink and rust stains 
from clothes. The juice of the fruit is refreshing and is given 
internally mixed with water and sugar as a refreshing drink in 



RUTA GRAVEOLENS 61 

fevers and as an antiscorbutic. For the latter the ripe fruit is 
eaten uncooked. 

In Mauritius the juice is used to treat dysentery and hepa- 
titis. Padre Blanco says that the natives use a decoction of 
camias and unthreshed rice in diarrhcea and bilious colic. In 
connection with the subject of camias and balimbins we should 
mention the fruit treatment of the bilious diarrhcea of the 
tropics, spoken of by the French physicians of Cochin China. 
Dr. Van der Burg of the Dutch Indies also strongly recom- 
mends the treatment of diarrhcea by fruits ; in temperate regions 
using fruits like peaches, pears, etc., and in the tropics, lychies, 
mangosteens, etc. In regard to the mangosteens we must not 
forget that, while the bark is given because of the amount of 
tannin it contains, the composition of the pulp is very different. 
The fruit acids seem to exercise great influence in the cure of 
this obstinate disease and I do not hesitate to recommend for 
this purpose the camia and the ripe balimbin. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree much like the former. 
Leaves odd-pinnate. Leaflets, 3-4 pairs, obliquely ovate, acute, 
the terminal leaflet nearly lanceolate. Flowers on the trunk, 
branches and in the axils of the leaves. Fruit oblong, with 5 
very prominent acute-angled ribs. 

HABITAT. It grows, like the former plant, in all parts of 
the islands. 

RUTACEJE. 

Eue Family. 

Ruta graveolens, L. (L. angmtifolia, Pers.) 
NOM. VULG. Rudu, Sp.; Rue, Eng. 

USES. The rue of the European, American and Indian 
pharmacopoeias is emmenagogue, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, 
excitant, diaphoretic, antiseptic and abortive. It contains an 
essential oil, and rutinic acid (C 2 .H 28 O 15 , Borntrager), starch, 
gum, etc. The essential oil is greenish-yellow, thick, acrid and 



62 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

bitter; specific gravity 0.911. It boils at 228, is slightly 
soluble in water, and soluble in absolute alcohol. It is 
promptly oxidized by nitric acid, and is converted into pelar- 
gonic acid and other fatty acids. 

Rutin (or rutinic acid), according to Weiss, is a glucoside 
which exists in the form of fine needles, bright yellow in color. 
It is slightly soluble in cold water and more so in boiling 
water. It melts at 190, and solidifies at freezing point, 
forming a resinous mass. Its physiological properties are as 
yet unknown. The part of the plant employed is the leaves, 
which owe their property, apparently, to the essential oil they 
contain, from which they also derive their strong and disagree- 
able odor and their bitter, acrid and nauseous taste. 

It is used principally as a uterine stimulant or emmena- 
gogue, for which purpose it is given in doses of 0.100.15 cen- 
tigrams of the freshly powdered leaf and 0.05-0.10 centigrams 
of the fresh leaves infused in a liter of water. The dry pow- 
der of the leaf should not be used because the essential oil vol- 
atilizes and a large proportion of it is lost, which is the most 
active principle of the drug. It is an agent which should be pre- 
scribed with the greatest prudence for large doses are poison- 
ous even to the point of causing death. The symptoms following 
such doses are colic, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and tenesmus. 

It is also used as an antihemorrhagic after childbirth, but its 
action is slow, not being felt for several hours after the admin- 
istration of the drug ; for this reason it cannot take the place of 
ergot, though it seems to be superior to the latter in passive 
hemorrhages. The essential oil is given internally in doses of 
2-6 drops on a piece of sugar. It is sometimes used as an an- 
tispasmodic in hysteria, epilepsy and chorea. 

The Chinese make extensive use of this drug and it is one of 
their principal abortives. In Hindostan the dried leaves are 
burnt and the smoke inhaled as a cure for catarrh in children. 
They are careful not to administer it to pregnant women. 



XANTHOXYLUM OXYPHYLLUM 63 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant, 1 meter high, with 
leaves alternate, compound, the inferior ones 2 3-cleft ; leaflets 
narrow, oblong, slightly fleshy. Flowers greenish-yellow, 
hermaphrodite, arranged in corymbose terminal cymes. Co- 
rolla, 4-5 free, concave petals. Calyx deeply divided, persist- 
ent. Stamens 8-10, free, in two whorls, inserted beneath a 
thick disc. Ovaries 5, unilocular, many-ovuled. Styles 5, 
first free, then united, forming a column terminating in a small 
stigma. Follicles 5, united at the base, 1 centimeter long, free 
superiorly, hard, rounded, rugose, opening on top. Seeds 
ovoid, angular, blackish, albuminous. 

HABITAT. Common everywhere in the Philippines. 

Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum, Edgew. (X. violaceum, Wall.; 
Fagara piperita, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kayutana,; Tag.; Salay, Saladay, Vis. 

USES. The trunk bark is stimulant and is used as a sudor- 
ific in the treatment of fevers. The fresh bark is quite irritat- 
ing, for which reason it is best to use bark taken from the more 
mature parts of the trunk, powdered and desiccated. The 
dose is J-2 grams 2-3 times a day. Its stimulating properties 
render it useful in colic and in India it is used as a sto- 
machic and digestive. Is seems also to possess diuretic prop- 
erties. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 30-35 high, with trunk 
thickly set with large spines. Leaves odd-pinnate. Leaflets 
ovate, acute, obtusely serrate, small transparent vesicles on the 
surface, spines on the midrib and common petiole. Calyx very 
small, monophyllous. Corolla twice as large as the calyx, 4 
petals. Stamens 4, inserted on the receptacle, the same length 
as the petals. Ovary superior, 4-angled. No style. Stig- 
mas 2. 

HABITAT. Batangas, Morong, Manila. 



64 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Murraya exotica, L. (M. paniculata, Jack.; Connarus foe- 
tens, and C. santaloides, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kamunig, Tag. 

USES. The leaves are stimulant and astringent, and are 
used in infusion (15 grams, to water one liter) to treat diarrhea 
and dysentery. The root and trunk barks are used for the same 
treatment and they as well as the leaves owe their properties 
to an essential oil and a bitter principle present in all parts 
of the plant. Vry has demonstrated the presence of a glucoside 
which he has named murrayin (C 18 H 22 O 10 ) ; it crystallizes in 
small, white needles, is slightly bitter, soluble in hot water and 
alcohol, insoluble in ether, slightly soluble in cold water. It 
melts at 170, and dissolves in alkaline solutions coloring them 
green. Boiled in dilute acids it splits into murrayetin and glu- 
cose. Murraydin (C 12 H 12 O 10 ) crystallizes in white needles, in- 
odorous, tasteless, slightly soluble in cold water and in ether, 
soluble in hot water and alcohol. Heat destroys its green color 
in solutions ; alkalies, in the presence of cold, increase it. The 
leaves and the bark of the plant contain an essential oil. 

The foregoing description of this species applies equally well 
to the following species. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree 12 high with 
leaves alternate, odd-pinnate. Leaflets lanceolate, almost en- 
tire, rigid with small dots on each surface. Flowers in axil- 
lary, very short, compound racemes. Calyx very small, mon- 
ophyllous, 5 lanceolate lobules. Corolla much longer than 
the calyx, 5 lanceolate petals. Stamens 10, joined, but not 
entirely united at the base ; 5 alternate stamens longer than the 
others. Anthers sessile, regular. Ovary superior, compressed 
and borne on a disc. Style 1, same length as the stamens. 
Stigma thick, depressed, apparently 4-angled. Fruit fleshy, 
ovoid, acute and somewhat curved at the end enclosing a seed 
with coriaceous, downy testa. 



CITRUS ACIDA 65 

Murraya Koenigi, Spreng. (Bergera Koenigi, L.; Connarus 

sp., Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. (?) 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate. 
Leaflets obliquely ovate, acute, entire and glabrous. The 
testa of the seed bears no down, and may be divided into two 
parts. The decoction of the leaves of this species as well as the 
former is used to allay toothache. 

Citrus acida, F. (C. notissima, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Limon, Sp.; Dayap, Tag.:, Lemon, Eng. 

USES. The essence (essential oil) and juice of the fruit are the 
parts of the plant used in therapeutics. The essence extracted 
from the rind is yellow, fragrant, slightly bitter ; density, 0.856 ; 
boiling point 165. The juice which is turbid and pale yellow 
in color contains 9^ citric acid, 3 5J& gum and sugar and ^-f^^o 
inorganic salts. The essence is used to flavor certain pharma- 
ceutical preparations, and is a diffusible stimulant which may 
be given internally in doses of 36 drops on a little sugar. 
The bitter rind is occasionally used in infusion as a stomachic 
and stimulant. The juice is most commonly used in lemonade, 
a cooling drink which, used intemperately in the Philippines, 
is apt to cause gastro-intestinal trouble, so commonly attributed 
to " irritation," but really the result of a general atony of the di- 
gestive organs. Lemon juice is also used with very good re- 
sults as a local cleansing application for sore throat, as well as 
externally on fetid ulcers. In some forms of malarial fever it 
seems to have given satisfactory results, administered internally. 

In many navies lemon juice forms a part of the sea ration 
as a preventive of scurvy, upon which it exercises a real and 
noteworthy action. The Danish navy adopted it for this pur- 
pose in 1770, the English navy followed, then the French and 
possibly others. The English call it lime-juice, and its pre- 



66 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

ventive dose is 3040 grams a day. Its curative dose is 100 
150 grams a day. To preserve the lime-juice it was bottled 
with a layer of oil, which, floating on the surface kept it from 
contact with the air ; but this process gave it a bad taste as did 
also the addition of sulphate of calcium, and at present the 
English add, to each liter of juice, 60 grams of alcohol, which 
preserves it perfectly. Fonssagrives says that the antiscorbutic 
action of lemon juice is due rather to the vegetable juice itself 
than to the citric acid which it contains. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A most familiar tree 11 or 
more high, trunk with solitary thorns. Leaves ovate, obtuse, 
acute-toothed, the petiole bearing serrate wings. Calyx 4-6- 
toothed. Corolla, 4 thick petals. Filaments 10-25 on the 
receptacle, some joined and bearing 2-3 anthers. Fruit thin- 
skinned, globular, about 1' in diameter; the rind adheres 
closely to the pulp. 

(This fruit closely resembles, if it is not identical with the 
lime fruit, C. Limetta, or C. Bergamia, Risso, though Gray 
states that the leaf of the latter has a wingless petiole. J. B. T.) 

HABITAT. Common to all parts of the islands. 

Citrus Bigaradia, Hook. f. (C.mUgaris,R,i8SQ; C.aurantium, 

Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Naranjas del pais, Sp.; Kahd-, Kahil, Tag.; 
Native Orangey Eng. 

USES. The rind of the cagel is the so-called bitter orange 
peel, the best of which comes from Cura9ao and Barbadoes. 
It is tonic and is used in decoction and in syrup. The infusion 
of the leaves, 5-10 grams to the liter, is useful as a sedative 
and diaphoretic in hysterical and nervous attacks ; the infusion 
of the flowers is similarly used. When distilled the flowers 
yield a very sweet essential oil called neroli, which is used as a 
perfume only. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 15-20 high, trunk 



DECANDRA 67 

bearing solitary spines. Leaves medium lanceolate, serrate, 
the apex notched, petioles winged. Flowers usually solitary. 
Calyx 4-5-toothed. Corolla 4-5 petals. Filaments joined or 
separate. Anthers about 20. The fruit, a small orange 2' or 
more in diameter, the peel closely adherent. 

The C. aurantium verum or C. reticulata (Blanco) has a yel- 
low pulp and the rind is readily separated from it, a thin net 
of fibers intervening. 

Citrus decumana, L. 

NOM. VULG. Suha, Lukban, Tag.; Toronjas Penins.; Na- 
ranjaSj Sp.-Fil. 

USES. The fruit, which is handsome and large, and the 
leaves and flowers, are used for the same purposes as those of 
C. bigaradia. 

HABITAT. The above species are cultivated in all parts of 
the islands, and, like the variety C. aurantium venim, H. f. (C. 
reticulata, Blanco), commonly called naranjita, are among the 
most abundant of native fruits. 

-ffigle decandra, Naves. (Feronia ternata, Blanco.) 

NOM. YIJLG. Malahabuyaw, Tag.; Tabog, Pam., Tag. (A 
species of Bael-Frnit Tree.) 

USES. We do not know the medicinal use of this plant in 
the Philippines. Probably it has none, but we may give those 
of the species. R. marmelos, Cor., the fruit of which is almost 
identical with that of our species and is called Bela or Bael in 
India. The fruit of the Malakabuyaw is ovoid and full of a 
mucilaginous pulp, aromatic and acid, the same as that of the 
Bael. The uses of the latter are the following : The pulp acts 
as an astringent, but it would be more correctly called a tonic 
of the intestinal mucosa, for it has been experimentally proved 
that, although it checks diarrhrea, it also acts as a laxative in 



68 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

chronic constipation. In both conditions it seems to operate 
by toning and regulating the functions of the intestine. 

Martin, an English physician, was the first to call attention 
to the properties of Bael, and according to Dr. Green one dose 
of the pulp of the ripe fruit, prepared with sugar and given 
every morning, is an efficient remedy in the treatment of the 
dyspepsia of Europeans in India, especially in the form charac- 
terized by constipation and flatulence. The green fruit is a 
powerful astringent used by the Hindoos for diarrhoea. In 
cholera epidemics Dr. Bose advises the daily use of an ice made 
from the pulp of the ripe fruit, the object being the regulation 
of the functions of the intestine. 

The Pharmacopoeia of India contains the following prepara- 
tions : 

Mixture. Pulp of the ripe fruit 60 grams. 

Water 120 " 

Sugar 60 " 

Mix, and if desired add chopped ice. This forms a very 
agreeable drink which has the aroma of the fruit itself, and 
may be repeated 2-3 times a day. When the fruit is ripe, this 
preparation is not only astringent in cases of diarrhoea, but 
possesses the additional property of increasing the appetite. If 
the patient's stomach is very weak, the preparation may pro- 
duce vomiting in which event it is necessary to give it in small 
doses or to employ the extract. 

Extract of Bad. Pulp of the ripe fruit is placed in a vessel 
and sufficient water added to cover it. It is then heated and 
evaporated to the consistency of a soft extract. The dose is 
2-4 grams, 2, 3 or 4 times a day. 

Fluid Extract of Bad. 

Pulp of Bael 500 grams. 

Water 3 liters. 

Rectified alcohol 60 grams. 



FERONIA ELEPHANTUM 69 

The Bael is macerated in a third of the water and at the end of 
12 hours the liquid is decanted and another third of water is 
added ; the maceration is repeated and the same process followed 
till the last third of water is used. Express the residuum, put 
all the liquid into one vessel, filter and evaporate till reduced to 
800 grams, then cool and add the alcohol. Dose, 48 grams. 

The fluid extract is less active than the freshly prepared solid 
extract. 

According to Dr. G. Bidie, the fruit of the Feronia elephan- 
tum, Correa (the species that grows in the Philippines), possesses 
the same properties as Bael. Its leaves are astringent, aro- 
matic and carminative, and the gum with which the trunk of 
the tree is covered is a good substitute for gum arabic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 7-8 meters high, the 
trunk covered with large, solitary spines. Leaves alternate, 
ternate. Leaflets lanceolate, scalloped and glabrous, the middle 
one larger than the others. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla, 5 thick 
petals, linear, much longer than the calyx. Stamens 10. Ovary 
cylindrical. Style and stigma thick. Fruit oblong, more than 
3 r long and 2' thick, with a surface irregular with prominences 
and grooves ; 10 or more compartments, each containing several 
ovoid, compressed seeds, ending with a woolly tuft. 

HABITAT. San Mateo, Montalban (Manila) ; Arayat (La 
Pampanga). 

Feronia elephantum, Correa. (Murraya odorata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Panoan, Pamunoan, Vis. ; Wood-apple, Eng. 

USES. The pulp of the ripe fruit has an agreeable odor and 

is edible. In India the green fruit is used as an astringent in 

diarrhoea and dysentery ; the ripe fruit is given in diseases of 

the gums and as a gargle. Mir Muhammad Husain states that 

the ripe fruit is a refrigerant, astringent, cardiac and general 

tonic, and is very efficacious in the treatment of salivation and 

ulcers of the throat, strengthening the gums and operating as 



70 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

an astringent. A sorbet made of the ripe fruit whets the appe- 
tite and the pulp is used locally for bites of venomous animals. 
In the latter case the pulverized bark may be used if the fruit 
cannot be obtained. 

The fruit of Ferona is a substitute for Bael (JEgle Marme- 
los), and is used as such by the English physicians in the hos- 
pitals of India. The tender leaves have an agreeable aroma 
similar to that of anise and are used internally in decoction as 
a stomachic and carminative. 

The incised trunk exudes a gum which is used in India as a 
substitute for gum arabic and there is an active trade in this 
gum in the bazars of Bombay and Calcutta. According to 
Pereira, it was at one time imported into England from the 
east of India under the name of gum arabic. It exists in the 
form of irregular, semitransparent pieces, of a brownish-red 
color. With water it forms a mucilage as adhesive as gum 
arabic, and this solution reddens litmus paper. It is dextro- 
gyrous and is precipitated by the neutral acetate of lead and 
by caustic baryta. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree 3-4 meters high. Leaves 
fragrant, opposite, odd-pinnate. Leaflets, 2 pairs, lanceolate, 
entire, and glabrous. Common petiole flattened above. Flow- 
ers terminal, white, racemose, with 2 flattened peduncles. 
Calyx inferior, with 5-6 divisions. Corolla, 5-6 petals. An- 
thers oval. Ovary oblong, 5-lobuled. Style short, caducous. 
Stigma spindle-shaped. Ovules numerous, compressed, in sev- 
eral series. Fruit pulpy, globose, with woody rind, one com- 
partment and many compressed, oblong seeds. 

HABITAT. Mountains of Augat. Woods of Catugan (Iloilo). 



SAMADERA INDICA 71 

SIMARUBAGE^. 

Quassia Family. 

Samadera Indica, Gaertn. (Niota tetrapela, DC. & Blanco ; 
Manungala pendula, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Manungaly Tag., Pam., Bicol.; Manunagl, 
Linatoganak, Palagarium, Daraput, Vis. 

USES. The wood and seeds contain an intensely bitter prin- 
ciple. The Filipinos make cups and vases of the wood and 
allow water to stand in them 6-12 hours, thus preparing a solu- 
tion of the bitter principle of the plant which they use in various 
stomach disorders. 

Vrij has extracted from the seeds a 33 ^ oil of a bright yellow 
color, composed, according to Oudermans, of 84 parts olein to 
16 of palmitin and stearin. 

The bitter principle contained in the root, wood and bark 
was discovered by Blunse who named it samaderin ; it is a 
white, crystalline, foliaceous sub&tance, more soluble in water 
than in alcohol, fusible. Nitric and hydrochloric acids color it 
yellow. Sulphuric acid immediately forms a violet red color 
which disappears as iridescent, feathery crystals are precipi- 
tated. (D. Beaumentz et Egasse.) 

The Filipino " herb-doctors " concoct an oil of manungal that 
in reality contains none of the ingredients of the seeds ; it is 
simply cocoaimt oil in which chips of the wood have been 
soaked. They use it in doses of 30-60 grams as a purgative, 
externally as an application to the abdomen in colic or indi- 
gestion and with friction in rheumatism or contusions. In 
India the oil extracted from the seeds is used locally with fric- 
tion in rheumatism. 

The decoction of the wood and the powdered wood are given 
in fevers, in dyspepsia and as a general tonic. 

IXFUSIOX. Chips of the wood 20 grams. 

Water . 500 " 



72 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

A wineglassful several times a day in cholera, fevers, diar- 
rhoea, etc. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, trunk straight, the 
wood white and very light in weight. Leaves 45' long, alter- 
nate, acute, oval, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, veined. Petioles 
very short, no stipules. Flowers in terminal umbels, each com- 
posed of 4-6 flowerets with moderately long pedicels. Common 
peduncle, very slender, very long, drooping. Calyx of same 
color as corolla, inferior, very small, 4-lobuled. Corolla pur- 
plish, very long, 4 straight, linear petals. Stamens 8, inserted 
on the receptacle. Filaments of equal length with the petals, 
with 1-2 appendices at the base. Anthers spiral. Ovary 5- 
lobuled, borne on small stalk. One style of equal length with 
the stamens, situated above the center of the 5 lobules of the 
ovary which develop into 5 future pods. Stigma simple. Fruit 
5 woody pods, short, united centrally above a small base, semi- 
lunar in form, medianly expanded, venate, containing a small 
wrinkled, kidney-shaped seed attached by a seed-stalk to the 
superior suture. 

HABITAT. Very common and well known everywhere in 
the Philippines. Blooms in February. 

BURSERACEJE. 

Myrrh Family. 
Garuga pinnata, Eoxb. (G. Madagascar ensis, DC.) 

NOM. VULG. Bugo, Tag. 

USES. The fruit is slightly acid and edible. The trunk 
exudes an abundant gum, of the odor of turpentine, translucent, 
greenish-yellow, forming small masses slightly soluble in alco- 
hol, soluble in water, with which a mucilage is formed. The 
juice of the leaves is used for asthma. The sap is used in 
Bombay to remove opacities of the cornea. There is another 
species in the Philippines, G. floribunda, Decsne (Idea Abilo, 



CANARIUM COMMUNE 73 

Blanco), abilo, Tag., the root of which furnishes a decoction 
used for phthisis. This species also produces a gum-resin 
similar to that of the bugo. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, with leaves alternate, 
odd-pinnate, without stipules, bunched on the ends of the 
branches, with opposite, serrate leaflets. Flowers yellowish- 
white in panicles, compound, polygamous. Calyx bell-shaped, 
5-toothed. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 10, free, in 2 series. 
Ovary inferior, 5-lobuled. Fruit, a globose, greenish-yellow 
drupe with numerous bony seeds. 

HABITAT. Everywhere in Luzon, Panay and Balabac. 

Canarium commune, L. (C. album and C. Luzonicum, Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Piliy Tag.; Java Almond Tree, East Indian 
Elerrdy Eng. 

USES. The ripe pili nut is edible and sold in confectioneries. 
It yields a fixed oil, an excellent sample of which was sent by 
the Manila pharmacist D. A. del Rosario to the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1889. "It is an oil very similar to oil of almond and 
owing to its physical properties may be used as a substitute for 
the latter for all the requirements of pharmacy. The only 
inconvenience connected with its use is the slight one that it 
solidifies at 3 C. It could furthermore be very advantageously 
used in the manufacture of fine grades of soap." (D. A. del 
Rosario.) 

The incised trunk exudes a gum-resin called brea blanca (white 
pitch) in the Philippines and elemi in Europe. Until recently 
it was not known in Europe what tree yielded the gum elemi, 
some authors stating that according to Blanco it was the resin 
of the Idea abilo, Blanco ( Garuga floribunda, Decsne) ; it is 
not true, however, that Padre Blanco ever attributed such 
origin to that product or named his Icica the " pitch-tree." 
On the contrary in speaking of the Canarium, Blanco states 
that it yields a resin called " pili-pitch." I do not know the 



74 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

reason for this confusion of terms, but presume it to be due to 
imperfect knowledge of Spanish on the part of those who thus 
quote Blanco. 

Pili-pitch, or elemi, as they call it in Manila, is a substance 
existing in soft masses, slightly yellowish or gray, resembling 
old honey in appearance. Its odor is strong and agreeable, 
somewhat like that of lemon and turpentine. Its taste is acrid 
and bitter. 

The French pharmacist Meaujean demonstrated in 1820 that 
elemi contains two resins, one soluble in the cold, and the other 
in hot spirits of wine. Other chemists, among them Baup, 
Fliickiger and Hanbury, have found elemi to be composed of a 
resinous substance and a colorless essential oil ; the proportion 
of the latter Fliickiger gives as 10J& and further states that it 
is dextrogyrous. Sainte-Claire Deville found the essential oil 
levogyrous, a fact that emphasizes the probability of there be- 
ing different products in the market bearing the name of elemi. 

Baup obtained several principles from it : (1) A resin, brein, 
fusible at 187, soluble in cold alcohol, crystallizablein oblique 
rhombic prisms ; (2) another crystalline substance, bryoidin, 
soluble in 360 parts water at 10, and melting at 13; (3) a 
small amount of brMin, a body soluble in 260 parts water and 
melting at 100-j- ; (4) another resin soluble in boiling alcohol, 
called amyrin. 

White pitch is used in the Philippines to make plasters 
which they apply to the back and breast of patients suffering 
from bronchial or pulmonary complaints ; it is also applied to 
indolent ulcers. We believe that elemi possesses the same 
properties as copaiba, and that its indications for internal use 
are the same. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 30-40 meters high, with 
leaves alternate, odd-pinnate ; leaflets opposite, coriaceous. Flow- 
ers yellowish-white in axillary, compound panicles, hermaphro- 
dite. Calyx 3-toothed. Corolla, 3 oblong, concave petals. Sta- 



MELIA AZEDARACH 75 

mens 6, inserted on the base of the disc. Ovary free, of 3 lobules 
each containing 2 ovules. Style simple. Stigma, 3 lobules. 
Drupe oblong, size of large prune, fleshy, containing a hard, 
3-sided pit. 

HABITAT. Very common in all Philippine woods especially 
in Camarines. 

MELIACE^E. 

Melia Family. 

Melia Azedarach, L. 

NOM. VULG. Paraiso (Paradise), Sp.-Fil.; Pride of India, 
China Tree, Eng. 

USES. The root was official in the U. S. P., 1880, as an 
anthelmintic ; it is administered in the following form : 

Fresh root bark 120 grams. 

Water 1 liter. 

Boil till reduced one half. 

DOSE. For a child 1 soup-spoonful every 15 minutes till 
nausea is produced. 

In view of the narcotic effects produced by this drug, the 
foregoing method of administration seems to us imprudent ; we 
prefer to give 30-70 grams of the decoction and follow with a 
purgative such as castor oil. 

This drug is also tonic, febrifuge and astringent, and a de- 
coction of its leaves and flowers is used as a wash for ulcers. 
Some believe that the leaves and fruit contain toxic principles, 
which may well be true considering the effects of large doses of 
their preparations. It has also been observed that the bark 
collected in March and April may cause dilatation of the pupil, 
stupor, etc.; this may be explained by the fact that at this sea- 
son the sap is rising in the tree and the bark contains an in- 
creased amount of active ingredients. 

The fruit yields a fixed oil, and by fermentation and distil- 
lation produces alcohol. 



76 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The root bark referred to is bitter and nauseous, if taken 
from the superficial roots the part usually employed ; the 
bark of the deeper parts is astringent by virtue of the con- 
tained tannin. 

Jacobs analyzed the bark and isolated an amorphous resin of 
yellowish color and very bitter taste. It is soluble in alcohol, 
ether and chloroform, slightly soluble in sulphuret of carbon, 
insoluble in turpentine or benzin. He believes that it is the 
active principle of the root, and produces the anthelmintic ac- 
tion already mentioned ; the proper dose is 0.20 centigrams to 
a child of 4 years, followed by a purge of calomel. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 30-40 high, with leaves 
alternate, compound, odd-pinnate ; leaflets opposite, ovate, 
pointed, dentate. Flowers in large axillary compound panicles. 
Calyx, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals, rose-colored within, lilac- 
colored without. Stamens 10, united into a cylindrical tube, 
expanded at both ends, the mouth 15-toothed. Anthers in- 
serted near the apex of the tube, short, fleshy, bilocular. Ovary 
free, of 5 biovuled cells. Style of equal length with the tube. 
Stigma button-shaped. Fruit a drupe, about the size of a small 
olive, yellow when ripe, with a dark brown pit of 5 one-seeded 
cells. 

HABITAT. Native of China ; is cultivated in most gardens 
in the Philippines. 

Dysoxylum Blancoi, Vidal. (D. salutare, F. Villar ; Turroea 
virens, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Ig'iWj Ag'iWj Tcdiatan, Tag. ; Ananagtag, 
Bakugan, Makasili, Vis. ; Malabagaw, Pam. ; Basiloag, Hoc. 

USES. The bark of the trunk, dry and finely powdered, is 
used in doses of 1J-2J grams as an emetic, and, according to 
Padre Blanco, its effect is very certain. 

It is also a febrifuge, and Padre Mercado states that it 
cures "all forms of asthma, suffocative affections of the chest, 



SANDORICUM INDICUM 77 

and griping pains of the belly." He also states that it yields 
marvelous results in malarial fevers, given during the cold stage 
in doses of 4-8 grams in water or wine in which it has macerated 
12 hours. He also recommends its use before breakfast as an 
anthelmintic in lumbricoids, and finally attributes to it virtues 
as an emmenagogue. 

Padre Blanco calls attention to the species D. sehizochitoides, 
Turcz. (Turroea octandra, Blanco), Himamaw, Tag., as a sub- 
stitute for 1). Blaneoi. 

The Tagalo "herb-doctors" pretend that the part of the 
bark near the earth is doubly efficacious, for which reason they 
administer only that portion which is within one meter of the 
ground, giving it in the doses already mentioned. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Tree 1 6-20 meters high. Leaves 
glabrous, odd-pinnate, petioles very long ; leaflets entire, oppo- 
site, short-petiolate, acute, oblique at the base. Flowers in 
axillary panicles. Calyx, 5 imbricated sepals. Corolla, 5 
linear, lanceolate petals united at the base. Staminal tube, 10- 
toothed and 10-anthered. Ovary 5-celled, each cell contain- 
ing two ovules. Style somewhat longer than the stamens. 
Stigma thick and depressed. Seed vessel globose, depressed, 
somewhat downy, 5-angled ; with 5 compartments each contain- 
ing 2 seeds. 

HABITAT. Batangas and Laguna. 

Sandoricum Indicum, Cav. 

NOM. VULG. Santolj Tag. 

USES. The santol is doubtless one of the best known fruits 
in Manila. The most savory portion is the center, which con- 
sists of seeds covered with a white pulp of a delicious flavor in 
the ripe fruit of good quality. The fleshy covering is edible 
only in the center of the fruit and only a very thin layer of 
that, the rest having very little flavor. The whole fruit is 
used in making a confection often prescribed as an astringent. 



78 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Padre Mercado compares it very appropriately to the quince. 
The root of the santol is aromatic, stomachic and astringent, by 
virtue of which latter property it is used in Java in the treat- 
ment of leucorrhoea. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 30-40 high, well known 
in the islands. Leaves ternate ; leaflets 4-5' long, half-ovate, 
obtuse, entire, stiif and downy, the middle one elliptical. 
Flowers in panicles. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla much longer 
than the calyx, 5 greenish petals, linear and curved downwards. 
Nectary a cylindrical tube attached to the corolla for half its 
length, mouth 10-toothed, containing 10 sessile anthers. Style 
somewhat longer than the stamens. Stigma 5-parted. Fruit 
about size and form of a small apple, thick, brown, pericarp 
indehiscent, 5 or more one-seeded compartments. 

HABITAT. Grows in all parts of the islands, commonly 
along the roads. 

Carapa Moluccensis, Lam. (Xylocarpus granatum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Tabigi, Nigi, Kalumpag sa lati, Tag.; Migi, 
Pam. 

USES. The seeds contain a yellow oil, bitter and astringent, 
with a characteristic odor, having a taste somewhat resembling 
the odor. In decoction they are used for diarrhoea and dysen- 
tery, on account, doubtless, of the tannin they contain. The 
dose is 12 seeds dried, pounded and infused with 200 grams 
of sweetened water. 

The bark, also bitter, is said to be useful in fevers. 

In America they extract an oil from the species of the C. 
Guianensis, Aubl., with which the negroes anoint themselves to 
keep away stinging insects. Wood soaked in this oil is also 
proof against insects. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. This tree, 20 high, grows in 
swampy districts. Leaves opposite, abruptly pinnate. Two 
pairs of wedge-shaped leaflets, entire and glabrous. Petiole 



CEDRELA TOON A 79 

very short. Calyx inferior, 4-5-toothed. Corolla, 4-5 con- 
cave petals, slightly notched at the end. Nectary notched, 
ovate, 8-9-toothed. No filaments. Anthers equal in number 
to the teeth of the nectary and inserted between them. Ovary 
very thick, globose. Stigma shield-shaped. Drupe globose, 
resembling a very large orange, 5 chambers, each containing 1, 
2 or more seeds, convex on one side and concave on the other, 
angular and much crowded. Testa hard and porous. 
HABITAT. Common throughout the Archipelago. 

Cedrela Toona, Roxb. (C. odorata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. KalantaSj Tag., Pam.; Lanigpa, Vis. 

USES. The infusion of the flowers is antispasmodic. The 
trunk bark is an excellent astringent, and Dr. Waitz recom- 
mends it in extract as a treatment for infantile diarrhea, for 
which I also have found it very useful. Blume says that it 
contains marked antispasmodic virtues, and Dr. G. Kennedy 
confirms it. Other physicians of India, among them Ros and 
Newton, have recommended the bark as a substitute for cin- 
chona, given dry in doses of 30 grams. 

INFUSION. 

Bark dry, pounded 30 grams. 

Water ..150 

Filter and add : 

Syrup of cinnamon 20 grams. 

DOSE. Several dessert-spoonfuls a day. 

The powdered bark is very useful as an application to indo- 
lent ulcers which it instantly deodorizes ; like powdered quinine 
it is used in the treatment of superficial gangrene. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree. Leaves odd-pin- 
nate. Leaflets oval, lanceolate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, 5- 
6 pairs. Flowers yellow, in terminal panicles. Calyx 5- 
toothed. Corolla, 5 oblong petals. Stamens 5, free, inserted 
on the apex of a disk. Ovaries sessile, 5 many-ovuled cells. 



80 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Style short. Stigma on a disk. Seed vessel coriaceous, 5 
compartments, septicidal, 5-valved. Seeds compressed, pendu- 
lous, prolonged in a membranous wing. 
HABITAT. Very common in the islands. 

CELASTRACEJE. 

Staff-Tree Family. 

Celastrus paniculata, Willd. (C. alnifolia, DC.; C.Rothiana, 
Roem.; Diosma serrata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Bilogo, Tag. 

USES. I am not acquainted with the medicinal uses of this 
plant in the Philippines. In India, by means of a primitive 
system of distillation, they extract from the seeds a dark-col- 
ored oil of empyreumatic odor, which under the name of Oleum 
nigrum was once proclaimed by Dr. Herklots as the sovereign 
remedy for beriberi. 

This oil in doses of 10-15 drops a day is a very powerful 
stimulant, the action of which is manifested by profuse perspi- 
ration several hours after its administration. Malcolmson re- 
ports that it has given him good results in several cases of 
beriberi, particularly in recent cases and those in which nerv- 
ous and paralytic symptoms predominated. In Coucan, the 
juice of the leaves is given in doses of 30 grams as an antidote 
for opium. The bruised seeds made into a paste with cow 
urine are used locally in treatment of itch. They are also 
used in the treatment of leprosy, gout, rheumatism, and other 
diseases which according to their medical theories, are derived 
from "cold humors. " For these purposes they give the seeds 
internally, beginning with one and increasing daily until 50 
are taken. At the same time they make external applications 
of the oil or of another compound prepared in the following way : 

Place in an open pot with one opening, seeds of C. panicu- 
lata, cloves, benzoin, nutmeg and mace. The pot having been 



ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA 81 

previously heated, is covered with another, inverted over the 
opening. On the sides of the latter a thick black oil condenses 
which Herklots very appropriately named Oleum nigrum. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A climbing shrub, 6-9 high, 
without spines. Leaves 6-7 ' long by 5' broad, alternate, pet- 
iolate, entire, glabrous, half-ovate. Flowers small and panicu- 
late. Calyx, 5 divisions. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, in- 
serted in a disc. Anthers oblong. Ovary 3-celled. Stigma 
3-lobulate. Style short. Seed vessel the size of a pea, globose, 
3-celled, loculicidal, with pulpy seeds. 

HABITAT. Tayabas, Laguna, Ilocos North, San Mateo, 
Albay. Flowers in April. 

RHAMNACE^I. 

Buckthorn Family. 

Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam. (Rhamnus Jujuba, L. & 
Blanco ; Z. Mauritania, Wall.) 

NOM. VULG. Manzanitas, Sp.-Fil.; Jujube Fruit, Eng. 

USES. The small fruit known commonly as manzanitas has 
an agreeable taste, although ordinarily offered for sale before 
they are quite ripe. They are among the most popular dain- 
ties at the fairs and festivals in the provinces of Manila and 
are the only part of the plant used in medicine. They possess 
emollient qualities and are official in the codex. They enter 
in the composition of the so-called pectoral remedies (composed 
of equal parts of figs, dates, Corinthian raisins and manzanitas). 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub, with hooked thorns, 
leaves alternate, petiolate, coriaceous, entire, 3-nerved, 2 thorny 
stipules, one of them crooked. Flowers small, greenish, axillary. 
Calyx, 5 oval divisions. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, free. 
Ovary bilocutar, situated on the disc. Styles 2-3, divergent ; 
small papillary stigmas. Drupe pulpy, globose, resembling a 
crab-apple in size and taste, enclosing a hard, 2-celled seed. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands. 



82 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Rhamnus Wightii, W. & Am. (Ceanothus WigUiana, Wall.; 
R. Carolianus, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kabatitij Tag. 

USES. The dried trunk bark is the part employed in med- 
icine. Hooper analyzed it in 1888 and found a crystalline 
principle (0.47 /o), a brown resin (0.85), a red resin (1.15), a 
bitter principle (1.23), sugar, starch, calcium, oxalate, etc. 

As the active principles exist in the resins, an alcoholic tinc- 
ture of the latter is the best preparation for administration. In 
India it is used as a tonic and an astringent. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree that grows near the 
sea coast. Trunk 9-12 high, straight, many-branched, de- 
void of thorns. Leaves alternate, ovate, acutely serrate, glab- 
rous, short-petioled. Flowers greenish-white, axillary, perfect. 
Calyx 5-toothed, inversely conical. Corolla, 5 petals, smaller 
than the teeth of the calyx, oval, without claws, notched at the 
apex. Disc fleshy, smooth, slightly concave. Stamens 5, hid- 
den within the petals. Filaments flattened. Anthers rounded. 
Ovary fleshy, inserted at the bottom of the calyx tube. Style 
short. Stigmas 3, divergent. Fruit oval, its base adherent to 
the calyx, 3 seeds. 

HABITAT. Batangas. Blooms in July and October. 

ANACARDIACEJE. 

Cashew Family. 
Mangifera Indica, L. 

NOM. VULG. Manga. 

USES. The dried and pulverized kernel of the seed is used 
as an anthelmintic in doses of 1J-2 grams both in India and 
Brazil. The same preparation is used in the Philippines in 
the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea and its effect is doubt- 
less due to the large quantity of tannin it contains. It is ad- 
ministered as follows : The pounded kernels of 20-25 seeds are 



MANGIFEKA INDICA 83 

brought to a boil in 2 bottles (sic) of water. When the liquid has 
evaporated a third, it is removed from the fire, cooled, decanted, 
and again placed on the fire after adding three to four hundred 
grams of sugar. This time it is allowed to boil till reduced to 
one bottle. The dose is 50-60 grams 2-3 times a day. In- 
cisions in the trunk exude a brownish resin which solidifies in 
the air, is slightly acrid, bitter, dissolves in alcohol and partially 
in water. In Malabar it is given internally in the treatment 
of diarrhoea and dysentery, mixing it with white of egg and 
opium. But the curative value of the combination is more 
likely due to the albumen and opium than to the resin. Dis- 
solved in lemon juice it is a useful application in the itch. The 
trunk bark is astringent and is employed in decoction as a wash 
for ulcers and eczema and as an injection in leucorrhoea. 

The fruit is one of the most highly prized in the Philippines, 
and resident Europeans are able to eat large quantities of it 
without ill effects unless the fruit is over-ripe, in which case it 
often causes transient diarrhcea, which should be treated with a 
mild purge. 

In Mauritius the following compound powder is used in 
dysentery : 

Dried slices of manga fruit 30 grams. 

Dried manga kernels 60 " 

Plantain seeds 15 " 

Dried ginger 8 " 

Gum arabic 15 " 

Pulverize each ingredient separately ; add 

powdered candy sugar 30 " 

Mix. 

DOSE. For an adult one dessert-spoonful every 4 hours ; 
may be given in cange or arrowroot. 

The flowers, testa and bark are, in Hindoo therapeutics, 
considered " cold," and " astringent," and are used especially 
in diarrhcea. In certain throat affections the Hindoos employ 



84 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

the burning leaves for inhalation. They also use the gum made 
by evaporating the juice of the ripe fruit, as a confection and 
an antiscorbutic. Dr. Linguist recommends the bark as a local 
astringent in uterine, intestinal and pulmonary hemorrhage and 
employs the following : 

Fluid Extract. 

Fluid extract of manga bark 10 grams. 

Water 120 " 

Mix. Dose, 1 teaspoonful every 1 or 2 hours. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A noble tree, 30 to 40 high, 
dome-like or rotund in outline. Leaves dark green, lustrous, 
alternate, lanceolate, entire ; short petioles. Flowers racemose, 
in verticillate panicles. Calyx, 4, 5 or 6 sepals. Corolla 
white, fragrant, 4, 5 or 6 petals. Stamens 5, of which per- 
haps 1, 2 or 3 are fertile. Style on one side of the ovary. 
Stigma simple. Fruit large, reniform, fleshy, yellow when ripe ; 
contains a large, flattened, reniform pit. Blooms from Janu- 
ary even till June. The natives force the fruit by building 
fires under the trees when but little air is stirring. 

HABITAT. Common throughout the islands. 

Anacardium occidentale, L. (Cassuvium reniforme, Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Kasuy, Tag.; Caskew Nut, Eng. 
USES. The pericarp of the nut contains an essential oil 
which is very irritant and used by the Hindoos as a vesicant ; 
it severely blisters the lips and tongues of imprudent persons 
who break the nut without taking the precaution of cleansing 
it of the oil before opening it. In addition to the oil called 
cardolj the pericarp contains an especial acid anacardic, a little 
tannin and ammonia. Cardol (C 21 H 31 O 2 ) is an oleaginous, yel- 
low liquid very unstable, neutral, soluble in alcohol and ether, 
insoluble in water, volatile, and vesicant if applied to the skin. 
" Anacardic " acid is white, crystalline, odorless, with a burn- 
ing, aromatic taste. It melts at 26 and decomposes at 200 



ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE 85 

forming a colorless oil ; it is not vesicant, burns with a dark 
flame, and has the odor of rancid oil. A tincture of the 
pericarp has been made (1 part to 10 of alcohol) and given in- 
ternally as a vermifuge in doses of 210 drops. Cardol, ac- 
cording to some authors, does not exercise a vesicant action in 
the gastro-intestinal canal, because it is not dissolved by the 
gastro-intestinal juices ; I am sure, however, that I have seen a 
choleraic diarrhoea brought on by swallowing, in fun, the peri- 
carp of one nut and a half. Cardol is eliminated by the urine. 

The kernel is edible and has a very agreeable taste when roasted. 
By expression it yields a sweet, yellowish oil, density 0.916. 

The trunk exudes a gum resin in masses varying in color 
from red to yellow. 

The fleshy part, called the fruit, is edible but contains a cer- 
tain quantity of cardol not only evidenced by the odor but by 
the smarting of the mouth and throat after eating. It is very 
juicy and the expressed liquid is fermented in Bombay and dis- 
tilled to make a very weak alcohol which sells for the very low 
price of 4 annas (5 cents gold) a gallon. This alcohol is again- 
distilled and a stronger obtained which sells for 1J rupees a 
gallon. The Portuguese of India make a sort of wine from 
the fermented juice of the fruit, which, like the weak alcohol we 
have mentioned, is a well-known diuretic and is used as a liniment. 

The gum resin of the trunk contains 90J& of anacardic acid 
and 10J6 cardol. Wood soaked in it is preserved from the 
ravages of insects, especially of white ants, for which purpose 
it is used by bookbinders also. Therapeutically it is used ex- 
ternally in leprosy, old ulcers and to destroy corns, but on ac- 
count of its rubefacient and vesicant qualities it is necessary 
to use it cautiously. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 18 high, with leaves 
cuneiform, glabrous, stiff, short-petioled. Flowers polygamous 
in terminal panicles. Calyx with 5 erect segments, imbricated, 
caducous. Corolla, 5 linear, lanceolate petals, curved and im- 



86 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

bricated. Stamens 8-10, all fertile. Filaments united to one 
another and to the disc. Ovary heart-shaped. Style filiform and 
eccentric. Stigma defective. Ovule solitary. Fruit a reni form 
nut enclosed in a pulpy pyriform body, formed by the matured disc 
and extremity of the peduncle. Seed reniform, testa membranous. 
HABITAT. Common throughout the Archipelago. Blooms 
in February. 

Odina Wodier, Roxb. 

NOM. YULG. Amugis, Tag. and Vis. 

USES. The bark is very astringent and in decoction is used 
for chronic ulcers. In India Dr. Kirkpatrick has used it as a 
lotion in impetigo. It has also given good results as a gargle 
in affections of the pharynx and buccal cavity. 

The trunk exudes a gum called in India " kanni ki gond," 
an article of commerce. It is almost odorless and has a dis- 
agreeable taste. It is only partially soluble in water, forming 
a viscid mucilage. It is used in the treatment of contusions 
and sprains and is edible when mixed with cocoanut milk. 
* BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, with leaves bunched at 
the extremities of the branches, oblong, oval, acuminate, odd- 
pinnate, 3-4 pairs of opposite leaflets. Flowers greenish-white, 
polygamous, in terminal panicles. Calyx gamosepalous, 4 
rounded lobules. Corolla, 4 imbricated petals. Stamens 8, free. 
Ovary 4-parted. Pistillate flowers ; ovary sessile, oblong, tmi- 
locular. Style 4-parted, thick. Drupe oblong, compressed, 
unicellular. Testa hard, with 1 non-albuminous kernel. 

HABITAT. San Mateo. 

MO RINGED. 

Moringa pterygosperma, Gaertn. (M. oleifera, Lamk.; 

M. poligona, DC.; Gidlandina Moringa, Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Malugay, Kamalugay, Kalugay, Tag.; Dool, 
Malugit, Vis. and Pam.; Horse Radish Tree, Indo-Eng. 



MORINGA PTERYGOSPERMA 87 

USES. The root is vesicant and the Filipinos bruise it and 
use it for sinapisms. I have often observed, however, that it 
is quite painful used in this way. Dr. Waitz states that it is a 
good plan to add a few drops of the root juice to mustard sin- 
apisms, a proceeding which seems to me superfluous, especially 
in the case of children as he advises it. 

The Bengal pharmacopoeia contains the following official 
preparations : 

Compound Spirit. 

Small pieces of moringa root ) 

I aa 600 grams. 

Orange peel j 

Nutmeg 20 " 

Spirit of wine 4J liters. 

Water 1 " 

Mix and distil 4 liters. 

DOSE. 830 cc. as a stimulant and diuretic. 
Compound Infusion . 

Moringa root, small pieces, bruised ) __ OA 

V . . aa 30 grams. 
Mustard seed J 

Boiling water J liter. 

Let stand 2 hours, filter and add com- 
pound spirit 30 grams. 

DOSE. 30-60 grams a day, as a strong stimulant. 

The expressed seeds yield a fixed oil, which is irritating and 
in my opinion should not be used internally. 

The green pods, the flowers and the tender shoots of the 
leaves are eaten stewed. The juice of the leaves is given 
internally in India, as an emetic, in doses of 30 grams. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A well-known tree, 5-6 meters 
high. Leaves 3-pinnate, their terminal divisions odd-pinnate. 
Leaflets oval, glabrous, entire. Calyx, 5 unequal petaloid 
segments, imbricated, caducous. Corolla white, 5 unequal 
petals. Stamens inserted on the border of a disc, unequal, 5 



88 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

opposite the petals bearing anthers, 5 alternate without anthers. 
Anthers dorsal, unilocular. Ovary pedunculate, lanceolate, 
unilocular, with many ovules in 2 series, inserted on the parietal 
placentae. Fruit a pod terminating in a beak, 3-valved. Seeds 
numerous, very large, winged, embedded in a spongy substance. 
HABITAT. Common throughout the islands. Blooms in 
November. 

LEGUMINOS-E. (PAPILIONACEJE.) 

Pulse Family. 
Agati grandiflora, Desv. (Sesbania grandiflora, Pers.) 

NOM. YULG. Katuray, Tag. 

