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From a manuscript of Chancer's Canterbury Tales in the British Museum. The 
shrine of Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was a celebrated resort for 
medieval pilgrims. The city with its cathedral appears in the background. 





"For the roots of the present lie deep in the past, and nothing 
in the past is dead to the man who would learn how the 
present comes to be what it is." 

William Stubbs, Constitutional History of England 





Webster's Ancient History 

From prehistoric times to the Age of Charlemagne 

Webster's Early European History 

From prehistoric times to the seventeenth century 

Webster's European History 
Part I — Ancient Times 

The Ancient History section of the above book 

Part II — Medieval and Early Modern Times 

From the fall of Rome to the seventeenth century 

Part III — Modern Times 

From the Age of Louis XIV to the present 

Webster's Medieval and Modern History 

From the fall of Rome to the present 

Webster's Readings in Ancient History 

Webster's Readings in Medieval and Modem History 

D. C. HEATH & CO., Publishers 

Copyright, 1919 
By D. C. Heath & Co. 

I C 9 

MAV -3 1919 



This book, as the title indicates, covers both the Middle Ages 
and modern times. The chapters treating the period from the 
sixth to the seventeenth century are reproduced from my Early 
European History, with minor modifications and with additional 
maps and illustrations. The entire work has been written since the 
outbreak of the World War, and its probable consequences have 
been kept constantly in mind. If it be true, as Bishop Stubbs once 
said, that "nothing in the past is dead to the man who would learn 
how the present comes to be what it is," then surely the prime 
business of the author of a text-book deaHng with European history 
is to make plain the remoter causes, as well as the immediate ante- 
cedents, of a struggle epochal in the Hfe of humanity. How far I 
have succeeded in doing so must be left to the reader's judgment. 

The "Suggestions for Further Study" contain a classified and 
annotated bibliography of those historical works which appear to 
be reasonably well adapted to the needs of pupils in secondary 
schools. References to the appropriate chapters of my Readings in 
Medieval and Modern History are also inserted in footnotes. This 
volume consists of extracts from the sources, chiefly of a biographical 
or narrative character. As stated in the preface, "Each chapter 
deals with a single epoch or personality and presents the work of a 
single author. The passages quoted are long enough to make a 
definite impression on the reader, thus avoiding the scrappy effect 
necessarily produced by a set of short, unrelated extracts. Since 
many of the selections are good literature as well as good history, 
I hope that students will be tempted to turn to the original sources 
from which excerpts have been taken, and to read in them at length 
for their own enjoyment." 

The pedagogical apparatus supplied includes a table of events 
and dates and an index and pronouncing vocabulary. The studies 
following each chapter are based directly on the text. Most of them 
take the form of suggestive questions, which do not test the memory 
only, but stir the sluggish mind, provoke debate, and lead to con- 
structive thinking. There are also numerous exercises requiring 
the preparation of outline maps. 

iv Preface 

It remains to acknowledge with hearty thanks the assistance 
received from teachers who have read and criticized parts of the 
manuscript. I may mention the following: Professor James M. 
Leake of Bryn Mawr College; Professor J. C. Hildt of Smith College; 
Professor E. F. Humphrey of Trinity College; Professor H. D. 
Foster of Dartmouth College; Very Rev. Patrick J. Healy, Professor 
of Church History in the Catholic University of America; Dr. 
James Sullivan, Director of the Division of Archives and History, 
State Department of Education of New York; Constantine E. 
McGuire, Assistant Secretary General, International High Com- 
mission, Washington; Miss Margaret E. McGill, of the Newton 
(Mass.) High School; and Miss Mabel Chesley, of the Erasmus Hall 
High School, Brooklyn. They have all helped me to make a better 

book than I could have made alone. 

Lincoln, Nebraska 
March, 19 19 



List of Illustrations xiii 

List of Maps xix 

List of Plates xxii 

Suggestions for Further Study xxiii 


I. Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages, 

1. Western Europe 1 

2. The Ostrogoths in Italy, 488-553 3 

3. The Lombards in Italy, 568-774 6 

4. The Franks under Clovis and His Successors 8 

5. The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the 

Short 10 

6. Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Empire, 

800 12 

7. Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire, 814-870 ... 16 

8. Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman 

Empire, 962 19 

9. The Anglo-Saxons in Britain, 449-839 23 

10. Christianity in the British Isles 25 

11. The Fusion of Germans and Romans 29 

11. Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages, 

12. The Roman Empire in the East 32 

13. The Reign of Justinian, 527-565 33 

14. The Empire and Its Asiatic Foes 35 

15. The Empire and Its Foes in Europe 37 

16. Byzantine Civilization 38 

17. Constantinople " 40 

III. Christianity in the East and in the West to 1054 

18. Development of Christianity 45 

19. Eastern Christianity 48 

20. Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy 50 

21. Growth of the Papacy 52 

22. Monasticism 54 

23. Life and Work of the Monks 57 


vi Contents 


24. Spread of Christianity over Europe 60 

25. Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity . . . 63 

26. The Greek Church 65 

27. The Roman Church 66 

IV. The Orient Against the Occident: Rise and Spread 

OF Islam, 622-1058 

28. Arabia and the Arabs 68 

29. Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman, 622-632 ... 69 

30. Islam and the Koran 73 

31. Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt 75 

32. Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain ... 78 

33. The Caliphate and its Disruption, 632-1058 .... 80 

34. Arabian Civilization 82 

35. The Influence of Islam 87 

V. The Northmen and the Normans to 1066 

36. Scandinavia and the Northmen 90 

37. The Viking Age 92 

38. Scandinavian Heathenism 94 

39. The Northmen in the West 97 

40. The Northmen in the East 100 

41. Normandy and the Normans 101 

42. Conquest of England by the Danes; Alfred the Great 103 

43. Norman Conquest of England; William the Conqueror 106 

44. Results of the Norman Conquest 109 

45. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily. . . Ill 

46. The Normans in European History 112 

VI. Feudalism 

47. Rise of Feudalism 114 

48. Feudalism as a Form of Local Government 115 

49. Feudal Justice 118 

50. Feudal Warfare 120 

51. The Castle and Life of the Nobles 123 

52. Knighthood and Chivalry 126 

53. Feudalism as a Form of Local Industry 129 

54. The Village and Life of the Peasants 132 

55. Serfdom 134 

56. Decline of Feudalism 135 

VII. The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, 962-1273 

57. Characteristics of the Medieval Church 137 

58. Church Doctrine and Worship 138 

Contents vii 


59. Church Jurisdiction 141 

60. The Secular Clergy 143 

61. The Regular Clergy 144 

62. The Friars 146 

63. Power of the Papacy 149 

64. Popes and Emperors, 962-1122 151 

65. Popes and Emperors, 1122-1273 156 

66. Significance of the Medieval Church 159 

VIII. The OccroENT Against the Orient: the Crusades, 

67. Causes of the Crusades 162 

68. First Crusade, 1095-1099 164 

69. Crusaders' States in Syria 168 

70. Second Crusade, 1147-1149, and Third Crusade, 

1189-1192 170 

71. Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Constanti- 

nople, 1202-1261 173 

72. Results of the Crusades 175 

IX. The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks to 1453 

73. The Mongols 179 

74. Conquests of the Mongols, 1206-1405 ....... 180 

75. The Mongols in China and India 183 

76. The Mongols in Eastern Europe 184 

77. The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests, 1227-1453 187 

78. The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe .... 190 

X. European Nations During the Later Middle Ages 

79. Growth of the Nations 192 

80. England under William the Conqueror, 1066-1087; 

the Norman Kingship 193 

81. England under Henry II, 1154-1189; Royal Justice 

and the Common Law 195 

82. The Great Charter 198 

83. ParHament in the Thirteenth Century 200 

84. Expansion of England under Edward I, 1272-1307 . 204 

85. Unification of France, 987-1328 207 

86. The Hundred Years' War between France and Eng- 

land, 1337-1453 210 

87. Unification of Spain (to 1492) 214 

88. Austria and the Swiss Confederation, 1273-1499. . . 217 

89. Expansion of Germany 220 

viii Contents 


XI. European Cities During the Later Middle Ages 

90. Growth of the Cities 224 

91. City Life 227 

92. Civic Industry; the Guilds 229 

93. Trade and Commerce 232 

94. Money and Banking 235 

95. Italian Cities 238 

96. German Cities: the Hanseatic League 242 

97. The Cities of Flanders 243 

XII. Medieval Civilization 

98. Formation of National Languages 247 

99. Development of National Literatures 249 

100. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture; Cathedrals 252 

101. Education; the Universities ....*. 256 

102. Scholasticism 261 

103. Science and Magic 262 

104. Popular Superstitions 265 

105. Popular Amusements and Festivals 269 

106. Manners and Customs 273 

XIII. The Renaissance 

107. Meaning of the Renaissance 279 

108. Revival of Learning in Italy 281 

109. Paper and Printing 284 

110. Revival of Art in Italy 286 

111. Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy 289 

112. The Renaissance in Literature 290 

113. The Renaissance in Education 294 

114. The Scientific Renaissance 296 

115. The Economic Renaissance 298 

XIV. Geographical Discovery and Colonization in the 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 

116. Medieval Geography 302 

117. Aids to Exploration 304 

118. To the Indies Eastward: Prince Henry and Da Gama 307 

119. The Portuguese Colonial Empire 310 

120. To the Indies Westward: Columbus and Magellan. 311 

121. The Indians 317 

132. Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America . . 320 

123. The Spanish Colonial Empire 322 

124. English and French Explorations in America. . . . 325 

125. The Old World and the New '. . . . 327 

Contents ix 


XV. The Reformation and the Religious Wars, 1517-1648 

126. Decline of the Papacy 330 

127. Heresies and Heretics 334 

128. Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation 

in Germany, 1517-1522 337 

129. Charles V and the Spread of the Reformation . . . 341 

130. The Reformation in Switzerland; ZwingU and Calvin 343 

131. The English Reformation, 1533-1558 345 

132. The Protestant Sects 348 

133. The Catholic Counter Reformation 351 

134. Spain under Philip II, 1556-1598 355 

135. Revolt of the Netherlands 357 

136. England under Ehzabeth, 1558-1603 361 

137. The Huguenot Wars in France 366 

138. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 369 

XVI, Absolutism in England and France, 1603-1715 

139. The Divine Right of Kings 375 

140. Absolutism of the Stuarts, 1603-1642 376 

141. Oliver Cromwell and the Civil War, 1642-1649. . . 382 

142. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate, 1649-1660 387 

143. The Restoration and the "Glorious Revolution" 390 

144. England in the Seventeenth Century 394 

145. Absolutism of Louis XIV, 1661-1715 396 

146. The Wars of Louis XIV T 401 ^ 

147. France under the " Grand Monarch " 407 

XVII. The European Balance of Power, 1715-1789 

148. The Eighteenth Century in PoHtics 411 

149. Rise of Russia 412 

150. Russia under Peter the Great, 1689-1725 415 

151. Sweden and the Career of Charles XII 418 

152. Russia under Catherine II, 1762-1796; the DecHne 

of Turkey 422 

153. The Partitions of Poland, 1772-1795 424 

154. Rise of Prussia 428 

155. Prussia under Frederick the Great, 1740-1786. . . 431 

156. Constitutional Monarchy in Great Britain 435 

XVIII. Commerce and Colonies in the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centuries 

157. Mercantilism and Trading Companies 440 

. 158. The Dutch Colonial Empire 442 

X Contents 


159. Rivalry of France and England in India (to 1763) . 445 

160. The English Settlement of Virginia and Massachu- 

setts 449 

161. The Thirteen Colonies 455 

162. Transit of Civilization from England to America . . 459 

163. French Settlements in Canada and Louisiana . . . 464 

164. Rivalry of France and England in North America 467 

165. Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies, 1776-1783 .... 471 

166. Progress of Geographical Discovery 476 

XIX. The Old Regime in Europe 

167. The Eighteenth Century in Culture 480 

168. The Privileged Classes 481 

169. The Unprivileged Classes 483 

170. Liberal Ideas of Industry and Commerce; the 

Economists 485 

171. The Scientists . .' ' . . 486 

172. Liberal Ideas of Religion and PoUtics; the English 

Philosophers 489 

173. The French Philosophers 490 

174. The Enhghtened Despots 493 

XX. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 1789-1815 

175. Preparation for the French Revolution 497 

176. Eve of the French Revolution 499 

177. The Estates-General, 1789 502 

178. Outbreak of the French Revolution 504 

179. The National Assembly, 1789-1791 508 

180. The First French Republic, 1792 511 

181. The National Convention, 1792-1795 516 

182. The Directory and Napoleon, 1795-1799 520 

183. The Consulate, 1799-1804 523 

184. The French Empke, 1804 525 

185. Napoleon at War mth Europe, 1805-1807 526 

186. The Napoleonic Reorganization of Europe 529 

187. The Continental System 531 

188. Revolt of the Nations, 1808-1814 533 

189. Downfall of Napoleon, 1814-1815 537 

190. ''Liberty, EquaHty, Fraternity" 539 

XXI. The National Movement in Europe, 1815-1871 

191. Modern Nationalism 543 

192. Congress of Vienna 545 





193. The Reaction under Metternich, 1815-1830 .... 548 

194. France and the "July Revolution," 1830 550 

195. The "July Revolution" in Europe 551 

196. The "February Revolution" and the Second French 

Republic, 1848 554 

197. The " February Revolution " in Europe 555 

198. The Second French Empire, 1852-1870 559 

199. United Italy, 1859-1870 560 

200. United Germany, 1864-1871 567 

The Democratic Movement in Europe, 1871-1914 

201. Modern Democracy 575 

202. The United Kmgdom 576 

203. The Third French Republic 582 

204. Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Belgium 584 

205. The German Empire 586 

206. The Dual ISIonarchy 589 

207. Switzerland, Holland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden 590 

208. The Russian Empire 591 

209. Turkey and the Balkan States 595 

XXIII. Colonial Expansion and World Politics in the Nine- 
teenth AND Twentieth Centuries 

210. Greater Europe 602 

211. The Opening-Up of Africa 603 

212. The Partition of Africa 605 

213. The Opening-Up and Partition of Asia 609 

214. China 614 

215. Japan 617 

216. The Opening-Up and Partition of Oceania 621 

217. British North America 623 

218. Latin America 626 

219. The United States 629 

220. Close of Geographical Discovery 634 

221. Inter-racial Problems 636 

XXIV. The Industrial Revolution 

222. Modern Industrialism 640 

223. The Great Inventions 641 

224. Effects of the Great Inventions 646 

225. Improvements in Transportation 649 

226. Improved Communications 654 

xii Contents 


227. Commerce 656 

228. Commercial Policies 658 

229. Agriculture and Land Tenure 660 

230. The Labor Movement 662 

23 L Government Regulation of Industry 665 

232. Rise and Spread of Socialism 667 

233. Progress and Poverty 671 

XXV. Modern Civilization 

234. Internationalism 675 

235. Social Betterment 677 

236. Emancipation of Women and Children 679 

237. Religious Toleration and the Separation of Church 

and State . 681 

238. Popular Education and the Higher Learning .... 683 

239. Science 685 

240. Philosophy and Literature 687 

241. Music and the Fine Arts 690 

242. Historic and Artistic Paris 692 

243. Historic and Artistic London 700 

XXVI. The World War, 1914-1918 

244. National Rivalries and Antipathies 708 

245. Colonial Problems and the Eastern Question . ... 712 

246. MiUtarism 717 

247. Pan-Germanism 720 

248. Beginning of the War 723 

249. The War in Europe, 1914-1917 727 

250. The War outside of Europe and on the Sea, 1914-1917 732 

251. The Intervention of the United States 734 

252. The Russian Revolution 737 

253. End of the War, 1918 740 

XXVII. The World Settlement, 1919 

Appendix — Table of Events and Dates 747 

Index and Pronouncing Vocabulary 765 



Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna 3 

Charlemagne 12 

Iron Crown of Lombardy 13 

Charlemagne's Signature 14 

Cathedral at Ak-la-Chapelle 15 

Ring Seal of Otto the Great 20 

St. Martin's Church, Canterbury 26 

Canterbury Cathedral 27 

Justinian and his Suite 33 

The Three Existing Monuments of the Hippodrome, Constantinople. 42 

Religious Music 47 

The Nestorian Monument 49 

Papal Arms 51 

St. Daniel the Stylite on his Column 55 

An Abbot's Seal 56 

Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, Paris 58 

A Monk Copyist 60 

Mecca 70 

A Passage from the Koran 73 

Naval Battle Showing Use of ''Greek Fire" 77 

TheAlhambra 79 

Interior of the Great Mosque of Cordova 84 

Capitals and Arabesques from the Alhambra 87 

Swedish Rock Carving 90 

A Runic Stone 91 

A Viking Ship 93 

Norse Metal Work 95 

Alfred the Great 105 

Alfred's Jewel 106 

A Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry 107 

Trial by Combat 119 

Mounted Knight 121 

Chateau Gaillard (restored) 124 

King and Jester 126 

Falconry 127 

A Joust 128 

Farm Work in the Fourteenth Century 131 

A Bishop Ordaining a Priest 143 


xiv List of Illustrations 


St. Francis Blessing the Birds 147 

The Spiritual and the Temporal Power 152 

Henry IV, Countess Matilda, and Gregory VII 155 

Worms Cathedral 156 

Combat between Crusaders and Moslems 163 

"Mosque of Omar," Jerusalem 166 

Effigy of a Knight Templar 169 

Richard I in Prison 172 

" The Last Crusade" 1^4 

Hut-Wagon of the Mongols (reconstruction) 180 

Tomb of Timur at Samarkand .181 

Mohammed II 1^^ 

The "White Tower" 194 

A Passage from Domesday Book 195 

Extract from the Great Charter 199 

Windsor Castle 201 

A Queen Eleanor Cross 202 

Coronation Chair, Westminster Abbey 204 

Royal Arms of Edward III 211 

Battle of Crecy 212 

Walls of Carcassonne 22:> 

A Scene in Rothenburg 226 

A London Bellman 228 

House of the Butchers' Guild, Hildesheim, Germany 230 

Baptistery, Cathedral and "Leaning Tower" of Pisa 237 

Duomo and Campanile of Florence 239 

Belfry of Bruges 244 

Town Hall of Louvain, Belgium 245 

Roland at Roncesvalles 250 

Gargoyles on the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 256 

View of New College, Oxford 258 

Tower of Magdalen College, Oxford 260 

Roger Bacon 263 

Magician Rescued from the Devil 265 

The Witches' Sabbath 267 

Chess Pieces of Charlemagne 269 

Bear Baiting 270 


A Miracle Play at Coventry, England 272 


Sulgrave Manor ^'^ 

Interior of an English Manor House 275 

Costumes of Ladies during the Later Middle Ages 276 

Anglo-Saxon Drinking Horn 277 

List of Illustrations xv 


Mask of Dante 281 

Petrarch 282 

An Early Printing Press 284 

Facsimile of Part of Caxton's "^neid" (reduced) 285 

Desiderius Erasmus 290 

Geoffrey Chaucer 292 

Shakespeare's Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon 293 

Boys' Sports 295 

Richard II 300 

Geographical Monsters 303 

An Astrolabe 306 

Vasco da Gama 309 

Christopher Columbus 313 

Isabella 314 

Caravel of the Fifteenth Century 315 

The Name "America" 316 

Ferdinand Magellan 317 

Aztec Sacrificial Knife 318 

Aztec Sacrificial Stone 319 

Cabot Memorial Tower 325 

English Battleship of the Sixteenth Century 326 

John Wycliffe 336 

Martin Luther 338 

Charles V 341 

John Calvin 343 

Henry VIII 344 

Ruins of Melrose Abbey 347 

Chained Bible 350 

St. Ignatius Loyola 352 

Philip II 356 

The Escorial 357 

WilUam the Silent 359 

Elizabeth 362 

Silver Crown of Elizabeth's Reign 363 

Mary Stuart 364 

The Spanish Armada in the English Channel 365 

Henry IV 367 

Cardinal Richelieu 368 

Gustavus Adolphus 371 

Gold Coin of James I 377 

A Puritan. Family 378 

Charles I 379 

Execution of the Earl of Strafford 381 

xvi List of Illustrations 


Oliver Cromwell 383 

Interior of Westminster Hall 386 

Great Seal of England Under the Commonwealth (reduced) 389 

Silver Crown of Charles II 391 

Coach and Sedan Chair 394 

John Milton 396 

Cardinal Mazarin . 397 

Louis XIV 398 

Versailles 400 

Marlborough 404 

Gibraltar 405 

Medal of Louis XIV 408 

Moliere 409 

Peter the Great 416 

Charles XII 420 

Catherine II . . 422 

The Partition of Poland 425 

Frederick the Great 432 

Maria Theresa 434 

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham 437 

Robert, Lord CUve 448 

Ruins of the Brick Church at Jamestown 451 

The Mayflower 453 

The Mayflower Compact 454 

First Page of Penn's Account of Pennsylvania 458 

A Ti tie-Page of Poor Richard's Almanac 459 

A Page from the New England Printer 461 

Join or Die 463 

Montcalm 467 

James Wolfe 469 

Opening Lines of the Declaration of Independence 473 

Medal Commemorating the Declaration of Independence 474 

Captain James Cook 478 

Adam Smith 486 

Death Mask of Sir Isaac Newton 487 

Linnaeus 488 

Voltaire 491 

Jean Jacques Rousseau 492 

Marie Antoinette 500 

Mirabeau 503 

Lafayette 504 

The Storming of the Bastille 505 

The Destruction of Feudalism 507 

List of Illustrations xvii 


An Assignat 509 

Danton 513 

The Lion of Lucerne 514 

Seal of the French Repubhc, 1792-1804 515 

Execution of Louis XVI 517 

Napoleon 520 

Horatio, Lord Nelson 522 

Cross of the Legion of Honor 526 

A Napoleonic Medal 527 

The "Victory" 528 

WilHam Pitt, the Younger 530 

Josephine 534 

Baron vom Stein 536 

The Duke of Wellington 539 

The Tomb of Napoleon 540 

Talleyrand 545 

Metternich 549 

Palais de Justice, Brussels 552 

Louis Kossuth 556 

Napoleon III and Eugenie 560 

Count Cavour 562 

Giuseppe Garibaldi 563 

"The Right Leg in the Boot at Last" 564 

Leo XIII 566 

Bismarck 569 

Moltke 572 

The Union Jack 577 

Interior of the House of Commons 579 

Benjamin Disraeli 580 

William E. Gladstone 581 

L. A. Thiers 583 

The German National Monument 587 

Francis Joseph 1 589 

The Kremlin, Moscow 593 

Florence Nightingale, 597 

Henry M. Stanley 604 

Paul Kruger ' 607 

Cecil Rhodes 608 

" The Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger " 610 

Queen Victoria 611 

Simon Bolivar 627 

Robert E. Peary 634 

Hargreaves's " Spinning Jenny " 643 

xviii List of Illustrations 


Arkwright's Spinning Machine 643 

Robert Fulton 650 

George Stephenson 651 

The "Rocket," 1830 652 

First Adhesive Penny Postage Stamp ■ 655 

Karl Marx 669 

"Ridiculous Taste, or the Ladies' Absurdity" 676 

John Wesley 682 

Marie Curie 686 

Charles Darwin 687 

Herbert Spencer 688 

Sir Walter Scott 688 

Victor Hugo 689 

Mozart's Spinet 690 

Ludwig van Beethoven 691 

Richard Wagner 691 

"Colonne Vendome 695 

Arc de Triomphe 697 

Notre Dame 699 

The Tower of London 703 

The Nelson Monument, Trafalgar Square 704 

St. Paul's Cathedral 705 

Westminster Abbey 707 

" Dropping the Pilot " 710 

The Peace Palace at the Hague 718 

William H 721 

King Albert I . 726 

Marshal Joffre 728 

Hindenburg 730 

The Victoria Cross 733 

A Submarine 735 

Herbert Hoover 737 

Nicholas II 738 

Ferdinand Foch 741 



Europe at the Deposition of Romulus Augustulus, 476 a.d. . . Facing 2 

Europe in the Sixth Century 5 

Lombard Possessions in Italy about 600 a.d 7 

Growth of the Prankish Dominions, 481-768 a.d 9 

Europe in the Age of Charlemagne, 800 a.d Facing 14 

The Frankish Dominions as Divided by the Treaties of Verdun 

(843 a.d) and Mersen (870 a.d) 17 

Europe in the Age of Otto the Great, 962 a.d 22 

Continental Home of the English 24 

Anglo-Saxon Britain 28 

The Peoples of Europe at the Beginning of the Tenth Century Facing 30 
The Roman Empire m the East During the Tenth and Eleventh 

Centuries 36 

Vicinity of Constantinople 41 

Constantinople 43 

Plan of Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire 57 

Growth of Christianity from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century 

(double page) Between 62 atid 63 

Expansion of Islam Facing 78 

Dismemberment of the Caliphate^ 81 

Discoveries of the Northmen in the West 98 

Alfred's England 104 

Dominions of William the Conqueror 108 

Norman Possessions in Italy and Sicily Ill 

Plan of Chateau Gaillard 125 

Plan of Hitchin Manor, Hertfordshire 133 

Germany and Italy during the Interregnum, 1254-1273 a.d. . Facing 158 

Crusaders' States in Syria 168 

Mediterranean Lands after the Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204 a.d. 

(double page) Between 170 and 171 

The Mongol Empire 182 

Russia at the End of the Middle Ages 186 

Empire of the Ottoman Turks at the Fall of Constantmople, 1453 a.d. 189 

Dominion of the Plantagenets in England and France "~196r 

Scotland in the Thirteeenth Century 205 

Unification of France during the Middle Ages 208 

Unification of Spain during the Middle Ages 215 


XX List of Maps 


Hapsburg Possessions, 1273-1526 a.d 218 

The Swiss Confederation, 1291-1513 a.d 219 

German Expansion Eastward during the Middle Ages 222 

Trade Routes between Northern and Southern Europe in the 13th and 

14th Centuries 233 

Medieval Trade Routes (double page) Between 234 a>id 235 

Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, England 253 

Cross Section of Amiens Cathedral 255 

Geographical Knowledge during the Middle Ages 305 

Portuguese Exploration of the African Coast 308 

Behaim's Globe 312 

Portuguese and Spanish Colonial Empires in the Sixteenth Century 

(double page) Between 314 a;«/ 315 

West Indies 321 

An Early Map of the New World (1540 a.d.) 323 

The Great Schism, 1378-1417 a.d 332 

Europe at the Beginning of the Reformation, 1519 a.d. . . . Facing 342 

Extent of the Reformation, 1524-1572 a.d 349 

The Netherlands at the Truce of 1609 a.d 360 

Europe at the End of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 a.d. . . . Facing 372 

England and Wales 384 

Ireland in the 16th Century 388 

Acquisitions of Louis XIV and Louis XV 402 

Europe after the Peace of Utrecht, 1713 a.d Facing 406 

Growth of Russia to the End of the Eighteenth Century ...'... 413 

Scandinavia in the Seventeenth Century .^ 419 

The Ottoman Empire to 1683 a.d Facing 424 

Partitions of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795 a.d 427 

Hapsburg Possessions, 1526-1789 a.d 433 

Growth of Prussia to the End of the Eighteenth Century . . Facing 434 

East Indies 443 

India at the Time of Clive 446 

Virginia 450 

Captain John Smith's Map of New England 452 

The Exploration of North x\merica by the Middle of the Seventeenth 

Century 456 

La Salle's Explorations 466 

North America after the Peace of Utrecht, 1713 A.D 468 

North America after the Peace of Paris, 1763 A.D 470 

Colonial Empires in the Eighteenth Century (double page) 

Between 472 atid 473 

Europe at the Beginning of the French Revolution, 1789 a.d. . Facing 498 

First French Empire, 1812 a.d 531 

List of Maps xxi 


Napoleon's Russian Campaign 535 

Plan of the Battle of Waterloo 538 

Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 A. D Facing 546 

Unification of Italy, 1815-1870 a.d 565 

Unification of Germany, 1815-1871 A.D Facing 572 

Europe in 1871 A.D Facing 576 

The Peoples of Europe at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 

(double page) Between 590 and 591 

The Ottoman Empire, 1683-1914 A.D Facing 600 

Exploration and Partition of Africa (double page) . . Between 604 and 605 

Suez Canal 609 

The European Ad'/ance in Asia (double page) .... Between 610 and 611 

Extension of British Rule in India 612 

The Peoples of Asia Facing 616 

Religions of the World 619 

The Woi-ld Powers, 1919 a.d. (double page) Between 622 and 623 

Canada, the United States, and Mexico 625 

Exclusion of Spain and Portugal from South America .... Facing 628 

The Louisiana Purchase 629 

Relief Map of the Panama Canal 630 

Discoveries in the Polar Regions 633 

Races of Man 637 

Industrial England •• ■ 648 

Plan of Paris 694 

Plan of London 701 

Europe in 1914 A.D. Facing 710 

Berlin to Bagdad Railway 715 

The Western Front 729 

Europe after the Peace of Versailles, 1919 a.d. 

(double page) Between 754 and 755 


Illuminated Manuscript Frontispiece 

Sancta Sophia, Constantinople Facing 42 

A Castle on the Rhine 122 

St. Peter's, Rome 150 

Joan of Arc 212 

Campanile and Doge's Palace, Venice 240 

Reims Cathedral 254 

Cologne Cathedral 255 

Interior of King's College Chapel, Cambridge 260 

Ghiberti's Bronze Doors at Florence 288 

Italian Paintings of the Renaissance 289 

The Taj Mahal, Agra 448 

"1807" 528 

The Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815 546 

Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, Rome 564 

The Congress of Berlin 598 

Early Passenger Trains 652 

Paris and the Seine 700 

Houses of Parliament, London 701 


All serious students of history should have access to the Aikerican His- 
torical Review (N.Y., 1895 to date, quarteriy, $4.00 a year). This journal, 
the organ of the American Historical Association, con- 
tains articles by scholars, critical reviews of all important 
works, and notes and news. The Historical Outlook (formerly the History 
Teacher's Magazine) is edited under the supervision of a committee of the 
American Historical Association (Philadelphia, 1909 to date, monthly, 
$2.00 a year). Every well-equipped school library should contain the 
files of the National Geographical Magazine (Washington, 1890 to date, 
monthly, $2.00 a year) and of Art and Afchceology (Washington, 19 14 to 
date, monthly, $3.00 a year). These two periodicals make a special feature 
of illustrations. Current History (N.Y., 1914 to date, monthly, $3.00 a 
year) contains many of the valuable articles appearing in the daily edition 
of the Nriv York Times, as well as much additional matter of contemporary 

Useful books for the teacher's library include H. E. Bourne, The Teaching 
of History and Civics in the Elementary and the Secondary School (N.Y., 
1902, Longmans, Green & Co., $1.50), Henry Johnson, 
The Teaching of History (N.Y., 1915, Macmillan, $1.40), ^^^^^ °^ *^® 
H. B. George, Historical Evidence (N.Y., 1909, Oxford Uni- Xeachine of 
versity Press, American Branch, 75 cents), J. H. Vincent, History 
Historical Research (N.Y., 1911, Holt, $2.25), Frederic 
Harrison, The Meaning of History and Other Historical Pieces (new ed., 
N.Y., 1900, Macmillan, $1.75), J. H. Robinson, The New History (N.Y., 
191 2, Macmillan, $1.50), and H. B. George, The Relations of History and 
Geography (4th ed., N.Y., 1910, Oxford University Press, American Branch, 
$1.10). The following reports are indispensable: 

The Study of History in Schools. Report to the American Historical Association 

by the Committee of Seven (N.Y., 1899, Macmillan, 50 cents). 
The Study of History in Secondary Schools. Report to the American Historical 

Association by a Committee of Five (N.Y., 191 1, Macmillan, 25 cents). 
Historical Sources in Schools. Report to the New England History Teachers' 

Association by a Select Committee (N.Y., 1902, out of print). 
A History Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Report by a Special Committee of the 

New England History Teachers' Association (N.Y., 1904, Heath, $1.32). 
A Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries. Published under the auspices 

of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland 

(2d ed., NY., 1915, Longmans, Green & Co., 60 cents). 


xxiv Suggestions for Further Study 

For chronology, genealogies, lists of sovereigns, and other data the most 
valuable works are Arthur Hassall, European History, 476-1 gio (new ed., 

N.Y., 191 1, Macmillan, $2.25), G. P. Putnam, Tabular 
Dictionaries • y-^.^^ ^j Universal History (new ed., N.Y., 1915, Putnam, 
pedias $2.50), and K. J. Ploetz, A Handbook of Universal History, 

translated by W. H. Tillinghast (new ed,, Boston, 19 15, 
Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00). 

Syllabi and The following syllabi and bibhographies have been pre- 

Bibliographies pared for collegiate instruction: 

Beazley, C. R. a Note-Book of Medieval History, 323-1453 (N.Y., 19 17, Oxford 

University Press, American Branch, $1.20). 
Lees, Beatrice A. Bibliography of Medieval History (London, 191 7, Historical 

Association, 25.). A classified and annotated list of references, covering the 

period 400-1500. 
McKiNLEY, A. E. Collected Materials for the Study of the War (Philadelphia, 1918, 

McKinley Publishing Co., 80 cents). 
MuNRO, D. C, and Sellery, G. C. A Syllabus of Medieval History, 395-1500 

(N.Y., 1913, Longmans, Green & Co., $1.00). 
Paetow, L. J. Guide to the Study of Medieval History (Berkeley, Cal., 1918, Univ. 

of California Series, $2.00). Elaborate bibliographies and topical outlines. 
Perkins, Clarence. An Outline of Recent European History, 1815-1916 (Colvun- 

bus, Ohio, 191 7, College Book Store, 50 cents). 
Richardson, O. H. Syllabus of Continental European History from the Fall of 

Rome to 1870 (Boston, 1904, Ginn, boards, 75 cents). 
Stephens, H. M. Syllabus of a Course of Eighty-seven Lectures on Modern European 

History (N.Y., 1899, Macmillan, $1.60). Covers the period 1600-1890. 
Thompson, J. W. Reference Studies in Medieval History (2d ed., Chicago, 1914, 

University of Chicago Press, $1.25). 

An admirable collection of maps for school use is W. R. Shepherd, Histori- 
cal Atlas (N.Y., 191 1, Holt, $2.50), with about two hundred and fifty 
maps covering the historical field. Other valuable works 
are E. W. Dow, Atlas of European History (N.Y., 1907, 
Holt, $1.25), Ramsay Muir, Hammond's New Historical Atlas for Students 
(2d ed., N.Y., 1914, Hammond, $2.50), and C. G. Robertson and J. G. 
Bartholomew, An Historical Atlas of Modern Europe from 178Q to 1914 
(N.Y., 1915, Oxford University Press, American Branch, $1.50. Much 
use can be made of the inexpensive and handy Literary and Historical Atlas 
of Europe by J. G. Bartholomew in "Everyman's Library" (N.Y., 1910, 
Button, 70 cents). Other atlases in "Everyman's Library" are devoted 
to Asia, Africa and Australasia, and America, respectively. S. R. Gardiner, 
A School Atlas of English History (N.Y., 1891, Longmans, Green & Co., 
$1.50) is a standard work. Very valuable, also, is J. G. Bartholomew, An 
Atlas of Economic Geography (N.Y., 191 5, Oxford University Press, American 
Branch, $2.00), with maps showing temperature, rainfall, population, races, 
occupations, religions, trade routes, products, etc. 

Suggestions for Further Study xxv 

The Spruner-Bretschneider Historical Maps are ten in number, size 62 x 
52 inches, and cover the period from 350 to 18 15. The text is in German 
(Chicago, Nystrom, each $6.00; Rand, McNally & Co., -ny ,, « 
each $6.50). Johnston's Medieval and Modem History ^^^^ Charts 
Maps twenty-four in number, size 40 x 30 inches, empha- 
size the political aspects of European history (Chicago, Nystrom, com- 
plete set with tripod stand, $28.00). A series of European History Maps, 
twenty-three in number, size 44x32 inches, has been prepared for the 
medieval and modern periods by Professor S. B. Harding (Chicago, Denoyer- 
Geppert Co., complete set with tripod stand, $32.00). Philips's Wall Atlas 
of Modern History consists of eight maps, size 45 x 36 inches (N.Y., Ham- 
mond, complete set with roller, $18.00). The school should also possess 
good physical wall maps such as the Sydow-Habenicht or the Kiepert 
series, both to be obtained from Rand, McNally & Co. The text is in 
German. Philips's Physical Maps and Johnston's Neiv Series of Physical 
Wall Maps are obtainable from A. J. Nystrom & Co. The only large 
charts available are those prepared by MacCoun for his Historical Geography 
Charts of Europe. The two sections, "Ancient and Classical" and 
"Medieval and Modern," are sold separately (N.Y., Silver, Burdett & Co., 
$15.00). A helpful series of Blackboard Outline Maps is issued by J. L. 
Engle, Beaver, Penn. These are wall maps, printed with paint on black- 
board cloth, for use with an ordinary crayon. Such maps are also sold by 
the Denoyer-G^ppert Co., Chicago. 

The "Studies" following each chapter of this book include various 
exercises for which small outline maps are required. Such maps are sold 
by D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, New York, Chicago. Useful 
atlases of outline maps are also to be had of the McKinley j^^pg 
PubHshing Co., Philadelphia, A. J. Nystrom & Co., Chicago, 
Atkinson, Mentzer & Grover, Chicago, and of other publishers. 

The best photographs of medieval and modern works of art must usually 

be obtained from the foreign publishers in Naples, Florence, Rome, Munich, 

Paris, Athens, and London, or from their American agents. ..„ ^ ^. 

' , 1 . , , . „ • 1 „ Illustrations 

Such photographs, m the usual size, 8 x 10 mches, sell, 

unmounted, at from 6 to 8 francs a dozen. In addition to photographs and 
lantern sHdes, a collection of stereoscopic views is very helpful in giving 
vividness and interest to instruction in history. An admirable series of 
photographs for the stereoscope is issued by Underwood and Underwood, 
New York City. The same firm supphes convenient maps and handbooks 
for use in this connection. The Keystone stereographs, prepared by the 
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Penn., may also be cordially recom- 
mended. The architecture, costumes, amusements, and occupations of 
the Middle Ages in England are shown in Longmans' Historical Illustrations 
(six portfolios, each containing twelve plates in black-and-white. New 
York, Longrrians, Green & Co., 90 cents, each portfolio). The same 

xxvi Suggestions for Further Study 

firm issues Longmans^ Historical Wall Pictures, consisting of twelve colored 
pictures from original paintings illustrating English history (each picture, 
separately, 80 cents; in a portfolio, $10.50). The Bureau of University 
Travel, Boston, Mass., publishes several series of "University Prints" 
representing subjects in European painting, sculpture, and architecture. 
These prints are sold for one cent each or eighty cents a hundred. They 
may also be had in bound form (five volumes, each $3.00). Other notable 
collections are Lehmann's Geographical Pictures, Historical Pictures, and 
Types of Nations, and Cybulski's Historical Pictures (Chicago, A. J. Nystrom 
& Co., and Denoyer-Geppert Co.; each picture separately mounted on 
rollers, $1.35 to $2.25). The New England History Teachers' Association 
pubUshes a series of Authentic Pictures for Class Room Use, size 5x8 inches, 
price 3 cents each. The Catalogue of the Collection of Historical Material at 
Simmons College, prepared by the New England History Teachers' Associa- 
tion (2d ed., Boston, 191 2, Houghton MifHin Co., 25 cents), contains an 
extensive Hst of pictures, slides, models and other aids to history teaching. 
Two useful collections in book form of photographic reproductions and 
drawings are the following: 
Henderson, E. F. Side Lights on English History (NA''., 1900, out of print). 

Source extracts and illustrations for the period from Elizabeth to Victoria. 
Parmentier, a. Album kistorique (Paris, 1894-1905, Colin, 4 vols., each 15 
francs) . Illustrations covering the medieval and modem periods, with descrip- 
tive text in French. 
To vitalize the study of geography and history there is nothing better 
Works of than the reading of modem books of travel. Among these 

Travel may be mentioned: 

Du Chaillu, Paul B. The Land of the Midnight Sun (N.Y., 1881, Harper, 2 vols., 

DwiGHT, H. G. Constantinople, Old and New (N.Y., 1915, Scribner, $5.00). 
Forman, H. J. The Ideal Italian Tour (Boston, 191 1, Houghton Mifflin Co., 

$2.25). A brief and attractive volume covering all Italy. 
Hay, John. Castilian Days (Boston, 1871, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.25). 
Hutton, Edward. Rome (N.Y., 1909, Macmillan, $2.00). 
Jackson, A. V. W. Persia, Past and Present (N.Y., 1906, Macmillan, $4.00). 

From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam (N.Y., 191 1, Mac- 
millan, $4.00). 

Kinglake, a. W. Eothen (N.Y., 1844, Button, 70 cents). Sketches of travel in 

the East. 
Lucas, E. V. A Wanderer in London (N.Y., 1906, Macmillan, $2.00). 

A Wanderer in Paris (5th ed., N.Y., 191.0, Macmillan, $2.00). 

A Wanderer in Florence (N.Y., 191 2, Macmillan, $2.00). 

Ross, E. A. The Changing Chinese (N.Y., 1912, Century Co., $2.40). 

Stanley, H. M. Through the Dark Continent (N.Y., 1878, Harper, 2 vols., $7.50). 

Taylor, Bayard. Views A-Foot (N.Y., 1855, Putnam, $1.50). A classic work of 

European travel. 
Warner, C. D. In the Levant (N.Y., 1876, Harper, $2.00). 

Suggestions for Further Study xxvii 

Winter, William. Shakespeare's England (2d ed., N.Y., 1892, out of print). 
Gray Days and Gold in England and Scotland (N.Y., 1892, out of print). 

The following works of historical fiction comprise only a selection from a 
very large number of books suitable for supplementary reading. For 
extended bibliographies see E. A. Baker, A Guide to Histori- tt- x • 1 
cal Fiction (new ed., N.Y., 1914, Macmillan, $6.00) and pjction 
Jonathan Nield, A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and 
Tales (3d ed., N.Y., 1914, Putnam, $1.75). An excellent list of historical 
stories, especially designed for children, will be found in the Bibliography 
of History for Schools and Libraries, parts viii-ix. 

Blackmore, R. D. Lorna Doone (N.Y., 1869, Button, 70 cents). Monmouth's 

Rebellion, 1685. 
Church, A. J. Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France (N.Y., 

1902, Macmillan, $1.75). 
Churchill, Winston. Richard Carvel (N.Y., 1899, Macmillan, $1.50). Colonial 

Maryland and London in the eighteenth century. 
Cooper, J. F. The Last of the Mohicans (N.Y., D. C. Heath & Co. 50 cents). 

The French and Indian War, 17 54-1 763. 
Dickens, Charles. Barnaby Rudge (N.Y., 1841, Button, 70 cents). Gordon riots 

in London, 1780. 

The Tale of Two Cities (N.Y., B. C. Heath & Co., 50 cents). London 

and Paris at the time of the French Revolution. 

Doyle, (Sir) A. C. The White Company (Boston, 1890, Caldwell, 75 cents). The 
English in France and Castile, 1366-1367. 

Micah Clarke (N.Y., 1888, Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25). Mon- 
mouth's Rebellion, 1685. 

BuMAS, Alexandre. The Three Musketeers (N.Y., 1844, Button, 70 cents). 
Time of Richelieu. 

Twenty Years After (N.Y., 1845, Button, 70 cents). Time of Mazarin. 

Eliot, George. Romola (N.Y., 1863, Button, 70 cents). Florence in the latter 

part of the fifteenth century. 
Erckmann, Emile, and Chatrian, Alexandre. The Conscript and Waterloo 

(N.Y., 1864-1865, Button, 70 cents). 
Hale, E. E. In His Name (Boston, 1873, Little, Brown & Co., $1.00). The 

Waldenses about 11 79. 
Hardy, A. S. Passe Rose (Boston, 1889, Houghton MifHin Co., $1.25). Franks 

and Saxons of Charlemagne's time. 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter (N.Y., 1850, Button, 70 cents). 

Massachusetts in the seventeenth century. 
Hugo, Victor. Notre-Dame de Paris (N.Y., 1831, Button, 70 cents). Paris, 

late fifteenth century. 
■ Ninety-Three (Boston, 1872, Little, Brown & Co., $1.00). Insurrection 

in La Vendee, 1793. 
Irving, Washington. The Alhambra (N.Y., 1832, Putnam, $1.00). Sketches 

of the Moors and Spaniards. 
Jacobs, Joseph (editor). The Most Delectable History of Reynard the Fox (N.Y., 

1895, Macmillan, $1.50). 

xxviii Suggestions for Further Study 

KiNGSLEY, Charles. Westward Ho! (N.Y., 1855. Dutton, 70 cents). Voyages 
of Elizabethan seamen and thp struggle with Spain. 

Alton Locke (N.Y., 1850, Dutton, 70 cents). Christian socialism and 

the Chartist agitation. 

Lane, E. W. (translator). The Arabian Nights' Entertainments (2d ed., N.Y., 
1859, Macmillan, 35 cents). 

Lang, Andrew. The Monk of Fife (N.Y., 1895, Longmans, Green & Co., $1.25). 
The Maid of Orleans and the Hundred Years' War. 

Lever, Charles. Charles O'Malley (N.Y., 1841, Macmillan, $1.25). The Pen- 
insular War. 

Tom Bourke of "Ours" (N.Y., 1848, Macmillan, $1.25). French wars 

of the Consulate and Empire. 

Manzoni, Alessandro. The Betrothed (N.Y., 1825, Macmillan, 2 vols., 70 cents). 

Milan under Spanish rule, 1628-1630. 
Mason, Eugene (translator) . A ucassin and Nicolette and other Medieval Romances 

and Legends (N.Y., 1910, Dutton, 70 cents). 
Mitchell, S. W. Hugh Wynne (N.Y., 1896, Century Co., $1.50)'. Philadelphia 

during the American Revolution. 
Parker, (Sir) Gilbert. The Seats of the Mighty (N.Y., 1896, Appleton, $1.50). 

Capture of Quebec by Wolfe. 
Reade, Charles. The Cloister and the Hearth (N.Y., 1S61, Dutton, 70 cents). 

Eve of the Reformation. 
Scheffel, J. VON. Ekkehard, translated by Helena Easson (N.Y., 1857, Dutton, 

70 cents). Germany in the tenth century. 
Scott, (Sir) Walter. The Talisman (N.Y., 1825, Dutton, 70 cents). Reign of 

Richard I, 1193- 

Ivanhoe (N.Y., D. C. Heath & Co., 50 cents). Richard I, 1194. 

Old Mortality (N.Y., 1816, Dutton, 70 cents). Scottish Covenanters, 

Shorthouse, J. H. John Lnglesant (N.Y., 1881, Macmillan, 75 cents). Life in 

England and Italy during the seventeenth century. 
SiENKiEWicz, Henryk. With Fire and Sword (Boston, 1884, Little, Brown & Co., 

$1.50). Poland in the seventeenth century. 
Steel, (Mrs.) F. A. On the Face of the Waters (N.Y., 1896, Macmillan, $1.50). 

Indian Mutiny, 1857. 
Stevenson, R. L. The Black Arrow (N.Y., 1888, Scribner, $i.od). War of the 

Suttner, (Baroness) Bertha von. Lay Down Your Arms (2d ed., N.Y., 

1904, Longmans, Green, & Co., 75 cents). European wars of the nineteenth 

Thackeray, W. M. Henry Esmond (N.Y., 1852, Dutton, 70 cents). England 

during the reigns of William III and Queen Anne. 

The Virginians (N.Y., 1858-1859, Dutton, 2 vols., each 70 cents). 

England and colonial Virginia in the eighteenth century. 

Tolstoy, (Count) L. N. War and Peace (N.Y., 1864-1869, Dutton, 3 vols., each 
70 cents). Napoleon's campaigns in Russia. 

Sevastopol (N.Y., 1855-1856, Crowell, $1.25). Crimean War. 

"Twain, M.ark." A Connecticut Yankee at the Court of King Arthur (N.Y., 1889, 

Harper. $1.75). 

Suggestions for Further Study xxix 

It is unnecessary to emphasize the value, as collateral reading, of historical 
poems and plays. To the brief list which follows should 
be added the material in Katharine Lee Bates and p^^x°"^^ 
Katharine Coman, English History told by English Poets 
(N.Y., 1902, Macmlllan, 60 cents). 
Aytoun, W. E. The Execution of Montrose. 

Browning, Elizabeth B. The Cry of the Children and The Forced Recruit. 
Browning, Robert. Herve Kiel and An Incident of the French Camp. 
Burns, Robert. The Battle of Bannockburn. 
Byron, (Lord). "The Eve of Waterloo" {Childe Harold, canto iii, stanzas 21- 

28) and Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte. 
Campbell, Thomas. Hohenlinden, The Battle of the Baltic, Rule Britannia, and 

Ye Mariners of England. 
Clough, a. H. Columbus. 
Coleridge, S. T. Kubla Khan. 
CowPER, William. Loss of the ''Royal George.'^ 
Drayton, Michael. The Battle of Agincmrt. 
Halleck, Fitz-Greene. Marco Bozzaris. 
Hemans, Felicia. The Landing of the Pilgrims. 
Kipling, Rudyard. Recessional. 
Lang, Andrew. Three Portraits of Prince Charles. 
Longfellow, H. W. "The Saga of King Olaf" {Tales of a Wayside Inn), The 

Skeleton in Armor, The Norman Baron, The Belfry of Bruges, and Nuremberg. 
Lowell, J. R. Villafranca. 

Macaulay, T. B. The Armada, The Battle of Ivry, and The Battle of Naseby. 
Miller, Joaquin. Columbus. 
Milton, John. To the Lord General Cromwell. 
Norton, Caroline E. S. The Soldier from Bingen. 
RossETTi, D. G. The White Ship. 
Schiller, Friedrich. The Maid of Orleans, William Tell, Maria Stuart, and 

Scott, (Sir) Walter. "Flodden Field" {Marmion, canto vi, stanzas 19-27, 33-35). 
Shakespeare, William. King John, Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth, parts 

i and ii, Henry the Fifth, Henry the Sixth, parts i, ii, and iii, Richard the Third, 

Henry the Eighth, and The Merchant of Venice. 
Taylor, Bayard. The Song in Camp. 
Tennyson, Alfred. Boadicea, St. Telemachus, St. Simeon Stylites, Sir Galahad, 

" The Revenge": A Ballad of the Fleet, Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington, 

The Charge of the Light Brigade, and The Defense of Lucknow. 
Thackeray, W. M. King Canute. 
Thornbury, G. W. The Three Troopers, The Jacobite on Tower Hill, La Tricoteuse, 

and The Old Grenadier's Story. 
Wolfe, Charles. The Burial of Sir John Moore. 

Full information regarding the best translations of the sources of medieval 
and modern history is to be found in one of the Reports previously cited — 
Historical Sources in Schools, parts ii-iv. The use of the 
following collections of extracts from the sources will go 
far toward remedying the lack of library facilities. 

XXX Suggestions for Further Study 

DuNCALF, Frederick, and Krey, A. C. Parallel Source Problems in Medieval 

History (N.Y., 191 2, Harper, $1.10). 
Fling, F. M., and Fling, Helene D. Source Problems on the French Revolution 

(N.Y., 1913, Harper, $1.10). 
Henderson, E. F. Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1892, Mac- 

millan, $1.50). 
Ogg, F. a. a Source Book of Medieval History (N.Y., 1907, American Book Co., 

Robinson, J. H. Readings in European History (Abridged ed., Boston, 1906, 

Ginn, $1.50). 
Thatcher, O. J., and McNeal, E. H. A Source Book for Medieval History (N.Y., 

1905, Scribner, $1.85). 
Webster, Hutton. Readings in Medieval and Modern History (N.Y., 191 7, 

Heath, $1.36). 
Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History (N.Y., 

1894-1899, Longmans, Green & Co., 6 vols., each $1.50). 

Most of the books in the following list are inexpensive, easily procured, 
and well adapted in style and choice of topics to the needs of high-school 

pupils. Some more advanced and costly works are in- 
Works dicated by an asterisk (*). For detailed bibliographies, 

often accompanied by critical estimates, see C. K. Adams, 
A Manual of Historical Literature (3d ed., N.Y., 1889, Harper, $2.50), and 
the Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries, parts iii-v. 


* Abbott, W. C. The Expansion of Europe, 1415-178Q (N.Y., 1918, Holt, 2 vols., 

$6.50). Emphasizes cultural aspects of modem European history. 

* Beard, C. A. Introduction to the English Historians (N.Y., 1906, Macmillan, 

$1.80). A book of selected readings. 

Carlyle, Thomas. On Heroes, Hero-Worshlp, and the Heroic in History (N.Y., 
1840, Button, 70 cents). 

Chapin, F. S. An Historical Introduction to Social Economy (N.Y., 191 7, Cen- 
tury Co., $2.00). An elementary treatment of industrial and social history; 

Creasy, E. S. The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to Waterloo 
(N.Y., 1854, Button, 70 cents). 

* Cunningham, William. An Essay on Western Civilization in its Economic 

Aspects {Medieval and Modern Times) (N.Y., 1901, Putnam, $1.25). 

"Cambridge Historical Series." 
Bay, Clr-e. A History of Commerce (2d ed., N.Y., 1914, Longmans, Green & 

Co., $2.00). The most scholarly treatment in English. 
GiBBiNS, H. DE B. The History of Commerce in Europe (2d ed., N.Y., 1897, 

Macmillan, $1.20). 
Goodyear, W. H. Roman and Medieval Art (2d ed., N.Y., 1897, Macmillan, 

Renaissance and Modern Art (N.Y., 1894, Macmillan, $1.00). 

* Green, J. R. Short History of the English People, edited by Mrs. J. R. Green and 

Suggestions for Further Study xxxi 

Miss Kate Norgate (N.Y., 1893-1895, Harper, 4 vols., $20.00). A beauti- 
fully illustrated edition of this standard work. 

* Hayes, C. J. H. A Political and Social History of Modern Europe (N.Y., 1916, 

Macmillan, 2 vols., $4.25). A college text-book covering the period 1500- 
1915; provided with full bibliographies. 

Herbertson, a. J., and Herbertson, F. D. Man and His Work (3d ed., N.Y., 
1 9 14, Macmillan, 60 cents). An introduction to the study of human geog- 

Jacobs, Joseph. The Story of Geographical Discovery (N.Y., 1898, Appleton, 
50 cents) . 

Jenks, Edward. A History of Politics (N.Y., 1900, Button, 45 cents). A 
very illuminating essay. 

Keane, John. The Evolution of Geography (London, 1899, Stanford, 6s.). In- 
terestingly written and helpfully illustrated. 

Kerr, P. H., and Kerr, A. C. The Growth of the British Empire (N.Y., 191 1, 
Longmans, Green and Co., 50 cents). 

LiBBY, Walter. An Introduction to the History of Science (Boston, 1917, Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., $1.50). Fascinating reading. 

Marvin, F. S. The Living Past (2d ed., N.Y., 1915, Oxford University Press, 
American Branch, $1.40). Thoughtful and suggestive essays in intellectual 

* Monroe, Paul. A Text-Book in the History of Education (N.Y., 1905, Mac- 

millan, $2.00). 

Nevinson, H. W. The Growth of Freedom (N.Y., 191 2, Dodge Publishing Co., 
25 cents). "The People's Books." 

Pattison, R. p. D. Leading Figures in European History (N.Y., 1912, Mac- 
millan, $1.75). Biographical sketches of European statesmen from Charle- 
magne to Bismarck. 

Powers, H. H. Mornings with Masters of Art (N.Y., 1912, Macmillan, $2.00). 
Christian art from the time of Constantine to the death of Michelangelo. 

Reinach, Salomon. Apollo; an Illustrated Manual of the History of Art through- 
out the Ages, translated by Florence Simmonds (last ed., N.Y., 1914, Scribner, 
$1.50). The best brief work on the subject. 

Seignobos, Charles. History of Medieval and Modern Civilization, edited by 
J. A. James (N.Y., 1907, Scribner, $1.35). 

History of Contemporary Civilization, edited by J. A. James (N.Y., 

1909, Scribner, $1.35). 

* Wilson, Woodrow. The State. Elements of Historical atid Practical Politics 

(new ed., N.Y., 1918, Heath, $2.00). 


Adams, G. B. Civilization during the Middle Ages (2d ed., N.Y., 1914, Scribner, 

Archer, T. A., and Kingsford, C. L. The Crusades (N.Y., 1894, Putnam, 
$1.50). "Story of the Nations." 

Baring-Gould, Sabine. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1869, Long- 
mans, Green and Co., $1.25). 

Bateson, Mary. Medieval England (N.Y., 1903, Putnam, $1.50). Deals with 
social and economic life; "Story of the Nations." 

xxxii Suggestions for Further Study 

* Bryce, James. The Holy Roman Empires (new ed., N.Y., 1904, Macmillan, 

$1-75) • A famous work, originally published in 1864. 

Church, R. W. The Beginning of the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1877, Scribner, $1.00), 
"Epochs of Modem History." 

CuTTS, E. L. Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages (London, 1872, De La 
More Press, 75. dd.). An almost indispensable book. 

Davis, H. W. C. Medieval Europe (N.Y., 191 1, Holt, 60 cents). "Home Uni- 
versity Library." 

Charlemagne, the Hero of Two Nations (N.Y., 1899, Putnam, $1.50). 

"Heroes of the Nations." 

Emerton, Ephraim. An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages (Boston, 
1888, Ginn, $1.10). Of special value to beginners. 

* Flick, A. C. The Rise of the Medieval Church (N.Y., 1909, Putnam, $3.75)- 

By a competent Protestant scholar. 
FooRD, Edward. The Byzantine Empire (N.Y., 191 1, Macmillan, $2.00). The 
most convenient short treatise; lavishly illustrated. 

* Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 

edited by J. B. Bury (N.Y., 1914, Macmillan, 7 vols., $25.00). The best 

edition, illustrated and provided with maps, of this standard work. 
GuERBER, H. A. Legends of the Middle Ages (N.Y., 1896, American Book Co., 

Haskins, C. H. The Normans in European History (Boston, 191 5, Houghton 

Mifflm Co., $2.00). 
Jessopp, Augustus. The Coming of the Friars, and Other Historic Essays (N.Y., 

1888, Putnam, $1.50). A book of great interest. 

* Lacroix, Paul. Manners, Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages and during 

the Renaissance Period (London, 1874, out of print). 
* Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the 

Renaissance (London, 1874, out of print). 
* Science and Literature in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renais- 

sance (London, 1878, out of print). 
Lawrence, W. W. Medieval Story (N.Y., 1911, Columbia University Press, 
$1.50). Discusses the great literary productions of the Middle Ages. 

* LucHAiRE, Achille. Social France at the Time of Philip Augustus, translated by 

E. B. Krehbiel (London, 191 2, Murray, los. 6d.). A historical masterpiece. 
Mawer, Allen. The Vikings (N.Y., 1913, Putnam, 50 cents). "Cambridge 

* MuNRO, D. C, and Sellery, G. C. Medieval Civilization (2d ed., N.Y., 1907, 

Century Co., $2.00). Translated selections from standard works by French 

and German scholars. 
Rait, R. S. Life in the Medieval University (N.Y., 191 2, Putnam, 50 cents). 

"Cambridge Manuals." 
Tappan, Eva M. When Knights were Bold (Boston, 191 1, Houghton Mifflin 

Co., $2.00). An economic and social study of the Feudal Age; charmingly 

written for j^oimg people. 

* Thorndike, Lynn. The History of Medieval Europe (Boston, 191 7, Houghton 

Mifflin Co., $2.75). A college text-book. 
Wright, Thomas. The Homes of Other Days (London, 1871, out of print). 
Valuable for both text and illustrations. 

Suggestions for Further Study xxxiii 


Bourne, E. G. Spain in America, 1430-1580 (N.Y., 1904, Harper,. $2.00). 
Cheyney, E. p. European Background of Aftterican History, 1300-1600 (N.Y., 

1904, Harper, $2.00). 
Eggleston, Edward. The Transit of Civilization from England to America in 

the Seventeenth Century (N.Y., 1902, Appleton, $1.75). 
Gardiner, S. R. The Thirty Years' War (N.Y., 1874, Scribner, $1.00). "Epochs 

of Modern History." 
Harrison, Frederic. William the Silent (N.Y., 1897, Macmillan, 80 cents). 

"Foreign Statesmen." 
Hudson, W. H. The Story of the Renaissance (N.Y., 191 2, Cassell, $1.50). A 

well-written volume. 

* HuLME, E. M. The Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic 

Reformation in Continental Europe (rev. ed., N.Y., 1915, Century Co., 
$2.75). The best work on the subject by an American scholar. 
Hume, M. A. S. Philip II of Spain (N.Y., 1897, Macmillan, So cents). "Foreign 

* Joyce, T. A. Mexican Archeology (N.Y., 1914, Putnam, $4.00). 

* South American Archeeology (N.Y., 1912, Putnam, $3.50). 

Oldham, J. B. The Renaissance (N.Y., 1912, Button, 45 cents). 

Seebohm, Frederic. The Era of the Protestant Revolution (N.Y., 1875, Scribner, 

$1.00). "Epochs of Modern History." 
Smith, Preserved. Life and Letters of Martin Luther (Boston, 1910, Houghton 

Mifflin Co., $1.75). Written from a Protestant standpoint. 


Firth, C. H. Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England (N.Y., 
1900, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations." 

* Hassall, Arthur. The Balance of Power, 171S-1789 (N.Y., 1896, Macmillan, 

$1.90). "Periods of European History." 
Louis XIV and the Zenith of the French Monarchy (N.Y., 1S95, Putnam, 

Lowell, E. J. The Eve of the French Revolution (2d ed., Boston, 1893, Houghton 

Mifflin Co., $2.00). A satisfactory account of the Old Regime in France. 

* Macaulay, T. B. History of England, edited by C. H. Firth (N.Y., 1913-1915, 

Macmillan, 6 vols., $19.50). A beautifully illustrated edition of this standard 


Frederick the Great (N.Y., Merrill, 25 cents). A brilliant essay. 

Motley, J. L. Peter the Great (N.Y., Merrill, 25 cents). An essay originally 

published in 1845. 
Reddaway, W. F. Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia (N.Y., 1904, 

Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations." 


Belloc, Hilaire. The French Revolution (N.Y., 191 1, Holt, 60 cents). "Home 
University Library." 

* Bourne, H. E. The Revolutionary Period in Europe, 1762,-1815 (N.Y., 1914, 

Century Co., $2.75). "Century Historical Series." 

xxxiv Suggestions for Further Study 

Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution (N.Y., 1837, Button, 2 vols., each 

70 cents). Not a history, but a literary masterpiece. 
Fisher, Herbert. Napoleon (N.Y., 1913, Holt, 60 cents). "Home University 


* Henderson, E. F. Symbol and Satire in the French Revolution (N.Y., 191 2, 

Putnam, $4.00). Contains 171 illustrations from contemporary prints. 
Johnston, R. M. Napoleon (N.Y., 1909, Holt, $1.30). An excellent short 

Madelin, Louis. The French Revolution (N.Y., 1916, Putnam, $2.50). A 

popular work translated from the French. 
Mathews, Shailer. The French Revolution (N.Y., 1900, Longmans, Green 

& Co., $1.25). Ends with the year 1795. 
Rose, J. H. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 178Q-1815 (2d ed., N.Y., 

189s, Putnam, $1.25). The work of a very competent British scholar; 

"Cambridge Historical Series." 
Rosebery (Lord). Pitt (N.Y., 1891, Macmillan, 80 cents). "English States- 

* Stephens, H. M. Revolutionary Europe, 178Q-1815 (N.Y., 1893, Macmillan, 

$1.90). "Periods of European History." 
Wheeler, F. B. The French Revolution from the Age of Louis XIV to the Coming 
of Napoleon (N.Y., 1914, out of print). A popular survey, interestingly 


* Andrews, C. M. The Historical Development of Modern Europe (N.Y., 1896- 

1898, Putnam, two vols, in one, $3.50). Covers the period 1815-1897. 
Davis, W. S., Anderson, William, and Tyler, M. W. The Roots of the War 

(N.Y., 1918, Century Co., $1.50). A non-technical, yet scholarly, history 

of Europe, 1870-1914. 
Gibbons, H. A. The New Map of Europe (4th ed., N.Y., 1915, Century Co., 

$2.00). A history of the years 1911-1914. 
GoocH, G. P. History of Our Time, 1885-1911 (N.Y., 191 1, Holt, 60 cents). 

"Home University Library." 
Hayes, C. J. H. A Brief History of the Great War (N.Y., 1919, Macmillan, $2.00). 
Hazen, C. D. Modern European History (N.Y., 1917, Holt, $1.75). Chiefly 

a political narrative; "American Historical Series." 
Headlam, J. W. Bismarck and the Founding of the German Empire (N.Y., 1899, 

Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations." 
Hearnshaw, F. J. C. Main Currents of European History, 1815-1915 (N.Y., 

191 7, Macmillan, $2.50). Illuminating comment; not a continuous historical 

Johnston, (Sir) H. H. The Opening-up of Africa (N.Y., 1911, Holt, 60 cents). 

"Home University Library." 
LiPSON, E. Europe in the Nineteenth Century (N.Y., 1916, Macmillan, $2.00). 

A good poUtical history in brief compass. 
Macdonald, J. R. The Socialist Movement (N.Y., 191 1, Holt, 60 cents). "Home 

University Library." 
McKiNLEY, A. E., Coulomb, C. A., and Gerson, A. J. A School History of the 

Great War (N.Y., 1919, American Book Co., $1.50). 

Suggestions for Further Study xxxv 

* Ogg, F. a. The Governments of Europe (N.Y., 1913, Macmillan, $3.00). 

* Economic Development of Modern Europe (N.Y., 1917, Macmillan, 


* Phillips, W. A. Modern Europe, 1815-18QQ (5th ed., N.Y., 1915, Macmillan, 

$1.90). "Periods of European History." 
Reinsch, p. S. World Politics at the End of the Nineteenth Century (N.Y., 1900, 
Macmillan, $1.25). 

* Rose, J. H. The Development of the European Nations, 1870-IQ14 (5th ed., N.Y., 

1916, Putnam, two vols, in one, $2.75). 

* ScHAPiRO, J. S. Modern and Contemporary European History (Boston, 1918, 

Houghton Mifflin Co., $350). An admirable college text-book covering the 
period from the French Revolution to the present time. 

Shepherd, W. R. Latin America (N.Y., 1914, Holt, 60 cents). "Home Uni- 
versity Library." 

Wallace, A. R. The Wonderful Century (N.Y., 1898, out of print). 

Weir, Archibald. An Introduction to the History of Modern Europe (Boston, 
1907, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.00). A suggestive book for teachers. 



AGES, 476-962 1 

1. Western Europe 

The geographical boundary between western and eastern 
Europe may for practical purposes be taken as a line drawn 
northward from the Adriatic through the Baltic xjnityof 
Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia to the North Cape, western 
That part of the continent west of this line has "^°^® 
had a unified civilization. Many of the countries of western 
Europe once formed provinces of the Roman Empire; all of 
them during the Middle Ages came under the dominion of the 
Roman Papacy; and even in modern times they possess a 
certain community of interests and ideals which separates 
them sharply from the countries of eastern Europe. 

But the civiHzation of western Europe has not been confined 
within the narrow limits of the Continent. During the last four 
centuries it has expanded over America, Australia, Expansion 
the islands of the Pacific, and vast areas of Asia of western 
and Africa. Western Europeans have introduced "^°^® 
into these remote regions their languages, government, customs, 
religion, even their literature and art, until to-day the greater 
part of the world has become subject to European influence. 

The civiUzation of western Europe is traceable to four prin- 
cipal origins, naniely, Greece, Rome, Christianity, origins of 
and the Teutonic peoples. To Greece Europe owes western 
the characteristic qualities of its intellectual life. ^°^® 

^ Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter i, "Stories of the 
Lombard Kings"; chapter ii, "Charlemagne." 


2 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

From Rome it derives its conceptions of law and politics. 
The Christian Church gave to Europe religious unity. The 
invasions of the Germans broke up the Roman Empire and 
led to the foundation of what became the separate European 

We are not to suppose that the inroads of the Germans ended 
with the dissolution of the Roman Empire in the West (476). 
Transition Odoacer, who in that year deposed the puppet-em- 
to the peror, Romulus Augustulus, was himself followed 

^®® by other German leaders. Their efforts to carve 
out kingdoms for themselves in western Europe introduced a 
long period of disorder and confusion. The study of these 
troubled times leads us from the classical to the medieval 
world, from the history of antiquity to the history of the Middle 

The period called the Middle Ages is not well defined either 
as to its beginning or its close. For an initial date we may 
Limits of select the year 476, when western Europe was 

the Middle almost wholly occupied by the Germans. Roman 
^^^ emperors still reigned in the East, but in the West 

barbarian kings divided between them the heritage of the Caesars. 
The extinction of the line of western emperors does indicate, 
in a somewhat striking way, the close of ancient times. For 
concluding dates we may select those of the invention of print- 
ing (about 1450), the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman 
Turks (1453), the discovery of America (1492), and the opening 
up of a new sea-route to the East Indies (1498). Such signifi- 
cant events, all falling within the second half of the fifteenth 
century, seem to mark the conclusion of medieval, and the 
beginning of modern, times. The student will understand, 
however, that it is really impossible to separate by precise 
dates one historic period from another. The change from 
antiquity to the Middle Ages and, again, from the medieval 
to the modern world, was in each case a gradual process extend- 
ing over several centuries. The truth is that the social life of 
man forms a continuous growth, and man's history, an uninter- 
rupted stream. 

The Ostrogoths in Italy 3 

2. The Ostrogoths in Italy, 488-553 

The kingdom which Odoacer estabhshed on ItaUan soil did 
not long endure. It was soon overthrown by the Ostrogoths. 
At the time of the "fall" of Rome in 476 they -pj^^ ostro- 
occupied a district south of the middle Danube, goths under 
which the government at Constantinople had ^° °"*^ 
hired them to defend. The Ostrogoths proved to be expen- 
sive and dangerous allies. When, therefore, their chieftain, 

Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna 

A two-storied marble building erected by Theodoric in imitation of a Roman tomb. 
The roof is a single block of marble, 33 feet in diameter and weighing more than 300 tons. 
Theodoric's body was subsequently removed from its resting place, and the mausoleum was 
converted into a church. 

Theodoric, offered to lead his people into Italy and against 
Odoacer, the Roman emperor gladly sanctioned the under- 

Theodoric led the Ostrogoths — women and children as well 
as warriors — across the Alps and came down to meet Odoacer 

and his soldiers in battle. After suffering several ^ 

defeats, Odoacer shut himself up in the strong invasion of 

fortress of Ravenna. Theodoric could not capture V^}^' *^®~ 

the place and at last agreed to share with Odoacer 

the government of Italy, if the latter would surrender. The 

agreement was never carried into effect. When Theodoric 

4 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

entered Ravenna, he invited Odoacer to a banquet and at 
its conclusion slew him in cold blood. Theodoric had now no 
rival in Italy. 

Though Theodoric gained the throne by violence and treach- 
ery, he soon showed himself to be, as a ruler, wise, broad-minded, 
Theodoric ^^^ humane. He had lived as a youth in the 
idng of Italy, imperial court at Constantinople, and there had 
become well acquainted with Roman ideas of law 
and order. Roman civilization impressed him; and he wished 
not to destroy but to preserve it. Theodoric reigned in Italy 
for thirty-three years, and during this time the country enjoyed 
unbroken peace and prosperity. 

The enlightened policy of Theodoric was exhibited in many 
ways. He governed Ostrogoths and Romans with equal con- 
Theodoric's sideration. He kept all the old offices, such as 
rule in Italy ^}^g senatorship and the consulate, and by pref- 
erence filled them with men of Roman birth. His chief counsel- 
ors were Romans. A legal code, which he drew up for the use 
of Ostrogoths and Romans alike, contained only selections 
from Roman law. He was remarkably tolerant and, in spite 
of the fact that the Ostrogoths were Arians, was always ready 
to extend protection to CathoHc Christians. Theodoric patron- 
ized hterature and gave high positions to Roman writers. 
He restored the cities of Italy, had the roads and aqueducts 
repaired, and so improved the condition of agriculture that 
Italy, from a wheat-importing, became a wheat-exporting 
country. At Ravenna, the Ostrogothic capital, Theodoric 
erected many notable buildings, including a palace, a mauso- 
leum, and several churches. The remains of these structures 
are still to be seen. 

The influence of Theodoric reached far beyond Italy. He 
alHed himseh by marriage with most of the German rulers of 
Theodoric's ^^^ West. His second wife was a Prankish prin- 
foreign cess, his sister was the wife of a Vandal chieftain, 

^° ^^ one of his daughters married a king of the Visi- 

goths, and another daughter wedded a Burgundian king. 
Theodoric by these alhances brought about friendly relations 

The Ostrogoths m Italy 

Europe in the Sixth Century 

6 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

between the various barbarian peoples. It seemed, in fact, as 
if the Roman dominions in the West might again be united 
under a single ruler; as if the Ostrogoths might be the Ger- 
man people to carry on the civilizing work of Rome. But no 
such good fortune was in store for Europe. 

Theodoric died in 526. The next year a great emperor, 
Justinian, came to the throne at Constantinople. Justinian 
End of the ^^^ ^° intention of abandoning to the Germans 
Ostrogothic the rich provinces of Sicily and Italy. Although 
kmg om, ^j^^ Ostrogoths made a stubborn resistance to his 

armies, in the end they were so completely overcome that they 
agreed to abandon the Itahan peninsula. The feeble remnant 
of their nation withdrew northward through the passes of the 
Alps and, mingling with other barbarian -tribes, disappeared 
from history. 

3. The Lombards in Italy, 568-774 

The destruction of the Ostrogothic kingdom did not free 
Italy of the Germans. Soon after Justinian's death the country 
was again overrun, this time by the Lombards. The name of 
these invaders (in Latin, Langohardi) may have been derived 
Invasion of f ro^i the long beards that gave them such a fero- 
Itaiy by the cious aspect. The Lombards seized the territory 
om ar s north of the river Po — a region ever since known 
as Lombardy — and estabhshed their capital at Pavia. 
They afterwards made many settlements in central and 
southern Italy, but never succeeded in subduing the entire 

The rule of the Lombards at first bore hard on Italy, which 
they treated as a conquered land. In character they seem to 
Lombard have been far less attractive than their predeces- 

nile in Italy g^j-g^ ^^iQ Visigoths and Ostrogoths. Many of 
them were still heathen when they entered Italy, and others 
were converts to the Arian form of Christianity. In course 
of time, however, the Lombards accepted Catholicism and 
adopted the customs of their subjects. They even forgot their 
German language and learned to speak Latin. The Lombard 

The Lombards in Italy 

kingdom lasted more than two centuries, until it was over- 
thrown by the Franks.^ 

The failure of the Lombards to conquer all Italy had im- 
portant results in later history. Sicily and the extreme southern 
part of the Italian peninsula, besides large dis- Results of 
tricts containing the cities of Naples, Rome, the Lom- 
Genoa, Venice, and Ravenna, continued to belong 
to the Roman Empire in the East. The rulers at Constanti- 

bard invasion 

Lombard Possessions in Italy about 600 a.d. 

nople could not exercise effective control over their Italian 
possessions, now that these were separated from one another 
by the Lombard territories. The consequence was that Italy 
broke up into a number of small and practically independent 
states, which never combined into one kingdom until our own 

1 See page 13. 

8 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

time. The ideal of a united Italy waited thirteen hundred 
years for its realization.^ 

4. The Franks under Clovis and His Successors 

In 486, just ten years after the deposition of Romulus Augus- 
tulus, the Franks went forth to conquer under Clovis,^ one of 
their chieftains. By overcoming the governor 
of°tiie' ^ of Roman Gaul, in a battle near Soissons, Clovis 
Franks, 481- destroyed the last vestige of imperial rule in the 
West and extended the Frankish dominions to 
the river Loire. Clovis then turned against his German neigh- 
bors. East of the Franks, in the region now known as Alsace, 
lived the Alamanni, a people whose name still survives in 
AUemagne, the French name of Germany.^ The Alamanni 
were defeated in a great battle near Strassburg, and much of 
their territory was added to that of the Franks. Clovis subse- 
quently conquered the Visigothic possessions between the 
Loire and the Pyrenees, and compelled the Burgundians to 
pay tribute. He thus made himself supreme over nearly the 
whole of Gaul and even extended his authority to the other side 
of the Rhine. 

Clovis reigned in western Europe as an independent king, 

but he acknowledged a sort of allegiance to the Roman emperor 

by accepting the title of honorary consul. Hence- 
The Franks . , , ^ „ -r. ^ 11 

and the forth to the Gallo-Romans he represented the 

GaUo- distant ruler at Constantinople. The Roman in- 

Romans , , . . . 

habitants of Gaul were not oppressed; their cities 
were preserved; and their language and laws remained undis- 
turbed. Clovis, as a statesman, may be compared with his 
eminent contemporary, Theodoric the Ostrogoth. 

The Franks were still a heathen people, when they began 
their career of conquest. Clovis, however, had married a 

1 The modern kingdom of Italy dates from 1859-1870. 

2 His name is properly spelled Chlodweg, which later became Ludwig, and in 
French, Louis. 

2 On the other hand, the inhabitants of Gaul came to call their covmtry France 
and themselves Franqais after their conquerors, the Germanic Franks. 

The Franks Under Clovis and His Successors 9 

Burgundian princess, Clotilda, who was a devout Catholic and 
an ardent advocate of Christianity. The story is christianiza- 
told how, when Clovis was hard-pressed by the tion of the 
Alamanni at the battle of Strassburg, he vowed ^* ^' 
that if Clotilda's God gave him victory he would become a 
Christian. The Franks won, and Clovis, faithful to his vow, 
had himself baptized by St. Remi, bishop of Reims. 

I I Territory of the Franks 481 A.D. 
I I Conquests of Clovis 486-511 A.D. 
I I Conquests of successors 511-768 A.D. 
Scale of Miles 

50 100 200 300 400 

.5° Longitude West 0° Longitude EasT 

Growth of the Prankish Dominions, 481-768 a.d. 

The conversion of Clovis was an event of the first importance. 
He and his Franks naturally embraced the orthodox Catholic 
faith, which was that of his wife, instead of the significance 
Arian form of Christianity, which had been ac- of Clevis's 
cepted by almost all the other German invaders. 
Furthermore, the conversion of Clovis gained for the Frankish 
king and his successors the support of the Roman Church. 
The friendship between the popes and the Franks afterwards 
ripened into a close alliance, which greatly influenced European 

lo Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

The descendants of Clovis are called Merovingians. ^ They 
The earUer occupied the throne of the Franks for nearly two 
Merovingian hundred and fifty years. The earlier Merovingians 
^^ were strong men, under whose direction the Prank- 

ish territory continued to expand, until it included nearly all 
of what is now France, Belgium, and HoUand, besides a con- 
siderable part of Germany. 

The Frankish conquests differed in two important respects 
from those of the other German peoples. In the first place, 
Character of ^^^ Franks did not cut themselves off completely 
the FranMsh from their original homes. They kept permanently 
conques s ^j^^.^ territory in Germany, drawing from it con- 
tinual reinforcements of fresh German blood. In the second 
place, the Franks steadily, added new German lands to their 
possessions. They built up in this way what was the largest 
and the most permanent of all the barbarian states founded in 
western Europe. 

5. The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the Short 

After the middle of the seventh century the Frankish rulers, 
worn out by violence and excesses, degenerated into weakHngs, 
The later ^^^ reigned but did not rule. The actual manage- 
Merovingian ment of the State passed into the hands of officers, 

^^ called "mayors of the palace." They left to the 

kings little more than their title, their long hair, — the badge 
of royalty among the Franks, — and a scanty allowance for their 
support. The later Merovingians, accordingly, are often known 
as the ''do-nothing kings." 

The most illustrious of the mayors was Charles, surnamed 
Martel, ''the Hammer," from the terrible defeat which he 
Charles administered to the Mohammedans near Tours, 

Martel ^^ central France. Charles Martel was virtually 

a king, but he never ventured to set aside the Merovingian ruler 
and himself ascend the throne. This step was taken, however, 
by Charles's son, Pepin the Short. 

1 From Merovech, grandfather of Clovis. 

Charles Martel and Pepin the Short ii 

Before dethroning the last feeble ''do-nothing," Pepin sought 
the approval of the bishop of Rome. The pope, without hesi- 
tation, declared that it was only right that the Accession of 
man who had the real authority in the state Pepin the 
should also have the royal title. Pepin, accord- **^' 
ingly, caused himself to be crowned king of the Franks, thus 
founding the Carohngian^ dynasty (751). Three years later 
Pope Stephen II came to Pepin's court and solemnly anointed 
the new ruler with holy oil, in accordance with ancient Jewish 
custom. The rite of anointing, something unknown to the 
Germans, gave to Pepin's coronation the sanction of the Roman 
Church. Henceforth the Frankish sovereigns called themselves 
"kings by the grace of God." 

Pepin was soon able to repay his great obligation to the 
Roman Church by becoming its protector against the Lombards. 
These barbarians, who were trying to extend their „ donation 
rule in Italy, threatened to capture Rome and of Pepin," 
the territory in the vicinity of that city, then 
under the control of the pope. Pepin twice entered Italy with 
his army, defeated the Lombards, and forced them to cede to 
Pope Stephen an extensive district lying between Rome and 
Ravenna. Pepin might have returned this district to the 
emperor at Constantinople, to whom it had belonged, but the 
Frankish king declared that he had not fought for the advantage 
of any man, but for the welfare of his own soul. He decided, 
therefore, to bestow his conquests on St. Peter's representative, 
the pope. Before this time the bishops of Rome had owned 
much land in Italy and had acted as virtual sovereigns 
in Rome and its neighborhood. Pepin's gift, known as the 
''Donation of Pepin," greatly increased their possessions, 
which came to be called the States of the Church. They 
remained in the hands of the popes until late in the nineteenth 

^ So called from Pepin's son, Charles the Great (in Latin, Carolus Magnus). 
The French form of his name is Charlemagne. 

^ In 1870 the States of the Church were added to the newly formed kingdom of 

12 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 


6. Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Empire, 800 

Pepin was succeeded in 768 by his two sons, one of whom, 
Charlemagne, three years later became sole king of the Franks. 
Charlemagne reigned for nearly half a century, 
the and during this time he set his stamp on all later 
European history. His appearance and character 
are familiar to us from a brief biography, written by his secretary, 
Einhard. Charlemagne, we learn, was a tall, square-shouldered, 

strongly built man, with 
bright, keen eyes, and an 
expression at once cheerful 
and dignified. Riding, hunt- 
ing, and swimming were his 
favorite sports. He was sim- 
ple in his tastes and very 
temperate in both food and 
drink. Except when in Rome, 
he wore the old Frankish cos- 
tume, with high-laced boots, 
hnen tunic, blue cloak, and 
sword girt at his side. He 
was a clear, fluent speaker, 
used Latin as readily as his 
native tongue, and understood 
Greek when it was spoken. 

Much of Charlemagne's 
long hfe, almost to its close, 
was filled with warfare. He 
fought chiefly against the 
heathen peoples on the fron- 
tiers of the Frankish realm. The subjugation of the Saxons, 
Conquest who lived in the forests and marshes of north- 

western Germany, took many years. Once when 
Charlemagne was exasperated by a revolt of the 
Saxons, he ordered forty-five hundred prisoners 
to be executed. This savage massacre was followed by equally 


Lateran Museum, Rome 
A mosaic picture, made during the lifetiine 
of Charlemagne, and probably a fair likeness 
of him. 

and con- 
version of 
the Saxons 

Charlemagne and the Roman Empire 


severe laws, which imposed the death penalty on those who 
refused baptism or observed the old heathen rites. By such 
harsh means Charlemagne at length broke down the spirit of 
resistance among the people. All Saxony, from the Rhine to 
the Elbe, became a Christian land and a permanent part of 
the Frankish realm. 

Shortly after the beginning of the Saxon wars the king of the 
Franks received an urgent summons from the pope, who was 
again being threatened Conquest 
by his old enemies, the Loi^lrds, 
Lombards. Charle- 774 
magne led an army across the Alps, 
captured Pavia, where the Lombard 
ruler had taken refuge, and added 
his possessions to those of the 
Franks. Thus passed away one 
more of the German states which 
had arisen on the ruins of the 
Roman Empire. Charlemagne now 
placed on his own head the famous 
"Iron Crown" and assumed the 
title of ''King of the Franks and 
Lombards, and Patrician of the 

The conquests of Charlemagne were not confined to German 
peoples. He forced the wild Avars, who had advanced from 
the Caspian into the Danube valley, to acknowl- ^ , 

1 1 . Tx n 1 • r-ii • Charle- 

edge his supremacy. He compelled various Slavic magne's 

tribes, including the Bohemians, to pay tribute. He °*^®^ 


also invaded Spain and wrested from the Moham- 
medans a considerable district south of the Pyrenees.^ This fron- 
tier territory received the name of the Spanish March (or Mark) . 
Charlemagne was a statesman, as well as a warrior. He 
divided his wide dominions into counties, each ruled by a count, 

1 The rearguard of Charlemagne's army, when returning from Spain, was attacked 
and overwhehned by the mountaineers of the Pyrenees. This incident gave rise 
to the famous French epic known as the Song of Roland. See page 250. 

Iron Crown of Lombardy 

A small gold diadem, about two 
inches high. It is studded with jew- 
els. A strip of iron, which, according 
to pious legend, had been eaten out 
of one of the nails of the True Cross, 
is inserted within. The crown was a 
gift to the Lombards from Pope 
Gregory I, as a reward for their con- 
version to Roman Catholicism. 

14 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

Charlemagne's who was expected to keep order and admin- 
government ister justice. The border regions, which lay 
exposed to invasion, were organized into "marks," under 
the military supervision of counts of the mark, or mar- 
graves (marquises). These officials had so much power and 
lived so far from the royal court that Charlemagne appointed 
special agents, caXltd missi dominici ("the lord's messengers"), 
to maintain control over them. The mis si were usually sent 

Charlemagne's Signature 

The emperor's signature as attached to a charter signed at Kurstein in 
790. Only the small lines withJn the diamond were made by Charlemagne. 

out in pairs, a layman and a bishop or abbot, in order that 
the one might serve as a check upon the other. They traveled 
from county to county, bearing the orders of their royal master. 
In this way Charlemagne kept well informed as to the condi- 
tion of affairs throughout his kingdom. 

Charlemagne did something for the promotion of education 
and literary culture among the Franks. He encouraged the 
Revival of establishment of schools in the monasteries and 
u^r"^ cathedrals, where the sons of both freemen and 

Charlemagne serfs might be trained for the Christian ministry. 
He also formed his court into a "school of the palace," in which 
learned men from Italy, Spain, and England gave instruction 
to his own children and to those of his nobles. All this work 
formed only a hopeful beginning. Centuries were to pass be- 
fore learning in western Europe fully recovered from the low 
state to which it had fallen during the period of the invasions. 

Charlemagne, the champion of Christendom and the fore- 
most ruler in Europe, seemed to the men of his day the rightful 
Coronation successor of the Roman emperors. He had their 
of Charle- power, and now he was to have their name. In 
magne, ^^^ ^^^^ g^^ ^^ Frankish king visited Rome 

1 6 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

who had protected the Church and had done so much to spread 
the CathoHc faith among the heathen. The Roman people 
also welcomed the coronation, because they felt that the time had 
come for Rome to assume her old place as the capital of the 
world. To reject the eastern ruler, in favor of the great Prankish 
king, was an emphatic method of asserting Rome's independence 
of Constantinople. 

The coronation of Charlemagne forms one of the most sig- 
nificant events in medieval history. It might be thought a 
Significance small matter that he should take the imperial title, 
of the when he already exercised imperial sway through- 

out western Europe. But Charlemagne's con- 
temporaries believed that the old Roman Empire had now been 
revived, and that a German king now sat on the throne once 
occupied by Augustus and Constantine. Henceforth there was 
estabhshed in the West a Hne of Roman emperors which lasted 
until the opening of the nineteenth century.^ 

7. Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire, 814-870 

The empire of Charlemagne did not long remain intact. 
So vast was its extent and so unlike were its inhabitants in 
After Charle- race, language, and customs that it could be 
magne managed only by a ruler of the greatest energy 

and strength of will. Unfortunately, the successors of Charle- 
magne proved to be too weak for the task of maintaining peace 
and order. Western Europe now entered on a long period of 
confusion and violence, during which the Prankish dominions 
broke up into separate and warring kingdoms. 

Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, who became emperor in 
814, was a well-meaning but feeble ruler, better fitted for the 
Treaty of quiet Ufe of a monastery than for the throne. He 

Verdun, could not control his rebellious sons, who, even 


during his lifetime, fought bitterly over their in- 
heritance. The unnatural strife, which continued after his 
death, was temporarily settled by a treaty concluded at the 

^ The title of "Holy Roman Emperor," assumed by the later successors of 
Charlemagne, was kept by them till 1806. 

' Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire 17 

city of Verdun. According to its terms Lothair, the eldest 
brother, received Italy and the imperial title, together with a 
narrow stretch of land along the valleys of the Rhine and the 
Rhone, between the North Sea and the Mediterranean. Louis 
and Charles, the other brothers, received kingdoms lying to the 
east and west, respectively, of Lothair's territory. The Treaty 

I 1 East Frankish Kingdom 

I 1 of Louis 

I ] West Frankish Kingdom 

' of Charles 

1 Lothair's Kingdom 
, The Boundaries in 870 A.D. 
according to the Treaty 

Scale of Miles 
50 100 200 ann / 

The Frankish Dominions as divided by the Treaties 
OF Verdun (843 a.d.) and Mersen (870 a.d.) 

of Verdun may be said to mark the first stage in the dissolution 
of the CaroUngian Empire. 

A second treaty, made at Mersen in Holland, was entered 
into by Louis and Charles, after the death of their brother 
Lothair. They divided between themselves Lo- Treaty of 
thair's kingdom north of the Alps, leaving to his Mersen, 870 
young son the possession of Italy and the empty title of "em- 
peror." The Treaty of Mersen may be said to mark the second 
stage in the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire. That 
empire, as such, had now ceased to exist. • 

i8 Western Europe During* the Early Middle Ages 

The territorial arrangements made by the treaties of Verdun 
and Mersen foreshadowed the future map of western Europe. 
Importance ^^^ 'Esist Frankish kingdom of Louis, inhabited 
of the two almost entirely by German peoples, was to de- 
treaties velop into modern Germany. The West Frank- 

ish kingdom of Charles, inhabited mainly by descendants of 
Romanized Gauls, was to become modern France. Lothair's 
kingdom, separated into two parts by the Alps, never became 
a national state. Italy, indeed, might be united under one 
government, but the long, narrow strip north of the Alps had 
no unity of race, no common language, and no natural bound- 
aries. It was fated to be broken into fragments and to be 
fought over for centuries by its stronger neighbors. Part of 
this territory now forms the small countries of Belgium, Hol- 
land, and Switzerland, and another part, known as Alsace and 
Lorraine,^ has remained until modern times a bone of conten- 
tion between France and Germany. 

Even had Charlemagne been followed by strong and able 
rulers, it would have been a difficult matter to hold the empire 
Renewed together in the face of the fresh series of barbarian 

barbarian inroads which began immediately after his death, 
invasions ^j^^ Mohammedans, though checked by the Franks 

at the battle of Tours, continued to be dangerous: enemies. 
They ravaged southern France, Sicily, and parts of Italy. The 
piratical Northmen from Denmark and Norway harried the 
coast of France and made inroads far beyond Paris. They also 
penetrated into western Germany, sailing up the Rhine in their 
black ships and destroying such important towns as Cologne 
and Aix-la-Chapelle. Meanwhile, eastern Germany lay exposed 
to the attacks of the Slavs, whom Charlemagne had defeated 
but had not subdued. The Magyars, or Hungarians, were also 
dreaded foes. These wild horsemen entered Europe from the 
plains of Asia and, like the Huns and Avars to whom they 
were probably related, spread devastation far and wide. A 
great part of Europe thus suffered from invasions ahnost 

1 The French name Lorraine and the German name Lothringen are both derived 
from the Latin title of Lothair's kingdom — Lotharii regnum. 

Otto the Great 


as destructive as those which had brought ruin to the old 
Roman world. 

8. Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman 
Empire, 962 

The tenth century saw another movement toward the resto- 
ration of law and order. The civilizing work of Charlemagne 
was taken up by German kings, not of the old 
Frankish stock, but belonging to that Saxon people Jtem-^ucWe^ 
which had opposed Charlemagne so long and 
bitterly. Saxony was one of the five great territorial states, 
or stem-duchies, as they are usually called, into which Germany 
was then divided.^ Germany at that time extended only as 
far east as the river Elbe, beyond which lay the territory occu- 
pied by half-civilized Slavic tribes. 

The rulers of the stem-duchies enjoyed practical independ- 
ence, though they had recognized some king of Germany ever 
since the Treaty of Verdun. Early in the tenth Elective 
century the Carolingian dynasty died out in Ger- kingship of 
many, and the German nobles then proceeded to ®"°^^y 
elect their own kings. Their choice fell first upon Conrad, 
duke of Franconia, but he had little authority outside his own 
duchy. A stronger man was required to keep the peace among 
the turbulent nobles and to repel the invaders of Germany. 
Such a man appeared in the person of Henry, duke of Saxony, 
who, after Conrad's death, was chosen king. 

Henry I, called the Fowler, because he was fond of hunting 
birds, spent the greater part of his reign in wars against the 
Slavs, Magyars, and other invaders. He began _ , 

r 1 01 r 1 . , Reign, of 

the conquest from the Slavs of the territory be- Henry the 

tween the Elbe and the Oder. Here arose the Fowler, 919- 


mark of Brandenburg, estabhshed as an outpost 

against the Slavs. Brandenburg was to furnish Germany, in 

later centuries, with the dynasty of the Hohenzollerns.^ Henry 

1 The others were Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria, and Lorraine. 

2 The Hohenzollerns became electors of Brandenburg in 141 5, kings of Prussia 
in 1701, and emperors of Germany in 1871. 

20 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

Ring Seal of Otto 
THE Great 

The inscription reads 
Oddo Rex. 

the Fowler also conquered the southern part of Denmark and 

Christianized it. Here he reestabUshed the mark of Schleswig, 

which had first been formed by Charlemagne. 

Henry the Fowler was succeeded by his son, Otto I, whom 

history knows as Otto the Great. He well deserved the title. 

„ . , Like Charlemagne, Otto pre- 
Reign of , , r 1 

otto the sented the aspect of a born 
Great, 936- j-uigr. He is described as be- 


ing tall and commanding in 
presence, strong and vigorous of body, 
and gifted with much charm of manner. 
In his bronzed face shone clear and 
sparkhng eyes, and down his breast hung 
a long, thick beard. Though subject to 
violent outbursts of temper, he was liberal 
to his friends and just to his foes. 
Otto was a man of immense energy 
and ambition, with a high conception of his duties as a 
sovereign. His reign forms a notable epoch in German 

Otto continued Henry's work of defending Germany from the 
foes which threatened to overrun that country. He won his 
Otto and the most conspicuous success against the Magyars, 
Magyars ^^io suffered a crushing defeat on the banks of the 

river Lech in Bavaria (955). These barbarians now ceased their 
raids and retired to the lands on the middle Danube which they 
had seized from the Slavs. Here they settled down, accepted 
Christianity from the Roman Church, and laid the foundations 
of the kingdom of Hungary.^ As a protection against future 
Magyar inroads Otto established the East Mark. This region 
afterwards assumed importance under the more familiar name 
of Austria. 

Otto the Great is not to be remembered only as a German 

1 The Magyar settlement in central Europe had the important result of dividmg 
the Slavic peoples into three groups. Those who remained south of the Danube 
(Serbians, Croatians, etc.) were henceforth separated from the northwestern Slavs 
(Bohemians, Moravians, and Poles) and from the eastern Slavs (Russians). See 
the map facing page 30. 

Otto the Great 21 

king. His reign was also noteworthy in the history of Italy. 
The country at this time was hopelessly divided Condition of 
between rival and contending peoples. The em- ^^^y 
peror at Constantinople controlled the southern extremity of 
the peninsula. The Mohammedans held Sicily and some cities 
on the mainland. The pope ruled at Rome and in the States 
of the Church. A so-called king of Italy still reigned in Lom- 
bardy, but he could not manage the powerful counts, dukes, and 
marquises, who were virtually independent within their own 
domains. Even the imperial title died out, and now there was 
no longer a Roman emperor in the West. 

The deplorable condition of Italy invited interference from 
abroad. Following in the footsteps of Charlemagne, Otto the 
Great led two expeditions across the Alps, assumed coronation 
the /'Iron Crown" ^ of Lombardy, and then pro- of Otto the 
ceeded to Rome, where he secured the pope (John ^^^*' 
XII) against the latter's enemies in that city. Otto's reward 
was the same as Charlemagne's. On Candlemas Day ,2 962, 
the grateful pope crowned him Roman emperor. 

The coronation of Otto the Great seemed to his contempo- 
raries a necessary and beneficial act. They still believed that the 
Roman Empire was suspended, not extinct; and Meaning of 
that now, one hundred and fifty years after Charle- the coro- 
magne, the occasion was opportune to restore the "^*^°^ 
name and power associated with the golden age of the first 
Frankish emperor. Otto's ardent spirit, one may well imagine, 
was fired with this vision of imperial sway and the renewal of a 
title around which clustered so many memories of success and 

But the outcome of Otto's restoration of the Roman Empire 

was good neither for Italy nor for Germany. It became the 

rule, henceforth, that the man whom the German ^ . 

nobles chose as their king had a claim, also, to the results of 

Italian crown and the imperial title. The efforts *^® 

of the German kings to make good this claim led 

to their constant interference in the affairs of Italy. They 

1 See the illustration, page 13. 2 February 2. 

22 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

treated that country as a conquered province which had no 
right to a national Hfe and an independent government under 
its own rulers. At the same time they neglected Germany and 
failed to keep their powerful territorial lords in subjection. 
Neither Italy nor Germany, in consequence, could become a 

Europe in the Age of Otto the Great, 962 a.d. 

unified, centralized state, such as was formed in France and 
England during the later Middle Ages. 

The empire of Charlemagne, restored by Otto the Great, 
came to be called in later centuries the "Holy Roman Empire." 
The Holy ^^^ ^^^^^ points to the idea of a world monarchy 
— the Roman Empire — and a world religion — 
Roman Christianity — united in one institution. 
This magnificent idea was never fully realized. The popes and 
emperors, instead of being bound to each other by the closest 


The Anglo-Saxons in Britain 23 

ties, were more generally enemies than friends. The conflict 
between the Empire and the Papacy formed a significant epi- 
sode in the later history of the Middle Ages. 

9. The Anglo-Saxons in Britain, 449-839 

From the history of Continental Europe we now turn to 
the history of Britain. That island had been overrun by the 
Germans after the middle of the fifth century. Anglo-Saxon 
The Jutes came from northern Denmark, the conquest of 
Angles, from what is now Schleswig-Holstein, and "**^ 
the Saxons, from the neighborhood of the rivers Elbe, Weser, 
and Ems in northern Germany. The Anglo-Saxon conquest of 
Britain was a slow process, which lasted at least one hundred 
and fifty years. The invaders followed the rivers into the 
interior and gradually subdued more than half of what is now 
England, comprising the fertile plain district in the southern 
and eastern parts of the island. 

Though the Anglo-Saxons probably destroyed many flourish- 
ing cities and towns of the Romanized Britons, it seems likely 
that the conquerors spared the women, with whom Nature of 
they intermarried, and the agricultural laborers, *^® conquest 
whom they made slaves. Other natives took refuge in the hill 
regions of western and northern Britain, and here their de- 
scendants stin keep up the Celtic language and traditions. The 
Anglo-Saxons regarded the Britons with contempt, naming 
them Welsh, a word which means one who talks gibberish. 
The antagonism between the two peoples died out in the course 
of centuries; conquerors and conquered intermingled; and an 
English nation, partly Celtic and partly Teutonic, came into 

The Anglo-Saxons started to fight one another before they 
ceased fighting their common enemy, the Britons. Throughout 
the seventh and eighth centuries, the Anglo- jj^g ^^^^^ 
Saxon states were engaged in almost constant kingdoms in 
struggles, either for increase of territory or for " ^^^ 
supremacy. The kingdoms farthest east — Kent, Sussex, 
Essex, and East Anglia — found their expansion checked by 

24 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

other kingdoms — Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex — which 
grew up in the interior of the island. Each of these three 
stronger states gained in turn the leading place. 

e 8° East from 10° Greenwich 12° 

Continental Home of the English 

The beginning of the supremacy of Wessex dates from the 
reign of Egbert. He had lived for some years as an exile at the 
Egbert and court of Charlemagne, from whom he doubtless 
the suprem- learned valuable lessons of war and statesmanship. 
Wessex, After returning from the Continent, Egbert became 

802-839 ]^jj^g Qf Wessex and gradually forced the rulers of 

the other states to acknowledge him as overlord. Though 

Christianity in the British Isles 25 

Egbert was never directly king of all England, he began the 
work of uniting the Anglo-Saxons under one government. His 
descendants have occupied the English throne to the present 

When the Germans along the Rhine and the Danube crossed 
the frontiers and entered the western provinces, they had 
already been partially Romanized. They under- Anglo-Saxon 
stood enough of Roman civilization to appreciate ^^^^ 
it and to desire to preserve it. The situation was quite different 
with the Anglo-Saxons. Their original home lay in a part of 
Germany beyond the borders of the Roman Empire and 
remote from the cultural influences of Rome. Coming to 
Britain as barbarians, they naturally introduced their own 
language, laws, and customs wherever they settled. Much of 
what the Anglo-Saxons brought with them still lives in England, 
and from that country has spread to the United States and the 
vast English colonies beyond the seas. The English language is 
less indebted to Latin than any of the Romance languages, 
and the Common law of England owes much less to Roman 
law than do the legal systems of Continental Europe. England, 
indeed, looks to the Anglo-Saxons for some of the most charac- 
teristic and important elements of her civilization. 

10. Christianity in the British Isles 

The Anglo-Saxons also brought to Britain their heathen 
faith. Christianity did not come to them until the close of 
the sixth century. At this time more or less in- preparation 
tercourse had sprung up between the people of for Roman 
Kent, lying nearest to the Continent, and the stia^ty 
Franks in Gaul. Ethelbert, the king of Kent, had even married 
the Frankish princess. Bertha. He allowed his Christian wife 
to bring a bishop to her new home and gave her the deserted 
church of St. Martin at Canterbury as a place of worship. 
Queen Bertha's fervent desire for the conversion of her 
husband and his people prepared the way for an event 
of first importance in English history — the mission of 

26 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 


The pope at this time was Gregory I, better known, from his 
services to the Roman Church, as Gregory the Great. The 
Mission of kingdom of Kent, with its Christian queen, 
Augustine, seemed to him a very promising field for mission- 
ary enterprise. Gregory, accordingly, sent out the 
monk Augustine with forty companions to bring the gospel to 
the heathen EngHsh. The king of Kent, already well disposed 

toward the Christian 
^^ faith, greeted the mis- 
sionaries kindly and 
told them that they 
were free to convert 
whom they would. Be- 
fore long he and his 
court embraced Chris- 
tianity, and the people 
of Kent soon followed 
the royal example. 
The monks were as- 
signed a residence in 
Canterbury, a city 
which has ever since 
remained the religious capital of England. From Kent Chris- 
tianity in its Roman form gradually spread into the other 
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. 

Augustine and his monks were not the first missionaries to 
Britain. Roman soldiers, merchants, and officials had in- 
Celtic troduced Christianity among the Britons as early 
Christianity g^g ^j^g second century. During the fifth century 
the famous St. Patrick had carried Christianity to the heathen 
Irish. The Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain drove many 
Christians to Ireland, and that island in the sixth and seventh 
centuries became a center from which devoted monks went 
forth to labor in western Scotland and northern Britain. 
Here they came in contact with the missionaries from 

The Celtic Christians followed some customs which differed 

St. Martin's Church, Canterbury 

The present church, dating from the thirteenth cen- 
tury, occupies the site of a chapel built before the arrival 
of Augustine. The walls still contain some of the Roman 
bricks used in the original structure. St. Martin's 
Church was the scene of the earliest work of Augustine 
in Canterbury. 

Christianity in the British Isles 


from those observed by Roman Christians. They computed 
the date on which Easter fell according to a system Differences 
unHke that of the Romans. They permitted between 

... 1 ^ r , , , Celtic and 

their priests to marry; the Romans forbade the Roman 

practice. Their monks shaved the front of the Christianity 

head from ear to ear as a tonsure, while Roman monks shaved 

the top of the head, leaving a "crown of thorns." These dif- 

Canterbury Cathedral 

The choir dates from the twelfth century, the nave, transepts, and central tower, from 
Whe fifteenth century. One of the two towers at the west front was built in 1834-1840. 
The beautiful stained glass in the windows of the choir belongs to the thirteenth century. 

ferences may not seem very important, but they were enough 
to prevent the cooperation of Celtic and Roman missionaries 
for the conversion of the heathen. 

The rivalry between Celtic and Roman Christians was finally 
settled at a church gathering, or s5mod, called by the king of 
Northumbria at Whitby. The main controversy Synod of 
at this synod concerned the proper date for Easter. Whitby, 664 
In the course of the debate it was asserted that the Roman 
custom had the sanction of St. Peter, to whom Christ had 

28 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

' The Fusion of Germans and Romans 29 

intrusted the keys of heaven. This statement was enough for 
the Northumbrian king, who thereupon decided in favor of the 
Roman claim, declaring that he would not oppose St. Peter, 
"lest when I come before the gates of the kingdom of heaven, 
he who holds the keys should not open to me." ^ The repre- 
sentatives of the Celtic Church then withdrew from England, 
leaving the field clear for Roman missionaries. 

The decision of the Synod of Whitby in favor of Rome meant 
that all England henceforth would recognize the pope's author- 
ity in religious matters. It remained a Roman ^, „ . . , 

^ 1 T ., 1 . r ^ ^ r • ^hc Brftish 

Catholic country until the time of the Reformation, isles become 

nearly nine hundred years later.^ The Celtic 5°^^ 
. . -^ Catholic 

Christians in Ireland and Scotland in the course 

of time also became the devoted children of the Roman Church. 

11. The Fusion of Germans and Romans 

We have now followed the fortunes of the Germans for five 
centuries from the end of the Roman Empire in the West. 
Most of their kingdoms, it has been seen, were not ^j^^ 
permanent. The Visigothic and Burgundian do- Germanic 
minions in Gaul yielded to the Franks, and those "^ °"^^ 
of the Visigoths in Spain, to the Mohammedan Arabs. The 
Vandal possessions in North Africa were regained by the em- 
perors at Constantinople. The rule of the Ostrogoths in Italy 
endured for only sixty years, and that of the Lombards passed 
away after two centuries. The kingdoms established by the 
Franks and the Anglo-Saxons alone developed into lasting 

But even where the Germans did not found permanent king- 
doms, they mingled with the subject provincials and adopted 
much of the old Roman civilization. The fusion Hindrances 
of the two peoples naturally required a long time, *° fusion 
being scarcely completed before the middle of the tenth century. 
It was hindered, in the first place, by the desire of the Germans 
to secure the lands of the Romans. Wherever the barbarians 

^ Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, iii, 25. 

2 The separation from Rome occurred in 1534, during the reign of Henry VIII. 

30 Western Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

settled, they appropriated a large part of the agricultural soil. 
How much they took varied in different countries. The 
Ostrogoths seem to have seized one- third of the land in Italy; 
the Visigoths, two-thirds of that in Gaul and Spain; the Anglo- 
Saxons, perhaps all the tillable soil of Britain. It could not 
but be galling to the Romans to surrender their farms to the 
barbarians. In the second place, the Germans often assessed 
heavy taxes on the Romans, which they themselves refused to 
pay. Tax -paying seemed to the Germans a mark of servitude. 
In the third place, a barrier between the two peoples arose from 
the circumstance that each had its particular law. For several 
centuries following the invasions there was one law for the 
Romans — that which they had enjoyed under the empire — 
and another law for the Germans — their old tribal customs. 
After the Germans had lived for some time in contact with the 
Romans they wrote out their laws in the Latin language. These 
"Laws of the Barbarians" still survive and throw much light 
on their early beliefs and manners. 

In spite of the hindrances to fusion, it seems true that con- 
querors and conquered felt no great dislike for each other 

Conditions ^^^ ^^^^' ^^ ^ ^^^^' ^^^y freely intermingled, 
favoring Certain conditions directly favored this result. 

First, many Germans had found their way within 
the empire as hired soldiers, colonists, and slaves, long before 
the invasions began. Second, the Germans came in relatively 
small numbers. Third, the Germans entered the Roman 
world, not as destroyers, but as homeseekers who felt a real 
reverence for Roman civilization. Fourth, some of the princi- 
pal Teutonic peoples, including the Visigoths, Burgundians, 
and Vandals, were already Christians at the time of their 
invasions, while other peoples, such as the Franks and the 
Anglo-Saxons, were . afterwards converted to Christianity. 
As long, however, as most of the barbarians remained Arian 
Christians,^ their belief stood in the way of friendly intercourse 
with the Roman provincials, who had accepted the Catholic 

^ See page 47. note i. 

