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OK HOilE. 





\ViiEN this little book was first published in an Italian 
edition in 1895, and in a German edition in 1897, I 
was still unable to obtain many anthropological data 
needed to complete tha picture of the primitive in- 
habitants of Europe. In the English edition the 
book is less incomplete, richer in anthropological 
and ethnological documents, and hence more con- 
clusive ; it also contains replies to various objections 
which have been brought forward. This English 
edition, therefore, is not so much a translation of a 
work already published as a new book, both in form 
and arrangement. 

The conclusions I have sought to maintain arc the 
following : 

(i.) The primitive populations ol Europe, after 
Homo Neandertlialensis, originated in Africa; these 
constituted the entire population of.Neplitliic^times. 

(2.) The basin of the Mediterranean was the chief 
centre of movement whence the African migrations 
reached the centre and the north of Europe. 

(3.) From the great African stock were formed 
three varieties, in accordance with differing telluric 
and geographic conditions : one peculiarly African, 


remaining in the continent where it originated ; 
another, the Mediterranean, which occupied the basin 
of that sea; and a third, the Nordic, which reached 
the north of Europe. These three varieties are the 
three great branches of one species, which I call 
Eurafrican, because it occupied, and still occupies, 
a large portion of the two continents of Africa and 

(4.) These three human varieties have nothing in 
common with the so-called Aryan races ; it is an 
error to maintain that the Germans and the Scandi- 
navians, blond dolichocephals or long-heads (of the 
Reihengraber and Viking types), are Aryans ; they 
are Eurafricans of the Nordic variety. 

(5.) The Aryans are of Asiatic origin, and con- 
stitute a variety of the Eurasiatic species; the 
physical characters of their skeletons are different 
from those of the Eurafricans. 

(6.) The primitive civilisation of the Eurafricans 
is Afro-Mediterranean, becoming eventually Afro- 

(7.) The civilisation had its origin in 
Asia, and was transformed by diffusion in the Medi- 

(8.) The two classic civilisations, Greek and Latin, 
were not Aryan, but Mediterranean. The Aryans 
were savages when they invaded Europe : they de- 
stroyed in part the superior civilisation of the 
Neolithic populations, and could not have created 
the Greco-Latin civilisation. 


(9.) In the course of the Aryan invasions the 
languages of the Eurafrican species in Europe were 
transformed in Italy, Greece, and elsewhere, Celtic, 
German, Slavonic, etc., being genuine branches of 
the Aryan tongue; in other cases the Aryan lan- 
guages underwent a transformation, preserving some 
elements of the conquered tongues, as in the Neo- 
Celtic of Wales. 

Some of these conclusions no longer arouse the 
same opposition as when I first brought them 
forward. The arguments meeting with most resist- 
ance are those tending to overthrow the ancient 
conception of an Aryan civilisation. The future will 
enable us to see these questions more clearly. 


ROME, February, igor. 







The Early Phase The New Phase Germanism The 
Alleged Homeric Evidence Celts or Lithuanians? The 
Western Asiatic Origin. 


The Problems The Mediterranean Hasin The Racial 
Names of the Mediterranean Family -Method of the 



The Cradle of the Mediterranean Stock The Il.imilcs. 





Libyans on Egyptian Monuments The Evidence of Hero- 
dotus and other Classic Writers The Berbers Origin of 
the Libyans The Myth of Atlantis The African Blonds 
Physical Characters of the Libyans. 



The African Origin of the Egyptians The Art of Writing 
Physical Anthropology of the Egyptians. 

THE WESTERN LIBYANS ... ... ... ... 114 

Craniology of the Ancient Berbers The Physical Char- 
acters of the Modern Population. 


THE CANARY ISLANDS ... ... ... ... 128 

The Origins of the Canary Population Physical Characters 
of the Population. 



The Hittites The Armenoids of Lycia Cyprus The 





The Invasion of Europe The Iberians The Ligurians 
The Pelasjjians The Italic Problem The Etruscans. 



Current opinions regarding the first inhabitants of Europe 
Euroi>e not peopled from the North Homo Neandcr- 





Great Britain France Switzerland Germany Bohemia 
Scandinavia Russia. 


MINGLING .. 233 

The Euro|xran Pigmies The Neolithic Brachyccphals 
The End of the Diffusion and the New Invaders of Europe. 





General Physical Characters The Eurafrican Species 
The Eurasiatic Species. 




Architecture of Tombs Culture Writing Language. 




The Early Phase The New Phase Germanism The Alleged 
Homeric Evidence Cells or Lithuanians f The Western 
Asiatic Origin. 

The Early Phase. Whenever there has been any 
attempt to explain the origin of civilisation and of 
the races called Aryan, whether in the Mediterranean 
or in Central Europe, all archaeologists, linguists, and 
anthropologists have until recent years been domi- 
nated by the conviction that both civilisation and 
peoples must have their unquestionable cradle in Asia. / 
It is well known that this conviction has been largely 
determined by the discovery of Sanscrit, which has 
served as a foundation for the comparative study of 
the languages called Aryan, Indo-European, and also 
Indo-Germanic. Thus " Arya" was assumed to be the 
centre of dispersion, at all events in part, according to 
primitive ideas of Biblical source transported from the 
valley of Mesopotamia to the Hindu Kusch, and 
Europe became an Asiatic colony into which civili- 
sation had been imported together with its population. 
I need not refer to the scientific enthusiasm pro- 



duced by the study of Indian books and of com- 
parative philology, nor to the eminent men who 
employed their intellect and activity in building up 
a literature which honours every European country. 
I will only recall that, as in earlier times it was 
believed that every tongue was derived from Hebrew, 
so it was now believed that European tongues, with 
the exception of a few classed among other linguistic 
families, were all derived from one mother tongue 
together with those of the Asiatic group; and it 
appeared that Sanscrit, more than its sister tongues, 
inherited the maternal characters in form and sound. 

It was not long before these principles were applied 
to European ethnology and anthropology. Civilisa- 
tion was supposed to come from Asia, the cradle of 
the Aryan speech and people, the centre of dispersion 
of European nations. European peoples in various 
troops, and at various successive periods, had set 
out from the common Asiatic centre and established 
themselves in their different seats in Europe, bearing 
with them a common patrimony of language and 
civil and religious institutions; there were thus 
various distinct groups, like the Italo-Greeks, the 
Celts, the Letto-Slavs, the Germans, originally con- 
stituting a single people with the Asiatic group of 

According to the more general opinion, the Aryans 
had invaded Europe from east to west, and then from 
north to south, subjugating the primitive and savage 
peoples they met with in the course of their occupa- 
tion. During various pauses, of different length, 
before reaching their final destinations, they had 
begun to vary and diverge in language and other 
social manifestations, constituting so many distinct 


varieties of the original single stock. The Italo- 
(iivcks would thus have been united during their 
t'ust pause in Europe, and would have had language, 
religion, and customs in common; then they would 
have separated into two quite distinct groups, occupy- 
ing their definite scats in the two peninsulas of the 
Mediterranean, Italy and Greece, where, finally, each 
group would have become a distinct and charac- 
teristic people, an Aryan variety. 

Thus it happened that Greeks and Italians were 
two distinct peoples, whose common origin and com- 
mon patrimony of language and civilisation were 
concealed by the appearance of new and special 
forms arising in their own peculiar seats. The same 
phenomenon was supposed to have occurred in the 
case of the other European groups, Slavonic, Celtic, 
and Germanic, and of the Asiatic or Indo-Iranian 
groups. All these peoples, developing separately, and 
varying in their development according to region, 
became strangers to each other; it was Sanscrit, with 
the scries of studies to which it gave rise, which un- 
veiled the intimate relationship between languages so 
diverse and peoples so remote. Some, like Pick, have 
even wished to show that these European peoples are 
only a single people with many languages, which 
must be regarded as dialects of a single national 
tongue. When that is admitted, the two classic 
peoples of antiquity, Greeks and Latins, are essen- 
tially Aryans, and their civilisation is wholly of 
Aryan character. 

Hut Indo-Germanism was not satisfied with these 
results, which \vcre regarded as unquestionable; it 
invaded other regions and peoples at first excluded 
from the I nd<>- European stock, and attempted to 


reduce the ancient relic of Iberian language, Basque, 
to the Aryan root, as well as Armenian. Nor 
was that enough: a language which appeared 
mysterious, and was so far indecipherable, must 
also be brought into the Indo-Germanic field, and 
extraordinary mental efforts (it is enough to refer to 
Corssen) were made to reconstruct Etruscan grammar 
according to Aryan morphology. 

Anthropology, meanwhile, investigating the physi- 
cal characters of European peoples, though without 
studying them deeply or completely, made it clear 
that between ancient Italians, Greeks, Celts, Ger- 
mans, and Slavs there were profound and character- 
istic differences which showed clearly that they could 
not all belong together to the same human root; that 
there might be linguistic relationship without blood 
relationship, and that various peoples might have a 
common civilisation without having a common origin. 
Thus anthropology sought out the characteristics of 
European peoples on its own account, independently 
of linguistics and its results; but on coming to the 
study of origins it could not neglect linguistic, 
archaeological, and historical studies as auxiliaries 
to its own efforts as regards the most ancient epochs 
of humanity. Falae-ethnology and palae-anthropology 
were born of the research into fossil man in Europe and 
elsewhere; the first of these, especially, soon adapted 
itself to the results acquired by linguistics, and looked 
towards the east as the cradle of European peoples 
and their civilisation. 

/ Thus Indo-Gcrmanism led to almost entire forget- 

fulness of the most ancient civilisations of the earth, 

| those born in the valleys of the Euphrates and the 

r Tigris, and in the valley of the Nile; no influence was 


granted to them over Greco- Roman classic civilisation, 
almost none anywhere in the Mediterranean; Asiatic 
Indians were sought as the bearers of civilisation in 
E&ypti a "d Indo-Germans in Northern Africa and 
Western Asia. 

The New Phase. This enthusiastic period of 
Indo-Germanism was followed by another period 
with other characters which, in a more or less 
modified form, has lasted to the present day. 

When it was recognised that the peoples of 
Aryan tongue and civilisation are not anthropolo- 
gically a single stock, the idea arose that among 
these one must represent the authentic and original 
Aryan stock, while the other peoples must merely / - 
have been Aryanised, receiving their language and/ 
civilisation from the first. But in the working out of 
this inquiry, and the special and general investigations 
regarding the various manifestations of Aryan civili- 
sation, some doubts arose among linguists and philo- 
logists as to the Asiatic origin of the European stock ; / 
in some, indeed, doubt grew to a conviction that 
Asia was not the cradle of the Aryans. Latham, 
Benfey, and Geiger were the first to think of a 
European origin for the Aryans. To-day the old 
hypothesis of the immigration from Asia into Europe , 
is still maintained by a few of the eminent original 
upholders of the eastern origin, who, like Max Miiller 
to the last, are unwilling to abandon their ancient 
convictions; later archaeologists and linguists, philolo- 
gists and palai-cthnologists, have supported the theory 
of a European origin with keen enthusiasm, while 
among anthropologists there is either doubt or tacit 

If the populations speaking Aryan languages 


derived from one people with one mother tongue 
constitute distinct families, as they undoubtedly do, 
which is the Aryan population, or the genuine Aryan 
stock, in which the movement of Aryan civilisation 
arose ? What do the other populations possessing 
Aryan language and civilisation represent? Where 
is the centre or cradle of the primitive Aryan stock ? 
These problems closely touch the populations and 
civilisation of the Mediterranean, because the two 
classic peoples of antiquity, who exerted the greatest 
influence on the ancient and modern worlds, belong 
to the Mediterranean ; it is necessary, therefore, to 
discuss these problems, at all events briefly, before 
coming to others which more directly concern the 
Greek and Italian peoples and their civilisation. 

But it may not be useless to point out, first of all, 
that from the analytic studies and criticisms bearing 
on the Indo-European linguistic patrimony a fact 
emerges which is worthy to be noted, since it seems 
to me to be of capital importance in the solution of 
the anthropological problems of Europe. In the 
early days of the study of the Indo-European 
languages it was accepted as a demonstrated fact 
that the vocabulary of all the Aryan tongues was 
common, at all events in its more fundamental parts, 
including the elementary cognitions useful to human 
life ; that all the elements that subserve social life, 
the family, primitive religion, inventions, useful arts, 
were indicated in the various Indo-European languages 
by words of common origin ; that the traditions of 
the common country, and the animals, plants, and 
metals employed in primitive conditions, might be 
read in the spoken or written linguistic documents. 

But all this common patrimony has continually 


diminished when subjected to criticism, and has , 
been reduced to a few elements. Hence it appears 
or so at least it seems to me that we must interpret 
the linguistic phenomena that among all the peoples 
of Aryan tongue the language was an importation, 
learned and assimilated by each people according to 
its own habitual phonetic conditions, which con- 
stituted the physiological laws of its primitive 
pronunciation ; whence were derived change and 
transformation according to these laws, which were 
different for each people. The phenomenon is not 
new, and seems to me precisely similar to that 
produced by the importation of the Latin tongue 
into Gaul, Spain, and other countries, where the 
populations, possessing their own languages, in 
assimilating Latin talked it as the phonetic and 
physiological conditionsof their own tongue demanded,/ 
thus giving birth to the various Romance tongues. 

At this distance of time it is difficult to ascertain 
what people originally possessed the Aryan speech 
and civilisation, and propagated it or imposed it on 
other European peoples of different physical type. 
But it seems to me impossible to admit that a people 
among whom the language is more fragmentary than 
in others, and the civilisation still in a rudimentary 
state, can have been that which originally carried 
both speech and civilisation to peoples who afterwards 
became famous in history for their political and civil 
greatness. How far we arc to-day from those posi- 
tions which were regarded as unquestionable by Pictct, / 
Max Miiller, Hopp, Pott, and others, may be clearly 
seen in the recent works of Schradcr and others. 

Such considerations may serve to show that these 
problems are not simple and isolated, but various, 


complicated, and bound together, and that their 
solution depends on the united and convergent 
researches of ethnological and anthropological 
science; archaeological and linguistic investigations, 
carried on separately, can never, in my opinion, reach 
decisive and sure results. 

The second phase of Indo-Germanism is therefore 
still determined by the fact that linguists and 
historians, ethnologists and anthropologists, have 
entered the field to show the European origin of the 
Aryan stock, although the name Aryan no longer 
befits a people having origin in Europe. The more 
enthusiastic, in settling this great problem, have 
brought together in a compact phalanx all the 
arguments offered by archaeology, linguistics, and 
anthropology, and have engaged with confidence in 
the struggle. In spite of the divergence of results, 
both as regards the physical type of the primitive 
Aryan stock and the localisation of its centre of 
origin and dispersion, many agree in believing that 
the Aryan peoples of the Mediterranean, the Greeks 
and Italians, emigrated into their two peninsulas 
from the centre or the north of Europe, conquering 
and subjugating the first inhabitants, to whom they 
imparted their speech and civilisation. 

It may be useful to examine some of the argu- 
ments which appear a convincing demonstration to 
those who are unprepared to meet them or surprised 
by their vivacity. 

Germanism. I mean by " Germanism " the theory 
which attempts to prove that the Germans are the 
primitive Aryans; Poschc and Pcnka l are the boldest 

1 Th. Posche, Die A>ier, Jena, 1878; C. Fenka, Die Herknnft der 
Aii'er, Wicn, l8S6. 


upholders of the view that sees the fair race every- 
where. " The fair race is found from the Arctic 
Ocean to the Sahara, from the Atlantic to Lake 
Baikal and the Indus; the southern shore of the 
North Sea is their centre of diffusion; there is the 
chief station of the fair race; and from these shores 
of the Baltic they moved in all directions." Thus 
wrote Posche; but Penka, who equally recognised 
the extension of the fair race, only found it as an 
exception in regions remote from the centre of origin, 
and sought to justify the rarity of the type by 
climatic conditions to which the fair Aryans could 
not adapt themselves and so disappeared. If this 
argument may in some degree hold good for extreme 
climates like those of Scandinavia and Africa, 
Central and Southern Europe and India, it scarcely 
holds good for the difference between Central 
Europe and the Mediterranean, between Germany, 
Italy, and Greece, or between Bavaria, Wurtemberg, 
Prussia, and the Baltic regions. 

The fair races speaking an Indo-Germanic tongue, / 
like the Celts, Germans, and Slavs, wrote Posche, 
have subjugated the non - Indo-Germanic brown 
races and imposed their language and civilisation 
upon them; even though the fair race was small in 
number, it has acted in the same manner as when 
"the ancient fair Indo-Gcrmans attacked the Finns, 
subjugated them, made them prisoners by thousands, 
reduced them to slavery, and little by little in- 
corporated them." Thus the fair-haired people, a 
pure Indo-Germanic race for Posche, Pcnka, and 
others, reached Greece and Italy, subjugated their 
primitive brown populations, and gave them their 
own Aryan speech and civilisation. In Homer and 


in traditions these writers believe they find traces 
of the dominion of the fair-haired lords of these 

Thus the hypothesis that the fair race is the 
primitive and authentic Aryan race is more than a 
theory for these writers ; it is a thesis, and the proofs 
of the thesis always set out from the presupposition 
that the Aryans are fair. Penka also maintains that 
Scandinavia has been the cradle and centre of 
diffusion of the fair race, the characteristics of which 
are white skin, blue eyes, high stature, and an elon- 
gated or dolichocephalic head. The arguments may 
be summarised in the following propositions: (i) 
the type of the inhabitants of Scandinavia is identical 
with the physical type of the pure Aryans ; (2) this 
type has persisted unchanged in that peninsula from 
prehistoric times; (3) the Aryan type is identical with 
the palaeolithic type of Central Europe; (4) the fauna 
and flora of Scandinavia are in harmony with linguis- 
tic results as to the place of origin of the Aryans; 
(5) the Stone Age in Scandinavia corresponds to 
the culture of the primitive Aryan race before its 

If we look into Penka's arguments we soon dis- 
cover that between two of them the persistence 
of the Scandinavian type and the identity of the 
Aryan type with the palaeolithic type of Central 
Europe there is no__agrcemcnt, but contradiction. 
The Neanderthal type is for Penka the palaeolithic 
type; now between this and the Teutonic dolicho- 
cephalic type, which for German authors is that of 
the Reihcngrabcr, there is an enormous difference; 
one might even say an abyss lies between them. 
The difference is so great that Virchow considers 


the Neanderthal skull pathological, 1 Davis explained | 
it by synostosis, while, indeed, it seems to me normal I 
only because it is found at Brux and at Spy in un- 1 
changed form, without pathological signs. It would 
seem that for Pcnka dolichocephaly is enough to 
show the identity of the Quaternary and the Germanic 
types, but in that case all dolichocephalic skulls, 
even Australian, might be considered Indo-Gcrmanic. 
Penka, indeed, feels constrained to admit develop- 
ment, and the transformation of the Neanderthaloid 
type into the Germanic, which contradicts his 
principle of the persistency of type, accepted for the 
Scandinavian type. There is, however, no middle 
path. Either the Scandinavian type is the per- 
sistent primitive Aryan type, in which case the 
palaeolithic type of Central Europe is not Aryan, 
or the palaeolithic type is primitive, and then the 
Scandinavian type is derived, and consequently not 
persistent, but recent There is another fact against 
Pcnka's assertions, i.e., the contemporaneous occur- 
rence of the untransformed Aryan Neanderthaloid 
type with the transformed Aryan Scandinavian type, 
if it is true, as it unquestionably is, that the two forms 
still persist. 2 

Since, however, the fact of the persistence of 
cranial types is now assured in anthropology, and 
since the persistency of the Neanderthal type, now 

1 On the ground that the Neanderthal skull, as well as the other^ 
bones of the skeleton, revealed a numlwr of pathological changes, 
Virchow reached the conclusion that we arc here in presence of an specimen which cannot lie regarded as typical of a race until 
confirmed l>y further discoveries. (Zfi/stAri/t fiir Ethnologie, 1872, 
p. 157; also i*., 1894, p. 427.) 

See in my Sftde e Varicta Umane; "Cli abitanti piimilivi di 
turopa," 1900. 


rare and disappearing, has been shown, it is im- 
possible to admit that the Aryan type is palae- 
olithic in the sense understood by Penka. 

But let us examine more closely the so-called 
Germanic type, which ought to be fair, of high 
stature, with blue eyes, and elongated head. Let 
us see how it js distributed in its own country, in 
Germany and the neighbouring regions, which are 
now Germanic lands. In order to be brief, I will 
simply transcribe the exact summary of the labours 
of German anthropologists made by Moschen, when 
speaking of the modern population of Germany with 
special reference to the origin of the Trentine popula- 
tion 1 : "The old doctrine of the dolichocephaly of 
the modern Germans had already been attacked by 
Welcker, 2 who summed up the results of his researches 
on this subject in the following words : ' The modern 
Germans are in part brachycephalic, in part ortho- 
cephalic, never (speaking here of averages) dolicho- 
cephalic;' and he added that 'if the primitive 
Germanic stock was dolichocephalic, we must say 
that the Germans of old Germanic stock are only 
found in insignificant numbers in Germany.' Later 
researches have shown that the present populations 
of southern Germany are in great part brachycephals, 
among whom mesocephals are rare and dolichocephals 
quite isolated. Only in Central and Northern Germany 
are dolichocephals found more or less numerously, and 
they only become prevalent in the extreme north, 
in Denmark and Sweden. Let us examine a few 

1 "I Caratteri fisici e le oiigini dei Trentini," Arch, per 
P Aiitropologia t Florence, 1892. 

8 Ueber IVachsthum und Ban des Mcnschlichen Schadels, Leipzig, 
1862, p. 65; and " Kran. Mitlheilungen," in Archiv fur Anlh., 
lid. i., 1866, pp. 149-150. 


figures. In the Tyrol, Holl 1 has found among 1820 
skulls examined in various valleys only 33 dolicho- 
ccphals, representing 1.8 per cent, while the meso- 
cephals arc in a proportion of 14.9 per cent, and the 
brachyccphals (with the hyper-brachycephals) in that 
of 83.2 per cent; while Ranke 2 found among 100 
skulls of Antcrium, near Bolzano, no dolichocephals, 
IO mesocephals, and 90 brachycephals ; and among 
100 skulls of the valley of Eno, near Innsbruck, again 
no dolichocephals, 23 mesocephals, and 77 brachy- 
cephals. In upper and lower Austria and in the 
Salzburg district, Zuckerkandl 3 measured 300 skulls ; 
the dolichocephals were in the proportion of 2.7 
per cent., the mesocephals 23 per cent, and the 
brachycephals 74.3 per cent In southern Bavaria, 
of some 100 skulls measured by Ranke, the dolicho- 
cephals were in the minute proportion of 0.8 per 
cent, the mesocephals 16.3 per cent., the brachy- 
cephals 82.9 per cent. 4 In southern Baden, of 
100 modern skulls of which Ecker has published 
measurements, there were no dolichocephals, and 
the brachycephals were in the proportion of 84 
per cent 6 In northern Bavaria, Ranke measured 
250 skulls, of which 12 per cent were dolicho- 
cephals, 20 per cent mesocephals, and 68 per 
cent, brachyccphals. In Fricsland, Virchow found 
1 8 per cent, dolichocephals, 51 per cent mcso- 

1 " Ueber die im Tirol vorkommenden Schiidelformen," Alitth. 
Ant hi of. GeselL \V>en, Bd. xv., Heft 2. 

* Beitrdf^e :i/r fhys. Anthrop. der Hayern" Milnchen, 1883, p. 94, 
tab. \i.-\ii. 

* "Beitriige zur Craniologie der Deutschen in Oesterr," Mitth. 
A nth. (Jesell. ll'ien, 1883. 

* flfifniff, etc., pp. 22-23. 

8 Cran/'a tiermanitt merid. ofdd. % Freiburg, 1865. 


ccphals, and 31 per cent, brachycephals. Among 83 
Danish skulls Schmidt found 57 per cent, dolicho- 
cephals, 37 per cent, mesocephals, and 5 per cent, 
brachycephals. According to Retzius 1 and Ecker, 2 
dolichocephaly predominates among the modern 
Swedes, in every respect agreeing with the skulls 
of the ancient Franks of the Reihengraber." 

From the statistics of colour of hair and eyes in 
Austria, Switzerland, and Germany, 3 it appears that 
" the brown area extends from the west of Austria 
through Switzerland (fair n.i per cent., brown 25.7 
per cent.), Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Baden, and Alsace- 
Lorraine, hence in all southern Germany, where the 
frequency of blonds varies from 18.4 to 24.5 percent, 
and of brunets from 25.2 to 19.2 per cent. In 
central Germany the blonds gradually increase in 
a northerly direction, varying from 25.3 to 32.5 per 
cent, while the brunets gradually diminish in the 
same direction, varying from 18.22 to 13.2 per cent 
It is only in northern Germany that the blonds 
decidedly predominate, varying from 33.5 to 433 
per cent, while the brunets vary between 12. 1 and 
6.9 per cent" In the whole German empire, according 
to Virchow's statistics, the blonds are, on the average, 
31.8 per cent, the brunets 14.05 per cent, and the 
mixed type 54 1 5 per cent. 

1 " Ueber die Schadelformen der Nordbewohnern," Eth. Schrijteit, 
Stockholm, 1864. pp. 1-24. 

2 Of. fit., pp. 30-91. 

3 " Gcsammtl>ericht iiber die von der deutschcn anthr. Gescll. 
veranlassten Erhebungen iil>er die Farbe der Haut, der Haare und dor 
Augen," etc., Aichiv f. Anthr., xvi , 1886, von R. Virchow ; 
Kollmann, "Die statist. Erhebunjjcn," etc., Deukschriflen Gesell. 

fitr Natiirwiss., xxviii., Basel, 1881 ; Schimmer, " Erhelmngen iil>er 
die Farbe, etc., bei den Schulkindern Oesterreichs/' Mitth. Anlhr. 
Gesell. 'Wien, 1884. 


It is worth while to consider some of Virchow's 
opinions, concerning facts of so much weight, both 
regarding the physical characters of the skull and the 
external characters of colour of skin, eyes, and hair. 
At the Congress of German Anthropologists at 
Dresden in 1874, Virchow spoke regarding the ex- 
tension of brachycephalic skulls in historical and prc- 
historical times. 1 He discussed a Finnic theory 
which he seemed disposed to accept, and he formu- 
lated the problem as follows : " Can we anywhere 
find traces, either in ancient or modern times, of a 
Finnic population, and are the Finnic or Lapponic 
types, or, as is said in France, the Esthonic, those that 
stand at the basis of the development of the actual 
population ? " At the end of a long discussion Vir- ' 
chow was disposed to admit that the Finns -have 
contributed to the brachyccphaly of the north and 
the Ligurians to that of the south. A little later, 
discussing in a special work 1 the facts of German 
anthropology, he said : " No one has proved that all { 
Germans possess the same cranial form, or, in other ) / 
words, that they formed a single nation, like the more 
pure type that we see among the Suevi and the 
Franks." He admits, that is, that various types have 
formed the Germanic people. At the Congress of 
Karlsruhe, in 1885, he again expressed his opinion 
when presenting the results of the inquiry into colour 
of hair and eyes. 3 In order to explain the large 
proportion of bruncts in Germany he proposes three 
hypotheses: (i) two stocks entered Germany, one 

1 Anhivf. Anthrof>., \V\. vii. 

a Htilriige zur physiichtn Anlhrof>. der Deutsthen, clc., Ik-ilin, 1877, 
p. 36 

minilberichl," etc , Axhiv f. Anffi., xvi., 1886. 


fair, the other dark, so that the population was mixed 
from the first ; this theory he does not accept ; (2) 
the fair was transformed by Darwinian methods ; but 
this transformation is not possible, because there is 
not sufficient difference of physical conditions be- 
tween northern and southern Germany to produce 
such a change ; it is known that other German 
anthropologists, such as Holl 1 and Ranke, 2 have 
mistakenly admitted such a possibility; (3) there has 
been a varied and continuous mixture of types 
belonging to various populations. Virchow believes 
that mixture can establish a race, that a fair popula- 
tion can become dark by mixture, and vice versd. 
Thus the Celts had much influence ; we know, he 
says, that where the Celts entered the population is 
dark ; " I am prepared to believe," he adds, " that 
the primitive Celtic, like the primitive Italic, popula- 
tion was not formed of blond but of brunet Aryans." 

These doubts and difficulties expressed by Virchow 
concerning the minority of the fair dolichocephalic 
race in Germany suffice to show how fantastic are the 
easy demonstrations of Posche and Penka. Virchow 
himself asks if the supposed authentic German type 
is not disappearing. And these two authors wish to 
show that this is' what is happening. Penka, as I ; 
have said, believes that the pure Germanic type has 
diminished in Germany, and is only exceptionally 
found in southern Europe, in Italy and Greece, 
because it has not withstood the climate of those 
regions. We may leave aside Italy and Greece, the 
climate of which is not liable to destroy the Germanic 
or any other race ; if, however, we consider Germany 

1 " Ueber die im Tirol," etc., of. cif. 

2 Beitriige, etc., op. fit., p. 123. 


itself we cannot reasonably grant that the climate of 
Bavaria and Wurtcmbcrg is not adapted to the Ger- 
manic race, and I need not contest so improbable a 

It seems to me that the existence of ji pure Gcr-^ 
manic stock cannot be demonstrated, whether in 
prehistoric or in protohistoric times. We do not find 
in Germany a pure dolichocephalic race, tall, fair, 
numerous, diffused widely throughout Europe ; we 
find instead a mixed population of varying type in 
all the prehistoric graves of German territory. 

Von Holder, the author of a work on Wurtembcrg 
skulls which is of fundamental importance in the 
study of Teutonic anthropology, 1 has found a series 
of the most diverse types, Germanic, Turanian, Sar- 
matian, pure and mixed, in his opinion, with no 
predominant Germanic type. Lissauer finds a mix- 
ture of forms among ancient Prussian skulls, while 
Virchow, who has examined a vast number of skulls! 
from old Germanic graves, finds the most varying 1 
shapes among the primitive population of Germanic I 
soil. 8 

Why, then, affirm that the dolichocephalic type is 
disappearing, or has disappeared, when in reality it 
has never predominated on Germanic soil? Virchow 
never said a truer thing when he affirmed that the 
Germans have shown various types of skulls from the 
first, and were never a homogeneous nation with a 

1 /.nsaiHmtns!tllnn; tier /'// Wiirteinberg vorkommcthien SchaJel- 
fomifn, Stuttgart, 1876. 

* Cf. ZtituMftfSr Ethnologic, IM. x., Lissauer, "Crania Prussica," 
iml. cef. 63-86; Bel. xii., Virchow, " Altc Berliner Schatlel," incl. cef. 
78-86; it/., " Schiidel von NcuestaIter J-'cMc," ind. cef. 68-85; xiii , 
i'./., " Schiitlel von Kirlia (Thuring.)," ind. cef. 80-86; /'</., " \..n 
Spanil.iu," iml. cef. 78.6 83, etc. 



pure type that might be found among the Suevi and 
the Franks. I believe that I am in the right, since my 
opinion is founded on anthropological and historical 
data, when I affirm that at their origin the Germans 
were not a distinct people from the Celts or from the 
Slavs, with both of whom they were always united 
and often confused. The Franks of the fifth century 
were a northern people, less mixed in earlier times, 
and hence appearing somewhat more uniform in the 
graves of the Rhine district at a rather late epoch. 

The Alleged Homeric Evidence. These brief con- 
siderations seem to me to be sufficient to show that 
since it is difficult to find the Germans in their own 
home we cannot expect to find them as an Aryan 
stock in Greece and Italy, subjugating the dark 
populations and creating the two great Mediter- 
ranean civilisations, Hellenic and Latin, also called 
Aryan ; still less can we connect them with the more 
ancient Mycenaean or yEgean civilisation, as it is 
to-day called. ,The disappearance of the Germanic 
type among the Mediterranean populations, assumed 
by Penka, is a necessity imposed by the fact that this 
type is sought in vain where it is supposed to have 
dominated, except as a sporadic element easy to 
explain through the course of ages by the immigra- 
tion of races or families or individuals. 

But I cannot pass in silence the supposed testimony 
to the presence of the fair type in Greece, and to its 
superiority over the darker population, furnished by 
the Homeric poems, in which, it is affirmed, the 
heroes and gods are described as of the fair type 
with blue eyes. I have made a special investigation 
into this point and here present the results. 

In Homer Athena is glankopis; glaukos means 


blue, like the sea and the unclouded sky; it is also 
equivalent to phoberos, terrible (of the eyes); the 
olive is glaukos also, and Athena is the guardian 
of the olive; it also means shining, and is said of 
the dawn and the stars. In Athena's case glaitkopis 
means that her eyes are brilliant and terrible. 
Empedocles uses glaukopis of the moon, and it is 
even doubtful if in Homer it ever means blue. 

Apollo in Homer is c/irysaoros, that is to say 
bearing a golden sword; the title of "fair" is later; 
xant/ws is never used of Apollo in Homer, and if 
he were fair it would be like the sun. Apollo with 
golden hair, chrysokoman, is found in Euripides 
and Athenaeus, as " fair Dionysus " is found also in 
Euripides, that is to say at a much later time. 
Xanthos means a reddish fairness, and also brown. 
Artemis is eustefhanos; there is nothing as to being 

Aphrodite is chryse, golden, that is to say, brilliant, 
splendid, not fair. 

Demeter is xantlie, fair, it is true, but we must 
remember that Demeter (Ceres) is the symbol of 
harvest, fair like the spike of corn, as of Poseidon 
(Neptune), who is kyanochaites, that is to say with 
bluish, blackish, even black hair, like the dark and 
deep waves of ocean; kyanos is black, blue-black, 
violet, in Homer sometimes blacker than melas. 
In Demeter, therefore, the title of fair is only a 
symbol for the colour of harvest. 

Eos, the dawn, is c/irysothronos, riwdodaktyhs> 
krokopeplos, because the colour of dawn is golden, 
rosy, and red. 

Thetis, on the other hand, is argyropeza, i.e., with 
silver feet, the foaming wavelets of the sea. 


Hera (Juno) is chrysotlironos, leukolenos, ettkoinos, 
and Kalypsos is only eitkouios ; neither is fair. 

Achilles, however, is xantJios like Rhaclamanthus; 
but xantJios means not only fair, but also chestnut, 
brown, and bees are xanthai. 

It results from this analysis that in Homer none 
of the divinities arc fair in the ethnographic sense 
of the word; only Achilles and Rhadamanthus 
might be considered fair if we accept the word 
xantJios in its later sense. No other hero is described 
as fair. 

In regard to the Homeric expressions in heroic 
narratives relating to the men of a previous age 
confronted with contemporaries, 1 no one can fail 
to recognise that it is always usual to magnify past 
times and celebrated heroes. 

The Romans had also their Flavi, which indicates 
that fair persons were uncommon, and required a 
special name, but does not indicate that the Ger- 
manic type was considered aristocratic or dominant. 

I could bring forward a wealth of facts to show 
that what I have just stated regarding the anthro- 
pological characters of the Homeric gods and heroes 
may also be said, and with more reason, of the types 
of Greek and Rornan statuary which, though in the 
case of divinities they may be conventionalised, do 
not in the slightest degree recall the features of a 
northern race;* in the delicacy of the cranial and 
facial forms, in smoothness of surface, in the absence 
of exaggerated frontal bosses and supra-orbital arches, 
in the harmony of the curves, in the facial oval, in 
the rather low foreheads, they recall the beautiful and 
harmonious heads of the brown Mediterranean race. 

1 Iliad, v. 304, xii. 583, xx. 287. 


\Yinkclmami noted the correspondence between the 
types of Italian art and the population, and wrote 
that in the finest districts of Italy one met few of 
tlu'-c roughly outlined faces of uncertain or defective 
expression such as are met so often on the other side 
of the Alps; on the contrary, the features are distinct 
and vivacious, and the forms of the face large and 
full, with all the features in harmony. 1 

Thus we are not able to see any sound evidence 
in the Greek and Latin peoples to indicate that a 
northern race dominated the two peninsulas in primi- 
tive times; the idea is an illusion of Indo-Germanism. 

Celts or Lithuanians ? As a variant of Indo-Gcr- 
manism we are confronted by Ccltism, maintained 
chiefly by the French, as a reaction against the 
theory of the superiority and supremacy of the blond 
Germanic type. Mortillct, Ujfalvy, and others, have 
maintained that the bearers of European neolithic 
civilisation were the Celtic brachyccphals, not the 
German dolichoccphals ; and Ujfalvy has justly ' 
observed that the superiority of a race consists 
not merely in physical energy and restlessness, but 
in pre-eminence of mental faculty, showing itself in 
artistic and intellectual genius, as in the Greeks and 
Latins. I would add that a race cannot even be said 
to be physically superior if it is unable to resist the 
mild climate of the Mediterranean, but disappears as 
required by Pcnka's theory. 

This opinion coincides, in great part, with that 
of Taylor, who contests the right of the blond 
dolichocephalic Germanic stock to represent the 
original Aryan race which bore language and civilisa- 
tion to other peoples. Taylor, indeed, contests that 

1 Ctichichte tfer A'misf, Stuttgart, 1847, vol. i., Bk. i., p. 33. 


right also to the Celts, but he concedes much to them 
since he regards brachycephaly as a character of great 
superiority. 1 

He maintains that the Lithuanians, whom he 
f believes, not quite accurately, to be brachycephalic, 
are the authentic primitive Aryans, and that from 
them the Celto-Latins received their language, and 
with it the Aryan civilisation. His arguments are in 
large part linguistic, but also ethnological and anthro- 
pological. He believes he has proved that the 
neolithic population of the pile-dwellings of southern 
Germany and Switzerland and northern Italy may 
be identified with the brachycephalic ancestors of 
the race he calls Celto-Latin. 

To maintain this position it was necessary to 
create an anthropological theory, and this Canon 
Taylor has done. He assumes that the Ligurians 
are brachycephalic, as indeed is still erroneously 
believed by German and French anthropologists; 
Romans and Umbrians, most of the Italic popula- 
tion, together with the Hellenic stock, are declared 
to be brachycephalic. According to Taylor, the 
brachycephals are the superior race ; thus he writes : 
" Virchow, Broca, and Calori agree that the brachy- 
cephalic or ' Turanian ' skull is a higher form than 
the dolichocephalic. The most degraded of existing 
races, such as the Australians, Tasmanians, Papuas, 
Veddahs, Negroes, Hottentots, and Bosjemen, as well 
as the aboriginal forest tribes of India, are typically 
dolichocephalic ; while the Burmese, the Chinese, 
the Japanese, and the natives of Central Europe 
are typically brachycephalic. The fact that the 

1 Isaac Taylor, The Origin of the Aryans, Contemporary Science 
/ Series, London, 1889. 


Accadians, who belonged to the Turanian race, had, 
some 7000 years ago, attained a high stage of 
culture, from which the civilisation of the Semites 
was derived, is a fact which makes it more probable 
that the language and civilisation of Europe was 
derived from the brachycephalic rather than from 
the dolichocephalic race" 1 Now, all this is fanciful, 
and it is not necessary to confute it ; moreover, the 
Latins and other Italic peoples, the Greeks and 
the Egyptians, are for the most part dolichocephalic. 
I remember that shortly after the publication of his 
book, Canon Taylor visited me at the Gabinetto di 
Antropologia ; I had not yet overcome the surprise 
produced by a book in which however valuable it may 
be in other respects the facts were on this point so 
changed, and I led him into the Museum and showed 
him the ancient Roman and Etruscan heads, for the 
most part dolichocephalic, and then conducted him 
to the Prehistoric Museum to point out that in the 
Ligurian skeletons of Finalmarina the heads are 
elongated and not brachycephalic. He was surprised, 
but I do not know if he was convinced, for those who 
are not accustomed to the direct observation of facts 
arc more impressed by ideas, especially when on 
these ideas they have erected an elaborate edifice. 
In this respect Taylor has surpassed Posche and 

The Western Asiatic Origin. Archaeologists, it 
seems to me, reveal a defect in their methods for 
investigating the origins and diffusion of a civilisation 
when they take little or no account of the physical 
characters of the peoples among whom the civilisation 
is found ; historians maintain the same defect, and 

1 Origin of the Aryans, p. 241. 


both alike arc content with ethnic names and pass 
over the physical characters of nations, or else trust 
to language, most often a deceptive method of recog- 
nising a race or a people. The difficulties surrounding 
the question of the origin and diffusion of the ALgean 
or Mycenaean civilisation becomes greater when we 
are ignorant of the race that produced it, its exten- 
sion, origin, and dispersion. To believe that two 
peoples belong to two different stocks because they 
have different languages and unlike civilisations is 
often a mistake ; and to believe that two peoples are 
of the same stock because their languages and civilisa- 
tions are similar or related may also be a mistake. 
The Mediterranean is a sphinx with various faces, 
and to solve its enigma we need to know the stock or 
stocks that have peopled it. 

I shall attempt the anthropological solution of this 
enigma in the following pages. It may first, however, 
be well to refer to a recent dogmatic attempt to solve 
this problem which shows how necessary it is that all 
the scientific methods, ethnographical, archaeological, 
anthropological, linguistic, as well as geographical, 
should converge in the solution of the problem of the 
origin and diffusion of Mediterranean civilisation. I 
refer to the attempt, of Padre Cesare de Cara in his 
work on the Hethei-Felasgi. 1 The chief object of 
this investigation is to show that a very ancient 
people, neither of Aryan nor Semitic origin, from time 
immemorial occupied Syria and Asia Minor, and 
thence in various successive migrations peopled 
Greece and Italy, bearing with them their own native 
civilisation as it existed in Asia and afterwards in 

1 Gli Ilelhii-rdasgi: Ricenhe di Sloria e di Archcologia Orientah, 
Greca ed Italiaiia, Rome, 1894. 


the yEgean. This is the Pelasgic people of ancient 
history and Greco-Italian tradition, in Asia Minor 
and Syria, Eteo, Hctheo, or Hittite, as it is variously 
written; thus the Hetheo-Pelasgic people would be a 
single stock with two names, one Asiatic and primi- 
tive, Khatti, Khcti, Hcthei, as it was known to the 
Assyro-Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the Hebrews, 
corresponding to its national name in its own tongue; 
the other name derived and in a Greek form, signify- 
ing wandering or colonial Hethei. Early Greek and 1 
Italian civilisation would thus be born in Western , 
Asia and exported by the primitive Hethei in their ' 
migration. This people, or rather confederation of 
peoples in this author's opinion, possessing a vast 
dominion not only in Asia Minor up to the Euphrates, 
but in Colchis, the Euxine, in Scythia, would be 
neither Aryan nor Semitic, but Hamitic, having a / 
common origin with the Egyptians and Babylonians, 
both of Hamitic origin according to this author, like 
many African peoples. They would have possessed 
neither Semitic language nor civilisation, and would 
have alike preceded the Semites in Phoenicia, thus 
being pre- Phoenician, and the Hellenes in Greece. 
Accepting this centre of diffusion, the author stops at 
the Italian peninsula, when he finds the Pelasgians, 
and goes no further westward to the Iberian 
peninsula. Pelasgic traditions stop there also, and 
other racial names are found, Ligurian and Iberian, 
as in northern Africa the Libyans, a people belong- 
ing, as we shall sec, to the primitive Mediterranean 
stock. Thus De Cara's study docs not suffice to 
give any explanation of the civilisation which \\x 
find in primitive days to the west of Italy and in 
northern Africa, nor of the origin of the people in 


these regions, where the author does not appear to 
find the Hethei-Pelasgi. He reaches his conclusions 
by the study of the recent discoveries in the Asiatic 
/ East and in Egypt, as well as of the recent discovery, 
in Troy, Cyprus, and Crete, of pre-Hellenic Greece 
and prehistoric Italy; he places all this wealth of 
archaeological knowledge in relationship with the 
historical traditions and the mythologies of the 
ancient Greek and Latin writers and with the in- 
scriptions on the Egyptian monuments, recording the 
peoples with whom the Egyptians came in contact. 
In all this De Cara shows wonderful intellectual 
ability, unusual courage in the interpretation of 
Hittite monuments, and, above all, a method which, 
I believe, will be of great use in the future in the 
interpretation of the Hittite language that is to say, 
the comparison of what is believed to be the Hittite 
language with ancient Egyptian as two branches of 
the same stock, which he calls Hamitic. Thus he 
attempts to explain all the names of towns, rivers, 
districts in Asia Minor, now Grecianised, not by com- 
parison with Aryan or Semitic languages, but with 
Egyptian. Frequently the explanation seems suc- 
cessful, in other cases forced ; although it is probable 
that he has often abused etymological resem- 
blance, it seems to me that he has opened the right 
road, and that he has revealed the method of de- 
ciphering the mysteries of Mediterranean ethnography. 
Indo-Germanism, however, receives a heavy blow, in 
my opinion, in so far as it is the theory hitherto 
adopted to interpret the most ancient civilisation of 
the Mediterranean basin. 

But among the great difficulties which De Cara has 
to overcome in maintaining that the Hittitcs have 


appeared from the cast, bearing their original civilisa- 
tion towards the west, is that of explaining how it is 
that in the west, including Greece and Italy, no indi- 
cation can be discovered of Hittite writing and art ; / 
hitherto, in fact, it has been impossible to find that 
either the mysterious and indecipherable Hittite in- 
scriptions, or the bas-reliefs on the rocks, as in Asia 
Minor and Syria, in the slightest degree suggest any 
common origin for ^Egean and Hittite civilisations. 1 
De Cara thus has to reject any influence of Assyro- 
Babylonian art on that of the Hittites, making it an 
independent art, which seems impossible ; it appears 
to me that there is more Mesopotamian art among the 
Hittites than Hittite art in the Mediterranean. If 
Cyprus contains elements of Hittite civilisation, and 
many elements of Mesopotamian origin, 2 this is not 
surprising on account of its geographical position. 
But of this I shall have to speak later. 

I cannot agree, therefore, with this distinguished 
writer concerning the Asiatic origin of the Mediter- 
ranean peoples, but I recognise that he has brought 
about a new phase of the problem of Mediterranean 
civilisation and its creators, and that his opinions 
have many points of contact with the inductions I 
shall here have to bring forward. 

1 Kcinach has already brought forward (his objection. 
* De Cara, "Cipro," Civi/til Catlolica, Nos. 1070 e 1072, Rome, 
1895; OhnefaUch-Richtcr, Aj'fros, die Dilxl unJ Homer, Berlin, 1893. 



The Problems The Mediterranean Basin The Racial Names 
oj the Mediterranean Family Method of the Investigation. 

The Problems. Among the problems which agitate 
archaeologists and ethnologists there are two that 
are intimately related to each other : the origin of 
Mediterranean civilisation, and the origin of bronze 
in Europe together with its importation into the 
regions where that civilisation is most developed. 
These two problems, complex and important in 
themselves, are connected with many secondary 
problems, or problems which seem to be secondary, 
and these help to solve the first when they can them- 
selves be solved with full assurance. If the East 
exerts any influence over Mediterranean civilisation, 
how far does that influence extend ? Has there been 
any Egyptian influence in the ^Egean Sea? Who 
were the Etruscans ? Did they arrive by Alpine 
routes, or are they a maritime colony of eastern 
origin ? Who were the Pelasgians ? Were they an 
imaginary people, or a people possessing real exist- 
ence and importance among the populations of the 
Mediterranean ? 

Many have believed that these and similar prob- 
lems may be solved by archaeology and philology 
alone, or by means of tradition. They have more 


or less completely ignored the assistance which can 
be given by ethnographic anthropology and the study 
of the physical characters of the races among which 
the civilisations are found, following the migrations 
of the races in various regions, their power and 
their decadence in the struggle with peoples of other 
stock. The race or the stock which is diffused by 
emigration bears with it also a civilisation which like- 
wise undergoes modifications but always preserves its 
original characters. A stock which always preserves 
its physical characters, in spite of the infiltration of 
foreign racial elements, and which predominantly 
retains its own primitive racial composition, must be 
sufficiently strong and resistant to impress the char-/ 
acters of its own civilisation also on the elements 
which it meets and becomes mixed with. A stock 
which in its savage or half-savage state is so 
numerous and so strong that it can people a vast 
portion of the globe, and when civilised can conquer 
and dominate by arms an immense territory, may 
also create a civilisation and propagate that Such 
considerations may enable us to see that physical 
anthropology is an indispensable aid in the solution 
of these problems. 

Until recent years the Greeks and the Romans 
were regarded as Aryan, and then as Aryanised, 
peoples; the great discoveries in the Mediterranean 
have overturned all these views. To-day, although 
a few belated supporters of Aryanism still remain, 
it is becoming clear that the most ancient civilisation 
of the Mediterranean is not of Aryan origin but the 
product of a stock composed of many consanguine- 
ous peoples, which occupied the Mediterranean from 
a common centre of diffusion, through bearing 


different racial names. This stock, which I term 
Mediterranean, has formed the subject of my studies 
for many years, in the hop3 that I may be able to 
contribute to the solution of the problems I have 

The Mediterranean Basin. The basin of the Medi- 
terranean is not merely European ; Asia and Africa 
also form part of it, and it may be said that its waters 
formed a point of contact for three-quarters of the 
ancient world. In this contact arose and developed 
the civilisation which has chiefly influenced modern 
peoples, and which continues its influence; the other 
civilisations perished completely or belonged to a 
world less in touch with the social life of humanity, 
though they may have constituted grandiose states 
like Babylonia and Assyria. Of these we possess 
to-day the historical records, which have an artistic 
and monumental value, but their social order, which 
is so large a part of a nation's civilisation, has left no 
influence on modern life, while Latin civilisation 
still lives, more or less transformed, in modern social 
life. The peoples nearest to Asia, and which most 
strongly felt Asiatic influence in their development, 
have sunk like the Asiatic peoples, some having 
disappeared even from history; to-day we have to 
disinter them from among the remains of their 
monuments and their indecipherable language. 

The Mediterranean has presented the most favour- 
able conditions for the development of a civilisation 
more cosmopolitan than those born in the valleys of 
great rivers like the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Nile, 
or the five great rivers of India. The Mediterranean, 
with its large and small peninsulas, its numerous 
islands, its water-ways to other seas, and to the 


interior of the surrounding land, has furnished points 
of contact and struggle between many nations, 
arousing the internal and external activity of each, 
in the direction most useful to its existence and 

To these may be added other natural conditions 
which have made the basin of the Mediterranean one 
of the happiest habitable regions of the globe: its 
temperate climate, the fertility of its soil, the abun- 
dance of its produce in every kind. Hardly do we 
leave this happy basin than we enter deserts in 
Libya, Syria, and Arabia, or regions considered in- 
hospitable in ancient times, like Scythia and Central 
Europe; the Black Sea was by the Romans con- 
sidered an inhospittible region in comparison with 
Italy, in which the centre of development of civilisa- 
tion, was not the valley of the Po, but the central and 
southern regions; just as in Greece it was not in 
Macedonia that art and philosophy flourished. 

Into this basin from time immemorial has been 
poured a human stock divided into many peoples, of 
which the origin and point of departure has hitherto 
been unknown in spite of the numerous and varied 
conjectures of historians, archreologists, and ethnolo- 
gists, some finding the place of origin in the Asiatic 
Orient, some in the North, others believing that some 
race or people, without name or culture, remained as 
a foundation of the population but was dominated 
by powerful and civilised invaders. I hope to show, 
however, that there was really a centre of dispersion 
of the Mediterranean stock, which in far remote 
times, probably Quaternary, anterior to all tradition, 
occupied the regions which surround this great basin, 
and that the various peoples derived from this stock 


have possessed the most ancient native civilisation in 
the countries, islands, and peninsulas they occupied. 
I believe, further, that we must not make an absolute 
separation, such as is commonly made, between the 
various regions of this basin; the invaders or im- 
migrants in the Mediterranean spread both to east 
and west, to south and to north, of the sea; that 
is to say, they inhabited Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, 
Libya and the rest of Northern Africa, Greece,- Italy, 
and the Iberian peninsula. 

Thus this geographical region is an anthropological 
unit; it is not Asia nor Africa nor Europe which has 
become the centre of civilisation and of dispersion, it 
is the whole basin of the Mediterranean. This stock, 
with its various ethnic names, constitutes a family 
of peoples which I have long denominated " Mediter- 
ranean " on account of their geographical position and 
anthropological stability. The family is not confined 
to this basin, but has become diffused towards the 
west, the north, and the east, invading the Canary 
Islands, Western and Central Europe, Great Britain, 
France, Switzerland, and Southern Russia. 

The Racial Names of tlie Mediterranean Family. 
The racia! names of the primitive peoples of the 
Mediterranean may be reduced to four, each of them 
comprising more or less numerous divisions and sub- 
divisions, owing to migrations as well as the influence 
of chiefs or geographical position. These four names 
correspond to the four great branches of the family 
which in various ways and through long ages have 
remixed, fought as enemies, immigrated or emigrated 
at different periods and by new roads or old roads, 
to escape destruction or to seek better means of 
existence. By separating, the various branches and 


their divisions acquired special characters, as happens 
by segregation in the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
generally, becoming variations of the primitive stock 
in language, customs, and civilisation, only preserving 
the chief common characters, and among these the 
physical characters of the family invariably persist 
for ages. 

These four primitive racial names live in history 
and as geographical names, though the peoples and 
their civilisation have changed ; by this means alone 
we can find the traces of the invaders and immigrants 
in the Mediteiranean and their various primitive 
seats; this fact is at the same time an indication that 
the branches of the Mediterranean family were not 
exiles or small tribes, and only for a brief period the 
conquerors of the great basin, for they must have 
been numerous and powerful to survive all the 
changes and struggles of these peoples through long 

The Iberians gave its name to the great peninsula 
of the south-west of Europe, Spain with Portugal; 
the Ligurians under various names occupied various 
parts of Italy, joining the Iberians through southern 
France; the PeJasgians occupied the peninsula and 
islands of Greece, passed into Italy at different 
periods, and were diffused through Asia Minor under 
the obscure names of Khatti, Hethei, Chittim, Hit- 
; finally, the Libyans occupied northern Africa 
under various names, of which the most glorious was 
that of Egyptians. 