USES. The flowers are edible. They and the leaves are 
purgative and are given in decoction for this purpose, 30-40 
grams to 200 of water. The juice of the flowers is a popular 
remedy in India, for migraine and coryza. The trunk bark is 
bitter and tonic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 4-6 meters high, with 
drooping limbs ; leaves long, very narrow, abruptly pinnate ; 
many caducous leaflets, linear, elliptical. Flowers large, white, 
fragrant, in axillary racemes. Calyx bell-shaped with two in- 
distinct lips. Corolla papilionaceous, white. Standard oval, 
a slight notch at the apex. Wings almost as large as the keel 
which is strongly arched. Stamens 10, diadelphous. Anthers 
uniform. Style and stamens equally long. Stigma a small 
head. Pod 1-2 long, linear, 4-sided, containing many oval 
seeds, separated by filamentous partitions. 

HABITAT. Grows in all sections of Luzon and Panay. 

Abrus precatorius, L. 

NOM. YULG. Saga, Sagamamin, Bagati, Tag.; Bagati Gi- 
kosgikos, Yis.; Kanaasaga, Pam.; Bugayon, Hoc.; Jequiriti, 
Prayerbeads, Eng. 



ABRUS PRECATORIUS 89 

USES. The part of the plant most important in thera- 
peutics is the seed, the size of a small pea, bright red with a 
black spot, hard and shining. The Filipino children use them 
to make rosaries and other decorations. In the distant past 
the Filipinos used these seeds to weigh gold, a practice followed 
even to-day by the Hindoos. The famous Susrutas, author of 
the " Ayur Veda," recommends them internally for nervous 
diseases ; modern therapeutics, however, limits their use to one 
disease, though that is frequent and stubborn enough, namely 
chronic granular conjunctivitis. 

Some physicians state that these seeds are poisonous and 
others the contrary, but the fact that they are used as food 
among the poor classes of Egypt, demonstrates their harmless- 
ness in the digestive tract at least ; when introduced into the 
circulation they undoubtedly exercise a toxic effect. We have 
already mentioned that their use is limited nowadays to the 
therapeutics of the eye ; the decoction of the seeds known in 
Europe under the name of " Jaqueriti " so named in Brazil 
produces a purulent inflammation of the healthy conjunctiva 
and it is precisely this counter-irritant effect which makes it 
useful in chronic granular conjunctivitis, the persistence of 
which has defied the most heroic measures of therapeutics. 
The French oculist, Dr. de Wecker, was the first to employ 
jequirity for this purpose, in the form of a 24 hours 7 macera- 
tion of the seeds, 10 grams to 500 grams of water. It is nec- 
essary to use a product recently prepared and with this several 
applications a day are made. It is now known that the in- 
flammation of the healthy conjunctiva is not caused by germ- 
life contained in the solution but by an inorganic ferment dis- 
covered by Bruylans and Venneman and named jequiritin ; 
they state that it is produced during the germination of the 
seeds or of the cells in the powdered seeds. Warden and Wad- 
dell, of Calcutta, have isolated an essential oil, an acid named 
" abric " and an amorphous substance called abrin, obtained by 

8 



90 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

precipitation with alcohol from a watery infusion of the pul- 
verized seeds. Its action is identical with that of " jequiritin." 

The infusion appears to possess considerable value as a stimu- 
lating application to indolent ulcers. 

The root is a good substitute for licorice, is emollient and 
has an agreeable taste. The extract is useful in catarrhal dis- 
eases of the bronchi and in dysuria. The leaves contain the 
same properties as the root and an extract prepared from them 
is used as a substitute for licorice. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION.- A vine, with leaves opposite, ab- 
ruptly pinnate, a stylet taking the place of the terminal leaflet. 
Leaflets linear, entire, glabrous, tipped with a small point. Com- 
mon petiole with 2 awl-shaped stipules at the base. Flowers 
in small racemes. Calyx gamosepalous, caducous, 45 short 
teeth. Corolla papilionaceous, wings horizontal. Stamens 9, 
monadelphous with bilocular anthers. Style very short. Stigma 
globose. Pod 4-5 cm. long, truncate at the ends, with 5-6 
red seeds, each with a black spot. 

HABITAT. Common in all mountainous regions of the is- 
lands. Grows near houses and roads. 

Mucuna pruriens, DC. (If. prurita, Hook.; M. utilis, Wall.; 
Dolichos pruriens, L.; Carpopogon pruriens, Iloxb.) 

NOM. VULG. Nipay, Lipay, Vis. 

USES. The pods are official as an anthelmintic in the Phar- 
macopoeia of India. They are used in the form of an electuary 
triturated to the proper consistency with honey or syrup. The 
dose for adults is one soupspoonful, and for children a teaspoon- 
ful, given every morning for 3-4 consecutive days. The last 
day a purge is given to expel the lumbricoids. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vine with ternate leaves. 
Flowers red, keel larger than the standard and wings. Pods 
about as thick as the little finger, lacking transverse grooves, 
curved in the form of the letter f, covered with bright red down, 



ERYTHRINA INDICA 91 

which causes an unendurable itching. They are divided into 
3 or 4 oblique cells each containing a brown, shiny seed. 
HABITAT. Luzon and Panay. 

Erythrina Indica, Lara. (E. corallodendron, L.; 
E. carnea, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Dapdap, Kasindik, Tag.; Dapdap, Kabrab, 
Vis.; Dapdap, Sulbay, Para.; Indian Coral Tree, Eng. 

USES. This tree is well known on account of the beauty of 
its crimson flowers. The decoction of the leaves is a useful 
cleansing and deodorizing application for ulcers. The bruised 
leaves are used locally in painful affections of the joints and to 
abort syphilitic buboes and abscesses of all kinds. The juice 
of the tender leaves is used in Con can to destroy maggots in 
ulcers, and the powder has a similar use. A decoction is used 
locally in ophthalmia. 

The root and the leaves are used as a febrifuge in the Philip- 
pines and in India, according to Wight. In Brazil the bark 
is given in small repeated doses as a hypnotic and in the Phil- 
ippines as a diuretic and purgative ; a decoction of the leaves 
is similarly used. The bark contains an alkaloid discovered 
by Rochefontaine and Rey, called erythrin, which acts upon the 
central nervous system, diminishing its normal functions even 
to the point of abolishment, without modifying motor excitabil- 
ity or muscular contractility. W. Young isolated a glucoside, 
migarrliin, similar to saponin, but possessing the additional 
property of dilating the pupil. 

In bronchitis with dyspnoea the following infusion of bark 
is very useful : 

Fresh bark, 1 

-^ , , , . , , > aa 2 grams. 

-b reshly bruised leaves, j 

Water 1,500 " 

Boil till reduced one-half, filter and add : 

Simple syrup 200 " 

Dose : Wineglassful every two hours. 



92 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree, 20 high, thorny, 
with ternate leaves. Leaflets rhomboid, broad, entire, glabrous. 
Secondary petioles : that of the middle leaflet long, bearing 2 
glands, those of the others short, bearing 1 gland each. The 
leaves fall at the end of the rainy season and the flowers bloom. 
They are a handsome scarlet color, large, in terminal racemes. 
Calyx half-cylindrical, oblique, truncate, entire. Corolla 
papilionaceous ; standard elongated, lanceolate. Wings short. 
Keel very short, 2-lobuled. Stamens diadelphous. Anthers 
large. Ovary woolly. Stigma thick. Pod curved, rounded, 
furrowed in parts corresponding to the seeds which are numer- 
ous, oval, pointed at the ends. 

HABITAT. Common throughout the islands. Blooms in 
February. 

Clitoria ternatea, L. 

NOM. YULG. Kolokantiy, Pukingay, Tag. ; Kolokatig, Vis.; 
Butterfly-pea, Eng. 

USES. The pounded seeds mixed with oil are used locally 
for painful joints. They possess purgative and emetic proper- 
ties and Dr. J. Shartt has employed a mixture of the powdered 
roasted seeds, 8 grams, with double the quantity of acid tar- 
trate of potassium. Its action is gentle, but sure. The alco- 
holic extract of the root, a soft, brown, resinous substance with 
an odor recalling that of jalap, is a very active cathartic, pro- 
ducing sharp effects in doses of 30-60 centigrams ; in fact it 
produces such severe tenesmus that its use in such doses should 
not be recommended. 

The root bark is used internally in an infusion (4-8 grams to 
1 liter of water) as an emollient in irritability of the bladder 
and urethra and has been recommended for such a purpose by 
Mooden Sheriff. It is a diuretic which frequently acts as a 
purgative, a fact that is not surprising in view of the above- 
mentioned properties of the alcoholic extract. 



PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS 93 

The roasted seeds used as a purgative are so trustworthy that 
they deserve the further attention of physicians. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vine very well known by its 
blue flowers. Leaves alternate with 3 pairs of oval leaflets. 
Stipules persistent. Flowers axillary, solitary, 11 J' in long 
diameter. Calyx in 5 acute divisions, the two upper ones 
smaller. Corolla papilionaceous. Standard open, notched at 
the end. Keel shorter than the wings and covered by them. 
Stamens 10, 9 united and 1 free. Stigma downy, thick. Pod 
full of short hairs, with more than 6 surrounded with a tow- 
like substance, reniform, with black spots. 

HABITAT. Common along the roads and in gardens. Flow- 
ers in July and November. 

1. Pterocarpus santalinus, L. 1 

NOM. VULG. Narra, Naga, Tag. ; Apalit, Daytanag, Pam. ; 
Red Saunders or Red Sanddlwood Tree, Eng. 

2. P. Indicus, AVilld. (P. pallidm, Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Asana, Tag.; Naga, Vis. 

3. P. erinaceus, Poir. (P. echinatus, Pers. & DC.) 

NOM. VULG. Asana, Narra, Tag. 

USES. The wood of the first is the so-called " red sandal- 
wood.' 7 It is used for building purposes and, in medicine, as 
an astringent. In decoction it is used as a gargle for sore 
throat. The second is also an excellent building material and 
is used medicinally for its astringent properties. A decoction 
of sufficient strength to color the water a light blue is used as a 
mouth wash in toothache and has some reputation as a solvent 
of vesical calculi. All three species yield a resin known in phar- 
macy under the name of " kino." The true gum kino is really 

1 Official in the U. S. P. under the name of Santalum rubrum, and used 
only for coloring alcoholic solutions. 



94 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

produced by the P. marsupium, Roxb., but the Philippine 
product, especially that of the second and third species, has for 
a long time been exported to Europe under the name of " red 
astringent gum " or " kino." This name is given to the sap of 
these trees dried without the aid of artificial heat. The bark is 
the part which produces it and the following extractive process 
is employed in Madras : a vertical incision is made in the trunk 
and lateral incisions perpendicular to it and a receptacle is placed 
at the foot of the tree. This soon fills and when the gum is suffi- 
ciently dried by air and sun it is packed in boxes and exported. 

In respect to appearance, solubility and chemical composi- 
tion, Fliickiger and Hanbury were unable to discover any 
difference between the kino of P. marsupium, Roxb., and that 
of P. erinaceus, Poir. It is therefore interesting to consider a 
product that is identical with that described in the pharmaco- 
poeias as produced by the P. mawtpiiuii, Roxb., though the 
latter does not grow in the Philippines. 

Kino is at present used but little in therapeutics and its ac- 
tion is analogous to that of tannin and catechu. It is given in- 
ternally for its astringent effect in chronic diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, 
blenorrhoea and hemorrhages. The dose of the powder is 14 
grams, and of the alcoholic tincture, containing 20 parts kino 
to 100 of alcohol, 5-10 grams. In prolapse of the rectum 
and anal fissure the following solution is used by enema : 

Kino 3 grams. 

Water 500 " 

For vaginal injections a solution of 20 to 250 water. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The " pterocarpus, " L., is a 
tree of the first order with odd-pinnate leaves. Leaflets alter- 
nate and coriaceous. Flowers yellow, in racemes, with caducous 
bracts and bractlets. Calyx turbinate, with short teeth. Petals 
exserted, markedly unguiculate. Standard and wings curled. 
Keel obtuse with its petals slightly or not at all coherent. The 
staminal tube, cleft above and below or above only. Stamens 



PONGAMIA GLABRA 95 

superior, often almost, and at times entirely, free. Anthers 
versatile. Ovary pedunculate, with 2 ovules. Style curved. 
Stigma terminal. Pod orbicular, smooth or spiny, usually con- 
taining one seed, encircled by a broad, rigid wing, the point 
curved downward. 

HABITAT. In the mountains of Luzon, Panay and Min- 
doro. Blooms in March. 

Pongamia glabra, Vent. (Robinia mitis, L.; Gadelupa 
maculatctj Blanco.) 

NOM. VTiLQ.Balikbalik, Tag.; Bwtog, Vis. 

USES. The oil expressed from the seeds is used in India 
for lighting purposes, and in addition is of notable therapeutic 
value. It is an excellent local remedy for the itch, for herpes 
and especially for pityriasis versicolor, used alone or emulsified 
with lemon juice. In stubborn cases Dymock recommends the 
addition of oil of hydrocarpus, camphor and powdered sul- 
phur. Dr. Gibson states that he knows of no plant in the 
vegetable kingdom possessing more notable curative properties 
in itch, herpes and other cutaneous diseases than the plant 
under consideration. It is also used as an embrocation in 
articular rheumatism. 

The powdered leaves mixed with common salt and pepper 
are given internally with a little milk, as a remedy for leprosy. 

The juice of the root makes a useful wash for gangrenous 
ulcers and a good injection for fistula. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 18 high, with leaves 
opposite, odd-pinnate, Leaflets in 3 pairs, ovate, lanceolate, 
entire, glabrous and membranaceous. Flowers slightly spotted, 
racemose. Calyx bell-shaped, with 5 scarcely visible tooth- 
lets. Corolla papilionaceous, petals equal, clawed. Standard 
with 2 callosities athwart the base. Stamens 10, diadelphous. 
Pod with one seed, which is flat, smooth, veined, bright red. 

HABITAT. Luzon and Panay. Blooms in October. 



96 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

LEGUMINOS^!. 

Brasiletto Family. 
Caesalpinia Bonducella, Flem. (Guilandina Bonducella, L.) 

NOM. YULG. Bayag-Kambig, Kalambibit, Tag.; Dalugdug, 
Vis.; Fever Nut, Physic Nut, Bonduc Seeds, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The seed is the part of the plant employed and is 
official in the Pharmacopeia of India. It is used as a tonic 
and antiperiodic in intermittent fevers and in general where 
tonic treatment is indicated. It has given good results in the 
malarial fevers of India, according to English physicians. 
The Pharmacopeia of India contains the following preparation 
under the name of " Compound Powder of Bonduc " (Pulvis 
bonducellse compositus). 

Seeds of Bonduc, powdered 30 grams. 

Pepper 30 " 

Mix and keep in a well-corked flask. 

DOSE. 12 grams 3 times a day. 

In the Philippines the powdered seed is given in affections of 
the digestive tract, especially in diarrhea and feeble digestion. 
The same name of Bonduc is given to the seeds of another 
species that grows in the Philippines, O. Bonduc, Roxb.; 
Kamot-Kabag, Bayan-Kambig, Tag. The seeds are identical 
in chemical composition and therapeutic indication. 

The two principal substances contained in the seeds are an 
oil, 24J& and a resin, 1.88JJ&. The former is straw-colored and 
slightly bitter by virtue of the presence of a resin that may be 
precipitated by alcohol. The resin or bitter principle exists as 
an amorphous powder, Avhite, bitter, not acrid, soluble in 
chloroform, alcohol, acetone, crystallizable acetic acid, fixed and 
essential oils ; slightly soluble in ether and bisulphide of car- 
bon, insoluble in water and petroleum ether. The alkalies do 
not affect it. It melts at 140, decomposing and leaving only 
a carbon. Its discoverers, Heckel and Schlagdenhaussen, have 



C^SALPINIA SAPPAN 97 

given it the name bonducin (C U H 15 O.). Hydrochloric acid 
colors it red ; sulphuric acid, a maranthin red in half an hour. 

Bonducin seems to be the active principle of the seeds and 
is given internally in doses of 10-20 centigrams; according to 
Dr. Isnard, of Marseilles, this dose has given as good results in 
fevers as the same quantity of quinine. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub with prostrate stem 
bristling with thorns. Leaves twice abruptly pinnate, a thorn 
taking the place of the terminal leaflet. Leaflets in 10-14 
pairs, ovate, expanded, with a spine at the apex. Common 
petioles thorny, with 4 leaf-like stipules at the base. Flowers 
yellow, in racemes. Calyx 5-parted, curved downward. Corolla 
inserted on the calyx, 5 petals, 4 nearly equal, the uppermost 
broader and shorter. Stamens 10. Filaments very unequal 
in height, inserted on the calyx, united and woolly at the base. 
Pistil very short. Stigma thick. Pod rhomboidal before ma- 
turity, prickly, containing 2 semi-globose seeds with testa hard, 
mottled and tough. 

The other species, C. Bonduc, Roxb., is distinguished by leaf- 
lets unequal at the base, by the absence of stipules, and by the 
bright orange yellow seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon, Panay and Jolo. Blooms 
in December. 

Caesalpinia Sappan, L. 

NOM. VULG. Sibukao, Sapag, Tag. ; Palo del Brawl, Sp.; 
Sappan Wood, Eng. 

USES. The decoction of Sibukao is given in hemorrhages, 
especially of the lungs. It is probably the red color of this de- 
coction which originated the idea of giving it to check bleeding, 
and this is the practice of the native Filipino doctors, as well 
as of the Arabs and Hindoos. The natives of Cochin China, 
reasoning in an opposite manner, prescribe it as emmenagogue. 
Some authors recommend Sibukao as a substitute for logwood. 
The decoction is administered in chronic diarrhoea, especially 



98 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

that of children. A few cases of phlebitis have been reported 
as occasioned by its use. The extract is made as follows : 

Sibukao in small pieces 500 grams. 

Boiling water 4J liters. 

Macerate for 24 hours, boil until reduced by half, filter and 
evaporate the filtrate to a syrupy consistency. Do not use iron 
vessels. 

Sibukao contains much tannin and gallic acid, and a pecu- 
liar substance which distinguishes it from logwood, brasilin 
(C 22 H 20 O 7 ), which gives a red color to alkaline solutions instead 
of blue or purple. It is a crystalline pigment which may be 
considered a compound of hematoxylon and fenol. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A very common tree, 12-15 
high, with spiny trunk, leaves twice abruptly pinnate. Leaf- 
lets linear, notched at the apex. Flowers racemose. Calyx 
boat-shaped. Corolla, 5 petals, the uppermost broad, short, 
spotted red. Stigma bifid. Pod sabre-like, woody, with 3-4 
seeds separated by partitions. The wood is well known every- 
where in the Philippines, being a very important article of 
commerce, and there is no fear of logwood being substituted 
for it, as the latter is more expensive, and substitutions are not 
ordinarily made under such circumstances. In commerce it 
occurs in large pieces of all shapes and forms, since the branches 
and trunks are cut into pieces which vary from J-2 meters in 
length. Its color is reddish-yellow or white with more or less 
red grain. Blooms in September. 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Swartz. (Poinciana pulcherrima, 
L. & Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Flores y Rosas Caballero, Caballero, Sp.-Fil.; 
Barbadoes Flower-Fence, Eng. 

USES. The leaves are emmenagogue, purgative like those of 
senna, and excitant. The bark especially is a powerful emmen- 
agogue, used in some countries for criminal purposes. The 



CASSIA FISTULA 99 

decoction of the flowers is pectoral and febrifuge and is given 
in bronchitis, asthma and malarial fever. The flowers contain 
a bitter principle. The roots are acrid and poisonous. The 
seeds of the green fruit are eaten frequently by children ; when 
ripe they contain gallic and tannic acids, by virtue of which 
they are used in tanning hides and to dye yellow combined with 
alum, and black combined with salts of iron. They also con- 
tain a pigment and a resin. 

INFUSION OF THE FLOWERS. 

Flowers of the caballero, dry 20 grams. 

Water 500 " 

Sugar 70 " 

Mix. Dose, a wineglassful several times a day. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub, with prickly trunk, 
Leaves twice abruptly pinnate. Leaflets 58 pairs, glabrous, 
ovate and elliptical, bearing a spine at the extremity, 3 stipules 
to each pair of leaflets. Flowers yellow and red, in racemes on 
the ends of the branches. Calyx divided almost to the base, 
with 5 concave parts. Corolla, 5 petals V long with short 
claws, one petal very small and straight, the others larger, with 
wavy edges. Stamens 10, crimson, 3' long, free, woolly, united 
at the lower end. Pistil the same length as the stamens. 
Stigma somewhat concave. Ovary sessile, unilocular, many- 
ovuled. Pod compressed, with 7 or more seeds inserted on the 
superior suture and separated from each other by fleshy divisions. 

HABITAT. Very common in gardens where it is cultivated 
for its beautiful flowers. Blooms throughout the entire year. 

Cassia fistula, L. 

NOM. VULG. Cana/istula, Sp.; Lombayog, Ibabaw, Baloyog, 
Vis.; Purging Cassia, Eng. 

USES. The pod known in pharmacy under the name of 
" Canafistula " contains a blackish, sweet pulp, which is a mild 
purgative if combined with carminatives, but it produces severe 



100 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

colic if given alone. The urine sometimes takes on a dark color 
after taking it. The laxative dose is 48 grams, the purgative 
30-60. 

EXTRACT OF CASSIA. 

Pulp and seeds of ripe pods 1 kilo. 

Water 1 liter. 

After mixing the pulp with water the liquid is strained 
through a woolen cloth ; the material which remains in the 
strainer is washed with a little more cold water which is added 
to the other liquid and the two are evaporated to the consist- 
ency of the extract. 

DOSE. 15-30 grams. 

Dr. Irving states that the root is a very energetic purgative. 
In Coucan the juice of the tender leaves is used in the treat- 
ment of impetigo. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with trunk about as thick 
as the human body, with leaves opposite and abruptly pinnate. 
Leaflets, the lower ones smaller, 5 pairs, ovate, lanceolate, 
glabrous and rather tough. Common petiole, cleft at the base, 
lacking glandule. Flowers bright yellow, in long, pendulous 
racemes. Calyx, 5 ovate sepals. Corolla, 5 unequal petals. 
Stamens 10, free, 3 longer than the rest. Ovary unilocular, 
many-ovuled. Pod cylindrical, pointed at the end, woody, 
black, 1-2 long, with many circular seeds, surrounded by a 
blackish pulp and separated by partitions. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon and Panay. Blooms in 
March. 

Cassia occidentalis, L. 

NOM. VULG. Tighiman, Balotagaso,Tsig.', Tambalisa, Vis.; 
Western Senna, Styptic Weed, Eng.; Negro Coffee, Indo-Eng. 

USES. In Brazil they use an infusion of the root as a 
tonic and diuretic, 4 grams of the root bark and 180 of boil- 
ing water to be taken in one day. In Dahomey the leaves are 
used as a febrifuge. Thirty grams of fresh leaves are boiled 



CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS 101 

in 300 grams of water till the liquid is reduced to 250 grams. 
The patient takes this decoction hot the first day of the fever 
and a profuse perspiration promptly breaks out. As a rule 
the effect is immediate and the fever does not recur. This 
treatment of fevers is more common in that country than that 
by quinine and they claim that it has the advantage over the 
latter of acting as a stomachic tonic. By adding a small 
quantity of the roots to the decoction it is rendered diuretic. 
The seeds possess the same properties and are used in de- 
coctions of 30 grams to 300 of water. According to De 
Lanesan the roasted seeds are used in La Reunion in infusion 
similar to coffee in the treatment of gastralgia and asthma. 
In some countries they mix them with coffee just as chicory is 
used in Europe. 

Heckel and Schlagdenhaufen have made a very complete 
study of the plant and we quote the following from their 
works : 

Chemical composition of the seeds. 

Water 8.850 

Fats and pigments soluble in petroleum ether . 1 . 600 

" " " " "chloroform 1.150 

Odorous material and traces of tannin 5.022 

Glucose 0.738 

Gummy, mucilaginous and pectic matter. . . . 15.734 

Soluble albuminoids and aleuron 6.536 

Cellulose 7.434 

Insoluble albuminose 2.216 

Lignose 32.727 

Fixed salts 17.976 

Lost material .017 



100.000 

Previous to the studies of the above authors the seeds had 
been therapeutically tested by Delioux de Savignac and Pro- 



102 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

fessor Clouet. Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen have confirmed the 
febrifuge virtues of the seeds and are uncertain as to the active 
principle since they found no glucoside or alkaloid in their 
analysis. The antiperiodic properties are comparable with 
those of quinine and have even proved effective in some cases 
in which quinine failed. It seems quite clear that the tannin is 
the active principle which is the more probable because its anti- 
periodic virtues are now recognized by all therapeutists. 

It is given in maceration or infusion, 215 grams of the 
seeds to 3 or 400 of water to be taken several times a day. 
The treatment causes no very marked physiological effects. It 
seems to act as a sedative to the nervous system. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An annual plant, .60-1 meter 
high. Root central with lateral rootlets. Stem straight, 
ramose. Leaves opposite, abruptly pinnate with a stylet in 
place of the odd leaflet. Leaflets, 5-6 pairs, the lower ones 
smaller, ovate, oblong, margins and lower face downy. Com- 
mon petiole swollen at the base, 2 stipules and 1 glandule. 
Calyx, 5 unequal sepals. Corolla, 5 nearly equal petals, sul- 
phur yellow, concave, the posterior one further developed. 
Two verticils of 5 stamens each. Of the 5 stamens supe- 
rior to the sepals, 2 are fertile, larger and arched ; of the 
other 5 stamens 4 are fertile and small. Pod compressed, 
linear, smooth, 5 r long, containing many compressed, heart- 
shaped seeds, separated by thin partitions. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon. Blooms in October. 

Cassia alata, L. 

NOM. VULG. Acapulco, Sp.-Fil.; Katandd, Gamut sa 
Buni, Sontiy, Tag.; Suntig, Kansitm, Vis.; Pakayomkom- 
kdstlla, Pam. 

USES. This is one of the most popular Philippine remedies 
and its usefulness is vouched for by many physicians practicing 
in many different lands. Its antiherpetic properties are nota- 



CASSIA ALATA 103 

ble and the Tagalo name of the plant, "Gamut sa Buni," means 
literally "medicine for herpes. " The natives use the juice of 
the leaf applied locally to the affected part. These properties 
have long been familiar to the Malays and to the Hindoos who 
in their medical works give the plant the Sanscrit name of 
"Dadrughna," meaning "to cure herpes." The Pharmacopoeia 
of Bengal recommends cassia in the form of an ointment made 
by mixing the crushed tender leaves with simple ointment. 
This preparation is, in our opinion, undesirable on account of 
its liability to become rancid and vaseline should be the ex- 
cipient used. Another application for herpetic eruptions is the 
juice of the leaves mixed with an equal quantity of lemon juice. 
The Malays use the leaves dried in the sun, adding to them a 
little water and rubbing them briskly on the affected parts, 
the vigorous treatment being an important part of the cure. 

The decoction of the leaves is a laxative and according to 
Mr. J. Wood the tincture has an action similar to that of senna. 
Dr. Pulney Andy of India states that the extract prepared 
from the tender leaves is a good substitute for extract of 
colocynth. 

Mr. A. Porte claims to have obtained the best results with an 
acetic extract of the fresh leaves. The following is his formula : 

Fresh leaves of C. alata 100 grams. 

Acetic acid diluted in f water . .450 " 

Macerate 10 or 12 days, filter and express, then filter again 
and evaporate to the consistency of an extract. 

The seeds contain vermifuge principles. 

The activity of this plant in herpes is due to the chryso- 
phanic acid contained in it. The more recent the eruption the 
more certain is the effect. 

The following species, all of which grow in the Philippines, 
contain principles analogous to those of the C. alata, viz.: C. 
sophera, L. and C. torn, L., called in Tagalo manimanihan. 



104 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub, 7-9 high, with a 
straight, ramose trunk 3 4' in diameter. Leaves 1J 2 long, 
opposite, abruptly pinnate, a thick stylet taking the place of the 
odd leaflet. Leaflets 10-13 pairs, the smaller ones 1-2' long. 
Common petiole with 2 horizontal stipules at the base. Flow- 
ers in conspicuous, erect racemes. Calyx, 5 free concave, un- 
equal sepals. Corolla, 5 petals of a beautiful yellow color. 
Stamens perigynous, 10 in number, 3 upper ones very small 
and frequently sterile, 3 lower very large. The bilocular an- 
thers open by 2 pores. Ovary many-ovuled with filiform 
style. Pod long with 2 prominent wings on the sides and 
many seeds which slightly resemble a cross with blunt ends. 

The C. sophera, L., is characterized by 10 stamens, all fer- 
tile and a smooth, linear, bivalved pod full of seeds separated 
by false partitions. The C. tora, L., bears a quadrangular pod 
about 15 centimeters long by 2 in diameter. 

HABITAT. Grows in all parts of the islands and is univer- 
sally known by the natives. Blooms in May. 

Tamarindus Indica, L. 

NOM. YULG. Tamarindo, Sp.; Sampalok, Tag., Pam., Bik.; 
Sambak, Sumalagi, Kamalagi, Vis.; Tamarind, Eng. 

USES. The pulp of the fruit is used to make a sort of sweet 
preserve and is very popular among the Filipinos. They pre- 
pare a refreshing drink from the pulp mixed with sweetened 
water and believing it to be beneficial to the liver, stomach and 
blood, they use too much of it. Its excessive use is rather 
prejudicial to the health, but given in moderation it is very effi- 
cient in allaying the thirst of fever patients. The pulp con- 
tains weak laxative properties and it is customary to administer 
it in solution with cream of tartar. Its chemical composition 
is as follows : 



BAUHINIA MALABARICA 105 

Citric acid 9.40 

Tartaric acid 1.55 

Malic acid 0.45 

Potassium bitartrate 3.25 

Sugar 12.50 

Gum 4.70 

Vegetable gelatin 6.25 

Parenchyma 34.35 

Water 27.55 

(Yauquelin.) 

At the end of any sickness, especially after labor, the first 
bath given to the convalescent is with a decoction of the leaves 
of the "sampaloc," to prevent convulsions, the native herb- 
doctors say. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree, somewhat re- 
sembling the elm in contour, with leaves opposite, abruptly 
pinnate. Leaflets 12 or more pairs, linear, with a notch at the 
apex, entire, glabrous. Flowers yellow-white, spattered dark 
red, racemose. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla, 5 lanceolate petals 
with crispate borders. Stamens monadelphous, dividing into 7 
filaments above. The ripe pod is chocolate color, oblong, 
slightly compressed, straight or curved, 615 centimeters long, 
full of a light-brown pulp in which rest the seeds enveloped in 
a cellular membrane. These seeds are flattened, almost quad- 
rangular ; testa hard, of a chestnut color, shiny and without 
albumen. 

HABITAT. Very common everywhere in the islands. 
Blooms in May. 

Bauhinia malabarica, Roxb. (B. tomentosa, Wall. 

and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Alibagbag, Tag., Vis., Pam. 
USES. The leaves of this tree and of the species B. tomen- 
tosa, L., are quite acid and the Filipinos use them as an ingre- 



106 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

client of many dishes. The fresh flowers possess anti-dysen- 
teric virtues for which purpose they are given internally in 
infusion of 1020 grams of the flowers to one-half liter of water. 
The decoction of the root bark is a common remedy for liver 
troubles along the coast of Malabar according to Rheede. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 20 high, with leaves 
alternate, peltate, slightly cordate, orbicular, the apex divided 
into two large lobules with a stylet between them, glabrous 
above, somewhat downy beneath ; 2 large, flat glandules are 
situated at the base. Petioles short. Flowers cymose. Pe- 
duncle long. Calyx inferior, funnelform, with 45 sepals as 
long as the corolla. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 10, 5 alter- 
nate ones longer than the others. Stigma thick, peltate, 2 lo- 
bules. Pod 1 long, with linear stalk, containing many seeds 
separated by filamentous isthmuses. 

HABITAT. Common everywhere. Blooms in November. 

LEGUMINOSJE. 

Mimosa Division. 

Entada scandens, Benth. (E. Purscetha, DC. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. GogOj Tag. ; Bayogo, Balogo, Gohog bakay, 
Vis. and Pam. ; Gilla Nuts, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The use made of the mashed bark of this tree is well 
known throughout the Philippines. Cut in strips and beaten 
thoroughly between stones it is sold under the name of " gogo "; 
it is macerated in water, to which it imparts a reddish color, 
and forms a substitute for soap. The Filipinos use this prepa- 
ration for bathing, especially the hair, for which purpose there 
is no more useful or simple preparation. It cures pityriasis, 
and renders the hair very soft, without drying it too much as 
is usually the case with soap. The natives use it in treating 
the itch, washing the affected parts with the maceration and at 
the same time briskly rubbing them with the bark ; in this way 



PARKIA ROXBURGHII 107 

they remove the crusts that shield the acari. The treatment is 
successful in direct proportion to the energy of rubbing. 

The seeds of " gogo " are very large, lenticular, flattened, 
3-4 centimeters in diameter. Their chemical composition has 
been studied by Petti t. Alcohol dissolves the active principle, 
perhaps a glucoside, the study of which the author has not 
completed. Five centigrams of this substance administered to 
a guinea-pig causes paralysis of the hind quarters without any 
apparent inflammation. He also found saponin in the seeds, 
but it exists in much greater quantity in the trunk. In the 
Sunda Islands they eat the seeds roasted and also extract from 
them an illuminating oil. 

The maceration of gogo is emetic and purgative ; it is used 
in the treatment of asthma; it is exceedingly irritating, the 
slightest quantity that enters the eye causing severe smarting 
and a slight conjunctivitis for one or two days. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A high climbing shrub with 
stem as much as 78' in diameter. Leaves opposite, twice 
abruptly pinnate, a stylet replacing the terminal leaflet ; 5 pairs 
of elliptical leaflets, entire, glabrous and notched at the apex. 
Common petiole with 2 stipules at the base. Flowers in deli- 
cate spikes. Calyx obliquely truncate, 5-toothed. Corolla, 5 
oval petals much larger than the calyx. Stamens 10-13. Fila- 
ments longer than the corolla. Anther with 1-2 white, globose 
glandules. Pod woody, 4-6 long by " 4 fingers " broad, with 
large notches on the borders, many compartments containing 
many large, compressed, circular seeds with dark-colored testa, 
3-4 centimeters in diameter. 

HABITAT. Mountains of Luzon and Panay. Blooms in May. 

Parkia Roxburgh!!, G. Don. (P. brunonia, Grah.; P. biglo- 
bosa, Benth.; Mimosa peregrina, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kopag, Tag. 

USES. The fruit is edible. Its pulp is golden yellow with 
a sweetish taste and an odor like that of violets. 



108 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The roasted seeds are used in certain parts of Africa to make 
an infusion like coffee, for which reason they have been called 
" Soudan Coffee." 

The pulp was analyzed by Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen in 
1887 ; it contains 60 Jo of its weight of sugar (a mixture of 
dextrose and levulose), 0.98 Jfc of free tartaric and citric acids, 
fats, albuminoids, etc. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree of the first order. 
Leaves opposite, twice abruptly pinnate. Leaflets small, linear, 
more than 40 pairs. Principal petiole with one glandule at 
the base and often another higher up. Calyx long, tubular, 
with 5 unequal lobules. Corolla, 5 equal petals. Stamens 10, 
monadelphous. Ovary free, unilocular, multi-ovulate. Pod, 
1 x 1', woody, much compressed, brown, with many seeds em- 
bedded in a yellow pulp. 

HABITAT. Abounds in the provinces of central Luzon. 
Blooms in December. 

Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. (A. Indica, Desv.; Mimosa 
Farnesiana, L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Aroma, Sp.; Cassie Flower, Eng. 

USES. The trunk bark is astringent and in decoction is of 
use in the treatment of prolapsed rectum and as an injection 
for leucorrhcea. A poultice of the tender leaves is applied to 
ulcers and sores previously washed with the decoction. 

The tree exudes an abundant gum very similar to gum arabic 
which latter is the product of another species of acacia (A. 
Arabica, Willd.). The Manila pharmacist, D. Anacleto del 
Rosario, sent to the Paris Exposition of 1899 a specimen of 
this gum obtained on the plantation of D. P. P. Roxas, in 
Batangas. This specimen differed in no respect from gum 
arabic and it will surely sooner or later take the place of the 
latter in the Philippines, both for pharmaceutical and industrial 
purposes. It would be superfluous to describe here the prop- 
erties of gum arabic. 



KALANCHOE LACINIATA 109 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree 9-12 high, very 
well known, trunk bristling with long thorns. Leaves twice 
abruptly pinnate. One or more pairs of leaflets, very small, 
linear. Common petiole with two thorns united at its base 
and a small glandule on the upper part. Flowers yellow, aro- 
matic, axillary, joined in a globose head J-f ' in diameter, con- 
sisting of more than 50 minute flowerets. In each axil are 2 
peduncles. In some heads all the flowerets are staminate, in 
others hermaphrodite. The hermaphrodite flowers have a 
calyx with 5 small teeth. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 40 or 
more. Pistil same length as the stamens. Staminate flowers : 
calyx, corolla, stamens and anthers as in the hermaphrodite 
flowers. Pistil none. Pod round, curved, with 8 or more 
elliptical, compressed seeds. 

HABITAT. Grows everywhere, but forms dense thickets in 
the provinces of La Lagnna and Batangas. Blooms in Jan- 
uary. 

CRASSULACE.E. 

Orpine Family. 

Kalanchoe laciniata, DC. (Cotyledon laciniata, Roxb.; Bryo- 
phyllum serratum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Siempreviva (Live-for-ever'), Sp.-Fil.; Kataka- 
takd, Tag. 

USES. The fleshy leaves are beaten up and applied to 
chronic ulcers and sores on which they exert a stimulant action. 
Applied to the temples they relieve headache. Ainslie testifies 
to the good effect of its local use in inflammations and as a wash 
for ulcers. The juice of the leaves is used in Concan in the 
treatment of bilious diarrhoea and gall stones. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A well-known plant, about 2 
high, with leaves sessile, opposite, oval, serrately toothed, fleshy. 
Flowers yellow, in umbels, the stalks reaching a height of 3. 
Calyx very short, with 4 lanceolate, acuminate sepals, united 



110 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

at the base. Corolla salver-shaped, persistent, with border 
having 4 small lobules. Stamens 8, fertile. Ovaries 4, free, 
each with 1 many-ovuled cell. Styles same length as the sta- 
mens. Stigmas awl-shaped. Four seed vessels, each with 1 
compartment containing many oblong seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands. 

COMBRETACEJE. 

Terminalia Catappa, L. (T. molucana, Lam.; T. mauricimui, 

Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Talisay, Tag.; Almendro, Sp.-Fil.; Talisay, 
Banilak, Nato, Hitam, Vis.; Kalisay, Pam.; Lugo, Pandan, 
Hoc.; Indian Almond, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The kernel is edible and has a very agreeable taste. 
It yields about 50 Jfe of a fixed oil, sweet and savory. If left 
for some time, it deposits an abundance of stearin. It closely 
resembles oil of sweet almonds for which it, as well as the oil 
of Pili (Canarium commune, L.), which we have already de- 
scribed, makes a good substitute. 

The trunk bark is astringent and in decoction is used for 
atonic diarrhoea and as a lotion for ulcers. 

DECOCTION. 

Bark (ground and pounded) 12 grams. 

Water 150 " 

Simple syrup 40 " 

To be given by the tablespoonful in 24 hours. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 6-8 m. high. Branches 
horizontal and radiating from the trunk. Leaves purplish, 
bunched, cleft at the base, sometimes transversely ovate, some- 
times oval, notched, glabrous. Petiole very short. Flowers 
axillary, racemose, with a scale at the base of the peduncle, some 
hermaphrodite and others lacking pistils. Staminate flowers : 
calyx downy within, with 5 lobes. Corolla wanting. Stamens 



TERMINALIA CHEBULA 111 

1.0, inserted on the calyx. Hermaphrodite flowers : pistil same 
length as stamens. Drupe, fleshy, inferior, oval with the bor- 
ders turned upward containing a very hard and fibrous nut; 
seed long and sharp-pointed. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon. In Manila it is cultivated 
extensively as an ornamental tree, especially along the Sabana 
Walk, General Solano Ave. and in Sarnpaloc and Malacanan. 

Terminalia Chebula, Retz. (T. reticulata, Toth.; Bucida 
cuminata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Diylas, Diglas, Tag.; Black Myrobalan Tree, 
Indo-Eng. 

USES. The ripe fruit, called myrobalans in India, is purga- 
tive and six of them pounded up and given in decoction oper- 
ate with certainty, producing 4 or 5 copious evacuations with- 
out nausea or other disagreeable symptoms. Dr. Waring has 
experimented with them and recommends them highly. The 
taste may be made more agreeable by adding a little cinnamon 
to the decoction. Dymock states that three fruits are sufficient, 
and Dr. Hove gives one as the effective dose. This lack of 
agreement may be explained by the fact that the fruits are of 
different sizes, and probably Waring refers to those of medium 
size. Contrary to what one would imagine, judging from its 
purgative action, the fruit contains astringent principles, and 
makes an effective injection for leucorrhoea as a substitute for 
nut galls. It is also of some merit in the treatment of piles. 

The green fruit is highly esteemed by Radja Kalikesen as 
a carminative, tonic and purgative. Dr. Twining also men- 
tions these same properties, recommends it as a tonic and 
aperient of great benefit in atony of the digestive organs and 
expresses surprise that the Europeans make no use of it. Ac- 
cording to the same author a dose in the treatment of diarrhoea 
and dysentery is 4 grams twice a day. He quotes a case of 
hypertrophy of the spleen which he cured with this fruit. 



112 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Some of the leaves bear horn-shaped galls, flattened, narrow 
and hollow. They are caused by an insect which stings the 
leaves and deposits its eggs in them. These leaves with galls 
are astringent and very useful and effective in dysentery and 
diarrhrea, especially that of children. The dose for a child of 
more than one year is 0.40 to 0.50 gram a day, administered 
in fractional doses every two or three hours. 

Fridolin has obtained from its fruit an acid, which he calls 
chebulinic (C 28 H 25 O 10 ) and presumes to be a mixture of tannic 
and gallic acids. As Stenhouse had formerly indicated, no 
principle has been discovered to which the purgative properties 
can be attributed, unless it be a green oleo-resin turned red by 
nitric acid, obtained from the fruit by Apery. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree of the second order, with 
leaves 3 r long, alternate, lanceolate, entire and glabrous. Peti- 
oles short. Flowers terminal, in spiked panicles. Calyx supe- 
rior, bell-shaped, colored, downy within, 5-toothed. Corolla 
wanting. Stamens 10, longer than the calyx. Anthers round- 
ish. Ovary cylindrical. Style curved and longer than the 
stamens. Stigma simple. Fruit ovoid, 2-4 centimeters long, 
5-10 acute angles, wrinkled, with blackish, hard, compact meso- 
carp ; contains 1 seed. 

HABITAT. Batangas, San Mateo. Blooms in May. 

Quisqualis Indica, L. (Q. villosa, Roxb.; Q. spinosa, Nares.) 

NOM. YULG. TagaraWj Niogniogan, Tag.; Tangolon, Vis.; 
Babebabe, Pam.; Tartaraw, Hoc. 

USES. The fruit contains a kernel that tastes much like 
cacao, for which reason the Tagalogs call it " niogniogan " (like 
cacao). This kernel is a powerful anthelmintic, used also in 
India, the dose for a child of 4 years being 2-4, pulverized 
and mixed with a little molasses or sugar. A large dose pro- 
duces hiccough, a fact well known to the natives. Dr. Bouton 



PSIDIUM POMIFERUM 113 

states that they may cause convulsions and other similar nerv- 
ous disorders. 

They yield a light green, fixed oil, probably the active prin- 
ciple of the plant. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A climbing shrub, 6-9 high, 
whose stem is thickly set with long, opposite thorns. Leaves 
in stars of 3, oblong, acute, entire, glabrous. Petioles very 
short. Flowers white, veined with red, in axillary spikes. 
Calyx very long, nearly cylindrical, 5-toothed. Corolla, 5 
petals, inserted between the teeth of the calyx. Stamens 10, 
inserted on the calyx-tube, shorter than the corolla, arranged in 
2 series, 5 higher than the rest. Style the same length as the 
stamens, united throughout nearly its entire length with the 
wall of the calyx-tube from which it separates near the stigma. 
Stigma rather bulky. Fruit 1' long, ovoid, 5 sharp ridges in 
the woody, fragile, mahogany-colored pericarp, which contains 
a pointed kernel at one end. 

HABITAT. San Mateo, and along the shores of Luzon. 
Blooms in May. 

MYRTACE^S. 

Myrtle Family. 

Psidium pomiferum, L. (P. aromaticum and P. pyriferum, 

Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Guayabas, Sp.; Bay abas, Guayabas, Tayabas, 
Tag., and other dialects ; Guava, Eng. 

USES. The green fruit is acid and very astringent. The 
stage of development when it is best eaten raw, is just before it 
ripens, for then its acidity has lessened, it is not astringent and 
does not emit the strong odor, so disagreeable to many, that 
characterizes the ripe fruit. When fully ripe it is sweet, non- 
astringent and very bland, and this is the stage when it is best 
for making the jellies and preserves so popular in the Philip- 
pines. 
10 



114 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The bark, especially that of the root, is highly astringent and 
a decoction of it is used for diarrhoea and as a wash for ulcers. 
Dr. Waitz has successfully used the following formula in treat- 
ing the chronic diarrhoea of children : 

Root bark of guava 15 grams. 

Water , .180 " 

Boil till reduced one half. Dose, a tablespoonful every 2 or 
3 hours according to age. 

A decoction of the shoots is very useful in stomatitis, cuta- 
neous eruptions and ulcers. Dr. Waitz advises his formula in 
prolapsus recti of children. It is also of value as an injection 
in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, about 10 high, branches 
square and somewhat winged towards the ends. Leaves op- 
posite, oblong, obtuse, downy, aromatic in odor. Petiole very 
short. Flowers axillary, solitary, white and fragrant. Calyx 
adherent, the border breaking in 3, 4 or more unequal parts 
when the flower expands. Corolla, 5-6 petals, inserted on the 
calyx, curved downward. Stamens numerous, inserted in the 
calyx, as long as the corolla. Style same length as stamens, 
awl-shaped. Fruit somewhat pear-shaped, with 4 or 5 ribs 
that disappear at maturity, 4 or more cells each with many 
small, hard, irregular seeds. In the Philippines the fruit grows 
to the size of a small pear. 

Eugenia Jambolana, Lam. (Calyptrcmihes Jambolana, Willd. 
and Blanco ; Syzygium Jambolanum, DC. and Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Lomboy, Duhat, Duat, Tag., Pam., Vis.; 
Jambul or Black Plum, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The ripe fruit, so dark a purple in color that it 
seems black, is edible and very popular in the Philippines, 
though not considered choice. Some suppose it to be harmful, 
but it is in reality very easy of digestion. 



EUGENIA JAMBOLANA 115 

The syrup of the fruit juice, and the decoction of the trunk 
bark are both very efficacious in the treatment of diarrhoea and 
dysentery. 

SYRUP OF JAMBUL. 

Juice of ripe fruit 500 grams. 

White sugar 950 " 

Dissolve in a covered water-bath, strain through woolen 
cloth and put aside. 

DOSE. 60-200 grams a day. 

The juice of the leaves is also used to treat diarrhoea. A 
Hindoo physician, Bhavaprakasa, advises the following receipt : 
Juice of leaves of lomboy ~| 

" " manga V aa 4 grams. 

Pulp of Terminalia chebula J 

Give in one dose in a little goat's milk and honey. 
A sort of wine of very agreeable taste is made from the fruit 
juice. Lately the powdered seed has been recommended in the 
treatment of glycosuria or at least it has been stated that its in- 
ternal use lessens and finally abolishes the glucose from the 
urine of the patient. It has even been affirmed that while 
under this treatment the patient may eat glucose-forming foods 
without fear of glycosuria supervening. 

The chemical composition of the seeds are as follows : 

Essential oil Traces. 