The Fusion of Germans and Romans 31 

If western Europe during the early Middle Ages presented 
a scene of violence and confusion while the Germans were set- 
tling in their new homes, a different picture was ^ 

afforded by eastern Europe. Here the Roman between 

Empire still survived and continued to uphold 5^^* *^^ 
for centuries the Roman tradition of law and 
order. The history of that empire forms the theme of the 
following chapter. 


I. On an outline map indicate the boundaries of the empire of Charlemagne, 
distinguishing his hereditary possessions from those which he acquired by conquest. 

2. On an outline map indicate the boundaries of the empire of Otto the Great. 

3. What events are connected with the following places: Soissons; Mersen; 
Whitby; Reims; Verdun; Canterbury; and Strassburg? 4. What is the historical 
importance of Augustine, Henry the Fowler, Pepin the Short, Charles Martel, 
Egbert, and Ethelbert? 5. Give dates for the following events: battle of Tours; 
crowning of Charlemagne as emperor; crowning of Otto the Great as emperor; 
deposition of Romulus Augustulus; Augustine's mission to England; and the 
Treaty of Verdun. 6. Explain the following expressions: "do-nothing kings"; 
missi dominici; Holy Roman Empire; and "Donation of Pepin." 7. Why have 
some historians chosen to begin medieval history with the year 313? With 378? 
With 395? 8. Why was the extinction of the Ostrogothic kingdom a misfortune 
for Italy? 9. Why did Italy remain for so many centuries after the Lombard 
invasion merely "a geographical expression"? 10. Why does Clovis deserve to 
be called the founder of the French nation? 11. What difference did it make 
whether Clovis became an Arian or a CathoHc? 12. What events in the lives of 
Clovis and Pepin the Short contributed to the alliance between the Franks and the 
popes? 13. What provinces of the Roman Empire in the West were not included 
within the limits of Charlemagne's empire? 14. What countries of modern Europe 
are included within the limits of Charlemagne's empire? 15. Show that Charle- 
magne's empire was not in any true sense a continuation of the Roman Empire. 
16. What is the origin of the word "emperor"? As a title distinguish it from that 
of "king." 17. Why has Lothair's kingdom north of the Alps been called the 
"strip of trouble" ? 18. Why might the inhabitants of England be more properly 
described as Anglo-Celts rather than as Anglo-Saxons? 19. How did the four 
EngUsh counties, Sussex, Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, receive their names? 
20. What was the importance of the Synod of Whitby? 21. Set forth the condi- 
tions which hindered, and those which favored, the fusion of Germans and Romans. 




12. The Roman Empire in the East 

The Roman Empire in the West moved rapidly to its "faU" 

in 476, at the hands of the Germanic invaders. The Roman 

Empire in the East, though threatened by enemies 

the Roman from without and weakened by civil conflicts 

Empire in irom within, endured for more than a thousand 
the East 

years. Until the middle of the eleventh century 

it was the strongest state in Europe, except during the reign 

of Charlemagne, when the Frankish kingdom eclipsed it. Until 

the middle of the fifteenth century it preserved the name, the 

civilization, and some part of the dominions, of ancient Rome. 

The long life of the Roman Empire in the East is one of the 
marvels of history. Its great and constant vitahty appears 
Causes of the more remarkable, when one considers that 
its stirvival j|- j^^^^j ^q easily defensible frontiers, contained 
many different peoples with little in common, and on all sides 
faced hostile states. The empire survived so long, because of 
its vast wealth and resources, its despotic, centralized govern- 
ment, the strength of its army, and the almost impregnable 
position occupied by Constantinople, the capital city. 

The changing fortunes of the empire during the Middle Ages 
are reflected in some of the names by which it is often known. 
Character '^^^ term "Greek Empire" expresses the fact that 
of the the state became more and more Greek in char- 

empire acter, owing to the loss, first of the western prov- 

inces in the fifth century, and then of Syria and Egypt in the 
seventh century. Another term — "Byzantine Empire" — 
appropriately describes the condition of the state in still later 
times, when its possessions were reduced to Constantinople 
(ancient Byzantium) and the territory in the neighborhood of 


The Reign of Justinian 


that city. But through all this period the rulers at Constanti- 
nople regarded themselves as the true successors of Augustus, 
Diocletian, and Constantine. They never admitted the right 
of Charlemagne and Otto the Great to establish a rival Roman 
Empire in western Europe.^ They claimed to be the only 
legitimate heirs of Old Rome. 

Justinian and his Suite 

A mosaic dating from 547 in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna. It 
shows the emperor (in the center) with a bishop, his suite, and imperial 
guards. The picture probably gives us a fair idea of Justinian's appearance, 
though it represents him as somewhat younger than he was at the time. 

13. The Reign of Justinian, 527-565 

The history of the Roman Empire in the East, for more than 
one hundred years after the death of Theodosius the Great, is 
uneventful. His successors, though unable to 
prevent the Germans from seizing Italy and the of Theodo- 
other western provinces, managed to keep their ^^"^' ^^^~ 
own dominions intact. The eastern provinces 
escaped the fate of those in the West, because they were more 
populous and offered greater obstacles to the barbarian in- 
vaders, who followed the line of least resistance. The gradual 

1 See pages 15-16 and 21. 

34 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

recovery of the empire in strength and warlike energy prepared 
the way for a really eminent ruler — Justinian. 

It was the ambition of Justinian to conquer the German 
kingdoms which had been formed out of the Mediterranean 
Conquests of provinces. In this task he relied chiefly on the 
Justinian military genius of Belisarius, one of the world's 

foremost commanders. Belisarius was able in one short cam- 
paign to destroy the Vandal kingdom in North Africa. The 
Vandals by this time had lost their early vigor; they made but a 
feeble resistance; and their Roman subjects welcomed Beli- 
sarius as a deliverer. Justinian awarded a triumph to his 
victorious general, an honor which for five centuries emperors 
alone had enjoyed. The conquest of North Africa, together 
with the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, was followed by the 
overthrow of the Ostrogothic kingdom in Sicily and Italy.^ Jus- 
tinian also recovered from the Visigoths the southeastern part 
of Spain. He could now say with truth that the Mediter- 
ranean was once more a Roman sea." 

The conquests of Justinian proved to be less enduring than 
his work as a lawgiver. Until his reign the sources of Roman 
Codification ^^^' including the legislation of the popular assem- 
of Roman blies, the decrees of the senate, the edicts of the 
praetors and emperors, and the decisions of learned 
lawyers, had never been completely collected and arranged in 
scientific form. Justinian appointed a commission of legal 
scholars to perform this task. The result of their labors, in 
which the emperor himself assisted, was the publication of the 
Corpus Juris Civilis, the "Body of Civil Law." Under this 
form the Roman principles of jurisprudence have become the 
foundation of the legal systems of modern Italy, Spain, France, 
Germany, and other European countries. These principles 
even influenced the Common law of England, which has been 
adopted by the United States.^ The Corpus Juris Civilis, 

1 See page 6. 

2 See the map, page 5. 

^ Roman law still prevails in the province of Quebec and the state of Louisiana, 
territories formerly under French control, in all the Spanish-American countries, 
in the Philippines, and in {he Dutch East Indies. 

The Empire and Its Asiatic Foes 35 

because of its widespread influence, is justly regarded as one 
of Rome's most valuable gifts to the world. 

Justinian's claim to the title of "Great" rests also on his civil- 
izing work. He wished to restore the prosperity, as well as 
the provinces, of the empire. During his reign civilizing 
roads, bridges, and aqueducts were repaired, and work of 
commerce and agriculture were encouraged. It J"^*^^*" 
was at this time that two Christian missionaries brought from 
China the eggs of the silkworm, and introduced the manu- 
facture of silk in Europe. As a builder Justinian gained special 
fame. The edifices which he caused to be raised throughout 
his dominions included massive fortifications on the exposed 
frontiers, splendid palaces, and many monasteries and churches. 
The most noteworthy monument to his piety is the church of 
Sancta Sophia ^ at Constantinople, long used as a Mohammedan 
mosque. By his conquests, his laws, and his buildings, Justin- 
ian revived for a time the waning glory of imperial Rome. 

14. The Empire and Its Asiatic Foes 

The Roman Empire in the East did not long remain at the 
pinnacle of greatness to which Justinian had raised it. His 
conquests, indeed, weakened rather than strength- After 
ened the empire, since now there were much more J^stiman 
extensive frontiers to defend. Within half a century after his 
death it was attacked both in Europe and in Asia. The Lom- 
bards 2 soon seized Italy, and in the East the Persians renewed 
their contest against the Roman power. 

The Persians at first were able to overrun all the Asiatic 
provinces of the empire. A deliverer arose, however, in the 
person of the Roman emperor, Heraclius (610-641). . 

His brilliant campaigns partook of the nature of a 
"holy war," for the Persians had violated the Holy Sepulcher 
at Jerusalem and had stolen away the True Cross, the most 
sacred relic of Christendom. Heraclius recovered all his prov- 
inces, but only at the cost of a bloody struggle which drained 
them of men and money and helped to make them fall easy 

^ In Greek, Uagia Sophia, "Holy Wisdom." 2 See pages 6-7. 

36 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

victims to foes still more terrible than the Persians. These were 
the Arabs. 

Heraclius had not closed his reign before he saw all his vic- 
tories undone by the advance of the Arabs. The first wave of 
invasion tore away Syria and Egypt from the 
empire, penetrated Asia Minor, and reached the 
shores of the Bosporus. Repulsed before the walls of Con- 
stantinople, the Arabs carried their arms to the West and seized 


I 1 Lands of the Eastern emperors 

I 1 before 960 A. D. 

I 1 The lands conquered betweea 

I 1 960 A.D. and 1045 A.D. 

2 0° Longitude 25° East from 30° Greenwich 35 

The Roman Empire in the East 


North Africa, Spain, part of southern Italy, and the Mediter- 
ranean islands. Asia Minor and the Balkan peninsula still 
held out, however, and during the tenth century a hne of able 
rulers at Constantinople succeeded in winning back some of 
their lost provinces. 

During the eleventh century the empire had to face new 
enemies. These were the Seljuk Turks,^ fierce nomads from 
the steppes beyond the Caspian. After their 
conversion to Mohammedanism, they swept with 
irresistible force through the East and conquered nearly all 

1 So named from one of their leaders. 

Seljuk Turks 

The Empire and Its Foes in Europe 37 

Asia Minor. The ruin of this country, in earlier ages one of 
the most populous and flourishing regions of the world, dates 
from its occupation by the Seljuks. To resist their further 
advance the Roman emperor sought in 1095 the help of the 
Christians of Europe. His appeals for aid resulted in the First 
Crusade, with which a new chapter of medieval history began.^ 
Thus, for more than five centuries after Justinian, the Roman 
Empire in the East was engaged in a long struggle with the 
foes — Persians, Arabs, and Seljuk Turks — which -^0^^ of the 
successively attacked its dominions. By its stub- empire in 
born resistance to the advance of the invaders ^^^ 
the old empire protected the young states of Europe from attack, 
until they grew strong enough to meet and repulse the hordes 
of Asia. This work was not less important than that which 
had been performed by Greece and Rome in the contests with 
the Persians and the Carthaginians. 

15. The Empire and Its Foes in Europe 

The troubled years after Justinian's death also witnessed 
the beginning of the Slavic ^ settlements in southeastern Europe. 
The Slavs belonged to the Indo-European race, 
but had not progressed in civilization as far as the 
Germans. Their cradle land seems to have been in western 
Russia, whence they slowly spread to the Baltic, the Elbe, 
and the Danube. We have already mentioned the campaigns 
which Charlemagne and Henry the Fowler waged against them.^ 
The emperors at Constantinople were less successful in resist- 
ing that branch of the Slavs which tried to occupy the Balkan 
peninsula. After crossing the Danube, the Slavs pressed on 
farther and farther, until they reached the southern extremity 
of ancient Greece. They avoided the cities, but formed peasant 
communities in the open country, where they readily mingled 
with the inhabitants. Their descendants have remained in 
the Balkan peninsula to this day. The inhabitants of modern 

^ See chapter viii. 

2 The word slova means "speech"; the Slavs are those who speak the same 
language. 3 See pages 13 and 19. 

38 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

Serbia are Slavs, and even in the Greeks there is a considerable 

strain of Slavic blood. 

The Bulgarians, a people akin to the Huns and Avars, made 

their appearance south of the lower Danube in the seventh 

^ . . century. For more than three hundred years 

Bulganans . 

these barbarians, brutal, fierce, and cruel, were a 

menace to the empire. At one time they threatened Constan- 
tinople and even killed a Roman emperor, whose skull was 
converted into a drinking cup to grace their feasts. The Bul- 
garians settled in the region which now bears their name and 
gradually adopted the speech and customs of the Slavs. Modern 
Bulgaria is essentially a Slavic state. 

The empire was attacked in southeastern Europe by still 
other barbarians, among whom were the Russians. This 

. Slavic people, led by chieftains from Sweden, 


descended the Dnieper and Dniester rivers and, 

crossing the Black Sea, appeared before the walls of Constan- 
tinople. Already, in the tenth century, that city formed the goal 
of Russian ambitions. The invaders are said to have made four 
attempts to plunder its treasures. Though unsuccessful, they 
compelled the emperors from time to time to pay them tribute. 
Christianity reached the invaders of the Balkan peninsula 
from Constantinople. The Serbians, Bulgarians, and Russians 
Work of the were converted in the ninth and tenth centuries, 
empire in With Christianity they received the use of letters 
^^^^ and some knowledge of Roman law and methods 

of government. Constantinople was to them, henceforth, such 
a center of religion and culture as Rome was to the Germans. 

16. Byzantine Civilization 

The Roman Empire in the East, though often menaced by 
barbarian foes, long continued to be the leading European power. 
Strength and ^^^ highest degree of prosperity was reached be- 
weaith of tween the middle of the ninth and the middle of 
empire ^-^^ eleventh century. The provinces in Asia 
Minor and the Balkan peninsula produced a large annual 
revenue, much of which went for defense. It was necessary to 

Byzantine Civilization 39 

maintain a strong, well-disciplined army, great fleets and engines 
of war, and the extensive fortifications of Constantinople and 
the frontier cities. Confronted by so many dangers, the empire 
could hope to survive only by making itself a military state. 

The merchant ships of Constantinople, during the earlier part 
of the Middle Ages, carried on most of the commerce of the 
Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The products commerce 
of Byzantine industry were exchanged at that city and 
for the spices, drugs, and precious stones of the East. *" "^ ^ 
Byzantine wares also found their way into Italy and France 
and, by way of the Russian rivers, reached the heart of eastern 
Europe. Russia, in turn, furnished Constantinople with honey, 
wax, fur, wool, grain, and slaves. A traveler of the twelfth 
century well described the city as a metropoUs ''common to 
all the world, without distinction of country or religion." 

Many of the Roman emperors from Justinian onward were 
great builders. Byzantine architecture, seen especially in the 
churches, became a leading form of art. Its most character of 
striking feature is the dome, which replaces the Byzantine 
flat, wooden roof used in the basilican churches 
of Italy. The exterior of a Byzantine church is plain and unim- 
posing, but the interior is adorned on a magnificent scale. The 
eyes of the worshipers are dazzled by the walls faced with marble 
slabs of variegated colors, by the columns of polished marble, 
jasper, and porphyry, and by the brilliant mosaic pictures of 
gilded glass. The entire impression is one of richness and 
splendor. Byzantine artists, though mediocre painters and 
sculptors, excelled in all kinds of decorative work. Their 
carvings in wood, ivory, and metal, together with their em- 
broideries, enamels, and miniatures, enjoyed a high reputation 
throughout medieval Europe. 

Byzantine art, from the sixth century to the present time, 
has exerted a wide influence. Sicily, southern Italy, Rome, 
Ravenna, and Venice contain many examples of influence of 
Byzantine churches. Italian painting in the Mid- Byzantine 
die Ages seems to have been derived directly from *" 
the mosaic pictures of the artists of Constantinople. Russia 

40 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

received not only its religion but also its art from Constanti- 
nople. The great Russian churches of Moscow and Petrograd 
follow Byzantine models. Even the Arabs, in spite of their 
hostiUty to Christianity, borrowed Byzantine artists and 
profited by their services. The Mohammedan mosques of 
Damascus, Cairo, and Cordova, both in methods of construc- 
tion and in details of ornamentation, reproduce Byzantine 

The libraries and museums of Constantinople preserved 
classical learning. In the flourishing schools of that city the 

o ,. , ^- wisest men of the day taught philosophy, law, 
Scholarship . . 

medicme, and science to thousands of pupils. 

It is true that Byzantine scholars were erudite rather than 

original. Impressed by the great treasures of knowledge 

about them, they found it difhcult to strike out into new, 

unbeaten paths. Most students were content to make huge 

collections of extracts and notes from the books which 

antiquity had bequeathed to them. Even this task was useful, 

however, for their encyclopedias preserved much information 

which otherwise would have been lost. During the Middle 

Ages the East cherished the productions of classical learning, 

until the time came when the West was ready to receive them 

and to profit by them. 

17. Constantinople 

The heart of Byzantine civilization was Constantinople. 
The city lies on a peninsula between the Sea of Marmora and 
Position of ^^^ spacious harbor called the Golden Horn. 
Constanti- Washed on three sides by the water and, like 
^°^ ^ Rome, enthroned upon seven hills, Constantinople 

occupies a magnificent site, well-fitted for an imperial capital. 
It stands in Europe, looks on Asia, and commands the 
entrance to both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. 
As an old writer once pointed out, Constantinople ''is a city 
which Nature herself has designed to be the mistress of the 

The position of Constantinople made it difl&cult to attack 



but easy to defend. To surround the city an enemy would 
have to be strong upon both land and sea. A constanti- 
hostile army, advancing through Asia Minor, nopie a 
found its further advance arrested by the long, ""^^^ "^^'^^^ 
winding channel which the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, 
and the Dardanelles combine to form. A hostile fleet, coming 
by way of the Mediterranean or the Black Sea, faced grave 

Vicinity of Constantinople 
difficulties in attempting to penetrate the narrow strait into 
which this waterway contracts at each extremity. On the 
landward side the Hne of defense was so short — about four 
miles in width — that it could be strongly fortified and held 
by a small force against large numbers. During the Middle 
Ages the rear of the city was protected by two huge walls, the 
remains of which are still visible. Constantinople, in fact, was 
all but impregnable. Though each new century brought a fresh 
horde of enemies, it resisted siege after siege and long continued 
to be the capital of what was left of the Roman Empire.^ 

1 Of the eight sieges to which Constantinople was subjected in medieval times, 
only two succeeded. In 1204 it was captured by the Venetians and in 1453, by the 
Ottoman Turks. 

42 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 

Constantine had laid out his new capital on an imposing scale 
and adorned it with the choicest treasures of art from Greece, 
Monuments Italy, and the Orient. Fourteen churches, four- 
of Con- teen palaces, eight pubhc baths, and several 

s an nop e triumphal arches are assigned to the founder of 
the city. His most stately building was the Hippodrome, an 
immense structure devoted to chariot races and all sorts of 

popular gatherings. 
There new emper- 
ors, after their con- 
secration in Sancta 
Sophia, were greeted 
by their subjects; 
there civic festivals 
were held; and there 
the last Roman 
triumphs were cel- 
ebrated. Theodo- 
sius the Great built 
the principal gate 
of Constantinople, 
the ''Golden Gate," 
as it was called, by 
which the emperors 
made their solemn 
entry into the city. 
But it was Justinian 
who, after Constan- 
tine, did most to 
adorn the new cap- 
ital by the Bos- 
porus. He is said 
to have erected more than twenty-five churches in Constanti- 
nople and its suburbs. Of these, the most beautiful is the 
world-famed cathedral dedicated by Justinian to "Holy 
Wisdom." On its completion the Emperor declared that he 
had surpassed Solomon's Temple. Though nearly fourteen 

The Three Existing Monuments of the 
Hippodrome, Constantinople 

These three monuments preserve for us the exact line of 
the low wall, or spina, which divided the race course and 
around which the charioteers drove their furious steeds. The 
obelisk was transported from Egypt by Constantine. Be- 
tween it and the crumbling tower beyond is a pillar of three 
brazen serpents, originally set up at Delphi by the Greeks, 
after the battle of Plataea. On this trophy were engraved 
the names of the various states that sent soldiers to fight the 



Built by Justinian and dedicated on Christmas Day, 538 a.d. The main building is 
roofed over by a great central dome, 107 feet in diameter and 179 feet in height. After the 
Ottoman Turks turned the church into a mosque, a minaret was erected at each of the four 
exterior angles. The outside of Sancta Sophia is somewhat disappointing, but the interior, 
with its walls and columns of polished marble, granite, and porphyry, is magnificent. The 
crystal balustrades, pulpits, and large metal disks are Turkish. 



hands, it 

hundred years old and now defaced by vandal 
remains perhaps the supreme achievement of 

Excepting Athens and Rome, no other European city can 
lay claim to so long and so important a history as Constantinople. 
Her day came after theirs was done. Throughout 
the Middle Ages Constantinople remained the JgSficance 

most important place in Europe. When London, 
Paris, and Vienna were small and mean towns, 
Constantinople was a large and flourishing metropolis. 

of Con- 

The re- 

Wall of old( Greek) Byzantium(?) 

Wall of ConstanUHc(JSO) 
~ Double Wall of T/ieodosius IlUOS-iSO) 
■i-i wall of Heraclius(626-6il) 

Wall of mediaeval Galata 

Wall of the New Ser aglio 


Palace ofxBlachenjae 
\ Palace vof the\ 
\ Hebdorrion ^ 
(Tekfour SerclTKerko 
^, Gate ofj^Purta?'ii 
Charisiuay Phanariot 
\r Quarter 
/-tfhurch of the A 

Gate o/{5r(MV,sque of MohanimeJ fl^^'^-^JJ 
(Can,rfi GatcK.^ ■^^^Sheik-ul-fPtnrrj-^ 

,>.> StTTAUI 
-. .-n"'" M»» i o«;eVv(CHRYSOPOLIS) 

M<,sriueg?Ta<JlSf^-r4b3> of Leand\ 

»--, vie vof Suleiman. . ^^^ „ 
Old'^V ''Sublinie Eortey^^'w Seraglio 
'Seraglio * 3 ^ / KCAcropolis of Greek 
irn^f Constantir?e >ia^ Byzantium 

n^~*-9J^P"^™'" ''^ ^Bucoleon Palace 
•"•^ vA-ttnoidan) /Injperial 


GoT^n Castle of the Seven Towers 

CP^y(YediKouleb) ^^^^^^^^ 

^"^ CONSTANTINOPLE ^^^^^<^^^o^^ 

Scale 1:125000 

1 1/^ Mile? 

nown of the city penetrated even into barbarian lands. The 
Scandinavians called it Micklegarth, the ''Great City"; the 
Russians knew of it as Tsarigrad, the "City of the Cssars." 
But its own people best described it as the ''City guarded by 
God." Here, for more than eleven centuries, was the capital 
of the Roman Empire and the center of eastern Christendom. 

44 Eastern Europe During the Early Middle Ages 


I. Compare the respective areas in 800 of the Roman Empire in the East and 
Charlemagne's empire. 2. On the map, page 41, locate Adrianople, GalUpoli, 
Nicaea, the Bosporus, Sea of Marmora, and Dardanelles. 3. Explain the terms 
"Greek Empire," "Byzantine Empire," and "Roman Empire in the East." 4. In 
your opinion which of the two rival imperial lines after 800 had the better title to 
represent ancient Rome? 5. Why has Justinian been called the "lawgiver of 
civilization"? 6. Why was it necessary to codify Roman law? Is the English 
Common law codified? 7. What were the principal sources of the Corpus Juris 
Civilis? 8. "The Byzantines were the teachers of the Slavs, as the Romans were 
of the Germans." Comment on this statement. 9. In what parts of Europe is 
the influence of Byzantine art most clearly traceable? 10. The Byzantine Empire 
was once called "a gigantic mass of mold, a thousand years old." Does this seem 
a fair description? 11. "The history of medieval civilization is, in large measure, 
the history of the Roman Empire in the East." Comment on this statement. 
12. Show that Constantinople formed "a natural citadel." 13. Describe the prin- 
cipal architectural features of Sancta Sophia (plate facing page 42). 14. On the 
map, page 43, trace the successive walls of Constantinople. 


TO 10541 

18. Development of Christianity 

Christianity, at the time of its victory over paganism, had 

become a great and powerful organization, with fixed laws, 

with a graded system of officers, and with councils ^ , ,. . 

,11 , r n r , ^ CathoUclsm 

attended by clergy irom all parts of the Roman 

world. To this organization the word Catholic, that is, "uni- 
versal," came to be applied. Membership in the Catholic 
Church, secured only by baptism, was essential to salvation. 
As St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, had said, ''He can no longer 
have God for his Father who has not the Church for his Mother." 

The first three centuries of Christianity witnessed the devel- 
opment of the episcopal system in the Church. Each pro- 
vincial city had its bishop, assisted by priests The 
and deacons. An archbishop (sometimes called a episcopate 
metropolitan) presided over the bishops of each province, and 
a patriarch had jurisdiction, in turn, over metropohtans. This 
graded arrangement of ecclesiastical officers, from the lowest to 
the highest, helped to make the Church centralized and strong. 
It appears to have been modeled, almost unconsciously, on the 
government of the Roman Empire.^ 

The development of the patriarchate calls for special notice. 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter iii, "The Benedic- 
tine Rule"; chapter iv, "The Reestablishment of Christianity in Britain"; chapter 
V, "St. Boniface, Apostle to the Germans." 

^ The correspondence may be indicated as follows: 

The Roman Empire The Christian Church 

City — Municipal officials. Bishop. 

Province — Governor. Archbishop, or Metropolitan. 

Diocese — Vicar. Patriarch. 

Prefecture — Prefect. (No corresponding division.) 


46 Christianity in the East and in the West 

At the time of the Council of Nicaea there were three patri- 
Xhe archs, namely, the bishops of Rome, Antioch, and 

patriarchs Alexandria. These cities ranked among the most 
important in the Roman Empire. It was only natural, there- 
fore, that the churches established in them should be singled out 
for preeminence. Some years after the removal of the capital 
to Constantinople, the bishop of that imperial city was recog- 
nized as a patriarch at a general council of the Church. In the 
fifth century the bishop of Jerusalem received the same dignity. 
Henceforth there were five patriarchs — four in the East but 
only one in the West.^ 

The Church formed a very democratic organization. Patri- 
archs, archbishops, bishops, priests, and deacons were drawn 
Clergy and from all ranks of life. No special training at first 
laity was considered necessary to fit them for their 

duties, though the more celebrated ministers wefe often highly 
educated. To eke out their salaries the clergy sometimes 
carried on business as farmers and shopkeepers. Where, how- 
ever, a church had sufficient funds to support its bishop, his 
engagement in secular affairs was discouraged and finally pro- 
hibited. In the fourth century, as earlier, priests and bishops 
were generally married men. The sentiment in favor of celibacy 
for the clergy became very pronounced during the early Middle 
Ages, especially in the West, and led at length to the general 
abandonment of priestly marriage in those parts of Europe 
where papal influence prevailed. Distinctive garments for 
clergymen did not begin to come into use until the fifth century, 
when some of them began to don clothing of a more sober hue 
than was fashionable at the time. Clerical vestments were 
developed from two pieces of ancient Roman dress — the tunic 
and the toga. Thus the clergy were gradually separated from 
the people, or laity, by differences in costume, by their celibate 
lives, and by their abstention from worldly occupations. 

While the Church was perfecting her organization, she was 
also elaborating her doctrines. Theologians engaged in many 

^ For the boundaries of the patriarchates in 622 see the map between pages 

Development of Christianity 


controversies upon such subjects as the connection of Christ 

with God and the nature of the Trinity. In order „ 

1 • , . . . ^ ^, . . Heresies 

to obtain an authoritative expression of Christian 

opinion, councils of the higher clergy were held, at which the 

opposing views were debated and a decision was reached. The 

Council of Nicaea, which condemned Arianism,^ formed the first, 

and one of the most important, of these general gatherings of 

the Church. After the Church had once expressed itself on 

any matter of Christian belief, it was regarded as unlawful to 

maintain a contrary opinion. Those who did so were frequently 

persecuted for heresy. 

As soon as Christianity had triumphed in the Roman Empire, 

thus becoming the religion of the rich and powerful as well as 

the religion of „, , . 
° Worship 

the poor and 

lowly, more attention was 

devoted to the conduct of 

worship. Magnificent 

church buildings were often 

erected. Their architects 

seem to have followed as 

models the basilicas, or 

public halls, which formed 
so familiar a sight in Roman 
cities. Church interiors 
were adorned with paint- 
ings, mosaic pictures, 
images of saints and 
martyrs, and the figure of 
the cross. Lighted candles on the altars and the burning of 
fragrant incense lent an additional impressiveness to worship. 

^ Some theologians, headed by Arius, a priest of Alexandria, maintained that 
Christ the Son, having been created by God the Father, was necessarily inferior to 
him. Athanasius, another Alexandrian priest, opposed this view and held that 
Christ was not a created being, but was in all ways equal to God. The Council 
accepted the arguments of Athanasius, condemned Arius as a heretic, and framed 
the Nicene Creed. Though thrust out of the Church, Arianism continued to 
flourish among the Teutonic tribes, of which the majority were converted to Chris- 
tianity by Arian missionaries. 

Religious Music 

From a window of the cathedral of Bourges, 
a city in central France. Shows a pipe organ 
and chimes. 

48 Christianity in the East and in the West 

Beautiful prayers and hymns were composed. Some of the 
early Christian hymns, such as the Gloria in Excelsis and the 
Te Deum Laudamus, are still sung in our churches. Organs 
did not come into use until the seventh century, and then only 
in the West, but church bells, summoning the worshiper to 
divine service, early became attached to Christian edifices. 

The Christians from the start appear to have observed "the 
first day of the week"^ in memory of Christ's resurrection. 
They attended pubHc worship on the Lord's Day, 
but otherwise did not rigidly abstain from worldly 
business and amusements. During the fourth century Sunday, 
as the Lord's Day was now generally called, came more and 
more to be kept as a day of obligatory rest. Constantine's 
Sunday law formed the first of a long series of imperial edicts 
imposing the observance of that day as a legal duty. In this 
manner Sunday, like the Jewish Sabbath on the seventh day 
of the week, was dedicated wholly to the exercises of religion. 
The great yearly festivals of the Church gradually took shape 
during the early Christian centuries. The most important 
anniversary to be observed was Easter. A period 
of fasting (Lent), which finally lasted forty days, 
preceded the festival. Whitsunday, or Pentecost, was cele- 
brated on the fiftieth day after Easter.^ Two other festivals of 
later adoption were Christmas, the celebration of which was 
finally assigned to the 25th of December, and Epiphany (Jan- 
uary 6), commemorating the baptism of Christ. Many other 
feasts and fasts, together with numerous saints' days, were 
afterwards added to the calendar of the "Christian Year." 

19. Eastern Christianity 

By the time of Constantine, Christianity had spread widely 
throughout the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Asia Minor 
Expansion of ^^^ ^^^^ largely Christian. Thrace, Macedonia, 
Christianity Epirus, and Greece were all ecclesiastical prov- 
"^ ^ ^^ inces with their own metropolitans. Many 
Christians were found in Syria and Eg3^t. Churches also ex- 

^ John, XX, I, 19; compare i Corinthians, xvi, 2. ^ See Acts, ii, 1-4. 

Eastern Christianity 


isted in Mesopotamia and Arabia, and even beyond the bound- 
aries of the empire in Armenia and Persia. Between the time 
of Constantine and that of Jus- 
tinian, Christianity continued to 
expand in the East, until the gospel 
had been carried to such distant 
regions as Abyssinia and India. 

Most of the Christian communi- 
ties in the Orient owed allegiance 
to the patriarchs of Constantinople, 
Jerusalem, Antioch, union of 
and Alexandria. The Church and 

Tj 1, State 

Roman emperor, how- 
ever, was the supreme religious 
authority in the East. He felt it 
as much his duty to maintain the 
doctrines and organization of Chris- 
tianity as to preserve the imperial 
dominions against foreign foes. 
Since he presided over the Church, 
there could be no real independ- 
ence for its officers. Bishops, met- 
ropolitans, and patriarchs were 
in every respect subordinate to 
his will. This union of Church 
and State formed one of the 
most characteristic features of 
Christianity in the East. 

Eastern Christians, far more 
than those in the West, devoted 
themselves to theolog- Theological 
ical speculations. Con 
stantinople and the great Hellen- 
istic cities of Antioch and Alexandria contained many learned 
scholars who had prolonged and heated arguments over subtle 
questions of belief. After the Arian controversy had been 
settled in the fourth century, other disputes concerning the 

The Nestorian Monument 

Evidence of Nestorian missions in 
China is afforded by the famous 
monument at Chang'an, province of 
Shensi. The stone, which was set 
up in 781, commemorates by an in- 
scription in Chinese characters and the 
figure of a cross the introduction of 
Christianity into northwestern China. 
A replica of the Nestorian monument 
was taken to the United States in 1908 
speculations and was deposited in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 

50 Christianity in the East and in the West 

true nature of Christ broke out. These gave rise to many 

The heresy known as Nestorianism, from Nestorius, a patri- 
arch of Constantinople, spread widely in the East. Nestorian 
missionaries even penetrated to India, China, and 
Mongolia. The churches which they established 
were numerous and influential during the Middle Ages, but 
since then most of them have been destroyed by the Moham- 
medans. Members of this sect are still to be found, however, 
in eastern lands. 

After the formation of the Nestorian and other heretical 
sects, the orthodox faith was preserved in the East only by the 
Greeks of Asia Minor and Europe. The Greek 
Church, which calls itself the ''Holy Orthodox 
Church," for a time remained in unity with the Roman Church 
in the West. Their final separation occurred in the eleventh 

20. Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy 

Christianity in the West presented two sharp contrasts to 

eastern Christianity. In the first place, the great heresies 

which divided the East scarcely affected the West. 

The Pfl.D£LCV 

In the second place, no union of Church and State 
existed among western Christians. Instead of acknowledging 
the religious supremacy of the emperor at Constantinople, they 
yielded obedience to the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman 
Church. He is known to us as the pope, and his office is called 
the Papacy. 

A church in Rome must have been established at an early 
date, for it was to Roman Christians that St. Paul addressed 
Rome an ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Epistles now preserved in the New 

apostolic Testament. St. Paul visited Rome, as we know 

churc from the Acts of the Apostles, and there he is said 

to have suffered martyrdom. Christian tradition, very ancient 
and very generally received, declares that St. Peter also labored 
in Rome, where he met a martyr's death, perhaps during the 

1 See pages 64-65. 

Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy 51 

reign of the emperor Nero. To the early Christians, therefore, 
the Roman Church was especially sacred, for it had been 
founded by the two greatest apostles and had been nourished 
by their blood. 

Another circumstance helped to give the Roman Church a 
superior position in the West. It was a vigorous missionary 
church. Rome, the largest Rome ^ 
and most flourishing city " mother- 
in the empire and the 
seat of the imperial government, 
naturally became the center from 
which Christianity spread over the 
western provinces. Many of the 
first Christian communities planted 
in Spain, Gaul, and Africa owed 
their start to the missionary zeal 
of the popes. 

The independence of the Roman 
Church also furthered its develop- 
ment. The bishop of The 

-r, j^i 1 Roman 

Rome was the sole pa- Church in- 
triarch in the West, while dependent 
in the East there were two, and later 
four patriarchs, each exercising au- 
thority in religious matters. Fur- 
thermore, the removal of the capital 
from Rome to Constantinople helped to free the Roman bishop 
from the close oversight of the imperial government. He was 
able, henceforth, to promote the interests of the church under 
his control without much interference on the part of the eastern 

Finally, it must be noted how much the development of the 
Roman Church was aided by its attitude on disputed questions 
of behef. While eastern Christendom was torii -j-j^^ Roman 
by theological controversies, the Church of Rome Church 
stood firmly by the Nicene Creed. After the °^^°^°^ 
Arian, Nestorian, and other heresies were finally condemned, 

Papal Arms 

According to the well-known pas- 
sage in Matthew (xvi, 19), Christ 
gave to St. Peter the " keys of the 
kingdom of heaven," with the power 
" to bind and to loose." These keys 
are always represented in the papal 
arms, together with the tiara or head- 
dress, worn by the popes on certain 

52 Christianity in the East and in the West 

orthodox Christians felt indebted to the Roman Church for 
its unwavering championship of "the faith once deUvered to 
the saints." They were all the more ready, therefore, to 
defer to that church in matters of doctrine and to accept without 
question its spiritual authority. 

The claim of the Roman bishops to supremacy over the 
Christian world had a double basis. Certain passages in the 
The Petrine New Testament, where St. Peter is represented as 
supremacy t^g j-Q^k on which the Church is built, the pastor 
of the sheep and lambs of the Lord, and the doorkeeper of 
the kingdom of heaven, appear to indicate that he was regarded 
by Christ as the chief of the Apostles. Furthermore, a 
well-established tradition made St. Peter the founder of 
the Roman Church and its first bishop. It was then argued 
that he passed to his successors, the popes, all his rights 
and dignity. As St. Peter was the first among the Apostles, 
so the popes were to be the first among bishops. Such was 
the doctrine of the Petrine supremacy, expressed as far back 
as the second century, strongly asserted by many popes 
during the Middle Ages, and maintained to-day by the Roman 

21. Growth of the Papacy 

Up to the middle of the fifth century about forty-five bishops 
had occupied St. Peter's chair at Rome. The most eminent 
Pontificate °^ these was Leo the Great. When he became 
of Leo I, bishop, the Germans were overrunning the western 

provinces of the empire. The invaders professed 
the Arian faith, as we have seen, and often prosecuted the 
orthodox Christians among whom they settled. At Such a 
time, when the imperial power was growing weaker, faithful 
Catholics in the West naturally turned for support to the bishop 
of Rome. Leo became their champion against the barbarians. 
Tradition declares that he succeeded in diverting Attila from 
an attack on Rome, and when the Vandals sacked the city 
Leo also intervened to prevent its destruction. 

After Leo, no important name occurs in the list of popes 

Growth of the Papacy 53 

until we come to Gregory the Great. Gregory, as the son of 
a rich and distinguished Roman senator, enjoyed pontificate f 
a good education in all the learning of the time. Gregory i. 
He entered public life and at an early age became ^''"^^ 
prefect of Rome. But now, almost at the outset of his career, 
Gregory laid aside earthly ambition. He gave up his honorable 
position and spent the fortune, inherited from his father, in 
the foundation of monasteries and the relief of the poor. He 
himself became a monk, turned his palace at Rome into a mon- 
astery, and almost ruined his health by too great devotion to 
fasts and midnight vigils. Gregory's conspicuous talents, how- 
ever, soon called him from retirement and led to his election as 

The work of Gregory lay principally in two directions. As a 
statesman he did much to make the popes virtual sovereigns 
at Rome and in Italy. At this time the Italian Temporal 
peninsula, overrun by the Lombards and neglected power of 
by the eastern emperor, was in a deplorable con- ^^^^^y 
dition. The bishop of Rome seemed to be the only man who 
could protect the people and maintain order. Gregory had 
conspicuous success in this task. He appointed governors of 
cities, issued orders to generals, drilled the Romans for military 
defense, and sent ambassadors to treat with the king of the 
Lombards. It was largely owing to Gregory's efforts that these 
barbarians were prevented from conquering central Italy. 

Gregory was no less eminent as a churchman. His writings 
and his personal influence greatly furthered the advancement 
of the Roman Church in the West. We find him Gregory's 
sternly repressing heresies wherever they arose, spiritual 
aiding the conversion of Arian Visigoths in Spain *^ °" ^ 
and Arian Lombards in Italy, and sending out monks as mis- 
sionaries to distant Britain.^ He well deserved by these labors 
the title ''Servant of the servants of God," ^ which he assumed, 
and which the popes after him have retained. The admira- 
tion felt for his character and abilities raised him, in later ages, 
to the rank of a saint. 

^ See page 26. 2 Servus servorum Dei. 

54 Christianity in the East and in the West 

When Gregory the Great closed his remarkable career, the 
Papacy had reached a commanding place in western Christen- 
Position of dom. To their spiritual authority the popes had 
the Papacy j^q^ begun to add some measure of temporal 
power as rulers at Rome and in Italy. During the eighth 
century, as we have already learned,^ the alliance of the popes 
and the Franks helped further to establish the Papacy as an 
ecclesiastical monarchy, ruling over both the souls and bodies 
of men. 

22. Monasticism 

The Papacy during the Middle Ages found its strongest 
supporters among the monks. By the time of Gregory the Great 
^j^g monasticism ^ was well established in Christianity, 

monastic Its origin must be sought in the need, often felt 

^^^^ by spiritually minded men, of withdrawing from 

the world — from its temptations and its transitory pleasures 
— to a Hfe of solitude, prayer, arid religious contemplation. 
Joined to this feeling has been the conviction that the soul 
may be purified by subduing the desires and passions of* the 
body. Men, influenced by the monastic spirit, sought a 
closer approach to God. * 

The monastic spirit in Christianity owed much to the example 
of its founder, who was himself unmarried, poor, and without a 
Early place "where to lay his head." Some of Christ's 

Christian teachings, taken literally, also helped to exalt the 

monasticism ^^^^^i of the monastic life. At a very early period 
there were Christian men and women who abstained from 
marriage and gave themselves up to devotional exercises and 
works of charity. This they did in their homes, without aban- 
doning their famihes and human society. 

Another monastic movement began about the middle of the 

third century, when many Christians in Egypt withdrew into 

the desert to live as hermits. St. Anthony, who 

The hermits , , „ , , ^ ^i • . i • ^ 

has been called the first Christian hermit, passed 

twenty years in a deserted fort on the east bank of the Nile. 

^ See page I'l. ^ From a Greek word which means "living alone." 



During all this time he never saw a human face. Some of the 
hermits, beheving that pain and suffering had a spiritual value, 
went to extremes of self-mortification. They dwelt in wells, 
tombs, and on the summits of pillars, deprived themselves of 
necessary food and sleep, wore no clothing, and neglected to 
bathe or to care for the body in any way. Other hermits, who 
did not practice such austerities, spent all day or all night in 

St. Daniel the Stylite on his Column 

From a Byzantine miniature in the Vatican. 

prayer. The examples of these recluses found many imitators 
in Syria and other eastern lands. ^ 

A life shut off from all contact with one's fellows is difficult 
and beyond the strength of ordinary men. The mere human 
need for social intercourse gradually brought the Rule of 
hermits together, at first in small groups and then ^*' ^*^*^ 
in larger communities, or monasteries. The next step was to 
give the scattered monasteries a common organization and 
government. Those in the East gradually adopted the regu- 
lations which St. Basil, a leading churchman of the fourth 

See Tennyson's poem, .9/. Simeon Styliles. 

56 Christianity in the East and in the West 

St Benedict 

century, drew up for the guidance of the monks under his direc- 
tion. St. Basil's Rule, as it is called, still remains the basis 
of monasticism in the Greek Church. 

The monastic system, which early gained an entrance into 
western Christendom, looked to St. Benedict as its organizer. 
While yet a young man, St. Benedict had sought to 
escape from the vice about him by retiring to a 
cave in the Sabine hills near Rome. Here he lived for three 
years as a hermit, shutting himself off from all human inter- 
course, wearing a hair 
shirt, and rolling in beds 
of thistles to subdue 
"the flesh." St. Bene- 
dict's experience of the 
hermit's life convinced 
I dm that there was a 
surer and better road 
to religious peace of 
mind. His fame as a 
holy man had attracted 
to him many disciples, 
and these he now began 
to group in monastic 
communities under his 
own supervision. St. 
Benedict's most important monastery was at Monte Cassino, 
midway between Rome and Naples. It became the capital of 
monasticism in the West. 

To control the monks of Monte Cassino St. Benedict framed 
a Rule, or constitution, which was modeled in some respects 
Rule of St. upon the earher Rule of St. Basil. The monks 
Benedict, formed a sort of corporation, presided over by an 
abbot,^ who held office for life. Every candidate 
for admission took the vow of obedience to the abbot. 
Any man, rich or poor, noble or peasant, might enter the mon- 

1 From a Syrian word, abba, meaning "father." Hence a monastery was often 
called an abbey. 

An Abbot's Seal 

The seal of Abbot Samson, head of the monastery 
of St. Edmundsbury, England, 1 182-12 12. 



♦ ••^i^ 

astery, after a year's probation; having once joined, however, 
he must remain a monk for the rest of his days. The monks 
were to hve under strict discipHne. They could not own any 
property; they could not go beyond the monastery walls with- 
out the abbot's con- 
sent; they could not 
even receive letters 
from home; and they 
were sent to bed 
early. A violation 
of the regulations 
brought punishment 
in the shape of pri- 
vate admonition, ex- 
clusion from com- 
mon prayer, and, I 
in extreme cases, 

The Rule of St. 

Benedict came to . > * 

1,1 . , Plan of Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire 

have the same wide 

influence in the West which that of St. Basil exerted in the East. 
Gregory the Great established it in many places spread of 
in Italy, Sicily, and England. During Charle- 
magne's reign it was made the only form of monas- 
ticism throughout his dominions. By the tenth century the 
Rule prevailed everywhere in western Europe.^ 

the Bene- 
dictine Rule 

23. Life and Work of the Monks 

St. Benedict sought to draw a sharp line between the monastic 
life and that of the outside world. Hence he required that, 
as far as possible, each monastery should form a monastic 
an independent, self-supporting community. In community 
course of time, as a monastery increased in wealth and number 

1 Other monastic orders arose during the later Middle Ages (see pages 145-146), 
but the Benedictines still exist, chiefly in Austria and Italy. Their order was 
introduced into the United States during the nineteenth century. 

58 Christianity in the East and in the West 

of inmates, it might come to form a large establishment, 
covering many acres and presenting within its massive walls 
the appearance of a fortified town. 
The principal buildings of a Benedictine monastery of the 

Abbey of Saint-Germain des Pres, Paris 

This celebrated monastery was founded in the sixth century. Of the orig- 
inal buildings only the abbey church remains. The illustration shows the mon- 
astery as it was in 1361, with walls, towers, drawbridge, and moat. Adjoining 
the church were the cloister, the refectory, and the dormitory. 

larger sort were grouped around an inner court, called a cloister. 
The monas- These included a church, a refectory, or dining 
room, with the kitchen and buttery near it, a 
dormitory, where the monks slept, and a chapter 
house, where they transacted business. There was also a 
Hbrary, a school, a hospital, and a guest house for the reception 
of strangers, besides barns, bakeries, laundries, workshops, 
and storerooms for provisions. Beyond these buildings lay 

tery build- 

Life and Works of the Monks 59 

vegetable gardens, orchards, grain fields, and often a mill, if 
the monastery was built on a stream. A high wall and ditch 
gave the monks the necessary seclusion and in time of danger 
protected them from attack. 

St. Benedict defined a monastery as "a school for the service 
of the Lord." The monks under his Rule occupied themselves 
with a regular round of worship, reading, and Monastic 
manual labor. Each day was divided into seven occupations 
sacred offices, beginning and ending with services in the mon- 
astery church. The first service came usually about two 
o'clock in the morning; the last, just as evening set in, before 
the monks retired to rest. In addition to their attendance at 
church, the monks spent several hours in reading from the 
Bible, private prayer, and meditation. For most of the day, 
however, they worked harci with their hands, doing the neces- 
sary washing and cooking for the monastery, raising the neces- 
sary suppUes of vegetables and grain, and performing all the 
other tasks required to maintain a large establishment. This 
emphasis on labor, as a religious duty, was a characteristic 
feature of western monasticism. ''To labor is to pray," be- 
came a favorite motto of the Benedictines.^ 

It is clear that life in a Benedictine monastery appealed to 
many different kinds of people in the Middle Ages. Those of 
a spiritual turn of mind found in the career of a Attractive- 
monk the opportunity of giving themselves wholly ness of the 
to God. Studious and thoughtful persons natu- °^°^*^^*^ ® 
rally turned to the monastery as a secure retreat. The friendless 
and the disgraced often took refuge within its walls. Many a 
troubled soul, to whom the trials of this world seemed unen- 
durable, sought to escape from them by seeking the peaceful 
shelter of the cloister. 

The civilizing influence of the Benedictine monks during the 
early Middle Ages can scarcely be over-emphasized. A monas- 
tery was often at once a model farm, an inn, a The monks 
hospital, a school, and a library. By the careful *^ civiUzers 
cultivation of their lands the monks set an example of good 

1 Laborare est orare. 

6o Christianity in the East and in the West 

farming wherever they settled. They entertained pilgrims and 
travelers, at a period when western Europe was almost destitute 
of inns. They performed many works of charity, feeding the 
hungry, healing the sick who were brought to their doors, and 

distributing their medi- 
cines freely to those 
who needed them. In 
their schools they trained 
both boys who wished 
to become priests and 
those who intended to 
lead active lives in the 
world. The monks, too, 
were the only scholars 
of the age. By copying 
the manuscripts of clas- 
sical authors, they pre- 
served valuable books 
that would otherwise 
have been lost. By keep- 
ing records of the most 
striking events of their 
time, they acted as chroniclers of medieval history. To all 
these services must be added the work of the monks as mis- 
sionaries among the heathen. 

24. Spread of Christianity over Europe 

Almost all Europe had been won to Christianity by the end 

of the eleventh century. In the direction of this great mis- 

_ „ sionary campaiorn the Roman Church took the 

The Roman , ,. S.i ^ r i 

Church and leadmg part. The officers of her armies were 

the bar- zealous popes, bishops, and abbots; her private 

barians , ,. r- r- ? „ , , . , 

«, soldiers were equally zealous monks, priests, and 

laymen. Pagan Rome had never succeeded in making a com- 
plete and permanent conquest of the barbarians. Christian 
Rome, however, was able to bring them under her spiritual 

A Monk Copyist 

From a manuscript in the British Museum, London, 

Spread of Christianity over Europe 6i 

Christianity first reached the Teutonic invaders in its Arian ^ 
form. Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, and Lom- 
bards were all Arians. The Roman Church Reconversion 
regarded them as heretics and labored with success of the Teu- 
to reconvert them. This work was at last com- *°"'*^ peoples 
pleted when the Lombards, in the seventh century, accepted the 
Catholic faith. 

The Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, whose kingdoms were to 

develop into the chief states of medieval Europe, adopted 

from the outset the Cathohc form of Christianity. Franks and 

The conversion of the Franks provided the Roman Anglo-Saxons 
/-.I 1 • 1 • 1 r ' ■, r ■, converted to 

Church with its strongest and most faithful Roman 

adherents among the Germans.^ The conversion Catholicism 

of Anglo-Saxon Britain by Augustine and his monks, followed 

later by the spread of Roman Catholicism in Ireland and 

Scotland, firmly united the British Isles to the Papacy.^ Thus 

Rome during the Middle Ages came to be the one center of 

church life for the peoples of western Europe. 

An Anglo-Saxon monk, St. Boniface, did more than any 

other missionary to bring Christianity to the remote tribes 

of Germany. Like Augustine in England, St. 

T) -r . u .1. 1 / 1 . St. Boniface 

Bomiace was sent by the pope, who created him and the con- 

a missionary bishop and ordered him to ''carry version of 
the word of God to unbelievers." St. Boniface 
also enjoyed the support of the Frankish rulers, Charles Martel 
and Pepin the Short. Thanks to their assistance this intrepid 
monk was able to penetrate into the heart of Germany. Here 
he labored for nearly forty years, preaching, baptizing, and 
founding numerous churches, monasteries, and schools. His 
boldness in attacking heathenism is illustrated by the story 
of how he cut down with his own hands a certain oak tree, much 
reverenced by the natives of Hesse as sacred to the god Woden, 
and out of its wood built a chapel dedicated to St. Peter. St. 
Boniface crowned a lifetime of missionary labor with a martyr's 
death, probably in 754. His work was continued by Charle- 
magne, who forced the Saxons to accept Christianity at the 

^ See page 47, note i. ^ See page 9. ' See pages 25-29. 

62 Christianity in the East and in the West 

point of the sword.^ All Germany at length became a Christian 
land, devoted to the Papacy. 

Roman Catholicism not only spread to Celtic and Teutonic 
peoples, but it also gained a foothold among the Slavs. Both 
Conversion Henry the Fowler and Otto the Great attempted 
of the Slavs j-q Christianize the Slavic tribes between the Elbe 
and the Vistula, by locating bishoprics in their territory. The 
work of conversion encountered many setbacks and did not 
reach completion until the middle of the twelfth century. 
The most eminent missionaries to the Slavs were Cyril and 
Methodius. These brother-monks were sent from Constan- 
tinople in 863 to convert the Moravians, who formed a king- 
dom on the eastern boundary of Germany. Seeing their great 
success as missionaries, the pope invited them to Rome and 
secured their consent to an arrangement which brought the 
Moravian Christians under the control of the Papacy.^ From 
Moravia Christianity penetrated into Bohemia and Poland. 
These countries still remain strongholds of the Roman Church. 
The Serbians and Russians, as we have learned,^ received 
Christianity by way of Constantinople and so became adherents 
of the Greek Church. 

Roman Catholicism gradually spread to most of the remaining 

peoples of Europe. The conversion of the Norwegians and 

Swedes was well advanced by the middle of the 
Final exten- , , rT^^ ^ r tt • 

sion of eleventh century. The Magyars, or Hungarians, 

Roman accepted Christianity at about the same date. 

The king of Hungary was such a devout CathoUc 

that the pope sent to him a golden crown and saluted him as 

"His Apostolic Majesty." The last parts of heathen Europe 

to hear the message of the gospel were the districts south and 

east of the Baltic, occupied by the Prussians, Lithuanians, and 

Finns. Their conversion took place between the twelfth and 

fourteenth centuries. 

^ See pages 12-13. 

2 Cyril and Methodius were canonized by Pope Leo XIII in 188 1. A millennial 
celebration of the two apostles was held in f'^6s by the inhabitants oi Moravia 
and Bohemia. 

3 See page 38. The Bulgarians also received Christianity from Constantinople. 


I I Extent of Christianity about 400 A. D. I I Mohammedanism is 

shown by white bands 
I Division between the 
Greek and Roman Churches 


H Area Christianized 400-800 A. D. 
D Area Christianized 800-1100 A, D. 

J Area Christianized 1100-1300 A, D. 

Boundaries (in 622 A.D.)of the patriarchates of Rome, Constantinople, 
Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria 


Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity 63 

25. Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity 

Before the Christian conquest of Europe was finished, Chris- 
tianity had divided into two great communions — the Greek 
Church and the Roman Church. Their separa- j^j^^^. ^^ 
tion was a long, slow process, arising from the of East and 
deep-seated differences between East and West. ^®^* 
Though Rome had carried her victorious arms throughout 
the Mediterranean basin, all the region east of the Adriatic 
was imperfectly Romanized. It remained Greek in language 
and culture and tended, as time went on, to grow more and more 
unlike the West, which was truly Roman. The founding of 
Constantinople and the transference of the capital from the 
banks of the Tiber to the shores of the Bosporus still further 
widened the breach between the two halves of the Roman 
world. After the Germans established their kingdoms in Italy, 
Spain, Gaul, and Britain, western Europe was practically 
independent of the rulers at Constantinople. The coronation 
of Charlemagne in 800 marked the final severance of East and 

The division of the Roman Empire led naturally to a grouping 
of Christian churches about Rome and Constantinople, the 
two chief centers of government. The popes, it 
has been seen, had always enjoyed spiritual leader- and the 
ship in the West. In temporal matters they ac- eastern 
knowledged the authority of the eastern emperors, 
until the failure of the latter to protect Rome and Italy from 
the barbarians showed clearly that the popes must rely on their 
own efforts to defend Christian civilization. We have already 
learned how well such men as Leo the Great and Gregory the 
Great performed this task. Then in the eighth century came 
the alliance with the Prankish king, Pepin the Short, which 
gave the Papacy a powerful and generous protector beyond the 
Alps. Finally, by crowning Charlemagne, the pope definitely 
broke with the emperor at Constantinople and transferred his 
allegiance to the newly created western emperor. 

The patriarch of Constantinople, as bishop of the capital 

64 Christianity in the East and in the West 

city, naturally occupied a prominent position in eastern Chris- 
tendom. Before long he assumed the high- 
Rise of the r ..XT • 1 * 1 , • 1 ,, . 
patriarchate soundmg title of Universal Archbishop. His 

of Con- authority was immensely strengthened when the 

Mohammedans, having conquered Syria and 

Egypt, practically extinguished the three patriarchates of 

Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria.^ The Church in the 

East now had a single patriarch, just as that in the West 

had the one bishop of Rome. Rivalry between them was 


One source of strife between pope and patriarch was the 

controversy, arising in the eighth century, over the use of 

images in the churches. These images seem to 
Rivalry , ^ , i • /. x r 

between have been, not statues, but pictures (icons) of 

pope and ^j^g apostles, saints, and martyrs. Many eastern 

patriarch ^, . . , • i , , /• 

Christians sought to strip the churches of icons, on 

the ground that by the ignorant they were venerated almost as 
idols. The Iconoclasts ('4mage-breakers") gained no support 
in the West. The Papacy took the view that images were a 
help to true devotion and might, therefore, be allowed. When 
a Roman emperor issued a decree for the destruction of all 
images, the pope refused to obey the order in the churches 
under his direction, and went so far as to exclude the Icono- 
clasts from Christian fellowship. Although the iconoclastic 
movement failed in the East, after a violent controversy, it 
helped still further to sharpen the antagonism between eastern 
and western Christianity. Other causes of dispute arose in 
later times, chiefly concerning fine points of doctrine on which 
neither side would yield. 

The final rupture of Christendom was delayed until the 
middle of the eleventh century. In 1054 the pope sent his 
The final legates to Constantinople to demand obedience to 

rupture, the Papacy. This being refused, they laid upon 

the high altar of Sancta Sophia the pope's bill of 
excommunication. Against the patriarch and his followers 
they pronounced a solemn curse, or anathema, devoting them 

1 See page 76. 

The Greek Church 65 

"to the eternal society of the Devil and his angels." Then, 
we are told, they strode out of- Sancta Sophia, shaking the dust 
from their feet and crying, ''Let God see and judge." The 
two branches of Christendom, thus torn apart, were never 
afterward reunited.^ 

26. The Greek Church 

Both the Greek and Roman churches recognize three orders 
for the ministry, namely, bishops, priests, and 
deacons. Baptism, by both churches, is admin- and Roman 

istered to infants, but by the Greek Church churches 
, . , , . . ^ ^ compared 

under the form of total immersion. Confirma- 
tion in the Greek Church follows immediately after baptism; 
in the Roman Church it is postponed to the age of reason. 
In the communion service the Greek Church gives leavened 
bread, dipped in wine. The Roman Church withholds wine 
from the laity and uses only a dry, unleavened wafer. The 
festivals of the Greek Church do not coincide in time of 
celebration with those of the Roman Church, since the "Julian 
Calendar" followed in the East is now thirteen days behind the 
"Gregorian Calendar." 

The Greek Church has not lacked missionary zeal. Through 
her agency the barbarians who entered southeastern Europe 
during the early Middle Ages were converted to spread of 
Christianity. At the present time nearly all the the Greek 
peoples of the Balkan peninsula, including Greeks, ^^^ 
Montenegrins, Serbians, Bulgarians, and Rumanians, belong 
to the Greek Church.^ Its greatest victory was won toward 
the close of the tenth century, when the Russians were 
induced to accept the Greek form of Christianity. Outlying 
branches of the Greek Church are found also in the Turkish 

The patriarch of Constantinople is the spiritual head of the 

1 Unsuccessful attempts to bring the two churches together took place in the 
Middle Ages. The latest movement in this direction was made by Pope Leo XIII 

in 1894, but his efforts were not crowned with success. 

2 Many Roman CathoHcs are found in Croatia-Slavonia, Bosnia, Daknatia, and 

66 Christianity in the East and in the West 

Greek Church. He enjoys, however, no such wide authority 

over eastern Christians as that exercised by the 
Present or- i >-, i 

ganization of pope over all Roman Catholics. There are as 

ttie Greek many as sixteen branches of the Greek Church, 

Church ^ ' 

each self-governing and under its own officers. 

Despite the local independence of its branches, the Greek Church 
remains unified in doctrine. It claims to be the only "Ortho- 
dox" church and clings with almost Oriental conservatism to the 
traditions of earher ages. Nevertheless, as the principal church 
of Russia, the largest and most swiftly growing of European 
countries, the Greek Church has before it a future of great 

27. The Roman Church 

The Roman Empire in the West had gone down before the 

assaults of the Teutonic barbarians, but in its place had arisen 

_ _ a new creation — the Roman Church. The leading 

The Roman . r , i , . , , • i r 

Church sur- City of the old empire became the capital of the 

vives the Papacy. The pope took, and has since retained, 

the title of Supreme Pontiff {Pontifex Maximus), 
once given to the head of the Roman state religion. Latin 
has continued to be the official language of Roman Catholicism. 
The Roman genius for law and government found a new expres- 
sion in the creation of the papal power. The true successors 
of the ancient Roman statesmen were the popes of the Middle 
Ages. The idea of Rome, of her universality and of her eter- 
nity, lived on in the Roman Church. 

The Roman Church, as the successor of the Roman Empire 
in the West, formed the chief center of civilization during the 
Work of earher part of the Middle Ages. She stood between 
the Roman the conquering Germans and the Romanized 

^^ provincials and helped to join them both in lasting 

union. To the heathen she sent out her missionaries, preach- 
ing a religion of love and charity and introducing a higher 
morality than the barbarians had ever known before. She 
multiplied hospitals, orphanages, and asylums. Her bishops 
were the only protectors of the weak and the oppressed. She 

The Roman Church 67 

fostered education, art, and learning within the walls of churches 
and monasteries. Her priests and monks were the only teachers 
in an ignorant age. In an age of bloodshed and violence, when 
might made right, she proclaimed the superiority of the spirit 
to mere brute force. To sum up: The Roman Church was an 
indispensable agent in the making of medieval Europe. 

Christianity in its Greek and Roman forms was not the only 
great religion of the Middle Ages. In the seventh century, 
before the separation of the two churches had ^j^g menace 
been completed and before all Europe had become to Christen- 
Christian, another religion arose. It grew with °°^ 
marvelous rapidity, stripped the Church of much territory in 
western Asia, northern Africa, and Spain, and promised for a 
time to become the dominant faith of the world. This was 
Islam, or Mohammedanism, the religion of the Arabs. 


I. In what different senses is the word " church " of ten used? 2. "The eastern 
patriarch was the shadow of the emperor, cast on the spiritual world." Explain 
this statement. 3. Why did heresies develop in the East rather than in the West? 
4. Look up in the New Testament the following texts relating to the primacy of 
St. Peter: Matthew, xvi, i8-ig; Luke, xxii, 31-32; and JoAn, xxi, 15-17. 5. What 
is "the power of the keys" which the popes claim to possess? 6. What reasons for 
the growth of the Papacy have been set forth in this chapter? 7. In what non- 
Christian religions is monasticism an estabUshed institution? 8. Look up in the 
New Testament the following texts quoted as favorable to monasticism: Matthew, 
xix, 21; Mark, x, 29-30; and Luke, xiv, 26. 9. What is the origin of the words 
"monk," "hermit," "anchorite,"- and "abbot"? 10. Summarize the principal 
benefits which the monastic system conferred on Europe. 11, Give reasons for 
the rapid conversion of the Germans to Christianity. 12. In what sense is it true 
that "half Europe owes its Christianity to women"? 13. Who was the "Apostle 
to the Germans"? 14. Who were the "Apostles to the Slavs"? 15. Comment 
on the significance to European civilization of the missionary activity of the Chris- 
tian Church in the Middle Ages. i6.' Why has the separation of the Greek and 
Roman churches been described as "the most momentous fact in the history of 
Christendom during the Middle Ages"? 17. Why could not such an institution 
as the Papacy develop in the East? 


SPREAD OF ISLAM, 622-10581 

28. Arabia and the Arabs 

Arabia, a vast peninsula between the Persian Gulf, the 
Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea, forms the link between Asia 
The Arabian and Africa. It is connected with Asia by the 
peninsula g^j-j^j plains extending northward to the Euphrates; 

with Africa, by the equally arid isthmus of Suez. Though the 
country is more than one-third the size of the United States 
(excluding Alaska), it has never supported a large population. 
The interior, except for occasional oases, is a desert, inhabited 
only by wandering tribes. Along the southern and western 
coasts, between the mountains and the sea, the soil is generally 
fertile, the climate temperate, and the rainfall sufficient. Here 
the chief cities and towns are located. 

The Bedouin Arabs, by which name the nomadic inhabitants 
of the desert are known, claim Ishmael, the son of Abraham 
The Bedou- ^^^ half-brother of Isaac, as their ancestor. The 
ins of the life which they lead in the Arabian wilderness 
closely resembles that of the Hebrew patriarchs, 
as described in the Old Testament. The Bedouins are shep- 
herds and herdsmen, continually moving with their sheep and 
camels from one pasturage and water-hole to another. Their 
virtues — hospitality to the stranger, generosity, faithfulness 
to the ties of kinship — are those of a nomadic, barbarian people. 
Such also are their vices — love of fighting and plunder, re- 
vengefulness, and impatience of restraint. Nothing like a 
settled government is known to them. The only tribal author- 
ity is that of the chief, or "sheik," who, because of his birth, 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter vi,"The Teach- 
ings of Mohammed." 


Arabia and the Arabs 69 

courage, or wealth, has been chosen to the leadership. This 
description of the Bedouins to-day applies equally well to them 
in the age of Mohammed, during the sixth century. 

The Arabs who settled along the southern and western 
coasts of the peninsula had reached in the sixth century a 
considerable degree of civilization. They prac- The seden- 
ticed agriculture and carried on a flourishing trade **^y Arabs 
across the Red Sea and even to distant India. Between these 
sedentary Arabs and the Bedouins raged constant feuds, lead- 
ing to much petty warfare. Nevertheless the hundreds of 
tribes throughout the peninsula preserved a feeling of national 
unity, which was greatly strengthened by Mohammed's ap- 
pearance on the scene. 

The city of Mecca, located about fifty miles from the Red 
Sea, formed a commercial metropolis and the center of Arabian 
heathenism. Every year the Arab tribes ceased Arabian 
fighting for four months, and went up to Mecca heathenism 
to buy and sell and visit the famous sanctuary called the Kaaba. 
Here were three hundred and sixty idols and a small, black 
stone (probably a meteorite), which legend declared had been 
brought from heaven. The stone was originally white, but 
the sins of the people who touched it had blackened it. Al- 
though most of the Arabs were idolaters, yet some of them 
recognized the ''Unknown God" of the Semites, Allah, the 
Creator of all things. Arabia at this time contained many 
Jews, Zoroastrians, and Christians, who helped to spread 
abroad the conception of one God and thus to prepare the way 
for a prophet of a new religion. 

29. Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman, 622-632 

Mohammed,^ born at Mecca about 570, belonged to the 
tribe of the Ko'reish, who had long been guardians of the Kaaba. 
Left an orphan at an early age, the future prophet Early life of 
was obliged to earn his own Hving. He served Mohammed 
first as a shepherd on the hillsides of Mecca. This occupation, 
though lowly, gave him the love of solitude and helped to 

1 The earlier spelling was Mahomet. 


Rise and Spread of Islam 

Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman 71 

nourish in his soul that appreciation of nature which later found 
expression in so many of his utterances. While still a youth, he 
became a camel-driver and twice crossed the deserts with cara- 
vans to Syria. Doubtless he made many acquaintances on 
these journeys and picked up much useful information. Mo- 
hammed, however, did not receive a regular education; it is 
doubtful whether he could read or write. His marriage, when 
about twenty-five years of age, to a rich widow, named Kadija, 
brought him wealth and consideration. For some time, hence- 
forth, he led the Hfe of a prosperous merchant of Mecca. 

Mohammed seems always to have been a deeply religious 
man. As he grew older, his thoughts more and more centered 
on spiritual themes. JHe could not reconcile the Mohammed's 
idolatry of the Arabs with that behef in the unity visions 
of God which he himself had reached. In his distress he would 
withdraw into the wilderness, where he spent much time in 
fasting and sohtary vigils, practices perhaps suggested to him 
by the example of Christian hermits. During these lonely 
hours in the desert strange scenes passed before his eyes and 
strange voices sounded in his ears. Mohammed at first thought 
that evil spirits possessed him, but Kadija encouraged him to 
beheve that his visions were a revelation from another world. 
One day, so he declared, the archangel Gabriel appeared to 
him and bade him preach a new religion to the Arabs. It was 
very simple, but in its simplicity lay its strength: ''There is 
no god but God, and Mohammed is the prophet of God." 

Mohammed made his first converts in his wife, his children, 
and the friends who knew him best. Then, becoming bolder, 
he began to preach publicly in Mecca. In spite The Hegira, 
of his eloquence, obvious sincerity, and attractive ^^^ 
personality, he met a discouraging reception. A few slaves 
and poor freemen became his followers, but most of the citizens 
of Mecca regarded him as a madman. Mohammed's disciples, 
called Moslems,^ were bitterly persecuted by the Koreish, who 

1 From the Arabic muslim, "one who surrenders himself" (to God's will). Dur- 
ing the Middle Ages the Moslems to their Christian enemies were commonly known 
as Saracens, a term which is still in use. 

72 Rise and Spread of Islam 

resented the prophet's attacks on idolatry and feared the loss 
of their privileges at the Kaaba. Finally Mohammed and his 
converts took refuge in Medina, where some of the inhabitants 
had already accepted his teachings. This was the famous 
Hegira (Flight of the prophet).^ 

At Medina Mohammed occupied a position of high honor and 
influence. The people welcomed him gladly and made him their- 
Later life of chief magistrate. As his adherents increased in 
Mohammed number, Mohammed began to combine fighting 
with preaching. His military expeditions against the Arab 
tribes proved to be very successful. Many of the conquered 
Bedouins enhsted under his banner and at length captured 
Mecca for the prophet. He treated its, inhabitants leniently, 
but threw down all the idols in the Kaaba. After the submis- 
sion of Mecca most of the Arabs abandoned idolatry and ac- 
cepted the new religion. 

Mohammed did not long enjoy his position as uncrowned 
king of Arabia. He died in 632, at Medina, where he was 
Death of buried and where his tomb is still visited by pious 

Mohammed, Moslems. His followers could scarcely believe 
that their great prophet had gone away from 
them forever. They were ready to worship him as a god, 
until old Abu Bekr, Mohammed's father-in-law, rebuked them 
with the memorable words: ''Whoso worshipeth Mohammed, 
let him know that Mohammed is dead; but whoso worshipeth 
God, let him know that God liveth and dieth not." 

The character of Mohammed has been variously estimated. 
Moslem writers make him a saint; Christian writers, until 
Mohammed's recent times, have called him an ''imposter." 
character j^^ know that he was a man of simple habits, 

who, even in the days of his prosperity, lived on dates, barley 
bread, and water, mended his woolen garments, and attended 
to his own wants. He was mild and gentle, a lover of children, 
devoted to his friends, and forgiving toward his foes. He seems 

^ The year 622, in which the Hegira occurred, marks the beginning of the Mo- 
hammedan era. The Christian year 1919 a.d. nearly corresponds to the Moham- 
medan year 1338 a.h. {Anno Hegira). 

Islam and the Koran 73 

to have won the admiration of all with whom he came in con- 
tact. We know, too, that Mohammed was so deeply impressed 
with the consciousness of his rehgious mission that he was 
ready to give up wealth and an honorable position and face for 
years the ridicule and hatred of the people of Mecca. His 
faults — deceitfulness, superstitiousness, sensuality — were 
those of the Arabs of his time. Their existence in Moham- 
med's character should not prevent our recognition of his real 
greatness as a prophet and as a statesman. 

30. Islam and the Koran 

The religion which Mohammed preached is called Islam, 
an Arabic word meaning "surrender," or "resignation." This 
religion has its sacred book, the Koran ("thing Formation of 
read" or "thing recited"). It contains the ^^ ^°^*^ 
speeches, prayers, and other utterances of Mohammed at 

L A ^. ^ . — ^ ^ L ^ L 

-«b^ J L » Law J L Jl L Aj^ 

A Passage from the Koran 

From a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

various times during his career. Some parts of the Koran 
were dictated by the prophet to his disciples and by them 
were written out on skins, leaves of palm trees, bones, and 
bits of parchment. Many other parts remained at first only 
in the memory of Mohammed's followers. Soon after his 

74 Rise and Spread of Islam 

death all the scattered passages were collected into one book. 
Since the middle of the seventh century the Koran, every 
word of which the Moslems consider holy, has remained un- 

The doctrines found in the Koran show many adaptations 
from the Jewish and Christian rehgions. Like them Islam 
Religious emphasizes the unity of God. The Moslem cry 

teachings of —"Allah Akhar!'' "God is Great !" — forms its 
cardinal principle. Like them, also, Islam recog- 
nizes the existence of prophets, including Abraham, Moses, 
and Jesus, but insists that Mohammed was the last and great- 
est of the prophets. The existence of angels and demons is 
recognized. The chief of the demons, Iblis, bears some resem- 
blance to the Jewish Satan and the Christian Devil. The 
account of the creation and fall of man is taken, with varia- 
tions, from the Old Testament. The descriptions of the resur- 
rection of the dead and the last judgment, and the division of 
the future world into paradise and hell, the former for believers 
in Islam, the latter for those who have refused to accept it, 
were also largely borrowed from other religions. 

The Koran imposes on the faithful Moslem five great obli- 
gations. First, he must recite, at least once in his life, aloud. 
Observances correctly, and with full understanding, the short 
of Islam creed: " There is no god but God, and Mohammed 

is the prophet of God." Second, he must pray five times a 
day: at dawn, just after noon, before sunset, just after sunset, 
and at the end of the day. In every Mohammedan city the 
hour of prayer is announced from the tall minaret of the mosque 
by a crier {muezzin). Before engaging in prayer the worshiper 
washes face, hands, and feet; during the prayer he turns toward 
Mecca and bows his head to the ground. Third, he must ob- 
serve a strict fast, from morning to night, during every day of 
Ramadan, the ninth month of the Mohammedan year.^ In 
this month God presented the Koran to Gabriel for revelation 
to the prophet. Fourth, he must give alms to the poor. Fifth, 
he must, "if he is able," undertake at least one pilgrimage to 

^ Feasting during the nights of this month is allowable. 

Islam and the Koran 75 

Mecca. The annual visit of tens of thousands of pilgrims to 
the holy city helps to preserve the feeling of brotherhood among 
Moslems all over the world. These five obligations are the 
"piUars" of Islam. 

As a religious system Islam is exceedingly simple. It does 
not provide any elaborate ceremonies of worship and permits 
no altars, pictures, or images in the mosque. Organization 
Islam even lacks a priesthood. Every Moslem ^^ ^^lam 
acts as his own priest. There is, however, an official, who on 
Friday, the Mohammedan Sabbath, offers up pubHc prayers 
in the mosque and delivers a sermon to the assembled worshipers. 
All work is suspended during this service, but at its close secular 
activities are resumed. 

The Koran furnishes a moral code for the adherents of Islam. 
It contains several noteworthy prohibitions. The Moslem is 
not to make images, to engage in games of chance, ^^^^^ ^^^^^_ 
to eat pork, or to drink wine. This last prohibi- ings of the 
tion has saved the Mohammedan world from the ^°^*° 
degradation and misery which alcohol has introduced into 
Christian lands. To Mohammed strong drink was "the 
mother of all evil," and drunkenness, a sin. The Koran also 
inculcates many active virtues, including reverence toward 
parents, protection of widows and orphans, charity toward 
the poor, kindness to slaves, and gentle treatment of the lower 
animals. On the whole, it must be admitted that the laws of 
the Koran did much to restrain the vices of the Arabs and to 
provide them with higher standards of right and wrong. Islam 
marked a great advance over Arabian heathenism. 

31. Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt 

Islam was a religion of conquest. It proclaimed the right- 
eousness of a "holy war," or jihad, against unbehevers. It 
promised rich booty for those who fought and ^^^^^ ^^ ^ 
won, and paradise for those who fell. The Arab religion of 
soldier, dying on the battle-field, expected to be *^°"^"^^* 
carried away by bright-eyed maidens to a garden of delight, 
where, reclining on soft cushions and rugs, he was to enjoy 

76 Rise and Spread of Islam 

forever an existence of sensual ease. "Whosoever falls in 

battle," so runs a passage in the Koran, "his sins are forgiven, 

and at the day of judgment his limbs shall be supplied by the 

wings of angels and cherubim." 

The creation of the Arabian power must not be understood, 

however, as solely a rehgious movement. Pride and greed, 

Islam as a ^^ ^^^^ ^^ fanaticism, drove the Arabs forward on 

poUtical their conquering career. Long before Moham- 

°^^® med's time Arabia had been in a state of unrest. 

Its warlike tribes, feeling a sense of their superiority to other 

peoples, were eager to overrun the rich districts of western 

Asia, much as the Germans had overrun western Europe. 

Islam strengthened the racial pride of the Arabs, united them 

into one nation, and gave them an effective organization for 

world-wide rule. 

The most extensive conquests of the Arabs were made within 

ten years after Mohammed's death. During this period the 

. , Moslem warriors, though poorly armed, ill-dis- 

Arab con- . ,. , , . 1 i 1 , 

quests in the ciplmed, and m every battle greatly outnumbered, 

East, 632- attacked with success the two strongest military 

powers then in the world — Rome and Persia. 

From the Roman Empire in the East they seized the province 

of Syria, with the famous cities of Damascus, Antioch, and 

Jerusalem.^ They took Mesopotamia from the Persians and 

then, invading Iran, overthrew the Persian power. Egypt 

was also subjugated by these irresistible soldiers of the 


According to the strict teaching of the Koran, those who 

refused to accept Islam were either to be killed or to be reduced 

, to slavery. As a matter of fact, the Arabs treated 
Treatment of , . ■' , . . , , 1 ,.1 i- 

the con- their new subjects with marked hberahty. No 

quered massacres and no persecutions occurred. The 


conquered peoples were allowed to retain their 

own religions, on condition of paying ample tribute. In course 

of time, however, many of the Christians in Syria and Egypt 

and most of the Zoroastrians in Persia adopted Islam, in order 

1 See page 36. 

Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt 77 

that they might acquire the rights and privileges of Moslem 

The sweeping conquests of the decade 632-642 were followed 
in later years by a further extension of the boundaries of the 
Arabian Empire. In the remote East the Arabs Later Arab 
sent their victorious armies beyond the Oxus and conquests 
Indus rivers to central Asia and India. They captured the 
island of Cyprus, annexed parts of Armenia and Asia Minor, 
and at length threatened to take Constantinople. Had that city 
fallen, all eastern Europe would have been laid open to invasion. 


Naval Battle Shom^ing Use of "Greek Fire" 

From a Byzantine manuscript of the fourteenth century at Madrid. "Greek fire" in 
marine warfare was most commonly propelled through long tubes of copper, which were placed 
on the prow of a ship and managed by a gunner. Combustibles might also be kept in tubes 
flung by hand and exploded on board the enemy's vessel. 

The first attempts on Constantinople were made by sea and 

were repulsed, but early in the eighth century the city had 

to face a combined attack by a Moslem navy and «. 

rr-i T , -r . Siege of 

army, ine eastern emperor, Leo the Isaunan, Constanti- 

conducted a heroic defense, using with much ^°p^®' '^^®~ 

effectiveness the celebrated mixture known as 

" Greek fire." This combustible, probably composed of sulphur, 

naphtha, and quickUme, was poured or hurled on the enemy's 

ships in order to burn them. "Greek fire," the rigors of an 

uncommonly severe winter, and timely aid received by the 

78 Rise and Spread of Islam 

emperor from the Bulgarians, at length compelled the Arabs 
to beat a retreat. Their failure to take Constantinople gave 
the Roman Empire in the East another long lease of life. 

32. Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain 

Though repulsed before the impregnable walls of Constanti- 
nople, the Arabs continued to win new dominions in other 
North Africa parts of the Christian world. After their occupa- 
subdued ^[q^ ^f Egypt, they began to overrun North 

Africa, which Justinian, Uttle more than a century earlier, 
had reconquered from the Vandals. The Romanized provin- 
cials, groaning under the burdensome taxes imposed on them 
by the eastern emperors, made only a slight resistance to the 
Moslem armies. A few of the great cities held out for a time, 
but after the capture and destruction of Carthage in 698, Arab 
rule was soon established over the whole extent of the Mediter- 
ranean coast from Eg}^t to the Atlantic. 

Islam made in North Africa one of its most permanent con- 
quests. Some of the Christian inhabitants were exterminated 
Arabs and by the Arabs, while many more appear to have 
Berbers withdrawn to Spain and Sicily, leaving the field 

clear for the introduction of Arabian civilization. The Arabs 
who settled in North Africa gave their religion and government 
to the Berbers, as the natives of the country were called, and 
to some extent intermingled with them. Arabs and Berbers 
still comprise the population of North Africa, though their once 
independent states have now been absorbed by European 

With North Africa in their hands the Moslems did not long 
delay the invasion of Spain. In 711 an army of Arabs and 

„ , . . Berbers, under their leader Tarik, crossed the 
Subjugation . . 

of Spain Strait which still bears his name ^ and for the 

begun, £j.g|- ^jjj^g confronted the Germans. The Visi- 

gothic kingdom, already much enfeebled, proved 

to be an easy prey. A single battle made the invaders masters 

1 Morocco, Algeria, and Tunis belong to France; Tripoli, to Italy. 

2 Gibraltar = Gibal al Tarik, " the mountain of Tarik." 

•2. o 



3- 3 

to n 

s ^ 


a. 3 

C w 
n n 

8o Rise and Spread of Islam 

of half of Spain. Within a few years their hosts swept north- 
w^ard to the Pyrenees. Only small districts in the northern part 
of the Spanish peninsula remained unconquered. 

The Moslems were not stopped by the Pyrenees. Crossing 
these mountains, they captured many of the old Roman cities 
The Moslem ^^ ^^^ south of Gaul and then advanced to the 
advance in north, attracted, apparently, by the booty to be 
found in Christian monasteries and churches. 
In the vicinity of Tours they encountered the great army which 
Charles Martel, the chief minister of the Frankish king,^ had 
collected to oppose their advance. 

The battle of Tours seems to have continued for several 
days. Of its details we know nothing, though a Spanish chron- 
Battie of ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ heavy infantry of the Franks 

Tours, stood "immovable as a wall, inflexible as a block 

of ice" against the desperate assaults of the 
Moslem horsemen. When the Franks, after the last day's 
fighting, wished to renew the struggle, they found that the 
enemy had fled, leaving a camp filled with the spoils of war. 
This engagement, though famous in history, was scarcely 
decisive. For some time afterward the Moslems maintained 
themselves in southern Gaul. It was the Frankish ruler, 
Pepin the Short, who annexed their possessions there and drove 
them back across the Pyrenees to Spain.^ 

33. The Caliphate and its Disruption, 632-1058 

The title of caliph, meaning "successor" or "representative," 

had first been assumed by Mohammed's father-in-law, Abu 

Bekr, who was chosen to succeed the prophet as 

"Orthodox" the civil and religious head of the Moslem world. 

cauphs, After him followed Omar, who had been one of 


Mohammed's most faithful adherents, and then 
Othman and AH, both sons-in-law of Mohammed. These 
four rulers are sometimes known as the "Orthodox" caliphs, 
because their right to the succession was universally acknowl- 
edged by Moslems. 

1 See page lo. ^ For Charlemagne's Spanish conquests, see page 13. 

The Caliphate and its Disruption 


After Ali's death the governor of Syria, Moawiya by name, 
succeeded in making himself caliph of the Moslem world. 
This usurper converted the caliphate into a hered- 
itary, instead of an elective, office, and established caUphs at 
the dynasty of the Ommiads.^ Their capital l>amascus, 
was no longer Medina in Arabia, but the Syrian 
city of Damascus. The descendants of Mohammed's family 
refused, however, to recognize the Ommiads as legitimate 
caliphs. In 750 a sudden revolt, headed by the party of the 

Dismemberment of the Caliphate 

Abbasids,^ established a new dynasty. The Abbasids treacher- 
ously murdered nearly all the members of the Ommiad family, 
but one survivor escaped to Spain, where he founded at Cordova 
an independent Ommiad dynasty. Early in the tenth century 
this became the caliphate of Cordova, About the same time 
North Africa and Egypt united in another caliphate with its 
capital at Cairo. 

The Abbasids continued to reign over the Moslems in Asia 
for more than three hundred years. The most celebrated of 
Abbasid rulers was Harun-al-Rashid (Aaron the Just), a con- 

1 So called from a leading family of Mecca, to which Moawiya belonged, 

2 So called from Abbas, an uncle of Mohammed. 

82 Rise and Spread of Islam 

temporary of Charlemagne, to whom the Arab ruler sent several 
presents, including an elephant and a water-clock which struck 
The Abbasid the hours. The tales of Harun-al-Rashid's mag- 
caliphs, nificence, his gold and silver, his silks and gems, 
his rugs and tapestries, reflect the luxurious life of 
the Abbasid rulers. Gradually, however, their power decHned, 
and the Asiatic provinces became practically independent. 
This process of dismemberment went on until 1058, when the 
Seljuk Turks took over the caliph's political authority. He 
remained, however, the religious head of Islam until the middle 
of the thirteenth century.^ 

The Abbasids removed their capital from Damascus to 
Bagdad on the banks of the middle Euphrates. The new city, 

„ , , under the fostering care of the caUphs, grew with 

Bagdad . ,. ^^ , . . , ' . , 

great rapidity. Its population in the nmth cen- 
tury is said to have reached two milhons. For a time it was 
the metropolis of the Moslem world. How its splendor im- 
pressed the imagination may be seen from the stories of the 
Thousand and One Nights. After the extinction of the Abbasid 
caliphate, its importance as the religious and pohtical center of 
Islam declined. But memories of the former grandeur of 
Badgad still cling to it, and even to-day it is referred to in 
Turkish oflicial documents as the "glorious city." 

34. Arabian Civilization 

The great Moslem cities of Bagdad, Damascus, Cairo, and 
Cordova were not only seats of government for the different 
The Arabs divisions of the Arabian Empire; they were also 
as absorbers the centers of Arabian civilization. The conquests 
of the Arabs had brought them into contact with 
highly developed peoples whose culture they absorbed and 
to some extent improved. They owed most to Persia and, 
after Persia, to Greece, through the empire at Constantinople. 
In their hands there was somewhat the same fusion of East 

^ Descendants of the Abbasids subsequently took up their abode in Egypt. 
Through them the claim to the caliphate passed in 1538 to the Ottoman Turks. 
The Turkish sultan still calls himself caliph of the Moslem world. 

Arabian Civilization 83 

and West which Alexander the Great had sought to accompHsh. 

Greek science and philosophy mingled with the arts of Persia 

and other Oriental lands. Arabian civilization, for about four 

centuries under the Ommiad and Abbasid caliphs, far surpassed 

anything to be found in western Europe. 

Many improvements in agriculture were due to the Arabs. 

They had a good system of irrigation, practiced rotation of 

crops, employed fertilizers, and understood how . . , 

.,, .. r 1 1 Agnculture 

to graft and produce new varieties of plants and 
fruits. From the Arabs we have received cotton, flax, hemp, 
buckwheat, rice, sugar cane, and coffee, various vegetables, 
including asparagus, artichokes, and beans, and such fruits as 
melons, oranges, lemons, apricots, and plums. 

The Arabs excelled in manufactures. Damascus was long 
famous for its brocades, tapestries, and blades of tempered 
steel. The Moslem cities in Spain had also their Manufac- 
special productions: Cordova, leather; Toledo, ^^^^s 
armor; and Granada, rich silks. Arab craftsmen taught the 
Venetians to make crystal and plate glass. The work of Arab 
potters and weavers was at once the admiration and despair 
of its imitators in western Europe. The Arabs knew the 
secrets of dyeing and made a kind of paper. Their textile 
fabrics and articles of metal were distinguished for beauty of 
design and perfection of workmanship. European peoples 
during the early Middle Ages received the greater part of their 
manufactured articles of luxury through the Arabs.^ 

The products of Arab farms and workshops were carried far 

and wide throughout medieval lands. The Arabs were keen 

merchants, and Mohammed had expressly encour- ^ 

' ^ -^ Commerce 

aged commerce by declaring it agreeable to God. 
The Arabs traded with India, China, the East Indies (Java 
and Sumatra), the interior of Africa, Russia, and even with 
the Baltic lands. Bagdad, which commanded both land and 
water routes, was the chief center of this commerce, but other 

^ The European names of some common articles reveal the Arabic sources from 
which they were first derived. Thus, damask comes from Damascus, muslin from 
Mosul, gauze from Gaza, cordovan (a kind of leather) from Cordova, and morocco 
leather from North Africa. 


Rise and Spread of Islam 

cities of western Asia, North Africa, and Spain shared in its 
advantages. The bazaar, or merchant's quarter, was found 
in every Moslem city. 

The trade of the Arabs, their wide conquests, and their 
reHgious pilgrimages to Mecca vastly increased their knowledge 
Geographical of the world. They were the best geographers of 
knowledge ^j^e Middle Ages. An Abbasid caliph, the son of 
Harun-al-Rashid, had the Greek Geography of Ptolemy trans- 

Interior of the Great Mosque of Cordova 

The Great Mosque of Cordova, begun in the eighth century, was gradually enlarged during 
the following centuries to its present dimensions, 570 by 425 feet. The building, one of the 
largest in the world, has now been turned into a cathedral. The most striking feature of the 
interior is the forest of porphyry, jasper, and marble pillars supporting open Moorish arches. 
Originally there were 1200 of these pillars, but many have been destroyed. 

lated into Arabic and enriched the work with illuminated maps. 
Arab scholars compiled encyclopedias describing foreign coun- 
tries and peoples, constructed celestial spheres, and measured 
closely the arc of the meridian in order to calculate the size of 
the earth. There is some reason to beheve that the mariner's 
compass was first introduced into Europe by the Arabs. The 
geographical knowledge of Christian peoples during the Middle 
Ages owed much, indeed, to their Moslem forerunners. 

Arabian Civilization 85 

Schools and universities flourished in Moslem lands. The 

largest institution of learning was at Cairo, where the lectures 

of the professors were attended by thousands of „^ 

„ ... , . , . Education 

students. Famous universities also existed in 

Bagdad and Cordova. Moslem scholars especially delighted in 
the study of philosophy. Arabic translations of Aristotle's 
writings made the ideas of that great thinker familiar to the 
students of western Europe, where the knowledge of Greek had 
nearly died out. The Arabs also formed extensive libraries 
of many thousands of manuscripts, all carefully arranged and 
catalogued. Their libraries and universities, especially in 
Spain, were visited by many Christians, who thus became ac- 
quainted with Moslem learning and helped to introduce it 
into western Europe. 

The Arabs have been considered to be the founders of modern 
experimental science. They were relatively skillful chemists, 
for they discovered a number of new compounds Chemistry 
(such as alcohol, aqua regia, nitric acid, and cor- ^^ medicine 
rosive sublimate) and understood the preparation 'of mercury 
and of various oxides of metals. In medicine the Arabs based 
their investigations on those of the Greeks, but made many 
additional contributions to the art of healing. They studied 
physiology and hygiene, dissected the human body, performed 
difficult surgical operations, used anaesthetics, and wrote 
treatises on such diseases as measles and smallpox. Arab 
medicine and surgery were studied by the Christian peoples 
of Europe throughout the later period of the Middle Ages. 

The Arabs had a strong taste for mathematics. Here again 
they carried further the old Greek investigations. In arith- 
metic they used the so-called "Arabic" figures. Mathematics 
which were borrowed from India. These were and astron- 
afterwards introduced from Spain into Chris- °°^^ 
tian Europe, where they gradually supplanted the awkward 
Roman numerals. In geometry the Arabs added Httle to 
Euclid, but algebra is practically their creation. An Arabic 
treatise on algebra long formed the text-book of the subject in 
the universities of Christian Europe. Spherical trigonometry 

86 Rise and Spread of Islam 

and conic sections are Arabic inventions. This mathematical 
knowledge enabled the Arabs to make considerable progress in 
astronomy. Observatories at Bagdad and Damascus were 
erected as early as the ninth century. Some of the astronomical 
instruments which they constructed, including the sextant and 
the gnomon, are still in use.^ 

There are two Moslem productions in prose and verse which 
have attained wide popularity in European lands. The first 
Romance work is the Thousand and One Nights, a collection 

and poetry ^f ^-^j^g written in Arabic and describing Hfe and 
manners at the court of the Abbasids. The book, as we now 
have it, seems to have been composed as late as the fifteenth 
century, but it borrows much from earlier Arabic sources. 
Many of the tales are of Indian or Persian origin, but all have 
a thoroughly Moslem coloring. The second work is the Ru- 
bdiydt of the astronomer-poet of Persia, Omar Khayyam, who 
wrote about the beginning of the twelfth century. He composed 
a little volume of quatrains, about five hundred in all, dis- 
tinguished 'for wit, satirical power, and a vein of melancholy, 
sometimes pensive, sometimes passionate. These character- 
istics of Omar's poetry have made it widely known in the 
western world.^ 

Painting and sculpture owe Httle to the Arabs, but their 

architecture, based in part on Byzantine and Persian models, 

* t-.x ^ reached a high level of excellence. They seem to 
Architecture . ^ ■, . ., . . ^ 

have mtroduced the pomted arch mto Europe. 

Swelling domes, vaulted roofs, arched porches, tall and graceful 

minarets, and the exquisite decorative patterns known as 

"arabesques" are some of the prominent characteristics of 

Arab architecture. Glazed tiles, mosaics, and jeweled glass 

were extensively used for ornamentation. The best known of 

Arab buildings include the so-called "Mosque of Omar" at 

1 Many words in European languages beginning with the prefix al (the definite 
article in Arabic) show how indebted was Europe to the Arabs for scientific knowl- 
edge. In English these words include alchemy (whence chemistry), alcohol, alembic, 
algebra, alkali, almanac, Aldebaran (the star), etc. 

- The translation of the Rubdiydt by Edward Fitzgerald is almost an English 

The Influence of Islam 


Jerusalem/ the Great Mosque of Cordova, and that archi- 
tectural gem, the Alhambra at Granada. 

35. The Influence of Islam 

The dismemberment of the Arabian Empire did not check 
the growth of Islam. The Turks and other converts during 
the Middle Ages carried Growth of 
it to the uttermost regions ^slam 
of Asia and throughout southeastern 
Europe. Some parts of the territory 
thus gained by it have since been 
lost. Spain and all of the Balkan 
peninsula are once more Christian 
lands. In other parts of the world, 
and notably in Africa and India, the 
religion of Mohammed is spreading 
faster than any rival faith. Its 
simple creed — the unity of God, 
man's immortal soul, and material 
rewards and penalties in a future life 
— adapt it to the understanding of 
half -civilized peoples, 
it is immeasurably superior to the 

, I'll One of Mohammed's laws forbid- 

rude nature worship and idolatry ding the use .of idols was subse- 

Which it has supplanted. ^"^^'ly expanded by religious 

_-, - 1 J • r teachers into a prohibition of all 

I'rom the moral standpoint one Ot imitations of human or animal forms 

the least satisfactory features of Is- 
lam is its attitude toward Treatment 
women. The ancient °^ women 
Arabs, like many other peoples, seem 
to have set no limit to the number of wives a man might 
possess. Women were regarded by them as mere chattels, and 
female infants were frequently put to death. Mohammed 
recognized polygamy, but limited the number of legitimate 
wives to four. At the same time Mohammed sought to improve 
the condition of women by forbidding female infanticide, by 

^ See the illustration, page 166. 

As a relision Capitals and Arabesques 
° FROM THE Alhambra 

in art. Sculptors who observed this 
prohibition relied for ornamentation 
on intricate geometrical designs 
called " arabesques." These were 
carved in stone or molded in plaster. 

88 Rise and Spread of Islam 

restricting the facilities for divorce, and by insisting on kind 
treatment of wives by their husbands. ''The best of you," 
he said, "is he who behaves best to his wives." According to 
eastern custom Moslem women are secluded in a separate part 
of the house, called the harem. They never appear in public, 
except when closely veiled from the eyes of strangers. Their 
education is also much neglected. 

Slavery, like polygamy, was a custom which Mohammed 
found fully established among the Arabs. He disliked slavery 
and tried in several ways to lessen its evils. He 
declared that the emancipation of Moslem slaves 
was an act of special merit, and ordered that in a war between 
Moslems the prisoners were not to be enslaved. Mohammed 
also insisted on kind treatment of slaves by their masters. 
"Feed your slaves," he directed, "with food of that which you 
eat and clothe them with such clothing as you wear, and com- 
mand them not to do that which they are unable to do." The 
condition of Moslem slaves does not appear to be intolerable, 
though the slave traffic which still exists in some parts of Africa 
is a disgrace to Islam. 

It was a very great misfortune for the eastern world when 
the Arabian Empire passed under the control, first of the Seljuk 
Islam Turks, and then of the Ottoman Turks. These 

among the rude Asiatic peoples held a degenerate form of 
Turks Islam, as compared with that practiced by the 

Arabs. The stagnant, non-progressive condition of the East 
at the present time is largely due to the influence of its Turkish 


I. On an outline map indicate the Arabian Empire at its widest extent. Locate 
the more important cities, including Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, Bagdad, 
Cairo, Alexandria, Granada, Cordova, and Seville. 2. Define the following: 
Kaaba; Islam; Koran; caliph; harem; a.nd jihad. 3. How did the geographical 
situation of Arabia preserve it from being conquered by Persians, Macedonians, or 
Romans? 4. Why had the Arabs, until the time of IMohammed, played so incon- 
spicuous a part in the history of 'the world? 5. Mohammed "began as a mule 
driver and ended as both a pope and a king." Explain this statement. 6. How 
does Mohammed's career in Mecca illustrate the saying that "a prophet is not 
without honor save in his own country"? 7. What resemblances may be traced 

The Influence of Islam 89 

between Islam on the one side and Judaism and Christianity on the other side? 
8. Did religion have anything to do with the migrations of the Germans? How 
was it with the Arabs? 9. "Paradise Has vmder the shadow of swords." What 
is the significance of this Moslem saying? 10. Contrast the methods of propagat- 
ing Christianity in Europe with those of spreading Islam in Asia. 1 1 . Why is the 
defeat of the Moslems before Constantinople regarded as more significant than their 
defeat at the battle of Tours? 12. Show that the Arabian Empire, because of its 
geographical position, was less easily defended than the Roman Empire. 13. Locate 
on the map facing page 78 the following commercial cities in the Arabian Empire: 
Samarkand; Cabul; Bokhara; Mosul; Kairwan; Fez; Seville; and Toledo. 

14. Can you suggest any reason why the Arabs did little in painting and sculpture? 

15. What are some of the best-known stories in the Thousand and One Nights? 

16. Discuss the justice of this statement: "If our ideas and our arts go back to 
antiquity, all the inventions which make life easy and agreeable come to us from 
the Arabs." 17. "From the eighth to the twelfth century the world knew but 
two civilizations, that of Byzantium and that of the Arab^." Comment on this 
statement. 18. Show that Islam was an heir to the Gr^co-Oriental civilization. 
19. Can you suggest any reasons for the rapid spread of Islam to-day among the 
negroes of Africa? 20. How does Islam, by sanctioning polygamy and slavery, 
hinder the rise of women and of the working classes? 



36. Scandinavia and the Northmen 

The Northmen, with whose raids and settlements we are 
concerned in the present chapter, belonged to the Teutonic 
Renewed family of European peoples. They were kinsmen 

Teutonic of the Germans, the Anglo-Saxons, and the Dutch, 

migra ons. 'pj^gij- migrations may be regarded, therefore, as 
the last wave of that great Teutonic movement which in earlier 
times had inundated western Europe and overwhelmed the 
Roman Empire. 

The Northmen lived, as their descendants still live, in Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Norway. The name Scandinavia is some- 
times applied to all three countries, but more 
commonly it is restricted to the peninsula com- 
prising Sweden and Norway. 

Sweden, with the exception of the northern highlands, is 
mostly a level region, watered by copious streams, dotted with 

„ , many lakes, and 

Sweden . ^. ^ 

smkmg down grad- 
ually to the Baltic Sea and the 
Gulf of Bothnia. The fact that 
Sweden faces these inland waters 
determined the course of her 
development as a nation. She 
never has had any aspirations 
to become a great oceanic power. Her whole historic life has 
centered about the Baltic. 
Norway, in contrast to 

Swedish Rock Carving 

Shows a man plowing. 

Sweden, faces the Atlantic. The 

country is little more than a strip of rugged seacoast reach- 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter vii, "The Saga 
of a Viking"; chapter viii, "Alfred the Great"; chapter ix, "WiUiam the Con- 
queror and the Normans in England." 


Scandinavia and the Northmen 




ing northward to well within the Arctic Circle. Were it not 
for the influence of the ''Gulf Stream drift," much of Norway 
would be a frozen waste during many months of the 
year. Vast forests of fir, pine, and birch still cover 
the larger part of the country, and the land which can be used 
for farming and grazing does not exceed eleven per cent ol the 
territory. But Norway, like Greece, has an extent of shore- 
line out of all proportion to its superficial area. So numerous 
are the fiords, or inlets of the 
sea, that the total length of 
the coast approximates twelve 
thousand miles. Slight won- 
der that the Vikings,^ as they 
called themselves, . should feel 
the lure of the ocean and 
should put forth in their frail 
barks upon the "pathway of 
the swans" in search of booty 
and adventure. 

The Swedes and Norwegi- 
ans, together with their kins- 
men, the Danes, prehistoric 
probably settled in times in 
c 1- • 1 Scandinavia 

bcandmavia long 

before the beginning of the 
Christian era. They gradually 
became acquainted with the 
use of bronze and afterwards with that of iron. Excavations 
in grave mounds have revealed implements of the finest polished 
stone, beautiful bronze swords, and coats of iron ring mail, 
besides gold and silver ornaments which may have been im- 
ported from southern Europe. The ancient Scandinavians 
have left to us curious records of the past in their picture 
writing chiseled on the flat surface of rocks. The objects repre- 
sented include boats with as many as thirty men in them, 

1 The word perhaps comes from the old Norse vik, a bay, and means "one who 
dwells by a bay or fiord." Another meaning assigned to Viking is "warrior." 

A Runic Stone 

A stone, twelve feet high and six feet wide, 
in the churchyard of Rok, Ostergotland, Swe- 
den. The runic inscription, which contains 
more than 760 letters, is the longest known. 

92 The Northmen and the Normans 

horses drawing two-wheeled carts, spans of oxen, farmers en- 
gaged in ploughing, and warriors on horseback. By the close 
of the prehistoric period the northern peoples were also familiar 
with a form of the Greek alphabet (the runes) and with 
the art of writing. 

37. The Viking Age 

The Viking Age, with which historic times begin in northern 
Europe, extends from about 800 to the introduction of Chris- 
Dawn of his- tianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries. This 
tory in was the period when the Northmen, or Vikings, 

can mavia j-gaJizing that the sea offered the quickest road to 
wealth and conquest, began to make long voyages to foreign 
lands. In part they went as traders and exchanged the furs, 
wool, and fish of Scandinavia for the clothing, ornaments, 
and other articles of luxury found in neighboring countries. 
But it was no far cry from merchant to freebooter, and, in 
fact, expeditions for the sake of plunder seem to have been 
even more popular with the Northmen than peaceful commerce. 

Whether the Northmen engaged in trade or in warfare, good 
ships and good seamanship were indispensable to them. They 
The North- became the boldest sailors of the early Middle 
men as Ages. No longer hugging the coast, as timid 

sai ors mariners had always done before them, the North- 

men pushed out into the uncharted main and steered their 
course only by observation of the sun and stars. In this way 
they were led to make those remarkable explorations in the 
Atlantic Ocean and the polar seas which added so greatly to 
geographical knowledge. 

It was not uncommon for a Viking chieftain, after his days 
of sea-roving had ended, to be buried in his ship, over which 
Ships of the a grave chamber, covered with earth, would be 
Northmen erected. The discovery of several of these burial 
ships enables us to form a good idea of Viking vessels. The 
largest of them might reach a length of seventy feet and hold as 
many as one hundred and twenty men. A fleet of the North- 
men, carrying several thousand warriors, mail-clad and armed 

The Viking Age 


with spears, swords, and battle-axes, was indeed formidable. 

During this period the Northmen were the masters of the sea, 

as far as western Europe was concerned. 

A very important source of information for the Viking Age 

consists of the writings called sagas.^ These narratives are in 

prose, but they were based, in many instances, _ 

/ , . , . ' . . The sagas 

on the songs which mmstrels sang to appreciative 

audiences assembled at the banqueting board of a Viking 

A Viking Ship 

The Gokstad vessel is of oak, twenty -eight feet long and sixteen feet broad in the center. 
It has seats for sixteen pairs of rowers, a mast for a single sail, and a rudder on the right 
or starboard side. The gunwale was decorated with a series of shields, painted alternately 
black and gold. This ship, which probably dates from about goo, was found on the 
shore of Christiania Fiord. A still larger ship, of about the same date, was taken in 
1904 from the grave of a Norwegian queen at Oseberg. With the queen had been 
buried a four-wheeled wagon, three sleighs, three beds, two chests, a chair, a large loom, 
and various kitchen utensils, in fact, everything needed for her comfort in the other world. 

chieftain. It was not until the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
that the sagas were committed to writing. This was done 
chiefly in Iceland, and so it happens that we must look to that 
distant island for the beginnings of Scandinavian literature. 

The sagas belong to different classes. The oldest of them 
relate the deeds of Viking heroes and their families. Others 

^ The word is derived from old Norse segya, "to say"; compare German sagen. 

94 The Northmen and the Normans 

deal with the lives of Norwegian kings. Some of the most 
Subject matter important sagas describe the explorations and set- 
of the sagas tlements of the Northmen and hence possess con- 
siderable value as historical records. 

The sagas throw much light on the character of the Northmen. 
Love of adventure and contempt for the quiet joys of home 
The North- come out in the description of Viking chiefs, 
men as seen who ''never sought refuge under a roof nor emptied 
m e sagas |-]^g^j. drinking-horns by a hearth." An intense 
love of fighting breathes in the accounts of Viking warriors, 
"who are glad when they have hopes of a battle; they will 
leap up in hot haste and ply the oars, snapping the oar- thongs 
and cracking the tholes." The undaunted spirit of Viking 
sailors, braving the storms of the northern ocean, expresses 
itself in their sea songs: "The force of the tempest assists the 
arms of our oarsmen; the hurricane is our ser^^ant, it drives 
us whithersoever we wish to go." The sagas also reveal other 
characteristics of the Northmen: a cruelty and faithlessness 
which made them a terror to their foes; an almost barbaric 
love of gay clothing and ornament; a strong sense of public 
order, giving rise to an elaborate legal system; and even a 
feeling for the romantic beauty of their northern home, with 
its snow-clad mountains, dark forests of pine, sparkUng water- 
falls, and deep, blue fiords. 

Another literary production of the Viking Age consists of 
the poems forming the Elder Edda. Like the prose sagas they 
Eddaic wxre collected and arranged in Iceland during the 

poems later Middle Ages. The Elder Edda is a store- 

house of old Norse mythology. It forms our chief source of 
knowledge concerning Scandinavian heathenism before the 
introduction of Christianity. 

38. Scandinavian Heathenism 

The religion of the Northmen bore a close resemblance to 
that of the other Teutonic peoples. The leading deity was 
Odin (German Woden), whose exploits are celebrated in many 
of the songs of the Elder Edda. Odin was represented as a tall, 

Scandanavian Heathenism 



gray-bearded chieftain, carrying a shield and a spear which 

never missed its mark. Though a god of battle, Odin was also 

a lover of wisdom. He discovered the runes, 

which gave him secret knowledge of all things. 

Legend told how Odin killed a mighty giant, whose body was 

cut into pieces to form the world: 

the earth was his flesh, the water 

his blood, the rocks his bones, and 

the heavens his skull. Having 

created the world and peopled it 

with human beings, Odin retired 

to the sacred city of Asgard, 

where he reigned in company 

with his children. 

Enthroned beside Odin sat his 

eldest son, Thor (German Thunor), 

god of thunder and „, 
f. 1 . ^x. Thor 

lightnmg. His weapon, 

the thunderbolt, was imagined as 

a hammer, and was especially used 

by him to protect gods and men 

against the giants. The hammer, 

when thrown, returned to his 

hand of its own accord. Thor 

also possessed a belt of strength, 

which, when girded about him, 

doubled his power. 

Many stories were told of Thor's 

adventures, when visiting Jotun- 

heim, the abode of the Myths of 

giants. In a drinking- ^^^^ 

match he tried to drain a horn of 

liquor, not knowing that one end of the horn reached the sea, 

which was appreciably lowered by the god's huge draughts. 

He sought to lift from the ground a large, gray cat, but struggle 

as he might, could raise only one of the animal's feet. What 

Thor took for a cat, however, was really the Midgard serpent, 

Norse Metal Work 

Museum, Copenhagen 

A door from a church in Iceland; 
date, tenth or eleventh century. The 
iron knob is inlaid with silver. The 
slaying of a dragon is represented above, 
and below is shown the Midgard ser- 

96 The Northmen and the Normans 

which, with its tail in its mouth, encircled the earth. In the 
last trial of strength Thor wrestled with an old woman, and 
after a violent contest was thrown down upon one knee. But 
the hag was in truth relentless old age, who sooner or later lays 
low all men. 

