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By Dr. IlicnAiin S, Ko^EKTnAr.. 



"'^Sermari/Frfijich, " Spanish, Italian. 

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25T Washington Street, 

(N«r»td Building,) 
B O S T O XT. 


Has been ITmyersally SnccessM in (Jermanj and England, and is 
Entlinsiastically Indorsed by 



. . . "Dr. Rosenthal's main purpose is to teach his pupils to really speak 
and write and understand the modern European tongues. . . . According to 
this system the pupil begins from the very first lesson to express himself in a simple 
and natural manner in the foreign languages^ and — what must be considered 
most important — to think in them. . . . We recommend the * Meisterschaft 
System * most earnestly to all who desire to learn to speak foreign languages 
actually and fluently." . . . 

VossiscHE Zeitung, Bebun, Germany. 

. . . "It would lead us too far if we were to give Dr. RosenthaPs true and 
practical ideas at a larger extent; so much, however, is sure, that his system^ 
which in its simplicity folio los nature's own method, is destined to create an entire 
revolution in the study and teaching of foreign languagesJ'^ . . . 

VoLKs Zeitung, Berlin, Germany. 

. . . "A pupil cannot fail to master a knowledge of French, English, or 
Spanish, from this wonderfully simple and ingenious method.''^ . . . 

Post, Berlin, Germany. 

. . . " Dr. Rich. S. Rosenthal, Director of the Academy for Foreign Lan- 
guages, practises his system here with the most surprising results. More than 
91H) hearers^ among them many members of the ^ Reichstag^ — Parliament — sev- 
eral members of the Prussian Cabinet, and many teachers and merchants, have 
during this winter attended his lectures, and, as we know from experience, with 
entire success. . . . Eis system leads within a few weeks to really surpnsing 
results." ... 

Burger Zeitung, Berlin, Germany. 


the •pupil lenms from thefr.'<t lesson to Ihinh in the 
'• ■ ^o entirely overluuked by other systeius, and 
^WininieuJed." . . . 

Verkin fur Volksbildung, Berlin. 

. . . " There does not exist a better and more practical system for mer' 
chants than the ^ Meisterschdjt iSystem.* . . . We know that a great many 
of our leading merchants have, within a few months, reached entire mastery of 
French, Spanish, and English by this excellent method." . . . 

Bank and Handels Zeitung, Berlin. 

, . . " 0» account of his gi'eat merits Dr. Rosenthal enjoys the rare disiino^ 
lion of being private teacher to several members oj the Imperial family. . . . 
His success at Court is just as great as with the general public, and we are told 
from the best authority that His Imperial UiyhnesSy Archduke Frederick, said 
the other day to him : ' We have in Jive of your lessons learned to speak Spanish 
more fluently than toilh our former teacher in a whole year.^ "... 

Neue Freie Presse, Vienna, Austria. 

. . . " Dr. Rosenthal's system is so exceedingly simple and practical that 
we cannot, recommend it urgently enough to all who within a short time wish to 
really speak French, Spanish, English, or Italian." . . . 

TagbliVtt, Vienna, Austria. 

. . . " It is a great merit of Dr. Rosenthars ' STeisterschaft System ' that 
it enables the learner from the very first lesson to express himself simply and natu- 
rally in the foreign language, and to think in it, . . . We earnestly recom- 
mend the Doctor's method to those who aim to learn foreign languages quickly 
and actually." . . . 

Deutsche Zeitukg, Vienna, Austria. 

. . . ** In few fields of mental labor can success be gained in such difficult 
manner as in the actual speaking of foreign languages. . . . It is therefore 
of unusual value for the public, it a system be founo by which the wall which dif- 
ference of language has built between the friendly intercourse of nations can be 
overstepped with facility and case. . . . That such a practical method, which 
can be reconmiended in all and every regard, has been found and actual)}' tried 
in Dr. R. S. Rosenthal's * Meisterschaf t System,' can, after the universal ac- 
knowledgment of the Press and the generil indorsement of our first and best '• 
scholars, not be doubted. . . . Here in Vienna, where the Doctor is atpres-K 
ent, and where he holds the high position of private Spanish and English tutor to < 
many members of our Imperial family, liis system has been universally accepted ^. 
and introduced. . . . Itis,withouidoubt, the simjAest, quickest, and most prac-' 
tical method in existence.''^ ... 

SArx)N {with the picture of Dr, Rosenthal), Vienna, Austria. 

. . .^ " A Committee of three gentlemen waited last evening upon Dr. Rosen- • 
thai at his private residence on the Kdrntner Ring, and presented him an addresr 
of thanks^ signed by two hundred and seventy of his hearers, — teachers, physicians^!' 
artists, oncers, and merchants. All of the subscribers are well-known VienntHi 
men. 1 hey stole in their address that thty within ten weeks hare learned to 
speak and write French and English flmntly, correctly, and idiomatically.''' . . ^ 

Fremdenblatt, Vienna, Austria. ". 


. . . " Dr. Rosenthal is the first teacher wh« k^s; broken with Qur pse^ent 
methods, which, as most of us know, never lead t3 flt\(rti«y «£" conveP6aiii», and 
he it is who has devised a really rational and^pri5tical1iietliJd,Vhich*irccn)rdiiig 
to the highest authorities in our land of sChotar^. siaiidc iirst^aiKl.|^re-egi^eQt, 
creating, in fact, an enthre revolution iu the^slyudV-oC foili^ti ioij^ifS.^^ j ; .^••^. 

Ueber Land und Meer, Stuttgart. 

. . . **Dr. RoatenthaP 8 *Meisterschaft System' — unique and most practical 
— Srtands now, after several years' trial, tirst among educational works for the 
practical and natural learning of foreign tongues. . . . The immense num- 
ber of pupils, which by the help of this excellent system have made in an in- 
credibly short time most astonishing progress in speaking, writing, and readiug 
of foreign tongues, is the highest recommendation any author can hope or 
exi)ect." . . . 

Hamburger Nachrichten, Hamburg. 

What the Christian Worij>, London, England, says : " Manv of our read- 
ers must have contended, in some form or another, witli the difficulties of learn- 
ing a foreign language ; and not a few have regretted the pains thty have 
taken and the money thev have spent to procure an acquaintance with French 
or German, so as to be aBle to understand it easily when spoken, and speak it 
for themselves. We are, thekefoke, glad to call special attention to 

Academy for Foreign Languages in Berlin and Leipzig, is tww isminy two 
separatt works for these languages respectively, entitled ' The Meisterschaft 
System,' which is a method perfected for the practical and natural 
LEARNING of these lanqiiatjesfor business and conversation. His aim is to promote 
fluency in speaking rather than the grammatical learning which so commonly takes 
its place. He properly insists upon the necessity, which every day becomes more 
apparent, of increasing our facilities for communication with other people by ac- 
quiring a,practical acquaintance with their language, and not merelv a theoreti- 
cal knowledge of their respective grammars. His method involves frequent and 
persistent utterances of French and German i)hrases, so that the ear may become 
accustomed to the sound as the eye to the written word." 

What the Oxford Journal, Oxford, England, says : " This system over- 
comes the greatest ofalldijficulties hitherto found in teaching and acquiring a lan- 

much time, as continuous study is not required, while the pronunciaiion 
is 80 clearly shown that even the most uneducated can master it. . . . Dr. 
Rosenthal's method is based upon a sound and natural principle. . . . It is 
THE most practical METHOD WE KNOW, and Certainly does much to simplify 
the task of learning a foreign language." ... i 

What the Literary World, London, England, says : " We can by no means 
express satisfaction with the method of teaching generally prevalent in our Eng- 
lish .schools. An enormous amount of time, strength, and money is expended 
by parents, pupils, and teachers upon the principal Continental Ian guaj^es with 
most unsatisfactory results. Any one, therefore, who introduces a real improve- 
ment of method is entitled to hearty thanks. . . . Dr. Rosenthal's nietiiod of 
instruction aims in the first place at the ability of conversation, and he 
has worked out his theory with a skill, T' oroughness, and adhkr- 

KLSE WHERE ** ... 

Wpat.ihe SpotSMjLiJf EtasfbURGH, Scotland, says: "Although we have 
several excellent works for th^ •improvement of our method of teaching lan< 

*ll»^tS^»WE* U%rf^^*?{t> ijErifcl'ATKTN IN DECLARING THE ONE BEFORE US — 

•yj)p. JjDjelj^&fi],** ^iStpjijctraft •SA^tem,' — to be the very best; because, 
• in* the tirsf i)lac*e, it is so simple Uiat everv one can use it without interfiering 
with business, or interruption of other studies ; and next, because it has never 
been kno>rn to fail in what it professes, viz., to give a complete mastery over a 
foreign language in a woitderJ'uUy short time.^^ 

What the Academy, London, England says: " We have heard continual!}' 
from our correspondents in Berlin and Leipzig of the celebrated teacher, Dr. 
Rosenthal, and his * Meisterschaft System,' and can only sa}', atter a caref li 
examination of his works, that their' success is well deserved. A pupil cunn >t 
fail, be he ever so stupid or disinclined to study, to master a knowledge of 
French from the wonderfullu simple and ingenious method. . . . Dr. Rosenthal* 
has certainly devi>ed a plan by which study is rendered comfortable and 

Among the patrons of the " Meisterschaft System "are: His Imperial High- 
ness Archduke Frederic of Austria; Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria; Arch- 
duchess Isabella of Austria; Prince Windischgraz ; Duke of Coburg; Count 
Taaffe; Countess Taaffe; Countess Festeticz; Baron Rothschild; Count Bis- 
marck, Jr.; Genf-ral Fransecky; Colonel Bigot, etc., etc., — many members of 
the German and Austrian Parliament; of the Prussian Cabinet; over three 
hundred German teachers, etc., etc. 



Journal of Education, Boston, Mass. . . . **We are con\nnced be- 
vond a doubt that Dr Rosenthal's ' Meisterschaft System ' is all it claims to 
l)e. It is a wonderful improvement on all other systems of teaching foreign 
languages. We predict for it an unprecedented success." 

The World, New York. . . . **That the ^ Afeisterschafl System^ will 
rfivolutionize linguistic studies there can be no doubt. First of all, in acquiring 
a language so that one may speak it, it is necessary, as Dr. Rosenthal very 
aptly shows, to have a framework, or rather a series of * sentence-moulds.* 
Most grammars and systems plunge the scholar directly into syntax and rules, 
and long, tedious vocabularies. The value of this system can hardly be esti- 
mated- We have seen the students of this system iii many parts. It seemed 
in Stuttgart as if nothing else could be tolerated. Americans were using it to 
the exclusion of all others. In the school in Berlin alone, where classes and 
instruction were directed by able teachers, the younger members of the 
Imperial family, many 'members op the German Parliament, and, 
quite as surprising as anything else, over three hundred teachers, 
themselves instructors in modern languages were members. . . . 
The * Meisterschaft System ' is not onh'^ the most sensible and practical method 
in existence, but it affords an opportunity of acquiring modern languages at 
home, to still be under the direction of the greatest living linguist and teacher, 


and to acquire a correct pronunciation of the language by the painstaking and 
most excellent method with which the author has given to each and every one 
of the 4,000 words employed, its separate and perfect pronunciation." 

The Transcript, Boston, Mass. . . . ** The * Meisterschafl System * of 
teaching languages, which has proved so eminently successful in Germany, Eng- 
land, Italy, Sweden, Hungary, and Austria, has been introduced into this 
country by its author, Dr. Kiciiard S. Rosenthal, who has published, under 
the imprint of Estes & Lauriat, Boston, a series ot lessons in t rench and Ger- 
man for the use of students of these languages. These lessons are according to 
the * natural method' — we do not refer to the exploded and mistaken ideas of 
Dr. Sauveur and others — by which all men learn a foreign tongue when resident 
abroad. . . . Dr. Rosknthal says truly that although young men and women 
study French and German for years, frequently under the tuition of able native 
masters, they rarely attain any degree of practical fluency in speaking those 
tongues. They learn to parse, analyze, conjugate, declme and translate, but 
they cannot hold the simplest conversation on common subjects. . . . Dr. 
Rosenthal, on the contrary, introduces the pupil from the very beginning into 
the spirit of the foreign tongue, teaching him from the first lesson to think and 
express himself in it. . . . In one woni, the ' Meisterscha/i System ' does for 
the acquirement of French and German what phonography haS done for the 
acquirement of short-hand." 

The Home Journal, New York. . . . The ^ Mtisterschaft System* 
teaches us to study living languages in a rational, common sense way. It tells 
us, first, that speaking a foreign language is not a matter of the intellect, but 
that the ear, the tongue and the memory are almost solely employed. Not until 
we have familiarized ourselves so thoroughlv with a nuinber of foreign sounds, 
for words are but sounds, as to begin to think in them, can our intellect be 
really said to come into action. The second requirement is to bear in mind that 
we cannot translate literally from one language into another. We must rid our- 
selves of this miserable practice, and we must, as Dr. Rosenthal very properly 
insists upon, from the very beginning accustom ourselves to the idioms and 
construction of the language we are studying. We must practice the peculiari- 
ties of the foreign speech so constantly that they become perfectly natural to 
us, and are uttered just as glibly and spontaneously in French as in English. 
The first exercise given opens with a ' foundation sentence,' instead of the usual 
disconnected words. A constant repetition is required. At first it is confusing, 
but it is astonishing, after a few days' trial under the Doctor's directions, with 
what facility we not only repeat the sentences but think them. This is the pro- 
cess by which sound becomes a matter of language." 

From The Nation, New York. . . . "Its peculiarity is, that it begins 
with the complex instead of with the simple, starting off at once with a * founda- 
tion sentence,' consisting ef two or more members, and ringing the changes upon 
that, till by a gradual process, a vocabulary of upwards ot 3,000 words has been 
acquired and mastered in a great variety of relations. We believe that in the 
hands of a competent teacher, this system is the best yet devised for leurmng to 
ipeak a foreign tongue in a short time. 

From The Herald, Boston Dr. Rosenthal has undoubtedly hit 

upon the right idea, and has worked out his practical theory with a skill' and 
thoroughness which we have n't found anj'where else. While grammar is neces- 
sary, persistent colloquial practice is all-important. The stud-nt who has 
studied nothing but grammar, without colloquial practice, cannot form an ele- 
mentary sentence in a foreign language, without thmking about his words, their 
grammatical arrangement, the rules of syntax, etc. He thinks about his French 
or German instead of thinking in those languages. We should, however, — ^a 


Dr. Rosenthal, very properly says, — become so habituated to the foreign 
idiom, that when we ask a question on a simple matter, like purchasing gloves, 
engaging lodgings, etc., our thoughts may unconsciously take the foreign words, 
even wliile we are perhaps occupied with some care of sorrow. That such an 
unconscious fluency in language can be acquired, the ^Meisterschaft System ' has 
amply demonstrated. . . . Dr. Rosenthal has reduced to a scientific, sim- 
ple, and most practical system, the linguistic method of all persohs who, by resi- 
dence abroad, have become fluent in the use of foreign tongues. . . . We 
recommend his system most heartily to all who in a short time want to acquire 
real fluency of speech." 

From The Congregationalist, Boston, Mass. ..." This is a most re- 
markable method, which will, in fact, revolutionize the whole way of teaching 
and studying foreign languages. It is practical linguistry, as distinct from sci- 
entific an'd merely theoretical philology." . . . 

From the Atlantic Monthly ..." The * Meisterschqft System * is 
a prnctital method. The author, keeping steadily in mind the single purpose 
of enabling the scholar to talk in French, and to say the things most necessary 
to be said, has arranged his matter in a most lucid wav, and stripped the 
task as far as possible of all irrelevant matter. . . . lie has reduced the 
student's work, by the practical method in which it is taken up, to a mini- 
mum." . • . 

From the Yale LiTEKARY Magazine . . . "The ^ Meisterschaft Sys- 
tem ' has solved one of the problems of this busy nineteenth century in giving us 
the utmost result, with the least possible expenditure of time and labor. . . . 
We have examined the fifteen books with great care, and we are convinced that 
there is no French or German book in existence, by which the same rapid results 
can be accomplished." . . . 

From Our Continent ..." There is never a royal road to learning. 
But the common sense of Dr. Rosenthai/s ' Meisterschaft System ' was so evi- 
dent, its results so certain, that it took place at once as the first thoroughly rea- 
sonable and practical method. . . . When the fifteen pamphlets, printed with 
the care which characterizes the work of Estes & Lauriat, and edited with a 
painstaking fidelity which must have been wearisome to the flesh, are mastered, 
the student is ready for daily life abroad." ... 

From The Critic, New York. . . . " I am convinced that here is a 
system which teaches one to think and to talk idiomatic German and French, 
from the very beginning; which makes studv a pleasure and no task ; which en- 
ables one to make use of everything learned as soon as it is mastered." . . . 


ti$tijj*$4aft %U^Um^ 

A Short and Practical Method 



By Dr. Richard S. Rosenthal, 

Ljlte DiREcrroR of the •' akabemie fur fremde Sprachen' \s Berlin ant 







By Richard S. RosenthaIi^ 


The Meisterschaft System. 

It is a widely known and acknowledged fact that, 
although our young men and women study German 
and French for years, frequently under the tuition of 
able native masters, they very rarely attain any degree 


In oui times, when international commerce and in- 
tercourse is so constantly increasing, our schools and 
colleges must aim at other and more practical results 
than heretofore were considered necessar} . 

It is no longer sufficient to teach the student the 
grammatical peculiarities of French and German, and 
to introduce him into the classic literature of these lan- 
guages ; but the true end and aim of our linguistic education 
must be to actually speak the modern tongues^ and to really be 
able to converse in them fluently and idiomatically, 

** The usual mistake,'* says the New York World^ 
in an able editorial on the study of modern languages, 
** in America, throughout the majority of schools, is 
that in studying a foreign tongue more actual study is 
put upon English and a formation of a smooth transla- 
tion than in building up and acquiring the language in 
question. But whatever the faults of teachers or of the 

system, of one fact the parents and public are painfully 
assured, and that is that after years of study the schol- 
ars are still unable to speak and write ihe language, 
and with difficulty can even read it.. Everybody 
knows how he has been able to repeat pages of gram- 
matical rules and foreign words, and then, amid his con- 
gratulations on mastering so much, how some day he 
has found himself stranded in a foreign land only to 
discover that he has no use for the rules and words he 
has learned — that somehow and strangely enough the 
people have quite a different stock of language/* 

For two, three, and frequently five years the pupils 
— according to our present false and unnatural systems 
— study different French and German grammars, man- 
uals, and vocabularies ; they learn to conjugate and to 
decline, to parse and to analyze, etc. 

If a boy will learn how to build a chair his master 
does not give him chairs to break asunder ; but rather 
wood to build them with. He does not tear apart, but 
builds up. So, if one would learn French, or any for- 
eign speech, his work must not consist of taking a cer- 
tain amount of French, tearing it into bits, and then 
building it up into good English, which he already 
knows, but it must be just the reverse. 

In our preparatory schools, our seminaries, the best 
of all our colleges and universities — indeed throughout 
our whole land, the greater part of the time is spent in 
this false and absurd way — and the student who takes 
a piece of Latin, Greek, French, or German, and renders 
it into the smoothest English, stands first and best 
above his fellows. 

It is an utter deception ; for the same student would 
be quite unable to reverse the process and render the 
same amount of English into even a passable foreign 
phrase. In one word, our schools educate philologists 
and grammarians, but only in rare instances do they 
turn out practical linguists. 

Of what use, h(nvever, is a perfect krunvledge of all 
grammatical French rules to the tourist who fails to uiider^ 
stand the simple utterances of et^en a railway porter^ and wfic 
after five years' study of the best Freruh grammars^ can 
scarcely ask for his common necessities ? 

To understand the grammar of a language is desir- 
able, but it is by no means so important as being able 
to speak the language. 

As we can never become painters by the critical 
study of pictures, so we can never hope to make our- 
selves practical linguists by the mere study of gram- 

Or to use a still clearer illustration : We may 
understand perfectly the theory of swimming, but this 
theoretical knowledge will be of little practical help 
when we are obliged to take the first actual plunge. 

These are incontrovertible facts, felt and acknowl- 
edged not only by almost all learners, but even by the 
majority of our teachers. 

has hitherto been so difficult, so wearisome and produc- 
tive of so little efficiency, that few persons of mature 
age have attempted it, however great their need of it 
either for business purposes or for cultivation. 

*• These diflficulties,** writes Z>r. Heinrich Schliemann^ 
the celebrated explorer of Greek antiquities, ** have now 
been happily obviated by the 

which is simply a scientific adaptation of the natural 
method by which all persons, whether children or 
adults, educated or otherwise, rapidly and correctly 
acquire the language which they constantly hear, and 
which they are instinctively impelled to imitate when 
resident in a foreign country.** 

Jacototy Preftdergast, Bayard Taylor^ and others proved 
years ago that 

the Speaking of Foreign Tongues 
is not a matter of the intellect ^ as shown by the fact that 
children acquire a foreign language much more rapidly 
than grown persons. 

They have neither teacher, book, nor interpreter ; 
they are frequently too young to read or write in their 
own tongue ; they understand nothing about the prin- 
ciples of grammar ; they do not think about this or 
that method of acquiring the language ; yet without 
thinking at all, in coming either to Calcutta or Paris — 
they rapidly enunciate the foreign sounds correctly, and 
in a few short weeks chatter like natives with their for- 
eign attendants. 

It must have been observed by every intelligent 
traveller how the ignorant donkey boys in Alexandria — 
native Egyptians mostly, who never went to any school 
— express themselves clearly and sometimes very 


fluently in both English, French, and Italian ; sometimes 
even in Greek and Turkish. In spite of their uncultiva- 
ted intelligence, the natural and wonderfully subtle pow- 
er of imitation does for them what a long course of gram-, 
matical study fails to do for the educated and refined. I 

These facts must show to the most casual observer 
that some natural laws exist governing the mode by 
which foreign languages are acquired, and which 
should be scientifically considered and made useful for 
practical purposes. 


The greatest scientific results have originated by 
the careful observation of some very simple and com- 
monplace occurrence, which has itself directly illus- 
trated some great unchangeable natural law. 

The fall of an apple, the steam of a boiling kettle, 
have conferred untold blessings upon mankind, and yet 
apples innumerable had fallen before Newton's time. 

** The careful observation of * the lisp of children 
and their earliest words' — or rather the common and 
natural process by which human beings master the 
powers of speech, has" — to quote the language of the 
celebrated philologist Professor Bernhard Schmitz — 
" produced a system by which we can rapidly acquire 
other tongues, and which has really created a new 
science — that of Lingnistry^ which must not be con- 
founded with Philology." 

Now in what way do children — and we might add adults 
—learn to master a foreign language when resident in a for- 
eign country ? 

At first, the mind gets entirely confused by the 
multiplicity of foreign sounds which it hears contin- 
ually uttered without possessing the ability of grasping 
what is said. In the course of a few weeks, however, 
the e^ir becomes accustomed to some of these sounds, 
and we begin to utter that sentence (not a single noun, 
for unconnected words are not language)^ which we have 
heard most frequently used by the persons about us. 

This sentence is usually relative to our most urgent 
necefisity ; a common pbject, water, food, towels, or a 
railway ticket. 

In a little while a new necessity arises. We use 
again the same sentence— not knowing any other — 
altered only by the substitution or addition of a new 
noun, adjective, or adverb. For instance, the water or 
food required may be asked for either hot or cold, at 
once or later, etc. ; and the sentence is then altered or 
enlarged by a new word which the attendant — under- 
stand] n^ij us — suggests. 

This new word may have some remote or close 
affinity of ideas with some other word we know, and 
after a few repetitions, the ear is so accustomed to it 
that it becomes a part of ourselves, and is uttered by 
the Innguc unconsciously whenever the necessity occurs. 

Till 5 is the process by which sound becomes a mat^ 
tcr uf language. Foreign words at first convey no 
ideas to iis, and it is only by constant repetition and use 
of tiiem that we are led directly to think in them. 
They are then no longer foreign, but have become part 
of ourselves, and suggest to us the same ideas as do the 
words of our native tongue. 

It is clear that the intelligence has at first but little to 
<xO in the acquirement of foreign languages. The truth 
of this observation will very likely be doubted, for it 
seems as if all study tnust appeal to our faculties of rea- 
son. Yet the experience of any one who has studied 
the modern languages in our colleges will verify my 
statement. A college graduate will undoubtedly un- 
derstand the peculiarities of the French or German 
grammar ; he will be able to read the literature to a 
certain extent ; he may even be capable of writing a 
letter faultlessly and grammatically in these languages, 
and yet as soon as he tries to converse in them 
he gets utterly confused and is unable to express 

How is this to be accounted for ? He can read 
French and cannot speak it. He can write French let- 
ters and yet cannot express himself orally. He under- 
stands French grammar better than a native, and still 
he cannot give utterance to his simplest thoughts in 
that language. 

It is just here where our school-systems are at fault. 
They appeal to the reasoning power, instead of to the 

The ear^ the tongue^ and the memory are almost 
solely employed in mastering the foreign sounds, 
and our intelligence^ though it superintends the whole 
process, can only really be said to come into action 
when the foreign sounds have become our mental and 
bodily property so fully and entirely that we begin 
to think in them just as readily as in our own ver- 

And this brings me to 

Every observer of human nature must be aware of 
the existence of an unconscious process of thought which is 
entirely apart from and independent of will power, and 
which — in speaking our mother tongue — is mainly in- 
strumental in expressing our wants and desires. For 
instance, we go into a shop to purchase a pair of 
gloves. Our conscious thought is occupied in the size^ 
colot'y and quality of the gloves we wish to purchase. All 
these different points we readily express without one 
thought of the words to be used. At the very moment of 
uttering these expressions, our thoughts are often occu- 
pied with some care or sorrow which is far removed 
from our bodily necessities. Still, in this absent-minded 
condition we buy our gloves, pay for them, and proba- 
bly exchange some civilities with the attendant. 

This unconscious po7ver of thinking and speaking has 
so far never been touched upon by philologists and 
teachers, and only Schopenhauer and Hartmann among 
modern philosophers have alluded to it. Yet I am 
fully convinced, by practical experience and by close 
study of the human mind, that in acquiring a foreign 
tongue it is the mainspring of all proficiency. 

Our own tongue is of course flesh and blood to us. We 
express our thoughts distinctly and clearly without be- 
ing aware of any mental activity. I allude, of course, 
only to common, every-day experiences, and not to 
subjects which require conscious and concentrated 


Now let any one who has studied a foreign tongue 
for years according to the prevailing methods try to 
express such a simple sentence as, ** / should like to pur- 
chase some goods this morning. Would you be kind enough to 
accompany me?'* 

It surely cannot be said, when we utter such a trite 
and commonplace phrase in our own tongue, that we 
even for a moment realize that any activity of thought 
is going on in our minds ; but in the very instant we 
have this thought the tongue unconsciously utters it. 

Yet, I say, let the graduate of any college try to 
give this sentence as rapidly in French as in English, 
and not one in a-thousand will be able to do it. 

He has to think about each single word ; he 
searches the recesses of his memory for the proper 
equivalents ; he weighs the different grammatical rules 
which may or may not govern this construction. In 
one word, he thinks about his French instead of thinking 
in French. 

This is one of the greatest fundamental errors in 
the present grammatical systems, and the chief cause of 
failure in learning to speak ; and to this alone it is to be 
attributed that Za//;/ is no longer spoken by our scholars. 

I choose this seemingly far-fetched illustration on 
purpose, as it will give me an occasion to show 

It is an undeniable fact that up to the niiddle of the 
sixteenth century Latin was the language spoken^ like 
a living tongue^ in all cultivated and refined society 
throughout Europe. 


And how was it taught ? Undoubtedly by word of 
mouth, since the art of printing was almost unknown, 
and the old manuscripts were only within the reach of 
a very wealthy and privileged few. 