Chlorophyl and fatty matters 0.37 

Resin soluble in alcohol and ether 0.30 

Gallic acid 1.65 

Albumin 1.25 

Pigment soluble in water 2.70 

Water 10.00 

Insoluble residuum . . 83.73 



100.00 



116 THE MF.mriNAI, PLANTS OF TIM: I'll I I.I 1MM NES 

Dujardin-Beaumetz has tested the therapeutic value of these 
seeds in diabetes but with negative results. Scott has main- 
tained that by adding the powdered seed to a mixture of malt 
and starch, fermentation is impeded ; but Dr. Villy in the 
laboratory of Dujardin-Beaumetz has demonstrated that such is 
not the case. Contrary to the opinions of those physicians who 
stated that "jambul " was capable of causing the glucose to 
disappear from the urine of diabetic patients without concur- 
rent diabetic regimen, Dujardin-Beaumetz observed in his trials 
of the drug that the slightest relaxation of the regimen was 
followed by an increase of glucose. Under the influence of the 
medicine in doses of 210 grams daily, at the same time main- 
taining a strict diabetic diet, the Parisian therapeutist noted 
that the glucose disappears from the third to the fifth day ; but 
this occurred only in cases of medium intensity, whereas in 
severe cases the medication produced no effect. Upon stopping 
the treatment the sugar reappeared. 

BOTANICAL DKS< -u i PTION. A tree, 15-20 high, with leaves 
opposite, acute, entire, ovate, lustrous, very smooth. Flowers 
in racemose panicles with peduncles opposite. Calyx superior, 
with 5 small teeth and a deciduous cover composed of many 
orbicular pieces joined below. Corolla none. Stamens numer- 
ous, inserted on the edge of the calyx. Stigma pointed. Fruit 
black, oval, crowned with the calyx ; one long cylindrical seed 
with membranaceous epidermis. 

HABITAT. Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in 
February. 

MELASTOMACE^l. 

Melastoma malabatrichum, L. (IT. obm/ntum, Jack.; ^[. 
tittjH-i'ti and <i/>r<t/nf(i, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Gnnmfix. Tag. 

USES. A decoction of the leaves is of use as an astringent 
in diarrhoea and dysentery. A decoction of the bark is used as 



AMMANNIA VESICATORIA 117 

a gargle for aphthae and catarrhal sore throat, and as a wash 
for ulcers and the itch. 

The fruit is edible, resembling slightly the currant ; it has 
doubtless received the name " granatis " on account of its many 
seeds. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Small tree, with opposite 
branches, their ends covered with hairs. Leaves opposite, 3- 
nerved, V long, very rough with short hairs. Flowers car- 
mine, in terminal panicles. Stamens 10. Filaments alter- 
nating violet and straw-color. 

HABITAT. Mountains of Angat and San Mateo. 

LYTHRACEJE. 

Loosestrife Family. 

Ammannia vesicatoria, Roxb. (A. baceifera, L.; A. Indica, 
Lam.; A. <l<l>ili* and Celosia mana, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Bias pogo, Tag.; Blistering Ammannia, Indo- 
Bug. 

r>i-:s. The leaves contain an irritant and acrid principle 
that renders them vesicant when applied to the skin. The 
Pharmacopeia of India quotes Sir \V. O'Shaughnessy to the 
effect that plasters made of the bruised leaves even when 
renewed every half hour require 24 hours to raise a blister and 
at the same time cause severe pain. He found it much more 
painful than cantharides and much less prompt to act. Dr. 
Dymock has prepared an ethereal tincture of the leaves and 
obtained with it results very different from those just men- 
tioned ; this is not surprising in view of the fact that the tinc- 
ture holds in solution in a small quantity of ether, a consider- 
able amount of the vesicant principle. This tincture has the 
same color as the " epispastic " of the English Pharmacopoeia, 
causes less pain and rapidly raises a good blister, facts of which 
I have convinced myself by the use of a small quantity sent 
me from Bombay in 1891. 



118 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Dr. Bholanauth Bose recommends the internal use of the 
juice of the leaves as a remedy for chronic diseases of the 
spleen ; this treatment, however, has caused severe pain and is 
absolutely uncertain in effect. 

In Concan the juice of the leaves is given mixed with food 
to animals in heat, for its anaphrodisiac action. The fresh or 
dried plant is given in decoction mixed with ginger in inter- 
mittent fevers. 

If the ethereal tincture be evaporated a resinous residue 
remains that has not been studied, but appears to be the vesi- 
cant principle. This tincture should be made from the dried 
leaves to avoid hydration of the ether. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small plant with stem red, 
straight, quadrate, ramose. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, and 
fringed with hairs. Flowers axillary, small, red, solitary. 
Peduncles short. Calyx inferior, bell-shaped, with 8-toothed 
border, the 4 alternate teeth larger. Corolla none. Nectary 
bell-shaped, surrounding the ovary, shorter than the calyx, 
with 4 toothlets which lengthening form the filaments of as 
many stamens. Anthers 4-celled. Ovary of 4 pluriovulate 
locules. Style almost wanting. Stigma fluted. Seed vessel 
glabrous, horizontally dehiscent, containing 15 or more angular 
seeds joined to a common axis. 

HABITAT. It grows in the marshes of Mandaloyon. 

Lawsonia alba, Lam. (L. spinosa, L.; L. inermis, Roxb.) 
NOM. YULG. Cinamomo del pais (native cinnamon), Sp.- 
Fil.; Henna, Campkire, Samphire, Indo-Eng. 

USES. This is a very popular plant in the Orient, for many 
races use its leaves to impart a reddish-yellow stain to the nails, 
finger tips and palms of the hands. There is a tradition among 
the Mohammedans that the Prophet once called this plant " the 
best of all herbs." The leaf in form of a dry powder is sold 
in the bazars of India under the name of " henna " ; mixed 



LAWSONIA ALBA 119 

with water it gives it a yellow color, and when boiled the tone 
of the liquid becomes darker ; the addition of an alkali turns 
it brown. In Persia they add indigo to this solution and use 
it as a hair dye. 

The Hindoos apply the bruised leaves to the soles of the feet 
of small-pox patients, their purpose being to prevent the spread 
of the eruption to the eyes. They also use it locally in a dis- 
ease known among them as " burning of the feet." Grierson 
and Waring obtained good results in this disease by making a 
paste of the bruised leaves and vinegar ; cases that resisted 
such treatment yielded completely to a brisk rubbing of the 
feet with a simple paste of the leaf. The decoction and the 
bruised leaves are also used locally for contusions. 

The bark has been given in jaundice, hypertrophy of the 
spleen, calculi of various sorts, leprosy and stubborn skin dis- 
eases, as an alterative. In decoction it is applied to burns. 

An English physician, Dr. Newton, made an extract of the 
leaves and flowers with which he pretended to cure leprosy ; it 
was but one more useless drug in the long list used to combat 
that terrible disease. The dose of the extract is a teaspoonful 
daily, given in 2 doses. 

The juice of the leaves is given in sweetened water in some 
countries as a remedy for spermatorrhoea. 

The flowers are given in decoction for headache and the fruit 
is emmenagogue. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, about 12 high. 
Leaves opposite, lanceolate, broad, entire, glabrous and tough, 
the edges turned downwards. Flowers yellowish-white, term- 
inal in racemose panicles with opposite peduncles. Calyx in- 
ferior, bell-shaped, 4 acute sepals. Corolla, 4 petals, longer 
than the calyx. Stamens 8, inserted by pairs on the segments 
of the calyx, alternating with and longer than the petals. An- 
ther kidney-shaped. Ovary at the bottom of the calyx. Styles 
of the same length as the stamens. Stigma obtuse. Seed ves- 



120 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

sel a little larger than a pea, globose, 4 chambers, many seeds. 
HABITAT. Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in 
July. 

Punica Granatum, L. 

NOM. VULG. Granada, Sp. and Fil. dialects ; Pomegranate, 
Eng. 

USES. The decoction of the tender leaves is used as a gargle 
and wash in angina, aphthae, and wounds within the buccal 
cavity. 

The peel of the fruit is highly astringent and in decoction is 
a useful agent in treating chronic diarrhoea, and locally in injec- 
tions of lotions for leucorrhoea and inflamed haemorrhoids. It 
should not be given when rectal tenesmus exists. The Phar- 
macopoeia of India contains the following formula for preparing 
the decoction of the peel : 

Pulp of the fruit, mashed 60 grams. 

Water 600 " 

Boil for 15 minutes in a covered vessel, cool, filter and 
add water enough to make a liter. Dose, 30-50 grams 
per diem. 

This preparation is also used in astringent gargles and injec- 
tions. For internal use the decoction is rendered more active 
by adding a small quantity of cloves or cinnamon. This mix- 
ture with the addition of opium gives excellent results in the 
treatment of diarrhoea among the natives of India and is highly 
recommended by Dr. Kirkpatrick. 

The most important part of the pomegranate, however, is its 
root, the bark of which is a very efficient taenifuge and the most 
astringent portion of the plant. It should be used fresh, as 
drying destroys its activity and gives negative results. Many 
failures to expel the taenia are probably due to this fact. Ac- 
cording to Beranger-Ferand the root gives 25% to 40% of 
cures, whereas pumpkin seeds give but 5% to 10%. 



PUNICA GRANATUM 121 

DECOCTION. (French Codex.) 

Fresh bark of pomegranate root 60 grams. 

Water 750 " 

Macerate 6 hours, boil over slow fire till reduced to 500 
grams. Strain. Administer fasting, in 3 doses half an hour 
apart. The evening before the patient should eat a light meal 
and take a cathartic in order that the intestinal canal may con- 
tain the smallest possible quantity of faecal matter. After tak- 
ing the third dose of the decoction the patient should take a 
mild purgative such as 30 grams of castor oil to expel the ta3nia. 
This preparation has a most disagreeable taste. It is better to 
give the " tannate of pelletierine," a compound of tannin and one 
of the alkaloids that Tanret discovered in pomegranate root. 
A sufficient dose of tannate of pelletierine is 30-40 centigrams in 
wafer form, followed by a purge and with the other precautions 
and preparatory measures mentioned above. It causes toxic 
symptoms similar to those produced by curare, according to the 
experimental studies of Dujardin-Beaumetz and Rocheniere. Its 
action is upon the ends of the motor nerves. A dose of 40 
centigrams may cause in man such symptoms of intoxication as 
vertigo, inverted vision and muscular paralysis. Pelletierine 
should not be administered to children, but Be>anger-Ferand 
states that the tannate may be safely given them, as follows : 

Tannate of pelletierine 0.30 grams. 

Sweetened water 40.00 " 

A coffee-spoonful of this solution contains 0.03 gram of the 
tannate, and this quantity may be given to a child, in a little 
milk. If no symptoms supervene within one-half hour give 
another similar dose and so on up to 3 or 4 doses or .12 gm. in 
all. After the last dose give the purgative as a routine. It is 
certainly imprudent to trust the administration of such a drug 
to any one incapable of recognizing the symptoms of intoxica- 
tion, and as no one but a physician can judge the effects of the 
alkaloid he himself should remain with the patient until the 



122 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

efficient dose has been absorbed. This is manifestly impractical 
and we therefore maintain that the alkaloid is not suited for the 
treatment of children. 

An analysis of the root bark made by the French chemist 
Tanret revealed the presence of four alkaloids : pelletierine, iso- 
pelletierine (C g H 15 NO), pseudo-pelletierine (C 9 H 16 NO), and me- 
fhylpeletierine (C 9 H 17 NO). 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub 6-9 high with branches 
terminating in thorns ; some of the branches abort and form 
thorns. Leaves simple, oval, oblong, without stipules, with 
short petioles. Flowers axillary, solitary or in pauciflorous 
cymes. Calyx, 4-8 sepals, persistent, fleshy, yellow or red. 
Corolla, 4-8 petals, imbricated. Stamens numerous, free. 
Style 1 . Stigma thick. Fruit with leathery rind, about size 
of small apple, packed with seeds, each imbedded in a small 
amount of crisp, juicy pulp. 

ONAGRACEJE. 

Evening Primrose Family. 
Jussisea suffruticosa, L. (J. villosa, Lam.; J. erecta, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Malapoko, Tag. 

USES. The entire plant reduced to a pulp and mixed with 
milk is used in India to treat dysentery. Ainslie states that 
the decoction is employed as a vermifuge and purgative. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An herb with square stem, leaves 
alternate, lanceolate, nearly entire, glabrous. Flowers axillary, 
yellow, solitary. Calyx of 4-5 lobules. Corolla, 4 lanceolate 
petals inserted between the divisions of the calyx. Stamens 8, 
of these 4 alternate being shorter. Ovary very long, inferior, 
with 4 many-ovuled locules. Style the same length as the 
stamens. Stigma 4-lobuled. Seed vessels very long, with faint 
longitudinal ridges, crowned by the remains of the calyx, 4 
pluriovulate locules. 



CARICA PAPAYA 123 

HABITAT. In the arable fields and along the banks of rivers. 
Blooms in January and March. 

PASSIFLORACE^E. 
Passion Flower Family. 
Carica Papaya, L. 

NOM.. VULG. Papaya, in many Phil, dialects ; Papaya, 
PapaWj Eng. 

USES. The decoction of the leaves is used locally in sores 
and atonic ulcers, followed by a poultice of the boiled and 
mashed leaves. The natives use the cold infusion of the leaves 
to wash clothes spotted with blood and the spots disappear 
rapidly by virtue of the ferment papain which digests the fibrin. 
The infusion is also very useful as a wash for sores and gan- 
grenous ulcers, modifying their appearance very rapidly. 

Before proceeding further it is desirable to give a descrip- 
tion of papain, a digestive ferment which exists throughout the 
whole plant, fruit, trunk, leaves and petioles ; it is contained 
in the milky juice which exudes from all these parts when cut. 
This juice was studied simultaneously by Wurtz in France 
and Peckolt in Brazil. The best method of collecting it is to 
make several superficial, longitudinal incisions in the green 
fruit without removing it from the tree ; immediately an 
abundance of juice appears in the incisions and coagulates rap- 
idly. The best time to do this is the early morning. The 
fruit does not suffer by this process but continues developing 
and ripens perhaps more rapidly, at the same time improving 
in flavor, becoming sweeter ; the seeds, however, atrophy and 
lose their power of germination. Peckolt gives the following 
as the composition of the juice : 

A substance analogous to caoutchouc 4.525 

Awa.. . 2.424 



124 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Soft resin 0.110 

Brown resin 2.776 

Albuminoids 0.006 

Papayotin (Papain of Wurtz) 1.059 

Extractive matter 5.303 

Malic acid 0.443 

Peptic material and salts 7.100 

Water 74.971 

The milky juice is neutral and coagulates rapidly, separating 
in two parts : a kind of insoluble pulp and a limpid colorless 
serum. If combined with fibrin, raw meat, white of egg or 
gluten it gradually softens them and completely dissolves them 
in 3 or 4 hours in vitro at 40 C. Combined with milk it 
coagulates it and soon precipitates the casein which is also dis- 
solved a little later. It digests lumbricoids and tape-worms 
and the false membrane of croup, in a few hours. According 
to Wurtz and Bouchut papain is prepared as follows : 

The fluid juice or the aqueous solution of the milky exudate 
is precipitated by the addition of ten times the volume of 
alcohol. The precipitate, after treating again with concen- 
trated alcohol, is dissolved in water and the addition of sub- 
acetate of lead eliminates the albuminoids and peptones but 
does not precipitate the papain. The liquid is filtered and the 
lead salts separated by means of a current of hydrogen sulphide. 
It is filtered again and alcohol added gradually, which process 
first precipitates whatever sulphate of lead may have passed 
through the filter, and then the papain. 

Papain is an amorphous substance, perfectly white, soluble 
in water, insipid, odorless. An aqueous solution, if shaken 
violently, foams like a solution of soap. Boiling makes it 
turbid and when concentrated it has a slightly astringent taste. 
It is precipitated by hydrochloric, nitric, picric and the meta- 
phosphoric acids. Trommer's test gives it a beautiful blue 
violet color which, on boiling, changes to a red violet. 



CARICA PAPAYA 125 

It is an extremely active digestive ferment, comparable with 
pepsin, but superior to the latter because it does not require an 
acid medium, as its digestive action takes place even in the 
presence of an alkaline medium and of antiseptic substances 
such as boric acid, phenol, etc. It is given in doses of 10-40 
centigrams in different vehicles such as water, wine, etc. It 
should be given after meals carefully and properly diluted, in 
order that its action may not be exerted upon the gastric mucous 
membrane itself. Its use is contraindicated in gastric ulcer. 

A watery solution prepared by macerating the green fruit 
has been used effectively to remove blemishes from the face, 
leaving the skin clean and smooth. The natives use little pieces 
of the green fruit to remove freckles (which they call pecas). 
The ripe fruit is edible and its taste quite agreeable ; in some 
of the Malay Islands it is given for dysentery, but it must be 
remembered that the ripe fruit does not contain papain. 

The pure exudate is given to children as an anthelmintic in 
doses of 2-6 grams with a little molasses, but it is not so harm- 
less that it may be used with impunity in this form, Moncorvo 
and others having reported cases of peritonitis with symptoms 
suggestive of cholera following its use. It is drastic and di- 
gestive in addition to its anthelmintic action, but according to 
Rabuteau, boiling destroys the first property without affecting 
the others. Dr. Lemarchand of the island of Mauritius gives 
the following anthelmintic prescription : 

Juice of papaya and molasses aa 1 tablespoon. 

Add gradually while shaking the mixture. 

Boiling water 4 tablespoons. 

Cool and administer in one dose followed immediately by 30 
grams of castor oil. For a child, one-half dose. 

This treatment frequently causes colic, for the relief of 
which the author advises an injection of sweetened water. Sir 
O'Shaughnessy's prescription is preferable : 



126 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

2060 drops of the exudate in a little sweetened water. 
This dose cannot cause any untoward symptoms and is efficient 
in expelling both lumbricoids and tsenise. 

The triturated seeds may be given internally in doses of 1-2 
grams with milk or molasses to expel lumbricoids. Analysis 
has revealed in the seeds the presence of a resinous oil, an oleag- 
inous material of disagreeable odor and taste called by Peckolt 
caricin, a fatty acid, papayic acid and a resin. In India the 
seeds are considered emmenagogue. In some countries they 
wrap meat in papaya leaves for several hours before eating in 
order to soften it. For the same purpose they sometimes boil 
the meat in water containing a few leaves or pieces of the 
green fruit ; some even go to the length of saying that it is 
only necessary to hang a piece of meat in a papaya tree for a 
time in order to soften it. 

The decoction of the green fruit is given internally for indi- 
gestion, a treatment common in the provinces of Bulacan and 
Pampanga. The milky juice is used to remove corns and Dr. 
Daruty offers the following prescription for eczema and psoriasis : 

Exudate of papaya 1.00 grams. 

Borax (powdered) 0.60 " 

Water 16.00 " 

Mix. 

Paint the affected part with feather or brush, 2-3 times a 
day. The same solution may be used for softening corns. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Trees 15 in height, trunk cov- 
ered with large leaf scars, wood soft and brittle, the long-peti- 
oled, palmately-lobed leaves growing in a crown and giving 
the tree the general appearance of a palm. Flowers dioecious. 
Staminate tree : Flowers loosely clustered on long, hanging 
stems. Calyx, 5-6 teeth. Corolla tubular, V long, limb 
divided into 5 oval parts. Stamens 10, inserted in the throat. 
Style short, awl-shaped. Pistillate tree : Flowers much larger, 



TRICHOSANTHES PALM ATA 127 

sessile, in axils of leaves. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla large, 5 
lanceolate petals curved outward, fleshy. Stigmas 5, fringed. 
Fruit about size of child's head or smaller, somewhat pear- 
shaped, juicy, pulp melon-like, 1 compartment with numerous 
seeds, each in a mucilaginous aril. 

CUCURBITACEJE. 

Gourd Family. 

Trichosanthes palmata, Roxb. (T. tricuspis, Mig.; T. luci- 
aniana, Bares.) 

NOM. VULG. (?). 

USES. Roxburgh states that the fruit is toxic and sometimes 
used to kill crows. Dymock states that the leaf is smoked in 
Bombay as a remedy for asthma. 

The extremely bitter taste of the fruit and rind induced Sir 
W. O'Shaughnessy to examine it for tonic and purgative prop- 
erties ; doses as high as 0.20 gram 3 times a day failed to 
exert a purgative effect. The root is used in veterinary medi- 
cine particularly for pneumonia. Mixed with equal parts of 
colocynth it is applied to carbuncles. In combination with 
equal parts of Terminalia chebula and ginger it is made into a 
sweetened infusion for internal use in gonorrhoaa. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A climber with broad, heart- 
shaped, serrate, 7-lobulate leaves. Flowers mono3cious ; stami- 
nate white and racemose; pistillate solitary, growing at the 
base of the staminate racemes. Staminate receptacle tubular, 
calyx inserted on the border of the receptacle, 5 sepals. Corolla, 
5 petals. Stamens 5, of which 4 are in pairs. Pistillate : the 
receptacle dilates in its lower part in form of a globose vase and 
encloses the unilocular pluriovulate ovary. Fruit ovoid or 
pyriform, scarlet when fresh, orange-yellow when dry. Seeds 
of irregular form, somewhat triangular. Kernel oily. 

HABITAT. Luzon. 



128 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

T. anguina, L. (T. amara, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Salagsalag, Pakupis, Salimpokot, Kukubitan, 
Halahala, Buyokbuyok, Tag. ; Tabdbog, Kukubitan, Pukopukot, 
Kuragda, Vis., Pam. 

T. cucumerina, L. 

NOM. VULG. Probably the same as T. anguina. 

USES. The fruit of T. anguina is purgative, emetic and 
anthelmintic. The natives use an infusion of the filamentous, 
reticulate portion surrounding the seeds, in doses of 0.500.60 
gm., according to P. Blanco. 

The second species, T. cucumerina, has a wider use. In India 
it is regarded as a febrifuge and laxative and is commonly 
given with some aromatic. Ainslie notes that the leaves, as well 
as the fruit, are bitter and purgative and that the Tamuls use 
them for their laxative and stomachic effect. Drury states that 
on the Malabar coast the seeds have a considerable reputation 
as a remedy for functional disorders of the stomach. Although 
the green fruit is very bitter the natives of that region use it 
as a condiment. The tender stems and the dry capsules, both 
bitter and purgative, are given in infusion and in a sweetened 
solution, as an aid to digestion. The seeds are febrifuge and 
anthelmintic. The juice of the leaves is emetic and that of 
the roots purgative. The decoction of the stem is expec- 
torant. 

In Bombay the plant is considered febrifuge, and is given 
in decoction with ginger, Swertia chirafft, and sugar. The 
Mohammedan authors say that the T. cucumerina is effective in 
expelling lumbricoids and one of them mentions the following 
as a cure for stubborn fevers : 

Seeds of T. cucumerina No. 180. 

Seeds of coriander or cumin No. 180. 

Boiling water 200 grams. 



LAGENARIA COURGOURDA 129 

Let stand over night, filter, add a little sugar, administer in 
2 doses morning and evening. 

In Concan they use the juice of the leaves as a liniment in 
remittent fevers, rubbing the hepatic region and in fact the en- 
tire body. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. T. anguina, L., is a vine with 
5-angled stem, bearing tendrils and spattered with white dots. 
Leaves heart-shaped, with 5 acute lobules, spiny -toothed. Peti- 
oles with a bifid swelling at their bases. Flowers white, monoe- 
cious. Staminate : calyx 5-toothed with dotted borders ; corolla, 
5 fringed petals; stamens 3 ; anthers 3, entirely united and form- 
ing a cylinder. Pistillate : 3 glandules in the corolla tube ; 
style long ; stigmas 3. Fruit ribbed, long, the compartments 
formed by reticular partitions; contains many irregular seeds, 
one border sharp, the other obtuse, covered by a very thin 
aril. 

The T. eucumerina, L., is less common, bears a spindle- 
shaped or obovate fruit, is hairy and lacks ribs. Its seeds 
are ovoid, very smooth, encircled by a narrow wing. The 
reticulum within the fruit is similar to that of the foregoing 
species. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands. Blooms in 
October. 

Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 
NOM. VULG. Common Gourd, Bottle Gourd, Calabash, Eng. 

Yar. Lagenaria Gourda, Ser. (Cucurbita lagenaria 
oblonga, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Calabaza de peregrino, Sp.; Pilgrim's Gourd, 
Eng. 

Var. L. courgourda, Ser. 
NOM. VULG. Tabayag, Tag. 
11 



130 THE MEDK.'IXAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Yar. L. clavata, Ser. (C. layeitai'ift. vi/lo*, Blanco.) 

EfOM.VlttA ' -*{>.: 'tj t >,. Tag.: 

En-. 

l'-f>. The three above-mentioned varieties of Z. n<(</< 
Ser., are commonly grouped under the name calabaza (gourd). 
All have the same action and hence the same therapeutic appli- 
cation. The green portion of the rind is bitter and j 
purgative and emetic properties. The decoction of the tender 
shoots is expectorant ; in addition it appears to possess purga- 
tive properties and in India is used in jaundice. 

The part of the plant most generally used is tli -. the 

taenifuge properties of which are well known. Its action, 
however, is not always certain, which may be as truly said of 
all other known teenifuges. The seeds have the advantage of 
lacking the disgusting taste characteristic of other remedi 
the same class ; the taste is almost neutral and a little sugar 
conceals it completely. The dose is unlimited ; some take 15 
grams, others as high as 100, and no unpleasant symptoms of 
any kind have been reported. The only precaution to be ob- 
served is to give the patient a purgative I '2 hours after his 

Heckel has analyzed the seeds and found a resin which he 
calls jjfj/'j-t'f.-xinft ; it exists in the greenish pellicle that envel- 
opes the embryo and appears to be the active principle of the 
seeds. Its - ].<><> ^ram (Dujardin-Beaumetz), the 

product of 250 grams of the seeds. The dose of 100 grams of 
the seeds mentioned above is very small, if the pepo-resin rep- 
resents the entire active principle, for 100 grams of the - 
would only contain about 40 centigrams. 

BOTANH-AL I>P> f:iKrrx. A very familiar vine, clammy, 
pubescent and Brack-Mated ; large leaves, long-stalked flowers, 
white petals, greenish veiny fruit usually club-shaped or en- 
larged at the' apex, the hard rind used for dippers, and 
so forth. It is noteworthy that none of the Uenifuge varieties 
mentioned bears vellow fruit. 



LUFF A JEGYPTIA'A 131 

Luffa .ffigyptiaca, Mill. (L. pentamtra, Roxb.; L. petola, 
Ser.: l[n,iiD,><lir<i njH'reulatn, Blanco.) 

NM. Vi'Li;. Probably bears the same names as the Tri- 
chowmthes. 

r>Ks. The root is a hydragogue cathartic even in minute 
doses. The fruit is emollient by virtue of the large quantity 
of mucilage it contains, but it is more interesting for other 
properties. When cut in two, deprived of epidermis and seeds, 
and washed until none of the mucilage remains, there is left a 
fibrous skeleton, a sort of skein of interwoven nets that consti- 
tutes the so-called vegetable sponge. It serves the same pur- 
p< se as a sponge and has the advantages that its fibers do not 
rot and that they are easily kept clean. In view of its cheap- 
ness and plent it\i In ess in the Philippines the above advantages 
should suffice to bring it into universal use for the toilet, for 
surgical purposes and for cleaning in general. 

BOTANICM. OI>M KIPTION. A vine with square, glabrous 
stem. Leaves alternate, cordate. -> 3-lobulate, dentate, rough, 
o-7-nerved. Petioles short. Flowers monoecious. Staminate 
in axillary panicles ; calyx bell-shaped ; corolla yellow, 5 oval 
petals, borders entire : stamens 3 ; filaments short ; two thick 
ones divide high up in '2 parts, thus giving the appearance of 
" stamens in all. Pistillate axillary, calyx adherent, 5 pointed 
sepals ; corolla, ~) nearly triangular petals, finely dentate ; style 
thick, short, the base encircled by 3 glandules : stigma cordate. 
( )vary, 3 pseudo-locales formed by the central union of the 
placentas ; pluriovulate. Fruit oblong, terminating at the apex 
in a deciduous lid or cover, marked with 8 or 10 black longitu- 
dinal lines ; the interior reticulate, 3 compartments with many 
seeds, oval, black, Hat with thin borders. The natives do not dis- 
tinguish between this specimen and the Trichox,it/n'* % but it is to 
be noted that the corolla of the former is not ravelled or fringed. 

HA HIT AT. Common in Lu/on and Panay. Blooms in 
January. 



132 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Momordica balsamina, L. 

NOM. VULG. Ampalaya, Ampalea, Tag.; Amargoso, Sp.- 
Fil.; Paria, Hoc.; Apalia, Pam.; Balsamina, Sp.; Balsam 
Apple, Eng. 

M. charanta, L. (M. muricata, Willd.; M. cylindrica, Blanco.) 

NQM. VULG. The same as of M. balsamina. 

USES. The fruit of both varieties is edible, though a bitter 
principle gives it such an intensely bitter taste that it is intol- 
erable to the unaccustomed palate. It is eaten raw as a salad, 
or cooked with meat or fish. The juice of the leaves is pre- 
scribed internally as a purgative and anthelmintic. In Concan 
it is given alone or combined with aromatics, in bilious dis- 
orders as an emetic and purgative ; externally they use it as an 
ointment for the itch and other skin diseases ; in India it is 
mixed with cinnamon, pepper, rice and oil of Hydnocarpus 
inebrians, Vahl. 

The fruit and leaves are used internally for worms and ex- 
ternally for leprosy. Some Hindoo writers state that the fruit 
is tonic and stomachic, and that it is useful in rheumatism, gout, 
diseases of the liver and spleen. 

BOTANICAL DESCRfPTiox. The first variety, M. balsamina, 
more common than the second, is a vine with angular stem and 
simple tendrils. Leaves, many serrate lobules with white dots 
on the ends. Flowers yellow, monoecious. Staminate soli- 
tary, peduncles very long, involucre cordate ; calyx 5-lobed ; 
corolla 5 petals ; filaments simple, one separate, 2 approxi- 
mated ; anthers joined at their bases. Pistillate solitary ; 
ovary, 3 locules and numerous ovules ; stigma, 3 bifid divi- 
sions ; fruit globose, narrowing at the ends, covered with tuber- 
cles ; seeds numerous, lacking albumen, having red aril. 

The second variety, M. cylindrica, has a downy stem, 5- 
angled with simple tendrils. The leaves are 5-lobuled, cordate, 



CITRULLTJS COLOCYNTHIS ' 133 

serrate, with short hairs on under surface. Melon hollow, 
glabrous, very long, cylindrical, tapering at the ends, covered 
with tubercles, some elevated in longitudinal lines, others de- 
pressed ; seeds in 3 rows, enveloped in pulpy arils, white, long 
quadrangular, truncate above, encircled by 2 rows of obtuse 
toothlets. 

HABITAT. Both grow in all parts and are well known. 

Citrullus Colocynthis, Schard. (Cucumis Colocynthis, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Coloqnintida, Sp.; Coloeynth, Bitter Apple, 
Eng. 

USES. The part employed is the fruit pulp, official in all the 
pharmacopeias as a very energetic hydragogue cathartic. It is 
seldom given alone, but in combination with other drugs to 
modify its energy and its action. 

In large doses it causes vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and a series 
of nervous phenomena that may end in death. Six to ten 
grams constitute a toxic dose. It operates with most force upon 
the large intestines and sympathetically upon the uterus. 

DOSE. Extract, 0.10-0.30 gram; powder, 0.30-1.00 gram. 

The pulp contains a yellow, intensely bitter substance, quite 
soluble in water and in alcohol, discovered by Hubschmann 
and named by him eoloquintina. The seeds contain 17yfc of an 
insipid oil. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An herb with long, prostrate 
stems covered with stiff hairs. Leaves alternate, triangular, 
deeply cleft in 3 lobules that subdivide. Petioles long. The 
color of the leaves is pale green above, whitish or gray and 
covered with white hairs underneath. Flowers yellow, monoB- 
cious, solitary, axillary, with long peduncles. Staminate : re- 
ceptacle cup-formed, 5 sepals and 5 free, yellow petals ; 5 
stamens in pairs, one free. Pistillate : the 'receptacle globose, 
covering the lower part of the ovary ; 3 staminodes take the 
place of the stamens. Ovary unilocular, uniovulate, with a 



134 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

short style bearing 3 lobules at its apex. Fruit globose, 6-8 
centimeters in diameter, smooth, greenish, later yellow with 
white spots ; it is full of a whitish pulp that becomes dry and 
pithy and that contains the obovate seeds, smooth, flattened, 
brown, lacking albumen. 
HABITAT. Manila. 

FICOIDEJE. 

Trianthema monogyna, L. (T. obcordata, Roxb. ; Portulaca 
toston and axiflora, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Toston, Tag. ; Alusiman, Ayam, Vis. 

USES. This plant is edible, the natives eating it boiled, fried 
or in salad. The root is cathartic and is used powdered. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with prostrate stems, 
radiating branches. Leaves ensheathing the stem, opposite, 
oval, red-bordered, glabrous. Petioles with 2 stipules at the 
base and 2 small teeth near the middle. Flowers axillary, soli- 
tary, sessile. Calyx, 2 pointed sepals. Corolla, 5 oval petals. 
Stamens 15-20. Style simple. Seed vessels inversely pyram- 
idal, dehipccnce horizontal. Seeds numerous. 

HABITAT. Very common in the rice fields. Blooms in 
January. 

UMBELLIFER.E. 

Parsley Family. 
Hydrocotyle Asiatica, L. 

NOM. YULG. Takip kohol, Takip suso, Tag. ; Rabasa, Sp. ; 
Indian Pennywort, Indo-Eng. 

USES. Dr. Daruty, of Mauritius, has published a study of 
this plant, giving a resume of its composition, therapeutic uses 
and physiological action. The writers of antiquity recognized 
the plant as a powerful alterative, tonic, diuretic, stimulant and 
vermifuge, especially effective in secondary syphilis and in 
ulcerative diseases of the skin. 



HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA 135 

Lepine and Boileau used it experimentally to treat leprosy 
and reported favorably ; but later experience demonstrated that 
it did not exercise any specific effect, but benefited ,ana3sthetic lep- 
rosy simply by improving the general condition of the patient. 

The plant is official in the Pharmacopeia of India, as altera- 
tive, tonic and stimulant. It states that the drug has been 
found very useful in the treatment of secondary and constitu- 
tional syphilis, when the disease attacks the skin and subcuta- 
neous tissue. 

In Bombay it is a popular remedy for the mild dysentery of 
children, given as a decoction of 3 or 4 leaves with a little 
cumin seed and sugar ; the bruised leaves are then applied to 
the umbilical region. In the Philippines the decoction of the 
leaves is given as a purge. 

Dr. Dervegie reports good results in the treatment of eczema, 
administering the powdered leaf in dozes of 0.10 gram and 
applying locally the powder or an ointment of the same. The 
most marked and constant effects of the drug are a considerable 
increase of the urinary secretion, elevation of the temperature 
of the skin and profuse diaphoresis. 

Dr. Boileau, quoted above, himself contracted leprosy of 
which he died ; he experimented on himself with " hydroco- 
tyle " and on one occasion a dose of 3 grams nearly proved 
fatal ; tetanic symptoms supervened with suffocation, palpita- 
tion, epistaxis and rectal hemorrhage, abating finally with pro- 
fuse sweating and diuresis. 

Dr. Lepine, a pharmacist of Pondicherry, has analyzed the 
plant and isolated a substance that seems to be the active prin- 
ciple ; he has named it vallarin, from " vallarai," the Tamul 
name of the plant. " Vallarin " is a thick, pale yellow oil of 
a piquant and persistent taste and an odor peculiar to the plant. 
It changes under the influence of air, moisture or heat and 
volatilizes at 120. It is soluble in alcohol. The plant contains 
T 8 <j- to 1 ft of this oil, a dark resin and a green resin. 



136 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The Pharmacopoeia of India gives 2 official formulae, a powder 
and a cataplasm. The powdered leaf is given internally in 
doses of 0.30 to 1.50 grams and is applied locally to superficial 
ulcers. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Plant herbaceous with reniform 
or heart-shaped leaves, forming a sort of funnel, dotted with 
little hairs, dentate with white tips. Petioles very long, en- 
sheathing each other by 2 wings at their bases. Flowers 3-4, 
sessile, springing directly from the root, greenish-white, grow- 
ing in horizontal rows on either side of a short, common pedun- 
cle. Common involucre of 2-3 leaflets. Calyx adherent, flat- 
tened, faintly toothed. Corolla, 5 small petals, ovate. Stamens 
5, equal in height, inserted on the receptacle, alternating with 
the petals. Filaments short. Anthers globose, cleft at the 
base in 2 diverging parts. Ovary inferior, cordate, much flat- 
tened. Styles 2, short. Stigmas simple. Fruit truncate, oval, 
downy, indehiscent, marked with furrows, with 2 compartments 
each containing a seed inserted on the wall. 

HABITAT. Grows in shady and moist places. Blooms in 
July. 

Carum copticum, Benth. (C. ajowan, DC.; Ammi copticum, 

L.; A. glaucifolium, Blanco; Daucus options, Pers.; 

D. anisodorm, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Lamudio, Damoro, Tag.; Lamudio, Vis.; Cara- 
way, Eng. 

USES. The fruit, of which both form and taste remind one 
of anise, is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a carmina- 
tive, stimulant and antispasmodic. It is indicated in flatulent 
colic, atonic dyspepsia and diarrhoea and gives very good results. 
It has been used in cholera, but is of little value in that disease. 
In moderate doses it increases salivary and gastric secretion. 

The P. of India contains the 2 following official formulae : 
Oleum obtained from the fruit by distillation ; is colorless 



CARUM COPTICUM 137 

when fresh but soon turns yellow ; possesses the odor of the 
fruit and an acrid, burning taste. Aqua 600 grams of the 
fruit ground and mixed with 9 liters of water ; this is distilled 
till 4J liters have gone over, these constituting the " aqua cari." 

DOSE. 12 drops of the essential oil in emulsion or on a 
piece of sugar. Of the " aqua," 30-60 grams as a carminative 
or to disguise the taste of other drugs (such as castor oil), thus 
frequently preventing nausea or vomiting. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Leaves finely pinnately com- 
pound. Common petiole clasps the stem at the base. Flowers 
white, in flat compound umbels. The secondary peduncles 12. 
Flowerets of each partial umbel about 16. Calyx of flowerets 
superior, 5 globose sepals. Corolla, 5 equal petals, with 
rounded lobules. Stamens 5. Ovary tuberculate. Styles 2, 
very short. Seeds 2, united, furrowed and nearly glabrous at 
maturity. 

HABITAT. Cultivated in gardens. Blooms in October. 

Fceniculum vulgare, Gaertii. (F. qfficinale, Allion ; F. pan- 
morium, DC.; Anethum foeniculiim, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Anis, Sp.; Fennel, Eng. 

Coriandrum sativum, L. (Ciimmum cynimum, Wall.) 

NOM. VULG. Cominos, Calantro, Sp.; Coriander, Eng. 

USES. The fruit of both species has the same therapeutical 
application being stomachic and carminative par excellence. It 
yields an aromatic essential oil with stimulant properties, pop- 
ular because of its agreeable odor and taste. 

As a rule the infusion is given in doses of one liter a day 
(15-30 grams of the seeds to one liter of water). The essence 
and the alcoholate are also employed, the former obtained by 
distillation, the latter by macerating the fresh seeds in alcohol. 
The dose of the essence, 48 drops on a piece of sugar or in 
12 



138 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

potion ; the alcoholate, 2-10 grams in sweetened water or in- 
fusion of aromatic herbs. 

Both plants are official in the Spanish Pharmacopoeia and 
they and their preparations are common in all drug stores. 

HABITAT. Common, cultivated in the gardens and well 
known. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. F. vulgare : Aromatic, stout, 
smooth herb, 4-6 high. Leaves with many slender thread- 
like divisions. Large umbel of yellow flowers, no involucre 
and no involucels. C. sativum : Low aromatic herb, leaves pin- 
nately compound, small umbels with few rays, flowers white. 

CORNACEJE. 

Dogwood Family. 

Alangium Lamarkii, Thwaites. (A. decapetalum, hexapetalum 
and tomentosum, Lam.) 

NOM. VULG. (?) 

USES. According to Mooden Sheriff, the root bark is an 
efficient emetic in doses of 3 grams. In smaller doses it is 
febrifuge and produces nausea. The bark is extremely bitter ; 
its reputation in the treatment of skin diseases is undeserved. 
It is a good substitute for ipecac, having given good results in 
all conditions in which the latter is indicated, with the excep- 
tion of dysentery. 

The febrifuge dose is 0.35-0.60 gram ; alterative, 0.15-0.30 
gram. 

It is furthermore prescribed in India for syphilis and leprosy 
and is one of the many remedies used for the bites of rabid ani- 
mals. The bruised leaves are applied to the joints of rheumatic 
patients. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree 20-30 meters high, 
leaves alternate, persistent, petiolate, no stipules, oblong, den- 
tate, acuminate, pinnately nerved. Flowers whitish, regular, 



ALANGIUM LAMARKII 139 

hermaphrodite, in terminal cymes. Receptacle concave. Calyx 
short, 10-toothed. Corolla, 10 narrow, elongated ribbon-like 
petals. Stamens 3040, filaments free and glabrous. Ovary 
inferior, held in the concavity of the receptacle, one-celled, 
with 1 seed, crowned by an epigynous disc, above which rises 
a simple style with dilated stigma. Fruit a globose drupe, 
crowned by the calyx, with 10 inconspicuous ribs. The ptita- 
men encloses an albuminous kernel. 

HABITAT. The mountains of San Mateo. 



DICOTYLEDONOUS, GAMOPETALOUS. 



RUBIACEJE. 

Madder Family. 

Hymenodictyon excelsum, Wall. (H. Horsfieldii, Miq. ; Ckln- 
chona exeelsa, Roxb. ; E.costema Ph'dipplcum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Huligaga, Tag. 

USES. The bark of this tree has a wide reputation in India 
as a tonic and febrifuge. The inner layer of the bark possesses 
astringent and bitter properties much like quinine. Ainslie 
states that it is used in India to tan hides and therapeutically 
where an astringent is required. O'Shaughnessy experimented 
with it in the hospital of the Medical College of Calcutta and 
reported good tonic and antipyretic effects. 

In 1870, according to Dymock, Broughton analyzed the 
fresh bark and reported that the bitter taste was due to esculin, 
which after drying and coming in contact with decomposing 
organic matter is transformed into the almost tasteless cM-n-lctin. 
Baylor studied the bark at a later period, and attributed the 
bitterness to an alkaloid that he named hymenodictyonine. This 
substance exists in the form of a gelatinous mass, cream-col- 
ored, very hygroscopic. An ethereal solution, carefully evap- 
orated, deposits it in the form of crystals. Its empirical form 
is C 23 H 40 1N" 2 ; it is probably volatile and is notable for its lack 
of oxygen. It differs from quinoidme in that it is inactive (?) 
and that in combination with platinum it retains less of this 
metal than does quinoidine. It differs from parieine in its pro- 
portion of hydrogen, and from berberine in containing more car- 
bon. In the presence of sulphuric acid its solution assumes 
a yellow color, changing to wine- red and then to dark red. 



OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA 141 

Naylor extracted another principle which he found combined 
with the alkaloid in a soda precipitate of the latter ; it is a 
product of the decomposition of a glucose, the formula of which 
is C 2 _H 49 O 7 . This compound remains insoluble when the alka- 
loid is treated with ether. Repeated boiling in alcohol renders 
it colorless. It is bitter, soluble in alcohol and dilute acids ; 
insoluble in ether and chloroform. Reaction, neutral. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large tree, with leaves oppo- 
site, oval, entire, acute, downy. Petioles long, flat above, with 
2 stipules. Flowers axillary, in compound verticillate racemes. 
Calyx adherent, with 5 promptly deciduous teeth which leave 
a scar that also disappears. Corolla much longer than the calyx, 
funnel-form, the limb 5-cleft. Stamens 5, inserted near the 
middle of the tube. Filaments rudimentary. Anthers 2- 
celled. Style longer than the corolla. Stigma globose. Seed- 
vessel rather rough, ovoid, flattened, of 2 compartments, where 
are inserted numerous seeds, imbricated, circular, encircled by 
an entire wing. 

HABITAT. Angat and the woods of San Mateo. Blooms 
in August. (P. Blanco states further that this tree grows to a 
height of about 3 yards in Angat and that it exhales a strong 
odor resembling that of vinegar at times, and again like that of 
tobacco.) 

Oldenlandia corymbosa, L. (0. biflora, Lam.; 0. raraosa, 
Roxb.; 0. herbacea and scrabridcij DC.; O. burmaniana, Mig.) 

NOM. YULG. Doubtful. 

USES. The Sanscrit writers often mention this plant as an 
important remedy for the fevers due, according to their theo- 
ries, to disordered bile, i. e., remittent fevers, accompanied by 
gastric irritability and nervous depression. The entire plant is 
used to make a decoction, often combined with aromatics. 
Dymock observed in Goa that this plant could be gotten in all 
the shops of the herb-venders, and that it was widely used as 



142 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

an alterative in mild fevers in combination with "Hydrocotyle 
Asiatica and Adiantum lunulatum." 

In Concan they apply the juice to the hands and feet in 
fevers, giving at the same time a dose of one "tola" (6.80 
grams) in sweetened water or milk. This juice is obtained by 
soaking the bruised plant in water. In remittent fever the 
decoction is also used as a liniment for the whole body. It is 
given internally for skin eruptions due to excessive heat, espe- 
cially " lichen tropicus." 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small herb, stem straight, about 
30 centimeters high, glabrous, dichotomous. Leaves opposite, 
linear, green, lanceolate, stipulate. Flowers small, hermaph- 
rodite, axillary, solitary, or in pairs, alternate or opposite. 
Calyx gamosepalous with 5 short teeth. Corolla gamopetalous, 
funnel-shaped. Stamens 5, free, inserted in the tube of the 
corolla. Ovary inserted in the hollow of the receptacle, 2 many- 
ovuled locules. Style simple, ending in a bifid stigma. Cap- 
sule rounded-oval, membranous. Seeds numerous, polyhedrons, 
albuminous, surface granular. 

HABITAT. In the rice fields. 



Randia dumetorum, Lam. (R. longispina, DC.; R. 

Blanco ; R. stipulosa, Miq.; Gardenia spinosa, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Sinampaga, Tag. 

USES. The fruit is used in some parts of India to kill the 
fish in ponds and sluggish rivers, the same use to which they 
sometimes put the "Cocculus Indicus." It is prescribed as an 
emetic by the Sanscrit and Arabic medical authors of India. 
Mooden Sheriff ascribes its emetic properties to the pulp alone, 
the epicarp and seeds being inactive according to his authority. 
It is a substitute for ipecac even in the treatment of dysentery 
in which case the decoction of the trunk bark is also used. 

The dried and powdered pulp is given in dose of 2.50 grams 
as an emetic and 1-2 grams as an antidysenteric. To prepare 



IXORA COCCINEA 143 

the fresh fruit for administration as an emetic, mash 23, mac- 
erate 15 minutes in 150-200 grams of water and filter. It 
acts in a few minutes and its eifect may be hastened by giving 
tepid Avater or tickling the fauces. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub with straight, thorny 
stem, leaves sessile, springing from the buds, occurring in 
threes, obtusely lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers solitary 
or in pairs, very fragrant. Calyx gamosepalous with 10 tooth- 
lets. Corolla twisted, arched, cleft in the middle, throat nude, 
limb slashed in 5 large glabrous parts. Stamens 5. Fila- 
ments short, inserted on corolla. Style 1. Stigma bifid. 
Fruit inferior, about the size of a crab apple, crowned by the 
remains of the calyx, smooth, yellow, fleshy, 1-celled with 
many seeds. 

HABITAT. On the coast of Luzon. Blooms in May. 

Ixora coccinea, L. (I. bandhucaj Koxb.) 

NOM. VULG. Santan, Tag. 

USES. The handsome red flowers are used in decoction for 
haemoptysis and catarrhal bronchitis. Both root and flower 
are astringent and are given for dysentery. In Concan they 
cook 2 "tolas 77 (13.60 grams) of the flowers in lard, to- 
gether with coriander and " mesua ferrea," add a little candied 
sugar and divide the mass into large pills to be given twice a 
day. 

The fresh root in the form of an alcoholic tincture has been 
recommended by Deb for dysentery, the dose 2-4 grams in an 
appropriate potion. The tincture of the fresh plant is prepared 
by macerating 126 grams of the fresh root 15 days in 473 
grams alcohol. The plant has been used in intermittent fevers 
and various skin diseases. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub cultivated in all gar- 
dens, 6-8 high. Leaves oval, entire, glabrous. Flowers in 
terminal umbels, white, pink or red. Corolla tubular with 



144 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

limb cleft in 4 rounded lobes. The plant is so well known 
that further description would be superfluous. 

Coffea Arabica, L. 

NOM. YULG. Cafe, Sp.; Coffee, Eng. 