Most beautiful and best beloved of the Scandinavian divinities 
was Odin's son. Balder. He was represented as a gentle deity 
Myth of of innocence and righteousness. As long as he 

Balder lived, evil could gain no real control in the world 

and the power of the gods would remain unshaken. To pre- 
serve Balder from all danger his mother Frigga required every- 
thing on earth to swear never to harm her son. Only a single 
plant, the mistletoe, did not take the oath. Then the traitor 
Loki gathered the mistletoe and came to an assembly where 
the gods were hurling all kinds of missiles at Balder, to show that 
nothing could hurt him. Loki asked the blind Hoder to throw 
the plant at Balder. Hoder did so, and Balder fell dead. The 
gods tried to recover him from Hel, the gloomy underworld, 
but Hel demanded as his ransom a tear from every living 
creature. Gods, men, and even things inanimate wept for 
Balder, except one cruel giantess — Loki in disguise — who 
would not give a single tear. She said, ''Neither living nor 
dead was Balder of any use to me. Let Hel keep what it has." 

Disasters followed Balder's death. An immense fire burned 
up the world and the human race. The giants invaded Asgard 
"Twilight of and slaughtered its inhabitants. Odin fell a 
the Gods" victim to the mighty wolf Fenris. Thor, having 
killed the Midgard serpent, was suffocated with the venom 
which the dying monster cast over him. The end of all things 
arrived. This was the catastrophe which had been predicted 
of old — the ''Twilight of the Gods." 

Besides the conception of Hel, the Northmen also framed 

the idea of Valhalla,^ the abode to which Odin received the 

V ih souls of those who had died, not ingloriously in 

their beds, but on the field of battle. A troop 

of divine maidens, the Valkyries,^ rode through the air on Odin's 

^ "Hall of the slain." 2 "Choosers of the slain." 

' The Northmen in the West 97 

service to determine the issue of battles and to select brave 
warriors for Valhalla. There on the broad plains they fought 
with one another by day, but at evening the slayer and the 
slain returned to Odin's hall to feast mightily on boar's flesh 
and drink deep draughts of mead. 

Christianity first gained a foothold in Denmark through the 
work of Roman CathoUc missionaries sent out by Charlemagne's 
son, Louis the Pious. Two centuries elapsed be- christianiza- 
fore the Danes were completely converted. From tion of the 
Denmark the new faith spread to Sweden. Nor- °^ "^^^ 
way owed its conversion largely to the crusading work of King 
Olaf (1016-1029), better known as Olaf the Saint. The Nor- 
wegians carried Christianity to their settlements in Iceland. 
With the general adoption of the Christian religion in Scan- 
dinavian lands, the Viking Age drew to an end. 

39. The Northmen in the West 

The Viking movement, which began when the Northmen 
were still heathen, was due principally to land-hunger. Like 
the Arabs, the Northmen went forth from a Expansion of 
sterile peninsula to find better homes abroad. Scandinavia 
The political condition of Scandinavia in the ninth century also 
helps to explain the Viking movement. Denmark and Norway 
had now become strong kingdoms, whose rulers forced all who 
would not submit to their sway to leave the country. Thus it 
resulted that the numbers of the emigrants were swelled by 
exiles, outlaws, and other adventurers, who turned to the sea 
in hope of gain. 

The Northmen started out as pirates and fell on the coasts 
of England, France, and Germany. They also found it easy 
to ascend the rivers in their shallow boats and Raids of the 
reach places lying far inland. The Northmen Northmen 
directed their attacks especially against the churches and 
monasteries, which were full of treasure and less easily defended 
than fortified towns. Their raids inspired such great terror 
that a special prayer was inserted in the church services: "From 
the fury of the Northmen, good Lord, deliver us." 


The Northmen and the Normans 

The incursions of the Northmen took place at first only in 
summer, but before long they began to winter in the lands which 
they visited. Year by year their fleets became 
larger, and their attacks changed from mere forays 
of pirates to well-organized expeditions of conquest 
and colonization. Early in the ninth century 
we find them making permanent settlements in 
Ireland, and for a time bringing a considerable part of that 

The North 
men in 
and the 

Discoveries of the Northmen in the West 

country under their control. The first cities on Irish soil, 
including Dublin and Limerick, were founded by the Northmen. 
Almost simultaneously with the attacks on Ireland came those 
on the western coast of Scotland. In the course of their west- 
ward expeditions the Northmen had already discovered the 
Faroe Islands, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and the Hebrides. 
These barren and inhospitable islands received large numbers 
of Norse immigrants and long remained under Scandinavian 

The Northmen in the West 99 

The Northmen soon discovered Iceland, where Irish monks 
had previously settled. Colonization began in 874.^ One of 
the most valuable of the sagas — the ''Book of j^^ North- 
the Land-taking" — describes the emigration to men in 
the island and enumerates the Viking chiefs who ^^^^ 
took part in the movement. Iceland soon became almost a 
second Norway in language, Uterature, and customs. It re- 
mains to-day an outpost of Scandinavian civilization. 

The first settlement of Greenland was the work of an Ice- 
lander, Eric the Red, who reached the island toward the end 
of the tenth century. He called the country ^j^^ North- 
Greenland, not because it was green, but because, men in 
as he said, ''there is nothing like a good name to ^^^ *^ 
attract settlers." Intercourse between Greenland and Iceland 
was often dangerous, and at times was entirely interrupted by 
ice. Leif Ericsson, the son of Eric the Red, estabUshed a new 
route of commerce and travel by sailing from Greenland to 
Norway by way of the Hebrides. This was the first voyage 
made directly across the Atlantic. Norway and Greenland 
continued to enjoy a flourishing trade for several centuries. 
After the connection with Norway had been severed, the Green- 
landers joined the Eskimos and mingled with that primitive 

Two of the sagas give accounts of a voyage which Leif Erics- 
son about 1000 made to regions lying southward from Green- 
land. In the sagas they are called Helluland /j-j^g North- 
(stone-land), Markland (wood-land), and Vinland. men in 
Just what part of the coast of North America 
these countries occupied is an unsolved problem. Leif Ericsson 
and the Greenlanders who followed him seem to have reached 
at least the shores of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova 
Scotia. They may have gone even farther southward, for the 
sagas describe regions where the climate was mild enough for 
wild vines and wild wheat to grow. The Northmen, how- 
ever, did not follow up their explorations by lasting settlements. 

^ The Icelanders in 1874 celebrated the thousandth anniversary of the Scandi- 
navian settlement of their island. 

loo The Northmen and the Normans 

All memory of the far western lands faded before long from the 
minds of men. The curtain fell on the New World, not again 
to rise until the time of Columbus and Cabot. 

40. The Northmen m the East 

The Norwegians took the leading part in the Viking move- 
ment westward across the Atlantic. They also sailed far north- 
Arctic ex- ward, rounding the North Cape and reaching the 
of^'^e North- mouth of the Dwina River in the White Sea. 
men Viking sailors, therefore, have the credit for under- 

taking the first voyages of exploration into the Arctic. 

The Swedes, on account of their geographical position, 
were naturally the most active in expeditions to eastern lands. 
The North- ^^ ^ "^^^y early date they crossed the Gulf of 
men in Bothnia and paid frequent visits to Finland. Its 

^ rude inhabitants, the Finns, were related in lan- 

guage, and doubtless in blood also, to the Huns, Magyars, and 
other Asiatic peoples. Sweden ruled Finland throughout the 
Middle Ages. Russia obtained control of the country early in 
the nineteenth century, but Swedish influence has made it 
largely Scandinavian in civilization. 

The activities of the Swedes also led them to establish settle- 
ments on the southern shore of the Baltic and far inland along 
The North- ^^^ waterways leading into Russia. An old 
men in Russian chronicler declares that in 862 the Slavs 

sent an embassy to the Swedes, whom they called 
"Rus," saying, "Our country is large and rich, but there is 
no order in it; come and govern us." The Swedes were not 
slow to accept the invitation. Their leader, Ruric, established 
a dynasty which reigned in Russia over seven hundred years. ^ 

The first Russian state centered in the city of Novgorod, 
near Lake Ilmen, where Ruric built a strong fortress. Nov- 
Novgorod gorod during the Middle Ages was an important 

and Kiev station on the trade route between the Baltic and 
the Black Sea.^ Some of Ruric's followers, passing southward 

1 Russia in 1862 celebrated the millenary of her foundation by Ruric. 

2 See the map between pages 234 and 235. 

Normandy and the Normans loi 

along the Dnieper River, took possession of the small town of 
Kiev. It subsequently became the capital of the Scandinavian 
possessions in Russia. 

The Northmen in Russia maintained close intercourse with 
their mother country for about two centuries. During this 
period they did much to open up northeastern Scandinavian 
Europe to the forces of civilization and progress, influence in 
Colonies were founded, cities were built, commerce "^^^* 
was fostered, and a stable government was established. Russia 
under the sway of the Northmen became for the first time a 
truly European state. 

During the reign of Vladimir, a descendant of Ruric, the 
Christian religion gained its first foothold in Russia. We are 
told that Vladimir, having made up his mind to Christianity 
embrace a new faith, sent commissioners to Rome in Russia, 


and Constantinople, and also to the adherents 
of Islam and Judaism. His envoys reported in favor of the 
Greek Church, for their barbarian imagination had been so 
impressed by the majesty of the ceremonies performed in 
Sancta Sophia that "they did not know whether they were on 
earth or in heaven." Vladimir accepted their report, ordered 
the idols of Kiev to be thrown into the Dnieper, and had him- 
self and his people baptized according to the rites of the Greek 
Church. At the same time he married a sister of the reigning 
emperor at Constantinople. 

Vladimir's decision to adopt the Greek form of Christianity 
is justly regarded as one of the formative influences in Russian 

history. It meant that the eastern Slavs were to , 

come under the religious influence of Constanti- of the con- 

nople, instead of under that of Rome. Further- version of 
. ..... Russia 

more, it meant that Byzantine civilization would 

henceforth gain an entrance into Russia. 

41. Normandy and the Normans 

No part of western Europe suffered more severely from the 
Northmen than France. They first appeared on the French 
coast toward the end of Charlemagne's reign. After that 

I02 The Northmen and the Normans 

ruler's death the wars of his grandsons left the empire defense- 
less, and the Northmen in consequence redoubled their attacks. 
The North- They sailed far up the Seine, the Loire, and the 
men in Garonne to plunder and murder. Paris; then a 

small but important city, lay in the path of the 
invaders and more than once suffered at their hands. The 
destruction by the Northmen of many monasteries was a loss 
to civilization, for the monastic establishments at this time 
were the chief centers of learning and culture.^ 

The heavy hand of the Northmen also descended on Germany. 
The rivers Scheldt, Meuse, Rhine, and Elbe enabled them to 
The North- .proceed at will into the heart of the country, 
men in Liege, Cologne, Strassburg, Hamburg, and other 

ermany great Frankish cities fell before them. Viking 

raiders even plundered Aix-la-Chapelle and stabled their horses 
in the church which Charlemagne had built there.^ The 
ancient homeland of the Franks was laid completely waste. 

The history of the Northmen in France began in 911, when 

the Carolingian king granted to a Viking chieftain, RoUo, 

dominion over the region about the lower Seine. 
RoUo and ^ „ , . ^ , ^, . . . 

the grant of Rollo on his part agreed to accept Christianity 

Normandy, ^^^^ ^q acknowledge the French ruler as his lord. 
It is said, however, that he would not kneel and 
kiss the king's foot as a mark of homage, and that the follower 
who performed the unwelcome duty did it so awkwardly as 
to overturn the king, to the great amusement of the assem- 
bled Northmen. The story illustrates the Viking sense of 

The district ceded to Rollo developed into what in later 
times was known as the duchy of Normandy. Its Scandinavian 
Duchy of settlers, henceforth called Normans,^ soon became 

Normandy French in language and culture. It was amazing 
to see how quickly the descendants of wild sea-rovers put off 
their heathen ways and made their new home a Christian land, 
noted for its churches, monasteries, and schools. Normandy 

1 See page 59. 2 gee the illustration, page 15. 

3 "Norman" is a softened form of "Northman." 

Conquest of England by the Danes 103 

remained practically independent till the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, when a French king added it to his 

The Normans helped to found the medieval French monarchy. 
During the tenth century the old Carohngian line of rulers, 
which had already died out in Germany and Italy, 
came also to an end in France. A new dynasty mans and 
was then founded by a nobleman named Hugh ^"^^ Capet, 
Capet, who secured the aid of the powerful Nor- 
man dukes in his efforts to gain the throne. The accession of 
Hugh Capet took place in 987. His descendants reigned over 
France for almost exactly eight hundred years.^ 

42. Conquest of England by the Danes; Alfred the Great 

Even before Egbert of Wessex succeeded in uniting all the 
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, bands of Vikings, chiefly from Den- 
mark, had made occasional forays on the Enghsh England 
coast. Egbert kept the Danes at bay, but after overrun by 
his death the real invasion of England began. ^ ^"^^ 
The Danes came over in large numbers, made permanent 
settlements, and soon controlled all England north of the 

Wessex before long experienced the full force of the Danish 
attack. The country at this time was ruled by Alfred, the 
grandson of Egbert. Alfred ascended the throne Alfred and 
in 871, when he was only about twenty- three years ^^ Danes 
old. In spite of his youth, he showed himself the right sort of 
leader for the hard-pressed West Saxons. After much fighting 
Alfred gained a signal victory over the enemy, who were now 
glad to make peace and accept the religion of their conquerors. 
The English and Danes finally agreed to a treaty dividing the 
country between them. The eastern part of England, where 
the invaders were firmly established, came to be called the 
Danelaw, because here the Danish, and not the Anglo-Saxon, 
law prevailed. In the Danelaw the Danes have left memorials 

^ The abolition of the French monarchy dates from 1792, when Louis XVI was 
deposed from the throne. 

I04 The Northmen and the Normans 


Scale of English Miles 

Longitude West 2 from Greenwich 

Conquest of England by the Danes 105 

of themselves in local names/ and 
in the bold, adventurous char- 
acter of the inhabitants. 

It was a well-nigh ruined country 
which Alfred had now to rule over 
and build up again, civilizing 
His work of restora- activities of 

^. . .^ . Alfred 

tion invites compari- 
son with that of Charlemagne. 
Alfred's first care was to organize 
a fighting force always ready at 
his call to repel invasion. He 
also created an efficient fleet, which 
patrolled the coast and engaged 
the Vikings on their own element. 
He had the laws of the Anglo- 
Saxons collected and reduced to 
writing) taking pains at the same 
time to see that justice was 
done between man and man. He 
did much to rebuild the ruined 
churches and monasteries. Alfred 
labored with especial diligence to 
revive education among the Eng- 
lish folk. His court at Winchester 
became a literary center where 
learned men wrote and taught. 
The king himself mastered Latin, 
in order that he might translate 
Latin books into the English 
tongue. So great were Alfred's 
services in this direction that he 
has been called the "father of 
English prose." 

1 The east of England contains more than 
six hundred names of towns ending in by 
(Danish "town"); compare by-law, originally 
a law for a special town. 

Alfred the Great 

A lofty, bronze statue by H. Thor- 
neycraft set up at Winchester, Alfred's 
ancient capital. It was dedicated in 
1 90 1 on the thousandth anniversary of 
his death. The inscription reads: 

" Alfred found learning dead, 

And he restored it; 
Education neglected. 

And he revived it; 
The laws powerless. 

And he gave them force; 
The Church debased, 

And he raised it; 
The land ravaged by a fear- 
ful enemy, 
Fiom which he delivered it." 


The Northmen and the Normans 

About seventy-five years after the close of Alfred's reign the 
Danes renewed their invasions. It then became necessary to 
From Alfred buy them off with an 
to the Nor- annual tribute called the 
man Con- i i t-. i • 

quest, 901- Danegeld. Early m the 

1066 eleventh century Canute, 

the son of a Danish king, succeeded in 
establishing himseh on the Enghsh 
throne (1016-1035). His dynasty did 
not last long, however, and at length 
the old West-Saxon line was restored 
in the person of Edward the Confessor 
(or "the Saint"). Edward had spent 
most of his early life in Normandy, 
and on coming to England brought 
with him a large following of Normans, 
whom he placed in high positions. 
During his reign (1042-1066) Norman 
wrought." Found at Atheiney in nobles and churchmen gained a foot- 
the seventeenth century. ^^^^ ^^ England, thus preparing the 

way for the conquest of the country. 

Alfred's Jewel 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 
A jewel of blue enamel inclosed 
in a setting of gold, with the 
words around it ' ' Alfred had me 

43. Norman Conquest of England; William the Conqueror 

Edward the Confessor having left no direct heirs, the choice 
of his successor fell lawfully upon the Witenagemot,^ as the 
Harold and national assembly of noblemen and higher clergy 
WiiUam ^g^g called. This body chose as king, Harold, 

earl of Wessex, the leading man in England. Harold's right 
to the succession was disputed by William, duke of Normandy, 
who declared that the crown had been promised to him by his 
cousin, the Confessor. William also asserted that Harold had 
once sworn a solemn oath, over a chest of sacred reUcs, to sup- 
port his claim to the throne on Edward's death. When word 
came of Harold's election, William wrathfully denounced him 

1 "Meeting of wise men.' 
formal meeting. 

The word gemot or moot was used for any kind of 

Norman Conquest of England 107 

as a usurper and began to prepare a fleet and an army for the 
invasion of England. 

Normandy under Duke William had become a powerful, 
well-organized state. Norman knights, attracted by promises 
of wide lands and rich booty if they should con- invasion of 
quer, formed the core of William's forces. Adven- England 
turers from every part of France, and even from Spain and 
Italy, also entered his service. The pope blessed the enter- 
prise and sent to William a ring containing a hair from St. 

A Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry 

Museum of Bayeux, Normandy 

The Bayeux Tapestry, which almost certainly belongs to the time of the Norman Con- 
quest, is a strip of coarse linen cloth, about 230 feet long by 20 inches wide, embroidered in 
worsted thread of eight different colors. There are seventy-two scenes picturing various 
events in the history of the Norman Conquest. The illustration given above represents an 
attack of Norman cavalry on the English shield wall at the battle of Hastings. 

Peter's head and a consecrated banner. When all was ready 
in the late fall of 1066, a large fleet, bearing five or six thousand 
archers, foot soldiers, and horsemen, crossed the Channel and 
landed in England. 

William at first met no resistance. Harold was far away in 
the north fighting against the Norwegians, who had seized the 
opportunity to make another descent on the English Battle of 
coast. Harold defeated them decisively and then Hastings, 


hurried southward to face his new foe. The two 
armies met near Hastings on the road to London. All day they 
fought. The stout English infantry, behind their wall of shields, 
threw back one charge after another of the Norman knights. 


The Northmen and the Normans 

4 Longitude West 2 from Greenwich Longitude East 2 

. .I.onfr.nt /--• S 

V-i-py ^V Mencon ^^^J 

Results of the Norman Conquest 109 

Again and again the duke rallied his men and led them where 
the foe was thickest. A cry arose that he was slain. "I live," 
shouted William, tearing off his helmet that all might see his 
face, "and by God's help will conquer yet." At last, with the 
approach of evening, Harold was killed by an arrow; his house- 
hold guard died about him; and the rest of the English took 
to flight. William pitched his camp on the battle-field, 
and "sat down to eat and drink among the dead." 

The battle of Hastings settled the fate of England. Fol- 
lowing up his victory with relentless energy, William pressed 
on to London. That city, now practically the William be- 
capital of the country, opened its gates to him. co^^^s king 
The Witenagemot, meeting in London, offered the throne to 
William. On Christmas Day, 1066, in Westminster Abbey 
the duke of Normandy was crowned king of England. 

What manner of man was William the Conqueror? Tall of 
stature, endowed with tremendous strength, and brave even 
to desperation, he seemed an embodiment of the William's 
old Viking spirit. "No knight under heaven," personality 
men said truly, "was William's peer." A savage temper and a 
harsh, forbidding countenance made him a terror even to his 
closest followers. "So stern and wrathful was he," wrote an 
Enghsh chronicler, "that none durst do anything against his 
will." Though William never shrank from force or fraud, 
from bloodshed or oppression, to carry out his ends, he yet 
showed himself throughout his reign a patron of learning, a 
sincere supporter of the Church, and a statesman of remarkable 
insight. He has left a lasting impress on English history. 

44. Results of the Norman Conquest 

The coming of the Normans to England formed the third 
and last installment of the Teutonic invasion. Norman mer- 
chants and artisans followed Norman soldiers and 

11 • 1 1 • 1 1 1 Norman ele- 

settled particularly m the southern and eastern ment in the 

parts of the island. They seem to have emigrated English 

in considerable numbers and doubtless added an 

important element to the English population. The Normans 

no The Northmen and the Normans 

thus completed the work of the Anglo-Saxons and Danes in 
making England largely a Teutonic country. 

It must be remembered, however, that the Normans in 
Normandy had received a considerable infusion of French 

blood and had learned to speak a form of the French 
Norman ele- 

ment in the language (Norman-French) . In England Norman- 
English French naturally was used by the upper and ruling 
classes — by the court, the nobility, and the 
clergy. The English held fast to their own homely language, 
but could not fail to pick up many French expressions, as they 
mingled with their conquerors in churches, markets, and other 
places of public resort. It took about three hundred years for 
French words and phrases to soak thoroughly into their speech. 
The result was a very large addition to the vocabulary of 

Until the Norman Conquest England, because of its insular 
po*sition, had remained out of touch with Continental Europe. 
Union of William the Conqueror and his immediate suc- 

Engiand and cessors were, however, not only rulers of England, 
orman y ^^^ ^j^^ dukes of Normandy and subjects of the 
French kings. Hence the union of England with Normandy 
brought it at once into the full current of European affairs. 
The country became for a time almost a part of France and 
profited by the more advanced civilization which had arisen 
on French soil. 

The Norman Conquest much increased the pope's authority 
over England. The English Church, as has been shown, ^ 
England ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^*^ ^^ Rome, but during the Anglo- 

and the Saxon period it had become more independent 

apacy ^^ ^|^^ Papacy than the churches on the Con- 

tinent. William the Conqueror, whose invasion of England 
took place with the pope's approval, repaid his obHgation by 
bringing the country into closer dependence on the Roman 

Although the Normans came to England as conquerors, yet 
after all they were near kinsmen of the EngUsh and did not 

1 See page 248. - See page 29. 

Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily iii 

long keep separate from them. In Normandy a century and 
a half had been enough to turn the Northmen into French- 
men. So in England, at the end of a like period, pusion of 
the Normans became Englishmen. Some of the English and 
qualities that have helped to make the modern o"^*ns 
English a great people — their love of the sea and fondness for 
adventure, their vigor, self-reliance, and dauntless spirit — 
are doubtless derived in good part from the Normans. 

45. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily 

The conquest of England, judged by its results, proved to 
be the most important undertaking of the Normans. But 
during this same eleventh century they found Gorman 
another field in which to display their energy expansion 
and daring. They turned southward to the ^°"*^^" 
Mediterranean and created a Norman state in Italy and Sicily. 

Norman Possessions in Italy and Sicily 

The unsettled condition of Italy gave the Normans an op- 
portunity for interference in the affairs of the country. The 
founding of Norman power there was largely the conquests 
work of a noble named Robert Guiscard ("the of Robert 
Crafty"), a man almost as celebrated as William 
the Conqueror. He had set out from his home in Normandy 

112 The Northmen and the Normans 

with only a single follower, but his valor and shrewdness soon 
brought him to the front. Robert, united the scattered bands 
of Normans in Italy, who were fighting for pay or plunder, 
and wrested from the Roman Empire in the East its last ter- 
ritories in the peninsula. 

Robert's brother, Roger, crossed the strait of Messina and 
began the subjugation of Sicily, then a Moslem possession. 
Roger ^^^ recovery from the hands of "infidels" was con- 

Guiscard's sidered by the Normans a work both pleasing to 
conquests q^^ ^^^ profitable to themselves. By the close 

of the eleventh century they had finally established their rule 
in the island. 

The conquests of the Normans in southern Italy and Sicily 
were united into a single state, which came to be known as 
Kingdom ^^^ kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Normans 

of the governed it for only about one hundred and fifty 

wo ic les yga^js, but under other rulers it lasted until the 
middle of the nineteenth century, when the present kingdom of 
Italy came into existence. 

The kingdom of the Two Sicilies was well- governed, rich, 
and strong. Art and learning flourished in the cities of Naples, 
Norman Salerno, and Palermo. Southern Italy and Sicily 

culture in under the Normans became a meeting place of 
Byzantine and Arabic civilization. The Norman 
kingdom thus formed an important channel through which the 
culture of the East flowed to the North and to the West. 

46. The Normans in European History 

The conquests of the Normans in England, Italy, and Sicily 
were effected after they had become a Christian and a French- 
Norman speaking people. In these lands they were the 
faculty of armed missionaries of a civilization not their 
a ap on own. The Normans, indeed, invented Uttle and 
borrowed much. But, like the Arabs, they were more than 
simple imitators. In language, Hterature, art, religion, and 
law what they took from others they improved and then spread 
abroad throughout their settlements. 

The Normans in European History 113 

It seems at first sight remarkable that a people who occu- 
pied so much of western Europe should have passed away. 
Normans as Normans no longer exist. They lost Assimilation 
themselves in the kingdoms which they founded of the 
and among the peoples whom they subdued. •'^^^"^^^^ 
Their rapid assimilation was chiefly the consequence of their 
small numbers: outside of Normandy they were too few long 
to maintain their identity. 

If the Normans themselves soon disappeared, their influence 
was more lasting. Their mission, it has been well said, was 
to be leaders and energizers of society — " the Norman 
Httle leaven that leaveneth the whole lump." influence 
The peoples of medieval Europe owed much to the courage and 
martial spirit, the genius for government, and the reverence 
for law, of the Normans. In one of the most significant move- 
ments of the Middle Ages — the crusades — they took a prom- 
inent part. Hence we shall meet them again. 


I. What events are associated with the following dates: 988; 862; 1066; 911; 
and 987? 2. What was the origin of the geographical names Russia, Greenland, 
Finland, and Normandy? 3. Mention some of the striking physical contrasts 
between the Arabian and Scandinavian peninsulas. 4. Why has the Baltic Sea 
been called a "secondary Mediterranean"? 5. How does it happen that the 
Gulf of Bothnia is often frozen over in winter, while the Norse fiords remain open? 
6. Why is an acquaintance with Scandinavian mythology, literature, and history 
especially desirable for English-speaking peoples? 7. What is meant by the 
"berserker's rage"? 8. What names of our weekdays are derived from the names 
of Scandinavian deities? 9. Compare the Arab and Scandinavian conceptions of 
the future state of departed warriors. 10. What is meant by "sea-power"? What 
people possessed it during the ninth and tenth centuries? 11. Compare the inva- 
sions of the Northmen with those of the Germans as to (o) causes, (b) area covered, 
and (c) results. 12. What was the significance of the fact that the Northmen were 
not Christians at the time when they began their expeditions? 13. Show how the 
voyages of the Northmen vastly increased geographical knowledge. 14. Show 
that the Russian people have received from Constantinople their writing, religion, 
and art. 15. Mention three conquests of England by foreign peoples before 1066. 
Give for each conquest the results and the approximate date. 16. On the map, 
page 104, trace the boundary line between Alfred's possessions and those of the 
Danes. 17. Compare Alfred and Charlemagne as civilizing kings. 18. Compare 
Alfred's cession of the Danelaw with the cession of Normandy to Rollo. 19. Why 
is Hastings included among "decisive" battles? 20. "We English are not our- 
selves but somebody else." Comment on this statement. 21. What is meant by 
the "Norman graft upon the sturdy Saxon tree"? 


47. Rise of Feudalism 

The ninth century in western Europe was a period of violence, 
disorder, and even anarchy. Charlemagne for a time had ar- 
rested the disintegration of society which resulted 
from the invasions of the Germans, and had 
united their warring tribes under something like a centralized 
government. But his work, it has been well said, was only a 
desperate rally in the midst of confusion. After his death 
the Carolingian Empire, attacked by the Northmen and other 
invaders and weakened by civil conflicts, broke up into separate 

Charlemagne's successors in France, Germany, and Italy 
enjoyed little real authority. They reigned, but did not rule. 
Decline of During this dark age it was really impossible 
the royal for a king to govern with a strong hand. The 

authority absence of good roads or of other easy means of 

communication made it difficult for him to move troops quickly 
from one district to another, in order to quell revolts. Even 
had good roads existed, the lack of ready money would have 
prevented him from maintaining a strong army devoted to his 
interests. Moreover, the king's subjects, as yet not welded 
into a nation, felt toward him no sentiments of loyalty and 
affection. They cared far le^s for their king, of whom they 
knew httle, than for their own local lords who dwelt near them. 

The decline of the royal authority, from the ninth century 
onward, meant that the chief functions of government came to 
Increased ^^ "^^^^ ^^^ "^^^^ performed by the nobles, who 
power of were the great landowners of the kingdom. Under 

the nobles Charlemagne these men had been the king's offi- 
cials, appointed by him and holding office at his pleasure. 


Rise of Feudalism 115 

Under his successors they tended to become almost independent 
princes. In proportion as this change was accompUshed during 
the Middle Ages, European society entered upon the stage of 

Feudalism in medieval Europe was not a unique develop- 
ment. Parallels to it may be found in other parts of the world. 
Whenever the state becomes incapable of protect- parallels to 
ing life and property, powerful men in each locality European 
will themselves undertake this duty; they will 
assume the burden of their own defense and of those weaker 
men who seek their aid. Such was the situation in ancient 
Egypt for several hundred years, in medieval Persia, and in 
modern Japan until about two generations ago. 

European feudalism arose and flourished in the countries 
which had formed the Carolingian Empire, that is, in France, 
Germany, and northern Italy. It also spread Extent of 
to Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, and the Christian European 
states of Spain. Toward the close of the eleventh 
century the Normans transplanted it into England, southern 
Italy, and Sicily. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
the crusaders introduced it into the kingdoms which they 
founded in the East. Still later, in the fourteenth century, 
the Scandinavian countries became acquainted with feudalism. 
The institution, though varying endlessly in details, presented 
certain common features througout this wide area. 

48. Feudalism as a Form of Local Government 

The basis of feudal society was usually the landed estate. 
Here lived the feudal noble, surrounded by dependents over 
whom he exercised the rights of a petty sovereign. Feudal 
He could tax them; he could require them to give sovereignty 
him mihtary assistance; he could try them in his courts. A 
great noble, the possessor of many estates, even enjoyed the 

1 The word has nothing to do with "feuds," though these were common enough 
in feudal times. It comes from the medieval Latin feudum, from which are derived 
the French fief and the English fee. 

ii6 Feudalism 

privilege of declaring war, making treaties, and coining money. 
How, it will be asked, did these rights and privileges arise? 

Owing to the decay of commerce and industry, land had be- 
come practically the only form of wealth in the early Middle 
Feudal Ages. The king, who was regarded as the ab- 

tenure of solute owner of the soil, would pay his officials for 

^^^^ their services by giving them the use of a certain 

amount of land. In the same way, one who had received large 
estates would parcel them out among his followers, as a reward 
for their support. Sometimes an unscrupulous noble might seize 
the lands of his neighbors and compel them to become his 
tenants. Sometimes, too, those who owned land in their own 
right might surrender the title to it in favor of a noble, who then 
became their protector. 

An estate in land which a person held of a superior lord, 
on condition of performing some "honorable" service, was 
called a fief. At first the tenant received the fief 
only for a specified term of years or for his life- 
time; but in the end it became inheritable. On the death 
of the tenant his eldest son succeeded him in possession. This 
right of the first-born son to the whole of the father's estate 
was known as primogeniture.^ If a man had no legal heir, the 
fief went back to its lord. 

The tie which bound the tenant who accepted a fief to the 
lord who granted it was called vassalage. Every holder of 
land was in theory, though not always in fact, 
the vassal of some lord. At the apex of the 
feudal pyramid stood the king, the supreme landlord, who was 
supposed to hold his land from God; below the king stood the 
greater lords (dukes, marquises, counts, and barons), with 
large estates; and below them stood the lesser lords, or knights, 
whose possessions were considered to be too small for further 

The vassal, first of all, owed various services to the lord. In 

1 The practice of primogeniture has now been abolished by the laws of the 
various European countries and is not recognized in the United States. It still 
prevails, however, in England. 

Feudalism as a Form of Local Government 117 

time of war he did garrison duty at the lord's castle and joined 
him in military expeditions. In time of peace personal 
the vassal attended the lord on ceremonial occa- services of 
sions, gave him the benefit of his advice, when 
required, and helped him as a judge in trying cases. 

The vassal, under certain circumstances, was also required to 
make money payments. When a new heir succeeded to the 
fief, the lord received from him a sum usually j.^^ vassal's 
equivalent to one year's revenue of the estate, money 
This payment was called a "relief." Again, if a p^^^®" ^ 
man sold his fief, the lord demanded another large sum from the 
purchaser, before giving his consent to the transaction. Vassals 
were also expected to raise money for the lord's ransom, in case 
he was made prisoner of war, to meet the expenses connected 
with the knighting of his eldest son, and to provide a dowry for 
his eldest daughter. Such exceptional payments went by the 
name of "aids." 

The vassal, in return for his services and payments, looked to 
the lord for the protection of life and property. The lord agreed 
to secure him in the enjoyment of his fief, to guard -^j^g j^jj.^,g 
him against his enemies, and to see that in all duty to the 
matters he received just treatment. This was no 
slight undertaking. 

The ceremony of homage^ symbolized the whole feudal rela- 
tionship. One who proposed to become a vassal and hold a 
fief came into the lord's presence, bareheaded 
and unarmed, knelt down, placed his hands be- 
tween those of the lord, and promised henceforth to become his 
"man." The lord then kissed him and raised him to his feet. 
After the ceremony the vassal placed his hands upon the Bible, 
or upon sacred relics, and swore to remain faithful to his lord. 
This was the oath of "fealty." The lord then gave the vassal 
some object — a stick, a clod of earth, a lance, or a glove — 
in token of the fief with the possession of which he was now 

It is clear that the feudal method of land tenure, coupled 

^ Latin homo, "man." 

ii8 Feudalism 

with the custom of vassalage, made in some degree for security 
A substitute and order. Each noble was attached to the lord 
for anarchy above him by the bond of personal service and the 
oath of fidelity. To his vassals beneath him he was at once 
protector, benefactor, and friend. Unfortunately, feudal ob- 
Hgations were not always strictly observed. Both lords and 
vassals often broke their engagements, when it seemed profit- 
able to do so. Hence they had many quarrels and indulged in 
constant warfare. But feudahsm, despite its defects, was better 
than anarchy. The feudal lords drove back the pirates and 
hanged the brigands and enforced the laws, as no feeble king 
could do. They provided a rude form of local government for 
a rude society. 

49. Feudal Justice 

Feudalism was not only a form of local government; it was 
also a form of local justice. Knights, barons, counts, and dukes 
Judicial had their separate courts, and the king had his 

rights court above all. Cases arising on the lord's 

estate were tried before him and the vassals whom he called to 
his assistance in giving justice. Since most wrongs could be 
atoned for by the payment of a fine, the conduct of justice on a 
large fief produced a considerable income. The nobles, ac- 
cordingly, regarded their judicial rights as a valuable property, 
which they were loath to surrender to the state. 

The law followed in a feudal court was largely based on old 
Germanic customs. The court did not act in the public interest, 
Judicial ad- as with US, but waited until the plaintiff requested 
ministration j^g service. Moreover, until the case had been 
decided, the accuser and the accused received the same treat- 
ment. Both were imprisoned; and the plaintiff who lost his 
case suffered the same penalty which the defendant, had he 
been found guilty, would have undergone. 

Unlike a modern court, again, the feudal court did not require 

the accuser to prove his case by calhng witnesses and having 

them give testimony. The burden of proof lay 

on the accused, who had to clear himself of the 

charge, if he could do so. In one form of trial it was enough 

Feudal Justice 


for him to declare his innocence under oath, and then to bring 
in several '' oath-helpers," sometimes relatives, but more often 
neighbors, who swore that they believed him to be telling the 
truth. The number of these "oath-helpers" varied according 
to the seriousness of the crime and the rank of the accused. 
This method was hardly as unsatisfactory as it seems to be, for 
a person of evil repu- 
tation might not be 
able to secure the 
required number of 
friends who would 
commit perjury on his 
behalf. To take an 
oath was a very 
solemn proceeding; it 
was an appeal to God, 
by which a man called 
down on himself di- 
vine punishment if he 
swore falsely. 

The consequences 
of a false oath were 

not ap- ^ ^ , 
^ Ordeals 
parent at 

once. Ordeals, how- 
ever, formed a method 

Trial by Combat 

From a manuscript of the fifteenth century. 

of appealing to God, the results of which could be immedi- 
ately observed. A common form of ordeal was by fire. The 
accused walked barefoot over live brands, or stuck his hand into 
a flame, or carried a piece of red-hot iron for a certain distance. 
In the ordeal by hot water he plunged his arm into boiling water. 
A man established his innocence through one of these tests, if 
the wound healed properly after three days. The ordeal by 
cold water rested on the belief that pure water would reject the 
criminal. Hence the accused was thrown bound into a stream: 
if he floated he was guilty ; if he sank he was innocent and had to 
be rescued. Though a crude method of securing justice, ordeals 

1 20 Feudalism 

were doubtless useful in many instances. The real culprit 
would often prefer to confess, rather than incur the anger of 
God by submitting to the test. 

A form of trial which especially appealed to the warHke nobles 
was the judicial duel.^ The accuser and the accused fought 
The judicial with each Other; and the conqueror won the case. 
*^"®^ God, it was beheved, would give victory to the 

innocent party, because he had right on his side. When one 
of the adversaries could not fight, he secured a champion to 
take his place. Though the judicial duel finally went out of 
use in the law courts, it still continued to be employed pri- 
vately, as a means of settling disputes which involved a man's 
honor. The practice of dueling has now nearly died out in 
civilized communities. 

Oaths, ordeals, and duels formed an inheritance from Ger- 
manic antiquity.^ They offered a sharp contrast to Roman 
Feudal and law, which acted in the public interest, balanced 
Roman law evidence, and sought only to get at the truth. 
After the middle of the twelfth century the revival of the study 
of Roman law, as embodied in Justinian's code,^ led gradually 
to the abandonment of most forms of appeal to the judgment 
of God. The kings at the same time grew powerful enough 
to take into their own hands the administration of justice. 

50. Feudal Warfare 

Feudalism, once more, was a form of local defense. The 
knight must guard his small estate, the baron his barony, the 
Local count his county, the duke his duchy. At the 

defense lord's bidding the vassal had to follow him to war, 

either alone or with a certain number of men, according to the 
size of the fief. But this assistance was limited. A vassal 
served only for a definite period (varying from one month to 
three in the year), and then only within a reasonable distance 
from the lands for which he did homage. These restrictions 

1 Sir Walter Scott's novel, Ivanhoe (chapter xliii), contains an account of a judi- 
cial duel. 

2 See page 30. ^ See pages 258-259. 

Feudal Warfare 


made it difficult to conduct a lengthy campaign, or one far re- 
moved from the vassal's fief, unless mercenary soldiers were 

The feudal army, as a rule, consisted entirely of cavalry. 
Such swiftly moving assailants as the Northmen and the Mag- 
yars could best be dealt with by mounted men The feudal 
who could bring them to bay, compel them to ^^^ 
fight, and overwhelm them by the shock of the charge. In 
this way the foot soldiers of Charlemagne's time came to be 
replaced by the mailed 
horsemen who for four 
centuries or more domi- 
nated European battle- 

The armor used in the 
Middle Ages was gradually 
perfected, until Anns and 
at length the "™°' 
knight became a living 
fortress.^ In the early 
feudal period he wore a 
cloth or leather tunic, 
covered with iron rings or 
scales, and an iron cap 
with nose guard. About 
the beginning of the twelfth century he adopted chain mail, 
with a hood of the same material for the head. During the 
fourteenth century the knight began to wear heavy plate 
armor, weighing fifty pounds or more, and a helmet with a 
visor which could be raised or lowered. Thus completely in- 
cased in metal, provided with shield, lance, straight sword, or 
battle-ax, and mounted on a powerful horse, the knight could 
ride down almost any number of poorly armed peasants. Not 
till the development of missile weapons — the longbow, and later 
the musket — did the foot soldier resume his importance in 
warfare. The feudal age by this time was drawing to a close. 

* See the illustrations, pages 107, 119, 121, and 169. 

Mounted Knight 

Seal of Robert FitzwaUer, showing a mounted 
knight in complete mail armor; date about 1265. 

122 Feudalism 

The nobles regarded the right of waging war on one another 
as their most cherished privilege. A vassal might fight with 
Prevalence ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ various lords to whom he had done 
of private homage, in order to secure independence from 
them, with bishops and abbots whom he disliked 
for any reason, with his weaker fellow vassals, and even with 
his own vassals. Fighting became almost a form of business 
enterprise, which enriched the nobles and their retainers 
through the sack of castles, the plunder of villages, and the 
ransom of prisoners. Every hill became a stronghold and 
every plain a battle-field. Such private warfare, though 
rarely very bloody, spread havoc throughout the land. 

The Church, to its great honor, lifted a protesting voice 
against this evil. It proclaimed a ''Peace of God" and for- 
The Peace bade attacks on all defenseless people, including 
and Truce priests, monks, pilgrims, merchants, peasants, 
and women. But it was found impossible to pre- 
vent the feudal lords from attacking one another, even though 
they were threatened with the eternal torments of hell; and 
so the Church tried to restrict what it could not altogether 
abolish. A ''Truce of God" was established. All men were 
to cease fighting from' Wednesday evening to Monday morn- 
ing of each week, during Lent, and on various holy days. The 
truce would have given Christendom peace for about two 
hundred and forty days each year; but it seems never to have 
been strictly observed except in limited areas. 

As the power of the kings increased in. western Europe, they 
naturally sought to put an end to the constant fighting between 
AboUtion ^^^^^ subjects. The Norman rulers of Normandy, 

of private England, and Sicily restrained their turbulent 
nobles with a strong hand. Peace came later 
in most parts of the Continent; in Germany, "fist right" 
(the rule of the strongest) prevailed until the end of the fif- 
teenth century. The abohtion of private war was the first 
step in Europe toward universal peace. The second step 
— the abolition of public war between nations — is yet to 
be taken. 

























The Castle and Life of the Nobles 123 

51. The Castle and Life of the Nobles 

The outward mark of feudalism was the castle/ where the 
lord resided and from which he ruled his fief. The castle, in 
its earUest form, was simply a wooden block- oeveloo- 
house placed on a mound and surrounded by a ment of the 
stockade. About the beginning of the twelfth ^^^^^ 
century the nobles began to build in stone, which would better 
resist fire and the assaults of besiegers. A stone castle con- 
sisted at first of a single tower, square, or round, with thick 
walls, few windows, and often with only one room to each 
story.2 As engineering skill increased, several towers were 
built and were then connected by outer and inner walls. The 
castle thus became a group of fortifications, which might cover 
a wide area. 

Defense formed the primary purpose of the castle. Until 
the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the only siege 
engines employed were those known in ancient The castle 
times. They included machines for hurling heavy *^ ^ fortress 
stones and iron bolts, battering rams, and movable towers, 
from which the besiegers crossed over to the walls. Such 
engines could best be used on firm, level ground. Conse- 
quently, a castle would often be erected on a high cliff or hill, 
or on an island, or in the center of a swamp. A castle without 
such natural defenses would be surrounded by a deep ditch 
(the "moat"), usually filled with water. If the besiegers could 
not batter down or undermine the massive walls, they adopted 
the slower method of a blockade and tried to starve the gar- 
rison into surrendering. Ordinarily, however, a well-built, 
well-provisioned castle was impregnable. Behind its frown- 
ing battlements even a petty lord could defy a royal army. 

A visitor to a medieval castle crossed the drawbridge over 
the moat and approached the narrow doorway, which was 
protected by a tower on each side. If he was admitted, the 

1 The French form of -the word is chateau. 

^ A good example is the "White Tower," which forms a part of the Tower of 
London. See the illustration, page 194. 



Chateau Gaillard (Restored) 

The finest of all medieval castles. Located on a high hill overlooking the Seine, about 
twenty miles from Rouen. Built by Richard the Lion-hearted within a twelvemonth 
(1197-1198) and by him called " Saucy Castle." It was captured a few years later by the 
French king, Philip Augustus, and was dismantled early in the seventeenth century. The 
castle consisted of three distinct series of fortifications, besides the keep, which in this case 
was merely a strong tower. 

The Castle and Life of the Nobles 


iron grating ("portcullis") rose slowly on its creaking pulleys, 
the heavy, wooden doors swung open, and he found himself in 
the courtyard commanded by the great central Description 
tower ("keep"), where the lord and his family of a castle 
lived, especially in time of war. At the summit of the keep 


KHighAngleTower Klnirance Ga ie ^.Gate H-omEscarpment 

E,'&Sma//er Side Tower L.Counterscarpe TT.F/anking To\A/erS 

CCDB.Corner Tower W./Ceep V. Outer Towers 

YL. Outer Enciefiie,orIowerCouri\i Escarpment "K.ConnBcting h/a// 

Y. Well 0. Postern Tower y Stockade m River 

G.H.Bui'/dings in LowerCourt P. Postern Gate Z.Z GreatDiiches 
1. Moat 'R.-R..ParapetWa//s 

Plan of Chateau Gaillard 

The plan is intended to represent that of a typical castle, as 
the plan of Kirkstall Abbey represents that of a typical monastery. 

rose a platform whence the sentinel surveyed the country far 
and wide; below, two stories underground, lay the prison, 
dark, damp, and dirty. As the visitor walked about the 
courtyard, he came upon the hall, used as the lord's residence 



in time of peace, the armory, the chapel, the kitchens, and the 
stables. A spacious castle might contain, in fact, all the build- 
ings necessary for the support of the lord's servants and soldiers. 
Life within the castle was very dull. There were some 
games, especially chess, which the nobles learned from the 
Amusements Moslems. Banqueting, however, formed the chief 
of the nobles jndoor amusement. The lord and his retainers 
sat down to a feast and, as they ate and drank, watched 

the pranks of a profes- 
sional jester or listened to 
the songs and music of 
minstrels or, it may be, 
heard with wonder the 
tales of far-off countries 
brought by some returning 
traveler. Outside castle 
walls a common sport was 
hunting in the forests and 
game preserves attached 
to every estate. Deer, 
bears, and wild boars 
were hunted with hounds; 
for smaller animals trained hawks, or falcons, were employed. 
But the nobles, as we have just seen, found in fighting their 
chief outdoor occupation and pastime. "To play a great 
game" was their description of a battle. 

King and Jester 

From a manuscript of the early fifteenth century. 

52. Knighthood and Chivalry 

The prevalence of warfare in feudal times made the use of 
arms a profession requiring special training. A nobleman's 
Apprentice- ^^^ served for a number of years, first as a page, 
ship of the then as a squire, in his father's castle or in that of 
^^^^* some other lord. He learned to manage a horse, 

to clhnb a scaling ladder, to wield sword, battle-ax, and lance. 
He also waited at the lord's table, assisted him in his toilet, 
followed him in the chase, and attended him on campaigns. 
This apprenticeship usually lasted from five to seven years. 

Knighthood and Chivalry 


When the young noble became of age, he might be made a 
knight, if he deserved the honor and could afford the expense. 
The ceremony of conferring knighthood was often Conferring of 
most elaborate. The candidate fasted, took a knighthood 
bath — the symbol of purification — and passed the eve of his 
admission in prayer. Next morning he confessed his sins, went 
to mass, and Hstened to a sermon on the duties of knighthood. 
This ended, his father, or the noble who had brought him up, 
girded him with . 

a sword and gave k %^ 

him the "acco- 
lade," that is, a 
blow on the neck 
or shoulder, at 
the same time 
saying, "Be thou 
a good knight." 
Then the youth, 
clad in shining 
armor and wear- 
ing golden spurs, 
mounted his horse 
and exhibited his skill in warlike exercises. If a squire for 
valorous conduct received knighthood on the battle-field, the 
accolade by stroke of the sword formed the only ceremony. 

In course of time, as manners softened and Christian teach- 
ings began to affect feudal society, knighthood developed into 
chivalry. The Church, which opposed the war- 
like excesses of feudalism, took the knight under 
her wing and bade him be always a true soldier of Christ. To 
the rude virtues of fidelity to one's lord and bravery in battle, 
the Church added others. The "good knight" was he who re- 
spected his sworn word, who never took an unfair advantage 
of another, who defended women, widows, and orphans against 
their oppressors, and who sought to make justice and right 
prevail in the world. Chivalry thus marked the union of 
pagan and Christian virtues, of Christianity and militarism. 


From a manuscript of the thirteenth century in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

128 Feudalism 

Needless to say, the ''good knight" appears rather in romance 
than in sober history. Such a one. was Sir Lancelot, in the 
The chival- stories of King Arthur and the Round Table. ^ As 
lie code gjj. Lancelot lies in death, a former companion 

addresses him in words which sum up the best in the chivalric 
code: '"Thou wert the courthest knight that ever bare shield; 
and thou wert the truest friend to thy lover that ever bestrode 
horse; and thou wert the truest lover among sinful men that 
ever loved woman; and thou wert the kindest man that ever 
struck with sword; and thou wert the goodUest person that 

A Joust 

From a French manuscript of the early fourteenth century. Shows knights jousting 
with cronels on their lances. 

ever came among press of knights; and thou wert the meekest 
man, and the gentlest, that ever ate in hall among ladies; and 
thou wert the sternest knight to thy mortal foe that ever put 
spear in the rest.'" ^ 

The all-absorbing passion for fighting led to the invention of 
mimic warfare in the shape of jousts and tournaments.^ These 
Jousts and exercises formed the medieval equivalent of the 
tournaments Greek athletic games and the Roman gladiatorial 
shows. The joust was a contest between two knights; the tour- 
nament, between two bands of knights. The contests took 
place in a railed-off space, called the "lists," about which the 
spectators gathered. Each knight wore upon his helmet the 

1 See page 251. 

2 Malory, Alorte d'Arthur, xxi, 13. See also Tennyson's poem, Sir Galahad, 
for a beautiful presentation of the ideal knight. 

^ Sir Walter Scott's novel, Ivanhoe (chapter xii), contains a description of a 

Feudalism as a Form of Local Industry 129 

scarf or color of his lady and fought with her eyes upon him. 
Victory went to the one who unhorsed his opponent or broke 
in the proper manner the greatest number of lances. The 
beaten knight forfeited horse and armor and had to pay a 
ransom to the conqueror. Sometimes he lost his life, espe- 
cially when the participants fought with real weapons and not 
with blunted lances and pointless swords. The Church now 
and then tried to stop these performances, but they remained 
universally popular until the close of the Middle Ages. 

Chivalry arose with feudalism, formed, in fact, the religion of 
feudalism, and passed away only when the changed conditions 
of society made feudalism an anachronism. While influence of 
chivalry lasted, it produced some improvement in chivalry 
manners, particularly by insisting on the notion of personal 
honor and by fostering greater regard for women (though only 
for those of the upper class). Our modern notion of the con- 
duct befitting a "gentleman" goes back to the old chivalric 
code. Chivalry expressed, however, simply the sentiments of 
the warlike nobles. It was an aristocratic ideal. The knight 
despised and did his best to keep in subjection the toiling 
peasantry, upon whose backs rested the real burden of feudal 

53. Feudalism as a Form of Local Industry 

Under the Roman Empire western Europe had been filled 
with flourishing cities. The Germanic invasions led to a gradual 
decay of trade and manufacturing, and hence of Decline of 
the cities in which these activities centered. As ^^^^ ^^® 
urban life declined, the mass of the population came to live 
more and more in isolated rural communities. This was the 
great economic feature of the early Middle Ages. 

An estate in land, when owned by a lord and occupied by 

dependent peasants, was called a manor.^ It naturally varied 

in size according to the wealth of its lord. In ^, 

^ . The manor 

England perhaps six hundred acres represented 

the extent of an average estate. Every noble had at least 

^ From the Old French manoir, "mansion" (Latin manere, "to dwell"). 

130 Feudalism 

one manor; great nobles might have several manors, usually 

scattered throughout the country; and even the king depended 

on his many manors for the food supply of the court. England, 

during the period following the Norman Conquest, contained 

more than nine thousand of these manorial estates. 

Of the arable land of the manor the lord reserved as much 

as needful for his own use. The lord's land was called his 

"demesne," or domain. The rest of the land he 
Common n 1 , , i • 

cultivation of allotted to the peasants who were his tenants. 

the arable They cultivated their holdings in common ac- 
cording to the "open field" system. A farmer, 
instead of having his land in one compact mass, had it split 
up into a large number of small strips (usually about half an 
acre each) scattered over the manor, and separated, not by 
fences or hedges, but by banks of unplowed turf. The ap- 
pearance of a manor, when under cultivation, has been likened 
to a vast checkerboard or a patchwork quilt. The reason for 
the intermixture of strips seems to have been to make sure that 
each farmer had a portion both of the good land and of the bad. 
It is obvious that this arrangement compelled all the peasants 
to labor according to a common plan. A man had to sow the 
same kinds of crops as his neighbors, and to till and reap them 
at the same time. Agriculture, under such circumstances, 
could not fail to be unprogressive. 

In other ways, too, agriculture was very backward. Farmers 
did not know how to enrich the soil by the use of fertilizers 
Farming or how to provide for a proper rotation of crops, 

methods Hence each year they cultivated only two-thirds 

of the land, letting the other third lie "fallow" (uncultivated), 
that it might recover its fertility. It is said that eight or nine 
bushels of grain represented the average yield of an acre. Farm 
animals were small, for scientific breeding had not yet begun. 
Farm implements, also, were few and clumsy. It took five 
men a day to reap and bind the harvest of two acres. 

Besides his holding of arable land, which in England averaged 
about thirty acres, each peasant had certain rights over the 
non-arable land of the manor. He could cut a limited amount 

Feudalism as a Form of Local Industry 131 

Farm Work in the Fourteenth Century 

Plowing. Harrowing. Cutting Weeds. Reaping. 

132 Feudalism 

of hay from the meadow. He could turn so many farm animals 
— cattle, geese, swine — on the waste. He also enjoyed the 
Common use Privilege of taking so much wood from the forest 
of the non- for fuel and building purposes. A peasant's 
holding, which also included a house in the village, 
thus formed a complete outfit. 

54. The Village and Life of the Peasants 

The peasants on a manor lived close together in one or more 
villages.- Their small, thatch-roofed, and one-roomed houses 
Description were grouped about an open space (the ''green"), 
of a village ^j. qj^ both sides of a single, narrow street. The 
only important buildings were the parish church, the par- 
sonage, a mill, if a stream ran through the manor, and 
possibly a blacksmith's shop. The population of one of these 
communities often did not exceed one hundred souls. 

A village in the Middle Ages had a regular staff of officials. 
First came the headman or reeve, who represented the peasants 
Village in their dealings with the lord of the manor, 

officials Next came the constable or beadle, whose duty it 

was to carry messages round the village, summon the inhabi- 
tants to meetings, and enforce the orders of the reeve. Then 
there was the poundkeeper, who seized straying animals, the 
watchman, who guarded the flocks at night, and the village 
carpenter, blacksmith, and miller. These officials, in return for 
their services, received an allowance of land, which the villagers 
cultivated for them. 

Perhaps the most striking feature of a medieval village was 
its self-sufficiency. The inhabitants tried to produce at home 
A viUage as everything they required, in order to avoid the 
self-sufficing uncertainty and expense of trade. The land gave 
them their food; the forest provided them with wood for houses 
and furniture. They made their own clothes of flax, wool, and 
leather. Their meal and flour were ground at the village mill, 
and at the village smithy their farm implements were manu- 
factured. The chief articles which needed to be brought from 
some distant market included salt, used to salt down farm 

The Village and Life of the Peasants 133 

animals killed in autumn, iron for various tools, and millstones. 
Cattle, horses, and surplus grain also formed common objects 
of exchange between manors. 

Life in a medieval village was rude and rough. The peasants 
labored from sunrise to sunset, ate coarse fare, lived in huts, 
and suffered from frequent pestilences. They Hard lot of 
were often the helpless prey of the feudal nobles, the peasantry 
If their lord happened to be a quarrelsome man, given to fight- 

Plan of Hitchin Manor, Hertfordshire 

Lord's demesne, diagonal lines. 
Meadow and pasture lands, dotted areas. 
Normal holding of a peasant, black strips. 

ing with his neighbors, they might see their lands ravaged, their 
cattle driven off, and their village burned, and might themselves 
be slain. Even under peaceful conditions the narrow, shut-in 
life of the manor could not be otherwise than degrading. 

Yet there is another side to the picture. If the peasants had 
a just and generous lord, they probably led a fairly comfortable 

134 Feudalism 

existence. Except when crops failed, they had an abundance 
AUeviations ^^ food, and possibly wine or cider to drink, 
of the They shared a common Ufe in the work of the 

peasant s ot ^gj^^g^ jj^ ^}^e sports of the village green, and in the 
services of the parish church. They enjoyed many holidays; 
it has been estimated that, besides Sundays, about eight weeks 
in every year were free from work. Festivities at Christmas, 
Easter, and May Day, at the end of ploughing and the com- 
pletion of harvest, relieved the monotony of the daily round of 
labor. Perhaps these medieval peasants were not much worse 
off than the agricultural laborers in most countries of modern 

55. Serfdom 

A medieval village usually contained several classes of 
laborers. There might be a number of freemen, who paid a 
Freemen fixed rent, either in money or produce, for the 

slaves, and use of their land. A few slaves might also be 
^^ ^ found in the lord's household or at work on his 

domain. By this time, however, slavery had about died out 
in western Europe. Most of the peasants were serfs. 

Serfdom represented a stage between slavery and freedom. 
A slave belonged to his master; he was bought and sold like 
Nature of other chattels. A serf had a higher position, for 
serfdom ]^g could not be sold apart from the land nor could 

his holding be taken from him. He was fixed to the soil. On 
the other hand, a serf ranked lower than a freeman, because he 
could not change his abode, nor marry outside the manor, nor 
bequeath his goods, without the permission of his lord. 

The serf did not receive his land as a free gift; for the use of 
it he owed certain duties to his master. These took chiefly the 
ObUgations form of personal services. He must labor on the 
of the serf lord's domain for two or three days each week, 
and at specially busy seasons, such as ploughing and harvesting, 
he must do extra work. At least half his time was usually de- 
manded by the lord. The serf had also to make certain pay- 
ments, either in money or more often in grain, honey, eggs, 

Decline of Feudalism 135 

or other produce. When he ground the wheat or pressed the 
grapes which grew on his land, he must use the lord's mill, 
the lord's wine-press, and pay the customary charge. 

Serfdom developed during the later centuries of the Roman 
Empire and in the early Middle Ages. It was well estabhshed 
by the time of Charlemagne. Most serfs seem Origin of 
to have been the descendants, or at least the sue- serfdom 
cessors, of Roman slaves, whose condition had gradually im- 
proved. The serf class was also recruited from the ranks of 
freemen, who by conquest or because of the desire to gain the 
protection of a lord, became subject to him. Serfdom, how- 
ever, was destined to be merely a transitory condition. By 
the close of medieval times, the serfs in the more progressive 
countries of western Europe had secured their freedom. 

56. Decline of Feudalism 

Feudalism led a vigorous life for about five hundred years. 
Taking definite shape early in the ninth century, Duration of 
it flourished throughout the later Middle Ages, feudaUsm 
but became decadent by the opening of the fourteenth century. 

As a form of local government, feudalism tended to pass 

away when the rulers in England, France, and Spain, and later 

in Germany and Italy, became powerful enough 

to put down private warfare, execute justice, and opposed to 

maintain order everywhere in their dominions, ffudahsm: 

the kings 

The kings were always anti-feudal. We shall study 

in a later chapter ^ the rise of strong governments and centralized 

states in western Europe. 

As a form of local industry, feudalism could not survive the 
great changes of the later Middle Ages, when reviving trade, 
commerce, and manufactures had begun to lead _ 

° Forces 

to the increase of wealth, the growth of markets, opposed to 
and the substitution of money payments for those feudalism: 
in produce or services. Flourishing cities arose, 
as in the days of the Roman Empire, freed themselves from the 
control of the nobles, and became the homes of liberty and 

^ See chapter x. 

136 Feudalism 

democracy. The cities, like the kings, were always anti-feudal. 
We shall deal with their development in a later chapter.^ 

There was still another anti-feudal force, namely, the Roman 
Church. It is true that many of the higher clergy were feudal 
The Church lords, and that even the monasteries owned 
and feudalism manorial estates which were parceled out among 
tenants. Nevertheless, the Roman Church as a universal 

organization, including men of all ranks and classes, was neces- ■ 
sarily opposed to feudalism, a local and an aristocratic system. 
The work and influence of this Church will now engage our 


I. Write a brief essay on feudal society, using the following words: lord; 
vassal; castle; keep; dungeon; chivalry; tournament; manor; and serf. 2. Ex- 
plain the following terms: vassal; fief; serf; "aid"; homage; squire; investiture; 
and "relief." 3. Look up the origin of the words homage, castle, dungeon, and 
chivalry. 4. Mention some feudal titles which survive in those of European 
nobles. 5. "The real heirs of Charlemagne were from the first neither the kings 
of France nor those of Italy or Germany; but the feudal lords." Comment on this 
statement. 6. Why was the feudal system not found in the Roman Empire in the 
East during the Middle Ages? 7. Why has feudalism been called "confusion 
roughly organized"? 8. Contrast feudalism as a political system with (a) the 
classical city-states, {b) the Roman Empire; and (c) modern national states. 
Q. What was the effect of feudaUsm on the sentiment of patriotism? 10. What 
are some of the advantages and disadvantages of primogeniture as the rule of 
inheritance? 11. Explain these phrases: "to be in hot water"; "to go through 
fire and water " ; and ' ' to haul over the coals. " 12. Compare the oaths administered 
to witnesses in modern courts with medieval oaths. 13. WTiy was war the usual 
condition of feudal society? 14. Compare the "Peace of God" with the earlier 
"Roman Peace" {Pax Romano). 15. Mention some modem comforts and luxuries 
which were unknown in feudal castles. 16. What is the present meaning of the 
word "chivalrous"? How did it get that meaning? 17. Why has chivalry been 
called "the blossom of feudalism"? 18. Describe the agricultural processes and 
implements shown in the illustration on page 131. 19. Show that the serf was 
not a slave or a "hired man" or a tenant-farmer paying rent. 

^ See chapter xi. 


57. Characteristics of the Medieval Church 

A PRECEDING chapter dealt with the history of Christianity 
in the East and West during the early Middle Ages. We 
learned something about its organization, belief, The Roman 
and worship, about the rise and growth of the Church 
Papacy, about monasticism, and about that missionary cam- 
paign which won all Europe to the Christian rehgion. Our 
narrative extended to the middle of the eleventh century, 
when the quarrel between pope and patriarch led at length to 
the disruption of Christendom/ We have now to consider the 
work and influence of the Roman Church during later centuries 
of the Middle Ages. 

The Church at the height of its power held spiritual sway 
throughout western Europe. Italy and Sicily, the larger part 
of Spain, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, the xemtorial 
British Isles, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and extent of the 
Iceland yielded obedience to the pope of Rome. Church 

Membership in the Church was not a matter of free choice. 
All people, except Jews, were required to belong to it. A 
person joined the Church by baptism, a rite usually The Church 
performed in infancy, and remained in it as long *^ universal 
as he lived. Every one was expected to conform, at least 
outwardly, to the doctrines and practices of the Church, and 
any one attacking its authority was Hable to punishment as a 

The existence of one Church in the western world furnished 
a bond of union between European peoples during the age 

^ Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter x, "Monastic 
Life in the Twelfth Century"; chapter xi, "St. Francis and the Franciscans." 


138 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

of feudalism. The Church took no heed of political boundaries, 
The Church ^^^ ^^^ °^ ^^^ nationalities entered the ranks 
as inter- of the priesthood and joined the monastic orders, 

nation Priests and monks were subjects of no country, 

but were "citizens of heaven," as they sometimes called 
themselves. Even differences of language counted for little 
in the Church, since Latin was the universal speech of the 
educated classes. One must think, then, of the Church as 
a great international state, in form a monarchy, presided 
over by the pope, and with its capital at Rome. 

The Church in the Middle Ages performed a double task. 
On the one hand, it gave the people religious instruction and 
Twofold watched over their morals; on the other hand, it 

duties of the played an important part in European politics and 
^^^ provided a means of government. Because the 

Church thus combined ecclesiastical and civil functions, it was 
quite unlike all modern churches, whether Greek, Roman, or 
Protestant. Both sides of its activities deserve, therefore, to 
be considered. 

58. Church Doctrine and Worship 

The Church taught a behef in a personal God, all-wise, 
all-good, all-powerful, to know whom was the highest goal 
" The gate of life. The avenue to this knowledge lay through 
of heaven" faith in the revelation of God, as found in the 
Scriptures. Since the unaided human reason could not properly 
interpret the Scriptures, it was necessary for the Church, 
through her officers, to declare their meaning and set forth 
what doctrines were essential to salvation. The Church thus 
appeared as the sole repository of religious knowledge, as 
"the gate of heaven." 

Salvation did not depend only on the acceptance of certain 
beliefs. There were also certain acts, called "sacraments," in 
The which the faithful Christian must participate, if 

sacramental he was not to be cut off eternally from God. These 
sysem ^^^^ formed channels of heavenly grace; they 

saved man from the consequences of his sinful nature and filled 

Church Doctrine and Worship 139 

him with ''the fullness of divine life." Since priests alone 

could administer the sacraments/ the Church presented itself 

as the necessary mediator between God and man. 

Seven sacraments were generally recognized by the thirteenth 

century. Four of these marked critical stages in human life, 

from the cradle to the grave. Baptism cleansed Baptism, 

the child from the taint of original sin and admitted confirmation, 
1 . . 1 /-.I • . . ^ matnmony, 

him mto the Christian community. Confirma- and extreme 

tion gave him full Church fellowship. Matrimony ^"^ction 
united husband and wife in holy bonds which might never be 
broken. Extreme unction, the anointing with oil of one mor- 
tally ill, purified the soul and endowed it with strength to meet 

Penance held an especially important place in the sacra- 
mental system. At least once a year the Christian must confess 

his sins to a priest. If he seemed to be truly 

1 . , , , , Penance 

repentant, the priest pronounced the solemn words 

of absolution and then imposed lipon him some penalty, which 
varied according to the nature of the offense. A man who 
had sinned grievously might be required to engage in chari- 
table work, to make a contribution to the support of the Church, 
or to go on a pilgrimage to a sacred shrine. The more distant 
and difficult a pilgrimage, the more meritorious it was, especially 
if it led to some very holy place, such as Rome or Jerusalem. 
This system of penitential punishment referred only to the 
earthly life; it was not supposed to cleanse the soul for eternity. 
The sacrament of the Holy Eucharist formed the central 
feature of worship. It was more than a common meal in 
commemoration of the Last Supper of Christ Holy 
with the Apostles. It was a solemn ceremony Eucharist 
by which the Christian believed himself to receive the body 
and blood of Christ, under the form of bread and wine.^ The 
right of the priest to withhold the Eucharist from any person, 

1 In case of necessity baptism might be performed by any lay person of adult 
years and sound mind. 

^ This doctrine is known as transubstantiation. In the Roman Church, as has 
been noted (page 65), wine is not administered to the laity. 

I40 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

for good cause, gave the Church great power, because the 

failure to partake of this sacrament imperiled one's chances 

of future salvation. 

The seventh and last sacrament, that of ordination, or 

"Holy Orders," admitted persons to the priesthood. Accord- 

^ ^. ^ ing to the teaching of the Church the rite had 

Ordination ° . . ° 

been mstituted by Christ, when He chose the 

Apostles and sent them forth to preach the Gospel. From 

the Apostles, who ordained their successors, the clergy in all 

later times received their exalted authority.^ 

The Church did not rely solely on the sacramental system as 
a means to salvation. It was believed that holy persons, called 
Reverence saints,^ who had died and gone to heaven, offered 
for saints ^^ Q^^ their prayers for men. The earliest 

saints were Christian martyrs, who had sealed their faith with 
their blood. In course of time many other persons, renowned 
for pious deeds, were exalted to sainthood. Canonization, 
or the making of a saint, is now done only by the pope. 

High above all the saints stood the Virgin Mary. Devo- 
tion to her as the "Queen of Heaven" increased rapidly in 
Devotion to the Church after the time of Gregory the Great, 
the Virgin Everywhere churches arose in her honor, and no 
cathedral or abbey lacked a chapel dedicated to Our Lady. 

The growing reverence for saints led to an increased interest 
in relics. These included the bones of a saint and shreds of his 
_ J. garments, besides such objects as the wood or 

nails of the cross on which Christ suffered. Relics 
were not simply mementos; the faithful believed them to 
possess miraculous power which passed into them through con- 
tact with holy persons. This belief explains the use of relics 
to heal diseases, to ward off danger, and, in general, to bring 
good fortune. An oath taken upon rehcs was especially sacred.^ 

The Church also taught a belief in purgatory as a state or 
place of probation.'^ Here dwelt the souls of those who were 

^ Hence the term "Apostolical Succession." ^ Latin sanclus, "holy." 

•■' See pages io6 and 117. 

* The belief in purgatory is not held by Protestants or by members of the Greek 

Church Jurisdiction 141 

guilty of no mortal sins which would condemn them to hell, 

but yet were burdened with imperfections which _ 

prevented them from entering heaven. Such 

imperfections, it was held, might be removed by the prayers 

of the living, and hence the practice arose of praying for the 

dead. Masses were also often said for the repose of souls in 


59. Church Jurisdiction 

The Church had regular courts and a system of "canon law" 
for the trial of offenders against its regulations. Many cases, 
which to-day would be decided according to the church 
civil or criminal law of the State, in the Middle courts 
Ages came before the ecclesiastical courts. Since marriage 
was considered a sacrament, the Church took upon itself "to 
decide what marriages were lawful. It forbade the union of 
first cousins, of second cousins, and of godparents and god- 
children. It refused to sanction divorce, for whatever cause, 
if both parties at the time of marriage had been baptized Chris- 
tians. The Church dealt with inheritance under wills, for a 
man could not make a legal will until he had confessed, and 
confession formed part of the sacrament of penance. All 
contracts made binding by oaths came under Church juris- 
diction, because an oath was an appeal to God. The Church 
tried those who were charged with any sin against rehgion, 
including heresy, blasphemy, the taking of interest (usury), 
and the practice of witchcraft. Widows, orphans, and the 
families of pilgrims or crusaders also enjoyed the special pro- 
tection of Church courts. 

The Church claimed the privilege of judging all cases which 
involved clergymen. No layman, it was declared, ought to 
interfere with one who, by the sacrament of "Benefit of 
ordination, had been dedicated to God. This clergy" 
demand of the Church to try its own officers, according to its 
own mild and intelligent laws, seems not unreasonable, when 
we remember how rude were the methods of feudal justice. 

An interesting illustration of the power of the Church is 

142 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

afforded by the right of "sanctuary." Any lawbreaker who 
Right of fled to a church building enjoyed, for a limited 

" sanctuary " time, the privilege of safe refuge. It was consid- 
ered a sin against God to drag even the most wicked criminal 
from the altar. The most that could be done was to deny the 
refugee food, so that he might come forth voluntarily. This 
privilege of seeking sanctuary was not without social usefulness, 
for it gave time for angry passions to cool, thus permitting an 
investigation of the charges against an offender. 

Disobedience to the regulations of the Church might be 
followed by excommunication. This was a punishment which 
Excommuni- cut off the offender from Christian fellowship. He 
cation could neither attend religious services nor enjoy the 

sacraments so necessary to salvation. If he died excommuni- 
cate, his body could not be buried in consecrated ground. By 
the law of the State he lost all civil rights and forfeited all his 
property. No one might speak to him, feed him, or shelter 
him. Such a terrible penalty, it is well to point out, was usually 
imposed only after the sinner had received a fair trial and had 
spurned entreaties to repent. 

The interdict, another form of punishment, was directed 
against a particular locality, for the fault of some of the inhabi- 
tants who could not be reached directly. In 
Interdict , . . ,. , . , , . . . 

time of mterdict, the priests closed the churches 

and neither married the living nor buried the dead. All the 
inhabitants of the afflicted district were ordered to fast, as in 
Lent, and to let their hair grow long in sign of mourning. The 
interdict also stopped the wheels of government, for courts of 
justice were shut, wills could not be made, and public officials 
were forbidden to perform their duties. In some cases the 
Church went so far as to lay an interdict upon an entire kingdom, 
whose ruler had refused to obey her mandate. The interdict 
has now passed out of use, but excommunication still retains 
an important place among the spiritual weapons of the Church.^ 

^ Two instances of the use of excommunication are mentioned below (pages 
155 and 158). For two instances of interdicts see pages 157-158. 

The Secular Clergy 


60. The Secular Clergy 

Some one has said that in the Middle Ages there were just 
three classes of society: the nobles who fought; the peasants 
who worked; and the clergy who prayed. The ^j^^ ^^^^^ 
latter class was divided into the secular ^ clergy, and regular 
including deacons, priests, and bishops, who lived ^^^^^ 
active lives in 
the world, and the 
regular ^ clergy, 
or monks, who 
passed their days 
in seclusion be- 
hind monastery 

An account of 
the secular clergy 
naturally Pansh 
begins P^^^^ts 
with the parish 
priest, who had 
charge of a parish, 
the smallest divi- 
sion of Christen- 
dom. No one 
could act as a 
priest without the 
approval of the 
bishop, but the 
nobleman who supported the parish had the privilege of nomi- 
nating candidates for the position. The priest derived his 
income from lands belonging to the parish, from tithes,^ and 
from voluntary contributions, but as a rule he received httle 
more than a bare living. The parish priest was the only Church 

1 Latin sceculum, used in the sense of "the world." 

2 Latin regula, a "rule," referring to the rule or constitution of a monastic order. 

3 The tithe was a tenth part of the yearly income from land, stock, and personal 

A Bishop Ordaining a Priest 

From an English manuscript of the twelfth century. The 
bishop wears a miter and holds in his left hand the pastoral 
staff, or crosier. His right hand is extended in blessing over 
the priest's head. 

144 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

officer who came continually into touch with the common 
people. He baptized, married, and buried his parishioners. 
For them he celebrated mass at least once a week, heard con- 
fessions, and granted absolution. He watched over all their 
deeds on earth and prepared them for the life to come. 

A group of parishes formed a diocese, over which a bishop 
presided. It was his business to look after the property be- 
longing to the diocese, to hold the ecclesiastical 

Bishops . . , , 

courts, to visit the clergy, and to see that they 

did their duty. The bishop alone could administer the sacra- 
ments of confirmation and ordination. He also performed the 
ceremonies at the consecration of a new church edifice or shrine. 
Since the Church held many estates on feudal tenure, the bishop 
was usually a territorial lord, owing a vassal's obligations to 
the king or to some powerful noble for his land, and himself 
ruling over vassals in different parts of the country. As sym- 
bols of his power and dignity, the bishop wore on his head the 
miter and carried the pastoral staff, or crosier.^ 

Above the bishop in rank stood the archbishop. In Eng- 
land, for example, there were two archbishops, one residing 

at York and the other at Canterbury. The 
Archbishops . 

latter, as "primate of all England," was the highest 

ecclesiastical dignitary in the land. An archbishop's distinc- 
tive vestment consisted of the pallium, a narrow band of white 
wool, worn around the neck. The pope alone could confer 
the right to wear the pallium. The church which contained 
the official seat or throne ^ of a bishop or archbishop was called 
a cathedral. It was ordinarily the largest and most magnifi- 
cent church in the diocese. 

61. The Regular Clergy 

The regular clergy, or monks, during the early Middle Ages 
belonged to the Benedictine order. By the tenth century, 
Decline of however, St. Benedict's Rule had lost much of its 
monasticism force. As the monasteries increased in wealth 
through gifts of land and goods, they sometimes became centers 

1 See the illustration, page 143. 2 Latin cathedra. 

The Regular Clergy 145 

of idleness, luxury, and corruption. The monks forgot their 
vows of poverty; and, instead of themselves laboring as farmers, 
craftsmen, and students, they employed laymen to work for 
them. At the same time powerful feudal lords frequently 
obtained control of the monastic estates by appointing as 
abbots their children or their retainers. Grave danger existed 
that the monasteries would pass out of Church control and 
decline into mere fiefs ruled by worldly men. 

A marked revival of monasticism began i« 910, with the foun- 
dation of the monastery of Cluny in eastern France. The monks 
of Cluny led lives of the utmost self-denial and fol- The Cluniac 
lowed the Benedictine Rule in all its strictness, revival 
Their enthusiasm and devotion were contagious; before long 
Cluny became a center from which a reformatory movement 
spread over France and th-en over all western Europe. By 
the middle of the twelfth century more than three hundred 
monasteries looked to Cluny for inspiration and guidance. 

Each of the earlier Benedictine monasteries had been an 
isolated community, independent and self-governing. Conse- 
quently, when discipline grew lax or when the abbot r^^^ « ^ 
proved to be an incapable ruler, it was difficult gregation of 
to correct the evils which arose. In the Cluniac ^"^^ 
system, however, all the monasteries formed parts of one organ- 
ization, the "Congregation of Cluny." The abbot of Cluny 
appointed their "priors," or heads, and required every monk 
to pass several years of his monastic life at Cluny itself. This 
arrangement helps to explain why for two hundred years the 
abbot of Cluny was, next to the pope, the most important 
churchman in western Europe. 

Other monastic orders arose in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. Of these, the most important was the Cistercian, 
founded in 1098 at Citeaux, not far from Cluny. ^j^^ 
The Cistercians especially emphasized the need Cistercian 
for manual labor. They were the best farmers ^^ 
and cattle breeders of the Middle Ages. Western Europe 
owes even more to them than to the Benedictines for their 
hard work as pioneers in the wilderness. "The Cistercians," 

146 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

declared a medieval writer, "are a model to all monks, a mirror 
for the diligent, a spur to the indolent." 

The whole spirit of medieval monasticism found expression 
in St. Bernard, a Burgundian of noble birth. While stiU a 
St. Bernard, young man, he resolved to leave the world and 
1090-1153 ggg]^ ^YiQ repose of the monastic life. He entered 
Citeaux, carrying with him thirty companions. Mothers 
are said to have hid their sons from him, and wives their hus- 
bands, lest they should be converted to monasticism by his 
persuasive words. After a few years at Citeaux St. Bernard 
established the monastery of Clairvaux, over which he ruled 
as abbot till his death. His ascetic life, piety, eloquence, and 
ability as an executive soon brought him into prominence. 
People visited Clairvaux from far and near to listen to his 
preaching and to receive his counsels. The monastery flourished 
under his direction and became the parent of no less than sixty- 
five Cistercian houses which were planted in the wilderness. 
St. Bernard's activities widened until he came to l^e the most 
influential man in western Christendom. It was St. Bernard 
who acted as an adviser of the popes, at one time deciding 
between two rival candidates for the Papacy, who combated 
most vigorously the heresies of the day, and who by his fiery 
appeals set in motion one of the crusades.^ The charm of his 
character is revealed to us in his sermons and letters, while 
some of the Latin hymns commonly attributed to him are still 
sung in many churches, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. 

62. The Friars 

The history of Christian monasticism exhibits an ever- 
widening social outlook. The early hermits ^ had devoted 
Coming of themselves, as they believed, to the service of 
the friars Qq^ ^y retiring to the desert for prayer, medita- 

tion, and bodily mortification. St. Benedict's wise Rule, as 
followed by the medieval monastic orders, marked a change 
for the better. It did away with extreme forms of self-denial, 
brought the monks together in a common house, and required 

1 See page 170. 2 See page 54. 

The Friars 


them to engage in daily manual labor. Yet even the Bene- 
dictine system had its limitations. The monks lived apart 
from the world and sought chiefly the salvation of their own 
souls. A new conception of the religious life arose early 
in the thirteenth century, with the coming of the friars.^ The 
aim of the friars was 
social service. They 
took an active part 
in affairs and devoted 
themselves entirely 
to the salvation of 
others. The founda- 
tion of the orders of 
friars was the work 
of two men, St. Fran- 
cis in Italy and St. 
Dominic in Spain. 

St. Francis was the 
son of a prominent 
merchant St. Francis, 
of Assisi. 1181(?)-1226 

The young man had 
before him the pros- 
pect of a fine career, 
but before long he 
put away all thoughts 
of riches and honor, 
deserted his gay com- 
panions, and, choosing "Lady Poverty" as his bride, started 
out to minister to lepers and social outcasts. One day, while 
attending mass, the call came to him to preach the gospel as 
Christ had preached it, among the poor and lowly. The 
man's earnestness and charm of manner soon drew about him 
■ devoted followers. After some years St. Francis went to Rome 
and obtained Pope Innocent Ill's sanction of his work. The 
Franciscan order spread so rapidly that even in the founder's 

• 1 Latin /m/er, "brother." 

St. Francis Blessing the Birds 

From a painting by the Italian artist Giotto. 

148 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

lifetime there were several thousand members in Italy and 
other European countries. 

St. Francis is one of the most attractive figures in all history. 
Perhaps no other man has ever tried so seriously to imitate in 
Personality I his own life the life of Christ. St. Francis went 
of St Francis about doing good. He resembled, in some re- 
spects, the social workers and revivalist preachers of to-day. 
In other tespects he was a true child of the Middle Ages. An 
ascetic, he fasted, wore a hair-cloth shirt, mixed ashes with 
his food to make it disagreeable, wept daily, so that his eye- 
sight was nearly destroyed, and every night flogged himself 
with iron chains. A mystic, he lived so close to God and 
nature that he could include within the bonds of his love not 
only men and women, but also animals, trees, and flowers. 
He preached a sermon to the birds and once wrote a hymn 
to praise God for his "brothers," sun, wind, and fire, and for 
his "sisters," moon, water, and earth. When told that he had 
but a short time to live, he exclaimed, "Welcome, Sister Death! " 
He died at the age of forty-five, worn out by his exertions and 
seK-denial. Two years later the pope made him a saint. 

St. Dominic, unlike St. Francis, was a clergyman and a 
student of theology. After being ordained, he went to southern 
St. Dominic, France and labored there for ten years among a 
1170-1221 heretical sect known as the Albigenses. The 
order of Dominicans grew out of the little band of volunteers 
who assisted him in the mission. St. Dominic sent his fol- 
lowers — at first only sixteen in number — out into the world 
to combat heresy. They met with great success, and at the 
founder's death the Dominicans had as many as sixty friaries 
in various European cities. 

The Franciscans and Dominicans resembled each other in 
many ways. They were "itinerant," ^ going on foot from place 
Character- ^^ place, and wearing coarse robes tied round the 
istics of the waist with a rope. They were "mendicants," ^- 
"^^ who possessed no property but lived on the alms 

of the charitable. They were also preachers, who spoke to the 

1 Low Latin itinerare, "to make a journey." 2 Latin mendicare, "to beg." 

Power of the Papacy 149 

people, not in Latin, but in the common language of each 
country which they visited. The Franciscans worked especially 
in the slums of the cities; the Dominicans addressed them- 
selves rather to educated people and the upper classes. As 
time went on, both orders relaxed the rule of poverty and be- 
came very wealthy. They still survive, scattered all over 
the world and employed as teachers and missionaries. 

The friars by their preaching and ministrations did a great 
deal to call forth a religious revival in Europe during the thir- 
teenth century. In particular, they helped to j^ie friars 
strengthen the papal authority. Both orders and the 
received the sanction of the pope; both enjoyed ^^^^^ 
many privileges at his hands; and both looked to him for 
direction. The pope employed them to raise money, to preach 
crusades, and to impose excommunications and interdicts. 
The Franciscans and Dominicans formed, in fact, the agents 
of the Papacy. 

63. Power of the Papacy 

The name "pope" ^ seems at first to have been applied to all 
priests as a title of respect and affection. The Greek Church 
still continues this use of the word. In the West j^^ pope's 
it gradually came to be reserved to the bishop of exalted 
Rome as his official title. The pope was addressed ^^^^ ^^ 
in speaking as "Your Holiness." His exalted position was 
further indicated by the tiara, or headdress with triple crowns, 
worn by him in processions. ^ He went to solemn ceremonies 
sitting in a chair supported on the shoulders of his guard. 
He gave audience from an elevated throne, and all who ap- 
proached him kissed his feet in reverence. 

The pope was the supreme lawgiver of the Church. His 
decrees might not be set aside by any other person. He made 
new laws in the form of "bulls" ^ and by his "dis- The pope's 
pensations" could in particular cases set aside old authority 
laws, such as those i^orbidding cousins to marry or monks to 

^ Latin papa, "father." ^ See the illustration, page 51. 

3 So called from the lead seal (Latin bulla) attached to pai^l documents. 

150 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

obtain release from their vows. The pope was also the su- 
preme judge of the Church, for all appeals from the lower 
ecclesiastical courts came before him for decision. Finally, 
the pope was the supreme administrator of the Church. He 
confirmed the election of bishops, deposed them, when neces- 
sary, or transferred them from one diocese to another. No 
archbishop might perform the functions of his office until he 
had received the pallium from the pope's hands. The pope 
also exercised control over the monastic orders and called 
general councils of the Church. 

The authority of the pope was commonly exercised by the 
''legates," ^ whom he sent out as his representatives at the vari- 
The papal o^s European courts. These officers kept the pope 
legates j^ close touch with the condition of the Church in 

every part of western Europe. A similar function is performed 
in modern times by the papal ambassadors known as ''nuncios." 

For assistance in government the pope made use of the cardi- 
nals,2 who formed a board, or "college." At first they were 
The chosen only from the clergy of Rome and the 

cardinals vicinity, but in course of time the pope opened the 

cardinalate to prominent churchmen in all countries. The 
number of cardinals is now fixed at seventy, but the college is 
never full, and there are always ten or more "vacant hats," as 
the saying goes. The cardinals, in the eleventh century, 
received the right of choosing a new pope. A cardinal ranks 
above all other church officers except the pope. His dignity 
is indicated by the red hat and scarlet robe which he wears 
and by the title of "Eminence" applied to him. 

To support the business of the Papacy and to maintain the 
splendor of the papal court required a large annual income. 
Income of This Came partly from the States of the Church 
the Papacy [^ i^-^jy^ partly from the gifts of the faithful, and 
partly from the payments made by abbots, bishops, and arch- 
bishops when the pope confirmed their election to office. Still 
another source of revenue consisted of "Peter's Pence," a tax 
of a penny on each hearth. It was collected every year in 

1 Latin /ega/w5^,." deputy." * Latin cardmalis, "principal." 


St. Peter's, begun in 1506 a.d., was completed in 1667, according to the designs of Bramante, 
Raphael, Michelangelo, and other celebrated architects. It is the largest church in the world. 
The central aisle, nave, and choir measure about 600 feet in length; the great dome, 140 
feet in diameter, rises to a height of more than 400 feet. A double colonnade encircles the 
piazza in front of the church. The Vatican is seen to the right of St. Peter's. 

Popes and Emperors 151 

England and in some Continental countries until the time of 
the Reformation. The modern "Peter's Pence" is a voluntary 
contribution made each- year by Roman Catholics in all parts 
of the world. 

Rome, the Eternal City, from which in ancient times the 
known world had been ruled, formed in the Middle Ages the 
capital of the Papacy. Tens of thousands of pil- The capital 
grims went there every year to worship at the °^ *^® Papacy 
shrine of the Prince of the Apostles. Few traces now remain 
of the medieval city. Old St. Peter's Church, where Charle- 
magne was crowned emperor, gave way in the sixteenth cen- 
tury to the world-famous structure that now occupies its site. 
The Lateran Palace, which for more than a thousand years 
served as the residence of the popes, has also disappeared, its 
place being taken by a new and smaller building. The popes 
now live in the splendid' palace of the Vatican. 

The powers exercised by the popes during the later Middle 
Ages were not secured without a struggle. As a matter of fact, 
the concentration of authority in papal hands ^j^^ Panacv 
was a gradual development covering several hun- and the 
dred years. The pope reached his exalted position °^P^^® 
only after a long contest with the Holy Roman Emperor. 

64. Popes and Emperors, 962-1122 

One might suppose that there could be no interference between 
pope and emperor, since they seemed to have separate spheres 
of action. It was said that God had made the 

. r o T. . Relations 

pope, as the successor of St. Peter, supreme m between pope 
spiritual matters, and the emperor, as heir of the *^^ emperor 

tT r> . , i» theory 

Roman Caesars, supreme m temporal matters. 
The former ruled men's souls, the latter, men's bodies. The 
two sovereigns thus divided on equal terms the government of 
the world. 

The difficulty with this theory was that it did not work. No 
one could decide in advance where the authority ^^^^ ^.^j^, 
of the pope ended and where that of the emperor tions in 
began. When the pope claimed certain powers ^^^^^^^ 

and the Papacy 

152 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

which were also claimed by the emperor, a conflict between 
the two rulers became inevitable. 

In 962 Otto the Great, as we have learned,^ restored imperial 
rule in the West, thus founding what in later centuries came 
Otto the Great to be known as the Holy Roman Empire. Otto 
made the city of Rome the imperial capital, 

deposed a pope who 
proved disobedient to 
his wishes, and on 
his own authority ap- 
pointed a successor. 
At the same time 
Otto exacted from the 
people of Rome an 
oath that they would 
never recognize any 
pope to whose election 
the emperor had not 

Otto's successors 
repeatedly interfered 
in elections 
to the Pa- 
pacy. One 
strong ruler, Henry 
HI (1039-1056), has 
been called the "pope- 
maker." Early in his 
reign he set aside 
three rival claimants to the Papacy, creating a German bishop 
pope, and on three subsequent occasions filled the papal throne 
by fresh appointments. It was clear that if this situation 
continued much longer the Papacy would become simply an 
imperial office; it would be merged in the Empire. 

The death of Henry III, which left the Empire in weak hands, 
gave the Papacy a chance to escape from the control of the 

1 See page 21. 

The Papacy 
and Otto's 

The Spiritual and the Temporal Power 

A tenth-century mosaic in the church of St. John, Rome. 
It represents Christ giving to St. Peter the keys of heaven, 
and to Constantine the banner symbolic of earthly 

Popes and Emperors 153 

secular power. A church council held at the Lateran Palace 
decreed that henceforth the right of choosing the p^^ ^^^^_ 
supreme pontiff should belong exclusively to the tion by the 
cardinals, who represented the clergy of Rome. ^^^ ^^^^ 
This arrangement has tended to prevent any interference 
with the election of popes, either by the Roman people or by 
foreign sovereigns. 

Now that the Papacy had become independent, it began to 
deal with a grave problem which affected the Church at large. 
According to ecclesiastical rule bishops ought to Feudalizing 
be chosen by the clergy of their diocese and abbots °^ *^® Church 
by their monks. With the growth of feudalism, however, 
many of these high dignitaries had become vassals, holding 
their lands as fiefs of princes, kings, and emperors, and owing 
the usual feudal dues. Their lords expected them to perform 
the ceremony of homage, before "investing" them with the 
lands attached to the bishopric or monastery. One can readily 
see that in practice the lords really chose the bishops and abbots, 
since they could always refuse to "invest" those who were 
displeasing to them. 

To the reformers in the Church lay investiture was intolerable. 

How could the Church keep itself unspotted from the world 

when its highest officers were chosen by laymen ^ 

111 • 1 1 • -. ^^y investi- 

and were compelled to perform unpnestly duties? ture from 

In the act of investiture the reformers also saw *^® Church 
r . , , 1 r ^ Standpoint 

the sin of simony ^ — the sale of sacred powers 

— because there was such a temptation before the candidate 
for a bishopric or abbacy to buy the position with promises or 
with money. 

The lords, on the other hand, believed that as long as bishops 
and abbots held vast estates on feudal tenure they should con- 
tinue to perform the obligations of vassalage. Lay investi- 

To forbid lay investiture was to deprive the lords *Y^® */, 

... viewed by 

of all control over Church dignitaries. The real the secular 

difficulty of the situation existed, of course, in the a^tJiority 

^ A name derived from Simon Magus, who offered money to the Apostle Peter 
for the power to confer the Holy Spirit. See Ads, viii, 18-20. 

154 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

fact that the bishops and abbots were both spiritual officers 
and temporal rulers, were servants of both the Church and 
the State. They found it very difficult to serve two masters. 

The throne of St. Peter was occupied at this time by Hilde- 
brand, one of the most remarkable of the popes. Of obscure 
Pontificate of Italian birth, he received his education in a Bene- 
Gregory VII, dictine monastery at Rome and rose rapidly to a 
position of great influence in papal affairs. On 
becoming pope he assumed the name of Gregory VII. He is 
described as a small man, ungainly in appearance and with a 
weak voice, but energetic, forceful, and of imperious will. 

Gregory devoted all his talents to the advancement of the 
Papacy. A contemporary document,^ which may have been 
Gregory's of Gregory's own composition, and at any rate 

*"^^ expresses his ideas, contains the following state- 

ments: "The Roman pontiff alone is properly called universal. 
He alone may depose bishops and restore them to office. He is 
the only person whose feet are kissed by all princes. He may 
depose emperors. He may be judged by no one. He may 
absolve from their allegiance the subjects of the wicked. The 
Roman Church never has erred, and never can err, as the Scrip- 
tures testify." Gregory did not originate these doctrines, but 
he was the first pope who ventured to make a practical appUca- 
tion of them. 

Two years after Gregory became pope he issued a decree 
against lay investiture. It declared that no emperor, king, duke, 
marquis, count, or any other lay person should 
against lay presume to grant investiture, under pain of ex- 
1075^***^^^* communication. This decree was a general one, 
applying to all states of western Europe, but 
circumstances were such that it mainly affected Germany. 

Henry IV, the ruler of Germany at this time, did not refuse 
the papal challenge. He wrote a famous letter to Gregory, 
Henry IV and calhng him "no pope, but false monk," telling him 
Gregory VII Christ had never called him to the priesthood, 
and bidding him "come down," "come down" from St. Peter's 

1 The so-called Dictatus papa. 

Popes and Emperors 


throne. Gregory, in reply, deposed Henry as emperor, excom- 
municated him, and freed his subjects from their allegiance. 

This severe sentence made a profound impression in Ger- 
many. Henry's adherents fell away, and it seemed probable 
that the German nobles would elect another ruler Canossa, 
in his stead. Henry then decided on abject sub- ^^'^'^ 
mission. He hastened across the Alps and found the pope 
at the castle of Canossa, on 
the northern slopes of the Ap- 
ennines. It was January, 
and the snow lay deep on the 
ground. For three days the 
emperor stood shivering out- 
side the castle gate, barefoot 
and clad in a coarse woolen 
shirt, the garb of a penitent. 
At last, upon the entreaties of 
the Countess Matilda of Tus- 
cany, Gregory admitted Henry 
to his presence and granted 
absolution. This strange and 
moving spectacle revealed the 
tremendous power which the 
Church in the Middle Ages 
exercised over the minds of 

RcxRo^T AflB^jeofj '0?aT>^i]djo9 SuppLicATAr'j^- 

Henry IV, Countess Matilda, 
AND Gregory VII 

From a manuscript of the twelfth century, 
now in the Vatican Library at Rome. 


The dramatic scene at Ca- 
nossa did not end the investiture conflict. It dragged on for 
half a century after Gregory's death. At length Concordat of 
the opposing parties agreed to what is known as Worms, 1122 
the Concordat of Worms, from the old German city where it 
was signed. The concordat drew a distinction between 
spiritual and lay investiture. The emperor renounced investi- 
ture by the ring and crosier — the emblems of spiritual author- 
ity — and permitted bishops and abbots to be elected by the 
clergy and confirmed in office by the pope. On the other 
hand, the pope recognized the emperor's right to be present 

156 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

at all elections and to invest bishops and abbots by the scepter 
for whatever lands they held within his domains. This reason- 
able compromise worked well for a time. But it was a truce, 
not a peace. It did not settle the more fundamental issue, 
whether the Papacy or the Holy Roman Empire should be 


Worms Cathedral 

The old German city of Worms possesses in the Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul one of 
the finest Romanesque structures in Europe. The exterior, with its four round towers, two 
large domes, and a choir at each end, is particularly imposing. The cathedral was mainly 
built in the twelfth century. 

65. Popes and Emperors, 1122-1273 

Thirty years after the signing of the Concordat of Worms 
the emperor Frederick I, called Barbarossa from his red beard, 
succeeded to the throne. Frederick, the second 
the Hohenstaufen dynasty,^ was capable, 
imaginative, and ambitious. He took Charle- 
magne and Otto the Great as his models and aspired like them 

^ The name of this German family comes from that of their castle in south- 
western Swabia. 

Frederick I, 
emperor, of 


Popes and Emperors 157 

to rule Christian Europe and the Church. His reign is the 
story of many attempts, ending at length in failure, to unite 
all Italy into a single state under German sway. 

Frederick's Italian policy brought him at once into conflict 
with the Papacy. The popes gave their support to a league 
of the free cities of northern Italy, which were Frederick 
also threatened by Frederick's soaring ambi- and the 
tions. The haughty emperor, having suffered a *^**^^ 
severe defeat, sought reconciliation with the pope, Alexander 
III. In the presence of a vast throng assembled before St. 
Mark's Cathedral in Venice, Frederick knelt before the pope 
and humbly kissed his feet. Just a century had passed since 
the humiliation of Henry IV at Canossa. 

The Papacy reached the height of its power under Innocent 
III. The eighteen years of his pontificate were one long effort, 
for the most part successful, to make the pope pontificate of 
the arbiter of Europe. Innocent announced the Innocent ill, 
claims of the Papacy in the most uncompromising 
manner. "As the moon," he declared, "receives its light 
from the sun, and is inferior to the sun, so do kings receive all 
their glory and dignity from the Holy See." This meant, 
according to Innocent, that the pope has the right to interfere 
in all secular matters and in the quarrels of rulers. "God," 
he continued, "has set the Prince of the Apostles over kings 
and kingdoms, with a mission to tear up, plant, destroy, scatter, 
and rebuild." 

That Innocent's claims were not idle boasts is shown by 
what he accomplished. When Philip Augustus, king of France, 
divorced his wife and made another marriage, innocent and 
Innocent declared the divorce void and ordered King Philip 
him to take back his discarded queen. Philip ° ^^^^^ 
refused, and Innocent, through his legate, put France under an 
interdict. From that hour all religious rites ceased. The 
church doors were barred; the church bells were silent, the 
sick died unshriven, the dead lay unburied. Philip, deserted 
by his retainers, was compelled to submit. 

On another occasion Innocent ordered John, the Enghsh 

158 The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

king, to accept as archbishop of Canterbury a man of his own 
Innocent and choosing. When John declared that he would 
King John of never allow the pope's appointee to set foot on 
^^^ English soil, Innocent replied by excommunicat- 

ing him and laying his kingdom under an interdict. John 
also had to yield and went so far as to surrender England 
and Ireland to the pope, receiving them back again as fiefs, 
for which he promised to pay a yearly rent. The tribute 
money was actually paid, though irregularly, for about a 
century and a half. 

Innocent further exhibited his power by elevating to the 

imperial throne Frederick II, grandson of Frederick Barbarossa. 

The young man, after Innocent's death, proved 

Frederick II, ^q j^g ^l most determined opponent of the Papacy. 

emperor, . . . 

1212-1250 He passed much of his long reign in Italy, warring 
against the popes, whose territories separated 
Frederick's possessions in North Italy from his kingdom of 
Naples and Sicily (the Two SiciUes). Frederick was a man of 
remarkable talents, but he failed, as his grandfather before 
him had failed, to unite Italy under German rule. 

The death of Frederick II 's son (1254) ended the Hohen- 
staufen dynasty. There now ensued what is called the Inter- 
regnum, a period of nineteen years, during which 
The Inter- Germany was without a ruler. At length the 


1254-1273 pope sent word to the German electors that if 
they did not choose an emperor, he would himself 
do so. The electors then selected Rudolf of Hapsburg^ (1273). 
Rudolf gained papal support by resigning all claims on Italy, 
but recompensed himself through the conquest of the German 
state of Austria. It was in this way that the Hapsburgs 
became an Austrian dynasty. 

The conflict between popes and emperors was now over. 
Its results were momentous. Germany, so long neglected by 
Condition of ^^^ rightful rulers, who pursued the will-o'-the- 
Germany wisp in Italy, broke up into a mass of duchies, 

^ ^ counties, archbishoprics, bishoprics, and free cities. 

^ Hapsburg was the name of a castle in northern Switzerland. 


■ •.aUJLAN<W >■**>■■ 



^ LSoi4g5bu;rg;° fet'^ff ^^S^X 

P0MEBE1 ilA 
^•x^ . Dahaig 



:ot-<- , ^ ."^ ^.« <---.\ L- ,--. ■:- HESS 







Puring: the luterregnam 
1254-1273 A.D. 


East 10° from 


Significance of the Medieval Church 159 

The map of the country at this time shows how numerous 
were these small feudal states. They did not combine into 
a strong government till the nineteenth century.^ Italy like- 
wise remained disunited and lacked even a common monarch. 
The real victor was the Papacy, which had crushed the Em- 
pire and had prevented the union of Italy and Germany. 

66. Significance of the Medieval Church 

Medieval society, we have learned, owed much to the Church, 
both as a teacher of religion and morality and as an agency of 
government. It remains to ask what was the The Church 
attitude of the Church toward the social problems *°^ warfare 
of the Middle Ages. In regard to warfare, the prevalence of 
which formed one of the worst evils of the time, the Church, 
in general, cast its influence on the side of peace. It deserves 
credit for establishing the Peace and the Truce of God and 
for many efforts to heal strife between princes and nobles. 
Yet the Church did not carry the advocacy of peace so far as 
to condemn warfare against heretics and infidels. Christians 
beUeved that it was a religious duty to exterminate these 
enemies of God. 

The Church was distinguished for charitable work. The 
clergy received large sums for distribution to the needy. From 
the doors of the monasteries, the poor, the sick. The Church 
and the infirm of every sort were never turned *^^ charity 
away. Medieval charity, however, was very often injudicious. 
The problem of removing the causes of poverty seems never to 
have been raised; and the indiscriminate giving multiplied, 
rather than reduced, the number of beggars. 

Neither slavery nor serfdom, into which slavery gradually 
passed, was ever pronounced unlawful by pope or Church 
council. The Church condemned slavery only ^j^^ church 
when it was the servitude of a Christian in bondage and slavery 
to a Jew or an infidel. Abbots, bishops, and ^^ serfdom 
popes possessed slaves and serfs. The serfs of some wealthy 
monasteries were counted by thousands. The Church, 

^ The modem German Empire was founded in 1871. 

i6o The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire 

nevertheless, encouraged the freeing of bondmen as a meri- 
torious act and always preached the duty of kindness and 
forbearance toward them. 

The Church also helped to promote the cause of human 
freedom by insisting on the natural equality of all men in the 
Democracy ^^§^^ ^^ ^^^' ''The Creator," wrote one of the 
of the popes, "distributes his gifts without regard to 

^^^^ social classes. In his eyes- there are neither 

nobles nor serfs." It was not necessary to be of aristocratic 
birth to become a bishop, a cardinal, or a pope. Naturally 
enough, the Church attracted to its service the keenest minds 
of the age. 

The clergy in medieval Europe were almost the only persons 
of education. Few except churchmen were able to read or 
The clergy as write. So generally was this the case that an 
the only edu- offender could prove himself a clergyman, thus 
Gated class gecuring "benefit of clergy," if he showed his 
abihty to read a single line. It is interesting, also, to note 
that the word "clerk," which comes from the Latin clericus, 
was originally limited to churchmen, since they alone could 
keep accounts, write letters, and perform other secretarial 

It is clear that priests and monks had much importance 
quite aside from their religious duties. They controlled the 
Importance schools, wrote the books, framed the laws, and, 
of the clergy jj^ general, acted as leaders and molders of public 
opinion. A most conspicuous instance of the authority wielded 
by them is seen in the crusades. These holy wars of Christen- 
dom against Islam must now be considered. 


I. Explain the following terms: abbot; prior; archbishop; parish; diocese; 
regular clergy; secular clergy; friar; excommunication; simony; interdict; sac- 
rament; "benefit of clergy"; right of "sanctuary"; crosier; miter; tiara; papal 
indulgence; bull; dispensation; tithes; and "Peter's Pence." 2. Mention some 
respects in which the Roman Church in the Middle Ages differed from any reUgious 
society of the present day. 3. "Medieval Europe was a camp with a church in the 
backgrovmd." Comment on this statement. 4. Distinguish between the faiih of 

Significance of the Medieval Church i6i 

the Church, the organization of the Church, and the Church as a force in history. 
5. How did the belief in purgatory strengthen the hold of the Church upon men's 
minds? 6. Name several historic characters who have been made saints. 7. Why 
has the Roman Church always refused to sanction divorce? 8. Compare the 
social effects of excommunication with those of a modern "boycott." g. What 
reasons have led the Church to insist upon celibacy of the clergy? 10. Name four 
famous monks and four famous monasteries. 11. Could monks enter the secular 
clergy and thus become parish priests and bishops? 12. Mention two famous 
popes who had been monks. 13. What justification was found in the New Testa- 
ment {Matthew, x, 8-10) for the organization of the orders of friars? 14. How did 
the Franciscans and Dominicans supplement each other's work? 15. "The monks 
and the friars were the militia of the Church." Comment on this statement. 
16. Who is the present Pope? When and by whom was he elected? In what city 
does he reside? What is his residence called? 17. Why has the medieval Papacy 
been called the "ghost" of the Roman Empire? 18. In what sense is it true that 
the Holy Roman Empire was "neither holy nor Roman, nor an empire"? 


CRUSADES, 1095-12911 

67. Causes of the Crusades 

The series of military expeditions undertaken by the Chris- 
tians of Europe for the purpose of recovering the Holy Land 
Place of the f^om the Moslems have received the name of cru- 
crusades in sades. In their widest aspect the crusades may 
^^°^ be regarded as a renewal of the age-long contest 

between East and West, in which the struggle of Greeks and 
Persians and of Romans and Carthaginians formed the earlier 
episodes. The contest assumed a new character when Europe 
had become Christian and Asia, Mohammedan. It was not 
only two contrasting types of civilization but also two rival 
world religions which in the eighth century faced each other 
under the walls of Constantinople and on the battle-field of 
Tours. Now, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, they 
were to meet again. 

Seven or eight chief crusades are usually enumerated. To 
number them, however, obscures the fact that for nearly two 
Ntimber of hundred years Europe and Asia were engaged in 
the crusades almost constant warfare. Throughout this period 
there was a continuous movement of crusaders to and from the 
Moslem possessions in Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. 

The crusades were first and foremost a spiritual enterprise. 
They sprang from the pilgrimages which Christians had long 

™, . been accustomed to make to the scenes of Christ's 

Pilgmnages , , . j r i 

to the life on earth. Men considered it a wonderful 

Holy Land pj-iyilege to see the cave in which He was born, 
to kiss the spot where He died, and to kneel in prayer at His 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xii, "Richard the 
Lion-hearted and the Third Crusade"; chapter xiii, "The Fourth Crusade and 
the Capture of Constantinople." 


Causes of the Crusades 


tomb. The eleventh century saw an increased zeal for pil- 
grimages, and from this time travelers to the Holy Land were 
very numerous. For greater security they often joined them- 
selves in companies and marched under arms. It needed 
little to transform such pilgrims into crusaders. 

The Arab conquest 
of the Holy Land had 
not inter- Abuse of 

rupted the S'fs^fjuk' 
Stream of Turks 
pilgrims, for the early 
caKphs were more 
tolerant of unbelievers 
than Christian em- 
perors of heretics. 
But after the coming 
of the Seljuk Turks 
into the East, pilgrim- 
ages became more 
difficult and dan- 
gerous. The Seljuks 
were a ruder people 
than the Arabs whom 

they displaced, and in their fanatic zeal for Islam were not 
inclined to treat the Christians with consideration. Many 
tales floated back to Europe of the outrages committed on the 
pilgrims and on the sacred shrines venerated by all Christen- 
dom. Such stories, which lost nothing in the telling, aroused 
a storm of indignation throughout Europe and awakened the 
desire to rescue the Holy Land from " infidels." 

But the crusades were not simply an expression of the simple 
faith of the Middle Ages. Something more than religious 
enthusiasm sent an unending procession of sol- 
diers along the highways of Europe and over the 
trackless wastes of Asia Minor to Jerusalem. The 
crusades, in fact, appealed strongly to the warlike instincts of 
the feudal nobles. They saw in an expedition against the 

Combat between Crusaders and Moslems 

A picture in an eleventh-century window, formerly 
in the church of St. Denis, near Paris. 

The crusades 
and the 
upper classes 

164 The Crusades 

East an unequaled opportunity for acquiring fame, riches, 
lands, and power. The" Normans were especially stirred by 
the prospect of adventure and plunder which the crusading 
movement opened up. By the end of the eleventh century 
they had established themselves in southern Italy and Sicily, 
from which they now looked across the Mediterranean for 
further lands to conquer.^ Norman knights formed a very 
large element in several of the crusaders' armies. 