With the birth of the press died the practice of 
oral teaching. The teacher gave the living tangible 
word over to the dumb look ; the frequent repetition of 
sounds so vital to the learning of a foreign tongue, was 
lost, and the scholars remained dumb, like the book 
which they had been studymg. For how could linguis- 
tic results be expected from the intelligence, instead of — 
as by the natural process — from the ear and the tongue? 

Latin is more generally studied ia our times than 
in the past ; yet who is able to speak it ? 

It may be argued that, in taking Latin for an exam- 
ple, I overlook the fact that it is a dead language. But 
was it not equally dead five hundred years ago ? And 
yet it was spoken because it was studied in a common- 
seme, natural manner. 

And for the same reason — though they are living 
tongues — French and German are not now spoken in our 
schools^ because they are taught in a false^ unreasonable,, and 
unnatural way. 

The observation of these facts caused me to investi- 
gate the subject fully, and to determine in the first place 

It is well known to philologists that the ordinary 
vocabularies of men are quite small ; that children, who 
are able to express nearly every physical wish, are never- 
theless armed with oftentimes less than 500, and sel- 


dom over looo words. Nature provides the child with 
some subtle instinct by which he selects no word which 
is not of absolute and immediate importance. From 
the first uttered syllables on through his whole little 
life, not a moment is wasted in learning superfluous 

Similar it is with the vocabulary of every-day life. 
It has occurred to more than one scholar that if he 
could only actually determine the extent and nature of 
these words he would be able to make the acquisition of 
modern languages a very easy matter. 

Bayard Taylor^ in his *' Views Afoot,** has declared 
himself able to acquire a working knowledge of almost 
any language in less than a month, and he goes on to 
show the character of the words he would learn. He 
naturally hit upon this idea ; it was suggested by the 
very wide experience which he had, and the demand 
that his travels made upon him for acquiring a great 
many languages. 

My own rather extended experience as a traveller 
and linguist coincides exactly with Bayard Taylor's. 

In ^//languages there is what might be called 
a quantity of words necessary in all walks of life, 
understood by all, learned first by all, needed and used 
by all, and with the great mass of people never increas- 
ing above a certain number, put variously by scholars at 
from one to three thousand. The nature of these words 
is about the same with all civilized nations. 

Th€{ observation of many scholars has done much 
to determine this. The results of these studies are now 


beginning to be felt in Germany especially, where a visit 
to the public schools will convince any one that school 
children are no longer learning the interesting facts 
giv^en in a well-known American grammar, that *^ the 
Italian shoemaker has purchased an Egyptian antelope ^'^ or 
that *' the shoes of the Spanish peasant have a golden heel^** 
or that * * the shepherds rested^ and the swine and sows 
grazed.'* German text-books begin to be formed on a 
more sensible basis. Efforts have been made to select 
the words of every- day speech, and the results are such 
that, although still hampered by the influence of the 
old methods, the German schools are certainly produc- 
ing the best linguists in the world. 

The study of foreign languages has been made 
hitherto as difficult as possible, the memory in addition 
to the numerous abstruse rules being taxed with many' 
words unnecessary for conversation in its initiatory 

An examination of most American grammars, man- 
uals, conversation books and all the labored aids to this 
study, will show that the vocabularies are crammed 
with promiscuous words, which seem to have been 
drawn out of the dictionaries by some novel system of 
** legalized lottery*' — not so much with a view to provide 
a necessary vocabulary as to do reverence to the diction- 
ary, and give every word a fair chance of representa- 

I hold that a few idiomatic sentences, containing the most 
necessary words, should be learned in the commencement, en- 
abling the student to at once begin conversation. It is astonish- 
ing how naturally and rapidly other words will then be 


learned, while at the same time the ear is becoming 
accustomed to the sounds, and the mind begins to think 
in them. 

Lepsius, the celebrated scholar on Egyptian antiqui- 
ties, liniits 

to six hundred. I take about four times that number, 
i.e.^ 2,000-2,500, founding my estimate upon the fluency 
of speech usually attained by young men of between 15 
and 18 years of age. 

This number of words appears at first sight absurdly 
small, but if we remember that with 40 words we can 
construct 1,024,000 sentences of twenty words each. It 
will be seen that my estimate is strictly correct. 

For persons interested in mathematical calculations, 
I give the following table : 

From 6 words we can form 8 combinations of 3 
words each ; from 




























It is therefore self-evident what an enormous number of 
sentences may be formed with 2000 words, and that th^ 


knowledge of them is absolutely sufficient for the com- 
mon occurrences of every-day life. 

It must also be remembered that if we really know 
2000 words, we will recognize at least five to ten times as 
many more which are either derived from or closely 
related to them. 

Aided and assisted by the works and the help of 
many teachers, I have made all possible efforts to select 
only those words which are and must be always em- 
ployed in all transactions of our daily life. 

Certainly, if a man in common life is able to do 
with 2000 words, it will not be a difficult matter to 
acquire his language, provided only these words are 
rightly selected. Nature never fails to select the propef 
ones. Men can only do it by long and extensive study. 

The proper selection of the vocabulary of common life is 
the first distinguishing feature of the ^Meisterschaft System." 

But, highly important as this part of the work is, it 
must not be forgotten that 



and that in acquiring a foreign tongue we must have a 

framework, or rather a series of formulae which contain 

the peculiar constructions of the language in question. 

This is a very important point, as each and every 
language has 



which are entirely and peculiarly its own, and which 

cannot be literally translated into any other tongue. 

For ex9mni« we a'' r?y *' Htiv do you doV* Do 


what ? What are we supposed to be doing that we 
should be asked " how we do it '7 This mode of saluta- 
tion is just as peculiarly English as the German greet- 
ing, •* Wie geht esV or, literally, *' How goes itV" is in- 
trinsically German. 

Yet, in order to master either of these, or any other 
language, we must learn their peculiar idioms almost 
mechanically. We must free ourselves from that most mis 
leading habit of translating literally from one language into 
another^ and must accustom ourselves from the very start 
to the foreign idioms and constructions. 

This seems at first exceedingly difficult, and yet it 
is the only practical way in which real mastery of the 
foreign forms of speech can be reached. Grammatical 
rules will certainly assist us in so far as to give us a 
more or less lucid explanation of peculiar constructions 
and modes of expression, but only in rare instances can 
they give a logical reason for these peculiarities of lan- 
guage. For who can explain the involved constructions 
of the German tongue in a logical manner ? Or who 
can give a logical reason for the way in which the 
French handle their pronouns ? Such peculiarities of 
speech must be received as facts^ and all we can do is 
to practice these idioms and constructions so fully that they 
become natural to us, and are uttered just as glibly as 
the English equivalents. 

We all know that most grammars plunge the 
scholar directly into dry grammatical rules, and syntax, 
and long, tedious, ill-arranged vocabularies. The bulk 
of the ordinary scholar*s time is consumed in learning 
hundreds of unconnected words, which, though of lit 

#rary and etymological importance, are proven to be 
outside of daily or yearly wants, and learned only to bjg 

** Tiiis, * says a highly accomplished American 
scholar in a letter to the Evening Post^ ** is the complaint 
of teachers and 'students everywhere. But now that 
in the * Aleisterschaft Syste??i * a method has been devised^ 
grounded on the laws actually goi^erning the nature of ' volk * 
vocabularies giving at once sentences formed of these words 
instead of silly phrases and useless vocabularies^ introducing a 
scholar into an idiomatic^ and not a literal study of the foreign 
tongue^ its benefit and value can hardly be estimated. . . • 
I believe this is the method to be adopted throughout 
our schools. We study P'rench, but the soul of our work 
is in English. We study German, but strive only to 
make goo4 English from it. And so with Latin and Greek. 
And anyone who has observed the results in our highest 
and our best institutions feels like hiding for shame. 
It is the wickedest sham that ever lurked about our life. 
I believe it will be bettered ; c.nd as I see the '' Meister- 
schaft System ' applied so sensibly to self-study it seems 
to me practical that if its author can only be induced to in sit 
America^ it will be possible for him to carry on this work so 
far that it shall root up our wretched methods and work a 
reform straight through our schools. ' ' 

It is an old established maxim that 

but, incontrovertible and true as this principle undoubt- 
edly is, the difficulty of thinking in the language itself i:^ 
almost insurmountable. When resident in a foreign country 


among persons who speak nothing but their own ver- 
nacular, we gradually and imperceptibly catch their 
meaning, and in time become — as we have shown — so 
accustomed to the foreign sounds that we at last begin 
to think in them. 

But h(nv can this be accomplished in our (nvn land ^ 
How is this possid/e when we are continually surrounded 
by our own countrymen, and are perpetually obliged to 
use our mother tongue ? 

We know that the study of grammar as practiced in 
our schools does not give us this ability. Oral teaching 
so called has also been tried, but with very indifferent 
success. Robertson^ Ollendorff^ Otto, Prendergast, and Jacotot 
attempted to solve the difficulty, and though the two 
last-named scholars started undoubtedly with correct 
ideas, they all failed to give us facility of speech. 
Prendergast^ perhaps the most original mind among 
modern philologists, worked out a most able theory ; 
but being himself no linguist, and unfortunately being 
totally blind, he was obliged to leave the practical part 
of his work to his assistants, who made — as he acknowl- 
edged himself to me — a most miserable failure in the 
compilation of his text-books. 

My system, though far from being entirely original, 
combines the good features of all modern methods, and 
follows at the same time nature's own way as closely as 
possible. While some grammars teach nothing but theory, 1 
lay the greatest stress on practical mastery. While others 
give nothing but a number of ill- arranged French or Ger- 
man conversations, and sneer at any grammatical study, 1 
give the English equivalent, and as much of the grammar ai 

musi be inown for all practical purposes. While others, 
again, do not distinguish between the language of litera-' 
ture and thai cf tvery-day life^ 1 give the common vocabulary 
firsts and leave other less necessary words iov after -studies. 

In one word, my system is, to use Dr, Schliemann* s ex- 
pression, ** a scientific adaptation of ihc natural mode of ma^" 
tering foreign iongues i' and while I gratefully acknowU 
edge my obligation to the works of tiiiiny grammarians, 
and especially to those of Lehmann^^ Frendergast, and 
Jacototy I claim that * ' the Meisterschaft Syslem, * * so far as 
any scientific work can be original, is my own, and has 
been thoroughly tried by myself for more than 14 years, 
and most successfully used by teachers ai»d scholars all 
over the Continent of Europe for the last three, years. 

A glance at the first few pages of the lessons will 

I give first what I call a foundation sentence, which con- 
tains a number of idiomatic peculiarities, and is com- 
posed of about 20 words most necessary for ordinary 
conversation. As a native teacher is not always accessible, 
I have given the exact pronunciation of each word so clearly 
and distinctly that no mistake can possibly be made. 

The student must ;/^/ attempt to learn the founda- 
tion sentence by heart, but read and repeat it aloud 
until it sounds* perfectly familiar to his ear, and ftows 
smoothly from the tongue without effort ot mistake. 

Of course he must read the English equivalent of 
the phrase first so that he may have a general idea of its 


The foundation sentence is next divided into different 
parts, and having perfectly mastered \\\^ pronunciation the 
pupil may proceed to study the meaning of each word^ so 
that he can follow the different transpositions and varia- 
tions intelligently. 

For in order to accustom the pupil to Xki^ peculiar for* 
ngn constructions^ and to make him familiar with their 
modes of thought and expression^ I form new and similar 
sentences, repeating the same constructions and some of 
the words learned. By introducing some nouns, ad- 
verbs, adjectives, or conjunctions, the sentences are 
continually altered and enlarged. 

Short grammatical rules^ or rather >^/«/f, are constantly 
given in the foot-notes, so that the student may under- 
stand what he is learning, and not simply work mechan- 
ically, as Prendergast erroneously recommends. Practice 
and theory must be united. 

After the learner has intelligently gone through the 
variations of Part I. he must read and re- read them aloud 
for about 3-5 minutes. 

This done, the pupil will turn to the English^ which, as 
will be observed, is printed on the opposite page, repeating 
aloud from it the foreign equivalent as fluently and quickly ai 

He must^ however, 

If he cannot remember a word, or if he is not 
quite sure that he has given the foreign phrase 
correctly, he must immediately re-read the Frenci' 


or German, and then give it once more from the 

This exercise also must never be continued for more 
than five minutes, so that the whole time of reading and 
translating is not to exceed ten minutes at a time ; But this must 
be repeated at intervals during the day^ as often as the conven- 
ience of the pupil permits^ but in no case less than three times 
a day. Always read and translate aloud. 

By these frequent repetitions the pupil not only 
masters the pronunciation thoroughly, but gets also 
perfectly familiar with the foreign sounds, which imper- 
ceptibly impress themselves so indelibly on his mem.ory 
that after a few days he will find himself able to utter 
the foreign equivalents as fluently and unconsciously as 
his native English. 

At the same time he has become so familiar with 
the foreign constructions and modes of thought that he 
will begin to form other similar sentences for himself, 
without making the slightest grammatical mistake. 
For this purpose the vocabulary must be used and the 
exercises translated. 

The student must never begin a new division before 
he has gained perfect command and mastery over all 
the preceding sentences. 

My rules strictly followed will undoubtedly lead 
to the most perfect success, as proved by the experience 
of thousands of my pupils. 



A correct pronunciation is the first and most essential 
consideration in speaking a foreign tongue. 

Learn the pronunciation — if possible — from a native. 
Any person, however, who can read French may easily 
guide you, if you should experience difficulties in pro 
nouncing a word. 

Observe that : 

a is always pronounced like our a in father. 

e when short = 5 is pronounced like e in met^ 
when accented = 6, or 6, or e, it is pronounced like at 
in air. 

i sounds like eo in green. 

is pronounced like our o. 

U is very hard to pronounce, as there is no equivalent 
In the English language for this sound. It is so utterly 
different from anything in our tongue that the nearest 
approach we find to it is in ** «," in the word *^ gudcy' :a 
the Scotch dialect. To pronounce a French " u," it is 
necessary to round the lips as if going to whistle and 
then sound an ee. 

As a native teacher is not always accessible, and in 
order to make the lessons thoroughly useful for self- in- 
struction, I have given the exact pronunciation after 
each word as clearly and distinctly as possible. 

Directions for Private Study. 

As all fluency of speech in a foreign language is 
mainly attained through the repetition of the different 
sounds, the pupil must not simply read, but repeat aloud 
the sentences given^ so that he can the sound of his otvn 

He must begin with the Foundation Sentence, and 
read and repeat it a/oudyUntil it sounds perfectly familiar 
to his ear, and flows smoothly from the tongue without 
effort or hesitation. 

This, it will be observed, is not study, but an exercise 
of the tongue and the ear. 

The pupil will naturally read the English equivalent 
of each sentence, so that he will have a general idea of its 
meaning, but literal translation — word for word — is in 
this system strictly forbidden. 

He must not attempt to learn the Foundation Sentence 
by heart. By reading it often, it will unconsciously 
impress itself so indelibly on his memory that he cannot 
possibly forget it again. 

Having perfectly mastered the pronunciation of the 
Foundation Sentence^ the pupil may proceed to study the 
meaning of each word of Division /., so that he may be able 
to follow the different transpositions and variations 

All the French variations of the first division must 
then be read and re-read aloud. 

This exercise should last from three to five minutes 
only, so that no fatigue whatever is felt. After a correct 
and fluent pronunciation has been attained, the pupil 
will then turn to the English, giving aloud from it the 


French equivalent without looking at the French 

He must, however, never trust to his memory. If he can- 
not remember a word instantly, or if he is not quite sure 
that he has given the French phrase correctly, he must 
immediately re-read the French, and then repeat it once 
more from the English. 

This exercise also should never exceed five minutes, 
so that all in all about ten minutes may be given to the 
reading of the French, and the translating from the 
English into the French. 

These short exercises must be repeated at intervats 
during the day as often as the convenience of the pupil 
permits, but in no case less than three or fonr times 
a day. 

By these frequent repetitions, the pupil not only masters 
the pronunciation thoroughly, dtit secures the French sentences 
and idioms so accurately, that after a few days he will ftnd 
himself able to utter the French phrases as fluently and un- 
consciously as those of his native tongue. 

He will thus gradually and imperceptibly learn to 
think in French, and must for that purpose translate the 
Jbxerctses, and learn the words of the vocabulary by heart. 

The student must never be^gin a new sentence be- 
fore he has gained perfect command and absolute mastery 
over all the preceding ones. 

These rules must be strictly followed, since it is only by 
constant repetition that real success can be attained. 

These books are issued in a form intended expressly 
for the convenience of learners, and should not be bound, 
but kept in the soft cover so that the book can be doubled 
back. It is not a book intended to be preserved for bind- 


ipg or show, but should be always carried in the pocket 
and made a constant companion so that the spirit of the 
language shall impress itself thoroughly upon the mind 
of the student. 


At the end of each lesson will be found Exercises 
for translation — French into English, and English into 

These should be examined by a teacher. 

At great personal inconvenience Dr. Rosenthal has 
established himself for a time in New York, thus placing 
himself in direct postal communication with every Sub- 
scriber in the United States, to answer all inquiries rel- 
ative to study, and to correct all exercises sent to him. 


Pupils who wish co scuay lor colloquial purposes 
only, need not study them. They will be found useful 
however, and should be studied after all the sentences 
have been mastered. 

1|^e ^l^t^t^J'JW^aft $S«<«itt* 



I should like to make some purchases this 

morning: : will you haye the l^indness to come 

with me to the French tailor's! 


I should like to make some purchases this 


should like {or^ would like) 

i) The student must — if possible under the guidance of a refined 
native Frenchman — read the " Foundation Sentence " until he 
can pronounce it smoothly and without the slightest hesitation. 
He must always read aloud, so that both his ear and tongue may get 
accustomed to the foreign sounds. The French intomtion is peculiar ; 
there is alwavs a sli^Af rinnf:^ accent on the last syllable. The voire 
does not fall at the end of a sentence as in English, but rises 

2} * /' is pronounced like * e* in our English word * met* 



Je Tondrais faire des emplettes ee matin; 

j6* voa^-dray fair day'* zang*-plSt s6 ma-taing 

Tonlez-Yous avoi^r Tobligeanee de yenir aTec 

votl-Ish votl zav'woar* Id-bleg-jangs de ve-nesr a-v6k 

moi^ Chez le taillenr frau^aist 

mVoah* shay 16 tS-yetlr' frang say. 


Je Tondrais faire des emplettes ce matin. 

j6 voQ-dray fair day zing-plSt sS mi taiiisr. 

Je (ji) 

voudiais (vou-dray) 

3) '^ ou* is pronounced like * « ' in ' mde^ only somewhat shorter. 

4) If one word ends with j, «, x^ /, d^ tiy and the next begins with a 
vowel or k mute, the two are for euphony's sake joined together, 
so as to form one word, as : veut-il = vea-teel ; vouiez-vous aller = 
vou-leh-votl-zah-lay ; les hommes = lay-zom. The small arch C^) 
denotes this joining of words. 

5) *fl' in French has always the sound of *tf ' in ^father* 

6) woah is to be melted into one sound. 

7) *«# * is pronounced like Va * in * early ^ only longer. 


to do (or to make) 


shopping ; purchases 



I. I should like to make some purchases. 
3. I should like to do my {mes) shopping. 

3. I should not like (je ne voudrais pas) to make my 

4. I should not like to make my purchases this morning. 

5. Would you like (voudriez-vous) to make your pur- 
chases (vos emplettes) ? 

6. Would you not like to make your purchases this 
morning (ce matin) ? 

7. Why {pourquoi) would you not like to make your 
purchases this forenoon ? 

8. Would you like to make your purchases at {dans) this 
store {ce magasin) ? 

9. Why would you not like to make your purchases at 
this store ? 

10. I should like to do my shopping at this store. 

11. I should not like to do my shopping at this store. 

12. I should not like to do it {=it to do, lefaire) '. 

i) The English word * not* must always be expressed by two 
negative words in French, viz. : * ne^pas,* the first of which is plac< d 
before the simple verb, the other after it, as : Je voudrais, I should 
like ; je ne voudrais ^aj, I should not like. 



!aire {fair) 
^es {day) 
emplettes {ang-plet) 
ce {se) 
matin (md-taing). 

X. Je voudrais faire deremplettes (day zdng-plH). 

2. Je voudrais faire mes^mplettes (may zdng-plet), 

3. Je ne voudrais pas* (ji ni vou-dray pdh) faire mes'^m- 


4. Je ne voudrais pas faire mes"emplettes ce matin (si 

5. Voudriez-vous (vou'dree-eh vou) faire vos^mplettes 
(vo-zdng-plet ) ? 

6. Ne voudriez-vous pas faire vosemplettes ce matin ? 

7. Ponrquoi (pour-quo-ah) ne voudriez-vous pas (ne vou-- 
dree-eh vou^dh) faire vos emplettes ce matin ? 

8. Voudriez-vous faire vos emplettes dans ce magasin 
(ddng se md'gd'Zaing) ? 

9. Pourquoi ne voudriez-vous pas faire vos emplettes 
dans ce magasin ? 

xo. Je voudrais faire mes emplettes dans ce magasin. 

11. Je ne voudrais pas faire mes emplettes dans ce ma- 


1 2. Je ne voudrais pas le * faire (IS fair). 

2) The so-called Conjunctive Persona! Pronouns, * me, thee, him, 
Her, ir, us, you, them,* are always placed immediately before the verb. 
The French conjunctive personal pronouns are: 

me (m/), me la (/a), her nous (noa), us. 

te (//), thee le (//), it vous (vou), you. 

le (//), him l^s (^^/)» ^^®™- 


13. I should like to do it (=it to do) this forenoon {rrii 1 

14. Would you like {voudriez-vous) to do it? 

15. Why (pourquoi) would you not like to do so (le) ? 

16. Would you like to §0 (aller) to (dy this establishment 
{or to this store) ? 

17. I should not like to go (aller) to this store. 

18. Would you not like to go to the (aw = to the) theatre 
{or play = spectacle) ? 

19. He (il) would like to go to the theatre. 

20. He would not like to go to the French theatre {liter' 
ally, to the theatre French*). 

21. My brother (nionfr^re) would not like to go to the 

French theatre. 

22. Why would he not like to go to the French theatre } 

23. To which {d quel) store would he like to go.^^ 

24. Would you not like to go to Paris {d Paris)} 

25. I should very much {bien) like to go to Paris. 

26. She {elle) would not like to make her {ses) purchases 
in {dans) this establishment. 


i) We have three accents in French, viz : i. TA^ acute accent 
which is only placed over e, as ixh. — 2. The grave accent^ which is 
placed over the vowels a, e^ u-=zh, k, h. — 3. The circumflex accent, which 
may be placed upon any of the vowels, as Ame, r^ve. 

2) Under c we see a peculiar little hook which is called a cedilla 
(une c6dille), and gives to c the sound of j before a, o^ and u 

The French place the adjective mostly after the noun, i.e., the 
theatre French, 


13- Jc voudrais le faire ce matin. 

14. Voudriez-vous le faire {vou-dree-eh vouie/air) ? 

15. Pourquoi {pour-guo-ah) ne voudriez-vous pas le faire ? 

16. Voudriez-vous aller {vou-dree-eh vou zdh-lay) ^ * ce ma- 
gasin {ah si md-gd-zaing) ? 

17. Je ne voudrais pas aller {pah zdh-leh) k ce magasin. 

18. Ne voudriez-vous pas aller au spectacle {oh spec-tdh-k/)} 

19. II voudrait aller {eel vou-dray-tdh'/eh) au spectacle. 

20. II ne voudrait pas aller au spectacle fran9ais * {frdng- 

21. Mon frere {mong frair) ne voudrait pas aller au spec- 
tacle franyais. 

22. Pourquoi {pour-quo-dh) ne voudrait-il pas Mer {ni-zjou- 
dray teel pdh zdh-leh) au spectacle f ran^ais ? 

23. A quel {ah kill) magasin voudrait-il aller.? 

24. Ne voudriez-vous pas aller k Paris {ni vou-dree-eh voa 
pdh zdh'leh dh Pd-ree) ? 

25. Je voudrais bien {byaing) aller d Paris. 

26. Elle {ill) ne voudrait * pas faire ses emplettes {sayzdng- 
put) dans {dang) ce magasin. 

3) Jevoudraisy I should like, ^^ I would like is conjugated thus : 
je voudrais {ji voU'dray\ I would like, 
tu voudrais (/«;? voudray\ thou wouldst like, 
il voudrait {eel vou dray), he wou'd like. 
elle voudrait {ill vou dray), she would like. 
nous voudrions {nou voudree-ong), we would like, 
vous von^x'x^z {vou vou-dree-eh), you would like, 
ils voudraient {eel vou- dray), they would like {masc). 
clles voudraient (/// vou-dtay), they would like {/em.). 


Will you have the kindness to come with 



will you? (or, are you willing 9 do you wish? do you 
want to ?) 

to have 

the kindness 


come {or to^ome) 


me. [The student must well distinguish between ' me * and ' moi * ; 
the first is always placed df/or^ the verb ; the second stands 
a/ier prepositions and such affirming imperative forms as 
donnez'tnoi, give me ; apporiez-moif bring me]. 

i) Final consonants are penerallv silent. A final consonant 
however, followd by a word that begins 7vith a 7'owt't vr a s^k^ti h, ts 
pronounced with the next syllable, as if the two formed but one word, 
as : z'^«/-i7=vrn tsel ; mes empltttgs=m2iy zang-plSt \ voulez-vous /erin 
=votl-lay-von zay-kr55r. 

Toulez-Tous aToir I'obllgeance tte yenir 

votl-l€h votl zav'woSr* Id-blee-j3ngs d6 v6-neSr 

ayec moi? 

a-vek m'woah 
voulez (poU'leH) 

vous {vou) 

voulez-vous ? 

avoir {a-v'^wodr) 

Tobligeance (Id-blee-jdngs) 

de {de) \de before the infinitive of verbs means * to* bul as a pre 
position, * of* or *from ']. 

venir {v^-nier) 

avec (d-vek) 

moi {nCwod^i) [it would lead us too far if we were to explain here all 
the personal pronouns. The rules are given in the 
4th, 5th, and 6th lesson.] 

Final c, before a vowel, is sounded like k, as du blanc au noir=d}X 

blang-kOh nVoahr. 
d, „ „ t, as quand il est = kang 

8 or X ti » *» 2is Us ont=BQ\ z6ng; aux 

onctes=Gh z6ng-kr. 


1. Wm you have the kindness to go (d'aller) with me to the 
store ? 

2. Why will you not have the kindness to come with me 
to the French store (= store French) ? 

3. I will (or, I am willing). 

4. I am not willing {or, I do not wish to). 

5. I want {je veux) to do my shopping this forenoon 

6. When (quanrJ) do you want to make your purchases ? 

7. I wish {je veux) to make my purchases to-morrow 
{demain) morning. Will you have the kindness to 
come with me ? 

8. I should very much {bien) like to go with you, but I have 
no time {Literally: But {mats) I have not [Je n'aipas] 
the time [le temps]), 

9. Why {pourquoi) will you not go to the theatre with 
my brother {monfHre) ? 

10. I should very much {Men) like to go to the theatre 

with him {lui)yb\xt I have no time {je n^aipas le temps). 

11. Will you do it {le) for {pour) me } 

12. I do not want {je ne veux pas) to do it for him. 

13. Will you have it done (or, order it = le fairefaire) > 

i) de is apostrophed before words commencing with a vowel, as 
de a//<fr=d'aller ; de /<rn>«r=d'6crire, to write. 

a) ^ eu^ is pronounced like 'ea * in * early^ only much longer. 
Je veux means 1 a-n willing, or I wish,/;- 1 want, or\ wil', and is 
conjugated thus : 

je veux {j^ %-efi), I am willing, 
tu veux {til veil), thou art willing, 
il veut ( evl veu ). he is willijigr. 
elle veut {ell veu), she is willing. 