In the vicissitudes of ages, rc-minglings and 
struggles, invasions and dominations, caused some 
peoples and regions to change their names while others 
remained unchanged : Greece was old Pelasgia, the 



land of the Khatti became Phoenicia, Italy assumed 
the historical name which it has borne unchanged for 
many thousand years, Africa was sub-divided among 
various nations. The stock became more mixed, 
without doubt, but unchanged in the main in racial 
composition ; new and foreign elements were indeed 
added, but these never disturbed, nor do they now 
disturb, the primitive character of the Mediterranean 
race which constitutes a distinct stock in itself with its 
own very marked characters, not to be confounded 
with those of any other European or Asiatic stock ; 
it is morphologically the finest brunet race which 
has appeared in Europe, is derived neither from the 
black nor white peoples, but constitutes an autonomous 
stock in the human family. 

Method of the Investigation. Before seeking the 
origin of the various branches of the Mediterranean 
family, and their centre of movement and diffusion, 
I propose to pass them in brief review. Our investi- 
gation will have an anthropological character which 
may even seem exclusive, since we shall not take 
account of the various civilisations and their different 
epochs among Mediterranean peoples. It is not so, 
however; without the aid of the history of civilisation, 
of traditions, of geography, without the aid of the 
marvellous discoveries of ancient monuments in the 
Mediterranean basin, and without the wealth of 
objects disinterred in Egypt, Mycenae, Tiryns, Troy, 
Crete, Cyprus, Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, there would 
be much greater obscurity in Mediterranean anthro- 
pology; it would be impossible to find a solution of 
the problem, still less a synthetic reconstruction such 
as I am about to attempt. Thus we need to study 
the primitive civilisation of the Mediterranean in 


order to re-compose the great human nucleus which 
appeared there at an unknown distance of time and 
still remains unchanged, for the greater part, in its 
composition, in spite of new foreign elements which 
have penetrated from many sides and in different 

A doubt may, however, assail us when we attempt 
an anthropological solution of this intricate problem, 
and that is lest the learned, archaeologists or 
historians, should feel no faith in any attempt of 
anthropology to resolve the problems of history 
or of past races. The lack of results which has led 
to this scepticism docs not, however, lie in anthro- 
pology, but in a bad method ; .with a rational and 
natural method we cannot fail of result A method 
which is only in appearance a method inevitably 
leads to errors and can produce no results ; if the 
archaeologists have had no faith in anthropology they 
have been justified. 

A celebrated anthropologist, when measuring the 
heads of the mummies of the Pharaohs, preserved in 
the Pyramids, wrote that the Egyptians belonged to 
the white race. His statement meant nothing ; we 
could construct a syllogism showing that the Egyptians 
are Germans, since the latter also are fair. De 
Quatrefages classified the Abyssinians among the 
white races ; but if they are black, how can they be 
white? If I had followed the old and irrational 
method hitherto followed by anthropologists, I could 
not have ascertained the affinities among the various 
Mediterranean peoples which have enabled me to 
attempt a reconstruction which is the result of a 
systematic analysis in every direction. 

Ever since I have been able to show that anthro- 


pological method should not be different from 
zoological method, I have chiefly turned my atten- 
tion to the morphology of the skull as revealing those 
internal physical characters of human stocks which 
remain constant through long ages and at far remote 
spots. As a zoologist can recognise the character of 
an animal species or variety belonging to any region 
of the globe or any period of time, so also should an 
anthropologist if he follows the same method of 
investigating the morphological characters of the 
skull. This method has guided me in my investi- 
gations into the present problem, and has given 
me unexpected results which were often afterwards 
confirmed by archaeology or history. It may there- 
fore be easily understood how much help anthro- 
pology may bring to the other investigations con- 
cerning the origin and paths of civilisation, and I 
trust that it will gain a confidence which it has 
not always possessed hitherto. 

I have followed the various peoples with their 
racial names in ancient and modern history ; I have 
examined when possible the ancient and modern 
skulls belonging to each branch of the races .in 
question, and I have met with a fact that is at once 
surprising and curious, and that is that there exist 
about a dozen cranial forms, by me termed varieties, 
common alike to all the peoples called Iberian, 
Ligurian, the central Italic as well as the southern 
and insular Italic region, the Greek peoples, Asia 
Minor, ancient Egypt, and all northern Africa now 
occupied by the Berbers and Kabyles. Other cranial 
varieties with less numerous characters are also found 
in these regions mixed with the first-mentioned 
varieties ; they appear to be foreign racial elements 


that have mingled with the other throughout the 
Mediterranean basin. 

I have been able to follow and compare these 
cranial forms from the Iberian peninsula of neolithic 
times to prehistoric Liguria, from Etruria to Latium 
and neolithic Sicily, from Greece to the Troad and 
Hissarlik, in graves of the Mycenaean period in Crete; 
I have compared these with ancient series from Egypt 
and Tunis, and I have found the same forms and 
varieties with their subordinate forms still pre- 
dominant This analysis, cariicd out by a uniform 
method, has revealed another important point, and 
that is that the ancient cranial forms invariably re- 
semble the modern forms of the same regions, except 
that some foreign element has become intermingled. 
Persistence of physical characters through long ages 
and vicissitudes is thus proved ; without such con- 
stancy science would be helpless. The same fact 
leads to a result which may seem unexpected, and 
that is that from its origin the Mediterranean stock 
has not changed; in spite of foreign invasions the 
racial composition remains the same ; the new 
elements have not been able to disintegrate it nor 
to alter its general physiognomy. 

The cranial morphology of the Mediterranean 
family in its four chief branches Iberians, Ligurians, 
Pelasgians, Libyans and their minor disjoined 
branches, possesses special characters, clearly dis- 
tinct from that of the peoples of the centre and 
east of Europe ; my analyses and the nomenclature 
I have adopted for cranial forms enable us to recog- 
nise them in whatever part of the world we may meet 
them, so special and easily distinguishable arc their 
characters. Among these forms the pentagonoid, the 


ovoid, and the ellipsoid come first, while others, such 
as the platycephalic and the cuneiform, are less 
numerous. 1 I am able to affirm that these characters 
are not found among the Celtic, Germanic, Finnic, or / 
other populations, and any one who is accustomed to 
such analysis may easily recognise any foreign or 
adventitious element which may have penetrated into 
the Mediterranean from the north or the east. 

Another phenomenon, however, is revealed by the 
analysis of the cranial forms of the various branches 
of this great family, and that is that these varieties 
are differently mingled in the composition of a nation, 
which thus receives a different physiognomy, accord- 
ing as some forms are more numerous and prominent 
than others. There is thus an appearance of diversity 
which is almost or quite absent when we consider the 
whole family. 2 

1 For a description of these and other cranial types sec Sergi, Specie 
e Variet^ Utttatte, Bocca, Turin, 1900, chaps, iv. and v. 

3 Cf. Sergi, Africa: Anti-apologia della slirpe camitica, Turin, 1897, 
as regards the methods and results referred to above ; also Arii e 
Italic i: At lor no all' Italia preistorica, Turin, 1898, for many related 



The Cradle of the Mediterranean Stock The Hamiies. 

The Cradle of the Mediterranean Stock. I owe it 
chiefly to my craniological method that I have been 
able to see the characteristic resemblances and differ- 
ences among this chaos of peoples, formed from the 
most ancient times, and re-mingled with each other 
and with foreign elements. No pre-conception has in- 
fluenced me in attempting to re-unite in one synthesis 
the analytic elements of my researches; it has come 
naturally as the result of previously established facts 
which were themselves a revelation, as I studied in 
succession the peoples of the Mediterranean and their 
physical characters, especially the forms of the skull 
and face. The ancient skulls of continental and in- 
sular Italy, and the persistence of their forms in the 
modern population, wherever it has been preserved, 
the skulls of the Iberian peninsula, of Greece, of 
ancient Egypt, then those of the rest of northern 
Africa and of the Canary Islands, all revealed by 
their constant uniformity, and the uninterrupted suc- 
cession of the same forms, that they must necessarily 
belong to a single original stock. 

But that original stock could not have its cradle in 
the basin of the Mediterranean, a basin more fitted 


for the confluence of peoples and for their active 
development ; the cradle whence they dispersed in 
many directions was more probably in Africa. The 
study of the fauna and flora of the Mediterranean 
exhibits the same phenomenon and becomes another 
argument in favour of the African origin of the 
Mediterranean peoples. 

To-day, however, some years after I first reached 
this conviction, a confirmation, almost unexpected, 
has come from prehistoric archaeology and related 
studies, as I shall show in the sequel when discussing 
the primitive civilisations of the Mediterranean stock. 
For the present, keeping within the domain of 
physical anthropology, we shall find confirmation 
and demonstration in an almost complete study of 
certain African populations occupying an extended 
area and possessing marked homogeneity in skeletal 
characters, to a less extent also in external characters, 
as well as in the languages formerly and still spoken. 
I refer to the populations which pass under the old 
name of Hamitic, chiefly on account of the linguistic 
characters which have contributed to classify and 
group them in a single stock. 

The Hamites. As I have said, many of the peoples 
called Hamitic still preserve their ancient language 
in a more or less altered form ; among these may be 
included the inhabitants of the Sahara, the Berbers 
of every type and every region, while many others 
have wholly or partially lost their language, like the 
Egyptians, the Wahuma, the Masai. But they still 
show the physical character of their stock in spite of 
the incongruous and hybrid forms which have re- 
sulted. These physical characters I mean the 
fundamental skeletal, and especially cranial and 


facial characters are common to the populations of 
the Mediterranean ; so that it may be said that the 
area of the so-called llamitic stock extends from IO 
north latitude towards the west,- and from 8" south 
latitude towards the east, throughout the Mediter- 
ranean. We shall sec, however, that it is not con- 
fined to this basis, but has extended into Europe at 
the north. 

I divide the Hamites of Africa into two great 
branches, an eastern branch in the north-east of the 
continent, and a northern one in the north-west 

/. Eastern Branch: 

1. Ancient and modern Egyptians (Copts, 

Fellaheen), excluding the Arabs. 

2. Nubians, Bejas. 

3. Abyssinians. 

4. Gallas, Danakil, Somali's. 

5. Masai. 

6. Wahuma or Watusi. 

//. Northern Branch: 

1. Berbers of Mediterranean, Atlantic, and 


2. Tcbus or Tubus. 

3. Fulahs or Fulbe's. 

4. Guanchcs of the Canaries. 1 

Of these populations the Egyptians are still Mediter- 
ranean, and the Berbers Mediterranean and in part 
Atlantic ; the name " Berber," which is recent, corre- 
sponds, in great part at least, to the ancient " Libyan," 
and is the name which I shall here adopt. 

Now the convergence of physical characters in all 

1 See Scrgi, A/rita, .'.. 


these populations, while it leads us to regard them as 
forming a single human stock, also suggests that their 
origin must be found in Africa. In the Italian 
edition of this work I had placed the centre of origin 
and diffusion of this stock in East Africa in the 
region of the great lakes, near the sources of the 
Nile, and including Somaliland. Many arguments 
led me to that conclusion, especially the very ancient 
existence of a population which in the Egyptian 
monuments is recorded as giving origin to their race, 
the Punti, and whose physical characters resemble 
and are often identical with those of the Egyptians ; 
also the discovery of flint implements resembling 
those of palaeolithic age in Europe, and the existence 
of unexplored tumuli in the territories of the Dinkas 
and the Somali's. 

The flint implements of palaeolithic type have been 
found by Revoil, Jousseanne, Scton-Karr, 1 and others. 
Seton-Karr believes that the stone implements of 
Somaliland arc scattered over the whole region, 
but probably mostly beneath the present surface, in a 
region bounded approximately by the Red Sea and 
lat 9 30' N., and between long. 44" and 45 E. The 
same explorer gives some indication as to the relation 
that these implements bear to the soil and the geo- 
logical features of the country. 

Little is yet known of the tumuli of which RcVoil 
has given various drawings. Bottago also saw some 
of these, and was told that they were the work of 
Galla tribes, to which statement he objects that no 

1 Cf. Sergi, Africa, pp. 175, 193, 197; Seton-Karr, "Discovery of 
Evidences of the Paleolithic Stone Age in Somaliland," Jour. Anth. 
Insl. t 1896, p. 271; and for criticisms on some points by Dr. II. O. 
Forbes, see Nature, igth April 1900. 


such constructions arc seen in the country of the 

In North Africa and Sahara also very numerous 
flint arrow-heads and fragments of worked flint have 
been found, a certain proof of the existence of a large 
population. 1 The idea has thus arisen that Sahara 
rather than Eastern Africa was the original home of 
the populations which have occupied the Mediter- 
ranean basin and Hamitic Africa, or Africa north of 
the Sudan. 2 

It appears to me now, however, that to establish 
absolutely the place of origin of a human stock is 
neither an easy nor safe task ; we can only indicate 
approximately, in the present case, the most probable 
region of Africa. If it seems to me most reasonable 
to look to the region of the great lakes, it is because 
that region is most favourable to human existence, 
and if similar conditions were also to be found in the 
Sahara at the Quaternary epoch, I will not deny to . 
that district also the possibility of being the cradle / 
of the human species which has had so large a part 
in the destinies of the world. 

At this point I must defend my opinion against an 
inaccurate interpretation of it by the eminent French 
anthropologist, Zaborowski, who has attributed to 
me the statement that the Egyptians are diffused 
through Asia Minor, Southern Russia, and else- \\ 
where. 3 My statement is that a human stock, neither \ 
Egyptian nor Iberian, nor Pclasgic, nor Ligurian, has j 

1 Tissot, Gfographie Comparer de la province romaine d\4friqne, 
1'aris, Tome I., 1884, p. 398 ; Bourde, La frame an Sudan, p. 399. 

-, Man Past and Tie sent, Cambridge, 1899, pp. 450 el sty. 

1 " Du Dnicstre 4 la Caspicnnc," /'/<//. Sec. tTAnth. dt Paris, 1896, 
pp. 8 1 et sf,/. 


shown itself in successive emigrations and in various 
directions, and has formed the four peoples at a later 
date designated by the names Egyptian, Libyan, 
Iberian, Pelasgic, and Ligurian, with their successive 
later sub-divisions bearing new racial names. I could 
not imagine that the Egyptians of history, so rich in 
civilisation, had carried a prehistoric civilisation into 
southern Russia, as Zaborowski makes me say, since, 
as he himself now admits, I supposed that it was the 
ancestors of the Libyans, Iberians, Egyptians, and 
Pelasgians who had peopled the various regions of 
the Mediterranean, including Asia Minor, and then 
also southern Russia 

But I also supposed and the supposition has now 
been confirmed by discoveries in Egypt that the 
Egyptians were a branch of the Libyans, and thus I 
extended the name of Libyan to all the African 
populations of northern Africa, from Egypt to 
Morocco, including those of the Sahara. The 
Egyptians would thus be a detached branch of the 
primitive Libyans, an opinion very far removed from 
the belief, attributed to me, that the Egyptians went 
to Russia. Concerning the anthropological evidence 
for the wide diffusion of the African stock there will 
be more to say when I deal in turn with each people, 
or fraction of a people, possessing recognisable 
physical characters. 1 

1 For an exact interpretation of my opinions see A. J. Evans, " The 
Eastern Question in Anthropology," Presidential Address in Anthro- 
pological Section, British Assocb^ion, Liverpool, 1896 {Nature, 1st 
Oct. 1896). 



Ubyans on Egyptian Monuments The Evidence of Herodotus 
and other Classic Writers The Berbers Oiigin oj the 
IJpyans The Myth of Atlantis The African Blonds 
Physical Characters of the Libyans. 

Libyans on Egyptian Monuments. On the* Egyptian 
monuments we find a few vague references to the 
Libyans, fewer and more indefinite than those regard- 
ing the Hamitic and other peoples in the south of 
Egypt. Brugsch, in the ethnographic lists of ancient 
Egypt, found the Psylli in the Pit with light red- 
coloured skin and black hair falling in tresses, the 
beard also being black; and the Asbyta; in the Sopet 
at the west of the modern oasis of Farafrah with 
light red-coloured skin and red beard and hair. 1 
Asbytae and Psylli should be regarded as two portions 
of the Libyan family, as may be concluded from later 
information derived from other sources ; the names 
of Lebu and Tchenu or Tamahu are recorded more 
often on the monuments, and seem to represent the 
Libyans of geographers and historians. On the maps, 
however, the Tehenu and the Lebu appear as two 
peoples, the first near Egypt, the second more to the 

It is important to observe the pictorial representa- 

1 Dit Alta&ftisehe Volkertaftl, p. 74. 


tion from which it has been concluded that the Lcbu 
and the Tchenu were a white race with blue eyes 
and fair hair like the Germans. It is true that on 
Egyptian monuments the Tchenu are painted with 
skin of a bright red, and red or yellow beard and 
blue eyes ; but we also find that many personages are 
depicted with red as well as green eyes, though there 
is no reason to suspect that the races to which they 
belonged possessed an iris of either colour. 1 Rosellini, 
in his Plate CLVIII., shows us a group of persons 
with yellow skin, black hair and beards, and 
green eyes, and another with pale rose skin, black 
hair, and red eyes; in Plate CLIX. a group with 
yellow skin, yellowish beard and blue eyes, and again 
a group of three individuals of whom the middle 
individual shows a brick-red, Egyptian complexion, 
and blue eyes. It is unnecessary to prove that these 
combinations do not indicate racial varieties. 

Miiller observes, with reference to the Tehenu, 
that they bear -a name which is commonly inter- 
preted as meaning light-coloured, but that there 
can be no doubt that the root Thn only signifies 
"brilliant" and not white. 2 We must not forget 
that the Asbytae and Psylli, already referred to, are 
represented with a fair skin and black beard and 
hair. It is certainly an important question as 
regards the origin of the Libyan populations, the 
more so as to-day we find a blond element among 
the Berbers of the north coast and Morocco, and it 
is claimed that they furnish the primitive type of 
the Libyans represented in Egyptian pictures. 

The Evidence of Herodotus and other Classic 

1 See Sergi, Africa, cap. ii. 
* Asien und Eurofa, p. 14. 


Writers. The most ancient ethnographic observa- 
tions, after the Egyptian, arc those furnished by 
Herodotus, who by Libya generally meant Africa 
outside Egypt, which he regarded as the natural 
frontier between Asia and Libya, making it as it 
were a distinct continent by itself, 1 notwithstanding the 
opinion of Vivien de Saint-Martin, who believed that 
Herodotus placed the borders of Libya at Mount 
Casius, near the isthmus of Suez, 2 where he simply 
placed the eastern border of Egypt 3 Herodotus 
also gives a more restricted meaning to Libya, dis- 
tinguishing it from Ethiopia, as may be gathered 
from various passages and from his ethnographic 
division of the populations. His clearest indications, 
which he obtained in Egypt itself on the occasion of 
his visit, as well as from other travellers and navi- 
gators to the Libyan coasts, are those concerning the 
tribes of the sea-board ; but he also knew something 
of the tribes of the interior, beginning with the oasis 
of Ammon. I need not discuss the accuracy or in- 
accuracy of the itineraries described by Herodotus, 
nor the geographical position of the places mentioned ; 
I have only to occupy myself with the ethnography. 4 

Herodotus knew the desert of Libya and many of 
its oases, and he speaks in various places of that of 
Ammon and its inhabitants, whom he believes to be 
a mixed people of Egyptian and Ethiopian origin, 
with a language that partakes of those of both races; 
he knows also Augila, a date-bearing country where 
the Nasamoncs go to gather dates. 

1 Book IT., cap. xvii. 
1 Lt Nord de T Afrique, pp. 29- 30. 
Book II., 158. 

4 Cf. Vivien de Saint-Martin, 0/. <//., for a discussion of various 
geographical questions in Herodotus. 


Herodotus also enumerates the tribes he found on 
the western borders of Egypt The first of these are 
the Adyrmachidse, who have the same customs as the 
Egyptians, except that they dress like other Libyans; 
then come the Giligammae, who inhabit the country 
to the west as far as the island of Aphrodisais; then 
the Asbytae, who dwell above Cyrene, in the interior. 
The Auschisae come next to the Asbytae on the west, 
above Barce, and extend as far as the Hesperides. 
In the same region are found the Cabales, a people 
small in number, who extend along the sea-coast 
towards Tauchira, in the district of Barce. The 
Nasamones, a large tribe, are to the west of the 
Auschisae, and leave their flocks in summer to gather 

The Psylli are neighbours of the Nasamones, but 
having perished on account of the extraordinary 
barrenness of the country, the latter have occupied 
their territory. To the south, beyond the Nasamones 
and the Psylli,' in a district where wild beasts are 
found, live the Garamantes, who avoid intercourse 
with other peoples ; they have no weapons, and 
cannot defend themselves. Vivien de Saint-Martin 
remarks, concerning the Garamantes, that Herodotus 
elsewhere says of this people that they are ten days' 
journey distant from Augila, and that they fight 
against the Ethiopians, using chariots with four 
horses. They would thus be two different peoples. 
The neighbours of the Garamantes on the sea towards 
the west were the Macae, then the Gindanes, and to 
the south of these the Lotophagi, who, along the sea, 
border on the Machlyes, closely resembling them in 
customs and extending to the river Triton, which falls 
into the Lake Tritonis. The Ausenses, on the opposite 


side of the river, also dwell on Lake Tritonis; to the 
north arc the Maxyes, the Zavcccs, and the Gizantes 
or Zygantcs. 

Beyond this region Herodotus knows little or 
nothing definite; he has heard that ten days' journey 
beyond the Garamantes, in the interior of Libya, 
thcic is a mountain of salt and a spring where the 
inhabitants are called Atarantes; and that ten days' 
journey beyond this begin the Atlas Mountains, which 
extend as- far as the Pillars of Hercules; the people 
dwelling there he calls Atlantes. 1 

At this point Herodotus ends his enumeration of 
Libyan tribes, among which he further distinguishes 
between those that are nomadic and those that are 
sedentary and agricultural. " From Egypt as far as 
Lake Tritonis the Libyans lead a pastoral life, living 
on flesh and milk. The Libyans to the west of Lake 
Tritonis are not shepherds." 2 This is only true in a 
relative sense, remarks Saint-Martin. It is certain 
that between Egypt and the Syrtes the naturally 
bare and arid soil is more adapted to a pastoral and 
nomad life, while between the Syrtes and the Pillars 
of Hercules it is more suited to cultivation ; but 
Herodotus was wrong in believing that to the west 
of Tritonis, in a land considered by Greeks and 
Romans as above all a country of nomads and shep- 
herds, no nomads were to be found. 3 

The Petiplus of Scilax only records four Libyan 
populations : the Marmarides, from Egypt to the 
1 1 -peridcs ; the Nasamoncs, from that spot to the 
great Syrtes ; the Macae, on the coast of the same 

IV., 184. 

- ILnnlotus, IV., caps. 186-187. 

J Of. (it., pp. 60-6 1. 


gulf towards the west; and the Lotophagi, as far as 
the lesser Syrtes. 1 Diodorus Siculus speaks, in refer- 
ence to the expedition of Agathoclcs, of three Libyan 
tribes, the Micatani and Zufoni, who are nomads, 
and the Asfodelodi, who by the colour of their skin 
resemble the Ethiopians. 2 

The Roman wars in Africa extended the know- 
ledge of Libyan tribes, and gave to various popula- 
tions their racial names. The Afri appeared in the 
district of Carthage, called Africa; the Numidi, which 
is apparently a translation of the Greek Nomades; 
the Mauri, who gave their name to Mauritania, 
called also Manrusi by the Greeks. 3 The expedition 
of Suetonius Paulinus to the south of the Atlas 
enables us to know the Getuli; 4 that of Cornelius 
Balbus to Fezzan 5 and the expeditions of Septimius 
Flaccus and of Julius Maternus to the south of Fezzan, 
as far as the country of Agisimba, carry us to the 
centre of Africa. 

To identify regions and the populations inhabiting 
them from the data of ancient writers and those of 
modern explorers is not easy, nor always fruitful; 
because the notices of Greek and Latin writers have 
reached us in a fragmentary and imperfect form, or 
in brief summaries like those of Pliny, and because 
racial and geographic names have undergone com- 
plete transformation, especially as a consequence of 
the Arab invasions. 7 

1 Scilax, reriplns, 108-110. 

2 XX., 38, 57; XX VI., 27. 

3 Mela, i. 4; Sallust, Jug. xix. ; Pliny, Nat. Hist., v. I, 2; 
Slrabo, xvii., iii. 2. * Pliny, v. I. Pliny, v. 5. 

B Ptolemy, Gtogr., Prolog, viii. 

7 Full and valuable notes and elucidations niayln: found in Vivien de 
Saint- Martin, o/>. (it. ; also in Carette, " Kecherchcs stir 1'origine el les 


In speaking of the extreme limits reached by the 
Romans in Africa, we must discuss the expedition of 
Septimius Flaccus and Julius Maternus to the south 
of Fezzan. The record of this expedition is furnished 
by Marinus as quoted by Ptolemy: "Septimius 
Flaccus, moving with an army from Libya against 
the Ethiopians, arrived in three months, after leaving 
the Garamantcs towards the south." "Julius Mater- 
nus, having left Leptis Magna and Garama, and 
joined with the king of the Garamantes, marched 
towards the south against the Ethiopians, and after 
four months arrived at Agisimba of the Ethiopians, 
where rhinoceroses are found." 1 I will not repeat the 
details of journeys and distances given by Ptolemy and 
other writers, but I think we may accept the opinion 
of Saint-Martin, who places Agisimba towards 16 
and 1 8 N.L. in the oasis of Asben. 2 Nor must I omit 
to mention that in the oasis of Atarantes, of which 
Herodotus speaks, Barth believes that we may recog- 
nise one of the oases of Asben ; he connects the name 
Atarantes with Atara, in the Haussa language, which 
means reunite and signifies population ( Volksge- 
meinde}. It is true, he adds, that no mine is to be 
found in the mountain of Asben, but we find instead 
the salt deposits of Bilma, with an antiquity of some 
two thousand three hundred years, which must have 
been utilised in these regions. 3 

Both references show that the interior of Africa 

migrations clcs principales tribus tie 1'Afriquc septcntrionalc,'* Ex- 
ploration scitnlifique i/e rAltfrie, Paris, 1853, tome iii. ; and Tissot, 
" ( leographie comparce dc la province romaine d'Afrique," Ex/>lor, 

:!ijtijtie de la 7'unisit, Paris, 1884, tome i. 
1 I'li'U-my, (,'fop:, lot. tit. 
* Of. (it., p|> 215 -22\. 

(.'tntralafrikanixher VotaMarien, Parl I., p. cii. 


was by no means unknown either to the Egyptians, 
who carried on commerce there with caravans, or to 
the Romans who penetrated thither with their armies. 
Unfortunately, concerning the Roman expedition into 
Central Africa we possess no definite knowledge; it 
would have furnished us with information of great 
historical value as to the populations of these regions. 
Herodotus, while affirming that the Libyans are 
numerous and of various stocks, 1 concludes, after 
enumerating the tribes and population of the coast 
and interior, by saying that the races (ethnea) in all 
Libya may be reduced to four, two of these being 
i indigenous and two foreign. The Ethiopians and 
the Libyans are the indigenous races, the first dwell- 
ing to the south, the second to the north; the Phoe- 
nicians and Greeks are the foreign races. 2 The word 
ethnos is used by Herodotus in two senses, the one 
general, the other more restricted, just as we use the 
word " race " in an ambiguous manner. Thus Libya 
has a generic significance for the whole African con- 
tinent, and a particular significance for the region 
inhabited by the Libyans proper; the Ethiopians 
are the black stock. What physical characters the 
Libyans possessed we are not told by the Greek 
historian. Scilax, among the ancients, mentions fair 
Libyans, and at a later date Procopius speaks of a 
population with white skin and fair hair. It seems 
that Callimachus also noted the fair Libyan women 
among the inhabitants of Cyrenaica. In the interior 
of Libya, besides the Garamantes and the Getuli, 
there were also, according to Ptolemy, the Melano- 
Getuli or black Getuli; this is another vague expres- 
sion concerning a physical character of the Libyan 
1 IV., 167. 2 IV., 197. 


population. It must be inferred, as a negative con- 
clusion, that the Libyan populations of the coast and 
many of the interior were fair in the generic sense 
of the word, since we do not find any special indica- 
tion of this character, as we do by accident for the 
fair element, and more definitely for the black com- 
plexion of the more southern Getuli. 

The language of these Libyan peoples was " pro- 
foundly distinct from the Semitic languages, though 
having traits of resemblance to them." l They also 
possessed a method of writing which constituted what 
was called the Libyan alphabet. It may be recognised 
in the Berber hills of the Ahaggar, and with a few 
slight modifications it is the same as that still used 
by the Tuaregs. It may be reconstituted from know- 
ledge of the Targu alphabet in the bilingual in- 
scriptions of Thugga.* The Berber alphabet is 
substantially identical with the Libyan.' 

The geographical and racial names of Libya 
changed ; Libya became Africa; the coast popula- 
tion lost the names by which they were known to 
Herodotus and the geographers who followed him; 
the names of Cyrenaica and Africa appeared for 
Carthaginian territory, of Numidia, of Mauritania, and 
hence the Afri, the Numidi, the Mauri. Nor did 
the changes cease at this point ; to the general name 
of Libyans succeeded that of Berbers, which to-day is 
being lost, to give place to other names, such, for 
instance, as Schellachs or the Shluh. Geographers 
and ethnographers have disputed concerning the 

1 Kenan, 'La Socie'tc' Bcrbcrc," Rtvue Jet Deux Maudes, 1873. 
1 Tissot, Gtograpkie cottiparfe, etc., p. 517. 

* Tissot, (>/>. fit., pp. 518 el scq.\ cf. the following chapter on the 


origins of these various successive names which have 
designated the regions and inhabitants of Africa. 
Libya, it is said, came from the name of a tribe, 
Luba or Lovvata, pronounced Levata or Lebata, and 
changed by the Greek colonists of Cyrene in their 
own language into Libyes or Libya} Hence the 
generalisation of the name Libya to the region known 
to the Greeks, and to the populations distinct from 
the Ethiopians. 

The name of Africa was restricted to the territory 
of Carthage ; the Romans eventually used it to de- 
signate all the Libyan regions, and to-day it serves 
to indicate the whole of the vast continent. Con- 
cerning the origin of the word Africa many opinions 
have been expressed, and it is possible that, like 
Libya, it may also be derived from the name of a 
tribe. 2 

The Berbers. Berber is the name still used to-day 
to designate the Libyans of northern Africa and the 
Sahara, as well as of western Morocco. The primi- 
tive and etymological significance of this name is 
disputed. Berber may be the same as Barbar, a 
general designation for the great region of the 
Somalis, Barbaria, and identical with Barabra Nubians, 
and hence without the evil significance wrongly 
attributed to the Greek and Roman names. It may 
have indicated a stock with fairly similar linguistic 
characters. 3 Carette and Saint-Martin find in the 
names Barbars, Sabarbares, Sabarbures, the special 
designation of a number of fractions of the indi- 

1 Saint-Martin, op. '/., p. 150. 

2 Saint-Martin, op. cit., pp. 150 el se<j.\ Carette, op. '/., p. 306; 
Tissot, op. eft., pp. 389 et stq. 

* Saint-Martin, op. fit., passim. 


genous stock of Africa, and not a Greek or Roman 
designation. The Romans confused the racial 
names which they found among the natives with 
their own word Barbari. 1 Carette believes that the 
Arab invaders, who experienced the first serious 
resistance to their arms among the Berbers of Sus, 
extended that name to all the natives of northern 
Africa. He considers it probable that in antiquity 
the name Barbari, and that of Berber- of Okba, 
whence are derived Barbaria and Barbary, were at 
first applied only to one people, and that the Arabs, 
preoccupied by the resistance they experienced from 
that savage and idolatrous people, generalised the 
term. " However that may be," he concludes, " the 
name Berber was substituted for Libyan at the 
Mussulman conquest, and Arab geographers term 
Belad-cl-Berber or Berberia the whole of northern 
Africa comprised between Barca and the Atlantic, that 
is to say, ancient Libya." 2 

Tissot accepts Carette's opinion for the most part, 
but it docs not seem to him probable that the Arabs 
gave as a general name for all the Libyan populations 
a term which they had found in mid course of their 
invasion, fie thinks it more likely that they met 
with the name at the very threshold of Africa, that is 
to say in Egypt. 3 

Libyans or Berbers, we to-day understand by these 
general names no longer a tribe but a race, as many 
would describe it, a branch of the Hamitic stock, as 
is indicated by the language which remains un- 
changed after so many changes and invasions by 
Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, and, more 

1 Saint- Martin, op. .-//., p. 80; Cart-tie, of. (it., pp. 13 et st</. 
1 Of. tit., pp. 16-17. ' Of. dt. t p. 397. 


numerous than any, Arabs. But even the name 
Berber has died out ; there only remain various 
divisions of the same Berber or Libyan family, with 
national names, assumed for different purposes. It 
seems that, in Morocco especially, for the name 
Berbers is substituted Scellachs, distinguished from 
the Arab invaders, the Negroes, and the mixed popu- 
lation inhabiting the Libyan region. 

Origin of the Libyans. If we recall the linguistic 
classification of Lepsius we find that the second 
branch of the Hamitic tongues is the Libyan, 
variously subdivided ; from the linguistic point of 
view, therefore, the Libyans belong to the Hamitic 
stock, and it would seem easy to infer that they are 
racially related to the Egyptian and other eastern 
Hamites. It cannot be supposed that they are of 
different origin from the Hamites, and learned their 
language through having been subjugated by them 
at some ancient epoch, for there is no reason to 
suppose that the-Egyptians ever conquered that great 
African region which was and is occupied by the 
Libyans. Egyptian dominion over the Libyans of 
the Mediterranean was limited to the most eastern 
tribes, and even then seems to have been only tempo- 
rary. With the tribes of the interior the Egyptians 
had commercial relationship, but no rule over them, 
and we know clearly the western limits of the do- 
minion of the Pharaohs. The Libyan tongue, so 
widely spoken from the western borders of Egypt to 
the Atlantic, and from the Mediterranean to the 
Sahara, is the original speech of that Hamitic branch, 
and not imported. 

Libyan writing is also different from historical 
Egyptian writing ; whatever may be the origin of 

ORIGIN OK THE LIBYANS. 57 writing, it seems to have nothing in common with 
lhat adopted by the most ancient highly civilised 
people of the Mediterranean. This fact supports the 
evidence in favour of the language not being imported. 
Though many hypotheses have been advanced as 
to the origin of the Libyans, no traditions exist, if we 
except one transmitted to us by Sallust, and gathered 
from a history by Hiempsal, King of Numidia. 
" Originally," writes Sallust, " Africa was inhabited 
by the Getuli and the Libyans, rough and uncivilised 
peoples, who lived on the flesh of wild animals and 
on grass like the beasts. They were not ruled either 
by custom or by law, or by any authority; they were 
wanderers, resting wherever darkness surprised them. 
But the Africans narrate that when Hercules died in 
Spain, his army, composed of various peoples, having 
lost its leader and many desiring the "command, 
dispersed. There were there Medes, Persians, and 
Armenians, who, embarking in ships, occupied the 
maritime territory. The Persians went near the 
ocean, and for dwellings made use of their overturned 
ships, since they could not find materials in the fields, 
nor were able to buy or barter them from Spain ; the 
sea and ignorance of the language impeded com- 
merce. They mingled slowly with the Getuli by 
marriage, and since they often changed their settle- 
ments, were called Numidi." Hiempsal proceeded to 
describe how these invaders obtained honour and glory 
by subjugating the native Libyans. 1 Much has been 
written concerning this passage in Sallust, but it 
seems to me to teach us nothing but the national 
vanity of the Numidian writer Hiempsal, who desires 
us to accept the lofty origin of his Numidian fcllow- 

1 Jujurtha, xvii., xviii. 


countrymen. The problem as to the origin of the 
Libyans and the Getuli remains unsolved, and we only 
know that they were the first indigenous populations. 
The story of the Medes, Persians, and Armenians in 
Spain with Hercules remains merely a legend. 

The Myth of Atlantis. Not less legendary, it seems 
to me, is the myth of the Atlantides, that great island 
in the Atlantic, now vanished, from which the first 
inhabitants of North Africa are said to have come. 
If the existence of Atlantis is not contradicted by 
geology, even if it has been considered necessary, in 
order to explain certain geological features of Spain 
and of the west and north coasts of Africa, its exist- 
ence must still be placed anterior to the quaternary 
epoch, when at earliest we could fix the origin of the 
African population. 1 

D'Arbois de Jubainville, who believes that tradition 
shows Iberian influence from Great Britain to Egypt, 
and who finds Iberians everywhere in Italy, on the 
Rhine, in North Africa seeks the origin of the Iberians 
in this same submerged Atlantis. 2 I do not under- 
stand why it is necessary to search for the origin of 
the Libyans in a vanished island when there are 
ample proofs of the relationship of the Libyans to 
the other Hamites; apart from other evidence, their 
language also in its fundamental elements is in 
common. From the west, beyond the Pillars of 
Hercules, to the east of Africa, the evidence is in 
favour of the African origin ; in the east the living 
historical elements arc preserved, and we find wide 

1 Cf. the arguments for the existence of Atlantis in the Appendix to 
Tissot, La Province Romaine (TAfriijtu, pp. 665 et seq. 

3 Les Premiers Habitatiis a'Eiuo/e, Paris, 2nd ed., 1889, pp 24 --'5 - 
and see Hartmnnn, Die Nigrifier, pp. 274 el seq. 


diffusion in every direction; in the west we only find 
an expanse of ocean and the Fortunate Islands, the 
possible relic of a continent submerged long before any 
human stock could people it. The Canary Islands 
even reveal their African origin in their plants and 
their animals as well as in their human population. 

Tlu African Blonds. The problem of the origin of 
the Libyans is intimately related with the existence 
of the blond element found in Tunis, Algeria, and 
Morocco, and with the great series of megalithic 
monuments scattered over northern and western 
Africa wherever the Berber population exists. On 
the ground of climate, it has been thought impossible 
that the blond racial elements could be of African 
origin ; the land of the blonds is the north, never the 
south such seemed to be the most acceptable opinion. 
The megalithic monuments, found not only in Tunis 
and Algeria, but in Morocco and other parts of 
Northern Africa, are of the same character as those 
found in Europe Spain and Portugal, the west of 
France especially, Great Britain, Denmark as well 
as in many islands of the Mediterranean. 

These two facts, thus indicating a convergence of 
African and European origins, have led to the sug- 
gestion that we must seek the origin of the Libyans 
and their civilisation, at all events as regards the 
megalithic monuments, in Europe rather than in 
Africa. According to an ancient opinion, perhaps 
the earliest, the blonds of the Atlantic region were 
due to the invasion of the Vandals, afterwards con- 
quered by Belisarius. 1 

1 Bertrand believes that a dolmen race has made the rircuit of the 
world, tussing through Kurojx: and Africa and everywhere leaving 
behind it monuments that are identical in form. (De la Distribution 
dei Dolmens J la surface de fa fratiit, Paris, 1860.) 


It certainly seems to be proved that the existence 
of the blonds in North Africa is of very ancient date, 
much anterior to the invasion of the Vandals. From 
various monuments it appears that the Egyptians 
knew them, having come into conflict with them. 
For the earlier theory, therefore, another was sub- 
stituted, according to which a blond race, having 
traversed Europe, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, 
and entering Africa mingled with the indigenous 
brunet element, which, perhaps arising in the Sahara, 
had proceeded northwards. French ethnologists and 
anthropologists of eminence supported this view, and 
it may be well to examine it. 

General Faidherbe, who in various writings has 
occupied himself with the ethnology and anthropology 
of Libya, summarising his views regarding Algeria, 
writes: "In the region with which we are occupied, 
we find to-day beside the elements Arab, Negro, 
European whose origin we know, another element, 
still more numerous, which forms about three-quarters 
of the total population (nine millions out of twelve 
million souls), speaking a dialect of the same language 
called Berber, or having abandoned that language for 
Arabic within the past thousand years. This fact 
dominates the pr6blem: the language which extends 
from Egypt to the Atlantic, including the Canaries, 
where the ancient names of places and populations 
are Berber, and from the Mediterranean to the Sahara, 
indicates one people, one race. Those who speak the 
language resemble physically, in general, the Egyptian 
natives, though less brown, as well as certain popula- 
tions of the same latitudes in Arabia and neighbouring 
Asiatic countries; they have a bilious tint and black 
hair and eyes. We have no historical data concern- 


ing the origin of this people identified with the 
Berber language, just as we have none also for the 
Egyptians, but its existence is indicated by the 
Egyptian annals of about 6000 years ago." After 
recalling the two names, Lebu and Tamahu, by 
which the Egyptians knew the Libyans, Faidherbe 
passes on to the blonds. " Between one thousand 
and two thousand years before the Christian era a 
new race appeared at the west of Egypt Already, 
about 1700 B.C, during the XVIIIth dynasty, the 
mother of Amenhotep IV. was a blond with blue 
eyes and rosy skin, of origin foreign to the Delta; 
but during the XlXth dynasty, towards 1400 B.C., 
there was a great invasion of nomads with blue eyes 
and fair hair coming from the west towards Egypt. 
During the reign of Seti I. the Libyans seriously 
attacked lower Egypt together with their allies and 
the Mediterranean peoples. Seti's son, Ramses II., 
stayed their advance, but under Menoptah, the son of 
Ramses II., the invasion became formidable, and the 
most terrible of the invaders were the blonds, who 
finally established themselves in Egypt and furnished 
the king with troops. Blonds in Africa, with a 
modern climate which is the same as that of historic 
times, are an anomaly. These blonds came into 
Africa across the Straits of Gibraltar from the land 
of the blonds, Northern Europe, and as evidence of 
their migration we find the dolmens, which extend 
in a continuous line from the shores of the Baltic to 
Tunis. These blonds from the north subjugated the 
native Libyans or allied themselves with .them [Faid- 
herbe here recalls Sallust's legend] ; they adopted 
their language and were confused with them by the 
Egyptians under the name of Tamahu; finally they 


mingled with them by crossing. Traces of them 
remain among nearly all the populations which speak 
or have spoken the Berber tongue. At certain points 
blonds are disseminated or agglomerated. We may 
call Berber the population which resulted from the 
mingling of the native Libyans with the northern 
blonds." 1 

Topinard, who followed up Faidherbe's observa- 
tions on Algeria, especially occupied himself with 
this blond element in the Berber population, and 
enumerated five theories which might account for 
their presence. Thus they might be (i) the residue 
of the Vandals, as Shaw thought ; or (2) mercenaries 
brought into Africa, especially from Gaul, by the 
Romans ; or (3) a population from the East, dating 
from the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt ; or 
(4) a fair race existing from time immemorial in 
North Africa, whence they sent an expedition towards 
Egypt, and also towards the north, where they con- 
structed dolmens ; or, finally (5), they may have 
come from the north, as Faidherbe believed. 

A little later, Tissot, who resided in Morocco, while 
pointing out the existence of the same megalithic 
monuments in that region, occupied himself with the 
blond elements of the population and its components. 
He considered that the blonds formed more than a 
third part of the population of Morocco, as Drum- 
mond Hay had stated, and that two-thirds of the 
Rif colony established at Tangier were composed of 
individuals of blond and chestnut type, the other 
third of a brown type resembling the European 
population of the south-west of France. The Berbers 

1 " Instructions sur 1'Anthropologie <1e 1'AlgeVie," Bull. Soc. Anth. 
Paris, 2ml series, viii., 1873, PP- ^3 <"' se f- 


of northern and central Morocco have a European 
physiognomy, as also the independent Berbers of the 
south and the mountains ; and their customs and 
habits approximate them to the French. On the 
heights of the Atlas chain the population is blond ; 
many have eyes that are blue, grey, or green like a 
cat's. But the population on the southern slopes of 
the Atlas towards the Sahara are of brown type, with 
black eyes, and resemble the Sicilians in physiog- 
nomy. Tissot also believed he could discern a third 
brown type, of eastern character. Influenced, it 
seems to me, by racial names and the opinions of 
others, Tissot believed he could find the Libyans 
proper in two races, blond and brown, corresponding 
to the French : the Getuli in the brown southern 
race, the Numidians in the eastern type, and Melano- 
Gctuli in the brown race crossed with Negro 
elements. 1 

A few years later, when compiling an important 
work on the comparative geography of Roman 
Africa, Tissot admitted the existence of an autoch- 
thonous race in the Sahara, demonstrated by the 
flint implements found in the desert region, and the 
superposition of a race coming from Europe. These 
two races he supposed to have fused and so formed 
the Libyan or Berber stock, the two racial elements 
still preserving their brown and blond physical 
characters. 2 

Broca also was of this opinion, which he maintained 
against that of Shaw and others. 3 DC Quatrcfages, on 

1 " Sur les Monuments Mq;ali(l)ii|ucs ct les Populations blondes du 
Maroc," /'<.-//< if.liithrofotogie, v , 1876. 

* Gfojraf>hie <w/////r>, pp. 398 el st<j. 

3 " I.cs IVupk-N Mn<K i-t Irs M.mimun's Mt'galithiqucs dans 
l'Afri<|iio septentrionalf," A'fo. if. -tilth,, v., 1876. 


the other hand, believed that the presence of the blond 
element in North Africa remained unexplained. 1 

Together with the above opinions we find others, 
especially those of Desor and Letourneux among the 
older writers, which are wholly or partly opposed to 
those of Faidherbe and Broca. Desor remarks that 
the modern inhabitants of the Atlas do not preserve 
the physiognomy which the Egyptians have ascribed 
to the Tamahu. He finds that the inhabitants of 
the oasis of Suf are hardly to be distinguished from 
Europeans, and to Martin, who accompanied Desor, 
some of the children looked like scholars in some 
Provencal or Languedocian village school. These 
blonds might be the residue of the primitive Tamahu. 
Desor asks if we ought not to reverse our search and 
admit an immigration of the fair race from northern 
Africa into Europe rather than in the reverse 

Letourneux, again, in a letter to Desor, 2 describes 
and classifies the sepulchral monuments of Eastern 
Algeria, and distinguishes between those of which 
the Berber origin is certain, those called Celtic, and 
those not yet classified. Regarding the first there 
is no doubt ; as to the second he remarks that the 
accumulation at s"ome spots shows that they were 
raised by a long series of generations, and must 
belong to different epochs; he can find none of the 
Roman age. These monuments are varied, and some 
have a special character. He refuses to believe that 
these monuments are connected with the Celts, who 
were not the only people who constructed dolmens. 

1 Hffloire Ghttrale des Races Humaines, 1889, p. 486. 

2 " Sur les Monuments funcraires de l'A1grie orientate," Archiv 
fur A nth. , vol. ii. 


As to whether the Berbers raised these monuments, 
he replies that this question brings us to the origin 
and establishment of the Berbers in Africa, and that 
examination of the bones found in these same monu- 
ments may help us to settle the question. A great 
step would be made if we could identify the Berbers 
with the blond Tamahu race recorded in Egypt. 
He himself believes that he has found traces of the 
Tamahu in place-names, such as the city of 
Thamugas (or rather Thamugadi), of Thamu, and 
so on. 

At the meeting of the French Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held at Algiers in 1881, a 
discussion took place in the anthropological section 

concerning these megalith ic mon u men ts. Martin 

stated the following conclusions: (i) The mcgaliTFuc 
tombs of Algeria and northern Africa generally 
belong to the same race which erected similar monu- 
ments in Gaul and Spain. (2) The artistic inferiority 
of the African monuments suggests that the African 
cemeteries were constructed at a date anterior to the 
great cemeteries of the Morbihan and our chief 
European monuments. The Celts would thus have 
passed into Africa at a very remote period, immedi- 
ately after the conque>t of Spain, and would not have 
made the same progress as their fellow-countrymen 
in Europe. (3) Proof is wanting to show that the 
mcgalithic tombs of North Africa belong to the 
Tamahu, but it is probable that these were the 
blond Libyans spoken of by some Greek geographers, 
and that these blond Libyans were Celts from Spain 
who conquered the aborigines of North Africa. 1 

1 Pari*. 1882. Cf. Borsari, Gfosrafia Elnt'ogica e Slorica del.'a 
Tripoli niiini t /'(, etc., N.\|>k-s iSSS, | p. 11 ft iff. 



Martin's second conclusion is worthy of attention ; 
finding the construction of the African monuments 
inferior to those of Europe, he argues that the Celts 
who remained in Europe progressed while the colonists 
in Africa remained savage. Would not these Celts, 
however, have erected some of their crude monuments 
in Europe before emigration ? The facts only become 
more inexplicable with the aid of this variant of the 
opinion concerning the origin of the megalithic monu- 
ments and the blonds 

There has, I believe, been no further discussion 
concerning the blonds of Africa; the phenomenon 
seemed so abnormal that every one has sought an 
explanation in accordance with his own scientific 
tendencies. Thus Pruner-Bey wrote: "Admitted 
that there exist in Kabylia or elsewhere individuals 
or small groups of individuals of xanthoid character, 
are we authorised to establish a whole system of 
ethnogenesis on this single character ? Are we to 
allow the whole melanic mass, with its well-marked 
skull and physical type, to be absorbed by a small 
fraction only differing in the colour of the hair? In 
short, the African Berber compared to the Negro and 
the Hottentot corresponds to the Finn in relation to 
the other circurnpolar tribes in the north ; he is the 
nearest relation to the Egyptian in every respect, and 
constitutes an intermediate form between the Semite 
and the African of the south." 1 

Hartmann is unable to accept the theories by which 
French ethnologists and anthropologists explain the 
presence of the blond element in North Africa and 
the megalithic monuments. With regard to the first, 

1 Les Carthaginoh en Fiance, p. 51; cf. Hartmann, Die Nigiitier, 
p. ^64. 


he remarks that we must consider the quantity and 
quality of this blond African clement, and he believes 
that the real blond, resembling the Teuton, docs not 
exist there at all, what we find being reddish-brown 
or ash-coloured individuals (the French cendrf), as 
also Pruner-Bey affirms. 1 Topinard, again, describing 
the characters of the Kabylcs, remarks that the hair, 
and especially the beard, are often chestnut or 
reddish. 2 

The blond element docs not appear to be large; 
among 400 Turcos at Bona five were found with fair, 
and twenty with chestnut hair. 3 Bertholon, among 
344 individuals in the north-west of Tunis, found 
2.03 per cent with blond and red hair, 9.01 per cent, 
with intermediate, perhaps chestnut tints, and 88.95 
dark. 4 It is true that Tissot states that in Morocco 
about one-third of the population is blond, but he 
gives no definite statistics. It is more important to 
note that he finds that the greater number of blonds is 
on the heights of the Atlas mountains, and on their 
northern rather than on their southern slopes. Both 
as regards the quantity and quality of the blond 
element, Hartmann, taking into consideration the 
physical characters of the Berbers, considers that the 
blond Tamahu and the reddish Magreb population 
must find their explanation within Africa itself. 5 

It may be as Hartmann believes, and I may add 

1 Hartmann, op. cit., pp. 263-4. 

Amhropologie de rAlg/rie, p. 627. 

' Hartmann, he. tit., p. 263. 

4 " F.xploration Anthropologique de la Khoumiric," fSnll. Gt0g. 
Hut. et Deseript., 1891, No. 4; Colliijnon, " Repartition <le la Coulcur 
K-- Yeux et ties Chevcux chez les Tunisiens se*<len(aires," Kev. (fAnthi:, 
1 888. 

8 Lot. tit., p. 264. 


certain considerations which tend to show that the 
Celtic theory of the African blonds cannot be main- 

If we turn, as others have done in this connection, 
to the Egyptian monuments, we find that the customs 
of the Lebu and Tamahu were entirely Libyan. 
Their clothing and their ornaments were African, and 
had nothing European about them. Tissot himself 
states that the same customs prevail among the 
Amazigh of the Rif, among certain Tripoli tribes 
and so on. 1 On the other hand, the European allies 
of the Libyans, such as the Siculi, Sards, and lonians, 
and also the Cypriots and Phoenicians, retained 
customs showing another civilisation, though still 
Mediterranean. Now if it is true that a European 
race had invaded Africa, and had thrown itself against 
Egypt, showing itself, according to Faidherbe, more 
terrible than the natives, how is it that it was not 
distinguished by customs different from those of the 
natives? How is it that it was supplied with the 
same African ornaments, such as ostrich feathers? 
Why do we find the hair dressed in the African and 
not in the European manner? Yet there must have 
been great differences, if the one race came from the 
north of Europe and the other from the Sahara. It 
cannot be said that they had become fused with the 
natives whose tongue they had adopted, if it is true 
that they attacked Egypt a short time after their 
arrival in Africa. And if they were such strong and 
proud conquerors, it is unlikely that they would have 
abandoned their own language for that of the 
conquered barbarians. We may also oppose the 
Celtic theory of the blond element in Africa by the 

1 Geographic comfarje, pp. 473-4- 


results of Celtic anthropology established by Broca 
and others. According to Broca and subsequent 
investigators, such as Hovelacque, the Celts were 
brachyccphalic brunets, 1 not dolichocephalic blonds, 
as many historians and some anthropologists have 
supposed. 2 The blonds of Africa, as appears from 
various measurements, are dolichocephalic. 3 Pruner- 
Bcy found conformity of type between the Berber 
and Egyptian skulls, 4 and from an examination of 
the skulls from the Roknia graves he deduced the 
curious and important conclusion that they exhibited 
a type resembling that of ancient Italian skulls, and 
he hence suspected that there had been emigration 
through Sicily to Tunis. 5 Without for the moment 
accepting or rejecting this opinion of Pruner-Bcy's 
regarding the cranial type of the ancient Italians, we 
may note that he could not see the least indication 
of Celtic characters in the skulls of the mcgalithic 

It might be responded that the blonds were Teu- 
tonic, and therefore dolichocephalic, perhaps even of 
the Reihengrabcr type. No one, however, has abso- 
lutely asserted this, and if they were regarded as 
Teutons we should have to consider the objections 
arising from this supposed acclimatisation in Africa 
of a north European race. Moreover, if the Teutonic 
clement constructed the megalithic monuments of 

1 Broca, "La Race Celliquc Ancicnne el Modcrnc," Kev ifAnth., 
1873; I lovelacquc, " Lc Crane Savoyard," ib , 1877; Scrgi, Liguri t 
Celti tulla Valtc del Po, Florence, 1883. 