The crusades also attracted the lower classes. So great 
was the misery of the common people in medieval Europe that 
The lower ^^^ them it seemed not a hardship, but rather a 
classes and relief, to leave their homes in order to better them- 

e crusa es ggjygg abroad. Famine and pestilence, poverty 
and oppression, drove them to emigrate hopefully to the golden 
East. ' 

The Church, in order to foster the crusades, promised both 
religious and secular benefits to those who took part in them. 
Privileges of A warrior of the Cross was to enjoy forgiveness of 
crusaders ^dj j^^g pa^sj- gins. If he died fighting for the faith, 
he was assured of an immediate entrance to the joys of Paradise. 
The Church also freed him from paying interest on his debts 
and threatened with excommunication any one who molested 
his wife, his children, or his property. 

68. First Crusade, 1095-1099 

The signal for the First Crusade was given by the conquests 
of the Seljuk Turks.^ These barbarians, at first the mercenaries 
Occasion of ^^^ thtn the masters of the Abbasid caliphs, in- 
the First fused fresh energy into Islam. They began a 

^^ ^ new era of Mohammedan expansion by winning 

almost the whole of Asia Minor from the Roman Empire in 
the East. One of their leaders established himself at Nicaea, 
the scene of the first Church Council, and founded the sul- 
tanate of Rum (Rome). 
. The presence of the Seljuks so close to Constantinople formed 

1 See page 112. 2 See pages 36 and 82. 

First Crusade 165 

a standing menace to all Europe. The emperor, Alexius I, 
on succeeding to the throne toward the close of ^ppgai of 
the eleventh century, took steps to expel the in- emperor to 
vaders. He could not draw on the hardy tribes ^°^® 
of Asia Minor for the soldiers he needed, but with reinforce- 
ments from the West he hoped to recover the lost provinces of 
the empire. Accordingly, Alexius sent an embassy to Pope 
Urban II, the successor of Gregory VII, requesting aid. The 
fact that the emperor appealed to the pope, rather than to any 
king, shows what a high place the Papacy then held in the 
affairs of Europe. 

To the appeal of Alexius, Urban lent a willing ear. He sum- 
moned a great council of clergy and nobles to meet at Cler- 
mont in France. Here, in an address which, council of 
measured by its results, was the most momentous Clermont, 
recorded in history, Pope Urban preached the 
First Crusade. He said little about the dangers which threat- 
ened the Roman Empire in the East from the Turks, but dwelt 
chiefly on the wretched condition of the Holy Land, with its 
churches polluted by unbelievers and its Christian inhabitants 
tortured and enslaved. Then, turning to the proud knights who 
stood by, Urban called upoA them to abandon their wicked 
practice of private warfare and take up arms, instead, against 
the infidel. '^Christ Himself," he cried, "will be your leader, 
when, like the Israelites of old, you fight for Jerusalem. . . . 
Start upon the way to the Holy Sepulcher; wrench the land 
from the accursed race, and subdue it yourselves. Thus shall 
you spoil your foes of their wealth and return home victorious, 
or, purpled with your own blood, receive an everlasting reward." 

Urban's trumpet call to action met an instant response. 
From the assembled host there went up, as it were, a single 
shout: *^God wills it! God wills it!" "It is, in "God wills 
truth. His will," answered Urban, "and let these **•" 
words be your war cry when you unsheath your swords against 
the enemy." Then man after man pressed forward to receive 
the badge of a crusader, a cross of red cloth. ^ It was to be worn 

^ Hence the name "crusades," from Latin crux, Old French crois, a "cross." 


The Crusades 

on the breast, when the crusader went forth, and on the back, 
when he returned. 

The months which followed the Council of Clermont were 
marked by an epidemic of rehgious excitement in western 
p lude to Europe. Popular preachers everywhere took up 
the First the cry "God wills it!" and urged their hearers 

Crusade ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Jerusalem. A monk named Peter the 

Hermit aroused large parts of France with his passionate elo- 

' "Mosque of Omar," Jerusalem 

More correctly called the Dome of the Rock. It was erected in 691, but many 
restorations have been made since that date. The walls enclosing the entire structure 
were built in the ninth century, and the dome is attributed to Saladin (1189). This build- 
ing, with its brilliant tiles covering the walls and its beautiful stained glass, is a fine example 
of Mohammedan architecture. 

quence, as he rode from town, to town, carrying a huge cross 
before him and preaching to vast crowds. Without waiting 
for the main body of nobles, which was to assemble at Con- 
stantinople in the summer of 1096, a horde of poor men, women, 
and children set out, unorganized and almost unarmed, on the 
road to the Holy Land. One of these crusading bands, led by 
Peter the Hermit, managed to reach Constantinople, after 
suffering terrible hardships. The emperor Alexius sent his 
ragged allies as quickly as possible to Asia Minor, where most 
of them were slaughtered by the Turks. 

First Crusade 167 

Meanwhile real armies were gathering in the West. Recruits 
came in greater numbers from France than from any other 
country, a circumstance which resulted in the The main 
crusaders being generally called ''Franks" by their cmsade 
Moslem foes. They had no single commander, but each con- 
tingent set out for Constantinople by its own route and at its 
own time.^ 

The crusaders included among their leaders some of the most 
distinguished- representatives of European knighthood. Count 
Raymond of Toulouse headed a band of volun- Leaders of 
teers from Provence in southern France. Godfrey ^^ crusade 
of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin commanded a force of 
French and Germans from the Rhinelands. Normandy sent 
Robert, William the Conqueror's eldest son. The Normans 
from Italy and Sicily were led by Bohemond, a son of Robert 
Guiscard, and by his nephew Tancred. 

Though the crusaders probably did not number more than 
fifty thousand fighting men, the disunion which prevailed 
among the Turks favored the success of their 
enterprise. With some assistance from the eastern crusaders in 
emperor they captured Nicaea, overran Asia Asia Minor 
Minor, and at length reached Antioch, the key to 
northern Syria. The city fell after a siege of seven months, but 
the crusaders were scarcely within the walls before they found 
themselves besieged by a large Turkish army. The crusaders 
were now in a desperate plight: famine wasted their ranks; 
many soldiers deserted; and Alexius disappointed all hope of 
rescue. The news of the discovery in an Antioch church of 
the Holy Lance which had pierced the Savior's side restored 
their drooping spirits. The whole army issued forth from 
the city, bearing the relic as a standard, and drove the Turks 
in headlong flight. This victory opened the road to Jerusalem. 

Reduced now to perhaps one-fourth of their original numbers, 
the crusaders advanced slowly to the city which formed the 
goal of all their efforts. Before attacking it they marched 
barefoot in religious procession around the walls, with Peter 

^ For the routes followed by the crusaders see the map between pages 170-171. 


The Crusades 

the Hermit at their head. Then came the grand assault. 
Ca ture of Godfrey of Bouillon and Tancred were among the 
Jerusalem, first to mount the ramparts. Once inside the city, 
the crusaders massacred their enemies without 
mercy. Afterwards, we are told, they went "rejoicing, nay for 
excess of joy weeping, to the tomb of our Savior to adore and 
give thanks." 

69. Crusaders' States in Syria 

After the capture of Jerusalem 

the crusaders met to elect a king. 

j^^^ Their choice fell upon 

Kingdom of Godfrey of Bouillon. 
Jerusalem ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ 

crown of gold in the city where 
Christ had worn a crown of 
thorns and accepted, instead, the 
modest title of "Protector of the 
Holy Sepulcher." ^ Godfrey died 
tJie next year and his brother 
Baldwin who succeeded him, being 
less scrupulous, was crowned king 
at Bethlehem. The new kingdom 
contained nearly a score of fiefs, 
whose lords made war, admin- 
istered justice, and coined money 
like independent rulers. The main 
features of European feudahsm 
were thus transplanted to Asiatic 
Crusaders' States in Syria ^j^^ winning of Jerusalem and 

the district about it formed hardly more than a preliminary 
stage in the conquest of Syria. Much fighting had to take place 

1 The emperor Constantine caused a stately church to be erected on the sup- 
posed site of Christ's tomb. This church of the Holy Sepulcher was practically 

County of Edessa 

destroyed by the Moslems, early in the eleventh century, 
and enlarged the structure, which still stands. 

The crusaders restored 

Crusaders' States in Syria 


before the crusaders could establish themselves firmly in 
the country. Instead of founding one strong other 
power in Syria, they split up their possessions into crusaders' 
three small states centering about Tripoli, ^***®® 
Antioch, and Edessa. These states owed allegiance to the 
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 

The abihty of the crusaders to maintain themselves for many 
years in the Holy Land was largely due 
to the foundation of two military-religious 
orders. The members were MiUtary- 
both monks and knights; religious 
that is, to the monastic vows 
of chastity, poverty, and obedience they 
added a fourth vow, which bound them to 
protect pilgrims and fight the infidels. 
Such a combination of religion and war- 
fare made a strong appeal to the medie- 
val mind. 

The Hospitalers, the first of these 
orders, grew out of a brotherhood for 
the care of sick pilgrims in a Hospitalers 
hospital at Jerusalem. Many and Templars 
knights joined the organization, which 
soon proved to be very useful in defend- 
ing the Holy Land. Even more impor- 
tant were the Templars, so called because 
their headquarters in Jerusalem lay near 
the site of Solomon's Temple. Both 
orders built many castles in Syria, the 
remains of which still impress the be- 
holder. They established numerous 
branches in Europe and, from presents 
and legacies, acquired vast wealth. The Templars were dis- 
banded in the fourteenth century, but the Hospitalers con- 
tinued to fight valiantly against the Turks long after the close 
of the crusading movement.^ 

' The order of Hospitalers, now known as the "Knights of Malta," still survives 
in several European countries. 

Effigy of a Knight 

Temple Church, London 
Shows the kind of armor 
worn between iigo and 


170 The Crusades 

The depleted ranks of the crusaders were constantly filled 
by fresh bands of pilgrim knights who visited Palestine to pray 
Christian and ^^ ^^^ Holy Sepulcher and have a taste of fighting, 
infidel in the In spite of Constant border warfare, much trade 

°^ *° and friendly intercourse prevailed between Chris- 
tians and Moslems. They learned to respect one another both 
as foes and neighbors. The crusaders' states in Syria became, 
like Spain ^ and Sicily ,2 a meeting-place of East and West. 

70. Second Crusade, 1147-1149, and Third Crusade, 

The success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been 
largely due to the disunion among their enemies. But the 
Origin of the Moslems learned in time the value of united action, 
Second and at length succeeded in capturing Edessa, one 

^^^ ® of the principal Christian outposts in the East. 

The fall of the city, followed by the loss of the entire county 
of Edessa, aroused western Europe to the danger which threat- 
ened the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, and led to another 
crusading enterprise. 

The apostle of the Second Crusade was the great abbot of 
Clairvaux, St. Bernard.^ Scenes of the wildest enthusiasm 
Preaching of marked his preaching. When the churches were 
St. Bernard ^q^ large enough to hold the crowds which flocked 
to hear him, he spoke from platforms erected in the fields. In 
addition to many princes and lesser nobles, two monarchs, 
Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, assumed the 
blood-red cross of a crusader. 

The Second Crusade, though begun under the most favorable 
auspices, had an unhappy ending. Of the host that set out 
Failure of from Europe, only a few thousands escaped an- 
the Second nihilation in Asia Minor at the hands of the 
rusa e Turks. Louis and Conrad, with the remnants of 

their armies, made a joint attack on Damascus, bufliad to 
raise the siege after a few days. This closed the crusade. As 
a chronicler of the expedition remarked, "having practically 
accomplished nothing, the inglorious ones returned home." 

1 See page 85. 2 gee page 112. ^ gee page 146. 


^ 1202-1204 A.D. 

First crusade, 1096 - 1099 
Second crusade, 1147 - 1149 
Third crusade, 1189 - 1192 
Fourth crusade, 1202 - 1204 
Scale of Miles 

C.= County 
D.= Duchy 
Dom.= Dominion 


Longitude West 

East from Greenwich 

Second and Third Crusades 171 

Not many years after the Second Crusade, the Moslem world 
found in the famous Saladin a leader for a holy war against the 

Christians. Saladin in character was a typical ^ , , 

•^ ^ Saladin 

Mohammedan, very devout in prayers and fast- 
ing, fiercely hostile toward unbelievers, and full of the pride of 
race. To these qualities he added a kindliness and humanity 
not surpassed, if equaled, by any of his Christian foes. He 
lives in eastern history and legend as the hero who stemmed, 
once for all, the tide of European conquest in Asia. 

Having made himself sultan of Egypt, Saladin united the 
Moslems of Syria under his sway and then advanced against 
the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Christians 
met him in a great battle near the Lake of Galilee. Jerusalem 
It ended in the rout of their army and the capture J^ ^*^***^°' 
of their king. Even the Holy Cross, which they 
had carried in the midst of the fight, became the spoil of the 
conqueror. Saladin quickly reaped the fruits of victory. The 
Christian cities of Syria opened their gates to him, and at last 
Jerusalem itself surrendered after a short siege. Little now 
remained of the possessions which the crusaders had won in 
the East. 

The news of the taking of Jerusalem spread consternation 

throughout western Christendom. The cry for another crusade 

arose on all sides. Once more thousands of men ^, . ^ 

sewed the cross in gold, or silk, or cloth upon their Crusade 

garments and set out for the Holy Land. When JJI^^^®^' 

the three greatest rulers of Europe — Philip 

Augustus,^ king of France, Richard I, king of England, and 

the German emperor, Frederick Barbarossa ^ — assumed the 

cross, it seemed that nothing could prevent the restoration of 

Christian supremacy in Syria. 

The Germans under Frederick Barbarossa were the first to 

start. This great emperor was now nearly seventy Death of 

years old, yet age had not lessened his crusading Barbarossa, 

zeal. He took the overland route and after 1190 

much hard fighting reached southern Asia Minor. Here, 

1 See page 157. 2 See page 156. 


The Crusades 

however, he was drowned, while trying to cross a swollen 
stream. Many of his discouraged fol- 
lowers at once returned to Germany; 
a few of them, however, pressed on 
and joined the other crusaders before 
the walls of Acre. 

The expedition of the French and 
English achieved little. Philip and 
Acre cap- Richard, who came by sea, 

tured by captured Acre after a hard 

PMip and . ^ 

Richard, Siege, but their quarrels 

^^^^ prevented them from fol- 

lowing up this initial success. Philip 
soon went home, leaving the further 
conduct of the crusade in Richard's 

The English king remained four- 
teen months longer in the Holy Land. 
His campaigns during this 
in the time gained for him the 

?.n7h^1?' title of "Lion-hearted," 1 

1191-1192 I,- I, I, . 1 

by which he is always 
known. He had many adventures 
and performed knightly exploits with- 
out number, but could not capture 
Jerusalem. Tradition declares that 
when, during a truce, some crusaders 
went up to Jerusalem, Richard refused 
to accompany them, saying that he 
would not enter as a pilgrim the city 
which he could not rescue as a con- 
queror. He and Saladin finally 
concluded a treaty which permitted 
Christians to visit Jerusalem without paying tribute. Richard 
then set sail for England, and with his departure from the 
Holy Land the Third Crusade came to an end. 

1 In French Cceur-de-Lion. 

Richard I in Prison 

From an illuminated manuscript 
of the thirteenth century. King 
Richard on his return from the 
Holy Land was shipwrecked off 
the coast of the Adriatic. At- 
tempting to travel through Austria 
in disguise, he was captured by 
the duke of Austria, whom he had 
offended at the siege of Acre. 
The king regained his liberty only 
by paying a ransom equivalent 
to more than twice the annual 
revenues of England. 

Fourth Crusade 173 

71. Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Constan- 
tinople, 1202-1261 

The real author of the Fourth Crusade was the famous pope, 

Innocent III.^ Young, enthusiastic, and ambitious for the 

glory of the Papacy, he revived the plans of ^ 

1 TT , 1 . , r Innocent III 

Urban II and sought once more to unite the forces and the 

of Christendom against Islam. No emperor or Fourth 

11- 1 1 r Crusade 

kmg answered his summons, but a number of 

knights (chiefly French) took the crusader's vow. 

The leaders of the enterprise decided to make Egypt their 
objective point, since that country was then the center of the 
Moslem power. Accordingly, the crusaders pro- ^j^^ ^^_ 
ceeded to Venice, for the purpose -of securing saders and 
transportation across the Mediterranean. The 
Venetians agreed to furnish the necessary ships only on condition 
that the crusaders first seize Zara on the eastern coast of the 
Adriatic. Zara was a Christian city, but it was also a naval 
and commercial rival of Venice. In spite of the pope's protests, 
the crusaders besieged and captured the place. Even then they 
did not proceed against the Moslems. The Venetians per- 
suaded them to turn their arms against Constantinople. Thus 
it happened that these soldiers of the Cross, pledged to war 
with the Moslems, attacked a Christian city, which for centuries 
had formed the chief bulwark of Europe against the Arab and 
the Turk. 

The crusaders — now better styled the invaders — took 
Constantinople by storm. No 'infidels" could have treated 
in worse fashion this home of ancient civilization. ^^^^^ ^^ q^^_ 
They burned down a great part of it; they slaugh- stantinople, 
tered the inhabitants; they wantonly destroyed 
monuments, statues, paintings, and manuscripts — the ac- 
cumulation of a thousand years. Much of the movable wealth 
they carried away. Never, declared an eye-witness of the 
scene, had there been such plunder since the world began. 

The victors hastened to divide between them the lands of 

^ See page 157. 


The Crusades 

Empire of 
nople, 1204- 

the Roman Empire in the East. Venice gained some districts 
in Greece, together with nearly all the iEgean 
islands. The chief crusaders formed part of the 
remaining territory into the Latin Empire of 
Constantinople. It was organized in fiefs, after 

the feudal manner. There was a prince of Achaia, a duke 

of Athens, a marquis of 

Corinth, and a count of 
Thebes. Large districts, 
both in Europe and Asia, 
did not acknowledge, how- 
ever, these ''Latin" rulers. 
The new empire lived less 
than sixty years. At the 
end of this time the Greeks 
returned to power. 

Constantinople, after the 
Fourth Crusade, declined 
in strength 
and could no 
longer cope 
with the bar- 
barians menacing it. Two 
centuries later the city fell 
an easy victim to the 
Turks. The responsibility 
for the disaster which gave 
the Turks a foothold in 
Europe rests on the heads of the Venetians and the French 
nobles. Their greed and lust for power turned the Fourth 
Crusade into a political adventure. 

The so-called Children's Crusade illustrates at once the reh- 
gious enthusiasm and misdirected zeal which marked the whole 
The Children's Crusading movement. Thousands of French chil- 
Crusade, dren assembled in bands and marched through 


the towns and villages, carrying banners, candles, 
and crosses, and singing, "Lord God, exalt Christianity. Lord 

of the Fourth 

"The Last Crusade" 

Richard I Gooking down on the Holy City): 
" My dream comes true." A cartoon which ap- 
peared in Punch, Dec. ig, 1917, at the time of 
the British capture of Jerusalem. 

Results of the Crusades 175 

God, restore to us the true Cross." The children could not 
be restrained at first, but finally hunger compelled them to 
return home. In Germany, a lad named Nicholas really did 
succeed in launching a crusade. He led a mixed multitude 
of men and women, boys and girls over the Alps into Italy, 
where they expected to take ship for Palestine. But many 
perished of hardships, many were sold into slavery, and only a 
few ever saw their homes again. "These children," Pope 
Innocent III declared, "put us to shame; while we sleep they 
rush to recover the Holy Land." 

The crusading movement came to an end by the close of the 
thirteenth century. The emperor Frederick II ^ for a short 
time recovered Jerusalem by a treaty, but in 1244 End of the 
the Holy City became again a possession of the crusades 
Moslems. Acre, the last Christian post in Syria, fell in 1291, 
and with this event the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased 
to exist. The Hospitalers, or Knights of St. John, still kept 
possession of the important islands of Cyprus and Rhodes, 
which long served as a barrier to Moslem expansion over the 

72. Results of the Crusades 

The crusades, judged by what they set out to accomplish, 
must be accounted a complete failure. After two hundred 
years of conflict, after a great expenditure of wealth Failure of 
and human lives, the Holy Land remained in *^® crusades 
Moslem hands. It is true that the First Crusade did help, by 
the conquest of Syria, to check the advance of the Turks toward 
Constantinople. But even this benefit was more than undone 
by the weakening of the Roman Empire in the East as a result 
of the Fourth Crusade. 

Of the many reasons for the failure of the crusades, three 
require special consideration. In the first place, -^j^ ^^ 
there was the inability of eastern and western crusades 
Europe to cooperate in supporting the holy wars. ® 
A united Christendom might well have been invincible, but 

^ See page 158. 

176 The Crusades 

the bitter antagonism between the Greek and Roman churches 
effectually prevented all unity of action. The emperors at 
Constantinople, after the First Crusade, rarely assisted the 
crusaders and often secretly hindered them. In the second 
place, the lack of sea-power, as seen in the earher crusades, 
worked against their success. Instead of being able to go by 
water directly to Syria, it was necessary to follow the long, over- 
land route from France or Germany through Hungary, Bul- 
garia, the territory of the Roman Empire in the East, and the 
deserts and mountains of Asia Minor. The armies that reached 
their destination after this toilsome march were in no condition 
for effective campaigning. In the third place, the crusaders 
were never numerous enough to colonize so large a country as 
Syria and absorb its Moslem population. They conquered 
part of Syria in the First Crusade, but could not hold it per- 
manently in the face of determined resistance. 

In spite of these and other reasons, the Christians of Europe 
might have continued much longer their efforts to recover the 
Wh the -^^^y Land, had they not lost faith in the move- 

crusades ment. But after two centuries the old crusading 

ceased enthusiasm died out, the old ideal of the crusade 

as "the way of God" lost its spell. Men had begun to think 
less of winning future salvation by visits to distant shrines and 
to think more of their present duties to the world about them. 
They came to believe that Jerusalem could best be won as 
Christ and the Apostles had won it — "by love, by prayers, 
and by the shedding of tears." 

The crusades could not fail to affect in many ways the life 
of western Europe. For instance, they helped to undermine 
Influence of feudalism. Thousands of barons and knights mort- 
the crusades gaged or sold their lands in order to raise money 
on feudaUsm ^^^ ^ crusading expedition. Thousands more per- 
ished in Syria, and their estates, through failure of heirs, 
reverted to the crown. Moreover, private warfare, that curse 
of the Middle Ages, also tended to die out with the departure 
for the Holy Land of so many turbulent feudal lords. Their 
decUne in both numbers and influence, and the corresponding 

Results of the Crusades 177 

growth of the royal authority, may best be traced in the changes 
that came about in France, the original home of the crusading 

One of the most important effects of the crusades was on 
commerce. They created a constant demand for the trans- 
portation of men and suppUes, encouraged ship- 
building, and extended the market for eastern and Medi- 

wares in Europe. The products of Damascus, terranean 

Mosul, Alexandria^ Cairo, and other great cities 

were carried across the Mediterranean to the Italian seaports, 
whence they found their way into all European lands. The 
elegance of the Orient, with its silks, tapestries, precious stones, 
perfumes, spices, pearls, and ivory, was so enchanting that an 
enthusiastic crusader called it "the vestibule of Paradise." 

Finally, it must be noted how much the crusades contributed 
to intellectual and social progress. They brought the inhab- 
itants of western Europe into close relations with 

. , . . The crusades 

one another, with their fellow Christians of the and 

Roman Empire in the East, and with the natives European 

of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. The intercourse 

between Christians and Moslems was particularly stimulating, 
because the East at this time surpassed the West in civiliza- 
tion. The crusaders enjoyed the advantages which come from 
travel in strange lands and among unfamiliar peoples. They 
went out from their castles or. villages to see great cities, marble 
palaces, superb dresses, and elegant manners; they returned 
with finer tastes, broader ideas, and wider sympathies. The 
crusades opened up a new world. 

When all is said, the crusades remain one of the most remark- 
able movements in history. They exhibited the nations of 
western Europe for the first time making a united significance 
effort for a common end. The crusaders were not of the 
hired soldiers, but volunteers, who, while the re- ^^^^ ^^ 
Hgious fervor lasted, gladly abandoned their homes and faced 
hardship and death in pursuit of a spiritual ideal. They failed 
to accomplish their purpose, yet humanity is the richer for the 
memory of their heroism and chivalry. 

178 The Crusades 


I . On an outline map indicate Europe and the Mediterranean lands by religions, 
about 1 100. 2. On an outline map indicate the routes of the First and the Third 
Crusades. 3. Locate on the map the following places: Clermont; Acre; Antioch; 
Zara; Edessa; and Damascus. 4. Identify the following dates: 1204; 1095; 
1096; and 1 291. 5. What parts of Europe had not been Christianized at the time 
of the First Crusade? 6. Write a short essay describing the imaginary experiences 
of a crusader to the Holy Land. 7. Mention some instances which illustrate the 
religious enthusiasm of the crusaders. 8. Compare the Mohammedan pilgrimage 
to Mecca with the pilgrimages of Christians to Jerusalem in the Middle Ages. 

9. Compare the Christian crusade with the Mohammedan jihad, or holy war. 

10. How did the expression, a "red-cross knight," arise? 11. Why is the Second 
Crusade often called "St. Bernard's Crusade"? 12. Why has the Third Crusade 
been called "the most interesting international expedition of the Middle Ages"? 
13. Would the crusaders in 1204 have attacked Constantinople, if the schism of 
1054 had not occurred? 14. "Mixture, or at least contact of races, is essential to 
progress." How do the crusades illustrate the truth of this statement? 15. Were 
the crusades the only means by which western Europe was brought in contact with 
Moslem civilization? 


73. The Mongols 

The extensive steppes in the middle and north of Asia have 
formed, for thousands of years, the abode of nomadic peoples 
belonging to the Yellow race. In prehistoric ^j^^ Asiatic 
times they spread over northern Europe, but they counter- 
were gradually supplanted by white-skinned Indo- * ^^ 
Europeans, until now only remnants of them exist, such as the 
Finns and Lapps. In later ages history records how the Huns, 
the Bulgarians, and the Magyars have poured into Europe, 
spreading terror and destruction in their path. These invaders 
were followed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by the 
even more terrible Mongols and Ottoman Turks. Their inroads 
might well be described as Asia's reply to the crusades, as an 
Asiatic counter-attack upon Europe. 

The Mongols, who have given their name to the entire race 

of yellow-skinned peoples, now chiefly occupy the high plateau 

bounded on the north by Siberia, on the south by ,, 

China, on the east by Manchuria, and on the west 

by Turkestan. Although the greater part of this area consists 

of the Gobi desert, there are many oases and pastures available 

to the inhabitants at different seasons of the year. Hence the 

principal occupation of the Mongols has always been cattle 

breeding, and their horses, oxen, sheep, and camels have always 

furnished them with food and clothing. 

Like most nomads the Mongols dwell in tents, each family 

often by itself. Severe simplicity is the rule of life, for property 

consists of little more than one's flocks and herds, Mongol life 

clothes, and weapons. The modern Mongols are ^^'^ character 

a peaceable, kindly folk, who have adopted from Tibet a 


i8o The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 

debased form of Buddhism, but the Mongols of the thirteenth 
century in rehgion and morals were scarcely above the level of 
savagery. To ruthless cruelty and passion for plunder they 
added an efficiency in warfare which enabled them, within 
fifty years, to overrun much of Asia and the eastern part of 
The daily life of the Mongols was a training school for war. 


On the wagon was placed a sort of hut or pavilion made of wands bound together with 
narrow thongs. The structure was then covered with felt or cloth and provided with 
latticed windows. Hut-wagons, being very light, were sometimes of enormous size. 

Constant practice in riding, scouting, and the use of arms made 
Miiit every man a soldier. The words with which an 

prowess of ancient Greek historian described the Scythians 
the Mongols ^^^^^^^ perfectly to the Mongols: ''Having neither 
cities nor forts, and carrying their dweUings with them wherever 
they go; accustomed, moreover, one and all, to shoot from 
horseback; and hving not by husbandry but on their cattle, 
their wagons the only houses that they possess, how can they 
fail of being irresistible?" ^ 

74. Conquests of the Mongols, 1206-1405 

The Mongols had dwelt for ages in scattered tribes throughout 
their Asiatic wilderness, engaged in petty struggles with one 

1 Herodotus, iv, 46. 

Conquests of the Mongols 


another for cattle and pasture lands. It was the celebrated 
Jenghiz Khan/ chief of one of the tribes, who jenghiz 
brought them all under his authority and then led ^^^ 
them to the conquest of the world. Of him it may be said 
with truth that he had 
the most victorious of 
military careers, and that 
he constructed the most 
extensive empire known 
to history. Had Jenghiz 
possessed the ability of 
a statesman, he would 
have taken a place by 
the side of Alexander the 
Great and Julius Caesar. 
Jenghiz first sent the 
Mongol armies, which 
contained many Mongol 
Turkish allies, ^"^^^^^ 


over the Great jenghiz, 

Wall and into 1206-1227 

the fertile plains of China. 

All the northern half of Tomb of Timur at Samarkand 

the country was quickly Samarkand in Russian Central Asia became 

overrun. Then Tenghiz Timur's capital in 1369. The city was once a 

, J J • center of Mohammedan wealth and culture, famous 

turned westward and m- for its beautiful mosques, palaces, and colleges. The 

Vaded Turkestan and Gur-Amir, or tomb of Timur, consists of a chapel, 

^ . _ . crowned by a dome and inclosed by a wall. Time 

r erSia. oeven centuries and earthquakes have greatly injured this fine build- 

have not sufficed to repair ^°S- ^he remains of Timur lie here under a huge 

block of jade. 

the damage which the 

Mongols wrought in these once-prosperous lands. The great 
cities of Bokhara, Samarkand, Merv, and Herat, long centers 
of Moslem culture, were pillaged and burned, and their inhabit- 
ants were put to the sword. Still further conquests enlarged 
the empire, which at the death of Jenghiz stretched from the 
Dnieper River to the China Sea. 

1 "The Very Mighty King." • 

i82 The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 

The Mongols in China and India 183 

The Mongol dominions in the thirteenth century were in- 
creased by the addition of Korea, southern China, Tibet, and 
Mesopotamia, as well as the greater part of Asia Mongol 
Minor and Russia. Japan repulsed the Mongol Empire 

, . r A . , under the 

hordes, but at the other extremity of Asia they successors 
captured Bagdad, sacked the city, and brought °^ Jenghiz 
the Abbasid caliphate to an end.^ The Mongol realm was very 
loosely organized, however, and during the fourteenth century 
it fell apart into a number of independent states, or khanates. 
It was reserved for another renowned Oriental monarch, 
Timur the Lame,- to restore the empire of Jenghiz Khan. His 
biographers traced his descent from that famous Reign of 
Mongol, but Timur was a Turk and an adherent Timur, 
of Islam. He has come down to us as perhaps the 
most terrible personification in history of the evil spirit of con- 
quest. Such distant regions as India, Syria, Armenia, Asia 
Minor, and Russia were traversed by Timur's soldiers, who left 
behind them only the smoking ruins of a thousand cities and 
abominable trophies in the shape of columns or pyramids of 
human heads. Timur died in his seventieth year, while lead- 
ing his troops against China, and the extensive empire which he 
had built up in Asia soon crumbled to pieces. 

75. The Mongols in China and India 

The Mongols ruled over China for about one hundred and 
fifty years. During this period they became thoroughly imbued 
with Chinese culture. '' China," said an old writer, Mongol sway 
''is a sea that salts all the rivers flowing into it." ^" ^^"* 
The most eminent of the Mongol emperors was Jenghiz Khan's 
grandson, Kublai. He built a new capital, which in medieval 
times was known as Cambaluc and is now called Peking. While 
Kublai was on the throne, the Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, 
visited China, and he describes in glowing colors the virtues 
and glories of the "Great Khan." There appears to have been 
considerable trade between Europe and China at this time, and 
Franciscan missionaries and papal legates penetrated to the 

^ See page 82. ^ Commonly known as Tamerlane. 

1 84 The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 

remote East. After the downfall of the Mongol dynasty, 
China again shut her doors to foreign peoples. All inter- 
course with Europe ceased until the arrival of the Portuguese 
in the sixteenth century.^ 

Northern India, which in earlier ages had witnessed the coming 
of Persian, Macedonian, and Arabian conquerors, did not escape 
Timur and visitations by fresh Asiatic hordes. Timur the 
Baber Lame, at the head of an innumerable host, rushed 

in India down upon the banks of the Indus and the Ganges 

and sacked Delhi, making there a full display of his unrivaled 
ferocity. Timur's invasion left no permanent impress on the 
history of India, but its memory fired the imagination of another 
Turkish chieftain, Baber, a remote descendant of Timur. In 
1525 he invaded India and speedily made himself master of 
the northern part of the country. 

The empire which Baber established in India is known as 
that of the Moguls, an Arabic form of the word Mongol. The 
Empire of Moguls, however, were Turkish in blood and 
the Moguls Mohammedans in reUgion. The Mogul emperors 
reigned in great splendor from their capitals at Delhi and Agra, 
until the decline of their power in the eighteenth century opened 
the way for the British conquest of India. 

76. The Mongols in Eastern Europe 

The location of Russia on the border of Asia exposed that 

country to the full force of the Mongol attack. Jenghiz Khan's 

successors, entering Europe north of the Caspian, 

conquest of swept resistlessly over the Russian plain. Mos- 

Russia, 1237- ^.q^ g^j^^ Kiev fell in quick succession, and before 

long the greater part of Russia was in the hands of 
the Mongols. Wholesale massacres marked their progress. 
**No eye remained open to weep for the dead." 

Still the invaders pressed on. They devastated Hungary, 
driving the Magyar king in panic flight from his realm. They 
overran Poland and defeated the knighthood of Germany in 
a great battle. The European peoples, taken completely by 

1 See page 310. 

The Mongols in Eastern Europe 185 

surprise, could offer no effective resistance to these Asiatics 
who combined superiority in numbers with surpassing general- 
ship. Since the Arab attack in the eighth century invasion of 
L^nnstendom had never been in graver peril. But ^o^a^d and 
the wave of Mongol invasion, which threatened to Se Mongol! 
engulf Europe in barbarism, receded as quickly 1241 
as it came. The Mongols soon abandoned Poland and Hungary 
and retired to their possessions in Russia. 

The ruler of the ^'Golden Horde," as the western section 
of the Mongol Empire was called, continued to be the lord of 
Russia for about two hundred and fifty years 
Russia, throughout this period, was little more "Golden 
than a dependency of Asia. The conquered people ^^''^^" 
were obliged to pay a heavy tribute and to furnish soldiers for 
the Mongol armies. Their princes, also, became vassals of the 
Great Khan. 

^ The Mongols, or ^'Tartars," 1 are usually said to have Oriental- 
ized Russia. It seems clear, however, that they did not inter- 
fere with the language, religion, and laws of their ^, 
subjects. The chief result of the Mongol suprem- inZfce 
acy was to cut off Russia from western Europe '''' ^"^^^* 
just at the time when England, France, Germany, and Italy 
were emerging from the darkness of the early Middle Ages 

The invasion of the Mongols proved to be, indirectly the 
making of the Russian state. Before they came the coiintry 
was a patchwork of rival, and often warring, prin- Rise of 
cipahties. The need of union against the common Muscovy 
enemy welded them together. The principaHty of Muscovy 
so named from the capital city of Moscow, conquered its neigh- 
bors, annexed the important city of Novgorod, whose vast 
possessions stretched from Lapland to the Urals, and finally 
became powerful enough to shake off the Mongol yoke 

The final dehverance of Russia from the Mongols was accom- 
plished by Ivan III, surnamed the Great. He is generally 

and T.^l^w l^^'Tu ^""''^ '''''''^^' ^^'^'^ ^"^ °"^^^^">^ ^PP^i-d to both Mongol 

1 86 The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 


I,ongitude East 50° from 

Russia at the end of the Middle Ages 

regarded as the founder of Russian autocracy, that is, of a per- 
sonal, absolute, and arbitrary government. With a view to 
. strengthening his claim to be the political heir of 

Ivan III, the eastern emperors, Ivan married a niece of the 

last ruler at Constantinople, who had fallen in the 
defense of his capital against the Ottoman Turks. 
Henceforth the Russian monarch described himself as "the new 
Tsar ^ Constantine in the new city of Constan tine,, Moscow." 

1 The title Tsar, or Czar, is supposed to be a contraction of the word Caesar. 

the Great, 

The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests 187 

77. The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests, 1227-1453 

The first appearance of the Ottoman Turks in history dates 
from 1227, the year of Jenghiz Khan's death. In that year 
a small Turkish horde, driven westward from their Rise of the 
central Asian homes by the Mongol advance, settled Ottomans 
in Asia Mijior. There they enjoyed the protection of their 
kinsmen, the Seljuk Turks, and from them accepted Islam. 
As the Seljuk power declined, that of the Ottomans rose in its 
stead. Their chieftain, Othman,^ declared his independence 
about 1300 and became the founder of a new empire. 

The growth of the Ottoman power was almost as rapid as that 
of the Arabs or of the Mongols. During the first half of the 
fourteenth century they firmly established them- ottoman 
selves in northwestern Asia Minor, along the expansion 
beautiful shores washed by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, 
and the Dardanelles. The second half of the same century 
found them in Europe, wresting province after province from 
the feeble hands of the eastern emperors. First came the seizure 
of Gallipoli on the Dardanelles, which long remained the prin- 
cipal Turkish naval station. Then followed the capture of 
Adrianople, where in earlier centuries the Visigoths had de- 
stroyed a Roman army. By 1400 all that remained of the 
Roman Empire in the East was Constantinople and a small 
district in the vicinity of that city. 

The Turks owed much of their success to the famous body 
of troops known as Janizaries.^ These were recruited for the 
most part from Christian children surrendered by The 
their parents as tribute. The Janizaries were edu- Janizaries 
cated in the Moslem faith and received careful instruction 
in the use of arms. Their discipline and fanatic zeal made 
them irresistible on the field of battle. 

Constantinople had never recovered from the blow inflicted 
upon it by the freebooters of the Fourth Crusade. Constantinople 
It was isolated from western Europe by the ad- besieged 
vance of the Turks. Frantic appeals for help brought only 

^ Whence the name Ottoman applied to this branch of the Turks. 
2 A name derived from the Turkish yeni cheri, "new troops." 

i88 The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 

a few ships and soldiers from Genoa and Venice. When in 
1453 the sultan Mohammed II, commanding a large army 
amply supplied with artillery, appeared before the walls, all 
men knew that Constantinople was doomed. 

The defense of the city forms one of the most stirring episodes 
in history. The Christians, not more than eight thousand in 

^ ^ ^ number, were a mere handful compared to the 

Constanti- ' i 1 1 V 1 

nople Ottoman hordes. Yet they held out for nearly 

captured ^^^^ months against every assault. When at 

length the end drew near, the Roman emperor, Constantine 

Palaeologus, a hero 
Worthy of the name he 
bore, went with his fol- 
lowers at midnight to 
Sancta Sophia and there 
in that solemn fane re- 
ceived a last com- 
munion. Before sunrise 
on the following day the 
Turks were within the 
walls. The emperor, re- 
fusing to survive the city 
which he could not save, 
fell in the onrush of the 
Janizaries. Constanti-" 
nople endured a sack of 
three days, during which 
many works of art, previously spared by the crusaders, were 
destroyed. Mohammed II then made a triumphal entry into 
the city and in Sancta Sophia, now stripped of its crosses, 
images, and other Christian emblems, proclaimed the faith of 
the prophet. And so the "Turkish night," as Slavic poets 
named it, descended on this ancient home of civilization. 

The capture of Constantinople is rightly regarded as an 
An epoch- epoch-making event. It meant the end, once for 
making event ^\i^ ^f ^j-^g empire which had served so long as 
the rearguard of Christian civilization, as the bulwark of the 


A medal showing the strong face of the conqueror 
of Constantinople. 

The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests i, 

I go The Mongols and the Ottoman Turks 

West against the East. Europe stood aghast at a calamity 
which she had done so Httle to prevent. The Christian powers 
of the West have been paying dearly, even to our own age, for 
their failure to save New Rome from Moslem hands. 

78. The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe 

The Turks form a small minority among the inhabitants of 
the Balkans. At the present time there are said to be less than 
Nature of one million Turks in southeastern Europe. Even 
Turkish rule about Constantinople the Greeks far outnumber 
them. The Turks from the outset have been, not a nation in 
the proper sense of the word, but rather an army of occupation, 
holding down by force their Christian subjects. 

The people who thus acquired dominion in southeastern 
Europe had become, even at the middle of the fifteenth century. 
The Turks a greatly mixed in blood. Their ancestors were 
mixed people natives of central Asia, but in Europe they inter- 
married freely with their Christian captives and with converts 
from Christianity to Islam. The modern Turks are almost 
entirely European in physique. 

The Bulgarians, who came out of Asia to devastate Europe, 
at length turned Christian, adopted a Slavic speech, and entered 
Isolation of the family of European nations. The Magyars, 
the Turks ^}^q followed them, also made their way into the 
fellowship of Christendom. Quite the opposite was the casQ 
with the Turks. Preserving their Asiatic language and Mos- 
lem faith, they remained in Europe, not a transitory scourge, 
but an abiding oppressor of Christian lands. 

The isolation of the Turks prevented them from assimilat- 
ing the higher culture of the peoples whom they conquered. 
Turkish They have never created anything in science, art, 

^^^astera literature, commerce, or industry. Conquest has 
Europe been the Turks' one business in the world, and 

when they ceased conquering their decline set in. But it was 
not till the end of the seventeenth century that the Turkish 
Empire entered on that downward road which has now led 
to its extinction as a European power. 

The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe 191 


I. On an outline map indicate the extent of the Ottoman Empire in 1453. 
2. Locate these cities: Bokhara; Samarkand; Merv; Herat; Bagdad; Peking; 
Delhi; Kiev; Moscow; and Adrianople. 3. Who were Baber, Kublai Khan, 
Othman, Mohammed II, Constantine Palaeologus, and Ivan the Great? 4. Why 
should the steppes of central and northern Asia have been a nursery of warlike 
peoples? 5. What parts of Asia were not included in the Mongol Empire at its 
greatest extent? 6. Trace on the map (page 182) the further expansion of the 
Mongol Empire after the death of Jenghiz Khan. 7. On the same map indi- 
cate approximately the Christian and Moslem territories overrun by the Mon- 
gols. 8. "Scratch a Russian and you will find a Tartar." What does this mean? 
9. Why did the Mongol conquest of Russia tend to strengthen the sentiment of 
nationality in the Russian people? 10. How did the tsars come to regard themselves 
as the successors of the eastern emperors? 11. Compare the Janizaries with the 
Christian military-religious orders. 12. How was "the victory of the Crescent 
secured by the children of the Cross"? 13. Why were the invasions of the Mongols 
and Ottoman Turks more destructive to civilization than those of the Germans, 
the Arabs, and the Northmen? 14. Enumerate the more important services of 
the Roman Empire in the East to civilization. 


79. Growth of the Nations 

The map of western Europe, that is, of Europe west of the 
great Russian plain and the Balkan peninsula, showed this part 
The new of the continent at the beginning of the twentieth 

nationaUsm century divided among no less than thirteen sepa- 
rate and independent nations. Most of them arose during 
the latter part of the Middle Ages. They have existed so 
long that we now think of the national state as the highest 
type of * human association, forgetting that it has been pre- 
ceded by other forms of pohtical organization, such as the 
Greek republic, the Roman Empire, and the feudal state, and 
that it may be followed some day by an international or 
universal state composed of all civilized peoples. 

These national states succeeded feudahsm. The complete 
establishment of feudahsm in any country meant, as has been 
The national ^^^^' ^^^ division into numerous small communi- 
state and ties, each with a law court, treasury, and army, 
feudahsm g^^j^ ^^ arrangement helped to keep order in an 
age of confusion, but it did not meet the needs of a progressive 
society. In most parts of Europe the feudal states gradually 
gave way to centralized governments ruled by despotic kings. 

A feudal king was often little more than a figurehead, equaled, 
or perhaps surpassed, in power by some of his own vassals. But 
The new in England, France, Spain, and other countries a 

monarchies series of astute and energetic sovereigns were able 
to strengthen their authority at the expense of the nobles. 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xiv, "St. Louis"; 
chapter xv, "Episodes of the Hundred Years' War"; chapter xvi, "Memoirs of a 
French Courtier." 


England under William the Conqueror 193 

They formed permanent armies by insisting that all miHtary 
service should be rendered to themselves and not to the feudal 
lords. They got into their own hands the administration of 
justice. They developed a revenue system, with the taxes 
collected by royal officers and deposited in the royal treasury. 
The kings thus succeeded in creating in each country one 
power which all the inhabitants feared, respected, and obeyed. 
A national state in modern times is keenly conscious of its 
separate existence. All its people usually speak the same 
language and have for their "fatherland" the ^j^^ ^enti- 
warmest feelings of patriotic devotion. In the ment of 
Middle Ages, however, patriotism was commonly "^*^°^* ^^ 
confounded with loyalty to the sovereign, while the differences 
between nations were obscured by the existence of an inter- 
national Church and by the use of Latin as the common language 
of all cultivated persons. The sentiment of nationality arose 
earlier in England than on the Continent, partly owing to the 
insular position of that country, but nowhere did it become 
a very strong influence before the end of the fifteenth century. 

80. England under William the Conqueror, 1066-1087; 
the Norman Kingship 

William the Conqueror had won England by force of arms. 
He ruled it as a despot. Those who resisted him he treated as 
rebels, confiscating their land and presenting it to wiUiam's 
Norman followers. To prevent uprisings he built despotic rule 
a castle in every important town, with garrisons of his own 
soldiers. The Tower of London still stands as an impressive 
memorial of the days of the Conquest. But William did not 
rely on force alone. He sought with success to attach the 
Enghsh to himself by retaining most of their old customs and 
by giving them an enlightened administration of the law. 
"Good peace he made in this land," said the old Anglo-Saxon 
chronicler, "so that a man might travel over the kingdom with 
his bosom full of gold without molestation, and no man durst 
kill another, however great the injury he might have received 
from him." 

194 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

The feudal system on the Continent permitted a powerful 
noble to gather his vassals and make war on the king, whenever 
WiiUam and he chose to do SO. William had been familiar 
feudaUsm ^j^]^ |-]^jg gyjj gide of feudaHsm, both in France 
and in his own duchy of Normandy, and he determined to pre- 
vent its introduction into England. William estabhshed the 

principle that a vassal 
owed his first duty to 
the king and not to 
his immediate lord. 
If a noble rebelled 
and his men followed 
him, they were to be 
treated as traitors. 
Rebellion proved to 
be an especially diffi- 
cult matter in Eng- 
land, since the estates 
which a great lord 
possessed were not all 
in any one place, but 
were scattered about 
the kingdom. A noble 
who planned to revolt 
could be put down 
before he was able to 
collect his retainers 
from the more distant parts of the country. 

The extent of William's authority is illustrated by the survey 
which he had made of the taxable property of the kingdom. 
Domesday Royal commissioners went throughout the length 
and breadth of England to find out how much farm 
land there was in every county, how many land- 
owners there were, and what each man possessed, to the last 
ox or cow or pig. The reports were set down in the famous 
Domesday Book, perhaps so called because one could no more 
appeal from it than from the Last Judgment. A similar census 

The "White Tower" 

Forms part of the Tower of London. Built by 
William the Conqueror. 


Royal Justice and the Common Law 195 

of population and property had never before been taken in the 
Middle Ages. 

Almost at the close of his reign William is said to have sum- 
moned all the landowning men in England to a great meeting 
on Salisbury Plain. They assembled there to ^j^^ SaUsburv 
the number, as it is reported, of sixty thousand Oath, 
and promised "that they would be faithful to 
him against all other men." The Salisbury Oath was a national 
act of homage and allegiance to the king. 

Tcox adem^AKXSf7 V;Jevair* metttf. iomtah ^Icpw 
fl/tuitio rex iUyx'm wpeit^cne: \>iitvi(cnf4'y>^. ita^T 

A Passage from Domesday Book 

Beginning of the entry for Oxford. The handwriting is the beautiful Carolingian minuscule 
which the Norman Conquest introduced into England. The two volumes of Domesday Book 
and the chest in which they were formerly preserved may be seen in the Public Record Office, 

81. England under Henry II, 1154-1189; Royal Justice 
and the Common Law 

A grandson of WilKam the Conqueror, Henry II, was the 
first of the Plantagenet^ family. Henry spent more than half 
of his reign abroad, looking after his extensive Henry ii, 
possessions in France, but this fact did not prevent Plaiitagenet 
him from giving England good government. Three things in 
which all Englishmen take special pride — the courts, the jury 
system, and the Common law — began to take shape during 
Henry's reign. 

Henry, first of all, developed the royal court of justice. 
This had been, at first, simply the court of the king's chief 

1 The name comes from that of the broom plant (Latin planta genesia), a sprig 
of which Henry's father used to wear in his hat. The family is also called Angevin, 
because Henry on his father's side descended from the counts of Anjou in France. 

196 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

6 Longitude 4 West from 2 Greenwich Longitude 2 East from 4 Greenwich 6 

Dominions of the Plantagenets in England and France 

Royal Justice and the Common Law 197 

vassals, corresponding to the local feudal courts. Henry trans- 
formed it from an occasional assembly of warlike nobles into a 
regular body of trained lawyers, and at the same The king's 
time opened its doors to all except serfs. In the *^°"^* 
king's court any freeman could find a justice that was cheaper 
and speedier than that dispensed by the feudal lords. The 
higher courts of England have sprung from this institution. 

Henry also took measures to bring the king's justice directly 
to the people. He sent members of the royal court on circuit 
throughout the kingdom. At least once a year a circuit 
judge was to hold an assembly in each county and Judges 
try such cases as were brought before him. This system of cir- 
cuit judges helped to make the law uniform in all parts of 

The king's court owed much of its popularity to the fact that 
it employed a better form of trying cases than the old ordeal, 
oath-swearing, or judicial duel. Henry introduced Trial by 
a method of jury trial which had long been in use " P®**y j"^y " 
in Normandy. When a case came before the king's judges on 
circuit, they were to select twelve knights, usually neighbors of 
the parties engaged in the dispute, to make an investigation 
and give a ''verdict" ^ as to which side was in the right. These 
selected men bore the name of "jurors," ^ because they swore 
to tell the truth. This method of securing justice applied at 
first only to civil cases, that is, to cases affecting land and 
other forms of property, but later it was extended to persons 
charged with criminal offenses. Thus arose the ''petty jury," 
an institution which nearly all European peoples have borrowed 
from England. 

Another of Henry's innovations developed into the "grand 
jury." Before his time many offenders went unpunished, 
especially if they were so powerful that no private Accusation 
individual dared accuse them. Henry provided by the 
that when the king's justices came to a county ^^^ -""^^ 
court a number of selected men should be put upon their oath 
and required to give the names of any persons whom they knew 

* Latin verum dictum, "a true statement." ^ Latin i«ro, "I take an oath." 

198 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

or believed to be guilty of crimes. Such persons were then 
to be arrested and tried. The "grand jury," as it came to be 
called, thus had the public duty of making accusations, whether 
its members felt any private interest in the matter or not. 

The decisions handed down by the legal experts who com- 
posed the royal court formed the basis of the English system of 
The jurisprudence. It received the name Common 

Common law ig^^ because it grew out of such customs as were 
common to the realm, as distinguished from those which were 
merely local. This law, from Henry II's reign, became so 
widespread and so firmly established that it could not be sup- 
planted by the Roman law followed on the Continent. Carried 
by English colonists across the seas, it has now come to prevail 
throughout a great part of the world. 

82. The Great Charter 

The great Henry, from whose legal reforms EngHsh-speaking 
peoples receive benefit even to-day, was followed by his son 
Richard I Richard, the Lion-hearted crusader. After a 
and John, short reign Richard was succeeded by his brother 
1189-1216 John, a man so cruel, tyrannical, and wicked that 
he is usually regarded as the worst of EngHsh kings. In a war 
with the French ruler, Philip Augustus, John lost Normandy 
and some of the other English possessions on the Continent.^ 
In a dispute with Innocent HI he ended by making an abject 
submission to the Papacy .^ Finally, John's oppressive govern- 
ment provoked a revolt of his Enghsh subjects, and he was 
compelled to grant the famous charter of privileges known as 
Magna Carta. 

The Norman Conquest had made the king so strong that his 
Winning of authority could be resisted only by a union of all 
Magna classes of the people. The feudal lords were 

Carta. 1215 obUged to unite, with the clergy and the com- 
mons,^ in order to save their honor, their estates, and their 

1 See page 209. 2 gee page 158. 

3 A term which refers to all freemen in town and comitry below the rank of 

The Great Charter 199 

heads. Matters came to a crisis in 121 5, when the nobles, 
supported by the archbishop of Canterbury, placed their de- 
mands for reform in writing before the king. John refused 
to make any concessions. The nobles at once formed the 
"army of God and the Holy Church," as it was called, and 
occupied London, thus ranging the townspeople on their side. 
Deserted by all except the hired troops which he had brought 
from the Continent, John was compelled to yield. At Run- 

Extract from the Great Charter 

Fascimile of the opening lines. Four copies of Magna Carta, sealed with the great seal 
of King John, as well as several unsealed copies, are in existence. The British Museum 
possesses two of the sealed copies; the other two belong to the cathedrals of Lincoln and 
Salisbury, respectively. 

nimede on the Thames, not far from Windsor, he set his seal 
to the Great Charter. 

Magna Carta does not profess to be a charter of liberties for 
all Englishmen. Most of its sixty-three clauses merely guaran- 
tee to each member of the coalition against John character 
— nobles, clergy, and commons — those special of Magna 
privileges which the Norman rulers had tried to 
take away. Very little is said in this long document about the 
serfs, who composed probably five-sixths of the population of 
England in the thirteenth century. 

But there are three clauses of Magna Carta which came to 
have a most important part in the history of EngUsh freedom. 

200 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

The first declared that no taxes were to be levied on the 
nobles — besides the three recognized feudal "aids" — except 
Sienificance ^^ consent of the Great Council of the realm, 
of Magna By this clause the nobles compelled the king to 
^*^* secure their approval of any proposed taxation. 

The second set forth that no one was to be arrested, imprisoned, 
or punished in any way, except after a trial by his equals and 
in accordance with the law of the land. The third said simply 
that to no one should justice be sold, denied, or delayed. These 
last two clauses contained the germ of legal principles on which 
the Enghsh people reUed for protection against despotic kings. 
They form a part of our American inheritance from England 
and have passed into the laws of all our states. 

83. Parliament in the Thirteenth Century 

The thirteenth century, which opened so auspiciously with 
the winning of the Great Charter, is also memorable as the 
Henry HI, time when England developed her Parliament ^ 
1216-1272 into something Hke its present form. The first 
steps in parliamentary government were taken during the reign 
of John's son, Henry III. 

It had long been the custom in England in all important 
matters for the ruler to act only with the advice and con- 
sent of his leading men. The Anglo-Saxon kings 
The Wite- , , , . i r i • ttt- 

nagemot and sought the advice and consent of their Witenage- 

the Gre'at mot,^ a body of nobles, royal officers, bishops. 

and abbots. It approved laws, served as a court 

of final appeal, elected a new monarch, and at times deposed 

him. The Witenagemot did not disappear after the Norman 

Conquest. Under the name of the Great Council it continued 

to meet from time to time for consultation with the king. This 

assembly was now to be transformed from a feudal body into a 

parHament representing the entire nation. 

1 The word "parliament," from French parler, "to speak," originally meant a 
talk or conference. Later, the word came to be applied to the body of persons 
assembled for conference. 

2 See page io6 and note i. 

3 5 2. 

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3 3 

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3 a. 5 


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fTg g- 

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202 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

The Great Council, which by one of the provisions of Magna 
Carta had been required to give its consent to the levying of 
Simon de taxes, met quite frequently during Henry Ill's 
ParUament reign. On one occasion, when Henry was in 
1265 urgent need of money and the bishops and lords 

refused to grant it, the king took the significant step of calling 
to the council two knights from each county to declare what 

money they would 
give him. These 
knights, so ran 
Henry's summons, 
were to come "in 
the stead of each 
and all," in other 
words, they were to 
act as representa- 
tives of the coun- 
ties. Then in 1265, 
when the nobles 
were at war with 
the king, a second 
and even more sig- 
nificant step was 
taken. Their 
leader, Simon de 
Montfort, sum- 
moned to the coun- 
cil not only two 
knights from each 

A Queen Eleanor Cross 

After the death of his wife Eleanor, Edward I caused a 
memorial cross to be set up at each place where her funeral cOUntV but 
procession had stopped on its way to London. There were 
originally seven crosses. Of the three that still exist, the 
Geddington cross is the best preserved. It consists of 
three stories and stands on a platform of eight steps. 

two citizens from 
each of the more 
important towns. 
The custom of selecting certain men to act in the name 
and on the behalf of the community had existed during Anglo- 
Saxon times in local government. Representatives of the 
counties had been employed by the Norman kings to assess 

Parliament in the Thirteenth Century 203 

and collect taxes on land and personal property. As we have 
just learned, the "juries" of Henry II also con- ^j^^ jepj-e- 
sisted of such representatives. The EngHsh people, sentative 
in fact, were quite familiar with the idea of repre- ^^^ ^^ 
sentation long before it was applied on a larger scale to Parlia- 

Simon de Montfort's Parliament included only his own sup- 
porters, and hence was not a truly national body. But it made 

a precedent for the future. Thirty years later ,, 

T- 1 1 T n 1 1 TTT . Model 

Edward I called together at Westmmster, now a ParUament" 

part of London, a Parliament which included all ®^ Edward I, 


classes of the people. Here were present earls and 
barons as representatives from the nobility; bishops, abbots, 
and other representatives of the clergy; two knights from every 
county; and two townsmen to represent each town in that 
county. After this time all these classes were regularly sum- 
moned to meet in assembly at Westminster. 

The separation of Parliament into two chambers came in 
the fourteenth century. The House of Lords contained the 
nobles and higher clergy, the House of Commons, Lords and 
the representatives from counties and towns. Commons 
This bicameral arrangement, as it is called, has been followed 
in the parliaments of most modern countries. 

The early English Parhament was not a law-making but a 
tax-voting body. The king would call the two houses in session 
only when he needed their sanction for raising Powers of 
money. Parliament in its turn would refuse to Parliament 
grant supplies until the king had corrected abuses in admin- 
istration or had removed unpopular officials. This control 
of the public purse in time enabled Parliament to grasp other 
powers. It became generally recognized that royal officials 
were responsible to Parliament for their actions, that the king 
himself might be deposed for good cause, and that bills, when 
passed by Parliament and signed by the king, were henceforth 
the law of the land. England thus worked out in the Middle 
Ages a system of parliamentary government which nearly all 
civiHzed nations have held worthy of imitation. 

204 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

84. Expansion of England under Edward I, 1272-1307 

Our narrative has been confined until now to England, which 
forms, together with Wales" and Scotland, the island known as 
The Great Britain. Ireland is the only other important 

British Isles division of the United Kingdom. It was almost 
inevitable that in process of time the British Isles should have 

come under a single govern- 
ment, but political unity has 
not yet fused English, Welsh, 
Scotch, and Irish into a single 

The conquest of Britain by 
the Anglo-Saxons drove many 

of the Welsh, as 
Wales . 

the invaders called 

the Britons, into the western 
part of the island. This district, 
henceforth known as Wales, 
was one of the last strongholds 
of the Celts. Even to-day a 
variety of the old Celtic lan- 
guage, called Cymric, is still 
spoken by the Welsh people. 

The Welsh long resisted all 
attempts to subjugate them. 
Conquest Harold exerted some 
of Wales authority over Wales; 
William the Conqueror entered 
part of it; and Henry II induced the local rulers to acknowl- 
edge him as overlord; but it was Edward I who first brought 
all the country under English sway. Edward fostered the 
building of towns in his new possession, divided it into coun- 
ties or shires, after the system that prevailed in England, 
and introduced the Common law. He called his son, Ed- 
ward II, who was born in the country, the "Prince of Wales," 
and this title has ever since been borne by the heir apparent to 

Coronation Chair, West- 
minster Abbey 

Every English ruler since Edward I has 
been crowned in this oak chair. Under the 
seat is the " Stone of Scone," said to have 
been once used by the patriarch Jacob. 
Edward I brought it to London in 1291, as 
a token of the subjection of Scotland. 

Expansion of England under Edward I 205 

the English throne. The work of uniting Wales to England 
went on slowly, and two centuries elapsed before Wales re- 
ceived representation in the House of Commons. 


In the 13th Century 

DfEDglish Miles 

n r II 

Longitude VTest 4 from Greenwic 

Scotland derives its name from the Scots, who came over 
from Ireland early in the fifth century. The northern High- 
lands, a nest of rugged mountains washed by cold „ , ^ 
1 11 i_ • J • Scotland 

and stormy seas, have always been occupied m 

historic times by a Celtic-speaking people, whose language, 
called Gaelic, is not yet extinct there. This part of Scotland, 
like Wales, was a home of freedom. The Romans did not 

2o6 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

attempt to annex the Highlands, and the Anglo-Saxons and 
Danes never penetrated their fastnesses. On the other hand, 
the southern Lowlands, which include only about one-third of 
Scotland, were subdued by the Teutonic invaders, and so this 
district became thoroughly Enghsh in language and culture.^ 

One might suppose that the Lowlands, geographically only 
an extension of northern England and inhabited by an EngUsh- 
The Scottish speaking people, would have early united with the 
kingdom southern kingdom. But matters turned out other- 

wise. The Lowlands and the Highlands came together under a 
line of Celtic kings, who fixed their residence at Edinburgh and 
long maintained their independence. 

Edward I, having conquered Wales, took advantage of the 
disturbed conditions which prevailed in Scotland to interfere 
Scotland ^^ ^^^ affairs of that country. The Scotch offered 

annexed by a brave but futile resistance under Wilham Wallace. 
Edward I rpj^-^ j^^^qJ^, leader, who held out after most of his 
countrymen submitted, was finally captured and executed. 
His head, according to the barbarous practice of the time, was 
set upon a pole on London Bridge. The Enghsh king now 
annexed Scotland without further opposition. 

The Scotch soon found another champion in the person of 

Robert Bruce. Edward I, now old and broken, marched 

against him, but died before reaching the border. 
Robert Bruce _° ' ^ , . _ , , ° .^. 

and Ban- The weakness of his son, Edward II, permitted 

nockbum, ^]^g Scotch, ably led by Bruce, to win the signal 

victory of Bannockburn, near Stirhng Castle. 

Here the Scottish spearmen drove the Enghsh knights into 

ignominious flight and freed their country from its foreign 


The battle of Bannockburn made a nation. A few years 

afterwards the Enghsh formally recognized the independence 

Independence of the northern kingdom. The great design of 

of Scotland Edward I to unite all the peoples of Britain under 

one government had to be postponed for centuries.- 

1 See the map, page 28. 

* In 1603, James VI of Scotland ascended the throne of England as James I. 

Unification of France 207 

No one kingdom ever arose in Ireland out of the numerous 

tribes into which the Celtic-speaking inhabitants were divided. 

The island was not troubled, however, by foreign , , , 

, Ireland 

invaders till the coming of the Northmen in the 

ninth century. The English, who first entered Ireland during 
the reign of Henry II, for a long time held only a small district 
about Dublin known as the Pale.^ Ireland because of its situ- 
ation could scarcely fail to become an appanage of Great Britain, 
but the dividing sea has combined with differences in race, 
language, and religion, and with English misgovernment, to 
prevent anything like a genuine union of the conquerors and 
the conquered. 

85. Unification of France, 987-1328 

Nature seems to have intended that France should play a 
leading part in European affairs. The geographical unity of 
the country is obvious. Mountains and seas Physical 
form its permanent boundaries, except on the north- France 
east, where the frontier is not well defined. The western coast 
of France opens on the Atlantic, now the greatest highway of 
the world's commerce, while on the southeast France touches 
the Mediterranean, the home of classical civilization. This 
intermediate position between two seas helps us to understand 
why French history should form, as it were, a connecting link 
between ancient and modern times. 

But the greatness of France has been due, also, to the qualities 
of the French people. Many racial elements have contributed 
to the population. The blood of prehistoric Racial 
men, whose monuments and grave mounds are ^^^^^ce 
scattered over the land, still flows in the veins of Frenchmen. 
At the opening of historic times France was chiefly occupied 
by the Gauls, whom Juhus Caesar found there and subdued. 
The Gauls, or Celtic people, formed in later ages the main stock 
of the French nation, but their language gave place to Latin 
after the Roman conquest. In the course of five hundred years 
the Gauls were so thoroughly Romanized that they may best be 

^ See the map on page 388. 

2o8 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

described as Gallo-Romans. The Burgundians, Franks, and 
Northmen afterwards added a Teutonic element to the pop- 
ulation, as well as some infusion of Teutonic laws and customs. 

Unification of France during the Middle Ages 

France, again, became a great nation because of the greatness 
of its rulers. Hugh Capet, who assumed the French crown in 
TheCapetian 987, was fortunate in his descendants. The 
dynasty Capetian dynasty was long lived, and for more 

than three centuries son followed father on the throne without 

Unification of France 209 

a break in the succession. During this time the French sov- 
ereigns worked steadily to exalt the royal power and to unite 
the feudal states of medieval France into a real nation under 
a common government. Their success in this task made 
them, at the close of the Middle Ages, the strongest monarchs 
in Europe. 

Hugh Capet's duchy — the original France — included only 
a small stretch of inland country centering about Paris on the 
Seine and Orleans on the Loire. His election to France and 
the kingship did not increase his power over the ^*^ ^®^^ 
great lords who ruled in Normandy, Brittany, Burgundy, and 
other parts of the country. They did homage to the king for 
their fiefs and performed the usual feudal services, but other- 
wise regarded themselves as independent. 

The most considerable additions to the royal domains, or 
territories under the king's control, were effected by Philip II, 
called Augustus. Reference has already been pj^j. jj 
made to his contest with Pope Innocent III and Augustus, 
to his participation in the Third Crusade.^ The ^^^^^223 
English king, John, was Philip's vassal for Normandy and other 
provinces in France. A quarrel between the two rulers gave 
Philip an opportunity to declare John's fiefs forfeited by feudal 
law. Philip then seized all the English possessions north of 
the river Loire. The loss of these possessions abroad had the 
result of separating England almost completely from Con- 
tinental interests; for France it meant a great increase in 
territory and population. Philip made Paris his chief residence, 
and that city was henceforth the capital of France. 

During the long reign of Philip's grandson, Louis IX, rich 
districts to the west of the Rhone became a part of the 
royal domains. This king, whose Christian vir- louJs ix the 
tues led to his canonization, distinguished himself Saint, 122&- 


as an administrator. His work in unifying France 

may be compared with that of Henry II in England. He 
decreed that only the king's money was to circulate in the 
provinces ruled directly by himself, thus limiting the right of 

1 See pages 157 and 171. 

2IO Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

coinage enjoyed by feudal lords. He restricted very greatly 
the right of private war and forbade the use of judicial duels. 
Louis also provided that important cases could be appealed 
from feudal courts to the king's judges, who sat in Paris and 
followed in their decisions the principles of Roman law. In 
these and other ways he laid the foundations of absolute mon- 
archy in France. 

The grandson of St. Louis, Philip IV, did much to organize 
a financial system for France. Now that the kingdom had 
Philio IV the become so large and powerful, the old feudal dues 
Fair, 1285- were insufl&cient to pay the salaries of the royal 
^^^* officials and support a standing army. Philip 

resorted to new methods of raising revenue, by imposing various 
taxes and by requiring the feudal lords to substitute payments 
in money for the military service due from them. 

Philip also called into existence the Estates-General, an 
assembly in which the clergy, the nobles, and representatives 
The Estates- from the commons (the Third Estate) met as separ- 
General ^^q bodies and voted grants of money. The Estates- 

General arose almost at the same time as the English Parliament, 
to which it corresponded, but it never secured the extensive 
authority of that body. After a time the kings of France 
became so powerful that they managed to reign without once 
summoning the nation in council. The French did not suc- 
ceed, as the English had done, in founding political liberty 
upon the vote and control of taxation. 

86. The Hundred Years* War between France and England, 


The task of unifying France was interrupted by a deplorable 
war between that country Imd England. It continued, in- 
Pretext for eluding periods of truce, for over a century. The 
the war pretext for the war was found in a disputed suc- 

cession. In 1328 the last of the three sons of Philip IV passed 
away, and the direct hne of the house of Capet, which had 
reigned over France for more than three hundred years, came 
to an end. The EngUsh ruler, Edward III, whose mother was 

The Hundred Years' War 


the daughter of PhiHp IV, considered himself the next Hneal 
heir. The French nobles were naturally unwilling to receive 
a foreigner as king, and gave the throne, instead, to a nephew 
of Philip IV. This decision was afterwards justified on the 
ground that, by the old law of the 
Salian Franks, women could neither 
inherit estates nor transmit them to a 

Edward III at first accepted 
situation. But Philip VI, the 
king, irritated Edward by Reasons for 
constant encroachments on *^® ^^ 
the territories which the English still 
kept in France. Philip also allied 
himself with the Scotch and interfered 
with English trade interests in the 
county of Flanders. This attitude of 
hostility provoked retaliation, 
now reasserted his claim to the crown 



Royal Arms of 
Edward III 

Edward III, having in 1340 

Edward set up a claim to the throne of 

France, proceeded to add the 

French lihes (fleurs-de-lis) to his 

of France and prepared by force of coat of arms. He also took as 
arms to make it good. 

his motto Dieu et mon Droit 
("God and my Right"). The 

Edward led his troops across the Hlies of France remained in the 
y-,1 1 J i. /^ ' • J ■ royal arms till 1801; the motto 

Channel and at Crecy gamed a com- i3 ^tiii retained. 
plete victory over the knighthood of 

France. Ten years later the English at Poitiers almost anni- 
hilated another French force much superior in numbers. 
These two battles were mainly won by foot 
soldiers armed with the longbow, in the use of 
which the English excelled. Ordinary iron mail 
could not resist the heavy, yard-long arrows, 
which fell with murderous effect upon the bodies of men and 
horses alike. Henceforth infantry, when properly armed and 
led, were to prove themselves on many a bloody field more 
than a match for feudal cavalry. 

Edward's son, the Prince of Wales, when only sixteen years 

1 Hence the name "Salic law" applied to the rule excluding women from suc- 
cession to the French throne. 

Battles of 
Crecy, 1346, 
and Poitiers, 

212 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

of age won his spurs by distinguished conduct at Crecy. It 
was the "Black Prince,"^ also, who gained the day at 
The " Black Poitiers, where he took prisoner the French king, 
Prince " John. Toward his royal captive he behaved in 

chivalrous fashion. At supper, on the evening of the battle, 
he stood behind John's chair and waited on him, praising the 

Battle of Crecy 

From a manuscript in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

king's brave deeds. But this "flower of knighthood," who 
regarded warfare as only a tournament on a larger scale, could 
be ruthless in his treatment of the common people. On one 
occasion he caused three thousand inhabitants of a captured 
town — men, women and children — to be butchered before 
his eyes. The incident shows how far apart in the Middle 
Ages were chivalry and humanity. 

1 Probably so called from the black armor which he wore. It may still be seen 
above his tomb in Canterbury CathedraL 

3 S.S 

re a. 

i ^ ° o 

re 3 fo 

I §' 2. 

O rt- 3 

(n o 

re o 2 

<^ "1 o 

o- K- i^ 

c 3 re 

" S. 2. 

On p orq 

8 O 

The Hundred Years' War 213 

The English, in spite of their victories, could not conquer 
France. The French refused to fight more pitched battles and 
retired to their castles and fortified towns. The Renewal of 
war almost ceased for many years after the death *^® ^^ 
of Edward III. It began again early in the fifteenth century, 
and the English this time met with more success. They gained 
possession of almost all France north of the Loire, except the 
important city of Orleans. Had the Enghsh taken it, French 
resistance must have collapsed. That they did not take it 
was due to one of the most remarkable women in history — 
Joan of Arc.^ 

Joan was a peasant girl, a native of the little village of Dom- 
remy. Always a devout and imaginative child, she early began 
to see visions of saints and angels and to hear ^j^^ "Maid 
mysterious voices. At the time of the siege of of Orleans," 
Orleans the archangel Michael appeared to her, 
so she declared, and bade her go forth and save France. Joan 
obeyed, and though barely seventeen years of age, made her 
way to the court of the French king. There her piety, simplic- 
ity, and evident faith in her mission overcame all doubts. Clad 
in armor, girt with an ancient sword, and with a white banner 
borne before her, Joan was allowed to accompany an army for 
the relief of Orleans. She inspired the French with such enthu- 
siasm that they quickly compelled the English to raise the siege. 
Then Joan led her king to Reims and stood beside him at his 
coronation in the cathedral. 

Though Joan was soon afterwards captured by the English, 
who burned her as a witch, her example nerved the French 
to further resistance. The EngUsh, gradually End of 
lost ground and in 1453, the year of the fall of *^® ^^^ 
Constantinople, abandoned the effort to conquer a land much 
larger than their own. They retained of the French territories 
only the port of Calais and the Channel Islands.^ 

Few wars have had less to justify them, either in their causes 

1 In French, Jeanne d'Arc. 

2 Calais went back to the French in 1558. ' The Channel Islands are still English 

214 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

or in their consequences, than this long contest between Eng- 
land and France. It was a calamity to both lands. For 
Effects of England it meant the dissipation abroad of the 

the war energies which would have been better employed at 

home. For France it resulted in great destruction of property, 
untold suffering, famines, and much loss of life. The war, how- 
ever, did help to arouse national self-consciousness in both coun- 
tries. The awakening of a sentiment of patriotism was especially 
marked in France, which had fought so long for independence. 
Shortly after the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War the 
two branches of the English royal family became involved in a 
England after desperate struggle for the crown. This was known 
the Hundred as the War of the Roses, because the house of 

ears ar York took as its badge a white rose and the house 
of Lancaster, a red rose. The contest lasted until 1485, when 
the Lancastrians conquered, and their leader, Henry Tudor, 
ascended the throne as Henry VII. He married a Yorkist 
wife, thus uniting the two factions, and founded the Tudor 
dynasty. The War of the Roses arrested the progress of 
English freedom. It created a demand for a strong monarchy 
which could keep order and prevent civil strife between the 
nobles. The Tudors met that demand and ruled as absolute 

France also issued from the Hundred Years' War with an 
absolute government. Strengthened by victory over the 
France after English, the French kings were able to reduce 
the Hundred both the nobility and the commons to impotence. 

ears War ^^ ^j^^ same time they steadily enlarged the 
royal domains, until by the end of the fifteenth century the 
unification of France was almost complete. 

87. Unification of Spain to (1492) 

The Spanish peninsula, known to the Romans as Hispania, 
is sharply separated from the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees 
The Spanish Mountains. The proximity of Spain to Africa 
peninsula j^g^g always brought it into intimate relations 

with that continent. Just as Russia has formed a link between 

Unification of Spain 


Asia and Europe, so Spain has served as a natural highway 
from Africa to Europe. 

The first settlers in Spain, of whom we know anything, were 
the Iberians. They may have emigrated from northern Africa. 
After them came the Celts, who overran a large The Spanish 
part of the peninsula and appear to have mingled People 
with the Iberians, thus forming the mixed people known as 
Celtiberians. In historic times Spain was conquered by the 

Territory added 
At beginning of to the end of liit' 
I'.'tb Century Century (1402) 

Castile 111 ESSJ.P 
Aragon ^^^ 


The dates are those of Christian Portuo-al f \ H^ 

oConquest of Moorish Territory ^„ ^ \.>. . ..^^\ L_^ 

Unification of Spain during the Middle Ages 

Carthaginians, who left few traces of their occupation; by 
the Romans, who thoroughly Romanized the country; by 
the Visigoths, who founded a Teutonic kingdom; and lastly 
by the Moors,^ who introduced Arabian culture and the faith 
of Islam. These invaders were not numerous enough greatly 
to affect the population, in which the Celtiberian strain is still 

^ The name Moor (derived from the Roman province of Mauretania) is applied 
to the Arab and Berber peoples who occupied North Africa and Spain. 

2i6 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

The Moors never wholly conquered a fringe of mountain 
territory in the extreme north of Spain. Here a number of 
Christian small Christian states, including Leon, Castile, 

states of Navarre, and Aragon, came into being. In the 

^^^ west there also arose the Christian state of Por- 

tugal. Geographically, Portugal belongs to Spain, from which 
it is separated only by artificial frontiers, but the country has 
usually managed to maintain its independence. 

Acting sometimes alone and sometimes in concert, the 
Christian states fought steadily to enlarge their boundaries at 
Recovery of ^^^ expense of their Moslem neighbors. The 
Spain from contest was blessed by the pope and supported 
®®^^ by the chivalry of Europe. Periods of victory al- 
ternated with periods of defeat, but by the close of the thirteenth 
century Mohammedan Spain had been reduced to the king- 
dom of Granada at the southern extremity of the peninsula. 

The long struggle with the Moors made the Spanish a patri- 
otic people, keenly conscious of their national unity. The 

achievements of Christian warriors were recited 
The Cid 

in countless ballads, and especially in the fine 

Poem of the Cid. It deals with the exploits of Rodrigo Diaz, 
better known by the title of the Cid (lord) given to him by the 
Moors. The Cid of romance was the embodiment of every 
knightly virtue; the real Cid was a bandit, who fought some- 
times for the Christians, sometimes against them, but always 
in his own interests. The Cid's evil deeds were forgotten 
after his death, and he became the national hero of Spain. 

Meanwhile, the separate Spanish kingdoms were coming 
together to form a nation. Leon and Castile in 1230 com- 
bined into the one kingdom of Castile, so named 
Union of , . r . 1 • 1 1 • 1 1 

Castile and because its frontiers bristled with castles against 

Aragon, ^j^g Moors. The most important step in the 

making of Spain was the marriage of Ferdinand of 
Aragon to Isabella of Castile, leading in 1479 to the union of 
these two kingdoms. About the same time the Castihan 
language began to crowd out the other Spanish dialects and 
to become the national speech. 

Austria and the Swiss Confederation 217 

The king and queen of Spain aimed to continue the unifica- 
tion of the peninsula by the conquest of Granada. Nothing 
was done by the Ottoman Turks, who shortly conquest 
before had captured Constantinople, to defend of Granada, 
this last stronghold of Islam in the West. The ^*^^ 
Moors, though thrown upon their own resources, made a gallant 
resistance. At least once Ferdinand wearied of the struggle, 
but Isabella's determination never wavered. Granada sur- 
rendered in 1492, and the silver cross of the crusading army 
was raised on the highest tower of the city. Moslem rule in 
Spain, after an existence of almost eight centuries, now came to 
an end. 

Ferdinand and Isabella belong in the front rank of European 
sovereigns. They labored with success to build up an abso- 
lute monarchy. Spain had found, as England j^^g ^^ 
and France had found, that feudalism spelled Ferdinand 
disorder, and that only a strong central govern- ^ isabeUa 
ment could keep the peace, repress crime, and foster trade and 
commerce. Ferdinand and Isabella firmly estabhshed the 
supremacy of the crown. By the end of the fifteenth century 
Spain had become a leading European power. Its importance 
in the councils of Europe was soon to be increased by the 
marriage of a daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella to the heir 
of the Austrian house of Hapsburg. 

88. Austria and the Swiss Confederation, 1273-1499 

The name Austria — in German Oesterreich — means simply 
the eastern part of any kingdom. It came to be apphed par- 
ticularly to the territory on the Danube east of Rise of 
Bavaria, which Otto the Great had formed into Austria 
a mark or border province for defense against the Magyars. 
This mark, soon to be known as Austria, gained an important 
place among German states. The frontiers were pushed down 
the Danube valley, and the capital was finally located at Vienna, 
once a Roman city. Frederick Barbarossa raised Austria to 
the rank of a duchy. Rudolf of Hapsburg, who became emperor 
in 1273, made it a Hapsburg possession. 

2i8 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

The Hapsburgs had great success in building up the Austrian 
state. At the end of the fourteenth century their do- 
minions included a large part of eastern Germany,^ 
reaching from beyond the Danube southward to 
the Adriatic. Early in the sixteenth century they 
secured Bohemia, a Slavic land thrust like a wedge 
into German territory, as well as part of the Magyar land of 

Growth of 
under the 

Hapsburg Possessions, 1273-1526 a.d. 

Hungary. The possession of these two kingdoms gave Austria 
its special character of a state formed by the union under one 
ruler of several wholly distinct nations. Meanwhile the right 
of election as Holy Roman Emperor became hereditary in 
the Hapsburg family .^ 

1 The duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, and 
the county of Tyrol. 

2 The seven German princes who chose the emperor were the archbishops of 
Mayence (or Mainz), Treves (or Trier), and Cologne, the margrave of Branden- 
burg, the count palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Saxony, and the king of Bohemia. 
This electoral college continued to exist until the dissolution of the Holy Roman 
Empire in 1806. 

Austria and the Swiss Confederation 



Switzerland, during the earlier period of the Middle Ages, 
formed a part of the German duchy of Swabia and belonged to 
the Holy Roman Empire.^ About two thirds of 
the population of Switzerland remain German in 
speech and feeling, though now the country includes districts 
in which French or Italian are spoken. All Swiss laws are still 
proclaimed in the three languages. 

The Original Three "Forest Cantofc 
The Ten Cantons added, 1291-1513\ 

Lake of 


Scale of Miles i\ 

10 20 30 40 ) 


The Swiss Confederation, 1291-1513 a.d. 

Swiss history is closely bound up with that of Austria. The 
little mountain communities of Schwyz,^ Uri, and Unterwalden, 
on the shores of beautiful Lake Lucerne, were Switzerland 
possessions of the counts of Hapsburg. In 1291, *^^ Austria 
the year when Rudolf of Hapsburg died, these three "Forest 
Cantons" formed a confederation for resistance to their Haps- 
burg overlords. Additional cantons joined the league, which 
now entered upon a long struggle, dear to all lovers of liberty, 
against Austrian rule. Nowhere did the old methods of feudal 
warfare break down more conspicuously than in the battles 
gained by Swiss pikemen over the knights of Austria. The 

1 See the map facing page 158. 2 From Schwyz comes the name Switzerland. 

220 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

struggle closed in 1499, when Switzerland became practically 
a free state.^ 

Switzerland has two heroes of her war for independence. 
William Tell is a wholly mythical character, for the story of a 
skillful marksman who succeeds in striking off 
Tell and some small object placed on a child's head is found 

Arnold yon jj^ England, Norway, Denmark, and other coun- 
tries. The Swiss have localized it in Uri. Another 
popular hero has a better claim to historical existence. It is 
said that at a critical moment in the battle of Sempach, when 
the Swiss with their short weapons failed to break the Austrian 
ranks, Arnold von Winkelried, a man of Unterwalden, came to 
the rescue. Rushing single-handed upon the enemy, he seized 
all the spears within reach and turned them upon his own body. 
He thus opened a gap in the line, through which the Swiss pressed 
on to victory. " Winkelried's deed might well have been per- 
formed, though the evidence for it is very scanty. 

Little Switzerland, lying in the heart of the Alps and sur- 
rounded by powerful neighbors, is one of the most interesting 
The Swiss States in Europe. The twenty-two communities, 
Confedera- or cantons, which make up the Swiss Confedera- 
tion, differ among themselves in language, religion 
(Roman Catholic or Protestant), and customs, according to 
their nearness to Germany, France, or Italy. Nevertheless 
the Swiss form a patriotic and united nation. It is remarkable 
that a people whose chief bond of union was common hostility 
to the Austrian Hapsburgs, should have established a federal 
government so strong and enduring. 

89. Expansion of Germany 

An examination of the map shows how deficient Germany is 
in good natural boundaries. The valley of the Danube affords 
Lines of • ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ southeast, a road which the 
German early rulers of Austria followed as far as Vienna 

expansion ^^^ ^j^^ Hungarian frontier. Eastward along 
the Baltic no break occurs in the great plain stretching from 

1 The independence of the country was not formally recognized till 1648. 

Expansion of Germany 221 

the North Sea to the Ural Mountains. It was in this direction 
that German conquests and colonization during medieval times 
laid the foundation of modern Prussia. 

The Germans, when descending upon the Roman Empire, had 
abandoned much of their former territories to the Slavs. In 
the reign of Charlemagne nearly all the region The German 
between the Elbe and the Vistula belonged to and the Slav 
Slavic tribes. To win it back for Germany required several 
centuries of hard fighting. The Slavs were heathen and bar- 
barous, so that warfare with them seemed to be a kind of 
crusade. In the main, however, German expansion east- 
ward was a business venture, due to the need for free land. 
The hope of gain thus combined with religious zeal and the 
spirit of adventure to ' stihiulate emigration into the ''Great 
East" of the Middle Ages. 

German expansion began early in the tenth century, when 
Henry the Fowler invaded Brandenburg between the Elbe 
and the Oder. Subsequently much of the terri- Brandenburg 
tory between the Oder and the Vistula, including and 
Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic, o^^^^ama 
came under German control. The Slavic inhabitants were 
exterminated or reduced to slavery. Their place was taken 
by thousands of German colonists, who introduced Christianity, 
built churches and monasteries, cleared the woods, drained the 
marshes, and founded many cities destined to become centers 
of German trade and culture. 

Beyond the Vistula lay the lands of the Prussians, a non- 
Teutonic people closely related to the Slavs. The conquest 
and conversion of the Prussians was accom- pj^gsia and 
plished by the famous order of Teutonic Knights, the Teutonic 
It had been founded in Palestine as a military- 
religious order, at the time of the Third Crusade. The de- 
cline of the crusading movement left the knights with no duties 
to perform, and so they transferred their activities to the 
Prussian frontier, where there was still a chance to engage in 
a holy war. The Teutonic Order flourished throughout the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, until its grand-master 

222 Europe During the Later Middle Ages 

ruled over the entire Baltic coast from the Vistula to the Gulf 
of Finland. The knights later had to relinquish much of this 
region to the Slavs, but they sowed there the seeds of 

I I Germans 



Long itude 15f East from 

20° Greenwich 

German Expansion Eastward during the Middle Ages 

civilization. The Baltic countries — Courland, Livonia, and 
Esthonia — rank to-day among the richest and most advanced 
parts of eastern Europe. 

Germany at the close of the Middle Ages was not a united, 
intensely national state, such as had been formed in England, 

Expansion of Germany 223 

France, and Spain. It had split into hundreds of principalities, 
none large, some extremely small, and all practically indepen- 
dent of the feeble German kings. This weakness Political 
of the central power condemned the country to Germany 
a minor part in the affairs of Europe as late as the nineteenth 
century. Yet Germany found some compensation for political 
backwardness in the splendid city life which it developed 
during the later Middle Ages. The German cities, together 
with those of Italy and other European lands, now call for our 


I. On an outline map indicate (a) William the Conqueror's French dominions 
and (b) additional dominions of the Plantagenet kings in France. 2. Prepare a 
chart showing the leading rulers mentioned in this chapter. Arrange yom material 
in parallel columns with dates, one column for England, one for France, and one 
for the other European countries. 3. Locate the following places: Crecy; Calais; 
Poitiers; Stirling; Edinburgh; Orleans; and Granada. 4. What happened in 
987? in 1066? in 1215? in 1295? in 1346? in 1453? in 1485? and in 1492? 5. Dis- 
tinguish between a nation, a government, and a state. 6. Are unity of race, a 
common language, a common religion, and geographical unity of themselves suffi- 
cient to make a nation? May a nation arise where these bonds are lacking? 
7. "The thirteenth century gave Europe the nations as we now know them." 
Comment on this statement. 8. Account for the rise of national feeling in France, 
Spain, Scotland, and Switzerland. 9. "Good government in the Middle Ages was 
only another name for a public-spirited and powerful monarchy." Comment on 
this statement. 10. What advantages has trial by jury over the older forms of 
trial, such as oaths, ordeals, and the judicial duel? 11. Explain the difference 
between a grand jury and a trial, or petty jury. 12. Compare the extent of terri- 
tory in which Roman law now prevails with that which follows the Common law. 
13. Why was the Parliament of 1295 named the "Model Parliament"? 14. Dis- 
tinguish between England and Great Britain. Between Great Britain and the 
United Kingdom. 15. What were the Roman names of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland? 16. "Islands seem dedicated by nature to freedom." How does the 
history of Ireland illustrate this statement? 17. Trace on the map the main 
water routes in France between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. 18. Show 
that Paris occupies an exceptionally good location for a capital city. 19. What 
French kings did most to form the French nation? 20. Why have queens never 
ruled in France? 21. How did the methods of fighting at Crecy contrast with 
those at Hastings? 22. Why has Joan of Arc become "the embodiment of the 
soul of France for all time"? 23. "Beyond the Pyrenees begins Africa." What 
does this statement mean? 24. Why was Spain inconspicuous in European 
politics before the opening of the sixteenth century? 25. Look up in an ency- 
clopedia the story of William Tell and prepare an oral report upon it. 26. Why 
was the German system of elective rulers politically less advantageous than the 
settled hereditary succession which prevailed in England and France? 


90. Growth of tlie Cities 

Civilization has always had its home in the city. The state- 
ment appHes as well to medieval times as to the present day. 
The civic Nothing marks more strongly the backwardness 

revival ^f ^^j^g early Middle Ages than the absence of 

large and flourishing cities throughout western Europe. The 
growth of trade in the later Middle Ages led, however, to a civic 
revival beginning in the eleventh century. This change from 
rural to urban life was scarcely less significant for European 
history than the change from the feudal to the national state. 

A number of medieval cities stood on the sites, and even within 
the walls, of Roman municipalities. Particularly in Italy, 
Cities of southern France, and Spain, and also in the Rhine 

Roman and Danube regions, it seems that some ancient 

ongin miinicipia had never been entirely destroyed dur- 

ing the German invasions. They preserved their Roman names, 
their streets, aqueducts, amphitheaters, and churches, and pos- 
sibly vestiges of their Roman institutions. Among them were 
such important centers as Milan, Florence, Venice, Lyons, 
Marseilles, Paris, Vienna, Cologne, London, and York. 

Many medieval cities were new foundations. Some began 
as small communities which increased in size because of ex- 
Origin of ceptional advantages of situation. A place where 
other cities g^ river could be forded, where two roads met, or 
where a good harbor existed, would naturally become the re- 
sort of traders. Some, again, started as fortresses, behind 
whose ramparts the peasants took refuge when danger threat- 
ened. A third group of cities developed from villages on the 
manors. A thriving settlement was pretty sure to spring up 


Growth of the Cities 


near a monastery or castle, which offered both protection and 
employment to the common people. 

The city at first formed part of the feudal system. It arose 
upon the territory of a feudal lord and naturally owed obedience 
to him. The citizens ranked not much higher The city and 
than serfs, though they were traders and artisans feudalism 
instead of farmers. They enjoyed no political rights, for their 

Walls of Carcassonne 

The fortifications of Carcassonne, an ancient city of southern France., are probably unique 
in Europe for completeness and strength. They consist of a double line of ramparts, pro- 
tected by towers and pierced by only two gates. A part of the fortifications is attributed to 
the Visigoths in the skth century; the remainder, including the castle, was raised during the 
Middle Ages (eleventh to thirteenth centuries). 

lord collected the taxes, appointed officials, kept order, and 
punished offenders. In short, the city was not free. 

But the city from the first was the decided enemy of feudal- 
ism. As its inhabitants became more numerous and wealthy, 
they refused to submit to oppression. Sometimes The civic 
they won their freedom by hard fighting; more ^^^o^t 
often they purchased it, perhaps from some noble who needed 
money to go on a crusade. In France, England, and Spain, 
where the royal power was strong, the cities obtained exemp- 
tion from their feudal burdens, but did not become entirely 
self-governing. In Germany and Italy, on the other hand, 

226 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

the weakness of the central government permitted many cities 
to secure complete independence. They became true repubhcs, 
like the old Greek city-states. 

The contract which the citizens extorted from their lord was 
known as a charter. It specified what taxes they should be 
required to pay and usually granted to them 
various privileges, such as those of holding assem- 
blies, electing magistrates, and raising miUtia for local defense. 



A Scene in Rothenburg 

Rothenburg ob-der-Tauber in Bavaria has preserved its old ramparts, narrow streets, town 
hall, and picturesque wooden houses of the Middle Ages. Nuremberg, another German 
town, and Chester in England are also very medieval in appearance. 

The revolt of the cities gradually extended over all western 
Europe, so that at the end of the fourteenth century very 
few of them lacked a charter. 

The free city had no room for either slaves or serfs. All 
servile conditions ceased inside its walls. The rule prevailed 
Civic that any one who had lived in a city for the term 

freedom q£ ^ ygg^j. ^^^ ^ ^^y could no longer be claimed by a 

lord as his serf. This rule found expression in the famous 
saying, "Town air renders free." 

City Life 227 

The freedom of the cities naturally attracted many immi- 
grants to them. There came into existence a middle class of 
city people, between the clergy and nobles on the j^jg^ ^^ 
one side and the peasants on the other side — the Third 
what the French call the bourgeoisie.^ As we have 
learned,^ the kings of England and France soon began to sum- 
mon representatives of this middle class to sit in assemblies 
by the side of the clergy and the nobles. Henceforth the mid- 
dle class, or bourgeoisie, distinguished as it was for wealth, 
intelligence, and enterprise, exerted an ever-greater influence 
on European affairs. 

91. City Life 

The visitor approaching a medieval city through miles of 
open fields saw it clear in the sunlight, unobscured by coal 
smoke. From without it looked like a fortress, a city from 
with walls, towers, gateways, drawbridges, and without 
moat. Beyond the fortifications he would see, huddled together 
against the sky, the spires of the churches and the cathedral, 
the roofs of the larger houses, and the dark, frowning mass of 
the castle. The general impression was one of wealth and 
strength and beauty.^ 

Once within the walls the visitor would not find things so 
attractive. The streets were narrow, crooked, and ill-paved, 
dark during the day because of the overhanging a city from 
houses, and without illumination at night. There within 
were no open spaces or parks except a small market place. The 
whole city was cramped by its walls, which shut out light, air, 
and view, and prevented expansion into the neighboring coun- 
try. Medieval London, for instance, covered an area of less 
than one square mile. 

A city in the Middle Ages lacked all sanitary arrangements. 
The only water supply came from polluted streams and wells. 
Sewers and sidewalks were quite unknown. People unsanitary 
piled up their refuse in the backyard or flung it into conditions 
the street, to be devoured by the dogs and pigs which served 

^ From French bourg, "town." 3 gee frontispiece. 

2 See pages 203 and 210. 

228 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

as scavengers. The holes in the pavement collected all manner 
of filth, and the unpaved lanes, in wet weather, became quag- 
mires. We can understand why the townspeople wore over- 
shoes when they went out, and why even the saints in the pic- 
tures were represented wearing them. The living were crowded 

together in many- 
storied houses, airless 
and gloomy; the dead 
were buried close at 
hand in crowded 
churchyards. Such 
unsanitary conditions 
must have been re- 
sponsible for much of 
the sickness that was 
prevalent. The high 
death rate could only 
be offset by a birth 
rate correspondingly 
high, and by the con- 
stant influx of country 

The inhabitants of 
the city took a just pride in their public buildings. The 
Public market place, where traders assembled, often con- 

buUdings tained a beautiful cross and sometimes a market 

hall to shelter goods from the weather. Not far away rose 
the city hall,^ for the transaction of public business and the 
holding of civic feasts. The hall might be crowned by a high 
belfry with an alarm bell to summon the citizens to mass 
meeting. There were also a number of churches and abbeys 
and, if the city was the capital of a bishop's diocese, an imposing 

The small size of medieval cities — few included as many as 
ten thousand inhabitants — simplified the problem of governing 
them. The leading merchants usually formed a council pre- 

A London Bellman 

Title-page of a tract published in 1616. It was part 
of the duties of a bellman, or night-watchman, to call out 
the hours, the state of the weather, and other information 
as he passed by. 

1 In French hotel de ville; in German Ralhhaus. 

Civic Industry: The Guilds 229 

sided over by a head magistrate, the burgomaster ^ or mayor,^ 
who was assisted by aldermen. ^ In some places Municipal 
the guilds chose the officials and managed civic government 
affairs. These associations had many functions and held a 
most important place in city life. 

92. Civic Industry: The Guilds 

The Anglo-Saxon word ''guild," which means "to pay," 
came to be applied to a club or society whose members made 
contributions for some common purpose. This Formation 
form of association is very old. Some of the ®^ ^"^^^^ 
guilds in imperial Rome had been established in the age of the 
kings, while not a few of those which flourish to-day in China 
and India were founded before the Christian era. Guilds ex- 
isted in Continental Europe as early as the time of Charle- 
magne, but they did not become prominent till after the crusades. 

A guild of merchants grew up when those who bought and 
sold goods in any place united to protect their own interests. 
The membership included many artisans, as well Merchant 
as professional traders, for in medieval times a guilds 
man often sold in the front room of his shop the goods which he 
made in the back rooms. He was often both shopkeeper and 
workman in one. 

The chief duty of a merchant guild was to preserve to its 
own members the monopoly of trade within a town. Strangers 
and non-guildsmen could not buy or sell there Commercial 
except under the conditions imposed by the guild, monopoly 
They must pay the town tolls, confine their dealings to guilds- 
men, and as a rule sell only at wholesale. They were forbidden 
to purchase wares which the townspeople wanted for them- 
selves or to set up shops for retail trade. They enjoyed more 
freedom at fairs, which were intended to attract outsiders. 

After a time the traders and artisans engaged in a particular 
occupation began to form an association of their own. Thus 

1 German bilr germeister, from burg, "castle." 

2 French maire, from Latin major, "greater." 

3 Anglo-Saxon ealdorman {eald means "old"). 

230 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

Craft guilds 

arose the craft guilds, composed of weavers, shoemakers, 
bakers, tailors, carpenters, and so on, until almost every 
form of industry had its separate organization. 
The names of the various occupations came to 
be used as the surnames of those engaged in them, so that 
to-day we have such common family names as Smith, Cooper, 

Fuller, Potter, Chandler, and 
many others. The number of 
craft guilds in an important 
city might be very large. 
London and Paris at one time 
each had more than one 
hundred, and Cologne in Ger- 
many had as many as eighty. 
The members of a particular 
guild usually lived in the same 
street or quarter of the city, 
not only for companionship 
but also for better supervision 
of their labor.^ 

Just as the merchant guild 
regulated town trade, so the 
Industrial craft guilds had 
monopoly charge of town 

industry. No one could engage 
in any craft without becoming 
a member of the guild which 
controlled it and submitting 
to the guild regulations. A man's hours of labor and the prices 
at which he sold his goods were fixed for him by the guild. 
He might not work elsewhere than in his shop, because of the 
difficulty of supervising him, nor might he work by artificial 
light, lest he turn out badly finished goods. Everything made 
by him was carefully inspected to see if it contained shoddy 
materials or showed poor workmanship. Failure to meet the 
test meant a heavy fine or perhaps expulsion from the guild. 

^ A map of London still shows such names as Shoe Lane, Distaff Lane^ Cornhill, 
and many other similar designations of streets. 

House of the Butchers' Guild, 
HiLDESHEiM, Germany 

Hildesheim, near Hanover, is perhaps the 
richest of all German towns in fine wooden- 
framed houses. The house of the Butchers' 
Guild has been recently restored, with all its 
original coloring carefully reproduced. 

Civic Industry: The Guilds 231 

The industrial monopoly possessed by the craft guild thus 
gave some protection to both producer and consumer. 

Full membership in a guild was reached only by degrees. A 
boy started as an apprentice, that is, a learner. He paid a 
sum of money to his master and agreed to serve Organization 
him for a fixed period, usually seven years. The °^ ^^^^^ guUds 
master, in turn, promised to provide the apprentice with food, 
lodging, and clothing, and to teach him all the secrets of the 
craft. At the end of the seven years the apprentice had to pass 
an examination by the guild. If he was found fit, he then 
became a journeyman and worked for daily wages. As soon 
as he had saved enough money, he might set up as a master in 
his own shop. A master was at once workman and employer, 
laborer and capitalist. 

Like the old Roman guilds, those of the Middle Ages had their 
charitable and religious aspects. Each guild raised large 
benefit funds for the relief of members or their Activities 
widows and orphans. Each guild had its private of craft 
altar in the cathedral, or often its own chapel, ^^^^^ ^ 
where masses were said for the repose of the souls of deceased 
members, and where on the day of its patron saint religious 
services were held. The guild was also a social organization, 
with frequent meetings for a feast in its hall or in some inn. The 
guilds in some cities entertained the people with an annual 
play or procession.^ It is clear that the members of a craft 
guild had common interests and shared a common life. 

As the craft guilds prospered and increased in wealth, they 
tended to become exclusive organizations. Membership fees 
were raised so high that few could afford to pay Dissolution 
them, while the number of apprentices that a of craft 
master might take was strictly limited. It also ^^^^^ ^ 
became increasingly difficult for journeymen to rise to the 
station of masters; they often remained wage-earners for life. 
The mass of workmen could no longer participate in the bene- 
fits of the guild system. In the eighteenth century most of 

^ See page 274. The civic procession in London on Lord Mayor's Day is the 
last survival in England of these yearly shows. 

232 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

the guilds lost their monopoly of industry, and in the nineteenth 
century they gave way to trade unions. 

93. Trade and Commerce 

Nearly every town of any consequence had a weekly or 
semiweekly market, which was held in the market place or in 
the churchyard. Marketing often occurred on 
Sunday, in spite of many laws against this desecra- 
tion of the day. Outsiders who brought cattle and farm produce 
for sale in the market were required to pay tolls, either to the 
town authorities or sometimes to a neighboring nobleman. 
These market dues still survive in the ''octroi" collected at the 
gates of some European cities. 

People in the Middle Ages did not believe in unrestricted 
competition. It was thought wrong for any one to purchase 

goods outside of the regular market (''forestalling") 
" Just price" ^ 1 , • , •.• 1 

or to purchase them m larger quantities than nec- 
essary ("engrossing"). A man ought not to charge for a thing 
more than it was worth, or to buy a thing cheap and sell it dear. 
The idea prevailed that goods should be sold at their "just 
price," which was not determined by supply and demand, but 
by an estimate of the cost of the materials and the labor that 
went into their manufacture. Laws w^ere often passed fixing 
this "just price," but it was as difficult then as now to prevent 
the "cornering of the market" by shrewd and unscrupulous 

Besides markets at frequent intervals, many towns held fairs 
once or twice a year. The fairs often lasted for a month or 

more. They were especially necessary in medieval 

Europe, because merchants did not keep large 
quantities or many kinds of goods on their shelves, nor could 
intending purchasers afford to travel far in search of what they 
wanted. The more important English fairs included those at 
Stourbridge near Cambridge, Winchester, St. Ives, and Boston. 
Fairs were numerous on the Continent, and in some places, such 
as Leipzig in Germany and Nijni-Novgorod in Russia, they are 
still kept up. 

Trade and Commerce 


Land Routes. . . j — 

Hanse Water Routes 

Principal Hanseatic Cities 
are underlined 




1^ \ I Basle 


-vnnc )&^i ^^ ^ > \^Verona^ \j^fC^ 



sarcelona the m.-n. works'^ / lo 

A> ^Bolpgnaxi) 
Pisa\o^^^^\ \ V 

Trade Routes between Northern and Southern Europe 
IN the 13TH and 14TH Centuries 

A fair gave opportunity for the sale of commodities brought 
from the most distant regions. Stourbridge Fair, for instance, 
attracted Venetians and Genoese with silk, pepper, Fairs and 
and spices of the East, Flemings with fine cloths commerce 
and linens, Spaniards with irpn and wine, Norwegians with 
tar and pitch from their forests, and Baltic merchants with 

234 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

furs, amber, and salted fish. The fairs, by fostering commerce, 

helped to make the various European peoples better acquainted 

with one another. 

Commerce in western Europe had almost disappeared as a 

result of the Teutonic invasions and the establishment of feu- 

^ ,. ^ dahsm. What little commercial intercourse there 
Decline of 

commerce was encountered many obstacles. A merchant who 
M'dd! A went by land from country to country might expect 
to find bad roads, few bridges, and poor inns. 
Goods were transported on pack-horses instead of in wagons 
Highway robbery was so common that travelers always carried 
arms and usually united in bands for better protection. The 
feudal lords, often themselves not much more than highway- 
men, demanded tolls at every bridge and ford and on every 
road. If the merchant proceeded by water, he must face, in 
addition to the ordinary hazards of wind and wave, the danger 
from the ill-Hghted coasts and from attacks by pirates. No 
wonder commerce languished in the early Middle Ages and 
for a long time lay chiefly in the hands of Byzantines ^ and 

Even during the dark centuries that followed the end of the 
Roman Empire, some trade with the Orient had been carried 
Commercial ^^ ^X ^^^ cities of Italy and southern France. The 
revival after crusades, which brought East and West face to 
e crusa es f^^^^^ greatly increased this trade.^ The Mediter- 
ranean lands first felt the stimulating effects of intercourse with 
the Orient, but before long the commercial revival extended to 
the rest of Europe. 

Before the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope the spices, 
drugs, incense, carpets, tapestries, porcelains, and gems of 
Asiatic trade India, China, and the East Indies reached the 
routes West by three main routes. All had been used in 

ancient times. The central and most important route led up 
the Persian Gulf and Tigris River to Bagdad, from which city 
goods went by caravan to Antioch or Damascus. The southern 
route reached Cairo and Alexandria by way of the Red Sea 

1 See page 39. ^ See page 83. ^ See page 177. 

40° Longitude 50° 

Money and Banking 235 

and the Nile. By taking advantage of the monsoons, a mer- 
chant ship could make the voyage from India to Egypt in about 
three months. The northern route, entirely overland, led to 
ports on the Black Sea and thence to Constantinople. It tra- 
versed high mountain passes and long stretches of desert, and 
hence was profitably used only for the transport of valuable 
articles small in bulk. The conquests of the Ottoman Turks 
greatly interfered with the use of this route by Christians 
after the middle of the fifteenth century. 

Oriental goods, upon reaching the Mediterranean, could be 
transported by water to northern Europe. Every year the 
Venetians sent a fleet loaded with eastern products European 
to Bruges in Flanders, a city which was the most *^*^® routes 
important depot of trade with Germany, England, and Scandi- 
navia. Bruges also formed the terminus of the main overland 
route leading from Venice over the Alps and down the Rhine. 
Many other commercial highways also linked the Mediterranean 
with the North Sea and the Baltic. 

94. Money and Banking 

We have seen that business in the Middle Ages was chiefly 
of a retail character and was conducted in markets and fairs. 
One reason for the small scale of business enter- Lack of 
prise is found in the inadequate supply of money. ™oney 
From the beginning of the Christian era to the twelfth century 
there seems to have been a steady decrease in the amount of 
specie in circulation, partly because so much moved to the 
Orient in payment for luxuries, and partly because the few 
mines in western Europe were not worked during the period 
of the invasions. The scarcity of money helped directly to 
build up the feudal system, since salaries, wages, and rents 
could be paid only in personal services or in produce. The 
money supply increased during the latter part of the Middle 
Ages, but it did not become sufficient for the needs of business 
till the discovery of the New World enabled the Spaniards to 
tap the wealth of the silver mines in Mexico and Peru. 

236 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

Medieval currency was not only small in amount but also 
faulty in character. Many great nobles enjoyed the privilege 
Faults of ^^ keeping a mint and issuing coins. Since this 

medieval feudal money passed at its full value only in the 

currency locality where it was minted, a merchant had to 

be constantly changing his money, as he went from one district 
to another. Kings and nobles for their own profit would often 
debase the currency by putting silver into the gold coins and 
copper into the silver coins. Every debasement, as it left 
the coins with less pure metal, lowered their purchasing power 
and so raised prices unexpectedly. Even in countries like 
England, where debasement was exceptional, much counterfeit 
money circulated, to the constant impediment of trade. 

The prejudice against ''usury," as any lending of money at 
interest was called, was another reason for the small scale of 
"Usury" business enterprise. It seemed wrong for a 
laws person to receive interest, since he lost nothing by 

the loan of his money. Numerous Church laws condemned 
the receipt of interest as unchristian. If, however, the lender 
could show that he had suffered any loss, or had been prevented 
from making any gain, through not having his money, he might 
charge something for its use. Ultimately, people began to dis- 
tinguish between interest moderate in amount and an excessive 
charge for the use of money. The latter alone was henceforth 
prohibited as usurious. Most modern states still have usury 
laws which fix the legal rate of interest. 

The business of money lending, denied to Christians, fell into 
the hands of the Jews. In nearly all European countries popu- 
The Tews ^^^ prejudice forbade the Jews to engage in agricul- 
as money ture, while the guild regulations barred them from 
lenders industry. They turned to trade and finance for 

a livelihood and became the chief capitahsts of medieval times. 
But the law gave the Jews no protection, and kings and nobles 
constantly extorted large sums from them. The persecutions 
of the Jews date from the era of the crusades, when it was as 
easy to excite fanatical hatred against them as against the 
Moslems. Edward I drove the Jews from England, and Fer- 

Money and Banking 


dinand and Isabella expelled them from Spain, from which 
they are still excluded; and in some other countries they are 
not granted all the privileges which Christians enjoy. 