USES. The infusion of roasted and ground coffee seeds con- 
stitutes a beverage of Arabic origin, but now common all over 
the world. In the Philippines, where a few years ago the 
coffee plant was only cultivated in gardens, the harvest has 
assumed such proportions that it now constitutes one of the 
greatest sources of agricultural wealth. Its use is becoming 
more general every day and the discovery of its alkaloid 
" caffeine" the therapeutical use of which is also steadily in- 
creasing, has given new importance to the seed on account of 
its increasing demand in the drug trade. When newly har- 
vested its taste is not very agreeable, for it needs considerable 
time 2 or 3 years in which to dry completely, before it ac- 
quires the aromatic properties and the savor of which it is sus- 
ceptible. General Morin relates an incident of having drunk 
a delicious infusion of coffee made from authentic Moka that 
had been kept for fifty years, of course under ideal conditions 
of preservation. 

In civilized countries coffee is an article of prime necessity 
as a food ; here we shall consider it therapeutically under two 
heads, as a tonic-stimulant and as an antiseptic. As caffeine is 
the principle that acts upon the heart we shall consider the 
cardiac properties of coffee under the head of that alkaloid, so 
important that it may best be studied separately. 

There are two preparations of coffee, the decoction used by 
the Arabs and the infusion, used in Europe and adopted in the 
Philippines. The decoction forms a tonic and aromatic drink 
devoid of any excitant properties, but the infusion is highly 
excitant and should not be taken in such large amounts as the 
decoction, for its action may be powerful enough to cause head- 



COFFEA ARABICA 145 

ache, nausea, trembling of the extremities and disorders of 
vision and hearing. These phenomena however are not danger- 
ous and rapidly subside as soon as the urine eliminates the sub- 
stances that cause them. 

Infusion of coffee stimulates especially the cerebral functions 
and the circulation ; as to its digestive properties, opinion is 
divided but it is more probable that it lacks them and that 
coffee taken after meals owes its reputation as a digestive aid to 
two distinct factors the temperature and the sugar. Without 
doubt it exerts an anaphrodisiac action, on account of which 
the illustrious Linneus called it the " drink of eunuchs." 
This action seems incompatible with the fact that the Arabs, 
who are so much given to the abuse of the pleasures forbidden 
to eunuchs are most addicted to the use and abuse of coffee. 
The explanation rests in the form in which they consume their 
coffee, namely the decoction, which is free from the sedative 
principle of the seed, that undoubtedly resides in the aromatic 
ingredient "cafeol." 

Coffee is contraindicated in hysterical and nervous persons, 
in children and in those who suffer with insomnia or palpita- 
tion. It counteracts sleep and coma, being very useful in 
poisoning by opium or its alkaloids. Its stimulant action is as 
rapid as that of alcohol. On several occasions it has yielded 
me marked results when given by stomach or by enema in cases 
of nervous and cardiac depression. Indeed it is a remedy that 
I cannot recommend too highly and each day leaves me more 
convinced of its therapeutic activity and certainty. 

Attention has only lately been directed to the antiseptic 
property of coffee though we have long been availing ourselves 
of that property without knowing it ; this is true of many other 
medicinal agents, indeed of all that the modern studies of bacteri- 
ology have presented to us asantifermentives and microbicides. 
Roasted coffee in powder form gives good results if dusted over 
ulcers and gangrenous sores, rapidly improving their appear- 



146 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

ance and destroying the foetid odor. It corrects the unhygienic 
properties of non-potable water and therefore enters into the 
army and navy ration of nearly all the nations of Europe. In 
epidemics of disease every physician should advise its use in 
mild infusion as a regular beverage. 

Dr. Luderitz, experimenting in the Hygienic Institute of 
Berlin, reported that no bacteria could resist the action of coffee 
in infusion. He attributed this action not only to the tannin, 
which is present in high percentage, but principally to the em- 
pyreumatic substances formed by the roasting. The caffeine 
takes no part in this action. Dr. Luderitz exposed the coffee 
to the open air for six days and found it free from bacteria at 
the end of that time. Whatever may be the explanation of its 
activity the fact remains that coffee is highly antiseptic, and 
this should be kept in mind by physicians not only because it 
is everywhere easily obtained and an infusion easily prepared, 
but because it in addition possesses the great advantage of being 
nontoxic. 

The chemical analysis of the seed is as follows : 

Cellulose 34.000 

Water 12.000 

Fatty matters 10 to 13.000 

Glucose, dextrin, undetermined acid. 15. 500 

Legumiu, caffeine 10.000 

Chlorogenate of caffeine and potassa 3.500 to 5.000 

Albuminoids 3.000 

Caffeine, free 800 

Essential oil, solid 001 

" " liquid 002 

Mineral substances 6.697 

Caffeine, the only one of the ingredients that interests us, was 
discovered by Hunge in 1821 and recognized as an alkaloid 



COFFEA ARABICA 147 

by Herzog. It also exists in tea, formerly known as " the- 
ine " which is now known to be identical with caffeine ; both 
are expressed by the formula C 8 H 10 N 2 O 2 -fH 2 O. It crystal- 
lizes in fine, silky needles, is colorless, odorless and slightly 
bitter. 

It is considered a substitute for digitalis, especially valuable 
as a diuretic and where cerebral anemia exists. Germain See 
values it as a preventive medicine, acting principally upon 
the heart and thus preventing fatigue ; with this end in view 
he advises its use before long marches, violent exercise and all 
conditions where the heart will be called upon to do a greatly 
increased amount of work. Dose 0.25 gram to 1 or 2 grams a 
day given by stomach or hypodermic injection. 

Caffeine is also useful in headache, neuralgia, and asthma and 
as a general tonic. For the latter action it is best given in pill 
form, 0.020.04 gram a day, with the extract of cinchona or 
other bitter tonic. 

" Etoxy-caffeine," which is caffeine in which an atom of H has 
been replaced by the C 9 H 5 O, exists as white, needle-like crys- 
tals, slightly soluble in water ; it is narcotic and sedative to 
the cerebro-spinal system. In doses of 0.24 gram it is useful 
in headache. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. " A small tree that reaches a 
height of 8-9. It grows readily in the province of Batangas 
without cultivation/ 7 Blanco. 

A small tree or shrub with leaves opposite, smooth, glossy, 
rich green, oval, edges fluted. Flowers fragrant, white, grow- 
ing in small clusters in the axils of the leaves. Calyx 4-5- 
toothed. Corolla short-tubed with 4-5 spreading lobes of 
about the same length. Berry red, containing two plano-convex 
seeds enveloped in arils. 

The plant is widely cultivated in gardens. It finds ideal 
conditions for growth in some of the hilly and mountainous 
regions of Luzon, notably in Benguet and Batangas. 



148 THE MEDICINAL, PLANTS OF TLIE PII I IA PI'I NKS 

Morinda citrifolia, L.; variety : bracteata, Hoock, Jr. 
(M. ligulata, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Bankundo, Pankundo, Baglturo, Nino, AW//, 
Tumbogaso, Lino, Mambog, Takpus, Tag. and Vis.; Tal'uuitiu', 
Pam.; Apalot, Hoc.; Indian Mulberry, Indo-Eng. 

USES. In the Philippines, as well as in India, the root of 
the plant is widely used as a red dye. As a medicine the 
Tarn ul physicians use it in decoction to treat diarrhoea and dys- 
entery. The fruit is emmenagogue and perhaps aperient. In 
Bombay the mashed leaves are applied to wounds and ulcers to 
hasten cicatrization ; they also use the decoction internally as a 
febrifuge and tonic, 10 grams to 500 of water, a wineglassful 
twice a day. 

The root bark contains a crystalline substance called by 
Anderson morind'm, C 9S H 30 O lr) . It is a glucoside and exists in 
the form of yellow needles, soluble in alcohol and in cold water, 
insoluble in ether; dissolves in alkalies producing an orange- 
red color. 

There is another species, M. tinctona, Roxb.; M. Eoyoc, Blanco, 
called in Tagalog Tumboug aso kapay, the roots of which are 
used by the Filipinos for the same purposes as the leaves of 
the former species ; the dose, 8 grams a day. The powder is also 
applied to ulcers and sores, especially those of gangrenous aspect. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree 11 or more feet 
high, branches opposite, quadrate at the extremities. Leaves 
opposite, oval, oblong, smooth, entire, glabrous. Petioles very 
short, with 2 broad, lanceolate stipules curved outward. 
Flowers white, opposite the leaves, fixed on globose, solitary 
receptacles from which spring the flowerets. Calyx proper, 
very short, monophyllous, a lanceolate leaflet springing from the 
border. Corolla tubular, woolly inside about the middle, with 
5 lobules. Stamens 5, inserted on the walls of the corolla. 
Anthers thin, incumbent. Pistil somewhat longer than the 
corolla. Stigma cleft in 2 laminae. Fruit : the receptacle of 



EUPATORIUM AYAPANA 149 

the flowerets ripens to a globe bristling with the remains of the 
calyces, like a berry covered with many smaller ones, each con- 
taining 2 monospermous, quadrangular seeds. 

M. tinctoria, Roxb., is a climbing shrub with leaves opposite, 
ovate, keeled ; petioles very short ; flower and fruit like the 
foregoing species. 

HABITAT. In Luzon and, especially the M. tinetoria., in 
Malinta, Calauan and Tanauan. 

Paederia fcetida, L. (P. sessiflom, DC.) 

NOM. VULG. K<nitut<iHj K(Ditutcc,Tag.; LUitan, Tce-tce, Vis. 

USES. The foetid odor of this plant has suggested both the 
technical and common names for it. The natives regard it as 
a cure for rheumatism. The root is emetic. The leaves, 
boiled and mashed, are applied to the abdomen in retention of 
urine ; the decoction of the leaves is used for the same purpose 
and also has some reputation as a solvent for vesical calculus. 
For fever, cloths soaked in the decoction are applied to the head, 
the same preparation being given internally at the same time. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A slender, twining plant with 
leaves 3' by l r , opposite, oval, acute, entire, long petioles and 
caducous stipules. Flowers dark rose color, in compound axil- 
lary and terminal cymes. Calyx of 5 persistent lobules. Corolla 
tubular, pubescent, 5 lobules. Stamens 5, free. Ovary inferior, 
flattened, 2 uniovulate locules. Style with 2 stigma-bearing 
branches. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Panay. 

COMPOSITES. 

Eupatorium Ayapana, Vent. 

NOM. VULG. Aya-pana, Sp.; Ayapana, Apana, Tag.; 
Ayapan, Indo-Eng. 

USES. A native plant of Brazil now naturalized and well 
known in the Philippines and many other tropical countries ; 



150 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

it is called by its Brazilian name, Aya-pana, more or less modi- 
fied. The entire plant is aromatic and its infusion has an agree- 
able, bitter taste. Its virtues have been much exaggerated, but 
it is certainly a good stimulant, diaphoretic and tonic. An in- 
fusion, 30 grams of the leaves to 1 liter of water, is given in dys- 
pepsia, a small cup after each meal. In the island of Mauri- 
tius this infusion was widely used as a stimulant and aromatic 
in the cholera epidemics of 1854 and 1856. 

It is used internally and locally for the bites of venomous 
snakes and insects. The leaf-juice is a good application for 
foul ulcers, as is also the decoction of the entire plant. " It 
appears probable that this plant has fallen into unmerited 
neglect." Pharm. of India. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An aromatic plant 3 high, 
leaves opposite, sessile, coherent at the base, lanceolate, entire, 
glabrous. Flowers in racemose panicles. Common calyx 
cylindrical, of many imbricated, awl-shaped scales, the lower 
ones smaller ; within are 20 or more hermaphrodite disk-flow- 
ers. Corollas are funnel-form, 5-lobed. Style a little longer 
than the stamens. Stigmas 2, long. Seed 1, quadrangular, 
with simple, downy, sessile pappus. Receptacle nude. 

HABITAT. Common in fields and gardens. Blooms in Jan- 
uary. 

Blumea balsamifera, DC. (Conyza balsamifem, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Sambon, Tag.; Lakbandulan, Hamlibon, 
Lalakdan, Lakadbulan, Gintingintin, Gctbuen, Ayoban, Alibitn, 
Vis.; Sobsob, Hoc. 

USES. Sambon is a panacea among the Filipinos ; its virtues 
are prodigious according to the ignorant natives who wear the 
leaves in the hat or the "salakod" (rain hat), to prevent 
"tabardillo" ("burning fever"; tabardillo pintado = spotted 
fever). They use the decoction to bathe convalescents, and 
for rheumatism they vaporize it in an improvised bath-cabinet 



SPHOEEAN-THUS INDICUS 151 

consisting of a chair in which the patient sits enveloped in 
blankets that reach to the floor and retain the steam. 

The hot infusion of the leaves is a good diaphoretic taken by 
the mouth, especially useful in catarrhal bronchitis, and prized 
as an expectorant by the Chinese and Javanese. "Furthermore 
it is stomachic, antispasmodic and emmenagogue. 

The camphorous odor of the plant suggested to me its appli- 
cation as an antiseptic lotion for varicose ulcers and my results 
have been very satisfactory. The infusion for internal use is 
30 grams to the liter of water. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A woody plant 6-9 high. 
Leaves 1 long, 3' wide, oblong, lanceolate, acutely serrate, 
rugose, soft, downy, whitish. Flowers yellow in panicles. 
Involucre conical, of many linear scales, enclosing 15 or more 
hermaphrodite disk-flowers and several pistillate ray-flowers. 
Hermaphrodite : corolla infundibuliform, 5-toothed. Pistil- 
late : corolla very minute, infundibuliform, obscurely 4-toothed. 
One seed crowned with a simple hairy pappus. 

HABITAT. Grows universally in the islands and is well 
known. Blooms in January. 

Sphceranthus Indicus, L. (8. hirtw, Willd.; 
8. mottis, Roxb.) 

NOM. YULG. Sambog-gala, Tag. 

USES. This plant seems to possess anthelmintic properties 
and for this purpose it is administered in powder, 24 grams 
with a little molasses or syrup. It is bitter and aromatic and 
is given in diseases of the stomach and intestines for its tonic 
and stimulant effect. The odor of the drug is transmitted to 
both urine and sweat. In India it is used in "bilious dis- 
eases" and to dissipate all sorts of tumors. The Hindoos cook 
it with flour, lard and sugar and eat the mixture as a tonic and 
to prevent gray hair and baldness. They also give the seed, 
fried in oil, as an aphrodisiac. The aqueous distillate is a 



152 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

good preparation as it contains the active principle of the plant, 
a yellow, viscid, essential oil. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 1 high, stem 
and branches bearing 3 serrate wings. Leaves premorse, lan- 
ceolate, decurrent, downy. Flowers white, in a globose head, 
divided into 50 or more groups each with its own calyx of 9 or 
10 leaflets surrounding 2 or 3 hermaphrodite, 5-toothed, cam- 
panulate flowers. Anthers 5, united. Style 1, thick at ex- 
tremity. Stigma none. Corolla of pistillate flowers very 
minute, with 3 obscure teeth. Stigma of 2 down-curved divi- 
sions. One seed, 4-angled, imbricated. 

HABITAT. The rice fields. Blooms in January. 

Spilanthes Acmella, L. 

NOM. VULG. Hagonog, Tag. ; Agonoy, Sp.-Fil., Vis. (?) ; 
Palunay, Pam. 

USES. Some native herb-doctors use the root as a purgative, 
giving a decoction of 4-8 grams to a cup of water. The infu- 
sion is used locally for itch and psoriasis. Internally it has a 
diuretic effect and is reputed to be a solvent of vesical calculi. 
The leaf juice and the bruised leaves are applied to wounds and 
atonic ulcers. These leaves with those of " sambon " and 
"sampaloc" (tamarind) are used to prepare aromatic baths for 
convalescents, rheumatics and pregnant women. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with stem drooping, 
square, grooved, covered with drops of gum resin. Leaves 
opposite, cordate, oval, lanceolate, serrate, 3 prominent nerves 
covered with short down. Petioles short, grooved. Flowers 
yellow, in a sort of umbel, with 3 or more flowerets on long 
peduncles. Common calyx, 911 narrow sepals, concave, fleshy, 
in 2 rows. Hermaphrodite disk-flowers 40 or more. Corolla 
tubular, 5-toothed. Anthers longer than corolla. Pistil longer 
than stamens. Style bifid. Pistillate flowers, 15 or more, form- 
ing the rays. Corolla monopetalous, 3-toothed. Style and 



ARTEMISIA VULGARIS 153 

stigma as in hermaphrodite flowers. Seeds of hermaphrodite 
flowers quadrangular, crowned by one long awn, and the rudi- 
ment of another. Seeds of ray flowers small and sometimes 
flattened, 2 awns, of which one alone lengthens and becomes 
conspicuous. Receptacle covered with concave scales. 

HABITAT. Grows along the shores of the sea and of rivers. 
It is very well known. 

Artemisia vulgaris, L. (A. Indica, Willd.) 

NOM. VULG. Ka-Maria, Santa Maria, Tinisas, Tag. ; In- 
dian Wormwood, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The native women use the infusion of its aromatic 
leaves to induce menstruation. It is also used as an abortifa- 
cient, but is too mild a uterine stimulant to be reliable for that 
purpose. Its stomachic and tonic properties are common 
knowledge in the Philippines. The Hindoos use it for those 
effects and as an antispasmodic in amenorrhoea and hysteria. 
Dr. Wight states that the leaves and tops are useful in nervous 
troubles resulting from debility and that a decoction of them 
makes a good fomentation for phagedenic ulcers. 

The infusion is prepared in the proportion of 10-30 grams 
of leaves to 1 liter of water and the powdered leaves are given 
in doses of 4-8 grams ; the aqueous extract 30-40 grams a day. 
For amenorrhoea the drug is given daily for a week preceding 
the menstrual date. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 3 high, stem straight, 
woody, square toward ends of branches. Leaves alternate, 
tomentose, decurrent, divided in several places, medium lanceo- 
late. Flowers straw-colored, in axillary and terminal, 1 -ranked 
spikes. Common calyx cylindrical, 2 circles of oval, scarious 
leaflets around its border, 11 hermaphrodite disk-flowers and 
about 5 pistillate ray-flowers. Hermaphrodite : Corolla bell- 
shaped, 5 obtuse teeth ; stigmas 2, bent to the sides. Pistil- 
late : Corolla diminutive, 5 toothlets ; anther none ; stigmas 2. 
13 



154 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Seeds of both small and quadrate, smaller in the latter. Re- 
ceptacle nude. 

HABITAT. Grows throughout the islands and is well 
known. 

Carthamus tinctorius, L. 

NOM. VULG. Azafrdn de la tierra, Sp.; Bin, J\ftsubha, 
-Katsumba, Lago, Tag.; Kasabba, Vis.; Kaxubha, Kagtumbd) 
Pam.; Bastard Saffron, Dyer's Safflower, Eng. 

USES. This plant must not be confounded with Curcuma 
longa, L., whose tuber is also frequently called saffron (azafrnn), 
and is used to color food. 

The flower is the part employed as a condiment coloring the 
food yellow. Some use them internally in doses of 4 grams to 
cure icterus. The leaves coagulate milk. The seeds are pur- 
gative in dose of 8-16 grams, bruised and taken in emulsion, 
or 15-30 grams in decoction. 

The following is the chemical analysis of the plant : 

Yellow coloring matter, soluble 26.1-36.0 

Carthamic acid 0.3- 0.6 

Extractive matter 3,6- 6.5 

Albumin 1.5- 8.0 

Wax 0.6- 1.5 

Cellulose, pectin 38.4-56.0 

Silica 1 .0- 8.4 

Oxide of iron, aluminum, oxide of manga- 
nese 0.4- 4.6 

(Salve tat.) 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 3 high, root gray and 
spindle-shaped. Stem straight, few branches. Leaves scat- 
tered, sessile, partially embracing the stem, lanceolate, serrate 
with hooked teeth. Flowers yellow, terminal in a sort of 
corymb. Common calyx semiglobose, with imbricated scales, 
the border often bearing thorns ; numerous hermaphrodite disk 



PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA 155 

flowers, with 'corolla very long, funnel-form, 5-toothed. 
Style longer than the stamens. Stigma bifid. Seed large, 
lacking pappus. 

HABITAT. Cultivated in the gardens. 

PLUMB AGINE^I. 

Leadwort Family. 
Plumbago Zeylanica, L. (P. viscosa, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Sagdikit, Tag.; Bagbag, Talankaw, Hoc.; 
White-flowered Leadwort, Eng. 

USES. The root is vesicant and is used by the natives for 
this purpose. (P. rosea, L., common in India, is more power- 
ful. The Pharmacopoeia of India states that both species are 
worthy of further investigation.) According to the Sanscrit 
authors it increases the appetite and is useful in dyspepsia, 
piles, dropsy, diarrhoea and skin diseases. The Filipinos use 
the infusion locally for itch with good results. A favorite 
medicine of the Hindoos for flatulence is the old recipe of 
Susrutas, composed of equal parts of the following substances 
in powder : 

Leadwort root, root of Clssampelos Pareira, Picrorrhiza kur- 
roa, 1 Aconitwn heterophyllum, 1 and Terminalia Chebula in dose 
of 4 grams a day. 

Dr. Oswald has employed the alcoholic tincture of lead wort 
in the intermittents, with satisfactory results, and claims that 
it is a powerful diaphoretic. 2 The mashed root is mixed with 
rice flour and made into a caustic paste to apply to buboes, 
destroy warts, etc. Women also use the scraped root to induce 
abortion, introducing it through the vagina into the os uteri. 
This practice should be strongly condemned on account of its 
dangerous consequences metritis, peritonitis and often death. 

1 Do not grow in the Philippines. 

2 Waring, loc. cit, p. 170. 



156 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The chemical composition of the root has been studied by 
Dulong. 1 It includes a non-nitrogenous principle, plumbagin, 
existing in the form of orange-yellow needles, bitter, acrid, 
volatile, neutral, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in 
ether, alcohol and hot water. The aqueous solution becomes 
cherry-red on the addition of an alkali, which color is changed 
to yellow by acids. Basic acetate of lead causes the same color 
change. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Plant with stem declined, angu- 
lar. Leaves lanceolate, entire, rather downy. Petioles at their 
base embrace the stem. Flowers white, in axillary spikes. 
Individual involucres, 3 oval leaflets, the lower larger. Calyx 
long, cleft almost to the base in 5 lineal parts thickly set with 
small glands, exuding a sticky gum. Corolla salver-shaped, 
the tube long, square, throat bare, limb divided into 5 obovate 
parts, ending in stylets. Stamens 5, inserted near the base of 
the corolla, almost as long as the tube. Style a little shorter 
than the stamens. Stigma, 5 parts. One long seed enclosed 
within the calyx, pentangular, covered with a membranaceous 
skin. 

HABITAT. In Tanauan (Batangas). 

SAPOTACEJE. 

Sapodilla Family. 
Achras Sapota, L. 

NOM. VULG. Chico, Sp.-Fil.; Tsiku, Tag. 

TJ (SES . The chico is one of the popular fruits of the Philip- 
pines, much appreciated by Europeans as well as the natives. 
When not entirely ripe it yields a resinous juice that sticks to 
the lips and affords a disagreeable taste ; but when once thor- 
oughly ripe it has a slightly vinous, sweetish taste and is easily 
digested. Therapeutically its seeds are used as a diuretic, but 
'Journal de Pharmacie, Vol. XIV., p. 441. 



MIMUSOPS ELENGI 157 

large doses should be avoided as they contain a small propor- 
tion of hydrocyanic acid. The proper dose is 56 mashed 
seeds in sweetened water. They contain, in addition to the 
above, a fatty substance of the consistency of butter. 

The trunk bark is tonic and febrifuge ; Mr. Bernon l has 
isolated from it a crystalline alkaloid, sapotine, soluble in ether, 
chloroform or alcohol, but not in water ; a large per cent, of 
sapotanic acid and two resins. 

The trunk exudes, when incised, a milky resin, closely re- 
sembling guttapercha and possibly susceptible of the same uses. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Trees, about 11 high, with 
leaves lanceolate, keeled, entire, glabrous. Flowers pure 
white, solitary or by twos, terminal, very long peduncles. 
Calyx, 6 sepals, 3 within the others, inferior persistent. Cor- 
olla jug-shaped, the border divided into 12 parts, the 6 smaller 
ones alternating and within the others. Stamens 6, inserted 
near the border of the inner petals and opposite the outer 
circle. Filaments very short. Style long. Stigma obtuse, fruit 
globose, resembling a small pear, russet brown, crowned with 
the hardened style, more than 10 compartments, each contain- 
ing a seed. Seed oval, flattened, joined to a central fleshy axis. 

HABITAT. Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in 
April. 

Mimusops Elengi, L. 

NOM. VULG. Kabikly Tag. 

USES. Its flowers are fragrant and generally well known. 
The trunk bark is astringent, and in decoction is given by 
mouth for fevers and diarrhoea. Locally is used as an injection 
for blenorrhoea, as a gargle for sore throat or relaxed uvula, and 
a mouth wash to harden the gums. Horsfield states that the 
Javanese use it as a tonic and antiperiodic. In India an 
aqueous distillate is employed as a perfume and therapeutically 
as a stimulant. In Concan they chew the green fruit for tooth- 
'L' Union Pharm., Vol. XXIIL, p. 291. 



158 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

ache and to harden relaxed gums. The decoction of the green 
fruit serves the same purpose and besides is used to wash 
wounds and ulcers. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A large ornamental tree with 
leaves alternate, oblong, coriaceous, green. Flowers small, 
straw-colored, star-shaped, very fragrant. Calyx, 8 sepals. 
Corolla gamopetalous, 16 oblong, lanceolate divisions. Stamens 
8, free, short, alternating with 8 petaloid, conical, pubescent 
staminodia. Ovary free, many ovules. Fruit fleshy, oval, 
smooth, yellow when ripe, with one or several locules accord- 
ing to the number of matured seeds. Seeds solitary, oblong, 
flattened. 

HABITAT. Cultivated in the gardens. 

OLEACE^l. 

Olive Family. 
Jasminum Sambac, Aiton. (Nychtnthes Sambac, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Sampaga, Tag.; Sampaguitas, Sp.-Fil.; Ara- 
bian Jasmin, Eng. 

USES. The flower is the most popular and beloved of any 
in the Philippines (and is commonly referred to as the national 
flower). In decoction it is used as an eye-wash in catarrhal 
conjunctivitis. In India the flowers and the leaves have a 
merited reputation as a lactifuge ; 2 handfuls of flowers bruised 
and applied without moistening, once or twice a day, sometimes 
checks the secretion of the milk within 24 hours, but generally 
2 or 3 days are required for a complete effect. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Stems scarcely climbing, flat- 
tened, pubescent. Leaves opposite, cordate base, lanceolate- 
ovate, entire, glabrous. Flowers in small, close clusters, white, 
fragrant. Calyx-teeth 8-9, long and awl-shaped. Corolla, 
long tube, 7-8 rounded lobes. Stamens 2. Style 1 . Stigma 
cleft in 2 laminae. 



THEVETIA NERIFOLIA 159 

APOCYNACE^. 

Dogbane Family. 
Allamanda cathartica, L. 

NOM. VULG. Not known. 

USES. As this plant has no common name in the Philip- 
pines it is most probable that the natives do not use it. The 
Portuguese introduced it into India from Brazil. A decoction 
of the leaves is purgative and is used in lead colic. The milky 
juice of the plant is emetic and cathartic in large doses, but 
simply laxative when given in doses of 8 or 10 drops. On ac- 
count of its possible violent cathartic action great prudence 
should be exercised in prescribing it. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A twining shrub with leaves in 
fours, bright green, oblong, covered with rough hairs. Flow- 
ers in compound spikes, yellow. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 5- 
lobed, funnel-form. Stamens 5, inserted in throat of corolla, 
which above them is closed by a crown of hairs. Ovary 1- 
celled with 2 many-ovuled placentae. Style cylindrical, termi- 
nating in a bilobulate cone. Capsule globular, about the size 
of a pea, black, coriaceous, thorny, bivalvate. Seeds numer- 
ous, each encircled by a broad membranous wing. 

HABITAT. In Calauang and other parts of Luzon and 
Pa nay. 

Thevetia nerifolia, Suss. (Cerbera Thevetia, L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Campanelo, Sp.-Fil.; Exile or Yellow Olean- 
der, Eng. 

USES. This shrub is very common in gardens, well known 
by its pretty yellow, bell-shaped flowers. The trunk bark 
possesses antiperiodic properties first described by Descourtilz 
and confirmed later by Dr. G. Bidie and Dr. J. Short. Both 
the latter used the tincture in 10-15-drop doses 3 times a 



160 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

day. This tincture was prepared by macerating for one week 
in 150 grams of alcohol 30 grams of fresh bark finely divided. 
This preparation operates as an emetic and purgative in doses 
of 30-60 drops. -It is evident that the plant possesses very 
active, even poisonous properties and should be employed with 
great caution. The decoction of the bark is given as an emetic 
and cathartic, but very imprudently because there is no means 
of determining the quantity of active principle, shown by 
chemical analysis to be a dangerous product. 

The fruit is very bitter and acrid. The seeds yield by ex- 
pression 35 to 41% oil (De Yry) and 57% when treated with 
benzol. It has an agreeable odor resembling that of sweet 
almonds, its density is 0.9148 at 25 and it is perfectly clear 
and transparent at that temperature. At 15 it thickens and 
at 13 solidifies. According to Oudemans it consists of 63% 
triolein and 37 % tripalmin and tristearin ; it is not poisonous. 
After expression De Vry obtained from the caked residue 4% 
of a crystalline glucoside called by him t/icvetm. Bias, of the 
Academy of Medicine of Belgium, studied it later and de- 
scribed it as a white powder of small colorless scales, odorless, 
very bitter, soluble at 14 in 122 parts of water, in alcohol, in 
crystallizable acetic acid, insoluble in ether ; formula C 54 H 34 O 24 . 
Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it, producing a dark red 
color that changes to cherry red and then after several hours to 
violet. The color disappears if water be added. Boiled in acid 
solution the glucoside changes to a ' new substance, thev&resin 
(C 48 H 70 O 17 ), white, amorphous, slightly soluble in boiling water 
and in alcohol, insoluble in benzine or chloroform, soluble in 
alkalies, very bitter. Both substances are energetic narcotic 
poisons ; but the plant contains another even more powerful 
poison isolated by Warden, of Calcutta; it docs not form crys- 
tals, it is very bitter, freely soluble in water, and is turned 
yellow by sulphuric and nitric acids. 

Thevetin and theveresin exercise a marked toxic effect on the 



CERBERA ODALLAM 161 

heart. The former induces emetic and cathartic phenomena, 
trembling and progressive weakness. The latter does not cause 
vomiting or diarrhoea, but anaesthesia and rigidity of the limbs. 
Both poisons arrest the heart in systole. Injected hypoderm- 
ically they are irritant, are eliminated by the liver, but are not 
found in the urine. 

BOTANIC AT, DESCRIPTION. A shrub, about 10 high, with 
leaves nearly sessile, somewhat bunched at the ends of the 
branches and overlapping, lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers 
about 2' long. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla straw-colored, cylin- 
drical, very narrow below, but the limb very large, spreading 
into 5 lobes with greenish, superimposed borders. Stamens 5, 
inserted in the throat, anthers lanceolate. Ovaries 2, united at 
base, free above, unilocular. Style simple, enlarging at the 
base in a bilobed stigma. Fruit a fleshy drupe resembling 
somewhat a small apple, the pit very hard, semilunar, flattened, 
with 4 compartments and as many solitary seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in all gardens and on the seashore. 

Cerbera Odallam, Gaertn. (G. manglms, Bl. & Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Toktok-kalo, Tag. 

USES. The milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. 
The chemist De Vry has isolated from it a poisonous alkaloid 
analogous to " thevetin," which has just been considered. The 
seeds are likewise emetic and toxic. The Javanese call the 
fruit " bimaro " and affirm that it possesses the same properties 
as " datura." The bruised leaves are used locally for hepatic 
eruptions ; the bark is used for the same purpose and is pur- 
gative. 

The use of the plant is dangerous and is condemned by the 
Pharmacopoeia of India. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small shrub with forked 
branches. Leaves (overlapping) at ends of branches, lanceo- 
late, entire, glabrous. Flowers in umbellate spikes. Calyx, 5 
14 



162 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

caducous lobules. Corolla white, twisted, cylindrical, with 
salver-shaped limb divided in 5 rhomboid lobes, throat stellate 
and woolly. Stamens 5. Filaments joined to the corolla, their 
ends thickened. Anthers arrow-shaped. Ovary, 2 uniovulate 
locules. Style, same length as stamens. Stigma thick, conical, 
lobulate. Two drupes joined at the base (one usually aborted), 
brown, large, oval, fleshy, with woody fibrous nut of a single 
flattened seed. 

HABITAT. Luzon. Blooms in July. 

Plumeria acutifolia, Poir. (P. alba, Blanco.) 
NOM. YULG. Calachuche, Sp.-FiL; Kalatsutei, Kalasusi, Tag. 
USES. This tree, beloved for its fragrant flowers, has a wide 
therapeutic use in India and the Philippines. The bark is a 
bitter hydragogue cathartic and is given in decoction (5-10 
grams to 200 water) principally for dropsy ; however the milky 
juice of the trunk is preferable for this purpose, given in emul- 
sion in doses of 0.50-0.80 grams. The bark and the tips of 
the branches are given as an emmenagogue. 

The bark of the root and of the trunk is an excellent remedy 
for blenorrhagia. The fresh bark is thoroughly comminuted 
and mixed with sweetened water in the proportion of 60 grams 
to 4 liters ; this mixture is put in the sun for 4 days, and 
shaken from time to time. It is then strained and given in 
doses of 4-5 glassfuls a day, at the same time with refresh- 
ing and emollient drinks, and prolonged tepid baths. At first 
this preparation exerts a purgative action, but later acts upon 
the urinary organs, rapidly lessening the suppurative process in 
urethritis. The bark may also be associated with wine or beer, 
in the proportion of 30 grams to the liter, the dose being 2-4 
small cupfuls a day and Dr. Grosourdy employs the extract of 
the bark in doses aggregating 0.20-0.25 gram a day, gradu- 
ally increased till at the end of a week 6 grams are taken daily 
(Dr. J. Amadeo). 



ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS 163 

The bruised leaves are applied locally to contusions to re- 
duce the swelling. The juice is used externally as a rubefa- 
cient in rheumatic affections of the joints. In Concan they 
use a decoction of the root for diarrhea. The flower buds are 
chewed with buyo, for intermittent fever and the juice is ap- 
plied locally for itch. 

Peckolt and Geuther isolated from the bark the glucoside, 
agoniadin (C 10 H U O 6 ), which crystallizes in silky crystals fusible 
at 155, slightly soluble in water, alcohol, bisulphuret of car- 
bon, ether and benzine ; soluble in nitric or sulphuric acids. 
In solution it is a golden yellow soon changing to green. 
Boiled in a dilute acid it splits into glucose and an undeter- 
mined substance. Oudeman obtained plumieric acid (C 10 H 10 O 5 ) 
from the milky juice deprived of its resin ; the acid exists as 
microscopic, needle-like crystals, soluble in boiling water, alco- 
hol and ether. It melts and decomposes at 130. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 12-18 high, commonly 
cultivated for ornament, well known in the islands, almost 
constantly bearing fragrant flowers, but rarely bearing fruit. 
Branches forked and peculiarly stumpy at the ends. Leaves 
alternate, broad lanceolate, entire, glabrous, the apices curved 
downward. Petioles short. Flowers creamy white, light yel- 
low in the throat. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla twisted, funnel- 
form, 5-lobed. Stamens 5, hidden in depths of the tube. 
Anthers dart- or arrow-formed. Style very short, thickened 
above. Stigma 2-parted. Two horizontal, cylindrical and 
long follicles joined at their bases, with numerous seeds in hol- 
low receptacles, each seed encircled by a wing. 

Alstonia scholaris, Br. (Echites schokiris, L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Dita, Tag.; Dallopawen, Hoc.; Dita or 
Alstonia Tree, Eng. 

USES. The trunk bark is a febrifuge of great importance; 
it is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India and is widely used 



164 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

in the Philippines. Personally I have had occasion to use it 
in several cases of malarial fever in the town of San Mateo 
near Manila. It is astringent, anthelmintic and antiperiodic, 
highly useful in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, not only for 
its astringent effects but for its tonic and restorative action. 
As a tonic it gives as good results as quinine. The dry 
powdered bark is given internally in wafers of 20-30 centi- 
grams. The infusion is prepared from 15 grams of the dry 
comminuted bark to 300 of water. The dose is 30-60 grams 
2 or 3 times a day. 

Another convenient preparation is the tincture, 75 grams of 
the powdered bark macerated 7 days in 500 grams of alcohol, 
shaking from time to time. It is then filtered and enough 
alcohol added to make up the 500 cc. The dose is 4-8 grams 
a day. 

I have often used the following wine as a tonic for con- 
valescents and patients suffering from general debility : Finely 
powdered bark, 25 grams, muscatel or dry sherry one bottle ; 
macerate a week, shaking every day, and filter ; dose \ wine- 
glass with equal parts water a few minutes before each meal ; 
children or very weak patients should take it after eating ; it 
should always be diluted. 

G. Grupe, a Manila pharmacist, treating the bark in 1883 
by the same process as that used in the preparation of quinine, 
obtained a bitter substance which he named Ditaine. Accord- 
ing to Grupe Dr. Pina used this substance with great success 
in the treatment of malarial fevers, but neither Grupe' s report 
nor Pina's experiment are of any scientific value, inasmuch as 
they have neglected to mention the doses in which the so-called 
alkaloid was employed. Later analyses by Hesse and Jobst re- 
vealed several principles : two alkaloids ditamine (C 16 H 19 NO 2 ), 
soluble in ether ; Ditaine or Echitamine (C 22 H 28 NO 4 + H 2 O) 
insoluble in ether, soluble in water ; acetic acid and two amor- 
phous substances dextrogyrous in ethereal solution, one of them 



NERIUM ODORUM 165 

a resin, Echicauchina (C 25 H 40 O 2 ), the other neutral, Echiretin 
(C 3f) H 56 O 2 ) ; two crystal! izable principles, dextrogyrous : Echi- 
cerin (C 3() H 48 O 2 ), Echitein (C 42 H 70 O 2 ) and Echitin (C 32 H 52 O 2 ). 

Ditaine is employed under the same circumstances and in the 
same dose as quinine. (The Hindoo writer, K. L. Dey, states 
that the plant yields an inferior quality of gutta-percha.) 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 50 or more feet high, the 
trunk covered with small eminences resembling the scars of 
thorns. Branches radiating. Leaves radiating, 5, 6 or more, 
somewhat elliptical in form, pointed at the apex. Petioles very 
short, with a pointed glandule on the inner surface of the base. 
Flowers white, terminal, in umbellate racemes. Calyx very 
short, 5-toothed. Corolla twisted, tubular, the limb 5-lobuled ; 
throat open, encircled with down. Stamens 5, hidden within 
the throat and inserted on the tube. Filaments almost want- 
ing. Anthers arrow-shaped. Style as long as the stamens, 
somewhat flattened, a scarcely visible line throughout its length. 
Stigma bifid, placed above a cylindrical zone, two follicles, 1 
long and V thick, twisted like a string, containing the seeds in 
a row. Seeds cylindrical with a hairy awn at both ends. 

HABITAT. In the forests of Luzon, especially in Batangas. 
Blooms in April. 

Nerium odorum, Aiton. (N. oleander, L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Add/a, Sp.; Baladri, Tag.; Sweet-scented Ole- 
ander, Eng. 

USES. In the Philippines and in Spain this plant is well 
known to be poisonous. The bark and the leaves of both the 
red-flowered and white-flowered varieties are boiled in cocoanut 
oil and the product is used for inunction in itch and other skin 
diseases. The bruised root is a useful application for chancroids. 

We have stated that the plant is poisonous, and indeed it is 
actively so in the tropics. It is now recognized as an energetic 
cardiac poison, comparable with strophauthus, destined to play 



166 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

an important part in therapeutics. Dr. Pouloux has made a 
study of the hydro-alcoholic extract of oleander and reports 
that it exerts a marked effect on the heart of frogs and rabbits, 
arresting them in systole. Where there is asystolia, such as 
we encounter in Bright' s disease, without compensation, it 
stimulates the heart and increases the urine in the same manner 
as digitalis. No contraindications to its use are as yet known. 
It occasions no disagreeable symptoms and may be used many 
days consecutively provided that the daily dose does not exceed 
10-15 centigrams. 

The poisonous properties of the plant reside in two alkaloids 
isolated by Lukowsky from the leaves : oleandrine, extremely 
toxic and pseudo-curarine, as its name indicates, resembling 
curare in its action. Oleandrin is yellow, semicrystalline, sol- 
uble in water, alcohol, ether, chloroform and olive oil ; fusible 
at 70-75 and changing to a greenish oil. With HC1 it forms 
a crystalline salt. It is a violent irritant of the mucous mem- 
branes and given internally it causes emesis, diarrhoea, tetanic 
convulsions and death. It arrests the cardiac movements in 
doses of 25 milligrams. 

Loiseleur-Deslongchamps experimented with the drug on his 
own person, using a solution of 30 grams of the extract in 120 
grams of wine. He began by taking three drops of this prepara- 
tion four times a day, adding a drop to each dose every day, so 
that at the end of 12 days he was taking 48 drops between 6 a. 
m. and 9 p. m. He reached a maximum of 64 drops a day but 
was forced to abandon his experiment at that point on account 
of the unpleasant symptoms induced loss of appetite, great 
weakness and muscular pains. His deduction was that the 
plant contained a " destructive and irritant principle." The 
experiment is of interest as demonstrating the maximum dose 
of the drug. 

The active principles of the plant reside principally in the 
leaves and bark, but that they are abundantly present in other 



CALOTROPS GIGANTEA 167 

parts is proved by the death of several soldiers in Corsica from 
having eaten meat roasted on a spit of oleander wood. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, about 6 high. 
Leaves coriaceous, lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers in ter- 
minal cymes, rose-color or white, single or double. Calyx 5- 
parted. Corolla 1 5 petals, the inner ones larger, disposed in 3 
groups of 5. Stamens 10, fixed on receptacle ; filaments short. 
Style shorter than stamens. Two follicles, sharp-pointed, 
channeled, containing many imbricated seeds each with an 
awn. 

ASCLEPIADACE-E. 

Milkweed Family. 

Calotrops gigantea, R. Br. (Asdepias gigantea, Willd. and 

Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kapal-kapal, Tag.; Swallow-Wort, Eng.; 
MudaTj Indo-Eng. 

USES. This plant is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as 
an alterative, tonic, diaphoretic and emetic. J. J. Durant, hav- 
ing observed that the natives used it for dysentery, experi- 
mented with it quite successfully in that disease. For adults 
he gradually raised the dose from 1.10 to 4 grams, preferring 
smaller doses, however, for mild cases. To children he pre- 
scribed 5-10 centigrams for each year of age, 3 or 4 times a 
day. He remarked that the effects produced were identical 
with those of ipecac administered in Brazilian fashion. 

The part of the plant used is the dry root powdered. The 
usual dose is 1550 centigrams 3 times a day, gradually in- 
creased ; as an emetic 2-4 grams. 

The milky juice that escapes from the stem on the slightest 
abrasion is a drastic purgative, given commonly in dropsy, lum- 
bricoids, etc. Pledgets of cotton impregnated with the juice 
and packed in the cavities of carious teeth, relieve toothache. 



168 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

It is applied locally for various skin diseases, including syphi- 
litic ulcers, and as a depilatory. 

Some races of India, such as the Rajputs of the districts of 
Allahab and of Khangor, use this milk-juice to poison their 
female infants whom they are accustomed to regard as a vexa- 
tious burden. Therapeutically they use it with honey, locally 
for sore throat. 

The dry and powdered juice has been used in small doses as 
an alterative in the treatment of tuberculous leprosy, but it has 
not given results any better than many other drugs. In syphilis 
and mercurial cachexia its results are less doubtful. 

In 1881 Dr. Riddell obtained a sort of gutta-percha from the 
juice, previously observed by Professor Redwood. 

Mooden Sheriff states that the most active parts of the plant 
are the root bark and the dried juice. He adds that the action 
of the juice is irregular and even dangerous, and that the bark 
is active in direct proportion to its age. He recommends that 
the inert tuberous layer of the bark be removed ; prepared thus 
and powdered it is emetic in doses of 2.50-3 grams. 

Duncan claims to have isolated from the bark an active 
principle which he called mudarm from "mudar," the Indian 
name of the plant. Following the same process Fliickiger 
was unable to obtain the substance, but did isolate 1 J r /o of an 
acrid resin, soluble in ether and in alcohol ; a mucilage and a 
bitter principle decolorized by chloroform and ether. It is 
probable that this is the active principle of the " Calotropis 
gigantea." 

Warden and Waddell in 1881 isolated a substance crystalli- 
zable in nodular masses, with the formula C 17 H 28 O, analogous to 
the albana of gutta-percha. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, 7-8 high, with 
straight stem, branched and woody. Leaves sessile, opposite, 
cleft at the base, oval, fleshy and woolly. Flowers lateral in 
simple umbels of 3 or more flowerets. Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla 



TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA 169 

monopetalous, 5 acute lobes, white, of rare and beautiful form. 
Nectaries 5, united throughout their length with the receptacle, 
their bases curved like the sides of the fleur de lis. 

Above the nectaries is a 5-angled crown, the extremity of 
the receptacle ; in each angle a black anther. Two large folli- 
cles narrowed at the ends, woolly, the apex somewhat curved 
to one side, containing many imbricated seeds, each with a tuft 
of long hairs. 

HABITAT. Bauang, Taal and the volcanic island of Taal. 
Blossoms in April. 

Tylophora asthmatica, Wight, (Asdepias asthmatica, Roxb.) 

NOM. VULG. (?) 

USES. We are ignorant of the uses the Filipinos make of 
this plant. It is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India, the dry 
powdered leaf being the part employed, and its emetic, dia- 
phoretic and expectorant properties are well known in that 
country. Roxburgh has used the root as an emetic and Ander- 
son has employed it in the same manner as ipecac in dysentery. 
Later the experience of Anderson was confirmed by O'Shaugh- 
nessy ; though in place of the root he used the leaf, the prop- 
erties of which he regards as more certain and uniform. 

Dr. J. Kirkpatrick has noted that the juice of the root and 
its powder are used by the natives of Mysore as an emetic, 
and adds that he himself has used it for that purpose in a 
thousand cases with good results. In its effect on dysentery 
as well as in its emetic effect it resembles ipecacuanha. He 
used the powder in doses of 1.20-1.80 gr., to which he 
added 3-6 centigrams of tartar emetic when lie desired to 
obtain an energetic emetic action. Like O'Shaughnessy he 
prefers the powdered leaves. He considers it a good sub- 
stitute for ipecac, not only as an emetic, but as a remedy in 
asthma, dysentery and catarrhal affections ; Drs. Oswald and 
Mooden Sheriff have made the same observations. The latter 



170 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

advises the administration of the juice of the plant for snake 
bites till vomiting is produced ; then follow with diffusible 
stimulants. 

The emetic dose of the powdered leaves is 1.20-1.80 grams, 
the expectorant and diaphoretic dose 10-30 centigrams. The 
concentrated infusion of the leaves has an acrid taste. Tannic 
acid, the neutral acetate of lead and caustic potash produce with 
it an abundant precipitate ; the perchloride of iron colors it a 
dark green. Broughton, of Ootaemund (India), informed Han- 
bury and Fliickiger, from whom we quote, that in 1872 he 
obtained a very small quantity of crystals from a large quan- 
tity of leaves. He had not enough to make an analysis, but 
injected a solution of the crystals into a dog with resulting 
vomiting and diarrhoea. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vigorous plant with scandent 
stem 2-4 meters long, the more recent growth woolly. Leaves 
opposite, entire, 5-12 centimeters long and 2-6 broad, oval or 
rounded. Petiole striated and short. Flowers in umbelliferous 
cymes, compound, axillary, solitary and alternate, with woolly 
peduncles ; hermaphrodite, regular, small, of a pale green color 
inside and a light purple outside. Calyx gamosepalous, with 5 
lobules. Corolla gamopetalous, 5 oval, twisted lobules. Stam- 
inal crown composed of 5 fleshy scales, joined to the staminal 
tube. Stamens 5, inserted on the throat of the corolla, fila- 
ments joined to form a very short tube with anthers straight, 
short and crowned by a membranous bilocular appendix. 
The gynoecium consists of 2 unilocular ovaries each containing 
an indefinite number of ovules. Style with a pentagonal 
stigma which bears in each angle a glandular body. Fruits 
compound with two separate follicles, large, lanceolate, smooth, 
810 centimeters long and 5 in circumference. Each encloses 
a seed, hairy, albuminous with straight embryo and flattened 
cotyledons. 