- His and Kiitimeycr, Crania Helvetica, p. 34 ; Virc, " La Kabylic 
du Djurjurn," />//., (it., 1893, iv. 5. 

3 Ikrlholon, op. tit. 

4 Hartmann, op. tit., p. 272. 

Bouryuignat, cited by Hartmann, op. cit., p. 273. 


Africa and Europe, we ought to find a much greater 
number of primitive blonds in Spain, in the west of 
France, and in Great Britain before the Celtic inva- 
sions of the neolithic age. Now it is precisely this 
element which is rare in the west of France and in 
Spain, due rather to recent than to prehistoric im- 

In opposition to the theory of a migration from 
the north of Europe to the west and then to Africa, 
I am, on the contrary, convinced that a migration of 
the African racial element took place in primitive 
times from the south towards the north. The types 
of Cro-Magnon, L'Homme-Mort, and other French 
and Belgian localities, bear witness to the presence 
of an African stock in the same region in which we 
find the dolmens and other megalithic monuments 
erroneously attributed to the Celts. 1 

As regards rnegajithfc and sepulchral monuments 
in general, of various forms, after studying their con- 
struction and diffusion throughout the Mediterranean, 
on the North African coast, including Egypt, and in 
various parts of Europe, I am convinced that they 
owe their origin to a stock which I have called 
Mediterranean, but which is of African origin. The 
term "Mediterranean," as I use it^ lM&""fioF~'the ex- 
tension given to it by French anthropologists, and by 
those who follow Muller's classification. I understand 
by it all those primitive peoples who have occupied 
Ithe basin of the Mediterranean, and have such funda- 
mental physical characters in common as to enable us 1 
to assign to them a single place of origin, which must 1 
be in east Africa and to the north of the Equator. 

1 Cf. Verneau, Rapport sur tine Mission scientifique dans r Archiptl 
Canaricit, Paris, 1887. 


The French give the race, as they term it, a more 
restricted and partial sense, so as to exclude many of 
the populations which belong to it. 

This stock, thus widely extended, must have had 
primitive funeral customs, which it preserved until 
they were destroyed by new and stronger influences, 
after the neolithic epoch had partially modified them 
in the regions where that foreign influence was pre- 
dominant, as appeared in Greece, Italy, Great Britain, 
and some parts of Central Europe. At first the dead *>*. 
were deposited in grottoes and caves, and the artistic ^ 
development of the sepulchral monuments in struc- ' ^ 
turc and form increased with the growth of civilisa- 
tion among the various fractions scattered through 
the great basin and towards Europe. Asia Minor 
possessed artistic tombs, and it is sufficient to recall 
the tomb of Alyattes, described by Herodotus; Greece 
also possessed artistic sepulchral monuments in the 
Mycenaean age, as shown by the tombs of the Atrida;; 
Egypt developed in a colossal manner the conception 
and execution of the sepulchral monument, which 
consisted of a chambered tumulus in which the dead 
man lay as though he were alive and inhabiting his 
own house. 

Libya, or the southern and western part of the 
Mediterranean, with its populations shows us the 
primitive diffusion of the Mediterranean stock, and 
hence the scries of its sepulchral monuments repre- 
sents civilisation from its most primitive to its most 
developed forms under the Numidians and other 
Libyan tribes. We find here, therefore, not only the 
monuments improperly called Celtic, but also the 
mortuary grottoes and caves ; and we find tombs to 
which nothing in Europe corresponds, because they 


were constructed when the two regions were separated 
by the invasion of other stocks which transformed 
the funeral customs of the primitive inhabitants of 
Europe. The Basina, Sciuscc, and Madghasen are 
monuments of purely Libyan character ; the last are 
really architectural works, apparently influenced from 
Greece, showing an evolution towards the tumulus, 
especially among the Numidians. 1 The Celts and the 
Germans never reached Libya, as some believe ; if 
they had, they would have modified the funeral cus- 
toms by introducing cremation, as they did in Europe 
in the neolithic age. 

In primitive times, therefore, that is to say in those 
times recorded by the Egyptian monuments, we must 
exclude the influence of any stock not of Mediter- 
ranean character ; the confederation of the Siculi, the 
Sards, and other Mediterranean peoples, with the 
Libyans against Egypt, represents the alliance of 
many peoples belonging to the same western stock 
against the oriental Egyptian power. The European 
stock, Celtic or Teutonic, had not yet appeared to the 
south and west of Europe to hinder any further diffu- 
sion of the Mediterranean stock, and to displace it from 
its latest seats. It seems to me impossible, therefore, 
to find in the blonds of Africa a racial element from 
northern Europe. If they had come at so early a 
period they would have radically modified Libyan 
civilisation, beginning with funeral customs, as I have 
already said, and imposed their own language ; this 
supposition is absolutely excluded. 

It cannot be argued that the European element was 
too small to impose its customs and language; if that 

1 Cf. Letourneux, op. cif., fi^. 59; Tissot, op. cit., p. 499 el se<j., 
and figs. 55, 56. 

Till- A! U> AN ULONDS. 73 

were the case it would quickly have disappeared by 
absorption, or selection, or the difficulty of adaptation 
to the African climate. To have descendants down 
to our own times it must have been very large; and 
in that case it would have created a new civilisation 
and perpetuated its own tongue. 

Must we, therefore, regard the presence of blonds 
in Africa as inexplicable? 

In Livi's work on military anthropometry 1 a very 
important fact is brought out concerning the distribu- 
tion of blonds in relation to height above the sea- 
level. He finds that in Piedmont, Liguria, Vcncto, 
Emilia, Lombardy, Tuscany, the Marches, Lazio, 
Campania, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicily, and Sardinia, 
above 401 metres over sea -level the blonds pre- 
dominate over the brunets ; below 400 metres the 
brunets predominate. Umbria is an exception, for 
here the two elements arc nearly equal, also Abruzzi, 
where the brunct element prevails, an exception which 
Livi explains by the fact that these two provinces are 
hilly almost throughout, so that we could scarcely 
expect to find any marked difference between the 
small plain regions and the surrounding hills. lie 
attributes the phenomenon to a special action ot 
mountains on pigmentation ; through their height 
they thus have the same influence as latitude. 

If we turn to the region where the blonds in Africa 
are most numerous that is to say, Morocco we 
observe at once not only that, like the whole of 
Northern Libya, it is situated in the temperate zone, 
between about 36* and 293o' of lat. N., but that it 
constitutes the enormous nucleus of the Atlas chain. 

1 .///.'/ .'fometria iiiililare, I'arlc I., Rome, 1896, pp. 65 et sty., 
fig. n. 


The heights above sea-level vary between 600 and 
1 2,000 feet. 1 There is therefore a region of perpetual 
snow, and a cold region constituted by valleys not 
very unlike some Alpine and Apennine valleys. May 
we not conclude that the same Libyan stock, estab- 
lished in North Africa from time immemorial (we 
now have evidence of an early stone age), had under- 
gone the diverse influences of external conditions of 
climate and soil forming variations in external physical 
characters ? We may perhaps see in the eastern 
Hamitic branch, exposed to different conditions of 
latitude and soil, from Egypt to Central Africa, 
a series of variations so characteristic as to form, 
by pigmentation alone, distinct varieties of the 
same stock. If the fundamental internal characters 
of the blond and brunet Libyans are the same, I am 
disposed to believe that the external differences, in 
colour of hair skin, and eyes, aie due to the influence 
of altitude. 

The centre of formation of the blond element in 
North Africa would thus be in the Atlas valleys, 
especially in Morocco, and this would explain the 
fact that we find the greater number ot blonds in this 
region. From this centre there would have been, in 
ancient and succeeding times, a certain diffusion into 
the neighbouring countries as far as the sea in Algeria 
and Tunis. Possibly in ancient times this movement 
was a rapid emigration, and hence an invasion towards 
the east in union with the brunet populations ; and 
the presence of blonds among the brunets must have 
caused great surprise, as among the Romans at the 
time of the invasion ot the Gauls, composed of brunet 

1 Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco, London, 


Celts and blond Teutons. Although we can only 
assign a relative value to the pictorial ethnography of 
Egypt, we must suppose that, in the presence of this 
new and unexpected blond type with blue eyes, the 
Egyptians represented the Libyans with these char- 
acters, not taking into consideration the brunets. 

Quedenfeldt, it is true, would return to the opinion 
of those who see the Vandals in the African blonds, 
because, he states, in the great Atlas, to the south, he 
could not find one; he attempts to give various ex- 
planations of the presence of blonds, by referring it to 
Spanish families, to European refugees, to the construc- 
tion of Fez, which furnishes a shelter from the dark- 
ening influence of the sun. 1 I do not wish to deny 
that on the coast of Morocco, as on that of Algeria 
and Tunis, there are foreign elements from Europe 
and elsewhere, and I would admit with Quedenfeldt 
that many blonds have come from Europe ; but it 
seems to me impossible thus to explain the blonds in 
the valleys of the Atlas chain. 

Physical Characters of tlie Libyans. 1 1 we seek to 
ascertain the physical characters of the Libyans from 
the evidence offered by the Egyptian monuments, we 
shall find ourselves considerably perplexed, in spite of 
what is affirmed by some as to the truthful character 
of the pictured and sculptured representations on 
these monuments. We find three types represented 
under the names of Tamahu and Lcbu, and all three 
different The most characteristic Tamahu type 
shows a slightly aquiline nose, a well-cut mouth with 
thin lips, rather elongated chin, little beard and very 
short moustache ; the hair is worn in little falling 

1 "Eintheilung und Yc % rbrcitung dcr Berberbcvulkerung im Mar- 
okko," Zt. /. EthHologie, xx., 1888, pp 115, 189, 190. 


tresses like the people of Pun, with one long tress 
descending in front of the car as far as the neck, and 
twisted into a spiral ; two large ostrich feathers adorn 
the head (Fig. i). 1 The second type (Fig. 2) differs 
notably from the first; the nose is strongly aquiline 
and the forehead receding, the lips thick and the 
beard long, so that as represented on the monuments 
it might be regarded as a Semitic type. A third 
head, representing a chief of the Lebu, shows an 

FIG. i. Tamahu (Rosellini). 

aquiline nose, more elevated than the others, promi- 
nent lips, a long beard differently arranged from that 
of the second figure ; the forehead seems to show 
exaggerated prominence of the supra-orbital arches 

(Fig. 3> 2 

What can we conclude from these three types? 
Which is correct ? Poole regards the first as the real 
Libyan mythological type, and thinks that all may 
represent sub-races; he compares the third type with 
a Shardana or Sard type very slightly differing from 

Kosellini, Plate clx. 

Kosellini, 1'latc cxlii , 3. 


it. 1 He believes also, in my opinion incorrectly, that 
the last two types arc strongly accentuated forms of 
the first. I cannot sec this resemblance; it is enough 
to note the slight development of the beard in the 
first, and its fulness in the other. 

More noteworthy is the opinion of Flower (ex- 
pressed at the same time as Poole's), who believed 
that in the third form and in the Shardana 2 we 
may recognise the Ncandcrthaloid type. It is quite 
probable, he remarked, that these people from the 

Fir.. 2. Tamahu (Roscllini). 

north were the descendants of a primitive European 
population which crossed into Africa by the Straits 
of Gibraltar. Poolc accepts this opinion, which he 
calls an important discovery, as to an aquiline variety 
of the Nordic population with prominent supra-orbital 
arches, representing the primitive European type. 
Hut to discover the Ncandcrthaloid type in Africa, 
a primitive European race at the period of the XlXth 
I )ynasty, seems to me, with all due regard to Flower's 

1 I'oole, "The Egyptian Classification of the Knees of Man," Jo::r. 
Antli. /list., xvi., iSS;, pp. 371 el stq. 
3 Roscllini, Plate cxliii. , to. 


1 opinion, a work of the imagination. Moreover, to 
discover it with a nose of the character called Semitic, 

Mand to make it a new variety of the Neanderthaloid 
(type, seems to me an altogether baseless conception. 
II cannot agree that the primitive European type was 
prevalent in the Mediterranean among Sards and 
Libyans, as these two distinguished English authori- 
ties are prepared to do, on the evidence furnished by 
two Egyptian drawings which may be merely con- 

FIG. 3. Lebu (Rosellini). 

The type most approaching truth must be the first, 
which in costume a\so bears the characters of primitive 
civilisation, as well as th , undeveloped beard peculiar 
to the varieties o f i( ciie Hamitic race. This type is 
repeated on t^ 1 , Egyptian monuments with slight 
variations; r'.o beard is worn as by the Arabs, and 
the arms are tattooed. 1 

Unfortunately we have no explicit notices concern- 
ing the physical characters of the Libyans from any 
Greek or Roman source, notwithstanding the intimate 

1 Lepsins, Denkmaler, Plate III. 


relations between these two nations of antiquity and 
Africa. They have only handed on to us geographical 
information and racial names, which we may in part 
identify with new names transformed from the old. 
If we wish to have exact ideas concerning the Libyans 
we must therefore examine the modern Berbers, who 
arc still numerous in the extensive region they have 
inhabited from time immemorial, remaining un- 
changed, it seems, in their customs and in their 
anthropological characters, in spite of the foreign 
domination they have undergone, especially in the 
northern zone, at the hands of Phoenicians, Greeks, 
and Romans in ancient times, of Vandals, and finally 
Arabs in more recent times. 1 

From such information as we have, and from the 
neglect of the ancients to describe the physical 
characters of the Libyans, we gain the general idea 
that in facial characters and colour of hair and eyes 
these people resembled the inhabitants of Southern 
Europe. On this account, perhaps, in the eyes of 
the Greeks and Romans, the northern Libyans may 
not have seemed to call for particular description ; 
the attribution of Persian, Armenian, and Median 
origin to the Numidians by Hiempsal indicates that 
the Libyans resembled the peoples in whom their 
origin was then sought. At Rome an orator or 
other person ol Libyan origin was not distinguished 

1 Boissier (L'Aftiqtte Komaint, 1895, p. 315) writes on this point: 
" Of all these only Bcrl>ers remain; they have absorbed everything. 1 
knw not if anthropology, by investigating the colour of their skin or 
the conformation of their bodies, will ever distinguish among them the 
descendants of these various vanished peoples ; but in their ideas, their 
customs, their Ixrlicfs, their manner of thinking and living, there is 
nothing I'lurnician, nothing Roman, nothing Vandal; it is the lierber 
alone who cmei: 


from a Roman, and in Greece and Egypt no distinc- 
tion in physical traits was attributed to the Libyans 
who sojourned there. In the long and severe Punic 
wars the cavalry, and perhaps the whole army of 
Hannibal which passed into Italy, was composed of 
Numidians and other Libyans or Berbers, and their 
figures and appearance attracted no attention as 
unlike those of south European peoples. There 
must have been considerable if not complete resem- 
blance. The reports ot the Roman generals who 
penetrated into the Fez district, as far even as 
Agisimba, have not reached us ; but geographers like 
Strabo and Ptolemy speak of the Melano-Getuli, 
Leuco-Ethtopi, and so on, thus implying the existence 
of mixed races, or those of European form with dark 
or negroid coloration. This is fully confirmed by 
travellers who, penetrating into the southern regions 
of Libya, have found peoples of dark complexion 
with hair and facial form not unlike the northern 
Libyans. This is what we might expect to find in 
the case of a stock so widely extended from north to 
south, under such varied and different conditions of 

The Libyan stock is very ancient, as is shown by 
the worked stone .implements found in the Sahara 
and to the north of the Atlas. " The latest explora- 
tions in the northern Sahara," Tissot remarks, 1 " lead 
us to regard it as one of the most ancient known 
habitations of the human species." "The soil of the 
Sahara," says Bourdc, "yields flint arrow-heads, and 
fragments from the working of these arrow-heads in 
immense quantity, an undeniable proof of the 
existence of a large population which found a 
1 Op. fit., p 398. 


climate favourable to life in a region which to-day 
seems devoted to eternal sterility." 1 "The work- 
shops are usually found on the edge of the daia, 
depressions in the soil often found in the chalk 
platform which separates El-Lua from the Sccbka of 
the Mzab. The more important are situated to the 
south of the wells of Zebbascia in the valley of 
Ain-Macin, near the cromlech of Sidi-Mcsca-a, at 
El-Hassi, on the platform of Noumar, and at El- 
Golea. We may also find them in the great dunes 
of Machgarden ; they disappear at Hassi-Berkan to 
reappear more numerously in the Wed-Mia, and 
especially in the neighbourhood of Wargla. A 
certain number of these Sahara flints are very worn ; 
the angles are blunted and the facets polished by the ' 
action of the sand borne by the winds ; flints trans- 
ported by torrents seldom present so worn an 
appearance. A long period of time must therefore 
have elapsed to allow these effects to be produced, \ 
and we must attribute a great age to these imple- 
ments. It is also to be noted that the flints worn by 
the sand are of coarser form than the others ; this 
would agree with their relative antiquity. They are 
chiefly met with in the south and near l-Golea. 
The flints from the north, those- of Zebbascia and 
Wargla, for instance, offer on the contrary highly 
finished types. Dr. Wcissgcrber argues from these 
differences that the populations of the south date 
further back than those of the north, and that they 
gradually emigrated from the south towards the sea- 
coast, leaving behind them the desert, from which 
they were probably driven out The direct descend- 
ants of these aborigines of the Sahara," this author 

1 Bourde, IM Frame an SouJait, quoted by Tissot, op. '/., p. 399. 



continues, "seem to be represented in the east by the 
Barabra of the Nile valley, at the centre by the 
Garamantic race of the highlands of Fezzan, the oases 
of Nefzana and Wed-Suef, to the west by the Rucgha 
or inhabitants of Wed-Righ and the Berbers of Sus in 
Morocco. Although of very dark complexion, these 
peoples differ essentially from Negroes in their features 
and hair. They call themselves Khomri, bruncts, 
and consider it an insult to be coupled with Negroes." 1 

In this connection also we may appeal to the 
opinion of Carettc, who writes that " the autochthonous 
population of Wed-Righ marks the transition in com- 
plexion and features between the white and the black 
race. The complexion is not the more or less bronzed 
tint of the southern white population, but a different 
and special colour, nearer to black than to white. 
They Have neither the flattened nose nor the thick 
lips of the black race, though their features are not 
wholly those of the white race. They constitute an 
intermediate race, connected with both the two foreign 
races from which they are separated, and which they 
approximate." 2 

These conclusions are very important as regards 
the origin- of the Libyan populations in particular, and 
the Hamitcs in general. We see an intimate con- 
nection with the populations of the eastern branch of 
the Hamitic stock, which by its great extension from 
the Nile valley meets the north-western branch, both 
melting into the Mediterranean race, and forming as 
fair-skinned a population as if they were derived from 
a white race. 

1 Tissot, op. cil. , pp. 399-400. 

2 Online et Migration des princfpales Trifws de rAlgJric, pp. 


As we have seen, in antiquity the name Libyan 
was only given to the populations at the west of 
Egypt, and at the first glance it seems that Egypt has 
nothing in common with Libya. This happens because 
in Kgypt a new and higher civilisation developed, 
assuming a special form distinct from Libyan civili- 
sation. But the latest discoveries in Egypt itself 
have now shown, as we shall sec, that the Egyptians, 
before they assumed new forms and raised themselves 
above all the other African peoples of the same stock, 
possessed their civilisation in common with the western 
Libyans. They were thus a racial branch from the 
same stock which gave origin to the Libyans specially 
so-called, one of the four peoples of the Mediter- 



The African Origin of the Egyptians The Art of Writing 
Physical Anthropology of the Egyptians, 

A FEW years ago it seemed that there was nothing 
further to say concerning the origin of the Egyptians; 
but recent discoveries revealing the existence of a 
civilisation anterior to that of history have renewed 
the discussion, while the problem has at the same 
time become more complicated. In this discussion 
I have taken part by accepting, and seeking to 
support with anthropological arguments, the African 
origin of the Egyptians. 1 

According to a somewhat late tradition of the 
Egyptians, they came from the land of Punt It is 
difficult to determine this region, and various opinions 
have arisen regarding the interpretation of the 
Egyptian texts. Egyptologists only agree in believ- 
ing that this land of Punt must be placed to the 
south of Egypt, either in Somaliland or in southern 
Arabia, or in a region including both lands, as 
Flinders Petrje, Sayce, and others incline to think. 

Sayce 2 considers that the Egyptians are a branch 
of the so-called Caucasian race, like the Semites, but 

1 Africa, Turin, 1897, cap. i. 

2 Races of the Old Testament, chap, v., London, 1891 ; cf. Flinders 
Petrie, History of Egypt, vol. i., pp. 11-13, London, 1894. 


belonging to the Hamitic stock, and that because 
Mizraim was a descendant of Ham. He believes that 
the ruddy skin of the Egyptians, as represented on 
their monuments, is due to the action of the sun ; 
he believes that they are of the same race as the men 
of Punt, also represented of a brick-red colour on the 
monuments. The people of Punt, according to 
Sayce, came to Africa from Arabia. He accepts 
the ultimate unity of origin of the Semites and the 
Hamitcs, an opinion to which many incline to-day, 
and this naturally leads to the conclusion that the 
Egyptians, 33 well as all the other Hamitic peoples, 
came from Asia. 

It may be well to recall what Brugsch considers 
that he has been able to establish concerning Egyp- 
tian geography and ethnography as presented on the 
monuments. 1 He distinguishes three groups among 
the populations of the south, ojie being tRe inhabit- 
ants of Punt, and he believes that the land of Punt lay 
along the whole African coast of the Red Sea as far 
as the Straits of Babelmandeb ; a study of the Harris 
papyrus leads him to the conclusion that it makes no 
reference to any Arabian region, but includes the 
Troglodytic coast from north to south, beginning 
perhaps at Myoshormos, this supposition being con- 
firmed by the great geographic list of Karnac. The 
inscription on the temple in the valley of Assassif, to 
the west of Thebes, in which is described the great 
expedition of Queen Hatshepsu to the land of Punt, 
reads : " We sailed on the sea, and began a fair 
voyage towards the divine land, that is to say, the 
west coast of Arabia, and the journey towards the 

1 " Die Altiigyptische Volkcrtafeln," Fifth Congress of Orientalists, 
Berlin, iSSi. 



land of Punt was happily resumed." 1 Here Arabia is 
clearly distinguished from the African land of Punt, 

Fu;. 4. A Punt Chief (Marietta), 
and all doubt as to whether this much discussed region 

1 Brugsch, of. cit., pp. 69, 70. 


is to be sought in Africa or elsewhere seems to be 

The determination of this question is of some 
interest to the anthropologist and ethnologist of 
Egypt and of the peoples to the south of that land. 
Naville, discussing recent excavations at Deir-el- 
liahari, expressly says when speaking of fragments 
connected with the celebrated wall of Punt: "Small 
as these fragments often are, they give us important 
information as to the nature of the land of Punt. Its 
African character comes out more and more clearly. 
Although the name of Punt may have applied also 
to the coast of South Arabia, it is certain that the 
Egyptian boats sent by Queen Hatshcpsu anchored 
on the African shore." 1 

Mullcr 2 gives precise indications concerning the 
people of Punt which serve to bring them into con- 
nection with the modern populations of the coast of 
Somaliland, and, like Brugsch, he excludes the theory 
that Punt also includes the south-west of Arabia. 
He finds that the physical and ethnographic features 
of the people of Punt arc African of the type com- 
monly called Caucasian, and that they belong to the 
same stock as the Egyptians. The Prince of Punt, 
carved at Deir-cl-Bahari, possesses, in common with 
Egyptian princes, the long pointed beard, and he 
carries a boomerang, which was among the weapons 
of Egypt ; he also wears a scries of rings on the right 
leg 3 (Fig. 4). 

1 Griffith, Egypt Exploration Fund, Anhaological Report \ 1895, 
P 34- 

; ttni Eurofa n<uh Altagyftischtn Dcnkinnleni, Leipzig, 1892. 

3 Mariellc Bey, V'cya^t dans At Ilaiilt /:\T/W, \.>1. ii . p. (._ ; 
Af>ica,\>.TJ; Krall, " Das Land Punt," A ,;,> \\', ,//.//.://, 
NVicn, iS<x>, Ud. cxxi., pp. 75-77. 


But this all appears but mere conjecture concerning 
the origin of the Egyptians compared with the new 
facts revealed during the last few years ; the tradition 
of the land of Punt, though preserved on the monu- 
ments, is relatively recent, and too distant from the 
origin of the race, especially since the historical indi- 
cations have been succeeded by prehistoric, relating 
to the ages termed palaeolithic, neolithic, aeneolithic, 
the last being that of copper united tothe most 
beautiful and perfect stone implements that have ever 
existed. It now seems that all that has hitherto been 
believed concerning the Egyptians must be pro- 
foundly modified, both as regards the origin of their 
civilisation and the populations which at various 
epochs have produced that civilisation. 

Putting aside Amelineau, the two explorers who 
have made the greatest discoveries are Flinders 
Petrie and De Morgan, and both of these have set 
forth the conclusions which they draw from their own 
discoveries concerning the origins of the Egyptian 
people and civilisation. They have resolutely main- 
tained that two races at least have inhabited Egypt, 
one African and indigenous, the other immigrating 
from Asia, bearing with it the civilisation of the 
Pharaohs, and subjugating the first indigenous and 
savage population. The discoveries at Abydos, Na- 
qada, and Ballas have aided in confirming these 
opinions, in spite of the fact that the two explorers 
differ in their interpretation of the tombs at Naqada 
and Ballas. 

At Nag ad a the fortunate English explorer dis- 
covered an immense tomb revealing a civilisation 
unlike that of the Pharaohs. It was genuine neolithic 
civilisation with some copper objects, the graves 


la-ing very similar to those in Europe of the same 
epoch, that is to say with shrivelled corpses in a 
crouching position, together with certain variations 
of funeral custom difficult to explain, such as the 
dismemberment of the body, the separation of the 
head, which was buried apart or with a few other 
bones, the absence of some parts of the bodies, a 
disordered re-mingling in unviolated graves (Fig. 5). 

FIG. 5. A Prehistoric Egyptian Tomb (Dc Morgan). 

It seemed to Flinders Pctrie that the population 
which had left this vast sepulchre was a new people, 
and he called it the " new race," which arriving 
between B.C. 3000 and 3500, between the ancient and 
middle Egyptian empire, had destroyed or expelled 
the Egyptian population and entirely occupied the 
Thcbaid. He argued, from the absence of Egyptian 
objects belonging to this epoch in Upper Egypt, that 
the dominion of this "new race" lasted for three 



centuries. This nc\v people, thus attaining full 
Egyptian dominion, were Libyans. Pctric main- 
tained this opinion not only on the ground of funeral 
customs and products, that is by the whole civilisa- 
tion, but also by examination of the numerous skulls 
found in the graves. 

These skulls have, in fact, been subjected to a 
summary comparison in measurement with those of 
Roknia studied by Faidherbe, and it is affirmed that 
they differ from Egyptian skulls in capacity, more 
especially, and by the nasal index, while they are very 
.similar to the modern skulls of Algiers, and to the 
ancient skulls ot Roknia, and that they are, there- 
fore, Libyan. The same author thus summarises 
the characters of the " new race " in comparison 
with those of the Egyptians of the times of the 
Pharaohs 1 : 



Inscription. Rude marks, not grouped. 

Sculpture. Great incapacity for form. 

Chamber tombs. Roofed grave pits. 

Tombs in cliffs. Graves in valleys. 

Coffins. Burial in clothing. 

Extruded burial. Contracted burial. 

Mummification. Cutting up the body. 

Skull capacity, 1460. Capacity, 1310. 

Nasal index, 48.3. Nasal index, 53.7. 
Weapons, bows, and arrows. Forked flint lances. 

Copper-edged stick. Quadrangular dagger. 

Amulets buried. Ashes buried. 

Mirrors of copper. Slate palettes. 

1 A'aijdtla and Rallas, London, 1896, p. 60. 




Scarabs. Fine flint bracelets. 

Canopic jars. Jars of fats. 

Pottery, wheel made. Pottery, hand-made. 

Red polished. 

Red and black. 

White line on red. 



At first sight these characters give the impression 
that we are dealing with a population foreign to 
Egyptian history, and with a civilisation not only 
different but inferior; Petrie's opinion seems to be 
justified. But an accurate study of the civilisation 
of Naqada and an extended comparison with other 
discoveries, including those at Abydos, clearly shows 
that Pctric had been dazzled by the unexpected 
novelty of the discovery. DC Morgan, who continued 
the excavations at Naqada and discovered new 
graves, including a royal tomb, presenting data of 
great importance for the primitive history of Egypt, 
interprets the facts differently from Petric, and con- 
siders that the " new race " should rather be called 
the " old race," since hc^ regards it as representing the 
aborigines, the first inhabitants of Egypt before the 
invasion of the true Egyptians. 1 

I cannot here reproduce all the reasons brought 
forward by DC Morgan against the opinion of Petric, 
lmt they seem to me for the most part just, and I 
accept his conclusion that we arc here concerned with 
a primitive population, not one that arrived at a late 

1 A\ -i henhet stir Us On'gincs de T Eiyftf, I'arU, 1897, p. 16. 


epoch of the old Egyptian empire, as also I accept his 
opinion that we find here a civilisation anterior to 
that of the Pharaohs in its definite and well-known 
forms. But I cannot follow De Morgan when he 
attempts to show, even with the aid of anthropology, 
that the prehistoric population was different from the 
Egyptian, which he would bring from Asia. Many 
arguments against his opinions may be found in his 
own discoveries at Naqada and elsewhere, and in 
the physical characters of the skulls described by 
Fouquet, as well as by Petrie. 

First of all we may note the method of burial 
adopted in the necropolis of Naqada and elsewhere, 
so well investigated by Wiedemann, who, though 
desiring to show the Asiatic origin of the Egyptians, 
really furnishes arguments favourable to the opposite 
opinion of an African origin. Excavation in a 
necropolis of the Naqada type shows that the men of 
that period had three methods of burial: "Either the 
grave received the disseminated and incomplete 
bones, or the skeleton was placed in a position 
recalling that of the foitus, or the body was burnt in 
a monumental tomb," as seems to have been the case 
with a royal tomb explored by De Morgan, though 
this has been doubted and even denied by others. 1 
Wiedemann, however, accepts this conclusion, and 
also agrees that these three usages are unlike the 
classical customs of the Egyptians, but he believes it 
may be shown that they are intimately united with 
the Egyptian religion and with the worship of Osiris 
and Horus, as learnt from the Book of the Dead 
and the ritual formulae of the Egyptians. Referring to 

1 See DC Bissing, " Les Origines cle 1'Egypte," I^Anthropologie, 
vol. ix , p. 415. 


dismemberment, Wicdemann states that " the vestiges 
of this very ancient custom have never completely 
disappeared, and arc preserved not on'y in the texts 
but also in actual practices. Up to a very late period 
the lower part of the foot of the mummy was dis- 
located, and in other cases the phallus of the corpse 
was cut off in order to be embalmed separately and 
buried near the mummy." This explains, in his 
opinion, the dismemberment and disorder of the 
bodies in the graves discovered by Petrie, and hence 
a custom which was symbolically preserved down to 
the latest epoch cf Egyptian history. As regards the 
absence of portions of the body, explained by Petrie 
as due to a special kind of anthropophagy, with the 
object of -inheriting the virtues of the dead, 1 Wiede- 
mann gives no satisfactory explanation, but cannot 
accept anthropophagy. 

Wiedemann finds a similar survival of the burning 
of the dead in Egyptian customs and rites, and con- 
cludes by saying: ' I dare to hope that the preceding 
pages have sufficiently proved that the record of the 
customs of the epoch of Naqada, and the religious 
ideas united with' them, had not disappeared among 
the Egyptians of later times. The immediate con- 
sequence of this continuity is*that we cannot maintain 
the widely diffused hypothesis that the people of 
Naqada belong to a different race from the historical 
Egyptians." Then, however, he proceeds to alternate 
this just conclusion by an opposite conclusion of 
sufficiently strange character; " to influence Egyptian 
religion so decisively," he remarks, " the race with 
whom these ideas originated must have had intimate 
relations with that from which the Egyptians were 

1 Naqada an,i Ballas, pp. 32, 62. 


derived ; it formed one of the elements of which was 
composed what we are accustomed to call Egyptian 
civilisation." And he proceeds to state that we can- 
not admit an evolution of the funeral customs of 
Naqada into the custom, which became general 
among the Egyptians, of embalming the corpse; this 
custom, he argues, must have been imported by a 
new race, from elsewhere, which conquered the 
primitive race and made them helots. 1 It is difficult 
to conceive how a race in a state of servitude could 
have so great an influence on its conquerors as to cause 
them to accept its burial customs, constituting the 
patrimony of the religion of the dead. Pctrie, it may 
be added, suspects that Osiris was a Libyan divinity. 2 
This transformation of burial customs has con- 
vinced me that there has been a real evolution up to 
the definite form of embalming which then remained 
constant. Of this Fouquet, in his craniological ex- 
amination, found evident traces in the skulls of Beit- 
Allam, of Guebel-Silsileh, and other places. There 
exist, he states', in the skulls of the rude stone epoch 
in Egypt, deposits of bitumen mixed with cerebral 
substance, and this bitumen could not have been 
introduced by the nasal passages, the brain not 
having been removed, 'but only by the occipital 
foramen, after the head had been cut off; and Petrie 
repeatedly states that the head was generally cut off 
in the graves he explored. 3 De Morgan is com- 
pelled to admit that the burial customs of the early 
Egyptians were not yet fixed. 4 If this was so, it 

1 Wicdcmann, in De Morgan, op. cit., 1897. 

- Naqada and Ballas^ p. 62. 

3 De Morgan, of. ci(., vol. ii., 1897, pp. 346 el seq. 

* Op. y., p. 17. 


cannot be affirmed that the historical Egyptians were 
not the descendants of those who left their graves at 
Abydos, Naqada, and Dallas that is to say, the graves 
of neolithic civilisation. Besides, the royal tomb at 
Naqada, regarded as the tomb of Menes, the founder 
of the first dynasty, clearly shows a transition be- 
tween neolithic civilisation and a new civilisation 
slowly acquiring its definite characters. 

The Art of Writing. An argument which seems 
decisive in favour of the opinion that the Egyptians 
were a new race of immigrants, conquering the 
Libyan race, regarded as that of neolithic civilisation, 
is found in their writing, which had no existence 
among the Libyans. Petrie, as we have seen, among 
the distinguishing characters of Egyptians and 
Libyans, places the inscriptions on one side and 
on the other " rude marks, not grouped," as peculiar 
to the " new race." Now it is true that the Libyans 
possessed only linear alphabetic signs, as we may see 
by Pctric's plates (LI.-LVII.) and the examples given 
by De Morgan ; but it is well to recall also that 
these signs, called by their discoverers " marks," 
without having any alphabetical significance attri- 
buted to them, are really writing signs, many of 
which still remain in the alphabet of the Tuaregs, as 
Evans has shown. 1 They may be brought into line 
with the pre- Phoenician writing of the Mediterranean 
and the prc-neolithic of other parts of Europe, as I 
shall show later on. We cannot, therefore, affirm 
that the Libyans had no writing in the general 
significance of the word. 

It is a very interesting fact, however, that these 

1 "Further DiM-nvcrics of Cretan and .K^can Script," Journal of 
llelltnic 5/.//Vf, vol. xiii., 1897. 

9 6 


alphabet-like forms were not abandoned by the 
population at the epoch of Abydos and Naqada, 
being used contemporaneously with writing of Egyp- 
tian type that is to say, hieroglyphics. De Morgan 
gives examples of terra-cotta vases with signs that 
indicate the royal ensign and yet bear such marks. 


FIG. 6. Marks on Pottery at Abydos (De Morgan). 

Tegnier, in other monuments like those of Abydos 
(Fig. 6) excavated by Amelineau, demonstrates not 
only the contemporary use of alphabet-like signs with 
hieroglyphic inscriptions, but also inscriptions which 
seem to be transcriptions, because they are either 
linear or groups of such signs, as in some vases from 

FIG. 7. Impressions of a Cylinder and Designs on Pots for 
the Tomb of King Den (De Morgan). 

Abydos. 1 This implies, it seems to me, that the use 
of the new writing was not yet universal, but that at 
the period of the first dynasty at Naqada, as indicated 
by the royal tomb of Mencs, we find a period of 
transition ; like the burial and other customs, writing 
was also being transformed (Fig. 7). 

1 De Morgan, of. ci(>, vol. ii., p. 236, figs. 787-795. 


More surprising than all seem to me to be those 
ivory tablets found in the royal tomb at Naqada, on 
which are signs, probably numerical, of the same type 
as those met with on European dolmens, and having 
nothing in common with the Egyptian ideographic 
characters (Fig. 8). These signs, also, are doubtless 
Libyan, and were employed together with the writing 
considered Egyptian. 

Here, however, it is necessary that I should refer to 
a different interpretation furnished by Arthur Evans 
in the study already mentioned. He calls " Proto- 
Egyptians" or " Egypto- Libyans " these peoples 

Tic.. 8. Ivory Tablets showing Linear Writing (De Morgan). 

whom Petrie calls " new race " or " Libyans " and 
all other archaeologists " Libyans," and he likewise 
believes that the people of the times of the Pharaohs 
immigrated into Egypt from Asia, bringing with 
them the civilisation and writing properly called 

" The linear characters found on the Proto-Egyptian 
pottery at Naqada," he recognises, " recur to a con- 
siderable extent on pottery found in tombs of the 
earliest dynastic period at Abydos, side by side with 
true hieroglyphic forms. At Abydos there is per- 



ccptiblc a certain reaction of linear indigenous signs 
on the more elaborate and pictorial characters of the 
Pharaonic people. Thus in several cases the linear 
forms here are simply Egyptian hieroglyphs very 
rudely scrawled. 

"This reduction of the more elaborate hieroglyphic 
forms to simple linear signs, which at Abydos is quite 
unmistakable, finds a certain amount of analogy on 
the still earlier indigenous vessels of Naqada, and 
suggests some curious questions. We now know 
that by the time of Menes the highly developed 
hieroglyphic script of the dynastic Egyptians had 
taken firm root in the country. But a large propor- 
tion of the hieroglyphic signs the lotus-sprays and 
river-craft, the water-birds, fishes, crocodiles, and other 
characteristic animals, already by the time of the first 
dynasty become conventionistic types are of indi- 
genous Nilotic origin. It follows then that many of 
the elements of hieroglyphic writing had been growing 
upon the banks of the Nile long before the time of 
the first historic dynasty. If the race that brought 
these pictorial elements to maturity is to be regarded 
as distinct from the old inhabitants of the land, whose 
remains have now been recognised at Naqada and 
elsewhere, it milst at least have been brought into 
very early contact with them. Hence there is a 
possibility that the beginning of hieroglyphic script 
reacted on the linear native signs at a much remoter 
date than that of Mcnes. And the hieroglyphic 
figures themselves how far may they not simply 
represent the coming to life of still earlier linear 
types?" 1 

The arguments of this able writer and his state- 

1 Op. fit., pp. 3S3-3^4. 


mcnts concerning the two forms of writing seem to 
me to show clearly the relation between both, and the 
difficulty of separating them absolutely: "Both at 
Naqada and Abydos," he points out, " characters of 
more pictographic aspect and in some cases identical 
with Egyptian hieroglyphic forms are at times 
coupled with the linear signs." The same pheno- 
menon is repeated in the Mediterranean, in Crete, 
and during the /Egean age. Evans's remarks imply 
a recognition on his part that the origin of Egyptian 
writing is to be found among what arc commonly 
called the aborigines, the Libyans, or by him / 
Proto - Egyptians, and imply doubt whether there / 
is any race here distinct from the aboriginal 

In the same way we may view what Evans observes 
concerning a steatite cylinder in the Petrie collection, 
and another of clay in the Gizch Museum, which De 
Morgan refers to the first dynasty, and regards as an 
Asiatic importation due to the Egyptian invasion. 1 
Evans, on the contrary, comparing it with a prism- 
seal of steatite from Karnac, refers it to his Proto- 
Egyptians, the Libyans of Wicdcmann and others, 
as a hybrid product due to a partial survival of these 
primitive inhabitants in the Nile valley, an imitation 
of the cylinders of Asiatic and Egyptian origin, 
without being either one or the other ("combined 
with other features which are neither Pharaonic nor 
Chaldaean "). On the other hand, he admits that the 
entire civilisation of historical Egypt was influenced 
by this pre-existing indigenous element, the assimila- 
tion of which was a work of centuries. He rightly 
finds the same art again in the Mediterranean, 

1 Retktrckts, etc , p. 257, fig 857 


especially at Crete, and in the civilisation of the 
yEgean. 1 

In all this we may see the same phenomenon that 
we have already seen in writing, and in the method 
of burial : an incipient form of the new Egyptian 
civilisation among the so-called aborigines, a Libyan 
population, slowly developing and leaving behind the 
traces of its origin. For it is difficult to be convinced 
that such an indigenous element which, as Evans 
himself points out, influenced the whole of historical 
Egyptian civilisation, should reproduce these rude 
cylinders the type of which was taken from Egypt 
itself and the Chaldreans ; as, on the other hand, 
we cannot admit, on the strength of the analogy 
of a cylinder, that Egyptian civilisation, so unlike in 
its forms, and so unique, was derived from Chaldaea. 

If we turn to consider the Egyptian language, I 
believe that everything favours an African origin. 
It may be, as Maspcro, Sayce, and others affirm, that 
Egyptian is intimately related with the Semitic 
tongues, and that Hamitic and Semitic are two 
branches of the same trunk; but they each have their 
own definite forms, with many characters that are 
common and many that are divergent While also 
in Arabia, where th,e source of the Egyptian stock is 
sought, there is not the slightest indication of any 
Hamitic language or dialect, in Africa not only is 
ancient Egyptian Hamitic but so are a whole series of 
languages spoken by numerous populations to the 
south of Europe and the west, through the Sahara to 
the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, as I have shown 
when dealing with the Hamitic stock in Africa. 2 We 

1 "Further Discoveries," etc., pp. 362-369 
* Africa, pp I IO et seq. 


may be permitted to wonder, therefore, when we see 
the Egyptian language invoked as an argument in 
favour of an Asiatic Semitic, and more especially 
Arabian, origin, for it is not easy to understand how a 
stock so extended and so numerous in Africa, sub- 
divided into many populations, should come from a 
region where it has not left the slightest trace of 

I will not enter into other details, as regards, for 
instance, the products, such as the vases and their 
typical forms and decorations ; others, possessing 
greater competence, have occupied themselves with 
this matter and shown the continuity, evolution, and 
natural transformation ot the different types at 
various Egyptian epochs, from the stone age to the 
historical age, as also they have shown the errors of 
De Morgan and his lack of intuition in interpreting 
the monuments he has discovered. 1 Others also, 
arguing against the Asiatic origin, have shown that 
both the animals and the plants known to the 
Egyptians were of African origin. 2 We shall here 
be occupied with the anthropological characters of 
the ancient prehistorical and historical Egyptians, 
since, as Petrie, De Morgan, Schweinfurth, and many 
others believe, anthropology may be called in to con- 
firm the theory of an Asiatic origin. 

Physical Anthropology of the Egyptians. If we 
examine the criteria which have been applied to the 
skulls excavated at Naqada by Pctric, and at El- 
Amrah, Heit-Allam, Naqada, Gucbel-Silsilch, and 
elsewhere by De Morgan, we shall not be surprised at 

1 See De Bissing, op. (it. 

* De Mortillet. Zal>r<>\vski, Pk'lrement, " \A Pierre et les Mclaux 
en Knyptc," Hull. Soc. cTAnth., 1896. 


the conclusions which have been drawn concerning 
their racial origin. No wonder, therefore, that a 
German writer has been able to write concerning the 
incapacity of craniology to distinguish human races; 1 
if I had no other criterion I would renounce it as 
useless, since it leads to such conclusions as those 
reached by Petrie and De Morgan as the outcome of 
their archaeological work. Use has here, in fact, been 
made of the old and discredited method of the cephalic 
index which only indicates artificial and conventional 
distinctions, those which have served to divide the 
prehistoric skulls of Egypt into two diverse races. 

The Naqada skulls, brought to Europe by Petrie, 
were studied by Thomson and Thane, whose con- 
clusions were that " we have to deal with a race with 
a small skull, indicating a hot climate at their source 
with a very long head but very upright profile. That 
they have no connection with the Guanche, but agree 
closely with the Algerian, both ancient and modern 
The nose was short and prominently aquiline, but 
not wide." These skulls are Libyan, not Egyptian, to 
which latter are attributed greater capacity and higher 
index. 2 If, however, we consider the plate in which 
the measurements are graphically represented, we find 
that the cranial capacity varies from between about 
noo c.c. to 1500 c.c., while the indices vary from 65 
to 80, the greater number being between 70 and 75; 
thus the average of 74.1 fails to express the truth, for 
the skulls fall into two groups, one with an index of 
71, the other of 74, a fact, however, which seems to 
have no significance. 

Petric's skulls .verc only studied in a summary 

1 Kretschmer in De Bissing, o/>. at., p. 257. 
' 2 Naqada and Bellas, pp. 51-54, PI LXXIV. 


manner; DC Morgan's, on the contrary, were investi- 
gated in detail by Dr. Fouquct. There arc eleven in 
tlu- first scries, that of EI-Amrah, and Fouquet found 
that ten of these were dolichocephalic to a more or 
less exaggerated extent, while one was mcsaticcphalic 
(75-55) J that alone could be Egyptian, because the 
average index attributed by Broca to the ancient 
Egyptians was mcsaticcphalic ! Fouquct forgot that 
the average index is not the individual index, and 
that Broca's series with an average index of 75.58 
might be composed of skulls with indices between 
70 and 80. On the other hand, the difference 
between a skull with an index of 75.55 and one with 
an index of 74.73 is less than unity, and furnishes an 
absurdly inadequate basis for the supposition of a 
difference of race. This time Fouquet reaches no 
absolute conclusion, 1 but in his study of the other 
scries he reaches conclusions which arc certainly 
strange,- and are very far. from confirming, as he 
imagines, the Asiatic origin of the Egyptians, all the 
less since he now overturns the criterion he had before 
accepted, and admits that skulls with an average 
index of 70.6 were those of the Asiatics who came to 
occupy Egypt and introduce the new civilisation. 
Zaborowski, it seems to me, was right when he 
severely criticised Fouquct's methods; in spite of the 
numerical differences he found uniformity in the 
skulls excavated from these graves, and I regret that 
he changed his opinion in consequence of Vcrneau's 
objections. 3 Schweinfurth also believes that there is 

1 DC Morgan, of. ft., vol. i , Appendix, p. 241. 
8 (>/. tit., vol. ii.. pp. 377 379 

3 /alx>ruw>ki, " IA-- K.KV- | ichistoriqucs tie I'ancicnnc Egypte." 
Bull. Sot. Antk , Paris, 1898. 


a great difference of race in the skulls found by De 
Morgan and Petrie, and thus seeks to confirm a 
legend of his own concerning the immigration of an 
Egyptian people, the Ha mites, from Arabia, and of 
another, coming from the valleys of the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, which carried with it the great 
Egyptian civilisation and the art of writing. 1 

From the first time that I saw the cranial forms in 
Fouquet's studies of the Egyptians my only surprise 
was at the closeness of their resemblance to other 
Egyptian skulls of the Pharaonic epochs, and at 
the same time to other skulls which I have attributed 
to the Mediterranean stock, and, in the widest sense, 
to the Eurafrican species. I perceived that an 
attempt had been made to distinguish two or three 
different races among these skulls solely on the 
ground of differences in average cephalic index, and 
I could not wonder that archaeologists and others 
have little faith in results obtained by such methods. 

It is true, as Verneau has stated in replying to 
Zaborowski's observations, that there are variations 
in these skulls, both as regards the cephalic indices 
and the absolute measurements ; but such variations 
do not give us the right to construct numerous, or 
even two, races. According to my method of cranial 
forms, it is the forms alone that we have to take into 
consideration, and I have shown that the same cranial 
form may vary in measurements and in index without 
losing its characters; this is a natural method, such 
as is employed in .zoology. How many species of 
lark we should have if we calculated by measurement 
their indices of length and breadth ! I have been 

i"Uel>cr den Ursprung clef ^Egypter," Vcrhandhingen Benin 
Gesellschafl f. Ant/i., igth June, 1897. 


able to show that the parts composing the face are 
more subject to variation than any others, 1 and in the 
prehistoric Egyptian skulls we may sec this, just as 
\ve may see that they present the same variations of 
form ellipsoid, ovoid, pcntagonoid as any other 
series of the species to which they belong. And the 
same may be said concerning the cranial capacity, in 
respect to which I have often shown that there are 
large capacities and small capacities, which may be 
considered as similar variations, when they arc well 
defined. 2 

Although we only possess the averages and not the separate 
measurements of the skulls found by Petrie at Naqada, we have 
the measurements of those studied by Fouquet, though I regret 
that in his figures of the skulls he has not presented the tionnti 
vtrficalis, or view from above, the most important of all. Now 
if we compare the absolute length of the skulls examined by 
him with the length of the skulls from the Canaries studied by 
Verneau, 1 we shall have an opposed result in regard to size, 
not having the measurements of capacity, to those given of the 
relations of the Naqada skulls, concerning which it is said that 
the capacity is very much less than that of European, Mongol, 
or Egyptian, and distinctly different from the Guanche. 4 




Per Cent 

Per Cent. 




















2. 3 8 

1 C>ani African! e Ciani A merit am, Florence, 1892. 

* Cf. Sftcie e Variela nmane, Turin, 1900. 

* L'ne Mitsion scitiiti/it/ue >/ans CAnkiptl Caaarfeii, I'.iris, 1887. 

* NaqaJa ami Ballot, p. 52. 






Per Cent. Per Cent. 

2.13 i 160 3 7.90 

36.17 17 170 20 52.63 

55-32 26 180 15 3947 

6.36 3 190 o o.o 

Both Series together. 

0.80 F 160 3 3.75 

17-74 22 170 27 33.75 

55-64 69 180 34 42.50 

21.77 27 190 15 18.75 

4.03 5 200 i 1.25 

TOTAL 100 124 

The result is that the majority of the skulls have a length ol 
over 180 mm. in the two series united, male with female; in the 
separate series the prehistoric Egyptian male skulls show a 
greater number at 180 and. at 200, and a less number at 190, 
than those from the Canaries. In the female skulls the greater 
length is in favour of the prehistoric Egyptians; and thus the 
two series compensate each other, and we cannot say that on 
the average any great difference exists between them. Whether 
Petrie's Naqada skulls are different from the other prehistoric 
Egyptian skulls is n^erely a matter of computation, and we see 
that Petrie's skulls have on the average a length of 180.5, 
Morgan's and Fouquet's i8t, while those from the Canaries 
have an average length of 178, that is, male and female 
together. This is enough to show that no great difference 
exists between the skulls from the Canaries and the pre- 
historic skulls of the Libyan or " new race." We could also 
show by measurements that no difference exists between 
Egyptian skulls and European skulls of the same type as those 
of the "new race " and the prehistoric Egyptians. 

This criticism is necessary in order to prove that craniometry 
is a kind of kabbala and will prove anything and everything 


one wishes ; what strange things it will demonstrate 5s shown 
l>y FoiK|iict, who brings in Indians, Hottentots, Kaffirs, Bush- 
men, and so on, in order to interpret prehistoric Egyptian 
skulls. It is the sense of reality which is lost in such cranio- 
metric clucubrations. In saying this, however, I have no wish 
to justify Rcinach, who is more fantastic even than the others. 

Leaving out of consideration what has been said 
concerning fine and coarse Egyptian types by Pruner- 
Bey first, and afterwards by Schmidt, 1 and coming to 
the capacity of the Egyptian skull, we find that the 
average capacity ot pure Egyptian skulls is 1,394 c - c - 
with a maximum of 1,725 and a minimum of 1,155, 
while Petric for his "new race" skulls gives two 
averages of 1 ,298 and 1,315 c.c., according as we include 
or exclude a series of small feminine skulls. But, as 
we have seen, the series oscillates between capacities 
of i,iooand 1,500. The difference between the two 
groups is not great, and hence the introduction of a 
small series of skulls of extreme capacity is enough 
to raise or lower it. 