The Jews were least persecuted in the commercial cities of 
northern Italy. Florence, Genoa, and Venice in the thirteenth 
century were the financial centers of Europe. The Italian 
banking companies in these cities received deposits banking 
and then loaned the money to foreign governments and great 
nobles. It was the Florentine bankers, for instance, who 

Baptistery, Cathedral, and "Leaning Tower" of Pisa 

These three buildings in the piazza of Pisa form one of the most interesting architectural 
groups in Italy. The baptistery, completed in 1278, is a circular structure, 100 feet in diameter 
and covered with a high dome. The cathedral was consecrated in 11 18 .A..D. The finest part 
of the building is the west front with its four open arcades. The campanile, or bell tower, 
reaches a height of 179 feet. Owing to the sinking of the foundations, it leans from the per- 
pendicular to a striking extent (now about 165 feet). 

provided the English king, Edward III, with the funds to 
carry on his wars against France. The Italian banking houses 
had branches in the principal cities of Europe.^ It became 
possible, therefore, to introduce the use of bills of exchange 
as a means of balancing debts between countries, without 

^Lombard Street in London, the financial center of England, received its name 
from the Italian bankers who established themselves in this part of the city. 

238 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

the necessity of sending the actual money. This system of 
international credit was doubly important at a time when 
so many risks attended the transportation of the precious 
metals. Another Florentine invention was bookkeeping by 

95. Italian Cities 

The cities of northern Italy owed their prosperity, as we have 
learned, to the commerce with the Orient. It was this which 
The city gave them the means and the strength to keep up 

repubUcs ^i j^j^^g struggle for freedom against the German 

emperors. The end of the struggle, at the middle of the thir- 
teenth century, saw all North Italy divided into the dominions 
of various independent cities. Among them were Milan, 
Pisa, Florence, Genoa, and Venice. 

Milan, a city of Roman origin, lay in the fertile valley of the 
Po, at a point where the trade routes through several Alpine 
passes converged. Milan early rose to importance, 
and it still remains the commercial metropolis of 
Italy. Manufacturing also flourished there. Milanese armor 
was once celebrated throughout Europe. The city is rich in 
works of art, the best known being the cathedral, which, after 
St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral of Seville, is the largest 
church in Europe. Though the Milanese were able to throw 
off the imperial authority, their government fell into the hands 
of the local nobles, who ruled as despots. Almost all the 
Italian cities, except Venice, lost their freedom in this manner. 
Pisa, like Milan, was an old Roman city which profited by 
the disorders of the barbarian invasions to assert its inde- 
pendence. The situation of Pisa on the Arno 

River, seven miles from the sea, made it a mari- 
time state, and the Pisan navy gained distinction in warfare 
against the Moslems in the Mediterranean. The Pisans joined 
in the First Crusade and showed their valor at the capture of 
Jerusalem. They profited greatly by the crusading movement 

1 Among Italian words having to do with commerce and banking which have 
come into general use are conto, disconto, risico, netto, deposito, folio, and bilanza. 

Italian Cities 


and soon possessed banks, warehouses, and trading privileges 
in every eastern port. But Pisa had bitter rivals in Florence 
and Genoa, and the conflicts with these two cities finally brought 
about the destruction of its power. 

Florence, Pisa's neighbor on the Arno, was renowned for 
manufactures. The fine wool, silk cloths, golden brocades, 

DuoMo AND Campanile of Florence 

The cathedral (Duomo) of Florence, though begun in i2g8, was not completed until the 
fifteenth century, when the famous architect Brunelleschi added the huge dome, 300 feet high. 
Close by the Duomo is the campanile or bell tower, adorned with bas-reliefs and colored 

jewelry, and metal work of Florence were imported into all 
European countries. The craft guilds were very strong there 
and even the neighboring nobles, who wished to 
become citizens, had first to enroll themselves in 
some guild. It was from banking, however, that Florence 
gained most wealth. In the fifteenth century the city con- 
tained eighty great banking houses, in addition to numerous 
branches outside of Italy. The Florentines combined with 
their commercial spirit a remarkable taste for art and literature. 


240 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

Their city, whose population never exceeded seventy thousand, 
gave birth to some of the most illustrious poets, prose writers, 
architects, sculptors, and painters of medieval times. It was 
the Athens of Italy.^ 

Genoa, located on the gulf of the same name, possesses a safe 
and spacious harbor. During the era of the crusades the city 
carried on a flourishing trade in both the Mediter- 
ranean and the Atlantic. After the fall of the 
Latin Empire of Constantinople - the Genoese almost monop- 
olized Oriental commerce along the Black Sea route. The 
closing of this route by the Turks was a heavy blow 
to their prosperity, which also suffered from the active com- 
petition of Venice. 

Almost alone among Italian cities Venice was not of Roman 
origin. Her beginning is traced back to the period of barbarian 
Situation of inroads, when fugitives from the mainland sought 
Venice ^ ^^^ home on the islands at the head of the 

Adriatic. These islands, which lie about five miles from the 
coast, are protected from the outer sea by a long sand bar. 
They are little more than mud-banks, barely rising above the 
shallow water of the lagoons. The oozy soil afforded no sup- 
port for buildings, except when strengthened by piles; there 
was scarcely any land fit for farming or cattle-raising; and the 
only drinking water had to be stored from the rainfall. Yet 
on this unpromising site arose one of the most splendid of 
European cities. 

The early inhabitants of Venice gained their living from the 
sale of sea salt and fish, two commodities for which a constant 
Venetian demand existed in the Middle Ages. Large quan- 

commerce titles of salt were needed for preserving meat in 

the winter months, while fish was eaten by all Christians on 
the numerous fast days and in Lent. The Venetians exchanged 
these commodities for the productions of the mainland and so 
built up a thriving trade. From fishermen they became mer- 
chants, with commercial relations which gradually extended 
to the Orient. The crusades vastly increased the wealth of 

1 See page 280. " See page 188. 

Italian Cities 241 

Venice, for she provided the ships in which troops and suppHes 
went to the Holy Land, and she secured the largest share of 
the new eastern trade. Venice became the great emporium 
of the Mediterranean. 

Venice also used the crusading movement for her poHtical 
advantage. The capture of Constantinople in the Fourth 
Crusade extended Venetian control over the Pelo- Venetian 
ponnesus,^ Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus, and many possessions 
smaller islands in the eastern Mediterranean. Even before 
this time Venice had begun to gain possessions upon the Italian 
mainland and along the eastern side of the Adriatic. Event- 
ually, she ruled a real empire.^ 

The commerce and possessions of Venice made it necessary 
for her to maintain a powerful fleet. She is said to have 
once had over three thousand merchant vessels, in Venetian 
addition to forty-five war galleys. Her ships went sea-power 
out in squadrons, with men-of-war acting as a convoy against 
pirates. One fleet traded with the ports of western Europe, 
another proceeded to the Black Sea, while others visited Syria 
and Egypt to meet the caravans from the Far East. Venetian 
sea-power humbled Genoa and for a long time held the Mediter- 
ranean against the Ottoman Turks. 

The visitor to modern Venice can still gain a good impression 
of what the city n;iust have looked like in the fourteenth century, 
when ships of every nation crowded its quays and Venice 
strangers of every country thronged its squares or described 
sped in light gondolas over the canals which take the place of 
streets. The main highway is the Grand Canal, nearly two 
miles long and lined with palaces and churches. The Grand 
Canal leads to St. Mark's Cathedral, brilliant with mosaic pic- 
tures, the Campanfle, or bell tower, and the Doge's Palace. The 
''Bridge of Sighs" connects the ducal palace with the state 
prison. The Rialto in the business heart of Venice is another 
famous bridge. But these are only a few oif the historic and 
beautiful buildings of the island city. 

^ Known in the Middle Ages as the Morea. 

* For the Venetian possessions in 1453, see the map, page 189. 

242 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

96. German Cities: the Hanseatic League 

The important trade routes from Venice and Genoa through 

the Alpine passes into the valleys of the Rhine and Danube were 

responsible for the prosperity of many fine cities in 

southern and southern and central Germany. Among them were 

central Augsburg, which rivaled Florence as a financial 

Germany & o' ... 

center, Nuremberg, famous for artistic metal 

work, Ulm, Strassburg, and Cologne. The feeble rule of the 

German kings compelled the cities to form several confederacies, 

for the purpose of resisting the extortionate tolls and downright 

robberies of feudal lords. 

It was the Baltic commerce which brought the cities of 
northern Germany into a firm union. The Baltic region fur- 
Cities of nished large quantities of dried and salted fish, 
northern especially herring, wax candles for church services, 
ermany skins, tallow, and lumber. Furs were also in 
great demand. Every one wore them during the winter, on 
account of the poorly heated houses. The German cities which 
shared in this commerce early formed the celebrated Hanse- 
atic ^ League for protection against pirates and feudal lords. 

The league seems to have begun with an alliance of Ham- 
burg and Liibeck to safeguard the traffic on the Elbe. The 

growth of the league was rapid. At the period 
Membership ^ ^ ^ 

of the of its greatest power, about 1400, there were up- 

Hanseatic wards of eighty Hanseatic cities along the Baltic 

and in the inland districts of northern Germany. 

The commercial importance of the league extended far beyond 
the borders of Germany. Its trading posts, or "factories," 
Hanseatic at Bergen in Norway and Novgorod in Russia, con- 
" factories " trolled the export trade of those two countries. 
Similar establishments existed at London, on the Thames 
just above London Bridge, and at Bruges in Flanders. Each 
factory served as a fortress where merchants could be safe 
from attack, as a storehouse for goods, and as a general market. 

The Hanseatic Lesigj^ ruled over the Baltic Sea very much 

1 From the old German hansa, a "confederacy." See the map on page 235. 

The Cities of Flanders 243 

as Venice ruled over the Adriatic. In spite of its monopolistic 
tendencies, so opposed to the spirit of free intercourse be- 
tween nations, the league did much useful work by ^ ^ 

. , , . , . Influence 

suppressmg piracy and by encouragmg the art of of the 

navigation. The Hanseatic merchants were also Hanseatic 

pioneers in the half-barbarous lands of northern 

and eastern Europe, where they founded towns, fostered in- 
dustry, and introduced comforts and luxuries previously 
unknown. Such services in advancing civilization were com- 
parable to those performed by the Teutonic Knights. 

After several centuries of usefulness the league lost its mon- 
opoly of the Baltic trade and began to decline. Moreover 

the Baltic, like the Mediterranean, sank to minor ^ ,. 

. , , , Decline 

importance as a commercial center, when the of the 

Portuguese had discovered the sea route to India Hanseatic 

and the Spaniards had opened up the New World. 

City after city gradually withdrew from the league, until only 

Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bremen remained. They are still 

called free and independent cities, though in the nineteenth 

century they entered the German Empire. 

97. The Cities of Flanders 

In the Middle Ages the Netherlands, or "Low Countries," 
now divided between Holland and Belgium, consisted of a num- 
ber of feudal states, nominally under the control County of 
of German and French rulers, but really quite Glanders 
independent. Among them was the county of Flanders. It 
included the coast region from Calais to the mouth of the 
Scheldt, as well as a considerable district in what is now north- 
western France. The inhabitants of Flanders were partly of 
Teutonic extraction (the Flemings) and partly akin to the 
French (the Walloons). 

Flanders enjoyed a good situation for commerce. • The coun- 
try formed a convenient stopping place for mer- pianders 
chants who went by sea between the Mediterranean commercial 
and the Baltic, while important land routes led ^""^ industrial 
there from all parts of western Europe. Flanders was also an 

244 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

industrial center. Its middle classes early discovered the fact 
that by devotion to manufacturing even a small, sterile region 
may become rich and populous. 

The leading indus- 
try of Flanders was 
Flemish weaving, 

wool trade England 

in the Middle Ages 
raised great flocks of 
sheep, but lacking 
skilled workmen to 
manufacture the wool 
into fine cloth, sent it 
across the Channel to 
Flanders. A medi- 
eval writer declared 
that the whole world 
was clothed in EngUsh 
wool manufactured by 
the Flemings. The 
wool trade made Flan- 
ders the ally of Eng- 
land in the Hundred 
Years' War, thus be- 
ginning that historic 
friendship between the 
two countries which 
still endures. 

Among the thriving communities of Flanders three held an 
exceptional position. Bruges was the mart where the trade of 
southern Europe, in the hands of the Venetians, and the trade 
of northern Europe, in the hands of the Hanseatic merchants, 
came together. Ghent, with forty thousand workshops, and 
Bruges Ypres, which counted two hundred thousand work- 

men within its walls and suburbs, were scarcely less 
prosperous. When these cities declined in wealth, 
Antwerp became the commercial metropohs of the Netherlands. 

Belfry of Bruges 

Bruges, the capital of West Flanders, contains many 
fine monuments of the Middle Ages. Among these is the 
belfry, which rises in the center of the facade of the market 
hall. It dates from the end of the thirteenth century. 
Its height is 352 feet. The belfry consists of three stories, 
the two lower ones square, and the upper one, octagonal. 

Ghent, and 

The Cities of Flanders 


Town Hall of Louvain, Belgium 

One of the richest and most ornate examples of Gothic architecture. 
Erected in the fifteenth century. The building consists of three stories 
above which rises the lofty roof crowned with graceful towers. The interior 
decorations and arrangements are commonplace. 

Flanders during the fourteenth century was annexed by 
France. The Flemish cities resisted bravely, and on more than 
one occasion their citizen levies, who could handle Flanders 
the sword and axe, as well as the loom, defeated the ^^ ^^^^ce 
French armies, thus demonstrating again that foot soldiers were 
a match for mailed cavalry. Had the cities been able to form 

246 European Cities During the Middle Ages 

a lasting league, they might have estabUshed an independent 
Flanders, "but the bitter rivalry of Ghent and Bruges led to for- 
eign domination, lasting into the nineteenth century.^ 

The great cities of Flanders, Germany, and Italy, not to 
speak of those in France, Spain, and England, were much 
The cities niore than centers of trade, industry, and finance, 
and Within their walls learning and art flourished to 

ci za on ^^ extent which had never been possible in earlier 
times, when rural life prevailed throughout western Europe. 
We shall now see what the cities of the Middle Ages contrib- 
uted to civilization. 


I. Indicate on the map (page 235) the Italian, German, and Flemish cities 
mentioned in this chapter. 2. Look up the derivation of the words "city," "town," 
and "village." 3. Why does an American city have a charter? Where is it 
obtained? What privileges does it confer? 4. Who comprised the Third Estate 
in Middle Ages? What class corresponds to it at the present time? 5. Why has 
the medieval city been called the "birthplace of modem democracy"? 6. Com- 
pare the merchant guild with the modern chamber of commerce, and craft guilds 
with modern trade unions. 7. Look up the origin of the words "apprentice," 
"journeyman," and "master." 8. Why was there no antagonism between labor 
and capital under the guild system? 9. Compare the medieval abhorrence of 
"engrossing" with the modem idea that "combinations in restraint of trade" are 
wrong. 10. Why were fairs a necessity in the Middle Ages? Why are they not 
so useful now? Where are they still found? 10. Compare a medieval fair with 
a modern exposition. 12. What would be the effect on trade within an American 
state if tolls were levied on the border of every county? 13. What is meant by 
a "robber baron"? 14. How did the names "damask" linen, "chinaware," 
"japanned" ware, and "cashmere" shawls originate? 15. Why was the purchas- 
ing power of money much greater in the Middle Ages than it is now? 16. Why 
are modern coins always made perfectly round and with "milled" edges? 17. Are 
modern coins "debased" to any considerable extent? What is the use of alloys? 

18. Why was the money-changer so necessary a figure in medieval business? 

19. How is it easy to evade laws forbidding usury? 20. Look up in an encyclo- 
pedia the legend of the "Wandering Jew." How does it illustrate the medieval 
attitude toward Jews? 2 1 . Write out the English equivalents of the Italiari words 
mentioned in the footnote on page 238. 22. Compare the Italian despots with 
the Greek tyrants. 23. Show that Venice in medieval times was the seaport 
nearest the heart of commercial Europe. 24. Why was Venice called the " bride 
of the sea"? 

1 In 1 83 1 the two provinces of East Flanders and West Flanders became part 
of the kingdom of Belgium. 


98. Formation of National Languages 

Throughout the Middle Ages Latin continued to be an inter- 
national language. The Roman Church used it for papal bulls 

and other documents. Prayers were recited, , , 

* -' ' Latin as 

hymns were sung, and sometimes sermons were an inter- 
preached in Latin. It was also the language of Ji^tionai 
men of culture everywhere in western Christendom. 
University professors lectured in Latin, students spoke Latin, 
lawyers addressed judges in Latin, and the merchants in different 
countries wrote Latin letters to one another. All learned books 
were composed in Latin until the close of the sixteenth century. 
This practice has not yet been entirely abandoned by scholars. 

Each European country during the Middle Ages had also 
its own national tongue. The so-called Romance languages, 
including modern French, Italian, Spanish, Por- ^j^^ 
tuguese, and Rumanian, were derived from Romance 
the Latin spoken by the Romanized inhabitants *^suages 
of the lands now known as France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and 
Rumania. Their colloquial Latin naturally lacked the ele- 
gance of the literary Latin used by Caesar, Cicero, Vergil, and 
other ancient authors. The difference between the written 
and spoken forms of the language became more marked from 
the fifth century onward, in consequence of the barbarian 
invasions. Gradually in each country new and vigorous 
tongues arose, related to, yet different from, the old classical 
Latin in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. 

The popular Latin of the Gallo-Romans gave rise to two 
groups of languages in medieval France. The first was used 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xvii, "Medieval 
Tales"; chapter xviii, "Three Medieval Epics." 


248 Medieval Civilization 

in the southern part of the country; it was called Provencal 

(from Provence). The second was spoken in the 
French • i i • , • 

north, particularly in the region about Pans. The 

unification of the French kingdom under Hugh Capet and his 

successors gradually extended the speech of northern France 

over the entire country. Modern French contains less than a 

thousand words introduced by the German invaders of Gaul, 

while the words of Celtic origin are even fewer in number. 

Nearly all the rest are derived from Latin. 

The Teutonic peoples who remained outside what had been the 
limits of the Roman world continued to use their native tongues 
The Teutonic during the Middle Ages. From them have come 
languages modern German, Dutch, Flemish, and the various 
Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and 
Icelandic ^). All these languages in their earliest known forms 
show unmistakable traces of a common origin. 

Britain was the only Roman province in the west of Europe 
where a Teutonic language took root and maintained itseK. 
Here the rough, guttural speech of the Anglo- 
Saxons completely drove out the popular Latin. 
In course of time Anglo-Saxon underwent various changes. 
Christian missionaries, from the seventh century onward, 
introduced many new Latin terms for church offices, services, 
and observances. The Danes, besides contributing some place- 
names, gave us that most useful word are, and also the habit 
of using to before an infinitive. The coming of the Normans 
deeply affected Anglo-Saxon. Norman-French influence helped 
to make the language simpler, by ridding it of the cumbersome 
declensions and conjugations which it had in common with 
all Teutonic tongues. Many new Norman-French words also 
crept in, as the hostility of the English people toward their 
conquerors disappeared. 

Anglo-Saxon, by the middle of the thirteenth century, had 
so far developed that it may now be called English. In the 
poems of Chaucer (about 1340-1400), especially his Canterbury 

^ Icelandic is the oldest and purest form of Scandinavian. Danish and Nor- 
wegian are practically the same, in fact, their literary or book-language is one. 

Development of National Literatures 249 

Tales,^ English wears quite a modern look, though the reader 
is sometimes troubled by the old speUing and „ 
by certam words not now m use. The changes m 
the grammar of the language have been so extremely shght 
since 1485 — the beginning of the reign of Henry VII ^ — that 
any EngHshman of ordinary education can read without dif- 
ficulty a book written more than four hundred years ago. 

What in medieval times was the speech of a few millions of 
Englishmen on a single small island is now spoken by at least 
one hundred and sixty millions of people all over English as 
the world. English is well fitted for the role of a a universal 
universal language, because of its absence of ^^^uage 
inflections and its simple sentence-order. The great number of 
one-syllabled words in the language also makes for ease in 
understanding it. Furthermore, English has been, and still is, 
extremely hospitable to new words, so that its vocabulary has 
grown very fast by the adoption of terms from Latin, French, 
and other tongues. These have immensely increased the ex- 
pressiveness of English, while giving it a position midway 
between the very different Romance and Teutonic languages. 

99. Development of National Literatures 

Medieval literature, though inferior in quahty to that of 
Greece and Rome, nevertheless includes many notable produc- 
tions. In the twelfth and the thirteenth centuries ^ . ^ 

Lann n3mins 
Latin hymns reached their perfection. The sub- 
lime Dies IrcB ("Day of Wrath") presents a picture of the final 
judgment of the wicked. The pathetic Stahat Mater, which 
describes the sorrows of Mary at the foot of the Cross, has been 
often translated and set to music. St. Bernard's Jesu Dulcis 
Memoria ("Jesus, the Very Thought of Thee") forms part of a 
beautiful hymn nearly two hundred lines in length. Part of 
another hymn, composed by a monk of Cluny, has been rendered 
into English as "Jerusalem the Golden." Latin hymns made 
use of rhyme, then something of a novelty, and thus helped to 
popularize this poetic device. 

1 See page 293. 2 gge page 214. 


Medieval Civilization 

A pleasant glimpse of secular society is afforded by the songs 
of the troubadours. These professional poets flourished in the 
The French south of France, but many of them traveled from 
^^ court to court in other countries. Their verses, 

composed in the Provencal language, were always sung to the 
accompaniment of some musical instrument, generally the lute. 
Romantic love and deeds of chivalry were the two themes which 
most inspired the troubadours. They, too, took up the use of 
rhyme, using it so skillfully as to become the teachers of Europe 
in lyric poetry. 

Northern France gave birth to epic or narrative poems, 
describing the exploits of mythical heroes and historic kings. 
The French For a long time the poems were recited by minstrels, 
®P^^ who did not hesitate to modify and enlarge them 

at will. It was not until late in the eleventh century that any 
of these epics were written down. They enjoyed high esteem 
in aristocratic circles and penetrated all countries where 
feudahsm prevailed. 

Many of the French epics dealt with Charlemagne and the 

twelve peers of France. The 
oldest, and at the same time 
Song of the finest, of these 
Roland productions is 
called the Song of Roland, after 
its principal hero. When 
leading the rearguard of Char- 
lemagne's army out of Spain, 
Roland is suddenly attacked 
in the pass of Roncesvalles by 
the treacherous Moors.^ He 
slays the enemy in heaps with 
his good sword, Durendal, and 
only after nearly all the Franks 
have perished sounds his magic 
horn to summon aid. Charle- 
magne, fifteen leagues distant, hears its notes and returns quickly. 
1 See page 13, note i. 

Roland at Roncesvalles 

From a thirteenth -century window of 
stained glass in Chartres Cathedral. At the 
right Roland sounding his horn; at the left 
Roland endeavoring to break his sword 

Development of National Literatures 251 

But before help arrives, Roland has fallen. He dies on the field 
of battle, with his face to the foe, and k prayer on his lips that 
''sweet France" may never be dishonored. This stirring poem 
appealed strongly to the martial Normans. A medieval chroni- 
cler relates that just before the battle of Hastings a Norman 
minstrel rode out between the lines, tossing his sword in air and 
catching it again, as he chanted the song "of Roland and of 
Charlemagne, of Oliver and many a brave vassal who lost his 
life at Roncesvalles." 

King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table were also 
important figures in medieval legend. Arthur was said to have 
reigned in Britain early in the sixth century and to j^^ 
have fought against the Anglo-Saxons. Whether Arthurian 
he ever lived or not we do not know. In the Arthu- ^°°^*^^®^ 
rian romances this Celtic king stands forth as the model knight, 
the ideal of noble chivalry. The Norman conquerors of England 
carried the romances to France, and here, where feudalism was 
so deeply rooted, they found a hearty welcome. Sir Thomas 
Malory's Morte d' Arthur, one of the first books to be printed in 
England, contains many of the narratives from which Tennyson, 
in his Idylls of the King, and other modern poets have drawn 
their inspiration. 

The greatest epic composed in Germany during the Middle 
Ages is the Nihelungenlied. The poem begins in Burgundy, 
where three kings hold court at Worms, on the The Nibe- 
Rhine. Thither comes the hero, Siegfried, ruler of lungenlied 
the Netherlands. He had slain the mysterious Nibelungs and 
seized their treasure, together with the magic cloud-cloak which 
rendered its wearer invisible to human eyes. He had also killed 
a dragon and by bathing in its blood had become invulnerable, 
except in one place where a hnden leaf touched his body. Sieg- 
fried marries Kriemhild, a beautiful Burgundian princess, and 
with her lives most happily. But a curse was attached to the 
Nibelung treasure, and Siegfried's enemy, the ''grim Hagen," 
treacherously slays him by a spear thrust into the one spot where 
he could be hurt. Many years afterwards Kriemhild marries 
Attila, king of the Huns, on condition that he help her to ven- 

252 Medieval Civilization 

geance. Hagen and his Burgundians are invited to Hunland, 
where Kriemhild causes them all to be put to death. The name 
of the poet who compiled and probably wrote much of the 
Nibelungenlied remains unknown, but his work has a place 
among the classics of German hterature. 

No account of medieval hterature ought to omit a reference 
to Reynard the Fox. This is a long poem, first written in Latin, 
Reynard and then turned into the chief languages of Europe, 

the Fox 'pjie characters are animals: Reynard, cunning and 

audacious, who outwits all his foes; Chanticleer the Cock; 
Bruin the Bear; Isengrim the Wolf; and many others. But 
they are animals in name only. We see them worship like 
Christians, go to mass, ride on horseback, debate in councils, 
and amuse themselves with hawking and hunting. Satire often 
creeps in, as when the villainous Fox confesses his sins to the 
Badger or vows that he will go to the Holy Land on a pil- 
grimage. The special interest of this work lies in the fact that 
it expressed the feelings of the common people, groaning under 
the oppression of feudal lords. 

The same democratic spirit breathes in the old English bal- 
lads of the outlaw Robin Hood. According to some accounts 
The Robin he flourished in the second half of the twelfth cen- 
Hood ballads ^-^j-y^ when Henry II and Richard the Lion- 
hearted reigned over England. Robin Hood, with his merry 
men, leads an adventurous Ufe in Sherwood Forest, engaging 
in feats of strength and hunting the king's tall deer. Bishops, 
sheriffs, and gamekeepers are his only enemies. For the com- 
mon people he has the greatest pity, and robs the rich to endow 
the poor. Courtesy, generosity, and love of fair play are some 
of the characteristics which made him a popular hero. If King 
Arthur was the ideal knight, Robin Hood was the ideal yeoman. 
The ballads about him were sung or recited by country folk 
for centuries. 

100. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture; the Cathedrals 

The genius of the Middle Ages found its highest expression, 
not in books, but in buildings. For several hundred years after 

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture 253 

the barbarian invasions architecture had made little progress 

in western Europe, outside of Italy, which was j^^ g^^^d- 

subject to Byzantine influence,^ and Spain, which tecturai 

1 stylss 

was a center of Moslem culture.^ Beginning about 

800 came a revival, and the adoption of an architectural 

Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, England 

I Principal west doorway; 2, 3 aisles of nave; 4 north porch; 5 tower; 
6, 6 pulpits; 7 throne; 8 altar; 9 font; 10, 11 choir aisles; 12, 13 east or 
choir transept; 14 sacristy; 15 cloister; 16 chapter house. 

Style called Romanesque, because it went back to Roman prin- 
ciples of construction. Romanesque architecture arose in 
northern Italy and southern France and gradually spread to 
other European countries. It was followed about iioo by the 

1 See page 39. * See page 86. 

254 Medieval Civilization 

Gothic style of architecture, which prevailed during the next 
four centuries. 

The church of the early Christians seems to have been mod- 
eled upon the Roman basilica, with its arrangement of nave 
The Roman- and aisles, its circular arched recess (apse) at one 
esque style q^^^^^ g^^d its flat, wooden ceiling supported by 
columns. The Romanesque church departed from the basih- 
can plan by the introduction of transepts, thus giving the build- 
ing the form of a Latin cross. A dome, which might be covered 
by a pointed roof, was generally raised over the junction of the 
nave and transepts. At the same time the apse was enlarged 
so as to form the choir, a place reserved for the clergy. 

The Romanesque church also differed from a basihca in the 
use of vaulting to take the place of a fiat ceiling. The old 
Vaulting Romans had constructed their vaulted roofs and 

and the domes of concrete, which forms a rigid mass and 

roun arc rests securely upon the walls like the lid of a 
box. Medieval architects, however, built of. stone, which in a 
vaulted roof exerts an outward thrust and tends to force the 
walls apart. Consequently, they found it necessary to make 
the walls very thick and to strengthen them by piers, or but- 
tresses, on the outside of the edifice. It was also necessary 
to reduce the width of the vaulted spaces. The vaulting, 
windows, and doorways had the form of the round arch, that 
is, a semicircle, as in the ancient Roman monuments.^ 

Gothic architecture arose in France in the country around 
Paris, at a time when the French kingdom was taking the lead 
The Gothic in European affairs. Later it spread to England, 
^*y^® Germany, the Netherlands, and even to southern 

Europe. As an old chronicler wrote, ''It was as if the whole 
world had thrown off the rags of its ancient time, and had 
arrayed itself in the white robes of the churches." The term 
Gothic was apphed to this architectural style by writers of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who regarded every- 
thing non-classical as barbarous. They believed it to be an 
invention of the barbarian Goths, and so they called it Gothic. 

1 See the illustrations, pages 156 and 237. 


The cathedral of Notre Dame at Reims in northwestern France stands on the site where 
Clovis was baptized by St. Remi. Here most of the French kings were consecrated with holy 
oil by the archbishops of Reims. Except the west front, which was built in the fourteenth 
century, the cathedral was completed by the end of the thirteenth century. The towers, 
267 feet high, were originally designed to reach 394 feet. The facade, with its three arched 
portals, exquisite rose window, and "gallery of the kings," is justly celebrated. The 
cathedral — walls, roof, statues, and windows — has been terribly damaged by the German 
bombardment during the late war. 

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture 255 

, The Gothic style formed a natural development of the Ro- 
manesque style. The architects of a Gothic church wished 
to retain the vaulted ceiling, but at the same time 
to do away with thick, soHd walls, which had so vaulting and 
Uttle window space as to leave the interior of the *^® ^^^s 
building dark and gloomy. They solved this 
problem, in the first place, by using a great number of stone 
ribs, which rested on pillars and 
gathered up the weight of the 
ceiling. Ribbed vaulting made 
possible higher ceilings, spanning 
wider areas, than in Romanesque 
churches.^ In the second place, 
the pillars supporting the ribs 
were themselves connected by 
means of flying buttresses with 
stout piers of masonry outside 
the walls of the church. ^ These 
walls, relieved from the pressure 
of the ceiling, now became a 
mere screen to keep out the 
weather. They could be built 
of light materials and opened up 
with high, wide windows. 

Ribbed vaulting and tlie flying 
buttress are the distinctive 
features of Gothic The pointed 
architecture. A third ^^'^^ 
feature, noteworthy but not so 
important, is the use of the 
pointed arch. It was not 
Christian in origin, for it had long been known to the Arabs 
in the East and the Moslem conquerors of Sicily. The semi- 

Cross Section of Amiens 

A, vaulting; B, ribs; C, flying but- 
tresses; D, buttresses; E, low windows; 
F, clerestory. 

1 The interior of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, shows the ribs and the 
beautiful tracery of the ceiling of a Gothic building. See the plate facing page 260. 

2 The flying buttress is shown in the view of Cologne Cathedral, 
facing page 253. 

See the plate 


Medieval Civilization 

circular or round arch can be only half as high as it is wide, but 
the pointed arch may vary greatly in its proportions. The use 
of this device enabled the Gothic builder to bridge over different 
widths at any required height. It is also lighter and more 
graceful than the round arch. 

The labors of the Gothic architect were admirably seconded 
by those of other artists. The sculptor cut figures of men, 

.. . ^ Gothic animals, and 

f ''- ' ~~^ ornament plants in the 
utmost profusion. The 
painter covered vacant 
wall spaces with brilliant 
frescoes. The w o o d- 
carver made exquisite 
choir stalls, pulpits, 
altars, and screens. 
Master workmen filled 
the stone tracery of the 
windows with stained 
glass unequaled in color- 
ing by the finest modern 
work. Some rigorous 
churchmen like St. Ber- 
nard condemned the ex- 
pense of these magnificent 
cathedrals, but most men found in their beauty an additional 
reason to praise God. 

Gothic architecture, though at first confined to churches, 
came to be used for other buildings. Among the monuments of 
The secular the secular Gothic are beautiful town halls, guild 
Gothic halls, markets, and charming private houses.^ But 

the cathedral remained the best expression of the Gothic style. 

Gargoyles on the Cathedral of 
Notre Dame, Paris 

Strange, grotesque figures and faces of stone, used 
as ornaments of Gothic buildings and as spouts to 
carry ofiE rainwater. They represent beasts, demons, 
and other creations of medieval fancy. 

101. Education; the Universities 

The universities developed from the monastic and cathedral 
schools where boys were trained to become monks or priests. 

^ See the illustrations, pages 244 and 245 . 

Education; The Universities 257 

Such schools had been created or restored by Charlemagne. 
The teaching, which lay entirely in the hands of Common 
the clergy, was elementary in character. Pupils schools 
learned enough Latin grammar to read religious books, if not 
always to understand them, and enough music to follow the 
services of the Church. They also studied arithmetic by means 
of the awkward Roman notation and geometry in Euclid's 
propositions without the demonstrations, received a smattering 
of astronomy, and sometimes gained a little knowledge of such 
subjects as geography, law, and philosophy. Besides these 
monastic and cathedral schools, others were maintained by the 
guilds and also by private benefactors. Boys who had no reg- 
ular schooling often received instruction from the parish priest. 
Illiteracy was. common enough in medieval times, but the mass 
of the people were by no means entirely uneducated. 

Between 11 50 and 1500 at least eighty universities were 
estabhshed in western Europe. Some speedily became extinct, 
but there are still about fifty European institutions Rise of 
of learning which date from the Middle Ages, universities 
They arose, as it were, spontaneously. Western Europe in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries felt the thrill of a great in- 
tellectual revival. It was stimulated by intercourse with the 
highly cultivated Arabs in Spain, Sicily, and the East, and with 
the Greek scholars of Constantinople during the crusades. The 
desire for instruction became so general that the church schools 
could not satisfy it. Other schools were then opened in the 
cities, and to them flocked eager learners from every quarter. 

How easily a university might grow up about the personality 
of some eminent teacher is shown by the career of Abelard. The 
eldest son of a noble family in Brittany, Abelard 
would naturally have entered upon a military ^®*®^ 
career, but he chose instead the life of a scholar 1079-1142 
and the contests of debate. When still a young 
man he went to Paris and attended the lectures given by a master 
of the cathedral school of Notre Dame. At the early age of 
twenty-two Abelard himself set up as a lecturer. Few teachers 
have ever attracted so large and so devoted a following. His 


Medieval Civilization 

classroom under the shadow of the great cathedral was filled 
with a crowd of youths and men drawn from all countries. 

The fame of Abelard led to an increase of masters and students 
at Paris and so paved the way for the establishment of the uni- 
University versity there, later in the twelfth century. Paris 
of Paris gQQj^ became such a center of learning, particularly 

in theology and philosophy, that a medieval writer referred to it 

View of New College, Oxford 

New College, despite its name, is one of the oldest of the Oxford collegiate foundations 
It was established in 1379 by William of Wykeham. The illustration shows the chapel, the 
cloisters, consecrated in 1400, and the detached tower, a tall, massive structure on the line 
of the city wall. 

as "the mill where the world's corn is ground, and the hearth 
where its bread is baked." The university of Paris, in the time 
of its greatest prosperity, had over five thousand students. It 
furnished the model for the English university of Oxford, as 
well as for the learned institutions of Scotland, Denmark, 
Sweden, and Germany. 

The institutions of learning in southern Europe were modeled, 
more or less, upon the university of Bologna. At this ItaHan 
University city, in the middle of the twelfth century, a cele- 
of Bologna brated teacher named Irnerius gathered about him 
thousands of pupils for the study of the Justinian code. The 

Education; The Universities 259 

university developed out of his law school. Bologna was the 
center from which the Roman system of jurisprudence made its 
way into France, Germany, and other Continental countries. 
From Bologna, also, came the monk Gratian, who drew up 
the accepted text-book of canon law, as followed in all Church 
courts.^ What Roman law was to the Empire canon law was 
to the Papacy. 

The word ''university" ^ meant at first simply a union or 
association. In the Middle Ages all artisans were organized in 
guilds,^ and when masters and pupils associated University 
themselves for teaching and study they naturally organization 
copied the guild form. This was the more necessary since the 
student body included many foreigners, who found protection 
against annoyances only as members of a guild. 

A university consisted of masters (the professors), who had 
the right to teach, and students, both elementary and advanced, 
who corresponded to apprentices and journeymen. 
After passing part of his examination, a student 
became a ''bachelor of arts" and might teach certain elementary 
subjects to those beneath him. Upon the completion of the full 
course — usually six years in length — the bachelor took his 
final examinations and, if successful, received the coveted de- 
gree of "master of arts." Many students, of course, never 
took a degree at all. 

A university of the Middle Ages did not need an expensive 

collection of libraries, laboratories, and museums. Its only 

necessary equipment consisted of lecture rooms ^, 

, r ■.. T 1 , . The teachers 

for the professors. Not even benches or chairs 

were required, for students often sat on the straw-strewn floors. 

The high price of manuscripts compelled professors to give all 

instruction by lectures. This method of teaching has been 

retained in modern universities, because even the printed book 

is a poor substitute for a scholar's inspiring words. 

Since the universities were under the protection of the Church, 

it was natural that those who attended them should possess 

some of the privileges of clergymen. Students did, not pay 

^ Seepage 141. 2 Latin universitas. 3 See page 231. 


Medieval Civilization 

The students 

taxes or serve as soldiers. They also enjoyed the right of trial 
in their own courts. This was an especially valu- 
able privilege, for medieval scholars were constantly 
getting into trouble with the city authorities. The sober annals 
of many a university are relieved by tales 
of truly Homeric conflicts between Town 
and Gown. When the students were 
dissatisfied with their treatment in one 
place, it was always easy for them to go 
to another university. Sometimes 
masters and scholars made off in a body. 
Oxford appears to have owed its existence 
to a large migration of EngUsh students 
from Paris; Cambridge arose as the result 
of a migration from Oxford; and the 
German university of Leipzig sprang 
from that of Prague in Bohemia. 

The members of a university usually 
lived in a number of colleges. These 
seem to have been at first 
little more than lodging- 
houses, where poor students were cared 
for at the expense of some benefactor. 
In time, however, as the colleges increased 
in wealth, through the gifts made to them, 
they became centers of instruction under 
the direction of masters. At Oxford and 
Cambridge, where the collegiate system 
has been retained to the present time, 
each college possesses its separate build- 
ings and enjoys the privilege of self- 
The studies in a medieval university 
were grouped under the four faculties of arts, theology, law, 
and medicine. The first-named faculty taught 
the "seven hberal ?rts," that is, grammar, rhet- 
oric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. 

Tower of Magdalen 
College, Oxford 

Magdalen (pronounced 
Maudlin) is perhaps the 
most beautiful college in 
Oxford. The bell tower 
stands on High Street, the 
principal thoroughfare of 
Oxford, and adjoins Mag- 
dalen Bridge, built across 
the Cherwell. Begun in 
1492; completed in 1505. 
From its summit a Latin 
hymn is sung every year on 
the morning of May Day. 
This graceful tower has been 
several times imitated in 
American collegiate struct- 




The chief architectural ornament of King's College, founded by King Henry VI, is the chapel 
in the Gothic perpendicular style. This building was begun in 1446 a.d., but was not completed 
until nearly seventy years later. The finest features of the interior are the fan-vaulting which 
extends throughout the chapel, the stained-glass windows, and the wooden organ screen. 

Scholasticism 261 

These subjects were a legacy from Roman education. Theol- 
ogy, law, and medicine then, as now, were professional studies, 
taken up after the completion of the Arts course. Owing to 
the constant movement of students from one university to 
another, each institution tended to specialize in one or more 
fields of learning. Thus, Paris came to be noted for theology, 
Montpelher, Padua, and Salerno for medicine, and Orleans, 
Bologna, and Salamanca for law. 

102. Scholasticism 

Theology formed the chief subject of instruction in most 
medieval universities. Nearly all the celebrated scholars of 
the age were theologians. They sought to arrange Theological 
the doctrines of the Church in systematic and ^^^^ 
reasonable form, in order to answer those great questions con- 
cerning the nature of God and of the soul which have always 
occupied the human mind. For this purpose it was necessary 
to call in the aid of philosophy. The union of theology and 
philosophy produced what is known as scholasticism.^ 

The philosophy on which the scholastics relied was chiefly 
that of Aristotle. Christian Europe read him at first in Latin 
translations from the Arabic, but versions were study of 
later made from Greek copies found in Constant!- Aristotle 
nople and elsewhere in the East. This revival of Aristotle, 
though it broadened men's minds by acquainting them with the 
ideas of the greatest of Greek thinkers, had serious drawbacks. 
It discouraged rather than favored the search for fresh truth. 
Many scholastics were satisfied to appeal to Aristotle's author- 
ity, rather than take the trouble of finding out things for them- 
selves. The story is told of a medieval student who, having 
detected spots in the sun, announced his discovery to a learned 
man. "My son," said the latter, "I have read Aristotle many 
times, and I assure you there is nothing of the kind mentioned 
by him. Be certain that the spots which you have seen are in 
your eyes and not in the sun." 

^ The method of the school (Latin schola). 

262 Medieval Civilization 

There were many famous scholastics, or "schoolmen," but 
easily the foremost among them was the Italian monk, Thomas 

Aquinas. He taught at Paris, Cologne, Rome, and 
St. Thomas Bologna, and became so celebrated for learning 
1227^1274 as to be known as the "Angelic Doctor." Though 

Aquinas died at an early age, he left behind him 
no less than eighteen folio volumes. His Summa TheologicB 
("Compendium of Theology"), as the name indicates, gathered 
up all that the Middle Ages beheved of the relations between 
God and man. The Roman Church has placed him among 
her saints and still recommends the study of his writings as 
the foundation of all sound theology. 

Enough has been said to show that the method of study in 
medieval Universities was not that which generally obtains 
ry, to-day. There was ahnost no original research, 

scholastic Law students memorized the Justinian code, 

method Medical students learned anatomy and physiol- 

ogy from old Greek books, instead of in the dissecting room. 
Theologians and philosophers went to the Bible, the Church 
Fathers, or Aristotle for the solution of all problems. They 
often debated the most subtle questions, for instance, "Can 
God ever know more than He knows that He knows? " Mental 
gymnastics of this sort furnished a good training in logic, but 
added nothing to the sum of human knowledge. Scholasticism, 
accordingly, fell into disrepute, in proportion as men began to 
substitute scientific observation and experiment for speculation. 

103. Science and Magic 

Not all medieval learning took the form of scholasticism. 
The twelfth and thirteenth centuries were marked by a healthy 
Scientific interest in science. Long encyclopedias, written 

inventions jj^ Latin, collected all available information about 
the natural world. The study of physics made conspicuous 
progress, partly as a result of Arab influence. Various scientific 
inventions, including magnifying lenses (for eyeglasses) and 
clocks, were worked out. The mariner's compass, perhaps 
derived from the Arabs, also came into general use. 

Science and Magic 


We may take the Englishman, Roger Bacon, as a representa- 
tive of this scientific interest. He studied at Paris, where his 
attainments secured for him the title of the " Won- t> 

Roger Bacon, 
derful Doctor, and lectured at Oxford. At a about 1214- 

period when Aristotle's influence was unbounded, ^^^* 
Bacon turned away from scholastic philosophy to mathematics 
and the sciences. No great discoveries 
were made by him, but it is interesting 
to read a passage in one of his works 
where some modern inventions are 
distinctly foreseen. In time, he wrote, 
ships will be moved without rowers, 
and carriages will be propelled without 
animals to draw them. Machines 
for flying will also be constructed, 
"wherein a man sits revolving some 
engine by which artificial wings are 
made to beat the air like a flying bird." 
Even in Bacon's day it would appear 
that men were trying to make steam- 
boats, automobiles, and airplanes. 

The discovery of gunpowder, a compound of saltpeter, char- 
coal, and sulphur, has often been attributed to Bacon, probably 
incorrectly. Bacon and other men of his time 
seem to have been familiar with the composition 
of gunpowder, but they regarded it as merely a sort of firework, 
producing a sudden and briUiant flame. They httle suspected 
that in a confined space the expansive power of its gases could 
be used to hurl projectiles. Gunpowder was occasionally manu- 
factured during the fourteenth century, but for a long time it 
made more noise than it did harm. Small brass cannon, throw- 
ing stone balls, began at length to displace the medieval siege 
weapons, and stifl later muskets took the place of the longbow, 
the cross-bow, and the pike. The revolution in the art of war- 
fare introduced by gunpowder had vast importance. It de- 
stroyed the usefulness of the castle and enabled the peasant to 
fight the mailed knight on equal terms. Gunpowder, accord- 

Roger Bacon 

From the original picture in 
the possession of Lord Sack- 
ville, at Knole, England. 


264 Medieval Civilization 

ingly, must be included among the forces which brought about 
the downfall of feudalism. 

The study of chemistry also engaged the attention of medieval 
investigators. It was, however, much mixed up with alchemy. 
Chemistry a false science which the Middle Ages had received 
and alchemy fj-Qj^ the Arabs and they in turn from the Greeks. 
The alchemists believed that minerals possessed a real life of 
their own and that they were continually developing in the 
ground toward the state of gold, the perfect metal. It was 
necessary, therefore, to discover the "philosopher's stone," 
which would turn all metals into gold. The alchemists never 
found it, but they learned a good deal about the various metals 
and discovered a number of compounds and colors. In this 
way alchemy contributed to the advance of chemistry. 

Astronomy in the Middle Ages was the most advanced of any 
natural science, though the telescope and the Copernican theory 
Astronomy were as yet in the future. Astronomy, the wise 
and astrology mother, had a foohsh daughter, astrology, the 
origin of which can be traced back to Babylonia. Medieval 
students no longer regarded the stars as divine, but they be- 
lieved that the natural world and the lives of men were controlled 
by celestial influences. Hence astrologers professed to predict 
the fate of a person from the position of the planets at the time 
of his birth. Astrological rules were also drawn from the signs 
of the zodiac. A child born under the sign of the Lion will be 
courageous; one born under the Crab will not go forward well 
in life; one born under the Waterman will probably be drowned, 
and so forth. Such fancies seem absurd enough, but in the 
Middle Ages educated people entertained them. 

Alchemy and astrology were not the only instances of medie- 
val credulity. The most improbable stories found ready ac- 
Medieval ceptance. Roger Bacon, for instance, thought 

credulity |-j^a,t "flying dragons" still existed in Europe and 

that eating their flesh lengthened human life. Works on 
natural history soberly described the lizard-hke salamander, 
which dwelt in fire, and the phoenix, a bird which, after living 
for five hundred years, burned itself to death and then rose 

Popular Superstitions 



again full grown from the ashes. Various plants and minerals 
were credited with marvelous powers. Thus, the nasturtium, 
used as a liniment, would keep one's hair from faUing out, and 
the sapphire, when powdered and mixed with milk, would heal 
ulcers and cure headache. Such quaint beliefs linger to-day 
among uneducated people, even in civilized lands. 

Magicians of every sort flourished in the Middle Ages. Onei- 
romancers ^ took omens 
from dreams. 
Palmists read 

fortunes in the lines and 
irregularities of the hand. 
Necromancers ^ professed 
to reveal the future by 
pretended communica- 
tions with departed spirits. 
Other magicians made 
talismans or lucky objects 
to be worn on the person, 
mirrors in which the images 
of the dead or the absent were reflected, and various powders 
which, when mixed with food or drink, would inspire hatred 
or affection in the one consuming them. Indeed, it would be 
easy to draw up a long hst of the devices by which practi- 
tioners of magic made a Hving at the expense of ignorant and 
superstitious people. 

Magician Rescued from the Devil 

Miniature in a thirteenth-century manuscript in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. The Devil, at- 
tempting to seize a magician who had formed a 
pact with him, is prevented by a lay brother. 

Folk tales 

104. Popular Superstitions 

Many medieval superstitions are preserved in folk tales, or 
''fairy stories." Every child now reads these tales in books, 
but until the nineteenth century very few of them 
had been collected and written down.^ They lived 
on the lips of the people, being told by mothers and nurses 

1 Greek oneiros, "dream." 2 Greek nekros, "corpse." 

' Charles Perrault's Tales of Passed Times appeared at Paris in 1697. It in- 
cluded the now-familiar stories of "Bluebeard," "Cinderella," "Sleeping Beauty," 
and "Little Red Riding Hood." In 1812 the brothers Grimm pubUshed their 
Household Tales, a collection of stories current in Germany. 

266 Medieval Civilization 

to children and by young and old about the firesides during the 
long winter evenings. Story-telling formed one of the chief 
amusements of the Middle Ages. 

The fairies who appear so commonly in folk tales are known 
by such different names as bogies, brownies, goblins, pixies, 
kobolds (in Germany), and trolls (in Denmark). 
The Celts, especially, had a lively faith in fairies, 
and it was from Wales, Scotland, and Ireland that many 
stories about them became current in Europe after the tenth 
century. Some students have explained the behef in fairies 
as due to memories of an ancient pygmy people dwelling in 
underground homes. But most of these supernatural beings 
seem to be the descendants of the spirits which in savage fancy 
haunt the world. 

A comparison of European folk tales shows that fairies have 
certain characteristics in common. They hve in palaces under- 
Character- neath the ground, from which they emerge at twi- 
istics light to dance in mystic circles. They are ruled 

by kings and queens and are possessed of great 
wealth. Though usually invisible, they may sometimes be seen, 
especially by people who have the faculty of perceiving spirits. 
To mortals the fairies are generally hostile, leading wanderers 
astray, often blighting crops and cattle, and shooting arrows 
which carry disease and death. They are constantly on the 
watch to carry off human beings to their realm. A prisoner 
must be released at the end of a certain time, unless he tastes 
fairy food, in which event he can never return. Children in 
cradles are frequently snatched away by the fairies, who leave, 
instead, imps of their own called "changehngs." A changeling 
may always be recognized by its peevishness and backwardness 
in learning to walk and speak. If well treated, the fairies will 
sometimes show their gratitude by bestowing on their favorites 
health, wealth, and long life. Lucky the child who can count 
on a ''fairy god-mother." 

Stories of giants are common in folk tales. Giants are often 
represented as not only big but also stupid, and as easily over- 
come by keen-witted human foes like "Jack the Giant-killer." 

Popular Superstitions 


It may be that traditions of prehistoric peoples have sometimes 
given birth to accounts of giants. Another source Giants 
of stories concerning them has been the dis- *^^ os^^s 
covery of huge fossil bones, such as those of the mammoth or 
mastodon, which were formerly supposed to be bones of gigantic 
men. The ogres, who sometimes figure in folk tales, are giants 
with a taste for human flesh. They recall the cannibals of the 
savage world. 

The Witches' Sabbath 


Werewolves were persons who, by natural gift or magic art, 
were thought to have the power of turning themselves for a time 
into wild beasts (generally wolves or bears). In 
this animal shape they ravaged flocks and de- 
voured young children. A werewolf was said to sleep only two 
nights in the month and to spend the rest of the time roam- 
ing the woods and fields. Trials of persons accused of being 
werewolves were held in France as late as the end of the six- 
teenth century. Even now the belief is found in backward parts 
of Europe. 

268 Medieval Civilization 

The medieval superstition of the evil eye endowed certain 

persons with the power of bewitching,, injuring, or kilHng others 

^, ., by a sinsfle dance. Children and domestic ani- 

The evil eye -^ ^ , i i - ^ ^ 

mals were thought to be particularly susceptible 

to the effects of "fascination." In order to guard against it, 

charms of various sorts, including texts from the Bible, were 

carried about. The belief in the evil eye came into Europe from 

pagan antiquity. It survived the Middle Ages and lingers yet 

among uneducated people. 

The behef in witchcraft, which prevailed in ancient times, 

was also strongly held during the Middle Ages. Witches were 

„,. , , supposed to have sold themselves to the Devil, 

Witchcraft . . . , , . ^ ' 

receiving m return the power to work magic. They 

could change themselves or others into animals, they had 

charms against the hurt of weapons, they could raise storms 

and destroy crops, and they could convey thorns, pins, and other 

objects into their victims' bodies, thus causing sickness and 

death. At night they rode through the air on broomsticks 

and assembled in some lonely place for feasts, dances, and wild 

revels. The Devil himself attended these "Witches' Sabbaths" 

and taught his followers their diabolic arts. There were various 

tests for the discovery of witches, the most usual being the 

ordeal by water.^ 

The numerous trials and executions for witchcraft form a dark 
page in history. Thousands of harmless old men and women 
Witchcraft were put to death on the charge of being leagued 
persecutions ^.^^h the Devil. Even the most intelligent and 
humane people believed in the realit}^ of witchcraft and found 
a justification for its punishment in the Scriptural command, 
"Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live." ^ The witch epidemic 
which broke out in America during the seventeenth century, 
reaching its height at Salem, Massachusetts, was simply a 
reflection of the European fear and hatred of witches. 

The Middle Ages inherited from antiquity the observance of 
unlucky days. These v/ent under the name of "Egyptian 
days," so called because it was held that on one of them the 

1 See page iig. ^ Exodus, xxii, i8. 

Popular Amusements and Festivals 


plagues had been sent to devastate the land of Egypt and on 

another Pharaoh and his host had been swallowed 

Unlucky days 
up in the Red Sea. At least twenty-four days 

in the year were regarded as very unlucky. At such times one 
ought not to buy or sell, to build a house, to plant a field, to 
travel or, in fact, to undertake anything at all important. After 
the sixteenth century the belief in unlucky days declined, but 
there still exists a prejudice against fishermen starting out to 
fish, or seamen to take a voyage, or landsmen a journey, or do- 
mestic servants to enter a new place, on a Friday. 

Indoor games 

105. Popular Amusements and Festivals 

It is pleasant to turn from the superstitions of the Middle 
Ages to the games, sports, and festivals which helped to make 
life agreeable alike for rich and poor, for nobles 
and peasants. Some indoor games are of eastern 
origin. Chess, for instance, arose in India as a war game. 
On each side a king 
and his general, with 
chariots, cavalry, 
elephants, and in- 
fantry, met in battle 
array. These survive 
in the rooks, knights, 
bishops, and pawns 
of the modern game. 
Checkers is a sort of 
simplified chess, in 
which the pieces are 

all pawns, till they get across the board and become kings.. 
Playing cards are another Oriental invention. They were 
introduced into Europe in the fourteenth century, either by 
the Arabs or the gypsies. Their first use seems to have been 
for telling fortunes. 

Many outdoor games are derived from those played in medie- 
val times. How one kind of game may become the parent of 

Chess Pieces of Charlemagne 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
The figures are carved in ivory. 


Medieval Civilization 

many others is seen in the case of the ball-play. The ancients 
tossed and caught balls as children do now. They also had a 
Outdoor game in which each side tried to secure the ball and 

games throw it Over the adversary's goal line. This game 

lasted on into the Middle Ages, and from it football has de- 
scended. The ancients seem never to have used a stick or bat 
in their ball-play. The Persians, however, began to play ball 
on horseback, using a long mallet for the purpose, and intro- 
duced their new sport throughout Asia. Under the Tibetan 
name of pulu (''ball") it found its way into Europe. When 
once the mallet had been invented for use on horseback, it 
could be easily used on foot, and so polo gave rise to the various 
games in which balls are hit with bats, including tennis, hockey, 
golf, cricket, and croquet. 

The difference between our ideas of what constitutes "sport" 



and those of our ancestors is shown by the popu- 
larity of baiting. In the twelfth century bulls, 
and even horses were baited. Cock-fighting formed 

another common 
amusement. It 
was not till the 
nineteenth cen- 
tury that an Eng- 
lish society for 
the prevention of 
cruelty to animals 
succeeded in get- 
ting a law passed 
which forbade 
these cruel sports. Most other European countries have now 
followed England's example. 

No account of life in the Middle Ages can well omit some 
reference to the celebration of festivals. For the peasant and 
artisan they provided relief from physical exertion, 
and for all classes of society the pageants, pro- 
cessions, sports, feasts, and merry-makings which accompanied 
them furnished welcome diversion. Medieval festivals included 

Bear Baiting 

From the Luttrell Psalter. 


Popular Amusements and Festivals 271 

not only those of the Christian Year/ but also others which had 
come down from pre-Christian times. 

Many festivals not of Christian origin were derived from the 
ceremonies with which the heathen peoples of Europe had been 
accustomed to mark the changes of the seasons. Seasonal 
Thus, April Fool's Day formed a relic of festivities festivities 
held at the vernal equinox. May Day, another festival of 
spring, honored the spirits of trees and of all budding vegetation. 
The persons who acted as May kings and May queens repre- 
sented these spirits. According to the original custom a new 
May tree was cut down in the forest every year, but later a 
permanent May pole was set up on the village common. On 
Midsummer Eve (June 23), which marked the summer solstice, 
came the fire festival, when people built bonfires and leaped 
over them, walked in procession with torches round the. fields, 
and rolled burning wheels down the hillsides. These curious 
rites may have been 
once connected 
with sun worship. 
Hallow Eve, so 
called from being 
the eve of All 
Saints' Day (No- 
vember i), also 
seems to have been 
a survival of a 
heathen celebra- 
tion. On this 
night witches and 
fairies were sup- 
posed to assemble. 
Hallow Eve does 
not appear to have 
been a season for 
pranks and jokes, as in its present degenerate form. Even the 
festival of Christmas, coming at the winter solstice, kept some 

1 See page 48. 


From a manuscript now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
It was written and illuminated in the reign of Edward IH. 


Medieval Civilization 

heathen features, such as the use of mistletoe with which Celtic 
priests once decked the altars of their gods. The Christmas 
tree, however, is not a relic of heathenism. 

A Miracle Play at Coventry, England 

The rude platform on wheels, which served as a stage, was drawn by apprentices to the 
market place. Each guild had its own stage. 

Young and old took part in the dances which accompanied 
village festivals. Very popular in medieval England was the 
The Morris Morris dance. The name, a corruption of Moor- 
dance jgj^^ refers to its origin in Spain. The Morris dance 
was especially associated with May Day and was danced round 
a May pole to a lively and capering step. The performers 
represented Robin Hood, Maid Marian, his wife, Tom the 
Piper, and other traditional characters. On their garments 
they wore bells tuned to different notes, so as to sound in 

Manners and Customs 273 

Mumming had a particular association with Christmas. 
Mummers were bands of men and women who disguised them- 
selves in masks and skins of animals and then „ 

serenaded people outside their houses. Often 

the mummers performed little dramas, in which Father Christ- 
mas, Old King Cole, and St. George were familiar figures. 

Besides these village amusements, many plays of a religious 
character came into vogue during the twelfth and thirteenth 

centuries. The earliest were the miracle plays. ,,. , , 
^, 1 . 1 . r r 1 Miracle plays 

They presented in dramatic form scenes from the 

Bible and stories of the saints or martyrs. The actors at first 
were priests, and the stage was the church itself or the church- 
yard. This religious setting did not prevent the introduction 
of clowns and buffoons. After a time the miracle play passed 
from the clergy to the guilds. All the guilds of a town usually 
gave an exhibition once a year. Each guild presented a single 
scene in the story. An exhibition might last for several days 
and have as many as fifty scenes, beginning at Creation and 
ending with Doomsday.^ 

The miracle plays were followed by the "moralities." They 
dealt with the struggle between good and evil, rather than with 
religious history. Characters such as Charity, Morality 
Faith, Prudence, Riches, Confession, and Death p^^^^ 
appeared and enacted a story int-ended to teach moral lessons. 
Out of the rude "morality" and its predecessor, the miracle 
play, has grown the drama of modern times. 

106. Manners and Customs 

A previous chapter ^ described some features of domestic 
life in castle and village during the age of feudalism. In Eng- 
land, where the Norman kings discouraged castle ^ „. 
, . '. , , r T 1 ,. Dwellmgs 

building, the manor house formed the ordinary 

residence of the nobility. Even in Continental Europe many 
castles were gradually made over into manor houses after the 

1 The Passion Play at Ober-Ammergau in Germany is the modern representa- 
tive of this medieval religious drama. 
^ Chapter vi. 


Medieval Civilization 

cessation of feudal warfare. A manor house, however, was 
only less bare and inconvenient than a castle. It was still 
poorly lighted, ill-ventilated, and in winter scarcely warmed by 
the open wood fires. Among the improvements of the four- 
teenth century were the building of a fireplace at one or both 
ends of the manor hall, instead of in the center, and the substi- 
tution of glass windows for wooden shutters or oiled paper. 


Sulgrave, in Northhamptonshire, was the ancestral home of the Washington family. 
The manor house, built by Lawrence V/ashington about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, bears the family coat-of-arms on the porch. This historic dwelling has been 
purchased by an English committee for- preservation as a memorial of the friendship 
and blood-relationship between England and the United States. 

People in the Middle Ages, even the well-to-do, got along with 
little furniture. The great hall of a manor house contained a 
long dining table, with benches used at meals, 
and a few stools. The family beds often occupied 
curtained recesses in the walls, but guests might have to sleep 
on the floor of the manor hall. Servants often slept in the 
stables. Few persons could afford rugs to cover the floor; the 
poor had to put up with rushes. - Utensils were not numerous, 
and articles of glass and silver were practically unknown, except 
in the houses of the rich. 

The pictures in old manuscripts give us a good idea of medieval 
dress. Naturally it varied with time and place, according 


Manners and Customs 275 

to the social position of the wearer. Sometimes laws were 
passed, without much result, to regulate the quahty, 
shape, and cost of the costumes to be worn by dif- ^'*^*"°'® 
ferent orders of society. The moralists of the age were shocked 
when tightly fitting garments, which showed the outhnes of the 
body, became fashionable. The inconvenience of putting them 

Interior of AxN English Manor House 

Shows the great hall of a manor house at Penshurst, Kent. The screen with the 
minstrels gal ery over it is seen at the end of the hall, and in the center, the brazier 
for fire. Built about 1340. 

on led to the use of buttons and buttonholes. Women's head- 
dresses were often of extraordinary height and shape. Not 
less remarkable were the pointed shoes worn by men. The 
points finally got so long that they hindered walking, unless 
tied to the knees by a ribbon. 

The medieval noble of the twelfth century as a rule went clean 
shaven. To wear a beard was regarded as a sign of effeminacy 
m a man. The Bayeux Tapestry,i for instance, 
shows the Normans mostly clean-shaven, while the ^^^"^^ 
Enghsh wear only moustaches. The introduction of long beards 

* See the illustration, page 107. 


Medieval Civilization 

seems to have been due to contact with the East during the 
crusading period. 

Regular bathing was not by any means neglected during the 
later Middle Ages. In the country districts river, lake, or pool 
Baths and met the needs of people used to outdoor Hfe. The 
bathing j^q^- g^jj. g^j^^j vapor baths of the Byzantines were 

adopted by the Moslems and later, through the Moors and cru- 
saders, were made known to western Europe. After the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century .few large cities lacked public 
bathing places. 

Costumes of Ladies during the Later Middle Ages 


Medieval cookbooks show that people of means had all sorts 
of elaborate and expensive dishes. Dinner at a nobleman's 
house might include as many as ten or twelve 
courses, mostly meats and game. Such things as 
hedgehogs, peacocks, sparrows, and porpoises, which would 
hardly tempt the modern palate, were relished. Much use 
was made of spices in preparing meats and gravies, and also 
for flavoring wines. Over-eating was a common vice in the 
Middle Ages, but their open-air life and constant exercise en- 
abled men and women to digest the huge quantities of food 
they consumed. 

Manners and Customs 277 

People in medieval times had no knives or forks and conse- 
quently ate with their fingers. Daggers also were employed to 
convey food to the mouth. Forks date from the Table 
end of the thirteenth century, but were adopted etiquette 
only slowly. As late, as the sixteenth century German preach- 
ers condemned their use, for, said they, the Lord would not 
have given us fingers if he had wanted us to rely on forks. 
Napkins are another table convenience unknown in the Mid- 
dle Ages. 

Anglo-Saxon Drinking Horn 

Horn of Ulphus (Wulf) in the cathedral of York. 

In the absence of tea and coffee, ale and beer formed the 
drink of the common people. The upper classes regaled them- 
selves on costly wines. Drunkenness was as com- ^ , , . 


mon and as little reprobated as gluttony. The 
monotony of hfe in medieval Europe, when the nobles had little 
to do but hunt and fight, may partly account for the prevailing 
inebriety. But doubtless in large measure it was a Teutonic 
characteristic. The Northmen were hard drinkers, and of the 
ancient Germans a Roman writer states that ''to pass an entire 
day and night in drinking disgraces no one." ^ This habit 
of intoxication survived in medieval Germany, and the Anglo- 
Saxons and Danes introduced it into England. 


I. Look up on the map between pages 62-63 the following places where 
Gothic cathedrals are found: Canterbury, York, Salisbury, Reims, Amiens, Char- 
tres, Cologne, Strassburg, Burgos, Toledo, and Milan. 2. Look up on the map 
facing page 342 the location of the following medieval universities: Oxford, Mont- 

^ Tacitus, Germania, 22. 

278 Medieval Civilization 

pellier, Paris, Orleans, Cologne, Leipzig, Prague, Naples, and Salamanca. 3. Explain 
the following terms: scholasticism; canon law; alchemy; troubadours; Provenjal 
language; transept; choir; flying buttress; werewolf; and mumming. 4. Who 
were St. Thomas Aquinas, Abelard, Gratian, Irnerius, and Roger Bacon? 5. Show 
how Latin served as an international language in the Middle Ages. Name two 
artificial languages which have been invented as a substitute for Latin. 6. What 
is meant by saying that "French is a mere patois of Latin"? 7. In what parts 
of the world is English now the prevailing speech? 8. Why has Siegfried, the 
hero of the Nibelungenlied, been called the "Achilles of Teutonic legend "? 9. What 
productions of medieval literature reflect aristocratic and democratic ideals, re- 
spectively? 10. Distinguish between the Romanesque and Gothic styles of archi- 
tecture. What is the origin of each term? 11. Contrast a Gothic cathedral with 
a Greek temple, particularly in regard to size, height, support of the roof, windows, 
and decorative features. 12. Why is there some excuse for describing a Gothic 
building as "a wall of glass with a roof of stone"? 13. Do you see any resemblance 
in structural features between a Gothic cathedral and a modern "sky-scraper"? 
14. Mention some likenesses between medieval and modern universities. 15. Men- 
tion some important subjects of instruction in modem universities which were not 
treated in those of the Middle Ages. 16. Why has scholasticism been called 
"a sort of Aristotelian Christianity"? 17. Look up the original meaning of the 
words "jovial," "saturnine," "mercurial," "disastrous," "contemplate," and 
"consider." 18. Show the indebtedness of chemistry to alchemy and of astronomy 
to astrology. 19. Mention some common folk tales which illustrate medieval 
superstitions. 20. Why was Friday regarded as a specially unlucky day? 21. Enu- 
merate the most important contributions to civilization made during the Middle 


107. Meaning of the Renaissance 

The French word Renaissance means Rebirth or Revival. 
It is a convenient term for all the changes in society, law, and 
government, in science, philosophy, and religion, i^i^^ 
and in hterature and art which gradually trans- of the 
formed medieval civilization into that of modern enaissance 
times. The Renaissance, just because of its transitional 
character, cannot be exactly dated. In general, it covers the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Some Renaissance move- 
ments, however, started before 1300. For instance, the study 
of Roman law, as a substitute for Germanic custom, was well 
advanced in the twelfth century. The commercial develop- 
ment of the crusading era began during the same period. Other 
Renaissance movements, again, extended beyond 1500. Among 
these were the expansion of geographical knowledge, resulting 
from the discovery of the New World, and the revolt against 
the Papacy, known as the Protestant Reformation. The 
Middle Ages, in fact, came to an end at different times in dif- 
ferent fields of human activity. 

The name Renaissance applied, at first, only to tne rebirth 
or revival of men's interest in the literature and art of classical 
antiquity. Italy was the original home of this original 
Renaissance. There it first appeared, there it home of the 
found widest acceptance, and there it reached its ^^^^^^sance 
highest development. From Italy the Renaissance gradually 
spread beyond the Alps, until it had made the round of western 

Italy was a land particularly favorable to the growth of 

^ Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xix, "A Scholar of 
the Renaissance"; chapter xx, "Renaissance Artists." 


28o The Renaissance 

learning and the arts. In northern Italy the great cities of 
Italian cities Milan, Pisa, Genoa, Florence, Venice, and many 
of the others had early succeeded in throwing off their 

Renaissance fg^^jai burdens and had become independent, 
self-governing communities. Democracy flourished in them, 
as in the old Greek city-states. Noble birth counted for little; 
a man of ability and ambition might rise to any place. The 
fierce party confhcts within their walls stimulated mental 
activity and helped to make life full, varied, and intense. Their 
widespread trade and thriving manufactures made them pros- 
perous. Wealth brought leisure, bred a taste for luxury ^nd 
the refinements of life, and gave means for the gratification of 
that taste. People wanted to have about them beautiful 
pictures, statuary, furniture, palaces, and churches; and they 
rewarded richly the artists who could produce such things. It 
is not without significance that the birthplace of the Italian 
Renaissance was democratic, industrial, and wealthy Florence.^ 

Italy enjoyed another advantage over the other European 
countries in its nearness to Rome. Admiration for the ancient 
Influence of Roman civilization, as expressed in literature, art, 
the classic and law, was felt by all Italians. Wherever they 
tra ition looked, they were reminded of the great past which 

once had been theirs. Nor was the inheritance of Greece 
wholly lost. Greek traders and the descendants of Greek 
colonists in Italy still used their ancient language; all through 
the medieval centul-ies there were Italians who studied Greek. 
The classic tradition survived in Italy and defied oblivion. 

In the Middle Ages Italy formed a meeting place of several 

civilizations. Byzantine influence was felt both in the north 

„ . and in the south. The conquest of Sicily by the 

Byzantine, . ... 

Arabic, and Arabs made the Italians familiar with the science, 

Norman ^^^ ^^^ poetry of this cultivated people. After 

influence 7 r- ^ x- r- 

the Normans had established themselves in south- 
ern Italy and Sicfly, they in turn developed a briUiant civi- 
lization. From all these sources flowed streams of cultural 
influence which united in the Renaissance. 

^ See pages 239-240. 

Revival of Learning in Italy 


108. Revival of Learning in Italy 

The literature of Greece and Rome did not entirely disappear 
in western Europe after the Teutonic invasions. The monas- 
tery and cathedral schools of the Middle Ages had jj^^ classics 
nourished devoted students of ancient books. The in the 
Benedictine monks labored zealously in copying ^ ^ ^^^ 
the works of pagan as well as Christian authors. The rise of 
universities made it possible for the student to pursue a fairly 
extended course in Latin literature at more than one institu- 
tion of learning. Greek literature, however, was little known 
in the West. The poems of Homer were read only in a 
Latin summary, and even Aristotle's 
writings were studied in Latin 

Reverence for the classics finds 
constant expression in the writings 
of the Italian poet Dante 
Dante. He was a Alighieri, 
native of Florence, but 
passed many years of his life in 
exile. Dante's most famous work, 
the Divine Comedy, describes an 
imaginary visit to the other world. 
Vergil guides him through the 
realms of Hell and Purgatory until 
he meets his lady Beatrice, who conducts him through Paradise. 
The Divine Comedy gives in artistic verse an epitome of all that 
medieval men knew and hoped and felt: it is a mirror of the 
Middle Ages. At the same time it drew much of its inspiration 
from Graeco-Roman sources. Homer, for Dante, is the "loftiest 
of poets"; and Aristotle is the ''master of those who know." 

Dante exerted a noteworthy influence on the Italian language. 
He wrote the Divine Comedy, not in Latin, but in the vernacular 
Italian as spoken in Florence. The popularity pante and 
of this work helped to give currency to the Floren- 
tine dialect, and. in time it became the • literary 
language of Italy. 

Mask of Dante 

the Italian 


The Renaissance 

Petrarch, a younger contemporary of Dante, and like him a 
native of Florence, has been called the £rst modern scholar and 
Petrarch, man of letters. He devoted himseK with tireless 

1304-1374 energy to classical studies. Writing to a friend, 
Petrarch declares that he has read Vergil, Horace, Livy, and 
Cicero, ''not once, but a thousand times, not cursorily, but 
studiously and intently, bringing to them the best powers of 
my mind. I tasted in the morning 
and digested at night. I quaffed as a 
boy, to ruminate as an old man. 
These works have become so familiar 
to me that they cling not to my mem- 
ory merely, but to the very marrow of 
my bones." 

Petrarch himself composed many 
Latin works and did much to spread a 
Petrarch knowledge of Latin au- 

as a Latin thors. He traveled widely 
revivalist • Xi. i -r^ j 

m Italy, France, and 

other countries, searching everywhere 
for ancient manuscripts. When he 
found in one place two lost orations 
of Cicero and in another place a col- 
lection of Cicero's letters, he was transported with dehght. 
He kept copyists in his house, at times as many as four, busily 
making transcripts of the manuscripts that he had discovered 
or borrowed. Petrarch knew almost no Greek. His copy of 
Homer, it is said, he often kissed, though he could not read it. 
Petrarch's friend and disciple, Boccaccio, was the first to 
bring to Itah^ manuscripts of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Having 
Boccaccio, learned some Greek, he wrote out a translation 
1313-1375 Qf those epic poems. But Boccaccio's fame to-day 
rests on the Decameron. It is a collection of one hundred 
stories written in Italian. They are supposed to be told by a 
merry company of men and women, who, during a plague at 
Florence, have retired to a villa in the country. The Decameron 
is one of the first important works in Italian prose. Many 


From a miniature in the Lau- 
rentian Library, Florence. 

Revival of Learning in Italy 283 

English writers, notably Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales, have 

gone to it for ideas and plots. The modern short story may 

be said to date from Boccaccio. 

The renewed interest in Latin hterature, due to Petrarch, 

Boccaccio, and others, was followed in the fifteenth century by 

the revival of Greek literature. In 1396 Chrys- study of 

oloras, a scholar from Constantinople, began to Greek in 

lecture on Greek in the university of Florence. *^ 

He afterwards taught in other Italian cities and further aided 

the growth of Hellenic studies by preparing a Greek grammar 

— the first book of its kind. From this time, and especially 

after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many learned Greeks 

came to Italy, transplanting in the West the culture of the 

East. "Greece had not perished, but had emigrated to Italy." 

The classics opened up a new world of thought and fancy 

to the scholars of the fifteenth century. They were delighted 

by the fresh, original, and human ideas which „ 

^ > & 5 Humanism 

they discovered in the pages of Homer, Plato, 

Cicero, Horace, and Tacitus. Their enthusiasm for the classics 
came to be known as humanism, ^ or culture. • The Greek and 
Latin languages and literatures were henceforth the "humani- 
ties," as distinguished from scholastic philosophy and theology. 
From Florence, as from a second Athens, humanism spread 
throughout Italy. At Milan and Venice, at Rome and Naples, 
men fell to poring over the classics. A special spread of 
feature of the age was the recovery of ancient humanism 
manuscripts from monasteries and cathedrals, "* ^ 
where they had often lain neglected and blackened with the 
dust of centuries. Libraries were established for their safe-keep- 
ing, professorships of the ancient languages were endowed, and 
scholars were given opportunities to pursue researches. Even 
the popes shared in this zeal for humanism. One of them founded 
the Vatican Library at Rome, which has the most valuable 
collection of manuscripts in the world. At Florence the wealthy 
family of the Medici vied with the popes in the patronage of 
classical literature. 

1 Latin humanitas, from homo, "man." 


The Renaissance 

109. Paper and Printing 

The revival of learning was greatly hastened when books 
printed on paper took the place of manuscripts laboriously 
Introduction Copied by hand. The Chinese at a remote period 
of paper made paper from some fibrous material, but the 

Arabs seem to have been the first to make it out of flax and rags. 

The manufacture of paper 
in Europe was estabhshed 
by the Moors in Spain. 
The Arab occupation of 
Sicily introduced the art 
into Italy. Paper found a 
ready sale in Europe, be- 
cause papyrus and parch- 
ment, which the ancients 
had used as writing materi- 
als, were both expensive 
and bulky. Men now had 
a material moderate in 
price, durable, and one 
that would easily receive 
the impression of movable 

The first step in the de- 
velopment of printing was 
the use of engraved blocks. 
Single letters, separate 
words, and sometimes entire pages of text were cut in hard 
wood or metal. When inked and appUed to Development 
paper, they left a clear impression. The second of movable 
step was to cast the letters in separate pieces of ^^® 
metal, all of the same height and thickness. These could then 
be arranged in any desired way for printing. 

Movable type had been used for centuries by the Chinese, 
Japanese, and Koreans in the East, and in Europe several 
printers have been credited with their invention. A German, 

An Early Printing Press 

Enlarged from the printer's mark of I. B. 
Ascensius. Used on the title pages of books printed 
by him between 1507-1535. 

Paper and Printing 285 

Johaim Gutenberg of Mainz, set up the first printing press 
with movable type about 1450, and from it issued 
the first printed book. This was a Latin transla- 
tion of the Bible. 

Printing met an especially warm welcome in Italy, where 
people felt so keen a desire for reading and instruction. By 
the end of the fifteenth century Venice alone had Aldus and 
more than two hundred printing presses. Here C^*o^ 
Aldus Manutius maintained a famous establishment for print- 
ing Greek and Latin classics. In 1476 the English printer, 

^tm fmtM mmt^ 9at»t^ of e^ m Fftc 

\A^.Mw^t QDOM ft#<e/(Bt6notbetbtn 
H^m t^ mnummkTge^ttti^^ «nb tmtse/C^ Cut; 

Tenne beganne agayne the bataylle of the one parte/And of the 
other Eneas ascryed to theym and sayd. Lordes why doo ye fyghte/^ 
Ye knowe well that the couuenaunte ys deuysed and made/ That Turnus 
and I shall fyghte for you alle/ 

Facsimile of Part of Caxton's "^neid" (reduced) 

With the same passage in modern type. 

William Caxton, set up his wooden presses within the precincts 

of Westminster Abbey. We owe to him editions of Chaucer's 

poems. Sir Thomas Malory's Morte d' Arthur,^ jEsop^s Fables, 

and many other works. 

The books printed in the fifteenth century go by the name of 

incunabula} Of the seven or eight million volumes which 

appeared before isoo, about thirty thousand , ^ , 

, ^. , 1 M, . • 1.^ r Incunabula 

are believed to be still m existence. Many 01 

these earliest books were printed in heavy, ''black letter" 
type, an imitation of the characters used in monkish manu- 
scripts. It is still retained for most books printed in Germany. 
The clearer and neater ''Roman" characters, resembhng the 
letters employed for ancient Roman inscriptions, came into 

^ Seepage 251. 2 a Latin word meaning "cradle" or "birthplace," and so 
the beginning of anything. 

286 The Renaissance 

use in southern Europe and England. The Aldine press at 
Venice originated ''itaUc" type, said to be modeled after 
Petrarch's handwriting, to enable the printer to crowd more 
words on a page. Aldus Manutius also has the credit for the 
introduction of punctuation marks. In ancient writings 
words were run together successively, without any indication 
of pause or break in the sentence. 

It is easy to see that printed books could be multiplied far 
more rapidly than manuscripts copied by hand. They could 
Importance also be far more accurate than manuscripts, for 
of printing g^j^ entire edition might be printed from the same 
type, thus eliminating mistakes in the different copies. Further- 
more, the invention of printing destroyed the monopoly of 
learning possessed by the universities and people of wealth. 
Books were now the possession of the many, not the luxury of 
the few. Any one who could read had opened to him the gate- 
way of knowledge; he became a citizen, henceforth, of the 
republic of letters. Printing, which made possible popular 
education, public libraries, and ultimately cheap newspapers, 
ranks with gunpowder as an emancipating force. 

110. Revival of Art in Italy 

Gothic architecture, with its pointed arches, flying buttresses, 
and traceried windows, never struck deep roots in Italy. The 
architects of the Renaissance went back to Greek 
temples and Roman domed buildings for their 
models, just as the humanists went back to Greek and Latin 
literature. Long rows of Ionic or Corinthian columns, spanned 
by round arches, became again the prevaiHng architectural 
style. Perhaps the most important feature of Renaissance 
architecture was the use of the dome, instead of the vault, 
for the roofs of churches. The majestic cupola of St. Peter's 
at Rome, which is modeled after the Pantheon, has become 
the parent of many domed structures in the Old and the 
New World.^ Architects, however, did not limit themselves 

1 For instance, the Invalides in Paris, St. Paul's in London, and the Capitol at 

Revival of Art in Italy 287 

to churches. The magnificent palaces of Florence, as well as 
some of those in Venice, are monuments of the Renaissance era. 
Henceforth architecture became more and more a secular art. 
The development of architecture naturally stimulated the 
other arts. Italian sculptors began to copy the ancient bas- 
reliefs and statues preserved in Rome and other 

..*,.. 1 1 , Sculpture 

cities. At this time glazed terra cotta came to be 

used by sculptors. Another Renaissance art was the casting 
of bronze doors, with panels which represented Bible scenes. 

The greatest of Renaissance sculptors was Michelangelo. 
Though a Florentine by birth, he lived for most of his life in 
Rome. A colossal statue of David, who looks Michelangelo, 
like a Greek athlete, and another of Moses, seated 1475-1564 
and holding the tables of the law, are among his best-known 
works. Michelangelo also won fame in architecture and paint- 
ing. The dome of St. Peter's was finished after his designs. 
Having been commissioned by one of the popes to decorate the 
ceiling of the Sistine chapel ^ in the Vatican, he painted a series 
of scenes which presented the Bibhcal story from the Creation 
to the Flood. These frescoes are unequaled for sublimity and 
power. On the end wall of the same chapel Michelangelo 
produced his fresco of the "Last Judgment," one of the most 
famous paintings in the world. 

The early Italian painters contented themselves, at first, 
with imitating Byzantine mosaics and enamels.^ Their work 
exhibited little knowledge of human anatomy: j^-g^ ^^ 
faces might be hfelike, but bodies were too slender Italian 
and out of proportion. The figures of men and P^^"*"^^ 
women were posed in stiff and conventional attitudes. The 
perspective also was false: objects which the painter wished to 
represent in the background were as near as those which he 
wished to represent in the foreground. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, however, Italian painting abandoned the Byzantine style; 
achieved beauty of form, design, and color to an extent hitherto 
unknown; and became at length the supreme art of the 

^ In this chapel the election of a new pope takes place. 2 See page 39. 

288 The Renaissance 

Italian painting began in the service of the Church and 
always remained religious in character. Artists usually chose 
Characteris- subjects from the Bible or the Hves of the saints, 
tics of Italian They did not trouble themselves to ,. secure cor- 
painting rectness of costume, but painted ancient Jews, 

Greeks, and Romans in the garb of ItaUan gentlemen. Many 
of their pictures were frescoes, that is, the colors were mixed 
with water and apphed to the plaster walls of churches and 
palaces. After the process of mixing oils with the colors was 
discovered, pictures on wood or canvas (easel paintings) be- 
came common. Italian painters excelled in portraiture. They 
were less successful with landscapes. 

Among the "old masters" of Itahan painting four, besides 
Michelangelo, stand out with special prominence. Leonardo 
The "old da Vinci (1452-15 19) was architect, sculptor, 

masters" musician, and engineer, as well as painter. His 
finest work, the "Last Supper," a fresco painting at Milan, is 
much damaged, but fortunately good copies of it exist. Paris 
has the best of his easel pictures — the "Monna Lisa." Leo- 
nardo spent four years on it and then declared that he could 
not finish it to his satisfaction. Leonardo's contemporary, 
Raphael (1483-15 20), died before he was forty, but not before 
he had produced the "Sistine Madonna," now at Dresden, the 
"Transfiguration," in the Vatican Gallery at Rome, and many 
other famous compositions. Another artist, the Venetian 
Titian (1477? -1576), painted portraits unSOTpassed for glowing 
color. His "Assumption of the Virgin" ranks among the great- 
est pictures in the world. Lastly must be noted the exquisite 
paintings of Correggio (i 494-1 534), among" them the "Holy 
Night" and the "Marriage of St. Catherine." 

Another modern art, that of music, arose in Italy during the 
Renaissance. In the sixteenth century the three-stringed 
rebeck received a fourth string and became the violin, the 
most expressive of all musical instruments. A 
forerunner of the pianoforte also appeared in the 
harpsichord. A papal organist and choir-master, Palestrina 
(15 26-1 594), was the first of the great composers. He gave 



The second or northern pair of bronze doors of the baptistery at Florence. Completed by 
Lorenzo Ghiberti in 1452 a.d., after twenty-seven years of labor. The ten panels represent 
scenes from Old Testament history. Michelangelo pronounced these magnificent creations 
worthy to be the gates of paradise. 

Assumption of the Virgin — Titian 

SiSTiNE Madonna — Raphael 

Marriage or St. Catherine 


MoNNA Lisa Gioconda 
Leonardo da Vinci 


Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy 289 

music its fitting place in worship by composing melodious 
hymns and masses still sung in Roman Catholic churches. 
The oratorio, a religious drama set to music but without action, 
scenery, or costume, had its beginning at this time. The opera, 
however, was Uttle developed until the eighteenth century. 

111. Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy 

About the middle of the fifteenth century fire from the Italian 
altar was carried across the Alps, and a revival of learning 
began in northern lands. Italy had led the way spread of 
by recovering the long-buried treasures of the humanism in 
classics and by providing means for their study. ^^**P® 
Scholars in Germany, France, and England, who now had the 
aid of the printing press, continued the intellectual movement 
and gave it widespread currency. 

The foremost humanist of the age was Desiderius Erasmus. 
Though a native of Rotterdam in Holland, he lived for a time 
in Germany, France, England, and Italy, and died Desiderius 
at Basel in Switzerland. His travels and exten- Erasmus, 
sive correspondence brought him in contact with ^'^ 

most of the leading scholars of the day. Erasmus wrote 
many Latin works which were read and enjoyed by educated 
men. He might be called the first really popular author in 
Europe. Like Petrarch, he did much to encourage the human- 
istic movement by his precepts and his example. '^When I 
have money," said this devotee of the classics, "I will first 
buy Greek books and then clothes." 

Erasmus performed his most important service as a Biblical 
critic. In 15 16 he published the New Testament in the original 
Greek, with a Latin translation and a dedication The Greek 
to the pope. The only accessible edition of the Testament 
New Testament up to this time was the old Latin version known 
as the Vulgate, which St. Jerome had made near the close of 
the fourth century. The work of Erasmus led to a better under- 
standing of the New Testament and also prepared the way for 
translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular tongues. 
"I long that the husbandman should sing portions of them to 


The Renaissance 

himself as he follows the plough," wrote Erasmus, "that the 
weaver should hum them to the tune. of his shuttle, and that 
the traveler should beguile with their stories the weariness of 
his journey." Another edition of the Greek New Testament 

was issued at Alcala in Spain 
by Cardinal Jimenes, six years 
after the appearance of the 
text by Erasmus. 

Italian architects found a 
cordial reception in France, 
The artistic Spain, the Nether- 
revival in lands, and other 

Europe , • 1 

countries, where 

they introduced Renaissance 
styles of building and orna- 
mentation. The celebrated 
palace of the Louvre in 
Paris, which is used to-day as 
an art gallery and museum, 
dates from the sixteenth cen- 
tury. At this time the French 
nobles began to replace their 
somber feudal dwellings by ele- 
gant country houses. Renais- 
sance sculpture also spread beyond Italy throughout Europe. 
Painters in northern countries at first followed ItaUan models, 
but afterwards produced masterpieces of their own. 

Desiderius Erasmus 

Louvre, Paris 

A portrait by the German artist, Hans 
Holbein the Younger (i4g7-i543). Prob- 
ably an excellent likeness of Erasmus. 

112. The Renaissance in Literature 

The renewed interest in classical studies for a while retarded 
the development of national languages and literatures in Europe. 
To humanists only Latin and Greek seemed worthy of 
notice. Petrarch, for instance, composed in Italian 
beautiful sonnets which are still much admired, 
but he himself expected to gain literary immor- 
tality through his Latin works. Another ItaHan humanist 
went so far as to call Dante "a poet for bakers and cobblers," 

and the 

The Renaissance in Literature 291 

and the Divine Comedy was indeed translated into Latin a few- 
years after the author's death. 

But a return to the vernacular was bound to come. The 
common people understood httle Latin, and Greek not at all. 
Yet they had learned to read and they now had jj^^ 
the printing press. Before long many books com- vernacular 
posed in Italian, Spanish, French, English, and ^^""^^ 
other national languages made their appearance. This revival 
of the vernacular meant that henceforth European literature 
would be more creative and original than was possible when 
writers merely imitated or translated the classics. The models 
provided by Greece and Rome still continued, however, to 
furnish inspiration to men of letters. 

The Florentine historian and diplomat, Machiavelli, by his 
book. The Prince, did much to found the modern science of 
politics. Machiavelli, as a patriotic Italian, felt Machiavelli, 
keen distress at the divided condition of Italy, 1469-1527 
where numerous petty states were constantly at war. In 
The Prince he tried to show how a strong, despotic ruler might 
set up a national state in the peninsula. He thought that 
such a ruler ought not to be bound by the ordinary rules of 
morality. He must often act "against faith, against charity, 
against humanity, and against religion." The end would justify 
the means. Success was everything; morality, nothing. This 
dangerous doctrine has received the name of "Machiavellism." 

Spain during the sixteenth century gave to the world in 
Cervantes the only Spanish writer who has achieved a great 
reputation outside his own country. Cervantes's Cervantes, 
masterpiece, Don Quixote, seems to have been 15*7-1616 
intended as a burlesque upon the romances of chivalry once so 
popular in Europe. The hero, Don Quixote, attended by his 
shrewd and faithful squire, Sancho Panza, rides forth to per- 
form deeds of knight-errantry, but meets, instead, the most 
absurd adventures. The work is a vivid picture of Spanish 
life. Nobles, priests, monks, traders, farmers, innkeepers, 
muleteers, barbers, beggars — all these pass before our eyes as 
in a panorama. Don Quixote immediately became popular, 


The Renaissance 

and it is even more read now than it was three centuries 

The Flemish writer, Froissart, deserves notice as a historian 
Froissart, and as one of the founders of French prose. His 
1337 (?)-l4io Chronicles present an account of the fourteenth 
century, when the age of feudaHsm was fast drawing to an 
end. He admired 
chivahy and painted 
it in glowing colors. 
He hked to describe 
tournaments, battles, 
sieges, and feats of 
arms. Kings and 
nobles, knights and 
squires, are the actors 
on his stage. Froissart 
traveled in many 
countries and got 
much of his informa- 
tion at first hand from 
those who had made 
history. Out of what 
he learned he com- 
posed a picturesque 
and romantic story, 
which still captivates 
the imagination. 

A very different sort 
of writer was the Frenchman, Montaigne. He lives to-day as 
Montaigne, the author of one hundred and seven essays, very 
1533-1592 delightful in style and full of wit and wisdom. 
Montaigne popularized the essay, a form of literature in which 
he has had many imitators. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, who has been called the ''morning star" of 
Chaucer, the EngUsh Renaissance, was a story-teller in 

1340 (?)-l400 verse. His Canterbury Tales are supposed to be 
told by a company of pilgrims, as they journey from London 

Geoffrey Chaucer 

From an old manuscript in the British Museum, 
London. The only existing portrait of Chaucer. 

The Renaissance in Literature 


to Canterbury. Chaucer describes freshly and with unfaiHng 
good spirits the Hfe of the middle and upper classes. He does 
not reveal, any more than his contemporary Froissart, the labor 
and sorrows of the down- trodden peasantry. But Chaucer was 
a true poet, and his name stands high in England's long roll of 
men of letters. 

Shakespeare's Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon 

The house in which Shakespeare was bom has been much altered in exterior apfiearance 
since the poet's day. The timber framework, the floors, most of the interior walls, and the 
cellars remain, however, substantially imchanged. The illustration shows the appearance of 
the house before the extensive restoration made in 1857. 

This survey of the national authors of the Renaissance may 
fitly close with William Shakespeare, whose genius transcended 
geographical boundaries and made him a citizen Shakespeare, 
of all the world. His life is known to us only in 1564-1616 
barest outline. Born at Stratford-on-Avon, of humble parent- 
age, he attended the village grammar school, where he learned 
"small Latin and less Greek," went to London as a youth, and 
became an actor and a playwright. He prospered, made money 
both from his acting and the sale of his plays, and bought him- 
self a country home at Stratford. Here he died at the early 
age of fifty-two, and here his grave may still be seen in the 
village church. During his residence in London he wrote, in 
whole or in part, thirty-six or thirty-seven dramas, both trage- 

294 The Renaissance 

dies and comedies. They were not collected and published 
until several years after his death. Shakespeare's plays were 
read and praised by his contemporaries, but it has remained for 
modern men to see in him one who ranks with Homer, Vergil, 
Dante, and Goethe among the great poets of the world. 

Renaissance poets and prose writers revealed themselves in 
their books. The sculptors and painters of the Renaissance 
Personality in ^^^^ worked out their own ideas and emotions 
Renaissance in their masterpieces. This personal note affords 
a sharp contrast to the anonymity of the Middle 
Ages. We do not know the authors of the Song of Roland, 
the Nihelungenlied, and Reynard the Fox, any more than we 
know the builders of the Gothic cathedrals. Medieval litera- 
ture subordinated the individual; that of the Renaissance 
expressed the sense of individuality and man's interest in him- 
self. It was truly "humanistic." 

113. The Renaissance in Education 

The universities of the Middle Ages emphasized scholastic 
philosophy, though in some institutions law and medicine also 
Humanism received much attention. Greek, of course, was 
and educa- not taught, the vernacular languages of Europe 

were not studied, and neither science nor history 
enjoyed the esteem of learned men. The Renaissance brought 
about a partial change in this curriculum. The classical lan- 
guages and literatures, after some opposition, gained an en- 
trance into university courses and displaced scholastic philosophy 
as the chief subject of instruction. From the universities the 
study of the "humanities" descended to the lower schools. 

An ItaUan humanist, Vittorino da Feltre, was the pioneer of 
Renaissance education. In his private school at Mantua, the 
"House of Delight," as it was called, Vittorino aimed to develop 
Vittorino da ^^ ^^ same time the body, mind, and character 
Feltre, 1378- of his pupils, SO as to fit them to "serve God 

in Church and State." Accordingly, he gave 
much attention to religious instruction and also set a high 
value on athletics. The sixty or seventy young men under his 

The Renaissance in Education 


care were taught to hunt and fish, to run and jump, to wrestle 
and fence, to walk gracefully, and above all things to be 
temperate. For intellectual training he depended on the 
Latin classics, as the best means of introducing students to 
the literature, art, and philosophy of ancient times. Vit- 
torino's name is not widely known to-day; he left no writings, 
preferring, as he said, to live in the lives of his pupils; but 
there is scarcely 
a modern teacher 
who does not 
consciously or un- 
consciously follow 
his methods. 
More than any one 
else, he is respon- 
sible for the edu- 
cational system 
which has pre- 
vailed in Europe 
almost to the pres- 
ent day. 

A Moravian 
bishop named 
Comenius, who gave his long life almost wholly to teaching, 
stands for a reaction against humanistic education. Comenius, 
He proposed that the vernacular tongues, as well 1592-1671 
as the classics, should be made subjects of study. For this 
purpose he prepared a reading book, which was translated 
into a dozen European languages, and even into Arabic, 
Persian, and Turkish. Comenius also believed that the cur- 
riculum should include the study of geography, world history, 
and government, and the practice of the manual arts. He 
was one of the first to advocate the teaching of science. 
Perhaps his most notable idea was that of a national system 
of education, reaching from primary grades to the university. 
"Not only," he writes, "are the children of the rich and noble 
to be drawn to school, but all alike, rich and poor, boys and 

Boys' Sports 

An illustration in an old English edition (1659) of Come- 
nius 's Or bis Picius ( Illustrated World). This was the first 
picture book ever made for children, and for a century it re- 
mained the most popular school text in Europe. 

296 The Renaissance 

girls, in great towns and small, down to the country villages." 
The influence of this Slavic teacher is more and more felt in 
modern systems of education. 

114. The Scientific Renaissance 

The Middle Ages were not by any means ignorant of science, 
but its study naturally received a great impetus when the 
Renaissance brought before educated men all that Humanism 
the Greeks and Romans had done in mathematics, and 
physics, astronomy, medicine, and other subjects. 
The invention of printing also fostered the scientific revival by 
making it easy to spread knowledge abroad in every land. The 
pioneers of Renaissance science were Italians, but students in 
France, England, Germany, and other countries soon took up 
the work of enlightenment. 

The names of some Renaissance scientists stand as land- 
marks in the history of thought. The first place must be given 
to Copernicus, the founder of modern astronomy. Copernicus, 
He was a Pole, but lived many years in Italy. 1*73-1543 
Patient study and calculation led him to the conclusion that 
the earth turns upon its own axis, and, together with the planets, 
revolves around the sun. The book in which he announced 
this conclusion did not appear until the very end of his life. 
A copy of it reached him on his deathbed. 

Astronomers before Copernicus generally accepted the 
doctrine, formulated by Ptolemy in the second century, that 
the earth was the center of the universe. Some The Coper- 
students had indeed suggested that the earth and nican theory 
planets might rotate about a central sun, but Copernicus first 
gave scientific reasons for such a behef. His new theory met 
much opposition, not only in the universities, which clung to 
the time-honored Ptolemaic system, but also among theologians, 
who thought that it contradicted statements in the Bible. 
Moreover, people could not easily reconcile themselves to the 
idea that the earth is only one member of the solar system, that 
it is, in fact, only one of many worlds. 

An ItaHan scientist, GaUleo, made one of the first telescopes 

The Scientific Renaissance 297 

— it was about as powerful as an opera glass — and turned it on 
the heavenly bodies with wonderful results. He Galileo, 
found the sun moving unmistakably on its axis, 156^-1642 
Venus showing phases according to her position in relation to 
the sun, Jupiter accompanied by revolving moons, or satellites, 
and the Milky Way composed of a multitude of separate stars. 
Galileo rightly believed that these discoveries confirmed the 
theory of Copernicus. 

Another man of genius, the German Kepler, worked out the 
mathematical laws which govern the movements of the planets. 
He made it clear that the planets revolve around Kepler, 
the sun in elliptical instead of circular orbits. 1571-1630 
Kepler's investigations afterwards led to the discovery of the 
principle of gravitation. 

Two other scientists did epochal work in a field far removed 

from astronomy. Vesalius, a Fleming, who studied in Italian 

medical schools, gave to the world the first careful ,, ,. 

description of the human body based on actual 1514-1564, 

dissection. He was thus the founder of human and Harvey, 

X- T , c 1 1578-1657 

anatomy. Harvey, an Englishman, after ob- 
serving living animals, announced the discovery of the circu- 
lation of the blood. He thereby founded human physiology. 

Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Vesalius, Harvey, and their 
fellow workers built up the scientific method. Students in the 
Middle Ages had mostly been satisfied to accept r^^ie 
what Aristotle and other philosophers had said, scientific 
without trying to verify their statements. Kepler, ™® 
for instance, was the first to disprove the Aristotelian idea that, 
since all perfect motion is circular, therefore the heavenly bodies 
must move in circular orbits. Similarly, it was necessary to 
wait many centuries before Harvey showed Aristotle's error in 
supposing that the blood arose in the liver, went thence to 
the heart, and by the veins was conducted over the body. The 
new scientific method rested on observation and experiment. 
As Lord Bacon,^ ane of Shakespeare's contemporaries and a 

^ Not to be confused with his countryman, Roger Bacon, who lived in the thir- 
teenth century. See page 263. 

298 The Renaissance 

severe critic of the old scholasticism, declared, "All depends on 
keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature, and so 
receiving their images simply as they are, for God forbid that 
we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern 
of the world." Modern science, to which we owe so much, is 
a product of the Renaissance. 

115. The Economic Renaissance 

The Renaissance thus far. has been studied as an intellectual 
and artistic movement, which did much to liberate the human 
An economic mind and brought the Middle Ages to an end in 
change ^^^^ [^ literature, and in science. It is necessary, 

however, to consider the Renaissance era from another point of 
view. During this time an economic change of vast significance 
was taking place in rural life all over western Europe. We 
refer to the decline and ultimate extinction of medieval serfdom. 

Serfdom imposed a burden only less heavy than the slavery 
which it had displaced. The serf, as has been shown,^ might 
Decline of not leave the manor on which he was born, he 
serfdom might not sell his holding of land, and, finally, 

he had to give up a large part of his time to work without pay 
for the lord of the manor. This system of forced labor was at 
once unprofitable to the lord and irksome to his serfs. After 
the revival of trade and industry in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries had brought more money into circulation,^ the lord 
discovered how much better it was to hire men to work for 
him, as he needed them, instead of depending on serfs who 
shirked their tasks as far as possible. The latter, in turn, 
were glad to pay the lord a fixed sum for the use of land, since 
now they could devote themselves entirely to its cultivation. 
Both parties gained by an arrangement which converted the 
manorial lord into a landlord and the serf into a free tenant- 
farmer paying rent. 

The emancipation of the peasantry was hastened, strangely 

The "Black enough, as the result of perhaps the most terrible 

Death" calamity that has ever afflicted mankind. About 

the middle, of the fourteenth century a pestilence of Asiatic 

^ See page 134. 2 See page 235. 

The Economic Renaissance 299 

origin, now known to have been the bubonic plague, reached 
the West. The ''Black Death," so called because among its 
symptoms were dark patches all over the body, moved- steadily 
across Europe. The way for its ravages had been prepared by 
the unhealthful conditions of ventilation and drainage in towns 
and cities. After attacking Greece, Sicily, Italy, Spain, France, 
and Germany, the plague entered England in 1349 and within 
less than two years swept away probably half the population of 
that country. The mortahty elsewhere was enormous, one 
estimate, perhaps excessive, setting it as high as twenty-five 
milHons for all Europe. 

The pestilence in England, as m other countries, caused a 
great scarcity of labor. For want of hands to bring in the 
harvest, crops rotted on the ground, while sheep ^^^^^^ ^^ 
and cattle, with no one to care for them, strayed the^" Black 
through the deserted fields. The free peasants ^^^**'" 
who survived demanded and received higher wages. Even 
the serfs, whose labor was now more valued, found themselves 
in a better position. The lord of a manor, in order to keep 
his laborers, would often allow them to substitute money 
payments for personal services. When the serfs secured no 
concessions, they frequently took to flight and hired themselves 
to the highest bidder. 

The governing classes of England, who at this time were 
mainly landowners, beheved that the peasantry was taking an 
unfair advantage of the situation. So in 1351 ^.^^^ g 
Parliament passed a law fixing the maximum o^Laborwl! 
wage in different occupations and punishing with ^^^^ 
imprisonment those who refused to accept work when it was 
offered to them. The fact that Parliament had to reenact this 
law thirteen times within the next century shows that it did not 
succeed in preventing a general rise of wages. 

A few years after the first Statute of Laborers the restlessness 
and discontent among the masses led to a serious outbreak. It 
was one of the few attempts at violent revolution which the 
Enghsh working people have made. One of the inspirers of 
the rebellion was a wandering priest named John Ball. He 


The Renaissance 



went about preaching that all goods should be held in common 
and the distinction between lords and serfs wiped 
away. "When Adam delved and Eve span, who 
was then the gentleman?" asked John Ball. Up- 
risings occurred in nearly every part of England, 
but the one in Kent had most importance. The rioters marched 
on London and presented their demands to the youthful king, 
Richard 11. He promised to abolish serfdom and to give them 

a free pardon. As soon, 
however, as Richard had 
gathered an army, he put 
down the revolt by force 
and hanged John Ball and 
about a hundred of his 

The rebellion in Eng- 
land may be compared 
with the far more terrible 
Jacquerie ^ in France, a 
few years earlier. The 
^jjg French peas- 

Jacquerie, ants, who suf- 

1358 r J r 

f ered from 
feudal oppression and the 
effects of the Hundred 
Years' War, raged through 
the land, burning the 
castles and murdering 
their feudal lords. The 
movement had scarcely 
any reasonable purpose; it was an outburst of blind passion. 
The nobles avenged themselves by slaughtering the peasants 
in great numbers. 

Nevertheless the emancipation of the peasantry went steadily 
Extinction on throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
of serfdom turies. Serfdom by 1 500 had virtually disappeared 
in Italy, in most parts of France, and in England: Some less 

^ From Jacques, a common French name for a peasant. 


After an engraving based on the original in West- 
minster Abbey. Probably the oldest authentic 
portrait in England. 

The Economic Renaissance 301 

favored countries retained serfdom much longer. Prussian, 
Austrian, and Russian serfs did not receive their freedom until 
the nineteenth century. 

The extinction of serfdom was, of course, a forward step in 
human freedom, but the lot of the English and Continental 
peasantry long remained wretched. The poem Condition of 
of Piers Plowman, written in the time of Chaucer, *^® peasantry 
shows the misery of the age and reveals a very different picture 
than that of the holiday-making, merry England seen in 
the Canterbury Tales. One hundred and fifty years later, the 
English humanist. Sir Thomas More, a friend of Erasmus, 
published his Utopia as a protest against social abuses. Utopia, 
or "Nowhere," is an imaginary country, whose inhabitants 
choose their own rulers, hold all property in common, and work 
only nine hours a day. In Utopia a pubhc system of education 
prevails, cruel punishments are unknown, and every one enjoys 
complete freedom to worship God. " This remarkable book, 
though it pictures an ideal commonwealth, really anticipates 
many social reforms of the present time. 


I. Prepare a chronological chart showing the leading men of letters, artists, 
scientists, and educators mentioned in this chapter. 2. For what were the follow- 
ing persons noted: Chrysoloras; Vittorino da Feltre; Gutenberg; Boccaccio; 
Machiavelli; Harvey; and Galileo? 3. How did the words " machiavellism " 
and "Utopian" get their present meanings? 4. Distinguish and define the three 
terms, "Renaissance," "Revival of Learning," and "Humanism." 5. "Next to 
the discovery of the New World, the recovery of the ancient world is the second 
landmark that divides us from the Middle Ages and marks the transition to modern 
life." Comment on this statement. 6. Why did the Renaissance begin as "an 
Italian event"? 7. "City-states have always proved favorable to culture." Illus- 
trate this remark. 8. Why was the revival of Greek more important in the history 
of civilization than the revival of Latin? 9. Show that printing was an "emanci- 
pating force." 10. With what paintings by the "old masters" are you familiar? 
II. How does the opera differ from the oratorio? 12. Why has Froissart been 
styled the "French Herodotus"? 13. How many of Shakespeare's plays can you 
name? How many have you read? 14. Can you mention any of Shakespeare's 
plays which are founded on Italian stories or whose scenes are laid in Italy? 1 5 . Why 
did the classical scholar come to be regarded as the only educated man? 16. In 
what respects is the American system of education a realization of the ideals of 
Comenius? 17. Did the medieval interest in astrology retard or further astro- 
nomical research? 18. How did the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler confirm the 
Copernican theory? 19. What is meant by the emancipation of the peasantry"? 



116. Medieval Geography 

There was also a geographical Renaissance. The revival of 
exploration brought about the discovery of ocean routes to the 
Revival of Far East and the Americas. In consequence, 
exploration commerce was vastly stimulated, and two con- 
tinents, hitherto unknown, were opened up to civilization. 
The geographical Renaissance, which gave man a New World, 
thus cooperated with the other movements of the age in bring- 
ing about the transition from medieval to modern times. 

The Greeks and Romans had become familiar with a large 
part of Europe and Asia, but much of their learning was either 
Medieval forgotten or perverted during the early Middle 

ignorance of Ages. Even the wonderful discoveries of the 
geography Northmen in the North Atlantic gradually faded 
from memory. The Arabs, whose conquests and commerce 
extended over so much of the Orient, far surpassed the Chris- 
tian peoples of Europe in knowledge of the world. 

The alliance of medieval geography with theology had some 
curious results. Map makers, relying on a passage in the Old 
Geographical Testament,^ usually placed Jerusalem in the cen- 
myths ^ej- Qf i^jjg world. A Scriptural reference to the 

"four corners of the earth "^ was sometimes thought to imply 
the existence of a rectangular world. From classical sources 
came stories of monstrous men, one-eyed, headless, or dog- 
headed, who were supposed to inhabit remote regions. Equally 
monstrous animals, such as the unicorn and dragon, kept 

^ Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xxi, "The Travels 
of Marco Polo " ; chapter xxii, "The Aborigines of the New World." 

* Ezekiel, v, 5. ^ Isaiah, x, 12. 


Medieval Geography 


them company. Sailors' "yarns" must have been responsible 
for the behef that the ocean boiled at the equator and that in 
the Atlantic — the "Sea of Darkness" — lurked serpents huge 
enough to sink ships. To the real dangers of travel by land 
and water people thus added imaginary terrors. 