HABITAT. Mountains of San Mateo. 



STRYCHNOS IGNATII 171 

LOGANIACEJE. 

Logania Family. 

Strychnos Ignatii, Berg. (8. Philippensis, Blanco; Ignatia 
amara, L.; Ignatia Philippinea, Lour.) 

NOM. VULG. Pepita Fruta, Sp.-Fil.; Pepita sa katbalogan, 
Kabalogan, Tag., Pam.; Pangaguason, Aguason, Kanlara, 
Mananaog, Dankagi, Kataloga, Igasud, Vis.; St. Ignatius Bean, 
Eng. 

USES. The part of the plant employed is the seed, known 
in addition to the above common names as Pepita de San 
Ignacio and Pepita de Cabalonga (for katbologan). The na- 
tives handle it with the greatest imprudence, selling everywhere 
in the markets and in the Chinese shops, called tindag-bayag. It 
is not only a remedy among them, but a sort of panacea, to 
which they attribute, among other virtues, that of expelling 
evil spirits, simply worn about the neck. They grate it with a 
piece of earthen pot, mix with a little " tuba " vinegar and 
apply it to the temples for headache. In bites of poisonous 
animals they advise the application of the powdered seed over 
the wound, a treatment which instead of being beneficent 
might easily be harmful to the patient. Before proceeding 
further, let us give the chemical composition of the seeds in 
order that their uses may be the better understood. 

Strychnine is found in them in the proportion of J IJ^J and 
bnicine ffiIAfi. Fliickiger and Han bury by drying it over 
sulphuric acid and burning it with " cal sodica " obtained 1.7 8/0 
of nitrogen which represents 10^> of albuminoid material. 
Strychnine and brucine exist in combination with igasuric acid 
discovered by Ludwig in 1873. The proportion of both the 
alkaloids is greater than in the seeds of nux vomica which 
contain only .25-.50J6 strychnine and .12-.05^ brucin, al- 
though some authors give it as high as 1.01J&. Strychnine can 
be obtained more readily and in larger proportions from St. 



172 THE .MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Ignatius bean, but it is generally obtained from mix vomica 
seeds on account of the cheapness of the latter. 

It is more energetic than mix vomica and its use in medicine 
should be condemned, preference, however, being given to the 
official preparations among which the best known is that com- 
monly called "Bitter Drops of Beaurne," of which the follow- 
ing is the composition : 

Grated St. Ignatius' beans ........... 500 grams. 

Potassium carbonate ................ 5 " 

Soot(?) .......................... 1 " 

alcohol ...................... 1,000 " 



Macerate for 10 days, strain, express and filter. Dose, 1-16 
drops in a little water or wine before each meal, for dyspepsia, 
anaemia, convalescence from fevers, and other conditions in 
which a tonic is indicated. The indications for the use of this 
drug are the same as those for uux vomica, keeping in mind 
the difference in dose. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. This plant grows in the deep 
forests of Samar and Masbate. That industrious and distin- 
guished botanist, D. Regino Garcia, found it growing abun- 
dantly in Paranas, Island of Samar. It is a robust vine, the 
trunk sometimes as thick as a man's thigh, climbing to the tops 
of the highest trees, apparently without preference as to its host, 
inasmuch as he saw it growing indifferently on Ficus, D'lpicro- 
carpti*, L/7.sY/ea, etc. The seed which most interests us and is 
very common, is about the size of an olive, round and convex 
on one side, angulose and flattened on the other by being com- 
pressed with many others within the fruit which contains 50 of 
them. Its surface is blackish with a gray-blue tinge. It is 
hard and corneous. Its taste is extremely bitter. 

Branches opposite, smooth, the ends square. Leaves oppo- 
site, oval, much pointed at the apex, entire, glabrous, with 3 
prominent nerves. Petioles very short. Flowers in panicles 



EHRETIA BUXIFOLIA 173 

of many flowerets. Calyx inferior, 5-cleft, very short. Corolla 
6-7 times longer than the calyx, funnel-form, 5-lobed. Anthers 
5, sessile, fixed in the throat of the corolla. Ovary very small. 
Style filiform, same length as the stamens. Stigma truncate 
and thick. Drupe globose, often oval, large, smooth, with 
thick, woody shell of a single compartment containing seeds as 
described above. 

BORAGINACEJE. 

Borage Family. 
Ehretia buxifolia, Roxb. (Carmonea heterophylla, Blanco.) 

NOM. VuLCr. Mayitj Alayityit, Tag., Vis. 

USES. The leaves dried in the shade are used in some 
Visayan towns, in infusion to take the place of tea. The root 
is used by the Hindoo physicians as an alterative. Dr. R. 
Ross has employed it for that purpose in a decoction of 60 
grams to 500 cc. of water ; 60 cc. a day of this preparation 
gave him good results in secondary and constitutional syphilis. 
The Mohammedans of India consider the root an antidote for 
vegetable poisons. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Small tree, 5-6 high, trunk 
straight. Leaves alternate or bunched in 3 7 s or 4 7 s at the 
nodes, lanceolate or spatulate, 3-toothed at apex, sometimes 
serrate toward the apex, set with short, stiff hairs. Petioles 
very short. Flowers axillary, in racemose panicles of a few 
flowers each. Common peduncle long, pedicel short. Calyx 
free, bell-shaped, persistent, divided almost to base into 5 nar- 
row, downy parts. Corolla bell-shaped, 5 oval lobules. Sta- 
mens 5. Ovary oval, within the flower. Style bifid. Stig- 
mas simple, truncate. Drupe globose, with hard, slightly 
furrowed putamen of 6 locules and solitary seeds. 

HABITAT. Malinta and many other parts of the Visayas. 
Blooms in January. 



174 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

CONVOLVULACEJE. 

Convolvulus Family. 

Ipomcea hederacea, Jacq. (I. nil, Roth.; Convolvulus nil, 
L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Bulakan, Tag.; Kcda-Danah, Indo-Eng. 

USES. This plant is not used as a medicine by the Fili- 
pinos, but is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India from which 
we copy its indications and official preparations. 

The seed is the part employed, its cathartic properties being 
much like those of jalap, though less energetic. An excellent 
substitute for th'e latter is 2 or 3 grams of Jcala-danah seeds in 
powder form, and no unpleasant effects attend its operation. 

The official preparations are : 

EXTRACT OF KALADANA. Dose, 30-60 centigrams in pill. 

Powdered seeds 500 grams. 

Alcohol 2 liters. 

Water 4J 

TINCTURE OF KALADANA. Dose, 8-12 grams. 

Seeds 75 grams. 

Alcohol 500 " 

COMPOUND POWDER OF KALADANA. Dose, 3-3 J grams. 

Powdered seeds 150 grams. 

Acid tartrate of potassium 270 " 

Powdered ginger 30 a 

The last is an excellent substitute for the corresponding prep- 
aration of jalap. 

RESIN OF KALADANA. Dose, 30-50 centigrams. It is 
prepared like resin of jalap and is a safe and sure purgative. 
In mass it has a dark color, but is gray when powdered. The 
odor is rather unpleasant, the taste sweetish and then acrid, 
nauseous, persistent, exciting the saliva and irritating the 
fauces. It was introduced into practice by Dr. G. Vidie. 



IPOMCEA PES-CAPRJS 175 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A twiner with round, downy 
stem. Leaves heart-shaped, 3-lobed, the middle one broad- 
Tanceolate, the lateral ones rather rectangular with petioles of 
equal length with the leaves. Flowers large, rose color or pale 
blue, in axillary cymes of 2 or 3 flowers each. Calyx, 5 long, 
downy parts. Corolla bell-shaped, 5 faint lobes. Stamens 5, 
free, inserted in the corolla. Ovary free, 3 biovulate locules. 
Style simple. Stigma trilobed. Seed vessels globose with 3 
locules each containing 2 seeds. Seeds convex on dorsum, J 
cm. broad by 1 cm. long, testa black. 

HABITAT. Manila. Blooms in August. 

Ipomoea pes-caprae, Roth. (Convolvulus pes-caprce 
L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Katagkatag, Lagayray, Lampayog, Bagasoa, 
Kamigag, Daripay, Tagaray, Arodayday, Lambayog, Tag., 
Vis.; Lambayog, Hoc. 

USES. The dry, powdered leaves are dusted over bruises 
and ulcers. The entire plant is very mucilaginous and the 
bruised fresh leaves are applied like poultices to cancers and 
ulcerating tumors. In India the boiled leaves are applied lo- 
cally in colic and in rheumatism ; the juice is given internally in 
dropsy as a diuretic, the pounded leaves at the same time serv- 
ing as a poultice to the oedematous parts. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant that creeps extensively, 
the stem taking root. Leaves with 2 well-marked lobules. 
Flowers rose-lilac color, in axillary panicles with long pedicels. 
Corolla very large, bell-shaped, the limb 5-angled and 5-nerved. 
Stamens 5, unequal in height. Stigma globose, marked by a 
line ; later it divides in two. Seed vessel ovate, 2-celled, in 
each cell 2 downy seeds convex on one side, angular on the 
other. 

HABITAT. Very common on the seashore. Blooms in Jan- 
uary. 



176 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Ipomoea Turpethum, R. Br. (Convolvulus Turpethum, L.; 
C. maximus, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Albohol, Sp.; Turpelh Root, Indian Jalap, Eng. 

USES. The root, known in the Philippines as " turbita," is 
a purgative and is a component part of the tincture of jalap, 
one of the most positive and active of known cathartics. But 
turpeth root is seldom used alone, for its action is so uncertain 
that Sir W. O'Shaughnessy pronounced the plant unworthy of 
a place in the Pharmacopoeia of India. The dose of the pow- 
der is 1-4 grams, the resin 40-50 cgms., the decoction of the 
root 412 grams. The active principle is a resin soluble in 
ether and a glucoside, turpetkin, C 34 H 56 O 16 . 

In the east of India they make offerings of the flowers to the 
god Shiva, and also put them to more practical use by apply- 
ing them to the head for neuralgic headache. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A vine with quadrangular 
stem. Leaves heart-shaped. Flowers axillary, numerous, in 
umbels. Calyx deeply cleft in 5 imbricated, ovate, fleshy 
parts. Corolla bell-shaped, folded. Stamens - r ) ? unequal in 
height. Ovary inserted on an hypogynous disk, with 2 
biovulate compartments. Style same length as stamens. 
Stigma bilobulate, globose. Seed vessel square, encircled by 
calyx, 2 locules each with 2 seeds. 

HABITAT. Common in Bauang and Pasig. Blooms in 
November. 

SOL AN ACE 1. 

Nightshade Family. 

Solanum nigrum, L. 

NOM. VULO. Hicrba mora, Sp.; Konti/, Out//, Gamagamati- 
*(ti), Tag.; Lagpakon, l>ola(jtob, LubUubi, Vis.; J\i<ty, .Lnbilubi, 
Bic.; Black or Common Ni<jli1xh(i<le, Eng. 

USES. In the Philippines the entire plant is boiled and 
used for food, with the precaution of pouring off the first 2 or 



CAPSICUM FASTIGIATUM 177 

3 waters in which it is cooked, which contain an active princi- 
ple capable of causing such disagreeable symptoms as vertigo 
and nausea. A decoction of the leaves serves to cleanse 
chronic sores and in fact improves their condition ; it is also 
used as a lotion for various forms of dermatitis, for erysipelas 
and old burns. 

The plant is narcotic, antispasmodic and like belladonna it 
dilates the pupil. 

In India the decoction is given internally, 200-250 grams, 
for hypertrophy of the liver, and it is considered a good diuretic 
and alterative. For such uses they heat the above dose in a 
clay vessel till the color changes from green to brown, when 
it is cooled and given next day. Its action is diuretic and 
hydragogue-cathartic. Mooden Sheriff recommends this treat- 
ment highly, and for dropsy further advises the aqueous extract, 
12 grams during the day divided into 3 or 4 doses. Small 
doses of 30-60 grams of the decoction prepared as above de- 
scribed, are of use in some chronic skin diseases such as psori- 
asis. 

In 1821 Defosses, of Besanon, obtained sola/nine from the 
fruit, previously isolated from the 8. Dulcamara. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 2 high, stem 
straight, 3 4-angled, with white dots. Leaves lanceolate. 
Flowers white, in 2-ranked racemes. Calyx inferior, 5 per- 
sistent teeth. Corolla, 5 petals somewhat down-curved. Berry 
small, black when ripe. 

HABITAT. Universally common. Blooms in January. 

Capsicum fastigiatum, Bl. (C. minimum, Roxb.) 

NOM. VULG. Chili picante, Sp.-Fil. ; Sili, Tag. ; Capsicum* 

Red Pepper, etc., Eng. 

USES. The fruit of this species of pepper plant is called 
agi in Cuba and Porto Rico ; it is in common use as a condi- 
ment in the Philippines. As a tonic and stimulant it is a 
15 



178 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

useful article of food in hot countries where the digestive func- 
tions become sluggish. Used in moderation it prevents dyspep- 
sia and consequent diarrhoea. It is used as a gargle for hoarse- 
ness, decreasing the congestion of the larynx and vocal cords. 

GARGLE. 

Tincture of capsicum 8 grams. 

Water 160 " 

Mix. 

Recently capsicum in powder, extract, or tincture, has been 
recommended internally in the treatment of incipient hemor- 
rhoids. The dose is .50 to 3 grams of the powder in pills or 
capsules ; watery extract, 0.30-0.60 ; tincture, 10-30 drops. 

The C. annuum, L., and other varieties of red pepper serve 
the same uses as the above. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Stem 4-angled. Leaves oppo- 
site, ovate-lanceolate, entire. Petioles short. Flowers green- 
ish-white in little clusters, drooping. Corolla wheel-shaped. 
Fruit straight, conical, slender, scarcely V long. 

HABITAT. Universally common in the islands. Blooms at 
all times. 

Datura alba, Nees. (D. Mdd, Roxb. and Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Talamponay, Tag., Pam.; Takbibug, Vis.; 
Dhatura, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The applications of this species are identical with 
those of D. Stramonium and it is official in the Pharmacopoeia 
of India. It is antispasmodic, narcotic and toxic, and is used 
quite commonly with criminal intent in India and Indo-China. 
The cooked and bruised leaves make an efficient poultice in 
articular rheumatism. 

The symptoms of poisoning by " dhattira" are : dilatation of 
the pupil, general malaise, dryness of the fauces and skin, hal- 
lucinations, rapid pulse, coma and death or permanent mania. 



DATURA ALBA 179 

The dry leaf is smoked to abort asthma, and though its ac- 
tion is uncertain, it is one of the many remedies that should be 
tried, which though ineffective in one case may in another af- 
ford positive relief in this distressing disease. Not more than 
1.50 grams should be smoked in one day and their use should 
be discontinued if any symptom of intoxication supervenes. The 
Pharmacopoeia of India contains a tincture made from 75 grams 
of the ground seeds and 500 grams of alcohol. Dr. Waring 
states that 20 drops of this tincture are equivalent to 6 centi- 
grams of opium and that in some cases it has given him better 
narcotic results than the opium. The extract is made from 
500 grams of the powdered seeds, 500 cc. ether, 500 cc. al- 
cohol and 500 cc. water. Dose, 5-20 centigrams a day in 4 
doses. 

The D. fastuosa, L., known in Manila by the common name 
of Talamponay na itim, Tag., possesses the same properties as 
the above. The Filipino physician, Sr. Zamora, successfully 
employed a poultice of bruised leaves cooked in vinegar and ap- 
plied to the forehead and backs of the hands to reduce the fever 
of tuberculous patients. 

Neither the leaves nor seeds of these two varieties of Datura 
have been studied from a chemical standpoint, but there is little 
doubt that the active principle is the daturine (atropine and 
hyoscyamine) that exists so abundantly in D. Stramonium. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Plant 5-6 high, with nodose 
branches, forked. Leaves ovate, angled, somewhat downy. 
Flowers large, white, axillary, solitary. Calyx tubular, 5- 
toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, the limb 5-angled and 5-folded. 
Stamens 5, same length as calyx. Anthers long, flattened. 
Stigma thick, oblong, divisible in 2 leaves. Seed vessel globose, 
thorny, 4-valved over the base of the calyx. Seeds numerous, 
flattened, kidney-shaped. (Resembles closely the common 
Jamestown Weed of America, though much taller with much 
larger flowers.) 



180 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

HABITAT. Common on the shores of the sea. The D. f<txht- 
osa is differentiated by its violet flowers and double corolla. 

Nicotiana Tabacum, L. 

NOM. VULG. Tabaco, Sp.; Tobacco, Eng. 

USES. Tobacco is a powerful sedative and antispasmodic, 
but owing to the accidents it may give rise to, its use in thera- 
peutics is very limited. Like all the active SolanaceaB it is 
effective against neuralgia and spasm of the muscular tissues 
and is therefore indicated in strangulated hernia and in intes- 
tinal obstruction. In these conditions the infusion of 1-5 
grams of the dried leaf to 250 grams of water is given by enema. 
Trousseau advises non-smokers who suffer from chronic consti- 
pation to smoke a cigarette fasting, a practice which, according 
to him, stimulates defecation. For the same condition the 
people of southern India are accustomed to apply a poultice of 
the bruised leaves to the anal region. 

Tobacco has been used by enema to combat tetanus ; Dr. 
Lesth, of the General Hospital for Europeans, Bombay, claims 
to have obtained excellent results by applying a poultice over 
the entire length of the spinal column. Dr. Dymock has con- 
firmed this practice. 

A decoction of the leaves is used as a lotion to destroy 
" pediculi capitis and pubis," and to wash gangrenous ulcers. 

The daily increasing practice of smoking, like all other sub- 
jects, divides mankind into two camps, one for and one against 
the habit. Both parties exaggerate their arguments. The 
abuse of the plant without doubt sets up disturbances of the 
digestion, the heart and the nervous system. It is furthermore 
positive that persons of a certain disposition and with certain 
ailments are injured by even a moderate use of tobacco. The 
above facts serve as arms for the opponents of the habit ; the 
robust who smoke and drink to excess and meet with an acci- 
dental death on a railroad or from an acute disease that over- 



NICOTIANA TABACTJM 181 

takes them in the midst of perfect health, serve as arguments 
for the defenders, to prove the innocence of the custom. The 
antiseptic qualities of the smoke and of the entire plant also 
lend the smoker a defensive argument, as he may uphold the 
habit as hygienic and highly useful in preventing microbic in- 
fection. The antiseptic power of tobacco smoke is undoubted, 
but it is intolerable that a physician under the pretext of avoid- 
ing self infection should enter the house of his patient and con- 
tinue smoking at the bedside. 

Chronic nicotine poisoning is the result of a gradual intoxi- 
cation by the absorption of the active principle of tobacco, the 
alkaloid nicotine. Excessive smoking conduces to nicotism, 
more common in Europe than in the tropics, because the na- 
tives of Europe smoke the pipe and being confined in closed 
dwellings, breathe continuously an atmosphere of smoke ; in 
the Philippines, on the contrary, the pipe is almost unknown 
and owing to the nature of the dwellings the smoking is car- 
ried on practically in the open air. An injurious practice of 
the Filipino smokers is that of " swallowing the smoke," and 
this is a fitting point to call attention to an error of Dujardin- 
Beaumetz, who states that " in those who habitually swallow 
the smoke the nicotine acts directly upon the stomach." The 
expression " swallow smoke " (tragar el humo) does not mean 
to force it into the stomach by an act of deglutition, and I am 
sure no one attempts to dispose of it in that way ; but to in- 
spire or breath it into the air passages. It is evident that this 
latter habit does not involve the stomach, but those who prac- 
tice it expose themselves more to nicotism than those who keep 
the smoke in the mouth or expel it through the nose. 

The first cigar causes symptoms familiar to nearly everybody ; 
dizziness, malaise, cold sweat, vomiting, diarrhrea, dilatation 
of the pupils and rapid heart action an acute intoxication. 
Chronic intoxication or nicotism manifests itself by disturbances 
of digestion, vision and especially circulation. It has been as- 



182 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

signed as one of the causes of early atheroma and of angina 
pectoris. It should therefore be proscribed in persons who 
present symptoms of gastro-intestinal or of heart disease, and 
in every patient who complains of slight precordial pains, com- 
monly attributed to flatus, but in reality cardiac neuralgia, a 
fugitive symptom announcing the possibility of that grave acci- 
dent, angina pectoris, capable of ending the life of the patient 
with one stroke. 

Nicotine (C 10 H 14 "N" 2 ) is an oleaginous liquid heavier than 
water, colorless, changing to dark yellow on contact with the 
air. Nicotianin or " camphor of tobacco " is another sub- 
stance found in the leaves, crystalline, tasteless, with an odor 
resembling tobacco. Nicotinic acid is a product of the combus- 
tion of nicotine. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The tobacco plant is so familiar 
to all Americans that its description here would be superfluous. 
It grows in all parts of the islands, the best qualities being 
cultivated in the northern provinces of Luzon, especially Caga- 
yan and La Isabela. 

SCROPHULARIACEJE. 

Figwort Family. 
Limnophila menthastrum, Benth. (Tala odomta, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Tala, Taramhampam, Tag.; Tahitala, Pam.; 
Taratara, Hoc. 

USES. An infusion of the leaves is given as a diuretic and 
digestive tonic. The plant is aromatic. It is seldom used, but 
is given for the same troubles and in the same doses as chamo- 
mile and Eupatorium Ayapana. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 1 high, with leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, ovate, serrate, hairy, many small pits on 
the lower face. Flowers rose color, solitary, sessile. Calyx, 
5 sharp teeth. Corolla tubular, curved, compressed, downy 



OROXYLUM INDICUM 183 

within, limb cleft in 4 unequal lobes. Stamens didynamous. 
Ovary conical. Style shorter than the stamens. Stigma 3- 
lobuled. Seed vessel, 2 multiovulate chambers. 
HABITAT. Known universally. Blooms in June. 

BIGNONIACE.ffi. 

Bignonia Family. 

Oroxylum Indicum, Vent. (Bignonia Indica, L.; E. quadri- 
pinnata, Blanco ; Colosanthes Indica, Bl.) 

NOM. YULG. Pinkapinkahan, Pinkapinka, Taghilaw, Abag- 
abag, Tag.; Abagabag, Vis. 

USES. The Hindoos consider the trunk bark an astringent 
and tonic and use it commonly in diarrhoea and dysentery. In 
Bombay it has a wide use in veterinary practice as an applica- 
tion for the sore backs of the domestic cattle. Sarangadhara 
recommends for diarrhoea and dysentery the infusion of the 
roasted bark mixed with infusion of Bombax malabaricum. 

Dr. Evers experimented with the powder and an infusion of 
the bark obtaining a strong diaphoretic action. He obtained 
the same effect with baths containing the bark and reported 
successful results in thus treating 24 cases of rheumatism. 
The dose of the powder was 0.301 gram a day in 3 doses ; 
the infusion (30 grams bark to 300 boiling water), 90 grams a 
day in 3 doses. Combined with opium it had more pronounced 
diaphoretic effects than the compounds of opium and ipecac. 
The plant possesses no febrifuge properties. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 5-6 meters high, trunk 
straight, hollow, the hollow space containing many thin parti- 
tions covered with small points ; branches opposite. Leaves 4 
times odd pinnate. Leaflets obliquely ovate, acute, entire, 
glabrous. Flowers in racemes with long, primary peduncles, 
large, fleshy, lurid, violet color, odor mawkish. Calyx inferior, 
cylindrical, monophyllous, entire. Corolla much longer than 



184 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

calyx, fleshy, bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 5, all fertile, fixed 
on the corolla, nearly equal in height. Style longer than 
stamens, flattened. Stigma cleft in 2 flat leaves. Silique or 
pod about 3 long and 2' wide, flattened, borders grooved and 
curved downward, containing a great number of seeds encircled 
by a broad, flat, imbricated wing. 

HABITAT. Common in many parts of Luzon, in Mindanao, 
Cebu and Paragua. 

PEDALIACEJE. 

Pedalium Family. 
Sesamum Indicum, L. 

NOM. VULG. Ajonjoli, Sp.; Liyu, Tag.; Loyd, Vis.; Lciyis, 
Pam.; Sesame, Indo-Eng. (Benne Oil, Til Oil, Jinjili Oil.) 

USES. The leaves are emollient and in the Philippines, 
India and the Southern States of North America they are com- 
monly used to make poultices, as a substitute for linseed. 

The decoction is prescribed internally as an emmenagogue 
and demulcent and externally as a lotion. It has the reputa- 
tion of stimulating the growth of the hair and is used for this 
purpose quite commonly by the women of India. 

The seeds are emollient, laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue ; 
they contain an oil to which we shall refer presently. In some 
countries they form an article of diet ; in the Philippines they 
are much used as a condiment. Waring reports good results 
in amenorrhoea, adding a handful of the bruised seeds to a hot 
sitz-bath. Two or 3 dessert-spoonfuls of the seeds eaten fast- 
ing and washed down with a glass of water, are very efficient 
in chronic constipation, both by their mechanical effect and the 
oil they contain ; being non-irritant they are especially indi- 
cated in cases of constipation with hemorrhoids. 

The seeds contain up to 45J6 of oil known in the Philippines 
under the name of lana, an Ilocano word meaning " oil." It 



ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS 185 

is bright yellow, viscid, does not easily become rancid and is 
used for illuminating purposes in some Philippine provinces. 
In Japan and among the poor of India it serves as a food ; in 
the latter country it is also very commonly used as a cosmetic, 
perfumed with various essences and used to anoint the hair and 
the body after the bath. In America it is given in place of 
castor oil in doses of 30-60 grams. In pharmacy it may be 
properly substituted for olive oil, especially in Linimentum 
Calcis prepared for burns. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2-4 high, stem 
straight, square, grooved. Leaves trifoliate. Leaflets lanceo- 
late, serrate, slightly downy. Common petiole long ; secondary 
petiole very short. Flowers pinkish white, in spikes, each 
flower bearing 2 small glands. Calyx with 2 bracts at the 
base, top-shaped, monophyllous, 5 lanceolate teeth. Corolla 
large, 5-lobed, bell-shaped, expanded in the middle where it is 
spattered with small spots. Stamens didynamous. Anthers long. 
Ovary downy, quadrangular. Style same length as stamens. 
Stigma bifid. Seed vessel quadrangular, elongated, 4 opposite 
grooves, 4 chambers each containing many small ovoid seeds. 

HABITAT. Universal. Blooms in October. 

ACANTHACEJE. 

Acanthus Family. 
Acanthus ilicifolius, L. 

NOM. VULG. Diliwariw, Dolo-ariw, Tiglog, Lagiwlagiw, 
Tag.; TitiWy Vis.; Dulawari, Pam. 

USES. We are not familiar with the medicinal uses of this 
plant in the Philippines, but believe that its sole use is in the 
soap-making industry ; the ash of the plant is rich in soda and 
potash salts and lye is prepared from it. 

In Goa the leaves, rich in mucilage, are used locally in 
fomentations for rheumatism and neuralgia. Rheede mentions 
16 



186 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

as useful the application of the bruised sprouts to snake bites. 
Bontius attributes expectorant properties to the plant. The 
natives of Siam and Cochin China use it as a cordial and as a 
medicine for paralysis and asthma. 

In Concan the sweetened decoction of the plant with a little 
cumin seed is given for dyspepsia with pyrosis. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 3 high, stem 
straight, beset with sharp eminences. Leaves opposite, mem- 
branaceous, lanceolate, pinnatifid, large teeth ending in prick- 
les. Petioles very short, 2 thorns at the base. Flowers pur- 
plish white in spikes. Calyx double ; the outer one of 2 parts, 
the inner 4. Corolla bell-shaped, lower lip broad, keeled, 
fleshy, notched above. Upper lip wanting, a notch in its 
place. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary superior, conical. 
Style of equal length with stamens. Stigma bifid. Seed ves- 
sels 2-celled, each cell with 2 heart-shaped, flattened, rough seeds. 

HABITAT. Very common in regions inundated by salt 
water. 

Barleria Prionitis, L. (Barrdiera Prionitis, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kokoymanok, Kulanta, Tag. 

USES. This plant is not used medicinally in the Philip- 
pines. The natives of Bombay are accustomed to use its juice 
to anoint the soles of their feet during the rainy season in 
order to toughen the skin and prevent fissures due to prolonged 
maceration. 

The leaf juice is bitter and acid ; it is a favorite with the na- 
tives of India in the treatment of the catarrhal fevers common 
among their children, administered in doses of 2 tablespoonfuls 
a day mixed with sweetened water. 

In Concan the dry bark is given for whooping-cough and the 
juice of the fresh bark in doses of 2 " tolas " (7.60 grams) for 
anasarca. Dr. Bidie states that the action is diaphoretic and 
expectorant. 



JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA 187 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2-3 high, stem creep- 
ing, the ends rising ; enlarged at the joints, glabrous. Leaves 
smooth, opposite, lanceolate, finely serrate, fringed, somewhat 
downy below, glabrous above. Petioles short, 4 axillary spines. 
Flowers straw-color, axillary, sessile, solitary. Calyx deeply 
cleft in 4 parts, ovate, ending in spines. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
tube short, throat nude, limb 5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
Ovary 2-celled. Style same length as stamens. Seed-vessel 
ovate, flattened and sharp-pointed, 2-celled, each cell with a flat, 
heart-shaped seed. 

HABITAT. In Guadalupe, Mandaloyon and San Juan del 
Monte. Blooms in April. 



Justicia Gendarussa, L. (Gandarussa vulgaris, Nees.; Dian- 
thera subserrata, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kapanitulotj Tag.; Bunlaw, Vis. 

USES. In the Philippines this plant has the same applica- 
tions as the Lagundi or Vitex, soon to be described. In India 
they give a decoction of the leaves for chronic rheumatism, 
the action probably being diaphoretic. The juice is employed 
for the coughs of childhood and externally as a resolvent 
for enlarged cervical glands. The bark of the young branches 
has a purplish color ; in Java it is considered a good 
emetic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub 5-6 high, stem straight, 
branches smooth, obscurely 4-angled. Stems and leaves violet 
color, emitting a disagreeable odor (Blanco). Leaves opposite, 
lanceolate, acute, glabrous, obtusely serrate. Flowers terminal, 
white-green, in racemes of 3 sessile flowers with lanceolate 
bracts. Calyx, 5 long teeth. Corolla, short tube, 2-lipped, 
upper lip notched, lower lip broad with palate, ending in 3 
lobules. Seed vessel with 4 seeds in its lower part. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Mindanao, Panay. 



188 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Adhatoda vasica, Nees. (Jmticia Adhatoda, L.) 

NOM. YULG. (?) 

USES. The Filipinos are but slightly familiar with this 
plant and it has no place in their therapeutical armamentarium. 
In India, however, it is very common and enjoys much repu- 
tation in the treatment of catarrhs, the grip, asthma and non- 
febrile, especially chronic, bronchial affections. The flowers, 
leaves and roots, but especially the flowers, possess antispas- 
modic properties and are prescribed in certain forms of asthma ; 
they are bitter and slightly aromatic, and are given in infusion 
or electuary. 

Drs. Jackson and Dott have testified from their own experi- 
ence to the usefulness of the drug in chronic bronchitis, asthma 
and afebrile catarrh. Dr. Watt states that the natives of Ben- 
gal find relief for asthma in smoking the leaves. In Bombay 
its expectorant action is commonly known and its juice is used, 
mixed with borax and honey. 

The dose of the aqueous extract made by evaporating the 
juice of the leaves, is .251 gram. The tincture is preferable, 
made by dissolving this extract in alcohol ; dose 2-4 grams. 
Its efficiency is increased by the addition of pepper seeds (War- 
ing). The Sanscrit writers recommend for cough, 3.80 grams 
of the leaf juice with honey. "It is very desirable that further 
trials be made to test the value of this remedy." Pharmaco- 
poeia of India. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub with straight, smooth, 
ashy-gray trunk. Branches of same color but smoother. 
Leaves opposite, lanceolate, acute, smooth on both faces, 12-15 
cm. long by 3-4 broad, petioles short. Flowers irregular and 
hermaphrodite in axillary spikes with long peduncles, opposite, 
large, white, covered with rusty spots, the lower part of the 2 
lips purple. Calyx gamosepalous, regular, five deep clefts. 
Corolla gamopetalous, irregular, short tube, limb 2 -lipped, the 



RHIN ACANTHUS COMMIJNIS 189 

lower lip ending in a spur. Ovary free, 2-celled, each cell 
containing 2 ovules. Style filiform, long, inserted in a sort of 
canal formed by the upper lip of the corolla. Stigma bilobu- 
late. Seed vessel depressed, 4 flattened, lenticular seeds. 
HABITAT. Luzon and Pauay. 

Rhinacanthus communis, Nees. (Justicia nasuta, L.) 

NOM. VULG. Tagaktagak, Tag.; Naganmlli, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The plant has much reputation in India in the treat- 
ment of skin diseases, and indeed its efficiency is great in the 
stubborn Tinea circinata tropica, known throughout the Orient 
as " dhobie-itch." In this disease it is applied for several days 
to the affected part in the form of a paste composed of the 
bruised leaves, the juice of the leaves and lemon juice. The 
fresh root also may be employed. The Hindoo physicians 
state that the root decoction in milk is aphrodisiac ; the root 
is also regarded as an antidote for the bite of the " cobra da 
cabelho/' but its virtue is purely imaginary. Of late years 
the plant has been used in Europe under the name of " tong- 
pang-chong," to treat chronic eczema. 

Liborius made an analysis of the root in the laboratory of 
Dorpat, separating 13.51J& ash and 1.87Jfc rhinocanthin, as well 
as other ingredients. Rhinocanthin (C 14 H 18 O 4 ) is supposed to 
be the active principle of the root. It is analogous to quinon 
and resembles in many particulars chrysophanic and frangulic 
acids. It forms a resinous, amorphous mass, cherry red, 
odorless and tasteless, slightly soluble in water, forming a 
mildly alkaline solution in alcohol. It does not yield glucose 
when boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid. Liborius believes 
that it exists only in the intercellular spaces of the " root bark." 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub, about 4 high, stem 
ash-colored, no spines. Leaves lanceolate, undulate, downy. 
Flowers white in spikes. Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed. 
Corolla long, filiform, limb 4-lobed, the 3 lower lobes ovate, 



190 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

the upper pointed. Stamens 2. Ovary free, 2 biovulate 
locules. Style simple. Stigma bifid. Seed vessel club-shaped, 
4 seeds in the upper part. 

HABITAT. Common in the gardens of Manila. 

VERBENACE-ffi. 

Vervain Family. 

Lippia nodiflora, Rich. (Verbena nodiflora, L.; V. capitata, 

Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Tsatsatsatsahan, Chachachachahan, Tag. 

USES. The Filipinos drink an infusion of the leaves in 
place of tea, the long Tagalog name meaning " resembling 
tea." In India they drink the hot infusion to aid digestion. 
In some places the decoction of the leaves is given internally 
as an emollient and diuretic for gonorrhoea. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small plant with creeping 
stem taking root where it touches the ground, obscurely an- 
gular, covered with short down. Leaves opposite, smooth, 
clasping the stem, inversely ovate, serrate only above, slightly 
downy. Flowers white, slightly purplish, axillary on a com- 
mon peduncle, in a rough conical head. Corolla somewhat 
bowed, funnel-form, gaping, throat narrow, limb 4-lobed, 
one lobe shorter than the rest. Stamens 4, 2 longer. Fila- 
ment almost wanting. Anthers 4, fertile. Ovary superior, 
style very short. Stigma semi-globose. Fruit, 2 seeds cov- 
ered by the pellicle of the ovary. 

HABITAT. Very common in the rice fields. 

Tectona grandis, L. 

NOM. VULG. Teca, Sp.; Tilda, Tag.; Dalondon, Yate, 
Kalayati, Vis.; Teak Tree, Eng. 

USES. The powdered wood made into a paste with water is 
undoubtedly a useful application in acute dermatitis, especially 



TECTONA GRANDIS 191 

that due to contact with the caustic oleo-resin of the cashew nut 
(Anacardium). A decoction of the powder gives good results 
as a gargle for aphthae, gingivitis, and other inflammations 
within the buccal cavity. In India they give internally 612 
grams as a vermifuge, and for dyspepsia with " heartburn." 

The flowers are diuretic according to Endlicher ; the bark is 
astringent; the leaves and the seeds are purgative, the latter 
yielding an oil which they use in India to stimulate the growth 
of the hair. Gibson considers the seeds diuretic and quotes two 
cases where abundant diuresis immediately followed by the ap- 
plication of a poultice of the bruised seeds over the pubis. In 
Concan they make a sort of extract from the wood and apply it 
to the yoke sores of the cattle to prevent the growth of maggots. 
This disinfectant action marks the plant as worthy of further 
experiment. 

Rumphius is authority for the statement that the infusion of 
the leaves is used in cholera. The Chinese make vessels of the 
wood to preserve their drinking water at sea ; the first and 
second waters are bitter and are thrown away, but after that 
the water has no disagreeable taste and is said to aid digestion. 

It has been said that the wood was poisonous because at one 
time several workmen died from the effects of wounds caused 
by splinters of the wood, but the statement has not been con- 
firmed by later cases and the deaths were most probably due to 
a septic infection independent of the chemical composition of 
the splinters. 

R. Romania has extracted a resin from the wood by alcohol ; 
it is soft, and on distillation yields a crystalline body called by 
the author tectoquinon (C 18 H 10 O 2 ), on account of its resemblance 
to the quinons. It melts at 171 and volatilizes slightly at 
ordinary temperature. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with leaves almost round, 
oval, entire, 30-60 centimeters by 20-40, the under surface 
covered with hoary down. Petioles very short, flattened. 



192 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Flowers in panicles. Primary peduncle square. Calyx in- 
ferior, bell-shaped, very large when ripe, 5-cleft. Corolla 
white, longer than calyx, covered with a mealy substance, bell- 
shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 5 or 6, inserted in the corolla. 
Filaments flattened, somewhat longer than the corolla. Anthers 
semi-globose, a yellow zone below and a black circle above. 
Ovary free, rounded, 4 locules each with 1 seed. Style 
same length as stamens. Stigma bilobulate. Drupe globose, 
woolly, spongy, depressed, covered by the membranous inflated 
calyx ; contains one nut, very hard, 4 apartments each contain- 
ing one seed. 

HABITAT. The mountains of Morong and Tanay (of La 
Laguna Province) bear some specimens. Very common in the 
island of Negros and in Mindanao. It also grows in the 
Visayas, Mindora and Paragua. Blooms in September. 

Vitex trifolia, L. ( V. repens, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Lagundi, Tag. ; Gapasgapas, Vis. ; Dangla, 
Hoc. 

Vitex Negundo, L. (V. Leucoxylon, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Lagundi, Malawin, Tag. 

USES. Both species are used medicinally in the Philippines 
and both enjoy high repute. A variety of the first that seems 
to possess the same virtues is the V. repens, Blanco, called 
lagundiy gapag by the Tagalos. 

V. trifolia is regarded in India as the most powerful species 
and Boutins has extolled it highly, calling attention to the ano- 
dyne, diuretic and emmenagogue properties of the leaves. 
These are very effective applied in fomentation to rheumatic 
joints and their use is extensive both in India and the Malay 
Archipelago. A decoction of the leaves is used locally and as 
a vapor-bath in the treatment of beriberi. A large earthen 
pot is filled with leaves and water and brought to a boil ; the 
pot is then placed under a chair in which the patient sits en- 



VITEX NEC UNDO 193 

veloped in a sheet or blanket. If necessary the pot may be re- 
moved 2 or 3 times, heated and replaced until abundant sweating 
is induced. An apparatus to conduct the steam under the chair 
would be much handier, but it is unsafe to place a small stove 
or lamp under the chair for fear of setting fire to the cloth. 

In India and the Philippines there is a peculiar inflamma- 
tion localized in the soles of the feet and characterized by an 
intense burning rather than pain, not described in the text- 
books, but called by the natives " burning of the feet " (" quema- 
dura del pie" or "ignipedites"); in our own experience and 
according to the consensus of the physicians of India, the ap- 
plication of these leaves 3 or 4 times a day to the soles of the 
feet has afforded marked relief. The leaves are heated in an 
earthen pot without the addition of water, and when suffi- 
ciently hot are applied and held in place by a bandage. 

Dr. W. Ingledew states that the natives of Mysore (south of 
India) treat rheumatism and febrile catarrhs by steam baths of 
the decoction of vitex. A decoction of the leaves is in common 
use in the Philippines, Malay Islands and India as a bath for 
women in the puerperal state. 

The dry leaves are smoked for headache and catarrh. Ac- 
cording to creditable authority the application of the heated 
leaves in orchids produces good results. The root is tonic, feb- 
rifuge and expectorant and the fruit nervine and emmenagogue 
according to the Sanscrit writer. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. V. trifolia is a small tree, 3-4 
meters high. The fruit and leaves are said to emit the odor of 
rosemary. Leaves ternate. Leaflets oval, entire, hoary be- 
low, no secondary petioles. Flowers purplish in forked pan- 
icle. Corolla bell-shaped with palate. The lower lip 3-lobed, 
the middle lobe larger ; upper lip smaller, 2-lobed. Stamens 
4, free, didynamous. Ovary free. Style simple, with stigma- 
bearing lobules. Berry-like drupe, with 4-celled nut, one seed 
in each cell. 



194 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

HABITAT. Common on the seashore. Blooms in June. 

The V. Negundo is a small tree like the preceding, but when 
it grows in the forest it develops to a tree of the first order, 
yielding a valuable building wood called molave (Sp.) or more 
properly molawin. Leaves compound with 5 leaflets. Secon- 
dary petioles short. Flowers in dichotomous panicle. Fruit 
like that of the foregoing species. 

Clerodendron infortunatum, L. (C. forlunatum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Kasupayit, Gubat, Tag.; Salig-wak, Vis. 

USES. The fresh juice of the leaves is used in India as a 
vermifuge, according to K. L. Dey ; it is also used as a bitter 
tonic in malarial fever, especially of children. As a tonic and 
antipyretic it is certainly worthy of recommendation. 

Dr. Bholanauth Bose calls attention to this plant as a good 
substitute for Ophelia chirata, DC. as a tonic and antipyretic. 

The infusion of the bruised leaves (10 grams to water 300 
cc.) is given up to 200 cc. a day in 3 or 4 doses ; the tincture 
(leaves 60 grams, alcohol 90 Jfc, 500 cc.) is given up to 10 
grams a day in 5 or 6 doses. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A shrub with nearly round 
stem; leaves opposite, ovate, oblong; acute, entire, slightly 
downy. Flowers terminal in umbellate panicles, the umbellets 
opposite and each bearing 3 flowerets. Calyx bluish, long, 
tubular, somewhat expanded in the middle, divided in 5 parts. 
Corolla twice as long as the calyx, tube filiform, limb 5-lobed. 
Stamens didynamous, their lower parts grown to the tube of 
the corolla. Filaments longer than the corolla. Ovary con- 
ical. Style of same length as the stamens. Stigma bifid. 
Berry dry, quadrate, depressed, the shell hard, 4 grooves, 4 
cells, each containing a seed. 

HABITAT. Very common in Manila and in the forests. 



OCIMUM SANCTUM 195 

LABIATE. 

Mint Family. 
Ocimum basilicum, L. (0. Americanum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Solasi, Tag., Pam.; Bonak, Vis.; Sweet Basil, 
Eng. 

Ocimum gratissimum, L. (0. virgatum Blanco.) 
NOM. VULG. Lokoloko, Tag., Pam.; Kolonkogon, Vis. 

Ocimum sanctum, L. (O.flexuosum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Balanoy, Tag.; Sacred Basil, Eng. 

USES. All three species possess a characteristic camphora- 
ceous odor and are commonly grouped under the one name, 
albahacas (sweet basil). Some natives call them solasi and others 
balanay, but many are able to distinguish the various species 
correctly. All three have analogous properties, but the most 
widely used is the 0. basilicum. These properties are stimu- 
lant, diaphoretic, and expectorant, and the infusion is used com- 
monly for flatulent colic and painful dyspepsia. The dry 
powdered leaves of the 0. sanctum are taken as snuff by the 
natives of India in the treatment of a curious endemic disease 
characterized by the presence of small maggots in the nasal 
secretion ; this disease is called peenash, and possibly exists in 
the Philippines though I have never encountered it. 

Martins states that in Brazil they use a decoction of the 
mucilaginous leaves of the 0. gratissimum in the treatment of 
gonorrhoea and Dr. Waitz highly recommends a strong de- 
coction of these leaves for the aphthae of children, which he 
claims to have cured by this means after all European drugs 
had failed. This fact and the action of the snuff above 
mentioned, demonstrate the antiseptic properties of the plant, 
due doubtless to its abundant aromatic principles. 

0. basilicum contains a green essential oil, very aromatic, 



196 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

becoming solid ; it is a sort of camphor (C 21) H 1( .6HO, Raybaud) 
and crystallizes in 4-faced prisms. 

All the plants are used to prepare aromatic baths for cases 
of atrophy and debility in children (Waitz) and for the treat- 
ment of rheumatism and paralysis. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. 0. gratissimum is a plant 2-3 
high, stem straight, downy. Leaves medium lanceolate, finely 
serrate from the middle upwards, with short hairs and trans- 
parent dots. Flowers in long terminal racemes. Calyx, 
upper lip horizontal, round ; lower lip 3 pointed parts, the 
middle one subdivided in two. Corolla yellowish, inverted, 
one lip cleft in 4 obtuse lobes ; the other longer, narrow, ser- 
rate. Stamens didynamous, 2 shorter. Anthers semilunar. 
Stigma bifid. Seeds 4. 

The 0. Americanum has leaves lanceolate, ovate, acute, full 
of pores, somewhat downy. It is more fragrant than the other 
species and its flowers are bluish-white in racemes. 

The 0. sanctum is the most sacred plant of the Hindoos, dedi- 
cated to Vishnu ; its branches are wavy or cauliflexuous, 
leaves obliquely ovate, obtuse, serrate, nearly glabrous. 

HABITAT. All species are very common and universally 
known. 

Coleus aromaticus, Benth. (C. suganda, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Oregano, Sp.-FiL; Suganda, Tag.; Mar- 
joram, Eng. (The Sp. and Eng. names are incorrect.) 

USES. The fleshy, aromatic leaves of this plant are bruised 
and applied locally for the bites of centipedes and scorpions. 
They are also applied to the temples and forehead for head- 
ache, held in place by a bandage. In Cochin China they are 
used in^ asthma, chronic bronchitis, epilepsy and other convul- 
sive diseases. The juice of the leaves is a carminative and is 
given to children suffering with wind colic. Dr. Wight claims 
to have observed occasional intoxicating effects following its 



ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS 197 

use, but Dymock states that he has never observed such effects. 
The plant contains a coloring matter, colein (C 10 H 10 O 3 ), red, in- 
soluble in ether, soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in water. 
On the addition of ammonia the solution changes to purple, 
then violet, indigo, green, and, finally, greenish-yellow. 

Another species, the C. atropurpureus, Benth. (C. grandifo- 
UuSj Blanco), well known in the Philippines by its common 
name mayana, is used in the treatment of bruises, the bruised 
fleshy leaves being the part employed ; these leaves are downy 
and dark violet in color. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Leaves opposite, nearly sessile, 
cordate, obtuse, downy and very fleshy. Flowers in a quad- 
rangular raceme, each group of these flowerets having a con- 
cave scale at the base. Calyx bell-shaped, 2-lipped ; the upper 
lip longer and entire ; the lower with 4 narrow teeth. Corolla 
a pale violet, 5 times longer than the calyx. Stamens didyn- 
amous, straight, longer than the corolla. Style bifid. Seeds 4. 

HABITAT. Universally abundant. 

Rosmarinus offieinalis, L. 

NOM. VULG. Romero, Sp. ; Rosemary, Eng. 

USES. This is one of the plants most valued by the Filipi- 
nos. Its infusion is used as an eye-wash for slight catarrhal 
conjunctivitis, applied 3 or 4 times a day. It is one of the 
aromatic plants used so commonly to bathe women in the puer- 
peral state, and in vapor baths for rheumatism, paralysis and 
incipient catarrhs. The entire plant is a stimulant and car- 
minative but little used internally ; in atonic dyspepsia it has 
given good results taken in the same form as the infusion of 
manzanilla. 