In my own study of a scries of 87 Egyptian skulls 
I found the high average of 1,445 c - c -> w ' tn oscillations 
between 1,220 and 1,740. I must observe, however, 
that I only measured 18 of these i.e., those which I 
regarded as typical in my own classification, so that 
this average is only founded on 18 skulls, of which 
two were 1,710 and 1,740, thus suddenly raising the 
result. De Blasio, 2 however, who has measured all of 
these skulls that were measurable (71) gives a total 
average of 1,314.5, which is precisely that of Petrie's 
" new race." If, therefore, Petric seeks anthropological 
proof of the distinction between the historical Egyp- 

1 Cf. Af>i<a t cap. i. 

* Lt I'ar/f.'i) uniane netf EgilSo Anlifo, Naples, 1893. 


tians and the Libyan population in cranial capacity, 
no such proofs exists. The only proof, and an un- 
answerable one, is to be found in the comparison of 
forms between the skulls of the historical Egyptians 
that is to say, the mummies and the prehistoric 
race, whether we call the latter " new " with Petrie or 
" old " with De Morgan. 

The skulls studied by Dr. Fouquet in De Morgan's 

FIG. 9. Skull from Hierakonpolis, 
Beloides Libycus (Macalister). 

two volumes are viewed from the side .and in front, 
not from above (nonna vertical is\ which, by the 
method which I have adopted for many years, would 
have served to determine the variety under which 
they should be classed, and enable a comparison to 
be made with Egyptian skulls of the historical epochs. 
Notwithstanding this, from the descriptions given by 
Fouquet and the views he presents, I can see in these 


skulls the common forms, ellipsoid, pentagonoid, and 
ovoid, with variations corresponding to sub-variety, 

FIG. 10. Skull from Hicrakonpulis, 
Ovoides (Macalister). 

Fin. II. Skull from Ilicrakonpolis, 
rcntagonoide* afutus (Macalister). 

such as I have found in series in which the evidence 
was definitely presented. I can say the same of the 


skulls represented by Flinders Pctrie in his book on 
Naqada and Ballas. Being unwilling, however, to 
remain content with the information thus obtained, I 
have endeavoured to procure photographs ot the 
skulls excavated by Petrie, in the norma verticals. 
By the courtesy of Professor Macalister (in whose 
hands some of the skulls had been placed) I have 

Fie'. 12. Ancient Egyptian Skull, Be'.oidcs 
s (Sergi). 

been able to obtain six, for which I here desire to 
thank Professor Macalister. Although the number 
is small, these six photographs present one of beloid 
shape (already known as Splienoides jEgyptiacus), two 
moid, and three pentagonotd ; craniometrically they are 
dolichocephalic or mesoccphalic. Beloid is a new 
name, 1 and corresponds to Sphcnoides oblongus in 

1 See my Specie e Varieti) itmatit. 


scries I have previously examined ;' I now term it 
Sn'/oif/t's LibycHS t because found among the skulls of 
Roknia (see Chap. VI). The ovoid and pcntagonoid 
are not new among the forms found in the Mediter- 
ranean and in historical Egypt I here present the 
three characteristic forms of prehistoric and historic 
Egyptian skulls (Figs. 9-11). 

Fie. 13. Ancient Egyptian Skull, Pcnla^onoidts 
afuttis (Sergi). 

In six skulls it is impossible to find all the forms 
found in my scries and in other large scries of 
historical Egyptian skulls. The only characteristi- 
cally Mediterranean form, however, which is lacking is 
the ellipsoidal, which is common in the race and was 

1 Afiiia, cap. 5. 



numerously represented among the 86 skulls I have 
examined elsewhere. Many ellipsoidal skulls arc also 
to be found in Fouquet's series (Figs. 12-14). 

Not only in this comparison of prehistoric skulls 
with those of the dynasties do we find that both show 
the same forms and therefore belong to the same 

FIG. 14. Ancient Egyptian Skull, xxi. Dynasty, 
Ovoidcs (Sergi). 

stock, but also by an examination of the royal 
mummies of Deir-el-Bahari, which, as I have found, 
yield ellipsoidal and pentagonal forms as well as one 

On these grounds the conviction has grown in my 
mind that there is no difference of race between the 
historical Egyptians and the men who preceded them, 


the so-called I'roto-Egyptians of Evans, and Morgan's 
"old race." Both alike belong to the Mediterranean 
stock, and arc of African origin. 1 

1 I must here state that Professor Pctrie has, some time since, 
modified his opinion regarding the "new race.'' Speaking of objects 
finiiul in the toml>s of this, population, he writes: "These were at 
first temporarily assigned to a new race, as we knew nothing more 
alxuit them; hut further research had shown that they could now l>e 
safely assigned to the pro-dynastic stock alx>ut 5000 B.C., and even 
earlier." And he goes on to express an opinion which may here be 
noted, s : nce it coincides with my own: "In the graves of this 
aboriginal race there were found certain Iwwls of black clay with 
patterns imprinted upon them. These were of much importance in 
discussing the relation of their civilisation to that of others in the 
Mediterranean area.' 1 At the same time, Professor Petrie maintains 
hi* opinion that this | opulation, now termed by him pre-dynastic, 
differs in tyjx; from that of historical limes. Jour. Anlh. 
1899, p. 202. 



Craniology of the Ancient Berbers The Physical Characters of 
the Modern Population. 

Craniology of the Ancient Berbers. I have elsewhere 
classified the Libyans who now bear the general name 
of Berbers with various sub-divisions, into those of 
the Mediterranean, the Sahara,, and the Atlas. 1 We 
need not here consider to what extent the Berbers 
have become mixed with the Arab invaders, for the 
mingling with Semitic elements has taken place in 
comparatively recent times ; -and if during antiquity 
invaders, who might more or less have altered the 
racial composition, entered Mediterranean Libya, it 
seems that little or no change actually occurred, for 
the Punic, Roman, and other introduced elements 
were eliminated and disappeared, it may be said, by 
natural selection; in a territory not propitious for 
colonisation ; even to-day it seems that French mor- 
tality in Algeria is greater than native mortality. 
Nor does it appear that the natives easily mingle 
with their conquerors; 2 the Arabs, now so numerous 
in Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, have but partly 
changed the primitive population, either as regards 
physical characters or language. If foreign elements 

1 Africa, Parte II. 

* Boissier, L'Afriquc Komaine, 1896, pp. 303-308. 


have not disappeared they have assumed the racial 
physiognomy of the region, the Punic, Roman, and 
Greek elements taking on physical characters of 
the Libyan type, so that to-day it is impossible to 
distinguish them from true native Libyans. This 
conclusion is on the whole accepted by Faidhcrbe, 1 
and the skulls of the new and old Libyans bear 
witness to it 

FIG. 15. Skull from Roknia, BehiJes 
Libyan (Faidherbe). 

Those Libyans who are to the west of Egypt and 
the Libyan desert I group under the name of Western 
Libyans, in order to distinguish them from the 
Egyptians whom I regard as also Libyans. General 
Faidherbe's ancient skulls belonging to this group 
appear in his study without any extensive apparatus 
of measurements and theories. The numerous figures 

1 " Recherchcs anthropologiques sur les tnral>caux mlgnlithiqucs <!c 
Roknia," /?*//. Acadimie a't/iffone, iS6t>. 


he gives, however, and his excellent descriptions, 
render it an easy task to interpret the cranial forms 
of the twenty heads he studied. 

According to my method these heads are of four varieties, 
with certain sub-varieties : 

I. BELOID: a, libycus (Fig. 15). II. ELLIPSOID (Fig. 16): 
<7, Corythocephalus ; , Isocampylos. III. OoiD : a, Latus; 
fi, subtilis. IV. PENTAGONOID : a, Acutus (Fig. 17); b, subtilis 
(Fig. 18); c, asper; d t planus; e, convexus. 

Fia. 16. Skull from Roknia, 
Ellipsoidcs (Faidherbe). 

All these forms are common to the peoples of the Mediter- 
ranean, including, as we have seen, the prehistoric and historic 
Egyptians. The Beloid are five in number, and are dis- 
tinguished from the Egyptian and those of the Siculi by being 
long and slender, yet preserving the type. On account of this 
difference I call this form Beloides Libycus; we have already 
found an example of this type among the prehistoric Egyptians. 
As taken from Faidherbe the type is here shown. The Ellip- 
soid are four, all fine in form ; one of these is the Corytho- 


ccphalus, also found in Egypt, the helmet-shaped skull ; the 
others arc the very common Isoaimftylos. Of ovoid shapes, 
J.ti/us and Subliit's arc found- The pcntagonoids are numerous, 
but varying greatly. 

If we consider these twenty skulls from the stand- 
point of craniometry, we find that eighteen arc 
dolichocephalic and mcsoccphalic, and two brachy- 
cephalic ; of the latter one has an index of 80. 1, the 
other of 84.3. But when we consider that these two 

FlC. 17. Skull from Roknin, Pentagonoulet 
cunt us (Faiilherbc). 

indices belong to pentagonoid skulls which have a 
large breadth only on account of excessive develop- 
ment of the parietal bosses, we shall find no cause for 
surprise. 1 The pentagonoid is very broad, since it is 
low and flattened. Hence it can scarcely be said that 
these two skulls are foreign to the Libyan scries. 

1 Sec Scr^i, " Lc furmc del cranio uniaim nello svcluppo fetalc in 
relazione allc forme adultu" (A'iz: di Biobgia, ii. 67, 1900), for the 
justification of this view. 


The Physical Characters of tJie Modern Population. 
Examining the modern populations, we should ex- 
pect to find amid the primitive elements other elements 
foreign to the stock, since from most ancient times the 
Mediterranean has been slowly penetrated by large 
emigrations of many Asiatic racial elements, a fact of 
which we can find very clear evidence. The Arabs 
have, above all, attempted to change the anthropologi- 
cal physiognomy of Libyan Africa ; the population of 

FlG. 18. Skull from Roknia, Pentagonoides 
sitbtilis (Faidherbe). 

Arab origin in Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, 
according to Carette, amounts to 4,800,000, while the 
Libyan Berbers are about 7,500,000 in number. 1 As 
I have already remarked, however, in spite of this 
enormous number of Arabs, the primitive population 
has preserved its own characters. In addition to this 
population, moreover, others have entered, especially 

1 Carette, Originc et Migrations dcs frincifales tribus 
pp. 440 441. 


in the pure Mediterranean zone, above all from 
Kurope, such as Italians, Spaniards, French, and 
other racial elements, variously mixed. 

French anthropologists have chiefly investigated 
some of the modern populations of Mediterranean 
Africa, and, it seems to me, they have shown, in 
harmony with what I have said above, that it is not 
original and primitive, as we might be inclined to 
believe, but the result of immigration during various 

Topinard endeavoured to determine Arab types 
and Berber types, and also mixed types, Arabiscd 
Berbers ; l but his considerations seem to me very 
vague and uncertain, and incapable of yielding any 
positive result. 

Collignon carried on an investigation, with reference 
to colour of hair and eyes, of the sedentary Tunis 
population; this was also important from the large 
number of individuals (2,030) examined. Of light 
eyes he found 3.5 per cent., of light hair, 04 per cent. ; 
while of dark eyes there were 76 per cent, and of 
dark hair 92.9 per cent. 2 

Another study by Collignon deals with the general 
ethnography of Tunis, and contains observations on 
stature, as well as on the cephalic, nasal, and facial 
indices. 3 We must, however, confine ourselves to the 
cephalic index, because this has been used to support 
various theoretical views which overturn the natural 
order of anthropological facts in the Mediterranean, 

1 Anthrofvhgie tie r.-ti'^'n'e, p. 616; " Klutle cranionu'lrique dc 
Biskra," ./>. fntntahf /<>/// /'.;.-.//;.>. t/ts ffi., lOlh scss., Algiers, lS8l. 

8 " Repartition <lc la coulctir <lcs ycn\ et <lcs chcveux chez Ics 
TuniMcns siMcntain-N." AV,-7/<- </'.//;.' hiofologie, iSSS. 

3 " Etude sur 1'Kthnographic gent-rale <le la Tunisic," /?//. de 
Gtografhfe kisloriifiie et dtscn'ftii'f, Paris, 1887. 


and especially in Africa. The number of brachy- 
cephals, according to this author, is 132 out of 1,133 
subjects examined, and they have an index of from 
80 to 8 1, a very low one, because the author includes 
several subjects with a mesocephalic index of 79; this 
would be about 12 per cent, if all the 132 were true 
brachycephals. From my examination, however, it 
appears that the true brachycephals may be reduced 
to a very small number, which we may call sporadic, 
the infiltration of a foreign element Thus I cannot 
follow Collignon, when, in accordance with the mis- 
taken notion of French anthropologists that the 
Ligurians are brachycephalic, he regards these 
brachycephals as constituting a Ligurian element. 

Bertholon, completing the observations of Collignon 
on Tunis, 1 also finds a brachycephalic element, so 
small, however, that it has no effect on the general 
average of the population whose cephalic index 
oscillates between 70 and 76.11, nor on that of 36 
skulls whose average is 72.97. In a further study 
Bertholon, like Collignon, finds a Ligurian brachy- 
cephalic element in Africa. 2 Exploring the island of 
Gerba, he found among 330 subjects examined an 
index of 79.84, with an oscillation between 71 and 87. 
If we include among the brachycephalic the indices 
of 80 and upwards, we find that they amount to 33 
per cent., while the dolichocephalic and mesocephalic 
are 66 per cent. Brachycephaly is therefore more 
marked here than Bertholon found it to be in Tunis 
and Khumiria. 

- "Exploration anthropologique de la Khoumirie," Bull, cie 
Geographic ; 1891. 

5 " Exploration anthropologique de 1'isle de Gcrki," L\-lnt/iroJ>o.'ogie t 
viii., 1897. 


If we compare the results obtained from the skulls 
of Roknia with Collignon's and Bertholon's observa- 
tions among the modern populations, we find, as we 
might expect, that while among the former there arc 
no brachycephalic skulls of foreign type (since, as I 
have already remarked, the two pentagonoids are of 
Mediterranean type), among the cranial forms of the 
modern populations we discover brachycephalic heads 
of Asiatic type, such as we meet more or less 
numerously or sporadically in Europe. That was 
to be expected, because Northern Africa has received 
Asiatic and European colonies which naturally were 
not composed of racial elements formed from one 
type only. The same fact may be observed in other 
parts of the Mediterranean, as in Sicily 1 and in Spain, 
where the brachycephalic Asiatic has penetrated from 
prehistoric ages. 

I may here remark that my own observations, 
carried on in accordance with the method already 
referred to, prove that the old Libyan shapes are 
perpetuated among the modern Berbers, mingled 
with a foreign element which has penetrated during 
the course of ages. In the Anthropological Museum 
at Rome there are twenty Tunis skulls which I have 
studied and classified, and I have ascertained that 
they repeat the well-known forms found in Egypt 
and elsewhere in Africa. 

I. EI.LIPSOIDKS: I, Ell. biconcavus; 2, Ell. brevifrons; 3, 
Parallelcpipedoides africus. II. OvoiDKS: I, Ov. latus; 2, Ov. 
subtilis; 3, Ov. platymetopus. III. PENTAC.oitoiDES: i, Pent. 
plnnus; 2, Pent, declivis; 3, Pent, subtilis; 4, Acmonoides 
siculus; 5, I'tiu. a. utus. IV. HKI.OIDKS /KciYl'TIACUs. V. Tk\- 
PKZOIDKS: I, Trap. lonijisMimis; 2, Pyrgoides rom.nniv 

1 Sec Scr^i, " Crani prci.sloiici tldla Sicilia," Atli Six. nun. di 
Antrof., Roma, 4900. 


I. Ellipsoidal. 'There are only two skulls of this variety, 
with differences in their special characters; they belong to two 
sub-varieties: Ell. biconcavus and Ell. brevifrons. The first is 
from Sfax ; it is old, of medium capacity, and not easy to 
measure, being rather rotten; the character that makes it bicon- 
cave is the fact that the two temporo-parietal sides, instead of 
being flat or protuberant, as usually happens, are concave, so 
that the ellipse approximates the figure 8. This singular form 
might seem pathological, and would have seemed so to me if I. 
had not been warned by previous observation of other skulls of 
similar form in the modern Roman collection, and also among 
very ancient skulls. 

No. 1387, male, cephalic index 69.2, facial index 45, nasal 
index 62. It will be seen that this is a very narrow skull, with 
a short face, platyrhine but not prognathous. 

The Ell. brevifrons form was described by me among the 
old Roman skulls, 1 and need not be described again ; this 
African skull is of the same type, and comes from Begia. 

No. 1376, male, capacity 1420, cephalic index 71.3, facial 
index 50, nasal index 48.2. 

3. Parallelepipedoides afiicaiius, described by me elsewhere 
as a skull of fine proportions, superior to the Sardiniensis, and 
found in Abyssinia. 2 

No. 1379, of Gabes, masculine, capacity 1230, cephalic index 
72.7, facial index 53, nasal index 42.3. 

I 1. Ovoid. i. Of the Ov. latus, on various occasions described 
among skulls of the Mediterranean and East Africa, two were 
found: No. 1377, of Biserta, masculine, capacity 1449, cephalic 
index 80.7, facial index 528, nasal index 45.1; No. 1391, of 
Tabarca, masculine, capacity 1280, cephalic index 77.3, facial 
index 54, nasal index 52.8. 2. Of the Ov. subtilis, also common 
in the Mediterranean and East Africa, were three examples: 
No. 1392, of Bab-Gurgiani, masculine, capacity 1444, cephalic 
index 73.5, facial index 56, nasal index 45.3; No. 1385, of Mon- 
astir, feminine, capacity 1300, cephalic index 72.8, facial index 
52, nasal index 45.1; No. 1393 of Bab-Oliva, infantile, capacity 
1270, cephalic index 762, facial index 55, nasal index 53.7. 
This last had not attained definite shape, and showed, especially 

1 " Studi di antropologia lazialc," Accad. Medica di Jtoma, 1895. 

2 In A/I ica t loc. cit. 



in the parietal bosses, an angularity which is not characteristic 
of ovoid skulls. 3. Ov. pla/yinctofius, so called because the 
frontal bone is flattened and slopes forward ; it has much 
resemblance with the Ell. platymclopus of Egypt and Abys- 
sinia; No. 1388, of Susa, feminine, capacity 1290, cephalic 
index 76.2, facial index 53 4, nasal index 39 2, and characteristic 
as a type of this sub-variety; No. 1382, rather youthful and not 
yet definitely formed, but belonging to this type; capacity 1415, 
cephalic index 78.6, facial index 74.9, nasal index 43.8. HI. 
Pcntagonoids. This category always contains many sub-forms, 

FG. 19. Skull from Ain-Draham, 
Penta^onoides subtilis (Sergi). 

and it is not surprising that the five skulls of the group belong 
to five different classes, i. Pent, plarnts, No. 1379, of Jeriann, 
is infantile but typical, with cephalic index of 75.4, nasal index 
47.4. 2. Pent, decliris, so called because the curve of separation 
between the frontal and cerebral regions up to beyond the 
brcgtAa for at least five or six centimetres backwards, forms an 
inclined plane with almost parallel sides. The parietal bones 
are sharp, and much directed backwards, and the anterior sides 
of the pentagon are very long compared to the posterior sides. 



It is a singular shape, but resembles some ovoid skulls found in 
Sicily. 1 No. 1381, of Kerwan, male, capacity 1440, cephalic 
index 73.3, facial index 51, nasal index 46.3. 3. The rent, 
subtilis was described by me among the skulls of Abyssinia as 
found among the Bogos; this from Tunis is very similar (see 
Fig. 19). No. 1375, from Ain-Draham, female, capacity 1070, 
cephalic index 70, facial index 50, nasal index 45.3. 4. Acmo- 
iioides. This form really has five sides, but the two posterior 
are shortened, and the angle formed by the occipital is smaller 

FlG. 2O. Skull from Tunis, Pentagonoidcs 
acutus (Sergi). 

than that of the acute pentagonoid. No. 1394, of Zaquan, male, 
capacity 1335, cephalic index 72.8, facial index 50, nasal index 
45.5. 5. Pent, acutus (see Fig. 20). No. 737, capacity 1350, 
cephalic index 73.4, facial index 51, nasal index 50. IV. Beloid. 
There was only one skull of this class already described in 
dealing with Egyptian skulls and the Libyans of Roknia and 
that was infantile, And not well defined in type. No. 1390, from 
Tabarca, infantile, probably female, cephalic index 74.7, facial 

1 See Moschen, " Quattro decadi di crani modern! dalla Sicilia," 
Alti Soc. Veneto-Trtntina, Padua, 1893, fig. 16. 


index 56 7, nasal index 50. V. Trafiezoids. Trapezoides 
it'tigi'ssi'mus. This new form of trapczoid was exhibited in two 
skulls, one male, the other female, but perfectly alike except in 
sexual characters. They arc very long and low, while typical 
trapezoids are short and rather high in relation to length. 
.They have receding frontals, and the occipital is protuberant 
behind; they arc prognathous. It is the first time I have seen 
such a shape, and I cannot express any opinion about it until 
further observations are possible. No. 1384, from Megcz-cl- 
Rab, male, capacity 1435, cephalic index 69.5, facial index 56, 
nasal index 51.8. No. 1380, from Gerba, female, capacity 1330, 
cephalic index 70.8, facial index 59, nasal index 46. 2 Trap. 
pyroidtS) or tower-like. No. 1383, from Megez-el-IJab, male, 
capacity 1320, cephalic index 82.1, facial index 55.2, nasal index 
45.3. No. 1389, from Tamezart (Gabes), male, capacity 1325, 
cephalic index 76.8, facial index 53.6, nasal index 47.1. 

In comparing the skulls from Roknia \\ith mine 
from Tunis it is at once seen that (except the trape- 
zoids) all belong to the same varieties, the differences 
being found only in the sub-varieties, as is natural in 
such small scries as these. If we make a wider com- 
parison, between Egyptian skulls and those of other 
Mediterranean populations, we shall find that the 
sub-varieties are common to every population in the 
Mediterranean. In regard to the cephalic index I 
must say that only two brachycephalic skulls are 
found in the Tunis scries, but one is a broad ovoid 
(cephalic index 80.7) and therefore of Mediterranean 
type; the other (the pyrgoid) alone is foreign. It is 
necessary to call attention to this fact, since Kcanc, in 
his recent work, Man Past and Present, considers 
that the brachycephalic element found amidst the 
Ktiropcan dolichoccphals is partly of African origin 
and partly of Asiatic origin. Now we have seen that 
it is only in modern times that brachyccphals have 
been found in North Africa in any considerable 


number, and then only as a subordinate type; in 
antiquity they were exceptional and sporadic, not 
only in Africa but throughout the Mediterranean. 
If we examine the skulls of East Africa, of Abyssinia, 
of Somaliiand, ot the Gallas, a brachycephalic skull is 
always very exceptional. 1 

In the Sahara, again, and in the west towards the 
Atlantic that is, in the region including Libyans or 
Berbers all the information that reaches us only 
confirm the results already reached regarding the 
Mediterranean Libyans. Unfortunately I have no 
personal observations to present regarding the forms 
ot the skull in these regions, except only as regards 
three skulls from the island of Arguin on the 
Atlantic coast ot Africa, and sufficiently near the 
mainland to be considered as an appendage of the 
Sahara and of Magreb, which under some aspects 
may be considered an extension of Morocco. I 
know that three skulls are too few, but with my 
zoological method they express something and furnish 
an important indication. They belong to two of the 
commonest Mediterranean varieties. 

One is Ell. depressus, capacity 1515, cephalic index 72.2, 
height index 66.3, facial indices 58.1 and 96 8, nasal index 43.1. 
The other two are t>voids : Ov. dLgypliacus, capacity 1450, 
cephalic index 72.5, height index 72, facial indices 56 and 93, 
nasal index 45.2 ; Ov. lophoides, on account of a protuberance 
on the cranial roof, capacity 1385, cephalic index 77.6, height 
index 76.8, facial indices 54 and 88.7, nasal index 54.3. This 
last skull, however, is h>brid since the face is negroid. 

But to compensate fey- the absence of skulls we have 
observations on the living face. These reveal the 
presence of the varieties of the Eurafrican species 

1 a. Africa. 


found in Hamitic Africa and throughout the Mediter- 
ranean that is to say, the forms of the face I describe 
as ellipsoid, ovoid, pentagonal, and resembling a 
parallelogram, while the face of the Ovoides /".f/- 
tiacus of. Arguin is dolicho-cllipsoid, and the nasal 
index is leptorhinc in two skulls and meso-lcptorhinc 
in the living. 1 

1 For details, sec Africa, Parle 1 1. 



The Origins of the Cana>y Population Physical Charactcts 
of the Population. 

T/ie Origins of the Canary Population. It seems 
unnecessary to refer to the opinions of ancient 
historians concerning the origin of the population of 
the Canary Islands, for they are merely conjectural and 
often fantastic, being sometimes united with ill-founded 
traditions. Investigations worthy of attention only 
begin with the naturalists wlro in modern times have 
studied the islands and their products and inhabitants 
with scientific methods. We owe to the researches 
of Berthelot, Broca, Faidherbe, and Chil, in the first 
place, and afterwards to the more special investiga- 
tions of Vcrneau and more recently of Meyer and 
Luschan, whatever light has been thrown on the 
populations who have inhabited the Canary Islands. 1 

1 Berlhelot, Anliquitfs Canaricnnes, Paris, 1839 ; Baker Webb and 
S. Berthelot, Histoire iiatttrelle des f'es Canaries, Paris, 1839; Bioca, 
Revue d'Anthiopologic, iv., 1874; Faidherbe, Quelques mots sur 
rethnologie de VArchipel Canarien, Paris, 1875 ; Chil y Naranjo, 
Rstudios Hisloricos, cliniatol6^icos y palol6gicos de las Is/as Canarias, 
Las Palnias, 1876-89 ; Verneau, Kappo>t sur une Mission scientijiqiie 
dans FArchipcl Canarien, Paris, 1887; ib., Cinq annees de sejour aux 
ties Canaries, Paris, 1891 ; ib., " De la pluralitc des races humaincs 
de 1'Archipel Canarien" (Bull. Sot. Anthrop., 1878); ib., " Habita- 
tions et sepultures des ancicns habitants des lies Canaries " (A'evtie 
tfA nlhrop. ), 1879 ; ib., " Les Semites aux ties Canaries'" (Bull , fit., 


The primary problem has been that of the origins 
of the Canary population. Bcrthclot. founding his 
opinion chiefly on language, believed that it was 
derived from tribes of the western Atlas, Brpca that 
it came from North Africa, and Faidherbe that it is 
a mixture of Wolofs, Libyans, blond Europeans, and 
even Canaanites. Verncau attempted to prove that 
the Canarians belong to the Cro-Magnon race and 
emigrated from the north. It is useless to refer to 
the opinions of those who believe that the race is of 
American origin or constitutes a residuum of the 
population of the poetic Atlantis, for the origins of 
a people can only be learnt by the study of their 
physical and ethnographic characters. The method 
that has guided us so far is that of following the 
distribution of such characters, especially the physical 
traits, in the various regions, and noting the resem- 
blances or dissimilarities which unite or separate a 
population in relation to a stock with well-established 
characters. If a population is studied by itself, 
without relation to others, it cannot be classified, 
and we cannot learn its origins. Let us therefore 
ask what are the physical characters of the Canary 

Physical Characters of tlie Population. Dr Chil 
measured 169 ancient skulls from Grand Canary, 
Teneriflc, Gomcra, and Ferro, finding among them 

1881); ib , " Sur les anciens habitants de la Islctn " ; Meyer, Die 
Intel Tent'ife, Leipzig, 1896 ; " Ueber die Urbewohner der Canar- 
ischcn Inseln," in Adolf Baslian Festschrift, 1'crlin, 1896 ; Von 
Luschnu, " Anhang Uber cine Schadclsammlung von den Canarischen 
Inseln," Meyer's />/> fusel Tenetife : " Drci trepanirle Schadel von 
Tencrif-.-" (I'trkantilnn^en der Bet liner anlhrop. Geseltschaft, 1896); 
Virchow, " Schadvt mit Carionecrosis der Sagiltaigegcnd " 


only 8 that were brachycephalic, the average index 
for the whole number being 76.3. It varied a 
little in the different islands in Grand Canary 
76.7, in Teneriffe 78, in Gomera 77.2, in Ferro 
73.2. He concludes that the race which peopled 
the Canaries was dolichocephalic ; and he believes 
that it was related to the troglodytes of the 
Homme-Mort Cavern, of Cro-Magnon, of Vezere, 
as well as to the Spanish Basques, the Berbers, 
the Egyptians, and the Corsicans ; also that the 
race was the same throughout the Archipelago, 
the variations being due to mixture among the 
invaders. He also believes that Grand Canary 
possessed the real type of the pure aboriginal race, 
while the Teneriffe skulls belonged to a coarser type 
He attaches no importance to the blond element 
found in the Archipelago, since such an element is 
found also in Egypt and among the ancient Libyans. 1 
Very different from Dr. Chil's conclusions are those 
of Dr. Verneau, who has written an important work on 
a large number of skulls and long bones belonging to 
the ancient inhabitants of the islands in order to 
reach decisive conclusions. As is known, the ancient 
colonists of the Archipelago of the Canaries were 
called Guanches, and Verneau proposes to determine 
whether or not other races were mingled with the 
Guanches. Stature in the first place and then cranial 
form have indicated to Verneau that the Guanches 
were mixed with other racial elements. It was in 
Teneriffe that the Guanche element predominated 
in a least mixed shape ; Gomera, Grand Canary, and 
Ferro, he believes, contained a population that was 
mingled in various proportions. At Teneriffe a high 

1 Op. til. , vol. ii. , p. 305 and plates ; also pp. 273 et seq. 


stature prevails among the men, 45.8 per cent, being 
between m. 1.70 and m. 1.86, and 47.8 per cent, 
between m. 1.65 and m. 1.70; the general male 
average is 1.70, while in the female sex it is only 
about 1.53. At Gomera a low stature predominates, 
67.69 per cent, being m. 1.60 and less. At Grand 
Canary the proportion varies according to locality, 
at Isleta 58.90 being of high stature and 5.90 of low, 
while at Santa Lucia, at Aguimcs, and at San 
Bartolomo the proportion varies between 28.65 ar| d 
42 per cent. Taken altogether, the island shows an 
average stature, as at Teneriffe, of m. 1.70 with a 
maximum of m. 1.81 and a minimum of m. 1.58. In 
the island of Ferro the proportion descends ; from 
1.65 to 1.75 it is from 23.33 to 45.10 per cent, 
while the low stature oscillates between 28 and 51 
per cent 

From these data Verneau argues the presence of 
many different races of great and small stature. 
Since he attributes the high stature to the Guanches, 
it follows that Teneriffe had a more homogeneous 
population of Guanche stock with few foreign 
elements, while Grand Canary had a very varied 
population ; this he attempts to prove also by 
examination of the skulls. 

If we consider cranial capacity, the male skulls of 
Teneriffe are large, with an average of 1,672 cc., with 
a maximum of 1,900 and a minimum of 1,410; the 
female skulls have an average of 1432 c.c, with a 
maximum of 1,600 and a minimum of 1,3 1 5. Not less 
high is the capacity of the Gomera skulls, with an 
average of 1,607 (maximum 1,627, minimum 1,440) 
for the males, and an average of 1,349 (maximum 
1,375, minimum 1,255) for the females. At Grand 


Canary the total average was 1,513 with wide varia- 
tions. Ferro has also yielded masculine skulls with 
capacity varying widely between 1,280 and 1,625, an d 
feminine skulls between 1,260 and 1,685; in Palma 
the masculine range is between 1,335 an d 1 >735- 

As I have elsewhere often stated (in my Varietb 
Umani), I believe that wide oscillations in cranial 
capacity cannot be regarded as due to individual 
variation, and therefore, with Verneau, I accept the 
presence in the Canaries of many different racial 
elements. This would confirm the indication already 
supplied by the differences in stature. I would only 
observe that there is a divergence between the data 
of stature and those of cranial capacity as regards 
Gomera, where the capacity equals that found at 
Teneriffe, and at Grand Canary also the cranial 
capacity, like the stature, is relatively high, though 
the variations are greater than at Teneriffe. 

We may turn to the data furnished by the islands as regards 
cephalic index, following Verneau. (I reduce the quinary 
division of the French to the simpler ternary division of the 
Germans.) At Teneriffe Verneau found: 

Male Skulls. 

Per Cent. 

Dolichocephalic 37.00 

Mesocephalic 40.70 

Brachycephalic 22.30 

Female Skulls. 

Dolichocephalic ..... 16.67 

Mesocephalic 5^-33 

Brachycephalic . . , . . 25.00 

At Gomera: 

Male Skulls. 

Dolichocephalic 15.39 

Mesocephalic 45- '5 

Brachycephalic 38.46 

Female Skulls. 

Per Cent. 

Mesoccphalic 25.00 

Brachycephalic 75-OO 

At Grand Canary are found, according to locality: 

Dolichocephalic . . from 25.00 to 50.00 

Mesocephalic . . 17.00 75.00 

Brachycephalic . . 5.88 12.50 
At Ferrot 

Dolichocephalic, in the east 30.00, in the south 35.30 

Mesocephalic, 7000, 32.35 

At Palma we find dolichocephalic and mesocephalic with 
variations in the two sexes between 71.96 and 78.53. 

The largest number of brachycephals is to be found 
at Gomera, and especially among the women ; only a 
few are found among the Grand Canary skulls; none 
at Palma and Ferro. The population of the archi- 
pelago would seem to be more homogeneous con- 
sidered according to cephalic index than according 
to cranial capacity or stature. 

As regards the facial index, I have thought it desirable to 
reduce the measure of facial height (taken by Verneau from the 
ophryon) to the height from the naso-frontal suture, a method 
I have adopted for many years past I have obtained it by 
adding the nasal height to the inter-maxillary height, measured 
by Verneau. 

In his results Verneau gives averages together with the 
maxima and minima, but seldom the individual data. Com- 
pelled to follow him, I have found great divergence of results. 
His averages, as well as his maxima and minima, but rarely 
correspond to those obtained by my method, which is more 
exact since it has fixed anatomical points. For Teneriffe I have 
obtained average male indices of 52 to 52.9 (maxima 55, 56.5, 
minima 47.7, 50); for Gomera indices of 59, 57, 53, 48; for 
('rand Canary average indices of 52.5 to 57.7 (maxima 59.80 and 
60, minima 48.7 and 51.2); for Ferro averages of 52 and 53 
(maxima 54, 56, 58, and minima 48.8, 50); for Talma the indices 
oscillate between 50.4 and 55.6. 


Summarising the figures obtained as regarding 
facial index, it appears that the greater number show 
the presence of the elongated or leptoprosopic type 
of face, this type often showing extreme forms with 
indices of 55 to 60 ; the chaemoprosopic or broad-faced 
are rare, only 9 times in 73 cases, or at a percentual rate 
of 12.3. These results lead us to conclusions very 
unlike those of Verneau, who believes that the true 
Guanche type possesses a short broad face. 

In Verneau's opinion the Guanches have been 
variously mixed with the racial elements which 
perhaps arrived at the same time to colonise the 
islands. He considers that the Guanches are of the 
Cro-Magnon race, and that at Teneriffe they present its 
characters in stature, skull, and face; mingled with this 
he finds a Semitic element whence results the mixed 
type most common in the island. He adds a third 
but less numerous type with a short head and broad 
nose. At Teneriffe the true Guanche race is most 
numerous, while at Gomera it is scarcely found at all. 
At Grand Canary, where Chil finds the Guanches 
present, Verneau only finds a chaos of racial elements. 
Although dolichocephaly is common, and brachy- 
cephaly rare, the stature is high on the whole, and 
hence he believes that here, as at Teneriffe, only to a 
greater extent, a Semitic element has entered. Thus, 
taking the island altogether, he finds: (i) Guanches, 
(2) Semites, (3) crosses between these two, (4) a type 
with short head and brow, of unknown origin, (5) 
another type, perhaps Berber, at the north of the 
island. At Ferro and Palma the phenomena are 

A final investigation is concerned with the colour 
of the skin, eyes, and hair. Tradition refers to blonds 


in the Canaries; the poet Viana represents the 
princess Dacil with Teutonic complexion; Vicra 
y Clavijo, Berthclot, and Millares state that they 
have seen mummies with blond hair. Verncau saw 
some with red hair, which he attributes to the action 
of mummification, as in Peruvian mummies. At the 
same time he is inclined to admit the existence of 
blonds at TenerirTe, where he has met children, and 
sometimes adults, with blond hair and also with blue 
eyes. Among the adults some have chestnut hair, 
more or less light, while some arc real blonds. He 
accepts these blonds without hesitation as descendants 
of the ancient Guanches. 

If we judge Dr. Verncau's conclusions by his facts, 
regarded in the light of other craniological criteria 
than the rough method of the cephalic index or 
stereotyped shapes, we shall certainly find some of 
his inductions inacccptable. Verncau exerts himself 
to find the pentagonal or sub-pentagonal forms as 
necessary characteristics of the Cro-Magnon skull, 
and when he finds ellipsoid or ovoid skulls he sees 
Semitic or hybrid skulls. I have often shown that 
even amongst the most homogeneous populations 
there is no single cranial type or single stereotyped 
form; Cro-Magnon skulls present varied types, and 
not merely that 01 the celebrated old skull on which 
some would stereotype all the individuals belonging 
to the same race. 

More than this : Verneau finds that the Guanche 
type, as he conceives it, is unlike that of the Hcrbers ; 
and therefore he considers it European, and in 
addition blond and white, with light eyes like a 
Teutonic type, although, according to his own state- 
ments, there arc few blonds now in the islands, and 


IK) evidence of blondness among the mummified 
human remains. As regards the face, he believes 
that the Guanchc type was broad and short, like the 
Cro-Magnon skull. But by his own measurements 
we have found that the indices are leptoprosopic and 
even exaggerated, up to 60. 

I believe we may conclude, on the basis of Ver- 
neau's own observations, that the population of the 
Canaries was mingled before the conquest, and that 
there were two chief elements, one of Guanches, doli- 
chocephalic and mesocephalic, with leptoprosopic 
face, the other an undetermined racial element with 
short head, short and broad face. There is also a 
third element, of secondary rank, dolichocephalic and 
mesocephalic, short face, short stature, but we are not 
entitled to call it Semitic. If such an element were 
present it would be difficult to distinguish it clearly. 
Let us, however, turn to the opinions of two other 
more recent observers, Meyer and F. von Luschan. 

Meyer has himself summarised his ideas and those 
of Von Luschan concerning the Guanches, whom they 
believe to have been blonds of white skin, and dis- 
tinguished from two other types which also inhabited 
the Canaries. Thus there would be three physically 
different types. 

The jirst type is formed by the .Guanches. whose 
stature, according to those investigators, was between 
m. 1.70 and 1.90, bodies robust and head large, 
markedly dolichocephalic. The forehead was well 
developed, the occiput strong and low, the face low 
and broad, the eyes large, the jaws very wide, the 
cephalic index is 78, the vertical index 73. The nose 
was relatively short, the teeth but slightly prominent. 
On the whole, the skull has most resemblance to the 


prehistoric type of Cro-Magnon. The hair was U 
blond, reddish, or light chestnut ; the skin and eyes 
light. This Guanche type was diffused throughout 
all the islands, but was purest and most numerous in 

The second type was of stature m. 1.65 to 1.67, 
slender 7n~body, and with a delicate mcsocephalic 
skull. The face was long and narrow, the nose 
narrow. The cephalic index is 81, the vertical index 
73. A resemblance to the Hamitic skull cannot fail 
to be recognised. The hair was black, the skin a light 
brown, the eyes dark. This type is specially found at 
Grand Canary, Pal ma, and Fcrro, but not at Gomera. 

The third type was of shorter stature on the 
average than the two previous types. The bones 
were slender, the skull hypsibrachycephalic, very 
short, broad, and high. The face was long and 
narrow, the nose narrow and straight. The cephalic 
index was 84, the vertical index 79.5. This cranial 
shape is entirely identical with that called by Von 
Luschan the Armenoid pre-Semitic of Western Asia. 
The colour of hair, skin, and eyes most probably 
corresponded with that of the brunet types of 
Western Asia. This type was widespread and pure 
at Gomera, where the second type was absent, but is 
also traceable in the rest of the archipelago. 

If we classify these three types, these investigators 
conclude, we have: (i) Dolichocephals related to the 
very ancient Cro-Magnon race ; (2) Mesocephals of 
Hamitic relationship; (3) Hypsibrachycephals related 
to the prc-Semitic Armcnoids of Western Asia. 1 

1 " Ueber die Url>cwohner der Canarischen Inseln," Festschrift /> 
A. Bastion, Merlin, 1896; cf. Von I.uschan's appendix to Die Inset 
Tenerife, Leipzig, 1896. 


It will be seen that the two distinguished German 
authorities differ considerably from Verneau ; they 
accept Verneau's Guanche type entirely, but the 
delicate type with a cephalic index of 8 1 that 
is, brachycephalic, not mesocephalic is for them 
Hamitic, and the brachycephals of 84 are Armenoid. 

Let us consider Von Luschan's data. He finds 
among 50 skulls i dolichocephalic, 22 mesocephalic, 
27 brachycephalic, following the classification of the 
Frankfort Convention; for the facial index (following 
the same classification) we have 40 leptoprosopic (i.e., 
in the proportion of 80 per cent.) and 10 chamaepro- 
sopic (in the proportion of 20 per cent). If, how- 
ever, we adopt my classification we have the indices 
in the proportion of 70 per cent, leptoprosopic, 35.22 
mesoprosopic, and 8 per cent, chamaeprosopic (only 4 
cases). These figures are founded on Von Luschan's 
own data ; l and they agree with the observations of 
Verneau, who at Teneriffe in 18 cases only twice 
found chamaeprosopic (between 47.7 and 48.7), though 
Teneriffe is the island in which, according to these 
authors, the Guanche elements are most numerous. 
At Gomera it was only found once among 13 cases, 
at Grand Canary twice among 28, at Ferro three 
times among 18, at Pal ma not at all. 

The short and broad type of face is therefore very 
seldom found, while the type with long or even very 
long face, which we have learned to know among the 
Hamites of the whole African zone from east to west, 
is common and widely diffused. But among the 
Hamites we have only exceptionally found a skull 
with a cephalic index of Si; it is usually dolicho- 
cephalic and mesocephalic. I will here present the 

1 See Meyer, Die Insel Tenerife. 


results, as regards skull shape, of an examination of 
the small collection of crania from the Canaries pos- 
sessed by the Rome Museum of Anthropology. Here 
is the list : 

I ELLIPSOIDS: I, Ell. corythocephalus; 2, Ell. proophryo- 
ats; 3, Parallclepipedoides, (a) africus, (/>) canaiiensis. II. 
OVOIDES: i, O. lobatus. III. PENTAGONOIDS : i, Pent, 
planus; 2, Pent, acutus. IV. PLATYCEPHALUS: i, Stenoplaty- 
cephalus. V. SPHENOIDS: i, Sph. tetragonus panws; 2, Sph. 
cyrtocephalus oblongus; 3, Sph. canariensis. 

FIG. 21. Sfhenoides canaricnsh (Scrjji). 

It is unnecessary to describe all the skulls of this little scries, 
as their characters may be at once inferred frorn. their names, 
and the reader who has followed me so far will recognise that 
many of them are common to the Mediterranean. I will only 
say a few words concerning those that deserve special attention. 
The Parallele(>if>cdi>idcs ainaricnse is distinguished from the 
elsewhere described, 1 by being larger, showing a 

1 See Afrita. 



more complete parallelism and a very developed frontal bone, 
elevated above the plane of the cranial vault. The Sienoplaly- 
cephalus is a small low flattened skull, with the characters found 
in the microcephalic crania of the Mediterranean, and in Russia 
at the Kurgan epoch. 1 This cranial form thus found in the 
midst of ancient skulls from the Canaries, has an important 
bearing, in my opinion, on the African origin of European 
pigmies which I suggested some years ago. Another type 
which merits special attention is the Sphenoides canariensis ; 

Fl(. 22. Sphenoides canariensis (Sergi). 

this is a male skull of capacity 1,530 c.c., cephalic index 81.3, 
vertical index 71.8, facial index 53.5, nasal index 43.6 (Figs. 
21, 22). This wedge-shaped form approaches the round 
sphenoid, 2 but it is broader in front, low like a platycephalic 
skull, and with very short and receding forehead; the large 
mastoid apophyses are so placed that the skull inclines back- 

J Sergi, Varieta microcefaliche e Pigmci di Eiiropa, Roma, 1893; ifi., 
Specie e Varieta ttwarte, Turin, 1900. 

8 Cf. Sergi, Sin ii di antropolog ia lazialt, Rome, 1895. 


ward instead ot ascending in front This skull is unique in 
the collection, but I have found many similar in Von Luschan's 
collection at Berlin, and it is represented in Plate I. of Meyer's 
memoir. 1 This, it appears to me, is the skull which Von 
Luschan terms Armenoid. 

It may be well to point out that the Armenoid 
type was described by Von Luschan on the occasion 
of his travels in Lycia and in his study of the Tach- 
tadshy skull. This skull, though brachycephalic, has 
a different form ; generally the occiput slopes vertically 
or a little obliquely so as to approach the vertical; 
the summit of the cranial height is much behind the 
bregma, and from the summit there is an oblique 
descent towards the forehead. Viewed from the side, 
the skull has a trapezoidal appearance. 2 Mine and 
those of Meyer do not altogether resemble the Arme- 
noid type of Asia Minor, and it seems to me, there- 
fore, that Meyer's third type from the Canaries cannot 
with any probability be described as Armenoid. I 
call it Canariense, because I have never seen a similar 
cranial form elsewhere. I do not wish to imply that 
it arose in this archipelago, but it is foreign to the 
Hamitic type which mainly dominates here. 

From a craniometric point of view the skulls of my 
series comprise: 2 dolichoccphals, 6 mesocephals, 4 
brachycephals with the minimum brachycephalic index 
(81); as regards facial index 4 are leptoprosopic 
(average index 54.3), 4 mesoprosopic (average 50.4), 
and 4 chamaeprosopic (average 81.5); as regards nasal 
index there are 5 leptorhinc (average index 44.9), 3 
mesorhinc (average 51.3), 4 platyrhinc (average 55.2). 

1 See also Fig. c in appendix to Meyer, Die Intel Tenerife, p. 298. 
Cf. "Die Tachtadschy,' 1 Arckiv fur Anthrojolosie, xix., 1891, 
fit's. 15, 16, 17. 


When we consider these from the point of view of 
form, all the varieties, with the exception of one sub- 
variety, the SpJicnoidcs Canariensis^ are found to be 
common to the groups of Hamitic stock in Africa 
and in the Mediterranean among the populations of 
Southern Europe. It is sufficient to compare the list 
of the Canary varieties with the other lists to become 
convinced of the resemblance. This is to me a satis- 
factory result, considering the small number of skulls, 
and shows the community of origin and of stock 
between the inhabitants of the Canary Islands and 
the Hamites. 

With this general affirmation, however, I do not 
wish to deny that among the Hamites of the Canaries 
there were not other and foreign racial elements. 
The differences in stature, in cranial capacity, and in 
part in cranial and facial shape, indicate the presence 
of mixture, as affirmed by Verneau, Meyer, and Von 

It is difficult to know the origin of the type I have 
called SpJienoides Canariensis. At first, noticing that 
the brachycephals in the skulls studied by Verneau 
were chiefly among the women, I thought that this 
type might have owed its origin to the introduction 
of slave women into the archipelago, and that their 
offspring, including males, were btechycephalic. It 
would still, however, be difficult to tell where they 
came from, and I think it useless to invent new 

The list includes the Stenoplatycephalus, of small 
capacity, and with similar if not identical characters, 
which I have found in the Mediterranean and in 
Russia among the pigmies. Although this skull has 
a higher capacity than among the pigmies, I have 


no hesitation in regarding it as of the same type and 
variety. It that is so, this skull indicates that the 
pigmies came into the Mediterranean through Africa, 
and hence with other racial elements passed into the 
Canaries, where they help, to a large extent, to ex- 
plain the presence of very low statures. 

What shall we say, finally, as to the origin of the 
Guanchcs, concerning whom so many theories have 
been set forth ? Admitting that they have characters 
in common with the residue of the so-called Cro- 
Magnon race, shall we agree with Verneau that they 
migrated from the north ? Contrary to that opinion, 
I have concluded that primitive Europe received its 
population in large part from Africa; as regards the 
Canaries, we may conclude with still greater reason 
that the primitive population migrated from Africa, 
and constituted the last expansion of African emigra- 
tion towards the west. This is confirmed by the 
ethnology, and especially by the linear writing of 
the so-called Libyan type. The brachyccphals con- 
stituted a foreign element of unknown origin. 



The HiltilesThe Armenoids of Lycia Cyprus 7 he P/tce- 

The Hiitites, We have no reason to suppose that the 
movement of emigration in the east of Africa stopped 
at the Nile valley; we may suppose that it extended 
towards the east of Egypt, into Syria and the regions 
around Syria, and thence into Asia Minor. It is 
possible that in Syria this immigration encountered 
the primitive inhabitants, or a population coming 
from northern Arabia, and mingled with them or 
subjugated them. 

After the celebrated Oriental discoveries in the 
Mesopotamian .Valley, and the elucidation of the 
Egyptian monuments, came the discovery in Asia 
Minor and Syria of other monuments and of inscrip- 
tions in unknown and indecipherable hieroglyphics. 
They showed that a powerful and energetic nation at 
a very remote period appeared as it were between the 
two oldest empires of the world in the character of a 
terrible enemy. This powerful nation was that of the 
Kheti, Khatti, or Hittites the name was variously 
pronounced by different peoples and their racial 
components were of older date than the Phoenician 
dominion in Syria and the Hellenisation of Asia 
Minor. They constituted a pre-Phcenician and pre- 
Hellcnic power in the Eastern Mediterranean. 


To explain the enigmas presented by the Hittitcs 
studies of all kinds arc not lacking. English, German, 
and American scholars have devoted their most 
serious attention to the matter, and among Italians 
leather Ccsare DC Cara has written two very interest- 
ing works, noteworthy for the erudition and logical 
reasoning employed in establishing the facts and 
drawing conclusions from them. 1 It is agreed that 
thejanguage of the Hittites was not Semitic though 
almost nothing is known of it nor Aryan; it is 
suspected to be a Hamitic tongue, though such a 
statement certainly has only a va^ue meaning. Such 
De Cara believes it to be, and he relates it therefore 
to Egyptian and to Babylonian, which for him is also 
Hamitic, and he endeavours, with this conviction, to 
interpret the racial, geographical, and other names by 
comparison with the Egyptian language. This is a 
new method which will, I believe, furnish important 
results for the ethnography of the Mediterranean, 
where hitherto it has been usual to interpret every- 
thing on an Aryan or Indo-Germanic basis. 

For De Cara the Hittitcs are Pejasgians. and one 
with the Hyksos who invaded Egypt ; this he seems 
to me to have proved. He considers that their 
primitive scat was in the high regiojis_of_Syria, and 
that their dominion included Syria, Asia Minor, 
Armenia, the Black Sea district, and southern Scythia 
that is to say, around the Black Sea and Sea of 
Azov ; these regions being independent of the other 
more westerly countries, Greece and Italy. In his 
opinion, the Hittite stock peopled the Mediterranean, 
at least as far as Italy, setting out from its eastern 
coast, or Western Asia. In speaking of the Hittite 

1 Cli Ilelhe:- /'</.<;;/, Rome, 1894; Gli Hyhos, Rome, 1889. 



dominion in Asia he is unable to accept all the 
peoples included under the name Hittite as one race ; 
he regards them as a confederacy. Now, if it is true 
that the dominion of the Hittitcs in Asia included all 
the peoples and regions to which De Cara extends 
the name Hittite, he is right in considering them as a 
confederacy in the political sense, because they were 
often united in fighting against the Egyptians or 
the Babylonians or the Assyrians. It is easy to 
imagine also that some peoples were tributary to the 
true Hittites, and being dominated by them had been 
thus influenced in their civil and religious life. De 
Cara is not concerned with the physical type of the 
Hittites, and with reason, for that problem cannot be 
solved by linguistics or archaeology alone. His 
important conclusion, however, agreeing with my 
own investigations, remains: the Hittitcs, as the 
primitive inhabitants of Syria and Asia Minor, are 
a Mediterranean people, like the western Pelasgians, 
who are of the- same stock as the eastern Pelasgians. 

English arcluL'olo^ists, however, including Wright. 1 
Saycc, 2 and others, regard the Hittites as a Turanian 
or Mongolian race of yellow complexion. Their 
arguments, it is true, are by no means conclusive; 
they find evidence in the absence of beard in the 
figures carved on rocks or painted by the Egyptians 
on their monuments, in the mode of wearing the hair 
by which it has the appearance in profile of a Chinese 
pig-tail, in the profile of their faces as drawn by the 

1 The Empire of the Hiitites, and eel., London, 1886. 

- The Hillites ; id., Tin Races oj the Old Testament, London, 
1891; cf. Condor, "llitiilo Ethnology," /our. Aiitkro/oloffcal ///*/., 
vol. xvii. , 1887-8; it/., "The Early Races of Western Asia," Join: 
Anthi . /s/., vol. xi.x., 1889-90 



Egyptians, though in this last case Saycc believes 
that the Egyptians were caricaturing their enemies. 

But if we carefully examine the figures in the 
Hittitc monuments we find some personages with 
beards, and others without ; thus the two figures in 
Plate XIV. (Fig. 23), which is the reproduction of a 
bas-relief at Ibreez, by Davis, 1 from Wright's work, 

FIG. 23. Bas-relief at Ibreez (Davis). 

have full beards, so also the figure seen in Plate XVI 1 1. 
or the false Sesostris of Herodotus ; in the long 
series in Plate XXIV. (Fig. 24), reproduced from 
Perrot and Guillaume, 2 individuals with beards are 
mingled with others without beards. Any one who 

1 Transactions of the Rit>l. Society, iv., 1876. 

* Explorations archJologiqutt de la Galalie tt de la Bitkynie, Paris, 



imagined that the Egyptians, who arc for the most 
part painted and carved without beards and without 
hair, belonged to a race unprovided in this respect, 
would doubtless be in error, and no one has looked 
upon the Egyptians as Turanian. The hair is worn 
in two lateral locks, one on the right, the other on 
the left, not in a single lock as would appear in 
profile. The facial profile in the Egyptian monu- 
ments would seem to indicate prognathism rather 
than flattening of the face; the profiles on the Hittite 
monuments, on the other hand, are orthognathous 

FIG. 24. Hittiles (Perrot and Guillaume). 

and regular, often beautiful ; I can see no traces of 
the Mongolian type. 