1. Voulez-vous avoir Tobligeance d*aller^ {ddh-ich) avec 
. moi au magasin ? 

2. Pourquoi ne voulez-vous pas avoir Tobligeance de 
venir avec moi au {oh) magasin frangais ? 

3. Je veux {veny, 

4. Je ne veux pas {je ne veu pdJi). 

5. Je veux faire mes emplettes ce matin. 

6. Quand (kdng) voulez-vous faire vos emplettes ? 

7. Je veux {veu) faire mes^emplettes demain {de-main^ 
matm. Voulez-vous avoir Tobligeance de venir avec 

8. Je voudrais bien {byaing^ aller avec vous, mais je n'ai 

pas le temps {may je nay pah le tang), 

9. Pourquoi {pour-quo-dh) ne voulez-vous pas aller au 
spectacle avec mon fr^re {mong frair) ? 

10. Je voudrais bien (^y^/Var^^) aller au spectacle avec lui 
. {Vwee)^ mais je n'ai pas le temps {may je nay pdh li 


1 1. Voulez-vous le faire pour {pour) moi? 

13. Je ne veux pas {je ne veu pdh) le faire pour lui {pour 

13. Voulez vous le faire faire ? 

nous voulons {^nou vou-long), we are willing. 

vous voulez ivou vou leh), you are willing. 

ils veulent {eel veul\ they are willing {masc,\ 

elles veulent (/// veul), they are willing {fern.) 
3) In English we use in questions and negations the auxiliary 
verb to do^ as : do you want to go ? / do not want to go. In French we 
have no corresponding auxiliary, and cannot express it. We siraply 
say instead of * do you want to f^o ' ?=want you to go, voulez-vous aller ? 
Instead oi* I do not want to go'=l not want to go, y> tie veux pas 


14. He does not want (il ne veut pas) to have it done., 

15. Why will he not have it done for you ? 

16. Where {oiX) will you have it done ? 

17. Where will you have your (voire) coat (habit) done 
(or, your dress made) ? 

iS. Will you order (/aire /aire) your coat at (chez) my 
(mon) tailor's (tailleur) ? 

19. Your tailor won't make my coat. 

20. Why will he not have his (son) coat done at the 
French tailor's ? 

21. The French tailor will not make my black (noir) 

waistcoat (gilet). 

22. Where will you have your black coat done ? 

23. Why will you not buy (acheter) your black coat at the 

French tailor's ? 

24. Will you have your luggage (bagage) booked (en- 
registrer) ? 

25. I will not have my luggage booked (or checked). 

26. Why are you unwilling to have your luggage booked 

(or checked) ? 

27. What (que) will you do? 

2^. What will you do this evening (or, to-night = ce 
soir) ? 

29. Will you go to the theatre to-night ? 

30. No, sir, this evening V\\ write a letter (une lettre) to 
my uncle in London (Londres), 

t) 'ft?* There is no equivalent in the English language for this 
snund. It is so utterly different from anything in our tongue, that 
the nearest approach we find to it is in * u ' in the word * gude ' in the 


14. II ne veut pas {eel ne veu pah) le faire faire. 

15. Pourquoi ne veut-il pas {jie veu-teel pdk) le faire faire 
pour vous ? 

16. Ou {ou) voulez-vous le faire faire ? 

17. Oh voulez-vous faire faire votre habit {voi-rd-bee) ? 

18. Voulez-vous faire faire votre habit chez {shay) mon 
tailleur {mong td-yeur) ? 

19. Votre tailleur ne veut pas faire mon habit {mon-nd-bee). 

20. Pourquoi ne veut-il pas faire faire son habit chez 
le tailleur frangais {frdng-say) ? 

21. Le tailleur frangais ne veut pas faire mon gilet noir 
{jee-lay tCwo-di). 

22. Ou voulez-vous faire faire votre habit noiv ivot-rd-bee- 
fiwo'df) ? 

23. Pourquoi ne voulez-vous pas acheter {pdh-zdsh-tay) 
votre habit noir chez le tailleur fran9ais ? 

24. Voulez-vous faire enregistrer {dng-ray-gis-iraj ) votre 
bagage (bd-gdhje) ? 

25. Je ne veux pas faire enregistrer mon bagage. 

26. Pourquoi ne voulez-vous pas faire enregistrer votre 
bagage ? 

27. Que {ke) voulez-vous faire ? 

28. Que voulez-vous faire ce soir {se-s^wo-dr) ? 

29. Voulez-vous aller ce soir au spectacle ? 

30. Non, monsieur {mo-syeu)^ ce soir je veux ecrire {je veil 
zay-kreer) une* lettre k mon oncle d Londres (iihn 
let-rd mon nong-kV dh long-clr'). 

Scotch language. To pronounce a French * u,* it is necessary to 
-place (or rather round) the lips as if going to whistle, and then sound 
an * ce.' 


31. What does he wish to do to-night? 

32. What will you do with (de) this (cette) letter? 

33. What is to be done? {Literally: What do)? 

34. What's to bb done in regard to {de)yo\xx luggage (t'oa 
hagages) ? 

35. What is to be done? He will not have his luggage 

{aes bagages) checked. 

36. What do you want of me? {Literally: What me will 
you ?) 

37. What does he want of you ? 

38. He does not want to buy this black waistcoat. 

39. Will you bring {apporter) my dinner {diner) ? 

40. Bring {apportez) my dinner immediately {or, at once 

= tout de suite), 

41. Bring my dinner at once, if you please {sil vous plait). 


to the French tailor's? 

to (by ; at the house of ; at the store of) 

the [Definite article. Compare the Grammatical Remarks. As con- 
junctive personal pronoun, * U * means ' him ' or * it/] 


French [The French place the adjective aftfriht noun— j./.,the tailor 

I. Why will he not come {venir) to-day {aujourd'hui) ? 


31. Que veut-il faire ce soir ? 

32. Que voulez-vous faire de cette lettre {si* IHfr) ? 
2^7^, Que faire ? 

34. Que faire de vos (yoH) bagages? {Bagages is mostly 
used in the plural). 

35. Que faire ? II ne veut pas faire enregistrer ses (say) 

36. Que me voulez-vous ? 

37. Que vous veut-il ? 

38. II ne veut pas acheter ce gilet noir {eel ni veu pah zdsh-^ 
tay se jei'lay n'wo-dr)i 

39. Voulez-vous apporter men diner {vou-leh vou zdp-por- 
teh mong dee-nay) ? 

40 Apportez {dp-por-teh) mon diner tout de suite {tou- 

41. Apportez mon diner tout de suite, s'il vous plait {see* 

vou play). 

Chez le tailleur fran^ais? 

shay 16 t&-year frSng-say 
chez {shay). 

le {li) [There exists only one form for the definite masculine article 
* the' and the personal pronoun *him * or * it,* viz. * le'^ 

tailleur {td-yeur) 

frangais {frdng-say) [The adjective is mostly placed after the 

I. Pourquoi ne veut-il pas venir aujourd'hui (ve-neer oh' 


2. He won't come to-day, but (mats) he says (il dit) that 
{que) he wants to come to-morrow {demain), 

3. Will you do me the isLVOur {le plaisir) of coming with 
me ? 

4. Where to (ot^) (then = do7ic?) [The French are very 
fond of adding this * dx^nc * which cannot be translated 
into English]. 

5. I should like {je voudrais) to go to the English («7i^- 

laise) church {Veglise), 

6. I should like to buy {je voudrais acheter) a black 

(noir) waistcoat and a pair {une paire) of boots. 
Won't you do me the favour to accompany me {de 
m^accompagjier^ instead of de me accompagiier) 9 

7. I should like very much {bie7i) to go with you, but 

(niais) I have no time. (Literally : I have not the 
time = je 7i^ai pas le temps), 

8. Have you (avez-vous) time (= the time) to go with 
me ? 

9. No, sir, I have no time. 

10. What have you to do ? (The French *donc^ cannot 
always be translated. Compare phrase 4.) 

1 1. I have much (beaucoup) to do. 

1 2. 1 should like to accompany you, but I have no time. 

1) * Que/ what, must be apostrophed before words commencing 
with, a vcwely as : qtCavez-vous instead oi que avez-vous? 
a) The auxiliary verb/ai\ I have, is thus conjugated : 

j'ai (Jay), I have. 

tu as {tu dk\ thou hast. 


2 II ne veut pas venir aujourd*hui, mais il dit {may zeel 
dee) qu'il (keel) veut venir demain {de-maing), 

3. Voulez-vous me faire le plaisir (play-zeer) de venir 
avec moi ? 

4. Oh done {dong) ? {Done can in this phrase not be 

5. Je voudrais aller {je vou-dray-zdh-Ieh) k I'^glise anglaise 

(lay glcese dng-glayse), 

6. Je voudrais acheter (je vou-dray-zash-tay) un gilet noir 

et une paire de bottes (tin pair de bot), Ne voulez- 
vous pas me faire le plaisir de m'accompagner (md- 
kong-pdn-yeh) ? 

7. Je voudrais bien (byaing) aller avec vous, mais (may) je 

n'ai pas (je nay pah) le temps (tang). 

8. Avez-vous (dveh vou) le temps dialler avec moi ? 

9. Non, monsieur, je n*ai pas le temps. 

10. Qu'avez-vous^ done k faire (kd-veh-vou dong ah fair) ? 

11. J^ai^ beaucoup (boh-kou) gL faire. 

12. Je voudrais bien vous accompagner (vou-zd-kong-pdn- 
yeh\ mais (may) je n*ai pas le temps. 

11 a (/// Idh), he has. 

clle a {Hlldh\ she has. 

nous avons {nou zd-vong)^ we have. 

vous avez (vou nave A), you have. 

ils ont (/el zong), they have {masc). 

elles ont (Hlzdng)^ they have (fem,\ 


13. I have a great deal (= much, beaucoup) to do at my 
office {bureau). 

14. Are you going to your office ? 

15. Go to my office at once {tout de suite). 

il Will you do me the favor to go to my office for me? 

17. When {quand) will he come? 

18. What in the world {donc=th^n) has he to do that he 
is unwilling to come to-day? 

19. Will you do me the favor to call {passer) at the 
French shoemaker's {cordonnier) ? 

20. Do you pass {passez-voiis) by (a cote de) my office? 

21. I am passing (je passe) by (a cote de) the station (la 
gare = depot, terminus), 

22. When you pass the station to-morrow, will you oblige me 
by calling on my uncle ( = will you do me the favor of 
calling on {che?) my imcle) ? 

23. Pass me the bread {lepain). 

24. Waiter {garyon)^ pass me the bread and the butter {le 

25. Will you please {zfeuillez) pass me the bread and the 
butter? my little son {mo7i petit fils) is very hungry. 
{Literally : has great hunger = a grandyaim,) 

26. Are you hungry ? {Literally : Have you hunger=auez- 
vousfairn f) No ; but I am very thirsty ( = I have 
much thirst ==;'ai bien soif). 

27. Will you please bring me a cup {une tasse) of coffee 
{de cdfi) ? 

28. I should like very much to pass several {quelques) 
days {jotirs) with you, but I have no time. 


13. J*ai beaucoup k faire k mon bureau {dA mong bii-roh). 

14. Allez-vous k votre bureau ? 

15. Allez tout de suite {tou-d* sweet) k mon bureau. 

16. Voulez-vous me faire le plaisir d*aller a mon bureau 
pour moi {pour nCwodh) ? 

17. Quand {kdng) veut-il venir? 

18. .Qu*a-t-il done (kd-teel dong) 4 faire qu'il ne veut pas 

venir aujourd*hui (ph-jour-tf wee) ? 

19. Voulez-vous me faire le plaisir de passer {pds-seh) 
chez le cordonnier {kor-don-yeh) fran9ais ? 

2'\ Passez-vous {pdsse/i vofi) k oxAi de mon bureau? 

21. Je passe {je pass) k c6t6 de la gare {gar). 

22. Quand vous passe.ezacot^ de la gare demain {de-maing), 
voulez-vous me faire le plaisir de passer chez mon oncle ? 

23. Passez-moi le pain {paing). 

24. Gar9on {gdr-song)^ passez-moi le pain et le beurre {ay 
U beur). 

25. Veuillez (veH-yeK) me passer le pain et le beurre; 
mon petit fiis a grand' faim {?nong p' tee fees dh grdng 
faing\ ^ 

26. Avez-vous faim ? Non, mais j*ai bien soif {s'wodf). 

27. Veuillez m'apporter une tasse de cafe {un tds d'kdh 

28. Je voudrais bien passer quelques jours {kel-ke jour) avec 

vous, mais je n'ai pas le temps. 


29. He does not pass through your sister-in-law's garden 
( = through {par) the garden of Mrs. {Madame) your 
sister-in-law {voire belle-soeur). 

30. Let us pass {passons) on the other side {de V autre 

31. Will you please tell {dire) me, sir, where one (on) takes 

(prend) the tickets {billets) for Paris? 

32. The tickets for Paris are taken on the other side (= 
one takes the tickets, &c.). 

33. Will you please pass me your tickets, gentlemen {tnes- 
sienrs) ? 

34. Will you please get {prefidre) your ticket at thp 
ticket-office {an guichet), and pass into the waiting- 
room (la mile d'attente) ? 

35. Will you please tell me, sir, where the waiting-room is? 

36. Will you please come with me? 

37. Why have you no time to call on him {lui) ? 

38. Will you do me the favor of calling to-morrow 

morning {matin) at his house (=on him)? 

39. Is he at home ? {Literally : Is he [est-il] at him ?) 

40. Is she {est-elle) at home (or, in) ? 

41. Mr. B. is not at home, but Mrs. B. is within. 

42. Is Mr. B. at home? {Literally : Mr. B., is he at home?) 

1) Passons, let us pass, is the plural of the so-called imperative. 

2) Est-il, is he, is the 3rd person of the singular of the auxiliary 
verb to be, which is thus conjugated : 

je suls {i^sw-ee\ I am. 
tu es {tU ay\ thou art. 


29. II ne passe pas par le jardin {jdr-daing) de Madame 
votre belle-soeur {madam vot beil-seur), 

30. Passons* de I'aulre c6te (^pas-song de lot-koh-tay), 

31. Veuillez me dire (deer)^ monsieur, oii Ton prend {oil 

long prang) les billets pour Paris {lay bee-yih pour 
Fdree) ? 

32. On prend les billets pour Paris de Tautre cote. 

33. Veuillez me passer vos billets, messieurs {mes-yeu) ? 

34. Veuillez prendre {prdng-dr) votre billet au guichet 

{ghee-shay) et passer k la salle d'attente {sdhl-ddttdngt), 

35. Veuillez me dire, monsieur, oa est la salle d'attente ? 

36. Veuillez venir avec moi ? 

37. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas le temps de passer chez lui 

{liQe) ? 

38. Voulez-vous me faire le plaisir de passer demain ma- 

tin {md-taing) chez lui ? 

39. Est-il * {ay-teet) chez lui ? 

40. Est-elle {ay-tell) chez elle ? 

41. Monsieur B. n*est pas {nay pdh) chez lui, mais madame 
est chez elle {ay shay zelt), 

42. Monsieur B. est-il chez lui ? [The subject of every question 
. if a noun is placed at the beginning of the phrase]. 

il est (/// lay), he is. 

elle est {HI lay), she is. 

nous sommes {noil sdm)^ we are. 

vous eies {vou ^ayt), you are. 

ils sont {eel song), they are {masc). 

elles sont (/// song), they are (/em.). 


43- Is Mrs. B. within? 

44. I am very sorry (Je le regrette bien), but Mr. B. is not at 

45. Where is he gone to? 

46. Master is gone to the office. 

4.7. Are you going home ? {Literally : Go you to you ?^ 
;(.8. The French shoemaker is not {n'ed pan) at my houit! 
(=at me), he is at yours. 



43' Madame B. est-elle chez elle? 

44. Je le regrette {re-gret) bien ; mais monsieur B. n'est pas 
chez ltd. 

45. Oi^ est-il all6 {oU ay-teel dh-leh) ? 

46. Monsieur est alle au bureau {aytdh-leh oh bu-roK), 

47. Allez-vous chez vous? 

48. Le cordonnier frangais n*est pas {nay pah) chez moi, 
il est chez VOU& 


Exercises and Words used iii Common Conversation. 


Of the definite article. 

There are but iwo genders in the French language, 
viz. : the masculine and feminine, 

2 his distindion applies not only to persons, but also 
to inanimate objects. 

In order to indicate this distinction of gender, the 
definite article \% prefixed to substantives. 

There are t7Vo forms for the definite article — viz., le (It) 
for the masculine^ and la (IdK) for Xh^ feminine form. 


le p^re {payr), the father. 
le fils {fees), the son. 
leirhvQ {frayr), the brother. 

la mfere {mayr) the mother. 
/flffille(/<?<?-j'^*), the daughter. 
la soeur (seur^), the sister. 

i) As I have only given words which every one Piusi know, I beg 
that scudents will commit them to memory. 

2) The liquid sounds are the most difficult ones in the French 
language. They ate very sweet sounds. But it is almost impossible 
— even with physical demonstration — to show how thev are produced. 
In the above word the *y6 ' has a soft lingering sound. 

3) 'eu* has the sound of the English *ea* in the word * early* 
only much longer. 



le cousin ( couzaing ), the 

le beau-frere (bdh-frayr)^ the 

le beau-pere (bdh-payr\ the 

le neveu(«/-z/^//'),the nephew 
le gran d-p^ re(/^ grdng-payr) , 

the grand-father. 
le petit-fils {le p' tee-fees), the 


la cousine ( cou-zeen ), the 

la belle-soeur (bell-seur), the 

la belle-m^re (bell-mayr). the 

la niece (nee-ay se), the niece. 
la grand *m^ re (la grdng- 

mayr)ythe grand-mother 
la petite-fille (IdpUeetfee-ye), 

the grand-child. 

Rule : Before nouns beginning with a vowel or an un- 
aspirated (i.e., mute) //, le and la are changed into /', thus 
forming but one word with the noun. 


Toncle (long'kl), the uncle, 
/'ami (Idh-mee)^ the friend. 
/*homme (Idm), the man. 
/*etat (lay-tdh), the state. 


/'amie (Idh-mee), the friend. 

/*assiette (Idsyet), the plate. 

/^habitude (Id-bee-tiid), the 

custom, habit. 


i) Why will you not write to (d) my (mon) brother- 
in-law ? — 2) My (mon) father-in-law will not go to the 
theatre. ^ — 3) My son-in-law will not go to (d) Paris. — 
4) My (mon) friend will write a French letter to (a) your 
{voire) brother-in-law. — 5) Why will he not buy {ache- 
ier = ash-tay) this (ce) waistcoat (^//f/= jeelay) .? — 6) My 


{ma) sister-in-law will buy this waiscoat for {pour) my 
{mon) friend Charles. — 7) When will you dine {diner = 
dee-nay)) ? — 8) Will you please {veuillez) pass me this 
newspaper {ce journal =:ionr'Vi^.h\), — 9) Why will you 
read (/i>^=leer) this letter {cette lettre)} — 10) I should like 
to read your friend's letter (=;the letter of your friend). 
— 11) When will you do your shopping? — 12) I should 
like to make my purchases to-day; will you be kind 
enough to accompany me to the shop ? 


i) Mon beau-frere ne veut pas aller \ Londres {Lon- 
don), — 2) Votre amie veut aller au {to the) concert {con- 
cert ; pronounce : cong-sair). — 3) Pourquoi ne voulez- 
vous pas ecrire une lettre frangaise d notre {our) agent 
(ah-jang) ^ Marseille (Mar-zS-y6')? — 4) Je ne veux 
pas acheter ce gilet. — 5) Quoi ! il ne veut pas acheter 
ce gilet ? — 6) Ma {my) tante (tangt=aunt) ne veut 
pas acheter cette assiette (5s-sy^t). — 7) N*avez-vouspas le 
temps d'aller au spectacle ce soir (s'wo-ahr) ? — 8) Qu'avez- 
vous done ^ faire que vous n'avez pas le temps d'aller a 
J'eglise avec moi ? — 6) Veuillez me dire (deer), monsieur, 
si {if) Ton prend (long-prang) les billets pour Paris au guichet 
de ce cot^? — 10) Non, monsieur, de I'autre c6t6. — 11) Veuil- 
lez lui dire de faire tout de suite Thabit de madame. — 12) 
Avez-vous faim? Non, monsieur, je n'ai pas faim, mais j'ai 
grand' soif (or, bien soiQ. 

i) Observe the liquid sound. Compare Note 2, page 50. 


Of Declension (Cases). 

There are four cases in the French declension, viz • 

The Nominative (le nominatif ). 

The Genitive or Possessive (le g^nitif ). 

The Dative (le datif ). 

The Accusative or Objective case (I'accusatif ). 

i) There is only one form for the nominative and 
objective cases, both in singular and plural. They can only 
be distinguished by thGir />osition in the sentence. In order 
to fnd the nominative, we must ask * Who ' 2 ; for the objective 
'Whom' or * What'} Ex.: 

Le tailleur {t^-ycxir) fait [idiy) le gilet j the tailor makes 
the waistcoat. 

Who makes the waistcoat ? The answer is : the tailor. 
Therefore le tailleur is the nominative case^ or the subject of 
the sentence. What does the tailor make ? Answer : the 
waistcoat. Consequently le gilet is the accusative or the 
object. The construction of French phrases is, therefore, 
very simple — viz., subject^ verb, object. The subject or 
nominative precedes the verb, the object or accusative 
follows iL 

2) ThQ genitive or possessive case replies to the question 
* Whose,' 'of whom,' or 'of which' 1 It is known by 
the preposition de {of) which appears either unchanged 
or contracted with the article. The contraction takes place 
whenever de occurs before the masculine article le or the 


plural-form (for both genders exists only one form, viz.: 
les), Ex. : 

Singular : du pere (instead of de le p^rt)y of the father 
or the father's. 
du tailleur (instead of de le tailleur)^ of the 
tailor or the tailor's. 

Plural : des freres (instead of de les fr^res), of the bro- 
thers or the brothers'. 
d©S soeurs (instead oi de les so^urs), of the sisters 
or the sister s\ 

3) Before tht fe?ninine article la, however, or before 
P, de remains unchanged, as : 

d© la mere, of the mother or the mother's. 
d© la socur, of the sister or the sister's. 
d© I'homme, of the man or the man's. 
d© I'ami, of the friend or the friend's. 

4) The dative case answers to the question * to whom^* 
and is formed by putting the preposition ^ {to) before the 
article, as : 

h, la mere, to the mother. 
k rhomme,-to the man. 

Before the masculine article 1©, and before the plural 
form les, the dative h le is changed into au (singular 
masculine) and h les into aux (plural, both masculine and 
feminine). Ex. : 

au (oh) pere (instead of ^ le plre)^ to the father. 
aux (oh) freres (instead of i les freres)^ to the bro- 
aux (oh) tantes (instead of cl les tantes)^ to the aunts. 


Table of declension. 

Singula r. 



With the apostrophe. 

Nom. le {le) 

•la {la) 

V 1 


Gen, du {dii) 

de la {di la) 

de 1' 

of the 

Z>at. au {oh) 

^ la {a la) 


to the 

Ace, le {U) 

la {Id) 



J^om, les {lay) the 
Gen, des (^^^J') of the 
Dat. aux (<?//) to the 
Ace. les (A?)') the 

Only one form both for 
the masculine, feminine 
and apostrophe. 

Declension of Nouns. 

Nouns remain unchanged in the singular. 
The plural is generally formed as in English, by an 
addition of a silent s to the singular — viz., le pere, the 
father, les p^res, the fathers ; I'ami, the friend, les'^mis, the 
friends; la cousine, the (female) cousin, les cousines, the 
(female) cousins. 


With the definite article. 

Nam, le p^rc, the father. 
Gen, du p^re, of the father 

or the father's. 
Dat. au p^re, to the father. 
fuc. le pfere, the father 

la m^re, the mother, 
de la mere, of the mother 
or the mother's. 
\ la mbre, to the mothen 
la mere, the mother. 


J\ om. les peres, the fathers. 
Gen. des peres, of the fathers 
or the fathers'. 
Dal.SLUX peres,to the fathers. 
Ace, les peres, the fathers. 

les meres, the mothers, 
des meres, of the mothers 

or the mothers', 
aux meres, to the mothers, 
les meres, the mothers. 

With the apo strop he , 

Nom, rami, the friend. 
Gen. de rami, of the friend 
or the friend's. 
Dat, k rami, to the friend. 
Ace, I'ami, the friend. 

les amis \ the Iriends. 
des amis, of the friends or 
the friends', 
aux amis, to the friends, 
les amis, the friends. 

The indefinite article. 

Besides the definite article, there is also an indefirite 
on€ for the singular, answering -to the English a or an^ 
viz. : un (eung) for the masculine, and une (tin) for the 
feminine. Ex. : un oncle (eun-nong-kl), an uncle ; un 
gilet, a waistcoat ; une lettre, a letter. 

The indefinite article is thus declined : 

Singular (masc). 
Nom, un(eung'). 
Gen. d'un (deung). 
Dat, k un (ah eung). 
Ace, un (eung). 

Singular (fem.). 
une (tin) a. 
d'une (dtin) of a. 
A une (ah tin) to a. 
une (tine) a. 


i) Pronounce : lay-zS-mSS ; day-za-m55 ; Oh-za-m66 ; lay>z9l 

2) * t'«' is pronounced like our ' ea^ in * early * only longer. 


Singular, Singular, 

Nom, im frere, a brother. une lettre, a letter. 

G^<?«. d*unfrere,of abrother d*une lettre, of a letter ^7r 
or a brother's, a letter's 

Z>aU ^ un fr^re,to a brother, k une lettre, to a letter. 

Ace, un frere, a brother. une lettre, a letter. 

General Bules. 

i) The definite article must be employed in French 

before all nouns which are used in tl general sense or which 

designate a whole species of objects. The definite article in 

such cases is not used in English, but must be employed 

, in French, as : 

Lhomnie (lom), man ; la nature (nS tiir), nature; la 
fortune (for-tUn), fortune ; le ditur (dee-neh), dinner, 

2) The definite article must be repeated before each 
substantive in a sentence, as : 

Bring the salt, pepper and vinegar, Apportez le sely 
\e poivre et le vinaigre (Sp-por-teh 16 s6\, \6 po-avr eh \6 
vee-nay-gr). The men, women, and children, Ijea hommes, 
les femmes et les tnfants (lay z5m, lay fam ay lay zang- 

3) The possessor follows the objects possessed, and 
must be preceded by the definite article; for instance, /V^^ 
brother's coat^ must be inverted = the coat of the brother, 
r habit du frlre ; my uncle's letter = the letter of (^or from) 
•Tiy uncle, la lettre de mon oncle. 