It contains a large per cent, of an essential oil which gives 
the plant its agreeable odor. This oil enters into the composi- 
tion of " Cologne Water "; it is said to arrest falling of the 
hair and is a diffusible stimulant which may be given internally 



198 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

in doses of 3-5 drops. It is colorless and liquid when fresh, 
but in time becomes dark and viscid. It combines freely with 
alcohol and its density is 0.885. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant from 2 to 3 high. 
Leaves sessile, linear, obtuse, margins revolute, white-hoary 
beneath. Calyx tubular, 2-lipped. Corolla rose- violet color, 
gaping ; the upper lip concave, 2-lobed ; the lower lip longer, 
3-lobed. Stamens, 2 fertile and 2 sterile. Style, same length 
as the stamens. Stigma simple. Fruit, 4 seeds in the depths 
of the calyx. 

HABITAT. It is carefully cultivated throughout the Phil- 
ippines. 

Anisomeles ovata, R. Br. (PUomis alba, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Taligharap, Tag.; Jerusalem Sage, Eng. 

USES. The infusion of the leaves is bitter and aromatic 
and is used in catarrhal inflammations of the stomach and in- 
testines and in intermittent fevers. Used as a vapor-bath it 
produces abundant diaphoresis, and the infusion given internally 
has a like effect. The leaves, when distilled, yield an oil which 
is used as an external application in rheumatism. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 6 or more high. 
Root fibrous, trunk and branches enlarged at the joints. 
Leaves opposite, ovate, obtusely serrate, soft and downy. 
Flowers pink, verticillate, in opposite clusters around the stem, 
with several linear and hairy involucres at the base of each 
cluster. Calyx, 5 sharp teeth. Corolla, 2-lipped ; the lower 
much larger, downy within, 3-lobed, the middle lobe larger 
and broader, notched at the extremity, and its borders turned 
downward ; the other 2 lateral lobes very small, narrow; the 
upper lip much shorter and smaller, entire, enveloping the sta- 
mens. Stamens didynamous. Style about the same length as 
the stamens. Stigma bifid. Fruit, 4 small seeds. 

HABITAT. Very common on the fields of Manila Province. 



MIRABILIS JALAP A 199 

Leucas aspera, Spreng. (Phlomis Zeylaniea, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Pansipansi, Solasolasian, Karultansoli, Tag.; 
Pansipansi, Paypaysi, Vis. 

USES. The bruised leaves are applied to the bites of ser- 
pents or poisonous insects. In India they are similarly used. 
The juice of the leaves is very useful in the treatment of certain 
skin diseases, especially psoriasis. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 2 high, very 
well known to the natives. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, finely 
serrate and covered with short hairs. Flowers terminal, white, 
verticillate, with the characteristics of the mint family. 

PLANTAGINACEJE. 

Plantain Family. 
Plantago erosa, Wall. (P. crenata and media, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Llanten, Sp.-Fil.; Lantm, Tag.; Plantain, 
Eng. 

USES. The leaves of this popular plant are the commonest 
remedy in the Philippines for abscess of the gums. They are 
bruised and applied with a little lard over the swollen cheek. 
It is emollient and, in decoction, is used as a substitute for flax- 
seed. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. This plant is so universally 
known that there is no fear of confusing it with others. It 
flourishes as a common weed in the U. S. as well as the Phil- 
ippines. 

NYCTAGINACEJE 

Four-0'Clock Family. 

Mirabilis Jalapa, L. (M. longiflora, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Mamvtilas, Suspiros, Sp.-Fil.; Gilalas, Tag.; 
Four O'Clock, Marvel of Peru, Eng. 

USES. The root is purgative and possesses the same active 



200 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES. 

principles, the same properties and is given in the same dose as 
jalap. According to the experience of Shoolbred, Hunter, W. 
O'Shaughnessy and Ainslie, its purgative action is weak and un- 
certain and therefore unworthy of use as a substitute for jalap. 
The bruised leaves are used as poultices to hasten suppuration, 
but according to Waring they are capable of causing dermatitis. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The flowers open toward the end 
of the day and close again at sunrise. The root is blackish and 
spindle-shaped. The stem smooth, branches forked. Leaves 
opposite, lanceolate-cordate, acute, somewhat downy along the 
borders and the upper surface. Petioles short. Flowers fra- 
grant, almost constantly blooming, of different colors even in 
the same plant, terminal, in umbels. Pedicels very short. 
Calyx persistent, 5-toothed. Corolla superior, very long, its 
tube downy, funnel-form, limb 5-lobed. Stamens 5, longer 
than the corolla. Style longer than the stamens. Stigma glo- 
bose. Nut small, black, globose, many-ribbed, full of a mealy 
substance. 

HABITAT. Common in gardens. 

AMARANTHACEJE. 

Amaranth Family. 
Amaranthus spinosus, L. 

NOM. VULG. Kilitis, Omyi, Tag.; Ayantoto, Pam.; Kali- 
tis, TiliteSj Bayag-bayag , Vis.; Kuanton, Hoc.; Thorny Amar- 
anth, Eng. 

USES. The entire plant is emollient and its principal use is 
as a poultice for inflammations, bruises, etc. The decoction of 
the root is diuretic and antiphlogistic and is used in Mauritius 
(30 grams root to 750 cc. water) as an internal remedy for 
gonorrhoea ; indeed it is there regarded as a specific for that dis- 
ease, checking the discharge and the " ardor urinse." It should 
be continued till the cure is complete. 



ACHYRANTHES OBTUSIFOLIA 201 

The bruised leaves are used locally for eczema. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2-3 high of a reddish 
color. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, broad, notched at the apex, 
wavy, glabrous. Petioles with a pair of spines in their axils. 
Flowers small, yellow-green, in round axillary clusters and in 
long terminal spikes. The pistillate flowers are sometimes sep- 
arated from the staminate, sometimes mixed with them in the 
lower part of the spike. Staminate : No corolla, calyx 2-5 
parts, stamens 4-5. Pistillate : Style and stigma 2 or 3, other- 
wise the same as the staminate. Seed vessel with 1 seed. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts. Blooms in October. 

Achyranthes obtusifolia, Lam. (A. aspera, Blanco.) 

NOM. VuLGr. Hangoi-j Hangot, Dokotdekot, Libay, Tag.; 
Angod, Pam. 

USES. The plant has astringent and diuretic properties ; the 
latter were observed by Dr. Cornish, who communicated the 
facts to Waring, calling special attention to the good service the 
drug had afforded him in dropsy. Other physicians in India 
have confirmed these observations of Cornish. The decoction 
is made of 60 grams of the entire plant to 750 cc. water, boiled 
till reduced one-half and strained under pressure. Dose, 60 cc. 
every 2 hours till diuresis is induced. 

The ashes of this plant, like those of the Amaranthus spi- 
nosus, L., contain a large quantity of potassa, and are used for 
washing clothes ; on this account it has received its Sanscrit 
name Apamarga (the washer). The ashes are also mixed in an 
infusion of ginger and given internally in dropsy. 

The flowers are bruised and applied to the bites of snakes and 
other poisonous animals. In India there is a superstition that 
carrying these flowers about the person will keep off scorpions. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant about 3 high, the 
stem angular and downy. Leaves opposite, downy, clasping 
the stem, lanceolate, very obtuse and wavy. Flowers bent 
17 



202 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

downward in a long spike bearing many flowerets. Calyx, 5 
tough scales. Corolla wanting. Nectary much smaller than 
the calyx, monophyllous, 5-lobed. Stamens 5. Ovary top- 
shaped, upper part somewhat concave. Style same length as 
stamens. Stigma coarse, bifid. Fruit, a seed covered with 2 
membranes, one enveloping it completely, the outer one adher- 
ent in only one part. 

HABiTAT.-^Common in Luzon. Blooms in November. 

CHENOPODIACEJE. 

Goosefoot Family. 
Chenopodium ambrosioides, L. 

NOM. VULG. Alpasotes, Sp.-Fil.; Pasotis, Apasotis, Tag.; 
American Worm-seed, Mexican Tea, Eng. 

USES. This plant is a native of Mexico. It has a peculiar, 
somewhat offensive odor and an acrid, aromatic taste due to 
an essential oil resembling peppermint (?). According to Padre 
Mercado, " When the seeds are taken with wine, sensation is so 
dulled that the drinker may be whipped without feeling the 
lashes, and even if put to the torment, does not feel it." These 
properties, if true, make this plant one of the most useful in the 
Philippines. The entire plant is stimulant. The infusion, 
given internally, causes sweating, excites the circulation, is 
diuretic, tonic, stomachic, and useful as well as an antispas- 
modic in nervous troubles. The leaves are employed in making 
the infusion, 8 grams to 200 of boiling water. It is widely used 
in bronchial catarrhs and in asthma on account of its sudorific 
and expectorant action. It seems also to possess emmenagogue 
properties. The seeds yield on distillation a yellow essential 
oil with a strong and disagreeable odor, density 0.908. Both 
seeds and flowers are vermifuge, and are used as such in Brazil 
in doses of 8 grams in infusion or with an equal dose of castor 
oil. The anthelmintic dose of the essential oil is 515 drops 
with powdered sugar. 



ARISTOLOCHIA INPICA 203 

Rilliet and Barthez recommend the following potion for in- 
fantile chorea : 

Leaves of chenopodium 4 grams. 

Water 500 " 

Make an infusion and add syrup of orange flowers 50 grams. 
Dose, several tablespoonfuls a day. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 2 high; stem beset 
with hairs, many-angled. Leaves lanceolate, varying from en- 
tire to cut-pinnatifid. Flowers green, sessile, axillary, in small 
clusters. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla wanting. Stamens 5. 
Filaments flattened, inserted near the center of the flowers op- 
posite the parts of the calyx. Anthers in 2 globose parts. 
Ovary superior, globose, depressed, unilocular, uniovulate. 
Style none. Stigmas, 2, 3 or 4, short, divergent. Fruit a 
lenticular seed covered by the membrane of the ovary. 

HABITAT. Common in gardens and fields. Blooms in May. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEJE. 

Birth-wort Family. 
Aristolochia Indica, L. 

NOM. VULG. Timbagan, Malaubi, Tag.; Indian Birthwort, 
Eng. 

USES. The root has a wide use in medicine in the Philip- 
pines ; it is bitter, of a nauseating odor and has the reputation 
of being a powerful antidote for the bites of poisonous serpents 
and insects. It has further use in the treatment of malarial 
fever, in dyspepsia, and in the flatulent colic of teething chil- 
dren. It is regarded as tonic and emmenagogue. In various 
forms of diarrhea it appears to be effective and Dr. Gibson 
states that it is useful in intestinal disorders. In the Philip- 
pines it is not only given internally but also externally applied 
over the abdomen, mixed with hot cocoanut oil (10 grams of 
the powdered root to 100 oil). 



204 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

The first Portuguese settlers in India called the drug " Cobra 
Root/' because the natives regarded it as an antidote for the 
bite of the terrible "Cobra da Capello." This reputation, 
however, seems not to have been deserved, judging from the 
fearful mortality in India and Ceylon due to the bite of the cobra, 

Dr. Imlach, a surgeon of Singapore, states that in one season 
in one collectorate, Shikapore, no less than 306 cases of snake 
bites were officially reported, the mortality being 63, or about 
20.58 per cent. Other reports make it safe to conclude that in 
the entire province during the year no less than 300 deaths 
were due to this cause alone. Dr. Waring believes that if an 
antidote for snake bite exist in the vegetable kingdom it will 
most probably be found in the natural order Aristolochiacese. 

In North India this drug is used as emmenagogue and anti- 
arthritic, and in Banda for intermittent fevers and intestinal 
disorders. The juice of the leaves is emetic. The dose of the 
powdered root is 3-5 grams daily. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A twining shrub, with leaves 
heart-shaped, ovate, acute, glabrous. Petioles short. Flowers 
dark reddish-gray, in panicles. Calyx wanting. Corolla glo- 
bose below, the tube cylindrical, expanding at the top. Anthers 
6, in pairs. Filaments, none. Styles 6, very coarse, a mem- 
brane at the base including all. Stigmas simple. Seed vessel 
inferior, 6-ribbed, 6 cells and many winged seeds. The seed 
vessel after casting the seeds resembles a pair of balance scales 
with its little plates or pans. Hence the Tagalo name Tim- 
bagan meaning " balance. 77 

HABITAT. In Luzon and Panay. Blooms in November. 

PIPERACEJE. 

Pepper Family. 
Piper Betle, L. (Chaviea Betle and C. auriculata, Miq. ; 

Piper Betel, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Hojas de buyo, Sp.-Fil. ; Itmo, Tag.; Mamin, 
Bic. ; Buyo, Mamon, Vis. ; Samat, Pam. ; Betel Pepper, Eng. 



PIPER BETLE 205 

USES. A masticatory, used all over the extreme Orient, is 
composed of the leaves of this plant, a little slaked oyster-shell 
lime and a rounded slice of the bonga or areca nut ; the 
Filipinos call this combination bayo, though the name is 
not of native origin ; the Tagalos call it hitsu. The use of 
buyo by careless persons is decidedly repugnant, for the mix- 
ture of the lime and the pigment of the bonga imparts a blood- 
red or rather brick-red color to the saliva which they spit in 
mouthfuls into the streets and other public places with no 
thought of the feelings of others. Unless the mouth is carefully 
cleaned the teeth become encrusted with a sort of black enamel 
and the breath assumes a detestable odor. When used in small 
quantities and with proper toilet of the mouth, and this is the 
common practice among the Filipinos, buyo seems to be a very 
useful preservative of the teeth and a gingival and stomachic 
tonic. These properties are readily understood when we con- 
sider that the lime is antacid, the bonga astringent and tonic 
and the betel aromatic and stimulant. 

The buyo leaf plays a very important part in the therapeutics 
of the infant of the Philippines : in its indigestions, colics and 
diarrhoeas the heated leaves are applied to the abdomen pre- 
viously anointed with hot cocoanut oil. In bronchitis and 
laryngitis the heated leaves are applied over the chest or neck 
after rubbing the parts with oil. It undoubtedly produces good 
effects and the physicians of India recommend it in the same 
cases and in the same form as in the Philippines. Applied to 
the breasts of parturient women it dries up the milk and in the 
same way tends to reduce any glandular enlargement. 

Dr. Kleinstiick of Java recommends the essence of the leaves 
in all sorts of catarrhs and as an antiseptic in doses of one drop 
to 140 of the vehicle. This essence is obtained by distillation ; 
it is dark in color, has an acrid taste and an odor resembling 
that of tea. Its density is 1.020. The dried leaves contain 
one-half per cent, of the essence and it is probable that the 
fresh ones contain a greater proportion. 



206 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with yellow flowers 
and scandent stem, climbing straight up trees or artificial sup- 
ports. Leaves cleft at the base, acute, entire, glabrous, dark 
green. According to Blanco it is cultivated best in somewhat 
sandy soil. Pasay, near Manila, and Bauang, in Batangas, 
furnish a leaf most highly appreciated. 

Piper nigrum, L. 

NOM. YULG. Pimienta, Sp.; Paminta, Malisa, Tag.; Black 
Pepper, Eng. 

USES. The berry-like fruit of the pepper is more extensively 
used as a condiment in cooking than in the treatment of dis- 
ease. Used in moderation, however, it is of considerable value 
as a convenient stomachic and aid to digestion in tropical 
countries where the digestive functions readily become sluggish. 
Its abuse may lead to serious consequences, such as inflamma- 
tion of the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane, of the portal 
system and the liver itself. 

Pepper is used as a febrifuge in the various forms of malarial 
fevers, in the form of granules of 8 or 10 berries in a cup of 
brandy and anise (Spanish) ; this is taken by the patient in one 
dose at the beginning of the cold stage and followed by large 
quantities of water to relieve the thirst caused by the pepper. 
This treatment causes the cold stage to rapidly subside and 
more rapidly induces and intensifies the sweating stage. It is 
said that no further attack of fever follows. 

Piperin (C 17 H 19 NO 3 ) is febrifuge and is given in pill form 
internally in doses of 30-60 centigrams ; the action of the crude 
drug is evidently due to this neutral principle. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The plant is a perennial, climb- 
ing shrub. Leaves oval, tapering at both extremities, 7-nerved. 
Flowers yellow, in a spike. Stigmas 2, bifid. Fruit globose, 
with one seed. 



CHLORANTHUS OFFICINALIS 207 

HABITAT. The dried fruit of the pepper is universally 
familiar. It was at one time cultivated in the Philippines, 
especially in Batangas, and Gen. Basco promulgated a series of 
orders to encourage its cultivation. Padre Gainza, afterward 
Bishop of Nueva Caceres, wrote a report about its cultivation, 
but since then the subject has entirely disappeared from notice. 

CHLORANTHACE^I. 

Chloranth Family. 

Chloranthus officinalis, Bl. (C. Indicus, Wight.; C. incon- 
spicuus, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Unknown. 

USES. All parts of the plant are aromatic. The leaves 
and stems lose this property after drying, but the roots, if 
properly dried, preserve it for a long time. They have a cam- 
phoraceous odor and bitter, aromatic taste, reminding one of 
that of Aristolochia Serpentaria. The mountaineers of Java 
use an infusion of the powdered root and the bark of the 
Cinnamomum Culilowan to treat puerperal eclampsia. Com- 
bined with carminatives like anise and onion, they use it with 
some success in virulent small-pox of children. The infusion 
seems to be efficacious in fevers accompanied by debility and 
suppression of the function of the skin. It has also been pre- 
scribed in the intermittent fevers of Java, mixed with an in- 
fusion of the leaves of the Cedrela Toona. Blume states that 
it is one of the most powerful stimulants known. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant 3-4 high. Stem quad- 
rangular. Leaves opposite, broad, lanceolate, serrate, with stiff- 
pointed teeth and somewhat scaly beneath. Petioles very short, 
clasping the stem at their base, with 2 intermediate stipules 
ending in two awl-shaped points. Flowers compound in axil- 
lary spikes, which bear the flowerets in 2 ranks, each flower 
with a keeled bract. The corolla (if it may be so called) a 



208 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

fleshy, 3-lobed lamina. Perianth wanting. Receptacle dome- 
shaped. Anthers 4, inserted on the surface of the lamina, 2- 
valved. Ovary 1-celled, with 1 ovule. Style short. Berry- 
like fruit, globose, with 1 seed covered by a somewhat brittle 
membrane. 

HABITAT. La Laguna and other provinces of Luzon. 
Blooms in September. 

LAURACE^l. 

Laurel Family. 

Cinnamomum pauciflorum, Nees. (Lauras culilaban, Var., 

Blanco.) 

C. tamala, Nees. (L. culilaban, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. (of both). Kaligag, Makaligag, Tag., Vis.; 
Kandaroma, Hoc; Cassia Lignea or Cassia, Eng. 

USES. The bark of both species is known in pharmacy as 
Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon (cassia cinnamon). In- 
deed it is very like the cinnamon of Ceylon, comes in curled 
quills, has the same odor and taste though not so delicate ; but 
it is darker in color, with a surface less clean and smooth. Its 
chemical composition is identical with that of the latter and 
nowadays it forms an important article of commerce. 

Cinnamon renders good service in therapeutics as a stim- 
ulant of the digestive tract and a heart tonic. In the atonic 
diarrhoeas so common in the Philippines a tincture of cinnamon 
in doses of 810 grams a day, or the powder in cases where 
alcohol was contraindicated, have given me unhoped-for re- 
sults. 

In Spain and the Philippines it is very popular as a condi- 
ment in the kitchen of the confectionery and as a flavor for 
chocolate ; in fact in those countries it takes the place of 
vanilla in France. It enters into the composition of several 
elixirs and compound tinctures, such as "Botot's Water " 



CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS 209 

(dentifrice), " Elixir of Garus " (tonic stimulant), "Balsam of 
Fioraventi" (external stimulant), laudanum and the elixir of 
the Grande Chartreuse (diffusible stimulant). 

Lately it has been demonstrated that the essence is a power- 
ful antiseptic, in the presence of which typhoid fever bacilli 
cannot develop. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 15-20 high. Leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, 3-nerved, entire, glabrous. Flowers yel- 
low, paniculate, umbellate. Common peduncles very long, 
those of the flowerets long. Calyx none. Corolla, 6 ovate, 
hairy petals. Stamens 9 ; 6 external to the rest and bearing 
the anthers, 4 on each filament, 2 below the others ; the 3 inner 
stamens bear 2 anthers each. 

Ine th second species the flowers form loose, terminal pan- 
icles. Stamens 9 ; 6 filaments inserted on the receptacle, 
spatulate, each bearing 4 anthers on the inferior face ; the other 
3 filaments thick, each bearing 4 anthers. Between the last 
filaments are 8 nearly globose glandules. 

HABITAT. Both species are common in the forests of Luzon. 
The first species blooms in May, the second in January. 

Cassytha filiformis, L. 

NOM. VULG. Mcddbohok. 

USES. This plant has no therapeutical uses in the Philip- 
pines. In Senegal it is employed, according to Dujardin-Beau- 
metz, mixed with lard to treat urethritis ; its action is to decrease 
the ardor urinse. It is not stated whether this mixture is used 
internally or externally. 

In Cochin China the same writer states that it is used as an 
antisyphilitic. In India it is used for the piles and as an alter- 
ative for bilious disorders. It possibly acts as a circulatory 
stimulant. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A slender, thread-like, cylin- 
drical vine, without leaves, that covers the trees like a mantle, 
18 



210 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

so luxuriant is its growth. Flowers yellow, in axillary spikes. 
Calyx small, 3 sepals. Corolla, 3 fleshy concave petals. Sta- 
mens 12 in 4 verticils, 9 fertile and 3 inner sterile. Ovary 
1 -celled, 1-ovuled. Style cylindrical. Drupe globose, 1-2" 
in diameter, covered by a fleshy envelope, formed by the recep- 
tacle. Seeds without albumen. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, on the seashore. 

EUPHORBIACEJE. 

Spurge Family. 
Euphorbia pilulifera, L. (E. capitata, Lam.; E. hirta, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Gkdondrina, Sp.-Fil.; Gatasgatas, Batobato- 
nis, Sayikan, Tag.; Buyayawa, Tawawa, Bowi, Vis.; Malismalis, 
Sisiwhan, Bolobotones, Magatas, Pam. 

USES. This plant has a reputation in the Philippines as a 
haemostatic of great efficiency, for which purpose the whole 
plant is crushed and applied as a poultice over the wound. 
Like all members of this family it abounds in milky juice. We 
have had no occasion to employ it as a haemostatic, but do not 
doubt its action in view of the effect that it exercises on the 
circulation and the heart when given internally. In toxic 
doses experiment has demonstrated that it kills animals by sus- 
pension of the respiratory movements and those of the heart, 
which at first beats faster but gradually more slowly. It has 
no effect upon any other organ and is eliminated by the liver. 

Matheson recommends it as an antispasmodic and has em- 
ployed it also in dyspnoea of cardiac origin. I have used it in 
both these conditions in Manila with highly satisfactory re- 
sults. I have found the most convenient form of administra- 
tion to be the tincture in doses of 15-40 drops a day given in 
an infusion of althaea every 3 or 4 hours ; the vehicle should 
be used liberally as it diminishes the irritant action of the 
euphorbia on the stomach. A decoction of 15 grams of the 



EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA 211 

plant to 2 liters of water may be given in doses of from 6 to 12 
tablespoonfuls daily. A proper dose of the alcoholic extract 
is 10 centigrams in 24 hours. Dr. Daruty, of Mauritius, gives 
the following formula : 

Euphorbia pilulifera dried in the shade .... 30 grams. 

Water 1 1. liters. 

Boil till reduced to 1 liter, cool and add : 

Rum or cognac 30 grams. 

DOSE. 1 wineglassful 3 times a day. 

This decoction relieves the most obstinate asthma, as well as 
cough and bronchial irritation. It is necessary to use the en- 
tire plant. The decoction is usually given in the morning, 
fasting, in the middle of the afternoon and at bedtime. In 
very stubborn cases another dose may be given in the middle 
of the night. Frequently the relief is immediate and in some 
cases a liter of the decoction is enough to effect a cure. If the 
symptoms return, it is easy to abort them ; they are less dis- 
tressing and, according to the statements of patients, the medi- 
cine <( gives them air." 

Dr. Hicks Bunting found, in an analysis of the drug, 60 per 
cent, of insoluble residue, wax, " caucho," resin, tannin, sugar, 
albuminoids, oxalate of calcium and other salts. 

Dr. Marsset states that the active principle is soluble in 
water, in dilute alcohol ; insoluble in ether, chloroform, bisul- 
phide of carbon, and turpentine, but does not give the reaction. 

The toxic dose is 1 gram of dried plant for each kilogram of 
weight of the animal. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small creeping plant with 
milky juice. Stem 1-2 high, cylindrical, hairy and reddish 
in color. Leaves opposite, obliquely ovate, rhomboid, serrate, 
hairy. Petioles very short. Two pointed stipules at the base. 
Flowers yellowish in hemispherical umbels of 5 divisions, each 
subdivided in 2. Involucre universal. Calyx bell-shaped, 



212 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

laciniate, in 5 parts. Corolla, 5 petals, inserted on the divisions 
of the calyx, fleshy, orbicular, with an orbicular appendix at 
the base, concave and differing from the corolla in color. 
Stamens 8, inserted on the base of the calyx ; filaments unequal 
in length, each bearing 2 anthers. Four filaments lacking 
anthers. Ovary with stalk longer than the flower, curved 
downward. Styles 3, bifid. Stigmas simple. Seed vessels 3, 
united, hairy, 3-angled, each bearing 1 red globose seed with a 
wrinkled surface. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the islands and well 
known to the natives. The name by which it is best known in 
Manila is " golondrina." 

Euphorbia neriifolia, L. (E. ligularia, Roxb.; 
E. pentagona, Blanco.) 

JSToM. VULG. Sorosoro, Sorog-sorog, Bait, Tag., Pam.; 
Karambauayci) Hoc.; Lengua de perro, Sp.-Fil. 

USES. The principal medicinal use of this plant in the 
Philippines is the introduction of the hot juice of its fleshy 
leaves into the external auditory canal in cases of otorrhoea or 
of simple earache, whatever its cause. 

The root is regarded in India as an antidote for snake bite 
and, indeed, the plant is sacred to Munsa, the snake divinity. 
During the months of July and August in some parts of India 
the natives make offerings of rice, milk and sugar to this sacred 
tree every Tuesday and Thursday, praying for protection from 
the bites of serpents. 

The leaves contain an abundance of milky juice, acrid and 
very active, used in the treatment of several skin diseases. 
Like the species E. pilulifera it possesses antiasthmatic proper- 
ties ; Dr. S. C. Amcobury reports 6 cases treated with satisfac- 
tory results. Owing to the acrid quality of the juice great 
care should be maintained both in its internal and external use. 
The Sanscrit authors regard it as purgative and usually admin- 



EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI 213 

ister it with other drugs of the same action to increase its effect. 
Ainslie states that the native herb-doctors of India give the 
juice in intestinal obstruction and in the oedema of malarial 
cachexia. The dose is 1.25 grams in 24 hours given in 300 
cc. of sweetened water in divided doses. This dose is, in 
my opinion, dangerous ; 4060 centigrams a day is more 
prudent. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, from 5 to 6 high. 
Trunk erect, jointed, 5-sided, at the angles 2 rows of thorns. 
Leaves spatulate, fleshy. Flowers yellowish. Calyx bell- 
shaped, 5-lobed. Corolla, numerous imbricated, spatulate 
petals with ravelled or fringed ends. Stamens in groups. 
Styles 3. Stigma coarse. Seed vessel, 3 carpels on a stalk. 

HABITAT. In all parts of Luzon. 

Euphorbia Tirucalli, L. 

NOM. VULG. GmsuMa, Sp.-Fil.; Katwit, Suelda, Tag. 

USES. The milky juice of this species is very caustic. It 
is used chiefly in India mixed with oil as an embrocation for 
rheumatism ; given internally it is regarded as an antisyphilitic. 
Dr. J. Shortt states that it is an excellent alterant in syphilis 
in dose of 30 centigrams, morning and evening. It is further 
employed in malarial hypertrophy of the spleen, in asthma and 
as a purgative ; in a word the same virtues are attributed to it 
as to the foregoing species. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Small trees, 9-12 high. Trunk 
erect. Branches cylindrical, stumpy (not tapering), several 
very small leaves at the ends. Flowers yellowish, in umbels. 
Calyx, 5 rounded, fleshy sepals. Corolla, 5 groups of woolly 
hairs on the divisions of the calyx. Stamens 5, inserted on the 
sepals, with double or irregular anthers. Seed vessel, 3 carpels 
each with one seed. 

HABITAT. Very common, especially in the suburbs of Ma- 
nila where they serve as hedges. 



214 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Phyllanthus reticulatus Mull. (Cica decandra, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Tinatinaan, Tintatintahan, Malinta, Tag.; 
Sugot-olag, Vis. 

USES. The natives eat the little berries of this species, which 
are dark purple before and black after maturity, and use their 
juice for ink. The leaves are diuretic and refreshing ; the bark 
alterant. In the bazaars of India the bark is sold commonly in 
pieces 1 long and as thick as the wrist ; its taste is slightly 
sweet, color dark and the alterative dose of its decoction is 
120-150 grams a day. In Concan they make a compound pill 
of the leaf-juice, powdered cubebs and camphor, to be dissolved 
in the mouth for ulcerated, bleeding or scorbutic gums. The 
juice is also given internally for urticaria. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Small trees, 12 or more high, 
with leaves pinnate, oval, entire, alternate, glabrous, downy 
when young. Common petiole, 2 stipules at the base. Flowers 
monoecious. Staminate : calyx, 5 colored sepals ; no corolla ; 
filaments 4, coarse, somewhat shorter than the calyx, the mid- 
dle one thicker and 2-parted ; anthers 10, 4 on the middle fila- 
ment and two on each of the others. Pistillate : calyx and 
corolla same as staminate ; nectary, 5 glandules on the base of 
the ovary. Fruit, a black berry seated within the calyx, 
crowned with 2 erect styles, 6 or 8 compartments each with a 
single seed. 

HABITAT. Grows everywhere and is well known. 

Phyllanthus Niruri, L. 
P. urinaria, L. 

NOM. YULG. Hierba de San Pablo, de San Pedro, Sp. 

USES. This species is not used medicinally in the Philip- 
pines, but in India is given for its diuretic effect and has great 
repute in the treatment of genito-urinary diseases, dropsy and 
gonorrhoea. The infusion of the leaves of P. Niruri with 



JATROPHA CURCAS 215 

Fenugreek seeds is a highly prized remedy for chronic dysen- 
tery, mentioned by Ainslie. The leaves are bitter and tonic 
and in Bombay they are in common use in gonorrhoea to cor- 
rect the acidity of the urine. Bruised and mixed with salt they 
make a sort of jelly frequently used as an application for itch; 
without salt the same is used for contusions. 

The dose of the leaf juice of both species, for internal use, 
is 15 grams a day in divided doses. 

A decoction of the entire plant well dried and powdered, is 
given for jaundice in doses of 5 grams a day. 

The milky juice of the stem is useful in the local treatment 
of ulcers. The bruised root is employed in Concan for neu- 
ralgia. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. P. Niruri is an herb with straight 
stem. Leaves alternate, pinnate with stylet in place of the 
odd leaflet. Leaflets nearly oval, glabrous, 2 stipules at the 
base. Flowers monoacious, greenish, axillary; the staminate 
growing along the common petiole above the pistillate. Stami- 
nate : Calyx, 5 lanceolate, entire sepals ; no corolla; 1 filament 
with 1 anther. Pistillate : Calyx and corolla as above ; ovary 
free, 3 biovulate cells ; style with 2 stigma-bearing branches. 
Fruit capsular, globose. 

P. urinaria may be distinguished by its sessile flowers and 
reddish stem. 

HABITAT. Very common in Manila and all over Luzon. 

Jatropha Curcas, L. 

NOM. VULG. Tuba, Tag.; Kasla, Vis.; Tawatawa, Hoc. 
(Seeds called " English Physic Nuts " in India.) 

USES. The milky juice of the trunk and branches is a 
drastic purgative, too active for safety as a physic. Mixed with 
water it is used as a wash for atonic ulcers. 

The seeds yield 2530 per cent, of a yellowish oil, more 
active than castor oil as a purgative but less certain. Ten or 



216 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

twelve of the former equal in effect 30 to 40 drops of the 
latter. Its density is 0.919, and it differs from castor oil in 
being only slightly soluble in absolute alcohol. In some parts 
of the Philippines it is used for purposes of illumination, and 
it is exported to Europe to adulterate soaps and candles. It 
contains a little stearin which begins to be deposited at 9 and 
is entirely solidified at 0. 

The fruit is strongly purgative, and this action is not due to 
the oil but to a peculiar resin so active that 3 fruits produce 
drastic effects. Whatever purgative action the oil possesses is 
due to the resin which it contains in solution. It seems, there- 
fore, preferable to treat the seeds with alcohol, thus dissolving 
the resin, and use the tincture thus obtained in place of the 
oil. 

The natives use the plant to intoxicate the fish in ponds and 
sluggish streams. 

The seeds of the species /. multifida, L., also called tuba 
in Tag., and mana, are likewise purgative in their action. Dr. 
Waring saw a case of poisoning with the fruit ; the patient, a 
young man, suffered violent vomiting, intense pain in the 
stomach and head, and marked prostration. He recovered 
under the use of lime juice and stimulants. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The J. Curcas is a small tree 
growing as high as 9. Leaves alternate, cordate, glabrous, 
35 cut-lobed. Flowers yellowish-green, monoecious, in ter- 
minal umbels, staminate and pistillate flowers mingled without 
order. Staminate : Calyx, 5 unequal sepals ; corolla bell- 
shaped, 5 petals, woolly within, a small notch at the end, bent 
downward ; stamens 10, in 2 whorls of 5. Pistillate : Calyx 
and corolla as above ; several tongue-like staminodes replace 
the stamens ; ovary free, oblong, 3-celled, 1 ovule in each cell ; 
style 3 -branched. Seed vessel fleshy, of 3 capsules, each bear- 
ing 1 oval, coriaceous seed. 

HABITAT. Luzon and Visayas. 



ALEURITES MOLUCCANA 217 

Aleurites Moluccana, Willd. (A. triloba, Forst. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Lumbdn, Kapili, Tag.; Belgaum or Indian 
Walnut, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The kernels are rich in oil which is used for illumi- 
nation and the manufacture of soap. For industrial purposes 
it is superior to linseed oil, according to the report of the Mad- 
ras Drug Committee. 

Dr. O'Rocke states that in doses of 1-2 ounces it acts as a 
gentle and sure purgative, producing copious bilious evacua- 
tions after 3-6 hours, without causing nausea, colic or other 
similar effects. The municipal physician of Sampaloc, Seilor 
Xerez, states that he has frequently used this oil in Manila, as 
a purgative, and he agrees perfectly with Dr. O'Rocke as to 
its effect. 

D. Anacleto del Rosario, the distinguished Filipino chemist, 
tells me that he once witnessed a case of poisoning by the fruit 
of the lumbdn, the patient being a native boy. Doubtless the 
milky juice, so active in all the Euphorbiacea3, was the cause 
of the symptoms. It is true that the kernel causes colic and 
copious alvine discharges. 

Nellino's chemical analysis of the seeds is as follows : 

Water 5.25 

Fatty matter 62.97 

Cellulose 28.99 

Mineral matter 2.79 

The ashes contain the following matters : 

Lime 28.69 % 

Magnesia 6.01 " 

Potash 11.23 " 

Phosphoric acid 20.30 " 

The oil is yellow, syrupy, transparent, odorless, insipid. 
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with leaves bunched or 
clustered, 3-5 lobulate with as many nerves. Petioles about 



218 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

as long as the leaves. Flowers white, terminal in panicles, the 
pistillate mixed with the more numerous staminate flowers. 
Staminate : Calyx monophyllous, cylindrical, 2-toothed; corolla, 
5 linear petals twice as long as the calyx ; stamens 20 or more, 
joined in a column at their bases. Pistillate : Calyx and corolla 
as above ; ovary of 2 or 3 uniovulate locules, encircled by a disk ; 
style 2- or 3-branched. Seed vessel large, ovate, compressed, 
fleshy, 2 sutures at right angles, 2 compartments, in each a hard 
nut. 

HABITAT. Grows all over Luzon and is well known to the 
natives. 

Croton Tiglium, L. ( C. glandulosum, C. muricatum, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Tuba kamaisa, Tag.; The Purging Croton, 
Eng. 

USES. The fruit is used by the Filipinos to intoxicate the 
fish in ponds and sluggish streams. The seeds contain an oil 
that is official in all Pharmacopoeias as one of the most powerful 
hydragogue cathartics. As it is intensely irritating it should 
never be administered alone but combined with other substances, 
such as castor oil, or in pill form. The internal dose is 1 to 2 
drops. It is considered a specific for lead colic and is indicated 
when not only purgation but active irritation of the digestive 
canal is desired. 

Applied to the skin it is a strong irritant causing rapid and 
painful vesication. Great care should be exercised not to raise 
the hands to the eyes after touching the oil, as serious inflamma- 
tion might result. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, 8-9 high, with 
rough trunk. Leaves alternate, ovate, acute, minutely serrate, 
both surfaces beset with sharp hairs. Flowers yellowish-white, 
monoecious. Staminate : Fewer than the pistillate, growing 
above them ; calyx 5-toothed ; corolla, 5 woolly petals ; 
stamens 16, joined in the center. Pistillate : Calyx 5-toothed ; 



ACALYPHA INDICA 219 

corolla much less developed than in the staminate ; ovary free, 
3 uniovulate locules; styles 3, bifid. Seed vessel dry, with 
thin envelope bristling with stiff hairs; 3 carpels each contain- 
ing a seed. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon. 

Acalypha Indica, L. (A. Caroliniana, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Not known. 

USES. This plant is not used medicinally in the Philip- 
pines, but is very common in India. Dr. G. Bidie, of Madras, 
states that the expressed juice of the leaves is in great repute, 
wherever the plant grows, as an emetic for children and is safe, 
certain and speedy in its action. Like ipecacuanha it seems 
to have little tendency to act on the bowels or depress the vital 
powers, and it decidedly increases the secretion of the pulmonary 
organs. Probably an infusion of the dried leaves or an extract 
prepared from the green plant would retain all its active prop- 
erties. The dose of the expressed juice fo'r an infant is a tea- 
spoonful. 

Dr. A. E. Ross speaks highly of its use as an expectorant, 
ranking it in this respect with senega ; he found it especially 
useful in the bronchitis of children. He also makes favorable 
report of a cataplasm of the leaves as a local application to 
syphilitic ulcers and as a means of relieving the pain attendant 
on the bites of venomous insects. 

The alleged purgative action of the root noticed by Ainslie 
is confirmed by Dr. H. E. Busteed, who reports having used 
the expressed juice of the root and leaves as a laxative for 
children. 

Langley, a military surgeon, states that in Ganara the natives 
employ the leaf juice in congestive headache, soaking pledgets 
of cotton with it and introducing them into the nasal fossae ; 
the resultant nose bleed relieves the headache. The powder of 
the dry leaves is dusted on ulcers and putrid sores. In asthma 



220 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

and bronchitis, both of children and adults, Langley has used 
this plant with good results, and he recommends 1.253.50 
grams of the tincture (100 grams of the fresh plant to- 500 of 
alcohol, 90) repeated several times a day; the effect is ex- 
pectorant, nauseant and, in large doses, emetic. 

It must be noted that only the young, growing plants are 
active. 

The flowers of another species, A. hispida, Burm., called 
bugos in Tag. and Vis., is used in India for the dysentery. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A little plant, about 3 high. 
Leaves alternate, broad, lanceolate, 5-nerved, serrate from 
middle to apex. Petioles much longer than the leaves, 2 
stipules at their bases. Flowers greenish, monoecious in axil- 
lary spikes, pedunculate, as long as the leaves, crowned by a 
prolongation of the axis in the form of a cross. Staminate : 
Numerous, in upper part of spike ; calyx 4 parts ; no corolla ; 
stamens 81 6, small, free. Pistillate : Less in number, at the 
base of the spike ; perianth of 3 imbricated leaflets ; ovary, 3 
uniovulate locules ; style, 3 branches which also subdivide. 
Capsule 3-celled, each cell containing a globose seed with cica- 
trix. 

HABITAT. Luzon, Panay and Mindanao. Blooms in 
October. 

Echinus Philippensis, H. Baillon. (Oroton Philippense, Lamk.; 
jRottlera tinctoria, Roxb.; Mallotus Philippensis, Mull.) 

NOM. VULG. Banato, Tag.; Buas, Vuas, Hoc.; Monkey-face 
Tree, Kamela or Kamala Dye, Indo-Eng. 

USES. The capsular fruit of this plant is thickly beset with 
reddish glands and hairs, which, when brushed off and gathered 
in powder form, constitute the kamala dye of the Hindoos. It 
was mentioned by the Arabian physicians of the tenth century 
under the names of Kanbil and Wars. In India the powder 
is highly valued as a yellow dye-stuff for silk. Medicinally it 



ECHINUS PHILIPPENSIS 221 

is used as an anthelmintic, the English physician Mackinnon, 
of the Bengal Hospital, having been the first to scientifically 
prove this property ; he reported that it was successful in ex- 
pelling the tape-worm. It is now official in the Pharmacopeia 
of India and also in the U. S. P. as an anthelmintic and purga- 
tive ; in Switzerland it is commonly given to expel the bothri- 
ocephalus which abounds there, the lake fish acting as hosts. 

The dose recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of India is 
8-12 grams, divided in 3 or 4 doses. This amount sometimes 
causes nausea and colic ; in the third or fourth stool the taBnia is 
commonly expelled in a lifeless condition. Dujardin-Beaumetz 
advises a dose of 30 grams of castor oil in case the tsenia has 
not been expelled 2 hours after the last dose of kamala. The 
powder is efficacious but the tincture seems to be surer; the 
dose is 6 grams for children and 20 for adults, given in divided 
doses in aromatic water every hour for 6 hours. This tincture 
is prepared by macerating 200 grams of kamala in 500 cc. 
alcohol for 7 days ; then filtering with expression and adding 
enough alcohol to complete the 500 cc. 

The powder is also used in India as a local application in 
herpes circinata. It is insoluble in water; in ether and alcohol 
it yields 80J& of a red resin. Anderson noted that a concen- 
trated ethereal solution of kamala after a few days formed a 
solid crystalline mass, yellow, very soluble in ether; this sub- 
stance he named rottlerm. CLH 1A O. 

/ ftl IV 9 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 6-8 meters high, covered 
with stellate groups of short yellow hairs. Leaves alternate, 
petiolate, rhomboid-oval or lanceolate, acuminate, 3-nerved, 
entire or slightly dentate, upper surface glabrous, lower surface 
covered with woolly hairs and powdery red glands. Flowers 
yellowish-green, small, dioecious, apetalous, in spikes. Stami- 
nate: By 3's in the axil of each bract; perianth, 3 or 5 
deeply cut, lanceolate lobules ; stamens 15-25, free, inserted in 
the center of the flower. Pistillate : In the axil of each bract; 



222 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

ovary, 3 locales each with 1 ovule, covered like the leaves with 
hairs and yellow, granular glands. Seed vessel globose, 3- 
celled, like ovary covered with hairs and glands. 

HABITAT. Mountains of Morong, San Mateo, Tarlak, 
Bosoboso, Ilocos Norte, Albay and Batangas. 

Ricinus communis, L. (Variety microcarpus, Mull.) 

NOM. YULG. Tayantagan, Ligasina, Tag.; Taycmtagan, 
Tawatawa$iga } Hoc.; Castor Oil Plant, Eng. 

USES. A purgative oil is expressed from the seeds, called 
" Aceite dc Ricino " (castor oil). It operates mechanically in 
the intestinal tract and its action is rapid and is indicated 
whenever it is desired simply to empty the intestines without 
producing any irritating effect ; it is, therefore, a purgative 
indicated in diseases of children, in pregnancy, and in hemor- 
rhoidal congestions where a non-irritating evacuation of the 
rectum is desired. It is an anthelmintic, though not ordinarily 
given alone, but in combination with other drugs of a purely 
anthelmintic action, the object being to expel the worms which 
have been attacked by the specific. 

Oil extracted simply by expression is less purgative than 
that obtained by treating the seeds with bisulphide of carbon 
and absolute alcohol ; also less purgative than the seeds them- 
selves, because it contains only a very small proportion of a dras- 
tic principle existing exclusively in the seeds ; this principle 
is completely dissolved in the oil extracted by chemical process. 

It is pale yellow in color, very viscid, with a characteristic 
mouldy odor. The purgative dose is 10-30 grams. A small 
dose may purge as actively as a larger one provided that 
the patient drink abundantly after the administration of the 
drug. The best method of disguising its taste is by giving it 
in half a cup of very strong, hot coffee. Just before the dose, 
take a swallow of coffee to disguise the taste even more effec- 
tually. 



ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA 223 

Castor oil enters into the composition of elastic collodion 
(simple collodion, 30 grams, castor oil, 2 grams). The leaves 
pounded and boiled are applied as a poultice to foul ulcers. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. There are two forms of this 
variety in the Philippines, possessing the same properties and 
known by the same common name : R. viridis, Mull. (R. corn- 
munis, Blanco) and R. subpurpurascens, Mull.; the former is the 
more common and has a glabrous, fistular stem. Leaves pel- 
tate, palmately cleft in 7 or 9 lobules, lanceolate, serrate. Pet- 
ioles long. Flowers greenish, mono3cious, the staminate ones 
in large panicled clusters below the pistillate. Filaments 
numerous, subdivided into several anther-bearing branches. 
Pistillate flowers, 3 sepals, 3 styles. Seed vessel, 3 prickly 
capsules, containing solitary seeds. 

The R. subpurpurascens is distinguished from the former by 
bearing 2 glandules at the base of the leaves, the mulberry color 
of which latter suggests its common name, Tagantagan net 
morado, Tag., Vis. 

HABITAT. Very common in Luzon, Mindanao and other 
islands. 

URTICACEJE. 

Nettle Family. 
Artocarpus integrifolia, Willd. 

NOM. VULG. Nagka, Tag.; Jack Fruit Tree, Eng. 

USES. The huge fruit of this tree is well known to the 
Filipinos and well liked by them as an article of food, eaten 
fresh or in sweet preserves. The arils and pulpy envelopes of 
the seeds are the parts eaten, also the seeds themselves, boiled 
or roasted. According to Padre Mercado the roasted seeds 
have an aphrodisiac action. 

The heated and powdered leaves are applied to wounds and 
given internally for congestions. The resin of the trunk is a 
useful application to ulcers and in India they give it inter- 



224 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

nally to cure la melcna, the dose, one "tola" mixed with the 
same amount of manga resin and a little lime water. The 
same resin if heated makes an excellent cement for broken 
china. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree, 20 or more in height, 
with abundant milky sap. Leaves alternate, oval, acute at 
both ends, slightly wavy and revolute borders, tough, glabrous 
and dark green upper surface ; light green, slightly rough under 
surface. Petioles short. Flowers greenish, mono3cious, grow- 
ing on root, trunk and branches. Calyx very small, monophyl- 
lous, of about 7 deciduous lobules. Staminate : On a club- 
shaped receptacle, 3' or 4' long, bristling with the stamens ; 
filaments very short, anthers 2-celled. Pistillate : On a com- 
mon, oblong receptacle which ripens to the great fruit ; style 
1, short; rarely 2 divergent styles; stigmas acute. Fruit 
about size and shape of a small watermelon, beset with many 
sharp eminences, containing many seeds enveloped in thick 
arils. 

HABITAT. It grows in all parts of the Archipelago and is 
commonly known. 

Laportea gaudichaudiana, Wedd. ( Urtica umbdlata, 
U.fcrox, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Ligaton, Lipa, Apariagua (f ), Tag., Vis.; 
Lipagdoton, Pam. 

USES. The Padre Mercado writes as follows concerning the 
properties of this plant: "The leaves, applied with salt in the 
form of a plaster, purify dog bites, foul, putrid, malignant and 
cankerous ulcers ; they cure boils, contusions and all abscesses ; 
mixed with wax they may be applied for obstruction of the 
spleen ; mashed with the juice and inserted in the nose they ar- 
rest nose-bleed ; cooked with snails they soften the stomach, ex- 
cite the secretion of urine and dissipate flatus ; the juice given 
as a gargle aborts inflammation of the epiglottis. The seeds 



CASUARINA SUMATRANA 225 

mixed with wine are asexual excitant and " clear out" the womb ; 
taken with syrup they relieve dyspnoea, pain in the side and 
inflammation of the lungs and force up the humors from the 
chest ; it may be mixed with medicines that corrupt the flesh 
(sic). The grated root drunk with wine relieves painful flatu- 
lence. I myself (continues the Padre Mercado) have experi- 
mented with a woman who suffered with painful flatulence and 
this remedy relieved her." 