The Armenoids of Lycia. An anthropological 
study by Dr. von Luschan 1 in L.ycia and the neigh- 
bouring regions would lead us to believe in the 
existence of a primitive race with hypsibrachyccphalic 
(that is, high and short) skull, an Armenian or 
Armenoid race, which had peopled this region, and 

1 F. von Luschan and Petcrsen, Keisen in Lykieii, Afylias, ttnJ 
Kibirate, Vienna, 1889; id., "Die Tachtadschy und andere Ueherreste 
tier alien Bevolkerung Lyciens," Archivf. Ant/t., vol. xix., 1891. 

mi: ARM I:\OIDS OF LYCIA. 149 

pci haps also the other regions of Asia Minor. Since 
Von Luschan's conclusions mi^ht induce us to regard 
this race as representing the Hittitcs, and hence lead 
archaeologists and historians astray, I wish to show 
that such an identification could not be accepted. 

Luschan measured in Lycia 177 individuals of the 
Mohammedan faith, and found among them both 
extreme dolichocephaly and extreme brachycephaly ; 
in some regions the dolichoccphals outnumbered 
the brachycephals ; in others the latter were more 
numerous. He also measured 179 individuals belong- 
ing to the Greek Church, and found that the two forms 
were almost equally common among them. He then 
asked himself: Who are the primitive inhabitants 
of Lycia? A series of ancient skulls might furnish 
the answer, but unfortunately in the Lycian tombs 
with bilingual inscriptions at Limyra only one skull 
could be found and that was imperfect, though com- 
parable to a Tachtadshy skull, also imperfect, and to 
an Armenian skull, again imperfect ; all three were 
of the same hypsibrachycephalic type. The author 
further studied 93 skulls from Adalia, finding 25 
brachycephalic and 68 dolichocephalic and meso- 
ccphalic. He compared these dolichocephalic skulls 
with a Bedouin skull from Palmyra and with another 
of the thirteenth century from Limyra, reaching the 
conclusion that the primitive Lycian population was 
hypsibrachycephalic, but that in very ancient times 
the dolichocephals arrived from two different direc- 
tions, from Greece and from Arabia. Luschan hence 
believes that the population is composed of a primitive 
A i monoid clement and of two secondary elements, 
Greek and Arabian. 

I think we can explain Luschan's facts in a manner 


more in harmony with other facts. According to 
this interpretation the skull forms of Adalia (such as 
Luschan's Fig. 95), the Palmyra Bedouin, and the 
Limyra skull of the thirteenth century belong to the 
primitive population, while the ancient Limyra skull 
of Armenoid type represents a stock which slowly 
infiltrated Lycia and possibly other parts of Asia 
Minor. In other words, the dolichocephalic forms 
described by Von Luschan are the same as those 
found in other parts of Asia Minor occupied by the 
Pelasgians, the same that we find in Egypt, to the 
south of Egypt, and in East Africa generally. These 
cranial forms belong to the Hittites, who, as we have 
already seen reason to believe, emigrated into Asia 
through Egypt. We may compare a skull from 
the temple of Wady Hamz, which is pentagonoid ; l 
Palmyra skulls, some pentagonoid, others ovoid, 
forms found in Egypt and East Africa; 2 skulls 
excavated at Hissarlik and examined by Virchow, 
some ellipsoidal like those of Palmyra and Adalia, 
others with a more special form of ellipse constantly 
found in Africa and in the Mediterranean as far as 
the extreme west, in Spain and Portugal, and in the 
neolithic interments of Great Britain i.e., an ellipse 
compressed at the sides, like the skull of the warrior 
in Schliemann's Ilios (Fig. 25, Figs. 973-976 of the 
English edition), which I term the Pelasgian ellipsoid. 
I find that all these forms are common to the 
countries we have explored, to Egypt, and to 

On these grounds I am convinced that the primitive 
population of Lycia and the rest of Asia Minor, as 

1 Jour. Anth. ///., vol. viii , Plate IX., 1878-79. 
* foif. Anlh. /*/., vol. i., 1871-72. 

"I UK AUMKXolPS 01- LYc I A. 15! 

also of Syria, is of the same type as the Egyptian, 
and derived from the same centre of diffusion. This 
primitive population constituted the Hittite nation, 
which, in this case, could not have been Turanian, as 
Wright and Sayce believe, nor of brachycephalic 
Armcnoid type, as argues. As I have 
already remarked, it is probable that the immigrants 
encountered a population coming from Northern 

Fie. 25. Skull from Troy, Ellipsoidet 
felasgicus (Virchow). 

Arabia, but as the skull characters of the two races 
were allied, it is difficult to distinguish them. 

Luschan's Armcnoid brachycephals, of whom a 
single skull is found in the Limyra graves, are 
certainly Armenian, and it need not surprise us to 
find that even at the period of the Hittite domination 
there was such an infiltration into Asia Minor and 
also Syria. If there was an alliance, as it seems, or 


a domination of the Hittites over the Armenians, the 
entrance of Armenian elements into the Hittite 
region was natural. The Armenian movement to- 
wards the west and south has continued, especially 
where important changes, by dissolving the dominant 
nation, have enabled the Armenian population to 
progress without obstacle. In confirmation of this, I 
may mention that I have found skulls of Luschan's 
Armenoid type in Egyptian collections, such as that 
of Moilano in the Museo Civico, though they are only 
of sporadic occurrence, some four or five in the whole 
scries; in Sicily also I have found them among 
aeneolithic skulls of Mediterranean type. 1 The true 
and authentic Hittite stock, with its original anthro- 
pological characters, must be explored on the sea- 
coast; certainly Hittite domination, extending to- 
wards the interior, has carried with it many racial 
elements of the stock, but on the whole the allied or 
tributary population has not been changed. That is 
why I think De Cara has done well to be cautious in 
not regarding the Hittite populations as a race, but 
only as a federation. Moreover, a single skull, dis- 
covered in the tombs of bilingual inscription (Greek 
and archaic Aramaic), and posterior to the dominion 
of the Hittite stock, can prove nothing in this respect 

Cyprus. Cyprus, so near to Asia Minor, and so 
closely connected with it, shows in its population the 
same craniological characters of African origin and 
facial types common to the Mediterranean, as we may 
see from its terra-cotta figurines (Fig. 26) and its 

If, as appears, we may rely on what Dr. Ohnc- 

1 " Crani preistorici dclla Sicilia, ".//// Soc. roin.ina Antropolgia l 
vol. \i., 1899. 

CYPRUS. 153 

falsch-Richtcr has written regarding the new data 
found at Cyprus and the successive periods of civilisa- 
tion there, we have two very ancient periods which 
show how foreign Asia was to Cyprus in prehistoric 
and primitive times. According to Ohnefalsch- 
Richter, the second period would be towards the first 
half of the fourth thousand years before Christ, a 
prc- Phrygian and pre-Hittite period, and co-eval with 
the first city of Hissarlik. The first period is still 

FlC. 26. Tcrra-cotta figurine of Cyprus (Tubbs). 

more ancient, and would begin in the second half o( 
the fourth thousand years, B.C. 3500; it is absent at 
Hissarlik and is therefore anterior to the first city, 
and termed by this author the prehistoric pre- Hissar- 
lik period of Cyprus. This civilisation, anterior, 
according to Ohnefalsch-Richter, to any Asiatic in- 
fluence, is autochthonous. Moreover, he believes that 
the Libyan civilisation at Ballas and Naqada, as 
discovered by Flinders Pctric, and that called Libyan- 


Amoritic at Tell-el-Hesy in Palestine, are an importa- 
tion from Cyprus. 1 Now this would prove direct 
communication between prehistoric or Libyan Egypt, 
as we may call it, Cyprus, and the coast of Asia Minor, 
which thus would not have given to Cyprus but have 
received from it. With regard to direct relations, and 
the importations from Cyprus and prehistoric Egypt, 
the same author believes that it is necessary to discover 
new data before we can reach more exact conclusions 
concerning the mystery, as he calls it, of the Libyan 

We have no reasons for denying early relations 
between prehistoric Egypt and Cyprus, and between 
this island and Asia Minor. Such relations would be 
the natural result of the diffusion of the African stock 
towards the east in prehistoric times, long anterior to 
the beginnings of the use of the metals; copper, as 
has often been stated, probably came to Egypt from 

The Ph&nicians. With regard to the Phoenicians 
we are in some 'obscurity. Those who, with Petric 
and Sayce, rely on the testimony of the homophonies 
from the Old Testament, or from anthropological 
types revealed by Egyptian monuments, consider them 
to be Hamites, originating in South Arabia, where also 
they'would seek the origin of the Egyptians. Punites, 
Pceni, Phcenices, would be the same name and refer 
to the same race. 2 It is true that the Egyptians have 
represented them of a brick-red colour, like them- 
selves, and like the Punites; and it is true that the 

1 " Neues iiber die auf Cypern Ausgrabungcn," Z/. fiir Ethnologi/, 
Veihandinngen, 1899. 

2 Petrie, A History of Egypt, vol. i., p. 14; Sayce, The Races of the 
Old Testament, 1891, chapter vi. 


portraits of the Phoenicians of Damascus do not 
differ from those of the Punites, nor ot the other 
inhabitants of Syria (Figs. 27, 28). But can we 
absolutely trust them? 

On the other hand, there are some who consider 
that the Phoenicians were Semites. This view is 
found especially among historians, who chiefly rely 
on the language. Although Semitic, it appears to 
present some peculiarities; this is not, however, a 
question which we can enter into. 

So far as I can judge by the few skulls which I 
have seen at the Academy of Science at Turin, and 

FIG. 27. Syrian (Petric). FIG. 28. Punitc (1'ctrie). 

which were studied by Lombroso, or by others 
examined by Mantegazza and Zannetti, by Collignon, 
and by Bertholon, 1 I should conclude that the 
Phoenicians do not differ from the Egyptians. 
The Turin skulls were presented by General 

1 Lombroso, I .\-lntisemitismo, Turin, 1894, Appendix III.; Mante- 
gazza e Zannrtti, " Note Antropologiche sulla Sardegna," Arch, ftr 
FAntrof>*t vol. vi ; Collignon, "Cranes de la Necropole Phcnicicnne 
de Mahidin," J'.lnfhro'ologie, iii., 1891; licrlholon, "Note sur 
deux cranes I'heniciens trouvcs en Tunisic," />., 1890, vol. ii.; " Docu- 
ments anthropologiques sur les Ph5nicies," Bull. Sof. Attlhrop. d 
Lyoii, xi., 1892. 


Ccsnola, having been excavated by him at Cyprus 
in Phoenician tombs, together with idols, phalli, and 
Phoenician inscriptions of the epoch of Sennacherib, 
or towards the seventh century B.C. They are six in 
number, one being brachycephalic, one mesocephalic, 
and four dolichocephalic. As classified by Lombroso 
in accordance with my method, they show the follow- 
ing forms: RJiomboides, brachycephalic, as all rhom- 
boid skulls are, Splienoides stenometopus (Bcloides\ 
Pentagonoides acutus, Ellipsoides isocampylos, Trape- 
zoides ; the sixth is pathological, and therefore not 
classified. All these cranial forms arc such as I have 
found in Egypt, in Hamitic Africa, and in the 
Mediterranean. 1 

Although the skulls examined by the above-named 
authors were not classified according to my method, 
but in accordance with other and less conclusive 
methods, those of mere craniometry, the figures 
given by the authors show that the skulls do not 
differ from the types prevalent in the Mediterranean, 
and characteristic of the stock there dominant. 

On these grounds I believe that the Phoenicians 
belonged to the same stock in which are included 
the Egyptians and other Libyan peoples, and the 
Hamites of Africa and Europe generally, but that 
at a relatively late period they underwent Semitic 
influence, especially in language, their anthropological 
origin being thus concealed. Such a phenomenon is 
not new, the modern Egyptians themselves furnishing 
an evident example of it. 

1 Cf. Africa, p. 385. 



The Invasion of Europe The Iberians The UguriansThc- 
Pelasgians The Italic Problem The Eiiuscans. 

The Invasion of Europe. We have found that there 
arc four racial names indicating the four great 
branches of the Mediterranean stock. Of the branch 
occupying North Africa the Libyans and that 
people who represented them so gloriously under 
the name of Egyptians I have already spoken. It 
remains to speak of the branches which occupied 
Europe, and especially the great peninsulas which 
still preserve in large part their primitive names and 
inhabitants. I refer to the Ligurians, the Pelasgians, 
and the Iberians, concerning whom much has been 
.written and many theories set forth by anthropolo- 
gists and historians. Here the difficulties seem to 
be great, not as regards the demonstration of the 
affinity between the three branches, which contain the 
same physical ethnic elements, but on account of the 
numerous errors which prevail regarding their anthro- 
pology, and of the persistence with which they are 
preserved. Thus it was that when some years ago I 
wrote regarding the African origin of these European 
racial branches only a few here and there, like Arthur 
Evans, received my opinions with favour; most 


anthropologists found them fantastic and insub- 

Things have changed since then. The archaeological 
discoveries in prehistoric Egypt and Cyprus, together 
with those in Greece itself, have demonstrated the 
part played by Africa in the civilisation of Mediter- 
ranean Europe, and my opinion has gained more 
credit. Archaeologists also have themselves inde- 
pendently approached it, and considered it -probable. 
Ethnologists, like Keanc 1 and Brinton, 2 accept the 
African origin of the first European stocks in the 
Mediterranean, and also in the centre of the continent. 

Bathed by the waters ol the Mediterranean, Europe 
is separated from the two great continents with which 
it forms the basin, on the east by the Hellespont, 
and on the west by the Straits of Gibraltar ; but 
these waters are no obstacles to the progress of 
migration, nor are the more ample waters of the whole 
Mediterranean, since the innumerable islands scattered 
over it serve as bridges or stations, and the peninsulas 
stretch out their arms towards Africa as though to 
welcome it. The emigrants had the sea before them, 
and the evidence shows that at various points they 
passed over it. It seems that from Egy_pt. before yet- 
Egypt was known m history, African colonists passed 
over to Greece by the islands, perhaps first of all 
Crete ; from the region nf Numidia they probably 
crossed over into Sicily, Sardinia, Southern, Central, 
and Northern Italy, Southern France ; by Gibraltar 
they invaded the Iberian peninsula. Almost the same 
roads of invasion were followed by the Arabs in the 
eighth century. 

1 A. II. Keanc, Jtfan Past and Present, 1899. 

2 D. Brinton, Knees and Peoples, New York, 1890. 


These three possible routes for the invasion of 
Kuropc by the Mediterranean were followed by the / 
three branches of our stock called the Iberians, the 
Ligurians, and the 1'clasgians. No doubt distinctions 
had art'ipn in the three divisions, variations in cos- 
tume, language, and the accessory physical elements, 
according to the grouping of the racial types con- 
stituting the various branches and sub-divisions ; but 
the fundamental common characters were preserved, 
and are still preserved, throughout the whole Mediter- 
ranean. Many variations in customs must be derived 
from the region occupied by the migrants with the 
special conditions of its soil and social state. But 
notwithstanding these influences, the piimitive char- 
acters of the stock, as it is easy to show, have still been 

In course of time the three branches have been 
displaced in some parts, and been re-mixed ; they 
have grown hostile to each other and fought. The 
sub-divisions have adopted various names, either 
from their leaders, the regions they have occupied, 
or some other circumstance, and have hence become 
strangers or enemies to each other. And since the 
races that are most closely allied in their elements 
make the fiercest foes, as we see among animal 
species, the original stock has been divided up into 
pans that arc everywhere hostile to one another. 

It would be possible to follow these various 
changes, but here we need only occupy ourselves 
with the primitive invasions and immigrations, when 
the racial names were not so well determined as they 
were in later and historical times. 

The Iberians. Concerning the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the Iberian pcninsu'a, their physical char- 



acters and cranial forms, we possess undeniable evi- 
dence; the Kjokkenmodings of Mugcm, the grottoes 
of Casa da Moura (Fig. 29), and the discoveries con- 
cerning the early metal age in the south-east of 
Spain, 1 have demonstrated the existence of cranial 
types which are undoubtedly of African origin. In 
them we may discover types which we have already 
seen in Hissarlik, in North Africa, in Ethiopia, in 
Egypt' ' n Italy, and in Greece. They show a special 
form which I do not hesitate to call Pelasgic, since it 

FIG. 29. Skull from Casa da Moura (Cartailrnc). 
I. Ovo:des ; 2. Ellips. pelasgicus. 

is so often seen among populations which are without 
doubt Pelasgic ; their ovoid and ellipsoid forms arc 
those belonging to the cast and north of Africa, from 
Somaliland and Egypt, to the Canaries. 

This general statement may seem erroneous, since 
amid the prehistoric skulls of African form we find 
brachycephalic skulls of other forms. F. de Paula 

1 Cf. Cartailhac, Ages prihistoriqnes de CRspagne et Jit Portugal, 
Paris, 1886; Siret, Les premiers ages dn metal au norJ-tsl de 1'Espagne, 
Antwerp, 1887; Sergi, " Sugli abitanti primitivi del Mediterraneo," 
Florence, Arch, per fAntrof., 1892; Brussels, 1892; Rome, 1892; 
" Crani siculi ncolitici," Ko'l, /'a'f/tt. /fa'., 1891, Parma. 


and Oliviera, who have examined the skulls from 
Mugem, Casa da Moura, and elsewhere, state that 
they have found forms like those of Furfooz and 
others, belonging to my cuneiform and sphenoid 
types, which are foreign to the Mediterranean. It is 
true that the prevailing type is Mediterranean, usually 
called dolichocephalic, and that in the great Mugcm 
scries two skulls only are brachyccphalic and sphe- 
noidal ; still they exist 1 Also in the series of skulls 
discovered by Siret, brachycephalic forms are found 
among the predominant dolichocephalic and meso- 
cephalic skulls of African form. 2 

It is necessary to point out that we are here dealing 
with a period towards the end of the neolithic age and 
the beginning of the age of metals, a period at which, 
as I will show later, begins the first slow Asiatic , 
immigration by the eastern Mediterranean and by 
the land to the east, through Russia and Central 
Europe. Thus brachyccphalic Asiatic types are 
found not only in the Iberian peninsula, but in 
many Mediterranean regions 3 and in the centre of 
Europe. 4 

At the same time the studies of Broca on the 
Basques, as well as of Thurnam, have shown the 
persistence of the Iberian branch, not only in 
physical characters, but also in language and customs. 
Observations on the modern populations of Spain 
and Portugal have also shown that, notwithstanding 

1 Cartailhac, " &pagne et," Anthropologie, iv. 

* Sirct, op. cit. 

* Sergi, " Crani preistorici clclla Sicilia," At.'i Sot. torn, di Ant: 
vol. vi., 1899. 

4 Itroca, Altmoires sur let Basques, 1872;, "Further Re- 
searches on the two principal forms of Ancient British Skulls," Memoirs 
Sot. Anthropology t vol. iii. 



invasions from the end of the neolithic period and 
after the beginning of the age of metals, the primitive 
type of African origin has remained predominant 
Dr. Ferraz de Macedo, among 1000 modern Portu- 
guese skulls, found only 70 brachycephalic, with 512 
dolichocephalic, and 418 mesocephalic. 1 Professor 
Oloriz of Madrid among over 8000 heads found 
only 26.47 per cent brachycephalic, the dolicho- 
cephalic and mesocephalic being 73.53 per cent., thus 
giving an average mesocephalic index to Spain, as 
to the Spanish Basques. 2 

The Ligurians. This important branch of the 
Mediterranean stock, ever since Nicolucci's first 
anthropological researches, 3 has not only been ill 
understood, but assigned a false origin and incorrect 
physical characters, since it has been supposed to be 
brachycephalic and of Mongolian or Turanian stock. 
Even to-day, notwithstanding the studies of Lombroso, 
Issel, Livi, and myself, dating back for many years, 
and notwithstanding the prehistoric evidence found 
in Ligurian districts, and the persistence of the primi- 
tive Ligurian element in the present population, the 
error is still maintained by foreign anthropologists, 
especially by the French, who persist in regarding 
the Ligurians as brown-skinned Turanians. From 

1 Cf. Estacio da Vega, Palecethnologia. Antigttitades Monumentaef do 
Al^arvt, Lisbon, 1886-87, vol. ii., p. 493. 

' 2 Distribution geografica del indict cefalico en Espaila, Madrid, 1894. 
I cannot accept the theories of Collignon concerning the Basques, and 
therefore do not here take them into account. See " Les Basques," 
Memoires dela SociM d'Anthropologie de Paris, 1895. See also Keane, 
Man Past and Present, pp. 460 et seij., as to the linguistic analogies 
between the Basques and the Berbers. 

a Nicolucci, La Stirpe Ligtire in Italia nei tempi antichi e net 
modern?', Naples, 1864. 


Mcntone to Ventimiglia (Fig. 30) the neolithic sepul- 
chral grottoes have revealed skeletons belonging to the 
true original stock, which show clearly the various 
cranial forms characterising the great Mediterranean 
race throughout the basin. 1 

The Ligurian stock was very widely diffused ; it / 
occupied the south of France, being linked with the ' 

FIG. 30. Ancient Ligurian Skull from the grotto 
of Finalmarina, Ellipsoides (Sergi). 

Iberians of Spain and mingling with them at the 
point of junction ; it occupied nearly the whole of 
Northern Italy, and without doubt much of the centre 

1 Vemeau, " Nouvelle dccouverte de squclettes pre"historiques aux 
Baoussc-Koussc,'' L'Anthrof., vol. iii. ; E. Kivicre, De Fanti^ititf de 
thomme, tff., stir Its Alfes Afaritimes, Paris, 1879; Se r fi' " Ligiiri c 
Celli nclla valle del Po," Florence, 1883, Arch, per 4ntn>p. \ Livi, 


of Latium, under the name of Siculi, as well as all the 
islands. To-day an Italian province, Liguria, pre- 
serves the name and the stock itself, in part mixed 
with Piedmontese Celts, yet easily distinguishable. 
The cranial form remains invariably persistent from 
the time of its appearance, as I have often been able 
to demonstrate. The Ligurians of the south of 
France mingled with the Celts, who arrived later, 
and it is the Celto-Ligurians who are known to 
history, The Provencal population still reveals the 
presence of the two different stocks. 

From researches over the whole of the Italian 
peninsula and islands, it appears that the inhabitants 
of Central Italy on the hither side of the Apennines, 
ancient Etruria, ancient Umbria, now restricted to 
the western region ot the Apennines, Piccno, Sabina, 
Latium, down to the extreme south, with the three 
islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, have possessed 
in common, and still possess in great part, a series of 
cranial forms, among which are found others, less 
numerous and apparently foreign to the common 
type. These forms or types are thus common there- 
fore with those of Egypt, North Africa, and the 
Iberian peninsula. I have been able to demonstrate 
this fact in a series of studies on Latium and other 
parts of the Italian peninsula and islands. The 
primitive Italian stocks would thus possess com- 
munity of origin with those of the other Mediter- 
ranean regions, and hence with those of East Africa, 

" L'indice cefalico degli Italian!," Arch, per r Anti-apologia, Florence, 
xvi., 1886; Issel, Liguria geologica e pi tis/onca, 1892, vol. ii., pp. 331 
et seq. ; Ilerve, Revue AfetisueHe de fecole (FAnlhropelogie, vol. iv., 
1896, and elsewhere; Oloriz, Distribution geograjica del inJice cefalico 
en Espafla, pp. 266-67. 


the centre of diffusion of the great race which has 
peopled the basin. 1 

The Pelasgians. To the great Mediterranean family, 
already including the Iberians, Ligurians, and Libyans, 
must now be added another similarly primitive popula- 
tion, an individualised branch of African origin like the 
others, which has been discussed with varied fortune by 
historians and arcrueologists : I refer to the Pelasgians. 

Great obscurity has enwrapped the Pelasgians, who 
have been pointed out to us as a mysterious people of 
unknown origin. Now they are being discussed, but 
only in the light of inscriptions and linguistic remains. 
It is time that anthropology entered into the discussion, 
for thus only, it seems to me, may we find the solution 
of the problem. 

The solution of the Pelasgian problem will also be 
the solution of the Etruscan problem, for the relation 
of the Etruscans to the Pelasgians is no longer 
doubtful; the Lemnos inscription removes all doubt on 
this matter. 2 The Etruscans are western Pelasgians, 

1 Cf. Sergi, " La Stirpe Ligurenel Bologncse," Attidi Storia palria, 
etc., Bologna, 1883 ; " Liguri e Cclli," cit. ; " Antropologia storica del 
Bolognese," Atti % cit., 1884; " Di alcune Varieta uniane della 
Sardcgna,' 1 Boll. Ace. Medica di Roma, 1892; " Di alcune Varieta 
umane della Sicilia," Acccui. Lined, 1892; " Crani Siculi neolitici," 
Boll. Palet. ital., 1892 ; " Dcgli abitanti primiiivi del Mediterraneo," 
Ank. per fAntiop., Florence, 1892 ; Transactions of the Moscow 
Congress, 1893 ; A communication to the Anthropological Society of 
UnisM-N, Tome xi., 1893; " Studi di Antropologia laziale," Afc. Med. 
di Koma, 1895; "Crani prcistorici lella Sicilia," Alii Sot. row. di 
Antrop., 1899, vol. vi. ; Arii e Italia, 1898. Cf. also Pulle, " Profile 
antrop. dell' Italia," Arch. ptrrAntrof> , 1898; Pieroni, " Della stirpe 
Ligure nella darfagnana," Hull. Soc. I'eneto, 1892 ; Verneau, Notivelle 
Dhotn-erle de SqiulelUs prehistoritjnes aiix Baomst-Rotnst frts de 
Afenlon, cit. 

1 Cf. Pauli, Eint Vorgriechiulu Inschrift VJH Ltmnos, Leipzig, 
1886; Hesselmeyer, Die relas^erfra^e, Tubingen, 1890. 


while the Pelasgic family chiefly extends between 
Greece and Asia Minor. 

While the primitive inhabitants of the Mediter- 
ranean basin, represented by Iberians, Ligurians, and 
Libyans, are revealed as already occupying the 
Iberian peninsula, Southern France, Italy, Sicily, 
Sardinia, and Corsica, on the European side, and 
while they occupied the African side from the Red 
Sea to Gibraltar, and also the Atlantic coast, a large 
zone, from Italy to Asia Minor, is still missing, before 
we can complete the Mediterranean basin. What 
name had, or could have, the primitive people who 
occupied this great zone extending from Europe to 
Asia? Here we can no longer speak of Iberians, 
Ligurians, or Libyans, and yet before this region was 
Hellenised a population must have existed here. 
This we must regard as the Pelasgian, a race related 
to the other Mediterranean branches, a great branch 
of the immense family, with many physical characters 
in common, as we shall see ; African also, like the 
Libyans, Iberians, and Ligurians. 

This general induction concerning the origin of the 
Pelasgians becomes clearer in the particular case of 
the Etruscans, concerning whom we possess more 
numerous and better confirmed documents, among 
others the undeciphered language which some are 
still making efforts to interpret, perhaps in vain, since 
it resists every comparison with other ancient dead 
languages. We know with certainty that it is neither 
a Semitic nor Indo-European language, equally foreign 
to either family; whence Ottfried MUller declared the 
Etruscans a primitive people (Un>olk\ whom it is 
impossible to classify linguistically and ethnologically. 
Hesselmeyer reaches a similar conclusion concerning 



the Pclasgo-Tyrrhenians, a dying primitive people, 
subdued by later occupants of the soil. 

To demonstrate my thesis that the Pelasgians, and 
with them the Etruscans, were of African origin, a 
branch of the great Mediterranean family, I will first 
deal with the traditions recorded by Herodotus, con- 
firmed as they are by my own researches and induc- 
tions. The anthropological arguments I will turn to 

Herodotus mentions the Pelasgians in speaking of 
Greek origins, and writes: "The Athenians are of 
Pelasgic, the Lacedaemenians of Hellenic, origin." 1 
" When the Pelasgians occupied all the region now 
called Greece, the Athenians were Pelasgians and 
were called Kranai ; when Cecrops ruled they were 
called Cecropidi ; under Erethes they were trans- 
formed into Athenians, and finally lonians, from 
lonus, the son of Xutus." 2 Since these statements do 
not, however, express all that Herodotus meant, it is 
well to add his further explanatory observations : " I 
cannot with certainty say what was the language of 
the Pelasgians, but if we may judge by that still 
spoken by the existing Pelasgians, such as the 
Crcstoni, above the Tyrrhenians, neighbours of the 
Dorians, and once inhabiting Thcssaly, or the inhabit- 
ants of Placea and Scilax on the Hellespont, once of 
the same country as the Athenians ; and if we recall 
the names, now transformed, of so many other Pelas- 
gian cities, we may say that the Pelasgians spoke a 
barbaric language. And if this was common to the 
whole Pclasgian stock, the Athenian stock, being 
Pelasgian, changed its language at the same time as 
the change occurred in Greece." 8 And, as if this were 

1 Book I., 56. Book IV., 44. Book I., 57. 


not sufficient, he adds : "The Hellenic stock, already 
separated from the Pelasgian, was weak, and from 
being weak in numbers it grew by mingling with 
other barbaric stocks ; but the Pelasgians, it seems to 
me, never increased." 1 The substance of all this is 
that the first inhabitants of Attica, as of the rest of 
Greece, were Pelasgians, and that a new stock, the 
Greeks, changed the language of the country and was 
incorporated with the Pelasgians, a few Pelasgian 
cities, with the same language and the same primitive 
customs, still remaining here and there in Greece. 2 
It is noteworthy that Herodotus refers to the trans- 
formed, that is, Hellenised, names of Pelasgian cities, 
as indicating the extension of the Pelasgian stock. 3 
That Herodotus really means that the Pelasgians 
were barbarians, unlike the Greeks, appears from 
another passage where he says that " the Pelasgians, 
already Hellenised, united themselves with the 
Athenians when the latter began to call themselves 
Hellenes." 4 Again, 5 his narration of how the Pelas- 
gians were driven out of Athens, and his reference to 
the construction ot the so-called Pelasgian wall, are 
facts which only critics prejudiced by preconceived 
ideas can call in question. They show also that the 
Pelasgians had been subjugated by the new racial 
element, the Hellenic, and then assimilated, whence 
the relative disappearance of their name. We see also 
how they were compelled to expatriate themselves 
from one region to another as the Hellenic invasion 

1 Book I., 58. 

- Cf. Pauli, op. cit. t whose inductions, with those of G. Meyer, con- 
firm Ileroclotus's narrative. 

8 Cf. Sergi, " Varieta umane della Russia e del Meditcrraneo," Aft. 
Sac. rom. antropologia, 1894. 

4 Book II., 51. " Book VI., 137. 


progressed, and how they made attempts, vainly no 
doubt, to re-capture their lost territories. 

But these barbarous Pelasgians were not so bar- 
barous or so incapable as may appear at the first 
glance; Homer calls them "divine" ("dioi te 
Pelasgoi ") in the Iliad and Odyssey, and finds them 
at the walls of Troy, together with the Carians, the 

FIG. 31. Greek Skull from Megan, 
Fentagonoides obtusus (Sergi). 

Peoni, the Lelegi, led by Ippotous from Asiatic Lar- 
issa ; and in Crete, together with other peoples. 
Moreover, many elements of Greek religious worship 
come from them, directly or indirectly ; thus, the 
Dodonian Jupiter was Pclasgic. 1 Herodotus narrates 
a legend concerning this deity, and interprets it in 

1 Iliad, xvi. 233. 


his own manner. 1 From this it appears that the 
origin of the Dodonian Jupiter is to be found in 
Libya, whence he was brought by the Pelasgians into 
Greece, when Greece was still Pelasgia. The Greeks, 
the Hellenes, accepted the worship of this Jupiter, as 
they accepted the worship of other exotic deities, 

FIG. 32. Italian Skull from Novilara, Ellipsoides 
\ pelasgtcus rotttnJtts (Sergi). 

retaining the original name recorded by Homer and 

Here Herodotus begins to narrate the more im- 
portant relations between Pelasgia (now called 
Greece), Egypt, and Libya, and thus we have a first 
revelation of Pelasgic origins. Herodotus finds that 

1 n. ,54-56. 


the worship of Hercules in Egypt is very ancient, and 
cannot be of Greek origin, but that, on the contrary, 
the Greek Hercules must be of Egyptian origin. To 
prove this, Herodotus refers to the worship of Nep- 
tune, and of the Dioscuri, unknown to the Egyptians. 
He goes further and points out that at Phoenician 
Tyre there is a temple dedicated to Hercules, whose 
worship is here associated with the origin of Tyre, 
which took place 2,300 years earlier. He also visited 
the temple of Thasus, where he found the Thasian 
Hercules. Hence the worship of Hercules is not of 
Hellenic origin, but anterior to the Hellenes. 1 So 
also with the worship of Bacchus, and of the phallus, 
which Herodotus found in Egypt, and believes to 
have been thence exported to Greece ; nor by chance 
is the name of Cadmus Tyrian. 8 

The list of the relations between Egypt and 
Greece is not, however, closed here. Herodotus con- 
siders that the names of nearly all the gods of Greece 
are derived from Egypt, the Pelasgians being the 
intermediaries who brought them into Greece ; 3 and 
he attributes absolutely to the same Pelasgians the 
worship of Mercury and the Cabiric mysteries which 
he supposes to have been brought by them into 
Samothrace. 4 Neptune, not adored in Egypt, came 
to the Greeks from Libya, and it would be use- 
less to seek his origin outside Libya, where he is 
held in honour by all/' Nor does he hesitate to 
affirm that the garments and the aegis of the statues 
of the Grecian Minerva were derived from the cos- 
tume of Libyan women, as also the ornaments of the 
palladium ; and Herodotus further believes that the 

MI., 43, 44- 'II., 50-52. ML, 50. 

* II., 48, 49. II., 5'. 


cries during the sacrifices were derived from the loud 
shrieks of the Libyan women in their rites. 1 

The element of truth in all these alleged relations 
between Hellenic, Egyptian, Phoenician, and Libyan 
cults is that we need not seek the origins of Greek 
religion in India, in the primitive beliefs of the so- 
called I ndo- Europeans, but in the Mediterranean 
itself, partly in the valley of the Euphrates and the 
Tigris, by Asiatic and Egyptian intermediaries. Then 
followed new elements which, for the sake of being 
better understood, I am willing to call Indo-European, 
but these new elements were superposed on the first, 
with which they amalgamated, transforming them but 
little. Hence the Hellenes, with a vanity similar to 
that of all other populations, regarded themselves as 
the first people, the autochthons, men par excellence. 
The eastern part of the Mediterranean basin was 
beneath the direct influence of Mesopotamian civilisa- 
tion, that being the most ancient, and the first to 
infiltrate through, Asia Minor; a new influence, the 
so-called Indo-European, followed. 

The Italic Problem. Thus it happened that the 
great Mediterranean family which I divide into the 
comprehensive groups of Iberians, Ligurians, Libyans 
proper, and Pelasglans, and regard as of African 
origin underwent various fates in the history of 
Mediterranean civilisation. When the new Indo- 
European element appeared, the primitive European 
peoples of the Mediterranean were subjected to a 
process of transformation; Egypt, which possessed a 
very ancient and solid civilisation, maintained -itself 
for a long time; the Libyans of Nor^h Africa remained 
as they were ; the Pelasgians were decomposed under 
1 IV., 189. 


Hellenic influence; the Ligurians and Iberians were 
cKangcd by the Roman power. It would be an error, 
however, to believe that a numerous Aryan population 
emigrated from Asia or North Europe and occupied 
the Mediterranean basin, destroying the previous 
populations. The Hellenic stock which changed 
Pelasgia into Greece, importing a new language and 

FIG. 33 Italian Skull from Novilara, Ellipsoides 
flasgiciis (Scrgi). 

a new civilisation, was a small nucleus which increased 
by aggregation with the primitive inhabitants, the 
Pelasgians, as Herodotus expressly states: " the Greek 
stock, separated from the Pelasgic, was weak and 
small in number at first ; it increased by means of 
many other barbarous and numerous stocks." 1 Thus 
it is that any one to-day who studies the racial 

1 I-, 58- 



elements of Greece and Latin Italy necessarily finds 
that the primitive elements of the Mediterranean 
prevail in greatest amount, varying in different 
regions; the Indo-European or Aryan elements are 
very rare. 

The general result is that the Pelasgians had their 

FlG. 34. Skull from Alfedena, OoiJes longissimtts (Scrgi). 

chief seat after the emigration from Africa, and prob- 
ably from Egypt, before the great Egyptian civilisa- 
tion was established in the eastern Mediterranean, 
and chiefly in the Greek peninsula, the whole of the 
Greek archipelago, and in Western Asia. Doubtless 
colonies emigrated from the eastern towards the 


western part, under different racial names, especially 
into Italy and its islands, and perhaps also towards 
Iberia, where there are undoubted Pclasgic remains, 
pre-Myccnaean and Mycenxan. 

We have evident proof that the Pclasgians were a 
branch of the Mediterranean family in the study and 
comparison of ancient and modern skulls in Greece 

FIG. 35. Skull from Alfcdena, OoiJes plantis (Sergi). 

and its islands, and also in Italy. The Asiatic 
invasions, from whatever direction they came, pro- 
duced mingling of race, but no alteration of type in 
the ancient inhabitants 1 (Figs. 32-38). 

1 Scrgi, " Etruschi e Pelasgi," Nttova Antologia, 1893; id., " Crani 
<li Creta dell' epoca miccnca," Atti Sot. torn, di .-/////</., vol. ii., 1895; 
" Studi di antropologia laziale," Boll. Aecad. niedica di Kama, vol. 
xxi., 1895. Cf. Virchow, " Ueber gricchische Schadcl aus alter und 
neuer Zeit und iiber eincn Schadel von Mcnidi der fur den des Sophoklcs 


The Italici. In a little book published a few years 
ago 1 I have sought to show, with the help of many 
arguments and anthropological data, that the Italici 
are not of Aryan stock, and that it is due only to the 
comparisons produced by linguistic classifications that 
this error has been perpetuated among archaeologists 
and historians. This Italic problem is really a 
European problem, because it concerns not only Italy, 
but Greece, and those nations of the centre and north 
of Europe which, after the Aryan or Eurasiatic in- 
vasion, became barbarous again and remained semi- 

'~\ f\ lybarbarous until Latin civilisation intervened. 

We have found that Italy was inhabited up to the 
A* Neolithic epoch by a homogeneous population of 

^- Mediterranean stock, who were afterwards called the 
Ligurians and the Pelasgians; that towards the end 
of the Neolithic period, in a period called by Italian 

e archaeologists ./Eneolithic, because we already begin 
to find the use"~oT~pure copper, there is the first 
indication of the intrusion" of a _new_race with physical 
characters (brachycephaly) unlike those of the Medi- 
terranean peoples; and that finally there was a large 
invasion of this new race from the north, leading to 
the occupation of ^considerable part of the Po valley, 
and constituting a vast Umbrian domain, after pass- 
ing the Apennines, from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhine 
Sea, as far as Latium, and from there to the Tiber 
towards its mouth and lower part. 

We have also seen that these invaders carried with 
them a new language and new customs, among others 

gehalten ist," Akad. der Wissemeh,, Berlin, 1893; an( ^ Nicolucci, 
" Antropologia della Grecia," A*. Acad. di Nafoli, 1867; not for their 
opinions, however, but for the plates. 
1 Arii e Italici, Turin, 1898. 


that of burning the dead. The dominion which they 
maintained for several centuries led to a change in 
the custom of burying, previously found among all 
the Mediterranean peoples, and to a change in the 
language of the invaders, which, as spoken by Mediter- 
ranean mouths having already a language of their own, 
underwent many phonetic alterations, and adopted 
into its vocabulary many words of the native language. 

Fir.. 36. Skull from Alfedena, EllipsoLlu ewboluus (Scrgi). 

Similar phenomena occurred in the Greek peninsula 
when the Pclasgians, the first inhabitants, underwent 
the same fate as the Italic!. 

The evidence furnished by burial-places that is to 
say, the skeletons in the ancient tombs of the early 
Mediterranean inhabitants of Italy and those of the 
Aryan invaders, have shown clearly the mingling of 
two stocks; while in spots where the Aryans have not 




penetrated there are only traces of a single stock, 
without blending with foreign races. 

These facts have convinced me that the name 
Italici belongs properly to the early inhabitants of 
Italy, as also the name Italy belongs to the southern 
region, which the Aryans in their first invasions never 
reached, and that the Aryans were strangers to the 

FIG. 37. Skull from Alfedena, Pentagonoidcs acitttis (Scrgi). 

Italici, indeed only temporary invaders, though their 
dominion succeeded in transforming the native 
language and some of the customs. We may find 
some testimony in the language, and in remains of the 
stock mixed with the early inhabitants, remains which 
still persist in Central Italy and in Tuscany, with the 
same physical characters as the prehistoric invaders 
possessed, while in the valley of the Po the invaders 


definitely changed the anthropological physiognomy, 
without succeeding in annulling the old and primitive 
population. 1 

Hence I believe that archaeologists are in error 
when they continue to regard the Italici as above all 
Aryans; 2 as also are the linguists in persisting to 
affirm the existence of a primitive racial Greco-Italic 
group, with prc-formed and reconstituted languages, 
which, after being first united, was divided into two 
portions, one invading Italy, the other Greece, bearing 
a higher civilisation, and languages already existing 
in the form of Greek and Latin. Some linguists are 
convinced of this error; among others, DC Cara in 
Italy, who accepts the view that I have long advocated, 
and Kcanc in England, although the latter supplies a 
variant to my interpretation. 3 

Thus I affirm that the Italici, of Mediterranean 
origin, were forced through violent invasion to adopt 
the Aryan language, as also, for some time as far 
as Central Italy, they were subjugated by Aryan 
dominion, until the development of new elements of 
Mediterranean civilisation changed the course of 
events. Then the customs which Aryan dominion 
had caused to disappear began to flourish again; 
thus cremation ceased, or only remained as a sur- 
vival among the few. 

The language assumed its own proper physiognomy 
when Rome united beneath its power the various 
Italic regions; before that dominion it had been a 

1 This appears from a study by GiulTiida, " I-a Stature in Rapporto 
allc forme craniche," Atti &<K. rom. Antrof., vol. v., 1898; also 
MoNt-hen, lot. (it. 

* Pullc, " Profilo antropologico dell' Italia," Florence, 1898, pp. 21, 

3 A fan Pasf and Present, pp. 512 513. 


series of heterogeneous forms due to the varying 
influence of surviving primitive dialects and the 
varying effects of Aryan influence. 

The Etruscans. 1hz Etruscan problem has as 
many different aspects as a polyhedron; there is the 
question of origin, of civilisation, of physical characters, 
of chronology, oi language, of influence exercised 


FlG. 38. Skull from Alfedena, Pcntagotioides atuttts (Scrgi). 

within and outside Italy. I do not profess to solve 
this problem in these few pages, in which the Etrus- 
cans only enter as an incident, and not as the chief 
object of my work. 

In the Italian edition of this book I denominated 
the Etruscans the " Later Pelasgians," as a separate 
Pelasgic branch in Asia Minor, sailing towards Italy 
at a relatively late period as compared with the pre- 


historic Pclasgic emigrations which populated Greece, 
and in part Italy also. I had substantially accepted 
the tradition of Herodotus against the opinion of the 
Germans that the Raseni were the Alpine Rhrctians 
who had descended into Central Italy. This latter 
opinion is now altogether thrown aside; it is as absurd 
as if we were to argue that the sun rises in the west. 
After Brizio, who maintained with very powerful 
arguments that the Etruscans came from the eastern 
Mediterranean, 1 another distinguished investigator, 
Montelius, has thrown the weight of his authority on 
to the same side. 2 I am not, however, convinced of 
the probability of Montelius's chronology, which would 
put back the arrival of the Etruscans to the eleventh 
century B.C. I still stand by my old opinion that that 
event cannot be put earlier than the second half of 
the eighth century, as also Arthur Evans believes, 
and the observations of Myres seem to me just. 3 
This problem of chronology, however, requires further 

With the anthropological characters of the Etrus- 
cans I have dealt at length elsewhere, and have shown 
that the mingling of two racial types in Etruscan 
tombs is due to mixture with the earlier Umbrian 
population, so that subsequently the graves in which 
burial was practised naturally present both the Medi- 
terranean type and the foreign type which came later 
with the Aryan invasion. I have also shown that the 
" obesus Etruscus " of Catullus belongs to the foreign, 
not to the Etruscan element, and that, strange to say, 

1 I<i rror-enifiiia itegli Etrusthi, Bologna, 1885. 

"The Tyrrhenians in Greece and Italy,''y0//r. Anlh /us/., vol. 
xxvi., 1897 ; cf. my Arii e llalici, cap. iv. 

* Montelius, " Prc-classical Chronology in Greece and Ilaly,'' Jour. 
Anth. /as/., hi. cit. 



it still persists in Etruria, as I have myself observed, 
while the true Etruscan type is clearly visible in the 
paintings in the more ancient tombs, and in some of 
the tcrra-cotta sarcophagi. The great tombs in the 
Chiusi district are without doubt genuinely Etruscan, 
and in these we find depicted various scenes from 
life and many human figures. I have found no 

FIG. 39. Etruscan Skull from Cere, Ellipsoidcs 
embolicus (Sergi). 

obese type there, but only the slender and delicate 
forms, with elongated face, of the Mediterranean 
type. The obese type, therefore, with large head and 
broad face, is foreign, and not Etruscan. 1 

The physical characters of the Etruscans were thus 

1 Cf. for details Arii e Italia, cap. v.; " In Etruria," I'ifa Italiatia, 
Rome, 1897 ; for the " Obcsus Elruscus," Rivista Modenta di CttHtira t 
Florence, 1898. 


of the Mediterranean type; they were true and 
genuine Italic!; and, as others have also maintained, 
they belonged to the Pelasgic branch (Figs. 39, 40). 

Among other arguments in support of this position 
may be mentioned the inscription at Lemnos, long 
since well known, with its characters closely approach- 
ing the Etruscan, and like those undeciphcred. In 
regard to this I have only to say, as I have written 
elsewhere, that Etruscan must represent the Pelasgic 
language, a linguistic branch of the Mediterranean 
tongue, now lost, and related, as Brinton supposes, to 
the Libyan languages. 1 

To persist in maintaining, like Corssen, and more 
recently Deccke and Lattes, that Aryo-Italic affinities 
are to be found here is to- fall under a delusion 
probably due to the fact that in Italy Etruscan must 
have undergone this influence, in the midst of a popu- 
lation under Aryan influence, yet very superficially, 
and perhaps only in some inflexions pronounced in 
the Etruscan manner, and hence altered. 2 The 
Etruscan language will always be the crux of 
obstinate philo-Aryan linguists, who will never be 
able to find the key to interpret it 

It maybe admitted that the Etruscan colony which 
occupied the Umbrian territory could not have been 
very numerous, but by its superiority in civilisation 
it was able to dominate, morally and materially, 
the surrounding population, and was hence able 
to influence change of customs, among others 
the mode of burial, which afterwards was nearly 

1 " The Ethnological Affinities of ihc Ancient Etruscans," Prot. Am. 
/'hit. -Yor., I'hiladclidiia, vol. xxvi., 1889; ?'<*., "On Etruscan and 
Libyan Names," lot. tit., vol. xxviii., 1890. 

8 Sec Arii e Italici, p. 175. 


always mixed, inhumation and cremation existing 
side by side among the subjugated population, as I 
have myself been able to observe when assisting in 
the excavation of poor and common graves in this 

True primitive Etruscan tombs are chambered, and 
more or less rich and spacious; those dug out in the 
rock or earth, though chambered yet small and poor, 

FIG. 40. Etruscan Skull from Cere, Ellipsoidcs embolicus (Sergi). 

must belong to the common folk who had been 
Etruscanised, Hence it is easy to argue that not all 
the skeletons in the Etruscan territory are Etruscan ; 
the greater part must belong to a population anterior 
to the Etruscan colonisation, though it underwent the 
influence of the new dominion. 

This influence, strong as it was, was not strong 
enough to transform the language of the conquered 


into that of the conquerors; after the destruction of 
the Etruscan dominion the Etruscan language dis- 
appeared for ever, leaving in stone records inscriptions 
that are undeciphered and indecipherable, in spite of 
the fact that sometimes they are bilingual. 

The true and permanent Etruscan influence was 
that of the civilisation taken as a whole, both as the 
point of departure for the future Latin civilisation, and 
also as an expansion of the civilisation of the eastern 
Mediterranean in Italy and towards Central and 
Northern Europe. 



Current opinions regarding the first inhabitants of Europe 
Europe not peopled from the North Homo Neandcr- 

Current opinions regarding the first inhabitants of 
Europe. Now that we have seen what manner of 
people constituted the primitive population of the 
Mediterranean basin, we have to inquire whether the 
African emigration proceeded still further towards 
the north beyond the great basin. This inquiry is 
interesting not only from the anthropological point of 
view, but also as regards ethnology and the origins 
and diffusion of the civilisations which have succeeded 
one another in Europe and the Mediterranean itself. 

But in entering on this fresh investigation it is 
opportune to recall a principle which lies at the 
foundation of the rrtethod employed in my researches. 
I have written elsewhere 1 : " It is necessary, it seems 
to me, to begin anew as though no classification yet 
existed, and to begin with a simple and rational 
method ; it is necessary to study a human group by 
means of its constant characters, without any refer- 
ence to its history or its state of culture, to establish 
the characters revealed by analysis and to follow them 
in other human groups in geographical distribution, 

1 Africa, Trefazione, p. viii. 


without pre-occupying ourselves too much with their 
secondary characters and the variations which occur 
in these, to explain, in short, the causes of these 
variations and to determine human varieties." 

The reader who has followed me so far will see 
that I have carried out this principle in analysing the 
peoples of the Mediterranean, whose cradle and a 
large part of their distribution is to be found in 
Africa; the same principle has guided me in investi- 
gating the Hamitic stock in Africa and in classifying 
it among human varieties. This same principle will 
serve us in inquiring whether the African migra- 
tions, besides peopling the Mediterranean, have also 
occupied other parts of Europe. Before entering on 
this inquiry I will briefly summarise the dominant 
opinions regarding the first inhabitants of Europe. 

It was De Quatrefages, the most eminent of French 
anthropologists, who risked a general synthesis of the 
primitive inhabitants of Europe. He was a man of 
large intellect and of deep intuitions, while Broca was 
occupied with the details of the data of anthropo- 
logical science, of which he may be regarded as the 
founder in France, and seldom ventured on any 
synthesis of its elements, in his time scattered and 
uncertain. Perhaps in this he showed that prudence 
which is one of the highest qualities of -.veil-balanced 
minds; but it is useful, and perhaps even necessary, 
to attempt a synthesis, even though only provisional, 
of the mass of disconnected facts ; such a synthesis 
becomes a point of departure for later researches 
and interpretations, and is useful to the progress of 

De Quatrcfagcs's work was continuous and always 
developing, though always in the same sense and the 


same direction. The reader of his works on the 
human species, on the skulls of human races, on fossil 
man and primitive man, will find few changes; the 
direction of ideas and affirmations is identical through- 
out. At the period when he wrote, the well-known 
discoveries at Cro-Magnon, Crenelle, Furfooz, and 
elsewhere had not been revised ; like other anthro- 
pologists and ethnologists, he regarded them as 
quaternary. With this conviction, due to the age 
in which he wrote, he reconstructed the primitive 
quaternary races, of which he concluded there were 
six: the race of Canstadt, the race of Cro-Magnon, 
the mesocephalic race of Furfooz, the sub-brachy- 
cephalic race of Furfooz, the race of Crenelle, and 
finally the race of Truchere. " All these races 
belonged to the quaternary epoch, which immediately 
preceded our own." 1 Tertiary man, the earliest man 
for De Quatrefages, was a precursor of quaternary 
man and of Canstadt race. He was not an evolu- 
tionist, and he did not accept, like G. de Mortillet, an 
intermediary being between man and the anthropoid 
apes. He accepted the Castenedolo man, the dis- 
coveries of Bourgeois and those of Capellini in 
Tuscany with regard to pliocene man. 

When he maintained the continuation of the Cro- 
Magnon race to the neolithic period, against the 
arguments of De Baye, Broca, Hamy (his eminent 
collaborator and the successor to his chair), and 
others, he relied chiefly on the implements of the 
Cro-Magnon man, which resemble the neolithic, and 
since at that time the Cro-Magnon man was regarded 
as quaternary he was right It mast be said to the 
honour of his perspicacity that he accepted the per- 

1 Homines fossilts ct Homines sauvages, p. 59. Paris, 1884. 


sistcncc of the quaternary populations, such as he 
believed them to be and had named them, and refused 
to admit that hiatus between the palaeolithic and 
neolithic epochs which was accepted by all his con- 
temporaries, including even Mortillet. Time has 
shown that he was right, and Piette's discovery of a 
pre-neolithic period has confirmed the opinions of 
the anthropologist of the Paris Museum of Natural 
History. 1 

Many corrections, however, have to be made in 
the so-called quaternary discoveries at Cro-Magnon, 
Crenelle, Furfooz, and elsewhere, 2 and few remains 
are now recognised as of that early epoch, except 
some fragments bearing witness to the physical shape 
of man. In spite of recent doubts, the Neanderthal 
skull remains as evidence of quaternary man, and 
some skeletons, with fragments from the relatively 
recent Magdalen ian quaternary epoch, between palaeo- 
lithic and neolithic times. Cro-Magnon, Crenelle, and 
Furfooz are neolithic and of different periods. 