Decline (and learn by heart) the following words: 

Habillement (m.)- 

la redingote (re-daing-gdi) 

rhabit (m.) {Id-bee) 

le gilet {jee-lay) 

le pantalon {pdng idh-long) only 

used in the singular. 
le chapeau {shd-poJi) plural : les 

chapeaux {lay shd-poJi) 
la cravate {cravat) 
le faux-col {foh-col) 
la chemise {she-meese) 
le mouchoir {mou-shwoar) 
les brelelles (f.) {bray-tell) only 

used in the plural 
les bas (m.) {bd/t) 
les bottes (f.) {bot) 
le cale9on {kd-le-song) 
le gilet de flan el le {fld-nel) 
le bouton {boii-tong) 
la boiitonniere {boil -ton-y air) 
les gants (m.) {gang) 
les pantoufles (f.) {pdng-toufl) 
la robe 

la robe de chambre {shdng br') 
le jupon {jil'Pong) 
le peignoir {pen-yodr) 


the overcoat 
the coat or the dress, 
the waistcoat, 
the trowsers. 

the hat or bonnet. 

the necktie. 

the collar. 

the shirt. 

the pocket-handkerchiet 

the suspenders. 

the stockings 

the boots. 

the drawers. 

the flannel waistcoat. 

the button. 

the buttonhole. 

the gloves. 

the slippers. 

the dress. 

the morning-dress. 

the petticoat. 

the wrapper. 


i) Why will you not have your coat done at (c/iez) my 
tailor's? — 2) Will you please write an English (anglaise) 
letter (=letter English) to our agent in {d) London ? — 
3) Why will he not buy these {ces) collars and pocket- 
handkerchiefs ? — ^4) What will you do with(^if) t\ns{cette) 
letter? — 5) Why will he not make these trousers and 
this black vest ( = vest black) ? — 6) Will you please 
{^veuillez) bring me (m' apporter) my dinner at (a) one o'clock 
{une heure=^QXi.x) ? 


i) Pourquoi ne voulez-vous pas aller avec moi (avith 
me) chez {to) mon oncle ? — 2) Montez (mong-tay = bring 
up) mon bagage, s'il vous plait, dans ma chambre (shang-br 
=^my room). — 3) Apportez ce pantalon k mon tailleur, s'il 
vous plait. — 4) Pourquoi ne voulez-vous pas me faire le 
plaisir dialler avec ma soeur chez notre blanchisseuse 
{h\2itig'S\i\sQi\sQ=-7vasherwo?nan)} — 5) Que faire? II ne 
veut pas monter votre bagage. 


Of the regular yerb parler, to speak. 

There are in French three regular conjugations of 

the first ends in er, as parler, to speak. 
„ second „ ir, „ venir, to come. 
„ third „ re, „ vendre, to sell. 


The infinitive nwod is the ground-form of the verb, on 
which its conjugation depends. 

^\x'aX precedes the terminations er^ ir and re is the 
root which remains always unaltered in regular verbs. 

To the root^ different terminations are added, by which 
persons^ tenses and moods are distinguished, and which are 
common to all the verbs of the same conjugation. 

All the variable terminations of the regular verbs are 
printed in large italics. 

First Conjugation : parler, to speak. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense, 

Je parle {je pdrl\ I speak. 

tu paries (tU pdrl\ thou 

il parle {eel par l\ he speaks. 

elle parle {ell pari), she 

nous \>2ir\ons {nail par-long)^ 

we speak, 
vous psirlez {vou pdr-leh)^ 

you speak, 
ils parlen^ * {eel pari ), they 

elles ^^rlent {ell pari \t\iQj 



Je parlai5 {Je par-lay), I 

tu parlai5 {tU par-lay), thou 

il parlaiY {eel parlay), he 

elle parlaiY {ell par-lay), she 


nous parl/ons {noU pdr^ 

lyong), we spoke, 
vous parlie^j {vou pdrl-yeh)^ 

you spoke, 
ils p3,T\aient {eel pdr-lay)^ 

they spoke, 
elles psLTlaient {HI pdr-lqy), 

they spoke. 

i) The termination ent in the Present tense of all verbs is silent, 
as : ils donnent (don), ils pens^«/ (pangs), ils ixoxxwent (trOuv), etc. 



Je parlai (// pdr4ay)^^ I 

tu parlas (tiipdr /^^,), thou 

il parla (eel pdr4dh\ he 

elle parl« {ell pdr-ldh), she 


nous ip^Lvldmes (mm par- 

Idhni)^ we spoke, 
vous^ parlc^/es (voil pdr4dhi)y 

you spoke, 
ils parl^rew^ (//^ pdr'layr\ 

they spoke, 
.elles psirUrent (HI pdr-layr)^ 

they spoke. 

There is ^2^/ one way of rendering the expressions : 
/ speaky I am speakings I do speak y viz.: je parte, 

I spoke y I was speakings I did speak^ I used to speak^ viz. : 

je parlaisy etc 

In the interrogative and negative forms, the auxiliary 
to do cannot be expressed, as : * Did he speak } ' parlait-il.^ 
* Will you not? ' ne voulez-vous pas 1 *Does he not speak.?* 
ne parle-t-il pas ? * He does not pass,* il ne passe pas. 


Interrogative form. 
Est-ce que je parle P^) do I speak? 
' parles-tu ? dost thou speak } 
parle-t-il ?*) does he speak ? 
parlons-nous ? do we speak ? 
parlez-vous ? do you speak } 
parlent-ils {pdrl-teel) ? do they speak ? 

i) This form is nowadays always employed instead of the obsoj^je 
parl6-je? and is pronounced : ays-kS j6 pari. 
2) The t is inserted for euphony. 


Negative form, 

Je ne parle pas, I do not speak. 

tu ne paries pas, thou dost not speak. 

II ne parle pas, he does not speak. 

nous ne parlons pas, we do not speak. 

vous ne parlez pas, you do not speak. 

ils ne parlent pas (eel ne pari pah) ^ they do not speak. 

Negative-interrogative form, 

Est-ce que je ne parle pas (ays ke je ne pari pah)} do 

I not speak ?^ 
ne parles-tu pas ? dost thou not speak ? 
ne parle-t-il pas ? does he not speak ? 
ne parlons-nous pas? do we not speak? 
ne parlez- vous pas ? do you not speak ? 
ne parlentils pas {ne pari teel pah) ? do they not speak ? 

The Preterite is but rarely used in ordinary conversation^ 
while it occurs frequently in narrative, anecdote, and in 
historical and other compositions. 

The Imperfect is used in description of persons and 
things, and must be employed whenever in English the 
Imperfect * / was * with the present participle is used, as 
'/ was speaking '^Q parlais. For the other tenses, see 
Part III. 

Conjugate in the same manner : aimer* (ay-meh)^ to 
love or to like; penser (pdng-seh), to think; donnf^r [don- 
nch), to give ; ar river * (d-ree-veh)^ to arrive ; trouver (trou" 

i) Je is apostrophed before a vowel, as j'aime ; j'arrive : j'appor- 
tais, etc. 


veh)^ to find; apporter* (ap-porteh)^ to bring; chercher 
{sher'Sheh)y to seek ; prier [pree-eh)^ to pray or to beg ; 
tomber (iong-bih), to fall. 


Chemin de fer (m.). 

(she-maing de fair). 
la gare {gdr\ 
le billet {be'-yeh), 
le guichet {ghee-shay)y 
le surpoids {sur-pwodh)^ 
le bagage ^ 
les bagages p ^ J h 
le bulletin (bill-taing) de 

3 a salle d^attente (sdhl ddt- 

le qiiai (^^>'), 
le waggon {vdh-gong), 
le compartiment {kong-par- 

le coin (cd-aing), 
le train {traing)^ 
le train express {ex-pray), 
le train omnibus (ong-nee- 

le conducteur (kong-duk- 

le tacteur {fak-teur), 
la station (std-syong), 


the station, terminus, depot, 
the ticket. 

the ticket ^r booking-office, 
the surplus, overweight. 

the luggage. 

the luggage-cheque. 

the waiting-room. 

the platform. 

the railway-carriage. 

the railway-compartment 

the corner, corner-seat. 

the train. 

the fast-train. 

the parliamentary train, 

slow train, 
the conductor. 

the commissioner, porter 
the station. 


Jc buflfet {bu-fay\ 

le depart {day-par), 

le signal (sin-ydhl) du d6- 

des hommes {day zom)y 
des dames {day dahm), 

the buffet, 
the departure, 
the starting-belL 



Repas {rih'pdh), 

le d6jeuner {ddy-jeu-nih), 

le diner (dee-neh\ 

le souper {sou-pek), 

le cafe [kdh-fay), 

le lait {lay), 

une tasse {tin tds), 

une tasse de cafe au lait {oh 

le the {tay)y 
une tasse de th6. 
la serviette {sir-vyett), 
le plat {pldh)^ 
une assiette {ds-syett), 
le couteau {cou^toh) 
les coufeaux {cou-toh), 
la fourchette {four-shett), 
la cuiller {kwee-yeh), 
la carte du jour, 
le couvert {coU'Vayr\ 

le pain {paing), 


the breakfast. 

the dinner. 

the supper. 

the coffee. 

the milk. 

a cup. 

a cup of coffee (with milk J, 

the tea. 
a cup of tea. 
the napkin, 
the dish, 
a plate, 
the knife, 
the knives, 
the fork, 
the spoon, 
the bill of fare. 
the cover (the knife, fork^ 
plate, spoon, and napkin) 
the bread. 


le beurre (beilr)^ the butter. 

le verre (virr)^ the glass. 

un verre d*eau {doh), a glass of water. 

le sel {sell), the salt. 

le poivre {podvr), the pepper. 

le vinaigre {vee-naygr^ the vinegar. 

J'huile (Iweel)^ the oil. 


i) I should like {je voudrais Men) to go to the theatre 
with you this evening, but I have no time. — 2) Have 
you no time to go to church (i Veglise) with me? — 3) Why 
have you no time to call at my tailor^s ? — 4) Will you 
please do me the favor to call at my friend's uncle when 
you pass by the post-office {le bureau de poste) ? — 5) Speak ^ 
French to my sister-in-law ; she does not understand {elle 
ne comprend pas=:^\\ nd kong-pr5ng p^h) English {anglais 

=5ng-glay). — 6) How do you call in French 

(Que veut dire (say) en /ranfais=^ng frang-say) ? — 7) Wai- 
ter, bring me {apportez-moi) a cup of coffee (with milk) 
and an English paper {un journal anglais^-^oViX-n^i)^ ang- 
glay). — 8) He arrives by {par) this train. — 9) When 
will you do your shopping {vos emplelles=:vO'Z^ng-p\ett) ? 
— 10) I should like to do my {mes) shopping this fore- 
noon {ce matin) ; will you do me the favor to accompany 
me {de m' accompagner) ? — 11) Will you please tell me. Sir 
{veuillez me dire, monsieur), if the tickets to B. are taken at 

1) Parlez; the imperative form. 

the (au) ticket-office on (de) this side (c^ cdte) (=if pne 
takes (si r on prend) the tickets at the ticket-office, etc.) ? 
— 12) The tickets to B. are taken at the ticket-office on 
the other side {de P autre cSte) = [onQ takes \on prend\ the 
tickets, etc.) 


I. Parlez-vous fran9ais.^ — Je le parle un peu (eung 
peu=^ little), — Je le parle assez {^s-s3iy=. sufficiently) pour 
me falre comprendre(kong-prang-dr=/t? understand). — 
2) Ne parlez pas si {so) vite (veet=^^/V^, fast), — 3) Parlez- 
moi fran9ais. — J*ai beaucoup de peine (payne=/««^^ 
difficulty) k parler franpais. — Mais vous prononcez (pro- 
nong'Seh=zpronounce) bien. — 4) Allez dejeuner. Le de- 
jeuner est pret {pray =ready). — J'ai grand faim. — J'ai 
bon appetit {^p'psiy-tee= a good appetite), — 5) Qu*avons- 
nous {what have we) k dejeuner } Voulez-vous dejeuner 
avec nous } Voulez-vous du cafe ou {or) aimez-vous mieux 
{xxi'yQu— do you prefer) du chocolat {chocolat)! Voulez- 
vous du jambon (jang-bong = some ham) pour votre d6- 
jeuner ? — 6) II est temps de diner. — A quelle heure (ah 
kell eur=^/ 7vhat dclock) dinez-vous aujourd*hui ? — Oi 
sont (*song* = are) les couteaux, les fourchettes, les 
cuillers, les verres et le tire-bouchon (teer-bou-shong = 
cork-screw) ? 

^k^ i^mktfi^tiifi |g$um. 





Did not the physician whom we saw in the 
waiting-room o^the Northern Railway-station tell 
him^ that the persons with whom yonr sister-in- 
law came here from Cologne^ bought a honse in 
Chnrch Street * 

The physician whom we haye seen at the 
waiting-room of the Northern Railway-station. 

1) oQ is to be pronounced like 'u' in *rude', only somewhat 

2) S like ' a ' in ' father'; & is pronounced a little shorter. 

3) Vl'BB is to be pronounced like om sound. 

4) eO is pronounced like ' ea ' in ' early ', only much longer. 



Le medeein qne nons'^ayons tu k la salle 

is maid-saing ke noO^ z&vong vtt ah') 1& sAhl 

d'atteiite delagaredu Nord, ne Ini a-t-il pas dit 

dMtangt de la, gar dtt nOr ng Itihie^) ah tsei pah dee 

que les personnes avec lesqnetles inadame voire 

ke lay pSr-sdn fl-vgk lay-kSll ma-dam vdt 

belle-scBur est yenne icl de Cologne, ont"^achet6 

bell - sedr *) ay vS-nti es-sSQ d6 kO I6n-y6 *) Ong tash-tay 

une maison dans la me de r^glise! 

ttn may-zong dang lah ril d6 lay-gl66ze 

Le m^decin qne nons^aybns yn it la salle 

16 maid-saing ke nod zavong vii ah la sahl 

d'atteute de la gare da Nord. 

dat^angt dg la gar da nOr 

5) The so-called liquid sounds are the most difficult ones in the 
French language. They are very sweet sounds. But it is almost 
impossible to show how they are produced. In the above word the 
• y6* has a soft lingering sound. 


The physician 

whom (or which, what) 

we have I have 

we have 

thou hast 

you hare 

he has 

they have, masc. 

she has 

they have,/f»f. 

(Compare the table of avoir, to have, in the Grammat 
ical Remarks.) « 


whom we have seen • 

in the waiting-room of 

the Northern Railway-station. {Literally : the station of 
the North.) 

1. Did you not see my sister-in-law? (or. Have you not 

seen, etc. ?) 

2. Has he not seen Mr. D. at the waiting-room? 

3. I saw (or, I have seen) the English physician. 

4. What (que) have you seen ? 

5. What did you see {or, What have you seen) at his office 
(a son bureau) ? 

6. What did he say? (or^ What has he said [dit]) ? 

7. What did you buy? (^?r, What have you bought 

[achete] ) ? 

8. Why have you not written {&crit) to the French 
physician ? 

9. When did you speak to Mrs. B. about (de) this affair 

{celte affaire) ? 


Le m^decin (/<? maid-saing) 

que (ki) (There is only one form, viz. : que^ for our relatire pro- 
nouns wkom^ wAicAsLtid what.) 

nous avons (fwuzd-vong). ist person plural of: 

J'ai {fay) nous avons (nou-zd-vong) 

tu as {tu ah) vous avez (voa-zd^veh) 

il a (/// dh) ils ont (/// zong), masc. 

elle a (/// dh) elleTont {/// zong), fern. \ 

vu {vu) 

que nous avons vu 

d la salle d'attente de (ah Id sdhl ddt-tdngt di) 

la gare du Nord {Id gar du Nor). 

1. N'avez-vous pas vu ma belle-soeur (bill-s^ur)} 

2. N'a-t-il pas vu monsieur D. (day) k la salle d'attente? 

3. J'ai vu le m^decin anglais (dng-lay). 

4. Qu*avez-vous vu (kd-vih voU vu) ? 

5. Qu'avez-vous vu 4 son bureau (dh song bii-roh)} 

6. Qu*a-t-il dit (kd-teel dee) ? 

7. Qu'avez-vous achete (kd-veh vou zdsh-tay) ? 

8. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas ^crit (pdh zay-cree ) au m6- 
, decin frangais? 

9. Quand avez-vous pari 6 (qudng td-veh vou pdr-lay) k ma- 

dame B. (bay) de cette affaire (sittdf-fair)} 


10. What have you done {fait), waiter (garpon)? 

11. You have checked {or booked, /at/ enregistrer) my 
travelling-rug {ma couverture de voyage). 

1 2. What is the matter with you ? {Literally : What have 
you) ? 

13. What is the matter with him ? (^r, What ails him ? =s 
what has he) ? 

14. What is the matter with her? {or, What ails her) ? 

15. What is the matter with your sister-in-law? 

16. Nothing^ is the matter with me (=1 have nothing). 
17 I don't know {je ne sais pas) what {ee qtie) is the mat- 
ter with me ( = what I have). 

18. What is the matter with you ? You do not look well. 
{Literally : You have not good look, bonne mine,) 

19. What in the world {done) is the matter with your 
brother-in-law ? He does not look well. 

20. You are right. {Literally: You have right, raison). 
. He looks badly. {Literally : he has bad look, maU" 

vaise mine). 

21. Your friend does not look well. Is he ill {malade)? 

22. I have a {or the) headache {mal d la tSte). 

23. He has a headache and is obliged {oiligi) to keep 
{garder) his room (= the room, la chambre). 

24. Is she not pale {pdle) ? Yes, Sir, she is looking ill. 

25. Waiter, this fillet {or steak) does not look nice. 

I) Nothing is alwa3rs expressed by two words in French, vis.: 
ne— nen, the first of which, • ne! must always be placed before fho 


0. Qu'avez-vous fait, gar9on {fay gdr-song) ? 

1. Vous avez fait enregistrer ma couverture de voyage 
{v(rii zd'Vlhfay tang- ray-jis- tray mdh cou-vir-Uir de vodh- 

jdsh) ? 

2. Qu'avez-vous {kd^h-vou)} 

3. Qu'a-t-il (kd'tiil)} 

4. Qu'a-t-elle {kd-tm) ? 

5. Madame votre belle-soeur qu'a-t-elle done {kd-tHl 
dong) ? 

6. Je «*ai r/>«* (ree^aing). 

7. Je ne sais pas ce que j'ai {ji ni saypdh s'ki jay). 

8. Qu'avez-vous? Vous n*avez pas bonne mine (bdn 

9. Monsieur votre beau fr^re qu'a-t-il done ? II n'a pas 
bonne mine {bdn ptSen), 

20. Vous avez raison (ray-sk^). II a mauvaise mine {md- 
vayz mien). 

21. Votre ami n'a pas bonne mine. £st-il malade (ay-teel 

32. J'ai mal k la tSte {mdhi d id tait). 

23. II a mal k la tSte, ei est oblige de garder la chambre 
{ay td'blce-jay dS gar-d^hr Mh shdng-br) . 

24. N'esCelle pas pk\^{pdhtj} Oul {oO^i) monsieur, elle 
a mauvaise mine {md-vayz mien), 

2$. Grar9on, ce fifet {fH-lay) n'a pas bonne mine {mien). 

verb, as : fAmT a dit fv^^he satd nothing, tfr he did not saj any- 

26. Waiter, take this steak ^way (empor^€2 = take away); 
it does not look nice. 

27. Wliyl what is the matter with you?^ I am suffering 
with tlie tooth-ache. {Literally : What have you then ? 
I have pain [rnal] in the tGcih [aux dents].) 

28. My brother is obliged to keep his room (la chambre) ; 
he is suffering with the tooth-ache. 

29. My throat pains me. {Literally: I have pain [mat] in 
the throat [a la gorge'].) 

30. I should like to go to bed {oiler me coucher) ; my throat 
pains me. 

31. Why ! what is the matter with him? 

32. He feels sleepy; he wants to go to bed. {Literally: He 
has sleep \il a sommeil] ; he will go to bed.) 

33. She feels sick (=She has pain at the heart [au ccBur]). 

34. I don't know (je ne sais) ^ what is the matter with 

me; but I do not feel well (=1 am ill [mal] at my 
ease [d mon aise].) 

35. I feel sleepy (=1 have sleep [sommeil]); I want to go 
to bed. 

36. I am very thirsty (=1 have great thirst [biensoif]); 
waiter, give me a glass of water {un verre d^eau). 

i) All these idiomatic expressions with avoir, to have^ must be 
very thoroughly studied. The French cannot s2Ly : I am hungry, but 
/ have hunger, &c. I have given the most common idioms of avoir, 
tohave/m the above sentences. The following list will be found useful : 

qu' avez'iwu^ , what is the matter 

with you ? 
je n\n rien, nothing is the fhatfer 

with me. 
fai mal k la t^te, I have the head- 

fai faini ( faiug), J am hungry. 
fai soif {s^wodf\ I am thirsty, 
/'^/raison {rayznnQ), /am right 
fai tort (tore), I am wrong. 
fai sommeil (sdm-me-ye^ I feel 

sleepy. ache. 


26. Gar9on, emportez ce filet, il n*a pas bonne mine. 

27. Qu'avez-vous Vdonc ? J'ai mal aux dents {mdll oh dang). 

28. Mon frere est oblige cie garden lachambre {shdngbr) ; 
il a mal aux dents {mall oh dang). 

29. J'ai mal a la gorge. 

30. Je voudrais bien aller me coucher {kdo-shay) ; j*ai mal k 
la gorge. 

31. Qu'a-t-il done? 

32. II a sommeil {som-me-ye) il veut aller se coucher. 

^^. EUe a mal au coeur {oh keur) . (Only used of nausea.) 

34. Je ne sais*ce que j*ai, mais je suis mal k mon aise {je 
s'wee mall ah mon-naize), 

35. J*ai sommeil {som-me-ye) ; je veux aller me coucher. 

36. J*ai bien soif ; gargon, donnez-moi un verre d*eau {eiing 
verr doh). 

fai mal aux dents {dang), I have 

the tooth-ache. 
fai mal k la gorge, my throat 

pains me. 

fai mal au ventre (imng'tr"), I 

have the stomach-ache. 
fat mal aux yeux (ok z'yeuh), my 
eyes pain me. 
fai mal aux oreilles {oh zo-reyi), my ears pain me. 
Compare the grammatical remarks on the * idiomatic expressions of 

2) /do not know is given either by : Je ne sail pas, or oftener by . 
fe ne sais {ji ni say). 


37- Give me the bill of fare (la carte du jour) waiter; I 
am very hungry (=1 have great hunger [grand* 

38 The tailor has not yet (encore) brought (apporte) your 

39. Has not the laundress (la blanchisseuse) brought (rap- 
ports) my linen (man linge) yet? . 

40. Yes, sir, she has brought it and I have put it on (sur) 
your bed (lit). (Literally : She it^ has brought and I 
it * have put, &c. ) 

41. Did you speak to her when she brought my linen? 

(Literally : To Tier [Zwi] have you spoken, &c. ?) 

42. Did you see him last evening? (=Ht7n^ have you 
seen, &c. ?) 

43. We saw him ( = TFe him^ have seen) this morning as 
he was going (il allait) to the post office (au bureau 
de paste). 

44. Did you understand me ? (Literally : Me * have you 
» understood?) 

45. No, sir, I did not understand you (=1 not you have 


i) The difficulty in the use of the 'conjunctive personal pronouns ' 
i^ ill their proper position. We give a table of them on page 102. 
Observe the following rules : ^ 

a) The nominative cases */r, /«, jV, elle^ nous, vous^ ils, elles ' 
prtcede the verb, as in English, as : * I speaks je parle ;' * we go, nous 
al'ons/ &c. 

b) In interrogative sentences they are placed immediately after the 
verb, ?ispatleZ'Vous? voule%-vous ? donne^t-il ? ^o,, ^ while the auxiliary 
do you t does he? &c., is never expressed. 

37. Donnez-moi la carte du jour, gargon (id cart du jour^ 
gar-song); j'ai grand* faim {grd/ig /aing), 

38. Le tailleur n'a pas'^ncore (pdh-zdng-kor) apport^ 
votre habit {vot-rd-bee), 

39. La blanchisseuse (bldng-shl'Seuze) n'a-t-elle pas encore 
rapporte mon linge {pdh-zdng-kor rdppor-tay mong 
laingsh) ? 

io. Oui monsieur, elle /*«' apport6 et je tai^' m\s (mee) sur 
(sur) votre lit (//<?). 

41. Zui aveZ'Vaus parW^ quand elle a apport^ mon linge 

(kdng tHl-ld dp'por-tay mong laingsh) ? 

42. Vavez-vous vu^ hier sow {yair s7Vodr) ? 

43. Nous Vavons vu * ce matin {si mdtaing) quand il allait au 
bureau de poste. 

44. M'avez-vous compri^ {cong-pree) ? 

45. Non, monsieur, je new^^'ai pas compris (ji ni 
vou zaypdh cong-pree). 

r) The dative and accusative cases^ me te, lui^ le^ la^ nous, vous, 
/eur, //J, arc placed immediately before the verb in a simple tense, and 
before its auxiliary in a compound one, as : Je vous donne, I give you ; 
il me comprend, he understands me ; je vous ai compris, I have un 
derstood you ; il m'a vu, he has seen me ; je leur ai dit, I have told 

d) In negative sentenc<*s ne is placed directly after the subject 
and before the governed pronoun, as il ne /«*a pas vu ; vous ne w'avez 
pas compris ; je ne vous ai pas vu ; ne lui a-t-il pas donne ? je ne 
Uur ai pas dlt ; ne lui a-til pas dit ? 


46. I did not understand you. You are speaking too 
(t7vp) fast {vite), {^Literally : I not you have under- 
stood, &c.) 

47. My brother understood him ; he speaks English {a?i' 
glais) pretty well {passablement), 

4S. She is wrong (=She has wrong * tort *). 

49. Your friend is (=has) wrong; Mr. N. has passed (or 
spent, lived) three (trots) years (arts) in Paris. 

50. What do you think of the French language (la lan-^ 
gue)? Do you not find it (=her*) very difficult 
(difficile) ? 

51. Why did you not brush (brossi) my clothes, waiter? 

5i. Waiter, brush my clothes and black (cirez) my boots. 

53. Why did you not bring me my breakfast .^ (= Why 
not file have you brought, &c.) 

Did he not tell him! 


to him (or to her). There is only one form for both pronouns, 
viz. : * lui * 

has he 

i) her, because it refers io* la* langue, fern. 


46. Je ne vans ai pas compris; vous parlez trop vite 

(tro veet). 

47. Mon frfereVtf compris ; il parle passablementlinglais 
(pd'Sd'^le-mdng tdng-glay), 

4S. Elle a tort (tor). 

49. Votre^ami a tort; monsieur N. a pass6 trois^ans 
(tro^dh zdfig) 4 Paris. 

50. Que pensez-vousde la langue {Idng) frangaise? Ne le^ 
trouvez-vous pas bien difficile (di-fee-seH)} 

51. Pourqiioi n'avez-vous pas brosse mes habits, gargon 
(may zd-bee gar -song) ? 

52. Gargon, brossez mes habits et cirez {see-ray) mes 

53. Pourquoi ne m'avez-vous pas apport6 mon d6jeuner 
(ne md-vay voupdh zdp-por-tay mong day-jcU-nay) ? 


nS 10^6 a-tsei pah des 

ne-pas (The English negation not is almost always expressed by 

a-t-il (The ** /" in questions is added for euphony, but only in the 
3d person singular when the verb which precedes il or ellr or on 
[one] ends in a vowel.) 


has he not to him 

said; told 

has he not told him ; did he not tell him ? 

1. Did he not tell you to go to the station? 

2. Have 1 not told you to do it at once ? 

3. Why did you not tell him to write this letter ? 

4. I have told him so (= I it to him^ have told), but he 
will not do it. 

5. Why did he not give you the knives {les couteatix) ? 

6. Why did you give him my friend's address? (= the 
address of my friend) ? 

7. Why did you not tell him that I did not understand 

him ? 

8. Did you'not understand me ? 

9. Why have you not told him that we have no time to 

lose (d perdre) ? 

10. Have I not told you that he will not send (envoyer) 
your coat ? 

11. Why did you not tell him not* to go to his office? * 

i) When a verb governs fwo pronouns, they are both pllr^(^ 
imntfdiately before the verb, so that the one in the dative comes first 
and the accusative follows. 

This rule applies only to the following pronouns : me le^ it me 
{pr\Q me); tele^ it thee (or to thee) ; twus ie, it us (^r to us) ; vous 

nc liii a-t-il pas 


ne lui a-t-il pas dit ? 