We repeat that all the foregoing is copied from the writings 
of Padre Mercado and we offer it as a therapeutic curiosity. 

P. Blanco states that merely to touch the leaves causes an 
intolerable itching. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A small tree, 12-15 high, 
trunk richly branched. Leaves opposite, bunched at the ends 
of the branches, notched at the base, long, ovate, serrate, hairy 
on both surfaces. Flowers yellowish-white, dioecious. Stami- 
nate : In compound racemes ; calyx 4 parts ; corolla none ; 
stamens 4, inserted on the base of the calyx. Pistillate : 
Flowers in 2-forked umbel, flat, very large ; calyx, none ; 
stamens none ; stigma 1 ; seed heart-shaped. 

HABITAT. Very common in all the fields and in the moun- 
tains. Blooms in June. 

CASUARINEJE. 

Beefwood Family. 
Casuarina Sumatrana, Jung. (C. equisetifolia, Blanco.) 

NOM. YULG. Ayoho, Tag.; Malabokok, Agoho, Vis.; Aro, 
Karo, Agoo, Hoc. 

USES. The bark is astringent by virtue of the large quan- 
tity of tannin it contains. Its principal use is in decoction in 
the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and haemoptysis ; it is also 
given in amenorrhoea, though it is apt to increase the pain. 
Externally it is used as a wash for contusions and ulcers. 
19 



226 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Another species, C. equisetifoKa, Forst., confounded with the 
former species by the natives, has the same therapeutic appli- 
cations. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree with stellately arranged 
straight branches. Leaves stellate, long, narrow, linear, 4- 
grooved. They have been compared to the tail of a horse and 
the tail of a certain bird the casobar. Staminate and pistil- 
late flowers greenish, on different parts of the same stalk. 
Staminate, in small aments. Pistillate on small globose 
aments ; calyx proper of the floweret, a coarse scale ; corolla 
none ; ovary conical ; styles 2, flattened, divergent ; stigmas 
acute. Fruit : Each floweret produces a woody seed-vessel, 
bivalved, ovate, glabrous, with a small seed ending in an oval 
wing ; all these seed vessels joined form a small cone about I' 
long. 

HABITAT. Very common in Ilocos, Tarlak, Binangonang 
of Lampong and N. Ecija. 



MONOCOTYLEDONS. 



MUSACE^. 

Banana Family. 

Musa paradisiaca, L. 

M. sapientum, L. 

NOM. VULG. Pldtano, Sp.; Sotgig, Tag., etc.; Banana, 
Eng. 

USES. The fruit produced by the various varieties of the 
banana plant constitutes one of the most wholesome and de- 
licious of foods, appreciated by natives and Europeans alike. 
According to Boussingaul its nutritive value is greater than 
that of the potato and it may be used constantly without ill 
effects. Bananas contain a large percentage of sugar and mu- 
cilage. In India they dry them in the sun, as figs and grapes 
are treated in other countries and thus preserve them for long 
voyages by sea or land; eaten in conjunction with animal food 
they are a strong preventive of scurvy. If eaten when thor- 
oughly ripe they have a laxative effect. 

The young and tender leaves are used in the Philippines as 
a protective dressing for ulcers, dermatitis, burns and can- 
tharidal or other artificial blisters. Before applying to the af- 
fected surface the leaf is heated to make it more flexible and 
coated with a thin layer of cocoanut oil or other fatty substance. 

In the dispensaries of India they also use the leaves in this 
way, thus protecting and at the same time maintaining the 
moisture of the part. Dr. Waring recommends the practice 
and Dr. Van Someren follows it in the application of water 
dressings, having substituted banana leaves for gutta-percha. 



228 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

In Mauritius the fruit is used for dysentery, and the flowers, 
together with an equal quantity of those of Spilanthes Acmella. 
are made into a decoction and prescribed for dropsy. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The banana plant with its huge 
waving leaves and succulent stem is universally familiar. The 
flower stalk rises through the center developing a drooping 
spike, the flowers in short rows in the axils of its large pur- 
plish bracts. According to Blanco there are 57 varieties of 
this plant in the Philippines, the following being the most 
common edible varieties : bugulag, lakatan, letondag, obispo, 
higo, morado, butuan, bentikohol, sabd, tampuhig. 

HABITAT. Common everywhere in the islands. 

ZINGIBERACEJE. 

Ginger Family. 
Zingiber officinale, L. (Amomum zingiber, L. and Blanco.) 

NOM. VTJLG. Ajengibre, Jengibre, Sp.; Luya, Tag.; Laya, 
Bic.; Ginger, Eng. 

USES. The rhizome is used principally as a condiment in 
the Philippines. Its flavor is extremely agreeable, much ap- 
preciated in Europe by the English who are the greatest con- 
sumers of the condiment. In the Philippines a decoction is 
made of ginger and brown sugar, called tahu by the Chinese 
who drink it regularly as we do coffee in the early hours of the 
morning. It is an excellent drink, aromatic, tonic, stomachic 
and stimulant, and would probably be highly useful as well as 
economical as a part of the ration of European and native 
troops in the field. Hot tahu or tahu is an active diuretic, and 
during the last epidemic of cholera in Manila some physicians 
used it with very satisfactory results. 

Ginger is a good carminative and is official in the pharma- 
copoeias of Europe, America and India. It is used with good 
effect in flatulent colic, atonic diseases of the intestines so com- 
mon in the Philippines and in chronic rheumatism. 



CUKCUMA LONG A 229 

The tincture is given in doses of 2-4 grams. The official 
infusion 30-60 grams. 

The rhizome contains a volatile oil 1 (25 per cent.), a pale yel- 
low liquid, specific gravity 0.878, the odor like that of the rhi- 
zome but lacking its strong and piquant taste. Its reaction is 
not acid ; it dissolves slowly in alcohol. The burning taste is 
due to a resin that produces protocatechuic acid when melted 
with potassa. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The only part employed is the 
rhizome, well known all over the islands and found in all their 
pharmacies and shops. 

Several stems rise 23 directly from the peculiar, branched 
rhizome ; long-lanceolate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, alternate 
leaves diverge stiffly from the sides of the stem ; petiole proper 
very short, its broader extension ensheathing the stem ; gen- 
eral appearance of a single stem is much like that of the Sol- 
omon's seal so familiar in the U. S. 

Curcuma longa, L. 

NOM. VULG. DilaWj Tag.; Dulaw, Kalawaga, Kinamboy, 
Vis.; Agay, Pam.; Turmeric Plant, Eng. 

USES. The yellow rhizome called by some azafrdn (saffron), 
is used as a condiment ; its odor is remotely suggestive of va- 
nilla. The Philippine herb-doctors give it internally for 
haemoptysis, externally as a plaster or in infusion for acute 
dermatitis. The juice is prescribed in doses of 30-60 grams in 
bronchial catarrh. In India they inhale the fumes of burning 
turmeric paper for coryza, and with good effect according to the 
testimony of Dr. Waring. 

The drug is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. It is 

carminative, stimulant and probably antiseptic. Its decoction 

is used as an eye-wash in catarrhal and purulent conjunctivitis. 

The Mohammedans of Decan use it for jaundice upon the 

1 European analyses make the amount 1-2.2 per cent. 



230 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

theory that the yellow color of the skin in that disease is an 
indication for a remedy of the same color. The juice is also 
used in many parts of India to stain the face, nails and other 
parts of the body. 

The tincture is prepared by macerating 30 grams of bruised 
rhizome in 200 cc. alcohol for .seven days, then filtering. Tur- 
meric paper is prepared by impregnating unsized paper with 
this tincture, and then drying. Both tincture and paper are 
used to test for alkalies. 

The rhizomes contain a pigment called curcumin, an essen- 
tial oil and fsecula. Curcumin (C 14 H 14 O 4 ) is crystalline, yellow 
by direct light and blue by reflected light ; it was studied by 
Jackson and Menke. 

In the Philippines it is used extensively as a diaphoretic 
and emmenagogue and in icterus, intestinal colic and dysmen- 
orrhoaa; externally for skin diseases, contusions and atonic 
ulcers. 

Gubler regards it as a diffusible stimulant. Its use is more 
extensive in England than in France and Spain ; in India it 
forms an ingredient of curry, called carl in Manila. Curcumin 
is eliminated by the urine, which it colors yellow, and if at the 
same time an alkali be taken by the patient, especially a salt 
of calcium, the urine becomes red and may communicate this 
stain to the clothes. This fact should be borne in mind to 
avoid embarrassing mistakes in diagnosis or prognosis. Dose 
of powder, 25 grams. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. Leaves 2-4 long, rising in 
bush-like bunches directly from the rhizome, broad-lanceolate, 
acuminate, gradually tapering down the long petioles ; numerous 
prominent nerves give a ribbed appearance to the blade. Rhi- 
zome cylindrical, irregular, bright yellow within. 

Elettaria Cardamomum, White. 
NOM. VULG. Lagkuas, Lagkawas, Vis.; Cardamon, Eng. 



CRINUM ASIATICUM 231 

USES. This plant, though official in several pharmacopoeias, 
is not used as a medicine in the Philippines, probably on ac- 
count of its scarcity here. The seeds are used as a condiment; 
they are stimulant and carminative and yield good results in 
atonic dyspepsia, nervous depression and spasmodic or flatulent 
affections of the intestine. The dose of the powdered seeds is 
from 0.60-1.50 grams in pill form; the tincture is, however, 
more convenient and is given in doses of from 4 to 8 grams. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with a scaly rhizome 
and adventitious roots from which spring the stems, some of 
which bear leaves and others flowers. The leaves are alternate, 
in pairs; extended, lanceolate blade, with a short petiole. 
Branches bearing flowers, short, flexible and scaly. The flowers 
spring from the sheaths of the leaves. Calyx tubular, 3-toothed ; 
second calyx with limb divided into 3 unequal lobules. Stamens 
3. Ovary inferior, 3 many-ovuled compartments. Style simple. 
Stigma rounded. Fruit an oblong, ovoid capsule, 3-celled, 
trivalvate. Seeds blackish, albuminous. 

HABITAT. Yisaya Islands. 

AMARYLLIDACE.E. 

Amaryllis Family. 
Crinum Asiaticum, L. ((7. giganteum, Blanco.) 

NOM. VULG. Bakog, Tag. 

USES. The decoction of the leaves is used in the Philippines 
as an expectorant. The plant is official in the Pharmacopoeia 
of India as an emetic and in small doses is nauseant and dia- 
phoretic. As an emetic the dose of the fresh juice of the root 
is 8-16 grams every 10 minutes till vomiting occurs. Dr. W. 
O'Shaughnessy, writing from Bengal, states that this is the only 
indigenous and abundant emetic plant of which he has experi- 
ence, which acts without producing griping, purging, or other 
unpleasant symptoms. In a communication to Dr. Waring he 



232 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

remarks that it is a good emetic and diaphoretic whenever 
ipecacuanha is not at hand but that it should be regarded not 
so much as a substitute for that article as a resource in case of 
need. 

The leaf juice is used in India to drop into the ears for 
disease of these organs. 

One of the infinite remedies used by the Filipinos under 
the name of " contrapoisons," without specifying or knowing 
what poison, is the powdered root of Crinum, given internally 
with a little water. They also use the leaves locally for the 
itch, bruising them and rubbing the affected parts energetically 
with them. I may note here in passing, what I have written 
before : that the Filipinos have from time immemorial been 
familiar with the sarcopt of scabies (Kahaw) which they pick 
out with a needle or spine of some fish or vegetable. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A plant with globose, scaly 
root. Leaves keeled or ridged. Flowers white, on a flattened 
stalk, on a spathe of 2 leaflets and several dry threads enclos- 
ing 4 flowerets. Corolla funnel-form, tube long and triangular ; 
limb cut in 6 horizontal lanceolate lobes. Stamens 6, shorter 
than corolla. Anthers long. Stigma with 3 points. Seed 
vessel inferior, 3-celled, each cell containing a seed. 

HABITAT. Very common on the seashore and in groves of 
mangrove trees. Blooms in July. 

LILIACEJE. 

Lily Family. 

Aloes Barbadensis, Mill. (A. humilis, Blanco; A. vera, L.; 
A. vulgaris, Banck.; A. Indica, Royl.) 

NOM. VULG. $6i7a, Tag.; Dilag boaya, Vis.; Aloes, Eng. 

USES. This species is one of those which produce the sub- 
stance known in pharmacy as aloes, which is the juice of the 
leaf evaporated to the consistency of an extract. It is official 



ALLIUM CEPA 233 

in all pharmacopoeias and its properties are known to the 
Filipino herb-doctors. They use the fresh juice of the leaves 
as a stimulant of the scalp in baldness and locally in contu- 
sions. Aloes is a slow purgative and its irritating action on the 
lower portion of the large intestine extends to the genito- 
urinary organs. It is, therefore, an emmenagogue and its pro- 
longed use causes hemorrhoids, especially in man. It is contra- 
indicated where there is disease of the genito-urinary organs or 
rectum. As it increases the secretion of bile it is useful in 
certain hepatic diseases. It is used in small doses as a tonic 
in dyspepsia. The tonic dose is J 20 centigrams ; purgative, 
15-50 of the extract, preferably in pill form. It is customary 
to associate it with other purgatives. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A stemless plant, the leaves 
springing immediately from the root as in the pineapple, joined 
at the base, straight, ligulate, very fleshy and becoming thinner 
toward the end, with stiff thorns along the edges. Flowers 
between yellow and red outside and straw-colored inside, in 
racemes on a cylindrical scape 3 or more high, sometimes 
ramose, peduncles very short. Corolla cylindrical, somewhat 
incurved, cleft to the middle in 6 parts, 3 external, acute and 
superposed on the others, obtuse at the apex and of different 
color. Stamens 6, inserted at the nectiferous base of the ovary 
and of the same length as the corolla. Anthers erect. Ovary 
cylindrical with 6 furrows. Stigma obtuse, with raveled edges. 
The seed vessel ovoid, 3-valved, 3-celled, with 2 seeds in each, 
furnished with 3 spongy wings. 

HABITAT. Common in gardens. 

Allium sativum, L. 
NOM. VULG. Ajo, Sp.; Baway, Tag.; Garlic, Eng. 

Allium Cepa, L. 

NOM. VULG. Cebolla, Sp.; Lasuna, Sibuyas, Tag.; Onion, 
Eng. 
20 



234 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

USES. The garlic and the onion are used to excess as con- 
diments in Philippine as well as Spanish cooking. Both are 
difficult of digestion and communicate a very disagreeable odor 
to the breath,, intolerable to those who are unaccustomed to it. 
Garlic possesses the singular property, familiar to many stu- 
dents and soldiers, of inducing a transient fever if introduced 
within the anus. When bruised and applied to the skin it has 
a counter-irritant action which makes it useful in the treatment 
of rheumatism, but the odor is so disagreeable that it is not 
worth while to use it for that purpose when we have so many 
other medicines which produce the same effect without being 
objectionable. It is also used locally for the bites of venomous 
animals. 

The onion is used cooked as a poultice over the bladder and 
internally for various catarrhs. It is better to abstain from 
the therapeutic and culinary use of products so indigestible 
and so malodorous. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. These plants are so well known 
in all parts of the world that a description of them would be 
superfluous. 

PALMJE. 

Palm Family. 
Areca Catechu, L. 

NOM. VuLCr. Boga, Tag.; Betel-nut Palm, Areca., Eng. 

USES. The seeds form part of a masticatory very common 
throughout the extreme Orient, known as Buyo and composed 
of a betel leaf, a little slaked lime, and a slice of the fruit of 
the bonga, known asSiri in Indo-Chinaand among the Malays. 
It is so common that it is hard to find a man or woman who 
does not use it. The saliva of those who use it is red and of 
a strong odor, and its careless use in time blackens the teeth 
and makes the breath extremely disagreeable. Habitual 
chewers consider it a tonic of the mouth and -stomach and a 



ARECA CATECHU 235 

general stimulant as well. It probably does possess these 
properties but they are reversed in the case of persons who use 
it immoderately for they lose appetite, become salivated, and the 
whole organism degenerates. The carbonized and powdered fruit 
is used as a dentifrice but its virtues are doubtless identical 
with those of any vegetable charcoal, i. e., absorbent and anti- 
septic. 

One unaccustomed to the use of bonga and chewing it for 
the first time, usually experiences a most disagreeable combi- 
nation of symptoms ; constriction of the oesophagus, a sensation 
of heat in the head and face, the latter becoming red and con- 
gested ; at the same time dizziness and precordial distress are 
experienced. The same phenomena occur in certain persons 
after eating palmito salad or the tender central portion of the 
bonga and of other palms. 

The flowers are eaten in salad like the above-mentioned 
palmito. The seed is astringent and tsenifuge ; for the latter 
purpose it is given internally as a powder in a dose of from 16 
to 24 grams. Its action is uncertain. The catechu which is 
obtained in India from the Bonga differs from that obtained 
from the Acacia Catechu and is a tonic analogous to rhatany 
and cinchona. 

The seeds contain about 14^> of a fatty crystalline material 
which melts at 39, and after saponification yields a crystalline, 
fatty acid that may be regarded as a mixture of lauric and 
muriatic acids. They also contain about 14^ of a red, amor- 
phous tonic material which, after drying, is but slightly soluble 
in cold or hot water. 

The lower part of the petiole of the leaves is thin and broad, 
ensheathing the trunk, is as tough as pasteboard when dry and 
is used in the Philippines as wrapping paper ; Dr. Bholanauth 
Bose and other physicians of India use it as a material for 
splints in fractures, a practice which might well be imitated in 
Manila and especially in the country. 



236 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A well-known palm with slender 
stem, surrounded by many circles ; it grows to about the same 
height as the coco-nut palm or less. The flowers spring in 
bunches of long, thread-like spikes from the trunk a little be- 
low the crown of leaves at the base of the long, smooth, green, 
sheath-like petioles which clasp the trunk ; each spike bears 
many staminate and a few pistillate flowers. The fruit is about 
the size and shape of a hen's egg, the husk tow-like or filamen- 
tose, the kernel pinkish or light red. 

HABITAT. Grows throughout the islands. 

Cocos nucifera, L. 

NOM. VULG. Coco, Sp.-Fil.; Niog, Tag.; Coco-nut Palm, 
Eng. 

USES. This plant is, perhaps, the most useful in the Phil- 
ippines. Without it and the bamboo plant the people of the 
Archipelago would not know how to live. It produces vine- 
gar, an alcoholic drink called tuba or coco-wine, an oil, an 
edible nut, and its leaves are used instead of nipa to roof the 
huts. 

Tuba is an opaline, slightly sweet liquid, with an agreeable 
taste, which rapidly becomes acid under the influence of the 
heat. A flowering or fruit-bearing stalk, which has not been 
incised before, is chosen and encircled with several rings of 
rope or rattan. The stalk is then cut and a bamboo vessel 
called a bombon is hung to receive the sap which escapes during 
the night. This liquid is valuable as a drink for those who are 
debilitated, suffering from pulmonary catarrh, and even for 
consumptives, who are accustomed to drink it every morning, 
sometimes with marvelous results, according to reports. The 
heat of the day rapidly ferments the tuba, converting it into a 
mild vinegar, which is widely used for domestic purposes in the 
Philippines. When fermented and distilled it produces a weak 
alcohol of disagreeable taste called coco-wine. 



COCOS NUCIFERA 237 

The ripe fruit contains a rather soft and savory meat which 
is generally eaten mixed with the clear, sweet coco-nut milk. 
Later the meat becomes firmer and is used as a food and an oil 
much used in the islands is extracted from it. To extract the 
oil the meat is grated and pressed until all the juice is ex- 
tracted. This is called the milk and when boiled is converted 
almost completely into oil. Cocoanut milk has an agreeable 
taste and may in some cases take the place of cow's milk. It 
is apt to produce diarrhoea, however, which action may be bad 
for some but on the other hand good for others, such as the 
habitually constipated. Both the meat and the milk are widely 
used by the natives in making sweets. 

In the greater part of the islands it is the only oil used for 
illumination. As a medicine it is employed internally as a 
purgative and externally in the treatment of scores of troubles 
in which the good results obtained are due, not to the oil but 
to the massage used in rubbing it in. It has the reputation of 
stimulating the growth of the hair and all the natives and some 
Europeans use it lavishly as a hair ointment. When fresh its 
odor is agreeable, but it easily becomes rancid and assumes a 
most disagreeable odor. In the Visayan Islands they make an 
oil of a nauseous odor which they call in Manila Caracoa. It 
is used only for illumination and by the poor. 

At a temperature of 20 or more the oil remains liquid ; it 
is colorless when fresh and properly extracted. It solidifies at 
18 and two kinds of soap are made of it; one soft and ex- 
ceedingly cheap called " Quiapo " ; the other hard, white, of a 
high quality, but as a rule containing an excess of lime which 
in time is deposited in a fluorescent film on its surface. 

In India the root is employed in the treatment of dysentery. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A tree most familiar to every 
one. 

HABITAT. Common in all parts of the Archipelago. 



238 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Nipa fruticans, Wurmb. 

NOM. VULG. Nipa, Sp.-Fil. ; Sasa, Tag. 

USES. The dry leaves of this palm are generally used in 
the villages of Manila Province, Pampanag, Bulacan and other 
provinces in the construction of roofs and walls of houses, 
which are therefore called " nipa houses." The decoction of 
the fresh leaves is used as a lotion for indolent ulcers, and a 
popular preserve is made from the fruit. 

Like the coco and following the same process the nipa yields 
a liquid also called tuba and possessing properties identical 
with those of the former plant. The weak alcohol distilled 
from it has some repute in the treatment of conjunctivitis, for 
which purpose a few drops are mixed with a small quantity of 
water and the eyes are washed with it several times a day. 
This alcohol, improperly called wine of nipa, has a character- 
istically unpleasant odor which makes it impracticable for 
medicinal or industrial use. Several chemists have attempted 
to remove the characteristic odor from nipa alcohol, but their 
results had always been negative because the odorous principle 
was distilled over at the same temperature as the alcohol. 
Finally a distinguished Filipino chemist, D. Anacleto del 
Rosario, perfected a process of producing from the nipa tuba 
an absolute alcohol perfectly free from the characteristic odor ; 
an alcohol, in fact, possessing all the qualities of chemically 
pure alcohol, and of such a high grade that it was awarded the 
first prize at the last World's Fair in Paris. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. A palm about 6 high with 
long, pinnate leaves with leaflets which separate, at maturity, 
like those of the coco palm. Flowers monoecious, in a spathe. 
Fruit, many pyramidal drupes joined together, but easily sepa- 
rable. The outer covering of each drupe is hard, the inner part 
tow-like ; seed enveloped in a sort of fleshy white meat. 

HABITAT. Salt water marshes, especially in Pampanga and 
the Yisayan Islands. 



CYPEKUS ROTUNDUS 239 

CYPERACE^E. 

Sedge Family. 
Cyperus rotundus, L. 

NOM. VULG. Mutha, Tag.; Botobotones, Vis.; Mota, Malaa- 
polid, Sursur, Onoran, Kusug, Omadiug, Galonalpas, Pam.; 
Nutgrass or Coco-grass, Eng. 

USES. The root possesses stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic 
and emmenagogue properties. In the Philippines it is used in- 
ternally for dysentery, and in India for the same purpose and 
as a vermifuge. It is given as a tonic in gastro-intestinal 
diseases, and General Hardwick has reported good results with 
it in cholera ; as he reported only two cases, his testimony is 
not of much value. 

The Chinese use the dry or roasted root, especially in inflam- 
mation of the viscera and uterine diseases. They also attribute 
to it diuretic, emmenagogue and anthelmintic properties. In 
Java and India they use it for gonorrhoea, and in Mauritius as 
a diaphoretic and astringent. In the Philippines the bruised 
root is applied to the face for toothache. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. The root is ovoid, ranging in 
size from that of a hazel-nut to that of a walnut, composed of 
a white, spongy substance. Leaves sword-shaped, ensheathing 
the stem. Flowers in a compound umbel on the end of the 
stalk which is naked, long and triangular. The umbellets are 
alternate, awl-shaped, with distinct flowers. Calyx universal, 
with 2 sword-shaped leaflets. Calyx proper, a very small, 
ridged scale. Corolla none. Stamens 3. Filaments long, 
inserted on the base of the ovary. Anthers long and straight. 
Style 1. Stigmas 3, simple, re volute. Fruit 1. Seed ob- 
long, 3-sided, glabrous. 

HABITAT. Common in Luzon and Panay. Blooms in 
June and July. 



240 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

GRAMINE.E. 

Grass Family. 
Zea Mays, L. 

NOM. VULG. Mate, Sp.; Maize, Corn, Eng. 

USES. Corn is an extensive article of diet in the Philippines, 
bat has the reputation of being indigestible. This is true when 
it is eaten in the grain, but in the form of meal it is easily 
digested and highly nutritious. The tassels have been used in 
the Philippines from time immemorial in decoction as a diuretic, 
for which property they received notice in the Medical World 
of Paris about the year 1876. The entire plant is diuretic and 
the natives give the decoction of the stalk for various diseases 
of the bladder and kidneys. An extract of the tassels has been 
put on the market, but it is better to administer a decoction 
made from 20 grams of tassel to 1 liter of water to be taken at 
will during the day. Rademaker and Fischer give the follow- 
ing chemical composition : 

Fixed oil 5.25 

Resin, crystalline matter and chlorophyl 3.25 

Maizenic acid 2.25 

Sugar and gum 19.50 

Albuminoids , 3.50 

Salts and extracts 5.50 

Cellulose 37.00 

Water 20.00 

The fixed oil is bright yellow, saponifiable by potash, soluble 
in chloroform and ether, insoluble in alcohol, solidifies at 10. 
HABITAT.- Very common in all parts of the islands. 

Andropogon Schoenanthes, L. 

NOM. VULG. Salay, Taglad, Tag. ; Paja de Meca, Sp.-Fil. ; 
Baliyoko, Vis. ; ^ Geranium Grass, Eng. 



SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM 241 

. The Filipino women use the leaves to perfume their 
gogo hair-wash. The decoction of the leaves is used internally 
as a diuretic (10 grams to a liter of water) and also to bathe 
pregnant women. The roots also are diuretic. 

A Manila pharmacist, D. Eosendo Garcia, has obtained a 
good quality of the fixed oil of this plant. In India they call 
this essence rusa, geranium and gin-gembre (nimar oil, Eng.) ; 
the annual export from Bombay is over 40,000 English 
pounds. It is dextrogyrous and its formula is C 5 H 4 . 

Another species, the A. nardus, L., commonly called " raiz 
de mora " (mulberry root), " citronella," Eng., possesses the 
same therapeutic properties as the former. It also possesses 
an agreeable perfume and yields an essential oil, which, like 
rusa, is used to adulterate Attar of Roses. 

The dried root is widely used in the Philippines and in 
Europe as well, to preserve clothing from moths and other de- 
structive insects, at the same time giving them a sweet odor. 
In India the decoction is used internally, 10 grams to a liter of 
water, in the treatment of rheumatism and as a diuretic. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. An indigenous grass with sword- 
shaped leaves about 4 high, tapering at the base, possessing a 
sweet odor. Root thick, irregular, rough, formed by the union 
of several small rootlets. 

Saccharum officinarum, L. 

NOM. YULG. Canamiel, Cana de azucar, Cana dulc, Sp. ; 
Tubo, Tag. ; Sugar Cane, Eng. 

USES. The Filipinos are very fond of the fresh cane. 
The juice, which is extracted by means of primitive wooden 
presses, is used as a drink mixed with lemon juice or vino and 
is sold in markets and public places as a popular beverage on 
hot days. A tepid juice, extracted from heated cane is given 
for catarrhal troubles. This use of the juice is the only one 
peculiar to the Philippines. Its general use and properties 



242 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

are universally familiar and are amply treated in the materia 
medica. 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION. This plant is so universally fa- 
miliar that it is unnecessary to describe it. More than 20 
varieties are found in the Philippines. 

HABITAT. Throughout the islands, especially in the Island 
of Negros and the Luzon Provinces of Pampanga, Bulacan and 
Nueva Ecija. 

Oriza, L. 

NOM. VULG. Arroz, Sp. ; Palay, Tag. (the plant and the 
uuhusked rice) ; Bigas, Tag. (the husked rice) ; Rice, Eng. 

USES. All the people of Indo-China, China, Japan and the 
greater part of the Indian Archipelago eat rice as Europeans 
do bread. 

In the Philippines an immense variety of rice grows and in 
the World's Fair at Paris, in 1889, Senor D. Eegino Garcia, of 
Manila, presented a unique collection of 147 varieties. The 
rice grown in high lands above irrigation is called " arroz de 
secano" and mountain rice, and that grown in low and irrigated 
land is called " arroz de sementera " and swamp rice. The 
two kinds are equally valuable as food. 

The proportion of starch in rice is large, but it contains but 
a small amount of gluten, and therefore a large amount must 
be eaten in order to obtain sufficient nutritive elements. 

Water 5,00 

Starch 85.07 

Parenchyma 4.80 

Nitrogenous matter ' 3.68 

Crystallizable sugar 0.29 

Gummy matter 1.71 

Oil 0.13 

Phosphate of lime 0.40 

Chloride of potash, phosphate of potash, acetic 
acid, calcareous vegetable salt, salt of potash, 
sulphur Traces. 



BAMBUSE^E 

In the Filipino therapeutics rice has an extensive use, es- 
pecially in the form of a decoction called cange, which is com- 
monly given in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, with 
good results. Cooked as a sort of mush it may be used as a 
substitute for linseed poultices and has the great advantage of 
not becoming rancid. Roasted and powdered it is dusted upon 
wounds or abrasions of the skin and forms a dry and absorbent 
covering under which they heal rapidly. 

It has lately been claimed that beriberi is due to a micro- 
organism found in rice under certain abnormal conditions ; this 
claim is not yet firmly established and beriberi is still one of 
the many problems in medicine which are awaiting solution. 

HABITAT. All parts of the Archipelago. 

BAMBUSEJE. 

Bamboo Family. 

NOM. VuLG.-r-Cam, Sp.; Bamboo, Eng. 

Linnaeus and Blanco include in the genus Bambus all the 
different species of bamboo to which the Spaniards have given 
the general name of cana. The plant is of incomparable value 
to the natives of the Philippines ; they build their houses of it, 
make agricultural and industrial instruments of it, use it in all 
the varied apparatus of their fisheries and for a multitude of 
household utensils and furniture. 

The variety B. arundinacea, Retz. (B. wundo, Blanco), 
Kawayag-totoOj Tag., is the largest and most generally employed 
in making houses and furniture. The tender shoots prepared 
in lime water are edible but have the deserved reputation of 
being difficult of digestion. 

The variety Schizostaehyum acutiflorum, Munro (B. diffusa, 
Blanco), Osiw, Bokawy, Tag., is less used. The shoots are 
used to treat opacity of the cornea, for which purpose they are 
cut when about a palm in height, the outer leaves removed, 



244 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

and the center soaked over night with a little sugar candy. 
The following day the water in the bottom of the jar is col- 
lected and used to paint the cornea. 

The variety Dendroealamus sericcns, Munro (B. mitis, Blanco), 
Taywanak, Tag., is also used in medicine. Its abundant sap is 
given internally in the treatment of phthisis. 

All of the above species and the Dendroealamus flagelli/er, 
Munro (B. levis, Blanco), BoJio, Tag., produce at their joints a 
hard porcelain-like substance, friable, of opaline color, called 
"bamboo stone " or "tabashir" in India, where, as well as in 
the Philippines and Indo-China, it has great repute among the 
popular remedies. It is given in venereal diseases, hiccough, 
hemorrhage, fevers and other diseases. As a matter of fact, it 
is an almost inert substance, the imaginary virtues of which 
originated, doubtless, in the apparently remarkable fact that a 
stone (?) was produced inside of a vegetable. 

The analysis of M. Guibourt-is as follows: 

Silicon 96.04 

Water 2.94 

Lime and potassium 0.13 

Organic material Traces. 



INDEX OF PLANTS 

ACCORDING TO THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES. 



Alteratives. Anona muricata. Tinospora crispa. Raphanus 
sativus. Bombax malabaricus. Oxalis corniculata. Citrus acida 
and C. Bigaradia. Mangifera Indica. Pongamia glabra. Lawsonia 
alba. Hydrocotyle Asiatica. Alangium Lamarkii. Oldenlandia 
corymbosa. Calotropis gigantea. Ehretia buxifolia. Solanum 
nigrum. Cassytha filiformis Euphorbia Tirucalli. Phyllanthus re- 
ticulatus. 

Anthelmintics. 1 Cleome viscosa. Pangium edule. Ruta 
graveolens. Melia Azedarach. DysoxylumBlancoi. Mangifera In- 
dica. Anacardium oecidentale. Mucuna pruriens. Quisqualis In- 
dica. Punica Granatum. 2 Jussise'a suftruticosa. Carica Papaya. 
Trichosanthes anguinaand T. cucumerina. Lagenaria. Momordica. 
Hydrocotyle Asiatica. Sphseran thus Indicus. Calotropis gigantea. 
Tectona grandis. Clerodendron infortunatum. Chenopodium 
ambrosioides. Echinus Philippinensis. Cyperus rotundus. Rhina- 
canthus communis. 

Antispasmodics. Si da carpinifolia. Hibiscus Abelmoschus. 
Ruta graveolens. Citrus acida and C. Bigaradia. Cedrela Toona. 
Celastrus paniculata. Cassia occidentalis. Carum copticum. 
Blumea balsamifera. Artemisia vulgaris. Solanum nigrum. Da- 
tura alba. Nicotiana Tabacum. Adhatoda vasica. Chenopodium 
ambrosioides. Chloranthus officinalis. 

Antiseptics. Ruta graveolens. Citrus acida and C. Bigaradia. 
Mangifera Indica. Anacardium occidentale. Erythrina Indica. 
Pongamia glabra. Entada scandens. Coffea Arabica. Blumea bal- 
samifera. Spilanthes Acmella. Nerium odorum. Solanum nigrum. 
Nicotiana Tabacum. Tectona grandis. Ocimum. Piper Betle. 
Cinnamomum. Acalypha Indica. Curcuma longa. Areca Cate- 
chu. Nipa fruticans. 

1 Including tsenifuges. 

2 Names in italics are considered of especial importance by the author. 

245 



246 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Astringents. Tetracera macrophylla. Michelia Champaca. 
Anona squamosa, A. reticulata and A. muricata. Nelumbium nu- 
cifera. Bixa Orellana. Garciniamangostana, G. Cambogia. Ochro- 
carpus pentapetalus. Sida carpinifolia. Thespesia populnea. 
Bombax malabaricus. Sterculia foetida. Murraya exotica. ^Egle 
decandra. Feronia elephantum. Melia Azedarach. Sandoricum 
Indicum. Caropa Moluccensis. Rhamnus Wightii. Mangifera In- 
dica. Odina Wodier. Pterocarpus. Csesalpinia Sappan. Acacia 
Farnesiana. Terminalia Catappa and T. Chebula. Psidium pomif- 
erum. Melastoma malabatrichum. Punica Granatum. Hymeno- 
dictyon Indicum. Tectona grandis. Achyranthes obtusifolia. 
Artocarpus integrifolia. Casuarina Sumatrana. Areca Catechu. 
Cyperus rotimdus. 

Acids or Refrigerants. Oxalis corniculata. Averrhoa Bilimbi and 
A . Carambola. Citrus acida and C. Bigaradia. Feronia elephantum. 
Amaranthus spinosus. Phyllanthus reticulatus. Tamarindus Indica. 

Balsams. Calophyllum Inophyllum. Dipterocarpus turbinatus. 
Garuga pinnata. Canarium commune. 

Carminatives. Illicium anisatum. Cleome viscosa. Helicteres 
Isoara. Abroma fastuosa. Feronia elephantum. Terminalia Che- 
bula. Carum copticum. Foeniculum vulgare. Plumbago Zey- 
lanica. Coleus aromaticus. Rosmarinus officinalis. Aristolochia 
Indica. Zingiber officinale. Curcuma longa. Elettaria Cardamo- 
mum. 

Convulsives. Strychnos Ignatii. 

Cosmetics. Eriodendrum anfractaosum. Cocos nucifera. 

Diaphoretics. Cissampelos Pareira. Sida carpinifolia. Hibiscus 
Rosa-Sinensis. Gossypium herbaceum. Ruta graveolens. Xan- 
thoxylum oxyphyllum. Celastrus paniculata. Hy drocotyle Asiatica. 
Eupatorium Ayapana. Blumea balsamifera. Plumbago Zeylanica, 
Calotropis gigantea. Tylophora asthmatica. Oroxylum Indicum. 
Barleria Prionitis. Justicia Gendarussa. Ocimum. Anisomeles 
ovata. Crinum Asiaticum. Cyperus rotimdus. Andropogon Schoe- 
nanthus and A. nardus. 

Digestives. Carica Papaya. 

Diuretics. Cissampelos Pareira. Abutilon Indicum. Anacar- 
dium occidentale. Abrus precatorius. Erythrina Indica. Clitoria 
ternata. Cassia occidentals. Hy drocotyle Asiatica. Prederia 
foetida. SpilanthesAcmella. Achras Sapota. Ipomoeapes-caprse. 
Solanum nigrum. Limnophila Menthastrum. Sesamum Indicum. 



INDEX OF PLANTS 247 

Lippia nodiflora. Tectona grandis. Vitex. Amaranthus spinosa. 
Achyranthes obtusifolia. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phyllanthus 
reticulatus and P. Niruri. Allium Cepa. Cyperus rotundus. Zea 
Mays. Andropogon Schoenanthus. 

Emmenagogues. Michelia Chainpaca. Artabotrys odoratissimus. 
Anamirta Cocculus. Cissampelos Pareira. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis. 
Gossypiumherbaceum. Abromafastuosa. Rutagraveolens. Dy- 
soxyluni Blancoi. Csesalpinia Sappanand C. pulcherrima. Citrullus 
Colocynthis. Morinda citrifolia. Blumea balsamifera. Artemisia 
vulgaris. Plumbago Zeylanica. Plumeria acutifolia. Sesamum In- 
dicum. Vitex. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Aristolochialndica. 
Casuarina Sumatrana. Aloes Barbadensis. Cyperus rotundus. 

Emetics. Hibiscus tiliaceus. Dysoxylum Blancoi. Moringa 
pterygosperma. Clitoria ternatea. Entada scandens. Trichos- 
anthes anguina. Lagenaria. Alangium Lamarkii. Randia dume- 
torum. Psederia foetida. Allamanda cathartica. Thevetia nerii- 
folia. Cerbera Odallam. Calatropis gigantea. Tylophora asth- 
matica. Justicia Gendarussa. Acalyplia Indica. Crinum Asiati* 
cum. 

Emollients. Sida carpinifolia. Abutilon Indicum. Urena sin- 
uata. Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis. Gossypium herbaceum. Erioden- 
dron anfractuosum. Helicteres Ixora. Biophytum sensitivum. 
Zizyphus Jujuba. Abrus precatorius. Clitoria ternata. Csesalpinia 
pulcherrima. Lawsonia alba. Luffa ^Egyptiaca. Ipomoea pes- 
capra3. Sesamum Indicum. Acanthus ilicifolius. Lippia nodiflora. 
Plantago erosa. Musa paradisiaca and M. sapientum. Curcuma 
longa. Allium Cepa. Cocos nucifera. Ori/a. 

Stimulants. Illicium anisatum. Artabotrys odoratissimus. 
Brassica juncea. Raphanus sativus. Mesua ferrea. Hibiscus 
Abelmoschus. Helicteres Ixora. Ruta graveolens. Xanthoxylum 
oxyphyllum. Citrus acida. Celastrus paniculata. Moringa ptery- 
gosperma. Csesalpinia pulcherrima. Hydrocotyle Asiatica. Carum 
copticum. Fceniculum vulgare. Coffea Arabica. Eupatorium 
Ayapana. Blumea balsamifera. Sphseranthus Indicus. Spilanthes 
Acmella. Artemisia vulgaris. Mimusops Elengi. Jasminum 
Sambac. Capsicum fastigiatum. Ocimum. Rosmarinus officinalis. 
Chenopodium ambrosioides. Piper Betle and P. nigrum. Chloran- 
thus officinalis. Cinnamomum. Zingiber officinale. Curcuma longa. 
Allium sativum and A. Cepa. Cyperus rotundus. Andropogon 
Schoenanthus and A. nardus. 



248 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Expectorants. Hibiscus Kosa-Sinensis. Biophytum sensitivum. 
Trichosanthes cucumerina. Bluniea balsamifera. Tylophora 
asthmatica. Acanthus ilicifolius. Barleria Prionitis. Adhatoda 
vasica. Vitex. Ocimum. Acalypha Indica. Crinum Asiaticum. 

Febrifuges. Michelia Champaca. Tinospora crispa. Anamirta 
Cocculus. Sida carpinifolia. Melia Azedarach. Dysoxylum Blan- 
coi. Carapa Moluccensis. Cedrela Toona. Erythrina Indica. 
CsesalpiniaBonducellaandC.pulcherrima. Cassia occidentalis.Am- 
mannia vesicatoria. Trichosanthes cucumerina. Hymenodictyoii 
excelsum. Ixora coccinea. Morinda citrifolia. Achras Sapota. 
Mimusops Elengi. Thevetia neriifolia. Plumeria acutifolia. 
Alstonia scholaris. Vitex. Clerodendron infortunatum. Aniso- 
meles ovata. Aristolochia Indica. Piper nigrum. Chloranthus 
officinalis. 

Galactagogues. Gossypium herbaceum. 

Antigalactagogues. Jasminum Sambac. Piper Betle. 

Hemostatics. Portulaca oleracea. Tetracera rnacrophylla. 
Mangifera Indica. Pterocarpus. Csesalpinia Sappan. Euphorbia 
pilulifera. 

Narcotics (sedatives and anodynes). Anamirta Cocculus. Arge- 
mone Mexicana. Pangium edule. Cassia occidentals. Solanum 
nigrum. Datura alba. Mcotiana Tabacum. Vitex. 

Nutritive Plants. Anona squamosa, A. reticulata and A. muricata. 
Nelumbium nucifera. Pangium edule. Portulaca oleracea. Gar- 
cinia mangostana and G. Cambogia. Sterculia foetida. Theobroma 
Cacao. Averrhoa Silimbi, A. Carambola. Feronia elephantum. 
Garuga pinnata. Canarium commune. Sandoricum Indicum. 
Zizyphus Jujuba. Mangifera Indica. Anacardium occidentale. 
Moringa pterygosperma. Agati grandiflora. Tamarindus Indica. 
Bauhinia malabarica. Parkia Roxburghii. Psidium pomiferum. 
Eugenia Jambolana. Trichosanthes. Lagenaria. Momordica. 
Achras Sapota. Solanum nigrum. Sesamum Indicum. Artocarpus 
integrifolia. Musa paradisiaca and M. sapientum. Areca Catechu. 
Cocos nucifera. Zea Mays. Saccharum officinarum. Oriza. Bam- 
busese. 

Purgatives. Argemone Mexicana. Garcinia Morella. Mesua 
ferrea. Agati grandiflora. Erythrina Indica. Clitoria ternatea. 
Ca3salpinia pulcherrima. Cassia fistula and C. alata. Tamarindus 
Indica. Entada scandens. Terminalia Chebula. Jussisea suffruti- 
cosa. Carica Papaya. Trichosanthes anguina and T. cucumerina. 



INDEX OF PLANTS 249 

Lagenaria. Luffa ^Egyptiaca. Momordica. CitruUus Colocynthis. 
Trianthema monogyna. Morinda citrifolia. Spilanthes Acmella. 
Carthamus tinctorius. Allamanda cathartica. Cerbera Odallam. 
Plumeria acutifolia. Calotropis gigantea. Ipomoea hederacea. 
Ipoinoea Turpethum. Solanum nigrum. Sesamum Indicum. Tec- 
tona grandis. Samadera Indica. Mirabilis Jalapa. Amaranthus 
spinosus. Euphorbia neriifolia. Euphorbia Tirucalli. Jatropa Cur- 
cas. Aleurites moluccana. Croton Tiglium. Acalypha Indiea. 
Ricinus communis. Aloes Barbadensis. 

Sialagogues. Carum copticum. 

Bitter Tonics. Michelia Champaca. Tinospora crispa. Cis- 
sampelos Pareira. Crateeva religiosa. Mesua ferrea .Sida carpini- 
folia. Murraya exotica. Citrus Bigaradia. Samadera Indica. 
Melia Azedarach. Rhamnus Wightii. Agati grandiflora. Csesal- 
pinia Bonducella. Cassia occidentals. Terminalia Chebula. Tri- 
chosanthes cucumerina. Moinordica. Hymenodicty on excelsnm . 
Morinda citrifolia. Spha3ranthus Indicus. Achras Sapota. Mimu- 
sops Elengi. Alstonia scholaris. Calotropis gigantea. Strychnos 
Ignatii. Limnophila Menthastrum. Oroxylum Indicum. Vitex. 
Clerodendron infortunatum. Anisomeles ovata. Phyllanthus Ni- 
ruri. Aloes Barbadensis. Areca Catechu. Nerium odorum (cardiac). 

Aromatic Tonics. Feronia elephantum. Sandoricum Indicum. 
Fceniculum. Coffea Arabica. Eupatorium Ayapana. Artemisia 
vulgaris. Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cinnamomum. Zingiber offi- 
cinale. 

Vesicants. Anacardium occidentale. Moringa pterygosperma. 
Ammannia vesicatoria. Plumbago Zeylanica. Calotropis gigantea, 
Euphorbia Tirucalli. 

Rubefacients or Revulsives. Moringa pterygosperma. Plumeria 
acutifolia. Croton Tiglium. Jatropha Curcas. Allium sativum. 

Stimulants. Sterculia urens. Argemone Mexicana. Kleinhovia 
hospitata. Celastrus paniculata. Pongamia glabra. Cassia alata. 
Entada scanclens. Kalanchoe laciniata. Elettaria Cardamomum. 

Antiherpetics, etc. Sterculia foetida. Canarium commune. Tri- 
chosanthes palmata. 



21 



INDEX OF PLANTS 

ACCORDING TO SPECIAL DISEASES. 



Aphthae, Stomatitis, Glossitis. 1 Tetraceramacrophylla. Feronia 
elephantum. Pterocarpus santalinus, Indicus and erinaceus. Me- 
lastoma malabatrichuni. Punica Granatum. Mimusops Elengi. 
Calotropis gigantea. Tectona grandis. Ocimum. Achyranthes ob- 
tusifolia. Phyllanthus reticulatus . 

Hemorrhoids. Mesua ferrea. Thespesia populnea. Terniinalia 
Chebula. Punica Granatum. Plumbago Zeylanica. Capsicum fas- 
tigiatum. Sesamum Indicum. Aloes Barbadensis (for inducing the 
hemorrhoids). 

Amenorrhcea and Dysmenorrhoaa. Abroma fastuosa. Dysoxy- 
lum Blancoi. Csesalpinia Sappan. Csesalpinia pulcherrima. Blu- 
mea balsamifera. Artemisia vulgaris. Plumeria acutifolia. Sesa- 
mum Indicum. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Casuarina Sumatrana. 
Aloes Barbadensis. 

Anasarca. Plumbago Zeylanicum. Coffea Arabica. Plumeria 
acutifolia. Calotropis gigantea. Ipomoea pes-caprse. Solanum ni- 
grum . Barlonia Prionitis. Achyranthes obtusifolia. Euphorbia 
neriifolia. Phyllanthus Niruri. Cissampelos Pareira. 

Anal Fistula. Pterocarpus. 

Asthma. Gossypium herbaceum. Garuga pinnata. Dysoxylum 
Blancoi. Erythrina Indica. Csesalpinia pulcherrima. Entada 
scandens. Trichosanthes palmata. Coffea Arabica. Tylophora 
asthmatica. Datura alba. Acanthus ilicifolius. Adhatoda vasica. 
Coleus aromaticus. Euphorbia pilulifera. Euphorbia Tirucalli. 
Euphorbia neriifolia. Phyllanthus Niruri. 

Spleen, Affections of. Ammannia vesicatoria. Lawsonia alba. 
Momordica. 

Beriberi. Celastrus paniculata. Vitex. 

1 1 do not join these diseases because I consider them identical or due to the 
same pathogenic agent but because the plants that follow are used indifferently 
for the diseases. 