The crusades first extended geographical knowledge by fos- 
tering pilgrimages and missions in Oriental lands, opening up 
With the pilgrims and missionaries went nu- °^ ^^^* 
merous merchants, who brought back to Europe the wealth of 
the East. The result, by 
1300, was to open up 
countries beyond the Eu- 
phrates which had re- 
mained sealed to Europe 
for centuries. This dis- 
covery of the interior of 
Asia had only less impor- 
tance than that of the 
New World two hundred 
years later. 

What specially drew 
explorers eastward was 
the belief that somewhere 
in the center of Asia existed a great Christian kingdom 
v/hich, if allied to European Christendom, might Legend of 
attack the Moslems from the rear. According Prester John 
to one^ form of the story, the kingdom consisted of the Ten 
Tribes of Israel, who had been converted to Christianity by 
Nestorian missionaries.^ Over them reigned a priest-king 
named Prester (or Presbyter) John. The popes made several 
attempts to communicate with this mythical ruler. In the 
thirteenth century, however, Franciscan friars did penetrate 
to the heart of Asia. They returned to Europe with mar- 
velous tales of the wealth and splendor of the East under the 
Mongol emperors. 

The most famous of all medieval travelers were Nicolo and 

Geographical Monsters 

From an early edition of Sir John Mandeville's 
Travels. Shakespeare {Othello, I, iii, 144-145) re- 
fers to 

" The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders." 

1 See page 50. 

304 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

Maffeo Polo, and Nicolo's son, Marco. These Venetian mer- 
The Polos chants made an adventurous journey through the 
in the East, heart of Asia to the court of Kublai Khan at 
1271-1295 Peking.^ The Mongol ruler, who seems to have 
been anxious to introduce Christianity and European culture 
among his people, received them in a friendly manner, and they 
amassed much wealth by trade. Marco entered the khan's 
service and went on several expeditions to distant parts of 
the Mongol realm. Many years passed before Kublai would 
allow his useful guests to return to Europe. They sailed at 
length from Zaitun, a Chinese seaport, skirted the coast of 
southeastern Asia and India, and then proceeded overland to 
the Mediterranean. When the travelers reached Venice after 
an absence of twenty-four years, their relatives were slow to 
recognize in them the long-lost Polos. ^ 

The story of the Polos, as written down at Marco's dictation, 
became one of the most popular works of the Middle Ages. 
Marco In this book people read of far Cathay (China), 

Polo's book ^[■^i^ ji-g wealth, its huge cities, and swarming 
population, of mysterious and secluded Tibet, of Burma, Siam, 
and Cochin-China, with their palaces and pagodas, of the East 
Indies, famed for spices, of Ceylon, abounding in pearls, and of 
India, httle known since the days of Alexander the Great. Even 
Cipango (Japan) Marco described from hearsay as an island 
whose '^inhabitants were white, civilized, and so rich in gold 
that the royal palace was roofed and paved with that metal. 
The accounts of these countries naturally made Europeans more 
eager than ever to reach the East. 

117. Aids to Exploration 

The new knowledge concerning the land routes of Asia was 

accompanied by much progress in the art of ocean navigation. 

The most important invention was that of the 
The compass , , "^ . , i 

marmer s compass to guide explorers across the 

waters of the world. The Chinese appear to have discovered 

1 See page 183. 

2 For Marco Polo's route see the map between pages 234-235. 

The Earth beyond the Ocean where men dwelt before the Flood 

The Earth beyond the Ocean. 

The World according to Cosmas Indicoeleustes, 535 A.D. 

Geographical Knowledge during the Middle Ages 

The Cosmas map exhibits the earth as a rectangle, surrounded by an ocean with four deep 
gulfs. The rivers flowing from the lakes of Paradise are also shown. The Hereford map' 
exhibits the earth as a circular disk, with the ocean surrounding it. Paradise lies on the 
extreme east; Jerusalem occupies the center; and below it comes the Mediterranean. 

3o6 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

that a needle, when rubbed with a lodestone, has the mysterious 
power of pointing to the north. The Arabs may have intro- 
duced this rude form of the compass among Mediterranean 
sailors. The instrument, improved by being balanced on a 
pivot so that it would not be affected by choppy seas, seems to 
have been generally used by Europeans as early as the thir- 
teenth century. It greatly aided sailors by enabling them to 
find their bearings in murky weather and on starless nights. 
The compass, however, was not indispensable; without its 

help the Northmen had made their 
distant expeditions in the Atlantic. 
The astrolabe, which the Greeks 
had invented and used for astro- 
Nautical in- nomical purposes, also 
struments came into Europe 
through the Arabs. It was em- 
ployed to calculate latitudes by 
observation of the height of the 
sun above the horizon. Other 
instruments that found a place on 
shipboard were the hour-glass, 
minute-glass, and sun-dial. A rude 
form of the log was used as a 
means of estimating the speed of a 
vessel, and so of finding roughly the longitude. 

The charting of coasts became a science during the last cen- 
turies of the Middle Ages. A sailor might rely on the ''handy 
Other im- rnaps" (portolani), which outUned with some ap- 
provements proach to accuracy the bays, islands, and head- 
in navigation j^j^^g ^f ^^le Mediterranean and adjacent waters. 
Manuals were prepared to give information about the tides, 
currents, and other features of sea routes. The increase in 
size of ships made navigation safer and pennitted the storage 
of bulky cargoes. For long voyages the saihng vessel replaced 
the medieval galley rowed by oars. As the result of all these 
•improvements, navigators no longer found it necessary to keep 
close to shore, but could push out into the ocean. 

An Astrolabe 

To the Indies Eastward 307 

Many motives prompted exploration. Scientific curiosity, 
bred of the Renaissance spirit of free inquiry, led men to set 
forth on voyages of discovery. The crusading Motives for 
spirit, which had not died out in Europe, thrilled exploration 
at the thought of spreading Christianity among heathen peoples. 
And in this age, as in all epochs of exploration, adventurers 
sought in distant lands opportunities to acquire wealth and 
fame and power. . 

Commerce formed perhaps the most powerful motive for ex- 
ploration. Eastern spices — cinnamon, pepper, cloves, nut- 
meg, and ginger — were used more freely in ^j^^ 
medieval times than now, when people lived on commercial 
salt meat during the winter and salt fish during °^° ^^ 
Lent. Even wine, ale, and medicines had a seasoning of spices. 
When John Ball ^ wished to contrast the easy life of the lords 
with the peasants' hard lot, he said, ''They have wines, spices, 
and fine bread, while we have only rye and the refuse of the 
straw." 2 Besides spices, all kinds of precious stones, drugs, 
perfumes, gums, dyes, and fragrant woods came from the East. 
Since the time of the crusades these luxuries, after having been 
brought overland or by water to Mediterranean ports, had been 
distributed by Venetian and Genoese merchants throughout 
Europe.^ Two other European peoples — the Portuguese and 
Spaniards — now appeared as competitors for this Oriental 
trade. Their efforts to break through the monopoly enjoyed 
by the Italian cities led to the discovery of the sea routes to 
the Indies. The Portuguese were first in the field. 

118. To the Indies Eastward: Prince Henry and Da Gama 

Few names rank higher in the history of the fifteenth cen- 
tury than that of Prince Henry, commonly called the Navigator, 
because of his services to the cause of exploration. 
The son of a Portuguese king, he devoted himself Henry the 
during more than forty years to organizing scien- Navigator, 
tific discovery. Under his direction better maps 
were made, the astrolabe was improved, the compass was 

^ See page 299. ^ Froissart, Chronicles, ii, 73. 3 ggg page 235. 

3o8 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

placed on vessels, and seamen were instructed in all the nautical 
learning of the time. The problem which Prince Henry studied 
and which Portuguese sailors finally solved was the finding of 
a maritime route around Africa to the Indies. 

of the 

Portuguese Exploration of the African Coast 

The expeditions sent out by Prince Henry began by redis- 
covering the Madeira and Azores Islands, first visited by 
Europeans in the fourteenth century. Then the 
Portuguese turned southward along the uncharted 
African coast. In 1445 they got as far as 
Cape Verde, or "Green Cape," so called because 
of its luxuriant vegetation. The discovery was important, for 
it disposed of the idea that the Sahara desert extended in- 
definitely to the south. Later voyages brought the Portuguese 
to Sierra Leone, then to the great bend in the African coast 
formed by the Gulf of Guinea, then across the equator, and at 
length to the mouth of the Congo. In 1487 Bartholomew Diaz 
rounded the southern extremity of Africa. The story goes that 

To the Indies Eastward 



he named it the Cape of Storms, and that the king of Portugal, 
recognizing its importance as a stage on the route to the East, 
rechristened it the Cape of Good Hope. 

A daring mariner, Vasco da Gama, opened the sea-gates to 
the Indies. With four tiny ships he set sail from Lisbon in 
July, 1497, and after leaving the Cape Verde jj^ oama's 
Islands made a wide sweep into the South Atlantic, voyage, 
Five months passed before Africa was seen again. 
Having doubled the Cape of Good Hope in safety. Da Gama 
skirted the eastern shore of Africa 
and then secured the services of 
a Moslem pilot to guide him 
across the Indian Ocean. In 
May, 1498, he reached Calicut, 
an important commercial city on 
the southwest coast of India. 
When Da Gama returned to 
Lisbon, after an absence of over 
two years, he brought back a 
cargo which repaid sixty times 
the cost of the expedition. The 
Portuguese king received him 
with high honor and created him 
Admiral of the Indies. 

The story of Da Gama's 
memorable voyage 


Vasco de Gama 

From a manuscript in the British Museum. 


was sung by the 1524-1580, 

Portuguese poet, and the 
^ LfUSiads 

Camoens, m the 

Lusiads. It is the most successful of all modern epics. The 
popularity of the Lusiads has done much to keep alive the 
sense of nationality among the Portuguese, and even to-day 
it forms a bond of union between Portugal and her daughter- 
nation across the Atlantic — Brazil. 

The discovery of an ocean passage to the East came at the 
right moment. Just at this time the Ottoman Turks, by their 
conquests in Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, were beginning to 

3IO Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

block up the old trade routes. The Ottoman advance struck 
Significance ^ mortal blow at the prosperity of the Italian 
of the mari- cities, which had so long monopolized Oriental 
time route trade. But the misfortune of Venice and Genoa 
was the opportunity of Portugal. 

119. The Portuguese Colonial Empire 

After Da Gama's voyage the Portuguese made haste to 
appropriate the wealth of the Indies. Fleet after fleet was 
Portuguese ^^^^ ^^^ ^° establish trading stations upon the 
ascendency coasts of Africa and Asia. The great viceroy, 
"* ® ^^ Albuquerque, captured the city of Goa and made 
it the center of the Portuguese dominions in India. Goa still 
belongs to Portugal. Albuquerque also seized Malacca, at. 
the end of the Malay Peninsula, and Ormuz, at the entrance 
to the Persian Gulf. The possession of these strategic points 
enabled the Portuguese to control the commerce of the Indian 
Ocean. They also estabhshed trading relations with China, 
through the port of Macao, and with Japan, which was ac- 
cidentally discovered in 1542. By the middle of the sixteenth 
century they had acquired almost complete ascendancy through- 
out southern Asia and the adjacent islands.^ 
. The Portuguese came to the East as the successors of the 
Arabs, who for centuries had carried on an extensive trade in 
Portuguese ^^^ Indian Ocean. Having dispossessed the Arabs, 
trade the Portuguese took care to shut out all European 

^°^° ^ competitors. Only their own merchants were al- 

lowed to bring goods from the Indies to Europe by the Cape 
route. Lisbon, the capital, formed the chief depot for spices 
and other eastern commodities. The French, EngUsh, and 
Dutch came there to buy them and took the place of Italian 
merchants in distributing them throughout Europe. 

The triumph of Portugal was short-hved. This small 

^ The Portuguese colonial empire included many trading posts in Africa, Ormuz, 
the west coast of India, Ceylon, Malacca, and various possessions in the Malay 
Archipelago (Sumatra, Java, Celebes, the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, and New 
Guinea). The Portuguese also colonized Brazil, which one of their mariners dis- 
covered in 1500. 

To the Indies Westward 311 

country, with a population of not more than a million, lacked 
the strength to defend her claims to a monopoly 
of the Oriental trade. During the seventeenth of°^Sr* 
century the French and English broke the power Portuguese 
of the Portuguese in India, while the Dutch drove ^""^^"^ 
them from Ceylon and the East Indies. Though the Portu- 
guese soon lost most of their possessions, they deserve a tribute 
of admiration for the energy, enthusiasm, and real heroism 
with which they built up the first of modern colonial empires. 

120. To the Indies Westward: Columbus and MageUan 

Six years before Vasco da Gama cast anchor in the harbor of 
Cahcut, another intrepid sailor, seeking the Indies by a west- 
ern route, accidentally discovered America. It ^j^ 
does not detract from the glory of Columbus to globular 
show that the way for his discovery had been ^^^"^ 
long in preparation. In the first place, the theory that the 
earth is round had been famihar to the Greeks and Romans, 
and to some learned men even in the darkest period of the 
Middle Ages. By the opening of the thirteenth century it 
must have been commonly known, for Roger Bacon ^ refers 
to it, and Dante, in the Divine Comedy,^ plans his Inferno on 
the supposition of a spherical world. The awakening of in- 
terest in Greek science, as a result of the Renaissance, naturally 
called renewed attention to the statements by ancient geog- 
raphers. Eratosthenes, for instance, had clearly recognized 
the possibihty of reaching India by saihng westward on the 
same parallel of latitude. After the revival of Ptolemy's works 
m the fifteenth century, scholars very generally accepted the 
globular theory; and they even went so far as to calculate 
the circumference of the earth. 

In the second place, men had long believed that west of 
Europe, beyond the strait of Gibraltar, lay mysterious lands. 
This notion first appears in the writings of the Myth of 
Greek philosopher, Plato, who repeats an old Atlantis 
tradition concerning Atlantis. According to Plato, Atlantis 

' See page 263. 2 See page 281. 

312 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

had been an island continental in size, but more than nine 
thousand years before his time it had sunk beneath the sea. 
Medieval writers accepted this account as true and found 
support for it in traditions of other western islands, such as 

Behaim's Globe 

The outlines of North America and South America do not appear on the original globe. 

the Isles of the Blest, where Greek heroes went after death, 
and the Welsh Avalon, whither King Arthur,^ after his last 
battle, was borne to heal his wounds.' A widespread legend 
of the Middle Ages also described the visit made by St. Brandan, 
an Irish monk, to the "promised land of the Saints," an earthly 
paradise far out in the Atlantic. St. Brandan's Island was 

^ See page 251. 

To the Indies Westward 


marked on early maps, and voyages in search of it were some- 
times undertaken. 

The ideas of European geographers in the period just pre- 
ceding the discovery of America are represented on a map, 
or rather a globe, which dates from 1492. It Behaim's 
was made by a German navigator, Martin Behaim, ^lobe 
for his native city of Nuremberg, where it is still preserved. 
Behaim shows the mythical island of St. Brandan, lying in 
mid-ocean, and beyond it Ci- 
pango, the East Indies, and 
Cathay. It is clear that he 
greatly underestimated the 
distance westward between Eu- 
rope and Asia. The error was 
natural enough, for Ptolemy 
had reckoned the earth's cir- 
cumference to be about one- 
sixth less than it is, and Marco 
Polo had given an exaggerated 
idea of the distance to which 
Asia extended on the east. 
When Columbus set out on his 
voyage, he firmly believed that 
a journey of four thousand miles 
would bring him to Cipango. 

Christopher Columbus was 
a native of Genoa, where his 
father followed the humble trade of a weaver. He seems to 
have obtained some knowledge of astronomy and Columbus, 
geography as a student in the university of Pavia, ^^*® (?)-i506 
but at an early age he became a sailor. Columbus knew the 
Mediterranean by heart; he once went to the Guinea coast; 
and he may have visited Iceland. He settled at Lisbon as a 
map maker and married a daughter of one of Prince Henry's 
sea-captains. As Columbus pored over his maps and charts 
and talked with seamen about their voyages, the idea came to 
him that much of the world remained undiscovered and that 

Christopher Columbus 

Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid 
No one of the many portraits of Columbus 
that have come down to us is surely 

314 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 


the distant East could be reached by a shorter route than the 
one which led around Africa. 

Columbus was a well-read man, and in Aristotle, Ptolemy, 
and other ancient authorities he found apparent confirmation 
Researches ^^ ^^^ gi;and idea. Columbus also owned a printed 
copy of Marco Polo's book, and from his comments, 
written on the margin, we know how interested 
he was in Polo's statements referring to Cathay and Cipango. 

Furthermore, Columbus 
brought together all the 
information he could get 
about the fabled islands of 
the Atlantic. If he ever 
went to Iceland, some vague 
traditions may have reached 
him there of Norse voyages 
to Greenland and Vinland. 
Such hints and rumors 
strengthened his purpose to 
sail toward the setting sun 
in quest of the Indies. 

All know the story. How 
Columbus first laid his plan 
before the king of Portugal, 
only to meet with rebuffs; 
how he then went to Spain and after many discouragements 
First voyage found a patron in Queen Isabella; how with three 
of Columbus, small ships he set out from Palos, August 3, 1492; 
how after leaving the Canaries he sailed week after 
week over an unknown sea; and how at last, on the early 
morning of October 12, he sighted in the moonlight the ght- 
tering coral strand of one of the Bahama Islands.^ It was the 
outpost of the New World. 

Columbus made three other voyages to the New World, in 
the course of which he explored the Caribbean Sea, the mouth 

1 Named San Salvador by Columbus and usually identified with Wathng Island. 
See the map on page 321. 


Palacio Real, Madrid 


I I Portuguese I I Spanish 

140 Longitude 12( 

00° from 80 Greenwich 60 

0°Longitude : 

East 40° from 60°Greenwich 80° 

To the Indies Westward 


of the Orinoco River, and the eastern coast of Central America. 
He lived and died in the belief that he had actu- subsequent 
ally reached the mainland of Asia and the realms voyages of 
of the Great Khan of Cathay. The name West ^°^^^"^ 
Indies still remains as a testimony to this error. 

The New World was named for a Florentine navigator, 
Amerigo Vespucci.^ While in the Spanish service, he made 
several western voyages and printed an account Naming of 
of his discovery of the mainland of America in America 
1497. Scholars now generally reject his statements, but they 
found acceptance at the time, and 
it was soon suggested that the 
new continent should be called 
America, "because Americus dis- 
covered it." The name appHed 
at first only to South America, 
but eventually it spread over the 
whole New World. 

Shortly after the return of 
Columbus from his first voyage. 
Pope Alexander VI, in ^he demar- 
response to a request cation line, 
by Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, issued a bull granting these 
sovereigns exclusive rights over the 
newly discovered lands. In order 
that the Spanish possessions should be clearly marked off from 
those of the Portuguese, the pope laid down an imaginary line 
of demarcation in the Atlantic, three hundred miles west of 
the Azores. All new -discoveries west of the Une were to belong 
to Spain; all those east of it, to Portugal.^ But this arrange- 
ment, which excluded France, England, and other European 
countries from the New World, could not be long maintained. 

Caravel of the Fifteenth 

^ In Latin, Americus Vespucius. 

2 In 1494 the demarcation line was shifted about eight hundred miles farther 
to the west. Six years later, when the Portuguese discovered Brazil, that country 
was found to lie within jtheir sphere of influence. 

3i6 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

The demarcation line had a good deal to do in bringing 
about the first voyage around the globe. So far no one had 

yet reaHzed the dream of Columbus to reach the 
Ferdinand lands of spice and silk by sailing westward. Ferdi- 
148?(?H521 nand Magellan, formerly one of Albuquerque's 

lieutenants but now in the service of Spain, be- 
heved that the Spice Islands lay within the Spanish sphere of 
influence and that an all-Spanish route to them through some 
strait at the southern end of South America, could be found. 

Nunc vcro &hef partes Cintlatius hslBtntx/SC 

alia quarta pars per Amcridi Vcfpuriumc vt irifc^ 

j[^^ quentibus audietur)inucnta eftrqua non video cut 

J\me^ quis iure vetet ab Americo inucntorc fagads inge 

wo xiij viro Amcrigen quafi Amcrid.terram/fiuc Ame 

licam dicendamtcum SC Europa & Afia a mulienV 

bus fuafortitafint nomma.Eius fitu & gentis mo^ 

X€S exJ}isl>ims.Ameridnauigatioiiibus quf ieqaS 


The Name "America" 

Facsimile of the passage in the Cosmographies Introductio (1507). by Martin 
Waldseemiiller, in which the name "America" is proposed for the New Worid. 

The Spanish ruler, Charles V, grandson of the Isabella who 

had supported Columbus, looked with favor upon Magellan's 

ideas and provided a fleet of five vessels for the 
Circixmnavi- , , . » ^ 1 • 1 r 

gation of undertakmg. After explormg the east coast oi 

*^i ^1522 South America, Magellan came at length to the 

strait which now bears his name. He sailed 

boldly through this strait into an ocean called by him the 

Pacific, because of its peaceful aspect. Magellan's sailors 

begged him to return, for food was getting scarce, but the 

navigator rephed that he would go on, ''if he had to eat the 

leather off the -rigging." He did" go on, for ninety-eight days, 

until he reached the Ladrone Islands.^ By a curious chance, 

in all this long voyage across the Pacific, Magellan came upon 

1 Also known as the Mariannes. Magellan called them the Ladrones (Spanish 
ladrdn, a robber), because of the thievish habits of the natives. 

The Indians 


only two islands, both of them uninhabited. He then proceeded 

to the Philippines, where he was killed in a fight with the natives. 

His men, however, managed to reach the Spice Islands, the goal 

of the journey, "Afterwards a 

single ship, the Victoria, carried 

back to Spain the few sailors 

who had survived the hardships 

of a journey lasting nearly three 


Magellan's voyage forms a 
landmark in the history of geog- 
raphy. It proved Importance 
that America, at of Magellan's 
least on the south, ^^^^^^ 
had no connection with Asia; it 
showed the enormous extent of 
the Pacific Ocean; and it led 
to the discovery of many large 
islands in the East Indies. 
Henceforth men knew of a certainty that the earth was round 
and in the distance covered by Magellan they had a rough 
estimate of its size. The circumnavigation of the globe ranks 
with the discovery of America among the most significant 
events in history. Magellan stands beside Da Gama and 
Columbus in the company of great explorers. 

Ferdinand Magellan 

From a portrait formerly in the 
Versailles Gallery, Paris. 

121. The Indians 

The natives of America, whom Columbus called Indians, 
resemble Asiatics in some physical features, such as the reddish- 
brown complexion, the hair, uniformly black and jj^^ 
lank, the high cheek-bones, and the short stature American 
of many tribes. On the other hand, the large, * o"gi°es 
aquiline nose, the straight eyes, never oblique, and the tall 
stature of some tribes are European traits. It seems safe to 
conclude that the American aborigines, whatever their origin, 
became thoroughly fused into a composite race during long 
centuries of isolation from the rest of mankind. 

3i8 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

The Indians, because of their isolation, had to work out by 
themselves many arts, inventions, and discoveries. They 
Indian spoke over a thousand languages and dialects; 

culture ^^^ jjqI- Qj^g j^g^g yg|- i,QQY\ traced outside of America. 

Their implements consisted of polished stone, occasionally of 
unsmelted copper, and in Mexico and Peru, of bronze. They 

cultivated Indian 
corn, or maize, 
but lacked the 
other great 
cereals. They 

domesticated the 
Aztec Sacrificial Knife j j ^i 

dog and the 

British Museum, London ■, ■, r ^ •, 

llama or the 

Length, twelve inches. The blade is of yellow, opalescent a j t^u 

chalcedony, beautifully chipped and polished. The handle is AnCleS. iiiey 

of light-colored wood carved in the form of a man masked with lived in clanS and 

a bird skin. Brilliant mosaic settings of turquoise, malachite, ^ -i^ 1 ^ K 

and shell embellish the figure. triDCS, rUled by 

headmen or 
chiefs. Their religion probably did not involve a belief in a 
single ''Great Spirit," as is so often said, but rather recognized 
in all nature the abode of spiritual powers, mysterious and 
wonderful, whom man ought to conciliate by prayers and 
sacrifices. In short, most of the American Indians were not 
savages but barbarians. 

Indian culture attained its highest development in Mexico 
and Central America, especially among the Mayas of Yucatan, 
The Guatemala, and Honduras. The remains of their 

Mayas cities — the Ninevehs and Babylons of the New 

World — he buried in the tropical jungle, where Europeans 
first saw them four hundred years ago. The temples, shrines, 
altars, and statues in these ancient cities show that the Mayas 
had made much progress in the fine arts. They knew enough 
astronomy to frame a solar calendar of 365 days, and enough 
mathematics to employ numbers exceeding a million. The 
writing of the Mayas had reached the rebus stage and prom- 
ised to become alphabetic. When their hieroglyphics have been 
fully deciphered, we shall learn more about this gifted people. 

The Indians 


Several centuries before the arrival of Europeans in America, 
the so-called Aztecs came down from the north and established 
themselves on the Mexican plateau. Here they The 
formed a confederacy of many tribes, ruled over Aztecs 
by a sort of king, whose capital was Tenochtitlan, on the site 
of the present city of Mexico. The Aztecs appear to have 
borrowed much of their art, science, and knowledge of writing 
from their Maya neighbors. They built houses and temples 
of stone or sun-dried brick, constructed aqueducts, roads. 


Aztec Sacrificial Stone 

Now in the National Museum in the City of Mexico. 

bridges, and irrigation ditches, excelled in the dyeing, weaving, 
and spinning of cotton, and made most beautiful ornaments of 
silver and gold. They worshiped numerous gods, to which the 
priests offered prisoners of war as human sacrifices. In spite 
of these bloody rites, the Aztecs were a kind-hearted, honest 
people, respectful of the rights of property, brave in battle, 
and obedient to their native rulers. 

The lofty table-lands of the Andes were also the seat of an 
advanced Indian culture. At the time of the Spanish con- 
quest the greater part of what is now Ecuador, 
Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile had come under 
the sway of the Incas, the "people of the sun." The Inca 
power centered in the Peruvian city of Cuzco and on the shores 

320 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

of Lake Titicaca, which lies twelve thousand feet above sea- 
level. In this region of magnificent scenery the traveler views 
with astonishment the ruins of vast edifices, apparently never 
completed, which were raised either by the Incas or the Indians 
whom they conquered and displaced. The Incas displayed 
great skill in the manual arts; they were expert goldsmiths, 
silversmiths, and potters; while as cultivators and engineers 
they surpassed their European conquerors. 

122. Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America 

The discoverers of the New World were naturally the pioneers 
in its exploration. The first object of the Spaniards had been 
Objects of trade with the Indies, and for a number of years, 
the Spaniards ^J^|-jl Magellan's voyage, they sought vainly for 
a passage through the mainland to the Spice Islands. When, 
however, the Spaniards learned that America was rich in de- 
posits of gold and silver, these metals formed the principal 
object of their explorations. 

The Spaniards at first had confined their settlements to the 
Greater Antilles in the West Indies,^ but after the gold of these 
Ponce de islands was exhausted, they began to penetrate the 
Leon and mainland. In 15 13 Ponce de Leon, who had 
Balboa, 1513 i^^^^ ^-^j^ Columbus on his second voyage, dis- 
covered the country which he named Florida. It became the 
first Spanish possession in North America. In the same year 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa, from the isthmus of Panama, sighted 
the Pacific. He entered its waters, sword in hand, and took 
formal possession in the name of the king of Spain. 

The overthrow of the Aztec power was accomplished by 
Hernando Cortes, with the aid of Indian alhes. Many large 
Conquest towns and half a thousand villages, together 
of Mexico, ^j^j^ immense quantities of treasure, fell into the 
1519-1521, , , , , ^ Tx i- , TiT • 

and Peru, hands of the conquerors. Henceforth Mexico, or 

1531-1537 '^New Spain," became the most important Spanish 
possession in America. Francisco Pizarro, who invaded Peru 

1 Cuba, Hispaniola (now divided between the republics of Haiti and Santo Do- 
mingo), Porto Rico, and Jamaica. 

Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America 321 

with a handful of soldiers, succeeded in overthrowing the Incas. 
Pizarro founded in Peru the city of Lima. It replaced Cuzco 
as the capital of the country and formed the seat of the Spanish 
government in South America. 

The Spaniards, during the earlier part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, heard much of a fabled king whom they called El Dorado. ^ 

This kinff, it was said, used to smear himself with ^, _ 

^' ' . , El Dorado 

gold dust at an annual religious ceremony. In . 

time the idea arose that somewhere in South America existed 

a fabled country marvelously rich in precious metals and gems. 
These stories stirred the imagination of the Spaniards, who 
fitted out many expeditions to find the gilded man and his 
gilded realm. The quest for El Dorado opened up the valleys 
of the Amazon and Orinoco and the extensive forest region 
east of the Andes. Spanish explorers also tried to find El 
Dorado in North America. De Soto's expedition led to the 
discovery of the Mississippi in 1541, and Coronado's search 
for the ''Seven Cities of Cibola" not only added greatly to 
geographical knowledge of the Southwest, but also resulted in 
the extension of Spanish dominion over this part of the American 

^ Spanish for the "gilded one." 

322 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

continent. About 1605 the Spaniards founded Santa Fe and 
made it the capital of their government in New Mexico. 

123. The Spanish Colonial Empire 

The wonderful exploits of the conquistadores (conquerors) 
laid the foundations of the Spanish colonial empire. This in- 
Spain in cluded Florida, New Mexico, California, Mexico, 

the New Central America, the West Indies, and all South 

°^ America except Brazil.^ The rule of Spain over 

these dominions lasted nearly three hundred years. During 
this time she gave her language, her government, and her 
religion to hah the New World. 

The Spaniards brought few women with them and hence 

had to find their wives among the Indians. Intermarriage 

Intermar- of the two peoples early became common. The 

riage of result was the mixed race which one still finds 


and throughout the greater part of Spanish America. 

Indians jj^ ^j^js race the Indian strain predominates, be- 

cause almost everywhere the aborigines were far more numer- 
ous than the white settlers. 

The Spaniards treated the Indians of the West Indies most 
harshly and forced them to work in gold mines and on sugar 
Treatment plantations. The hard labor, to which the In- 
of the dians were unaccustomed, broke down their health, 

*^^ and almost the entire native population disap- 

peared within a few years after the coming of the whites. 
This terrible tragedy was not repeated on the mainland, for 
the Spanish government stepped in to preserve the aborigines 
from destruction. It prohibited their enslavement and gave 
them the protection of humane laws. Though these laws 
were not always well enforced, the Indians of Mexico and 
Peru prospered under Spanish rule and often engaged in agri- 
culture, trade, and industry. 

The Spaniards succeeded in winning many of the Indians to 

^ The Philippines, discovered by Magellan in 1521, also belonged to Spain, 
though by the demarcation line these islands lay within the Portuguese sphere of 

The Spanish Colonial Empire 


Christianity. Devoted monks penetrated deep into the wilder- 
ness and brought to the aborigines, not only the conversion 
Christian religion, but also European civilization, of the 
In many places the natives were gathered into 
permanent villages, or ''missions," each one with its church and 

^^yX^f^. llJEW FRANCE k-^ ^^^^^^^^-^^-^ 


-U(^^^^^yr^l.yZ<^=^^^>i^J^^'^ WORLD ^^^^^^g: 


An Early Map of the New World (1540 a.d.) 

school. Converts who learned to read and write sometimes 
became priests or entered the monastic orders. The monks also 
took much interest in the material welfare of the Indians and 
taught them how to farm, how to build houses, and how to spin 
and weave and cook by better methods than their own. 

The most familiar examples of the Spanish missions are those 
in the state of CaKfornia. During the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century Franciscan friars erected many ^j^^ Qg^i- 
mission stations along the Pacific coast from San fornia 
Diego to San Francisco. The stations were con- "^^^^^^^ 
nected by the "King's Road," ^ which still remains the principal 

1 In Spanish El Camino Real. 

324 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

highway of the state. Some of the mission buildings now He 
in ruins and others have entirely disappeared. But such a well- 
preserved structure as the mission of Santa Barbara recalls 
a Benedictine monastery, with its • shady cloisters, secluded 
courtyard, and timbered roof covered with red tiles. It is a 
bit of the Old World transplanted to the New. 

The civihzing work of Spain in the New World is sometimes 
forgotten. Here were the earUest American hospitals and 
s • h- asylums, for the use of Indians and negroes as 

American well as of Spaniards. Here were the earUest 
civiUzation American schools and colleges. Twelve institu- 
tions of higher learning, all modeled upon the university of 
Salamanca, arose in Spanish America during the colonial 
period. Eight of these came into existence before the foundation 
of Harvard University, the oldest in the United States. The 
pioneer printing press in the Western Hemisphere was set up 
at Mexico City in 1535; no printing press reached the English 
colonies till more than one hundred years later. To the valu- 
able books by Spanish scholars we owe much of our knowledge 
of the Mayas, Aztecs, and other Indian tribes. The first Ameri- 
can newspaper was published at Mexico City in 1693. The 
fine arts also flourished in the Spanish colonies, and architects 
of the United States have now begun to copy the beautiful 
churches and public buildings of Mexico and Peru. 

The government of Spain administered its colonial dominions 
in the spirit of monopoly. As far as possible it excluded French, 
S anish English, and other foreigners from trading with 

colonial Spanish America. It also discouraged ship-build- 

poUcy -^g^ manufacturing, and even the cultivation of 

the vine and the olive, lest the colonists should compete with 
home industries. The colonies were regarded only as a work- 
shop for the production of the precious metals and raw materials. 
This unwise policy partly accounts for the economic back- 
wardness of Mexico, Peru, and other Spanish- American countries. 
Frequent revolutions during the past century also retarded 
their progress. It is only within recent times that their 
rich natural resources have begun to be utilized. 

English and French Explorations in America 325 

124. English and French Explorations in America 

The English based their claim to the right to colonize North 
America on the discoveries of John Cabot, an Italian mariner 
in the service of the Tudor king, 
Henry VII. In 1497 ^he Cabot 
Cabot sailed from Bristol voyages, 
across the northern Atlan- ^^^'^~^^^^ 
tic and made land somewhere between 
Labrador and Nova Scotia. The fol- 
lowing year he seems to have under- 
taken a second voyage and to have 
explored the coast of North America 
nearly as far as Florida. Cabot, like 
Columbus, beheved that he had reached 
Cathay and the dominions of the 
Great Khan. Because Cabot found 
neither gold nor opportunities for 
profitable trade, his expeditions were 
considered a failure, and for a long 
time the English took no further 
interest in exploring the New World. 

The discovery by Magellan of a 
strait leading into the Pacific aroused Cabot Memorial Tower 
hope that a similar pas- cartier's 
sage, beyond the regions voyages, 
controlled by Spain, might 
exist in North America. In 1534 the 
French king, Francis I, sent Jacques 
Cartier to look for it. Cartier found 

the gulf and river which he named after St. Lawrence, and 
also tried to establish a settlement near where Quebec now 
stands. The venture was not successful, and the French did 
not undertake the colonization of Canada until the first decade 
of the seventeenth century. 

English sailors also sought a road to India by the so-called 
Northwest Passage. It was soon found to be an impracticable 

Erected at Bristol, England, in 
memory of John Cabot and his 
sons. The foundation stone was 
laid on June 24, iSgy, the four- 
hundredth anniversary of John 
Cabot's first sight of the continent 
of North America. 

326 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

route, for during half the year the seas were frozen and during 
^, the other half they were filled with icebergs. 

Northwest However, the search for the Northwest Passage 
Passage added much to geographical knowledge. The 

names Frobisher Bay, Davis Strait, and Baffin Land still pre- 
serve the memory of the navigators who first explored the 
channels leading into the Arctic Ocean. 

When the Enghsh reahzed how little profit was to be gained 

by voyages to the 
cold and desolate 
north, they 
turned southward 
to warmer waters. 
Here, of course, 
they came upon 
the Spaniards, 
who had no dis- 
position to share 
The English with 
" sea dogs" for- 
eigners the profit- 
able trade of the 
New World. 
Though England 
and Spain were 
not at war, the 
English "sea 
dogs," as they 

English Battleship of the Sixteenth 

The Great Harry, built by Henry Mil. After an old print. 

called themselves, did not scruple to ravage the Spanish colonies 
and to capture the huge, clumsy treasure-ships carrying gold 
and silver to Spain. The most famous of the ''sea dogs,'* 
Sir Francis Drake, was the first EngUshman to sail round 
the world (1577-1580). 

Four years after Drake had completed his voyage, another 
The Raleigh EngHsh seaman, Sir Walter Raleigh, sent out an 
expedition to find a good site for a settlement in 
North America. The explorers reached the coast 


The Old World and the New 327 

of North Carolina and returned with glowing accounts of the 
country, which was named Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth, the 
"Virgin Queen." But Raleigh's colonies in Virginia failed 
miserably, and the EngUsh made no further attempt to settle 
there until the reign of James I, early in the seventeenth centurv. 

125. The Old World and the New 

The New World contained two virgin continents, very rich 
in natural resources and capable of extensive colonization. 
The native peoples, comparatively few in number Expansion 
and barbarian in culture, could not offer much ®^ Europe 
resistance to the explorers, missionaries, traders, and colo- 
nists from the Old World. The Spanish and Portuguese in 
the sixteenth century, followed by the French, English, and 
Dutch in the seventeenth century, repeopled America and 
brought to it European civilization. Europe expanded into a 
Greater Europe beyond the ocean. 

In the Middle Ages the Mediterranean and the Baltic had 
been the principal highways of commerce. The discovery of 
America, followed immediately by the opening of shifting of 
the Cape route to the Indies, shifted commercial *^*^® routes 
activity from these inclosed seas to the Atlantic Ocean. Venice, 
Genoa, Hamburg, Liibeck, and Bruges gradually gave way, as 
trading centers, to Lisbon and Cadiz, Bordeaux and Cherbourg, 
Antwerp and Amsterdam, London and Liverpool. One may 
say, therefore, that the year 1492 inaugurated the Atlantic 
period of European history. The time may come, perhaps even 
now it is dawning, when the Pacific will assume almost as much 
importance as the Atlantic in the commerce of the world. 

The discovery of America revealed to Europeans a new 
source of the precious metals. The Spaniards soon secured 
large quantities of gold by plundering the Indians increased 
of Mexico and Peru of their stored-up wealth, production 

of the 

The output of silver much exceeded that of gold precious 
as soon as the Spaniards began to work the ^^^^^ 
wonderfully rich silver mines of Potosi in Bolivia. It is esti- 
mated that, by the end of the sixteenth century, the American 

328 Geographical Discovery and Colonization 

mines had produced at least three times as much gold and 
silver as had been current in Europe at the beginning of the 

The Spaniards could not keep this new treasure. Having 
few industries themselves, they were obliged to send it out, 
as fast as they received it, in payment for their 
quences of imports of European goods. Spain acted as a 
the enlarged Yi^ge sieve through which the gold and silver of 
America entered all the countries of Europe. 
Money, now more plentiful, purchased far less than in former 
times; in other words, the prices of all commodities rose, wages 
advanced, and manufacturers and traders had additional capital 
to use in their undertakings. The Middle Ages had suffered 
from the lack of sufficient money with which to do business; ^ 
from the beginning of modern times the world has been better 
supplied with the indispensable medium of exchange. 

But America was much more than a treasury of the precious 
metals. Many commodities, hitherto unknown, soon found 
j^g^ their way from the New World to the Old. Among 

commodities these were maize, the potato, which, when culti- 
importe vated in Europe, became the "bread of the poor," 

chocolate and cocoa made from the seeds of the cacao tree, 
Peruvian bark, or quinine, so useful in malarial fevers, cochineal, 
the dye-woods of Brazil, and the mahogany of the West Indies. 
America also sent large supplies of cane-sugar, molasses, fish, 
whale-oil, and furs. The use of tobacco, which Columbus first 
observed among the Indians, spread rapidly over Europe and 
thence extended to Africa and Asia. These new American 
products became common articles of consumption and so raised 
the standard of living in European countries. 

To the economic effects of the discoveries must be added their 

effects on politics. The Atlantic Ocean now formed, not only 

the commercial, but also the political center of the 

effects of world. The Atlantic-facing countries, first Portu- 

the dis- gal and Spain, then Holland, France, and England, 

COVeneS f , r t- rr^l • ^ j 

became the great powers of Europe. Their trade 

* See page 235. 

The Old World and the New 329 

rivalries and contests for colonial possessions have been potent 
causes of European wars for the last four hundred years. 

The sixteenth century in Europe was the age of that revolt 
against the Roman Church called the Protestant Reformation. 
During this period, however, the Church won her 
victories over the American aborigines. What she the discov- 
lost of territory, wealth, and influence in Europe was ®"f ^ "P®° 
more than offset by what she gained in America. ^°^ 
Furthermore, the region now occupied by the United States 
furnished in the seventeenth century an asylum from religious 
persecution, as was proved when Puritans settled in New 
England, Roman Catholics in Maryland, and Quakers in Penn- 
sylvania. The vacant spaces of America offered plenty of room 
for all who would worship God in their own way. The New 
World became a refuge from the intolerance of the Old. 


I. On an outline map indicate those parts of the world known in the time of 
Columbus (before 1492). 2. On an outline map indicate the voyages of discovery 
of Vasco da Gama, Columbus (first voyage), John Cabot, and Magellan. 3. What 
particular discoveries were made by Cartier, Drake, Balboa, De Soto, Ponce de 
Leon, and Coronado? 4. Why has Marco Polo been called the "Columbus of the 
East Indies"? 5. On the map between pages 234-235 trace Marco Polo's route. 
6. " Cape Verde not only juts out into the Atlantic, but stands forth as a promon- 
tory in human history." Comment on this statement. 7. How did Vasco da 
Gama complete the work of Prince Henry the Navigator? 8. Show that Lisbon 
in the sixteenth century was the commercial successor of Venice. 9. "Had Colum- 
bus perished in mid-ocean, it is doubtful whether America would have remained 
long undiscovered." Comment on this statement. 10. Why did no one suggest 
that the New World be called after Columbus? 11. Show that Magellan achieved 
what Columbus planned. 12. Why did Balboa call the Pacific the "South Sea"? 
13. Why is Roman law followed in all Spanish- American countries? 14. In what 
parts of the world is Spanish still the common language? 15. Why did the Ger- 
mans fail to take part in the work of discovery and colonization? 16. Show that 
the three words "gospel, glory, and gold" sum up the principal motives of Euro- 
pean colonization in the sixteenth century. 17. Compare the motives which led 
to the colonization of the New World with those which led to Greek colonization. 
18. "The struggle for the Spice Islands of the East is the key that unlocks the 
mysteries of the European political contests of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries." Comment on this statement. 19. "The opening of the Atlantic to 
continuous exploration is the most momentous step in the history of man's occu- 
pation of the earth." Does this statement seem to be justified? 


1517-1648 1 

126. Decline of the Papacy 

The Papacy, victorious in the long struggle with the Holy 

Roman Empire, reached during the thirteenth century the 

height of its temporal power. The popes at this 
The Papacy . ^ . . . • • tt t-u 

in the time were the greatest sovereigns in Europe, iney 

thirteenth ruled a large part of Italy, had great influence 
ry .^ ^^^ affairs of France, England, Spain, and 

other countries, and in Germany named and deposed em- 
perors. From their capital at Rome they sent forth legates 
to every European court and issued laws binding on western 

The universal dominion of the Church proved useful and 
even necessary in feudal times, when kings were weak and 
nobles were strong. The Church of the early 
between Middle Ages served as the chief unifying force in 

Chtirch and Europe. When, however, the kings had repressed 
feudalism, they took steps to extend their author- 
ity over the Church as well. They tried, therefore, to restrict 
the privileges of ecclesiastical courts, to impose taxes on the 
clergy as on their own subjects, and to dictate the appoint- 
ment of bishops and abbots to office. This policy naturally 
led to much friction between popes and kings, between Church 
and State. 

The Papacy put forth its most extensive claims under Boniface 
VIII. The character of these claims is shown by two bulls 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xxiii, "Martin 
Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation"; chapter xxiv, "England in the 
Age of Elizabeth." 


Decline of the Papacy 331 

which he issued. The first forbade all laymen, under penalty 

of excommunication, to collect taxes on Church _ _ 

11,, 1 rr^, , Pontificate 

lands, and all clergymen to pay them. The second of Boniface 

announced in unmistakable terms both the spiritual ^^^^' 1294- 

^ 1303 

and the temporal supremacy of the popes. 
"Submission to the Roman pontiff," declared Boniface, "is 
altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature." 

Boniface had employed the exalted language of Gregory VII 
in dealing with Henry IV, but he found an opponent in a mon- 
arch m'ore resolute and resourceful than any Holy Boniface 
Roman Emperor. This was Philip the Fair,^ and Philip 
king of France. Philip answered the first bull by 
refusing to allow any gold and silver to be exported from France 
to Italy. The pope, thus deprived of valuable revenues, gave 
way and acknowledged that the French ruler had a Umited 
right to tax the clergy. Another dispute soon arose, however, 
as the result of Philip's imprisonment and trial of an obnoxious 
papal legate. Angered by this action, Boniface prepared to 
excommunicate the king and depose him from the throne. 
Philip retaliated by calling together the Estates-General and 
asking their support for the preservation of the "ancient liberty 
of France." The nobles, the clergy, and the Third Estate 
rallied around Philip, accused the pope of heresy and tyranny, 
and declared that the French king was subject to God alone. 

The last act of the drama was soon played. Philip sent his 
emissaries into Italy to arrest the pope and bring him to trial 
before a general council in France. At Anagni, Anagni, 
near Rome, a band of hireling soldiers stormed the ^^^^ 
papal palace and made Boniface a prisoner. The citizens of 
Anagni soon freed him, but the shock of the humihation broke 
the old man's spirit and he died soon afterwards. The poet 
Dante, in the Divine Comedy, speaks with awe of the outrage: 
"Christ had been again crucified among robbers; and the 
vinegar and gall had been again pressed to his lips." ^ The 
historian sees in this event the end of the temporal power of the 

1 See page 210. * Purgatorio, xx, 88-90. 

332 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

Soon after the death of Boniface, Philip succeeded in having 
the archbishop of Bordeaux chosen as head of the Church. 

The new pope removed the papal court to Avignon, 
"Babylonian a town just outside the French frontier of those 
Captivity," days. The popes Uved in Avignon for nearly 

seventy years. This period is usually described 
as the ''Babylonian Captivity" of the Church, a name which 
recalls the exile of the Jews from their native land. The 

The Great Schism, 1378-1417 a.d. 

long absence of the popes from Rome lessened their power, 
and the suspicion that they were the mere vassals of the French 
crown seriously impaired the respect in which they had been 

Following the ''Babylonian Captivity" came the "Great 
Schism." Shortly after the return of the papal court to Rome, 

Decline of the Papacy 333 

an Italian was elected pope as Urban VI. The cardinals in 
the French interest refused to accept him, de- 
clared his election void, and named Clement VII as V^f^. " ^f®** 
pope. Clement withdrew to Avignon, while Urban 1378-1417 
remained in Rome. Western Christendom could 
not decide which one to obey. Some countries declared for 
Urban, while other countries accepted Clement. The spectacle 
of two rival popes, each holding himself out as the only true 
successor of St. Peter, continued for nearly forty years and 
injured the Papacy more than anything else that had happened 
to it. 

The schism in western Christendom was finally healed at the 
Council of Constance. There were three ''phantom popes" at 
this time, but they were all deposed in favor of council of 
a new pontiff, Martin V. The CathoHc world now Constance, 
had a single head, but it was not easy to revive i^-^^i^ 
the former loyalty to him as God's vicar on earth. 

The Papacy became henceforth more and more an Italian 
power. The popes no longer strove to be the leaders in 
European pohtics and gave their chief attention ^.^^ 
to the States of the Church. A number of the Renaissance 
popes took much interest in the Renaissance p^^®® 
movement and became its enthusiastic patrons. They kept up 
splendid courts, collected manuscripts, paintings, and statues, 
and erected magnificent palaces and churches in Rome. Some 
European peoples, especially in Germany, looked askance at 
such luxury and begrudged the heavy taxes which were neces- 
sary to support it. This feeling against the papacy also helped 
to provoke the Reformation. 

The worldHness of some of the popes was too often reflected 
in the lives of the lesser clergy. Throughout the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries the Church complaints 
encountered much criticism from reformers. Thus against the 
the famous humanist, Erasmus, wrote his Praise ^^^^^ 
of Folly to expose the vices and temporal ambitions of bishops 
and monks, the foolish speculations of theologians, and the ex- 
cessive reliance which common people had on pilgrimages, 

334 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

festivals, relics, and other aids to devotion. So great was the 
demand for this work that it went through twenty-seven large 
editions during the author's lifetime. Erasmus and others like 
him were loyal sons of the Church, but they believed that they 
could best serve her interests by effecting her reform. Some 
men went further, however, and demanded wholesale changes 
in Catholic belief and worship. These men were the heretics. 

127. Heresies and Heretics 

During the first centuries of our era, when the Christians 
had formed a forbidden sect, they claimed toleration on the 
Persecution ground that religious behef is voluntary and not 
of heretics something which can be enforced by law. This 
view changed after Christianity triumphed in the Roman 
Empire and enjoyed the support, instead of the opposition, of 
the government. The Church, backed by the State, no longer 
advocated freedom of conscience, but began to persecute people 
who held heretical beliefs.^ 

It is difficult for those who live in an age of religious tolera- 
tion to understand the horror which heresy inspired in the 

Middle Ages. A heretic was a traitor to the 
Medieval . 

attitude Church, for he denied the doctrines believed to be 

toward essential to salvation. It seemed a Christian 

duty to compel the heretic to recant, lest he imperil 

his eternal welfare. If he persisted in his impious course, then 

the earth ought to be rid of one who was a source of danger to 

the faithful and an enemy of the Almighty. 

Although executions for heresy had occurred as early as the 

fourth century, for a long time milder penalites were usually 

Punishment inflicted. The heretic might be exiled, or im- 

of heresy prisoned, or deprived of his property and his rights 

as a citizen. The death penalty was seldom invoked by the 

Church before the thirteenth century. Since ecclesiastical 

law forbade the Church to shed blood, the State stepped in to 

seize the heretic and put him to death, most often by fire. ■ We 

must remember that in medieval times cruel punishments were 

1 See page 47. 

Heresies and Heretics 335 

imposed for even slight offenses, and hence men saw nothing 
wrong in inflicting the worst of punishments for what was re- 
garded as the worst of crimes. 

In spite of all measures of repression, heretics were not un- 
common during the later Middle Ages. Some heretical move- 
ments spread over entire communities. The most The 
important was that of the Albigenses, so called Aibigenses 
from the town of Albi in southern France, where many of them 
lived. Their doctrines are not well known, but they seem to 
have believed in the existence of two gods — one good (whose 
son was Christ), the other evil (whose son was Satan). The 
Albigenses even set up a rival church, with its priests, bishops, 
and councils. 

The failure of attempts to convert the Albigenses by peaceful 
means led the pope, Innocent III,^ to preach a crusade against 
them. Those who entered upon it were promised 
the usual privileges of crusaders.^ A series of against the 
bloody wars now followed, in the course of which ^^^^20^* 
thousands of men, women, and children perished. 
But the Albigensian sect did not entirely disappear for more 
than a century, and then only after numberless trials and 
executions for heresy. 

The followers of Peter Waldo, who lived in the twelfth cen- 
tury, made no effort to set up a new religion in Europe. They 
objected, however, to certain practices of the The 
Church, such as masses for the dead and the Waidenses 
invocation of saints. They also condemned the luxury of the 
clergy and urged that Christians should live like the Apostles, 
charitable and poor. For the Waidenses the Bible was a suffi- 
cient guide to the reHgious life, and so they translated parts of 
the Scriptures and allowed every one to preach, without distinc- 
tion of age, or rank, or sex. The Waidenses spread through 
many European countries, but being poor and lowly men they 
did not exert much influence as reformers. The sect survived 
severe persecution and now forms a branch of the Protestant 
Church in Italy. 

1 See page 157. =^ See page 164. 


Heresies and Heretics 




Beliefs very similar to those of the Waldenses were enter- 
tained by John Wycliffe/ master of an Oxford college and a 
popular preacher. He, too, appealed from the 
authority of the Church to the authority of the 
Bible. With the assistance of two friends Wycliffe 
produced the first Enghsh translation of the Scriptures. Man- 
uscript copies of the work 
had a large circulation, 
until the government sup- 
pressed it. Wycliffe was 
not molested in life, but 
the Council of Constance 
denounced his teaching 
and ordered that his bones 
should be dug up, burned, 
and cast into a stream. 

Wycliffe had organized 
bands of "poor priests" 
The to spread the 

LoUards simple truths 

of the Bible through all 
England. They went out, 
staff in hand and clad in 
long, russet gowns, and 
preached to the common 
people in the English 
language, wherever an 
audience could be found. 
The Lollards, as Wycliffe's followers were known, not only 
attacked many behefs and practices of the Church, but also 
demanded social reforms. For instance, they declared that 
all wars were sinful and were but plundering and murdering 
the poor to win glory for kings. The Lollards had to endure 
much persecution for heresy. Nevertheless their work lived 
on and sowed in England and Scotland the seeds of the 

John Wycliffe 

A small woodcut from a book published in 1548. 
The oldest known picture of Wycliffe and possibly 
reproduced from a contemporary sketch of him. 
He is represented preaching or lecturing from a 

Or Wyclif . 

Martin Luther and the Reformation 337 

The doctrines of Wycliffe found favor with Anne of Bohemia, 
wife of King Richard 11/ and through her they reached that 
country. Here they attracted the attention of John Huss, 
John Huss,^ a distinguished scholar in the uni- ^^"^^ (?)-i4i5 
versity of Prague. WycHife's writings confirmed Huss in his 
criticism of many doctrines of the Church. He attacked the 
clergy in sermons and pamphlets and also objected to the 
supremacy of the pope. The sentence of excommunication 
pronounced against him did not shake his reforming zeal. 
Huss was finally cited to appear before the Council of Con- 
stance, then in session. Relying on the safe conduct given 
hun by the German emperor, he appeared before the council, 
only to be declared guilty of teaching ''many things evil, 
scandalous, seditious, and dangerously heretical." The em- 
peror then violated the safe conduct — no promise made to a 
heretic was considered binding — and allowed Huss to be 
burnt outside the walls of Constance. 

The flames which burned Huss set all Bohemia afire. The 
Bohemians, a Slavic people, regarded him as a national hero 
and made his martyrdom an excuse for rebelling The Hussite 
against the Holy Roman Empire. The Hussite ^^^ 
wars, which followed, thus formed a political rather than a 
religious struggle. The Bohemians did not gain freedom, and 
their country until recently remained a Hapsburg possession. 
But the sense of nationalism continued to exist there, and 
Bohemia in our time has become an independent state. 


128. Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation 
in Germany, 1517-1522 

Though there were many reformers before the Reformation, 
the beginning of that movement is "rightly associated with the 
name of Martin Luther. He was the son of a Martin 
German peasant, who, by industry and frugality, Luther, 
had won a small competence. Thanks to his 
father's self-sacrifice, Luther enjoyed a good education in 
scholastic philosophy at the university of Erfurt. Having 

^ See page 300. * Or Hus. 

338 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

taken the degrees of bachelor and master of arts, Luther began 
to study law, but an acute sense of his sinfulness and a desire 
to save his soul soon drove him into a monastery. There he 
read the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers and found 
at last the peace of mind he sought. A few years later Luther 
paid a visit to Rome, which opened his eyes to the worldliness 

and general laxity of life 
in the capital of the 
Papacy. He returned to 
Germany and became a 
professor of theology in 
the university of Witten- 
berg, newly founded by 
Frederick the Wise, elector 
of Saxony. Luther's ser- 
mons and lectures at- 
tracted large audiences; 
students began to flock to 
Wittenberg; and the elec- 
tor grew proud of the 
rising young teacher who 
Martin Luther was making his university 

A portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder of Luther lamOUS. 
in 1526. Now in the possession of Richard voa g^t Luther WaS SOOn tO 
Kaufmann, Berlin. - , . , . 

emerge from his academic 
retirement and to become, quite unintentionally, a reformer. 
Tetzel and In 1517 there came into the neighborhood of 
indulgences Wittenberg a Dominican friar named Tetzel, 
granting indulgences for the erection of the new St. Peter's at 
Rome.i An indulgence, according to the teaching of the Church, 
formed a remission of the, temporal punishment, or penance,^ 
due to sin, if the sinner had expressed his repentance and had 
promised to atone for his misdeeds. Indulgences were granted 
for participation in crusades, pilgrimages, and other good works. 
Later on they were granted for money, which was expected 
to be applied to some pious purpose. Many of the German 

1 See page 151. ^ See page 139. 

Martin Luther and the Reformation 339 

princes opposed this method of raising funds for the Church, 
because it took so much money out of their dominions. Huss 
and Erasmus had also condemned them on reUgious grounds. 

Luther began his reforming career by an attack upon indul- 
gences. He did not deny their usefulness altogether, but 
pointed out that they lent themselves to grave 
abuses. Common people, who could not under- the ninety- 
stand the Latin in which they were written, often five theses, 
thought that they wiped away the penalties of sin, 
even without true repentance. Luther set forth his criticisms 
in ninety-five theses or propositions, which he offered to de- 
fend against all opponents. In accordance with the custom of 
medieval scholars, Luther posted the theses on the door of the 
church at Wittenberg, where all might see them. They were 
composed in Latin, but were at once translated into German, 
printed, and spread broadcast over Germany. Their effect 
was so great that before long the granting of indulgences in 
that country almost ceased. 

The scholarly critic of indulgences soon passed into an open 
foe of the Papacy. Luther found that his theological views 
bore a close resemblance to those of Wycliffe Buying of 
and Huss, yet he refused to give them up as the papal 
heretical. Instead, he wrote three bold pam- 
phlets, in one of which he appealed to the "Christian nobility 
of the German nation" to rally together against Rome. The 
pope, at first, had paid little attention to the controversy about 
indulgences, declaring it ''a mere squabble of monks," but he 
now issued a bull against Luther, ordering him to recant within 
sixty days or be excommunicated. The papal bull did not 
frighten Luther or withdraw fron^ him popular support. He 
burnt it in the market square of Wittenberg, in the presence of 
a concourse of students and townsfolk. This dramatic answer 
to the pope deeply stirred all Germany. 

The next scene of the Reformation was staged at Worms, at 
an important assembly, or Diet, of the Holy Roman Empire. 
The Diet summoned Luther to appear before it for examina- 
tion, and the emperor, Charles V, gave him a safe conduct. 

340 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

Luther's friends, remembering the treatment of Huss, advised 
Diet of ^^^ ^^^ ^^ accept the summons, but he declared 

Worms, that he would enter Worms "in the face of the 

gates of hell and the powers of the air." In the 
great hall of the Diet Luther bravely faced the princes, nobles, 
and clergy of Germany. He refused to retract anything he 
had written, unless his statements could be shown to con- 
tradict the Bible. "It is neither right nor safe to act against 
conscience," Luther said. "God help me. Amen." 

Only one thing remained to do with Luther. He was ordered 
to return to Wittenberg and there await the imperial edict 

declaring him a heretic and outlaw. But the 
the Wart- elector of Saxony, who feared for Luther's safety, 
burg, 1521- 1^0^^ j^jj^ carried off secretly to the castle of the 


Wartburg. Luther remained here for nearly a 
year, engaged upon a German translation of the New Testa- 
ment. There had been many earlier translations into German, 
but Luther's was the first from the Greek original. His version, 
simple, forcible, and easy to understand, enjoyed wide popu- 
larity and helped to fix for Germans the form of their Hterary 
language. Luther afterwards completed a translation of the 
entire Bible, which the printing press multiplied in thousands 
of copies throughout Germany. 

Though still under the ban of the empire, Luther left the 
Wartburg in 1522 and returned to Wittenberg. He lived 
Luther's there, unmolested, until his death, twenty-four 

leadership years later. During this time he flooded the country 
with pamphlets, wrote innumerable letters, composed many 
fine hymns,^ and prepared a catechism, "a right Bible," said 
he, "for the laity." Lu then- in this way became the guide and 
patron of the reformatory movement which he had started. 

^ His hymn Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott ("A mighty fortress is our God") has 
been called "the Marseillaise of the Reformation." 

Charles V and the German Reformation 341 

129. Charles V and the Spread of the German Reformation, 

The young man who as Holy Roman Emperor presided at 

the Diet of Worms had assumed the imperial crown only two 

years previously. A namesake of Charlemagne, ru 1 x, 
/^u 1 17- 1- ij 1 • . Charles V, 

Lnarles V held sway over dommions even more emperor, 

extensive than those which had belonged to the ^^^^"^556 
Prankish king. Through his mother, a daughter of Ferdmand 
and Isabella,^ he inherited 
Spain, Naples, Sicily, Sar- 
dinia, and the Spanish 
possessions in the New 
World. Through his 
father, a son of the em- 
peror Maximilian I, he 
received the Netherlands 
and the extensive posses- 
sions of the Hapsburgs in 
central Europe. Charles 
was thus the most power- 
ful monarch of his time. 

Charles, as a devout 
Roman Catholic, had no 
sympathy for charles V 
the Reforma- and the 
tion. At ^""^^'^^ 
Worms, on the day fol- 
lowing Luther's refusal to 
recant, the emperor had 
expressed his determina- 
tion to stake "all his dominions, his friends, his body and 
blood, his life and soul" upon the extinction of the Lutheran 
heresy. This might have been an easy task, had Charles 
undertaken it at once. But a revolt in Spain, wars with the 
French king, Francis I, and conflicts with the Ottoman Turks 

* See page 217. 

Charles V 

Pinakothek, Munich 
A portrait of the emperor at the age of forty- 
eight, by the Venetian painter, Titian 

342 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

led to his long absence from Germany and kept him from pro- 
ceeding effectively against the Lutherans, until it was too late. 

The Reformation in Germany made a wide appeal. To 
patriotic Germans it seemed a revolt against a foreign power — 
Tjjg the Italian Papacy. To men of pious mind it 

"Reformed offered the attractions of a simple faith which 
gion ^^^j^ ^j^^ Bible as the rule of life. Worldly-minded 

princes saw in it an opportunity to despoil the Church of 
lands and revenues. Luther's teachings, accordingly, found ac- 
ceptance among many people. Priests married, Luther him- 
self setting the example, monks left their monasteries, and the 
"Reformed Religion" took the place of Roman Catholicism in 
most parts of northern and central Germany. South Germany, 
however, did not fall away from the pope and has remained 
Roman Catholic to the present time. 

Though Germany had now divided into two religious parties, 
the legal position of Lutheranism remained for a long time in 
Tijg doubt. One Diet tried to shelve the question by 

Protestants, allowing each German state to conduct its re- 
ligious affairs as it saw fit. But at another Diet, 
held in 1529, a majority of the assembled princes decided that 
the Edict of Worms against Luther and his followers should be 
enforced. The Lutheran princes at once issued a vigorous 
protest against such action. Because of this protest those who 
separated from the Roman Church came to be called Protestants. 

It was not until the year of Luther's death that Charles V 
felt his hands free to suppress the rising tide of Protestantism. 
Peace of ^^^ Lutheran princes by this time had formed a 

Augsburg, league for mutual protection. Charles brought 
Spanish troops into Germany and tried to break 
up the league by force. Civil war raged till 1555, when both 
sides agreed to the Peace of Augsburg. It was a compromise. 
The ruler of each state — Germany then contained over three 
hundred states — was to decide whether his subjects should be 
Lutherans or Catholics. The peace thus failed to establish 
religious toleration, since all Germans had to beUeve as their 
princes believed. However, it recognized Lutheranism as a 

The Reform in Switzerland 


legal religion and ended the attempts to crush the German 

Meanwhile, Luther's doctrines spread into Scandinavian 
lands. The rulers of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden closed 
the monasteries and compelled the Roman CathoHc Lutheranism 
bishops to surrender ecclesiastical property to the in Scandi- 
crown. Lutheranism became henceforth the of- °*^* 
ficial rehgion of these three countries.^ 

130. The Reformation in Switzerland; Zwingli and Calvin 

The Reformation in Switzerland began with the work of 
Zwingli. He was the contemporary, but not the disciple 
of Luther. From his pulpit in the cathedral of Huldreich 
Zurich, Zwingli proclaimed the Scriptures as the ZwingU, 
sole guide of faith and denied the supremacy of 
the pope. Many of the Swiss cantons accepted his teaching 
and broke away from obedience 
to Rome. Civil war soon fol- 
lowed between Protestants and 
Roman Catholics, and Zwingli 
fell in the struggle. After his 
death the two parties made a 
peace which allowed each canton 
to determine its own rehgion. 
Switzerland has continued to 
this day to be part Roman 
Catholic and part Protestant. 

The Protestants in Switzer- 
land soon found another leader 
in John Calvin, a john Calvin, 
Frenchman who 1509-1564 
settled in Geneva. His most 

important work was the Institutes of the Christian Religion, 
which set forth in an orderly, logical manner the main prin- 
ciples of Protestant theology. Calvin also translated the Bible 

John Calvin 

After an old print 

1 In Finland, which formerly belonged to Sweden (see page loo), nearly all the 
inhabitants are Lutherans. 

344 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

into French and wrote valuable commentaries on nearly all the 
Scriptural books. 

Calvin at Geneva was sometimes called the Protestant pope. 
During his long residence there he governed the people with a 
Calvin at rod of iron. There were no more festivals, no 

Geneva j^ore theaters, no more dancing, music, and mas- 

querades. All the citizens had to attend two sermons on Sun- 
day and to yield at 
least a lip-assent to 
the reformer's doc- 
trines. On a few 
occasions Calvin pro- 
ceeded to terrible ex- 
tremities, as when he 
caused the Spanish 
physician, Michael 
Servetus, to be 
burned to death, be- 
cause of heretical 
views concerning 
the Trinity. Never- 
theless, Geneva pros- 
pered under Calvin's 
rule and became a 
Christian common- 
wealth, sober and 
industrious. That 
city still reveres the 
memory of the man 
who founded her 
university and made 
her, as it were, the sanctuary of the Reformation. 

Calvin's influence was not confined to Geneva or even to 
Switzerland. The men whom he trained and on whom he set 
Diffusion of the Stamp of his stern, earnest, God-fearing char- 
Calvinism a^(>^gj. spread Calvinism over a great part of Europe. 
In Holland and Scotland it became the prevailing type of 

Henry VIII 

After a portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger 

The English Reformation 345 

Protestantism, and in France and England it deeply affected 
the national life. During the seventeenth century the Puritans 
carried Calvinism across the sea to New England, where it 
formed the dominant faith in colonial times. 

131. The EngUsh Reformation, 1533-1558 

The Reformation in Germany and Switzerland started as a 
national and popular movement; in England it began as the 
act of a despotic sovereign, Henry VIII. This ^^^^ yj^ 
second Tudor ^ was handsome, athletic, finely king, 1509- 
educated, and very able; but he was also selfish, ^^^^ 
sensual, and cruel. His father had created a strong monarchy 
in England by humbling both Parliament and the nobles. 
When Henry VIII came to the throne, the only serious obstacle 
in the way of royal absolutism was the Church of Rome. 

Henry showed himself at first a devoted Roman Catholic. 
He took an amateur's interest in theology and wrote with his 
own royal pen a book attacking Luther. The pope 
rewarded him with the title of "Defender of the f^^^'^ 
Faith," a title which English sovereigns still bear. Royalty to 
Henry at this time did not question the authority * ^^^^^ 
of the Papacy. He even chose as his chief adviser, Cardinal 
Wolsey, the most conspicuous ecclesiastic in the kingdom. 

The Church, at the beginning of Henry's reign, was still 
strong in England. Probably most of the people were sincerely 
attached to it. Still, the labors of WycHffe and 
the Lollards had weakened the hold of the Church fov^th?^'''' 
upon the masses, while Erasmus and the Oxford English 
scholars who worked with him, by their criticism of ^ o"^*^®^ 
ecclesiastical abuses, had done much to undermine its influence 
with the intellectual classes. In England, as on the Continent, 
the worldliness of the Church prepared the way for the 

The actual separation from Rome arose out of Henry's 
matrimonial difficulties. He had married a Spanish princess, 
Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of the emperor Charles V 

^ See page 214. 

346 The Reformation and the ReUgious Wars 

and widow of Henry's older brother. The marriage required a 
Henry an dispensation ^ from the pope, because canon law 
Catherine forbade a man to wed his brother's widow. After 
of Aragon living happily with Catherine for eighteen years, 
Henry suddenly announced his conviction that the union was 
sinful. This, of course, formed simply a pretext for the divorce 
which Henry desired. Of his children by Catherine only a 
daughter survived, but Henry wished to have a son succeed 
him on the throne. Moreover, he had grown tired of Catherine 
and had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn, a pretty maid-in- 
waiting at the court. 

Henry first tried to secure the pope's consent to the divorce. 
The pope did not hke to set aside the dispensation granted by 
The divorce, his predecessor, nor did he wish to offend the 

1533 mighty emperor Charles V. Failing to get the 
papal sanction, Henry obtained his divorce from an Enghsh 
court presided over by Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Anne Boleyn was then proclaimed queen, in defiance 
of the papal bull of excommunication. 

Henry's next step was to procure from his subservient Parlia- 
ment a series of laws abolishing the pope's authority in England. 
Act of ^^ these, the most important was the Act of Su- 

Supremacy, premacy. It declared the English king to be 

1534 u^i^g Qj^jy supreme head on earth of the Church 
of England." At the same time a new treason act imposed the 
death penalty on any one who called the king a "heretic, 
schismatic, tyrant, infidel, or usurper." The great majority 
of the EngUsh people seem to have accepted this new legislation 
without much objection; those who refused to do so perished 
on the scaffold. 

The suppression of the monasteries soon followed the separa- 
tion from Rome. Henry declared to Parliament that they 
^jjg deserved to be abolished, because of the ''slothful 

monasteries and ungodly lives" led by the inmates. In some 
suppresse instances this accusation may have been true, but 

the real reason for Henry's action was his desire to crush the 

1 See page 149. 

The English Reformation 


monastic orders, which supported the pope, and to seize their 
extensive possessions. The beautiful monasteries were torn 
down, and the lands attached to them were sold for the benefit 
of the Crown or granted to Henry's favorites. The nobles who 
accepted this monastic wealth naturally became zealous advo- 
cates of Henry's anti-papal policy. 

Ruins of Melrose Abbey 

The little town of Melrose in Scotland contains the ruins of a very beautiful 
monastery church built about the middle of the fifteenth century. The princi- 
pal part of the present structure is the choir, with slender shafts, richly carved 
capitals, and windows of exquisite stone-tracery. The beautiful sculptures 
throughout the church were defaced at the time of the Reformation. The 
heart of Robert Bruce is interred near the site of the high altar. 

Though Henry VIII had broken with the Papacy, he re- 
mained Roman Catholic in doctrine to the day of his death. 
Under his successor, Edward VI, the Reformation progress 
made rapid progress in England. The young 
king's guardian allowed reformers from the Con- 
tinent to come to England, and the doctrines of 
Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin were freely preached 
there. All paintings, statuary, wood carvings, and stained 
glass were removed at this time from church edifices. The use 
of tapers, incense, and holy water was also discontinued. In 
order that religious services might be conducted in the language 
of the people. Archbishop Cranmer and his co-workers prepared 

of the 


Edward VI, 

34^ The Reformation and the Rehgious Wars 

the Book of Common Prayer. It consisted of translations into 

noble English of various parts of the old Latin service books. 

With some changes, it is still used in the Church of England 

and the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. 

The short reign of Mary Tudor, daughter of Catherine of 

Aragon, was marked by a temporary setback to the Protestant 

The Catholic cause. The queen prevailed on Parliament to 

reaction secure a reconciliation with Rome. She also 

under Mary 

Tudor, married her Roman Catholic cousin, Philip of 

1553-1558 Spain, the son of Charles V. Mary now began a 
severe persecution of the Protestants. It gained for her the 
epithet of "Bloody," but it did not succeed in stamping out 
heresy. Many eminent reformers perished, among them 
Cranmer, the former archbishop. Mary died childless, after 
ruling about five years, and the crown passed to Anne Boleyn's 
daughter, Elizabeth. Under Elizabeth Anglicanism again re- 
placed Roman Catholicism as the religion of England. 

132. The Protestant Sects 

The Reformation was practically completed before the close 
of the sixteenth century. In 1500 the Roman Church em- 
Extent of braced all Europe west of Russia and the Balkan 
Protestantism peninsula. By 157s nearly half of its former 
subjects had renounced their allegiance. The greater part of 
Germany and Switzerland and all of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Holland, England, and Scotland became independent of the 
Papacy. The. unity of western Christendom, which had been 
preserved throughout the Middle Ages, thus disappeared and has 
not since been revived. 

The reformers agreed in substituting for the authority of 
popes and church councils the authority of the Bible. They 
Common ^ent back fifteen hundred years to the time of the 

features of Apostles and tried to restore what they believed 
to be apostolic Christianity. Hence they rejected 
such doctrines and practices as were supposed to have devel- 
oped during the Middle Ages. These included belief in purga- 
tory, veneration of relics, invocation of saints, devotion to the 

The Protestant Sects 


Virgin, indulgences, pilgrimages, and the greater number of 
the sacraments. The Reformation also abolished the monastic 
system and priestly celibacy. The sharp distinction between 
clergy and laity disappeared; for priests married, lived among 
the people, and no longer formed a separate class. In general, 

Extent of the Reformation, i 524-1 572 a.d. 

Protestantism affirmed the ability of every man to find salvation 
without the aid of ecclesiastics. The Church was no longer 
the only "gate of heaven." 

But the Protestant idea of authority led inevitably to dif- 
ferences of opinion among the reformers. There divisions 
were various ways of interpreting that Bible to among 
which they appealed as the rule of faith and 
conduct. Consequently, Protestantism split up into many sects 


350 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

or denominations, and these have gone on muhiplying to the 
present day. Nearly all, however, are offshoots from the three 
main varieties of Protestantism which appeared in the sixteenth 

Lutheranism and Anglicanism presented some features in 
common. Both were state churches, supported by the govern- 

Lutheranism "^^nt; both had 


a book of com- 
mon prayer; and 
both recognized the sacra- 
ments of baptism, the Eu- 
charist, and confirmation. 
The Church of England also 
kept the sacrament of ordina- 
tion. The Lutheran churches 
in Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden, as well as the Church 
of England, likewise retained 
the episcopate. 

Calvinism departed much 
more widely from Roman 
Catholicism. It 
did away with 
the episcopate and had only 
one order of clergy — the 
presbyters.! It provided for 
a very simple form of wor- 
ship. In a Calvinistic church 
the service consisted of Bible 
reading, a sermon, extemporaneous prayers, and hymns sung 
by the congregation. The Calvinists kept only two sacra- 
ments, baptism and the Eucharist. They regarded the first, 
however, as a simple undertaking to bring up the child in a 
Christian manner, and the second as merely a commemoration 
of the Last Supper. 

1 Churches governed by assemblies of presbyters were called Presbyterian; 
those which allowed each congregation to rule itself were called Congregational. 


Chained Bible 

In the Church of St. Crux, York 

The Catholic Counter Revolution 351 

The break with Rome did not introduce religious liberty into 
Europe. Nothing was further from the minds of Luther, 
Calvin, and other reformers than the toleration of 
beliefs unlike their own. The early Protestant Reformation 
sects punished dissenters as zealously as the and freedom 
Roman Church punished heretics. Lutherans ^ 

burned the followers of Zwingli in Germany, Calvin put Serve- 
tus to death, and the EngKsh government, in the time of Henry 
VIII and Elizabeth, executed many Roman Catholics. Com- 
plete freedom of conscience and the right of private judgment 
in religion have been secured in most countries of Europe only 
within the last hundred years. 

The Reformation, however, did deepen the moral Hfe of 
European peoples. The faithful Protestant or Roman Catholic 
vied with his neighbor in trying to show that his ^^^ 
particular belief made for better hving than any Reformation 
other. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, *^ ^^^ ^ 
in consequence, were more earnest and serious, if also more 
bigoted, than the centuries of the Renaissance. 

133. The Catholic Counter Reformation 

The rapid spread of Protestantism soon brought about a 
^Catholic-Conn ter Rpfnrraa^on in those parts of Europe which 
remained faithful to Rome. The popes now ^^^ 
turned from the cultivation of Renaissance art reforming 
and literature to the defense of their threatened ^^P®^ 
faith. They made needed changes in the papal court and 
appointed to ecclesiastical offices men distinguished for virtue 
and learning. This reform of the Papacy dates from the time 
of Paul III, who became pope in 1534. He opened the col- 
lege of cardinals to Roman Cathohc reformers, even offering 
a seat in it to Erasmus. Still more important was his support 
of the famous Society of Jesus, which had been established in 
the year of his accession to the papal throne. 

The founder of the new society was a Spanish nobleman, 
Ignatius Loyola. He had seen a good deal of service in the 
wars of Charles V against the French. While in a hospital 

352 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

recovering from a wound, Loyola read devotional books, and 
St Ignatius these produced a profound change within him. He 
Loyola, now donned a beggar's robe, practiced all the 

kinds of asceticism which his books described, and 
went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. ^ Still later he became a 
student of theology at Paris, where he met the six devout and 

talented men who became the first 
members of his society. They 
intended to work as fnissionaries 
among the Moslems, but, when 
this plan fell through, they visited 
Rome and placed their energy and 
enthusiasm at the disposal of the 

Loyola's mihtary training deeply 
affected the character of the new 
The Society order. The Jesuits, 
of Jesus as their Protestant 

opponents styled them, were to 
form an army of spiritual soldiers, 
living under the strictest obedience 
to their head, or general. Like 
soldiers, again, they were to re- 

St. Ignatius Loyola 

After the painting by Sanchez de 
Coello in the House of the Society of 

Jesus at Madrid. No authentic portrait main in the world and there fight 

manfully for the Church and 

of Loyola has been preserved. Coello's 
picture was made with the aid of a wax 
cast of the saint's features taken after agaiust hcreticS. The SOCicty grCW 

'*^*^- rapidly; before Loyola's death it 

included over a thousand members; and in the seventeenth 
century if became the most influential of all the religious 
orders.^ The activity of the Jesuits as preachers, confessors, 
teachers, and missionaries did much to roll back the rising tide 
of Protestantism in Europe. 

The Jesuits gave special attention to education, for they 
realized the importance of winning over the young people to 

1 The pope suppressed the society in 1773, on the ground that it had outgrown 
its usefulness. It was revived in many European countries during the nineteenth 

The Catholic Counter Revolution 353 

the Church. Their schools were so good that even Protestant 
children often attended them. The popularity Jesuit 
of Jesuit teachers arose partly from the fact schools 
that they ajways tried to lead, not drive their pupils. Light 
punishments, short lessons, many holidays, and a liberal use 
of prizes and other distinctions formed some of the attrac- 
tive features of their system of training. It is not surprising 
that the Jesuits became the instructors of the Roman CathoHc 
world. They called their colleges the "fortresses of the faith." 

The missions of the Jesuits were not less important than their 
schools. The Jesuits worked in Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, 
and other countries where Protestantism threat- Jesuit 
ened to become dominant. Then they invaded °^ssions 
all the lands which the great maritime discoveries of the preced- 
ing age had laid open to European enterprise. In India, 
China, the East Indies, Japan, the Philippines, Africa, and the 
two Americas their converts from heathenism were numbered 
by hundreds of thousands. 

The most eminent of all Jesuit missionaries, St. Francis 
Xavier, had belonged to Loyola's original band. He was a 
little, blue-eyed man, an engaging preacher, an g^ Francis 
excellent organizer, and possessed of so attractive Xavier, 
a personality that even the ruffians and pirates ^^^^^^^^ 
with whom he had to associate on his voyages became his friends. 
Xavier labored with such devotion and success in the Portuguese 
colonies of the Far East as to gain the title of "Apostle to the 
Indies." He also introduced Christianity in Japan, where it 
flourished until a persecuting emperor extinguished it with fire 
and sword. 

Another agency in the Counter Reformation was the great 
Church Council summoned by Pope Paul III. The council 
met at Trent, on the borders of Germany and council of 
Italy. It continued, with intermissions, for nearly Trent, 1545- 
twenty years. The Protestants, though invited ^^^^ 
to participate, did not attend, and hence nothing could be done 
to bring them back within the Roman Catholic fold. This was 
the last general council of the Church for over three centuries. 

354 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

The Council of Trent made no essential changes in Roman 
Catholic doctrines, which remained as St. Thomas Aquinas ^ 
Work of and other theologians had set them forth in 

the councU ^i^q Middle Ages. It declared that ^he tradition 
of the Church possessed equal authority with the Bible 
and reaffirmed the supremacy of the pope over Christen- 
dom. The council also passed decrees forbidding the sale of 
ecclesiastical offices and requiring bishops and other prelates 
to attend strictly to their duties. Since the Council of Trent 
the Roman Church has been distuictly a religious organization, 
instead of both a secular and a religious body, as was the 
Church in the Middle Ages. 

The council, before adjourning, authorized the pope to draw 
up a Ust, or Index, of works which Roman CathoHcs might not 
read. This action did not form an innovation. 
The Index The Church from an early day had condemned 
heretical writings. However, the invention of 
printing, by giving greater currency to new and dangerous 
ideas, seemed to increase the necessity for the regulation of 
thought. The "Index of Prohibited Books" still exists, and 
additions to the fist are made from time to time. It was 
matched by the strict censorship of printing long maintained 
in Protestant countries. 

Still another agency of the Counter Reformation consisted 
of the Inquisition. This was a system of church courts for the 
Xhe discovery and punishment of heretics. Such 

Inquisition courts had been set up in the Middle Ages, for 
instance, to suppress the Albigensian heresy. After the Council 
of Trent they redoubled their activity, especially in Italy, the 
Netherlands, and Spain. 

The Inquisition probably contributed to the disappearance 
of Protestantism in Italy. In the Netherlands, where it worked 
I fl ence ^^^^ great severity, it only aroused exasperation 

of the and hatred and helped to provoke a successful 

Inquisition ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j^^^^^ people. The Spaniards, on 

the other hand, approved of the methods of the Inquisition and 

1 See page 262. 

Spain under Philip II 355 

welcomed its extermination of heretics. The Spanish In- 
quisition was not aboUshed until the nineteenth century. 

134. Spain under PhiUp II, 1556-1598 

In 1555, the year of the Peace of Augsburg, Charles V de- 
termined to abdicate his many crowns and seek the repose of 
a monastery. The plan was duly carried into 
effect. His brother, Ferdinand I, succeeded to the of Charles 
title of Holy Roman Emperor and the Austrian ^' ^^^^~ 
territories, while his son, Philip II, received the 
Spanish possessions in Italy, Sicily, the Netherlands, and 
America. There were now two branches of the Hapsburg 
family — one in Austria and one in Spain. 

The new king of Spain was a man of unflagging energy, 
strong will, and deep attachment to the Roman Church. As 
a ruler he had two great ideals: to make Spain 
the foremost state in the world and to secure the 
triumph of Roman CathoHcism over Protestantism. His efforts 
to realize these ideals largely determined European history 
during the second half of the sixteenth century. 

The Spanish monarch won renown by becoming the champion 
of Christendom against the Ottoman Turks. The Turks at 
this time had a strong navy, by means of which g^^^ ^^ 
they captured Cyprus from the Venetians and Lepanto, 
ravaged Sicily and southern Italy. Grave danger 
existed that they would soon control all the Mediterranean. To 
stay their further progress one of the popes preached what was 
really the last crusade. The fleets of Genoa and Venice united 
with those of Spain, and under Don John of Austria, Philip's 
half-brother, totally defeated the Turkish squadron in the 
Gulf of Lepanto, off the western coast of Greece. The battle 
gave a blow to the sea-power of the Turks from which they never 
recovered and ended their aggressive warfare in the Mediter- 
ranean. Lepanto is one of the proud names in the history of 

PhiHp had inherited an extensive realm. He further widened 
it by the annexation of Portugal, thus completing the unification 

356 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

Philip II 

Prado Museum, Madrid 

A portrait of Philip at the age of twenty-four, by the Venetian 

painter, Titian. 

of the Spanish peninsula. The Portuguese colonies in Africa, 
^ Asia, and America also passed into Spanish hands. 

Annexation ' '■ 

of Portugal, The union of Spain and Portugal under one crown 

^^^^ never commanded any affection among the 

Portuguese, who were proud of their nationahty and of their 

Revolt of the Netherlands 357 

achievements as explorers and empire-builders. Portugal 
separated from Spain in 1640 and has since remained an in- 
dependent state. 


The Escorial 

This remarkable edifice, at once a convent, a church, a palace, and a royal mausoleum, 
is situated in a sterile and gloomy wilderness about twenty-seven miles from Madrid. It 
was begun by Philip II in 1563 and was completed twenty -one years later. The 
Escorial is dedicated to St. Lawrence, that saint's day (August 10, 1557) being the day 
when the Spanish king won a great victory over the French at the battle of St. Quentin. 
The huge dimensions of the Escorial may be inferred from the fact that it includes eighty- 
six staircases, eighty-nine fountains, fifteen cloisters, 1,200 doors, 2,600 windows, and miles 
of corridors. The building material is a granite-like stone obtained in the neighborhood. 
The Escorial contains a library of rare books and manuscripts and a collection of valuable 
paintings. In the royal mausoleum under the altar of the church lie the remains of Charles 
V, Philip II, and many of their successors. 

But the successes of Philip were more than offset by his 
failures. Though he had vast possessions, enormous revenues, 
mighty fleets, and armies reputed the best of the Philip's 
age, he could not dominate western Europe. His failures 
attempt to conquer England, a stronghold of Protestantism 
under EHzabeth, resulted in disaster. Not less disastrous was 
his hfe-long struggle with the Netherlands. 

135. Revolt of the Netherlands 

The seventeen provinces of the Netherlands occupied the 
flat, low country along the North Sea — the Holland, Belgium, 

358 The Reformation and the Rehgious Wars 

and northern France of the present day. They became Haps- 
The burg possessions during the fifteenth century and 

Netherlands ^j^ug formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire. 
As we have learned, Charles V received them as his in- 
heritance, and he, in turn, transmitted them to Philip II. 

The inhabitants of the Netherlands were not racially united. 
Celtic blood and Romance speech prevailed in the southern- 
Condition most provinces, while farther north dwelt peoples 
of the of Teutonic extraction, who spoke Flemish and 

e eran s j^^^^-^h^ Each province likewise kept its own 
government and customs. The prosperity which had marked 
the Flemish cities during the Middle Ages extended in the 
sixteenth century to the Dutch cities also. Rotterdam, Leyden, 
Utrecht, and Amsterdam profited by the geographical discov- 
eries and became centers of extensive commerce with Asia and 
America. The rise of the Dutch power, in a country so exposed 
to destructive inundations of both sea and rivers, is a striking 
instance of what can be accomplished by a frugal, industrious 

The Netherlands were too near Germany not to be affected 
by the Reformation. Lutheranism soon appeared there, only 
Protestantism ^° encounter the hostiUty of Charles V, who in- 
in the troduced the terrors of the Inquisition. Many 

ether ands jiej-g^ics ^ere burned at the stake, or beheaded, or 
buried alive. But there is no seed like martyrs' blood. The 
number of Protestants swelled, rather than lessened, especially 
after Calvinism entered the Netherlands. 

In spite of the cruel treatment of heretics by Charles V, 
both Flemings and Dutch remained loyal to the emperor, be- 
PoUcy of cause he had been born and reared among them 

Phihp II ^j^(j always considered their country as his own. 

Philip II, a Spaniard by birth and sympathies, seemed to them, 
however, only a foreign master. The new ruler did nothing to 
conciliate the people, but governed them despotically through 
Spanish officials supported by Spanish garrisons. Arbitrary 
taxes were levied, cities and nobles were deprived of their 
cherished privileges, and the activity of the Inquisition was 

Revolt of the Netherlands 


redoubled. Philip intended to exercise in the Netherlands the 
same absolute power enjoyed by him in Spain. 

The religious persecution which by Philip's orders raged 
through the Netherlands everywhere aroused intense indigna- 
tion. The result was rioting by mobs of Protes- . 

a1v£L S6Xlt 

tants, who wrecked churches and monasteries and to the 
carried off the treasure they found in them. Philip Netherlands, 
replied to these acts by sending his best army, 
under the duke of Alva, his best general, to reduce the turbulent 
provinces to submission. 

Alva carried out with thoroughness the policy of his royal 
master. A tribunal, popularly 
known as the " Coun- Outbreak of 
cil of Blood," was set ^^^ ^^^o^* 
up for the punishment of treason 
and heresy. Hundreds, and prob- 
ably thousands, perished; tens 
of thousands fled to Germany and 
England. Alva, as governor- 
general, also raised enormous 
taxes, which threatened to destroy 
the trade and manufactures of 
the Netherlands. Under these 
circumstances Roman Catholics 
and Protestants, nobles and 
townsfolk, united against their 
Spanish oppressors. A revolt began which Spain could never 

The Netherlands found a leader in William, Prince of Orange, 
later known as William the Silent, because of his customary 
discreetness. He was of German birth, a convert William the 
to Protestantism, and the owner of large estates Silent, 1533- 
in the Netherlands. William had fair ability as a 
general, a statesmanlike grasp of the situation, and above all a 
stout, courageous heart which never wavered in moments of 
danger and defeat. To rescue the Netherlands from Spain he 
sacrificed his high position, his wealth, and eventually his life. 

William the Silent 

After a painting at Delft 

360 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

The United 

The ten southern provinces of the Netherlands, mainly 
Roman Catholic in population, soon, effected a reconciliation 
The Spanish with Philip and returned to their allegiance. They 
Netherlands remained in Hapsburg hands for over two centuries. 
Modern Belgium has grown out of them. 
The seven northern provinces, where Dutch was the language 

and Protestantism 
the re- 
came together in 
1579 in the Union 
of Utrecht. Two 
years later they de- 
clared their inde- 
pendence of Spain. 
In this way the 
Dutch Republic, or 
sunply ''Holland," 
took its place among 
European nations. 

The struggle of 
the Dutch for 
Course of freedom 
the revolt forms 

one of the most 
notable episodes in 
history. At fi r s t 
they were no match 
for the disciplined Spanish soldiery, but they fought bravely 
behind the walls of their cities and on more than one occasion 
repelled the enemy by cutting the dikes and letting in the sea. 
Though William the Silent perished in a dark hour by an 
assassin's bullet, the contest continued. England now came 
to the aid of the hard-pressed republic with money and a 
small army. Philip turned upon his new antagonist and sent 
against England the great fleet called the "Invincible Ar- 
mada." Its destruction interfered with further attempts 


The Netherlands at the Truce of 1609 

England under Elizabeth 361 

to subjugate the Dutch, but the Spanish monarch, stubborn 
to the last, refused to acknowledge their independence. 
His successor, in 1609, consented to a twelve years' truce with 
the revolted provinces, but their freedom was not recognized 
officially by Spain until many years later. 

The long struggle bound the Dutch together and made 
them one nation. During the seventeenth century they took 
a prominent part in European affairs. The re- The Dutch 
public which they founded ought to be of special R^pubUc 
interest to Americans. Holland had the earliest system of 
common schools supported by taxation, early adopted the 
principles of religious toleration and freedom of the press, 
and in the Union of Utrecht gave to the world the first 
written constitution of a modern state. In these and other 
matters the Dutch were pioneers of modern democracy. 

136. England under Elizabeth, 1558-1603 

Queen Elizabeth, who reigned over England during the 

period of the Dutch Revolt, came to the throne when about 

twenty-five years old. She was tall and com- ^,. ^ , 
,. . ^ ^ ^ • ^ Ehzabeth 

mandmg m presence and endowed with great 

physical vigor and endurance. After hunting all day or dancing 

all night she could still attend unremittingly to public business. 

Elizabeth had received an excellent education; she spoke 

Latin and several modern languages; knew a little Greek; 

and displayed some skill in music. To her father, Henry VIII, 

she doubtless owed her tactfulness and charm of manner, as 

well as her imperious will; she resembled her mother, Anne 

Boleyn, in her vanity and love of display. As a ruler Elizabeth 

was shrewd, far-sighted, a good judge of character, and willing 

to be guided by the able counselors who surrounded her. Above 

all, Elizabeth was an ardent patriot. She understood and 

loved her people, and they, in turn, felt a chivalrous devotion 

to the "Virgin Queen," to "Good Queen Bess." 

The daughter of Anne Boleyn had been born under the ban 

of the pope, so that opposition to Rome was the natural course 

for her to pursue. Two acts of Parliament now separated 

362 The Reformation and the Religious Wars 

England once more from the Papacy and gave the Anghcan 
Protestantism Church practically the form and doctrines which it 
in England retains to-day. The church was intended to include 
every one in England, and hence all persons were required to 

attend religious exercises 
on Sundays and holy 
days. Refusal to do so 
exposed the offender to a 

The great body of the 
people soon conformed 
Treatment ^O the state 
of Roman church, but 
Roman Cath- 
olics could not con- 
scientiously attend its 
services. The laws 
against them do not seem 
to have been strictly 
enforced at first, but in 
the later years of EHza- 
beth's reign real or sus- 
pected plots by Roman 
CathoHcs against her 
throne led to a poHcy of 
repression. Those who 
said or heard mass were heavily fined and imprisoned; those 
who brought papal bulls into England or converted Protestants 
to Roman Catholicism were executed as traitors. Several 
hundred priests, mostly Jesuits, suffered death, and many more 
languished in jail. This persecution, however necessary it 
may have seemed to Elizabeth and her advisers, is a blot on 
her reign. 

The Reformation made little progress in Ireland. Henry 
Protestantism VIII, who had extended EngUsh sway over most 
in Ireland ^f ^^j^g island, suppressed the monasteries, de- 
molished shrines, relics, and images, and placed English-speaking 


Windsor Castle 
A portrait of Elizabeth as a princess, about i547. 

England under Elizabeth 


priests in charge of the churches. The Irish people, neverthe- 
less, remained loyal to Rome and regarded these measures as 
the tyrannical acts of a foreign government. During Eliza- 
beth's reign there were several dangerous revolts, which her 
generals put down with great cruelty. The result was to widen 
the breach between England and Ireland. 

Many of the plots against Elizabeth centered about Mary 
Stuart, the ill-starred Queen of Scots. She was a grand- 
daughter of Henry VII, and extreme Roman 
Catholics claimed that she had a better right to anTiviary 
the Enghsh throne than EHzabeth, because the Q"®®° o* 


pope had declared the marriage of Henry VIII and 
Anne Boleyn null and void. Mary, a fervent Roman CathoUc, 
did not please her 
Scotch subjects, 
who had adopted 
Calvinistic doc- 
trines. She also 
discredited herself 
by marrying the 
man who had 
murdered her 
former husband. 

An uprising of the Scottish nobles compelled Mary to abdicate 
the throne in favor of her infant son ^ and to take refuge in 
England. Elizabeth kept her rival in captivity for nearly 
twenty year^ and finally had her put to death. 

Philip II, the king of Spain, also threatened Elizabeth's 
security. At the outset of her reign Philip had made her an 
offer of marriage, but she refused to give herself, Elizabeth and 
or England, a Spanish master. As time went on, ^^^^P ^^ 
he turned into an open enemy of the Protestant queen and did 
his best to stir up sedition among her Roman CathoHc subjects. 
It must be admitted that Philip could plead strong justifica- 
tion for his attitude. Elizabeth allowed the English " sea dogs " ^ 

1 James VI of Scotland. On Elizabeth's death he became king of England as 
James I. See page 206, note i. . 

2 See page 325. 

Silver Crown of Elizabeth's Reign 

364 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

to plunder Spanish colonies and seize Spanish vessels laden with 
the treasures of the New World. Moreover, she aided the re- 
bellious Dutch, at first secretly and at length openly, in their 
struggle against Spain. Philip put up with these aggressions 
for many years, but finally came to the conclusion that he could 

never subdue the Nether- 
lands or end the piracy 
and smuggling in Spanish 
America without first con- 
quering England. The 
execution of Mary Stuart 
removed his last doubts, 
for Mary had left him 
her claims to the English 
throne. He at once made 
ready to invade England. 
Philip seems to have be- 
Heved that, as soon as a 
Spanish army landed in 
the island, the Roman 
Catholics would rally to 
his cause. But the Spanish 
king never had a chance 
to verify his belief; the 
decisive battle took place 
on the sea. 

Philip had no t completed 

his preparations before Sir 

Francis Drake sailed into Cadiz harbor and destroyed a vast 

amount of naval stores and shipping. This exploit, 

"Invincible which Drake called "singeing the king of Spain's 

Armada," beard," delayed the expedition for a year. The 

" Invincible Armada" ^ set out at last in 1588. The 

Spanish vessels, though somewhat larger than those of the 

English, were inferior in number, speed, and gunnery to their 

adversaries, while the Spanish officers, mostly unused to the 

1 Armada was a Spanish name for any armed fleet. 

Mary Stuart 

After a portrait in the possession of the Earl of 

England under Elizabeth 


sea, were no match for men like Drake, Frobisher, and Raleigh, 
the best rnariners of the age. The Armada suffered severely 
in a nine-days' fight in the Channel, and many vessels which 
escaped the Enghsh guns met shipwreck off the Scotch and 
Irish coasts. Less than half of the Armada returned in safety 
to Spain. 
England in the later Middle Ages had been an important 

The Spanish Armada in the English .Channel 

After an engraving by the Society of Antiquarians following a tapestry in the 
House of Lords. 

naval power, as her ability to carry on the Hundred Years' 
War in France amply proved. During the six- English 
teenth century she was over-matched by Spain, sea-power 
especially after the annexation of Portugal added the naval 
forces of that country to the Spanish fleets. The defeat of the 
Armada showed that a new people had arisen to claim the 
supremacy of the ocean. Henceforth the English began to 
build up what was to be a sea-power greater than any other 
known to history. 

366 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

137. The Huguenot Wars in France 

France, by the close of the fifteenth century, had become a 
centraUzed state under a strong monarchy.^ Francis I, who 
France under reigned in the first half of the sixteenth century, 
Francis I, still further exalted the royal power. He had 
1515-1547 many wars with Charles V, whose extensive 
dominions nearly surrounded the French kingdom. These 
wars prevented the emperor from making France a mere de- 
pendency of Spain. As we have learned,^ they also interfered 
with the efforts of Charles V to crush the Protestants in 

Protestantism in France dates from the time of Francis I. 
The Huguenots,^ as the French Protestants were called, naturally 
The accepted the doctrines of Calvin, who was himself 

Huguenots ^l Frenchman and whose books were written in the 
French language. Though bitterly persecuted, the Huguenots 
gained a large following, especially among the prosperous 
middle class of the towns. Many nobles also became Hugue- 
nots, sometimes because of rehgious conviction, but often be- 
cause the new movement offered them an opportunity to recover 
their feudal independence and to plunder the estates of the 
Church. In France, as well as in Germany, the Reformation 
had its worldly side. 

During most of the second half of the sixteenth century, 
fierce conflicts raged in France between the Roman Catholics 
Civil war and the Huguenots. Philip II aided the former, 

in France g^j^^j Queen Elizabeth gave some assistance to the 
latter. France suffered terribly in the struggle, not only from 
the constant fighting, but also from the pillage, burnings, 
and other barbarities in which both sides indulged. The 
wealth and prosperity of the country visibly declined, and 
all patriotic feeling disappeared in the hatreds engendered 
by a civil war. 

The episode known as the massacre of St. Bartholomew's 

^ See page 214. ^ See page 341. 

3 The origin of the name is not known with certainty. 

The Huguenot Wars in France 


Day illustrates the extremes to which political ambition and 
religious bigotry could lead. The massacre was Massacre 
an attempt to extirpate the Huguenots, root and ^ ^*- 
branch, at a time when peace prevailed between mew's Day, 
them and their opponents. The person primarily ^^"^^ 
responsible for it was Catherine de' Medici, an Italian by 
birth and mother of 
the youthful king of 
France. The king 
had begun to cast off 
the sway of his 
mother and to come 
under the influence of 
Admiral de Coligny, 
the most eminent of 
the Huguenots. To 
regain her power 
Catherine first tried 
to have Coligny 
murdered. When the 
plot failed, she in- 
vented the story of a 
great Huguenot upris- 
ing and induced her 
weak-minded son to 
authorize a wholesale 
butchery of Hugue- 
nots. It began in 
Paris in the early 
morning of St. Bartholomew's Day (August 24) and ex- 
tended to the provinces, where it continued for several 
weeks. At least ten thousand Huguenots were slain, in- 
cluding Coligny himself. The deed was a blunder as well 
as a crime. The Huguenots took up arms to defend them- 
selves, and France again experienced all the horrors of in- 
ternecine strife. 
The death of Coligny transferred the leadership of the Hugue- 

Henry IV 

After an old engraving. The king wears a hat 
with plumes and an aigrette, a ruff, and an embroid- 
ered cloak. On his breast is the order of Saint Esprit. 

368 The Reformation and the ReUgious Wars 

Henry IV 

nots to Henry Bourbon, king of Navarre.^ Seventeen years 
after the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, he 
inherited the French crown as Henry IV, the first 
of the Bourbon kings. The Roman Cathohcs would not ac- 
cept a Protestant ruler and continued the conflict. Henry soon 
realized that only his conversion to the faith of the majority 
of his subjects would bring a lasting peace. Religious opinions 

had always sat Hghtly upon him, 
and he found no great difficulty 
in becoming a Roman Catholic. 
''Paris," said Henry, "was well 
worth a mass." Opposition to 
the king soon collapsed, and the 
Huguenot wars came to an end. 

Though now a Roman Catholic, 
Henry did not break with the 
Huguenots. He now 
issued in their in- 
terest the celebrated 
Edict of Nantes. The Huguenots 
henceforth were to enjoy freedom 
of private worship everywhere 
in France, and freedom to wor- 
ship publicly in a large number 
of villages and towns. Only 
Roman Catholic services, how- 
ever, might be held in Paris and at the royal court. Though 
the edict did not grant complete rehgious liberty, it marked 
an important step in that direction. A great European state 
had recognized for the first time the principle that two rival 
faiths might exist peaceably side by side within its borders. 

Having settled the rehgious difficulties, Henry could take up 
the work of restoring prosperity to distracted France. His 
interest in the welfare of his subjects gained for him the name 

Edict of 

Cardinal Richelieu 

Louvre, Paris 

After the portrait of the Belgian artist 

Philippe de Champaigne. 

1 Navarre originally formed a small kingdom on both sides of the Pyrenees 
The part south of these mountains was acquired by Spain in 15 13. See the map 
on page 215. 

The Thirty Years' War 369 

of ^'Good King Henry." With the help of Sully, his chief 
minister, the king reformed the finances and France under 
extinguished the public debt. He opened roads, Henry iv, 

, -iT-i jj 1TTI A 1589-1610 

built bridges, and dug canals. He also encouraged 
commerce by royal bounties for shipbuilding. The French at 
this time began to have a navy and to compete with the Dutch 
and English for trade on the high seas. Henry's work of 
renovation was cut short by an assassin's dagger. Under his 
son, Louis XIII (1610-1643), a long period of disorder fol- 
lowed, until an able minister, Cardinal RicheUeu, assumed the 
guidance of public affairs. Richelieu for many years was the 
real ruler of France. His foreign policy led to the interven- 
tion of that country in the international conflict known as 
the Thirty Years' War. 

138. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 

The Peace of Augsburg ^ gave repose to Germany for more 
than sixty years, but it did not form a complete settlement of 
the religious question in that country. There Religious 
was still room for bitter disputes, especially over antagonisms 
the ownership of Church property which had been secularized 
in the course of the Reformation. Furthermore, the peace 
recognized only Roman Catholics and Lutherans and allowed no 
rights whatever to the large body of Calvinists. The failure 
of Lutherans and Calvinists to cooperate weakened German 
Protestantism just at the period when the Counter Reformation 
inspired Roman Cathohcism with fresh energy and enthusiasm. 

Pohtics, as well as religion, also helped to bring about the 
great conflagration. The Roman Catholic party relied for 
support on the Hapsburg emperors, who wished PoUtical 
to unite the German states under their control, ^"ction 
thus restoring the Holy Roman Empire to its former proud 
position in the affairs of Europe. The Protestant princes, on 
the other hand, wanted to become independent sovereigns. 
Hence they resented aU efforts to extend the imperial authority 
over them. 

1 See page 342. 

370 The Reformation and the ReHgious Wars 

The Thirty Years' War was not so much a single conflict as a 
series of conflicts, which uhimately involved nearly all western 
j^^ Europe. It began in Bohemia, where Protestant- 

Bohemian ism had not been extinguished by the Hussite 
'®^°" wars.^ The Bohemian nobles, many of whom 

were Calvinists, revolted against Hapsburg rule and proclaimed 
the independence of Bohemia. The German Lutherans gave 
them no aid, however, and the emperor, Ferdinand II, easily 
put down the insurrection. Many thousands of Protestants 
were now driven into exile. Those who remained in Bohemia 
were obliged to accept Roman Catholicism. Thus one more 
country was lost to Protestantism. 

The failure of the Bohemian revolt aroused the greatest alarm 
in Germany. Ferdinand threatened to follow in the footsteps 
Danish of Charles V and to crush Protestantism in the land 

intervention ^f j^s birth. When, therefore, the king of Den- 
mark, who as duke of Holstein had a great interest in German 
affairs, decided to intervene, both Lutherans and Calvinists 
supported him. Wallenstein, the emperor's able general, 
proved more than a match for the Danish king, who at length 
withdrew from the contest. 

So far the Roman Catholic and imperial party had triumphed. 
Ferdinand's success led him to issue the Edict of Restitution, 
Edict of which compelled the Protestants to restore all the 

Restitution, Church property which they had taken since the 
1629 Peace of Augsburg. The enforcement of the edict 

brought about renewed resistance on the part of the Protestants. 

There now appeared the single heroic figure on the stage of 
the Thirty Years' War. This was Gustavus Adolphus, king of 
Gustavus Sweden, and a man of military genius. He had 

Adolphus ^j^g deepest sympathy with his fellow-Protestants 

intervention in Germany and regarded himself as their divinely 
of Sweden appointed deliverer. Gustavus also hoped to 
conquer the coast of northern Germany. The Baltic would 
then be a Swedish lake, for Sweden already possessed Finland 
and what later became the Russian provinces on the Baltic.^ 

1 See page 337. ^ See page 222. 

The Thirty Years' War 


Gustavus entered Germany with a strong force of disciplined 
soldiers and tried to form alliances with the Protestant princes. 
They received him coolly at first, for the Swedish 
king seemed to them only a foreign invader. Just Adoiphus in 
at this time the imperialists captured Magdeburg, Germany, 
the largest and most prosperous city in northern 
Germany. At least twenty thousand of the inhabitants 
perished miserably amid the smok- 
ing ruins of their homes. This 
massacre turned Protestant senti- 
ment toward Gustavus as the "Lion 
of the North" who had come to pre- 
serve Germany from destruction. 
With the help of his allies Gus- 
tavus reconquered most of Germany 
for the Protestants, but he fell at 
the battle of Liitzen in the moment 
of victory. His work, however, was 
done. The Swedish king had saved 
the cause of Protestantism in Ger- 

After the death of Gustavus the 
war assumed more and more a poli- 
tical character. The German Pro- 
testants found an ally, strangely enough, in Cardinal Richelieu, 
the all-powerful minister of the French king. 
Richelieu entered the struggle in order to humble and the" 
the Austrian Hapsburgs and extend the bound- intervention 
aries of France toward the Rhine, at the expense 
of the Holy Roman Empire. Since the Spanish Hapsburgs 
were aiding their Austrian kinsmen, Richelieu naturally fought 
against Spain also. The Holy Roman Emperor had to yield 
at last and consented to the treaties of peace signed at two 
cities in the province of Westphalia. 

The Peace of Westphalia ended the long series of wars which 
followed the Reformation. It practically settled the religious 
question, for it allowed Calvinists in Germany to enjoy the 

Gustavus Adolphus 

Munich Gallery 

After the portrait by the Flemish 

artist, Sir Anthony Van Dyck. 

372 The Reformation and the Rehgious Wars 

same privileges as Lutherans and also withdrew the Edict of 
Peace of Restitution. Nothing was said in the treaties 

WestphaUa, about liberty of conscience, but from this time 
^^^ the idea that religious differences should be settled 

by force gradually passed away from the minds of men. 

The territorial readjustments made by the Peace of West- 
phaUa have deeply affected the subsequent history of Europe. 
Territorial France received from the Holy Roman Empire a 
readjust- large part of Alsace, in this way obtaining a foot- 

ments j^^^ ^^ ^^iq upper Rhine. She also secured the 

recognition of her old claims to the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, 
and Verdun in Lorraine.^ Sweden gained the western half 
of Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen. These posses- 
sions enabled her to control the mouths of the rivers Oder, 
Elbe, and Weser, which were important arteries of German 
commerce. Brandenburg — the future kingdom of Prussia — 
acquired eastern Pomerania and several bishoprics, thus be- 
coming the leading state in North Germany. The independ- 
ence of Switzerland 2 and of the United Netherlands ^ was 
also recognized. 

The Peace of Westphalia left Germany more divided than 
ever. Each one of the larger states was free to coin money. 
Disruption of raise armies, make war, and negotiate treaties 
Germany without consulting the emperor. The Holy Roman 
Empire, in fact, had become a mere phantom. The Haps- 
burgs from now on devoted themselves to their Austrian do- 
minions, which included more Magyars and Slavs than Germans. 
The failure of the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years' War long 
postponed the unification of Germany. 