1. Ne vous a-t-il pas dit d'aller k la gare ? 

2. Ne vous ai-je pas dit de le faire tout de suite 
(tdot'" sweet)} 

3. Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas dit d'6crire cette 
lettre ? 

4. Je le lui* ai dit, mais il ne veut pas le fairc 

5. Pourquoi ne vous a-t-il pasdonne les couteaux (kou-toh)} 

6. Pourquoi lui avez-vous donn6 Tadresse de m on ami 
{di mdn nd-mee ) ? 

7. Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas dit que je ne Tai pas 
compris (cong-pree)! 

8. Ne m 'avez-vous pas compris? 

9. Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas dit que nous n'avons 

pas de temps i perdre {tang ah pir-dr) ? 
10. Ne vous ai-je pas dit qu'il ne veut pas envoyer 
votre habit (keel ni veu pah tdng-vodh-yeh vot-rd-bee) ? 

II Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas dit de ne pas* aller d 
son bureau {ni pdh zd-lay dh song bii-rdh) ? 

//% tf vou {or to you). Ex. II me le donne. he jrives it to me. Je vous 
r?C\ d()nn6. I gave it you. But observe that one always says : le lai, 
it to him (<yr to her), and leleur. it to them. 

2) Ne pas is always placed together before the infinitive and not 


12. Why has he done so (=■ it) ? 

13. He did not tell me that one {que Von) takes (prend) 
the tickets at the ticket-office on (de) this side. 

14. Did he not write to them (leur) that I wanted (je 
veux) a front room {une chambre dormant sur la rue) 
( = giving towards the street) ? 

15. Why did you not write to them that we refused (refuse) 
the draft (la traite) ? 

16. He wrote me about it (= he me it has written), but 
I forgot it (= I it have forgotten (ouhlik), 

17. He has not brought me my breakfast. 

18. Why did you not bring him his (son) dinner? 

19. I told him so ( = 1 it to him have said), but he will 
not do it. 

20. My brother has asked (charge) me to buy him three 
(trois) shirt-buttons ( = buttons of shirt, boutons de 
chetnise) . 

21. Did I not commission {or order) you to buy my 
gloves at the French glovemaker's {le gantier) ? 

22. Waiter, did you order (=have you made come) a 
cab {un fiacre) ? 

23. The servant (le commissionnaire) told me, that the car- 
riage (la voiture) is at the door (a la parte), 

24. Did you check my luggage {mes effets), and have you 
given him the check {le bulletin) ? 

25. I gave it to him last evening {hier soir\ but he mis- 

laid it (= he it has mislaid, ^ark). 

i) On = one, they, people. For euphony's sake the Freiich say 


12. Pourquoi Ta-t-il fait {Idh-tcel fay)} 

13. II ne m*a pas dit que Ton * prend les billets au gui- 
chet de ce c6t6 {long prang lay bee-yeh oh ghee-shay di 
se kd'iay). 

14. Ne leur a t-il pas ecrit que je veux une chambre 
donnant {don-ndng) sur la rue? 

15. Pourquoi ne leur avez-vous pas ecrit que nous avons 
refuse (rifu-zay) la traite (trait)} 

16. II me Ta 6crit, mais je Tai oubli6 {ou-blee-ay), 

ij. II ne m'a pas apport^ mon dejeuner {day-jeu-nay), 

18. Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas apport6 son diner {song 
dee-nay) ? 

19. Je le lui ai dit, mais il ne veut pas le faire. 

20. Mon frere m*a charge {shdr-jay) de lui acheter trois 
boutons de chemise (bou-tong d^ shi-meeze), 

21 Ne vous ai-je pas charg6 d'acheter mes gants (gang) 
chez le gantier {gdng-fyay) frangais ? 

22. Gar9on, avez-vous fait venir un fiacre {fee-^dk') ? 

23. Le commissionnaire {co-miss-yo-nayr) m'a dit que la voi- 
ture {vodh'tiir) est k la porte. 

24. Avez-vous fait enregistrer mes^effets, et lui avez- 

vous donn6 le bulletin (bul-taing) } 

25. Je le lui ai donn6 hier soir, mais'^il Ta 6gard (^> 

que FoHt that one ; siVon^ if one ; and ok ton^ where one. 


26. I saw you at the waiting-room. 

27. Will you please tell them (viz. : it=fo). 

28. Of what {de quoi) did you speak to him when you saw 
him in the waiting-room? 

29. I say yes. 

30. He says no. 

31. What did you say (or, I beg your pardon, what did 
you say) ? 

32. Why did you not write to them to send us a new 
(une nouvelle) collection (collection) of samples {or 
patterns, d^kJiantillom) ? 

33. My brother-in-law speaks French with our tailor. 

34. Does he speak French ? {Farle-t-if ; the *^ ' is inserted 
for euphony). 

35. Yes, sir, he speaks a little. \Literally: it a little = un 

that the persons with whom yonr sistet-in-law came 

here from Cologne^ bought a house in Church 


26. Je vous^ai vu dans la salle d'attente (dat-tdngi). 

27. Veuillez le leur dire {yeu-yeh le leur deer). 

2^, De quoi lui avez-vous parM, quand vous Tavez vu dans la 
salle d'attente ? 

29. Je dis que oui (Je dee le ou-ee). 

30. II dit que non (nong), 

31. Que disiez-vous {ke dee-zyeh vou)? 

32. Pourquoi ne leur avez-vous pas'^^crit de nous^en- 
voyer une nouvelle collection d'echantillons (pdhzay- 
kree de noil zdng-iwdh-yeh tin nou-vH col-lek-syong day' 
shdng-tee-yong) ? 

33. Mon beau-frere parle frangais avec notre tailleur. 

34. Parle-t-il fran9ais {pdrl-teei frdng-say) ? 

35. Oui (ou-ee), monsieur, il le parle un peu (eUt^peu). 


que les perflonnes aree lesqnelles madame Totr:> 

kS lay pSr-sdn a-v6k lay-kSil m&dam vOt 

belle-Hoenr est Tenne ici de Tologne, ont aehet6 

bSlI set&r ay . v3-nU 66-856 d8 KO Ion-y6 Ong tftsb-tay 

nne malson dans la rue de I'^glise? 

tin may-zong dSng 1& rO d6 lay-glGGze 



the persons, the parties 



Mistress ; Mrs. 

your sister-in-law 



have bought 

a house 


the street 


i) When a verb is conjugated with the auxiliary ^tre (as In the 
above sentence), the participle must agree with its subject. Votre 
bdU-soeur est venut, your sister came. La Belle-soeur being the 

que (ke) 

les personnes (lay pir-sdii) [Singular : la personne.} 

avec {d'Vek) 

lesquelles, {lay-kill) [Accusative Plural fern, of laqueUe.] 

madame {md-ddm) 

votre belle-soeur {vol bill-seur) 

est {ay) 

venue * {vS-nil) [Pem, of the ParHeiple of litfhiT, to come ; the masc. 
participle is «0nt( without the final ^.J 

ici {ee-see) 


Cologne {ko'ldnyi) 

ont achet^ {ong tdsh-tay) [ParHeiple of (UiTuUT, to buy. The 
participle of all verbs conjugated with the auxiliary " avoir ^ is nevif 
changed, or rather inflected.] 

une maison {Un tnay-zong) 

dans {dang) 

la rue {Idh ru) 

de {di) 

subject of the sentence, the past participle venue must be placed in 
<he feminine singular. But Vos soeurs sont venu^J, it must be femi- 
nine plural. Votre frfere est ven« (masculine sin!?ul.) Vos fr^ressont 
v^uus (mascul. plur.) 

the church 

Church-Street. (The definite article * la ' mast be used in this 

1. The chambermaid has told them that she saw the 

persons with whom your niece came from London 
the other day {V autre jour). 

2. What does your father say of the person with whom 

^e was in the waiting-room ? 

3. Of what did he speak to the persons ? 

4. What did he give to the persons to whose house {ckez 
lesquelles) you are going? 

5. No one arrived (= is come) by {par) this train {ce 

6. Why did you not tell to any one^ that my brother did 

not come by this train ? 

7. No one told him to do it immediately {tout de suite). 

8. It is not allowed {permis) to any one * to stand about 
{stationner) on {sur) the wharf. 

9. Did any one inquire {deniander) for me during {pen- 
dant) my absence {absence) ? {Literally : Is one come 
to inquire, &c.) 

10. No one has inquired for you during your absence. 

^Tf^n^^l^ ^:''^*J^'*'^ *"''• "''' ««y^^ is always given by 
Kn 2S whi^h «?*• \l^^*' ^^"r ^^'^y^ *^ accompanied by the ne- 
«anon ut which must be placed ^/or, the verb. Observe that o...y 

r^glise t/m.] {lay-gkeu) 

la rue de r6glise 

1. La fille de chambre {id fee-yi de shdng-br) leur a dit 
qu'elle {kSll) a vu les personaes avec lesquelles 
votre niece est venue I'autre jour {lo-t jour) de 
Ldndres (iang-dr), 

2. Que dit monsieur votre pfere de la personne avec laquelle 
11 ^tait dans la salle d'attente ? 

3. De quoi (di qiwdh) a-t-il parlfe aux personnes ? 

4. Qu'a-t-il donne aux personnes chez lesquelles 
vous^allez ? 

5. Personne riest ' venu par ce train {traing), 

6. Pourquoi n'avez-vouz dit i personne que mon f rere 

n'est pas^arriv^ par ce train ? 

7. Personne ne lui a dit de le faire tout de suite (sweet ). 

8. II n'est penmis {pir-mee) ^ personne de stationner 
{std'Sydn-nay) sur le quai {kay\ 

9. Est-on venu me demander pendant mon absence 
(di'tndng'day pang- dang mdn ndb-sdngs)} 

10. Personne n'est venu vous demander pendant votre ab- 
sence {voii di-mdng-dc^ pdng'ddng vdi-rdb-sdngs). 

Be is used in this connection, u^hile pas cannot be used, as : No one 
is here, personne i»*e8t tci. — Not any one has spoken, personne n*z, 


11. Two of your compatriots {or countrymen = compa- 
triotes) came to pay you a call (or to call on you 
= V0U8 rendre viaite). 

12. Didn't they, tell {or give) you their (leurs) names 
{noms), porter {concierge) ? 

13. Didn't they leave their cards with you ? (^Nottoyou 
have they left {laisa^) their cards {leurs cartes) ? 

14. They told me their names, but upon my word I {via 
foi!) I forgot them. 

15. Did nobody call during my absence? 

16. I must reproach you. (=1 have reproaches \des re^ 
proches] to you to make). 

17. Why ? Because {parce que) you did not come to see 

me {me voir), since {depicts que) I moved. {Literally: 
I am moved = Je suis delogk) 

18. Who called ? {Literally : Who is it who is come }) 

19. To whom does this portmanteau belong? {Literally : 
To whom is this portmanteau?) 

20. This portmanteau belongs to me. Will you please 
pass it to me ? 

21. Don't speak to him, if he is there. 

22. Do not speak to them of this matter {affaire), 

23. Who told you so ? {Literally : Who is it wh6 to you 
it has said ?) 

24. Who awakened you? (= Who is it who you has 

awakened [iveille] ?) 

i) We have already seen (compare page 87 jVot^ to : *ont acAft/*) 
thai the past participle does not, ander any cireiimstanees, agree 
with the subject of its sentence when the verb is conjugated with the 
auxiliary 'avoir! to have. 

The past participle does^ however, agree with thp object, when 
the said object comes before it, which can only be the case when the 
object is a pronoun {personal, relative, or other), as : Je les ai oubli^ 


11. Deux de vos compatriotes {deu di voh cong-pd-tree-di) 
sont venus vous rendre visite {rdng-dr vee-zeet ). 

12. Ne vous^ont-ils pas dit leurs noms {nong) concierge 
{congsyersh) ? 

\i^ Ne vous^ont-ils pas Iaiss<§ {lays-say) leurs cartes? 

14. Ik m'ont dit leur nbms, mais ma foi ! je les'^ai 

oubli^s * {nidfodhji lay zay oH-blii'dy). 

15. N'est-on pas venu me detnander pendant mon^b- 
sence ? 

16. J'ai des reproches (ri-prosh) a vous faire. 

.1 7. Pourquoi done ? Parce que {pdrse-ke) vous n*^tes pas^en- 
core {nayt-pdh'Zdng-kor) venu me voir depuis que {de- 
^ pu-ee-ke) j'ai d^m^nag^ {day-may- ndh-j ay). 

18. Qui est-ce qui est venu * {kee ays kee ay vinii) ? 

19. A qui est {dh kee qy) ce sac de voyage ? 

20. Ce sac de voyage est -X moi, veuillez me le passer. 

2r. Ne lui parlez pas s'il est Ik. 

22. Ne leur parlez pas de cette^affaire. 

23. Qui est'Ce qui * vous I'a dit {kee ays kee vou Idh dee ) ? 

24. Qui est'Ce qui^ vous a ^veille {kee ays kee voU zd ay- 
ve-yek) ? 

I liRve forgotten them. The object of the sentence is * les* them. Tt 
prtcedes the past participle, consequently *i7«MVj/ forgotten, must 
also be placed like 'Us' in the masculine plural. 

2) Instead of the simple intehdgative pronoun 'qiif wlio? the 
French frequently use a more complicatt-d form, viz. : ' qui est^e qui?* 
(keeays kec), w^^;/* This form is more emphatic than the simple 
'quir Similarly they employ instead of que the m6re comphcaied 
form, qu* est-ce que (kays-k^). 


25- The waiter woke me (or called me) very early (de 
Ms-bonne heure), 

26. What do you want ? (= What is it which you want ?) 

27. This gentleman is quite (bien) indisposed {iudtypuse)\ 
that*s the reason why (=that is why) he did not 
come to your office tliis morning. 

28. You are late (vou9 Ues en retard). Why didn't you 
come early {de bonne heure) > 

29. If the tailor should bring (= if the tailor brings) 

my coat, please tell him to call again {revenir) to- 
morrow, because I have no time to try it on {de Ves- 
sayer) to-day {aujourd*hui)^ 

30. What did your friend answer you, when you spoke 
to him about going {(Tdller) to Cologne with us ? 
(= What is it what to you has answered [repondu] 
your friend? &c.) 

31. Tell him that I have no time to write this English 
letter now {mainienant). 

32. It is quite vain for you to talk, as he will not do it. 
(= You will have fine talk, but, &c.) 

33. Have you (really) bought this house ? 

34. Always buy in (the) large stores {magmins). 

35. Will you have the kindness of coming with me after break- 
fast to do some {des) shopping {empUtten) ? 

36. What will you (then) buy ? 


25. Legar9on m'a 6veill^ de trts-bonne'"heurc (di tray 
bon neur), 

26. Qu*est'Ce que (kays-ke) vous voulez? 

27. Ce monsieur est bien indispos6 {aing-dis-pd-zay) ; c'est 
pourquoi il n'est pas venu k votre bureau ce matin 
(se md*taing). 

28. Vous^etes en retard {vou zayt dng ritdr). Pourquoi 
n etes-vous pas venu de bonne heure (dl bdn neur) ? 

29. Si (see) le taiileur m!apporte mon habit, dites-iui, s*il 
vous plait, de revenir (revineer) demain, parce que je 
n'ai pas le temps de Tessayer {es-say-yeh) aujouid'hui 
(ph-jour-d ^wee), 

30. Qu'est-ce que vous'^a r^pondu {kays-ki vou zd ray- 
pong'du) votre^ami quand vous lui avez parl6 d'al- 
ler k Cologne avec nous ? 

31. Dites-lui que je n*ai pas le temps d'&rire maintenant 
{day-kreer maing-te-ndng) cette lettre anglaise. 

32. Vous'^'aurez beau {vou zo-ray bo) dire,* mais'^il ne le fera 
pas. (Future of faire.) 

33. Est-ce-que {ays-ke) vous'^avez^achet^ cette maison {vou 
za-vay zdsh-tay set may-zong) ? 

34. Achetez toujours dans les grands magasins {ash-tay tou-jour 
dang iay grdng md-gd-zaing), 

35. Voulez- vous'^avoir la bont^ de venir avec moi apr^s 
{a-pray) le dejeuner faire des^^emplettes (aay zdng put) ? 

36. Que voulez-vous done acheter? 

I ) Idiomatic phrase, which can only be given 00. 


The beginner may learn the following tenses ^r^/, 
leaving the others for after-study; Present ^ Imperfect^ 
Perfect, Pluperfect, Future, Conditional, 


!• Avoir ((1 7/^>) to haye. 

Present Tense (Present). ^ 

J*ai (jay\ I have; 

tu as {tii a), thou hast 

il ' 




► a 





nous avons {noU zd-imig), we have 
vous avez (rw? zd-veh), you have 
lis ' \ (^^^ ) 1 

elles^ I ^"^ [ ill \ ^^^^ J ^^^y *^^^ 


Imperfect i^Imparfait). p^ ^^« ^ 

J'avais {jd-fay), 1 had. 

tu avais (tu d-vay)^ thou hadst. 

il avail {eei d-vay), he had. 

nous avions {nou zd-vyong), we had. 

vous aviez {vou zd-T^eh)^ you had. 

ils avaient Uei zd-vay)^ they had. 

Preterite {Defini). 

J*eus (m)y I had. 

tu eus (tuu)y thou hadst. 

il eut {eel u), he had. 

nous eflmes {ni?u zum)^ we had. 

vous elites {voitzut ), you had. 

ils eurent {eel zur)^ they had. 

Future {Futur). 
J'aurai {jo-reH)^ I shall or will have. ^ 
tu auras {tii ord), thou wilt have, 
il aura {eel drd)^ he will have. 

nous aurons {noil zd'rong)^ we shall have i?r will have, 
vous aurez {vou zd'reh\ you will have, 
ils auront {eel zo-rong)^ they will have. 

ist Conditional {Conditionnel Present). 

J'aurais (Jo-ray), I should have or would have, 
tu aurais {tti o-ray), thou wouldst have. 
Ml aurait {eel o-ray), he would have. 

nous aurions {nouzo tyong), we should have ^r would have, 
vous auriez {vou zo-ryeH)^ you would have, 
ils auraient {eel zo-ray), they would have. 


en (u) had. 

Perfect {Passi! in(Ufim). "^ 
J'ai eu {jay u\ I have. had. 
tu as eu {tu d'Zu\ thou hast had. 
il a eu (eel a u\ he has had. 
nous avons eu (tiou zd-vong-zii)^ we have had. 
vous avez eu {^'ou zd-veh zu)^ you have had. 
ils ont eu {eei zong-tu), they have had. 

Pluperfect {Plusqueparfait). 
J'avais eu (jd-vay-zu), I^had had. 
tu avais eu {til d-vay-zu), thou hadst had 
il avait eu {eel d-vay-tu), he had had. 
nous avions eu {f/oii zd-vyong-zii), we had had. 
vous aviez eu {vou zd-iyeA-zii)^ you had had. 
ils'^vaient eu {eel zd-vay tu)^ they had had. 

2nd Pluperfect {Passe antirieur), 
peus eu {jiizu), I had had. 
tu eus eu {tii u-zu), thou hadst had. 
il euPeu (eel U'tu\ he had had. 
noureflraes eu {nou zUm-zu), we had had. 
vous efites eu {vou ziit-zu), you had had. 
ils eurent eu {eel ziir-tu) they had had. 

2nd Future {Put, antSrieur passf), 
paurai eu {jd-reh-ii)^ I shall have had. 
tu auras eu {tii o-rd-zii)^ thou wilt have had. 
il aura eu {eel o-ra-ii)^ he will have had. 


nous aurons eu {no^ zd-rong zu\ we shall have had. 
vous aurez eu (voii zo-reh zu), you will have had. 
lis auronteu {€€l zo-rong-tu), they will have had. 

2nd Conditional {Cond, passS). 

J'aurais eu {jd-ray-zii), I should have had. 

tu aurais eu {tu oray-zU) thou wouldst have had. 

il aurait eu {eel o-ray-tu), he would have had. 

nous aurions eu {nou zd-ryong-zii) we should havehaa 

vous auriez eu {voU zo-ryeh-zU)^ you would have had. 

ils auraient eu {eU zo-ray-tU), they would have had. 



Que j'aie {kijay\ that I may have. 

que tu aies {kitU ay\ that thou mayest have. 

qu'H ait {kiil ay\ that he may have. 

que nous ayons {kinoa zay-yong), that we may have. 

que vous ayez {kS voU zay-yeh), that you may have. 

qu'flsliient (keil zay)y that they may have. 


Que j'eusse {kijUss\ that I might have. 

que tu eusses (ki tU iiss), that thou mightst have. 

qu'il efit (keel i/), that he might have. 

que nous eussions {kS ftoU zus-yong), that we might have. 

que vous eussiez (k^ voU zUs-yeK), that you might have. 

qu'ils^ussent {keel ziiss\ that they might have. 



Que j'aie eu {kijay u\ that I may have had. 

que tu aies eu {ki til ay-zii), that thou mayest have had. 

qu'il ait eu {keel ay-tii), that he may have had. 

que nous ayons eu (kenou zayyong S2/),that we may havehad. 

que vous ayez eu {kivoil zay-yeh-tu)^ that you may have had. 

qu'ils aient eu {keelzay-tu\ that they may have had. 


Que f eusse eu {k^juss ?/), that I might have had. 

que tu eusses eu {k^ tu sus-zu\ that thou might st have had. 

qu'il eAt eu (keel u tu), that he might have had. 

que nous eussions eu (k^ mm zuS'Syong'Zu\ that we might 

have had. 
que vous eussiez eu {ki vail zus-yeh-zu), that you might 

have had. 
qu'iireussent^u {keel zuss-tu)^ that they might have had. 


aie {ay)y have {fhov), 
(qu'il ait \keelay\ let him 

ayons {ay-y(^ng)y let us have 
ayez {ay-yeh)y have (you). 

Present, Past. 

avoir {d-vodr) "j avoir eu {d-vodr ii "j to 

di'dixoxv {dd-vodr) I to have. di2LVO\r^\i {ddvodru }-have 
d avoir {d d-vodr) ) aavoireu {d-d<JOdru J had. 


Present. Past, 

ayant (ay-ydng), having. 

eu (£f), fern, ewe {m\ had. 
ayant eu (ay-ydng-tu)^ hav- 
ing had. 

Idiomatical expressions with aroir. 

There are a number of idiomatical expressions in 
connection with avoiry which cannot be translated liter- 
ally and which the student should carefully commit to 
memory. I only mention the most important ones: 

J*ai froid \frodh\ I am cold. 

J'ai froid aux mains {o maing), my 
bands are cold. 

J*ai chaud {show), I am warm. 

J'ai roal k la tSte, I have the head- 

J'ai besoin de (b/zd-aifig^ I 

11 a cinq ans (saing kdng), he is 
6ve years old. 

J>l peur {peur\ I am afraid. 
J'?ii faim (/aing\ I am hungry. 
J'ai so\{ {swod/\ I am thirsty. 
II a bonne mine, he looks well. 
II a mauvaise mine, he is looking 

J'ai en vie de (dng-vee\ I desire 

I feel inclined to. 
J'ai sommeil {sdmrni-yi •), I am 


1) etl=rea in early. 

2) b6-z6-aing has to be pronounced like two syllables only*. 

3) Observe the vanishing liquid sound 


The pupil must make himself acquainted with the 


We distinguish between the: 

Personal Conjuncthre 

'Personal Disjonctlve 





1st PersoK, 

1st Person. 

Nom,)ti(Ji) V) 


moi [mwodk), I 

Dot, me imi) to me 


demo! of ^ from me 

Ace, me («/) me 


k moi to me 


moi me 

%nd Person, 

2nd Person. 

Nam, tu {m) thou 


toi {twokk), thou 

Dat. ie(U) to thee 


de toi of or from thee 

Aee. te(//) thee 


It toi to thee 


toi thee 

3n/ Person. 

3«/ Person. 



lui (to'^-»). he 

elle, she 

Nom.'\\(iel) he^it 


dc lui oior 

d'elle oior 

Dat lui {liTee) to him or 

from him 

from her 

to it 


ft lui to him 

ft elle to her 

Aee. \e{U) him (W it 


lui him 

elle her 


Nom. elle (///) she or\K 

Dat. lui (/^//) to her <^ to it 

Ace. la (Id) her or it 

i) The Genitive of the conjunctive pronouns is wanting, and is 
circumscribed by * de moi. de toi,* &c. 

2) The U'ii must be pronounced as one sound only. 




1st Person. 

ist Person. 

N. nous we 

//om. nous we 

D. nous to us 

Gen. de nous of <^ from us 

A, nous us 

Dai. k nous to us 

A(c. nous us 

2nd Persm. 

%nd Person. 

N. vous . you 
D. vous to you 
A, vous you 

Nom. vous you 

Gen. de voos of or from you 

Dai. k vous to you 

Ac€. vous you 

3rd Person. 

yd Person. 

N. ils they 
D. leur to them 
A. les them 

N. eux (^i?»). they 

(7. d'eux {de^ of <?r 

elles (///) they 

d'elles of or 




N. elles they 

D. k eux to them 

belles to 

D. leur to them 


A. les them 

A. eux. them 

elles them 

We have already explained (comp. page 76, 77, 80 
& 81) when'and how the conjunctive personal pronouns are 
to be used. 

The disjanctire personal pronouns are to be 
used : 

i) after prepositions, as : 
avec moi, with me ; 
sans {sdng) toi, without thee ; 
pour lui, for him ; 
par elle, by her ; 

pour nous, for us ; 
de vous, of or from you ; 
( eux (m.) 

( elles (f.) 

with them 

x) ea is pronounced like ea in ' early/ only much longer. 


2) With the affirmative imperative^ as : 

parlez-moi, speak to me ; 
donnez-moi, give me ; 
envoyez-Iui, send him ; 

apportez-lui, bring to him : 
parlez leur, speak to ihera ; 
envoyez-leur, send to them. 

a) If, however, the imperative is used negatively then 
the conjunctive pronouns must be employed and placed 
before the verb ; as : 

ne me donnez pas, do not give to me ; 
ne leur padez pas ; do not speak to them ; 
ne lui apportez pas, do not bring to him ; 
ne leur envoyez pas, do not send to them. 

b) Compare the rules on *Two pronouns' (p. 77 
& 81.) 

3) The disjunctive personal pronouns must be used in 
answer to questions, as : Who will go with him ? I. 
Qui veut aller avec lui ? Moi. Who did it ? I, thou, he, 
&c. Qui Ta fait ? Moi, toi, lui, elle, &c. 

4) When a stress is laid on i\v^ personal pronoun^ as : // is 
/, the disjunctives used are preceded by cest^ ^VtoV (instead 
of ce esty ce Stait) &c., or the disjunctive personal pronoun is 
first used, while the conjunctive is repeated; as: 

C'est moi {say tnodh) it is I 
c'est toi it is thou 

c'est lui 
c'est elle 

it is he 
it is she 

c est nous 
c*est vous 
ce sont eiix 

(sS song tell) 

ce 8ont elles 

(sS song tfill) 

it is we 
it is you 

it is they 

C'6tait nous [say tay nou)^ it was we ; est-ce vous (ays- 
7'ou)y is that you ? — I say so, c'est moi, quiledis; ^rmoi, 
je le dis. — Wo have not said so, nous, nous n'avons pas 
dit cela; or ce n'est pas nous qui avons dil cela. — They 
have done it, ce SOnt eux gui Vont fait. 