251 



252 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Blenorrhoea, Gonorrhoea, Urethritis.--Nymph8ea Lotus. Argemone 
Mexicana. Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Sterculia foetida. Clitoria 
ternata. Pterocarpus. Trichosanthes palmata. Mimusops Elengi. 
Plumeria acutifolia. Lippia nodiflora. Ocimum. Amaranihus 
spinosus. Cassytha filiformis. Cyperus rotundus. 

Bronchi and Lungs, Diseases of. Anona nmricata. Calophyllum 
Inophyllum. Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Canarium commune. 
Zizyphus Jujuba. Abrus precatorius. Erythrina Indica. Csesal- 
pinia pulcherrima. Trichosanthes cucumerina. Lagenaria. Ixora 
coccinea. Blumea balsamifera. Tylophora asthmatica. Sesamum 
Indicum. Barleria Prionitis. Adhatodavasica. Vitex. Coleus aro- 
maticus. Anisomeles ovata. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Euphorbia 
pilulifera. Acalypha Indica. Curcuma longa. 

Cholera. Artabotrys odoratissimus. Samadera Indica. Carum 
copticum. Eupatorium Ayapana. Zingiber officinale. Cyperus ro- 
tundus. 

Colic, (a) Flatulent: Illicium anisatum. Argemone" Mexicana. 
Cleome viscosa. Helicteres Ixora. Dysoxylum Blancoi. Termi- 
nalia Chebula. Carum copticum. Fceniculum. Plumbago Zeylanica. 
Ipomcea pes-caprse. Ocimum. Coleus aromaticus. Rosmarinus 
officinalis. Aristolochia Indica. Piper Betle. Elettaria Cardamo- 
mum. 

(b) Lead : Allamanda cathartica. 

Contusions. Samadera Indica. Plumeria acutifolia. Aloes Bar- 
badensis. Casuarina sumatrana. 

Heart, Diseases of. Helicteres Ixora. Coffea Arabica. Cin- 
namomum. 

Coryza (rhinitis, nasal catarrh, ozwna). Agati grandiflora. Oci- 
mum. Curcuma longa. 

Diabetes. Eugenia Jambolana. 

Diarrhoea, Dysentery. Anona squamosa. AnonareticulataandA. 
muricata. Nelumbium nucifera. Bixa Orellana. Garcinia mangos- 
tana. Ochrocarpus pentapetalus. Thespesia populnea. Gossypium 
herbaceum. Bombax malabaricum. Averrhoa Bilimbi. Averrhoa 
Carambola. Murraya exotica. JEgle decandra. Feronia elephan- 
tum. Sandoricum Indicum. Carapa Moluccensis. Cedrela Toona. 
Rhamnus Wightii. Mangifera Indica. Pterocarpus. Caesalpinia 
Bonducella. Bauhinia malabarica. Kalanchoe laciniata. Termin- 
alia Catappa. Psidium pomiferum. Eugenia Jambolana. Punica 
Granatum. Jussisea suffruticosa. Carica Papaya. Carum copticum. 



INDEX OF PLANTS 253 

Randia dumetorum. Ixora coccinea. Morinda citrifolia* Sphseran- 
thus Indicus. Plumbago Zeylanica. Mimusops Elengi. Plumeria 
acutifolia. Calotropis gigantea. Tylophora asthmatica. Oroxylum 
Indicum. Anisomeles ovata. Aristolochia Indica. Piper Betle. 
Phyllanthus Niruri. Casuarina Sumatrana. Zingiber officinale. 
Cyperus rotundus. Oriza. 

Dyspepsia. Illicium anisatum. Sida carpinifolia. JEgle decan- 
dra. Samadera Indica. Sandoricum Indicum. Rhamnus Wightii. 
Agati grandiflora. Csesalpinia Bonducella. Cassia occidentalis. 
Terminalia Chebula. Carica Papaya. Trichosanthes cucumerina. 
Momordica. Carum copticum. Eupatorium Ayapana. Blumea 
balsamifera. Sphseranthus Indicus. Artemisia vulgaris. Alstonia 
scholaris. Strychnos Ignatii. Capsicum fastigiatum. Acanthus ilici- 
folius. Lippia nodiflora. Tectona grandis. Ocimum. Kosmarinus 
officinalis. Anisomeles ovata. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Aris- 
tolochia Indica. Piper Betle. Zingiber officinale. Elettaria Car- 
damomum. Aloes Barbadensis. 

Gingivitis, Hemorrhage, etc. Feronia elephantum. Tectona 
grandis. Plantago erosa. Phyllanthus reticulatus. (See "Sore- 
throat.") 

Scorbutics. Anona muricata. Raphanus sativus. Oxalis cornicu- 
lata. Phyllanthus reticulatus. Musa paradisiaca and M. sapientum. 

Spermatorrhoea. Sida carpinifolia. Lawsonia alba. 

Constipation. ^Egle decandra. Helicteres Isora. Nicotiana Ta- 
bacum. Sesamum Indicum. Musa paradisiaca and M. sapientum. 
(See " Purgatives.") 

Fevers. Michelia Champaca. Sida carpinifolia. Tinospora 
crispa. Anamirta Cocculus. Samadera Indica. Melia Azedarach. 
Dysoxylum Blancoi. Carapa moluccensis. Cedrela Toona. Ery- 
thrina Indica. Cassia occidentalis (malarial). Ammannia vesica- 
toria. Trichosanthes cucumerina. Hymenodictyon excelsum. 
Morinda citrifolia. Psederia foetida. Plumbago Zeylanica. Mimu- 
sops Elengi. Alstonia scholaris. 

Fracture. Sterculia urens. 

Throat, Diseases of (anginas, amygdalitis, pharyngitis}. Feronia 
elephantum. Mangifera Indica. Odina Wodier. Melastoma mala- 
batrichum. Punica Granatum. Mimusops Elengi. 

Gout. Celastrus paniculata. Momordica. 

Hemorrhage. Bixa Orellana. Bombax malabaricum. Mangifera 
Indica. Pterocarpus. Csesalpinia Sappan. 



254 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Hemoptysis. Tetracera macrophylla. Portulaca oleracea. 
Caesalpinia Sappan. Casuarina Sumatrana. Curcuma longa. 

Hernias. Nicotiana Tabacum. 

Liver, Diseases of. Anona muricata. Kalanchoelaciniata. Law- 
sonia alba. Lagenaria. Momordica. Oldenlandia corymbosa. 
Sphseranthus Indicus. Carthamus tinctorius. Solatium nigrum. 

Cephalalgia. Portulaca oleracea. Coffea Arabica. Blumea bal- 
samifera. Vitex. Coins aromaticus. Acalypha Indica. 

Laryngitis. Mangifera Indica. Capsicum fastigiatum. 

Leucorrhoea. Garcinia mangostana. Sandoricum Indicum. 
Mangifera Indica. Pterocarpus. Acacia Farnesiana. Terminal ia 
Chebula. Punica Granatum. 

Bloody Flux. Artocarpus integrifolia. 

Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia. See * ' Hemorrhages. ' ' 

Bites of Insects and Poisonous Animals. Ferouia elephantum. 
Carapa moluccensis. Eupatorium Ayapana. Tylophora asthmatica. 
Rhinocanthus communis. Coleus aromaticus. Leucas aspera. 
Aristolochia Indica. Euphorbia nerii/olia. Acalypha Indica. Al- 
lium sativum. 

Nervous Diseases (chorea, epilepsy, convulsions, hysteria, etc.). Sida 
carpinifolia. Ruta graveolens. Blumea balsamifera, Artemisia 
vulgaris. Solanum nigrum. Datura alba. Nicotiana Tabacum. 
Coleus aromaticus. Chenopodium ambrosioides. 

Neuralgia. Coffea Arabica. Acanthus ilicifolius. 

Odontalgia. Murraya exotica and M. Koenigi. Pterocarpus. 
Calotropis gigantea. Plantago erosa. Cyperus rotundus. (See 
"Ears.") 

Intestinal Obstruction. Nicotiana Tabacum. (See "Purga- 
tives.") 

Ears, Affections of. Cleome viscosa. Hibiscus tiliaceus. Helic- 
teres Isora. Crinum Asiaticum. (See " Odontalgia.") 

Eyes, Affections of. Argemone Mexicana. Portulaca oleracea. 
Calophyllum Inophyllum. Garuga pinnata. Abrus precatorius. 
Erythrina Indica. Jasminum Sambac. Rosmarinus officinalis. 
Curcuma longa. 

Orchitis. Calophyllum Inophyllum. Sterculia urens. Vitex. 

Paralysis. Celastrus paniculata. Acanthus ilicifolius. Ocimum. 
Rosmarinus officinalis. 

Parasites (pediculi, etc.). Anona squamosa. Anamirta Cocculus. 

Skin, Affections of (lepra, itch, eczema, psoriasis). Argemone Mex- 



INDEX OF PLANTS 255 

icana. Pangium edule. Portulaca oleracea. Urena sinuata. 
Thespesia populnea. Sterculia foetida. Kleinhovia hospitata. 
Helicteres Isora. Canarium commune. Celastrus paniculata. 
Mangifera Indica. Anacardium occidentale. Odina Wodier. 
Pongamia glabra (itch). Cassia fistula. Cassia alata (herpes). 
Entada scandens. Psidium pomiferum. Melastoma malabatrichum. 
Lawsonia alba. Carica Papaya. Momordica. Hydrocotyle Asi- 
atica. Alangium Lamarkii. Oldenlandia corymbosa. Ixora coc- 
cinea. Spilanthes Acmella. Plumbago Zeylanica. Plumeria acuti- 
folia. Nerium odorum. Calotropis gigantea. Solanum nigrum. 
Rhinacanthus communis. Tectona grandis. Leucas aspera. Ama- 
ranthus spinosus. Echinus Philippinensis. Curcuma longa. 

Burns. Eriodendron anfractuosum. Lawsonia alba. 

Rectum, Prolapsed. Pterocarpus. Acacia Farnesiana. Psidium 
pomiferum. 

Rheumatism. Tinospora crispa. Crataeva religiosa. Ochrocar- 
pus pentapetalus. Mesua ferrea. Sida carpinifolia. Samadera 
Indica. Celastrus paniculata. Erythrina Indica. Pongamia glabra. 
Momordica. Alangium Lamarkii. Psederia foetida. Blumeabal- 
samifera. Spilanthes Acmella. Plumeria acutifolia. Calotropis 
gigantea. Ipomoea pes-capra3. Datura alba. Oroxylum Indicum. 
Acanthus ilicifolius. Justicia Gendarussa. Vitex. Ocimum. 
Rosmarinus officinalis. Anisomeles ovata. Euphorbia Tirucalli. 
Zingiber officinale. Allium sativum. Andropogon Schoenanthus 
and A. nardus. 

Kidneys, Affections of. Sida carpinifolia. Zea Mays. 

Syphilis. Tinospora crispa. Erythrina Indica. Hydrocotyle Asi- 
atica. Alangium Lamarkii. Nerium odorum. Calotropis gigantea. 
Ehretia buxifolia. Cassytha filiformis. Euphorbia Tirucalli. 
Acalypha Indica. 

Taeniae. (See " Anthelmintics.") 

Phthisis. Garaga pinnata. 

Tumors. Trichosanthes palmata. SphaBranthus Indicus. Ipo- 
moea pes-caprse. 

Ulcers, Wounds, Sores, etc. Tinospora crispa. Dipterocarpus 
turbinatus. Hibiscus tiliaceus. Sterculia foetida. Canarium com- 
mune. Melia Azedarach. Cedrela Toona. Mangifera Indica. An- 
acardium occidentale. Odina Wodier. Erythrina Indica. Pongamia 
glabra. Kalanchoe laciniata. Terminalia Catappa and T. Chebula. 
Psidium pomiferum. Melastoma malabatrichum. Hydrocotyle 



256 THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES 

Asiatica. Morinda citri folia. Eupatorium Ayapana. Blumea bal- 
samifera. Spilanthes Acmella. Artemisia vulgaris. Mimusops 
Elengi. Ipomoea pes-capra3. Solanum nigrum. Nicotiana Ta- 
bacum. Tectonagrandis. Phyllanthus Niruri. Acalyphalndica. 
Ricinus communis. Artocarpus integrifolia. Casuarina Sumatrana. 
Nipa fruticans. Carica Papaya. 

Urticaria. Phyllanthus reticulatus. 

Bladder, Affections of. Cissampelos Pareira. Portulaca oleracea. 
Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Urena sinuata. Abrus precatorius. 
Clitoria ternata. Pterocarpus. Lawsonia alba. Psederia foetida. 
Spilanthus Acmella. Allium sativum. Zea Mays. 

Vermes. (See " Anthelmintics.") 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



OF SYSTEMATIC AND COMMON NAMES OF PLANTS 



Abdgabag, 183 

Abilo, 73 

Abroma angulata, 55 

augusta, 55 

communis, 55 

fastuosa, 55 
Abrus precatorius, 88 
Abutilon Indicum, 43 
Acacia Arabica, 108 

Catechu, 235 

Farnesiana, 108 

Indica, 108 
Acalypha Caroliniana, 219 

hispida, 220 

Indica, 219 
Acanthacese, 185 
Acanthus ilicifolius, 185 
Acapuko, 102 
Achiote, achuete, 32 
Achras Sapota, 156 
Achuiti, 32 
Achyranthes aspera, 201 

obtusifolia, 201 
Aconituin heterophyllum, 155 
Add/a, 165 
Adhatoda vasica, 188 
Adiantum lunulatum, 142 
jEgle decandra, 67 

Marmelos, 70 
Agati grandiflora, 88 
Agay, 229 
Agt, 177 
Agiw, 76 
Agoho, agoo, 225 
Agonoy, 152 
Aguason, 171 
Ajengibre, 228 
Ajp, 233 
Ajonjoli, 184 
Alag-ilug Sonson, 20 
Alayitgit, 173 

22 



Alangium decapetalum, 138 

hexapetalum, 138 

Lamarkii, 138 

tomentosum, 138 
Albahaca, 195 
AWohol, 176 
Aleurites Molucca na, 217 

triloba, 217 
Algodon, 48 
Alibagbag, 105 
AMwn, 150 

Allamanda cathartica, 159 
Allium Cepa, 233 

sativum, 233 
Almendro, 110 
Almond, Indian, 110 

tree, Java, 73 
Aloes, 232 

Barbadensis, 232 

humilis, 232 

Indica, 232 

vera, 232 

vulgaris, 232 
Alpasotes, 202 
Alstonia scholaris, 163 
Althaea officinalis, 45 
Alusiman, 134 
Amaranth, thorny, 200 
Amaranthacese, 200 
Amaranthus spinosus, 200, 201 
Amargoso, 132 
Amaryllidaceee, 231 
Ammannia baccifera, 117 

blistering, 117 

debilis, 117 

Indica, 117 

vesicatoria, 117 
Ammi copticum, 136 

glaucifolium, 136 
Ainomum zingiber, 228 
Ampalaya, ampaka, 132 

257 



258 



INDEX 



Amugis, 86 
Anabo, 55 
Anacardiaceoe, 82 
Anacardium occidentale, 84 
Anamirta Cocculus, 24 
Ananagtag, 76 
Andropogon nardus, 241 

Schoenanthes, 240 
Anethum foeniculum, 137 
Angod, 201 
Anibog, 55 
Anis, 137 

estrellado, 18 
Anise, star, 18 
Anisomeles ovata, 198 
Annatto, 32 
Anona muricata, 22 

reticulata, 21 

squamosa, 20 

tuberosa, 20 
Anonaceae, 20 
Anonag, 21 
Avonas, 21 
Apalia, 132 
Apalit, 93 
Apalot, 148 
Apamarga, 201 
Apana, 149 
Apariagua, 224 
Apasotis, 202 
Apocynacese, 159 
Apoyapoyan, 31 
Apple, balsam, 132 

bitter, 133 
Areca, 234 

Catechu, 234 
Argemone Mexicana, 29 
Aristolochia Indica, 203 

Serpentaria, 207 
Aristolochia ceee, 203 
Aro, 225 
Arodayday, 175 
Aroganan, 46 
Aroma, 108 
Arroz, 242 
Artabotrys hamatus, 20 

odoratissimus, 20 

soaveolens, 20 
Artemisia Indica, 153 

vulgaris, 153 

Artocarpus integrifolia, 223 
Asana, 93 
Asclepiadacese, 167 
Asclepias asthmatica, 169 
gigantea, 167 



Ates, 20 
Atsuiti, 32 
Averrhoa Bilimbi, 60 

Carambola, 60 
Ay am, 134 
Ayantoto, 200 
Ayapan, 149 
Ayapana, 149 
Ayo, 58 
Ayoban, 150 
Azafrdn, 229 

de la tierra, 154 

Babebabe, 112 

Babuy gubat, 47 

Badiana, 18 

Bael fruit tree, 67 

Bagar, 51 

Bagasoa, 175 

Bagati, bagati gikosgikos, 88 

Bagbag, 155 

Bagkuro, 148 

.Baft, 212 

J?ao</, 231 

Bakugan, 76 

Balabalanoyan, 31 

Baladri, 165 

Balanoy, 195 

Bafasin, 24 

Balay-namuk, 32 

Balibago, 46 

Balikbalik, 95 

Balimbin, 60 

Baliyoko, 240 

J?afo#o, 106 

Balotagaso, 100 

Baloyog, 99 

Balsamina, 132 

Bamboo, 243 

Bambus arundinacea, 243 

arundo, 243 

diffusa, 243 

levis, 244 

mitis, 244 
Bambuseae, 243 
Banana, 227 
Banato, 220 
Banilad, 52 
Banilak, 110 
Bankundo, 148 

Barbadoes flower-fence, 98 
Barleria Prionitis, 186 
Barreliera Prionitis, 186 
Basil, sacred, 195 

sweet, 195 



INDEX 



259 



Basiloag, 76 
Batobatonis, 210 
Bauhinia malabarica, 105 

tomentosa, 105 
Bayabas, 113 
Bayag-bayag, 200 
Bayag-, Bayan-kambig, 96 
Bayati, 24 
Bayno, 28 
Bayogo, 106 
J?ati0, 233 
Belgaum, 217 
Bentikohol, 228 
Bergera Koenigi, 65 
Betel-nut palm, 234 
Betel pepper, 204 
Bias pogo, 117 
Bigas, 242 
Bignonia Indica, 183 

quadripinnata, 183 
Bignoniacese, 183 
BUimbin, 60 
Bilogo, 80 
Binukaw, 36 
Biophytum cumiagianum, 59 

sensitivum, 59 
Biri, 154 

Birthwort, Indian, 203 
Bitanhol, 38 
Bitaog, 38 
Bitnog, 53 
Bixa Orellana, 32 
Bixinea?, 32 

Blumea balsamifera, 150 
Boboy, 50 
Bobuy-gubat, 50 
J?oa, 234 
Boho, 244 
Bokawy, 243 
Bolagtob, 176 
Bolobotones, 210 
Bombax Ceiba, 50 

malabaricum, 50, 183 

pentandrum, 50 
J?owa&, 195 
Bonduc seeds, 96 
Boraginacese, 173 
Botobotones, 239 
Bowi, 210 
Brassica juncea, 30 
Brea blanm, 73 
Bryophyllum serratum, 109 
Buas, 220 

Bucida cuminata, 111 
Bugayon, 88 



72 
, 220 

jBw/aA;, 48 

to^i/a, 50 
no, bundok, 49 
wa totoo, 49 

Bugulag, 228 

Bulakan, 47, 174 

.Btmfaw, 187 

Burseraoese, 72 

^%to^, 95 

Butterfly pea, 92 

Butuan, 228 

Buyayawa, 210 

^wyo, 204 

Bu'yok-buyok, 128 



Cabalonga, 171 

Cabalkro, 98 

Cbcoo, 55 

Oi/e, 144 

C%e/, 66 

Csesalpinia Bonduc, 96 

Bonducella, 96 

pulcherrima, 98 

Sappan, 97 
Calabash, 129 
Calabaza blanca, 130 

de peregrino, 129 
Calachuche, 162 
Calophyllum apetalum, 39 

Calaba, 39 

Inophyllum, 38 
Calotrops gigantea, 167 
Calyptranthes Jambolana, 114 
Cambogia binucao, 36 

venulosa, 36 
Campanelo, 159 
Camphire, 118 
Canarium album, 73 

commune, 73, 110 

Luzonicum, 73 
Cana, 243 

de azucar, 241 

dulc, 241 
Oanamiel, 241 
Canafistula, 99 
Capparidacese, 31 
Capsicum, 177 

annuum, 178 

fastigiatum, 177 

minimum, 177 
Carapa Moluccensis, 78 

Guianensis, 78 
Caraway, 136 



260 



INDEX 



Cardamon, 230 
Carica Papaya, 123 
Carmonea heterophylla, 173 
Carpopogon pruriens, 90 
Carthamus tinctorius, 154 
Carum ajowan, 136 

copticum, 136 
Cashew nut, 84 
Cassia, 208 

alata, 102 

fistula, 99 

lignea, 208 

occidental is, 99 

purging, 99 

sophera, 103 

tora, 103 

Cassie flower, 108 
Cassuvium reniforme, 84 
Cassytha filiformis, 209 
Castor oil plant, 222 
Casuarina equisetifolia, 225 

Sumatrana, 225 
Casuarinese, 225 
Cavallium urens, 52 
Ceanothus Wightiana, 82 
Cebolla, 233 
Cedrela odorata, 79 

Toona, 79, 207 
Celastracese, 80 
Celastrus alnifolia, 80 

paniculata, 80 

Rothiana, 80 
Celosia mana, 117 
Cerbera manghas, 161 

Odallam, 161 

Thevetia, 159 
Ckachachachahan, 190 
Champaca, 19 
Chavica auriculata, 204 

Betle, 204 
Chenopodiaceae, 202 
Chenopodium ambrosioides, 202 
Chico, chiko, 156 
Chili picante, 177 
China tree, 75 
Chinchaochinchauan, 26 
Chinchona excelsa, 140 
Chloranthacese, 207 
Chloranthus inconspicuus, 207 

Indicus, 207 

officinalis, 207 

Chondrodendron tomentosum, 26 
Cica decandra, 214 
Cinamomo del pais, 118 
Cinnamomum Culilowan, 207 



Cinnamomum pauciflorum, 208 

tamala, 208 

Cissampelos Pareira, 26, 155 
Citrullus Colocynthis, 133 
Citrus acida, 65 

aurantiura, 66 

Bigaradia, 66 

Decumana, 67 

notissima, 65 

reticulata, 67 

vulgaris, 66 
Cleoine alliacea, 31 

alliodora, 31 

icosandra, 31 

pentaphylla, 31 

viscosa, 31 
Clerodendron fortunatum, 194 

infortunatum, 194 
Clitoria ternatea, 92 
Clompanus major, 51 
Cocas de Levante, 24 
Cocculus crispus, 22 

lacunosus, 24 

suberosus, 24 
Coco, 236 
Coco-grass, 239 
Coconut, 236 
Cocos nucifera, 236 
Coffea Arabica, 144 
Coffee, 144 

Negro, 100 
Coleus aromaticus, 196 

atropurpureus, 197 

grandifolius, 197 

suganda, 196 
Colocynth, 133 
Coloquintida, 133 
Colosanthes Indica, 183 
Combretacese, 110 
Cominos^ 137 
Composite, 149 
Connarus foetens, 64 

santaloides, 64 
Consuelda, 213 
Convolvulacese, 174 
Convolvulus maximus, 176 

nil, 174 

pes-caprse, 175 

Turpethum. 176 
Conyza balsamifera, 150 
Coral tree, Indian, 91 
Coriander, 137 
Coriandrum sativum, 137 
Corn, 240 
Cornaceae, 138 



INDEX 



261 



Cotton, 48 

Cotyledon laciniata, 109 
Crassulaceae, 109 
Cratseva religiosa, 32 
Crinum Asiaticum, 231 

giganteum, 231 
Croton glandulosum, 218 

muricatum, 218 

Philippense, 220 

purging, 218 

Tiglium, 218 
Crucifene, 30 
Cucumis Colocynthis, 133 
Cucurbita lagenaria oblonga, 129 

villosa, 130 
Cucurbitacese, 127 
Culantro, 137 
Cuminum cynimum, 137 
Curcuma longa, 229 
Custard apple, 20 
Cyamus mysticus, 28 

Nelumbo, 28 
Cyperacese, 239 
Cyperus rotundus, 239 

Dalaw, 229 
Dallopaiven, 163 
Dalondon, 190 
Dalugdug, 96 
Dcdupan, 45 
Damoghiya, 59 
Damoro, 136 
Dangla, 192 
Dankagi, 171 
Dankalan, 38 
Dapdap, 91 
Daraput, 71 
Darasig, 58 
Daripay, 175 
Datura alba, 178 

fastuosa, 179 

Metel, 178 

Stramonium, 178 
Daucus anisodorus, 136 

copticus, 136 
Dayap, 65 
Daytanag, 93 
Dendrocalamus flagellifer, 244 

sericens, 244 
Dhatura, 178 
Dianthera subserrata, 187 
Dicotyledonous, Gamopetalous, 140 

Polypetalous, 17 
Diglas, diglas, 111 
Dilag boaya, 232 



j 229 
Diliwariw, 185 
Dilleniaceae, 17 
Dinkalin, 38 
Diosma serrata, 80 
Dipterocarpese, 40 
Dipterocarpus alatus, 40 

incanus, 40 

Indicus, 40 

Mayapis, 40 

trinervis, 40 

turbinatus, 40 
Dita, 163 

tree, 163 
Dokotdekot, 201 
Dddol, 50 

Dolichos pruriens, 90 
Dolo-ariw, 185 
Dool, 86 

Duhat, duat, 114 
.Dukum, 45 
Dulawari, 185 
Dulupag, 43 
Dysoxylum Blancoi, 76 

salutare, 76 

schizochitoides, 77 

Echinus Philippinensis, 220 
Echites scholans, 163 
Ehretia buxifolia, 173 
Elemi, East Indian, 73 
Elettaria Cardamomum, 230 
Entada Purssetha, 106 

scandens, 106 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, 50 
Erythrina carnea, 91 

corallodendron, 91 

Indica, 91 
Eskobayhaba, 42 
Eugenia Jambolana, 114 
Eupatorium Ayapana, 149, 182 
Euphorbia capitata, 210 

hirta, 210 

ligularia, 212 

neriifolia, 212 

pentagona, 212 

pilulifera, 210 

Tirucalli, 213 
Euphorbiaceae, 210 
Exile, the, 159 
Exostema Philippicum, 140 

Fagara piperita, 63 
Fennel, 137 
Fever nut, 96 



262 



INDEX 



Foeniculum panmorium, 137 

officinale, 137 

vulgare, 137 
Feronia elephantum, 69 

ternata, 67 
Ficoidese, 134 
Flares y Rosas Caballero, 98 
Four o'clock, 199 

Gabuen, 150 
Gadelupa maculata, 95 
Galonalpas, 239 
Gamagamatisan, 176 
Gamboge tree, 136 
Gamut sa buni, 102 
Gandarussa vulgaris, 187 
Gapasgapas, 192 
Garcinia Cambogia, 36 

Hanburii, 37 

mangostana, 35 

morella, 36 

pedicellata, 36 

venulosa, 36 
Gardenia spinosa, 142 
Garlic, 233 
Garuga floribunda, 72 

Madagascarensis, 72 

pinnata, 72 
Gatasan puld, 36 
Gatasgatas, 210 
Gaway-gaway, 27 
Geraniacese, 58 
Geranium grass, 240 
Gikosgikos, 88 
Gilalas, 199 
Gilw-giliyan, 43 
Gilla nuts, 106 
Ginger, 228 
Gintingintin, 150 
Gogo, 106 
Gohog bakay, 106 
Golondrina, 210 
Gossypium arboreum, 49 

Earbadense, 48 

Capas, 48 

herbaceum, 48 

Indicum, 48 
Gourd, bottle, 129 

common, 129 

pilgrim's, 129 

white, 130 
Goyabano, guyabano, 22 
Graminese, 240 
Granada, 120 
Granatis, 116 



Guanabano, 22 

Guava, 113 

Guayabas, 113 

Gubat, 194 

Guilandina Bonducella, 96 

Moringa, 86 
Gumamila, 46 
Gurjun, 40 
Guttiferse, 35 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 31 

Jfagonog, 152 

Halahafa, 128 

Hamitanago, 53 

Hamlibon, 150 

Hangor, 201 

Hangot, 201 

Helicteres clirysocalyx, 54 

Ixora, 54 

Roxburgh!!, 54 

Hemp, perennial Indian, 55 
Hibiscus Abelmoschus, 45 

Rosa-Sinensis, 46 

tiliaceus, 46 
Hierba de San Pablo, de San Pedro, 214 

mora, 176 
Higo, 228 
Higotbaktto, 42 
Himamaw, 77 
Hitam, 110 
Hojas de buyo, 204 
Horse radish tree, 86 
Huligaga, 140 
Hydnocarpus inebrians, 132 

polyandra, 33 

Hydrocotyle Asiatica, 134, 142 
Hymenodictyon excelsum, 140 

Horsfieldii, 140 

Ibabaw, 99 
Icica Abilo, 72 
Igasud, 171 
Iffiw, 76 
Ignatia amara, 171 

Philippinea, 171 
Hay-Hay de China, 20 
lllicium anisatum, 18 
Ipomcea hederacea, 174 

nil, 174 

pes-caprse, 175 

Turpethem, 176 
Itmo, 204 
Ixora bandhuca, 143 

coccinea, 143 



INDEX 



263 



Jalap, Indian, 176 
Jambul, 114 
Jasmine, Arabian, 158 

Jasmium Sambac, 158 
Jatropha Curcas, 215 

multifida, 216 
Jengibre, 228 
Jequirity, 88 
Jujube tree, 81 
Jussisea erecta, 122 

suffruticosa, 122 

yillosa, 122 
Justicia adhatoda, 188 

Gendarussa, 187 

nasuta, 189 

Kabalogan, 171 
Kabattii, 82 
Kahili, 157 
Kabrab, 91 
Kahel, kaJitt, 66 
Kala-danah, 174 
Kalambibit, 96 
Kalamias, 60 
Kalanchoe laciniata. 109 
KalanUis, 79 
Kalasmi, 162 
Kalatsutsi, 162 
Kalawaga, 229 
Kalayati, 190 
Kaligag, 208 
Kalisay, 110 
Xalitis, 200 
Kalugay, 86 
Kalumpag, 51 
sa lati, 78 
Kamala, 220 
Kamalagi, 104 
Kamalugay, 86 
Ka-Maria, 153 
Kamela, 220 
Kamias, 60 
Kamigag, 175 
Kamot-kabag, 96 
Kamunig, 64 
Kanaasaga, 88 
Kanbil, 220 
Kandaroma, 208 
Kanlara, 171 
Kantutce, Kantutan, 149 
Kanyin, 40 
Kapal-kapal, 167 
Kapanitulot, 187 
A^i/t, 217 
Karambauaya, 212 



JTaro, 225 
Karukansoli, 199 
Kasabba, 154 
Kasindik, 91 
Kasltas, 102 
JTas/a, 215 
Kastio, kastiogan, 45 
Kastuli, 45 
Rastumba, 154 
Kasubha, 154 
Kasubhag-dso, 29 
Kasupagit, 194 
Kasuy, 84 
Katagkatag, 175 
Katdkatakd, 109 
Kataloga, 171 
^Tatowrfd, 102 
Katbologan, 171 
Katsumba, 154 
Katuray, 88 
Katwit, 213 
^aya^a, 46 
Kayutana, 63 
Kawayag-totoo, 243 
Kilingiwa, 60 
^7^is, 200 
Kinamboy, 229 
Kleinhovia hospitata, 53 
Kokogmanok, 186 
Kolasiman, 34 
Kolokantig, kohkatig, 92 
Kolonkogon, 195 
-Kbn^i, 58 
Konty, 176 
^Topa^, 107 
Kuakuakohan, 43 
Kuanton, 200 
Kukubttan, 128 
Kulanta, 186 
^w/i<, 148 

Kulutan, ktdutkulutan, 44 
Kuragda, 128 

, 239 
, 176 



Labiate, 195 
Lagayray, 175 
Lagenaria clavata, 130 

courgourda, 129 

Gourda, 129 
^vulgaris, 129 
Lag is, 184 
Lagiwlagiw, 185 
Lagkawas, 230 
Ldgkuas, 230 



264 



INDEX 



Lago, 154 

Lagpakon, 176 

Lagundi, 192 

Lagundig gayag, 192 

La'kadbulan, 150 

La-katan, 228 

Lakbanbulan, 150 

Zayfcta</, 24 

Lalakdan, 150 

Lambayog, 175 

Lampayog, 175 

Lamudio, 136 

Lanigpa, 79 

.Lanfa, 24 

Lantin, llanten, 199 

Laportea Gaudichaudiana, 224 

Lasuna, 233 

Lauracese, 208 

Laurus culilaban, 208 

Lawas, 27 

Lawsonia alba, 118 

inermis, 118 

spinosa, 118 
a?/a, 228 

Leadwort, white-flowered, 155 
Leguminosse, Cesalpinacese, 96 

Mimosese, 106 

Papilionacese, 88 
Lemon, 65 
Lengua de perro, 212 
Letondag, 228 
Leucas aspera, 199 
Libdy, 201 
Ligd, 184 
Ligaton, 224 
Ligasina, 222 
it^a^, 24 
Liliaceffi, 232 
ii/ifan, 149 

Limnophila menthastrum, 182 
Isimon, 65 
Linatoganak, 71 
iiwo, 148 
Lintag bagin, 24 
I0po, 224 
Lipagdoton, 224 
Lipay, 90 

Lippia nodiflora, 190 
Live-for-ever, 109 
io</d, 184 
Loganiacese, 171 
Lokoloko, 195 
Lombayog, 99 
Lomboy, 114 
Lotus, sacred, 28 



Lubilubi, 176 

Luffa ^Egyptiaca, 131 

pentandra, 131 

petola, 131 
Zrtt^ro, 110 
Lukban, 67 
Lumban, 217 
iw/a, 228 
Lythracese, 11.7 

Magatas, 210 
Magnoliacese, 18 
Magit,173 
Mahihiin, 59 
3/<m, 240 
Maize, 240 
Makabuhay, 22 
Makahiya, 59 
Makaligag, 208 
Makasili, 76 
MalaapoM, 239 
Malabagaw, 76 
Malabago, 46 
Malabalugbug-dagis, 58 
Malabohok, 209, 225 
Malabukbuk, 39 
Malakabuyaiv, 67 
Malakatmon, 17 
Malapoko, 122 
Malaubi, 203 
Malawin, 192 
Malinta, 214 
JfaKs, 43 
Maliaa, 206 
MaMsmalis, 210 
Mallotus Philippensis, 220 
Malugay, 86 
Malugil, 86 
Malvaceae, 42 
Jfafeas de Castitta, 43 
Mamalis, 42 
Mambog, 148 
Mamin, 204 
Mamon, 204 
Jfana, 216 
Mananaog, 171 
Jfan^a, 82 

Mangifera Indica, 82 
Mangostdn, 35 
Mangosteen, 35 
Maniinanihan, 103 
Manungal, manunagl, 71 
Manungala pendula, 71 
Manzanitas, 81 
Marapoto, 45 



INDEX 



265 



MaravilUus, 199 
Marikum, marukum, 45 
Marjoram, 196 
Marsh mallow, 45 
Marvel of Peru, 199 
Mayana, 197 
May apis, 40 
Melastomacese, 116 
Melastoma aspera, 116 

malabatrichum, 116 

obvoluta, 116 

obvolutum, 116 
Melia Azedarach, 75 
Meliacese, 75 
Menispermacese, 22 
Menispermum Cocculus, 22 

crispum, 24 

lacunosum, 24 

rimosum, 22 
Mesua ferrea, 39, 143 
Michelia Champaca, 19 
Migi, 78 
Mimosa Farnesiana, 108 

peregrina, 107 
Mimusops Elengi, 157 
Mirabilis Jalapa, 199 

longiflora, 199 
Molawin, 194 
Molopolo, 44 
Momordica balsamina, 132 

Charanta, 132 

cylindrica, 132 

muricata, 132 

operculata, 131 
Monkey-face tree, 220 
Monocotyledons, 227 
Morado, 228 
Morinda bracteata, 148 

citrifolia, 148 

ligulata, 148 

Koyoc, 148 

tinctoria, 149 
Moringa oleifera, 86 

poligona, 86 

pterigosperma, 86 
Moringese. 86 
Mostaza, 30 
Mota, 239 
Mucuma pruriens, 90 

prurita, 90 

utilis, 90 
Mudar, 167 
Mulberry, Indian, 148 
Murraya exotica, 64 

Koenigi, 65 

23 



Murraya odorata, 69 

paniculata, 64 
Musa paradisiaca, 227 

sapientum, 227 
Musaceae, 227 
Musla-saraul, 50 
Mustard, 30 

wild, 31 
Mutha, 239 
Myrobalans, 111 
Myrtacese, 113 

Naga, 93 

Nagamulli, 189 

Nagesur, Nag-kasar, 40 

Nagka, 223 

Namakpakan, 38 

Naranjas, 67 

Naranjas del pais, 66 

Naranjita, 67 

Naira, 93 

Nato, 110 

Nelumbium Asiaticum, 28 

nucifera, 28 

speciosum, 28 
Nerium odorum, 165 

oleander, 165 
Nicotiana Tabacum, 180 
Nightshade, black or commoD, 176 
Nigi, 78 
Nino, 148 
Niog, 236 
Niogniogan, 112 
Niota tetrapela, 71 
Nipa, 238 

fruticans, 238 
Nipay, 90 
Nutgrass, 239 
Nyctaginacese, 199 
Nyctanthes Sambac, 158 
Nymphaea Lotus, 27 
Nymphseacese, 27 

Obispo, 228 

Ochrocarpus pentapetalus, 38 

Ocimum Americanum, 195 

basilicum, 195 

flexuosum, 195 

gratissimum, 195 

sanctum, 195 

virgatum, 195 
Odina Wodier, 86 
Olasiman, 34 
Oldenlandia biflora, 141 

burmaniana, 141 



266 



Oldenlandia corymbosa, 141 

herbacea, 141 

ramosa, 141 

scabrida, 141 
Oleacese, 158 
Oleander, sweet-scented, 165 

Yellow, 159 
Omadmg, 239 
Onagracese, 122 
Onion, 233 
Onoran, 239 
Onty, 176 

Ophelia chirata, 194 
Opo, 130 
Orange, 66 
Orayi, 200 
Oregano, 196 
Oriza, 242 

Oroxylum Indicum, 183 
Osiw, 243 
Oxalis Acetosella, 58 

corniculata, 58 

sensitivum, 59 

Psederia foetida, 149 

sessiflora, 149 
Paja de Meca, 240 
Pakaymnkon-kastila, 102 
Pakupis, 128 
Palagarium, 71 
Pa%, 242 
Palmse, 234 
Palo del Brasil, 97 

Maria, 38 
Palunay, 152 
Pamalis, 42 
Paminta, 206 
Pamunoan, 69 
Panampat, 53 
Pandnn, 110 
Pangaguason, 171 
Pan#?:, 33 

Pangium edule, 33 
Pankundo, 148 
Panoan, 69 
Pansipansi, 199 
Papaveracese, 29 
Papaw, 123 

Papaya, 123 
Paraiso, 75 
Pareira brava, 26 
Parta, 132 
Parkia biglobosa, 107 

Brunonis, 107 

Roxburgh!!, 107 



J'axofis, 202 

Passifloraceae, 123 

Paypaysi, 199 

Pedaliacese, 184 

Pennywort, Indian, 134 

Pepito, 171 

sa katbalogan, 171 
sa katbologan, 171 

Pepper, black, 206 
red, 177 

Pernambuko, 49 
Phlomis alba, 198 

Zeylanica, 199 
Phyllanthus Niruri, 214 

reticulatus, 214 

urinaria, 214 

Physic nuts, English, 96 
Pias, 60 

Picrorrhiza kurroa, 155 
Pili, pilis, 43, 73 
Pimienta, 206 
Pinkapinka, 183 
Pinkapinkahan, 183 
Piper Betel, 204 

Betle, 204 

nigrum, 206 
Piperacese, 204 
Plantaginacese, 199 
Plantago crenata, 199 

erosa, 199 

media, 199 
Plantain, 199 
Platano, 227 
Plum, black, 114 
Plumbaginese, 155 
Plumbago viscosa, 155 

Zeylanica, 155 
Plumeria acutifolia, 162 

alba, 162 

Poinciana pulcherrima, 98 
Polanisia viscosa, 31 
Pomegranate, 120 

Pongamia glabra, 95 
Poppy, Mexican, 29 
Portulaca axiflora, 134 

oleracea, 34 

toston, 134 
Portulacese, 34 
Prayerbeads, 88 
Pride of India, 75 
Psidium aromaticum, 113 

pomiferum, 113 

pyriferum, 113 
Pterocarpus echinatus, 93 

erinaceus, 93 



INDEX 



267 



Pterocarpus Indicus, 93 

marsupium, 94 

pallidus, 93 

santalinus, 93 
Pukingag, 92 
Pukopukot, 128 
Punica Granatum, 120 
Purslane, 34 

Quisqualis Indica, 112 
spinosa, 112 
villosa, 112 

Rdbano, 30 
Rabasa, 134 

Radish, 30 

Rciiz de mom, 241 
Randia aculeata, 142 

dumetorum, 54, 142 

longispina, 142 

stipulosa, 142 
Raphanus sativus, 30 
Rhamnacese, 81 
Rharanus Carolinianus, 81 

Jujuba, 81 

Wightii, 82 

Rhinacanthus communis, 189 
Rice, 242 
Ricinus communis, 222 

microcarpus, 222 

Subpurpurascens, 223 

viridis, 223 
Robinia mills, 95 
Romero, 197 
Rosas- CabaUero, 116 
Rose of China, 46 
Rosemary, 197 
Rosmarinus officinalis, 197 
Rottlera tinctoria, 220 
Rubiacese, 140 
Ruda, 61 
Rue, 61 
Ruta angustifolia, 61 

graveolens, 61 
Rutacese, 61 

Sabd, 228 

Sabila, 232 

Saccharum officinarum, 241 

Sacred lotus, 28 

Safflower, dyer's, 154 

Saffron, bastard, 154 

Saga, 88 

Sagamamin, 88 

Sagdib't, 155 



ig, 227 
Sage, Jerusalem, 198 

Sagki, 18 

St. Ignatius' bean, 171 

Sdladay, 63 

Salagsalag, 128 

Scday, 63, 240 

Saligbobag, 32 

Salig^wok, 194 

Salimpokot, 128 

Samadera Indica, 71 

Samat, 204 

Sambak, 104 

Sambog-gala, 151 

Samb<m, 150 

Sampaga, 158 

Sampaguitas, 158 

Sampaka, 19 

Sampalok, 104 

Samphire, 118 

Sandalwood tree, red, 93 

Sandoricum Indicum, 77 

Sansawsansawan, 26 

Santa Maria, 153 

Santalum rubrum, 93 

Santan, 143 

Santol, 77 

Sapag, 97 

Sapotacese, 156 

Sappan wood, 97 

Sasa, 238 

Saunders, red, 93 

Sayikan, 210 

Scnizostachyum acutiflorum, 243 

Screw tree, Indian, 54 

Senna, western, 100 

Sesame, 184 

Sesamum Indicum, 184 

Sesbania grandiflora, 88 

Sibukao, 97 

Sibuyas, 233 

Sida acuta, 42 

carpinifolia, 42 

frutescens, 42 

Indica, 43 

stipulata, 42 
Siempreviva, 109 
Sili, 177 

Simarubacese, 71 
Sinampaga, 142 
Sinapis alba, 30 

juncea, 30 

nigra, 30 
Sisiwhan, 210 
Sobsob, 150 



268 



INDEX 



Solanum Dulcamara, 177 

nigrum, 176 
Solasi, 195 
Solasolasian, 1W 
Sontig, suntig, 102 
Sorog-sorog, sorosoro, 212 

Sorrel, Indian, 58 
Sphceranthus hirtus, 151 

Indicus, 151 

mollis, 151 

Spilanthes Acmella, 152, 228 
Star anise, 18 
Sterouliacese, 51 
Sterculia cordifolia, 52 

foetida, 51 

polyphilla, 51 

urens, 52 
Slrychnos Ignatii, 171 

Philippensis, 171 
Sudda, 213 
Suganda, 196 
Sugar cane, 241 
Sugot-olag, 214 
Suha, 67 
Sukaw, 28 
Sulbag, 91 
6'wma, 24 
Sumalagi, 104 
Sursur, 239 
Susog damulog, 20 
Susokayoli, 58 
Suspiros, 199 
Swallow- wort, 167 
Swertia Chirata, 128 
Syzygium Jarnbolanum, 114 

Tabaco, 180 
Tabayag, 129 
Tabig, 43 
Tabigi, 78 
Tabobog,128 
Tabog, 67 
Tacamahaca, 39 
Tce-tce,, 149 
Tagaktayak, 189 
Tagaraw, 112 
Tagaray, 175 
Taghilaw, 183 
Taglinaw, 50 
Tagantagan, 222 

na morado, 223 
Ta^/arf, 240 
Tagudin, 38 
Taiwan dogd, 58 



), 17S 
/, 134 

MSO, 134 

Taklay-anak, 36 
^bA^ws^ 148 
Takurayan, 46 
Tafa, 182 

odorata, 182 
Talatala, 182 
Talamponay, 178 

wa lYim, 179 
Talankaiv, 155 
Ta%/o, 27 
Taliantar, 148 
Taliatan, 76 
Taligharap, 198 
Ta/isay, 110 
'/'afoftt, 50 
Tamarind, 104 
Tamarindo, 104 
Tamarindus Indica, 104 
Tamawian, 38 
Tambalisa, 101 
I'ampuhig, 228 
2ana#, 53 
Tangoton, 112 
Tapulaya, 46 
Taramhampam, 182 
Taratora, 182 
Tartar aw, 112 
Tawatawa, 215 
Tawatawasiga, 222 
Tawawa, 210 
Tayabas, 113 
Taywanak, 244 
Tea, Mexican, 202 
Teak tree, 190 
2'eca, 190 

Tectona grandis, 190 
Terminalia Catappa, 110 

Chebula, 111, 115, 127, 155 

mauriciana, 110 

rnoluccana, 110 

reticulata, 111 
Tetracera Assa, 17 

macrophylla, 17 

monocarpa, 17 

Rheedi, 17 

sarmentosa, 17 
Tlieobroma (Jacao, 55 
Thespesia populnea, 47 
Thevetia nerifolia, 159 
Tiyhiman, 100 
, 185 
190 



INDEX 



269 



Tilites, 200 
Timbagan, 203 
Tinntinaan, 214 
Tindag-bayag, 171 
Tinisas, 153 
Tinospora cordifolia, 23 

crispa, 22 
Tintatintahan, 214 
Titiw, 185 
Tobacco, 180 
Toktok-kalo, 161 
Tortmjas, 67 
Tostow, 134 

Tovomita pentapetala, 38 
Tree, alstonia or dita, 163 

Black Myrobalan, 111 

Jack fruit, 223 
Trianthema monogyna, 134 

obcordata, 134* 
Trichosanthes amara, 128 

anguina, 128 

cucumerina, 128 

lucioniana, 127 

palmata, 127 

tricuspis, 127 
Tsampaka, 19 
Tsatsatsatsahan, 190 
Tsiku, 156 
Tuba, 24, 215 

kamaisa, 218 
Tubo, 241 
Tumbogaso, 148 
Tumboug aso, kapay, 148 
Tunas, 27 

Turmeric plant, 229 
Turpeth root, 216 
Turroea octandra, 77 

virens, 76 
Tylophora asthmatica, 169 

Umbellifers?, 134 



Unona uncinata, 20 
Urena morifolia, 44 

multifida, 44 

muricata, 44 

sinuata, 44 
Urticacese, 223 
Urtica ferox, 224 

umbellata, 224 
Uvaria Sinensis, 20 

Verbena capitata, 190 

nodiflora, 190 
Verbenaceae, 190 
Verdolagas, 34 
Vitex Leucoxylon, 192 

Negundo, 192 

repens, 192 

trifolia, 192 
Vuas, 220 

Walnut, Indian, 217 
Wars, 220 
Water lily, 27 
Wawalisan, 42 
Weed, styptic, 100 
Wood apple, 69 
Wormseed, American, 202 
Wormwood, Indian, 153 

Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum, 63 

violaceum, 63 
Xylocarpus granatum, 78 

Yate, 190 
Yayo, 58 

Zea Mays, 240 
Zingiberaceae, 228 
Zingiber officinale, 228 
Zizypbus Jujuba, 81 
* Mauritania, 81 



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