During the Thirty Years' War Germany had seen most of 
the fighting. She suffered from it to the point of exhaustion. 
Exhaustion The population dwindled from about sixteen 
of Germany miUions to one-half, or, as some beheve, to one- 
third that number. The loss of life was partly due to fearful 
epidemics, such as typhus fever and the bubonic plague, which 
spread over the land in the wake of the invading armies. A 

1 See the map on page 402. 2 See page 220. ^ See page 361. 

The Thirty Years' War 373 

great many villages were destroyed or were abandoned by their 
inhabitants. Much of the soil went out of cultivation, while 
trade and manufacturing nearly disappeared. Added to all 
this was the decline of education, hterature, and art, and the 
brutalizing of the people in mind and morals. It took Germany 
at least one hundred years to recover from the injury inflicted 
by the Thirty Years' War; complete recovery, indeed, came 
only in the nineteenth century. 

The savagery displayed by all participants in this long 
struggle could not but impress thinking men with the 
necessity of formulating rules to protect non- ^^^^ ^^ 
combatants, to care for prisoners, and to do away international 
with pillage and massacre. The worst horrors of *^ 
the war had not taken place, before a Dutch jurist, named 
Hugo Grotius, pubhshed at Paris in 1625 a work On the Laws 
of War and Peace. It may be said to have founded inter- 
national law. The success of the book was remarkable. 
Gustavus Adolphus carried a copy about with him during his 
campaigns, and its leading doctrines were recognized and acted 
upon in the Peace of Westphalia. 

The great principle on which Grotius based his recommenda- 
tions was the independence of sovereign states. He gave up 
the medieval conception of a temporal and spiritual ^j^^ ^^^^_ 

head of Christendom. The nations now recog- pean state 

, ^1 system 

nized no common superior, whether emperor or 

pope, but all were equal in the sight of international law. The 

book of Grotius thus marked the profound change which had 

come over Europe since the Middle Ages. 


I. On an outline map indicate the European countries ruled by Charles V. 
2. On an outline map indicate the principal territorial changes made by the Peace 
of Westphalia. 3. Identify the following dates: 1648; 15 19; 1517; 1588; 1598; 
and 1555. 4. For what were the following persons noted: Cardinal Wolsey; 
Admiral de Coligny; duke of Alva; RicheUeu; St. Ignatius Loyola; Boniface 
VIII; Frederick the Wise; Gustavus Adolphus; and Mary Queen of Scots? 
5. Compare the scene at Anagni with the scene at Canossa. 6. On the map, 
page 332, trace the geographical extent of the "Great Schism." 7. Name three 
important reasons for the lessened influence of the Roman Church at the opening 

374 The Reformation and the Rehgious Wars 

of the sixteenth century. 8. Explain the difference between heresy and schism. 
Q. Why has Wycliffe been called 'the "morning star of the Reformation '? lo. Com- 
pare Luther's work in fixing the form of the German language with Dante's service 
to Italian through the Divine Comedy, ii. What is the origin of the name "Prot- 
estant"? 12. Why was Mary Tudor naturally a Catholic and Elizabeth naturally 
a Protestant? 13. On the map, page 349, trace the geographical extent of the Ref- 
ormation in the sixteenth century. 14. Why did the reformers in each country 
take special pains to translate the Bible into the vernacular? 15. What is the 
chief difference in mode of government between Presbyterian and Congregational 
churches? 16. "The heroes of the Reformation, judged by modem standards, 
were reactionaries." What does this statement mean? 17. Why is the Council 
of Trent generally considered the most important church council since that of 
Nicaea? 18. Mention some differences between the Society of Jesus and earlier 
monastic orders. 19. Compare the Edict of Nantes with the Peace of Augsburg. 
20. Show how political, as well as religious, motives affected the revolt of the Neth- 
erlands, the Huguenot wars, and the Thirty Years' War. 21. Compare the effects 
of the Thirty Years' War on Germany with the effects of the Hundred Years' 
War on France. 22. What would you say of Holbein's success as a portrait painter 
(illustrations on pages 290 and 344)? Of Titian's success in the same art (illus- 
trations on pages 341 and 356)? 


139. The Divine Right of Kings 

Most European nations in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries accepted the principle of absolutism in government. 
Absolutism was as common then as democracy is 
to-day. The rulers of Europe, having triumphed 
over the feudal nobles, proceeded to revive the autocratic 
traditions of imperial Rome. Like the later Roman emperors, 
they posed as absolute sovereigns, who held their power, not 
from the choice or consent of their subjects, but from God. 

Royal absolutism formed a natural development of the old 
belief in the divinity of kings. Many primitive peoples regard 
their chiefs as holy and give to them the control Divinity of 
of peace and war, of Hfe and death. Oriental ^^^s 
rulers in antiquity bore a sacred character. Even in the life- 
time of an Egyptian Pharaoh temples were erected to him and 
offerings were made to his sacred majesty. The Hebrew mon- 
arch was the Lord's anointed. The Hellenistic kings of the East 
and the Roman emperors received divine honors from their 
subjects. An element of sanctity also attached to medieval 
sovereigns, who, at their coronation, were anointed with a 
magic oil, girt with a sacred sword, and given a supernatural 
banner. Even Shakespeare could speak of the divinity which 
*'doth hedge a king." 2 

The Reformation in Germany tended to emphasize the 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xxv, " Characters 
and Episodes of the Great RebeUion"; chapter xxvi, "Oliver Cromwell"; chap- 
ter xxvii, "English Life and Manners under the Restoration"; chapter xxviii, 
"Louis XIV and his Court." 

2 Hamlet, IV, v, 123. Compare King Richard the Second, III, ii, 54-57. 


376 Absolutism in England and France 

sacred character of royalty. Luther and his followers set up 
Lutheranism ^^^ authority of the State against the authority 
and divine of the Church, which they condemned and re- 
"^^* jected. Providence, they argued, had never sanc- 

tioned the Papacy, but Providence had really ordained the 
State and had placed over it a ruler whom it was a rehgious 
duty to obey. The Lutherans, therefore, defended the divine 
right of kings. 

A very different principle' found acceptance in those parts 
of Europe where Calvinism prevailed. In his Institutes^ one 
Calvinism ^^ ^^^ most widely read books of the age, Calvin 
and popular declares that magistrates and parliaments are the 
sovereignty guardians of popular hberty ''by the ordinance of 
God." ^ Calvin's adherents, developing this statement, argued 
that rulers derive their authority from the people and that those 
who abuse it may be deposed by the will of the people. The 
Christian duty of resistance to royal tyranny became a cardinal 
principle of Calvinism among the French Huguenots, the Dutch, 
the Scotch, and most of the American colonists of the seventeenth 
century. We shall now see how influential it was in seven- 
teenth-century England. 

140. Absolutism of the Stuarts, 1603-1642 

Absolutism in England dated from the time of the Tudors. 
Henry VII humbled the nobles, while Henry VIII and Elizabeth 
Tudor ab- brought the Church into dependence on the Crown, 
soiutism These three sovereigns, though despotic, were ex- 

cellent rulers and were popular with the influential middle class 
in town and country. The Tudors gave England order and 
prosperity, if not political liberty. 

The English Parliament in the thirteenth century had be- 
come a body representative of the different estates of the realm, 
Parliament ^^^ ^^ ^^^ fourteenth century it had separated into 
under the the two houses of Lords and Commons. Parlia- 
Tuaors ment enjoyed considerable authority at this time. 

The kings, who were in continual need of money, often sum- 

1 Institutes, IV, xx, 31. 

Absolutism of the Stuarts 


moned it, sought its advice upon important questions, and 
readily listened to its requests. The despotic Tudors, on the 
other hand, made Parliament their servant. Henry VII called 
it together on only five occasions during his reign; Henry VIII 
persuaded or frightened it into doing anything he pleased; and 
Elizabeth consulted it as infrequently as possible. Parliament 
under the Tudors did not abandon its old claims to a share in 
the government, but it had little chance to exercise them. 

The death of Elizabeth in 1603 ended the Tudor dynasty 
and placed the Stuarts on the English throne in the person of 
James I.^ England and Scotland were now james I 
joined in a personal union, though each country king, 1603- 
retained its own Parliament, laws, and state 
Church.^ The new king was well described by a contemporary 
as the ''wisest fool in Christendom." He had a good mind and 
abundant learning, but 
throughout his reign he 
showed an utter inability 
to win either the esteem 
or the affection of his 
subjects. This was a 
misfortune, for the Eng- 
lish had now grown weary 
of despotism and wanted 
freedom. They were not prepared to tolerate in James, an 
alien, many things which they Had overlooked in ''Good 
Queen Bess." 

One of the most fruitful sources of discord between James and 
the English people was his exalted conception of monarchy. 
The Tudors, indeed, claimed to rule by divine james I on 
right, but James went further and argued for divine divine right 
hereditary right. Providence, he declared, had chosen the 
principle of heredity in order to fix the succession to the throne. 

Gold Coin of James I 

The first coin to bear the legend " Great Britain. 

1 See pages 206, note i, and 363, note i. 

2 The Act of Union (1707) gave to England and Scotland a common Parliament. 
After this date it is proper to speak of the kingdom of Great Britain, and of the 
English, Welsh, and Scotch as forming the British people. 

378 Absolutism in England and France 

This principle, being divine, lay beyond the power of man to 
alter. Whether the king was fit or unfit to rule. Parliament 
might not change the succession, depose a sovereign, or Hmit 
his authority in any way. James rather neatly summarized 
his views in a Latin epigram, a deo rex, a rege lex — "the king 
is from God, and law is from the king." 

The extreme pretensions of James encountered much op- 
position from Parhament. That body felt httle sympathy for 
ParUament a ruler who proclaimed himself the source of all 
and James I \^^ When James, always extravagant and a poor 
financier, came before it for money. Parliament insisted on its 
right to withhold supplies until grievances were redressed. 

James would not 
yield, and got along as 
best he could by levy- 
ing customs duties, 
seUing titles of nobil- 
ity, and imposing ex- 
cessive fines, in spite 
of the protests of Par- 
Uament. This situa- 
tion continued to the 
end of the king's 

A reUgious contro- 
versy helped to em- 
bitter the dispute between James and Parliament. The king, 
who was a devout Anglican, made himself very unpopular 
with the Puritans, as the reformers within the 
Church of England were called. The Puritans 
had at first no intention of separating from the national or 
established Church, but they wished to "purify" it of certain 
customs which they described as "Romish." Among these 
were the use of the surplice, of the ring in the marriage ser- 
vice, and of the sign of the cross in baptism. Some Puritans 
wanted to get rid of the Book of Com?non Prayer altogether. 
Since the Puritans had a large majority in the House of 

A Puritan Family 

Illustration in an edition of the Psalms 
published in 1563. - 


Absolutism of the Stuarts 


Charles I 

A painting by Daniel My tens, in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

Commons, it was inevitable that the parliamentary struggle 
against Stuart absolutism should assume in part a religious 

The political and rehgious difficulties which marked the 
reign of James I did not disappear when his son, Charles I, 
came to the throne. Charles was a true Stuart in his devotion 

380 Absolutism in England and France 

to absolutism and divine right. Almost immediately he began 
Charles I ^^ quarrel with Parliament. When that body 
king, 1625- withheld supplies, Charles resorted to forced loans 
^^*^ from the wealthy and even imprisoned a number 

of persons who refused to contribute. Such arbitrary acts 
showed plainly that Charles would play the tyrant if he could. 

The king's attitude at last led Parliament to a bold assertion 
of its authority. It now presented to Charles the celebrated 
Petition of Petition of Right. One of the most important 
Right, 1628 clauses provided that loans without parliamentary 
sanction should be considered illegal. Another clause de- 
clared that no one should be arrested or imprisoned except 
according to the law of the land. The Petition thus repeated 
and reinforced two of the leading principles of Magna Carta.^ 
The people of England, speaking this time through their elected 
representatives, asserted once more their right to limit the 
power of kings. 

Charles signed the Petition, as the only means of securing 
parhamentary consent to taxation; but he had no intention of 
Personal rule observing it. For the next eleven years he man- 
of Charles I, aged to govern without calling Parliament in 
session. The conduct of affairs during this period 
lay largely in the hands of Sir Thomas Wentworth, afterwards 
earl of Strafford, and Wilham Laud, who later became arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The king made these two men his 
principal advisers and through them carried on his despotic 
rule. Arbitrary courts, which tried cases without a jury, 
punished those who resisted the royal will. A rigid censorship 
of the press prevented any expression of popular discontent. 
PubHc meetings were suppressed as seditious riots. Even 
private gatherings were dangerous, for the king had swarms of 
spies to report disloyal acts or utterances. 
TohnHamp- Since Charles ruled without a Parliament, he 
den and had to adopt all sorts of devices to fill his treas- 

s p-money ^^^ q^^ ^£ these was the levying of "ship- 
money." According to an old custom, seaboard towns and 

1 See page 200. 

Absolutism of the Stuarts 


counties had been required to provide ships or money for the 
royal navy. Charles revived this custom and extended it to 
towns and counties lying inland. It seemed clear that the 
king meant to impose a permanent tax on all England without 
the assent of Parliament. The demand for ''ship-money" 
aroused much opposition, and John Hampden, a wealthy 
squire of Buckinghamshire, refused to pay the twenty shiUings 

Execution of the Earl of Strafford 

After a contemporary print. The Tower of London is seen in the background. 

levied on his estate. Hampden was tried before a court of the 
royal judges and was convicted by a bare majority. He be- 
came, however, a popular hero. 

Archbishop Laud, the king's chief agent in ecclesiastical 
matters, detested Puritanism and aimed to root it out from the 
Anghcan Church. He put no Puritans to death, baud's ec- 
but he sanctioned cruel punishments of those who clesiastical 
would not conform to the estabHshed reHgion. ^°^'^^ 
While the restrictions on Puritans were increased, those af- 
fecting Roman Cathohcs were relaxed. Many people thought 

382 Absolutism in England and France 

that Charles, through Laud and the bishops, was preparing to 
lead the Church of England back to Rome. They therefore 
opposed the king on religious grounds, as well as for political 

But the personal rule of Charles was now drawing to an end. 
In 1637 the king, supported by Archbishop Laud, tried to in- 
The Long troduce a modified form of the English prayer 
Parliament, book into Scotland. The Scotch, Calvinistic to 
the core, drew up a national oath, or Covenant, 
by which they bound themselves to resist any attempt to 
change their rehgion. Rebellion quickly passed into open war, 
and the Covenanters invaded northern England. 'Charles was 
then obliged to summon Parliament in session. It met in 1640 
and did not formally dissolve until twenty years later. 

The Long Parliament no sooner assembled than it assumed 
the conduct of government. The leaders, including John 
Reforms of Hampden, John Pym, and Oliver Cromwell, 
the Long openly declared that the House of Commons, and 

ar ament ^^^ ^-^^ king, possessed supreme authority in the 
state. Parliament began by sending Strafford and subse- 
quently Laud to the scaffold and by abolishing the arbitrary 
courts. It forbade the imposition of "ship-money" and other 
irregular taxes. It also took away the king's right of dissolv- 
ing Parliament at his pleasure and ordered that at least one 
parhamentary session should be held every three years. These 
measures ^tripped the Crown of the despotic powers acquired 
by the Tudors and the Stuarts. 

141. OUver CromweU and the Civil War, 1642-1649 

The Long Parliament thus far had acted along the line of 

reformation rather than revolution. Had Charles been content 

to accept the new arrangements, there would have 
Outbreak of , ,.^, . ^ ^ \ 1 1 • 

the Great been little more trouble. But the proud and im- 

Rebellion, perious king was only watching his chance to strike 

a blow at Parliament. Taking advantage of some 

differences of opinion among its members, Charles summoned 

his soldiers, marched to Westminster, and demanded the sur- 

Olver Cromwell and the Civil War 


render of five leaders, including Pym and Hampden. Warned 
in time, they made their escape, and Charles did not find them 
in the chamber of the Commons. "Well, I see all the birds 
are flown," he exclaimed, and walked out baffled. The king's 
attempt to intimidate the Commons was a grave blunder. It 
showed beyond doubt that he would resort to force, rather 
than bend his neck to Parliament. Both Charles and Parlia- 
ment now began to gather troops and prepare for the inevitable 

The opposing parties seemed to be very evenly matched. 
Around the king rallied nearly all the nobles, « cavaliers" 
the Anglican clergy, the Roman CathoHcs, a and " Round- 
majority of the ''squires," or country gentry, and ^^ 
the members of the universities. The royahsts received the name 
of "Cavaliers." The parliamen- 
tarians, or "Roundheads," ^ were 
mostly recruited from the trading 
classes in the towns and the small 
landowners in the country. The 
working people remained as a 
rule indifferent and took little 
part in the struggle. 

Both Pym and Hampden died 
in the second year of the war, 
and henceforth the Oliver 
leadership of the Cromwell, 
parliamentarians fell 

to Oliver Cromwell. He was a Oliver Cromwell 

country gentleman from the east 
of England, and Hampden's 
cousin. Cromwell represented the university of Cambridge 
in the Long Parliament and displayed there great audacity in 
opposing the government. An unfriendly critic at this time 
describes "his countenance swollen and reddish, his voice sharp 
and untuneable, and his eloquence full of fervor." Though 

^ So called, because some of them wore closely cropped hair, in contrast to the 
flowing locks of the "Cavaliers." 

A painting by Robert Walker, in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. 

384 Absolutism in England and France 

3 /j ISLE OF 

/ J MAf* 



OF THE 17th century 

Scale of English Miles 


10 20 30 60 


.^'"'^ Parts held by Charles I. pr^snii^ 
at the end •f 1043 KSaKiid 

Pans held by Parliament j 

Portland Bill ^'^""^ 

> ■ ^_ \ '--vTartsbrook Castle 

n ^ 

4 Longitude Vp'est 

from Greenwich Longitude Ea 

Oliver Cromwell and the Civil War 385 

a zealous Puritan, who believed himself in all sincerity to be 
the chosen agent of the Lord, Cromwell was not an ascetic. 
He hunted, hawked, played bowls and other games, had an ear 
for music, and valued art and learning. In pubHc life he showed 
himself a statesman of much insight and a military genius. 

Fortune favored the royalists, until Cromwell assumed com- 
mand of the parliamentary forces. To him was due the for- 
mation of a- cavalry regiment of "honest, sober 
^, . . „ , , , ' The " Iron- 

Lnristians, whose watchwords were texts from sides " and 

Scripture and who charged in battle singing psalms. *^® ",^,®^ 
These "Ironsides," as Cromwell said, "had the 
fear of God before them and made some conscience of what 
they did." They were so successful that Parhament permitted 
Cromwell to reorganize a large part of the army into the " New 
Model," (a body of professional, highly disciplined soldiers. 
The "New Model" defeated Charles decisively at the battle of 
Naseby, near the center of England (1645). Charles then sur- 
rendered to the Scotch, who soon turned him over to Parha- 

The surrender of the king ended the Great Rebellion, but 
left the political situation in doubt. The Puritans by this time 
had divided into two rival parties. The Presby- Presbyterians 
terians wished to make the Church of England, and 
like that of Scotland, Presbyterian 1 in faith and independents 
worship. Through their control of Parliament, they were able 
to pass acts doing away with bishops, forbidding the use of the 
Book of Common Prayer, and requiring every one to accept 
Presbyterian doctrines. The other Puritan party, known as 
the Independents,^ felt that rehgious beliefs should not be a 
matter of compulsion. They rejected both Anghcanism and 
Presbyterianism and desired to set up churches of their o\vn, 
where they might worship as seemed to them right. The In- 
dependents had the powerful backing of Cromwell and the 
"New Model," so that the stage was set for a quarrel between 
Parhament and the army. 

^ See page 350, note i. 

* Also called Separatists, and later known as Congregationalists. 


Absolutism in England and France 

King Charles, though a prisoner in the hands of his enemies, 
hoped to profit by their divisions. The Presbyterian majority 
"Pride's ^^ ^^^ House of Commons was wiUing to restore 

Purge," the king, provided he would give his assent to 

^^^^ the estabhshment of Presbyterianism in England. 

But the army wanted no reconciliation with the captive monarch 
and at length took matters into its own hand. A party of 

Interior of Westminster Hall 

Next to the Tower and the Abbey, Westminster Hall, adjoining the Houses of Parliament, 
is the most historic building in London. The hall was begun by \\'illiam Rufus in logj, 
and was enlarged by his successors. Richard II in 1397 added the great oak roof, which has 
lasted to this day. Here were held the trials of Strafford and Charles I. 

soldiers, under the command of a. Colonel Pride, excluded the 
Presbyterian members from the floor of the House, leaving the 
Independents alone to conduct the government. This action is 
known as "Pride's Purge." Cromwell approved of it, and from 
this time he became the real ruler of England. 

The Rump Parliament, as the remnant of 
the House of Commons was called, immediately 
brought the king before a High Court of Justice 
composed of his bitterest enemies. He refused to acknowledge 

Execution of 
Charles I, 

The Commonwealth and the Protectorate 387 

the right of the court to try him and made no defense what- 
ever. Charles was speedily convicted and sentenced to be be- 
headed, ''as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy to 
the good of the people." He met death with quiet dignity and 
courage on a scaffold erected in front of Whitehall Palace in 
London. The king's execution went far beyond the wishes of 
most Englishmen; "cruel necessity" formed its only justifica- 
tion ; but it established once for all in England the principle that 
rulers are responsible to their subjects. 

142. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate, 

The Rump Parliament aboHshed the House of Lords and 
the office of king. It named a Council of State, most of whose 
members were chosen from the House of Commons, England a 
to carry on the government. England now be- ^epubUc 
came a commonwealth, or national republic. It is clear that 
this republic was the creation of a minority. Anglicans, Pres- 
byterians, and Roman Catholics were ready to restore the 
monarchy, but as long as the power lay with the army, the small 
sect of Independents could impose its will on the great majority 
of the English people. 

Cromwell had to deal with a serious uprising in Ireland, 
where Prince Charles, the oldest son of the dead sovereign, had 
been proclaimed king. Invading the country with Subjection 
his trained soldiers, Cromwell captured town after °^ Ireland 
town, slaughtered many royalists, and shipped many more to 
the West Indies as slaves. This time Ireland was completely 
subdued. Cromwell confiscated the estates of those who had 
supported the royaUst cause and planted colonies of English 
Protestants in Ulster, Leinster, and Munster. The Roman 
CathoHc gentry were compelled to remove beyond the Shannon 
River to unfruitful Connaught. Even there the public exer- 
cise of their reHgion was forbidden them. Cromwell's harsh 
measures brought peace to Ireland, but only intensified the 
hatred felt by Irish Roman Catholics for Protestant England.^ 

^ See pages 207 and 363. 


Absolutism in England and France 

8 AVeet from 7 Greenwich 

While Cromwell was still in Ireland, Prince Charles came to 
Scotland and by promising to be a Presbyterian king secured 
Scotland the support of the whole nation. Cromwell, how- 

subdued ever, destroyed the Scotch armies in two pitched 

battles. Prince Charles escaped capture and after thrilHng 
adventures as a fugitive took refuge in France. 

Meanwhile, the Rump Parliament had become more and 

The Commonwealth and the Protectorate 389 

more unpopular. The army, which had saved England from 
Stuart despotism, did not relish the spectacle of a Dissolution 
small group of men, many of them selfish and ^ *^® 
corrupt, presuming to govern the country. Crom- Parliament, 
well found them ''horribly arbitrary," and at last ^^^^ 
resolved to have done with them. He entered the House of 
Commons with a band of musketeers and ordered the members 

Great Seal of England under the Commonwealth (Reduced) 

The reverse represents the House of Commons in session. 

home. "Come, come," he cried, 'T will put an end to your 
prating. You are no Parliament. I say you are no Parlia- 
ment. I will put an end to your sitting." Another Parliament 
proved equally incapable. After a few months it resigned its 
authority into the hands of Cromwell. 

Cromwell, by force of circumstances, had become a virtual 

390 Absolutism in England and France 

dictator, but he had no love of absolute power. He therefore 
The instru- accepted a so-called Instrument of Government, 
ment of drawn up by some of his officers. It provided 

Government • ^^^^ Cromwell should be Lord Protector for hfe, 
with the assistance of a Council and a Parliament. The In- 
strument is notable as the only written constitution which 
England has ever had. 

The Lord Protector governed England for five years. His 
successful conduct of foreign affairs gave to that country an 

importance in the councils of Europe which it 
Cromwell as , . , . , . ^ ^,. , 

Lord Pro- had not enjoyed since the time of Ehzabeth. 

tector, 1653- jje died in 1658. Two years later the nation, 


weary of military rule, recalled Prince Charles, 
who mounted the throne as Charles IL 

It seemed, indeed, as if the Puritan Revolution had been a 
complete failure. But this was hardly true. The revolution 
The Puritan arrested the growth of absolutism in England. 
Revolution j^- created among Englishmen a lasting hostility 
to despotic rule, whether exercised by King, Parliament, Pro- 
tector, or army. Furthermore, it sent forth into the world 
ideas of popular sovereignty, which, during the eighteenth 
century, helped to produce the American and Fjench 

143. The Restoration and the ** Glorious 
Revolution," 1660-1689 

Charles II pledged himself to maintain Magna Carta, the 
Petition of Right, and other statutes limiting the royal power. 
Reign of ^^^ people of England wished to have a king, but 

Charles II, they also wished their king to govern by the advice 

1660— IfiS*! <-! <j ^ 

of Parliament. Charles, less obstinate and more 
astute than his father, recognized this fact, and, when a conflict 
threatened with his ministers or Parhament, always avoided it 
by timely concessions. Whatever happened, he used to say, 
he was resolved "never to set out on his travels again." 
Charles's charm of manner, wit, and genial humor made him a 
popular monarch, in spite of his grave faults of character. He 

The Restoration and the ''Glorious Revolution" 391 

was one who ''never said a foolish thing and never did a wise 



The period of the Restoration was characterized by a reaction 
against the austere scheme of Hfe which the Puritans had im- 
posed on society. Puritanism not only deprived Reaction 
the people of evil pleasures, such as bear-baiting, against 
cock-fighting, and tippling, but it also prohibited ^^*a^sm 
the Sunday dances and games, the village festivals, and the 
popular drama. When 
Puritanism disappeared, 
the people went to the 
opposite extreme and cast 
off all restraint. England 
was never more merry and 

never less moral than un- o r> r^ tt 

<< ,, Silver Crown of Charles II 

dents Merry Monarch. 

The Restoration brought back the Church of England, 
together with the Stuarts. Parliament, more intolerant than 
the king, passed an Act of Uniformity, which made The Dis- 
the use of the Book of Common Prayer compulsory centers 
and required ministers to express their consent to everything 
contained in it. Nearly two thousand clergymen resigned their 
positions rather than obey the act. Among them were found 
Presbyterians, Independents (or CongregationaHsts) , Baptists, 
and Quakers. The members of these sects, since they did not 
accept the national church, -were henceforth classed as Dis- 
senters.^ They might not hold meetings for worship, or teach 
in schools, or accept any public office. The Dissenters for many 
years had to endure harsh persecution. 

One of the most important events belonging to the reign of 
Charles II was the passage by Parliament of the Habeas 
Habeas Corpus Act. The writ of habeas corpus ^ Corpus Act, 
is an order, issued by a judge, requiring a person 
held in custody to be brought before the court. If upon 

1 Or Noncomformists. This name is still applied to English Protestants not 
members of the Anglican Church. 

2 A Latin phrase meaning "You may have the body." 

392 Absolutism in England and France 

examination good reason is shown for keeping the prisoner, he 
is to be remanded for trial; otherwise he must either be freed 
or released orTbail. t This writ had been long used in England, 
and one of the clauses of Magna Carta expressly provided against 
arbitrary imprisonment. It had always been possible, however, 
for the king or his ministers to order the arrest of a person con- 
sidered dangerous to the state, without making any formal 
charge against him. The Habeas Corpus Act estabhshed the 
principle that every man, not charged with or convicted of a 
known crime, is entitled to his liberty. Most of the British 
possessions where the Common law prevails have accepted the 
act, and it has been adopted by the federal and state legislatures 
of the United States. 

The reign of Charles II also saw the beginning of the modern 
party system in Parliament. Two opposing parties took shape, 
Whigs and very largely out of a religious controversy. The 
Tones king, from his long life in France, was partial to 

Roman Catholicism, though he did not formally embrace that 
faith until at the moment of death. His brother James, the 
heir to the throne, became an avowed Roman Catholic, much 
to the disgust of many members of Parliament. . A bill was now 
brought forward to exclude Prince James from the succession, 
because of his conversion. Its supporters received the nick- 
name of Whigs, while those who opposed it were called Tories.^ 
The bill did not pass the House of Lords, but the two parties 
in Parliament continued to divide on other questions. They 
survive to-day as the Liberals and the Conservatives, and still 
dispute the government of England between them. 

James II lacked the attractive personality which had made 
his brother a popular ruler; moreover, he was an avowed Roman 
Reign of Catholic and a staunch believer in the divine right 

James II, of kings. During his three years' reign, James 
managed to make enemies of most of his Protestant 
subjects. He "suspended" the laws against Roman Catholics 
and appointed them to positions of authority and influence. 

1 Whig had originally been applied to rebelUous Presbyterians in Scotland; 
Tory had designated Roman CathoUc outlaws in Ireland, 

The Restoration and the ''Glorious Revolution" 393 

He also dismissed Parliament and supported himself with sub- 
sidies from the French king. FAt last a number of Whig and 
Tory leaders, representing both parties in Parliament, invited 
Wilham of Orange, stadholder or governor-general of Holland, 
to rescue England from Stuart absolutism.^ 

William landed in England with a smalTarmy and marched 
unopposed to London. The wretched king, deserted by his 

retainers and his soldiers, soon found himself . 

Accession of 
alone. He fled to France, where he Hved the re- William m 

mainder of his days as a pensioner at the French f?£j^^^' 

court. Parliament granted the throne conjointly 

to WilHam and Mary, Wilham to rule during his lifetime and 

Mary to have the succession, should she survive him. 

At the same time Parliament took care to safeguard its own 
authority and the Protestant religion by enacting the Bill of 
Rights, which has a place by the side of Magna The Bill of 
Carta and the Petition of Right among the great ^s^*s 
documents of EngHsh constitutional history. This act decreed 
that the sovereign must henceforth be a member of the Anglican 
Church. It forbade him to '' suspend " the operation of the laws, 
or to levy money or maintain a standing army except by con- 
sent of Parliament. It also declared that election of members 
of Parliament should be free; that they should enjoy freedom 
of speech and action within the two Houses; and that ex- 
cessive bail should not be required, or excessive fines imposed, 
or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Finally, it affirmed 
the right of subjects to petition the sovereign and ordered the 
holding of frequent Parhaments. These were not new prin- 
ciples of political liberty, but now the English people were 
strong enough to give them the binding form of laws. They 
reappear in the first ten amendments to the Constitution of 
the United States. 

Parliament also passed a Toleration Act, conceding to Dis- 
senters the right of pubUc worship, though not The Toiera- 
the right of holding any civil or mihtary ofl&ce. ^^^ ^^^ 
The Dissenters might now worship as they pleased, with- 

^ William, who was a Protestant, had married James's eldest daughter, Mary. 


Absolutism in England and France 

out fear of persecution. Unitarians and Roman Catholics, as 
well as Jews, were expressly excluded from the benefits of the act. 
The passage of this measure did much to remove religion from 
English politics as a vital issue. 

The Revolution of 1 688-1689 thus struck a final blow at ab- 
solutism and divine right in England. An English king be- 
The " Glori- Came henceforth the servant of Parhament, holding 
ous Revolu- office only on good behavior. An act of Parlia- 
^°° ment had made him and an act of Parliament 

might depose him. It is well to remember, however, that the 
revolution did not form a popular movement. It was a suc- 
cessful struggle for parHamentary supremacy on the part of the 
upper classes. England henceforth had a ''limited" or "con- 
stitutional" monarchy controlled by the aristocracy. 

144. England in the Seventeenth Century 

The population of England at the close of the seventeenth 
century exceeded five millions, of whom at least two-thirds 
Social lived in the country. Except for London, there 

England ^gj-g Q^ly four towns of more than ten thousand 

inhabitants. London counted half a million people within its 

Coach and Sedan Chair 

Title-page of a tract published in 1636. 

limits and had become the largest city in Europe. Town life 
still wore a medieval look, but the increase of wealth gradually 
introduced many new comforts and luxuries. Coal came into 
use instead of charcoal; tea, coffee, and chocolate competed 

England in the Seventeenth Century 395 

with wiiie, ale, and beer as beverages; the first newspapers ap- 
peared, generally in weekly editions; amusements multiplied; 
and passenger coaches began to ply between London and the 
provincial centers. The highways, however, were wretched and 
infested with robbers. The traveler found some recompense 
for the hardships of a journey in the country inns, famous for 
their plenty and good cheer. The transport of goods was chiefly 
by means of pack horses, because of the poor roads and the 
absence of canals. Postal arrangements also remained very 
primitive, and in remote districts letters were not delivered 
more than once a week. The difficulties of travel and communi- 
cation naturally made for isolation ; and country people, except 
the wealthy, rarely visited the metropolis. 

As the population of England increased, old industries de- 
veloped and new ones sprang up. The chief manufacture was 
that of wool, while that of silk flourished after Economic 
the influx of Huguenots which followed the revo- England 
cation of the Edict of Nantes.^ The absence of large textile 
mills made it necessary to carry on spinning and weaving in 
the homes of the operatives. Coal mines and iron mines, 
which in later times became so important a source of England's 
prosperity, were then little worked. Farming and the raising 
of sheep and cattle still remained the principal occupations. 
Agriculture, however, was retarded by the old system of com- 
mon tillage and open fields, just as manufacturing was fettered 
by the craft guilds. These survivals of the Middle Ages had 
not yet disappeared. 

Seventeenth-century England produced no very eminent 
painters or sculptors, though foreign artists, such as Rubens and 
Van Dyck, were welcomed there. Among archi- 
tects the most famous was Sir Christopher Wren, 
who did much to popularize the Renaissance style of building.^ 
A great fire which destroyed most of old London during the 
reign of Charles II gave Wren an opportunity to rebuild about 
fifty parish churches, as well as St. Paul's Cathedral. 

English literature in the seventeenth century covered many 

1 See page 408. 2 ggg p^ge 286. 


Absolutism in England and France 


Shakespeare and Bacon, the two chief hterary orna- 
ments of EUzabeth's reign, did some of their best 
work during the reign of James I. In 1611 ap- 
peared the Authorized Version of the Bible, sometimes called 
the King James Version because it was dedicated to that mon- 
arch. The simphcity, dignity, and 
eloquence of this translation have 
never been surpassed, and it still 
remains in ordinary use among 
Protestants throughout the Eng- 
hsh-speaking world. ^ The Puritan 
poet, John Milton, composed his 
epic of Paradise Lost during the 
reign of Charles II. About the 
same time another Puritan, John 
Bunyan, wrote the immortal Pil- 
grim's Progress, a book which gives 
an equal though different pleasure 
to children and adults, to the 
But these are only a few of the 

John Milton 

A portrait of the poet at the age of 


ignorant and the learned. 

eminent poets and prose writers of the age. 

145. Absolutism of Louis XIV, 1661-1715 

France in the seventeenth century furnished the best ex- 
ample of an absolute monarchy supported by pretensions to 
Cardinal divine right. French absolutism owed most of 

RicheUeu ^\\ to Cardinal Richeheu, the chief minister of 
Louis XIII. Though a man of poor physique and in weak 
health, he possessed such strength of will, together with so 
thorough an understanding of pohtics, that he was able to 
dominate the king and through the king to govern France for 
eighteen years (1624-1642). 

Policies of Richelieu's foreign policy — to aggrandize France 

Richelieu ^t the expense of the Hapsburgs — led to his in- 
tervention on the side of the Protestants at a decisive 

1 Many important corrections were embodied in the Revised Version, pubUshed 
in 1 881-1885 by a committee of EngUsh scholars. 

Absolutism of Louis XIV 



moment in the Thirty Years' War.^ His domestic poHcy — to 
make the French king supreme — was equally successful. 
Though the nobles were still rich and influential, Richelieu beat 
down their opposition by forbidding the practice of dueling, 
that last remnant of private warfare, by ordering many castles 
to be blown up with gun- 
powder, and by bringing 
rebellious dukes and counts 
to the scaffold. The nobles 
henceforth were no longer 
feudal lords but only 

Richelieu died in 1642, 
and the next year Louis 
XIII, the mas- 
ter whom he 
had served so faithfully, 
also passed away. The 
new ruler, Louis XIV, was 
only a child, and the man- 
agement of affairs for a 
second period of eighteen 
years passed into the hands of Cardinal Mazarin. He was 
an Italian by birth, but he became a naturalized French- 
man and carried out Richelieu's policies. Mazarin continued 
the war against the Hapsburgs, upon which Richelieu had en- 
tered, and brought it to a satisfactory conclusion. The Peace 
of Westphalia 2 was Mazarin's greatest triumph. He also crushed 
a formidable uprising against the Crown, on the part of discon- 
tented nobles. Having achieved all this, the cardinal could 
truly say that "if his language was not French, his heart was." 
His death in 1661 found the royal authority more firmly es- 
tablished than ever before. 

Louis XIV, who now in his twenty-third year Louis XIV, 
took up the reins of government, ranks among the **^® ™*° 
ablest of French monarchs. He was a man of handsome 

Cardinal Mazarin 

A miniature by Petitot, in the South Kensington 
Museum, London. 

^ See pages 369 and 371. 

2 See page 372. 


Absolutism in England and France 

Louis XIV 

A portrait by J. Gale, in the Sutherland Collection, London. 

presence, slightly below the middle height, with a prominent nose 
and abundant hair, which he allowed to fall over his shoulders. 
In manner he was dignified, reserved, courteous, and as majestic, 
it is said, in his dressing-gown as in his robes of state. A con- 
temporary wrote that he would have been every inch a king, 
''even if he had been born under the roof of a beggar." Louis 

Absolutism of Louis XIV 399 

possessed much natural intelligence, a retentive memory, and 
gr-eat capacity for work. It must be added, however, that his 
general education had been neglected, and that throughout his 
life he remained ignorant and superstitious. Vanity formed a 
striking trait in the character of Louis. He accepted the most 
fulsome compliments and delighted to be known as the "Grand 
Monarch" and the "Sun-king." 

Louis gathered around him a magnificent court at Versailles, 
near Paris. Here a whole royal city, with palaces, parks, 
groves, and fountains, sprang into being at his qq^^^ ^f 
order. Many French nobles now spent little time Louis XIV 
on their country estates; they preferred to remain ^ ^^^^^ ®^ 
at Versailles in attendance on the king, to whose favor they owed 
offices, pensions, and honors. The king's countenance, it was 
said, is the courtier's supreme felicity; "he passes his life look- 
ing on it and within sight of it." 

The famous saying, "I am the State," ^ though not uttered 
by Louis, accurately expressed his conviction that in him were 
embodied the power and greatness of France. Louis XIV, 
Few monarchs have tried harder to justify their *^® ^^s 
despotic rule. He was fond of gayety and sport, but he never 
permitted himself to be turned away from the punctual dis- 
charge of his royal duties. Until the close of his reign — one 
of the longest in the annals of Europe — Louis devoted from 
five to nine hours a day to what he called the " trade of a king." 

Conditions in France made possible the absolutism of Louis. 
Richelieu and Mazarin had labored with great success to 
strengthen the Crown at the expense of the nobles Absolutism 
and the commons. The nation had no Parliament ^^ France 
to represent it and voice its demands, for the Estates-General 
had not been summoned since 16 14. It did not meet again till 
1789, just before the outbreak of the French Revolution. In 
France there was no Magna Carta to protect the liberties of the 
people by limiting the right of a ruler to impose taxes at will. 
The French, furthermore, lacked independent law courts which 
could interfere with the king's power of exiling, imprisoning, 
1 "L'Etai, c'est moi." 

400 Absolutism in England and France 

1 The view shows the rear of the palace, a part of the gardens, and the grand stairway 
leading to the Fountain of Latona. The palace now forms a magnificent picture gallery 
of French historical scenes and personages, while the park, with its many fine fountains, 
is a place of holiday resort for Parisians. It is estimated that Louis XIV spent one hundred 
million dollars on the buildings and grounds of Versailles. 

The Wars of Louis XIV 401 

or executing his subjects. Absolute monarchy thus became so 
firmly rooted in France that a revolution was necessary to 
overthrow it. 

146. The Wars of Louis XIV 

How unwise it may be to concentrate all authority in the hands 

of one man is shown by the melancholy record of the wars of 

Louis XIV. To make France powerful and crain . 

. . Ambitious 

fame for himself, Louis plunged his country into designs 

a series of struggles from which it emerged com- y,^°"^^ 

pletely exhausted. He dreamed of dominating all 

western Europe, but his aggressions provoked against him a 

constantly increasing number of allies, who in the end proved to 

be too strong even for the king's able generals and fine armies. 

Louis himself lacked military talent and did not take a prom- 
inent part in any campaign. He was served, however, by excel- 
lent commanders. Vauban, an accomplished engi- French 
neer, especially developed siege-craft. It was said militarism 
of Vauban that he never besieged a fortress without taking it 
and never lost one which he defended. Louvois, the war min- 
ister of the king, recruited, equipped, and provisioned larger 
bodies of troops than ever before had appeared on European 
battle-fields. It was Louvois who introduced the use of distinc- 
tive uniforms for soldiers and the custom of marching in step. 
He also established field hospitals and ambulances and placed 
camp life on a sanitary basis. The labors of these men gave 
Louis the best standing army of the age. 

Of the four great wars which filled a large part of Louis's 
reign, all but the last were designed to extend the dominions of 
France on the east and northeast as far as the The Rhine 
Rhine. That river in ancient times had separated boundary 
Gaul and Germany, and Louis, as well as Richelieu and Mazarin 
before him, regarded it as a "natural boundary" of France. 
Some expansion in this direction had already been made by 
the Peace of Westphalia, when France gained much of Alsace, 
as well as certain bishoprics in Lorraine.^ A treaty which 

1 See page 372. 

402 Absolutism in England and France 

Amsterdam 4—^ ^ 

Acquisitions of Louis XIV 
Acquisitions of Louis XV 

Scale of Miles 

100 150 


Acquisitions of Louis XIV and Louis XV 

Mazarin negotiated with Spain in 1659 also gave to France 
possessions in Artois and Flanders. Louis thus had a good 
basis for further advance toward the Rhine. 

The French king began his aggressions by an effort to annex 
the Belgian or Spanish Netherlands, which then belonged to 
Three wars Spain. A triple alliance of Holland, England, 
and Sweden forced him to relinquish all his con- 
quests, except some territory in Flanders (1668). 
Louis blamed the Dutch for his setback and determined to 
punish them. Moreover, the Dutch represented everything to 
which he was opposed, for Holland was a republic,- the keen rival 

for the 

The Wars of Louis XIV 403 

of France in trade, and Protestant in religion. By skillful 
diplomacy he persuaded England and Sweden to stand aloof, 
while his armies entered Holland and drew near to Amsterdam. 
At this critical moment William, prince of Orange,^ became 
the Dutch leader. He was a descendant of that William the 
Silent, who, a century before, had saved the Dutch out of the 
hands of Spain. By William's orders the Dutch cut the dikes 
and interposed a watery barrier to further advance by the 
French. William then formed another Continental coalition, 
which carried on the war till Louis signified his desire for peace. 
The Dutch did not lose a foot of territory, but Spain was obliged 
to cede to France the important province of Franche Comte 
(1678). A few years later Louis sought additional territory 
in the Rhinelands, but again an alliance of Spain, Holland, 
England, and the Holy Roman Empire compelled him to sue 
for terms (1697).^ 

The treaty of peace concluding the third war for the Rhine 
confirmed the French king in the possession of Strassburg, to- 
gether with other cities and districts of Alsace Alsace and 
which he had previously annexed. Alsace was Lorraine 
now completely joined to France, except for some territories 
of small extent which were acquired about a century later. 
The Alsatians, though mainly of Teutonic extraction, in process 
of time considered themselves French and lost all desire for 
union with any of the German states. The greater part of 
Lorraine was not added to France until 1766, during the reign 
of Louis's successor. The Lorrainers, likewise, became thor- 
oughly French in feeling. 

The European balance of power had thus far been preserved, 
but it was now threatened in another direction. The king of 
Spain lay dying, and as he was without children The Spanish 
or brothers to succeed him, all Europe wondered succession 
what would be the fate of his vast possessions in Europe and 
America. Louis had married one of his sisters, and the Holy 
Roman Emperor another, so both the Bourbons and the Aus- 

^ Subsequently William III of England. See page 393. 

2 In America this third war was known as "King William's War." 

404 Absolutism in England and France 

trian Hapsburgs could put forth claims to the Spanish throne. 
When the king died, it was found that he had left his entire 
dominions to one of Louis's grandsons, in the hope that the 
French might be strong enough to keep them undivided. 
Though Louis knew that acceptance of the inheritance would 
involve a war with Austria and probably with England, whose 

ruler, William III, was Louis's 
old foe, ambition triumphed over 
fear and the desire for glory 
over consideration for the welfare 
of France. Louis proudly pre- 
sented his grandson to the court 
at Versailles, saying, "Gentle- 
men, behold the king of Spain." 
In the War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession France and Spain faced 

, , the Grand Alliance, 
War of the ,.,.,,, ^ ' 

Spanish which mcluded Eng- 

?l'«%^'?i'' land, Holland, Aus- 

1702-1713 ' ' 

tria, several of the 
German states, and Portugal. 
Europe had never known a war 
that concerned so many coun- 
tries and peoples. William III 
died shortly after the outbreak 
of hostihties, leaving the con- 
tinuance of the contest as a 
'legacy to his sister-in-law. Queen Anne.^ England supplied the 
coalition with funds, a fleet, and also with the ablest com- 
mander of the age, the duke of Marlborough. In Eugene, 
prince of Savoy, the Allies had another skillful and daring 
general. Their great victory at Blenheim ^ in 1 704 was the 
first of a series of successes which finally drove the French out 
of Germany and Italy and opened the road to Paris. But 
dissensions among the Allies and the heroic resistance of 

1 In America the war was known as "Queen Anne's War." 
* See Southey's poem After Blenheim. 


A miniature in the possession of the 
Duke of Buccleugh. 

5' o- »^ 

CL "-» cr 

p o 

f^ o ►^ 

o- > O 

p ;:^ ? 

(D re jTj 

P p O 

4o6 Absolutism in England and France 

France and Spain enabled Louis to hold the enemy at bay, 
until the exhaustion of both sides led to the conclusion of the 
Peace of Utrecht. 

This peace ranks with that of WestphaHa among the most 
important diplomatic arrangements of .modern times. First, 
Peace of Louis's grandson was recognized as king of Spain 

Utrecht, and her colonies, on condition that the Spanish 


and French crowns should never be united. Since 
this time Bourbon sovereigns have continued to rule in Spain. 
Next, the Austrian Hapsburgs gained most of the Spanish 
dominions in Italy, as well as the Belgian or Spanish Netherlands 
(henceforth for a century called the Austrian Netherlands). 
Finally, England obtained from France certain possessions in 
North America,^ and from Spain the island of Minorca and the 
rock of Gibraltar, commanding the narrow entrance to the 

Two of the smaller members of the Grand Alliance likewise 
profited by the Peace of Utrecht. The right of the elector of 
Brandenburg- Brandenburg to enjoy the title of king of Prussia 
Prussia and was acknowledged. This formed an important 
*^°^ step in the fortunes of the Hohenzollern dynasty. 

The duchy of Savoy also became a kingdom and received the 
island of Sicily (shortly afterwards exchanged for Sardinia). 
The house of Savoy in the nineteenth century provided Italy 
with its present reigning family. 

France lost far less by the war than at one time seemed prob- 
able. Louis gave up his dream of dominating Europe, but he 
Position of kept all the Continental acquisitions made earlier in 
France j^jg ^eign. And yet the price of the king's warlike 

policy had been a heavy one. France paid it in the shape of 
famine and pestilence, excessive taxes, heavy debts, and the 
impoverishment of the people. Louis, now a very old man, 
survived the PeacQ of Utrecht only two years. As he lay dying, 
he turned to his httle heir ^ and said, "Try to keep peace with 

^ See page 468. 

^ His great-grandson, then a child of five years. The reign of Louis XV covered 
the period 171 5-1 774. 

France under the ''Grand Monarch" 407 

your neighbors. I have been too fond of war; do not imitate 
me in that, nor in my too great expenditure." These words 
showed an appreciation of the errors which robbed his long 
•reign of much of its glory. 

147. France under the ** Grand Monarch " 

No absolute ruler, however conscientious and painstaking, 

can shoulder the entire burden of government. Louis XIV- 

necessarily had to rely very much on his ministers, _ ,, 

of whom Colbert was the most eminent. Colbert 

gave France the best administration it had ever known. His 
reforming hand was especially felt in the finances. He made 
many improvements in the methods of tax-collection and turned 
the annual deficit in the revenues into a surplus. One of his 
innovations, now adopted by all European states, was the 
budget system. Expenditures had previously been made at 
random, whether the treasury was full or empty. Colbert drew 
up careful estimates, one year in advance, of the probable re- 
ceipts and expenses, so that outlay should never exceed income. 

Colbert realized that the chief object of a minister of finance 
should be the increase of the national wealth. Hence he tried 
in every way to foster manufactures and com- Econoinic 
merce. Among other measures, Colbert placed measures of 
hea\y duties on the importation of foreign products, ° ^^* 
as a means of protecting the ''infant industries" of France. 
This was the beginning of the protective system, since followed 
by many European countries and from Europe introduced into 
America. Colbert regarded protectionism as only a temporary 
device, however, and spoke of tariffs as crutches by the help of 
which manufacturers might learn to walk and then throw them 

Colbert shared the erroneous Views of many economists of 
his age in supposing that the wealth of a country is measured 
by the amount of gold and silver which it possesses, colbert and 
He wished, therefore, to provide the French with colonial ex- 
colonies, where they could obtain the products p^^*^^ 
which they had previously been obliged to purchase from the 


Absolutism in England and P>ance 

Spaniards, Dutch, and English. At this time many islands in 

the West Indies were acquired, Canada was developed, and 

Louisiana, the vast territory drained by the Mississippi, was 

opened up to settlement. France thus became one of the lead-- 

ing colonial powers of Europe. 

As long as Colbert lived, he kept on good terms with the 

Huguenots, who formed such useful and industrious subjects. 

_ . Louis, however, had no love for the Huguenots, 

Revocation , ' 11, • 1 , V^ , 

of the Edict whom he regarded as heretics, and whose Calvm- 

?L'^^^*^^* istic principles, he knew, endowed them with 


scant respect for absolute monarchy. Accordingly, 
the king revoked the Edict of Nantes,^ after the French for 

almost a cen- 
tury had en- 
joyed rehgious 
toleration. The 
Huguenots were 
denied freedom 
of worship and 
were also de- 
prived of their 
rights as citi- 
zens. They con- 
tinued to be an 
outlawed and 
persecuted sect until shortly before the French Revolution. 

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes resulted in a con- 
siderable emigration of Huguenots from France. What was a 
Emigration ^°^^ ^^ ^^^^ country was a gain to England and 
Holland, where they introduced their arts and 
trades. Prussia, also, profited by the emigration 
of the Huguenots. Many of them went to Berlin, and that 
capital owed the beginning of its importance to its Huguenot 
population. Louis by his bigotry thus strengthened the chief 
Protestant foes of France. 

Louis was a generous patron of art. One of his architects, 

^ See page 368. 

Medal of Louis XIV 

Commemorates the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The 
obverse bears a representation of " Louis the Great, the Most Chris- 
tian King," the reverse contains a legend meaning " Heresy Ex- 

of the 

France under the "Grand Monarch" 


Louis XIV 

Mansard, invented the mansard roof, which has been largely 
used in France and other European countries. Art under 
This architectural device makes it possible to ^°^^ ^^V 
provide extra rooms at a small expense, without adding an 
additional story to the building. Among the monuments of 
Louis's reign are the Hotel des 
Invalides,^ now the tomb of 
Napoleon, additions to the 
Louvre,^ and the huge palace 
of Versailles. Louis also 
founded the Gobelins manu- 
factory, so celebrated for fine 
carpets, furniture, and metal 

The long list of French au- 
thors who flourished at this time 
includes Moliere, Literature 
the greatest of under 
French dramatists, 
La Fontaine, whose fables are 
still popular, Perrault, now 
remembered for his fairy tales, 
and Madame de Sevigne, whose 
letters are regarded as models 
of French prose. Probably the 
most tamous work composed at this time is the Memoirs of 
Saint-Simon. It presents an intimate and not very flattering 
picture of the king and his court. 

Louis and his ministers believed that the government should 
encourage research and the diffusion of knowledge. Richelieu' 
founded and Colbert fostered the French Academy. Learning 
Its forty members, sometimes called the ''Im- 
mortals," are chosen for their eminent contribu- 
tions to language and literature. The great dictionary of the 
French language, on which they have labored for more than 
two centuries, is still unfinished. The academy now forms a 

^ See page 286, note i. 2 See page 290. 


A bust by J. A. Houdon in the 
Theatre Franfaise, Paris. 

Louis XIV 

4IO Absolutism in England and France 

section of the Institute of France. The patronage of Colbert 
also did much to enrich the National Library at Paris, which 
contains the largest collection of books in the world. 

The brilUant reign of Louis XIV cast its spell upon the rest 
of Europe. Other sovereigns looked to him as the model of 
The age of what a king should be, and set themselves to 
Louis XIV imitate the splendor of his court. During this 
period the French language, manners, dress, art, hterature, and 
science became the accepted standards of good society in all 
civilized lands. France still retains in large measure the 
preeminent position which she secured under the ''Grand 


I. Give dates for (a) Peace of Utrecht, (b) execution of Charles I, (c) the 
" Glorious Revolution," and (d) revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 2. For what 
were the following men notable: Pym; Duke of Marlborough; Louvois; Hampden; 
Mazarin; William III; and Colbert? 3. Explain and illustrate the following 
terms: (a) budget system; {b) absolutism; (c) writ of habeas corpus; {d) mili- 
tarism; and (e) "ship-money." 4. Compare the theory of the divine right of 
kings with the medieval theory of the papal supremacy. 5. Do any European 
monarchs still claim to rule by divine right? 6. What is the essential distinction 
between a "limited" or "constitutional" monarchy and an "absolute" or "auto- 
cratic" monarchy? 7. Explain: "Rump Parliament"; "Pride's Purge"; the 
"New Model"; the "Ironsides"; "Cavalier"; and "Roundhead." 8. What 
circumstances gave rise to (a) the Petition of Right; (b) the Instrument of Govern- 
ment; (c) the Habeas Corpus Act; and (J) the Bill of Rights? 9. Why were the 
reformers within the Church of England called "Puritans"? 10. Contrast the 
Commonwealth as a national republic with the medieval Italian cities, the Swiss 
Confederation, and the United Netherlands. 11. Under what circumstances does 
the Constitution of the United States provide for the suspension of the writ of 
habeas corpus? 12. Why has the Bill of Rights been called the "third great charter 
of English liberty"? 13. Show that the Revolution of i688-8g was a "preserv- 
ing" and not a "destroying" revolution. 14. By reference to the map on page 402 
show how far the "natural boundaries" of France were attained during the reign 
of Louis XIV. 15. How did the condition of Germany after the Thirty Years' 
War facilitate the efforts of Louis XIV to extend the French frontiers to the Rhine? 
16. Read Southey's poem After Blenheim. Does it rightly appreciate the sig- 
nificance of this battle in European history? 17. Show that in the Peace of 
Utrecht nearly all the contestants profited at the expense of Spain. 18. "The 
age of Louis XIV in France is worthy to stand by the side of the age of Pericles in 
Greece and of Augustus in Italy." Does this statement appear to be justified? 

CHAPTER $£yil 


148. The Eighteenth Century in Politics 

The death of Louis XIV, shortly after the Peace of Utrecht, 
brought one historical epoch to a close and began another. 
Seventy-four years were to intervene before the Limits of 
meeting of the Estates-General ushered in the *^® century 
French Revolution, which has so profoundly affected all modern 
Europe to the present day. These seventy-four years from 
1 71 5 to 1789 really constitute the eighteenth century, a period 
preparatory to the revolutionary period by which it was suc- 

A cardinal principle of eighteenth-century diplomacy was that 
of the balance of power. After the Peace of Westphalia states- 
men generally agreed that the various European ^j^^ ^^_ 
nations, so unlike in size, population, and resources, ance of 
ought to form a sort of federal community in P°^®^ 
which the security of all was ensured. If any nation became so 
strong as to overshadow the others, then they must combine 
against it and treat it as a common enemy. Louis XIV, who 
ignored this principle, had repeatedly to face the coaHtions of 
his weaker neighbors. 

But the balance of power too often remained only an ideal, 
in an age when diplomacy was corrupt and international im- 
morality was universal. Rulers schemed and xerritorial 
plotted and fought bloody wars solely to enlarge aggrandize- 
their dominions. From now on territorial ag- ^^^ 
grandizement replaced religious dissension as the main cause of 
European strife. 

The interests of dynasties, rather than those of peoples, were 
chiefly considered in the diplomacy of the eighteenth century. 

412 The European Balance of Power 

Monarchs paid little heed to racial limits or national bound- 
Dynastic aries, but cut and pared countries "as if they 
interests ^^^e Dutch cheeses." The idea — now so preva- 
lent — that each people should determine its own destiny was 
then unrecognized. 

The special interest of this age in political history lies in the 
emergence of new European states. Three great nations of 
jjg^ the seventeenth century, namely, Spain, Sweden, 

European and Holland, retired to the background and in 

their place arose the empire of Russia and the 
kingdom of Prussia. Together with France, Great Britain, and 
Austria, they formed the leading powers. 

149. Rise of Russia 

The influence of geographical conditions is clearly seen in 
Russian history. European Russia forms an immense, un- 
Geography broken plain, threaded by numerous rivers which 
in Russian facilitate movement into every part of the country. 

^ °^ While western Europe, with its mountain ranges 

and deep inlets of the sea, tended to divide into many separate 
states, Russia just as naturally became a single state. 

In historic times Goths, Huns, Avars, Finns, Bulgarians, 
Northmen, and Mongols occupied Russian territory, but the 
The Russian bulk of the population at the end of the medieval 
people period belonged to the Slavic branch of the Indo- 

European race. The Russians, therefore, were closely related 
in both language and blood to the Bohemians and Poles of 
central Europe and to the Serbians of the Balkan peninsula.^ 

Yet the Russians at the opening of modern times seemed to 
be rather an Asiatic than a European people. Three hundred 
Backward- years of Mongol rule had isolated them from their 
ness of the Slavic neighbors and had interrupted the stream 
ussians ^£ civilizing influences which in earlier days flowed 

into Russia from Scandinavia and from the Byzantine Empire. 
After the expulsion of the Mongols, Russia continued to be 

^ For Russian history in the Middle Ages see pages loo and 185. 

Rise of Russia 


shut out from the Baltic by the Swedes and Poles and from the 
Black Sea by the Turks. The lack of seaports discouraged 
foreign commerce, through which European ideas and customs 


to the end of the 

Scale of Miles 

The Grand Principality of 
I I Moscow, or Muscovy, 

' ' inH62A.D. 

I I Acquisitions 1462-1C89 -^~lk~-J 

j 1 Acquisitions under Peter/' 

I 1 the Great, 1G89-1725 A.Di— 

□Acquisitions under Peter's 
Successors, 1720-1790 A.D. 



might have entered Russia, while at the same time the nature 
of the country made agriculture rather than industry the prin- 
cipal occupation. Most of the Russians were ignorant, super- 
stitious peasants, who led secluded lives in small farming villages 
scattered over the plains and throughout the forests. Even 
the inhabitants of the towns lacked the education and en- 
Ughtened manners of the western peoples, whose ways they 

414 The European Balance of Power 

disliked and whose religion, whether Protestantism or Catholi- 
cism, they condemned as heretical. Russia, in short, needed 
to be restored to Europe and Europe needed to be introduced 
to Russia. 

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Russians 
began to spread southward over the region watered by the 
The Dnieper, the Don, and the Volga. Many emigrants 

Ukraine settled in the border country called the Ukraine,^ 

which lay on both sides of the lower Dnieper. The Ukrainians 
(Little Russians) speak a Slavic dialect unlike that of the 
northern or Great Russians and nourish an independent spirit. 

The vanguard of the Ukrainian colonists was led by the 
mounted warriors known as Cossacks.^ Like the frontiersmen 
The of the American West, the Cossacks lived a wild and 

Cossacks independent hfe, now as herdsmen and farmers, 

now as hunters and fighters. They became in time subjects of 
the tsar, but still preserve a warlike organization, the tenure 
of land by military service (a form of feudalism), and the 
privilege of electing their own hetman, or supreme leader. 

The Russian plain, between the Ural Mountains and the 
Caspian Sea, merges insensibly into the steppes of northern 
. Asia. A steady stream of emigrants passed along 

this route into Siberia, much of which the Mongols 
had earlier subdued. Their power declined, however, and the 
Cossacks had little difficulty in capturing Sibir, the Mongol 
capital from which the whole region takes its name. Before 
the middle of the seventeenth century the Russians had pene- 
trated to the Arctic Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk. By the 
close of the century they occupied Kamchatka and faced the 
Pacific. The foundations of Russian supremacy were thus laid 
throughout northern Asia, a vast wilderness previously inhab- 
ited only by half-savage, heathen tribes. 

Over these dominions in Europe and Asia reigned the monarch 
who called himself the tsar and autocrat of all Russia. The 
family of tsars, descended from the Northman Ruric, became 

1 From the Russian krai, a frontier. 

2 From the Turkish word, kazak, an adventurer or freebooter. 

Russia under Peter the Great 415 

extinct at the close of the sixteenth century, and disputes over 

the succession led to civil wars and foreign in- Accession 

vasions. The Russians then proceeded to select °^ *^® 


a new tsar, and for this purpose a general assem- dynasty, 
bly of nobles and delegates from the towns met ^®^^ 
at Moscow. Their choice fell upon one of their own number, 
Michael Romanov by name, whose family was related to the 
old royal line. He proved to be an excellent ruler in troublous 
times. His grandson was the celebrated Peter the Great. 

150i Russia under Peter the Great, 1689-1725 

Peter became sole ruler of Russia when only seventeen years 
of age. His character almost defies analysis. An English 
contemporary, who knew him well, described him 
as "a man of a very hot temper, soon inflamed, 
and very brutal in his passion." Deeds of fiendish cruelty were 
congenial to him. After a mutiny of his bodyguard he edified 
the court by himself slicing off the heads of the culprits. In 
order to quell opposition in his family, he had his wife whipped 
by the knout and ordered his own son to be tortured and ex- 
ecuted. He was coarse, gluttonous, and utterly without 
personal dignity. The companions of his youth were profligates; 
his banquets were orgies of dissipation. Yet Peter could be 
often frank and good-humored, and to his friends he was as 
loyal as he was treacherous to his foes. At heart, too, he was 
deeply religious, for he believed himself to be an instrument for 
good in the hands of God. Whatever his weaknesses, few men 
have done more than Peter to change the course of history, and 
few have better deserved the appellation of "the Great." 

Peter grew up wild and undisciplined, and he had to educate 
himself. The practical bent of his mind disclosed itself in the 
interest he took in mechanics, ship-building, Peter's 
siege-craft, and military drill. Association with education 
foreigners at Moscow gave him some knowledge of European 
arts and sciences and first suggested to him the need of" intro- 
ducing western culture into Russia. 


The European Balance of Power 

Soon after becoming tsar Peter sent fifty young Russians of 
the best families to England, Holland, and Venice to absorb 
Peter in ^^^ ^^^^ could of European ideas. Afterwards he 

western came himself, traveling incognito as "Peter Mi- 

^°^® khailov." He spent two years abroad, particularly 

in Holland and England, where he studied ship-building and 
navigation. He also collected miners, mechanics, engineers, 

architects, and experts of 
every sort for the roads 
and bridges, the ships and 
palaces, the schools and 
hospitals which were to 
arise in Russia. 

Many of Peter's re- 
forms were intended to 
Europeaniza- introduce the 
tion of customs of 

Russia , T-' 

western Eu- 
rope into Russia. The 
long Asiatic robes of Rus- 
sian nobles had to give 
way to short German 
jackets and hose. Long 
Painted bcards, which the people 
considered sacred, had to 
be shaved, or else a tax paid for the privilege of wearing one. 
Women, previously kept in seclusion, were permitted to appear 
in public without veils and to mingle at dances and entertain- 
ments with men. A Russian order of chivalry — that of St. 
Andrew — was founded. The Bible was translated into the ver- 
nacular and sold at popular prices. Peter adopted the "Julian 
calendar," in place of the old Russian calendar, which began 
the year on the first of September, supposed to be the date of 
the creation. He also improved the Russian alphabet by omit- 
ting some of its cumbersome letters and by simplifying others. 
Such innovations were accepted only by the upper classes. 
The peasants clung tenaciously to their old ways and remained 

Peter The Great 

A portrait of the tsar in Russian dress, 
in England in 1698. 

Russia under Peter the Great 417 

little affected by the sudden inrush of European ideas and 

Peter found in Russia no regular army; he organized one 
after the German fashion. The soldiers (except the Cossacks) 
were uniformed and armed like European troops. Rgcon- 
He found no fleet; he built one, modeled upon stmction of 
that of Holland. He opened mines, cut qanals, "^^^* 
laid out roads, introduced sheep breeding, and fostered by 
protective tariffs the growth of silk and woolen manufactures. 
He instituted a police system and a postal service. He estab- 
Hshed schools of medicine, engineering, and navigation, as well 
as those of lower grade. He also framed a code of laws based 
upon the legal systems of western Europe. 

The tsar's reforming measures encountered much opposition 
on the part of the clergy. He endeavored, therefore, to render 
them harmless by making the Russian Church Peter an 
entirely a state institution. All ecclesiastical autocrat 
authority was vested in the Holy Synod, whose members were 
chosen by himself. The head of the Russian state thus became, 
in effect, the head of the Russian Church as well. Like the 
clergy, the old nobility had opposed Peter's innovations. He 
consequently transformed it into an aristocracy of office- 
holders whose rank depended, not upon their birth or wealth, 
but upon their service to the tsar. Any family which for two 
generations had not taken part in the government ceased to 
be noble. In place of an ancient assembly (Duma) of nobles, 
Peter instituted a Council of State, directly responsible to him- 
self. Peter in these ways established an absolutism as un- 
limited as that of his contemporary Louis XIV. 

Very different views have been expressed as to the value of 
Peter's work. It is said, on the one side, that Russia could 
only be made over by such measures as he used; value of 
that the Russian people had to be dragged from Peter's 
their old paths and pushed on the broad road of ^°' 
progress. On the other side, it is argued that Peter's reforms 
were too sudden, too radical, and too httle suited to the Slavic 
national character. The upper classes acquired only a veneer 

41 8 The European Balance of Power 

of western civilization, and with it many vices. The nobles 
continued to be indolent, corrupt, and indifferent to the public 
welfare. The clergy became merely the tools of the tsar. 
The common people remained as ignorant and oppressed as 
ever and without any opportunity of self-government. What- 
ever may be the truth as to these two views, no one disputes 
the fact that in a single reign, by the action of one man, Russia 
began to pass from semi-barbarism to civilization. 

As the ancient capital, Moscow, formed a stronghold of con- 
servatism, Peter determined to build a new capital, less Asiatic 
St. Peters- in character and more susceptible to European 
burg, 1703 influence. The site chosen was an unhealthy 
swamp on the river Neva, not far from the Gulf of Finland. 
The laborers perished by thousands, but Peter cared little for 
human life and with resistless energy urged forward the work 
of draining the marshes and digging canals to carry away the 
stagnant waters. Russian traders were forced to settle in the 
city and all the great landowners were required to build mansions 
there. To this northern Venice Peter gave the German name 
of (St.) Petersburg.^ 

The remaking of Russia according to European models 
formed only a half of Peter's program. His foreign poHcy was 
Peter's equally ambitious. He realized that Russia needed 

foreign readier access to the sea than could be found 

^° ^^ through the Arctic port of Archangel. Peter 

made little headway against the Turks, who controlled the 
Black Sea, but twenty years of intermittent warfare with the 
Swedes enabled him to carry the western frontier of Russia to 
the Baltic. Russian history at this point connects closely with 
the history of Sweden. 

151. Sweden and the Career of Charles XII 

The Baltic has som'etimes been called a secondary Mediter- 
ranean. It resembles that sea in its narrow entrance, numerous 

^ In 1914, at the outset of the World War, the name was changed to the Slavic 
equivalent, Petrograd. In 191 8 the Bolsheviki government of Russia removed the 
capital back to Moscow. 

Sweden and the Career of Charles XII 419 

Scandinavia in the Seventeenth Century 

islands, and deeply indented shores. But the lands adjoining 

the Baltic are less fertile than those which surround „. ^ . 


the Mediterranean; it is of much smaller size; and importance 
many of its harbors are icebound during half the ^ ^^^ 
year. For these reasons the historic importance 
of the Baltic cannot compare with that of the Mediterranean, 
except in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when Sweden 
became a great power. 

The inhabitants of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, though 
one in blood and almost one in speech, have never coalesced 
into a single nation. The Union of Calmar, which ^^e three 
thev formed in i^gv, gave them a common ruler, Scandinavian 
^ • J 11- J.I ■. kingdoms 

but permitted each kmgdom to keep its own con- 
stitution and laws. Even this feeble confederation broke down 


The European Balance of Power 

of Sweden 

during the storms of the Reformation. It was finally dis- 
solved in 1524, and Sweden again became independent. 

The kings of Sweden were both patriotic and able, and under 

them the country, though thinly populated and poor in natural 

resources, rose to a leading place among European 

states. Finland had been a Swedish dependency 

since the twelfth century. Esthonia, on the 

southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, was conquered in the 

sixteenth century. Three other provinces, namely, Karelia, 

Ingria, and Livonia, were ac- 
quired by Gustavus Adolphus. 
His participation in the Thirty 
Years' War also secured for 
Sweden, at the Peace of West- 
phalia, western Pomerania and 
other possessions in the north of 
Germany. Sweden at this time 
controlled all the islands and 
nearly all the coast of the Baltic. 
The mouths of the Neva, Dlina, 
Oder, Elbe, and Weser were 
under the Swedish flag. 

The greatness of Sweden cul- 
minated and then declined during 
the spectacular reign of Charles 

Charles XII 

Reign of 
Charles XII, 

^ XII. His youth was prophetic of his career. Indoors he 
read the exploits of Alexander the Great; out of doors he 
devoted himself to hunting and warhke exercises. 
He came to the throne a lad of only fifteen, but 
already daring, ambitious, and eager for military 
glory. Events soon thrust into his hand the sword he was never 
to relinquish. 

Sweden could not be mistress of the Baltic without provoking 
the jealousy of various neighboring states, in particular, Russia, 
Exploits of Poland, and Denmark. Shortly after the ac- 
Charies cession of Charles XII they formed a coahtion to 

seize and dismember the Swedish possessions. The boy-king, 

Sweden and the Career of Charles XII 421 

far from being dismayed by the odds against him, turned 
fiercely upon his enemies before they could unite. He invaded 
Denmark, appeared before the walls of Copenhagen, and com- 
pelled the terrified Danes to conclude a separate peace. He 
won almost fabulous victories in Russia and Poland, at one time 
overthrowing a Russian army five times as large as his own. 
The Poles, also badly beaten, were required to depose their 
ruler and accept the nominee of the Swedish king. 

But Charles was like a meteor which flashed across the 
European sky to disappear as quickly as it came. Rejecting 
all overtures for peace, he determined to march Battle of 
on Moscow and dictate terms to Peter the Great. Poltava, 
The Russian resistance stiffened as the Swedes ^^^^ 
approached the capital along much the same route which the 
French under Napoleon followed one hundred years later. 
Charles had to turn south to the Ukraine, where he hoped to 
raise the Cossacks against the tsar. Here, however, he was 
defeated by Peter in the decisive battle of Poltava. Charles 
afterwards returned to his kingdom, but soon perished in an 
obscure conflict in Norway. 

Exhausted Sweden had now no choice but to make terms 
with her foes. She lost nearly all her foreign possessions except 
Finland.^ The greater part of western Pomerania partition of 
went to Prussia, which thus secured valuable Swedish 
territory at the mouth of the Oder. Russia profited ^^"'^"""^''^^ 
even more, for she took the four Swedish provinces on the eastern 
shores of the Baltic. Much of this region had been colonized 
in the Middle Ages by the knights of the Teutonic Order.^ 
It was now to become a Slavic land. Here Peter the Great 
founded his new capital, thus realizing a long-cherished dream 
of opening a ''window" through which the Russian people 
might look into Europe. 

1 A small part of Finland, lying along the gulf of that name, was ceded to Russia. 
The rest of the country did not enter the Russian Empire until 1809. 

2 See page 222. 


The European Balance of Power 

152. Russia under Catheriae II, 1762-1796; 
the Decline of Turkey 

Shortly after the death of Peter the Great, at the early age of 
fifty- three, the male line of the Romanov dynasty became ex- 
Tsarina tinct. The succession now passed to women, who 
Catherine intermarried with German princes and thus in- 
creased enormously the German influence in Russia. It was a 
German princess, Catherine II, who completed Peter's work 
of remaking Russia into a European state. She, also, has been 
called "the Great," a title possibly merited by her achieve- 
ments, though not by her character. Catherine came to Russia 
as the wife of the heir-apparent. Once in her adopted country, 

she proceeded to make 
herself in all ways a 
Russian, learning the 
language and even con- 
forming, at least out- 
wardly, to the Orthodox 
Church. Her husband 
was a weakling, and 
Catherine managed to 
get rid of him after he 
had reigned only six 
months. She then 
mounted the throne and 
for thirty - four years 
ruled Russia with a firm 

The overthrow of 
Sweden left Poland and 
Turkey as the two coun- 
tries which still blocked the path of Russia toward the sea. 
Catherine's Catherine warred against them throughout her 
foreign reign. She took the lion's share of Poland, when 

^° ^^ that unfortunate kingdom, as we shall shortly 

learn, was divided among Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Cath- 

Catherine II 

A painting by Van Wilk. 

Russia under Catherine II 423 

erine also secured from the Turks an outlet for Russia on the 
Black Sea, though she never realized her dream of expelling 
them from European soil. 

When Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, their Eu- 
ropean dominions already included a considerable part of the 
Balkan peninsula. The two centuries following 
witnessed the steady advance of the Ottoman of the 
arms. What are now Bulgaria, Rumania, Serbia, Ottoman 
Bosnia, Albania, and Greece were incorporated 
within the Turkish Empire. Only tiny Montenegro, protected 
by mountain ramparts and a heroic soldiery, preserved its 
independence. Pressing northward, the Turks conquered part 
of Hungary and made the rest of that country a depend- 
ency. They overran the Crimea and bestowed it upon a 
Mongol khan as a tributary province. They annexed Egypt, 
Syria, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the coast of northern 
Africa. The Black Sea and the eastern Mediterranean became 
Turkish lakes. 

Two dramatic events showed that the Christian peoples of 
Europe could still oppose a successful resistance to the war- 
riors of the Crescent. The first was the battle of 
Lepanto (15 71), which checked the further ad- of the 

vance of Turkey in Mediterranean waters.^ The ottoman 

second was the defeat suffered by the Turks under 

the walls of Vienna (1683). They marched on the Austrian 

capital, two hundred thousand strong, laid siege to it, and 

would have taken it but for the timely appearance of a relieving 

army under the Polish king, John Sobieski. Poland at that time 

saved Austria from destruction and earned the praise of Christian 

Europe. A few years later all Hungary shook off the Turkish 


Catherine's two wars with the Turks mark a further stage in 

the decline of the Ottoman power. Russia secured Russian 

the Crimea, as well as the northern coast of the acquisitions 

Black Sea. Russian merchant ships were also ^^°°^ Turkey 

granted free access through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles 

1 See page 355- 

424 The European Balance of Power 

to the Mediterranean. Catherine in this way opened another 
''window" on Europe. 

Turkey lost more than territory. The Sultan gave to Russia 
the right to control a new Russian church in Constantinople, 
rpjjg thus recognizing the claim of the tsars to be the 

** Eastern natural protectors of Orthodox Christians through- 
on ^^^ j^.^ dominions. Russia from this time in- 

terfered constantly in Turkish affairs. The Sultan became the 
"sick man" of Europe, the disposition of whose possessions 
among his envious neighbors would henceforth form one of the 
thorny problems of European diplomacy. In a word, what is 
called the "Eastern Question" began., 

153. The Partitions of Poland, 1772-1795 

Our first glimpse of the Poles reveals them as a Slavic people, 
still wild and heathen, who occupied the region between the 
Poland in upper waters of the Oder and the Vistula. They 
the Middle began to adopt Roman Christianity toward the 
^^^ close of the tenth century, thus coming into con- 

tact with the more civilized nations of the West. Poland 
suffered terribly from the Mongol invasions, but, unlike Russia, 
never bowed to the yoke of the Great Khan. The Poles in the 
fourteenth century united with the Lithuanians, under a com- 
mon king. After the union the ancient Polish capital of Cracow 
gave way to Warsaw, novr one of the largest and finest cities of 
eastern Europe. 

Poland was geographically badly made. It formed an im- 
mense, monotonous plain, reaching from the Baltic almost to 
Geography the Black Sea. No natural barriers of rivers or 
of Poland mountains separated the country from Russia on 
the east and Austria and Prussia on the west. 

Poland was not racially compact. Besides Poles and Lithu- 
anians, the inhabitants included many Russians, a considerable 
Inhabitants number of Germans and Swedes, and a large 
of Poland Jewish population in the towns. The differences 
between them in race and language were accentuated by 

The Partitions of Poland 


The Partition of Poland 

A contemporary cartoon which represents Catherine II, Joseph II, and 
Frederick II pointing out on the map the boundaries of Poland as divided 
between them. Stanislaus II, the Polish king, is trying to keep his crown 
from falling off his head. 

religious dissensions. The Poles and most of the Lithuanians 
belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, the Germans and 
Swedes adhered to Lutheranism, while the Russians accepted 
the Greek Orthodox faith. 

Feudahsm, though almost extinct in western Europe, flour- 
ished in Poland. There were more than a million PoUsh 

426 The European Balance of Power 

nobles, mostly very poor, but each one owning a share of 
S cial ^^^ land. No large and wealthy middle class 

conditions existed. The peasants were miserable serfs over 
in Poland ^hom their lords had the power of life and death. 

The Polish monarchy was elective, not hereditary, an ar- 
rangement which converted the kings into mere puppets of 
P litical ^^^ noble electors. A Polish sovereign could 

conditions neither make war or peace, nor pass laws, nor 
in Poland ^^^^ ^^^^^ without the consent of the Polish 
national assembly. In this body, which was composed of 
representatives of the nobility, any member by his single 
adverse vote — '*I object" — could block proposed legisla- 
tion. The result was that the nobles seldom passed any 
measures except those which increased their own power and 
privileges. The wonder is, not that Poland collapsed, but that 
it survived so long under such a system of government. 

Russia, Austria, and Prussia had long interfered in the choice 
of Pohsh rulers. Now they began to annex PoHsh territory. 
First ^^ ^^^ ^^^ necessary to conquer the country, but 

partition, only to divide it up like a thing ownerless and dead. 

^^^^ In 1772 Catherine II joined with the Austrian 

empress, Maria Theresa, and the Prussian king, Frederick the 
Great, in the first partition of Poland. Russia took a strip 
east of the Diina and Dnieper rivers inhabited entirely by 
Russians. Austria took Galicia and neighboring lands occu- 
pied by Poles and Russians. Prussia received the coveted 
West Prussia, whose inhabitants were mainly Germans. Alto- 
gether Poland lost about one-third of its territory. 

The first partition opened the eyes of the Polish nobles to the 

ruin which threatened their country. Something like a patriotic 

spirit now developed, and efforts began to remove 
Second and f n . , ,. . -. i if 

third the glarmg absurdities of the old government. 

partitions, jj^g reform movement encountered the opposition 

of the neighboring sovereigns, who wished to keep 

Poland as weak as possible in order to have an excuse for further 

spoliation. The second partition (1793), in which only Russia 

and Prussia shared, cut deeply into Poland. Two years later 

The Partitions of Poland 


came the final dismemberment of the country among its three 
neighbors. The brave though futile resistance of the Polish 
patriots, led by Kosciuszko, who had fought under Washington 


Partitions of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795 a.d. 

in the Revolutionary War, threw a gleam of glory upon the last 
days of the expiring kingdom. 

The suggestion for the dismemberment of Poland came from 
Frederick the Great, who with his usual frankness admitted 
that it was an act of brigands. In Catherine II ResponsibU- 
he found an ally as unprincipled as himself. Maria ity for the 

1 • i_ 1. i_ partitions 

Theresa expressed horror at the crime, but her 

scruples were easily overcome. Indeed, her chief complaint 

428 The European Balance of Power 

was that the other two monarchs had taken the best shares of 
the plunder. 

This shameful violation of international law produced a 
''Polish Question." From the eighteenth century to the twen- 
The " Polish tieth century the Poles never ceased to be rest- 
Question" less ^^(^ unhappy under foreign overlords. They 
developed a new national consciousness after the loss of 
their freedom, and the severest measures of repression failed 
to break their spirit. One happy result of the World War 
has been the restoration of Poland as an independent 

154. Rise of Prussia 

Germany, at the end of the Thirty Years' War, was merely 
a geographical name for a collection of more than three hundred 
Prussia in States owing only a nominal allegiance to the 
German Holy Roman Empire. Yet the German people, 

^^ °^^ who had once formed such efficient organizations 

as the Teutonic Order and the Hanseatic League, were mani- 
festly destined for union under a single government. They 
could not always remain weak and defenseless, with their 
country the battle-ground of Europe. It was to be the work 
of Prussia to achieve the unification of the Fatherland. 

Prussia, the creator of modern Germany, was the creation 
of the HohenzoUerns.i Excepting Frederick the Great, no 
The Hohen- HohenzoUern deserves to be ranked as a genius; 
zoUerns ^^^ j^ would be hard to name another dynasty 

with so many able, ambitious, and unscrupulous rulers. The 
Hohenzollerns prided themselves on the fact that almost every 
member of the family enlarged the possessions received from his 
ancestors. They did this by purchase, by inheritance, by 
shrewd diplomacy, and, most of all, by hard fighting. 
Margraviate ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ obscurity hanging over the early 
of Brand en- history of the Hohenzollerns lifts early in the 

"'^' fifteenth century, when one of them received the 

mark of Brandenburg from the Holy Roman Emperor, as 

1 The name is derived from that of their castle on the heights of ZoUern in medie- 
val Swabia. Emperor WiUiam II was the twenty-fourth ruler of the line. 

Rise of Prussia 429 

compensation for various sums of money advanced to him. 
Brandenburg in earlier days had formed a German colony 
planted among the Slavs beyond the Elbe.^ With the mar- 
graviate went the electoral dignity, that is to say, the ruler of 
Brandenburg was one of the seven German princes who 
enjoyed the privilege of choosing the emperor.^ 

The Hohenzollerns as yet had no connection with Prussia. 
That country received its name from the Borussi, a heathen 
people who once occupied the Baltic coast east of jjuchy of 
the Vistula. Prussia was conquered in the thir- Prussia, 
teenth century by the knights of the Teutonic 
Order, who exterminated many of the original inhabitants and 
kept the rest in subjection by force and terrorism.^ The domi- 
nant class of Prussian nobles {Junkers) largely descended from 
these hard-riding, hard-fighting, fierce, cruel knights. They 
made Prussia a thoroughly German land in speech, customs, 
and religion. The decline of their order in the fifteenth century 
enabled the king of Poland to annex West Prussia. During 
the Reformation the Teutonic grand master, who was a near 
relative of the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg, dissolved the 
order and changed East Prussia into a secular duchy. His 
family became extinct early in the seventeenth century, and the 
duchy then passed to the elector of Brandenburg. 

The period between the close of the Thirty Years' War 
and the accession of Frederick the Great saw many additions 
to the HohenzoUern domains. The most impor- Kingdom of 
tant were eastern Pomerania, the acquisition of Prussia, 
which extended Brandenburg to the Baltic (1648); ^^^^ . 
certain districts along the lower Rhine (1666); and most of 
western Pomerania, which was secured after the defeat of 
Sweden (1720). The Hohenzollerns were now powerful enough 
to aspire to royal dignity. At the outbreak of the War of the 
Spanish Succession, the emperor, who was anxious to receive 
the elector's support, allowed him to assume the title of 
''king." Prussia, rather than Brandenburg, gave its name 
to the new kingdom, because the former was an independent 

■^ Seepage 19. ^ See page 218, note 2. ^ See pages 221-222, 

430 The European Balance of Power 

state, while the latter was a member of the Holy Roman 

Only a strong government could hold together the scattered 
possessions of the Hohenzollerns. Such a government they 
Prussian supplied. No rulers of the age exercised a more 

absolutism unlimited authority. They exacted passive obe- 
dience from their subjects; nicht raisonniren — "no reasoning 
here" — was their motto. According to the Hohenzollern 
principle a monarchy could not be too absolute, provided it 
was efficient. The king, working through his ministers, who 
were merely his clerks, must foster agriculture, industry, and 
commerce, promote education, and act as the guide of his 
people in matters of religion and morals. 

This type of Prussian ruler was well exemplified in the person 
of Frederick William, commonly called the Great Elector. 
The Great Unattractive in character, cunning and deceitful. 
Elector, he showed, nevertheless, a single-hearted de- 

votion to the interests of the state and spared 
neither himself nor others in its service. His long reign of 
forty-eight years marked out the paths which Prussia hence- 
forth followed. He suppressed such representative assemblies 
as existed in his dominions, replacing them by a central council 
of his ministers and provincial governors. A Hohenzollern 
could not tolerate free institutions; the will of the ruler must 
be supreme. In religious matters the Great Elector adopted 
a wise policy of toleration. Though Brandenburg was staunchly 
Protestant, he opened it to Jews from Austria and Huguenots 
from France and thus added many useful citizens to the popu- 
lation. His domestic measures were equally wise. By build- 
ing roads, draining marshes, cutting canals, and encouraging 
scientific farming, he did much to develop the resources of a 
country little favored by nature. Finally, he managed to form 
a standing army, supported by taxation and entirely dependent 
on himself. 

Prussian The Hohenzollerns, from the time of the Great 

militarism Elector, devoted themselves consistently to the 
upbuilding of their military forces. Prussia was to have 

Prussia under Frederick the Great 431 

an army sufficiently strong to defend a kingdom without 
natural boundaries and stretching in detached provinces all 
the way from the Rhine to the Niemen. The soldiers at first 
were volunteers, recruited in different parts of Germany, 
but it became necessary to fill up the gaps in the ranks by com- 
pulsory levies among the peasants. This marked the begin- 
ning of universal military service in Prussia. Carefully trained 
officers, appointed from the nobility and advanced only on 
merit, enforced an iron discipline. The soldiers, it was said, 
feared their commanders more than they did the enemy. 

The Great Elector's grandson, Frederick William I, may 
stand as the representative of Prussian militarism. His 
brother monarchs were greatly amused when he Frederick 
formed a company of giant grenadiers, whom he William I, 
treated as his pets and for whom he ransacked 
Europe. It was the king's sole indulgence; otherwise he 
lived with the utmost frugality and saved every possible penny 
for his army and his war chest. At the end of Frederick Wil- 
liam's reign, Prussia, with a population of only two and a half 
millions, could put eighty thousand men in the field, half as 
many as France and nearly as many as Austria. The king 
himself did almost no fighting. He was too fond of his well- 
drilled regiments, his ''blue children," as he called them, to 
risk them in battle. What could be done with them was shown 
by his son and successor, Frederick the Great. 

155. Prussia under Frederick the Great, 

As crown prince of Prussia Frederick had led a hard life. 
His stern and crabbed father wished to make him only a soldier 
and discouraged every pursuit which did not con- ^j^^ 
tribute to this end. But the young man developed youthful 
other tastes. He learned to play the flute, re- ^^®^®"*=^ 
ceived secret lessons in Latin, read French plays, and filled his 
mind with the speculations of French philosophers. WiUiam, 
seeing his son apparently absorbed in frivolity^ treated him 


The European Balance of Power 

with such harshness that he even tried to run away. The 
attempt failed, and the crown prince lay for a time under 
sentence of death as a deserter. His punishment took the 

form of an arduous, 
slavehke training for the 
duties of future kingship. 
"If he kicks or rears 
again," said his father, 
''he shall forfeit the suc- 
cession to the crown, and 
even Hfe itself." But 
Frederick did not kick 
or rear again. Hence- 
forth he labored so dili- 
gently as to win back 
the esteem of his father, 
who no longer feared to 
leave the throne to one 
unworthy of occupying it. 

^ ^ . , , Frederick 


personality became kmg 

»^^ at the age 

character ^ 

of twenty- 
eight. He was rather be- 
low the average height and inclined to stoutness, good look- 
ing, with the fair hair of North Germans and blue-gray eyes 
of extraordinary brilliancy. His character had been shaped 
by the stern experiences of his youth, which left him selfish 
and unsympathetic, cynical and crafty. He was not a man 
to inspire affection among his intimates, but with the mass 
of his subjects he was undeniably popular. Innumerable 
stories circulated in Prussia about the simpHcity, good humor, 
and devotion to duty of old "Father Fritz." 

In the same year, 1740, in which Frederick became king of 
Maria Prussia, the Hapsburg emperor died, leaving no 

Theresa g^j^ qj. brother to succeed him. The emperor, 

however, had secured the solemn promise of Prussia and the 

Frederick the Great 

A painting by H. Pataky. 

Prussia under Frederick the Great 


other European powers to recognize his daughter, Maria 
Theresa, as the sole heir of his undivided dominions. She 
was a strikingly handsome woman, deeply religious, and 
unusually able; in every respect a worthy antagonist to 
Frederick, who became her almost lifelong foe. 

The Hapsburg possessions, scattered over a great part of 

pT^ Hapsburg Lands 1526 A.D. 

|^:,iCM Acquisitions 1526-1789 A.D. 
Territory lost 1526-1789 
A.D. is shown by heavy 
black outline 

Hapsburg Possessions, 1526-1789 a.d. 

Europe and inhabited by Hungarians, Bohemians, Nether- 
landers, Italians, and Germans, seemed ready Acquisition 
to break up when Maria Theresa assumed the ®^ Silesia 
crown. Frederick chose as his share of the spoils the large 
and rich province of Silesia, whose population was mainly 
German. He suddenly led his army into Silesia and overran 
the country without much difficulty. It was sheer robbery, 
without a shadow of justification. As the king afterwards 
confessed in his Memoirs, "Ambition, interest, and the desire 
of making people talk about me carried the day; and I de- 
cided for war." 

Frederick's action precipitated a general European conflict. 


The European Balance of Power 

Outbreak of 
the Seven 
Years' War 

France, Spain, and Bavaria allied themselves with Prussia, 
in order to dismember the Hapsburg possessions, 
Austrian while Great Britain and Holland, anxious to pre- 

Succession, serve the balance of power, took the side of Austria. 
Things might have gone hard with Maria Theresa 
but for the courage and energy which she displayed and the 
support of her Hungarian subjects. She had to cede Silesia to 
Frederick, but lost no other territory. In 1748 all the warring 
countries agreed to a mutual restoration of conquests (with the 

exception of Silesia) and signed 
the Peace of ALx-la-Chapelle.^ 
Maria Theresa still hoped 
to recover her lost province. 
As most of the 
European sover- 
eigns were either 
afraid or jealous 
of Frederick, she found no 
great difficulty in forming a 
coalition against him. Russia, 
France, Sweden, and Saxony 
all entered it. Most of Europe 
thus united in arms to dis- 
member the small Prussian 

It happened, however, that 
at the head of this small state 
was a man of military genius, 
capable of infusing into others his own undaunted spirit and 
Course supported by subjects disciplined, patient, and 

of the war loyal. Furthermore, Great Britain in the Seven 
Years' War was an ally of Prussia. British gold subsidized 
the Prussian armies, and British troops, by fighting the French 
in Germany, India, and America, weakened Prussia's most 
dangerous enemy. Frederick conducted a purely defensive 
warfare, thrusting now here and now there against his slower- 

^ For the War of the Austrian Succession outside of Europe, see pages 447 and 469. 

Maria Theresa 



.-" 1 





n II 


- ( ii 

Constitutional Monarchy in Great Britain 435 

•moving adversaries, who never learned to act in concert and 
exert their full force simultaneously. Even so, the struggle 
was desperately unequal. The Russians occupied East 
Prussia, penetrated Brandenburg, and even captured 
Berlin. Faced by the gradual wearing-down of his armies, 
an empty treasury, and an impoverished country, Frederick 
more than once meditated suicide. What saved him was the 
accession of a new tsar. This ruler happened to be a warm 
admirer of the Prussian king and at once withdrew from the 
war. Maria Theresa, deprived of her eastern ally, now had 
to come to terms and leave Frederick in secure possession of 
Silesia. Soon afterwards the Peace of Paris between France 
and Great Britain brought the Seven Years' War to an end 


This most bloody contest, which cost the lives of nearly a 
million men, seemed to settle little or nothing in Europe except 
the Silesian question. Yet the Seven Years' issue of 
War really marks an epoch in European history. *^® ^" 
The young Prussian kingdom appeared henceforth as one of the 
great powers of the Continent and as the only rival in Ger- 
many of the old Hapsburg monarchy. From this time it was 
inevitable that Prussia and Austria would struggle for pre- 
dominance, and that the smaller German states would group 
themselves around one or the other. Frederick, of course, 
like all the Hohenzollerns, fought simply for the aggrandize- 
ment of Prussia, but the results of his work became manifest 
a century later when the German Empire came into being, 

156. Constitutional Monarchy in Great Britain 

At a time when absolute monarchs held sway in Prussia, 
Russia, Austria, France, and other Continental countries, 
the people of Great Britain had a constitutional ^^^ ^^ 
monarchy, limited by Parliament and the courts. Settlement, 
The concessions which they had wrung from their 
reluctant sovereigns were embodied in various state papers, such 

^ For the Seven Years' War outside of Europe, see pages 448 and 469. 

436 The European Balance of Power 

as the Great Charter, the Petition of Right, the Habeas Corpus 
Act, and the Bill of Rights. To these documents of pohtical 
Hberty there was now added the Act of Settlement. It pro- 
vided that in case William III or his sister-in-law Anne died 
without heirs, the crown should pass to Sophia, electress of 
Hanover, and her descendants. She was the granddaughter of 
James I and a Protestant. This arrangement deliberately 
excluded a number of nearer representatives of the Stuart house 
from the succession, because they were Roman Catholics. 
Parliament thus asserted in the strongest way the right of the 
British people to choose their o\vn rulers. 

Queen Anne died in 17 14, and in accordance with the Act of 
Settlement the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I, ascended 
Accession the throne. He was the first member of the Han- 

of the overian dynasty, which has continued to reign in 

Hanoverian ^ ^ . . , , ^ . ^ t 

dynasty, Great Britam to the present tmie. George I 

1714 could not speak English and preferred Hanover 

to his adopted country. His son, George II, was also much 

more a German than an Englishman. Both these kings took 

little interest in British affairs and gave to their ministers a 

free hand in the conduct of the government. 

During the reigns of the first two Georges the cabinet system 
assumed very much its present form. The cabinet consists of 
Development ^ small number of ministers, who sit in Parliament 
of the and form what is really a parliamentary committee. 

cabinet rj.^^^ ^^^^ received its name because it met, not 

in the larger council chamber, but in a ''cabinet," or smaller 
room, apart. The rise of political parties made it desirable for 
the king to select all his cabinet ministers from that party — 
either Whigs or Tories — which commanded a majority in the 
House of Commons, for otherwise the royal measures would be 
pretty sure to be frustrated. Until the accession of George I 
the king always attended cabinet meetings; George did not do 
so because he could not either understand or be understood in 
the deliberations. Since his time the British sovereign has not 
been a member of the cabinet. 

The first two Hanoverians naturally favored the Whigs, 

Constitutional Monarchy in Great Britain 437 

The Whig 

The Tories 

who had brought about the "Glorious Revolution" and passed 
the Act of Settlement. The Whig party included 
the great lords, most of the bishops and town clergy, 
the Nonconformists, and the merchants, shop- 
keepers, and other members of the middle class, 
at this time were 
very unpopular, being 
supposed to desire a 
second restoration of 
the Stuarts. England 
now came under the 
rule of the Whigs, who 
had a large majority 
in the House of Com- 

The most eminent 
of the Whig leaders 

was Wil- Ministry of 
Ham Pitt William Pitt, 

the Elder, """"" 
a fiery orator, an 
ardent patriot, and an 
incorruptible states- 
man. He became the 
real, though not the 
nominal, head of the 
cabinet shortly after 
the opening of the 

Seven Years' War. It was a dark hour for the British. Fred- 
erick the Great, their ally on the Continent, had met severe 
reverses, and the French under Montcalm threatened to over- 
run the American colonies. But Pitt had confidence in his 
ability. "I am sure," he said, "that I can save the country, 
and that no one else can." Save it he did. The "Great 
Commoner" infused new vigor into the conduct of the war; 
aroused the martial spirit of the nation; and selected the 
commanders who gained victory after victory over the French 

William Pitt, Earl of Qhatham 

A painting by Richard Brompton in the possession 
of Earl Stanhope at Chevening, England. 

438 The European Balance of Power 

on the sea, in India, and in America. Great Britain, as 
Frederick the Great said, had at length "borne a man." 
Thanks to Pitt's memorable ministry, that country emerged 
from the Seven Years' War a world-power and great imperial 

The accession in 1760 of George III marked a notable at- 
tempt to revive in Great Britain the ideas of personal rule 
Personal associated with the Stuarts. "George, be a king," 

rule of his German mother had told him, and this advice 

^^^^® he tried his best to follow. Taking advantage 

of a House of Commons then utterly unrepresentative of the 
people and packed with his supporters (the "king's 
friends"), George III set about the restoration of absolutism. 
His money, patronage, and influence were liberally used 
to bribe and reward the men who would do the royal 

After ten years of unremitting effort the triumph of George 
III appeared to be complete. The Whigs retired to the back- 
Lord North's ground, and a Tory ministry, headed by Lord 
ministry, North, came into office. North was a mere figure- 

head; behind the scenes and moving them as he 
willed stood the sinister figure of the king. To this would-be 
despot, therefore, belongs the chief responsibility for the meas- 
ures of oppression which provoked the resistance of the 
Thirteen Colonies and resulted in their separation from the 
mother country. The American Revolution was to a large 
extent the work of George III. 

The failure of George III and his subservient Parliament to 

subdue the colonists led to a political upheaval. Lord North's 

ministry resigned, and the discredited king be- 
Restoration i 1 r • % 

of constitu- came the most unpopular 01 sovereigns. Great 

tional Britain now returned to the principles of constitu- 

monarchy . ^ ,. . , ^ ^ • ^ ^ 

tional or limited monarchy, which have smce 

been adopted by so many countries in the Old World. In the 

New World, as we shall shortly learn, the American Revolution 

gave birth to a nation dedicated to the principles of republican 


Constitutional Monarchy in Great Britain 439 


I. On an outline map indicate the territorial gains made by Russia in Europe 
under Peter the Great. 2. On an outline map indicate the additions to the Hohen- 
zoUern dominions made by Frederick the Great. 3. What illustrations of inter- 
national immoraUty are found in this chapter? 4. Who were Charles XII, Maria 
Theresa, William Pitt the Elder, and the Great Elector? 5. How was Russia 
until the time of Peter the Great rather an "annex of Asia" than a part of Europe? 

6. What did Peter the Great mean by saying, "It is not land I want, but water"? 

7. "The Dnieper made Russia Byzantine, the Volga made it Asiatic. It was for 
the Neva to make it European." Can you explain this statement? 8. Why has 
Charles XII been called the "last of the Vikings"? 9. Why has the defeat of 
Charles XII at Poltava been included among the world's decisive battles? 10. Com- 
pare the respective boundaries of the Arabian and Ottoman empires (maps facing 
pages 78 and 424). 11. How did Russia's share of Poland compare in size with 
the shares of Austria and Prussia (map on page 427)? 12. Show that the geo- 
graphical situation of West Prussia made it an extremely important addition to 
the Hohenzollern possessions. 13. Account for the development of both absolut- 
ism and militarism in Prussia. 14. How did Frederick II win the designation of 
"the Great"? 15. In what respects does the President's cabinet in the United 
States differ from the British cabinet? 16. What are some of the accusations against 
George III as set forth in the Declaration of Independence? 



157. Mercantilism and Trading Companies 

Until 1600 Spain and Portugal had chiefly profited by the 
geographical discoveries and colonizing movements of the 
„ . , preceding century. The decline of these two 

for colonial countries enabled other European nations to step 
empire -^^^ ^^^-j, p^^^^g g^g rivals for colonial empire and 

the sovereignty of the seas. The Dutch were the first in the 
field, followed later by the French and the English. 

Many motives inspired the colonizing movement of the 
seventeenth century. Political aims had considerable weight. 
Both France and England, for instance, desired 
Motives fo^ colonial dependencies in order to restrict the 
overweening power of Spain in America. The 
religious impulse also played a part, as when Jesuit mis- 
sionaries penetrated the American wilderness to convert the 
Indians to Christianity and when the Pilgrim Fathers sought 
in the New World a refuge from persecution. But the main 
motive for colonization was economic in character. Colonies 
were planted in order to furnish the home land with raw mate- 
rials for its manufactures, new markets, and favorable oppor- 
tunities for the investment of capital in commerce and industry. 

Most European statesmen in the seventeenth century ac- 
^jjg • cepted the principles of the mercantile system, 
mercantile Mercantilism ^ is the name given to an economic 
system doctrine which emphasized the importance of 

manufactures and foreign trade, rather than agriculture and 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xxix, "The Ab- 
origines of the Pacific." 

^ Latin mercans, "merchant." 


Mercantilism and Trading Companies 441 

domestic trade, as sources of national wealth. Some Mercantilists 
even argued that the prosperity of a nation is in exact proportion 
to the amount of money in circulation within its borders. They 
urged, therefore, that each country should so conduct its deal- 
ings with other countries as to attract to itself the largest pos- 
sible share of the precious metals. This could be most easily 
done by fostering exports of manufactures, through bounties 
and special privileges, and by discouraging imports, except 
of raw materials. If the country sold more to foreigners than 
it bought of them, then there would be a "favorable balance of 
trade," and this balance the foreigners would have to make up 
in coin or bullion. 

Large and flourishing colonies seemed essential to the success 
of the mercantile system. Colonies were viewed simply as 
estates to be worked for the advantage of the Mercantilism 
country fortunate enough to possess them. The and colonial 
home government did its best to prevent other ^°^^^ 
governments from trading with its dependencies. At the same 
time it either prohibited or placed serious restrictions on colonial 
manufactures which might compete with those of the mother 
country. Portugal and Spain in the sixteenth century, and now 
Holland, France, and England in the seventeenth century, 
pursued this colonial policy. 

The home government did not itself engage in colonial 
commerce. It ceded this privilege to private companies organ- 
ized for the purpose. A company, in return for 
the monopoly of trade with the inhabitants of a compares 
colony, was expected to govern and protect them. 

The first form of association was the regulated company. 
Each member, after paying the entrance fee, traded with his 

own capital at his own risk and kept his profits „ 

1 . ir w . , . 1 • . Regulated 

to himself. After a time this loose association and joint- 
gave way to the joint-stock company. The ^*°^^ . 

, ., * , r 1 1 . companies 

members contributed to a common fund and, in- 
stead of trading themselves, intrusted the management of the 
business to a board of directors. Any one who invested his 
capital would then receive a "dividend" on his "shares" of the 

442 Commerce and Colonies 

joint stock, provided the enterprise was successful. The 
joint-stock companies of the seventeenth century thus formed 
a connecting link with modern corporations. 

Trading companies were very numerous. For instance, Hol- 
land, France, England, Sweden, and Denmark, as well as Scot- 
Examoies of ^^^^ ^^^ Prussia, each chartered its own ''East 
trading India Company." There were English companies 

companies organized for trade with Russia, the Baltic lands, 
Turkey, India, China, Morocco, Guiana, the Bermudas, the 
Canaries, and Hudson Bay. Still other companies colonized 
North America. 

158. The Dutch Colonial Empire 

Holland hes at the mouths of the largest rivers of western 
Europe, the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine, thus securing easy 
communication with the interior. It is not far 
HoUand as distant from Denmark and Norway and is only 
a commer- ^ fg^ hours' sail from the French and English 
^° coasts. These advantages of position, combined 

with a small, infertile territory, never capable of supporting 
more than a fraction of the inhabitants by agriculture, naturally 
turned the Dutch to the sea. They began their maritime career 
as fishermen, "exchanging tons of herring for tons of gold," 
and gradually built up an extensive carrying trade between the 
Mediterranean and Baltic lands. After the discovery of the 
Cape route to the Indies, Dutch traders met Portuguese mer- 
chants at Lisbon and there obtained spices and other eastern 
wares for distribution throughout Europe. 

But the Dutch were soon to become seamen on a much more 
extensive scale. The union of Portugal with Spain in 1580 ^ 
enabled Philip II to close the port of Lisbon to 
Srjeditions the Netherlanders, who had already begun their 
to the East revolt against the Spanish monarch. Philip also 
seized a large number of Dutch ships lying in 
Spanish and Portuguese harbors, thus disclosing his purpose 

1 See page 355. 

'The Dutch Colonial Empire 


to destroy, if possible, the profitable commerce of his enemies. 
The Dutch now began to make expeditions directly to the East 
Indies, whose trade had been monopolized by Portugal for 
almost a century. They captured many Portuguese and Span- 
ish ships, obtained ports on the coasts of Africa and India, and 
soon established themselves securely in the Far East. 

East Indies 

In 1602 the Dutch government chartered the East India 
Company and gave to it the monopoly of trade and rule from 
the Cape of Good Hope eastward to the Strait Dut^h 
of Magellan. The company operated chiefly East India 
in the rich islands of the Malay Archipelago. o^^P^^y 
Here much bitter fighting took place with the Portuguese, 
who were finally driven from nearly all of their eastern posses- 
sions. Ceylon, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and the Mo- 
luccas, or Spice Islands, passed into the hands of the Dutch. 
The headquarters of the Dutch East India Company were 
located at Batavia in Java. This city still remains one of the 
leading commercial centers of the East Indies. 

444 Commerce and Colonies • 

The Dutch possessions included the Cape of Good Hope, 
which they took from the enfeebled Portuguese in 1652. At 
The Dutch ^^^^ there was no intention of founding a colony, 
in South for the Cape region seemed valuable only as a 

^"*^* way-station on the route to the Indies. Before 

long, however, Dutch emigrants began to arrive in increasing 
numbers, together with Huguenots from France after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes. These farmer-settlers, or 
Boers, passed slowly into the interior and laid there the foun- 
dation of Dutch sway in South Africa. The Cape of Good 
Hope became a British possession at the end of the eighteenth 
century, but the Boer republics retained their independence 
until our own day. 

Fired by their success and enriched by their gains in the 
East, the Dutch started out to form another colonial empire 
jj^g in the West. It was an agent of the Dutch East 

Dutch in India Company, Henry Hudson, who, seeking a 
™®"*^* northwest passage to the East Indies, discovered in 
1609 the river which bears his name. The Dutch sent out 
ships to trade with the natives and built a fort on Manhattan 
Island. In 162 1 the Dutch West India Company received a 
charter for commerce and colonization between the west 
coast of Africa and the east coast of the Americas. The 
company's little station on Manhattan Island became the 
flourishing port of New Amsterdam, from which the Dutch 
settlement of New Netherland spread up the Hudson River. 
The company also secured a large part of Guiana, as well as 
some of the West Indies. New Netherland before long passed 
into the hands of the English, but Holland has still a foothold 
in America in the island of Curasao and the rich province 
of Surinam or Dutch Guiana. 

The Dutch in the seventeenth century were the leaders of 
commercial Europe. They owned more merchant ships than 
Commercial ^^^ Other people and almost monopoHzed the 
decUne of carrying trade from the East Indies and between 
HoUand ^^^ Mediterranean and the Baltic. Yet with the 

advent of the eighteenth century the Dutch had clearly begun 

Rivalry of France and England in India 445 

to fall behind their French and English rivals in the race for 
commerce and colonies. Their possessions were trading posts 
for merchants rather than real colonies. They also suffered 
from trade warfare with England during the Commonwealth 
and the reign of Charles II. The War of the Spanish Suc- 
cession,^ in which Holland was a member of the Grand Alliance 
against Louis XIV, struck a further blow at Dutch prosperity. 
Though Holland fell from the first rank of commercial states, 
it has kept most of its dominions overseas to the present time. 

159. Rivalry of France and England in India (to 1763) 

The Indian Ocean forms a vast gulf of crescent shape, having 
on the western side Africa and Madagascar and on the eastern 
side Australia and the Malay Islands, while directly The Indian 
opposite its northern extremity lies Asia. The Ocean 
Red Sea and Persian Gulf, which form the two most important 
offshoots of the Indian Ocean, approach within a short distance 
of the Mediterranean. These maritime thoroughfares furnished 
the Mediterranean peoples with the shortest and most con- 
venient routes to India, until the discovery of the Cape route 
by the Portuguese. 