The following table will show the order in which 
conjunctive personal pronouns are to be placed when two 
iifferent cases are governed by the same verb. 



is/ Person 

2nd Person 

'^rd Person 

1st Person 

2nd Person 

^d Person 

These forms are 
used in the af- 
firmative imper- 

DaL Ace, 

nouss la 

Da/ Ate. 

vous-f la 

After the affirmative 

Examples : 

I give it to thee (=rl to thee it give), Je te le donne. — 
He brings it to us (= he to us it brings), il nous /*ap- 
porte. — He ha$ not told it to nie (= he not to me it has 
told), il ne me /'a pas dit. — I gave it to you, je vous r?C\ 
dorine.— I did not give it to you, je ne vous /'ai pas don- 
ne. — Did he write it to you, vous /'a-t-il 6crit ? — Did he 
not write it to you, ne vous /'a-t il pas ecrit ? — Je le leur ai 
dit, I told it to them. — ^q le leur avez vous pas 6crit, 
did you not write it to them. — Le /^/ a-t-il envoyS, did 
he send it to him (or to her)? — Je le lui ai donne, I 
giive it to him or to her). 


We see therefore that the dative (of the person) pre- 
cedes the accusative, so that we always construe : me le, 
tA le^ noas le, tous le. 

The exceptions to the foregoing remark are the two 
datives lai, to him or to her, and lear, to them, which al- 
ways follow the accusative, and are placed thus : le lai, 
le leur. Ex, : 

Je le lui donne, I give it to him. Pourquoi ne U leur 
pretez-vous pas ? Why don't you lend it to them ? 

With the Imperatire they are used thus : 

a) with the affirmative^ as : Donnez-/f-w^/, give it to 
me; apportez-Zf-Zw (^^^), bring it to him or her (to 
them) ; pretez -le-nousy lend it to us ; passez-/^-«^«j, pass it 
to us. 

b) with the negative^ as: ne me le donnez pas, don't 
give it to me ; ne le (la) lui apportez pas, don't bring it to 
him ; ne les leur envoyez pas (nilS kUr dng^odh-yay pdh)^ 
do not send them to them. 


Objets a TuMge da voyageur. Objects for a tonrist't use. 

dbjay dh lU-t&hsh dU ifodh-yd" 

la malle (mdll\ the trunk, 

le sac de voyage {sdc di the portmanteau. 


les bagages {M-gdsA) ) 
les effets {/ay-zajh/ay) ) 
la botte (d'wodt), 
la boite k chapeau, {b^wodt 

ah shd-pd\ 
la couverture (caU'Vir-iUr), 
la couverture de voyage (di 

la brosse {brds), 
labrosse ichapeau {shd-pd)^ 
la brosse k cheveux {shi* 

veu »), 
la brosse k dents {ddng\ 
la brosse k ongles, (ongl)^ 
le d6mSldir (day-may-rwodr)^ 
le peigne {^n-yi^), 
le morceau de savon (^r- 

so di sdh-vong\ 
le porte-monnaie {port-mo^ 

leporte-feuille {Jorifeu-y^\ 
le parapluie {pdh-^rdhpiu)^ 
leparasol (pdh-rdh-sol^ 
la canne {Mn\^ 

the luggage. 

the box. 
the hatbox. 

the cover. 

the travelling-rug. 

the brush, 
the hat-brush, 
the hair-brush. 

the tooth-brush, 
the nail-brush, 
the large comb, 
the comb, 
the cake of soap, 

the purse. 

the pocket-book, 
the umbrella, 
the parasol, 
the cane. 

i) ell like *ta'\n early. 

2) Obsenre the liquid sound in ' ye.' Compare page tj^a 


Translate the following : 


1 ) Waiter, did you * order a cab ? — Have you brought 
all my luggage downstairs (brought downstairs, descen- 
</?^=d6-sang-dii=)? — 2) Your trunk is downstairs {en 
^tfj=:ang-bah), sir; I am taking now (maintenant) your 
portmanteau and travelling-rug down (I am taking down, 
Je descends =}6 dg-sSng). — 3) Cab (r^<r^?r— k5-shay), to 
the Northern railway-station. — Drive quick {allez vite)^ 
we have no time to lose (^ perdre), — 4) Will you please 
pay the fare (ia course=\S. kours) now; it is forbidden 
(defendu) to stop (de stationner) at the entrance gate (^ ren- , 
trie) of the station. — 5) Have you any (des) luggage, 
sir ? — I have a trunk, a portmanteau, and a hatbox. — 
Will you have the three pieces (les trots co/is=\ay troah 
kolee) checked, sir? — No, only (^^/^/^/«^;?/=seul-m5ng), 
the trunk, please — 6) Is this {est-ce id) the waiting- 
room ? — Yes, sir, please take (veuillez prendre) your ticket 
and go into the waiting-room. — 7) One first class ticket 
to Loudon [une premiere y Zondres=:un pr6m-yehr, Long- 
dr). — 8) Have I any (du) overweight?^- Yes sir, you 
have five francs worth of overweight (=yoa have lor 
five (cin^) francs of (de) overweight). — 9) Is that (tiicic; 
{est'ce let) our train ? Yes, that is the express (or fast) 
train for Calais and London. 

i) This exercise contains a dialogue of a traveller who is de- 
parting from Paris. 

2) T;*ke the periect=&Have ypu prdered / 

^lie l|ml4r$#!(-^a$t«m. 




Do not forget to call me at a quarter to five 
to-morro*^ morning, or even earlier, if you can ; 
and tell the waiter, if you please, to bring me, at 
fiye o'clock precisely, a cup of coffee with milk, 
some slices of bread and butter^ and some soft* 
boiled eg 15. 

Do not forget to call me at a quarter to five 
to-morrow morning, or even earlier, if you can. 


N'onbliez pas de me r^yeiller demain matin h 

noO-blee-ay pah de me ray-vS-yeh dS-maing ma-taing ah 

einq^heures moins'^aii quarts ou pli^s tot si Tons 

saing kear mo-aing zeOng kShr, oa plU tO sSB voa 

pouvez; et dites au gar^on^ s'il tous plait, de 

poa veh ; ay deet oh gftr-song, see von play, de 

m'apporter h einq^heures precises uiie tasse de 

in&-por teh ah saing keOr pray-seeze tin tass de 

caf6 au lait^ des tartines de benrre et des^oeufs h 

kah-fay oh "ay. dav tar-teea de beQrr ay day zea ah 

la coque. 

la cock 


N'oubliez pas de me r^yeiller demain matin h 

noa-blee-ay pah de me ray-ve-yeh de-maing ma-taing ah 

einq^'lienres moins^un quarts ou plus t6t si yous 

saing kear moving zeang kahr, oa pla to see voO 




Do not forget [to forget, avJtHier, Compare the table of * donner' 
page 59.] 

to [de before the infinitive means Ul 


to wake 






at five o'clock 


a quarter 

at a quarter to five [Literally : at five less a quartet.J 

or [oii, means ' where/ and ou* ox*1 



sooner, earlier 


you can [Irregular verb. It means * I am able ' or I can' ; I cannot» 
• je nejpto*/ or*]e ne peux pas.'] 


N'oubliez pas {mU-blee-ay pdH) [Imperative of the regular verb 

' oublier ;' compare page 59.] 

de (di) 

me {mi) 

r6veiller (ray-vi-yeh) 

demain (di-maing) 

matin {md-taing) [Le matin, the morning] 

i {ah) 

cinq {saingK) 

heure {eur) [11116 heure (f^ni.)^ an hour, or one o'clock] 

k cinq heures (ah saing keur) 

moins (moaing) 

un quart {eung kdhr) 

k cinq heures moins^un quart 

OU {ou) [The pupil must distinguish well between ^ou,* or^ and 
' oti/ where, which is always written with an accent 

plus {plu) 

tot {to) 

plus tbt 


VOUS pouvez [Second person plural of Je peux or jc puis, tu peux, 
il pent, nous pouvons, vous pouvez, ils peuvent 


1. Have you forgotten anything {quelque chose)} 

2. You forgot to mail this letter. {Literally: to put 
[mettre] this letter into the post office.) 

3. Who called you ? 

4. No one caljed me. 

5. Did you wake {or call) your brother? 

6. No, sir, not yet {pas'^ encore). 

7. Well {eh Men) ! You will miss {vous nxanquerez) the 
train. Do you not know (n6 savez-voue pas) that the 
fast train leaves {part) at five o'clock? 

8. Call me early, if you please. 

9. What o'clock is it ? 

10. Tell me, please, what o'clock it is? 

11. Do you know what o'clock it is? 

12. What o'clock do you think {or i^ncj^croyez-vous) 
it is? 

13. I cannot tell you ; I have not my watch {ma montre) with 
me {sur moi). 

14. I forgot to wind up {remonter) my watch. 

15. It is late {tard). 

16. It is early {de bonne heure). 

17. I fancied it was later; or^ I thought it was later. 

18. It is one o'clock. 

19. It is two {deux) o'clock. 

I) Avez^vousotaii/y7o\x\^9X%ohe correct, but the French often 


1. Est^ce que vous^vez'^Mun quelque chose (ays^-k^ voazd- 
veh zouMee-ay kUki shows) t 

2. Vous^vez'l>ublie de mettre cctte lettre^i la poste. 

3- 9«i vous^a r6veill6? or. Qui est^e qui vous^a 
reveille ? 

4- Personne ne m'a r6veill6. 

5. Avez-vous reveill6 votrefrere? 

6. Non monsieur, pasjncore {pah zdng-kor). 

7- Eh bien {ay byaing) \ vous manquerez {mdng^ke-reh) le 
train. Ne savez-vous pas {nisd-veh vou pdh) que le 
train express part k cinq heures {traing ex-preh par 
tah saing keur) ? 

8. Reveillez-moi de bonne heure, s'il vous plait. 

9. Quellejieure est-il {keUeuray-ieel)} 

10. Dites-moi, s'il vous plait, quelleheure il est {or Theure 
qu'il est) ? "" 

11. Savez-vous Theure quMl est? 

12. Quelle heure croyez-vous qu'il soit {krodh-yeh vou keel 
s*wodh) ? 

13. Je ne puis {pu-ee) vous ledire; je n'ai pas ma montre 
sur moi {mdh mong-tr siir m'wodh). 

H- J'ai oublie de remonter {re-mong-tay) ma montre. 

15. n est tard (tdr). 

16. II est de bonne heure. 

17- Je croyais {krodh-yeh) qu'il 6tait {ay-tay) plus tard. 
18. II est une heure {eel ay tun neur). 
19- n est deux^heures {deu zeur). 

employ the more complicated form of asking a question, introducinjr 
^^^y est-ce que f ^ 


20. It is three (trois) o*dock. 

21. It is four {quatre) o'clock. 

22. It is five (cinq) o'clock. 

23. It is six (six) o'clock. 

24. It is seven (sept) o'clock. 

25. It is eight '{At/47) o'clock. 

26. It is nine (neuf) o'clock. 

27. It is ten (dix) o'clock. 

28. It is eleven (onze) o'clock. 

29. It is twelve o'clock {midi=noon% 

30. It is twelve o'clock (mimiit =midnight^y 

1. Tell him to bring me my dinner at three o'clock pre- 
cisely (praises,) 

2. Come to me at eleven o'clock to-morrow morning. 

3. If it is later than five {or past five) o'clock (plus de 
cinq heure8)y don'f^o to him. 

4. It is one o'clock. 

5. It is five minutes (minutes) past one. 

6. It is ten (dix) minutes past one. 

7. It is a quarter {quart) past one. 

8. It is twenty (vingt) minutes past one. 

9. It is twenty-five {vingt-cinq) minutes past one. 

10. It is half-past one. {Literally : It is one o'clock and 
half [demie],) 

1) The number douzg, twelve, is never used in regard to the time ot 
day. But instead of 12 a.m. they say 'midi/ and 12 p.m. *MinuitJ 


20. II est trois heures {trodh zeur\ 

21. II est quatre heures (kdt-reur). 

22. II est cinq heures {saing keur), 

23. II est six heures {sie-zeur), 

24. II est sept heures (set-teur). 

25. II est huit heures (wee-teur), 

26. II est neuf heures {neu-veur). 

27. II est dixlieures {dei-zeur). 

28. II est onzelieures (eel lay long zeur). 

29. II est midi (mee-dee)} 

30. II est minuit (mee-rCwee)} 

1. Dites-lui de m'apporter mon diner i trois'^heures 
pr6cises (ah trodh zeur pray-sees). 

2. Venez (vi-nik) chez mot demain matin k onze heures 

3. S'il est plus de ciaq^heures, n'allez pas chez lui. 

4. II est^une heure (eel lay tun neur), 

5. II est^une heure cinq (minutes = mee-nut*)* 

6. II esf^une heure dix (minutes). 

7. II est^une heure et quart (ay kdr), 

8. II est^une heure vingt (vaing). 

9. II est'^une heure vingt-cinq (vaing saing). 
10. II est^une heure et demie (di-mee). 

2) fninutes may bg Ipft off. 


11. It is twenty-five minutes to two (= it is two o'clock 
less [moins] twenty-five). 

12. It is twenty minutes to two, 

13. It is a quarter to two. 

14. It is ten minutes to twa 

15. It is five minutes to two. 

16. It is two o'clock exactly. 

17. Will you have the kindness (la honti) to tell me, sir, 
what o'clock it is } 

18. My watch {ma montre) is ten minutes slow (is slow=z 

19. Your watch is five minutes fast, sir (=You advance 
[vous avancez\^ve minutes). On the contrary (au 
contraire), it is three minutes slow. 

20. Cab, drive (allez) quickly. We have no time to lose 
(dperdre). The train leaves (part) at half past 12. 

21. Tell the tailor, if you please, to send me my black 
(noir) trousers about (vers) a quarter to seven at the 
latest (au plus tard). 

22. The town-clock (Vhorloge) is just now (d present) 
striking (sonne). 

23. The town-clock struck two; but I think it is rather 
slow (retarde de beaucoup = much). 

24. My watch does not agree (s'accorde) with your clock. 

25. Why can he not come earlier ? 

i) I beg that the student will go in the sam^ jpapRer through 


11. II est deux'^heures moins vingt-cinq (iel ay deu zeur 
mo-atng vatng satng). 

12. II est deux'^heures moins vingt. 

13. II est deux'^heures moins^un quart {or moins le 

14. II est deux^heures moins dix. 

15. II est deux'^heures moins cinq. 

16. II est deux'^heures precises.* 

17. Voulez-vous^avoir la bont6 (bong-fay) de me dire, 
monsieur, quelle^heure il est (kel-leur-eel-ay) ? 

18. ( Ma montre retarde de dix minutes, 
( or Je retarde de dix minutes. 

19. Vous^avancez {vou zdh-vdng-say) de cinq minutes, 
monsieur. Au contraire (dk cong-frayr) je retarde de 

20. Allez vite cocher(^^-/M veet cd'sheh)\ nous n*avons pas 

de temps i perdre. Le train part i midi et demi 
(IS traing par tdh mee-dee ay di-mee), 

21. Dites au tailleur, s*il vous platt, de m'envoyer mon 
pantalon noir vers sept^heures moins'^un quart 
au plustard(^<f//«^^ td-yeur^ see vou play ^ de mdngvodh- 
yeh mong pdng-tdh-long tCwodhr vayr sit teur mo-aing 
zeung kdr oh plii tdr!) 

22. L'horloge {Idr-lohje) sonne i present {dhpray-zdng)^ 

23. L'horloge a sonne deux^heures, mais je crois qu'elle 

retarde de beaucoup (killre-tdr de boh-cou), 

24. Ma montre ne s'accorde pas avec la pendule (pdng-dul), 

25. Pourquoi ne peut-il venir plus tot ? 

the different hours, so that he may become thoroughly familiar with 
the French way of expressing the time of day. 


26. I cannot tell you, madam. 

27. Can't you make it at once ? 

28. Waiter, can we have a private room {un cabinet par* 
ticuUer) ? 


And tell the waiter^ if yoH please, to bring 
me, at five o'clock exactly, a cnp of coffee with 
milk, some slices of bread and butter, and some 
soft-boiled eggs. 


tell [Irregular imperative of the verb dire, to say] 

to the waiter 

if you please ; please ; pray. 

pleases [Irregular present of the verb, platre, to please] 

to bring me 

a cup of coffee 

some slices of bread (tartineft) and butter 


some eggs 


26. Je ne puis vous le dire, madatne. 

27. Ne pouvez-vous le faire tout de suite {touts*weet) ? 

28. Garden, pouvons-nous^avoir un cabinet particu- 
lier {cdh'bee-neh pdr-tee-ku-iyeh) ? 

Et dites aH gargon, s'il Tons plait^ de m'appor- 

ay deet zOh g&r-song see voO play de roiUpor- 

ter & einq^henres precises nne tasse de cafg an 

teh flh saing kear prays66ze Un tass dS k&h-fay Oh 

lait^ des tartines de benrre et des oeufs & la coque. 

lay day Ukhr tesa de beQrr ay day zea ah U cock. 


dites (deet) [Irregular imperative of dire {diir), to say] 

au gar9on 

s'il vous plait (or je vous prie [ =/r/<f ]) 

plait {play) [The present is conjugated thus : Je plais, tu plait, il 
plait, nous plaisons, vous plaisez,il8 plaisent=://a^iB^.j 

de m'apporter {d^ rndp-por-teh) 

une tasse de caf 6 {tin toss di kdh-fay) 

des tartines de beiirre (day tdhr-teen de beurr) 


des oeufs (day zeu) 


shell; egg-shell 

soft-boiled eggs. 

1. Can you give us lodging for to-night? {^Literally: 
Can you lodge us \nou% loger] for this night [cette 
miit] ?) 

2. Do you want a double bed {=a«bed for two persons), 
gentlemen ? 

3. No, we should like {nous desirerions) to have a room 
with two beds. 

4. This room does not please me ; or^ I do not like this 


5. Show me another room in the second story {au se- 
cond)y please. 

6. What is the price of this room per day ( == of which 
price [de qtielprix] is this room a [par] day).> 

7. Five francs. 

8. Attendance {le service) included ? 

9. No, sir, SLttQudsince is chsLTged {se paye) extrsL {d part). 

10. How much (combien) a day .^ 

11. One franc daily. 

12. All right (c^est Men); I will take (farr^te) the room. 

13. Have my luggage brought up (monter) and pay the 
cab, please ; I have no change (monnaie) with me {sur 

14. I have paid for it already (dejd) ; it was four francs. 

15. What!? That cannot be! ^r. That is impossible! 

16. Waiter, bring me in the first place (avanttout) a little 
warm water. I want to wash myself {me laver). 


la coque (id cock) 

des'^'oeufs a la coque {day ztu ah la cock). 

1. Pouvez-vous nous loger (loh-jay) pour cette nuit 
{nwee) ? 

2. Voulea-vous un lit (zeung lee) pour deux personnes, 
messieurs ? 

3. Non, nous d6sirerions avoir une chambre i deux lits 

(nou day-zei^ri-ryong zd-v^wodr tin shdng-br ah deu lee). 

4. Cette chambre ne me plait pas. 

5. Montrez-moi une autre chambre au second, s*il vous 
plait {oh se-cong see vou flay). 

6. De quel prix {pree) cette chambre est-elle par jour ? 

7. Elle est de cinq francs (ellayde saingfrdng). 

8. Le service compris {Tt ser-vees cong-pree) ? 

9. Non, monsieur, le service se paye {pay) 2Lpart(a^ 

10. Combien {kong-byaing) par jour? 

11. C'est^un franc par jour {say teung frdng pdr jour). 

12. C*est bien {byatng) ; j'arr^te la chambre. 

13. Faites monter mes"^effets et veuillez payer {pay- 
yeh) le cocher; je n'ai pas de monnaie {md-nay) sur 


14. Je I'aidejd {day-jdh) paye; c'etait quatre francs. 

15. Comment!? Cela ne se peut pas {com-mdng ! se-ld 
fU si peupdK) ! 

16. Gar9on, apportez-moi avant tout {dh-vdng ton) unpeu 
d*eau chaude {eUng peu doh shohd) ; je veux me laver 


1 7. Bring. me some ^ fresh {fratche) water, some soap {du 
savon) and towels {des serviettes). Above all things 
(avant tout) I want to wash. 

iS. The chambermaid shall bring you {vous apportera) 
everything (tout pa) in an instant. 

19. Take care {ayez soin) to give me clean ijblancs) sheets 
(draps), and be sure they are well aired (=and very 
dry [seds]). 

20. Any other orders, sir.^ (Literally: ^ Have you yet 
something else (autre chose) to command (d com- 
mander) ? 

21. Yes ; please give us two mattresses (matelas) ; we do 

not like feather-beds (Kts de plume), 

22. You shall have everything, gentlemen. 

23. And do not forget to tell the boy to wake us early 

24. Have you brought us some fresh water } 

25. As (aussi) fresh as (qus) one can have it in Paris 
where the water is not drinkable. (Literally : Where 
the wells [putts] do not give drinkable [potable] 

2d, Are my boots blacked (cirees)? 

27. Yes, sir ; please give me your clothes ; I am going 

(je vais) to brush them. 

28. Don't forget to call me at half past six. 

i) The French have a peculiar form of the article, not found in 
English. This is the so-called partitive article, in which du, de la 
and des are employed before nouns used in ^partitive sense ; that is to 
say, when only a part of the thing or person spoken of is referred to. 

This explanation of the partitive article is strictly grammatical, 
but hardly lucid. The pupil will therefore observe that expressions 
in which we employ the words some or a»jK a^e fendered in French by 


17- Apportez-moi de * Teaii fraiche {fraysh\ du savon 
(sdh'Vong) et des serviettes {sSr-vyii); avant tout je 
veux me laver. 

18. La fille vous^apportera tout ga (fau sdh) dans'^un 

instant {dang zeung aing^tdng), 

19. Ayez soin (soaing) de me donner des draps blancs 

{drd/i bldnk) et bien sees (sick), 

20. Avez-vous^encore autre chose {pht shows) k com- 

mander {com-mdng-day) ? 

21. Oui, veuillez nous donner deux matelas (md-U-ldh) ; 

nous n'aimons pas les lits de plume (plum), 

22. Vous^aurez tout cela, messieurs. 

23. Et n'oubliez pas de dire au comissionnaire de venir 
nous r6veiller demain de bonne^heure. 

24. Nous'^avez-vous dej^ apporte de Teau fratche? 

25. Aussi (oh'Sei) fraiche qu'on peut Tavoir jL Paris oh 

les puits (pU'ii) ne donnent pas (nedonpdh) de Teau 
potable (de Id po-tdh-bl), 

26. Mes bottes sont-elles cir6es (see-ray) ? 

27. Oui, monsieur; donne&moi vos'^habits, s'il vous 
plait ; je vais (vay) les brosser. 

28. N'oubiiez pas de me r6veiller k six'^heures et demie. 

du (for the masc. sing.) ; by de la (for the fern, sing.) and by des (for 

the plural of both genders). 

Give me some bread Donnez-moi du pain 

Bring me some eggs» Apportez-moi des oeufs 

He is drinking beer (^'some beer), II boit de la bifcre. 

Have you any towels ? Avez-vous des serviettes? 

Has he written any letters ? A-t-il 6crit des lettres ? 



Learn the following tenses first, leaving the others 
for after-study : Present^ Imperfect^ Perfect^ Pluperfect^ 
Future^ and Conditional, 


II. litre (ay-tr\ to be. 


Je suis {jSs'w-ee)y I am. 
tu es {til ay), thou art. 
il est (eel ay)^ he is. 
nous sommes {nou sdm), we are. 
Tous'^etes {vou zayt)^ you are. 
ils sont (eel song), they are* 

J'6tais (jai'tay), I was 
tu etais (tU ay-tay), thou wast. 
11 6tait (eel ay-tay)^ he was. 
nous'^etions (noil zay-tyong\ we were, 
vous'^^tiez (;voil zay-tyeH), you were, 
ils'^^taient (eel zay-tay)^ they were. 

Je fus (Je fU), I was. 
tu fus (tUfil)^ thou wast. 
il fut (eel fii\ he was. 


nous fflmes {noUfum)^ we were, 
vous ffltes {voufiit)^ you were, 
ils furent {eelfur\ they were. 

Je serai (y? si-reh\ I shall or will be. 
tu seras {tu si-rd\ thou wilt be. 
ii sera (eilsi-rd), hh will be. 
nous serons {nou s^-rong), we shall or will be. 
vous serez (vou si-reh), you will be. 
ils seront {eel si-rong\ they will be. 

ist Conditional, 
Je serais {ji si-ray)^ I should be. 
tu serais {tU si-ray)^ thou wouldst be. 
il serait (eel si-ray^ he would be. 
nous serions {nau si-ryong)^ we should be, 
vous seriez {vou si-ryeK)^ you would be. 
ils seraient {eel si-ray), they would be. 

6t6 {ay-tay), been. 

J'aiet6 {jayay-tay), I have been, 
tu as'^^t^, thou hast been, 

il a ^t^, he has been. 

nous""avons'"6t6, we have been, 
vous'^avez^^t^, you have been. 
ils^ont'"6t6, they have been. 



J*avais'^6t6 {jd-vay-zay-tay)^ I had been, 

tu avais^6t6, thou hadst been. 

iPavaiC^t^, he had been, 

nous^avions'^^t^, we had been, 

vous^'aviez'^^te, you had been. 

^ ils^avaienf^^t^, ^ they had been. 

2nd Pluperfect 
J'eus'^6t6 {jii zay'tay)^ I had been. 

tu eus^^t^, 




nous^efl mes^et6> 

we had been, 





2nd Future. 
J'aurai 6t6 {^jo-ray-ay-tay^y I shall or will have been, 
tu auras'^^t^, &c. 

iPaura 6t6, &c. 

nous^aurons^et6, we shall or wilJ have been. 

vous'^aurez^6t6, &c. 

ils^auront^et6, &c. 

2nd Conditional. 

J*aurais^6t6 {^jd-ray-zay-tay^^ I should have been, 
tu aurais'^^te, &c. 

il^aurait'"et6, &c. 

nous'^aurions^et^, we should have been. 
vous^auriez^6t6, &c. 

ils'^auraient'^^t^. &c. 



Que je sois {ki ji s'wodh)^ that I may be. 
que tu sois {ke tU s'wodh\ &c. 

qu*il soit {keel s'wodh\ &c. 

que nous soyons {ki nou s^wod-yong\ &c. 
que vous soyez {ki vou s^wod-yeh\ &c. 
qu'ils soient {keel s'wodh)^ &c. 

Que je fusse {ki ji fuss\ that I might be. 
que tu fusses {ki til fiiss)^ Se- 
quel £ut {keel fu), &cr. 
que nous fussions {fus-yong^ &c. 
que vous fussiez {fus-yeh)^ &c. 
qu'ils fussent {fuss), &c. 


Que j'aie 6t6 {ki jay ay-tay)^ that I may have been, 

que tu aies'^^t^, &c. 

qu'il'^ait^^te, &c. 

que nous'^ayons^^t^, &c. 

que vous'^ayez'^6t6, &c. 

qu'ils'"aient'^6te, &c. 


Que j'eusse 6t6 {ki jus ay'tay\ that I might have been, 

que tu eusses'^6t6, &c. 

qu'il eiif'^t^, &c. 

que nous'^eussions'*'6t^, &a 

que vous^eussiez'*'6t6, &c. 

qu'ils'^eussent^6t6 {keel zus tay-tay), &c. 



sois (s'wodh) be. 
qu'il soit let him be 

soyons {s; wodh-yong) let us be. 
soyez (s^wodn-yih) be {jovl)* 


etre {ay-tr) 
k etre 

Uo be. 

avoir et6 {d-vodr-ay-tay ^ 


d 'avoir 6t6 (dd-vodr-ay-tay }.have 
k avoir 6t6 J been. 