Thus many of the theories set forth by De Quatre- 
fages and others fall to the ground ; if we admit that 
the skulls of Crenelle, Truchere, and Trou-du-Frontal 
are not quaternary, any hypothesis as to the origin 
of quaternary brachycephaly is unnecessary, for it is 
only in the latest neolithic graves that brachycephals 

Of French anthropologists who since De Quatre- 
fages have attempted a synthesis of the early inhabi- 

1 DC Quatrefages, I' t spice Ilumaine, Paris, 1877; Histoire ge'ttlrale 
d . A',iffs J/HHiaines, Paris, 1889; DC Quatrefages and Hamy, Crania 
Ethnica, Paris, 1882. 

' Among these must be mentioned that at Cantelupn in Latium, 
regarded :is ijuntcrnar)-, and now recognised as late neolithic -thai is to 
say, a-ncolithic. 


tants of Europe, De Mortillet, Herv6, and Salmon are 
the most notable, and those showing the least dis- 
agreement in their facts and explanations. 

Salmon divides the Stone Age into three great 
periods : the quaternary palaeolithic, the mesolithic 
as characterised by the Magdalenian epoch, and the 
neolithic. With regard to human types, as shown by 
crania, he accepts the division made by Herv6, who 
divides the quaternary or first period of the Palaeo- 
lithic Age into lower, middle, and upper, distinctly 
seen in the Chelle, Moustier, and Magdalenian 
epochs. He considers that we know nothing of 
lower quaternary man, but that we know middle and 
upper quaternary man by means of the skulls from 
Spy, Laugerie-Basse, and Chancel ade. The Mag- 
dalenian form of Laugerie-Chancelade survived 
through the mesolithic transition, and is to be found 
in the early neolithic form of Baumes-Chaudes. 
This type was followed by the brachyccphalic of 
Gaul, immigrating before the neolithic dolichocephal, 
and then that of Crenelle. Lastly came the neolithic 
dolichocephal, a new immigrant, bringing new ele- 
ments of civilisation together with polished stone 
implements. 1 

Herv finds that the Magdalenian race was con- 
tinued in the Neolithic represented at Baumes- 
Chaudes-Cro-Magnon ; this descendant of Chance- 
lade had nothing in common with the man of 
Neanderthal. As regards the brachycephalic type, 
Herv believes that there was an immigration at 

1 Cf. Salmon, " Sur 1'utilite* de la nouvclle division palelhnologiqne 
de 1'age de la pierrc," Bull. Soc. Dauphinoisc cTEthnoIogie, etc., 
Grenoble, 1894; id., " De"nombrement et types des cranes neolithiques 
de la Gaule," Revue mtnsticlle d' Anthropologie t Paris, 1895. 


the beginning of this age, the brachycephals of 
Crenelle representing their vanguard, then already 
diffused over a vast portion of Western Europe. 
This element, during the Neolithic Age, mingled with 
the ancient long-headed race. 1 

For De Mortillet things happened somewhat differ- 
ently. A convinced evolutionist, he believed that 
the race of Neanderthal and Spy was continued in 
the forms of Laugerie and Chancelade, which were 
thus a transformation of the well-known quaternary 
type. There followed an invasion of brachycephals, 
similar to that accepted by Hcrv^ and Salmon, and 
the appearance of the ancient tall dolichocephals. 
Thus for this eminent French ethnologist there was a 
formation of neolithic races on the basis of a trans- 
formation of the first quaternary type of Neanderthal 
and Spy. This opinion, though maintained by Mor- 
tillet during many years, has not been accepted in 
France nor elsewhere. 2 

The problem of ancient races seems to be simplified 
for French anthropologists since such races appear to 
be reducible to four : a primitive quaternary dolicho- 
cephalic, that of Neanderthal-Spy ; a mesolithic, also 
quaternary, but recent, that of Chancelade- Laugerie ; 
a third, brachyccphalic, of the Crenelle type; a fourth, 
new dolichocephalic neolithic type, of recent arrival, 
and represented by the GcnayJ^6te-^Or} skull. But 
this is an illusion; there arc many complications and 
many seconcTaTy divisions, though these arc in part 

1 Hcrve", " I .a Race dcs Troglodytes Magdallnicns," Kevue tie 
J'A.o/e tf A ///., 1893; it/., " DUtrilmtion en France dc la Race Nco- 
liihique de Baumes-Chaudcs," Revue de rJtfole, etc., 1894, 

- J'rfds il'Anfhrvfo.'oipe, p. 372, 1887 ; id., " Les Hrachyccphales 
Ncnliihiqucs," Ktvue de FEcoU, etc., 1894-5. 


reduced by nerve" after a detailed analysis of the 
skulls of brachycephalic type. 

In the Crania EtJinica four types and four races of 
this brachycephalic character were recognised; nerve" 
reduces to three the morphological neolithic types of 
Furfooz and Crenelle, of which the two types of 
Furfooz represent two sub-types, varieties due to a 
crossing with the indigenous element. Crenelle is 
the pure race, that of the neolithic brachycephals. 1 
The two types of Furfooz one sub-brachycephalic, 
the other mesaticephalic derived, according to 
nerve", from the pure brachycephal of Crenelle, are 
widely distributed, reaching as far as the Mediter- 
ranean. Where brachycephals and sub-brachycephals 
exist, mesaticephals are also to be found ; but the 
converse is not true, mesaticephaly having a much 
wider area of extension than the other three forms. 

But how is it possible to find a large number of 
mesaticephals where the brachycephals, from which 
they are supposed to be derived, are not found ? 
nerve" thus explains this phenomenon : the brachy- 
cephals found in the two chief regions, the Belgic and 
the Allobrogic, as he terms them, only reached the 
mesaticephalic area in small number, being absorbed 
by the long-headed population, leaving a number of 
half-breeds, the mesaticephals. In my opinion, how- 
ever, the theory that mesaticephals are the result of 
crossing is a fundamental error. If the pure types 
are absorbed I do not see how the cross-breeds can 
resist, for we know that types due to mingling of race 
disappear, allowing the pure type to re-appear. To 
me it seems that the mesaticephals are as primitive 
as the dolichocephals and the brachycephals. 

J Herve, " Les Brachycephales Ncolithiques," loc. cit. 


For De Quatrefages the Crenelle brachyccphals (a 
quaternary population, as he supposes) were Lapps; 
I Icrvd and other French anthropologists also believe 
in a Lapp immigration. The difference between De 
Quatrefages and the others is only one of epoch, 
which is now supposed to be towards the end of 
the neolithic age, if not indeed at the beginning of 
the age of metals. 

It is important, however, to know the origins of 
the Magdalenian race as interpreted by Herv, 
Salmon, and others; we must remark that this race 
may now be summarised in the formula Chancelade- 
Cro-Magnon-Baumcs-Chaudes. De Quatrefages, 
Hamy, and at a later date Ve'rneau considered that 
the Cro-Magnon race, then believed to be quaternary, 
migrated from the north to the south, and also 
occupied the Mediterranean basin with Africa, 
excluding Egypt and the Canary Islands. It was 
the so-called hyperborean theory of human palaeon- 
tology, which Hamy maintained and subsequently 
abandoned. Now Herv and others record this fact 
with complacency, but regretting that so able an anthro- 
pologist as Hamy should have abandoned the position. 
Herv still maintains the old hyperborean theory, 
supporting his arguments more especially by Testut's 
observations regarding Chancelade man, and by other 
indications of ethnological character. 

At Chancelade in Dordogne was discovered a 
quaternary station of the epoch called Magdalenian, 
and in it a human skeleton. From an investigation 
by Testut 1 it appeared that the skull (Fig. 41) has a 
capacity of i./^occ, a length of 193 mm.; breadth, 139; 
height, 150; with indices, respectively, of 72.02 and 

1 "Recherches," etc , Bll. Sec. Atith. dt Lyon, vol. viii., 1889. 



77.7. The face has a bi-zygomatic breadth of 140 mm., 
and a height of 77, with index of 55 ; the nose has an 
index of 42.6. Hence the skull is dolichocephalic, 
hypsicephalic, leptoprosopic, and leptorhinc. 

Testut declares that this Chancelade skull shows 
the characteristics of the higher races. To the in- 
dividual with this large cranial capacity he attributes 
a stature of 1.50 m., according to his own calculations; 
fresh calculations raise the height to 1.592 m., but it 
remains low. 

At the same time Testut observes that this cranial 

FIG. 41. Chancelade Skull (Testut). 

type had nothing in common with that of Neander- 
thal and Spy, while it has a resemblance to the skulls 
of Cro-Magnon, Sordes, L'Homme-Mort, and Laugerie- 
Basse, whether these belong to upper quaternary 
or neolithic times. Towards the end of his study he 
asks if the Chancelade man belonged to the same 
racial type as the Cro-Magnon man, and he replies in 
the negative, on the ground that the latter had a 
stature of 1. 80 to 1.90 m., and the former.of only 1.5001., 
the former also having a broad face with bi-zygomatic 
diameter of 143 mm., and the latter a long face with 


bi-zygomatic diameter of 140, and greater facial 

These are, in fact, important differences, the chief 
among them being those in stature and in facial 
index. As regards the first point, we cannot explain 
how a skull of such large capacity should be normally 
united with so low a stature, if we were not rendered 
suspicious by shape and curvature of the thighs, the 
relatively excessive development of the upper limbs 
as compared to the lower, the large dimensions of the 
foot, and other facts and indications of abnormality, 
which lead us to think of a rachitic and deformed 

Testut, however, finds analogies between the Chan- 
cclade and the Eskimo skull, and brings forward a 
scries of cephalic indices. Apart from the fact, which 
I have so often encountered, that indices may serve 
to approximate the most diverse forms, and to 
separate the most homogeneous, I could show that 
cranial height indices of from 77 to 80 arc common in 
the skulls of northern and eastern Africa, including 
ancient Egypt, and I could show a series of skulls of 
the eighth century B.C., discovered at Novilara(Pesaro), 
in which the roof-shaped form (stcgoides} is common 
to many, with a face of indices between 55 and 60, 
and vertical forms similar to that of Chanceladc, 
which I have termed Pelasgicus, Thus the Chance- 
lade skull appears to me a Pelasgicus stegoides of the 
Ellipsoides class, still found to-day in East Africa. 
Why refer to the Eskimo a skull to be found so near 
as the Mediterranean ? Testut himself admits that 
the Chancelade skull resembles those of Cro-Magnon, 
Sordes, and Laugerie. 

Hcrve" takes up the problem of the Magdalenian 


race, and separating it from the type of Neanderthal 
and Spy, accepts the conclusions of Testut concerning 
the origins of the Chancelade type; he finds its con- 
tinuation at Laugerie, Cro-Magnon, and Sordes, that 
is to say that the Magdalenian race is continued into 
the Neolithic ; he also confirms Testut's hypothesis 
concerning its northern origin, calling attention to 
some of the industrial products of the Magdalenian 
epoch which recall those of the Eskimo and other 
northern populations. 1 Thus for French anthropolo- 
gists the men who peopled Europe in the quaternary 
epoch were either derived by transformation from the 
Neanderthal and Spy type, as Mortillet believed, or 
they came from the polar regions, and were related 
to the Lapps and the Eskimo. 

Boyd Dawkins also finds a relationship between 
the cave-men and the Eskimo, chiefly in their imple- 
ments and utensils, which are very similar, as also their 
ornaments, but instead of deriving the primitive in- 
habitants of Europe from the north, he believes that the 
Eskimo are the representatives of the cave-men driven 
out of their ancient regions in Europe and Asia. He 
writes: "All these points of connection between the 
cave-men and the Eskimo can, in my opinion, be 
explained only on the hypothesis that they belong to 
the same race. To the objection that savage tribes, 
living under the same conditions, might independently 
invent the same implements, and that, therefore, the 
correspondence in question does not necessarily imply 
a unity of race, the answer may be made, that there 
are no savage tribes known which use the same set of 
implements without being connected by blood. The 
ruder and more common instruments, such as flakes, 

1 Herve", " La Race des Troglodytes Magdaleniens," toe. cif. 


and in a lesser degree scrapers, are of little value in 
classification, but where a whole set agrees, intended 
for various uses, and some of them rising above the 
most common wants ol savage life, the argument as 
to race is of considerable weight It is still further 
strengthened by the identity of art The articles 
found in the caves of Britain, Belgium, France, or 
Switzerland differ scarcely more from those used in 
west Georgia than the latter from those of Greenland 
or Melville Peninsula. 

" From these considerations it may be gathered that 
the Eskimo are probably the representatives of the 
cave-men, and protected within the Arctic Circle 
from those causes by which they have been driven 
from Europe and Asia. Unaccustomed to war them- 
selves, they were probably driven from Europe and 
Asia by other tribes in the same manner as within 
the last century they have been driven further north 
by the attacks of the Red Indians." 1 

If we could accept the considerations brought for- 
ward by Dawkins, his conclusion would be near to the 
truth. But we have similar examples among popula- 
tions very distant from each other; must we, therefore, 
on this ground accept unity of race? It seems to 
me, on the other hand, that the resemblances in the 
geological and climatic conditions of Europe at that 
remote epoch, were the cause of the similarity in the 
products of the primitive inhabitants of Europe in 
Switzerland, Belgium, and Great Britain to those of 
the Eskimo. 

The German anthropologists have no general 
theories concerning the primitive inhabitants of 
Europe. They have endeavoured to discover the 

1 Early Man in Britain, pp. 241-42. 


Aryans, and especially the German Aryans, believing 
that they can recognise these in the tall long-headed 
blonds of the so-called Reihengrdber. 

Europe not Peopled from the North. One of the 
chief and characteristic defects in the work of anthro- 
pologists in all countries is (as I have sought to show 
on various occasions) the lack of a true taxonomic 
method; in other words, there is no sound criterion 
of classification. Cephalic indices are not sufficient, 
and anthropologists often abuse them, or regard them 
as of secondary value, without supplying any sure 
and stable character in their place. If we ask Herve 
and Salmon to furnish a calculable and convincing 
difference between the Magdalenian dolichocephals 
and the other neolithic peoples, they cannot do so. 
The numerical variation of a few units cannot con- 
stitute a difference of race; an index of 74 is in its 
ethnic significance the same as one of 76 and 77, and 
it would be absurd to suppose otherwise. While it is 
generally agreed that the Neanderthal cranial type 
is different from such a type as that of Cro-Magnon, 
Mortillet, relying exclusively on the current method 
of indices, was justified in regarding them as both of 
the same race. 

But let us consider the form of the skull: a skull 
with a wedge-shaped occiput is different from a skull 
with a rounded occiput, in spite of any similarity in 
cephalic index ; thus the Chancelade skull may be 
placed among Eskimo skulls as regards cephalic index 
and capacity, though skulls of identical type are found 
in Egypt, in East Africa, in the Canaries, in Italy. 
Shall we say then that Europe and a part of Africa 
have been peopled from the North Pole, and that the 
Egyptians were of Eskimo origin? I do not know 


how it is possible to maintain any such hypothesis of 
the northern origin of European peoples, thus over- 
throwing not only the origins of man but of the 
whole flora and fauna. 

A Scandinavian naturalist, in a work dealing with 
the flora and fauna of that peninsula, confirms the 
statement that Scandinavia was not inhabited before 
the neolithic epoch. Of palaeolithic man scarcely a 
vestige can be found, and the importers of neolithic 
culture, he writes, must have migrated from Africa or 
the Iberian peninsula ; such an immigration would be , 
in harmonious relationship with an increase in the/ 
temperature of the climate of Europe after the glacial 
epoch. 1 This statement is in full accord with the 
prehistoric data, according to Montclius, an authority 
above suspicion in the accuracy of his observations. 2 
If, therefore, on account of the low temperature 
northern Europe could not be inhabited by man 
until after the glacial epoch, it is not easy to see 
how the centre and south of Europe could be invaded 
by a race originating in the north in the quaternary / 
epoch; for if Chancelade, Laugerie-Basse, and other 
places show the Eskimo type, according to Testut 
and Herv<5, and the implements of Laugerie are also 
of northern type, there must have been a migration 
from the north to the south, at that remote epoch, of 
a population arising in a clime even more unfavour- 
able than that region is now. 

We cannot accept the evidence of the cephalic 

1 Andersen, Srtusta v>'ix(i;'ir/tltns his/oria, i R'orthtt fi 
Stockholm, 1896; cf. Krause, " Die Anfang <lcr Kultur in Scandinavia," 
Globus, LXXI. 9, z;ih Fcl>. 1897. 

* Montclius " Do 1-oilmlurUk.i IViiixlcrna in Skanclinavicn,'' 
Manadsblad, Stockholm, 1893; /'</., Ttmfs Prthisloiiqties tn 
SuMe et dam let an/res I'ays .V. ami -nai-tf, Paris, 1805, p. 1 1. 


index when that evidence is contradicted by other 
important facts. Nor can I consider exact the other 
criterion, in accordance with which we must unite all 
the physical and even psychological characters of man 
in order to establish a classification of races. I have 
maintained for some years that we need only select a 
single character and can classify by means of that, 
completing the classification, or rather the classified 
types, by such other characters as may be found. 
But the character to be selected as the means of 

Fin. 42. Calvaria of Pithecanthropus 

classification must' be constant, persistent, stable, and 
then the other characters may be used to complete 
the established type. I have found such a character 
in the form of the skull, in spite of the slight varia- 
tions it may present, because I have been able to 
recognise its stability from the earliest appearance of 
man in prehistoric times. The method has now been 
proved by practical applications, and I have succeeded 
in establishing certain human groups with a certainty 
derived from numerous and homogeneous observa- 



tions. 1 The same criterion serves to delineate the 
natural history of the first inhabitants of Europe. 

Homo Neanderthalensis. It is definitely accepted 
that the Neanderthal skull is the most ancient witness 
to the appearance in Europe of man with well-defined 
osteological characters ; we may leave the question 
of tertiary man unprejudiced in order to deal with 
quaternary man. If the human remains of Castenedolo 

FIG. 43. Skull of the Pithecanthropus crectus 
(Dubois and Manouvrier). 

represent tertiary man of the Pliocene epoch, it would 
not be very surprising not to find them lower ; an 
intermediary type scarcely seems to me probable, be- 
cause such types could hardly resist and survive. The 
Pitktcanthrop** (Figs. 42, 43) of Java, it is true, is an 
animal with some human characteristics, but, in my 

1 See especially Africa, 1897, and my recent book, Specie e Varittb 
Umane: Prindpl e Alttodo J'una Sitlcmalica Antropologica, 1900. 


opinion, it is not man nor the intermediary type; it 
is a higher type of the other anthropomorphic species. 1 
The history of evolution shows us species which re- 
present stages of progress in form and structure, but 
not transitory types. Hence, it seems to me, neither 
is the Pithecanthropus a precursor, in Mortillet's sense, 
nor is Neanderthal man a species evolved from it, to 
evolve still further in the successive European forms 
such as are visible in the man of Chancelade and Cro- 
Magnon. The Neanderthal type seems to me a 
species distinct by itself, the most ancient that we 
know in quaternary times, and distinguishable in sub- 
sequent epochs, leaving few but sure records of its 
existence even in the present epoch. 

Homo Neandertlialensis (Fig. 44) is thus, according 
to my criteria, a European species, originating in 
Europe in early quaternary, or possibly late tertiary 
times; on this point we still know nothing definite. It 
has been found in the caves of Neanderthal, Spy, and 
other spots in Central Europe. I cannot believe that 
Nicolucci's Isola del Liri skull is quaternary ; its 
shape resembles the most recent higher European 
forms, and it appears to me to belong to the Eur- 
african species. The Olmo skull also, formerly 
regarded as tertiaYy, is very dubious, and seems to 
me to belong to the bronze age. Hitherto Homo 
Neanderthalensis has not been found in southern 
Europe, only to the north of the Alps, and in 
England the fragments from /Tilbury and Bury St 
Edmunds are regarded as belonging to the type. 

It is important to point out that Homo Neander- 

1 For some account of the Pil/iccaiiffirofns credits skull, as to the 
human character of which anthropologists arc not agreed, see Dcnikcr, 
Races of Man , pp. 359-361. 



thalensis has not completely disappeared in Europe 
in spite of the arrival of a new species from Africa, 
but persists in the Baltic, in Friesland, as Spengel 
has shown. 1 De Quatrefages admitted this survival. 
Davis also pointed out examples, and in some Fries- 
land skulls studied by Sasse and Virchow 2 I have 
found the Neanderthal type, as also I have been able 
to show it in a mixed form in other regions of central 

FlG. 44. Spy Skull, first quaternary race (Fraipont and Jacques). 

It is desirable to note this survival of the Ne- 
anderthal man for various reasons. It shows the 
persistence of cranial forms through many thousand 
years and in spite of mixture with other species; 
it also shows that the forms subsequently pre- 
vailing arc not a* believed by Pcnka and, on 
other grounds and with another scientific object, 

1 S|>cngel, " Schadcl vim Neanderthal-Typus," Ar<h. f. An(h. t viii., 

* Sasse, " Schiidel aus dem Nordhollandischen Wotfriohnd," AiJi. 
f. Anth., \\., 1876; Virchow, Beit rage t he. n't. 


Mortillct derived from Homo Neandertlialcnsis. 
Such facts justify the principles, including that of 
the persistence of forms, which I have maintained 
for some time past. 

Excluding, therefore, the Neanderthal man from 
our inquiry, we may turn to the subsequent human 
varieties which, as we shall see, still constitute for 
the most part the basis of the present populations. 
The available data, belonging in part to the last 
quaternary epoch, but chiefly to neolithic days, 
extend from Switzerland to Scandinavia, from the 
west of France to southern Russia. They show us, 
unless we wish to overturn the natural order in the 
origins of the fauna and flora, that Europe was not 
peopled in prehistoric times from the polar circle 
but from tropical regions. 



Great Britain France Switzerland Germany fiohemia 
Scandinavia Russia. 

Great Britain. More than thirty years ago Thur- 
nam showed that in the long-chambered tumuli of 
England, especially in the south-west, in Wilts and 
Gloucestershire, were deposited the dead of a primi- 
tive population, long-headed or dolichocephalic, and 
with special characters, while the round tumuli re- 
vealed the remains of another distinct stock, with 
short and broad heads, or brachyccphalic. The men 
of the Long Barrows, according to Thurnam, were 
dolichoccphals ; the men of the Round Barrows, 
brachycephals. 1 Greenwcll further showed that in 
the majority of the sepulchral tumuli bronze is only 
exceptionally found ; in 379 graves, in 78 of which 
the remains were cremated and in 301 buried, bronze 
was only found 14 times among the buried, and twice 
among the cremated. 2 Thurnam believed that the 
dolichocephalic stock was anterior to the brachy- 
cephalic, which had imported the bronze, as also 

1 " On the two principal Forms of ancient British and Gaulish Skulls," 
Memoir* of Ike Amhrop. Society of /.otiifott, vol. i. ; " Further Re- 
searches," etc., in Mtmoirs t fit., vol. iii. ; Crania Britannica, in col- 
lalxiration with Davis. 

1 British flar/emx, Oxford, 1877. 



did Green well, and others after them, including 
Garson. The later stock, it was believed, had come 
from Belgium and France ; it had conquered and in 
part displaced the earlier population, in part mixed 
with them, as appeared from mingling in the graves, 
finally becoming dominant : this new stock was the 

FlG. 45. Skull from British Barrow, Ovoides longissimus 

(Greenwell and Rolleston). 

It is important to note that the primitive long- 
headed stock is by Thurnam and others, who have 
examined the skulls, regarded as immigrating from 
the Iberian peninsula, and hence called the Iberian 
stock. Thurnam compared the British skulls with 
the Basque skulls studied by Broca, and found great 


resemblance in form. 1 I have compared the forms of 
the skulls from the British graves with ancient and 
modern Mediterranean skulls, and have found those 
characteristic of Spain, of Portugal taken from 
Mugem, of the Italian caves, of Greece, of Hissarlik, 
of East Africa. 1 have found among them the ellip- 
soidal shape with compressed sides, which I call 

FIG. 46. Skull from British Barrow, E llipsoides felafgictis 
(Grccnwell and Rolleston). 

Pelasgic, 2 also found at Casa da Moura, at Novi- 
lara, and in Abyssinia, where it is fairly common, and 
the fine oval forms described as common, by those 
who have studied them, throughout peninsular and 

1 Cf. Thurnam, of. tit., vol. i., p. 133, figs. 12 and 13; p. 162, figs 
15 and 16; plate I., figs. I (o 3; also Dawkins, Early Man in Britain, 
London, 1 880, rh. ix. 

8 Cf. Thurnam, " Further Researches,'' etc., vol. iii., plale i., the 
three characteristic figures from South Wilts, Crania Britanni(a t plale 
ii. (22), xvi. (33), xxr. (24), xxvi. (50). 


insular Greece, Latium, and the rest of Italy, Spain, 
North and East Africa, including ancient Egypt. I 
have also seen and recognised Etruscan forms, Cretan 
of the Mycenrean era, and others similar (Figs. 45 to 
47). These facts convince me that the Mediterranean 
stock, which with one of its branches had occupied the 
Iberian peninsula, extended beyond the Pyrenees and 
invaded France, as we shall see, and then Britain, 
constructing tumuli for its dead wherever it took 

Dr. Garson has confirmed with considerable fresh 
evidence the arguments of Thurnam and others, in a 
lecture on early British races. 1 " Osteological remains 
of the Neolithic people," he remarks, " are distributed 
all over Britain, from the south of England to the 
extreme north of Scotland. They are most numerous 
in the south-west of England, especially in Wilts 
and Gloucestershire, the part of the country occupied 
by the Drobuni, or Silures, at the beginning of 
the historic period. They have been found in con- 
siderable numbers in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and 
Stafford. Huxley and Wilson have described the 
same race from horned cairns in Caithness, and 
from other places, of Scotland. I have described 
them from Wiltshire, Yorkshire, Middlesex, and from 

The general description given by Garson of the 
characters of the skeletons is very interesting, because 
it may apply to those of East Africa, Egypt, and 
other parts of the Mediterranean. " The characters of 
the skeletons are well marked," he tells us. "The 
skull is large and well formed, the calvaria is long 
and proportionally narrow, having a cephalic index 

1 Nature, I5lh and 22nd Nov., 1894. 



of about 70, and of oval shape. 1 The superciliary 
ridges and glabella are moderately or even feebly 
developed, the forehead is well formed, narrow, and 
curves gracefully to the occiput, which is full and 
rounded. The upper margins of the orbits are thin, 
and the malar bones are never prominent ; the pro- 
file of the face is vertical, and there is no tendency 
to prognathism ; the chin is prominent, the sym- 
phcsial angle is from 70 to 80 degrees ; the length 

Fir.. 47. Skull from British Barrow, Ellipsoides sphyroidt* 
(Green well and Rollcston). 

of the face from the root of the nose is comparatively 
short, but as a whole the face is oval in form ; the 
jaws are small and fine, the teeth are of medium size, 
and generally in a good state of preservation, not 
much worn down. The last molar is always the 
smallest tooth of that series. The facial characters 

1 II may be remarked that anthropologies have hitherto considered 
both ellipsoid and pcnlagonoid skulls o\al; 1^uish between these 
two foi ins. 



are mild, and without exaggerated development in 
any one direction ; the same may be said of the 
calvaria generally. The stature of the Neolithic 
people is short; it averages 1.674 m. (5 ft. 6 in.)." 

Dr. Garson expresses himself clearly concerning 
the extension of the Neolithic race ; he believes that 
the evidence renders it probable that the Neolithic 
population occupied at that time all the west of 
Europe, and in agreement with many other ob- 
servers, considers it identical with the Iberian race, 
of which the Basques may be regarded as a residue. 
Garson also considers that the Neolithic people are 
not extinct in Britain, their descendants remaining 
to-day. It is true that subsequent invaders drove 
them, in many instances, to particular parts of 
the country, and they also mixed with their con- 
querors. 1 

France. At a period when the caves at Cro-Mag- 
non and L'Homme-Mort were not yet discovered, 
Thurnam had seen and studied the skulls from the 
tumuli of Meudon, Noyelles-sur-Mer, Nogent-les- 
Vierges, Chaumont, Orrouy, Avignon, and others, 
compared them with those from the British barrows, 
and concluded that they were of the same stock, the 
race that had occupied the British Isles having also 
at the same epoch established itself in France. 

Many fresh discoveries were, however, made in 
France, first that of Cro-Magnon, then those of 
L'Homme-Mort, Solutre, Engis, Laugerie- Basse, 
Bruniquel, and many others. The male skull from 
Cro-Magnon, as is well known, served as a type for 
comparison with subsequent discoveries, and as it was 
regarded as quaternary by most anthropologists at 

1 Daw kins, Early Alan in Britain, fig. 112, p. 318, ch. ix. 

FRANCE. 211 

that time, it became the representative of a race 
which French anthropologists found diffused in many 
parts of Europe, the Canaries, and Africa, where the 
Berbers, according to Broca, are its modern re- 
presentatives. As we have already seen, opinions 
in France have undergone revision. Cro-Magnon 
is neolithic, like Baumcs-Chaudcs and numberless 
other caves and g\ M\ x^ ; the late quaternary epoch is 
represented by Chancelade and Laugerie, in Dor- 
dogne. We have reason to believe that the first 
migrations from Africa to Europe took place precisely 
in the late quaternary epoch, and we find, by ex- 
amination of the cranial shapes, that the skulls of 
Laugerie and Chancelade represent the first African 
migrants ; the more or less ancient neolithic peoples 
are the migrants who succeeded, belonging to the 
same stock, which, perhaps at different epochs, 
became diffused throughout the European continent. 

French anthropologists have recognised the Cro- 
Magnon form in some Spanish skulls discovered by 
Sirct, as also in some found in the caves of Mentone 
and other parts of the Ligurian Riviera. Now that 
the Cro-Magnon skull is rcognised as neolithic, I do 
not believe that it is necessary to assume an immigra- 
tion of neolithic dolichoccphals, as they are called 
in France, belonging to a different stock from 
the Baumes-Chaudes dolichocephals, considered by 
Hervd and others as continuing the Laugerie-Chance- 
lade race. Both may be regarded as of the same 
family; the difference of a few units in the cephalic 
index cannot justify us in regarding them as of 
different race and origin. 

Nor do I believe that the form of the Cro-Magnon 
skull can be regarded as exceptional, as Salmon 


thinks , l it is a pcntagonoid, as De Quatrefages 
recognised, and this form is found in all the Mediter- 
ranean and related families. Similarly I do not 
believe that we should see racial differences in skulls 
because one has a rounded occiput, another is wedge- 
shaped, or with a heel or chignon, as the French 
anthropologists say ; we may consider these as asso- 
ciated sub-forms within the same stock, variations of 
a single type. 

The African migration which traversed the Mediter- 
ranean and occupied the southern regions of Europe 
must have reached France by two roads, that is, by 
Spain across the Pyrenees, and by the Rhone. Thus 
it happens that we find traces and remains in the 
south of France, especially in Langucdoc, where that 
branch of the Mediterranean family called Ligurian 
extends from the Iberian peninsula as far as Italy, 
while another branch, the Iberian, first occupying the 
peninsula which took its name, passed the Pyrenees, 
became spread over France, and migrated slowly into 
the British Isles. In Caesar's time the Aquitani were 
to be found between the Garonne and the Pyrenees in 
contact with the Celts, who had confined them there 
by invading France, just as the Belgae threw them 
against the Celts and enclosed them between the 
Seine and the Garonne. 

If we take into consideration the caves and the 
graves of the dolmens discovered and examined 
in France, the stock must have been very numerous, 
especially in this epoch called neolithic. In an 
interesting summary of our knowledge with regard 
to the neolithic skulls of Gaul, Salmon refers to 140 

1 Dinoinbrements ei Typts des Crdius iieolithiqtus, Paris, 1896, 
p. II. 


localities with graves containing skulls that could 
be examined, and about 4000 neolithic graves in 
which the skulls are either lost or no longer measur- 
able. 1 This large number of graves serves to show 
the density of the neolithic population. 

Switzerland. I have found new and almost un- 
expected evidence concerning the expansion of the 
Mediterranean stock in prehistoric Switzerland. This 
evidence is furnished by the very ancient skulls be- 
longing to the Helvetian peoples of the stone, copper, 
and bronze ages. 2 These not only presented different 
characters from those recorded by His and Riiti- 
mcycr 8 many years previously, but they preserved in 
a surprising manner the most genuine characters of 
East African types. To my surprise I recognised the 
forms belonging to the Mediterranean stock among a 
population in which I had never suspected their 
existence. Among these forms predominated very 
marked pentagonoids, Egyptian rhomboids, ellipsoids, 
and ovoids, all very common in the Mediterranean 

It is impossible not to infer from these facts an 
ancient migration towards the centre of France, such 
as that which is borne witness to by the Cro-Magnon 
race. I believe that the easiest road such a migration 
could have followed is that through the Rhone Valley, 
where we find the Ligurians of the same family, and 
then turning towards the east, where the immigrants 
occupied the Alpine heights which to-day are Switzer- 
land. Afterwards the Celts arrived here, wholly or 
1 IM. dt. 

* Cf. Studcr and Dannwarlh, Cranica Ile'velUa Anliijtia, Lrip/i ;, 
1894, and my classification of such skulls in Artkiv fur An~'lirofvlogie t 
vol. xxiii., 1895. 

Cf. Crania //ehfti.a, Basel, 1864. 


partly driving out the early inhabitants, a phenomenon 
which happened also in France, Britain, and the Po 

Thus I wrote in the Italian edition of this work some years 
ago, and at a later date 1 drew various conclusions as to the early 
inhabitants of Europe, and especially of Switzerland. At that 
time I knew of no neolithic skulls having forms foreign to those 
of the Mediterranean. Professor Ripley of Boston has, how- 
ever, opposed my interpretation, believing that in the skulls 
studied by Studer and Bannwarth there is evidence of the 
presence of the race that, with Linnaeus, he calls Alpine : 
" Sergi's attempt to interpret the data otherwise is entirely 
erroneous." 3 Now, it is true that if we cling to the data of the 
cephalic index the Helvetian skulls of Studer and Bannwarth 
are dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, and brachycephalic ; but if we 
classify them by their shape, as I have done, then we find that 
the brachycephals of this series do not reveal a racial element 
foreign to the Mediterranean. 

Of the 35 skulls only 33 could be classified, and these 
belong to five varieties (with their sub-varieties), as follows : 
t>, Obtusus ; c, Acutus (Fig. 48) ; d, Convexus. III. ELL1PSO- 
IDES a, Stegoides , , Cuneatus ; r, Isopericampylos; d, Clito- 
cephalus. IV. OOIDES a, Medius ; t>, Parvus. V. BELOIDES 3 : 
a, Subtilis ; b, Convexus. Now it is to be noted that the 
rhomboid and some pentagonoids have a brachycephalic index. 
Yet both are Mediterranean forms, and I have found them in 
ancient Egypt. 4 T*he authors who classify by the cephalic index 
are right in bringing this objection against me, but, as I have 
often shown, this criterion of classification is erroneous, con- 
fusing various shapes together ; it is artificial and not natural, as 
is a classification based on shape. 

If, however, a few brachycephalic skulls of really foreign form 
had been found I shoulr 1 not bs surprised, now that I know how 
large is the number of such types which infiltrated Europe 

1 Arii e Italici, cap. iii. 

Ripley, The Races of Europe, New York, 1899, p. 501. 
a It should l>e noted that this name takes the place of Sphenoides ; see 
my Sfede e Varic'.h L'uiane, 1900. 

4 Stig'i abitanli fritnitiz'i del Jlfedtterraneo, Florence, 1892. 


towards the end of the neolithic epoch, and my conclusions 
would not on this account have suffered severely. In fact, I 
find recorded a skull from the lake dwellings in Switzerland 
which is not only brachycephalic, but of a shape that is foreign 
to the Mediterranean stock ; yet it is neolithic. This skull was 
described and figured by Pitard j 1 though incomplete it is 

FIG. 48. Skull from Auvernicr of the Bronze Ag<", Penlagoiioides 
aculus (Sergi). 

visibly a Plalycephaliis orbicularis^ a form having nothing in 
common with Mediterranean forms. Thus 1 maintain the 
opinion that the primitive inhabitants of Switzerland were of 
African origin, like those of the Mediterranean. 

Germany. From the studies of Eckcr and Von 
Holder on the skeletons of the Alcmanni and Franks 

1 L Anthropologie % vol. x., No. 3, 1898, p. 281. 


from the Rhine graves was developed the cranial 
type of the Reihengraber. It thus came to be 
believed that the Aryan Germans were the people 
with the physical characters attributed to the 
Germans of the fifth century whose skeletons are 
preserved in the Rhine graves : lofty stature, dolicho- 
cephalic skull, white skin, blue eyes, fair hair. But 
these graves contained other and different types, for 
the Alemanni and Franks were not and could not be 
without racial mixture. In spite, however, of the 
obstacle placed in the way of the Reihengraber 
Aryan theory by the existence of those different 
types, ever since that time it has entered into the 
ideas and sentiments of German anthropologists, as 
well as of others who are not Germans. 

Holder believes that the theory and the discovery 
are confirmed by the neolithic and later graves of 
Germany. In a study of the skeletons from the pre- 
Roman Hiigelgraber, in which he investigates skulls 
belonging to the ages of stone and of bronze, the 
Hallstatt period, the beginning of the iron age, and 
the La Tene period, he reaches this conclusion : 
"The investigation of 114 skulls of the pre-Roman 
epoch, examined according to the scheme of the 
Frankfort Convention, has yielded 64 dolichocephalic 
with index from 60 to 75, 34 mesocephalic with index 
from 75.4 to 79.4, and 16 brachycephalic from 80.1 to 
89.8. The dolichocephalic and mesocephalic, which 
all have the essential characters of the Germanic 
type, are of the form already found in the Alemannic 
graves in our country. In the pre-Roman epoch the 
same racial elements occupied the soil of central and 
northern Germany free from the Roman dominion. 
Since these regions of our great country, as above 


said, were occupied by the pure dolichocephalic 
Teutonic stock, it is easy to understand that in the 
Roman tombs at first only a few brachycephals, 
about 2 per cent., are met with, and that as we 
advance in the middle ages these become more 
numerous as contact with the southern brachycephals 
becomes greater. 

" A similar relationship may be found also in the 
pre- Roman graves where the population was already 
in contact for many centuries with the brachyccphalic 
zone and then underwent a stronger mixture than in 
the population of the more ancient tombs that is to 
say, about 14.3 per cent 

" A clear idea of this process may be had by 
examining the cranial forms of the stone age and of 
that of La Tene. Only two skulls belonging to the 
stone age have been measured, with indices of 71.2 
and 72.4. Of the bronze epoch were found four 
masculine skulls with indices between 72.3 and 754 
and four feminine with indices between 70.4 and 
77-1. together with one of 83.8 ; of the Hallstatt 
period were 49 masculine skulls, of which 46 between 
60.0 and 79.2, and three between 80.3 and 86.9 ; also 
38 feminine skulls, of which 29 between 68.6 and 
78.7, and nine between 80. 1 and 89.8. 

"Of the La Tene period there were 15 skulls, 10 
masculine, of which nine between 67.3 and 76.8, and 
one of 81.3 ; also five feminine, with inclusion of a 
child's, three between 75.4 and 79, and two of 81.2 
and 82.7. 

" On the whole, it must be admitted that the 
increase of the brachyccphalic element becomes 
greater the nearer we approach the region of Roman 
dominion ; thus it was that the great mass of brachy- 


cephals reached our land, and that the Germanic 
element receded." 1 

The process described by Von Holder is exact* it 
seems to me, only it is inexact to regard as Teutonic 
and Aryan the prehistoric dolichocephalic and meso- 
cephalic element which harmonises with the Alemannic 
and Prankish element of the Roman graves (Reihen- 
graber). This element, from the stone age up to 
historic times, is anterior to the Aryan invasion, and 
therefore not Germanic merely Germanised, I would 
say in language and customs. Here is the knot in 
the problem which the German anthropologists have 
been unable to untie in order to reach the natural 
solution, and yet for long past Germany has yielded 
neolithic burial-places which clearly show the char- 
acteristics of the primitive population of Germany 
and Europe generally, from south to north. One 
of the most interesting of these discoveries, made 
many years ago, is that of Hinkelstein, near Mon- 
sheim. It was- discussed by Lindenschmit, and the 
skulls were studied by Ecker. These skulls were 
incomplete, one with cephalic index of 71.1, the other 
of 76.2 ; according to my classification, one is a long 
ovoid (Ooides longns), the other a flat ovoid (Ooides 
planus). To these was added another skull, from 
Oberingelheim, which was brachyccphalic (81.9), but 
an acute pentagonoid in shape (as may be seen from 
the figure given by Ecker himself), and not different 
from the acute pentagonoids of the Mediterranean 2 
(Fig. 49)- 

1 Untersuchungen iiber die Skelctlfundc in den Vorromischen 
Hiigelgrdbern Wiirtcmbergs und Hohenzollc r/is, Stuttgart, 1894. 

2 Lindenschmit, "Das Graberfeld am Hinkelstein bei Monsheim;" 
Ecker, " Einige Bemerkungen ul>er die Skelette," etc., Plates III.-IV., 
Archivfiir Anthropohg if, iii., 1868. 


Very interesting is the neolithic burial-place dis- 
covered at Worms by Kohl and described by him. 
The skeletons were examined by Virchow, and the 
skulls include five dolichocephals between 71.6 and 
73.5, and one mesocephal of 78.7 j 1 that is to say 
that they correspond to the Reihengraber types. 

After these important discoveries at Worms, Pro- 
fessor Mehlis occupied himself with the much debated 

Fir.. 49. Reihcngial>er Skull, rtnlazonoities actt 'tit 
(Von Holder). 

question of the origins of the first Germanic and 
especially neolithic populations. Comparing them 
with the Ligurians of southern France and of Italy, 
he decidedly asserts that these neolithic dolicho- / 
cephals of Germany are also Ligurians. 2 In the 
Italian edition of this book I limited the diffusion of 

1 Kohl, Neue prahisloritche J-'nn It ans Worm* tinii Ungtburg, 
Win ins 1896; Zeidfhri/l fiir F.thiio'o^it, 1897, pp. 464-7. 
* " Die Ligurerfrage," Archivfur Anth.y xxvi., 1899. 


the stock to Switzerland and Great Britain, towards 
the west and north, and for lack of personal observa- 
tion would not venture to go beyond these limits 
towards the centre and north of Europe. But a visit 
to Germany, a year later, which afforded me an 
opportunity of observing the Reihengraber cranial 
types, together with Dr. von Holder, convinced me 
that they are of the same stock which peopled the 
Mediterranean. Its diffusion was therefore more 
extended than I had believed, and I then decided 
to declare my opinion, and wrote a note on the 
so-called Reihengraber type and its relation to 
Mediterranean types. 1 Now, without attaching im- 
portance to the racial name of Ligurian, I note with 
satisfaction the opinion of a German, who finds 
convergence or even identity of stock between the 
neolithic population of Germany and the Ligurians 
of Italy and France. Thus we are on the right road, 
and the Teutonic problem of the Aryans begins to 
find in Germany itself its natural solution: the so- 
called Reihgngrabcr types are not Germanic Aryans, 
but belong to the pre- Aryan population. 

Bohemia. Here we are still on German territory; 
that is to say, the primitive neolithic population is the 
same, and shows the same characters; the region now 
Slav was not yet Slav, just as it is not Teutonic in 
the region where German is spoken. 

Near Lobositz on the Elbe, Weinzerl of Prague 
discovered a vast burial-place, which he has fully 
described. 2 In its deeper strata the burial-place is 

1 " Ueber die sogennnnten Reihengral>er-typus," Centra.'blatt. f. 
Anth., 1898. 

3 "Die prahistorische Wohnplntz uml die Begranisstatte auf der 
Liisskuppe sudostlich von Lobositz," Zt. f. Ethnologic, 1895; 1897, in 
Verhandlungen, pp. 42 et seq 


neolithic, containing graves in which the bodies had 
been buried in the earth in a crouching and bent 
position, then graves showing a stage of transition, 
then graves where incineration had been practised, 
and finally Roman graves. In subsequent years Wein- 
zerl made new discoveries in the same district; the 
skulls were of the dolichocephalic form already noted, 
and as evidence that the long-headed neolithic popu- 
lation were different from the later population 
possessing bronze and burning their dead, instances 
were found in which the neolithic stiatum of graves 
lay beneath the stratum belonging to the bronze 
age. 1 I can find no difference between these graves 
and those found by Kohl in the Teutonic district 

Dr. Matiegka has examined various Bohemian 
neolithic graves, in which the bodies are bent, as in 
almost all the neolithic graves of Europe, as well as 
of Egypt, and he gives indices of the skulls which 
are exactly those of the Germanic dolichocephals. 2 

I could enumerate other burial-places in Bohemia, 
as well as in Slav districts outside Bohemia, illustrat- 
ing the same fact: that the first inhabitants of the 
region possessed cranial characters resembling those 
of the primitive populations of the Mediterranean, 
and belonged to the same family. 

Scandinavia. I have already remarked that in 
the Scandinavian peninsula no trace of palaeolithic 
man can be found, so that the country was only 
inhabited from the neolithic epoch. I have also 
quoted the opinion of the Scandinavian naturalist, 
Andersen, who, in studying the fauna and flora of 
the peninsula, and considering the conditions of the 

1 Let. tit. 

* //rofy u ikrunjrwi kosliami v Cethdtk, I'rogue, 1892. 


climate, concludes that the importers of neolithic 
civilisation must have been immigrants from Africa 
and the Iberian peninsula. My own studies and 
observations of the physical characters of the skeletons 
of Scandinavia bring me to the same conclusion, 
more especially since I have come to see that the 
Reihengraber Germanic type represents a northern 
race of African origin. 1 

Retzius long since concluded -that in Scandinavia, 
as in Holland, the form of the skull of the primitive 
inhabitants was elongated or dolichocephalic ; 2 the 
graves of the stone age bore witness to this fact, 3 
which is fully confirmed by the persistence ot this 
type up to the present, in spite of the infiltrations of 
a new and different people. 

Justus Barth of Christiania has studied 161 Nor- 
wegian skulls from the ancient city of Tonsberg, 
and elsewhere in the south-east of Norway; they are 
some five hundred years old, as well as other skulls 
of the Viking age, that is to say, the iron age and the 
immediately preceding period. Now 153 such skulls 
have yielded the following results: Dolichocephalic, 
64 (41.8 per cent); mesocephalic, 80 (52.3 per cent); 
brachycephalic, 9 {5.9 per cent). If, on the grounds 
previously given, we regard the dolichocephalic and 
mesocephalic as a single type, we have the enormous 
majority of 144, or 94.1 per cent, against 5.9 per cent, 

" Among these skulls," this author remarks, " is 
frequently met a very distinct form which I have 

1 Arii e Italic!, cap. vi. , ix. 

3 Ethnologische Schriften, Stockholm, 1864. 

3 Arbo, "Ossements humains de 1'age de la pierre en Norw^ge," 
Revue cCAnth., 1882; cf. Congrls inter not. d'Anth. prthist. <J Stock- 
holm, 1874, discussion by Dr. Diiben. 


termed ' Viking type/ since a large number of 
characteristic and noteworthy specimens belong to 
the Viking epoch, both in the Museum of the 
Anatomical Institute at Christiania and elsewhere. 
This type cannot be claimed as peculiar to Norway; 
it is an archaeo-Germanic type, to judge from its 
agreement in form with the type long known as 
Reihengrabcr. The Viking type is not only found 
very frequently amidst ancient Norwegian skulls, but 
also among our contemporaries, especially in dolicho- 
cephalic and mesocephalic regions." l 

I here reproduce (Fig. 50) from Barth's Plate II. 
the skull called " Viking type," or rather one of such 
types; it is a very fine specimen of acute pentagonoid ; 
the other plates show various ellipsoid forms, neither 
more nor less than the Reihengraber and Mediter- 
ranean types. 

Certainly it is not to be expected that throughout 
Norway and in the interior of the peninsula the old 
Viking type should predominate, for from the bronze 
age onwards new peoples migrated into Scandinavia, 
although in less number than in Central Europe. 

From Arbo's studies of the living population, it 
appears that there are districts where the ancient 
type still predominates to an enormous extent, and 
others where the brachyccphals predominate. Thus 
he found in Nordre Osterdal that the brachycephals 
were 43.3 per cent ; in Soudre Osterdal, 23. t per cent. ; 
in Nordre Guldbrandsdal, 12.7 per cent.; in Soudre 
Guldbrandsdal, 29.3; Kyfylke, 68.6; Joderen, 81.9; 
Dalarna, 75.8; Stavanger, 55.8. 

On this point Arbo makes an important observa- 

1 O tiniii antnjua in par It at Uiitali Noi wtgi*c Met iJianaJis iirve/i/a, 
Christian i.i, 1896. 



tion. " While in the Stavangcr district," he writes, 
" the brachycephalic racial element predominates 
from the sea towards the mountains, in that of Lister- 
Mandal (West Agder) there is a successive diminu- 
tion of this element from the west towards the east, 

FIG. 50. Skull of Viking type from Norway, Pentagjuoida 
acutus (Barlh). 

with corresponding increase of the dolichocephals and 
mesocephals ; but in a still more marked degree from 
the sea to the culminating point of the valleys, which 
here run north and south. Thus, while the average 
index towards the coast and in the low valleys is still 


brachycephalic (at least as we go towards the east), 
it becomes mesocephalic in the high valleys." 1 This 
shows that the ancient long-headed population was 
pushed up the valleys by the broad-headed immi- 
grants, who, as may be seen from Arbo's plate of 
cranial types, have cuneiform and platycephalic 
heads. 2 

The fact that the primitive inhabitants of Scan- 
dinavia, if we leave out of question the Lapp 
infiltration, are of the same physical type as that 
termed Reihengraber wrongly believed, especially 
by German anthropologists, to be the genuine Aryan 
together with their persistence even to-day, in 
spite of foreign immigration, Lapp, Finnic, German 
Aryan, from every side, have led to the illusion of 
Penka and others concerning the European origin of 
the Aryans, whose cradle has been sought precisely 
in Scandinavia. I have elsewhere brought forward 
good reasons to show that the Scandinavians occupied 
the peninsula only from the neolithic epoch, when the 
Aryan invasion drove the ancient stock towards the 
north, that is to say, towards the Baltic, where a 
portion of them crossed into Scandinavia and settled 
To-day the cranial and skeletal facial forms show the / 
relationship of the Scandinavians to the Mediterranean / 
and African stock, while in other physical characters, 
such as stature and pigmentation, they constitute a 
distinct variety. Kcanc has objected to this relation- 
ship : " Hut too much seems to be built on the 
common characters of these dolicho skulls, the two 

1 Aibo, Fortsat.'e Bidrag til Nonlnntn tenet An'Mro/vlogi, Chris- 
tinuia, 1895-1897; " La Carte <\c I'lndice ccphnlique en Noru- 
I.'Anlhrofoh^it, 1887. 

1 Cf. op. fit., iii., 1805 pp. 20 21. 



races being in most other respects quite different, the 
northerners tall, almost gigantic blonds, of robust if 
somewhat coarse physique, the southerners dark, 
short or medium-sized, with finely-proportioned but 
slender figures." x When dealing with the physical 
characters of the Eurafrican variety, we shall see 
what weight should be attached to this objection. 
Moreover, it is not merely dolichocephaly which 
unites the two varieties, but the existence of cranial 
variations common to both. 

FIG. 51. Kurgan Skull from Tver, EllipsoiJts embolicus (Sergi). 

Russia. The first skull from Russia attributed 
without doubt to the stone age was discovered by 
Count Uvarof in the Government of Volosovo; it 
was examined by many, and showed a cephalic index 
of 80. Numerous skulls have been discovered since, 
though not always examined, among them some 
painted with red ochre, such as have been found in 
Bohemia, Germany, and Italy, especially in Ligurin, 

1 A fan Past and Present, pp. 513^4. 

RUSSIA. 227 

and then in Latium and Sicily. 1 Those examined 
according to craniometrical methods are dolicho- 
cephalic or mcsocephalic ; both alike, as well as the 
conditions under which they were found, bear witness 
to the presence of the stock which peopled the south 
and centre of Europe. 

It is also interesting to know the results yielded by 
the numerous kurgans (or tumuli) of Russia. These 
kurgans are to be found from the Black Sea to the 
extreme north of the Empire. In 1892, at the time of 
the International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- 
historic Archaeology, I was able to study a large 
number of skulls from the kurgans in the Moscow 
Anthropological Museum. I well remember the 
surprise I experienced on unexpectedly meeting 
cranial types already known to me, types I had 
studied in Italy, and had found in the peninsula 
itself or the islands, a type which had belonged 
to the ancient Greeks and the Egyptians of the old 

When publishing a catalogue of the varieties found 
in Russia, 2 I wrote as follows : " I venture to say 
that when I am able to publish my complete study 
of ancient Russia, much that is now accepted in 
anthropology will undergo change. The methods 
hitherto adopted, uncertain and unfruitful, together 
with historical traditions modified by various scientific 
formulae, have assigned an Asiatic origin to the primi- 
tive peoples of European Russia. Nor is this the only 

1 Cf. summaries in A rthivfiir Anlh. , xiv. , 1882, xxvi., 1899; Sticda, 
- dor Kussischcn Litcralur ; Kin (loin Slcnalter angehoriger 
!el, von Tichomirow ; '' Sergi, Ligmi e Celti nella valle del /', 
Florence, 1883. 