The Portuguese and Dutch enjoyed a profitable trade with 
India, which supplied them with cotton, indigo, spices, dyes, 
drugs, precious stones, and other articles of luxury India and 
in European demand. In the seventeenth century, Europe 
however, the French and English became the principal competi- 
tors for Indian trade, and in the eighteenth century the rivalry 
between them led to the defeat of the French and the secure 
establishment of England's rule over India. A region half as 
large as Europe, with a population of about two hundred millions, 
began to pass under the control of a single European power. 

The conquest of India was made possible by the decline of the 
Mogul Empire, founded by the Turkish chieftain India under 
Baber.2 That empire, though renowned for its the Moguls 
luxury and magnificence, never achieved a real unification 

1 See page 404. ^ See page 184. 


Commerce and Colonies 

Rivalry of France and England in India 447 

of India. The country continued to be a collection of separate 
provinces whose inhabitants were isolated from one another by 
differences of race, language, and religion. The Indian peoples 
had no feeling of nationality, no spirit of resistance to foreign 
rule, and when the Mogul Empire broke up they were ready, 
with perfect indifference, to accept any other government able 
to keep order among them. 

Neither France nor England began by making annexations 
in India. Each country merely established an East India 
company, giving to it a monopoly of trade between j^^ ^^g^ 
India and the home land. The French com- India 
pany, chartered during the reign of Louis XIV, ^°°^P^"^®^ 
had its headquarters at Pondicherry, on the southeastern 
coast of India. The English company, which received its 
first charter from Elizabeth in 1600, possessed three widely 
separated settlements at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. 

The French were the first to attempt the task of empire- 
making in India, under the leadership of Dupleix, the able 
governor-general of Pondicherry. Dupleix saw 
clearly that the dissolution of the Mogul Empire 
and the defenseless condition of the native states opened the 
way to the European conquest of India. In order that the 
French should profit by this unique opportunity, he entered 
into alliance with some of the Indian princes, fortified Pondi- 
cherry, and managed to form an army by enlisting native sol- 
diers ("sepoys"), who were drilled by French officers. The 
English afterwards did the same thing, and to this day ''se- 
poys" comprise the bulk of the Indian forces of Great Britain. 
Upon the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession the 
French captured Madras, but it was restored to the Enghsh 
by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Dupleix continued, however, 
to extend French influence in the south and east of India. 

The English could not look unconcernedly upon the progress 
of their French rivals, and it was a young Englishman, Robert 
Clive, whose genius checkmated Dupleix's am- 
bitious schemes. To Clive, more than any other 
man, Great Britain owes the beginning of her present Indian 


Commerce and Colonies 

Empire. Clive had been a clerk in the employ of the East 
India Company at Madras, but he soon exchanged his office 
stool for an ensign's commission and entered upon a miUtary 
career. His first success was gained in southeastern India. 
Here he managed to overthrow an upstart prince whom Du- 
pleix supported and to restore Enghsh influence in that part of 
the peninsula. Dupleix was recalled in disgrace to France, 
where he died a disappointed man. 

Clive soon found an opportunity for even greater service. 
The native ruler of Bengal, a man ferocious in temper and con- 
Battle of sumed with hatred of the English, suddenly 
Piassey, captured Calcutta. He allowed one hundred and 
^^^^ forty-six prisoners to be confined in a tiny room, 
where they passed the sultry night without water. Next morn- 
ing only twenty-three came 
forth alive from the ''Black 
Hole." This atrocity was 
sufficiently avenged by the 
wonderful victory of Pias- 
sey, in which Clive with a 
handful of soldiers over- 
threw an Indian army of 
fifty thousand men. Piassey 
showed conclusively that 
native troops were no match 
for Europeans and made 
the English masters of 
Bengal, with its rich delta, 
mighty rivers, and teeming 

Meanwhile, the outbreak 
of the Seven Years' War in 
Europe renewed the contest between France and England on 
The Seven Indian soil. The EngHsh were completely successful, 
Years' War for their control of the sea prevented the French 
^ ^* government from sending reinforcements to India. 

France recovered her territorial possessions b}^ the Peace of 

Robert, Lord Clive 

A painting by Nathaniel Dance. In the Council 
Chamber of Government House, Calcutta. 

I r 

Settlement of Virginia and Massachusetts 449 

Paris in 1763, but agreed not to fortify them. This meant that 
she gave up her dream of an empire in India. England hence- 
forth enjoyed a free hand in shaping the destinies of that vast 

160. The English Settlement of Virginia and 

Enghshmen, under the Tudors, had done very Httle as colo- 
nists of the New World. Henry VII, indeed, encouraged 
John Cabot to make the discoveries of 1497-98, on Lateness of 
which the English claims to North America were English 
based. During Elizabeth's reign Sir Martin Frob- ^^^l^^^^^tion 
isher explored the coasts of Greenland and Labrador, and 
another "sea-dog," Sir Humphrey Gilbert, sought without 
success to colonize Newfoundland. Gilbert's half-brother, 
Sir Walter Raleigh, planned a settlement in the region then 
called Virginia, but lack of support from home caused it to 
perish miserably.^ The truth was that sixteenth-century 
Englishmen had first to break the power of Spain in Europe 
before they could give much attention to America. The 
destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588 ^ at length enabled 
them to establish American colonies without interference from 

Having found the task of private colonization too great for 

his energies and purse, Raleigh assigned his interests in Virginia 

to a group of merchants and adventurers. Noth- The London 

ing was done for several years, but at last in 1606 ^^^ 

.1 1 • J r XX 1 r . Plymouth 

they obtamed from James I a charter for the companies, 

incorporation of two joint-stock companies, one ^®®^ 

centering in London and the other in Plymouth. The charter 

claimed for England all the North American continent from 

the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth degree, north latitude. 

The London Company had the exclusive right to colonize the 

territory between Cape Fear and the Potomac River, and the 

Plymouth Company had a similar right in the area between 

the Hudson River and the Bay of Fundy. Both companies 

1 See page 327. 2 See page 365. 


Commerce and Colonies 

might occupy the intervening region, but neither was to estab- 
lish a colony within one hundred miles of a settlement made by 
the other. 

The London Company promptly took steps to colonize its 
share of Virginia. A party of one hundred and twenty men 

left the shores of 
Jamestown England on New 

settlement. Year's Day, 1 607, 

and after four 

wearisome months on the 
ocean reached the capes of 
Chesapeake Bay.^ They en- 
tered the bay, and on a 
peninsula in the broad river 
which they named after the 
king who gave them their 
charter founded Jamestown, 
the first permanent settle- 
ment of Englishmen in the 
New World. 

Colonization in the seven- 
teenth century formed a 
death-struggle with nature; and the privations endured by the 
settlers of Virginia are a famiUar story in American 
history. Of more than six thousand people who 
arrived between 1607 and 1624, four-fifths died of hunger and 
disease or at the hands of the Indians. The future of Virginia 
was not assured until the colonists turned to tobacco raising, 
for which the yellow soil is unsurpassed. "The weed," as King 
James called it in derision, brought a high price abroad, and its 
cultivation quickly became the principal industry of Virginia. 
It was the only staple product which the colony exported to 

The London Company did not long enjoy the favor of James I. 
He had no liking for the Puritans who controlled it and 
turned the meetings of the stockholders into poUtical gath- 

^ Named Cape Henry and Cape Charles, for the two sons of James I. 



Settlement of Virginia and Massachusetts 451 

erings for resistance to the king's measures. James finally 

brought suit against the company in the courts 

and had its charter annulled. Virginia now be- royal 

came a royal province and so remained throughout province, 

the colonial period, except for a few years of 

Puritan supremacy in England. The English king appointed 

Ruins of the Brick Church at Jamestown 

Jamestown is now an island, for the sandy beach which once connected 
it with the mainland has disappeared. Only the ruins of the brick church 
erected in 1639 and some of the tombs in the churchyard remain. 

the governor, but as a rule allowed the settlers to manage 
their own affairs. 

The colonization of New England was begun by the Pil- 
grims, who belonged to the sect of Independents or Separatists.^ 

Persecuted by Elizabeth and James I, many ^, . 

TT 11 T T i-i r The Pilgrims 

Separatists went to Holland, where liberty of 

conscience was allowed. The prospect of losing their English 

speech and customs among the Dutch did not please them, 

and presently the exiles began to long for another home, where 

"they might more glorify God, do more good to their country, 

better provide for their posterity, and live to be more refreshed 

1 See page 385 and note 2. 


Commerce and Colonies 

by their labors, than ever they could do in Holland." One 
congregation, dwelling at Leyden, decided to emigrate to 
America. Having obtained from the London Company a 
patent to colonize within the Umits of Virginia, a party of one 
hundred and two men, women, and children set sail in the 
Mayflower. They intended to settle somewhere south of the 


Captain John Smith's Map of New England 

In 1614 Captain John Smith explored the American coast from Maine to Cape 
Cod and called the country New England. On the map which he drew, the young son of 
James I, afterward Charles I, gave English and Scottish names to more than thirty places. 
Of these, Charles River, Cape Ann, and Plymouth still remain as originally designated. 

Hudson River, but when they sighted land it was the peninsula 
of Cape Cod. After exploring the coast, the emigrants came to 
the sheltered harbor which John Smith had already named 
Plymouth on his map, and here they landed. 

The Pilgrims found themselves outside the territory granted 

Settlement of Virginia and Massachusetts 453 

to the London Company and hence could not use their patent 
for colonization. Before leaving the Mayflower, ^j^^ 
therefore, they took steps to provide for the Mayflower 
orderly rule of their little community. The ^^^^^ 
leaders of the party signed their names to an agreement estab- 
lishing a "civil body poHtic," and they promised to obey all 
laws necessary for the 
''general good." The 
Mayflower Compact 
reveals the Pilgrim in- 
stinct for self-govern- 

To settle on the 
New England coast in 

mid-winter ^. 

w^as a grim Plymouth 

business. J^^i^"'^^*' 


More than 

half of the Pilgrims 
died before spring 
came, and after ten 
years they had in- 
creased to little more 

than three hundred. Yet the Pilgrims did not despair, for 
they were determined to found a religious asylum in the 
American wilderness. "Let it not be grievous to you," said 
their friends in England, " that you have been instruments to 
break the ice for others; the honor shall be yours to the 
world's end." Instruments they were. The Pilgrim settle- 
ment at Plymouth formed the forerunner of that great Puritan 
exodus which in the third decade of the seventeenth century 
colonized Massachusetts. 

The colony of Massachusetts ^ had its origin in the desire 
of the Puritans to found a self-governing community far re- 
moved from Stuart absolutism in poHtics and religion. Some 
Puritan leaders purchased a large tract of land from the 

1 An Algonkin Indian word meaning "Great Hills." 

The " Mayflower 

From the model in the Smithsonian Institution 
at Washington. 

454 Commerce and Colonies 

Plymouth Company and obtained from Charles I a charter 
Massa- incorporating them as the Company of Massa- 

chusetts, chusetts Bay. The ''great emigration" began in 

1630 under the guidance of John Winthrop, who 
served as the first governor. The settlers established them- 
selves at Salem, Boston, Charlestown, and other places on 
Massachusetts Bay. More than twenty thousand Puritans 

^/^na^t'^iJ^^y^nCTi. JfTvAofi^a^ts are -^^^ct-^^./c^ 

J^y -f^tfc ^t^cje-rt-ff Sofc-m*t.(y (s_'i*<^-f^cc^ -^JV^^fi-^cc 0/ /{oif^etn^ 
^cv-ocnce-, offcnis ff^^cc<(Jl:; ^>cnJ(: ^y Vcrfvut /^^*^of A t^ai^t.. 

The Mayflower Compact 

Facsimile from History of Plimoth Plantation by Governor Bradford; State House, Boston. 

left England for America during the next ten years. This was 
the period when Charles I ruled without a Parhament, and 
when Archbishop Laud harried so cruelly all who did not 
conform to the Anglican Church. After the opening of the 
Long Parliament in 1640 the Puritans found enough to do at 
home, and Massachusetts received few more immigrants during 
the colonial period. 

The charter which Charles I gave to the Puritans did not 
require that the seat of government should be in England, 

The Thirteen Colonies 455 

as had been the case with previous grants. Accordingly, the 

company decided to take its charter to Massa- „ 

, . , , . , Massachu- 

chusetts and to found there an almost mdependent setts a royal 

state. King Charles was too busy with domestic 5*^°^^^^®' 
problems to interfere with these bold Puritans 
overseas, and their friend, Cromwell, after his rise to power, 
did not molest them. Charles II, however, took away their 
cherished charter, and James II treated the liberties of English- 
men in America with the same contempt with which he treated 
their liberties at home. Soon after his accession William III 
granted them a new charter. It allowed the people to have a 
representative assembly, but required them to accept a governor 
appointed by the king. Massachusetts henceforth formed a 
royal province. 

161. The Thirteen Colonies 

Massachusetts was the foremost of the Puritan settlements. 
Before the end of the seventeenth century it had absorbed 
Plymouth and had thrown out the offshoots which ^^^ j^^^ 
presently became Rhode Island, Connecticut, and England 
New Hampshire.i These four New England ^'"^"'^^^ 
colonies formed a distinct geographical group, while the cir- 
cumstances of their foundation also gave them a political and 
religious character unlike that of the other colonies. 

Another group of colonies grew up around Virginia as their 
center. To the north of Virginia arose the colony of Maryland, 
which Charles I granted to George Calvert, Lord 
Baltimore. He died before the charter was 
actually issued, and it was given to his son, Cecil, who estab- 
hshed the first settlement. Maryland, so called in honor of 
the queen of England, became a refuge for persecuted Roman 
Catholics, as well as a great family estute of the barons of 
Baltimore. The charter conferred upon them the rights and 
privileges of feudal lords. They owned the land, appointed 

^ The territory now included within Vermont was claimed by both New York 
and New Hampshire in colonial times. Maine continued to be a part of Massa- 
chusetts until 1820. 


Commerce and Colonies 

The Exploration of North America by the Middle of the 
Seventeenth Century 

The Thirteen Colonies 457 

officers, and made the laws with the assistance of the free 
settlers. Maryland, therefore, stands as the type of a pro- 
prietary colony. 

To the south of Virginia arose the colony of Carolina, out 
of a grant by Charles II to a number of nobles whose property 
had been confiscated in the Great Rebellion. The 
The charter created a proprietary form of govern- Carolinas 
ment similar to that of Maryland. It proved to be very un- 
popular, however, and in the eighteenth century the two 
Carolinas — for they had now divided — voluntarily put them- 
selves under the king's protection as royal colonies. 

The most important colonial achievement of the reign of 
Charles II was the filling up of the gap between the northern 
and southern colonies. English settlement in j^^^ york 
this central region began as the result of conquest and New 
from another European power. New York was ^^^^^^ 
originally New Netherland, a Dutch colony planted by the 
Dutch West India Company. In 1664 the colony passed into 
the hands of the English. Charles II granted it to his brother 
James, duke of York and Albany, who afterwards became king 
of England. James, in turn, bestowed the region between the 
Hudson and Delaware rivers to two court favorites, and it 
received the name of New Jersey. The EngUsh possessions 
now stretched without a break along the whole Atlantic 
coast from Nova Scotia to Florida. 

The colony of Pennsylvania likewise dated from the time of 
Charles II, who granted it to William Penn, the Quaker, as 
an asylum for his sect. Penn was made proprietor, Pennsylvania 
with much the same rights which Lord Baltimore and 
possessed in Maryland. The small Swedish settle- ® *^"® 
ment on the Delaware had been established by the South Com- 
pany of Sweden, under the auspices of Gustavus Adolphus, who 
hoped that it would become the ''jewel of his kingdom." The 
Dutch soon annexed New Sweden, only to relinquish it, together 
with their own colony, to the English. William Penn secured a 
grant of the Delaware country, but at the opening of the eight- 
eenth century it became a separate colony. 

458 Commerce and Colonies 

The southernmost of the Thirteen Colonies was also the last 

to be settled. James Oglethorpe, a gallant Enghsh soldier, 

founded Georgia in 1733, partly as a miHtary 

outpost against the Spaniards, but chiefly as a 

resort for poor debtors. The colony received its name in honor 

of the reigning king, 
A brief Account of the George 11. 

Lately Cranccd by the 


Under the GREAT . 

Seal of England, 

Both New England 
and the southern colo- 
Anglo-Saxon nies were 
expansion chiefly 

English in blood. 
Under the GREAT . Many immigrants also 

came from other parts 
of the British Isles, 
X o especially the so-called 

Scotch -Irish — really 
Englishmen who had 
y^ND HIS settled in the Low- 

H\ \ rr lands of Scotland and 

eirS and Alllgns. afterwards in north- 

Since (by the good Providence ol C,J. and ihe Favour of the K.u^) « CaStem irelanCl. i UC 

Country in jlntncs is fallen to my Lot, 1 thought it not kf$ any • j. r /~» 

Duty, then my Honeft Intf reft, to give fomc poblick notice of )c to emigrants irOm L^On- 

ibc World, that ihofe of our own or other Niliuns, that are inclin'd . . 

toTranrport Thetnrelves or Families beyond the Seas, may find ano- tlueUtal EurODe lU- 

ther Country added to their Choice ; that if they fhall happen to like ^ 

the Place, Conditions, and Government, (fo far as the prcfent Infancy of ihirgt rl 1 1 H pH Ti'rpn r Vi T-Tl 1 frn P- 

will allow us My profpe«; they tnay, if they pleafe. fix with me in the Pro- ^^UUCU ± iClH.ll XXU^UC 

Vince. hereafter ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^_ 

I The KlUC^ Title to thu Country before he granted ii. -T'J' ... £ 

It IS the Jm Ctnt'ium. or Law of Nations, that what ever Wafte. or uncut- CatlOU Ol tlie xL<CllCt 01 
ted Country, it the Dlfcovery of any Prince, it is the right of that Prince that 

was at the Charge of the DiCravery : Now this frtvimt is a Member of that IVTantpc: QnH rxPrmanci 

p»rt of W«rrif4, which the King o/lr^UnJ, Anceftors have been at the aarge ^> ^^A LCb, ctllU VJCl lllctllS 

t^Sr'"^' '"" """ "** "' '* *"'• "'" ''"' "" '" '"'"' '"* from the Rhenish Pal- 

II. William ^. ^ ^, , 

atmate. The popula- 
FiRST Page of Penn's "Account of .. r ., • , i, 

Pennsylvania" ^lon of the middle 

Reduced facsimile. colonies was f ar more 

mixed. Besides Eng- 
lish and a sprinkling of Celtic Scotch and Irish, it comprised 
Dutch in New York, Swedes in Delaware, and Germans in Penn- 
sylvania. But neither France, Holland, Sweden, nor Germany 
contributed largely to the settlement of the Thirteen Colonies. 

Transit of Civilization from England to America 459 

162. Transit of Civilization from England to America 

The English language prevailed almost everywhere in the 
colonies, not, however, without quaint modifications of spelling 
and. pronun- Language 

and folk- 

Poor Richard y 173^, 

A N 





ciation mtro- 
duced by emi- 
grants from different parts 
of the mother country. 
The emigrants also 
brought many proverbs 
and traditional sayings, 
some of which were after- 
wards printed by Benja- 
min Franklin in Poor 
Richard'' s Almanac. Old 
ballads, once sung in me- 
dieval England, were 
chanted in colonial Amer- 
ica. Old fairy tales and 
nursery rhymes, which 
had delighted generations 
of English children, found 
equally appreciative au- 
diences in the American 
wilderness. These varie- 
ties of folk-literature were 
not at first written down, 
but were carried in the 
memory by young and 

Nearly all the popular 
festivals of the colonists came from England. The only im- 
portant exception was Thanksgiving Day, which pop^iar 
the Pilgrims began to celebrate immediately after festivals and 
their first harvest. Many superstitions of the ^^P^^^titions 
Middle Ages, including those relating to astrology, unlucky 

Being the Firft after LEAP YEAR: 

JrA makes fine* tf>e Creation Ye«rs 

By the Account of the Eaftcrn Cretks 
By the Latin Church, when O cm. y 
By Hie Computation of ff^'ly 
By the Roman CKronology 
By the Jeivllb Rabbies 

PVhereiti is contained 
The Lunations, EcHpfes, Judgment cf 

the Weather, Spring Tides, Planets Motions & 
mutual Afpefts, Sun and Nloon's Ri(7ng and Set- 
ting, Length of Days, Time of High Water, 
Fairs, CourtJ, and obfcrvable Days 

Fitted tothc Latitude of Forty Degrees^ 

and a Meridian of Five Hours Weft from Lmden^ 
but may without fcnfihic Error, fervc all the ad- 
jacent Placcs» even from NewfoimdjAnd to Soatb' 



Printed and fold by B. FR^NKUN, at the New 

Prin ting Office near tl»e Market. 

Tbc Third Impicflion. 

A Title-page of Poor Richard's 

Reduced facsimile. 

460 Commerce and Colonies 

days, demons, and magic, crossed the Atlantic to the New 
World. The belief in witchcraft was likewise very common, 
and at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, twenty persons suffered 
death for this supposed crime. Witchcraft persecutions also 
occurred in several other colonies. 

Almost every variety of Protestantism was represented in the 
colonies. The Church of England from the start had its strong- 
. holds in Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas, 

and later in New York. After the Revolutionary 
War it took the name of the Protestant Episcopal Church, but 
retained nearly all the Anglican doctrines and ceremonies. 
Puritanism flourished in New England, especially in Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut. The Puritan churches usually had 
the Congregational form. Baptists were numerous in Rhode 
Island, and Quakers in Pennsylvania. Wherever the Scotch- 
Irish settled, they established Presbyterian churches. 

The Toleration Act of 1689 ^ commended itself to the colonists, 
many of whom were Dissenters or Nonconformists. ^ It was 
Religious generally reenacted by the colonial assemblies, 

toleration including those of Massachusetts, New York, 
and Virginia. Religious toleration, however, did not extend 
to Roman Catholics, who encountered much suspicion. Rhode 
Island, which Roger Williams had founded as ''a shelter for 
persons distressed for conscience," disfranchised Roman Catho- 
lics in the eighteenth century. Maryland began with a broad 
measure of toleration, for Lord Baltimore had opened the colony 
to Anglicans and Puritans, as well as to members of his own 
faith. Later, when the Protestants became a majority in 
Maryland, severe anti-Catholic laws were passed. Outside 
of these two colonies, Roman Catholics were under riiany 
disabilities until after the Revolution. Jews were never numer- 
ous in colonial America. They enjoyed freedom of worship, 
but did not possess poHtical rights. 

The Puritan clergy were generally well educated; and some 
of them were very learned. They introduced into the New 
World the English tradition in favor of higher education. 

1 See pages 393-394- ^ See page 391. 

Transit of Civilization from England to America 461 

Harvard College was founded as early as 1636, and Yale, in 
1 701. Before the Revolution colleges or universi- Higher 
ties also existed in Rhode Island (Brown), New education 
Hampshire (Dartmouth), New York (King's, later Columbia), 
New Jersey (Rutgers and Princeton), Pennsylvania (University 
of Pennsylvania), 

and Virginia (Wil- 
liam and Mary ^). 
These institutions 
devoted themselves 
chiefly to the train- 
ing of ministers. 

New England led 
the other colonies 
in popular educa- 
tion. A Massa- 
chuse t ts law, 
enacted as early 
as 1647, required 
every town of fifty 
families to estabhsh 
an elementary 
school where chil- 
dren could learn 
to read and write. 
The teachers were 
to be paid either by 

Time euts down all 
Boch great andfmai). 

M«dc David feck Ills 

WhaUr in the Sea 
God*s Voice obey^ 

Xtrxts the great did 

And {0 mult you & L 

Touib forward flips 
Death fooneit tiipv 

Zacbeus he 

Did climb tht Tret 

Hrt Lord to fee, 

A Page from the "New England Primer" 

the parents of the children or by public taxation. Every town 
of one hundred families was further required- to set Common 
up a grammar school, in which students might schools 
be prepared for college. This law became the model for similar 
legislation throughout the United States. The middle and 
southern colonies did not have a system of popular education. 
A Virginia governor could even thank God that there were no 
free schools or printing presses in the colony. Learning, he 
believed, bred heresies, and books spread them. 

^ Named after King William III and his queen. 

462 Commerce and Colonies 

All the colonists possessed the private rights which English- 
men had won during centuries of struggle against despotic 
The private kings. Free speech, freedom from arbitrary im- 
rights of prisonment as secured by the writ of habeas corpus, 

EngUshmen ^^^ ^^.^^ 1^^ j^^.^ formed part of our legal inheri- 
tance from England. These and other private rights were 
embodied in the Common law,^ as introduced into colonial 
America. At the time of the Revolution the Common law 
was adopted by the several states, thus becoming the foun- 
dation of our own system of jurisprudence. 

The English principle of representation was also carried to 
the New World. Each colony had a representative assembly 
Repre- modeled after the House of Commons. Virginia 

sentative early led the way. The Puritans, who had gained 

assem es control of the London Company, permitted the 
Virginia colonists to form an assembly consisting of two depu- 
ties freely elected by the inhabitants of each settlement. The 
House of Burgesses, as it soon came to be called, met for the 
first time in 161 9, in the chancel of the Httle church at James- 
town. A few years later (1634) the freemen of each Massa- 
chusetts town were allowed to send two deputies to act for them 
at the General Court of the colony. New York, which had 
been a Dutch possession, was the last of the colonies to receive 
representative self-government (1684). 

The separation of Parliament into two houses, which had 
prevailed in England since the fourteenth century,^ accustomed 
The bi- ^^^ colonists to the bicameral system. In all 

camerai but two of the colonies the legislature consisted of 

sys em ^ representative assembly, forming a lower house, 

and a small council, forming an upper house.^ The council 
assisted the governor and had some power of amending the 
acts of the assembly. 

The governor served as the link between the colonists and 
England. In Rhode Island and Connecticut he was elected 

1 See page 198. ^ See page 203. 

' Pennsylvania and Georgia did not adopt the two-house arrangement until 
after the Revolution. 

Transit of Civilization from England to America 463 

by the people; in Maryland and Pennsylvania he was ap- 
pointed by the hereditary proprietor; and m the The 
other (royal) colonies he was named by the king, governor 
The governor might veto the bills passed by a colonial legis- 
lature. Just as quarrels between king and Parliament were 
frequent in England, so in colonial America there was constant 
wrangling between governor and assembly, especially over 
money matters. The assembly held the purse-strings, however, 
and usually triumphed by refusing to grant supplies until the 
governor came to its terms. 

The unit of representation in the assemblies of the southern 
colonies was the county, corresponding to the English shire. 
The county also formed a judicial area. Justices county and 
of the peace, chosen from the more important town 
landowners of the county, met regularly as a sovernmen 
court to try cases and assess taxes. The citizens of a New 
England town, or township, governed themselves directly and 
sent their own representatives to 
the colonial assemblies. In fre- 
quent town meetings they dis- 
cussed all local affairs, made 
appropriations for all local expen- 
ses, and chose the town officials. 
The titles of these officials, as well 
as their functions, were often 
borrowed from the mother-land, 
showing that the colonists repro- 
duced on American soil the char- 
acteristic features of old English 
local government.^ The middle 
colonies adopted a mixture of the New England and southern 
systems. Here both town and county were found, each with 
its elective officers. This mixed system now prevails in per- 
haps most of the American states. 

No close political ties united the colonies. The differences 
between them in industries, rehgion, manners, and customs 

1 See page 132. 

Join or Die 

A device printed in Franklin's news- 
paper, the " Pennsylvania Gazette." 
Shows a wriggling rattlesnake cut into 
pieces, with the initial letter of a 
colony on each piece. 

464 Commerce and Colonies 

prevented their effective cooperation. Yet preparations for 
union there had been, and signs of its coming. As early as 
Disunion of 1643 Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven (then 
the colonists g^ separate colony), and Plymouth entered into a 
league "for mutual help and strength in all our future concern- 
ments." This league, known as the United Colonies of New 
England, held together for forty years. Delegates from seven 
colonies met in the Albany Congress of 1754 and discussed 
Benjamin Frankhn's plan for forming a defensive union of all 
the colonies. The plan fell through, but it set men to thinking 
about the advantages of federation. After the close of the 
"French and Indian War" the colonists, who had learned the 
value of concerted action against a common foe, began to unite 
in defense of their rights against king and Parliament. 

163. French Settlements in Canada and 

The French at the opening of the seventeenth century had 
gained no foothold in the New World. For more than fifty 
Lateness of Y^ars after the failure of Cartier's settlement,^ 
French they were so occupied with the Huguenot wars that 

coomzation ^^^^ ^^^^ j.^^^^ thought to colonial expansion. 

The single exception was the ill-starred colony which Admiral 
de Coligny^ attempted to establish in Florida (1564). The 
Spaniards quickly destroyed it, not only because the settlers 
were Protestants, but also because a French settlement in Florida 
directly threatened their West Indian possessions. The grow- 
ing weakness of Spain, together with the cessation of the reli- 
gious struggle, made possible a renewal of the colonizing 
movement. The French again turned to the north, attracted by 
the fur trade and the fisheries, and founded Canada during the 
same decade that the English were founding Virginia. 

The first great name in Canadian history is that of Samuel 
Champiain de Champlain, who enjoyed the patronage of 
and Canada Henry IV. Champlain explored the coast of Maine 
and Massachusetts as far south as Plymouth, discovered the 

1 See page 325. 2 See page 367. 

French Settlements in Canada and Louisiana 465 

beautiful lake now called after him, traced the course of the 
St. Lawrence River, and also came upon lakes Ontario and 
Huron. He set up a permanent French post at Quebec in 
1608 and three years later founded Montreal. Champlain 
served as the first governor of Canada. 

The seventeenth century was an era of missionary zeal in 
the Roman CathoHc Church, and Canada became the favorite 
mission field. Champlain brought in the Francis- j^^^^ 
cans, who were followed in greater numbers by the missions in 
Jesuits. The story of the Jesuits in North ^^^^^ 
America is an inspiring record of self-sacrifice and devotion. 
Many of them suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Indians. 
The journeys made by the Jesuits in the wilderness of the 
Northwest added much to geographical knowledge, while their 
mission stations often grew into flourishing towns. After 
Cardinal Richelieu had forbidden the Protestants to settle in 
Canada, the Jesuit influence became dominant there. It has 
not yet entirely disappeared, in spite of a century and a half 
of English rule. 

When Colbert, the able minister of Louis XIV, came to power, 
the exploration of Canada went on with renewed energy. 
The French, hitherto, had been spurred by the ^^ g^^ 
hope of finding in the Great Lakes a western pas- and 
sage to Cathay. Joliet, the fur trader, and Mar- ^^^^^^^^ 
quette, the Jesuit missionary, believed they had actually 
found the highway uniting the Atlantic and the Pacific when 
their birchbark canoes first glided into the upper Mississippi. 
It was reserved for the most illustrious of French explorers, 
Robert de La Salle, to discover the true character of the "Father 
of Waters" and to perform the feat of descending it to the sea 
(1682). He took possession of all the territory drained by the 
Mississippi for Louis XIV, naming it Louisiana. 

Where La Salle had shown the way, missionaries, fur traders, 

hunters, and adventurers quickly followed. The French 

now began to realize the importance of the Missis- 

.,,-,, 1 • 1 . 1 New France 

sippi Valley, which time was to prove the most 

extensive fertile area in the world. Efforts were made to occupy 


Commerce and Colonies 

.^v^^^-tf-NEW ORLEANS 
S15t, ST. LOUIS "^ -^ 


'■^^^^'^ ^'^S^Ui'L^J^U'km^ 

-t-Route of LaSalle's 
great voyage of 

La Salle's Explorations 

it and to connect it with Canada by a chain of forts reaching 
from Quebec and Montreal on the St. Lawrence to New Or- 
leans ^ at the mouth of the Mississippi. All of the continent 
west of the AUeghenies was to become a New France, a Roman 
Cathohc and despotic empire after the pattern of the mother 

1 Founded in 1718 and named after the Due de Orleans, who was regent of 
France during the minority of Louis XV. See page 406, note 2. 

Rivalry of France and England in America 467 

However audacious this design, it seemed not impossible 
of fulfillment. New France, a single royal province under one 
military governor, offered a united front to the strength and 
divided EngHsh colonies. The population, though weakness^f 
small compared with the number of the EngHsh ^®^ France 
colonists, consisted mostly of men of miHtary age, good fighters, 
and aided by numerous Indian allies. Lack of home support 
offset these real advantages. While the French were contend- 
ing for colonial supremacy, they were constantly at war in 
Europe. They wasted on European battle-fields the resources 
which might otherwise have been expended in America. The 
failure of France at this time to become a world-power must be 
ascribed, therefore, chiefly to the mistaken policies and bad 
government of Louis XIV and Louis XV. 

164. Rivalry of France and England in North 
America (to 1763) 

The struggle between France and England began, both in 
the Old World and the New, in 
1689, when the ''Glorious Revo- 
lution" drove out . 

A new 

James II and placed Hundred 
William of Orange on ^^^^' ^" 
the English throne as William III. 
The Dutch and English, who had 
previously been enemies, now be- 
came friends and united in resist- 
ance to Louis XIV. The French 
king not only threatened the 
Dutch, but also incensed the 
English by receiving the fugitive 
James and aiding him to win back 
his crown. England at once 
joined a coaHtion of the states of 
Europe against France. This 
was the beginning of a new Hundred Years' War between the 


After the portrait in possession of 
the^ present Marquis of Montcalm, 
Chateau d'Aveze, France. 


Commerce and Colonies 

/\» "^ 75° LoDgitude 

North America after The Peace of Utrecht, 1713 a.d. 

two countries.^ The struggle extended beyond the Continent, 
for each of the rivals tried to destroy the commerce and annex 
the colonies of the other. 

The first period of conflict closed in 17 13, with the Peace of 

Provisions of Utrecht, which was as important in the history 

the Peace of of colonial America as in the history of Europe. 

' England secured Newfoundland, Acadia (rechris- 

tened Nova Scotia), and the extensive region drained 

^ War of the League of Augsburg, 1 689-1 697 ("King William's War"). 
War of the Spanish Succession, 1702-17 13 ("Queen Anne's War"). 
War of the Austrian Succession,! 740-1 748 ("King George's War"). 
Seven Year's War, 1 756-1 763 ("French and Indian War"). 
War of the American Revolution, 1776-1783. 


Rivalry of France and England in America 469 

the rivers flowing into Hudson Bay. France, however, kept 
the best part of her American territories and retained control 
of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. The possession of 
these two waterways gave her a strong strategic position in the 
interior of the continent. 

The two great European wars which came between 1740 and 
1763 were naturally reflected in the New World. The War of 
the Austrian Succession, known 
in American history u^ing 
as '' King George's George's 
War," proved to be ^"rprench 
indecisive. The Seven and Indian 

Wax " 
Years' War, similarly 

known as the ** French and Indian 
War," resulted in the expulsion of 
the French from North America. 
It began as a contest for the 
Ohio Valley. The French wanted 
it, in order to join Canada 
and Louisiana; the English also 
wanted it, in order not to be shut 
out from the fertile region imme- 
diately west of the AUeghenies. 
France had no resources to cope with those of England in 
America, and the EngHsh command of the sea proved decisive. 
One French post after another was captured: Louisburg, on 
Cape Breton Island, commanding the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 
Fort Duquesne,^ at the junction of the Allegheny and Ohio 
rivers; Fort Niagara, which guarded the route between Lake 
Ontario and Lake Erie; and Fort Ticonderoga between Lake 
George and Lake Champlain. In 1759 Wolfe defeated the 
gallant Montcalm under the walls of Quebec, and the fall of 
that stronghold quickly followed. A year later what remained 
of the French army surrendered at Montreal. The British flag 
was now raised over Canada, where it has flown ever since. 
The second period of conflict closed in 1763, with the Peace 

James Wolfe 

After the portrait by Schaak in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. 

^ Renamed Fort Pitt after William Pitt, whence the modern Pittsburg. 

Commerce and Colonies 


after the 


1763 A. D. 



Fojt- Buquesnej4 PEtJN 

Oswego-) ,-j^-JPc.C'J'J 

■f I'^W -\*4t>l«moutn 







90 Longitude West 80 from Greenwich 70 

of Paris. France ceded to England all her North American 

possessions east of the Mississippi, except two 
Provisions „ . , , , - ^ , . n- i 

of the small islands kept for iishmg purposes on the coast 

of Newfoundland. Spain, which had also been 

involved in the war, gave up Florida to England, 

receiving as compensation the French territories west of the 

Peace of 
Paris, 1763 

Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies 471 

Mississippi. New France was now only a memory. But 
modern Canada has two millions of Frenchmen, who still hold 
aloof from the British in language and religion, while Louisiana, 
though shrunk to the dimensions of an American state, still 
retains in its laws and in many customs of its people the French 

The Peace of Paris marked a turning point in the history 
of the Thirteen Colonies. Relieved of pressure from without 
and free to expand toward the west and south, England and 
they now felt less keenly their dependence on the Thirteen 
England. Close ties, the ties of common interests, ° °^®^ 
common ideals, and a common origin, still attached them to the 
mother country; but these were soon to be rudely severed 
during the period of disturbance, disorder, and violence which 
culminated in the American Revolution. 

165. Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies, 1776-1783 

Englishmen in the New World for a long time had been 
drawing apart from Englishmen in the Old World. The politi- 
cal training received by the colonists in their local preoaration 
meetings and provincial assemblies fitted them for for inde- 
self-government, while the hard conditions of life p®°^®°<^® 
in America fostered their energy, self-reliance, and impatience of 
restraint. The important part which they played in the con- 
quest of Canada gave them confidence in their military 
abilities and showed them the value of cooperation. Renewed 
interference of Great Britain in what they deemed their private 
concerns before long called forth their united resistance. 

Some of the grievances of which the colonists complained 
were the outcome of the British colonial policy. The home 
government discouraged the manufacture in the Restrictions 
colonies of goods that could be made in England, on colonial 
ParHament, for instance, prohibited the export ™*°"^actures 
of woolens, not only to the British Isles and the Continent, 
but also from one colony to another, and forbade the colonists 
to set up mills for making wrought iron or its finished products. 

472 Commerce and Colonies 

Such regulations aimed to give British manufacturers a monop- 
oly of the colonial markets. 

The home government also interfered with the commerce of 
the colonies. As early as 1660 Parliament passed a "Navi- 
Restrictions g^tion Act" providing that sugar, tobacco, cotton, 
on colonial and indigo might not be exported direct from the 
commerce colonies to foreign countries, but must be first 
brought to England, where duties were paid on them. A 
subsequent act required all imports to the colonies from Con- 
tinental Europe to have been actually shipped from an English 
port, thus compelling the colonists to go to England for their 
supplies. These acts, however, were so poorly enforced for 
many years that smuggling became a lucrative occupation. 

All this legislation was not so repressive as one would suppose, 
partly because it was so constantly evaded and partly because 
Alleviations Great Britain formed the natural market for most 
and com- colonial products. Moreover, the home govern- 
pensations ^lent gave some special favors in the shape of 
"bounties," or sums of money to encourage the production of 
food and raw materials needed in Great Britain. Twenty- 
four colonial industries were subsidized in this manner. Colo- 
nial shipping was also fostered, for ships built in the colonies 
enjoyed the same exclusive privileges in the carrying trade as 
British-built ships. In fact, the regulations which the American 
colonists had to endure were light compared with the shackles 
laid by Spain and France upon their colonial possessions. It 
must always be remembered, finally, that Great Britain de- 
fended the colonists in return for trade privileges. As long 
as her help was needed against the French, they did not protest 
seriously against the legislation of Parliament. 

After the close of the Seven Years' War George III and his 

ministers determined to keep British troops in America as a 

protection against outbreaks by the French or 
The Stamp ^ ° , . ^ r 

Act and Indians. The colonists, to whose safety an army 

the Town- would add, were expected to pay for its partial 
shend Acts ' ,. [ j. 1 . i / 

support. Parliament, accordingly, took steps to 

enforce the laws regulating colonial commerce and also passed 

Capt. Cook's Voyages 

" Endeavour," 1768- 1771 A.D. 

"Resolution," 1772- 1775 A.D. 

"Resolution," 1776 -1780 A.D. 

__l I I 


Portuguese I I Spanis h I I Dutch I— — 


] British H 

140 120 Longitude 100 

Note: On the map the conditions are shown 

as they existed before the change in 1763 A.D. 

Scale of Miles along Equator 

1000 2000 3000 4000 


80 from 60 Greenwich 40 

Longitude 20 East 40 from 20 Greenwich I 

Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies 473 

the Stamp Act (1765). The protests of the colonists led to the 
repeal of this obnoxious measure, but it was soon replaced by 
the Townshend Acts (1767), levying duties on certain commodi- 
ties imported into America. These acts, in turn, were repealed 
three years later. Parhament, however, kept a small duty on 

t--^ ,— ^ ^..wr^-wv. 

V ^ ^ " ^^ ' "^' ' ' ' ^^^^ ^- 

xJKicM. c^nv^Vfet nUn\.'to Hv iMt yi ^^wi/wl;^^;^. 

Opening Lines of the Declaration of Independence 

A reduced facsimile of the first lines of Jefferson's original draft. 

tea, in order that the colonists might not think that it had 

abandoned its assumed right to tax them. 

The Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts thus brought up 

the whole question as to the extent of parliamentary control 

over the colonists. They argued that taxes could ^^ 

be rightfully voted only by their own representative ation 

assemblies. It was a natural attitude for them without rep- 
. . . , resentation" 

to take, smce Parliament, sittmg three thousand 

miles away, had little insight into American affairs. The 

English view was that Parliament "virtually'* represented all 

Englishmen and hence might tax them where v^er they lived. 

This view can also be understood, for the " Glorious Revolution" 

had definitely estabHshed the supremacy of Parliament in 

England.^ In any case, however, taxation of the colonies 

1 See page 394. 


Commerce and Colonies 

was clearly contrary to custom and very impolitic in the face 
of the popular feeHng which it aroused in America. 

Some British statesmen themselves espoused the cause of 
the colonists. Edmund Burke, the great Irish orator, declared 
Attitude ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ virtual representation of 

of British America in Parliament was " the most contemptible 
statesmen .^^^ ^-^^^ ^^^^^ entered the head of a man." Even 

William Pitt (then earl of Chatham), while maintaining the 

right of Parlia- 
ment to legislate 
for America, ap- 
plauded the 
"manly wisdom 
and calm resolu- 
tion" displayed 
by the colonists 
in their resistance 
to arbitrary 
power. But these 
were the voices 
of a minority, of 
a helpless minor- 
ity. Parliament, 
then under the 
thumb of George 
III and the 

A medal designed and engraved by C. C. Wright. The reverse, ^mg S irienClS, 
here figured, is copied from Trumbull's picture of the signing of nreciDitatcd al- 
the Declaration of Independence. 

most light-heart- 
edly, the catastrophe which severed the two chief branches of 
English-speaking peoples. 

No colony at first contained a large majority in favor of 
separation, and even after the Declaration of Independence 
The numerous loyalists, or "Tories," continued to 

••Tories" espouse the British cause. Some of them even 
fought against their native land, while others did everything 

1 See page 438. 

Medal Commemorating the Declaration 
OF Independence 

Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies 475 

they could to prevent the success of the Revolution by sowing 
sedition, spreading false news, concealing spies, and seUing goods 
to the enemy. It was necessary to adopt the sternest measures 
in dealing with men whom Washington called "execrable 
parricides," and many were imprisoned or confined in con- 
centration camps. After the conclusion of peace the "Tories" 
emigrated in great numbers to Canada, where they formed the 
first English settlers. They prospered in their new home, and 
their descendants, who form a considerable part of the Canadian 
population, are to-day among the most devoted members of 
the British Empire. 

Even had the colonists been unanimous in resistance to 
Great Britain, they stood httle chance of winning against a 
wealthy country with a population nearly three -pj^^ French 
times their own, trained armies supported by alliance, 
German mercenaries, and a powerful navy. When, ^'^'^^ 
however, the resources of France were thrown into the scale, 
the issue became less doubtful. France, still smarting from 
the losses incurred in the Seven Years' War, desired to recover 
as much as possible of her colonial possessions and secretly 
aided the Americans with money and supplies for some time 
before the victory at Saratoga led her to enter into a formal 
alliance with them. It must never be forgotten, also, that many 
Frenchmen felt a genuine sympathy for the colonists in their 
struggle for liberty. The Marquis de Lafayette was only 
the most illustrious of the French nobles who crossed the 
Atlantic to fight side by side with American soldiers. 

The war now merged into a European conflict in which 
France was joined by Spain and Holland. Great Britain 
needed all her reserve power to prevent rebellion 
in Ireland, defend Gibraltar, and keep her pos- Se^Revo- 
sessions in the West Indies and India. The strug- lutionary 
gle in America practically closed in 1781, when 
Cornwallis, blockaded at Yorktown by a French fleet and 
closely invested by the combined French and American armies, 
surrendered the largest British force still in the colonies. Nearly 
two years passed, however, before the contestants made peace. 

476 Commerce and Colonies 

The Treaty of Paris between Great Britain and the United 
States recognized the independence of the former Thirteen 
Colonies and fixed their boundaries at Canada 
Paris and and the Great Lakes, the Atlantic Ocean, Florida, 
VersaiUes, ^nd the Mississippi River. The Treaty of Ver- 
sailles between Great Britain, France, and Spain 
restored to France a few colonial possessions and gave to Spain 
the island of Minorca and the Florida territory. Holland, 
which concluded a separate peace with Great Britain, was 
obliged to cede to that country some stations in India and to 
throw open to British merchants the valuable trade of the 
East Indies. 

The successful revolt of the Thirteen Colonies dealt a stagger- 
ing blow at the old colonial policy. The Americans con- 
Eff ts of tinued to trade with the mother country from 

American self -interest, although they were no longer com- 

independence ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ j^^^ ^j^^ ^.^^^j^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

British commerce with the United States doubled within fifteen 
years after the close of the Revolutionary War. This formed 
an object-lesson in the futility of commercial restrictions. 

The American War of Independence reacted almost at 
once on Europe. The Declaration of Independence, setting 
America forth the ''unalienable rights of man" as against 

teaching feudal privilege and oppression, provided ardent 

by examp e spirits in France with a formula of liberty which 
they were not slow in applying to their own country. The 
French Revolution of 1789 was the child of the American 
Revolution. Early in the nineteenth century still another 
revolutionary movement stripped Spain and Portugal of all 
their continental possessions in the New World. America 
was, indeed, teaching by example. 

166. Progress of Geographical Discovery 

Great Britain soon found at least partial compensation for 
the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in the occupation of Australia 
and the islands of the Pacific. That vast ocean, covering 

Progress of Geographical Discovery 477 

more than one-third of the globe, remained Httle known to 

Europeans until the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

Soon after Magellan's voyao^e in i ^20 the Spaniards 

1 T 1 , 1 • , , Early ex- 

estabnsned a regular commercial route between pioration 

Mexico and the Philippines and gradually dis- °^ ^^ 
covered some of the innumerable archipelagoes 
which stud the intervening seas. Sir Francis Drake's circum- 
navigation of the world (i 577-1 580) first drew the attention of 
Englishmen to the Pj^cific Ocean, but a long time passed before 
they began, its 'systematic exploration. 

The unveiling of the Pacific was closely connected with the 
Antarctic problem. Geographers from the time of the Greeks 
had a vague idea that a region of continental ^j^^ „ Great 
proportions lay to the southeast of the Indian South 
Ocean. The idea found expression in Ptolemy's *° 
map of the world, and Marco Polo during his stay in China 
heard about it. After the Dutch became established in the 
East Indies, they made renewed search for the ''Great South 
Land" and carefully explored the western coast of Australia 
or "New Holland." 

In 1642 the Dutch East India Company sent Abel Tasman 
from Batavia to investigate the real extent of Australia. Tas- 
man's voyage — one of the most notable on record jasman's 
— led to the discovery of Van Diemen's Land voyage, 
(Tasmania) and New Zealand, and proved con- ^^^ 
clusively that Australia had no connection with the supposed 
Antarctic continent. The Dutch, however, manifested Httle 
interest in the regions which they had found, and more than 
one hundred years elapsed before Tasman's work was continued 
by Captain James Cook. 

This famous navigator, the son of a farm laborer, entered the 
British navy at an early age and by his unaided 
efforts rose to high command. Cook's first voy- yo^^lls 
age in the Pacific resulted in the exploration of in the 
the coast of New Zealand and the eastern shore 1768-1779 
of Australia. The second voyage finally settled 
the question as to the existence of a southern continent, 


Commerce and Colonies 

for Cook sailed three times across the Pacific Ocean without 
finding it. At the instance of George III, Cook undertook 
a third voyage to locate, if possible, an opening on the coast of 
Alaska which would lead into Hudson Bay. He followed the 
American coast through Bering Strait until an unbroken ice- 
field barred further progress. 
On the return from the 
Arctic region Cook visited 
the Hawaiian Islands, where 
he was murdered by the 
natives. Thus closed the 
career of one who, more 
than any other explorer, re- 
vealed to European gaze the 
island world of the Pacific. 

Captain Cook on his third 
voyage was the first British 
navigator to sight Alaska. 
Here, however, he had been 
preceded by the Russians, 
who reached the Pacific by 
way of Siberia and the 
Arctic Ocean. It still re- 
mained uncertain whether Siberia did not join on to the 
„ . . northern part of the New World. Peter the 

Bering's ^ 

voyages, Great, who showed a keen interest in geographi- 

iTdi"^"^^^' ^^^ discovery, commissioned Vitus Bering, a Dane 
in the Russian service, to solve the problem. 
Bering explored the strait and sea named after him and made 
clear the relation between North America and Asia. 

The eighteenth century thus added greatly to man's knowl- 
edge of the world, especially in the Pacific area. Cook's voy- 
Scientific ages, in particular, left the main outlines of the 

exploration southern part of the globe substantially as they 
are known to-day. From this time systematic exploration for 
scientific purposes more and more took the place of voyages 
by private adventurers for the sake of warfare or plunder. 

Captain James Cook 

A painting by Nathaniel Dance ; now in 
Greenwich Hospital, England. 

Progress of Geographical Discovery 479 

Geographical discovery must be included, therefore, among the 
influences which made the eighteenth century so conspicuously 
an age of enlightenment. 


I . On outline maps represent the division of North America (a) after the Peace 
of Utrecht and {b) after the Peace of Paris. 2. Locate these places: Calcutta; 
Batavia; Sidney; Madras; Sitka; Bombay; and Pondicherry. 3. Identify these 
dates in American colonial history: 1607; 1620; 1664; 1713; and 1763. 4. Ac- 
cording to the mercantile theory, what constituted a " favorable" and what an "un- 
favorable" balance of trade? 5. How was the colonial policy based on mercantilism 
opposed to modern ideas of commercial freedom? 6. What was meant by the saying 
that colonies were "like so many farms of the mother country"? 7. Why was the 
joint stock company a more successful method of fostering colonial trade than the 
regulated company? 8. Show that the seventeenth century belonged commercially 
to the Dutch, as the sixteenth century had belonged to the Portuguese and Spaniards. 
9. On the map (page 443) indicate what East Indian islands still rerriain Dutch 
possessions. 10. Why was it possible for European powers to secure dominions 
in India? 11. State the basis of the claims of England, France, Spain, Hol- 
land, and Sweden to territory in North America during the seventeenth century. 
12. "The breaking of Spain's naval power is an incident of the first importance in 
the history of the English colonies." Comment on this statement. 13. Why 
was the acquisition of New Netherland an important step in the building up of 
colonial America? 14. Show how the Stuart kings fostered England's expansion 
in North America. 15. "The expansion of England in the New World and in 
Asia is the formula which sums up for England the history of the eighteenth century." 
Comment on this statement. 16. Set forth the importance of the Seven Years* 
War in the history of India and of colonial America. 17. Show that "no taxation 
without representation" was a slogan which could hardly have arisen in any but an 
EngUsh country. 18. "The Declaration of Independence was the formal announce- 
ment of democratic ideas that had their tap-root in English soil." Comment on 
this statement. 19. How did the American Revolution become a world war? 
20. In what sense was the American Revolution "a civil war within the British 
Empire"? 21. From what Dutch source were the names Tasmania, Van Die- 
men's Land, and New Zealand derived? 22. Trace on the map (between pages 
472-473) the three voyages of Captain Cook. 



167. The Eighteenth Century in Culture 

Previous chapters have set forth some of the more significant 
transformations of European society between 1300 and 1700. 
. f The revival of classical literature, art, and learning, 

enUghten- the progress of geographical discovery, and the 
™®^* Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter 

Reformation were all movements which helped to complete the 
transition from the medieval to the modern world.. To these 
three movements we may now add the extraordinary awaken- 
ing of the European mind in the eighteenth century. It was 
an age of reason, an age of enhghtenment. 

The thinkers of the eighteenth century pursued knowledge 
not so much for its own sake as for its social usefulness. They 
The reform- felt that the time had come when mankind might 
ing spirit ^q\\ discard many ideas and customs, once serv- 

iceable, perhaps, but now outworn. To them the chief obstacle 
in the way of progress was found in human ignorance, prejudice, 
and unreasoning veneration for the past. Systematic and ac- 
curate knowledge, they beheved, would destroy this attachment 
to ''the good old days" and would make it possible to create 
more reasonable and enhghtened institutions. In other words, 
thinkers were animated by the reforming spirit. 

Reform was sorely needed. Absolute monarchies claiming 
to rule by the will of God, aristocracies in the possession of 
The Old special rights, privileges, and honors, the masses 

Regime Qf the people excluded from any part in the govern- 

ment and burdened with taxes and feudal dues — such were 
some of the survivals of medievalism which formed the Old 
Regime.^ The eighteenth century aboHshed it in France; 

1 In French, ancien regime. 

The Privileged Classes 481 

the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have done much to 
abolish it in other European countries. Let us examine it more 

168. The Privileged Classes 

Where absolutism prevailed, everything depended upon the 
personal character of the sovereign. A Peter the Great might 
set his country upon the road to civilization; The 
a Louis XIV, on the contrary, might plunge his monarchy 
people into indescribable misery as the result of needless wars 
and extravagant expenditures. As time went on, it began to 
appear more and more unreasonable that a single person should 
have the power to make the laws, levy the taxes, spend the 
revenues, declare war, and conclude peace according to his own 
inclination. England in the seventeenth century had shown 
that a divine-right monarchy might be replaced by a constitu- 
tional monarchy and parliamentary control of legislation. 
The reformers wished to secure for France and other Conti- 
nental countries at least an equal measure of political liberty. 

Not less insistent was their demand for social equality. 
The feudal system had bequeathed as part of its heritage to 
modern Europe a system of class distinctions which -^j^^ -p-^^^^ 
honeycombed society. The highest place was and Second 
occupied by the clergy and the nobility, who con- 
stituted the First and Second Estates, respectively. These 
two privileged classes formed a very small minority of the 
population in any European country. Of twenty-five million 
Frenchmen, for instance, less than half a million were clerics 
or nobles. 

The clergy, especially in Roman Catholic lands, retained much 
of the power that they had exercised throughout the Middle 
Ages. Reverence felt by kings and lords for 
mother Church had dowered her representatives 
with rich and broad domains. In France, Spain, Italy, and 
those parts of Germany where Church property had not been 
confiscated by Protestants, the archbishops, bishops, abbots, 
and cardinals ruled as veritable princes and paid few or no 

482 The Old Regime in Europe 

taxes to the government. ' These members of the higher clergy- 
were recruited mainly from the noble famiUes and naturally 
took the side of the absolute monarchs. The lower clergy, 
the thousands of parish priests, who came from the common 
people, just as naturally espoused the popular cause. They 
saw the abuses of the existing system and supported the de- 
mands for its reform. 

The nobiUty consisted, in part, of the descendants of feudal 
lords. By the eighteenth century, however, the old military 
The nobility had largely disappeared from Europe, 

nobility except in Germany. A new aristocracy arose, con- 

sisting of those who had been ennobled by the king for various 
services or who had held certain offices which conferred noble 
rank. The nobles, like the higher clergy, were great landed 
proprietors, though without the military obligations which 
rested on feudal lords during the Middle Ages. 

England is almost the only modern state where the nobility 
still keeps an important place in the national life. There are 
English several reasons for this fact. In the first place, 

nobles British nobles are few in number in consequence 

of the rule of primogeniture.^ Only the eldest son of a peer 
inherits his father's title and estate; the younger sons are 
commoners. Even the eldest son during his father's Hfetime 
is styled "Lord" simply by courtesy. In the second place, the 
social distinction of the nobihty arouses Httle antagonism, 
because a peer is not bound to marry into another noble family 
but may take his wife from the ranks of commoners. Finally, 
nobles in Great Britain are taxed as are other citizens and are 
equally amenable to the laws. 

Very different was the situation in eighteenth-century France. 
Here there were as many as one hundred thousand nobles, for 
French the French did not observe the rule of primogeni- 

nobles ^ure. Their "gentle birth" enabled them to 

monopolize the important offices in the government, the army, 
and the Church. They claimed, and largely secured, exemption 
from taxation. The result was that most of the expense of the 

* See page 116, note i. 

The Unprivileged Classes 483 

wars, the magnificent palaces, and gorgeous ceremonial of 
Louis XIV and Louis XV was borne by the middle and lower 
classes of France. The provincial nobles, who lived on 
their country estates, usually took more or less part in local 
affairs and felt an interest in the welfare of the peasantry. 
But many members of the nobility were absentee landlords, 
leading a fashionable existence at the court and dancing attend- 
ance on the king. Nobles of this type were ornamental rather 
than useful. Their luxury and idleness made them objects of 
odium in the minds of all who wished to renovate society. As 
one reformer declared, "Through all the vocabulary of Adam, 
there is not such an animal as a duke or a count." 

169. The Unprivileged Classes 

Such were the two privileged orders, or estates. Beneath 
them came the unprivileged order known as the The Third 
Third Estate in France. It consisted of three Estate 
main divisions. 

The middle class, or bourgeoisie,^ included all those who 
were not manual laborers. Professional men, such as magis- 
trates, lawyers, physicians, and teachers, together The 
with bankers, manufacturers, wholesale merchants, bourgeoisie 
and shopkeepers, were bourgeois. The British middle class 
enjoyed representation in Parliament and frequently entered 
the nobility. The French bourgeoisie, on the contrary, could 
not hold the positions of greatest honor in the government. 
Though well educated and often wealthy, they were made to 
feel in every way their inferiority to the arrogant nobles. They 
added their voices, therefore, to those who demanded political 
liberty and social equality. 

The next division of the Third Estate comprised the artisans 
living in the towns and cities. They were not very numerous, 
except in Great Britain, France, western Germany, The 
and northern Italy, where industrial life had artisans 
reached a much higher development than elsewhere in Europe. 

1 See page 227 and note i. 

484 The Old Regime in Europe 

The craft guilds, which formed so useful a feature of urban 

Hfe in the Middle Ages, had not disappeared in the eighteenth 

century. In many places, however, the masters, 
Survivals , 1,1 ■, - 1, 

of the who owned the shops, machmes, or tools, alone 

S"^^ belonged to the guilds. Even where journeymen 

and apprentices became members, they were not 

admitted to all the privileges of the craft. This exclusive 

policy of the masters provoked much opposition on the part of 

the poorer workmen and led to a demand for the abolition of 

their monopoly of industry. 

The last and by far the largest division of the Third Estate 
was that of the peasants. In Prussia, Austria, Hungary, 
The Poland, Russia, and Spain they were still serfs. 

peasants They might not leave their villages or marry with- 

out their lord's consent; their children must serve in his family 
for several years at a nominal wage; and they themselves had 
to work for a number of days each week on their lord's land. 
It is said that this forced labor sometimes took so much of the 
peasant's time that he could only cultivate his own holding by 
moonlight. Conditions were better in Italy and western Ger- 
many, though it was a Hessian prince who sold his subjects to 
Great Britain to fight as mercenaries in the American War of 
Independence. In France, serfdom still existed only in Alsace, 
Lorraine, and Franche Comte,^ three provinces which had been 
acquired by Louis XIV and Louis XV. The great majority 
of the French peasants enjoyed complete freedom, and many 
of them owned their own farms. 

But even the free peasants of France carried a heavy burden. 

The king taxed their lands and dwellings, and the taxes were 

increased arbitrarily upon any sign of the owner's 
Survivals . ^, ,111., , • , 

of the prosperity. Ihe clergy aemandea tithes, which 

manorial amounted to perhaps a thirteenth of the produce. 

The nobles exacted various feudal dues for the 

use of oven, mill, and wine press, and tolls for the use of roads 

and bridges. The game laws were especially vexatious, for 

farmers were obliged to allow the game of neighboring lords to 

^ See the map on page 402. 

Liberal Ideas of Industry and Commerce 485 

invade their fields and destroy the crops. SUght wonder that 
the peasants also formed a discontented class, anxious for any 
reforms which would better their hard lot. 

170. Liberal Ideas of Industry and Commerce; 
the Economists 

We have mentioned some of the abuses of the Old Regime. 
They were not greater in the eighteenth century than for 
hundreds of years before, but now they were to political 
be seriously attacked by thinkers who applied economy, or 
the test of reasonableness to every institution. ®^o^°°"<^s 
It was at this time that pohtical economy, or economics, came 
into being. Economic science, which investigates such sub- 
jects as the production of wealth and its distribution as rent, 
interest, profits, and wages, the functions of money and credit, 
and the methods of taxation, had been studied in earlier times 
by those, whose chief motive was to increase the riches of mer- 
chants and fill the treasuries of kings. Students in the eigh- 
teenth century took a wider view and began to search for the 
true causes of national well-being. 

The economists who flourished in France received the name 
of Physiocrats,^ because they believed that natural laws ruled 
in the economic world. In opposition to the The 
Mercantilists, who held that the wealth of a nation Physiocrats 
comes from industry and commerce, some of the Physiocrats 
declared that it comes from agriculture. Manufacturers, 
said they, merely give a new form to materials extracted from 
the earth, while traders do nothing more than transfer com- 
modities from one person to another. Farmers are the only 
productive members of society. It was a striking doctrine to 
enunciate at a time when the peasantry formed, as has been 
said, the ''beast of burden" of the Old Regime. This group 
of Physiocrats did a ■ real service in insisting upon the 
importance of agriculture, even though they erred in assuming 
that it is the sole source of wealth. 

^ A term derived from two Greek words meaning " nature " and " to rule." 


The Old Regime in Europe 

Another group of Physiocrats protested against the burden- 
some restraints imposed upon industry by the guilds and upon 
Laissez- commerce by the governments. They advocated 

faire economic freedom. Any one should be allowed 

to make what things he hkes ; all occupations should be open to 
everybody; trade between different parts of the country should 

not be impeded by tolls and 

taxes; customs duties should 
not be levied on the impor- 
tation of foreign goods. The 
Physiocratic teaching was 
summed up in the famous 
phrase laissez-faire — ''let 

A Scotch professor of phi- 
losophy, Adam Smith, who had 
Adam Smith, visited France and 
1732-1790 knew th^ Physi- 
ocrats, carried their ideas 
across the Channel. His 
famous work on the Wealth 
of Nations appeared in 1776, 
the year of American independence. It formed a new decla- 
ration of independence for industry and commerce. Smith set 
forth the doctrine of laissez-faire so clearly and persuasively as 
to make a profound impression upon business men and states- 
men. His arguments against monopohes, bounties, and pro- 
tective tariffs did much to secure the subsequent adoption of 
free trade by Great Britain and even affected Continental 
legislation. Thus the Wealth of Nations, judged by its 
results, is one of the most important books which has ever 
been written. 

171. The Scientists 

Arithmetic, geometry, and algebra (elementary mathematics) 
had been studied in the schools and universities 
of the later Middle Ages. It remained to create 
the higher mathematics, including analytic geometry, loga- 

Adam Smith 

A medallion by James Tassie. 


The Scientists 


rithms, the theory of probabihties, and the infinitesimal cal- 
culus. Knowledge of the calculus, which deals with quantities 
infinitely small, has been of immense service in engineering 
and other applied sciences. Credit for its discovery is divided 
between the German Leibniz (1646-17 16) and his English con- 
temporary, Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). 

The profound mind of Newton formulated the so-called law 
of gravitation. He showed by mathematical 

calculation that the motion of the 

1 11 1 r 1 Astronomy 

planets about the sun, and of the 

moon about the earth, can be explained as due 
to the same mysterious force of gravity which 
makes the apple fall to the ground. This dis- 
covery that all the movements of the heav- 
enly bodies obey one simple physical law forms 
perhaps the greatest achievement in the his- 
tory of science. Scarcely less important was 
the nebular hypothesis of the French astron- 
omer Laplace (1749-1827). He conjectured 
that our own and other solar systems had been 
produced by the condensation of nebulous mat- 
ter once diffused through space; in other words, 
that the nebulae were stages in the formation 
of stars. The further achievements of eigh- 
teenth-century astronomy include the discovery 
beyond Saturn of a new planet, Uranus, the 
computation of the distance between the 
earth and the moon, and the proof that our solar system 
as a whole is moving toward a point in the constellation 

Various investigators at this time laid the foundation of 
modern physics, particularly in the departments of electricity 

and magnetism. Benjamin Franklin, by his kite , . 

• 1 11 ,. '. . „ Physics 

experiment, demonstrated that lightnmg is really 

an electrical phenomenon. The memory of the Italian Volta 

is perpetuated whenever an electrician refers to a "voltaic cell" 

or uses the term "volt." French scientists invented the 

Death Mask 
OF Sir Isaac 

In the possession of 
the Royal Society 
of London. 


The Old Regime in Europe 


balloon, thus beginning the conquest of the air. The first 
successful ascents in balloons took place at Paris in 1783. 

Chemical research made rapid progress. Greek philosophers 
had taught that earth, air, water, and fire comprise the original 
"elements" out of which everything else was made. 
The chemists now disproved this idea by decom- 
posing water into the two gases, hydrogen and oxygen. The 

Frenchman Lavoisier (i 743-1 794) 
also showed that fire is really a 
union of oxygen with earthy car- 
bon. Until his time it had been 
supposed that objects burn be- 
cause they contain a combustible 
substance known as "phlogiston." 
We further owe to Lavoisier the 
modern doctrine of the indestruc- 
tibihty of matter. 

Eighteenth - century explorers 
brought back to Europe from 

^ , America and the Pa- 

Biology . - 

cmc many new species 

of animals and plants, thus 

greatly encouraging biological 

study. Here the most eminent 

name is that of the Swede Linnaeus (1707-1778), whose careful 

description and classification of plants established botany as a 

science. In medicine the introduction of vaccination as a 

preventive of smallpox marked the first step toward securing 

immunity by inoculation against certain dread diseases. The 

invention of the compound microscope, following soon after 

the discovery of the telescope, revealed the existence of" a 

hitherto unsuspected realm of minute life in earth and air and 


Scientific investigations, in previous times pursued by lonely 

Learned thinkers, now began to be carried on systemati- 

societies ^ally by the members of learned societies. Italy 

led the way with the foundation at Naples and Rome of the 

A painting by Roslin. 

Liberal Ideas of Religion and Politics 489 

first academies of science, and her example was followed at 
Paris, Berlin, and other European capitals. Shortly after the 
"Glorious Revolution" a group of English investigators ob- 
tained a charter forming them into the Royal Society of London. 
It still exists and enrolls the most distinguished scientists of 
Great Britain. Never before had there been so much interest 
in science and so many opportunities to uncover the secrets of 

172. Liberal Ideas of Religion and Politics; 
the English Philosophers 

The advance of science, which immensely broadened men's 
conceptions of the universe, could not fail to affect their atti- 
tude toward religion. The idea of the reign of Rationalism 
natural law in the physical world was now extended "^ religion 
to the spiritual world. Thinking men began to argue that the 
doctrines 9f Christianity should not be accepted on the author- 
ity either of the Chuirch or of the Bible, but must be submitted 
to free inquiry. These champions of reason — the rationalists 
— especially flourished in England, where thought was less 
fettered than on the Continent. They were not all of one 
mind. Some of them, such as John Locke (1632-1704), de- 
fended Christianity as being the most reasonable of all 

Other rationalists questioned the special claims of Christi- 
anity. They declared that the questions over which Christian 

sects had disputed for centuries were really of 

, . , , . -^ , The Deists 

mmor importance; the essential thing was the 

doctrine common to all mankind. Thus they arrived at the 

conception of "natural religion," which included simply the be- 

Hdf in a personal God and in man's immortal soul. These 

thinkers received the name of Deists.^ 

By casting doubt on the efficacy of particular religions, 

the Deists gave an impetus to the demand for influence of 

toleration of all. Their speculations found a warm *^® Deists 

welcome in France, where they helped to undermine reverence 

^ Latin Deus, "God." 

490 The Old Regime in Europe 

for the Church among the more intelUgent classes. Deism 
in this way acted as a revolutionary ferment. 

Rationahsm also invaded politics. EngHsh thinkers, of 
whom Locke formed the most prominent representative, de- 
Rationalism veloped a theory of government which, like the 
in poUtics Calvinistic theory,^ was utterly opposed to the 
old doctrine of the divine right of kings. According to Locke, 
all men possess certain natural rights to life, liberty, and the 
ownership of property. To preserve these rights they have 
entered into a contract with one another, agreeing that the 
majority shall have power to make and execute all necessary 
laws. If the government, thus created, breaks the contract 
by violating man's natural rights, it has no longer any claim 
to the allegiance of its subjects and may be legitimately over- 

To say that all government exists, or should exist, by the 
consent of the governed is to set up the doctrine ©f popular 
Popular sovereignty. How influential it was may be seen 

sovereignty fj-Q^i passages in the Declaration of Independence 
which reproduce the very words of Locke and other English 
writers. But their ideas found the heartiest reception in 
France. Enlightened members of the nobihty and bour- 
geoisie, weary of royal despotism, took them up, expounded 
them, and spread them among the people. 

173. The French Philosophers 

France during the eighteenth century had not been able to 
maintain the high position among European states to which she 
Intellectual ^^^ ^^^^ raised by Louis XIV, and in the struggle 
leadership for colonial empire she had been defeated by Grqat 
of France Britain. Her intellectual leadership compensated 
for all that she had lost. Throughout this century France gave 
birth to a succession of philosophers whose ideas fell like ferti- 
Hzing rain upon the arid soil of the Old Regime. Some of them 
had lived for a time in England as refugees from the persecution 

1 See page 376. 

The French Philosophers 


which too bold thinking involved at home. Their life there 
made them acquainted with the British system of constitutional 
monarchy — so unlike the absolutism of French kings — with 
the political theories of Locke, and with the ideas of the Deists, 
from whom they learned to submit time-honored beliefs to 
searching examination. 

A nobleman, lawyer, and judge, Montesquieu, spent twenty 
years in composing a single book on the Spirit of Laws. It is 
a classic in political science. There was nothing Montesquieu, 
revolutionary in Montesquieu's conclusions. He 1689-1755 
examined each form of government in order to determine its 
excellencies and defects. 
The British constitution 
seemed to him most 
admirable, as combining 
the virtues of monarchy, 
aristocrac)^, and democ- 
racy. Montesquieu es- 
pecially insisted upon 
the necessity of sepa- 
rating the executive, leg- 
islative, and judicial 
functions of govern- 
ment, instead of com- 
bining them in the 
person of a single ruler. 
This idea influenced the 
French revolutionists 
and also had great 
weight with the framers of the Constitution of the United 

The foremost figure among the philosophers was Voltaire, 
who sprang from the bourgeoisie. He was not a deep thinker 
like Montesquieu, but was rather a brilliant and Voltaire, 
somewhat superficial man of letters. For more 1694-1778 
than half a century he poured forth a succession of poems, 
dramas, essays, biographies, histories, and other works, so 


A statue by J. A. Houdon in the Comedie 
Frangaise, Paris. 


The Old Regime in Europe 

clearly written, so witty, and so satirical as to win the applause 
of his contemporaries. 

Voltaire devoted a long life to the preaching of enlighten- 
ment. He was in no sense a revolutionist, and favored reform 
V itaire ^^ royal decree as being the simplest and most 

and the expeditious method. He made it his particular 

Church work to bring discredit on ecclesiastical authority. 

The Church he regarded as an invention of self-seeking priests. 

A typical Deist, Voltaire in- 
sisted on the need of toleration. 
" Since we are all steeped in error 
and folly," he said, ''we must 
forgive each other our follies." 
His exposure of bigotry and 
fanaticism was needed in the 
eighteenth century. It has 
helped to create the freer atmos- 
phere in which religious thought 
moves to-day. 

If Voltaire was the destroyer 
of the old, Rousseau was the 
jrophet of the new. This son 
of a Geneva watchmaker, who 
wandered from one European 
capital to another, made a fail- 
ure of everything he undertook 
and died poverty-stricken and 
demented. The discouragements and miseries of his career 
Rousseau, found expression in what he wrote. Rousseau felt 
1712-1778 Qj^iy contempt for the boasted civilization of the 
age. He loved to picture what he supposed was once the 
"state of nature," before governments had arisen, before the 
strong had begun to oppress the weak, when nobody owned 
the land, and when there were no taxes and no wars. ''Back 
to nature" was Rousseau's cry. 

Such fancies Rousseau applied to politics in what was his 
most important book, the Social Contract. Starting with the 

Jean Jacques Rousseau 

A portrait by Ramsay made in 1766. 

The Enlightened Despots . 493 

assertion that "man was born free and is everywhere in 
chains," he went on to describe a purely ideal ^j^^ „ g^^.^j 
state of society in which the citizens are ruled Contract," 
neither by kings nor parliaments, but themselves 
make the laws directly. The only way to reform the world, 
according to Rousseau, was to restore the sovereignty of the 
people, with "Liberty, Equahty, Fraternity" for all. As we 
have just learned, the idea that governments and laws arise 
by voluntary agreements among men, who may overthrow 
them for just cause, was not new; but Rousseau first gave it 
wide currency. Frenchmen of every class read the Social 
Contract with avidity, and during the Revolution they pro- 
ceeded to put its democratic teachings into effect. 

Jlousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu were among the con- 
tributors to the famous Encyclopedia, a work in seventeen 
volumes which appeared after the middle of the The En- 
eighteenth century. As the name indicates, it cydopedists 
formed a repository of all the scientific and historical knowl- 
edge of the age. But it was more than a monument of learning. 
The Encyclopedists, as its editors are known, were radical 
thinkers who combined in a great effort to throw the light of 
reason on the dark places of the social order. They set in 
motion a current of revolt which did much to undermine both 
Church and State in France. 

174. The Enlightened Despots 

The ideas of the philosophers spread throughout those parts 

of Europe where French models were followed. Even kings 

and statesmen began to be affected by the spirit _ 

-r. 1 T 1 . f Paternalism 

of reform. European rulers did not mtend to 

surrender the least fraction of absolute power; they were still 

autocrats who believed in government by one strong man 

rather than by the democratic many; but with their despotism 

they combined a paternal solicitude for the welfare of their 

subjects. They took measures to secure religious toleration, 

to relieve poverty, to codify the laws, to provide elementary 

494 The Old Regime in Europe 

education, and to encourage scientific research. These activities 
have won for them the name of the "enhghtened despots." 

In Russia Catherine the Great posed as an enhghtened despot. 
Catherine was a learned woman, at least for an empress. She 
Catherine wrote flattering letters to Voltaire and the Ency- 
the Great clopedists and conferred on them gifts and pen- 
sions. Montesquieu she especially admired, saying that were 
she the pope she would canonize him. But Catherine paid 
little more than lip-service to the ideas of the French 
philosophers. If she aboHshed torture, she did not do away 
with the knout; for capital punishment she only substituted 
the living death of exile in Siberia. Her toleration of dis- 
senters from the Orthodox Church stopped short of allowing 
them to build chapels for public worship, and her passion for 
legislative reform grew cold when she found that she must begin 
by freeing the serfs. Catherine's real attitude is exhibited in 
a letter to the governor of Moscow: "My dear prince, do not 
complain that the Russians have no desire for instruction; 
if I institute schools it is not for us, it is for Europe, where we 
must keep our position in public opinion. But the day when 
our peasants shall wish to become educated both you and I 
will lose our places." 

Catherine's contemporary, Frederick the Great, was a despot 
more sincere and more enlightened. He worked harder and had 
Frederick fewer pleasures than any other king of his day. 
the Great "Monarchs," he once wrote, "are not invested 
with authority that they may riot in voluptuousness." Al- 
though Frederick's resources had been so completely drained 
by the Seven Years' War that it was necessary for him to melt 
the silver in the royal palaces and debase the currency, his 
vigorous measures soon restored the national prosperity. He 
labored in a hundred ways to make Prussia the best-governed 
state in Europe. Thus, he founded elementary schools so that 
his subjects could learn at least to read and write, and reformed 
the courts so that everybody from high to low might be assured 
of impartial justice. A Deist in religion, the correspondent 
and friend of Voltaire, Frederick declared that every one should 

The Enlightened Despots 495 

be allowed to get to heaven in his own way, and backed up his 
declaration by putting Roman Catholics on an equality with 
Protestants throughout the Prussian dominions. No less than 
thirty volumes, all in French, contain the poems, letters, and 
treatises on history, poHtics, and military matters which Fred- 
erick managed to compose in the spare moments of a busy life. 
This philosopher on the throne held the attention of his gen- 
eration in the world of ideas as well as in that of diplomacy 
and war. 

In Austria, Joseph 11,^ the eldest son of Maria Theresa, 
presented a less successful type of the enlightened despot. 
Joseph regarded Frederick the Great as the ideal 

r 1 1 Tx . t 1 r , Joseph II 

of a modern ruler. He wished to transform the 

various peoples in the Hapsburg realm, with all their differences 
of race, speech, reUgion, and aspirations, into a single unified 
nation. German officials sent out from Vienna were to ad- 
minister the affairs of each province. The army was to be 
built up by compulsory service after the Prussian model. 
German was to be used everywhere as the official language. 
Most unwisely, however, Joseph tried to accomplish in a short 
lifetime what all the Hapsburg rulers have not succeeded in 
doing to this day. The result was that his measures to German- 
ize Hungarians, Bohemians, ItaHans, and Netherlanders only 
aroused hostility and did not survive his death. The sentence 
that the king himself proposed as his epitaph was a truthful 
summary of his reign: "Here lies the man who, with the best 
intentions, never succeeded in anything." 

Paternal government had two serious weaknesses. First, 
the despots could not determine the policy of their successors. 
An able and liberal-minded ruler might be fol- Failure of 
lowed by a ruler who was indolent, extravagant, paternalism 
and unprogressive. In Prussia, for instance, the weak reign 
of Frederick the Great's successor undid much of his work. 
The same thing happened in Spain and Portugal. Second, 
the despots, however enlightened, treated their subjects as 

^ Holy Roman Emperor, 1765-1790, and sole ruler of the Austrian realm, 1780- 

49^ The Old Regime in Europe 

children and enacted reforms without first discovering whether 
reformation was popularly desired. Because of these weak- 
nesses, the eighteenth-century conception of absolute monarchs 
ruling for their people's good was certain to be superseded by 
the modern idea of the people ruling themselves. But to 
bring this about, a revolution was necessary. 


I. Do monarchy and autocracy necessarily mean the same thing? 2. Compare 
the European estates or privileged classes with the castes of ancient and modern 
India. 3. Contrast the leading ideas of mercantilism and physiocracy. 4. Look 
up in an encyclopedia some account of the life and writings of Adam Smith. 

5. What do you understand by laws of nature? Give some examples of such laws. 

6. Mention some instances of the international character of science in the eighteenth 
century. 7. Distinguish between deism (or theism) and atheism. 8. How did 
Locke's theory of the social contract provide the intellectual justification for the 
"Glorious Revolution"? 9. Is there any reason to suppose that Rousseau's 
"state of nature" ever existed anywhere? 10. WTiy has Rousseau's Social Contract 
been called "the Bible of the French Revolution" and "the gospel of modern 
democracy"? 11. Show that Rousseau's ideas of government were far more 
radical than the ideas of Montesquieu. 12. Why did not the reforms of the en- 
lightened despots make a revolution unnecessary? 13. "No reform can produce 
real good unless it is the work of public opinion, and unless the people themselves 
take the initiative." Discuss the justice of this statement. 14. Describe those 
features of the Old Regime which led to the demand for "Liberty, Equality, Frater- 
nity." 15. How do the facts presented ip this chapter support the statement that 
"Great thinkers control the affairs of men, and by their discoveries regulate the 
march of nations"? 



175. Preparation for the French Revolution 

What we call the French Revolution refers to a series of 
events in France, between 1789 and 1799, by which divine- 
right monarchy gave way to a repubUc and class Rey^iu. 
distinctions and privileges disappeared in favor tionary 
of social equahty. This revolution started in 
France, not because the misery of the people had become more 
intolerable there than in other parts of the Continent, but 
precisely because France was then the most advanced of Con- 
tinental countries. French peasants and artisans were free 
enough and intelligent enough to be critical of their govern- 
ment. Next to Great Britain, France contained the most 
numerous, prosperous, and influential bourgeoisie. Members 
of this class furnished the Revolution with its principal leaders. 
Even the nobility and clergy included many men who realized 
the abuses of the Old Regime and wished to aboHsh them. 
In short, the revolutionary impulse stirred all ranks of French 

That impulse came in part from across the Channel. The 
spectacle of the Puritan Revolution and the "Glorious Revo- 
lution" in the seventeenth century affected England 
Frenchmen in the eighteenth century. The Eng- and the 
lish had put one king to death and had expelled 
another; they had estabhshed the supremacy of Parliament 
in the state. It was the example of parliamentary England 

1 Webster, Readings in Medieval and Modern History, chapter xxx, "France 
on the Eve of the Revolution"; chapter xxxi, "Scenes of the French Revolu- 
tion"; chapter xxxii, "Letters and Proclamations of Napoleon"; chapter xxxiii, 


498 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

which Montesquieu held up to the emulation of his country- 
men. And it was the political philosophy of the Enghshman, 
John Locke, upon which Rousseau founded his doctrine of the 
sovereignty of the people. 

A second impulse came from across the Atlantic. After 
the close of the War of American Independence, the French 
America common soldiers, together with Lafayette and 

and the other ofhcers, returned home to spread republican 

Revolution doctrines. It is significant that in 1783 a French 
nobleman translated and pubhshed all thirteen of the consti- 
tutions of the American states. Very important was the work 
of Benjamin Franklin, who for nearly a decade represented the 
American government in Paris. His engaging manners, practi- 
cal wisdom, and high principles won general admiration. The 
portrait of the Philadelphia printer hung in every house, and 
at republican festivals his bust figured side by side with that 
of Rousseau. '' Homage to Franklin," cried an enthusiastic 
Frenchman, ''he gave us our first lessons in liberty." 

To understand the outbreak of the French Revolution it is 
necessary to go back to the long reign of Louis XV. France 
Louis XV ^^^ never had so unkingly a sovereign as this 
king, successor of the "Grand Monarch." All his life 

1715-1774 -^^ ^^g ^^ idler. He hunted, he gambled, he sank 
deep in the frivolities and immoralities of Versailles, he did 
everything but rule. The government fell more and more into 
the hands of courtiers and adventurers, whose main concern 
was to line their own pockets at the expense of the public 

The foolish alliances and fatal wars upon which Louis XV 
was persuaded to enter reduced France to the position of a 
Decline of second-rate power. In the Seven Years' War 
France French armies were repeatedly vanquished on 

Continental battle-fields, and French fleets were swept from the 
high seas. When the Peace of Paris was signed in 1763, the 
French flag ceased to fly in North America, -and it flew in India 
only by permission of England. The annexation of Lorraine 
(3/766) and Corsica (1768) did not compensate for the loss of 

Preparation for the French Revolution 499 

a colonial empire. ^ The military failures of the king's reign 
humiliated his subjects and undermined their loyalty to him. 

The wars and extravagance of Louis XV added to the legacy 
of debt with which his predecessor on the throne had saddled 
France. The treasury every year faced a chronic Financial 
deficit. It could only be met by the dangerous ex- distress 
pedient of fresh loans, involving still larger outlays for interest 
charges. As long as the government refused to take proper 
measures of economy and continued to exempt the clergy and 
nobihty from their share of taxation, it was impossible to put 
the finances of France in a satisfactory condition. A country 
in natural resources the richest in Europe, with a population 
greater than that of any rival state, became virtually bankrupt. 

The French monarchy, so despised abroad, had to face 
a growing volume of complaints at home. Louis XV did his 
best to stifle them. A rigid censorship muzzled complaints 
the press. Postofhce officials opened letters pass- against the 
ing through the mails and revealed their contents "^°°"*^ ^ 
to the king. Books and pamphlets, obnoxious to the govern- 
ment, were, burned by the common hangman, and their authors 
were imprisoned. No man's personal liberty was safe, for the 
police, if provided with an order of arrest signed by the king 
i^lettrede cachet), could send any one to jail. Suspected per- 
sons sometimes remained prisoners for years without trial. 
Yet in spite of all measures of repression, opposition to the 
monarchy steadily increased. 

Louis XV was able to read the signs of the times. He knew 
that the Old Regime could not last much longer; "After me, 
but he felt sure that it would last his lifetime, the deluge" 
"After me, the deluge," he said. The deluge soon came. 

176. Eve of the French Revolution 

Louis XVI, the grandson of Louis XV, mounted the throne 
when only twenty years old. Virtuous, pious, and well- 
meaning, he was the sort of ruler who in quiet times might 

^ See the map on page 402. 

500 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 


have won the esteem of the French people. He was, however, 
Louis XVI, weak, indolent, slow of thought, and very slow of 
king, 1774-1792 (decision. It has been well said that Louis XVI 
** could love, forgive, suffer, and die," but that he did not 
know how to reign. 

At his side, presiding over the gay court of Versailles, stood 

Marie Antoinette of 
of Maria Theresa. 
This beautiful and 
lovable, though friv- 
olous and light-mind- 
ed, woman exerted a 
most unfortunate in- 
fluence on Louis XVI, 
whom she surpassed 
in ability. She con- 
stantly interfered in 
matters of state to 
support some mis- 
taken policy or an in- 
competent minister. 
The queen had many 
enemies in France 
because of her nation- 
ality, and she in- 
creased them by lav- 
ish expenditures on 

herself and on her 
Marie Antoinette . . ^, , . - 

favorites. The chief 

After a painting by Mme. Vigee le Brun, at Versailles. i . ^ i 

charge later to be 
hurled against " Madame Deficit" was that she had wasted 
the resources of France. 

The youthful king began his reign auspiciously by appoint- 
ing a new ministry, in which Turgot held the most responsible 
position. He was a friend of Voltaire, a contributor to the 

Eve of the French Revolution 501 

Encyclopedia, an economist of the Physiocratic school, and a 
successful administrator. Turgot drew up a Turgot's 
comprehensive program of reforms. He would ^^e^fofm, 
allow complete freedom of the press, establish a 1774-1776 
national system of education, recall the Huguenots, and admit 
the bourgeoisie to all public offices. 

Turgot summed up his financial policy in the three maxims, 
''No bankruptcy, no increase of taxation, no loans." Expenses 
were to be reduced by cutting off the pensions to Financial 
those whose only merit was, in the words of a policy of 
contemporary writer, "to have taken the trouble ^^°* 
to be born." The taxes bearing most heavily on the Third 
Estate were to be replaced by a general tax on all landowners. 
Peasants were to be no longer forced to work without pay on 
public highways and bridges. The old guilds, which hampered 
industry, were to be abolished. The vexatious tolls and duties 
on the passage of grain from one province to another were to 
be swept away. Could such reforms have been carried out, 
France would have had a bloodless and orderly revolution. 

But they were not carried out. The privileged classes would 
not surrender their privileges, nor favorites their pensions, nor 
monopolists their unjust gains, without a struggle. Fall of 
The weak king, who once declared that "the only Turgot 
persons who truly love the people are Monsieur Turgot and 
myself," failed to support him against the intrigues of Marie 
Antoinette and the court party. Turgot's dismissal from 
office after two years of power removed the one man who could 
have saved absolutism in France. 

The finances of the government went from bad to worse 
after the fall of Turgot. His successors in the ministry relied 
mainly on fresh loans to cover the deficits of the Financial 
treasury and avert bankruptcy. From the stand- ^^^^^ 
point of French interests Louis XVI committed a fatal error 
in allowing himself to be persuaded to intervene in the War 
of American Independence. America was freed; Great Britain 
was humbled; but the war forced up the public debt by leaps and 
bounds. When at last it became impossible to borrow more 

502 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

money, the king yielded reluctantly to the popular demand for 
the convocation of the Estates-General. He appealed to the 
nation for aid, thereby confessing the failure of absolutism. 

177. The Estates-General, 1789 

The Estates-General, the old feudal assembly of France, had 

not met for one hundred and seventy-five years.^ Suddenly 

awakened from their long slumber, the represen- 
The Estates- . , , , , ,i i .i rr^i • i 

General tatives of the clergy, the nobles, and the Third 

convenes, Estate appeared at Versailles to take counsel with 
May 5, 1789 , , . ^i 

the kmg. The written instructions drawn up 

in every part of the country for the guidance of each represen- 
tative, though not revolutionary in wording, set forth a long 
Hst of abuses to be removed. While Louis XVI would have 
been satisfied with measures to increase the revenues, most 
Frenchmen wanted thoroughgoing reforms. 

Not quite half of the twelve hundred odd members of the 
Estates- General belonged to the two privileged orders. About 
Membership two-thirds of the delegates of the Third Estate 
Estates- ^^^^ members of the legal profession. A few 

General were liberal nobles. Less than a dozen came from 

the lower classes. As a whole, the Estates-General represented 
the most prosperous and the most intelligent people of 

The Third Estate possessed two very competent leaders, in 
Count Mirabeau and the Abbe Sieyes. The former belonged 
Mirabeau by birth and the latter by office to^ the privileged 
and Sieyes classes, but both gladly accepted election as 
representatives of the Third Estate. Mirabeau, a born s-tates- 
man and orator, had a sincere belief in constitutional govern- 
ment. He wished to set up in France a strong monarchy, 
limited by a constitution after the English model. Sieyes, 
a cleric more devoted to poUtics than to theology, had recently 
stirred all Frenchmen by a remarkable pamphlet entitled 
What is the Third Estate? He answered, " Everything." " What 

1 See pages 210 and 399. 

The Estates- General 


would of the 

one for the 

has it been hitherto?" "Nothing." "What does it desire?" 
"To be something." 

The three estates in former days sat as separate chambers 
and voted by orders. If this usage were now followed, the 
clergy and the 

have two votes 

Third Estate. The com- 
moners insisted, however, 
that the new Estates-Gen- 
eral no longer represented 
feudal France, but the united 
nation. They wished, there- 
fore, that it should organize 
as a single body, in which 
the members voted as in- 
dividuals. Since the Third 
Estate had been permitted 
to send twice as many del- 
egates as either the clergy or 
the nobility, this arrangement would enable it to outvote the 
privileged orders and carry any reforming measures desired. 

The debate over the organization of the Estates- General 
continued for several weeks and resulted in a deadlock. At 
last, on the motion of Sieyes, the Third Estate The National 
cut the Gordian knot by boldly declaring itself Assembly 
the National Assembly. Then and there it as- june 17,' 
serted its right to act for the nation as a whole. ^'^^^ 
Representatives of the clergy and nobility might come in if they 
pleased, but the National Assembly could do without them. 

Louis XVI, left to himself, might have been too inert for 

resistance, but his wife, his two brothers, and the ,, ^ 

111- 1 1 Tennis- 

court party persuaded him to make a stand, court Oath," 

Troops were now posted before the doors of the J"^® ^0, 
hall which had been set apart in the palace of Ver- 
sailles for the Third Estate. Finding their entrance barred, the 


After a miniature (1791) by J Lemoine in 
the possession of M. F. Flameng. 

504 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 





June 27, 


undaunted commoners adjourned to a building nearby, which 
had been used as a tennis court. Here they took a solemn 
oath never to separate, but to continue to meet, under all 
circumstances, until they had drawn up a constitution for 
France. This resolute action brought to their side the repre- 
sentatives of the lower clergy 
{cures), who were inclined to 
the popular cause. 

But the king persisted in his 
opposition. Sunlmoning the 
three estates be- 
fore him, he made 
known the royal 
will that they 
should deliberate 
apart. The higher clergy and 
nobility immediately withdrew 
to their separate chambers. 
The Third Estate, with its 
clerical supporters, did not stir. 
When the master of ceremo- 
nies repeated the king's com- 
mand, Mirabeau retorted, "We 
are assembled by the national will; force alone shall disperse 
us." Louis XVI did not dare to use force, especially after 
many of the nobles, headed by the Marquis de Lafayette, 
joined the commoners. The king now gave way and requested 
the rest of the clerical and noble representatives to unite with 
the Third Estate in the National Assembly. 


A portrait by Court, at Versailles. 

178. Outbreak of the French Revolution 

Thus far we have been following a constitutional movement 
confined to the upper and middle classes of French society. 
Now, however, the lower classes began to make their 
influence felt upon the course of events, first in 
Paris and later in the provinces. Paris was a 
manufacturing center, with a large population of artisans, very 


Outbreak of the French Revolution 


poor, often idle, and inclined to be turbulent. Their ranks 
were swelled at this time by crowds of peasants, whom the 
bad harvests and severe winter of the preceding year had driven 
into the city. Here, in fact, were all the elements of a dangerous 

The Storming of the Bastille 

A picture by a contemporary artist. Lafayette sent the key of the Bastille to Washington 
at Mount Vernon, with these words: " It is a tribute which I owe as a son to my adopted 
father, as an aide-de-camp to my general, as a missionary of liberty to its patriarch." 

mob, on whose ignorance and passion reformers, agitators, and 
demagogues could play what tunes they willed. 

Soon came ominous news. Louis XVI had hardly accepted 
the National Assembly before he changed his Fall of the 
mind and determined to dissolve that body. A j^jy ^^ 
large number of troops, mainly German and Swiss 1789 
regiments in the service of France, were massed near Paris, 

5o6 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 


obviously with intent of awing, perhaps seizing, the repre- 
sentatives of the people. It was then that the Parisians made 
the cause of the National Assembly their own. Rioting broke 
out in the capital, and for several days anarchy prevailed. 
Reinforced by deserters from the army, the mob attacked and 
captured the Bastille, a fortress where poHtical offenders had 
been often confined on lettres de cachet. The Bastille at this 
time contained only seven prisoners, all there for just cause, 
but it symbolized the tyranny of the Old Regime and its fall 
created an immense sensation throughout France and in other 
countries, Louis XVI, on hearing the news, exclaimed, "Why 
this is a revolt!" ''No, Sire," replied a courtier, ''this is a 

Now that Paris was practically independent of royal control, 
the more prominent and well-to-do citizens took steps to secure 
The 3,n orderly government. They formed a municipal 

Commune council, or Commune, made up of representatives 
National elected from the different wards of the city. A 

Guard miUtia force, called the National Guard, was also 

organized, and the popular Lafayette was selected as com- 
mander. Meanwhile, Louis XVI had seen the necessity of 
submission. He withdrew the troops, got rid of his reactionary 
ministers, and paid a visit of reconciliation to the Parisians. 
In token of his good intentions, the king put on a red, white 
and blue cockade, red and blue being the colors of Paris and 
white that of the Bourbons. This was to be the new tricolor 
of France. 

The example set by Paris was quickly copied by the prov- 
inces. Many cities and towns set up communes and formed 
Revolution national guards. In the country districts the 
in the peasants sacked and burned those local bastilles, 

provinces ^^^ chdteaux, taking particular pains to destroy 

the legal documents by which the nobles exercised their 
manorial rights. Monasteries, also, were often pillaged. The 
government showed itself unable to maintain order or to pro- 
tect life and property. Troops in the garrison towns refused 
to obey their officers and fraternized with the populace. Royal 

Outbreak of the French Revolution 


officials quitted their posts. Courts of justice ceased to act. 
Public works stopped, and the collection of taxes became 
almost impossible. From end to end of France the Old Regime 
collapsed amid universal confusion. 
The revolution in the provinces led directly to one of the 

The Destruction of Feudalism 

A contemporary cartoon representing the French people hammering to pieces with their 
flails all the emblems of the feudal system, including the knight's armor and sword and the 
bishop's crosier and miter. 

most striking scenes of French history. On the night of Au- 
gust 4-5, while the National Assembly had under consideration 
measures for stilling the unrest in France, one August 4-5, 
of the nobles — a relative of Lafayette — urged ^"^^^ 
that it remove the feudal burdens still resting on the peasantry. 
Then, amid hysterical enthusiasm, noble after noble and cleric 
after cleric arose in his place to propose equality of taxation, 
the repeal of the game laws, the freeing of such serfs as were 
still to be found in France, the abolition of tithes, tolls, and 
pensions, and the extinction of all other ancient privileges. 
A decree "abolishing the feudal system" was passed by the 
National Assembly within the next few days and was signed by 

5o8 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

the king. The reforming measures which Turgot labored 
in vain to secure thus became accompHshed facts. It is well 
to remember, however, that the Old Regime had already fallen 
in France; the decree of the National Assembly did Httle more 
than formally outlaw it. 

Times were hard in Paris. Employment was scarce, and 
food was dear. The discontent grew in proportion, especially 
October 5-6, among the women, who had to stand in line many 
1789 hours at a time waiting to purchase a few loaves 

of bread at the bakeries. Rumor accused the court and the 
aristocrats of deliberately causing famine, nay, of plotting to 
overturn the revolution by force. A newspaper published the 
statement — quite unfounded — that during a banquet of 
army officers at Versailles the national cockade had been 
insulted and trampled under foot. Here was the spark which 
caused the explosion. On October 5 a mob of hungry women, 
armed with every sort of weapon, even scythes and pitchforks, 
set out for Versailles to demand bread of the king. It was a 
strange procession that straggled along the twelve miles of 
highway from Paris to Versailles; an eyewitness declares that 
it reminded him of an army of crusaders. Early in the morning 
of October 6, some of the women made their way into the palace, 
killed the sentinels, and entered the apartments of Marie 
Antoinette, who escaped with difficulty. Only the arrival of 
Lafayette at the head of the National Guard prevented further 
rioting and bloodshed. The women were finally quieted by 
the king's promise to remove to Paris with his wife and children. 
That afternoon the royal family set out on their sorrowful 
journey to the capital, accompanied by a mob which yelled, 
"We are bringing the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's 
little boy." Henceforth Louis XVI lodged in the palace of 
the Tuileries, where he found himself, in effect, a prisoner in 
the hands of the Parisians. 

179. The National Assembly, 1789-1791 

The National Assembly declared itself inseparable from the 
king's person and followed him to Paris. It remained in session 

The National Assembly 


there for the next two years. One of its most important un- 
dertakings was the reform of local government. During the 
eight centuries between Hugh Capet and Louis The depart- 
XVI, France had been built up by the gradual weld- nients 
ing together of a number of provinces varying greatly in size, 
and each with its own customs and laws. The old provincial 
distinctions now gave way to a division of the country into 
eighty-three departments, approximately uniform in size and 
population and named after some river, mountain, or other 
natural feature. A map of contemporary France still shows 
these departments. 

The National Assembly next undertook a reorganization 
of the Church. It ordered that all Church lands should be 
declared national property, broken up into small Ecclesiastical 
lots, and sold to the peasants at a low price, legislation 
By way of partial indemnity, the government agreed to pay 
fixed salaries to the clergy. All appointments to ecclesiasti- 
cal positions were 






taken from the @ 
hands of king and 
pope and placed 
in the hands of the 
people. The elec- 
tors of a depart- 
ment chose their 
bishop, and those 
of a district their 
cure. The National 
Assembly also sup- 
pressed the monasteries, but undertook to pension the monks 
and nuns. 

The desperate condition of the finances led to the adoption 
of a desperate remedy. The National Assembly passed a 
decree authorizing the issue of notes to the value The 
of four hundred milHon francs on the security of assignats 
the former Church lands. To emphasize this security the title 
of as signals was given to the notes. If the issue of as signals 

An Assignat 

5IO The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

could have been restricted, as Mirabeau desired, to less than 
the value of the property pledged to pay for them, they might 
have been a safe means of raising a revenue; but the continued 
needs of the treasury led to their multiplication in enormous 
quantities. Then followed the inevitable consequences of 
paper money inflation. Gold and silver disappeared from 
circulation, while prices rose so high that the time came when 
it needed a basket of assignats to buy a pair of boots. The 
assignats in the end became practically worthless. The finances 
of the government, instead of being bettered by this resort to 
paper money, were left in a worse state than before. 

The National Assembly gave to France in 1791 the written 
constitution which had been promised in the ''Tennis-Court 
The Con- Oath."^ The constitution established a legis- 
stitution of lative assembly of a single chamber with wide 
powers over every branch of the government. 
The hereditary monarchy was retained, but it was a monarchy 
in little more than name. The king could not dissolve the 
legislature, and he had only a "suspensive veto" of its measures. 
A bill passed by three successive legislatures became a law 
even without his consent. Mirabeau wished to accord the 
king greater authority, but the National Assembly distrusted 
Louis XVI as a possible traitor to the Revolution and took every 
precaution to render him harmless. The distrust which the 
bourgeois framers of the constitution felt toward the lower 
classes was shown by the clause limiting the privilege of voting 
to those who paid taxes equivalent to at least three days' 
wages. About a fourth of the citizens, some of them peasants 
but most of them artisans, were thus excluded from the 

The National Assembly prefixed to the constitution a Decla- 
ration of the Rights of Man, rights which for the 
Declaration , , , • i • 1 i ^ i 

of the most part had been ignored or violated under the 

Rights of Old Regime. No person, so ran the Declaration, 

shall be arrested or imprisoned except according 
to law. Any 'one accused of wrongdoing shall be presumed 
1 Hence the National Assembly is also called the Constituent Assembly. 

The First French RepubHc 511 

innocent until he is adjudged guilty. Every citizen may 
freely speak, write, and ^print his opinions, subject only to 
responsibility for the abuse of this freedom. All the citizens 
have the right to decide what taxes shall be paid and how they 
are to be used. No one shall be deprived of his property, 
except for public purposes, and then only after indemnification. 
These and other clauses of the Declaration of Rights followed 
the precedents set in some of the constitutions of the American 
states. The document, as a whole, formed a working pro- 
gram of revolution in France. 

180. The First French Republic, 1792 

The first phase of the French Revolution was now ended. 
Up to this point it has appeared rather as a reformation, 
which abolished the Old Regime and substituted phases of 
a limited monarchy for absolutism and divine the revo- 
right. Many men believed that under the new "*^°" 
constitution France would henceforth enjoy the blessings of 
peace and prosperity. They were quickly undeceived. The 
French people, unfortunately, lacked all training in the difficult 
art of self-government. Between their political incapacity 
and the opposition of the reactionaries and the radicals, the 
revolutionary movement drifted into its second and more 
violent phase, which was marked by the estabhshment of a 

The reactionaries consisted, in part, of nobles who had 
hastily quitted the country upon the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution. Their emigration continued for several The 
years, until thousands of voluntary exiles (emi- emigres 
gres) had gathered along the northern and eastern frontier of 
France. Headed by the king's two brothers, the count of 
Provence 1 and the count of Artois,^ they kept up an un- 
ceasing intrigue against the Revolution and even organized 
a little army to recover by force their titles, privileges, and 

1 Afterwards Louis XVIII (1814-1824). 2 Afterwards Charles X (1824-1830). 

512 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

Had the reactionaries included only the emigres beyond 
the borders, they might not have proved very troublesome. 
The non- "^^^ ^^^^ found support in France. The Consti- 
juring tution of 1 79 1 had made the clergy state officials, 

c ergy elected by the people and paid by the government. 

Such an arrangement could not be acceptable to sincere Roman 
CathoUcs, because it separated the Church from papal control. 
The pope, who had already protested against the confiscation 
of Church property and the dissolution of the monasteries, 
forbade the clergy to take the oath of fidehty to the new con- 
stitution. Nearly all the bishops and perhaps two-thirds of 
the cures obeyed him; these were called the non-juring clergy. 
Until this time the parish priests had generally supported the 
revolutionary movement. They now turned against it, carry- 
ing with them their peasant flocks. The Roman CathoUc 
Church, with all its spiritual influence, was henceforth 
arrayed against the French Revolution. 

To Louis XVI, practically a prisoner in the Tuileries, the 
new order of things could not but be most distasteful. The 
Opposi- constitution, soon to be put into effect, seemed 

tionof to him a violation of his rights as a monarch, 

Louis XVI 1 ., , r 1 1 1 1 /v 1 1 

and Marie while the treatment of the clergy deeply offended 
Antoinette j^j^i as a Christian. As long as Mirabeau lived, 
that statesman had always been able to dissuade the king from 
seeking foreign help, but Mirabeau's premature death deprived 
him of his only wise adviser. Louis's opposition to the revolu- 
tionists was strengthened by Marie Antoinette, who keenly 
felt the degradation of her position. 

The king and queen finally resolved to escape by flight. 
Disguising themselves, Marie Antoinette as a Russian lady 
Flight of and Louis as her valet, they drove away in the 

the king evening from the Tuileries and made straight for 

and queen, . . . 

June 20-21, the eastern frontier. But Louis exposed himself 
^"^^^ needlessly on the way; recognition followed; 

and at Varennes, near the border, excited crowds stopped the 
royal fugitives and turned them back to Paris. This ill-starred 
adventure greatly weakened the loyalty of the French people 

The First French RepubHc 


The Radicals 

for Louis XVI, while Marie Antoinette, the ''Austrian woman," 
became more detested than ever. 

Besides the reactionaries who opposed the Revolution, there 
were the radicals who thought that it had not gone far enough. 
The radicals secured their chief following among 
the poverty-stricken workingmen of the cities, 
those without property and with no steady employment. 
Of all classes in France, the 
urban proletariat,^ as they 
may henceforth be called, 
seemed to have gained the 
least by the Revolution. No 
chance of future betterment 
lay before them, for the bour- 
geois Constitution of 1791 
expressly provided that only 
tax-payers could vote or hold 
public office. The proletariat 
might well believe that, in 
spite of all high-sounding 
phrases .about the "rights of 
man," they had merely ex- 
changed one set of masters for 
another, the rule of the priv- 
ileged classes for that of the 

The radical movement naturally centered in Paris, the brain 
and nerve center of France. It was fostered by inflammatory 
newspapers and pamphlets, by the bitter speeches Radical 
of popular orators, and especially by numerous propaganda 
political clubs. The control of these clubs lay largely in the 
hands of young lawyers, who embraced the cause of the masses 
and soon became as hostile to the bourgeoisie as to the aristoc- 
racy. The famous Jacobin Club, so named from a former 
monastery of the Jacobin monks where its meetings were held, 


Presumably a portrait by J. L. David, 
painted either in 1792 or 1793. Id the 
possession of Dr. Robinet. 

^ From Latin proles, "oflfspring," 
wealth is in their children. 

progeny" — referring to those whose only 

514 The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

had hundreds of branches throughout France, all engaged in 
radical propaganda. 

The leaders of the Jacobin Club included two men who were 
destined to influence profoundly the subsequent course of the 
Danton and Revolution. One was Danton, who sprang from 
Robespierre ^j^g middle class. Highly cultivated, a successful 
advocate at the bar, Danton with his loud voice and forcible 
gestures could arouse his audience to wild enthusiasm. The 


The Lion of Lucerne 

This celebrated work at Lucerne in Switzerland was designed by the Danish sculptor 
Bertel Thonvaldsen and was dedicated in 1821. It represents a dying lion, which, pierced 
by a lance, still guards with its paw the Bourbon lilies. The figure is hewn out of the 
natural sandstone. The monument commemorates the ofi&cers and men of the Swiss Guard 
who were slain in 1792, while defending the Tuileries against the Parisian mob. 

other was Robespierre, also a middle-class lawyer with demo- 
cratic sympathies. This austere, precise httle man, whose 
youth had been passed in poverty, early became a disciple 
of Rousseau and the oracle of the Jacobins. Mirabeau once 
prophesied of Robespierre that he would "go far; he believes 
all that he says." We shall soon see how far he went. 

A new influence began at this point to affect the course 
of the French Revolution. Continental monarchs, however 

The First French Republic 


"enlightened," felt no sympathy with a popular movement 

which threatened the stability of their own „^ 

, , . . . , War with 

thrones. If absolutism and divme right were Austria 

overthrown in France, they might before long be ^"Jy^^gg* 
overthrown in Austria and Prussia. The Austrian 
emperor, a brother of Marie Antoinette, now joined with the 
Prussian king in a state- 
ment to the effect that the 
restoration of the old mon- 
archy in France formed an 
object of "common inter- 
est to all sovereigns of 
Europe." The two rulers 
also agreed to prepare 
their armies for active ser- 
vice abroad. Their an- 
nounced intention to sup- 
press the Revolution by 
force provoked the French 
people into a declaration 
of war. Though directed 
only at the Austrian emperor, it also brought his Prussian ally 
into the field against France. 

The French began the contest with immense enthusiasm. 
They regarded themselves as armed apostles to spread the 
gospel of freedom throughout Europe. But their 
troops, poorly organized and disciplined, suffered rising of 
severe reverses, one result of which was further j2i^^* ^^' 
to exasperate pubUc opinion against the monarchy. 
Suspicion pointed to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette as the 
traitors who were secretly revealing the French pla