Present Past 

6tant (ay-/i7«^) being. 6t6 (^>'-/^>') been, [fern, unchanged.] 
ayant et6 {ay-ydng tay-tay) having 


H8tcl idh-iell). 

le maltre de I'hotel (may-tr), 
le concierge {kong'Sy^rsh)^ 
le garQon {gar-song), 
le commissionnaire, 
la bonne, ) 

la fille (de chambre), ) 
lasalle a manger {mdng-jay), 
la salle des voyageurs {vod- 

la chambre (shdngbr)^ 
la chambre donnant sur la 
rue (sur Id ru\ 


the landlord. 

the porter (night-porter). 

the waiter. 

the servant, the commissioner, 

the housemaid. 

the dining-room, 
the coffee-room, the break- 
fast-room ; the parlor, 
the room, 
the front-room. 


la chambre donnant sur la the back-room. 

cour (cour), 
la table d'hoi^ {idhbl dote), 
la note, ) 

Taddition (dd-dee-syong), ) 
au premier (pre-myeh)^ 
au second (si-gong\ 
au troisieme (trodh-zyehm), 
le vestibule (vi'Stee-biUX 
Tescalier (lis-kdh-lyeh), 
la marche (marsh\ 

the ordinary, table d'hote, 

the bill. 

on the first floor. 
on the second floon 
on the third floor, 
the hall, 
the staircase, 
the step. 

Translate the following 


into English, and then again, without assistance of the 
book, into French. 

Le DIner. 

Bon jour, cher ami. Vous voild (behold^ then), re- 
vcnu (returned) de voyage.^ Depuis (since) quand etes- 
vous ^ Paris .^ Deouis hier soir. Ma premiere visile 
est pour vous. C'est bien aimable (amiable) de votre part 
(an your part=of you, in you, &c.). J'espere que vous me 
ferez (future of fair e ) ramiti6 (friendship, favor) de 
diner avec moi. 

Comment trouvez-vous ce potage (soup)? Excellent; 
je vols (/ see) que votre cuisinier(r^?^i^, kwee-zee-nyeh), 
est un homme de goflt. Permettez-moi (permit, allow me) 
de vous verser (pour out) un verre de Mad^re (Madeira). 
Un petit verre de mad ere apr^sla soupe (soup) ne fait 


jamais {never) de mal {does never any harm). Bien, au con- 
traire. — Puis-je vous offrir {offer) une tranche de boeuf 
{beef)y ou pr6Wrez-vous un biftek {beefsteak^ often called 
chateaubria7id) f J'aime bien le biftek cuit i point {weU 
done, kwee ah po-aing). Veuillez done vous servir {to 
help yourself). Voici des pommes de terre {potatoes)^ des 
epinards {spinach) et des choux-fleurs {cauliflower). 
Aimez-vous les Epinards? Non, monsieur, pas du tout 
{not at cUl), Dans ce cas {then, in that ccue) prenez {take) 
des choux-fleurs ou un autre 16g^me {vegetables). Quel 
magnifique (man-y6e-f65k = magnificent) saumon {sal- 
mon) on apporte \k {there), C'est vraiment {recUly) une 
belle piece (peeayse). Voici {there is) de la sauce aux 
capres. Je I'aime mieux (mee-eu, better) k Phuile et au 
vinaigre. N'oubliez pas que les poissons {fish) deman- 
dent d nager {swim). Ne craignez rien (n6 krgn-y6h 
re€-aing, don*t be afraid^ never fear f)\ votre vieux bor- 
deaux {claret) se recommande tout seul {alone). Jean 
{John)y passez-moi le sel et le poivre, Thuile et le 

^4e ]|ei$^r$#fl-^a$l4m 


IV. , , 


29. You may depend (compter) on it (jr). 

30. Good morning, sir ; how did jou pass the first night 
{lapremiire nuii) ai our house ? 

31. Was the bed quite to your taste ? ^literally : Was the 
bed arranged [arrange] according ♦o [d*apr^] your 
habits [vos habitudes]? ) 

32. Not quite {pas tout d faU)y madaoi; I should like 
. to have another pillow (un oreiller deplus). 

33. Please put on {mettez) another blanket (une couver- 

34. Pray, give me a bolster {traversin) ; I cannot sleep 
{dormir)f when my head lies so low (= when I have 
the head too [trop] low [basse]). 

35 This evening you will find everything arranged to 
your liking {goilt), 

36. To-morrow morning, precisely at eight o'clock, you 
will bring me some coffee with milk and some rolls, 

37. Do yoii keep (tenez-vous) an ordinary {table ffhSte) ? 

38. At what o'clock is the table d'hote ? 


' {Continuatiofu) 

J9. Vous pouvez^y {zee) compter {cong-teK). 

30. Bonjour {bong-jour)^ monsieur ; commenf^avez-vous 
passe la premiere nuit {friiH-yehr n*wee) dans notre 

31. Le lit 6tait-il arrang6 (dr-rdng-Jay) d'apres vos^habi- 
tudes (ddhrpray vo zdh-bee-tud) 7 

32. Pas tout'^^ fait {toU'tdh-fay) madame ; je voudrais'^a- 
voir un'^oreiller de plus {eun noh-rl-yeh diplu), 

33. Mettez-moi {mi-tay-m^wodh), je vous prie, une couver- 
ture de plus {un cou-ver-tur depiu), 

34. Donnez-moi, s*il vous plait, un traversin (trdvir- 
satng) ; je ne puis dormir {dor-mier), quand j'ai la t6te 
trop basse {troh bass), 

35. Ce soir (si s'wodr) vous tfouverdz tout cela arrang6 ^ 
votre goflt (gou). 

^(k. Demain matin i huit^heures pr6cises vous m'appor- 
terez du caf6 au lait et des petits-pains (day p*tee 

37. Tenez-vous table d*h&te (tab! dot)} 

38. A quelle heure dlne-t-on k la table d'hote (deen-tong 
ah Id mi dot)} 


39' You can have lunch {dejeuner d la fourchette) in 
breakfast room {la salle des voyageurs). 

40. Would you be kind enough to register {or enter) your 
nam9 and profession {profession) in the traveller's 
book ? 

41. Did you leave the key {clef) in your door, or have 
you it with {sur) you ? 

42. Will you please give it to me, so that the house- 
maid may ( puisse) clean {faire) your room ? 

43. Waiter, did you order a cab ? 

44. Have you brought all my luggage downstairs 
(brought downstairs = descendu)? 

45. Is this the waiting-room ? 

46. Yes, sir ; please take your ticket at the office and go 
into the waiting-room. 

47. Is that our train ? 

48. Yes, that is the express-train for London. 

49. I beg your pardon, sir; which is the way to St. Ho- 
nore Street? {Literally: Street St. Honore, if you 
please ?) 

50. I beg your pardon, sir ; which is the way to the opera- 
house ? 

51. Go straight ahead {tout droit). 

52. Pass (over) the bridge {le ponf) and then {puis) go 
right ahead. 

53. What do you want to buy ? 

54. Different things {differentes chases^; linen {de la tOLe) 
in the first place (d^ahord)^ to make some shirts, and then 
(2?f(iii) heckties, handkerchiefs, and stockings. 

55. Does Mr. N. live (^or dwell = demeure-t-U) in this 


39. Dans la salle des voyageurs vous pouvez d6jeuner si 
' la fourchette {^'aur-shit), 

40. Auriez-vous la bonte {dr-yeh vau Id bong-tay) d'ecrire 
votre nom et votre profession {prohfis-yong) sur le 
livre des voyageurs (vo-dh-yd-jeur) ? 

41. Avez-vous laisse la clef (klay) de la chambre ^ votre 
porte, ou I'avez-vous sur vous? 

42. Veuillez me la donner pour que la bonne puisse 
(pU'is) faire votre chambre ? 

43. Gargon, avez-vous fait {fay) venir un fiacre {fee-d-k'r)} 

44. Avez-vous descendu {di-sdngdu) tous mes'^efifiets 
• {may-zay-fay) ? 

45. Est-ce ici {ay-see^see) la salle d'aitente ? 

46. Oui, monsieur; veuillez prendre votre billet au guichet, 
et passez k la salle d'attente. 

47. Est-ce 14 (there) notre train ? 

48. Oui, monsieur, c'est Texpress {lex-pray) pourLondres. 

49. V2Lrdon {par-dong)y monsieur; la rue St. Honor6, s'il 
vous plait {ru saing'to-no-rayy see vou play\ ? 

50. Pardon, monsieur ; Top^ra, s*il vous plait ? 

51. Allez tout droit {toil drodh). 

52. Passez le pont et puis {pU^ee) allez tout droit. 

53. Que voulez-vous'^cheter ? 

54. Difif^rentes choses {dif-fay-rdngt shows) ; de la toile 

{iwodhl) d'abord {dd-bor) pour me faire des chemises, 
et puis {pii-ee ) des cravates, des mouchoirs {mou- 
shwodr) et des bas {bdh), 

55. Monsieur N. demeure-t-il {di-meur'teel) dans cette 
maison ? 

136 1 

56. Is Mr. N. at home, porter? 

57. Does Mr. B. live here.^ {Literally: Is it here at Mr. 

58. Is Mr. N. at home {i.e, for callers)? (JdUrally : Is 
Mr. N. visible?) 

59. Yes, sir, walk in (entrez), pray. 

60. Have I the honor of speaking to Mr. D. ? 

61. I have the honor of addressing Mr. D. (I think) ? 

62. That's my name. (These last eight phrases are 
idiomatic expressions, and can be given only so.) 

Always make your purchases in Paris in the 
large stores, where ererything is sold rery cheap 
and at fixed priees. For instance, here is a ball- 
dress which I hare just bought for less than 
fifty francs. 


5^. Monsiear N. est-il chez !ui, concierge? 

57. Est-ce ici {ays-sie-see) chez Monsieur B. {day}? 

58. Monsieur N. esUil visible {vii-zeibl) ? 

59. Oui monsieur; entrez {dng-tray) s'il vous plait {see 

60. Est-ce i {ays a) monsieur D. {day} que j'ai I'honneur 
{/dn-neur) de parler ? 

61. C'est k monsieur D. que j'ai Tbonneur de parler? 

62. (C'est) moi-mSme {say mwodh-maim). 

JL Paris faites tonjours Tos""eniplettes dans les 

&h p2ree £ate tou-joGr voh zang-pl£t dang lay 

grands magasins, oh tout se rend trds-bon marchfi 

grSog mft gft-zaing on toll sS vftng tray bong mSr-shay 

et & prix flxe. Par exemple, voici nne robe de bal 

ay ah prce fix. pirr Sg-zSng-pl voSh-see ttn robe dfe bahl 

qne je Tiens d'acbeter ponr moins de cinquante 

ke f^ iryaing dOsh-teh poar mo-aing de saing-kSng 





Always do your shopping in Paris in the 
large stores^ where everything is sold rery cheap 
and at fixed prices. 

At ; in ; to ; [Distinguish between k ijvith accent) at^ in, and 
a {^tfiihout accent) has,"] 

make; do* 

your ' 





I) Faire, to make, to do, is an irregular verb, of which the pupil 
may now learn the following tenses : 

Present. Imperfect, 

Je fais {fay). Je faisais. 

tu fais I fay), tu faisais. 

il fait (fay). il faisait. 

nous itAAOTkE{fay..zong). nous faisions. 

vous faites (fate), 
ils font (fong). 

J'ai fait, 
tu as fait. 

vous faisiez. 
ils faisaient. 

J'avais fait, 
tu avals fait. 

Je ferai. 
tu feras. 
il fera. 
nous ferons. 
vous ferez. 
ils feront. 


2) The so-called possessive pronouns or possessive acUeottvea 



A Paris faites toujours vos^emplettes dans 

ah pa-ree fate toujour voh zang-plet danj; 

leg grands magasins^ oil tout se Tend trds-bon 

lay grSng ma-gSzaing otl toQ sS vftng tray bong 

niarch6 et & prix flxe. 

mSr-shay ay ah pr65 fix 

A (dA) [The accent on capital letters is usually omitted.] 

Paris (pd-ree) 

faites * {/die) [Imperative of the irregular verb fairet to make* 
to do.] 

VQS^ {voh) [Pluralofv^/n I 

emplettes {dng-plit) 

toujours (tou'jour) 

dans (ddr^) 

les (lay) 

must always agree in gender and number with the noun they qualify 
They are : 

Singular. Plural. 

Masculint, Feminine, Both genders, 

Mon {mong). Ma (mdh), Mes (w^y), my. 

ton (tong), ta {tdh). tes (tay), thy. 

son (song), sa (sdh), ses (say), his, her. 

notre («^/). not re (ndt), nos (noA), our. 

- ' votre (vdt), votre (v^t), vos (t/d^), your. 

leur (/eur), leur (/«?r). leurs (/eiir), their. 

Examples : Mon livre (masc), my book ; ma maison (fem.). my 
house ; nuB emplettes, my purchases. 

Riemark : For euphony mon^ ton, and son are used heforefeminine 
nouns beginning with a vowel or unaspirated * h\ as : mon opinion 
(mon nd-pii'nyong), my opinion ; son'^humeur, his humor. 




all; everything 





market ; market-price 

very cheap ; at a very cheap price 





1. What do you want to do this forenoon ? 

2. I should like to do my shopping ; will you accompany 
me ? 

3. Why do you want to make your purchases in this 
small shop (cette boutique) ? 

4. Buy always in the large stores, where everything is 
sold at fixed rates. 

i) The A^Vr/iW must always agree in number and gender witb ibe 
noun it relates to; i.e., grands when it refers to a masculine noun ; 


grands ' {grdng) 

magasius {md-gd^zaing) 

ou {ou) [Distinguish between oil, where, and ou {mtA,mt accent), 

tout {fou) 

se (x/) 

vend {vdng) • 

trds (fray) 

bon {di?f^) 

march6 {mdrsAay) 

tr^s-bon marcb6 

et (ay) 


prix (pree) 

fixe {foe) 

1. Que voulez-vous falre ce matin ? 

2. Je voudrais faire mes^'emplettes' voulez-vous m*ac- 
compagner {md-cong-fdn-yih) ? 

3. Pourquoi voulez-vous faire vos'^emplettes dans cette 
boutique {bou-tiek) ? 

* 4. Achetez toujours dans les grands magasins, oh. tout se 
vend k prix fixe. 

frande, when referring to feminines ; grands^ when referring to several 
masculines, and grandes^ when relating to several feminines. 

2) See the conjugation oivendn^ Grammatical Remarks in No. VI. 


5* I should like to buy some cloth {du drap) to make a 
coat of (= of which \de quoi] to make a coat). 

6. What sort {qtielle sorte) of cloth do you wish, sir ? 

7. Have you any samples (or patterns) ? 

8. Yes, sir; here are (void) samples (or patterns) of all 
the pieces of cloth (de tons les drops) which we have 
in stock (en magasin). 

9. What (qtiel) is the price of this one (celui-ci) ? 

10. That costs (il est de) eighteen (dix-huit) francs a 
meter (fo mUre), 

11. That (pa) seems (semble) very dear (cher) to me. 

12. That seems rather (= a little, un pen) dear. 

13. I beg your pardon, sir, this (ce) is not dear for the 
quality (la qualitS) ; on the contrary (au contraire), it 
is very cheap. 

14. How much does this cost ? 

15. That costs ten (dix) francs. 

16. What (quel) is the price of this (= of this object [de 

17. What is the price of these gloves (ces gants) ? 

18. What is the price of this silk dress (cette robe de soie)? 

19. How (combien) do you sell this (cela) ? 

20. How {or at what price, combien) do you sell this silk ? 

21. How much do you charge for this? (Literally : How 

much this object ?) 

1) We have tbe following pronouns for our this, viz., ce (m.isc.) ; 
cette (fem.) ; ces (plural, both genders), as : ce train (si traing) this 
train ; cette couverture, this cover; ces'^enfants {say zang^fdn^ 
these children. 


5* Je voudrais^acheter du drap (drdA) de quoi faire 

6. Quelle sorte de drap desirez-vous, monsieur? 

7. Avez-vous des^6chantillons {day zay-shdng-tee-yong) ? 

8. Oui, monsieur ; void {vodh-sei) des'^^chantillons de 
tous les draps que nous'^'avonsjen magasin. 

9. Quel est le prix de celui-ci {kill ay U pree di d-liCei- 
see) ? 

10. II est de dix-huit francs le m^tre {eel lay di dee zwiit 
frdng li maytr), 

11. 9^ "^^ semble trte-cher {sd mi sdngbl tray shayr). 

12. ()2l me semble un peu cher {eung peu shayr), 

13. Pardon, monsieur; pour \2^(\\xdiX\t€ {kd-lee-iay)^ cen'est 
pas cher, au contraire {cong-trayr)^ c'est trSs-bon mar- 

j Combien celacoflte-t-il {kong-byaing si-lah cauUtiel)} 
( Combien 9a {sdh) coiite-t-il ? 
j Cela coftte dix {dee') francs. 
( C'est de dix francs. 

16. Quel est le prix de ce^*'"objet {kill lay li pree di set 

17. Quel est le prix de ces^ gants ? 

18. Quel est le prix de cette * robe de soie {robe diswodh) ? 

19. Combien vendez-vous cela {kong-byaing vdng-dek vou 

20. Combien vendez-vous cette soie? 

21. Combien cePobjet {kong-byaing sit tob-jeh)} 

Remark: Instead oict, this, we must wriie cet before masculine 
nouns beginning with a vowel or a .^iient h, as : r^'/^enfant {si-tdng* 
fdn£), this child ; cef^horame {si torn), ihis man. 



Of the Negatire and Interrogatiye forms of the 

Whereas in English the negation is simply expressed 
by the particle noi^ the French use two negative words, 
viz. ue and paSy the first of which is placed before the 
simple verb, the other after it, as: Je ue stds paS, I am 
not. — In compound tenses, the participle follaws\pas^ as: 
Je n*ai pas ^«, I have not had. 

In interrogations, the pronoun which is the subject 
of the verb is placed after it, and they are joined by a 
hyphen, as: astuf avez-vous? — When the third person 
singular ends with a vowel, -/- is placed between the verb 
and //, elleox on: a^tilf a-t-elle? a-t-on} aura-t-^nf 

The proper use of the French negation being some- 
what difficult, the pupil will do well to study thorough- 
ly the 

I. Negative Form of the Auxiliaries. 

Avoir^ to have. Etre^ to be. 

Present Tense. 
Je n'ai pas, I have not. Je ne suis pas, I am not 

tu n*as pas, thou hast not. tu n'es pas, thou art not. 
il n'a pas, he or it has not. il n*est pas, he or it is not 
elle n'a pas, she has not. elle n'est pas, she is not. 


nous n'avons pas, we have nous ne sommes pas, we are 

not. not. 

vous n'avez pas, you have not. vous n'etes pas, you are not. 
lis n'ont pas, they have not. ils ne sont pas, they are not. 

Je n*avais pas, I bad not, &c. Je n'^tais pas, I was not, &a 

Je n'eus pas, I had not, &c. Je ne fus pas, I was not, &c. 

Je n'aurai pas, I shall not Je ne serai pas, I shall not 
have, &c. be, &c. 

1st Conditional. 
Je n'aurais pas, I should Je ne serais pas, I should 
not have, &c. not be, &c. 


Je n'ai pas eu, I have not Je n'ai pas ^t6, I have not 
had, &c. been, &c. 


Je n'avais pas eu, I had not Je n'avais pas £t6, 1 had not 

had, &c. been, &c. 

2nd Future. 

Je n'aurai pas^eu, I shall Je n'aurai pas"'6t6, I shall 

not have had, &c. not have been, &c. 

2nd Conditional. 
Je n'aurais jjas^eu, I should Je n'aurais pas^t^, I should 
not have had, &c. not have been, &e. 



Quejen'aiepas,thatl(may) Que je ne sois pas, that I 
not have, &c. (n^ay) not be, &c. 

Que je n'eusse pas, that I Que je ne fusse pas, that 1 
might not have, &c. were not, &c. 

Que je n'aie pas'^eu, that \ Que je n*aie pas'^^t^, that I 
(may) not have had, &c. (may) not have been, &c. 

Que je n'eusse pas^eu, that Que je n'eusse pas'^^te, that 
I (might) not have had, I (might) not have been, 
&c. &c. 


N'aie pas, have not. Ne sois pas, be not, do not 

n'ayons pas, let us not have, ne soyons pas, let us not be. 
n'ayez pas, have not. ne soyez pas, be not. 



N 'avoir pas, ) , N etre pas, ) 

\ not to have. ^ \ not to be. 

ne pas avoir, ) ne pas etre, ) 

N*avoir pas eu, not to have N'avoir pas 6t^, not to have 
had. been. 




N'ayant pas, not having. N'^tant pas, not being. 

N'ayant pas'^eu, not having N'ayant pas'"6t6, not hav- 
had. ing been. 

II. Interrogatire Form of the Two Auxiliaries. 



Ai-je, have I ? Suis-je, am I ? 

as-tu, hast thou ? es-tu, art thou ? 

a-t-il, has he? est-il, is he? 

a-t-elle, has she ? est-elie, is she ? 

avons-nous, have we ? sommes nous, are we ? 

avez-vous, have you ? ^tes-vous, are you ? 

ont-ils, ) , , ^ sont-ils, \ , ^ 

^ \ have they ? ^ , r ^^^ ^"^y ? 

ont-elles, ) sont-elles, J 

Avais-je, had I ? &c. Etais-je, was I ? &c. 

Eus-je, had I ? &c. Fus-je, was I ? &c. 

Aurai-je, shall I have ? &c. Serai-je, shall I be ? &c. 

ist ConditionaL 

Aurais-je, should I have? Serais-je, should I be? &c 



Ai-je eu, have I had ? &c. Ai-je 6t^, have I been ? &c. 


Avais-je eu,. bad I bad? &c. A vais-je 6t6, bad I been ? &c. 

2nd Future, 

Aurai-je eu, sball I bave Aurai-je 6t6y sbail I bave 

bad ? been ? 

2nd Conditional. 

Aurais-je eu, sbould I bave Aurais-je 616, sbould I bave 

bad? &c. been? &c. 

III. Negatiye and Interrogatire Fornu 

N*ai-je pas, bave I not ? Ne suis-je pas, am I not ? 

n'as-tu pas, bast tbou not I n'es-tu pas, art tbou not? 
n'a-t-il pas, bas be not ? n'estnil pas, is be not? 

n'avons-nous pas, bave we ne sommes-nouspas,arewe 

not ? not ? 

n'avez-vous pas,, bave you n'Stes-vouspas,areyounQt? 
not? ne sont-ils pas, are tbey 

n*ont-ils pas, bave tbey not ? not ? 

N 'avais-je pas, bad I not ? &c. N '£tais- je pas,was I not ? &c. 

N'eus-je pas, bad I not ? &c» Ne fus-je pas, was I not ? &c. 

1st Future, 

N 'aurai-je pas, sball I not Ne serai-je pas, sball I not 

bave ? &c. be ? &c. 

\st Conditional. 

N 'aurais-je pas, should I not Ne serais- je pas, sbould I 

bave? &c. not be? &c. 




N'ai-je pas'^eu, have I not N*ai-je pas'^^t^, have I not 

had ? &e. been ? &c. 


N'avais-je pas'^'eu, had I not N'avais-je pas^6t6, had I not 

had? &a been? &c. 

2^4 Future. 
N'aurai-je pas'^'eu, shall I N'aurai-je pas^6t6, shall I 
not have had ? &c. not have been ? &c. 

2nd Conditional. 
N'aurais-je pas^eu, should I N*aurais-je pas^6tfe, should 
not have had ? &c. I not have been ? &c. 

The pupil must make himself now familiar with the 
principal tenses of the 


Donner^ to give. 


Je donn^ (^»)> I give. nous donnons {don'nong\ we 

tu donn0« (^»)y thou givest. vous donn^ji^ {don*neh\ you 

il donne {ddn); he gives. ils ^otinent {ddn)^ \ they 

elle donn^, she gives. elles donn^n^ (ddn)^ i give. 


Je donncrt^ {don'nay)^ I gave, nous donntows (don-nyong\ 

we gave, 
tu donnaw, thou gavest. vous ^onmez (don-nyih)^ you 

il donnatV {don-nay^ he gave, ils donnaicw^ (don-nay^ they 



Je donnai (don-neh)^ I g^ave. nous dona^I^m^a (don-ndhm)^ 

we gave, 
tu donnas {don-ndh)^ thou vous donnt:^^^^ (don-ndht)^ 

gavest you gave, 

il donna {don-ndK)^ he gave, ils donn^rcw^ {don-nayr) they 


i^/ Future, 

Je donnerai {ddt^-ray)^ I shall nous donnerow5(<^«-«/-r^«^)» 

give. we shall give. 

tu donnera^ {dotC^rdH)^ thou vous donnerez {don-ni-reh)^ 

wilt give. you will give. 

il donnera {don^'rdh)y he will ils donnero/^^ {don-ni'rong\ 

give. they will give. 

ij/ Conditional, 

Je donnerafs {don-n^-ray), I nous donnenow^ (don-ni- 

should give. Kyong), we should give. 

tu donnerat5 (don-ni-ray) ^ vous donner iez (don-ner-ye/i), 

&c. &c. 

il donnerait {don-ni'ray)y ils donnera/^w^ {donni-ray)^ 

&c. &c. 


Donn^ {ddn)y give. donnons {don'nong\ let us 

donnea; {don-nih),gvfe, 

Donn^r, to give. de or 4 donner, to give. 



Que je donne {f^^)^ that I que nous donnions {don- 

(may) give. ^yong)^ that we (may)give. 

que tu donn^ (^«)> &c. que vous donniez (donrnyeh\ 

qu'il donnc (ddn)^ &c. qu*ils donnew^ {ddn) &c. 

Que je donndsse {ddn'ndss)^ que nous donnassions {don- 
that I might give. ndS'Syong)^ we might give, 

que tu donnaases {ddn-ndss^ que vous donnassiez (ddn- 

&c. ndS'SyeK)y &c. 

qu'il donnc:^^ [don'ndh\ &c. qu'ils donnassen^ {ddn'ndss)^ 


Donnan^ {dan-ndng^ giving, Donn^ (don-nay), f. donn^ 
en donnaTi^, {dng don-ndng) (don-nay), given, 

by giving. 

In active verbs, these are formed with the Participle 
past and the auxiliary avoir, to have. 


Ayoir donin^, to liave given. 


Perfect (Compound of the Present ). 

J*ai donn6, 1 have given, 

tu as donn6, thou hast given. 

il a donn^, he has given. 

nous^avons donn6, we have gfiven. 

vous^avez donn6, you have given, 

ils'^ont donn6, ) , , 
„ ^ ^ V they have given, 

elles'^ont donne, ) ^ 

Pluperfect {Compound of the Imperfect )•. 
J'avais donn£, I had given, &c. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
J'eus donnd, I had given, &c. 

2nd Future ( Compound of the Future), 
J'aurai donn6, I shall have given, &c. 

2nd Conditional, 
J'aurais donn6, I should have given. 

Que j'aie donn^, that I (may) have given. 
Que tu aies donn6, that, thou (mayst) have given, &c. 

Que j'eusse donn6, that I (might) have given, &c. 



Ayant donii6 (ptas.Y ) , . 

, \ ^ ^ r having eiven. 
a]rant donnee (/w«.)> ) 


1. Remember that there is but one way to render the 
expressions: / give, I do gwe^ and / am giving y viz., je 
donne; I was giving or / used to give = je don- 
nais^ j&a 

2. Observe that / gave^ I have given^ &c., are, 
mostly expressed by tPai donn&, &c. The Preterite is 
only used in historical style, tut hardly ever in con- 
versation. Of course these remarks refer not only to 
give but to aii verbs. 

3. In the interrogative and negative form, the 
auxiiiary to do is natrer expressed. Ex. : 

Est-ce que je donne? do I donnons-nous? dowegive? 
g^ve ? donnez-vous ? do you give ? 

donnes-tu ? doest thou give .^ donnent-ils {ddn-tiel^ do 
donne-^-il ? does he give ? they give ? 

donne-^-elle ? does she give } donnent-elles ? do they 


Je ne donne pas, I do not give.^ 
tu ne donnes pas, thou doest not give, 
il ne donne pas, he does not give, &c. 