'-' " Vnricta umanc dclla Russia e del Mediterraneo : Calalogo 
sistcmatico," Atli delta Socie'h romana di Anlrofologia, Rome, 1894. 


error which we see to-day through the abundance of 
accumulated facts of observation, and the comparison 
of human varieties in the Mediterranean ; it is Africa 
which, above all, has contributed the chief number of 
varieties to the Mediterranean and to southern and 
eastern Europe ; Asia came later, to furnish an 
clement which has been superposed at a relatively 
recent date, and which has not greatly modified the 

FIG. 52. Kurgan Skull from Ccrnikov, BeloiJts 
agyptiacus (Sergi). 

racial elements of the Mediterranean, though it has 
somewhat cnanged those of Russia. Sure and un- 
questionable Evidence of this is furnished by the 
human heads from the kurgans and the old Russian 

In examining and determining the cranial forms 
which I found in *he Moscow Museum, I followed 
the method of the zoologist, who, when visiting a fresh 
region of the earth, and arranging the genera and 

RUSSIA. 229 

species and varieties of its fauna, adopts the existing 
names of recognised forms, and determines the geo- 
graphical distribution of animals. Among the forms 
I examined I recognised forms I already knew as 
belonging to the Mediterranean, the fine pentagonal 
forms, ellipsoids and ovoids, with the same characters 
they possess in the Mediterranean : I saw also the 
secondary forms due to various migrations of peoples 

1*IG. 53. Kurgan Skull from Smolensk, 
acutus (Sergi). 

at the mo^t remote epochs, and I became convinced 
that the first colonists of southern Russia came from / 
the Mediterranean. The road they traversed must 
have been the Pn>i><>ntis, by the Hlack Sea, and the 
Chersonese. If the Mediterranean elements may be 
found as far as the tumuli of the north and I saw 
some from near Lake Ladoga and St. Petersburg 
the fact may easily be explained when we think 


of the slow infiltration and penetration of racial 
elements, either by mixture with other stocks or 
by the subjection -and displacement of peoples. 

It may not be uninteresting here to refer to the 
opinion of Bogdanof, who has had every opportunity 
of examining the cranial types of the kurgans, and 
has described them in many special memoirs. He 
finds that the primitive population of Russia was 
long-headed, and clearly distinct from the brachy- 
cephalic population which came later, and that this 
primitive population, instead of disappearing, became 
mixed with the invaders, still preserving numerical 
preponderance, as the proportions between dolicho- 
cephals and brachycephals in different tumuli, as at 
Cernikov, Tver, Novgorod, and elsewhere, clearly 
shows. Moreover, he affirms that these dolicho- 
cephalic skulls are not different from the so-called 
Reihengraber types of Germany, nor from the ancient 
Swedish skulls ; and I may add that neither are they 
different, as I have many times found, from those of 
the Mediterranean. Hence Bogdanof concluded, in 
his special report to the International Congress of 
Prehistoric Anthropology at Moscow, that the original 
population ot Russia was dolichocephalic, with well- 
formed, clear-cut forehead, not receding, and long face. 
Since these Russian long-heads are also found in 
other European lands, such as Austria, Germany, 
Sweden, and probably Denmark, he thinks that they 
are best called the primitive dolichocephalic and 
leptoprosopic Europeans. He excludes, therefore, the 
populations of the south, which he believes to be of 
another origin. In this, as I have already said, he 
errs, but he approaches the truth when he admits 
that the so-called primitive Teutons, primitive Slavs, 

RUSSIA. 231 

primitive Danes, primitive Swiss, constitute a primitive 
European population (Urenropder)* Doubtlos the 
true Germans, Slavs, Danes, and Swiss are later and 
not belonging to the prehistoric populations. 

Bogdanofs principal conclusions concerning the 
inhabitants of Russia agree with my examination of 
the skulls collected from the kunrans and studied 

FIG. 54. Kurgan Skull from Moscow, 
Ellipsoides africtu (Scrgi). 

by the Russian anthropologist. They only differ in 
this, that he excludes the prehistoric inhabitants of 
southern Kuropc, while I consider that these, like 
ihose of central and western as well as northern and 

1 Cf. Ankiv fiir A nth., vol. xiv., 1882, xxvi. 1889, summary by 
Siicda of Russian anthropology; Bogdanof, "Qucllc est la Race la 
plus anciennc <le la Russic Ccniralc ? " Moscow International Congress, 


eastern Europe, have a single origin in Africa. I also 
find that primitive types prevail in the kurgans and 
diminish in the Moscow cemeteries of the sixteenth 
century. Of 1,160 skulls studied, in fact, I found 
that among the primitive population 56.56 were of 
the Mediterranean or Reihengraber type, and 43.43 
per cent foreign, while in the Moscow cemeteries the 
old population appeared diminished, being 45.58 per 
cent., and the new arrivals were 54.61 per cent 1 
Bogdanof himself had written that the dolichocephalic 
population gave way to the brachycephals. 2 

There can be no doubt that southern Russia 
especially, like the whole of western Europe, received 
its first inhabitants from Africa : the cranial types 
remain to attest the common origin (Figs. 51-54). 

1 Seigi, "Al Congresso di Mosca," Alti Soc. rom. Ant., vol. v., 

2 " Beschreibung von Schadeln aus alien Moskauer Bcgrabnisstatten," 
summary by Stieda, Archiv, tit., xiv., 1882. 



The Etnopean Pigmies The Neolithic BrachycephalsThe 
End of the Diffusion ami the Nnv Invaders of Europe. 

The European Pigmies. If we may affirm the uni- 
formity of the racial types in the populations of the 
Mediterranean family within and without the great 
basin, it must not be supposed that these types alone 
constituted the populations I have rapidly sketched ; 
in the midst of these are other types with physical 
characters plainly revealing another stock, or even 
other African stocks, which have mingled with the 
stock whose history I have attempted to outline. 

These stocks are inferior in the physical characters 
they present, of little or no aesthetic beauty, and of 
inferior development as regards cranial capacity and 
stature. They constitute a secondary, I might say 
accessory population, of little historical importance 
in the development of Mediterranean civilisation and 
the expansion of the chief stock. 

Even this secondary population may be followed 
in analysing the racial elements which have composed 
the nations within and without the Mediterranean, 
and it is their head forms, shown in the skulls, which 
icvcal the characteristic differences separating them 
from the dominating and directing stock. Attention 
may specially be directed to a stock which some 


years ago I discovered in the Mediterranean and in 
Russia, of single origin but mixed with the families 
of peoples already described, and also coming, as I 
am led to believe, from Africa : I refer to the pigmy 
microcephalic stock. 1 

In various parts of Italy I have found heads so 
small, though normal in anatomical constitution, that 

FlG. 55. /Eneolithic Skull from near Volterra, Italy, 
Sphcuoides latus (Sergi). 

I have been obliged to call them microcephalic, like 
others I have seen from Melanesia. 2 I have seen 

1 See "Varieta umane microccfaliche e pigmei d'Europa,''.50/'/////M 
Accad. medico, di Roma, xix., 1893; " Ueber die europaischen Pyg- 
miien," Communication to Congress of Innsbriick, Corrcspondenz-Blatt 
der Deutschen anthropol. Gescllschaft, n. IO, 1894. Cf. "I Pigmei 
d' Europa," Nncn-a Antologia, Rome, 1893. 

See my classification in "Variela umane della Melanesia," Boll. 
Afcad. medica di Roma, 1892; "-Le varieta umane, Principi e metodo 
di classificazione," Alti Societil romana di AntropoJogia, vol. i., Rome, 
; Specie e Varictb Umane, ft'/., 1900. 



similar types from the kurgans and ancient burial- 
places of Russia, and among the skulls which in the 
Mediterranean pass under the name of Phoenician. 
The types or shapes of these skulls are different, for 
the most part, from those belonging to the great 
stock, and they often present characters of inferiority 

Fie. 56. Eurafrican Skull from Abyssinia, Ellifsoides 
idts (Sergi). 

in their structure. Many, including all those I have 
measured and consider to belong to the pigmy stock, 
are inferior in cranial capacity to the Nigritoes, or 
eastern pigmies. 

The study of the living population in Italy, from 
the point of view of stature, confirms the indications 
derived from examination of the skulls as to the 


existence of a pigmy population. I found that among 
the male population at twenty years of age there were 
1.63 per cent, individuals between 1.25 m. and 1.45 m., 
and 14.49 per cent, between 1.25 m. and 1.53 m. 
Calculating together the male and female population, 
considered as thirty millions, there would be in 
absolute figures 978,000 male and female pigmies 
between 1.2501. and 1.45 m, and 4,347,000 between 
1.25 m. and 1.55 m., an enormous number for a popu- 
lation of thirty millions. 

The low stature, the structure of the head, various 
external physical characters and peculiarities of the 
skeleton of the face and its fleshy coverings, led me to 
infer that in very ancient times there was an invasion 
of pigmies from Africa into the Mediterranean, also 
invading Russia and probably other European regions. 
It must also be supposed that the external physical 
characters have been modified by the long stay in 
Europe, and by mingling with the tall and fine stock 
from which hybrid forms would be derived. 

The discovery of pigmies in neolithic graves of 
Switzerland confirmed my opinion as to their origin, 
more especially as in these graves were found orna- 
ments formed of shells of Mediterranean origin, and 
as the head type in these Swiss pigmies resembled 
some at least (for the Swiss pigmies were few in 
number) that I had studied among the pigmies of the 
Mediterranean and Russia. 1 Kollmann, on the other 
hand, refuses to accept an African invasion, and 
regards the pigmies as earlier than the tall race, 
which was derived from them a theory which I 

1 Cf. Kollmnnii, "Das Schwcizcrhiltl l>ei Schaflfhausen uml Py.i;m;ieii 
in Europn," Zl. /. Eth., 1894; Crania Helvetica Antiijita, (it., pp. 


cannot regard as possible. Virchow and Schmidt, 
again, believe that they only represent individual 
variations, and not a separate stock or racial variety. 1 
These two anthropologists regard the pigmies as indi- 
vidual variations, because they believe that a people 
constitutes a race and not a composition of elements 
of different races a common error among anthro- 
pologists, though this is not the place to demonstrate 
it. 2 

The geographical distribution of these pigmies 
further confirms the belief in their African origin; 
they must have mixed with the tall stock and 
followed it in its migrations through Europe, just as 
they have formed an inferior stratum of the Mediter- 
ranean population. In Italy they are especially 
common in the southern provinces and in the islands 
of Sicily and Sardinia, while they are much less 
frequently found in the Po valley and in Piedmont, 
where, indeed, there seem to be almost none. 

Of other minglings, not numerous, it is true, there 
is no need to speak here. They seem to show, how- 
ever, that even at very remote epochs men, either 1 
individually or in more or less numerous bodies, have 
moved from their places of origin and mingled with y 
other peoples. 

The Neolithic Brachycephals. In reading Salmon's 
fine study of the neolithic skulls of Gaul, we meet 
with interesting statistics of the cranial types ; of 
688 neolithic skulls examined, 397 are dolicho- 
cephalic, 145 mcsocephalic, and 146 brachycephalic, 

1 Virchow, festsitzung der Btr'.in GeselUchaft Verhandlungtn, ijth 

1894; Schmidt, d'/wiit, No. 4, 1895. 

* Cf. my note, " Intorno ai Tiymci d' Eurupa," Att. Soc. rotn. di 
.-////., vol. ii., 1895; ilso Sfffie e I'ariet,) ( *///.;//<, 1900. 


It, according to my criterion, we unite the dolicho- 
cephalic and mesocephalic, they constitute 78.8 per 
cent, of the whole, and the brachycephalic 21.2 per 

These brachycephals are found not only in the 
neolithic graves of France ; they are also found in 
Italy. In the Buca della Fate of Monte Tignoso, 

FIG. 57. Eurafrican Skull from Abyssinia, EliipsoiJes 
cuntattts (Scrgi). 

near Livorno, many years ago, a neolithic grave 
yielded several human skeletons; two skulls only 
were preserved, and these are now to be found in the 
Rome Museum of Anthropology; one of them is 
brachycephalic of cuneiform type. Near Volterra 
also a similar grave has yielded similar skulls, to be 
found in the Rome Museum (Fig. 55). Prehistoric 



Sicily, of the first Sicul period, according to Orsi's 
classification, shows similar cuneiform brachyccphalic 

How are we to interpret these facts ? 

In another work 1 I have shown how the pacific 
infiltration of new elements reaching Europe from 
Asia may explain the presence of such human types, 
before the great invasions which so greatly changed 

FlG. 58. Eurafrican Skull from Abyssinia, 
Ptntagonoide* acutus (Sergi). 

the anthropological face of Europe. I still maintain 
the same opinion in spite of some objections. These 
new racial elements in no respect changed the customs 
of the neolithic population with which they mixed ; the 
immigrants accepted those customs entirely, including 
those which touch the deepest feelings, those referring 
to burial ; that is to say that they adopted inhumation. 

1 Arii t Ilalid, pp. 130 et teq. 


Nothing new is indeed seen, except here and there 
the presence of copper objects. 

This has, with justice, led to the belief that the 
presence of the brachyccphals is confined to the close 
of the neolithic period and the introduction of copper; 
in Italy this period is termed cencolitJiic, that is to say, 
the period of copper and polished stone together. 
To this period are ascribed the graves of Cantalupo, 
Monte Tignoso, Volterra, and others similar ; we are 
already at the dawn of the age of metals. 1 In France 
it is difficult to discern the epochs so distinctly, but, 
doubtless, here also, as in Italy, the neolithic brachy- 
cephals must have arrived in the last or aeneolithic 

As regards the brachycephals with cuneiform 
skulls, in the neolithic graves of Sicily, I have shown 
that they are of Asiatic type, their arrival being due 
to the varied relations of Sicily with the eastern 
Mediterranean in prehistoric times, as clearly wit- 
nessed by the 'presence of objects of pre- Phoenician 
character. 2 This is not, however, the opinion of 
Professor Keane, who in his very important recent 
work believes it may be admitted that some of 
the European brachycephals arrived from Africa 
together with the dolichocephals. 3 He seeks to 
justify this opinion by the existence of certain 
brachy cephalic types found by Collignon in the 
present population of the island of Gerba and in 
Tunis. I have, however, already pointed out that 

1 See Colini, "II scpolcrelo di Remcilcllo e il periodo eneolitico in 
Italia," Bolletlinodi Paletiiologfa Ilaliana, 1899-1900. 

* " Crani preistorici della Sicilia," Alt. Soc. rom. Antrof., vol. vi. , 
i., 1899. 

3 Man Past and Piestnf, cit. , pp. 454 el teq. 


the present state of a population which has been 
mixed during a long series of historical periods, 
cannot, except in special cases, lead us to any safe con- 
clusions regarding the primitive population. More- 
over, the Roknia skulls, although possessing a 
brachycephalic index, belong to known Mediter- 
ranean types, as I have previously stated (Chapter 

We may be perfectly assured that the truly brachy- 
cephalic types of Italy, Spain, and France are of 
Asiatic origin, some arriving from the cast by sea, / 
like those of Sicily, others coming by land, either 
from the cast or north, like the Lapps; they preceded 
the violent invasions which also came by land. Africa, 
in its homogeneous population, which constitutes a 
Eurafrican variety, has never possessed cuneiform 
and spheroidal brachyccphals as indigenous elements. 

The end of the diffusion, aiui the new invaders of 
Europe. The stock, originating in Africa, which I 
call Mediterranean, because in the Mediterranean it 
developed its aptitudes and civilisations, contiibuted 
without doubt, from primitive times till the late 
quaternary period, to the population of the whole 
Mediterranean and of many other regions of Europe, 
as I have shown in the preceding pages. Its 
evident traces arc found in the dolmens and caves 
of France, in the Long Barrows of Great Britain, at 
Casa da Moura and Mugcm in the Iberian peninsula, 
in the neolithic graves of Switzerland, in many 
tumuli in Russia, and even as far as the Canaries. 
All these have yielded typical skulls, showing 
the same characters found in the Mediterranean 
populations, whether Iberian, Ligurian, Pelasgian, or 
Egyptian, and allied to those of East Africa. More- 




over, there still exist whole Mediterranean popula- 
tions which, in spite of mingling with other peoples 
and of historical vicissitudes, still preserve their 
primitive racial elements. 

Towards the end of the neolithic period, and after 
the first and pacific appearance of the Asiatic tribes 
which insinuated themselves in the midst of the early 
inhabitants, a great anthropological change took place 

FIG. 59. Scandinavian Skull of Viking type. Eurafrican 
species, Pentagonoidcs acuttis (Earth). 

in Europe, affecting even the Mediterranean, although 
in a slight degree. A new and different stock, strong 
and numerous, advanced from the east, and. spread 
through the centre, west, and south of Europe, over- 
flowing the primitive stock, in many regions succeed- 
ing in displacing it, in others in subjugating it This 
stock, being of Asiatic origin, I call Eurasiatic, on 
account of its diffusion in Asia, its place of origin, 


and in Europe, where it succeeded in dominating the 
entire population. 

This new stock is, by its physical characters, visible 
and distinguishable in English burial-places, espe- 
cially the Round Barrows, as has been shown by 
Thurnam and other English anthropologists ; it is 
also seen in France, whence it seems to have passed 

Fir.. Go. Dolicho-cili|is(iid face, Mummy of Ramses II. 
Eurafrican species (Maspero). 

over to the British Isles. In France, the_ells r a 
branch of the new stock, drove back the Iberian 
tribcs/which still continued to live beyond the 
Garonne up to the epoch of Cro-Magnon, while other 
Celtic fractions penetrated Spain, and others ad- 
vanced into the valley of the Rhone and mixed 
with the Iberians and Ligurians. In Savoy and in 
Switzerland they supplanted the primitive popula- 


tion, and achieved nearly as much in the Po valley, 
confining the primitive Ligurian inhabitants within 
the present narrow region of Liguria at the foot of 
the Apennines. 

At the same time these Asiatic invaders, afterwards 
receiving the racial names of Germans and Slavs, 
spread into Germany, Bohemia, the valley of the 
Danube, extending into the Balkan peninsula, and 
as far as Asia Minor. It was at this period that 
Scandinavia was peopled, for the primitive inhabitants 
of the European continent were driven towards the 
north by the new invaders, reaching the Baltic Sea, 
and thence the Scandinavian peninsula. Here the 
remains of the ancient stock of African origin are 
very numerous, even more so than in northern Ger- 
many. Here also they acquired a special physiog- 
nomy well known to-day as peculiar to the Swedish 
and Norwegian populations. 

Thus was introduced an almost general change in 
the races of Western and Central Europe, England, 
France, Southern Germany, Switzerland, and Russia, 
while a partial change took place in the Mediter- 
ranean regions of Europe. Where the new stock met 
with more resistance only a few sporadic elements 
were able to find admission ; where it found le?s it 
mixed with or completely supplanted the old popula- 

Italy, as I have said, except in the Po valley, 
remained as in primitive times, few new elements 
being introduced into its stock ; the population of 
the centre, the south, and the islands, although con- 
taining elements of Asiatic origin, was not changed 
because the elements that prevailed are still primitive, 
a composition of the various branches Iberian and 

Till: l.NI) OF THE DIlllMnN, 1 2.\$ 

Ligurian, Pclasgian and Libyan of the African or 
Mediterranean stock. The Iberian peninsula may 
also boast that its old stock is preponderant In 
Greece and Asia Minor the concourse of foreign 
elements was much greater, while Egypt, in spite of 

r'u;. Gi. Duliclin -cllip.-xml face, Micsa of Uganda. 
Kurafrican species (Stanley). 

the afflux of many peoples, still preserves much of its 
old stock. The rest of Africa has undergone mixture, 
even very recently, but its new elements arc mostly 
of Arabian and very seldom of Asiatic origin. 

lint even when the racial physiognomy has been 


totally changed, the ancient Mediterranean stock has 
not altogether disappeared. English anthropolo- 
gists note it as still existing in their country, 1 and 
so also the French. In Russia I have observed traces 
of the Mediterranean race among the numerous and 
varied stocks composing the population, as also I 
have been able to recognise it in the skulls from the 
kurgans and the cemeteries of recent historical times. 
In Scandinavia, as before pointed out, the remains of 
the ancient stock are most numerous of all. 

1 In a recent book (John Rhys and David Brynnior Jones, The 
Welsh People, 1900) the African origin of the primitive population of 
Great Britain has been confirmed. It is here shown that the Neo- 
Cellic language preserves in its syntax the Hamitic and especially 
Egyptian type (pp. 23 et seq., 34, 74). In an appendix (B), written by 
Morris Jones ("Pre- Aryan Syntax in Insular Celtic"), the affinity of 
Hamitic syntax to the Neo-Celtic is more particularly demonstrated, 
and this conclusion reached : "And if iheie is evidence that this is so 
if we find, on comparison, that Neo-Celtic syntax agrees with 
Hamitic on almost every point where it differs from Aryan we have the 
linguistic complement of the anthropological evidence, and the strongest 
corroboration of the theory of the kinship of the early inhabitants of 
Britain to the North African white race " (p. 6lS). 



General Physical Characters The Euraftican Species The 
Eut astatic Species. 

General Physical Characters. It will be seen how in 
investigating the population of the "Mediterranean I 
have been gradually led to extend my researches 
beyond that region, and to obtain wider results. New 
analyses have revealed the racial relationships not 
only of many African populations still inhabiting the 
land of their origin, but also of many European 
populations which have hithcriajEscaped comparative 
analysis, or arc supposed to belong to other human 

It is a necessity of method for every naturalist to 
leave the geographical region which he is studying in 
order to understand the characters of the animal and 
vegetable species distributed in that region; so also 
for the anthropologist when investigating a human 
stock or variety. Like any other naturalist, the 
anthropologist must seek for the geographical dis- 
tribution of a species, its variations, the divergencies 
met in different branches or varieties ; nor must he 
be led astray 'by some divergent character, which 
might suggest some other than its true and natural 



origin, or some affinity which is only due to secondary 

It is this difficulty that we have to meet, as well 
as the fact that these inductions conflict with the 
suppositions of many anthropologists who have 
studied races and peoples by methods which I cannot 
regard as natural methods, as, for instance, by means 
of the external cutaneous characters, or by linguistic 
or by historical methods, which last methods espe- 
cially can never yield acceptable results in physical 

FIG. 62. Ovoid face, Buharin from Nubia. 
Kurafrican species (Scrgi). 

anthropology. I have studied, as a naturalist and by 
natural methods, the Mediterranean stock and those 
united with it by common physical origin. I will 
briefly set forth the conclusions I have reached as 
regards physical characters. 

In another work 1 I have described at length those 
African populations which, by the language which 
many of them speak or have spoken, are called 
Hamitic; these mingle with the African Mcditer- 

1 Africa, cap. x. and xx. 


iniican populations, described in this work, which 
belong to the stock that for some time past I have 
called Mediterranean. The area of geographical 
distribution of these African populations is immense, 
for it reaches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic, from 
the equator, and even beyond the equator, to the 
Mediterranean. In this vast area we find, when we 
exclude racial mixtures, that the physical characters 
of the skeleton, as regards head and face, are uniform, 

Fir.. 63. Ovoid face, Kgypt. Eun-Jiican 
species (Scrjji). 

but that the physical characters of the skin and 
intermediate parts, that is to say the development 
and form of the soft parts, vary. This uniformity of 
the cranio-facial skeletal characters, which I consider 
the guiding thread in anthropological research, has 
led me to regard as a single human stock all the 
varieties distributed in the area already mentioned. 
In the varying cutaneous coloration I see an effect 
of temperature, of climate, of alimentation, and of the 
manner of life. 



Now, to come to the Mediterranean stock, I must 
make the same distinction of physical characters, that 
is to say, external, internal, and intermediate. As 
I have already described it elsewhere, this stock in 

FlG. 64. Long quadrangular face, Shoan. 
Eurafrican species (Traversi). 

its external characters is a brown human variety, 
neither white nor negroid, but pure in its elements, 
that is to say not a product of the mixture of Whites 
with Negroes or negroid peoples. It is generally 



believed that the brown type is derived by mixture, 
and it is placed among varieties of the White race, 
the Mediterranean peoples being thus made a branch 
of that race. This scarcely seems to me exact, for 
from the behaviour of the external characters in our 
Mediterranean variety they appear to be of primitive 

Fir.. 65. PfBtftgMUd face, a Ci.i'l.i. EuraCrican 
s|>ccics (Tra\xr*i). 

formation, since they arc constant within the limits of 
the populations included under this variety. These 
external characters are the brown colour of the skin, 
eyes (chestnut or black iris), hair, beard, and the hair 
on other parts of the body. 

If we consider the other characters as a whole, we 
find that the body is well formed and proportioned, 


of medium stature, oscillating between m. 1.60 and 
in. 1.70, the nose is either leptorhine or mcsorhine 
(i'e., more or less narrow), the apertures of the eyes 
horizontal and rather large, the lips sometimes thin 
and sometimes a little thick and fleshy, the ears 
standing away from the head, the forehead nearer 
the vertical than receding, and smooth, often short, 
the cheek-bones not high nor too distant from each 
other, the face not flattened, of oval and ellipsoidal 
contour, the neck long and rounded ; in face and 
look and facial gesture there is an expression of 
grace, vivacity, and aesthetic beauty. In the mascu- 
line sex there is well-defined muscularity, the tendency 
to undue fleshiness being rare ; in the women, the 
secondary sexual characters, the breasts and hips, are 
well developed. 

It is the cranial and facial forms that lead us to 
accept the consanguinity of the African Hamites, of 
red-brown and black colour, with the Mediterranean 
peoples ; the 'same characters reveal the consan- 
guinity of the primitive inhabitants of Europe, and 
of their remains in various regions and among 
various peoples, with the populations of the Mediter- 
ranean, and henc,e also with the Hamites of Africa. 
For some time past I have reached the conclusion 
that the so-called Reihcngraber type of the Germans 
and the Viking type of the Scandinavians, being 
identical in character with the Mediterranean and 
Hamitic types, had the same African origin ; the 
populations with these cranial and facial forms in the 
north of Europe arc, as I have shown, of African 
origin, separate branches of the same trunk. 

The objections to be made to these conclusions are 
chiefly two : that these Germanic and Scandinavian 



peoples of long skulls and oval faces arc blonds in 
hair and beard, with white skins and blue eyes ; anJ 
that they are, moreover, of higher stature than the 
Mediterranean brunets. This latter objection has 
been brought forward by Kcanc. 

Flo. 65. Ellipsoid face, Morocco 
species (Monbard). 


Now, as regards coloration, we may admit, as I have 
already admitted, as regards the difference between 
the Mediterranean people and those of east and 
equatorial Africa, that it is the result of many ex- 
ternal conditions. Temperature is one, and perhaps 
the chief, of these conditions; for when we consider 


the residence ol a population during many thousand 
years that is, from the quaternary epoch to the 
neolithic and onwards in a climate where thermal 
action is weak, we must agree that a kind of albinism 
would be produced, and hence a decoloration of pig- 
ment in all parts of the body, especially in the skin 
and its appendages. This phenomenon is general 
in the formation of human races, and gives them 
characters which, once acquired, may be considered 
constant, even with a change of locality. To-day, in 
fact, we see brunets and blonds mixed in various 
climates, without losing the hereditary colour they 
have acquired. 

| We may therefore conclude that as residence under 
the equator has produced the red-brown and black 
coloration of the stock, and residence in the Medi- 
terranean the brown colour, so northern Europe has 
given origin to the white skin, blond hair, and blue 
or grey eyes. I believe we may consider this a 
beautiful example of the formation and variation of 
external characters among a section of the human 
race which from time immemorial has been diffused 
by migrations between the equator and the arctic 
circle, and has focmed its external characters accord- 
ing to the variations of latitude and the concomitant 
external conditions. 

The objection regarding the stature of the Ger- 
manic or Scandinavian-European type scarcely 
appears to me to be stronger. In Scandinavia, 
according to the observations of Hultkrantz and 
Arbo, only a part of the population presents a 
very high stature with respect to other European 
regions, the average being m. 1.69, while the popula- 
tion of the British Isles exceeds in stature that of 


Sweden and Norway. Moreover, we find here and 
therein Kuropc various groups of populations above 
the average stature, as in Bosnia, and in Italy in 
Veneto and Garfagnana, and I have been able to 
observe, though not in compact groups, gigantic 
individuals in the population of Puglia, of Catania, 
and also of Latium. Nor is that all; in east Africa, 
among the Gallas and Somalis, may be found peoples, 
like the Dinkas, of stature higher than m. i./o and 

Ripley explains the greater stature of English and 
some other peoples as partly due to advantageous ex- 
ternal conditions, that is as a product of the social 
environment. 1 I do not dissent from this opinion, 
but I believe that the sociological factor alone is not 
sufficient for the formation of stature ; we have to 
take into consideration other biological conditions, 
external and internal, which it would here be out of 
place to discuss. 

Certainly stature is a character which cannot be 
passed over in the classification of races; but it is not 
a primary character which can destroy the value of 
other characters which already possess an unques- 
tionable importance; it can only serve as a means 
of sub-dividing human races and sub-races, as in the 
present case. 

Thus we may conclude that when we observe 
the peoples of various racial names belonging to 
the Mediterranean stock, including both those in the 
African regions, called Hamitic, and those in the 
north, we sec a large part of mankind exhibiting 
constant and persistent characters, from the late 
tliiatcrnary period to the neolithic period, and from 

1 Rij.lcy, The Races of Europe, p. So. 



that on to modern times. These characters arc those 
of the skull and the face. 

It is not necessary to describe these characters 
further ; but it may be useful to summarise them. 

Throughout this immense stock, from the equator 
in Africa to the Arctic circle in Scandinavia, we have 
found four characteristic and constant cranial forms, 

FIG. 67. Long quadrangular face, Sicily. 
Eurafrican species (Mantia). 

always found together in every region and in every 
clime, with whatever variations in external characters; 
these are the pentagonal (Pentagonoides\ ellipsoidal 
(Ellipsoides)> ovoid (Ovoides\ and the arrow-shaped 
{Beloides). These four forms represent four cranial 
varieties, each with a series of variations which con- 
stitute sub-varieties or sub-forms, corresponding to 


the type to which they belong, and which are dis- 
tributed in different proportions in the groups of 

Together with the cranium and its forms, we have 
to consider the face, both as a whole and in its various 
parts. In a special study I have been able to show 
that the face in its outlines assumes forms analogous 
to those of the skull as seen from above (i.e., in the 
norina verticalis). Ellipsoidal, ovoid, triangular, and 

FIG. 68. KUipsnid face, Sardinia, Iialy. 
Kurafrican species (Sergi). 

p.-uallelogrammatic forms are common to the whole 
Mediterranean stock, and these iforms are associated 
with the cranial forms distinctive of the stock. 1 

The Eurafrican Species. The important question 
arises as to what these cranial and facial forms which 
we have thus found so common in the great basin, as 
well as in the peoples of northern Africa and northern 
Kurope, really represent. I have said that they 

1 See my Specie e I'ariela I'maiif, cap. ix. and Appendix II ; also, c.i p. \\. 



present themselves like the variations of a well 
determined zoological species, for these varieties 
are constant and persistent, always associated 
together in the stock in which they appear, and 
they have thc-ir own particular variations, corre- 
sponding to sub-forms or, as I term them, sub- 
varieties. In other human families 1 have found 
other variations, equally common in the groups and 
branches into which they are divided, and equally 
mixed in the formation of each branch of the family. 
On account of the dissimilar architecture which these 
other cranial forms present with those of the face, it is 
impossible to admit that they are of the same species 
as those belonging to the Mediterranean groups. 
This comparison and a corresponding series of 
variations have convinced me that this human family, 
including so many groups of peoples between the 
equator and the north of Europe, is really a 
zoological species. 

This human species, with cranial and facial 
characters thus well determined, I call Eurafrican; 1 
and this because, having had its origin in Africa, 
where it is still represented by many peoples, it has 
been diffused from prehistoric times in Europe, and 
has formed the basis of the most primitive population. 
This Eurafrican species is not Brinton's race, nor 
Keane's Caucasian race, for it contains none of the 
racial elements with cephalic forms, by some termed 
brachycephalic, which, according to my classifica- 
tion, are cuneiform, spheroidal, and platycephalic; 
these, I consider, belong to another human species. 
My Eurafrican species has absolute uniformity of 
cephalic and facial forms throughout its geographical 

1 Africa, cap. xx. ; Arii e Italici, cap. ix. 


distribution, which is very wide, and beneath what- 
ever colour of skin and hair. 

Practically, we may consider the cranial type 
single, for the four variations are always found 
together, and we may divide the whole Eurafrican 
species into races according to the colour of the 
skin. As I have already pointed out, we have to 
admit that the variations in pigmentation have taken 
place in the long course of ages through the influence 
of environmental conditions ; thus, independently of 
bony variations, races have naturally been formed. 
The Eurafrican species thus falls into three races : the 
African, with red-brown and black pigmentation ; 
the Merfiffrnwtan^of brunet complexion, inhabiting 
the great basin including part of northern Africa, 
formerly occupying Asia Minor, the three great 
peninsulas of Europe, the Mediterranean islands, and 
the Canaries, as well as a portion of western, central, 
and eastern Europe, now difficult to determine ; 
finally, a Nordic race, of blond skin and hair, blue or 
grey eyes, most numerously represented in Scandi- 
navia, north Germany and England. 

Thus the Mediterranean stock is a race or variety 
of the Eurafrican species, and differs from the two 
other varieties chiefly in colour. As I have already 
indicated, it is not confined to the limits of the 
Mediterranean, for to-day populations with the 
identical characters of the stock may be found else- 
where in Europe, as in Great Britain. The varied 
movements of peoples have caused mingling of the 
two varieties, Mediterranean and Nordic, the brown 
and the white, and their descendants show corre- 
spondingly mixed coloration of the eyes, hair, and 

in some 


Other variations have been produced 
regions of Europe where the species is 
variations which may be called regional or local, 
both in stature, in muscular and adipose development, 
and in facial physiognomy. It is easy to understand 
how certain types in the population of Great Britain, 

FlG. 69. Dolicho-ellipsoid face, Italy. 
Euralrican species (Sergi). 

observed by Beddoe, have thus been formed. 1 Such 
variations may constitute sub-races, but in general it 
is enough to say that they constitute the physiognomy 
of a population, for it is important to note that this 
phenomenon is dependent on external physical as 
well as sociological conditions, which may lead into 

1 The Races of Britain, 1885. 



error those who think they distinguish race in a 
people's physiognomy. 

The results I have obtained in the investigation of 
the physical characters of the Mediterranean stock 
have been logically and rigorously drawn from the 
zoological method I have adopted. By means of a 
single character, constant and persistent, we have 
been able to re-unite many populations which 

Fio. 70. Ovoid face, Italy. Eurafrican 
species (Sergi). 

appeared unlike in racial name and in external 
physical characters ; thus we have reconstituted the 
species. The introduction of another character, i.e. 
pigmentation, enables us to make a natural division 
into races ; while a final sub-division is made by 
means of new characters acquired in the different 
regions inhabited by the same species. 1 

1 Cf. Ripley, The Ractt of Europe^ pp. 467 et set/., whcie the same 
conclusions seem to be accepted, at least in part. 



T/ie Eurasiatic Species. The anthropological unity 
of Europe, existing from the late quaternary epoch 
and greatly increased during neolithic times, was 
broken, at first peacefully and to but a slight extent, 
and afterwards violently, by a new species coming 
from Asia. As we have already found, at the end of 
the neolithic epoch the burial-places reveal elements 

FIG. 71. Triangular face. Eurafrican 
species (Sergi). 

foreign to the Eurafrican species, the so-called French 
neolithic brachycephals. These penetrated, slowly 
and sporadically, as far as Italy, peacefully, we may 
suppose, for they produced no change in neolithic 
customs, and they accepted the burial custom of 
inhumation. But then. they began to come in larger 
and hence more turbulent bodies, and caused many 
changes both in the anthropological distribution of 


populations and in customs. These invaders were' 
savages, inferior to the neolithic Europeans, whose 
civilisation they in large part destroyed, re-plunging 
Europe into barbarism, also introducing the new burial/ 
custom of cremation, together with other customs 
which it is not necessary to investigate here, ancj 
transforming the existing languages into their own, 
which was a flexional language. To-day this new \ 
anthropological family, which also constitutes a 
zoological unit, bears three chief names, indicating 
three characteristic linguistic groups that is to say, 
Celts. Germans, and Slays. 

The physical characters of the new people arc 
visible in their cranial and facial forms, which are 
those of the neolithic brachycephals. In various 
writings I have dealt with this people; l it is sufficient 
to mention here that the skull shows four primary 
forms: cuboid, cuneiform or sphenoid, spheroid, and 
platycephalic, all corresponding to broad, brachy- 
cephalic skulls, and not reducible to Eurafrican forms. 
According to my criterion, these forms are varieties 
of an anthropological species, which must be regarded 
as arising in Asia, where we may suppose it had its 
cradle. I term it the Eurasiatic species, because, 
since the invasions just mentioned, it has occupied 
a large part of Europe. Others, with Linnzeus, have 
termed these Asiatics Homo Alpinns; it seems to me 
erroneous, however, to preserve this name, for these 
people are not only found in the Alps but they are 
also found in Germany and France, and they occupy 
the plains of Russia, that is to say a great part of 
Central Europe from cast to west, as well as the 
valley of the Po, which is anything but Alpine, 

1 See, e.g. , Specie e Varied Umane. 



I am convinced that this Eurasiatic species is of 
Asiatic origin; since Ujfalvy has found in the Hindu- 
Kusch the same types that are found in Europe; 1 
and since their cephalic forms are all Asiatic, and 
are found not only among the so-called Aryans of 

FIG. 72 Dolicho-ovoid face, German, Reihengriilicr type. 
Eurafrican species (Von Holder). 

the Hindu-Kusch, but among the Mongols and others. 
I am also convinced that this Eurasiatic species has 
yielded those populations- called Aryan, and to-day 
\ represented by three chief branches, the Celts, the 

1 L*s Aryem au nord et au sud de P f/imioti- /Conch, Paris, 1896; 
Kipley, Kates of Europe, pp. 470 et sftj. 


Germans, and the Slavs; while the populations, out- 
side these three branches, which have been called 
Aryan on linguistic grounds, i.e., the Latins, 
Hellenes, and Germans of the Reihcngrabcr type, 
are not Aryans, though Aryaniscd in language. I 
am, finally, convinced that these Aryans when they 
invaded Europe were savages, very inferior in 
civilisation to the neolithic Eurafricans, and that 
hence they were not the importers of a new and 
superior civilisation, as has been stated by those who 
were in ignorance of the real facts. 

This is not the place to speak at length of the 
Kurasiatics; on another occasion I propose to deal 
with their physical characters and their primitive 



Architecture of Tombs Culture Writing Language. 

Architecture of Tombs. The burial customs of ancient 
and modern peoples not only present a curious study, 
but they furnish indications of the ideas and feel- 
ings which peoples have cherished regarding human 
existence. There are two forms of burial which may 
be said to be universal: the preservation of the dead 
by various methods, and their destruction by fire or 
other means. It often happens that a burial custom 
may serve to indicate a stock; sometimes it supplies 
important evidence of the presence or dominance of 
some other stock, and at times it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish the effects of the mixture ot stocks. In the 
Mediterranean stock the primitive funeral custom, 
preserved unchanged in many regions, is the preserva- 
tion of \human remains by inhumation; the tomb, in 
its architecture, shows special features peculiar to this 
stock, in all the regions where it is diffused and 
established, although apparently there are differences 
in the external constructions of the graves which at 
first sight would give the impression of varying 

The dominant feature in the tombs of the Mediter- 
ranean stock is to be found in the fact that the dead 


were deposited in more or less spacious chambers, 
whether natural, like grottoes and caves, or artificial, 
and in the further fact which seems, but is not, 
accessory that the tombs emerged above the surface 
and assumed a peculiar form. The grotto or cave, 
if natural, is found in mountains; may 
either be in mountains or beneath the surface in level 
country, but in the latter case an artificial mound of 
earth or stones, or both mixed, may be raised over it 

Flfl. 73. Dolichocephalic Frenchmen of Dordognc. 
species (Collignon). 

The grottoes may contain more than one individual, 
even several families, and the corpses may be deposited 
there at different periods. 

Sometimes, however, it is not possible to excavate 
artificial grottoes on account of the nature of the soil, 
and then they arc constructed with huge stones 
according to the greater or less facilities possessed, 
and the more or less favourable conditions of the 
district A subterranean grotto may thus be con- 
structed with stones, above or beneath the soil, and 


possessing pillars to support the artificial roof. If 
over these constructions earth is piled and a mound 
raised, we have tumuli, long or circular, with a cone 
or rounded, or we have dolmens, which are chambers 
covered by great slabs of stone, and we have more 
perfect constructions made with worked stones. 

Now any one who, in the light of this primitive 
conception, considers the ancient burying-places from 
Asia Minor to Egypt, from Libya to the Atlantic, 
from Greece to Italy and its islands, from the Iberian 
peninsula to Great Britain, in Central Europe and 
in Russia, will find throughout the apparent diver- 
sity of architecture the same essential feature: the 
chambered tomb (of varying size) in which the corpse 
lies, without being covered by earth. 

In the Ligurian Riviera, the Ligurians are buried 
in natural chambers, as also in Vczere in France 
where is found that branch of the Mediterranean 
family called Cro-Magnon from the cave in which 
their ancient remains were found. This cave, it is 
known, with others, including those with Ligurian 
remains, are probably of quaternary age. In the 
Iberian peninsula natural grottoes are employed as 
graves, while artificial grottoes are also excavated 
beneath the surface, similar to those at Syracuse and 
Palermo in Sicily. In the Balearic Islands chambered 
tombs are found beneath the surface, and are more 
complex in their internal construction, as Cartailhac 
has shown ; while at Cyprus Ohnefalsch-Richter has 
discovered some of the same type as those of the 
Siculi and Iberians. Throughout Northern Africa are 
found dolmens and sepulchral tumuli like those of 
France, Britain, and Corsica, and in Russia the early 
kunrans have the same character. 


The most artistic tombs arc found in Asia Minor, 
ulu-rc they arc excavated in the mountains; a I 
celebrated example is that in Lydia described by 
Herodotus, the tomb of Alyattcs, which must have 
been an artistic pyramid. Greece has the treasure of 
Atreus in Myccnas, Sardinia its numerous monuments, 
regarded as mysterious, and Egypt has its pyramids, 
the grandest sepulchral tumuli which a people has 
ever erected. To a careful observer the interior of 
a pyramid, as a sepulchre, is not different from 
a British tumulus, or from a Russian kurgan, or 
from the nurags or the dolmens or the artificial 
grottoes of Spain and Sicily; the differences arc 
according as there is more or less subterranean space, 
as the art is rough and primitive or more advanced 
and perfected. The exterior, it is fairly obvious, is 
different; but a tumulus is a pyramid in embryo, and 
the pyramid is a tumulus in its most magnificently 
colossal form; it is, moreover, well known that the 
pyramids developed out of more modest modes of 
burial. If this were the proper place for such an 
exposition, I could show that the Etruscan chambered 
tomb belongs to the same type as the Egyptian 
pyramids and the tumuli, and that the paintings and 
scenes from real life in the Etruscan tombs arc 
comparable to those of the pyramids. 

Thus, wherever the Mediterranean stock established 
itself, it preserve.! its primitive burial custom of in- 
humation and the characteristic architecture of the 
chambered tomb ; the varying exterior which renders 
the tombs of some regions different, depends on local 
conditions, more especially the nature of the soil, and 
also on the special circumstances of each particular 
branch of the common stock, and the various con- 


dition of development of its civilisation and political 
power, the influences which it had undergone in 
contact with other nations. When, later on, various 
branches of the Mediterranean stock were conquered 
by that Eurasiatic stock which has been called proto- 
Celtic, or by some other Eurasiatic branch; or when 
the new stock only came into relation with the Medi- 

FlG. 74. Islander of Lewis (Hebrides), Northern Race. 
Eurafrican species (Bed doe). 

terranean stock, the influences were reciprocal and 
a noteworthy phenomenon may be observed. The 
conquerors, as may be seen in the English tumuli, 
adopted the funeral custom existing among the con- 
quered, the tumuli and the dolmens, but to some 
extent they at the same time introduced crema- 
tion. Where the contact of the two stocks was 
effected without violence each preserved its own 



custom ; in the terramare of the Po cremation is 
practised by the inhabitants, and the tombs are of 
very poor character, while in the same valley of the 
Po the Ligurians, where they still exist, preserved the 
burial type of the stock to which they belonged, 
adopting cremation also, perhaps from the Eurasiatic 

FIG. 75. Anglian type, common in north and north-east of 
England. Eurafrican specie*, Northern Race (Beddoe). 

peoples. 1 But in the more advanced stage of the 
bronze age in Italy, as at Villanova, where the same 
type of civilisation is found, cremation is the accepted 
funeral rite. These sepulchres are attributed to the 
Umbrians or to the Italic!, typically considered, 

1 Not from Italic influences, as supposed by Pigorini, " I Lipuri nelle 
toml* dclla prima eta del ferro di Golasecca," A(tad. Lined, Rome, 




both by Pigorini, who believes that these Italic! are 
the people of the terrainare, and by Brizio, who 
regards them as Indo- Europeans from beyond the 
Alps. On my part, having shown the unity of the 

FIG. 76. Englishwoman of Plymouth (Devon). 
Eurafrican species (Bediloe). 

Mediterranean stock, and hence the filiation of the 
Italici to that stock, I believe that at that rather late 
epoch, this people, together with the importation of 
bronze, had also undergone the influences of the new 


civilisation as well as of the new burial customs. The 
same thing had happened also in Greece. 

These sepulchral monuments, therefore tumuli, 
dolmens, pyramids, nurags, the constructions of the 
Balearic Islands and those of Pantcllaria, the natural 
and artificial grottoes of the Mediterranean region 
contain the bones of the Mediterranean stock which, 
from the early days during which it peopled the 
Mediterranean and a large part of Europe, dominated 
the sea and the land during so long a period. 

Culture. Any one who, while investigating Euro- 
pean origins, encounters that epoch which French 
ethnologists have called, with De Mortillet, Magda- 
lenian an epoch which may be considered as the 
last European palaeolithic period marvels to find 
artistic products which are wonderful for their realism 
and their technical execution. The bear of the grotto 
of Massat, near Toulouse, the mammoth of La 
Madeleine, the reindeer of the grotto of Thayingen, 
near Lake Constance, the horses, human figures, 
bisons, and other animals carved in bone and horn, 
in large part found in Dordogne, and finally the 
carvings in relief found by Piette at Brassempouy 
and Mas-d'Azil, all show clearly the character of the 
ait at this period, so ancient and so remote from 
modern civilisation. 1 

In my opinion, as already expressed elsewhere, 2 
these prehistoric artists who possessed such developed 
artistic feelings arc the precursors of the historical 

1 Cf. Wilson, " Prehistoric Art ; ..r, the Origin of Art as manifested 
in the work of Prehistoric Man," Ktforl of L r .S. National .Musduit for 
/.?</>, Washing'on, 1898. In this vork, with the aid of clear and 
Itcautiful illustrations, all the prehistoric discoveries >f Kurope ami 
Ainriii M are brought together. 

* Arii /talifi. 




artists who created the marvellous works of Egypt, 
Greece, and Rome. And if it is true, as I have sought 
to show, that a stock coming from Africa was diffused 
during quaternary times throughout the Mediter- 
ranean and over all Europe, and that this stock, by 
me now classified as the Eurafrican species, continued 
its existence into neolithic times, and later in the 

FIG. 77. Norwegian of South Osterdal. Ceph. ind., 70.2. 
- Northern race. Eurafrican species (Arlxj). 

successive ages of metal, it is to this stock that we 
must attribute these artistic manifestations which 
were afterwards to assume such marvellous forms and 
to reach their height in the classic art of the Mediter- 
ranean. This conviction has grown within me as I 
have observed the constant convergence of physical 
characters among the primitive inhabitants of these 
regions, and belief in this unity of the stock is con- 


finned by the persistent artistic tendency which it 
has shown even in epochs so remote. 

The Neolithic age presents a singular uniformity, 
from prehistoric Egypt to Scandinavia, from the 
British Isles to the Black Sea, and throughout the 
whole Mediterranean. This uniformity is chiefly 
shown in the shape and ornamentation of the pottery 
and in the working of the stone, as well as in the 
curious mode of burying the dead, in a doubled-up 
and crouching position, except in rare instances, and 
in the grotto tombs, with chambers of more or less 
artistic character, of which I have already spoken. 
Such uniformity records and confirms the anthropo- 
logical uniformity of the various populations from 
whom these customs and this art proceeded. This 
neolithic uniformity corrects in part the discontinuity 
of the Magdalcnian period, for at present the mani- 
festations of that period do not appear to be so 
continuous or so extended as those of the Neolithic 
period. It is reasonable, however, to believe that in 
quaternary times the population was less numerous 
and less diffused, and that among some portions of 
it the artistic tendency, which we find so advanced 
among other portions, had not yet developed. 

Concerning this epoch, so important in the history 
of mankind and especially in the history of the Eur- 
african species, we possess to-day valuable documents 
in prehistoric Egypt and in the eastern Mediterranean, 
in both which regions a very archaic indigenous civilisa- 
tion appears. In fact, the discoveries of 1'ctrie, of Amc- 
lincau, and of DC Morgan show that prehistoric Egypt 
was not influenced by any oriental civilisation, as many 
authors have been inclined to believe. I have, however, 
already dealt with this matter, and have concluded that 


the historical Egyptian civilisation is a continuation 
and a development of the prehistoric, so that there is 
no need to assume an Asiatic immigration. Certainly 
we cannot absolutely exclude all relations with Asia, 
on account of the proximity of Egypt to that region, 
but the prehistoric civilisation of Egypt is purely 
Libyan, and in comparison with contemporary Euro- 
pean civilisation very developed, as may be seen by 
its products and by the exquisitely worked flints. 

If we turn to the facts revealed at Cyprus we find 
for the most part a confirmation of the views here 
expressed regarding the origins of Mediterranean 
civilisation. And as I have already said, Ohnefalsch- 
Richter's fresh explorations in this island have lately 
shown how ancient the civilisation there is, anterior 
to any Asiatic influence, even anterior to the corre- 
sponding periods at Hissarlik. He has also affirmed 
the relationship of Cyprus with the Nile valley, since 
a common civilisation existed in prehistoric times and 
an exchange of manufactures. This civilisation is 
not Asiatic, but indigenous and very ancient; it may 
be termed Afro-Mediterranean. 

Asiatic influences came later, perhaps some thousand 
years later, if the first Cyprus period, as Ohnefalsch- 
Richter concludes, is anterior to the last Hissarlik 
stratum, which stratum, it appears to me, cannot be 
considered Asiatic, though situated in the Troas, but 
Mediterranean, since it is exempt from Mesopotamian 
and Hittite influence and common with the primitive 
Mediterranean civilisation, that of Cyprus especially, 
so as to lead Ohnefalsch-Richtcr and Myres to regard 
it as an importation from Cyprus. 1 

1 Ohnefalsch-Richter, " Xeues Uber die auf Cypern Ausgrabungen,'' 
''; PP- 39, 353- 


It appears to me also that, in the recesses of the 
eastern Mediterranean, in Libyan Egypt, in the 
western regions of Asia Minor, as well as in the 
western Mediterranean and in Europe generally to 
the north of the great basin, the civilisation that we 
call neolithic, and in its later development, when 
copper was used as well as worked stone, seneolithic, 
is indigenous and free from Asiatic influences. It 
seems to me that in this civilisation we see a unity 
corresponding to that of the Eurafrican species which 
possessed it and created it, although indeed certain 
variations of development and form appeared in 
different districts, due to biological as well as to 
regional causes. In Sicily Orsi has discovered forms 
of primitive civilisation analogous to those of the 
most ancient strata of Cyprus and Hissarlik, though 
in spite of the analogies there seemed something 
special and independent in the civilisation of the 
island, possessing its own peculiar characters. But 
oriental importations soon reached the island, and 
then began imitation. 

By means of the skulls exhumed by Orsi, and 
belonging to his first Siculic period, the yEneolithic 
period, I have been able to show the oriental current 
to the west, especially in Sicily, at that remote epoch. 
Amidst the Mediterranean cranial forms I have found 
foreign shapes which I judge to be of Asiatic origin, 
chiefly from the region of the Caucasus and Armenia. 1 

But while the presence of Asiatic heads in the 
Mediterranean proves relations with the east, it can- 
not be said to disprove the statement already made 
as to the purely indigenous nature of the Afro- 
Mediterranean civilisation. These foreign skulls 

1 "Cranii preistorici ilcllu Sicilia," fit. 


merely show the tendencies of populations to flow 
towards centres of commercial movement, and hence 
to mingle and emigrate with those who are leading 
such movements. We may thus interpret the 
presence of foreign, and especially Caucasic and 
Armenian elements in the west at this remote period, 
together with the absence of the influence of any 
corresponding Asiatic civilisation. This may be seen 
by the objects found, some of them local products, 
and others imported, but always Mediterranean. 

But it was the metallic art, the use of copper and 
bronze, which was destined to change the whole physi- 
ognomy of these ages and develop the latent germs of 
Mediterranean civilisation. While discoveries in Egypt 
seem to show that bronze was only known there at 
a relatively late date, it is now established that at 
Cyprus the use of copper existed at a very remote 
period, anterior, it seems, to the last Hissarlik period. 
Ohnefalsch-Richtcr even doubts the existence of a 
stone age in Cyprus, on account of the very small 
number of flints yet found in the island j 1 and Myres 
also believes that " the stone age is apparently not 
represented in Cyprus as a distinct period of long 
duration ; "' 2 while copper and soon afterwards bronze 
are found in abundance. In 1895 I had already 
written that " the origin of the use of metals in the 
Mediterranean may be found in Cyprus, the island of 
copper ; thence its use was diffused through other 
Mediterranean regions, and through the Black Sea, 
and thence probably by the Danube into Hungary." 3 

1 Op. '/., pp. 32, 300. 

1 " Copper and Bronze in Cyprus and in South-East Europe," four. 
Aifhrop. Inst., Nov. 1897. 

3 Origins e Diffusioiu de/la Slirpe AfeJ : tcrraiiea, pp. 134-5. 

< n.TUki-:. 279 

To-day the fact that Cyprus was the centre of diffu- 
sion of copper and then of bronze throughout the 
Mediterranean and Europe generally, seems confirmed 
by new discoveries, and by explorers like Ohncfalsch- 
Richter and Myrcs, who have been able to show the 
contemporaneous existence, at least in part, of the 
copper age in Cyprus with the late neolithic period 
in other regions ; as likewise it seems to be shown 
that the primitive types ot axes came from this island, 
and were diffused throughout the Mediterranean and 
Europe. 1 

The civilisation which I have termed Afro-Mediter- 
ranean, and which might perhaps be better called 
indigenous A fro- European, was succeeded by more 
or less powerful Asiatic influences, until ue reach a 
new type of civilisation characterised by the art and 
architecture of the city and the acropolis, the so- 
called Mycenaean or ./Egean civilisation. 

To realise the oriental characters in Mycenaean 
art it is sufficient to observe the golden model of a 
temple, found in the fourth sepulchre of Mycenae, the 
siege scene on a silver vase recalling similar if not 
identical representations in Nineveh and Babylon, the 
lion hunt on a bronze blade, certain steles with reliefs 
representing a chariot drawn by a horse, many gem 
intaglios, and very many productions in gold and 
silver. 5 I am therefore surprised to find Flinders 
Petrie, one of the best authorities on the eastern 
Mediterranean, stating that " the whole of the early 
civilisation of the Peloponnesus, commonly now 

1 Op. tit. 

- Schlicmann, Afyken*, Ixindon, 1888; Tsountas and Manatt, Tkt 
Mytenean Age, Indon, 1897; Hall.hcrr and Orsi, Anti(ki(A del? 
ant to i/i Zeus Idco, Florence, 1888. 


known as the ' Mykcnajan period,' is a branch of the 
civilisation of the bronze age in Europe, which had 
but little contact with the East. Gaul, Hungary, 
Italy, Greece, and Libya all enjoyed a simultaneous 
civilisation which brought these countries far more 
into contact with one another than with the Asiatic 
lands which played so great a part in the later-Greece 
culture. 1 

Nor can we attribute any value to the argument of 
Tsountas regarding the supposed northern origin of 
the Mycenxans. Two of these arguments have been 
sufficiently answered by Dorpfeld, I refer to the form 
of the roofs of the Mycenaean houses which Tsountas 
supposes to be gable roofs, and to the basements of 
the houses which, he considers, resemble those of 
the pile huts, both constructions by him regarded as 
peculiar to northern countries. The comparison with 
the terramare of the Po valley, as interpreted by 
Pigorini, is still more fallacious and erroneous, as I 
have shown at length elsewhere. 2 

The opinion of Reinach on this matter, though 
brilliantly set forth in his "Mirage Oriental," 3 scarcely 
seems to me worth discussion. I dealt with it in the 
Italian edition of this work, but I now consider it 
unnecessary to do so, since he has found no followers, 
and his conclusions are indeed contrary to the evident 
nature of the facts. 

For Montelius the Mycetiicans are the Tyrrhenians 
and Pelasgians of Asia Minor, since, he writes, " it is 
evident that the Mycensean civilisation in Greece is 

1 "The Egyptian Bases of Greek History," Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, xi., 1890. 

1 Tsountas and Manalt, cit., pp. xxvii., xxix., xxx., 70, 325; chs. 
iv. , vi., xiv. ; Sergi, Arii c Italici, cap. ii. 

9 L'Ant/iroJtologie, 1893. 


due not only to an influence from another country, 
but to immigration of a new people. That this 
people or at least the great majority of the immi- 
grants cnmc from Asia Minor is proved by the im- 
portant fact, which, however, has not been sufficiently 
noticed, that the Mycenaean tombs are of the same 
kind as those common in Asia Minor. . . . The lions 
on the famous gate of Mycenae and numerous other 
objects point also in the direction of Asia Minor, 
because similar remains have been discovered there, 
but do not exist in Phoenicia or Egypt." 1 He also 
believes, as I have already remarked, that the Tyr- 
rhenians who came to Italy, or the Ktruscans, were 
Pelasgians emigrating from Greece, united with re- 
lated peoples from Asia Minor. 

Ohnefalsch-Richter considers that Arcadians, La- 
conians, Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians, Lycians, all took part 
in Mycenaean civilisation. 2 I am not prepared to 
deny this, and would only remark that it is hypo- 
thetical ; it is possible, even natural, that many racial 
elements should have assisted in the formation and 
expansion of Mycenaean civilisation, but it is difficult 
to determine with precision what these elements and 
their national names were. However this may have 
been, all these racial elements belonged to the 
Mediterranean stock, as localised portions in different 
regions with different names, and my conviction is 
that they belonged to the Pelasgian branch, for this 
branch from prehistoric times occupied, as I have 
already pointed out, the east of the basin, includ- 
ing Asia Minor, the /Kgcan Sea, and the Greek 

1 "The Tyrrhenians in Greece and Italy," tit. 
J Of. (it., pp. 356-365. 


It is very probable, therefore, that the eastern 
importers of Mycenaean civilisation were the Pelasgo- 
Tyrrhenians, as Montelius supposes, united with 
other related peoples having no prominent racial 
names. As we have already seen, the Asiatic immi- 
grants, Pelasgians or Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians, were not 
anthropologically foreign to the Mediterranean stock, 
nor to the primitive inhabitants of the yEgean islands 
and the Peloponnesus, who were likewise Pelasgians. 
These already possessed a pre-Mycenaean civilisation 
in common with the Mediterranean or Afro-Mediter- 
ranean civilisation, and received from the new immi- 
grants new elements of Pelasgic civilisation trans- 
formed and evolved under Asiatic influences, probably 
Mesopotamian and Hittite. 

We then meet with a phenomenon which it is 
important to note, and that is that this so-called 
Mycenaean civilisation in the JEgcan preserved many 
of its oriental characters, so as to render its imme- 
diate derivation obvious, but when it spread towards 
the west and the north, in the Mediterranean and in 
Continental Europe, it began to lose many of these 
characters and to acquire others peculiar to the popu- 
lations which adopted it ; the oriental character thus 
diminished togeth'er with distance from the centre of 
propagation. As the Mycenaean civilisation spread 
in Italy and Spain its eastern character became 
attenuated, and still more as it spread through 
Central and Northern Europe. 

This is natural, since every people receives germs 
from other regions but develops them, imitating an 
art according to its own disposition and earlier condi- 
tions, and thus gives a special physiognomy to a 
product imported from another place. Many forms 


and many artistic motives arc preserved in such a 
migration, but they no longer retain their original 

Sicily offers an illustration of this statement. 
Mycenaean civilisation penetrated there, as Orsi has 
well shown ; and a superficial observation of the 
vases, bronzes, and other objects from Orsi's first 
Siculic period reveals the Mycenaean character of 
many products. But these only represent a part of 
the entire products which have very marked local 
characters, not to be confounded with those of the 
typical Mycenaean or any other products. A local 
centre of production existed, and to this the My- 
cenaean importation was added, as well as imitated 
with more or less success. Nor is this the only 
fact that we observe in Sicily ; the artistic wealth 
which we admire at Mycenae, at Tiryns, at Crete, and 
wherever else Mycenaean culture is found, only exists 
as a mere shadow in Sicily, which seems to repre- 
sent, as it were, the. dusk of the great light from the 
./Cgean, whether from lack of mineral resources or 
from some other cause. 

There is, however, one fact which at first seems sur- 
prising, the presence, that is, of objects of Myccna-an 
character in the first Siculic period, which is an 
it-neolithic period. 1 may refer to the two stones 
which serve to close the tombs, with spiral orna- 
mentation which is crude but of exactly the same 
type as the Mycenaean ornamentation, 1 as well as to 
other imported or imitated objects (Fig. 86). It 
is surprising because the Mediterranean aeneolithic 
period is more ancient than the Mycenaean period, 

1 Cf. Schliomann, Afycettir, fiys 145-157; Otsi, "La Nccropoli di 
Caatclluccio," Bull. Falet, Ila.'iana, xvii., 1872. p. 8j, I'lalc VI. 



and the explanation seems to be that in Sicily the 
anieolithic period lasted on until the Mycenaean 
period reached this district. 

It is in the second Siculic period that we find the 

FIG. 78. Grave-stone from the Siculic Necropolis of 
Castelluccio (Orsi). 

most marked Mycenaean influences, with the fine 
bronze swords and characteristic fibulae. Thus it 
seems to me that what Orsi calls the second Siculic 
period is really the period in which Mycenaean civili- 


sation is most evident and abundant, although products 
of Siculic character neither disappear nor diminish, as 
is clearly visible in the pottery, which, however, as 
Orsi shows, presents different characters in the two 
periods. 1 

I have been led to these conclusions by a recent 
visit to the Archaeological Museum at Syracuse, 
which may be read like a book written in clear 
characters on account of the admirable arrangement 
and order which has been introduced by the dis- 
tinguished director, Professor Orsi, as also in conse- 
quence of the demonstration which he himself has 
courteously given me. 

It is, however, in Italy and the Iberian peninsula 
that Mycenaean culture seems to me to receive its 
western explanation. While in the southernmost 
part of the Italian peninsula we meet with a 
civilisation very similar to the 'Siculic, 2 in the central 
portions, from Latium towards Ktruria, and in 
Umbria and the valley of the Po, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Bologna, we find a culture the 
origin of which has given occasion to various in- 

Thus, as I have pointed out in my A n't e 
Italici, we have three types of culture : one primitive 
and very ancient, the neolithic and amcolithic i.e., 
the Afro-Mediterranean, now conscientiously and 
accurately studied by Colini ; s a second which is 
divisible into two periods, that of pure bronze and 

1 " I.a Nccropoli cli Licodia Eubea," Bull, fns.'i'ufo Gtrm., vol. 
xiii., 1898, pp. 347 el st,j. 

r.itrnni, " I'M Villaggio Siculo presso Matcra ncll' antica Apulia,'' 
Monumenti Antithi, A'. ./...;/. /.ftifei, Rome, 1898. 

* // Sefolcrelo di Rtmedelto-iotto net />/ tifiano e il ftriodo entjhli.o 
in Italia, Parle I., Rome, 1899. 


that of the first iron age ; a third which may be 
termed more particularly Etruscan. 

In the first burial is by inhumation in natural and 
artificial grottoes, or in the absence of these the 
corpse is buried in the doubled-up position, as 
observed in Sicily and elsewhere in the Mediter- 
ranean. This culture is indigenous to the Mediter- 
ranean without any Asiatic influence, but revealing 
the influence of the culture of the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, since copper could only have been imported 
from Cyprus. 

In the second period, including the bronze age and 
the early iron age, burial is by incineration, a funeral 
custom which I hold to be of absolutely Aryan 
origin, as shown by its presence in the whole Po 
valley, in the terremare of the bronze age, and in 
the well tombs of Villanova, of Certosa, of Bologna, 
in Etruria, and part of Latium. But this culture, 
whether of pure bronze, or of bronze with the first 
indications of iron, as found at Villanova and Vetu- 
lonia, is an importation from the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, with influences from that Asiatic culture which 
had now become Mycenaean civilisation. 

The third or Etruscan form of culture is sub- 
stantially the same as the second ; but while the 
second is more ancient, though it has already under- 
gone a transformation, as already pointed out, losing 
in part its Asiatic colouring, so well and clearly 
preserved in the Mycenaean of the .digean, the third 
is a direct Etruscan or Tyrrhenian importation, pre- 
serving better than the second its eastern character, 
though to a less degree than the original Mycenaean 
or Asiatic. 

This may be explained by the fact that while in 


Adriatic Umbria we do not know, except by tradition, 
of any Pclasgian colonies, and hence the culture was 
imported in the form of commercial products and then 
imitated, in Etruria, whatever may be said to th2 
contrary, we possess the certainty that an oriental 
colony has preserved much of the original culture. 
And while in the civilisation anterior to the Etruscan 
period the funeral custom of incineration dominated, 
since Aryan influences prevailed and the culture was 
of Mycenasan origin, in the Etruscan period Aryan 
domination had departed, giving place in the greater 
part of Italy north and south of Etruria to Etruscan 
influence; we hence find a return to the ancient custom 
of inhumation peculiar to the Mediterranean stock. 

Certainly archaeologists have had a difficulty in 
recognising the eastern origin of the Villanova and 
Etruscan civilisation on account of the loss or 
diminution of oriental characters in the passage 
towards the west, where new local centres of culture 
were created, beginning naturally with the imitation 
of importations. This phenomenon may be observed 
elsewhere, in central and northern Europe, as I shall 
have to point out, where the discrepancy is greater 
since the importation is indirect and comes from the 

The signs are so evident, however, that Pigorini 
himself, who persists in associating with the tcrramare 
an Italico-Aryan population and a northern culture, 
has been forced to recognise the relations between 
these old stations and the ./Egcan, though he regards 
these relations as late, a superposition of Mycenaean 
culture over a terramarc culture of other and more 
ancient origin, 1 in opposition to Orsi and Peterscn, 

1 ftnll. a'i /'jftttin. /fa/., vol. xx., p. 173; xxiii., p 85. 


who admit an intimate relationship between the 
ALgcan and the Italic culture of the ten-aware and 
of Villanova. 1 

It is difficult to recognise this fact in the culture of 
the early iron age in Italy, still more difficult to 
recognise the similarity, in some cases even the 
identity, between the bronze terramare products and 
the Mycenaean ; it is so difficult that even yet it is 
denied. To-day, however, after the detailed investi- 
gation, especially by Montelius, of the products in 
question, as well as by such comparisons as those 
made by Orsi, I believe that there is no longer any 
room for doubt. 2 

It is probable, as I have already said, that in its 
introduction into upper Italy, this culture followed 
two roads, one by sea, and the other along the 
Danube and over the Alps. This would also ex- 
plain the later expansion of the Hallstalt culture 
to Watsch, to the whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
and to the extended zone which I have elsewhere 
described. 3 The explanation of the variations which 
we may find is to be sought in local conditions, the 
products being imitated and hence varied with greater 
freedom by the artist 

Let us now, however, turn to the Iberian peninsula, 

1 Petersen, " Comparazione fra le antichiti italiche e le egeo- 
micenee," Bull., fit., xxiii., p. 81. Orsi finds everywhere that the 
bronzes, swords, daggers, and other objects are of AFyceiiiran- 
ter ram are form. 

- The discovery of tombs showing incineration in Apulia and near 
Taranto, in which were found bronze objects like those of the terra- 
mare of the Po valley, and which have improperly been called terra- 
mare, by no means invalidates my conclusions. It is quite possible 
that Eurasiatic tribes of the proto-Slavonic branch reached Apulia by 
sea from the opposite side of the Adriatic. 

3 Arii e Ilalici, p. 145, fig. 38. 


where, in the now celebrated discoveries in south-east 
Spain, we have revealed to us a rich and wonderful 
culture. Here also there are clear and evident indi- 
cations of Mycenaean influence, together with local 
production, 1 which at once gives rise to the idea that 
oriental imports have awakened a latent activity, and 
that the fortunate geological conditions of the 
peninsula, rich in metals, have caused the artistic 
production to rise easily to a level higher than that 
of Sicily, which is poor in metals. Nor is it unreason- 
able to believe, with Orsi, that many Iberian products 
have reached Sicily, and that this island has thus 
been affected not only by direct Mycenaean influence 
but by a reflux and transmuted Mycenaean wave of 
Iberian character. 2 

After Reinach's strange suppositions, however, a 
master-hand like that of Montelius was needed in 
order to delineate the movement of south-eastern 
culture towards western and northern Europe. On 
the basis of a special examination of copper and 
bronze products, and in part also of pottery, Montelius 
reaches the conclusion that the culture associated 
with these two metals one in the pure state and the 
other alloyed with tin reached central and northern 
Europe from the Mediterranean. I will quote his 
own words: "In the countries to the south of the 
northern region, as well as in western Europe, much 
copper and tin are found. In these two districts the 
influence of eastern culture is more ancient than in 
the north, and through this influence a knowledge 

1 Sirct, Iss Premiers Ages dit Mttal lians le snd ' esl at 

'* " Mink-re tli sclce e sepolcri encolitici a Monte Taluto c Monte- 
raccllo," /'//. i'a'ttltn. //a.'., \\iv., 1898, p. 200. 




was acquired of the use of the metal as discovered in 
the east. The northern region, during the stone age, 

FIG. 79. Alphabetiform signs from French dolmens. 

was already in relation with the east through the 
peoples of the south and west. There were two 
roads by which the elements of eastern culture 



reached the north. One, which I call western, 
followed the northern coasts of Africa as far as 
Spain, and through France and by the British Islands 
reached the shores of the North Sea, Germany, and 
Scandinavia. The other, which I call southern, 
penetrating the Balkan peninsula, or coming by the 

FIG. 80. A1phal>cliform signs from Mas-d'Azil (Pietle). 

Adriatic coast, passed along the valley of the Danube 
and continuing along German rivers, especially the 
Moldau and the Elbe, reached the northern sea- 
coasts." 1 

After a scries of comparisons, and evidence derived 

1 " Die Chronologic tier Altcstcn Bronzenzeit in Nord Dcutschland 
iiml Skandinavicn," Archivfiir Anthro(>ologit t xxvi., 1899, p. 465. 


from the products, Montelius thus concludes: "All 
this proves that very soon an influence from the 
eastern Mediterranean, including Cyprus, was exer- 
cised, leading to a knowledge of metals among the 
peoples of the Balkan peninsula and the Danube 
valley." He insists also that, as he had stated many 
years before, bronze reached the north from the 
Mediterranean, and not from the Phoenicians, and 
that it was not even imported by the Celts or the 
Germans. 1 He believes that Italy has been the centre 
of diffusion of bronze manufactures, but that at the 
same time there were many local forms, of which, 
however, the original types may be found in Italy. 2 

From the considerations brought forward by 
Montelius, and harmonising with my own conclu- 
sions, as expressed on various occasions, regarding 
the origins of Mediterranean civilisation and its 
diffusion, it appears that there has been a move- 
ment of culture passing from one spot to another, as 
from a focus of production ; but, on the other hand, 
there appears to have been as it were the movement 
of a wave propagated from a centre, in such a 
manner that the waves, as they became remote from 
the centre, grew broader and less marked, until they 
disappeared, leaving only the signs of movement. It 
is thus that Mediterranean culture appears after the 
primitive Afro-Mediterranean period, which also had, 
in part, more or less definite centres of diffusion. But 
what we call the culture of metals, especially bronze, 
arose in the east, moved towards the western Mediter- 
ranean, reaching continental Europe through various 
currents from south to north until it arrived at the 
British Isles on one side, Germany and Scandinavia 
1 op. '/., pp. 480, 489. 2 Op. dt., pp. 506-509. 


on the other, and Central Russia through the Black 

But if the forms of Mediterranean culture were 
gradually dispersed and lost through these roads of 
dispersion, another important phenomenon also took 
place; new kinds of production arose, especially under 
favourable conditions, leading to local products which 
departed wholly or in part from the original models 
and from their technique. It is on account of this 
phenomenon that the traces of the origins of European 
culture have often been lost 

The question finally arises : What relation has 
bronze culture with the peoples called Aryan ? were 

FIG. 81. Linear writing signs on clay vessels (De Morgan). 

they the importers of it ? Notwithstanding that I 
attempted to show, some time ago, against the 
prevalent opinions, that the Aryan invaders of 
Europe were barbarians and savages and possessing 
a culture inferior to that of the neolithic population, 
I still admitted that they were the importers of 
bronze. 1 That view seemed to me correct, since, on 
the whole, bronze appeared in Europe contempo- 
raneously with the Aryan invasion. Not being an 
archaeologist, I had not been able to examine the 
shapes of such products, as has been done by com- 
petent authorities ; and seeing the distribution of 

1 Arii e /fa/iif, fi/. 



bronze in Europe always accompanying the distribu- 
tion of Aryan culture, especially in the graves which 
show signs of cremation, I was led to suppose that 
the two were connected and were both manifestations 
of the same stock. 

But the new analyses and new facts bearing on 
Mediterranean civilisation and its diffusion, which we 

FIG. 82. Alphabetic signs of the Mycenaean epoch at Crete (Evans). 

owe to the labours of Ohnefalsch-Richter, Myres, 
Orsi, Montelius, and others ; the now better known 
characters, moreover, of Mycenaean culture, which is 
of bronze, having its source in the Asiatic east, and 
being diffused throughout Europe by the movement 
already described ; all this, together with the appear- 
ance of new centres of production due to the propaga- 



lion of Mcditcrranco -Oiicntal culture, has led me 
naturally to the conclusion that it was not the Aryans 
who imported bronze into Europe, as has hitherto 
been so widely believed. 

A coincidence which united the diffusion of the 
metallic arts of Asia and of the Mediterranean led to 
the supposition of a causal connection; just as it led 

Fir.. 83. Comparison of alphabctifbrm signs (Evans). 

to the supposition that the two great Mediterranean 
civilisations of later times, Greek and Latin, were due 
to the Aryans. Certainly the Aryans profited by the 
metals that reached them from the civilisation they 
were submerging by their invasion and their barbarism, 
but they did not contribute to improve the technique, 
since they were unskilled in the new art ; such 


improvements always came to them from Mediter- 
ranean regions. 

I know that this conclusion will be opposed by 
those who are crystallised in the old ideas arising 
from the impressions produced by earlier researches; 
but we need not fear ; the future will illumine the 
truths that are still obscure. 

Writing. To complete the picture of Eurafrican 
culture in Africa and Europe previous to the Asiatic 
invasion, which marks a new epoch, it remains to 
occupy ourselves with the alphabetiform linear 
writing, the first indications of which appeared at a 
very early time, anterior to the neolithic period. 

The alphabetical characters of Libya and the 
Canaries have long been known, chiefly through the 
labours of Faidherbe, but such characters, though 
they revealed relationship to the Phoenician, were not 
interpreted in what seems the most natural manner 
since the prehistoric discoveries in Egypt, and those 
anterior to the neolithic period in Europe. 

Lctourneau, in 1893, communicated to the Paris 
Society of Anthropology certain observations of the 
alphabetiform signs in megalithic inscriptions, and 
showed that many of these signs resembled Phoenician 
characters. He concluded : " Among the signs im- 
pressed on the megaliths and on the rocks of Celtic 
countries, in Spain, in the Canaries, in Africa, we find 
some which have an undeniable resemblance with 
certain letters of the best known ancient alphabets 
of African origin. The alphabetiform characters of 
the megaliths and rocks are still crude, badly arranged 
in inscriptions or isolated, sometimes employed as 
motives of decoration. It is impossible to say what 
real value we ought to attribute to these characters; 


but we seem to be in presence of an alphabet in 
course of formation, earlier than the best known 
ancient alphabets, which all belong to historical 
peoples. On the whole, these signs seem to indicate 
that the builders of our megalithic monuments came 
from the south and were related to the races of North 
Africa." 1 

I have brought together some of these signs taken 
from French dolmens (Fig. 79). 

A more curious discovery was, however, made by 
Piette among the remains of a period earlier than 
that of the dolmens, altogether anterior to neolithic 
times; that is to say at the end of the Magdalenian 
epoch, in a period of transition from palaeolithic to 
neolithic Europe; he discovered at Mas-d'Azil, in the 
south-east of France, in a grotto he was excavating, 
many pebbles coloured with peroxide of iron, and 
showing alphabetiform signs, some of them similar to 
those already found on the dolmens. 

A specimen of these signs, from Piette's plates, will 
be found in Fig. 80. Piette's investigation is of con- 
siderable importance and reveals a fact worthy of 
careful attention, as he himself points out when 
making a comparison of the signs from the Mas- 
d'Azil grotto with the Cypriote and jEgean characters 
already in use in the Mediterranean before the so- 
called discovery of the Phoenicians. He concludes: 
" A comparative study shows that nine of the Mas- 
d'Azil graphic signs are identical with characters in the 
Cypriote syllabary: Ko t mo, fa, to, si, ve, sa t //', fa. 
Eight of the Mas-d'Azil signs, of which some are 
also Cypriote, form part of the >Egean alphabet 
Many ancient inscriptions from Asia Minor, also, 

1 Bull. Je fa Sof. cTAntk. de Paris, April, 1893. 



especially from the Troad, present characters re- 
sembling the pictures from Mas-d'Azil. Recognising 
in the Cypriote and yEgean alphabets, or in the 


/-x+ rx+ 















H w 










FIG. 84. Comparative Table (Evans). 

writing in use in Asia Minor before the Trojan war, 
the characters of Mas-d'Azil, there is ground for 
believing either that the invasions from the west to 
the east carried into these regions at a very ancient 


period the writing used in Pyrcnean districts, or 
that the rudimentary writing of Mas-d'Azil was in 
prehistoric times the common patrimony of the 
Mediterranean littoral and the coasts of the Archi- 
pelago." l 

Putting aside, for the present, Piette's hypotheses 
regarding the alphabetical signs, it is important to 

D O 

x H ffl(D 




FIG. 85 Alphabet from the Canaries (Vcrneau). 

show that many such signs existed in neolithic 
Egyptian times. Fig. 81 shows some of these alpha- 
betical signs, found incised in clay vessels, and 
collected by De Morgan, 2 which may be compared 

1 "Etudes d'cthnographie prx'historiquc," 1? Anthropologie, vii., 
1896, with special atlas ; cf. Bordicr, " Origincs prlhistoriques de 
IVcrilure," Bull. Sot. daupkinoiit d? ethnographic, iv., Grenoble, 1897. 

Ketkenfus stir rorigitte de fEgyfte, ii., p. 166, figs. 528-548, 


with those discovered in the eastern Mediterranean 
by Arthur Evans, as Mycenaean or ^Egean, and of 
course pre-Phoenician. 

Arthur Evans, in an interesting study, 1 has shown 
the existence of writing in the Mediterranean, first at 
Crete, and then at other localities in the ^Egean, 
earlier than the writing called Phoenician. In Fig. 82 
are reproduced some of the signs of Cretan writing, 
according to Evans. In a more recent study, the 
same able author has shown the convergence of the 
Cretan and vEgean writing with the Proto-Egyptian 
or Egypto-Libyan, as he calls the prehistoric Egyp- 
tian writing, found at Ballas, Naqada, Abydos, 
Kahun, and other prehistoric localities on Egyptian 
soil (Fig. 83). 2 

Nor does Evans close the comparison here ; con- 
vinced that the prehistoric Egyptians were Libyans, 
and therefore of the same stock that peopled Africa 
to the west of Egypt, including the Sahara, he shows 
the convergence of Cretan, ^Egean, and Proto- 
Egyptian writing with that now known in Libyan 
inscriptions under the name of tijinagh, which includes 
the Libyan alphabet (Fig. 84). A similar conver- 
gence is evident with the alphabet of the Canaries, 
allied to the Libyan of Africa (Fig. 85). 

We may even extend the comparison still further 
than Evans, who has confined himself to the Medi- 
terranean, to prehistoric or Libyan Egypt, and to 
Libya proper ; we may compare them, that is, to 
the alphabetiform signs of Mas-d'Azil and of the 

1 " Primitive Pictographs and a Pre-Phoenician Script from Crete, ' 
Jour. Hellenic Studies, 1894, vol. xiv. 

2 "Further Discoveries of Cretan and ^Egean Script, with Libyan 
and Proto-Egyptian Comparisons/'yowr. , '/., 1897, xvii. 


European dolmens, of which I have already given 
some examples. Thus, in the little ivory tablets of 
prehistoric Egypt (p. 97), 1 we find signs identical 
with those of the dolmens (Fig. 79), and with others 
from Mas-d'Azil (Fig. 80), and it is easy to prove 
that others of these latter signs are identical with 
those of Cretan, vEgean, and Libyan writing, and 
that of the Canaries. Such signs may still be seen 
in certain cubes of earth or clay found in the fourth 
city of Troy (Fig. 86), and reproduced in the Egyptian 
ivory tablets already mentioned. Contemporary, 
also, with Cypriote and yEgean writing is found that 
scattered on vases and other clay vessels in the 
Troad, in many of the Trojan cities. 2 Similar forms of 
writing appeared later, in the first iron age, in Italy. 
Gozzadini transcribed the signs he found incised on 
the terra-cotta vases of the Villanova and other graves 
in the neighbourhood of Bologna. I have collected 
and brought together these signs, by him called seals, 
and regarded as mere workers' marks, according to 
their shape and more complex formation, and I have 
expressed the opinion that they must be a form of 
writing, on account of the resemblance they exhibit 
to the writing, afterwards called Phoenician, which 
became universal in the Mediterranean and else- 
where. 3 

Any one, indeed, who compares the signs of Villa- 
nova with the most ancient Cypriote characters (Fig. 
87), archaic Phosnician, the Mesa inscription, Cartha- 
ginian money (Fig. 88), etc., will find, I will not say 
identity, but resemblance of form. And in the same 

1 De Morgan, op. (it., ii., 1897, p. 167, figs. 550-555 

* Arii e //a/id, p. 2l6, fig. 47. 

1 Arii e Italiei, (it., p. 218, fig. 47. 



way, if we compare more recent characters, the Etruscan 
(Fig. 89), and those we see incised on the mysterious 
stele lately discovered in the Roman Forum (Fig. 90), 

FIG. 86. Terra-cotta objects from the fourth city of Troy 

we shall obtain confirmation of the belief that the 
characters called Phoenician are only a derived form 
of the alphabetiform signs that appeared during 

FIG. 87. Tablet with Cypriote characters 

prehistoric times in Africa, in the Mediterranean, and 
in Western Europe. The Phoenicians, if indeed it 
was the Phoenicians who diffused the alphabet, only 
systematised signs that were already known and 



already indicated phonetic characters, reduced their 
number, and thus rendered them simpler and more 
communicable; each people which accepted the forms 









FIG. 88. i. Archaic Phoenician characters. 

2. Mesa inscription. 

3. Incised stones. 

4. II'-. mil. ul inscription. 
5 Carthaginian coin. 

6. Archaic Hebrew. 

modified them in its own way, so that they now appear 
as if they had had different origins. 

But alphabctiform characters have a still more 


ancient origin, of symbolic and pictographic nature, 
and in every part of the world we have indications of 
writing. In our own part of the world also, there 
must have been the same early origins, and indications 
of this may be found in the Ligurian inscriptions 
which originated at an unknown epoch. 1 Any one 
who carefully observes, for instance, Figs. 91-92, 
sees at once that here are represented imple- 
ments, animals, and men in a manner that recalls 
American pictography. Similar also is the signifi- 
cance of some of the inscriptions on the dolmens, as 
is clear from Fig. 93, which reproduces one of these 
carvings from Brittany; here are found human feet, 
primitive axes, and other designs which must indicate 
implements or other objects of unknown significance. 
The same may be said regarding the carvings and 
inscriptions found on Swiss rocks, the date of which 
is undetermined and is indeed difficult to determine. 2 
The use of writing signs is thus very ancient in the 
Eurafrican species, so ancient that it already reached 
definite shape in the Magdalenian epoch, that is to 
say, earlier than Neolithic times, while its diffusion 
also is very ancient in the regions over which the 
species was diffused, in Africa, in the Canaries, in the 
Mediterranean, in western and central Europe. This 
supplies additional evidence as to the high develop- 
ment of civilisation among the races of the Mediter- 
ranean basin, and among those portions of them 
which adopted various racial names in proto-historic 

1 Cf. Bucknell, " Le Incisione preibtoriche sulle rocce cli Fontalba," 
Atti Soc. Lig. di Sci. Nat., Genoa, 1897; Issel, " Rupe incisa dell' 
Aquasanta," Atti, cif., 1899; /'</., " Iscrizioni scoperte nel Finalese, " 
Bull. PaUthn. //'., 1898. 

- Reber, " Vorhistorische in Canton Wall is (Schweiz)," Axhiv f. 
Ant/i., xx., pp. 375-3/7! xxi - PP- 2 79-294; xxiv -. PP- 9i-"5- 


and historic times. At the time of the Asiatic in- 
vasions and immigrations they were at a higher level 
of civilisation than the new people who submerged 
their civilisation and plunged the primitive inhabi- 
tants into barbarism, until new germs arose in the 
Mediterranean and furnished the two great forms of 
Gr.tco- Latin civilisation. 

From the history of primitive and prehistoric 
writing we may draw the same conclusion as from 
the history of the culture or cultures of Mediterranean 
Europe; that is to say that this primitive civilisation 
was in part of African origin, like the species itself, 
in part an Asiatic importation, the latter being later 
than the former, while the appearance of metals took 
place at Cyprus, an island marked by its situation as 
the bridge to unite the eastern Mediterranean to 
western Asia, and also to form a connection with 
Egypt and the yEgean ; by its mineral wealth Cyprus 
becomes a point to which the Asiatic west and the 
Mediterranean east alike flowed, a point at which the 
civilisation of Asia accumulated, as well as that of 
the Mediterranean from Mycenaean to classic Hellenic 

Language. That portion of mankind which I have 
called the Eurafrican species must have had a 
language; this is a very important and curious 
problem, at the same time one of the most difficult 
and intricate for prevalent linguistic theories to solve. 
Notwithstanding this I wish to express certain con- 
victions which I have derived from ethnographic 
inductions and from some linguistic facts. First of 
all I will recall what I wrote some years ago when 
investigating prehistoric Italy. 

Having determined that the primitive populations 



of Italy were evidently of the Mediterranean stock, a 
Eurafrican variety, and that the successive arrivals from 
the north were of Asiatic origin, Cello-Slavs, as they 
would to-day be called, or Proto-Celts and Proto-Slavs, 
I wrote: " Archaeological and anthropological observa- 
tions in Italy reveal, it is true, a regional fact, but at 
the same time they serve to prepare the solution of 
the Aryo-European problem. For if it is true, as 

O m 



C > 9 

FIG. 89 Characters of the Etruscan alphabet. 

results from the anthropological documents furnished 
by the most ancient graves in Italy, that the Aiyans 
who invaded Italy possessed brachycephalic heads of 
various shapes spheroidal, sphenoidal, and platy- 
cephalic the other Aryans who spoke German or 
Slavonic must have possessed similar physical charac- 
ters, if they were genuine Aryans. It would then be 
the case also that the real Germanic Aryans were not 



those of the Rcihcngrabcr cephalic type, but ihose 
whose type was identical with that of the Slavs and 
the Celts. 

" If the archaeological monuments which I have 
examined, and compared with others from the regions 
where the Aryans represent the Proto-Cclts arid the 
Proto-Slavs, indicate that the Aryans who invaded 
Italy were also Proto-Celts and Proto-Slavs ; if the 

FlG. 90. Inscription from the Lapis niger monument in the 
Roman Forum, northern side of the Stela. 

documents discovered in the graves of Etruria, of 
Latium, of Bologna, confirm this result, it cannot but 
be admitted that such Aryans did not bring the Italic 
language with them, but languages which must have 
been of the same type as those to-day called Celtic / 
and Slavonic, and derived from prehistoric Proto- 
Slavic tongues, that is to say, they must have been 
genuinely primitive Aryan tongues. 

" Italy, on the other hand, at the period of the 


Aryan invasion, must have possessed a language, 
doubtless with many dialects, having nothing in 
common with the Aryan tongues. If the stock 
occupying it from time immemorial was the Medi- 
terranean, which, as I have shown, was divided 
into 'many peoples, including the Egyptians, the 
Libyans, the Iberians, the languages must have been 
of the same type as those spoken by Egyptians, 
Libyans, and Iberians, that is to say, of what 
is called the Hamitic type, and very different in 
phonetic and morphological characters from the 

" Hence it is natural to believe that the Aryans who 
dominated the Italic populations in the Po valley and 
central Italy not only transformed the customs but 
also the language. To investigate the process of 
formation of the Italic languages we do not need, 
therefore, to go outside Italy. The Aryan language 
when spoken by a people with another vocabulary, 
other phonetics, other flexions, another syntax, could 
not be preserved in its original forms and sounds ; it 
had to undergo a transformation on the basis of 
a language with different characters. The special 
Aryan flexion had to undergo a particular alteration 
in the mouth of him who spoke it incorrectly and 
imperfectly. Hence may be observed a phenomenon 
noted by linguists, the fragmentary character of 
flexion often so complete in other languages of 
Aryan type, and then a vocabulary different in great 
part from other Aryan vocabularies, whether Greek, 
Celtic, or Germanic." 1 Hence I concluded generally 
that the language of the Aryans transformed but did 
not destroy the languages spoken in Greece and 
1 Arii e Italici, cap. viii., p. 170. 


Italy, and that both must have contained the two 
linguistic elements in different composition. 1 

Keanc, who accepts this conception, believes that he modifies 
it by saying : "To me it appears rather that Aryan tongues 
everywhere, so to say, took possession of the soil, and effaced 
those previously current, but in so doing became themselves / 
somewhat modified, especially in their vocabulary and phonetics. 
Even their structure was disturbed by the conflict, so that there 
were often great losses and reconstructions, as is plainly seen in 
the Italic (Latin, Umbrian, Oscan) verbal system." 3 But really 
Keane is affirming the same thing, and the divergence is apparent 
rather than real.* 

Now if it is true that the Mediterranean stock is an 
anthropological variety of the Eurafrican species, if 
the Nordic is another variety of the same species, we 
have to admit that the languages of these two varieties 
must be of the same origin as the languages of the 
African varieties, belonging^ that is to say, to the 
linguistic group called Hamitic. It is known also 
that of the Mediterranean varieties, ancient Egyptian 
was one of the Hamitic languages like Libyan, as 
Basque appears to be, an old Iberian residue. Nor is 
that all, for we have to add to the Hamitic group of 
the Mediterranean the Pelasgic language represented 
by Etruscan, hitherto undeciphered because investi- 
gators have violently sought to find in it the characters 
of Aryan languages. Brinton attempted to lead 
Etruscan back to Libyan, and hence to affirm the 
ethnological affinity of the Etruscans with the 
ancient Libyans, 4 and I believe that along this path 

1 Op. tit., p. 176. 

8 Keane, Man Past and Present, pp. 512-13. 

3 Cf. Kcanc, of. (if. , pp. 460 tt sty. 

* "On Etruscan anil Libyan Names: a comparative study," Pioc. 
Awer. Phifos. Sof., Philadelphia, xxviii. 132, 1890; ''The Ethno- 
logical Affinities of the Ancient Etruscans," /., xxvi., 1889. 



we may reach the interpretation of this mysterious 
language, hitherto refractory to every investigation 
from the Aryan standpoint. Nor need we wonder, 
as I have already said elsewhere, to find in Etruscan 
certain deceptive characters of Aryan flexion, since 

FIG. 91. Prehistoric inscription on the rocks of Val Fontanallxi (Bucknell). 

such alterations were inevitable in Italy in the midst 
of languages of Aryan flexion ; it is probably these 
features which have led some linguists to find Aryan 
characters here at all costs. 1 

1 Arii e It olid, p. 175. 



I have much pleasure in referring here to an 
address by Professor Ascoli at the Twelfth Inter- 
national Congress of Orientalists at Rome. In this 
address one of the most eminent of European 
linguists refers to the new directions of science and 
to the aid which ethnology and anthropology may 
bring to various hypotheses. Coming to the position 
of Latin in the Indo-European linguistic family, he 

Fir.. 92. Petrogliphs from Finalcsc, Liguria (Issel). 

remarks : " There must then have been a cause 
for the inferiority of Latin apart from time or 
climate, and this could only have been an ethno- 
logical cause, due to special or new racial crossings. 
We may take another example, again from the Indo- 
European field. A merely descriptive writer notes 
the regularity which governs the various reflections 
with which a given phonetic clement of the original 


patrimony reverberates in the various languages of 
the family. He notes this regularity and admires 
it, but fails to understand it. Now the ethnologist 
may initiate an explanation of such a wide extent 
of fundamental phenomena. We are concerned with 
an Aryan speech which comes into successive conflict 
with various other speeches and subdues them, but 
not without itself remaining injured or changed. 
Under certain conditions a subdued and conquered 
people loses its own language, but it subjects the 
language of the conqueror to the habits of its own 
vocal organ. Something of this kind happened in 
the case of the Gaul who adapted Latin to his use. 
We have then a kind of musical transposition which 
passes with natural precision over all the material of 

" Thus there may be constructed the hypothesis of 
the formation of various Indo-European complexes, 
crossed with peoples who were irradiating from their 
primary seat. ' But how shall we represent to our- 
selves these complexes, especially as regards their 
numerical importance? We here touch the great 
problem which ethnology, anthropology, glottology, 
and all history are even more eagerly pursuing, the 
problem as to the number of individuals who may 
reasonably be assigned to the various countries at 
diverse epochs. The belief that a series of fine and 
complete nations moved from a common centre to 
people a large part of the world with Indo-Europeans 
is dying, or already dead, together with a number of 
other fables regarding the migrations of whole peoples 
in various historical ages. 

"So many ancient complexes of people speaking 
Indo-European languages should lead us to imagine 



them as very small in size. Only with much labour 
has the earth become populous. A poor clan be- 
comes, in thousands of years, a nation. The imagina- 
tion of writers has always seen ancient Europe 
crowded with people, and the notion has not yet 
died out. Thus, in regard to the phonetic combina- 
tion KV, Oscan and Umbrian reach P while Latin 
remains at KV (quod, pod, etc.), and similarly, leaving 

FlG. 93. Sculptured stones from dolmens in Brittany. 

Greece, we find the Britons in opposition to the 
Hibernians, and again hear of KV peoples and P 
peoples in historical contrast to. each other. We are 
really only in the presence of a mere peculiarity of 
pronunciation marking a family which has become a 

The idea expressed in this discourse coincides in 
great part with my own view, though I have no wish 
to give it a greater extension than Ascoli himself 


would accept. Certainly, however, it cannot but be 
true that the various languages of Aryan type have 
been formed under the influence of other languages, 
conquered, like the peoples who spoke them. My 
supposition is that the Latin language shows this 
phenomenon in a specially marked degree; and hence 
when I recently observed the interpretations, furnished 
by philologists, of the inscriptions on the stela dis- 
covered in the Roman Forum, by means of Aryan 
and more especially Nordic languages, 1 I was greatly 
surprised ; these interpreters have not understood 
what has now been understood by the father of 
Italian linguists and what I myself expressed some 
years ago : Latin is not a language which reached 
Italy in a beautiful and completed form, just as Italy 
was not entered by an Italic people speaking Latin; 
but Latin was formed in Italy itself, as well as all the 
languages related to Latin, fragmentary in phonetics 
and flexion. The stela of the Roman Forum, like 
other ancient inscriptions, necessarily showed the 
traces of the primitive Italic (Mediterranean) language 
transformed by that of various invaders; to seek to 
interpret it with the aid of Gothic or old German is 
as absurd as it would be to seek to interpret Etruscan 
or Pelasgic with the help of Sanscrit or Finnic. 

In the other languages called Indo-European this 
formation, so clear in the primitive Italic tongues, is 
perhaps less apparent ; thus it may also be in 
Greek, in spite of the fulness of its forms, and in 
the Germanic tongues spoken by those populations 
which, like the Italic and the Greek, underwent in- 
vasion and transformation in customs and language. 

1 " Stela con iscrizione Latina arcaica scoperta nel Foro Romano," 
Notizie d^.'i Scavi, Maggio, 1899. 

LA MIL' AGE. 315 

It is necessary to seek for this vanished language 
from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, and we may 
thus also find, perhaps, the real cause of the phonetic 
transformations which now can be only accepted as 
facts. As the present populations of Europe are in 
varying proportions a compound of the old Eur- 
african species and of the more recently arriving 
Eurasiatic species, which brought with it flexional 
languages of Aryan or Indo-European type, so also 
the languages which seem to be altogether Aryan 
have an archaic stratum, of Eurafrican origin, corre- 
sponding to the languages otherwise called Hamitic, 
like Egyptian and Libyan. 1 

1 As I have already observed (p. 246, note i), a proof of this 
phenomenon has been brought into evidence by the authors of The 
Wchh People, Prof. Rhys and D. Brynmor-Joncs, and especially Prof. 
Morris Jones, through the analysis of the Neo-Celtic language. I 
venture to assert that a study of the ancient Italic languages, conducted 
with the intuition and method of Morris Jones, would remove the veil 
of mystery that still enwraps them ; but to attain this end theie must 
be a diminution of the philo-Aryanism of our linguists. 


^neolithic period, 277 

Africa, origin of name, 54 ; blonds 

of, 59 tt seq. 

Alphabetical characters, 296 et seq. 
Andersen, 199 
Anthropophagy in Egypt, alleged, 


Arab racial types, 1 19 

Arbo, 222 

Architecture of tombs, 266 et seq. 

Armenoid type of skull, 141, 148 
it set/. 

Arya, I 

Aryans, origin of, 2 et sea., 21 et 
sea., 29; in Italy, 178; invasion 
of, 241 et seq. ; their lack of 
culture, 295; their language, 
307 et sea. 

Ascoli, 311 

Barrows, British, 205 et sea., 243 

Barth, 222 

Basques, anthropology of, 161 

Beddoe, 260 

Benfey, 5 

Berl>ers, 53 et seq., \\\et seq. 

Berthelot, 129 

Bertholon, 67, 120 

Biving, l.)e, 92 

Blasio, De, 107 

Blonds, of Africa, 59" et seq.; at 

high level al>ove sea, 73 
Bogdanof, 231 
Bohemia, anthropology of, 220 et 

n s . e</ : 
Booster, 79 

Bordicr, 299 

Brachycephals, alleged superiority 

of, 22; in Neolithic times, 237 

el seq. 

Brinton, 158, 258, 309 
Biitain, anthroi>ol<>gy of, 205 et 


Brizio, I Si 
Broca, 63, 69, 161 
Bronze culture, 292 ft seq. 
Brugsch, 45, 85 
Brynmor -Jones, 246 
Bucknell, 304 
Burial customs, in Egypt, 92 // 

seq.; among Mediterranean slock 

generally, 266 et seq. 

Cara, C. de, 24, 14$ 
Caret lc, 50, 55, Il8 
Carlailhac, 1 60 

Celts, 16, 18, 21 el seq., 69, 243 
Chancelade type of skull, 193 
Chil, 129 
Collignon, 119 

Coloration of Mediterranean race, 

('I 1.1 IT, 146 

Cremation, in Egypt, alleged, 92; 

among Mediterranean stock 

generally, 270 
Cretan writing signs, 300 
Cro-Magnon type of skull, 135, 

188, 193. 210 
Culture of Mediterranean race, 273 

et seq. 
Cyprus, anthropology of, 152 et 

seq. ; culture of, 276 et seq. 


Davis, 203 

Dawkins, 15., 197. 207 
Dcir-el-Hahari, 87 
Dcniker, 202 
Dcsor, 64 

Dolmen race, 59, 64 
Dolmens, writing on, 97, 296 ft 

Egypt to Greece, relations of, 170 
et seq. 

Egyptian language, 100 

England, anthropology of, 205 et 

Eskimo and European relation- 
ships, alleged, 195 et seq. 

Etruscans, 165, 180 et seq., 286 <tf 
seq., 302, 309 

Eurafrican species, 257 et seq. 

Eurasiatic species, 241 et seq., 262 
et seq. 

Evans, A. J., 44, 95. 97, 157. iSi, 

Eye-colour in Germany, 14 

Face, anthropology of, 257 

Faidherbe, 60, 1 1 5 

Finnic type, 1 5 

Flower, 77 

Fouquet, 94, 103 

France, anthropology of, 163, 188 

et seq., 210 et seq. 
Franks, 18 
Fiiesland, Neanderthal type still 

persisting in, 203 t 

Garson, 208 

Gciger, 5 

Gerba, anthropology of, 120 

Germans as primitive Aryans, 8 

Germany, anthropology of modem, 

1 2 el seq. 
Great Biitain, anthropology of, 

205 et seq. 
Greece, anthropology of, 165 et 


Greenwcll, 205 
Grimth, 87 
Guanches, anthropology of, 128 

et seq. 

Hair colour in Germany, 14 

1 lamiles, 40 et seq. 

Hartmann, 66 

Hatshepsu, 85 

Herodotus, anthropological evi- 
dence from, 46 et seq., 167 et seq. 

Herve, 190 

Hieroglyphic script, 98 

Hittiles, 25, 144 et sej. 

Holder, 17, 220 

Holl, Ij 

Homer and the fair type in Greece, 
1 3 et seq. 

Homo Alpinns, 263 

Iberians, 159 et seq. 
Issel, 304 
Italici, 176 et seq. 
Italy, anthropology of, 164, 172 
et seq. 

Jones, M , 246 

Kabyles, 67 

Keane, 43, 125, 158, 162, 179, 

225, 253, 258, 309 
Kohl, 219 
Kollmann, 236 
Kurgan type of skull, 140, 226 

et seq. 

Language, Egyptian, TOO; of 
Mediterranean race generally, 
305 et seq. 

Lapponic type, 15 

Latham, 5 

Latin, origin of, 314 

Letourneau, 296 

Letourneux, 64 

Libyans, Sallust on, 57 

Ligurians, 162 et seq 

Linear writing characters, 97, 296 
et seq. 

Lissauer, 17 

Lithuanians, 21 et seq. 

Livi, 73 

Lomhroso, 156 

Luschan, F. von, 136, 148 



Lycia, anthropology of, 148 

Macalislcr, no 

Martin, 65 

Malirgka, J_M 

Megalithic tombs in Africa, 64, 


Mehlis, 219 
Meyer, 136 

Montelius, 181, 199, 288, 289 
Morgan, De, 88, 91, 94, iO2, 

275. 299 

Mortillet, G. de, 191 
Moschen. 12 
Milller, Max, 5, 7 
Miiller, O., 166 
Mycencean culture, 279 ef set/, 
Myres, 181, 276, 279, 294 

Naqada, 88 et seq. 

Naville, 87 

Neanderthal type of skull, 10, 77, 
191, 2OI et seq. 

Neo-Celtic, 246 

Neolithic times, brachycephals of, 
237 et set/. ; uniformity of cul- 
ture during, 275 

" New race in Egypt, Petrie'-s 
89 el set/., 113 

Ohnefalsch-Richter, 152, 276, 279, 

281, 294 
Orsi, 277, 283 

Palaeolithic implements in Africa, 

42, 80 

Pelasians, 165 tt st<j 
Penka, 8 et seq. 
Petrie, F., 84, 88, 95, 102, 113, 

275- 279 

Ph'i-nicians. anthropology of, 15 
ft stq.\ their diffusion of al[.li.i 

1*1, 302 
Pi. let, 7 
I'ietle, 273, 297 
Pigmentation of Meiliterranean 

Pigmies of Murop-, 233 ft teq. 

Pigorini, 271, 287 

Pit.ud, 215 

rithtcanthrofus e>ef/ns, 2OI 

Poole, 76 

I'iischc, 8 

Pott, 7 

Pruncr Bey, 66, 69 

Punites, 76, Betsey., 154 

Quatrefages, 63, 
Quedenfeldt, 75 

Ranke. 13 

Reihengraber type, 10, 14, 219, 

220, 225, 252 
Rcinach, 107, 289 
Retzius. 222 
Rhys, 246 

Ripley, 214, 255, 261 
Roknia skulls u$etseq. 
Rossellini, 76 
Russia, anthropology of, 226 et se./. 

Saint-Martin, 47. 54 

Salmon, 190, 212, 237 

Sayce, 84. 146 

Scandinavia, as cradle of white 
race, 10; when first inhabited, 
199; anthropology of, 221 et uq. 

Schliemann, 283 

Schmidt, 107, 237 

Schrader, 7 

Schweinfurlh, 103 

Scilax, 49 

Sepulture, in Africa, 64, 70 et 
seq. ; among Mediterranean 
stock generally, 266 et seq. 

Seton-Karr, 42 

Sicily, culture of, 283 e! seq. 

Siret, 289 

Slavs, 8, 230 

Somaliland as cradle ol Mediter- 
ranean race, 42 

Spain, anthropoli>gy <f, 150^ <e</.; 
influence of, on Sicily, 289 

Stature of Mediterranean race, 25 \ 

Slieda, 227 

Switzerland, anthropology of, 213 



Tamahu, 64, 68, 75 el seq. 

Taylor, Canon, 21 

Terramare culture, 287 

Thane, 102 

Thomson, IO2 

Thurnam, 161, 205, 207 

Tissot, 53. 62 

Tombs, architecture of, 266 et seq. 

Topinard, 62, 119 

Tsountas, 280 

Tuaregs, 53, 95 

Tunis, anthropology o r , 120 et set]. 

Ujfalvy, 264 
Uvarof, 226 

Vandals in Africa, supposed, 59 

Verneau, 129, 130 

Viking type of skull, 222 el seq., 

Virchow, 10, 15, 17, 203, 237 

Weinzerl, 220 
VVeisgerl)cr, 8 1 
Welcker, 12 
Wiedemann, 92 
Wilson, 273 
Wright, 146 

Writing, in Egypt, 95 et se.j. ; 
origins of, 296 ei seq. 

Zaborowski, 43, 103 


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