Est-ce que je ne donne pas (a> j kilji ni don pah) ? do I not 


ne donnes-tu pas ? doest thou not give ? 
ne donne-/-il pas ? does he not give ? &c. 


Ai-je donn6 ? as-tu donn6 ? a-Ml donn6 ? &c. 

Have I given or did I give ? &c. 
Je n'ai pas donne, tu n'as pas donn6, &c. 

N 'ai-je pas donne ? n 'as-tu pas donne ? &c. 

Conjugate in the same manner: parler^ to speak; 
porter J to carry, to take \ admirer, to admire ; aimer, to 
love, &c. 

N.B. — Je is apostrophed before a vowel, as : j'aime, 

Translate the following 


into English and then render it agaia into French : 

Monsieur Gustave Fournier h Paris, * 

Londres, Ic treizc (13) Juin (June), iS3i. 

Nous avons I'honneur de vous remettre {remit) c\- 
inclus (inclosed) 5000 francs (cinq mille francs) sur (on) 
Paris, dont (wherewith) veuillez crediter (credit) notre 
compte" (account ) et nous accuser reception * (and inform 
us of receipt thereof ). 

Nous avons Thonneur de vous saluer,* 
( Yours very respectfully) 

R. & C. 

i) This exercise is a sample of a simple French business-letter. 

2) Pronounce=>&ra^-<///-/M ndt kongt, 

3) Pronounce=«^« zd-kU-zih ray-sips -yong. 

4) Literally : * We have the honor to salute you.' This phrase 
corresponds to our: 'Very respectfully.' Pronounce=/»^ «a-e/^if^ 
Idn^neUr divou sd-lU-ih, 

^¥ 1fim^t^\m'^^nt^ 

PART r. 



22. That is very dear {cher), 

23. That's awfully dear {horriblement cher). 

24. Quite the contrary {au contraire)^ madam, that's very 

25. Why ' ♦ake this article {cet^obfet-ci) ; that is cheaper 
{metiieur marcM). 

26. Tell me your lowest price, if you please (= tell me 

the last [le dernier] price, if you please) 

27. I do not like to bargain with people (= I do not like 
to bargain [d marcJuinder]), 

28. Please, tell me your lowest price, *ir, I do not like 
to bargain with people. 

29. We have only {ne^fie)^ one price, madam. 

30. I have only one price, madam. 

31. I cannot give it you at a lower price (= for less [d 
moins]) I assure you {je vous assure)^ madam. 

32. I can give it you cheaper (= less dear [woi?w cA^]), 
but not in the same (m^^) quality {quality). 

33. Can't you give it to me any cheaper {moins cher)^ 

34. I can get it {procurer) cheaper somewhere else {ail- 

35* ^ ^^^ your pardon, madam, you are mistaken {vous 

I) Only is often expressed by* ne-que. The construction is tho 
same as ne-pas. 




22. C'est bien cher {say byaing shayr). 

23. C'est^horriblement cher {say tor-ree-bU-mdng shayr). 

24. Au contraire, madame, c'est trfes bon march^. 

25. Prenez done (pr^-neh //<?«^) cet^'objet-ci, c'est mell- 
leurmarch6 {sS tob-jeh see^ say me-yeur mar-shay), 

26. Dites-moi le dernier prix, s'il vous plait {or je vous 
prie = deet nCwodh le der-nyeh pree ji vou pree). 

27. Je n'aime pas k marchander (y? naym pah ah mar- 

28. Dites-moi le dernier prix, s'il vous plait, monsieur; 
je n'aime pas k marchander. 

39. Nous n'avons ^'w'un* prix, madame {nou nd-vong 
keiing pree md-ddtn), 

30. Je n*ai qu*un prix {je nay keung pree\ madame. 

31. Je ne puis {pii-ee) vous le donner d moins {mo-aing) 
je vous^'assure (Je vou zds-sur), madame. 

32. Je peux vous le donner moins cher; mais cela ne sera 
pas la meme {maym) qualite {kd-lee-tay), 

33. Ne pouvez-vous pas me le donner moins cher, mon- 

34. Je peux me le procurer (//'^-r^-r^^) ailleurs {dh-yeur) 

k meilleur march6 {ah me-yeur mdr-shay), 

35. Pardon {pdr-dong^ madame, vous vous trompez 


V0U8 tronipez) ; you will surely (= at least [du moins^^ 
get an inferior (inferieure) quality. 

36. How can you ask me to let you have it {que je vous 
le laisse) at this price ? 

37. I cannot sell with loss {d perte) {Fourtant means 
yet, however, nevertheless, and cannot be rendered 
into English in this phrase.) 

38. I assure you, I give it you at cost-price {au prix coH- 

39. Tell me your lowest (le juste) price, please. 

40. I assure you, sir, that is the very lowest {c'est tout au 
jusiCy idiomatic French expression). 

41. Is that your lowest price ? 

42. I cannot give it you any cheaper {d moins). I never 
ask too much (= overcharge [ ^e ne surf ais jamais]). 
That is a fixed price. 

43 Did you sell your horse ? 

44. For how much did you sell it ? 

45. This book sells {se vend) very well. 

46. I shpuld like to have a bonnet of white satin {satin 
blanc) trimmed (5^6jfrm) with lace {dentelles)-, 

47. Try (essayez) this one, if you please, madam; it is very 
becoming to you {il vous va tres-bien), I assure you. 

48. Do you think so ? Well, to speak frankly (fra7iche' 
ment)y I am of the same (= of your) opinion {avis), 

49. This hat is exceedingly {d merveille) becoming to 

5a This dress does not fit you. 


{trong'pay) ; du moins vous'^aurez une qualit6 in- 
fferieure {du tno-aing vou zo-reh un kd-lee^ay aing-fay- 

36. Comment pouvez-vous demander que je vous le laisse 
{layss) d ce prix ? 

37. Je ne peux pourtant {tang) pas vendre i perte (vdng- 

dr rd pirt). 

38. Je vous le donne au prix eo(itant, je vous^assure {je vou 
le don oh pree cou-tangje vou zd-sur), 

39. Dites-moi le juste prix {Ujust pree\ je vous prie. 

40. Monsieur, je vous^assure, que c'est tout^au juste 
{ki say tout tohjust), 

41. Est-ce li votre dernier prix {dir-nyeh pree) ? 

42. Je ne puis vous le donner a moins. Je ne vous sur- 
fais {stir-fay) pas. C*est"un prix fixe {say teung 

pree fix). 

43. Avez-vous vendu {vdngdu) votre cheval {shU-vdhl)} 

44. Combien {or h quel prix) Tavez-vous vendu ? 

45. Ce livre se vend tres-bien. 

46. Je voudrais'^avoir un chapeau de satin blanc {sd^ 
taing bldng) garni de dentelles {garnie di ddng-tell), 

47. Essayez-le (w-x^j'-K^^ //), s*il vous plait, madame. Je 
vous^assure, qu'il vous va tres-bien. 

4S. Vouz trouvez } Eh bien ! Franchement {frdng-^/ii- 
tndng) je suis de votre^avis {vot-rdh-vee), 

49. Ce chapeau vous va ^ merveille {ah mer^-yi). 

50. Cette robe ne vous va pas. 


For instance^ bere is a ball-dress wbicb I bare 

jnst bougbt for less tban fifty francs. 


example; pattern; sample; instance (par eajwupfo means /<?r 


here is ; there is ; there are ; behola^ 
a ball-dress • 
which • 

i) Voioi, M^re is, and voil^ there is ^ are peculiarly construed tn 
connection with pronouns. The French always say for instance : 
Here I am^ me voilh^ or me void. There he is, ie voilh. There they a e, 
les voilh, j^ere we are, nous voilh,. There we are arrived, nous voici 

8) Why must this construction be used? 

3) We have only one relative pronoun for who, whioh and 
that, viz., qui — Qui, however, is always the nominative case and refers 
both to persons ^nd things whether they are in the sin^ldr or the plu- 
ral. For instance : 
Ze gar9on ^ui Ta fait, est parti, the boy who has done it, is gone. 
Les gar9ons ^ui I'ont fait, sont partis, the boys who have done it, 
are gone. 



Par exemple) Toici nne robe de bal, que je 

par eg-sagpl voAh-see Un robe de bahl ke je 

Tiens d'acheter pour moins de cinquante francs. 

vyaing dOsh-Uy poar mo-aing d6 saingkOog frSng. 

Par (par) 

cxemple {^g-sdng-pt) [masc.] 

voici* (vodh'Sii) 

une rol^e de bal' {un robe de bdhi) 

que* {ki) 

Le livre qtd est sur la table, est k mon frftre, the book which is on 

the table, belongs to my brother. 
Les Wvt^squi sont sur la table, sont k mon frftre, the books whirh 
art on the table, belong to my brother. 
There is also only one relative pronoun for whom, which and 
that when in the accusative case, vie., que \ as : 
Zliomme que vous avez yu, I*a fait, the man whom you saw has 

done it. 
Le livre que vous avez lu, est k ma soeur, the book which you have 
read, belongs to my sister. 
Remark : The French must always express the relative, though 
we frequently omit it in English. 



I come ; I am coming* 

from buying 

I have just bought (The literal translation is: 1 wme from hay-- 






for less than fifty francs (Than after a comparative is usually 
expressed by que ; but after moins and plus we have to use de 
when a numeral follows, as is the case here). 

1. Tell me the lowest price for (efo) this bonnet. 

2. Fifty francs, madam. 

i) Je viens, I come ^ I am coming M i)\t present tense oi the regulat 
verb venir of which the pupil may learn the following most impor. 
tant tenses : 

Present. Imperfect, 

Je viens (vyaing), Je venais (vi-nay), 

tu viens ivyaing), tu venais, 

il vient {vyain^, il venait, 

nous venons \vi-nong\ nous venions {v^-nyong), 

vous venez (vi-nek), vous veniez (vi-nyeh), 

ils viennent {vy^n), ils venaient {vihnay). 


je viens * {vyai^) 

d*acheter {ddsh-tay) 

je viens d*acheter (The English * just, just now* must be given by 
venir de, as : I have just seen, je viens dc voir ; I have just 
received, je viens de recevoir). 

pour (poUr) 

moins (moving) 

de {de) 

cinquante [saing-kdng) 

francs (/rang) 

pour moins de cinquante francs. 

1. Dite&-moi le dernier prix de ce chapeau (// dir-nyeh 
pree di si shd-pd), 

2. C'est cinquante francs, madame. 

Future. Gmditionat, 

Je viendrai {vyaing-dreh), Je viendrais (vyaing-dray), 

tu viendras {vyaing-drdh), tu viendrais, 

il viendra (vyaing-drdh), il viendrait, 

nous viendrons yvyaing-drong), nous viendrions {vyaing-dree ong\ 

vous viendrez {•dyaing-dreK)^ vous viendriez (vyaing-drei^l?i)^ 

ils viendront {vyain^-drong), ils viendralent {vyaing-dray), 

" Perfect, Pluperfect. 

Je suis venu (vZ-nii), &c. J*6tais venu (vi-nii), &c. 
Imperative. Viens (vyaing), venons (v/-nong), venez (v^n^A), 


3- You will surely let me have it for forty? ( = You 
will pass [vou8 passerez] it me well at forty [qua- 

4« No madam, that is the lowest {c*est tout au juste). 

5. I cannot let you have it at a lower figure. I never 
make any overcharges ( = I cannot give it you at 
less {d moins), I overcharge nev^r^ [fie — jamais^]), 

6. I can get (procurer) it cheaper somewhere else 

7. You are mistaken ( = you mistake yourself [voiia 
VOU8 trompez])y madam ; at least [du moms] yoii will 
get an inferior quality [une qtialiti i'tiferieure]). 

8. We sell at stated prices only {ne — que). 

9. Very well {eh bien), let us split ( = divide, paria^ 
geons) the difference {le different). I will give you 
forty-five (quarante-cinq) francs. 

10. Quite impossible. We never ask too much. All our 
prices are marked {807it marquis) in plain figures {en 
chiffres connus). 

11. The postman {facteur) has just brought a letter for 
you ( = comes from bringing, &c.). 

12. I just received this telegram and hope {fesp^re) its 
contents {contenu) will prove satisfactory to you 
( = will satisfy you, vous satis/era). 

13. My brother has just sold his furniture {mobilier). 

I) Never is always expressed by ne- Jamais ; nothing or not 
anything by ne - rien ; no one, not any one by ne - personne. Ob- 

3. Vous me le passerez bien 'k quarante (oA kdh-rdngi) ? 

4. Non, madame, c'est tout au juste {say iou tohjiisi), 
'5. Je ne puis vous le donner i moins. Je ne surfais 
jamais^ {jdh-may). 

6. Je peux me le procurer ailleurs i meilleur marche 
{prd'ku-reh dh-yeur dh mi-yeur tndr-shay), 

7. Vous vous trompez {trong'peh\ madame; du moins 
vous^aurez une qualite inferieure (un kdh-lei-tdy 

8. Nous ne vendons qu'i prix fixe {ni vdng-dong kdh 
prie fix), 

9. Eh bien, partageons le different. Je vous donnerai 
quarante-cinq francs (par-tdh-Jong li dif-fay-rdng, 
Ji vou don-ni-rih kdh-rdng saing frdng). 

10. CQsxr'\xn^oss\h\Q(iaing'pdh'Seebl), Nousne surfaisons 
jamais (silr-fay-zong jd-may), Tous nos prix {pree) 
sont marques {mdr-kay) en chiflfres connus {dng 
shifr cdn-nil). 

11. Le facteur vient d'apporter une lettre pour vous. 

12. Je viens de recevoir ce t616gramme et j'espere que 
son contenu (cong-ti-nu) vous satisfera {sd-Hs-fe-rdh), 

13. Mon frfere vient de vendre son vcLi:^\\\ex {tno-bee-yeK), 

senre that ne must be always placed before the verb (without pas ac- 
companying it). 




Did I tell you that he is going (qu^il va^) to live in 
the country ? 

It just struck nine. ( = Nine hours come from sound- 
Is Mrs. L. within? No, madam, she has just gone^ 


16. Did you call on Mrs. T. ? 

17. I went to her house, but did not find her. She had 
just gone out (trouvee must be placed in the femi- 
nine, because the auxiliary is preceped by to). 

18. I just met (rencontrer) Mr. A. 

19. Does he get on well {fait-il Men) in business ? 

20. Yes, his business goes very well. 

21. I have my breakfast every day ( = all the days, tous 
les jours) for less than two francs. 
If it is later than (plus de) five o'clock, do not go 
to my physician's, for {car *) he is not at home. 
I have bought for less than one franc some very 
beautiful {beau) writing paper {du papier d lettres) 
and five dozens {douzaines) of envelopes {d'enve- 



i) AUer, to go, is an irregular wex\},i\ie principal tenses of which 
the student must know : 

Present, Imperfect. 

Je vai^ {vais\ J'allais {ja-lay\ 

tu vas {vdh)^ tu allais, 

il va {vah)y \\ allait, 

n o u s^allons {zd long), n o u s^al lions (zd-lyong), 

V ou s'^aUez (zd-lek), vou s'^al I iez (zd-Iyeh), 

lis vont (vong). ils^allaient (zd-lay). 
Future, Coftditional, 

J'irai {jei-reh), J'irais {jee-ray\ 

tu iras (Jil ee-rdh\ tu irais \ee-ray\ 


Vous^ai-je dit qu'il va ^ demeurer k la campagne 
{kdng-pdn-yi) ? 

14. Ncuf^heiires viennent {vyin) de sonner, 

15. Madame L. est Telle chez^elle? Non Madame, elle 
vient de sortir {sor-teer). 

16. Avez-vous^6t6 voir Madame T. (iay) ? 

17. Je suis'^all6 chez^elle, mais je ne Tai pas trouv^e. 
Elle venait {yi-nay) de sortir. 

18. Je viens de rencontrer [rdngcongtray) monsieur 
A. {ah), 

19. Fait-il bien ses^'affaires ? 

20. Oui, son commerce va tr^s-bien. 

21. J'ai tousles jours (^tau iay jour) mon dejeuner \_0r: Je 
d^jeiine tous les jours] pour moins de deux francs. 

22. S'il est plus de cinq^heures, nallez pas chez mon 
m^decin, car* il n'est pas chez lui. 

23. J'ai achet6 pour moins d*un franc (deung frang) du 
papier d lettres tr^s-beau et cinq douzaines d'enve- 
loppes (dil pap-yeh ah lett tray boh ay saing dou-zayn 

Future. Conditional, 

il ira {eel eerdh\ il irait {ee-ray), 

nous^irons (zee-ronfr\ nous^irions {zee ryong), 

vous^irez (zee rek\ vous^iriez (zee-ryeh), 

ils>^iront {zee-rong), ils'^iraient (zee-rav). 

Perfect, Pluperfect, 

Je suis""a]16. &c. J'^tais'^al!^ &c. 

Imperative. Va {vdK)^ go (thou), allons (J-/((7«^) let us go, allez {d-lay\ 

go (vou). 

2) The student must distinguish between for^s preposition =pourt 
and for as conjunction of cause or reason:=^car. 



Bemarks on the Orthography of some Yorbs of 
the first coDJugatfon.^ 

Some regular verbs ending in er arc, for the sake of 
euphony, liable to the following modifications : 

I. Some verbs ending in teras: jeter, to throw; re- 
jeter, to throw back ; and verbs ending in eler, as : appe- 
ler, to call; renouveler, to renew etc., double the t or 1, 
when they are followed by an e muU. This is the case in 
some persons of the Present, Future and Imperative, viz : 

Pres, Je jette, tu je^es, il jette, nous jetons, vous jetez, ils 

je^ent. ' 
Imper, JeWe, PI. jetons, jetez. 
Fut» Je je^^erai, tu je^eras, &c. 

Pres, J'appe^e, tu appe^es, il appe^, nous'^appelons.vousap- 

pelez, ils appe^nt. 
Imper, AppeJfo, PI. appelons, appelez. 
FuU J'appe^rai, tu appe^ras, &c. 

N.B. The verb acheter, to buy^ is not conjugated in 
this manner; it never doubles the t, but takes the grave 
accent fe : 

Pres, J'achete, tu achates, il achate, nous^achetons, Tous^a- 

chetez, ils ach^tent {d-shayt). 
Put, J'acheterai. 
Imper, Achate, Pl. achetez. 

i) These remarks on orthography may be studied later. 


2. Verbs of two syllabes ending in eler, as: geler 
to freeze, and all others that have an e mute in the last 
syllable but one, such as : 

Semer, to sow ; mener, to lead ; ItTer, to lift up, 
take the grave accent 6, when followed by an e mute, 

Infinitive * Mmeri to lead. 
Pres, Je m^ne, tu menes, il m^ne, nous menons, tous menez, 

Us m^nent. 
Imperf, Je menais, tu menais, &c.. 
Fut. Je menerai, tu m^neras, &c. 
Imper. mene, menons, menez 

The same change takes place with those verbs which 
have on the last syllable but one the fl^^^«/ai^w=^. They, 
liowever, retain the 6 in the Future and Conditional. 

Infinitive . Ssperer, to hope. 
Pres, J'espere, tu esp^res, il espere, nous^esp^rons, veus^es- 

p^rez, ils^esp^rent. 
Imperf. J'esp6rais. 
Imper, Espere, esp^rons, esp6rez. 
Put, J'esp6rerai. 
Such^re: pr6fdrer, to prefer; poss^der, to possess, 

3. In verbs ending in ger, as: juger (jujih)^ to 
judge; partager {pdr-tdh-jeh\ to share or divide, the e is 
retained in those tenses where g is followed by the vowels 
a or o, iu order to give the g the same soft sound as in 
all other tenscv ^nd persons. Ex. : 

^ Infinitive : Manger {mdng'jay\ to eat. 

Pres, Je mange {mdng'sh), — Plur, nous mangM>ns {mdng* 


-Part, pr, Mang^nt {mang-jang). 

Jmperf. Je mangeais {mdng'jay\ tu mang^ais. il mang^ait, nous 

mangions, vous mangiez, ils mangeaient. 
Pret. Je mangeai {mang jay\ tu mangeas, il mang^, nous 

mangeames, vous mangc^tes, ils mang^rent. 
Jmper. Mangeons. 
Part, past. Mange (mdngjay), 

4. In verbs ending in cer, as : commencer, to begin, 
a cedilla must be placed under the c, when this letter is 
followed by a or o. Ex. : 

Infinitive : Placer (pidh'Seh\ to place. 
Pres, Je place {p/dAs), tu places, &c. — //. nous plains {pldh- 

song), &c. 
Jmperf, Je pla^ais (pldhsay\ tu plapais, il pla^it, nous pla* 

cions, vous placiez, ils plapaient {J>ldh-say). 
Jmper, Pla(;ons (pldk'Song\ &c. * 

Pret, Je plapai, tu plapas, il plapa, nous pla(^mes (pldh- 

sdhm), &c. 
Part, pr, Pla9ant {pldh-sdng). 
Part, pass/. Place. 

5. Verbs ending in ayer^ oyer, t^ycr change they into 
1, whenever the letter y is immediately followed by an e 
mute. Such are : 

Payer {pay-yeh)^ to pay ; employer (ang-plodhyeh)^ to 

employ ; 
effrayer {ef-fray-yeh)^ to fright- essuyer {is-s^wee-yeh)^ to 
en ; wipe. 

Pres, Je pate {pay), tu pates, il pate, //. nous payons, vous 

payez, ils patent (/ay). 
Part. pres. Pay ant {pay ydng). 
Part, pass/ Pay6. • 

Pres, J'emplote (jdngpiodh\ tu emplotes, il eniplote,//. nou«% 
employons, vous employes {voU zdng-plodh-yih), iU 


Part, pres, employant. 

Pres. J'essuie {jes'S*wee\ ta essays, &c. — //. ils essutent. 

Imperf. Je payais, &c. — //. nous pay ions, vouspayiez, &c. 

J'employais, &c. — //. nous employions, &c. 

J*essuyais,'&c. — //. nous essuyions, &c. 
Put, Je paterai, &c. ; j'emploterai, etc. ; j'essuierai, &c. 
Imper. Paie — payez. Emplote — employes. Essuie — essuyez. 

6. Verbs which in the Infinitive end in ier, as: prier 
(pree'eh)y to pray ; crier {kree-eh\ to cry, are in some cases 
spelt with double ii. This happens in the ist and 2nd 
persons plural of the Imperfect of the Indicative, and of 
the Present of the Subjunctive. Ex. : 

Infinitive : Oublier {pu-blei-iK)^ to forget. 
Jnd, Itnperf, pi. Nous oubluons, vous oubluez, ils oubliaient. 
Subj, Que nous pruons, que vous prtiez, &c. 


Formation of the Plural of Nonns. 

The plural of nouns is generally formed, as in 
English, by adding 8 to the singular. This 8 is not 


Singular, Plural, 

Ex, : rhomme, les^hommes, the man, the men 

le livre, les livres, the book, the books, 

la personne, les personnes, the person, the persons, 

la banque, les banques, the bank, the banks. 

Exceptions : 
1, Nouns ending in s, x, or z remain unc/ianged in the 


Singular, Plural, 

Ex, : le fils, les ais, the son, the sons. 

le pas, les pas, the step, the steps. 

la noix (n'wo&h) les noix, the nut, the nuts. 


2. Nouns ending in au or eu take x in the pluraL 

Singular. Plural. 

Ex, : le tableau {tah-blo), les tableaux, the picture, the pictures, 

le bateau {pah-td\ les bateaux, the boat, the boats. 

lefeu(/iri;), les feux, the fire, the fires. 

3. The greater part of the nouns ending in al or 
ail forpi their plural in auz {oH)* 


le cheval {ski- 

ranimal, (la- 

nei'ttidhl ), 
le travail (tra- 


the horse, the horses. 

the animal, 
the work. 

the animals. 

the works. 

les chevaux (x^ 

les animaux (lay^ 

les travaux {Ira- 


4. Most nouns ending in ou take 8 in the plural, 
except the following^ which take "XX 

Singular. Plural. 

Ex. : le bijou {bei-Jou), les bijoux, 
le genou (ji-noU), les genoux, 
le chou {skoa), les choux, 

5] The folio wing //«rtf/f are irregular: 

Singular, Plural. 

Ex.: le ciel (jy///), les cieux (jr^^), the heaven.' 

Toeil {leilyi\ les yeux {lay zyeU), the eye. 

Taleul (Id-yeal), les aleux (lay gd-yeu), the ancestor. 

the jewel, 
the knee^ 
the cabbage. 

the jewels, 
the knees, 
the cabbages. 


The PartitiTe Article. 

Such expressions as: *Give me some wine,* — 'Have 
you any books?' — 'Bring me some eggs* — etc., are 

i) del forms also a regular plural with another signification, 
viz., Us dels = skies (in a picture), or = the heads, or testers (of 
a bed). 


rendered in French by the so-called partitive article, 
*Donnez-moi du vin.' — *Avez-vous deB livres?* — Ap- 
portez-moi deB oeufs.' 

Now tXiQ partitive article is really the genitive of the def- 
inite article^ as for instance : du vin, some wine ; de Teau, 
some water; de la bi^re, some beer; deB magasins, some 
stores (or simply * stores ').* 

Compare our Sentence III. and the remarks on the 
partitive article : *Dites au gar9on de m'apporter deB tar- 
tines de beurre et deB oeufs al la coque.' 

In questions^ the English use any instead of some, but 
in French this must always be rendered by Xhe partitive 
article^ as : *' Have you any bread ? Avez-vous du f)ain ?" — 
'* Has he bought any handkerchiefs? A-t-il achete efc^? 
mouchoirs ?" — Has he made any purchases ? A-t-il fait 

Important Remarks on the nse of the partltlye 

1. Sometimes (but not often) the adjective precedes 
the French noun. In such cases the partitive article is ex- 
pressed simply by de; as: 

Good bread (^^r'some [any] good bread), de bon pain)*. 
Bad coffee {pr some [any J bad coffee), de mauvais caf6. 
Beautiful flowers (^some [any] fine flowers), de belles fleurs. 

2. In the same manner de is used when a negative 
occurs in a French sentence. 

1) Some is not alwavs used in English, but in French we must 
employ the partitive article, whenerer we imply that we mean some 
part ox parts of a totality, 

2) We have already seen that in French the adjective is usually 
placed after the noun so tha( the above rule holds good 1>ut in few 


I do not drink (bois) wine, 
I drink no water, 
I have no change, 
I have no money. 


Je ne bois {d'wodh) pas de vin. 

Je ne boid pas d'eau. 

Je n'ai pas de raonnaie. 

Je n*ai pas d'argcnt {ddr-jdng), 

3. D© is used after nouns expressing measure^ 
weighty qumtity or number where of is used in English. 

une bouteille de vin {^n boU-ti-yi a bottle of wine. 

di vaing)y 
une tasse de caf6, a cup of coffee, 

une paire de bas {Un pair di bah), a pair of stockings. 

4. Be must be employed after the following adverbs of 

Assez {d'say\ enough, 
beaucoup {bd-koU), much, many, 

a great many, a great deal, 
combien {kong-byaing), how 

much, how many, 
peu {pea), little, few. 
plus {plii), more, 
moins (mo-atng), less, 
rien, nothing. 


quelque chose {kel-ki skohs) some- 

trop {trdh), too much, too many. 

trop peu {trdh pea), too little, too 

tant (tdng\ so much, so many. 

autant {dh-tdng), as much, as 

Je n'ai psis^asses Sargent sur 
moi {pdA zdS'Say ddr-jdng sar 

J'ai vu beaucoup de personnes, 

Combien ^*6chantillons avez- 
vous re9u {kong-byaing day- 
shdng'tee-yong a-veh voa ri-sa) ? 

II a lu peu de livres. 

I have not money enough with me 
(= enough 0/ money). 

I have seen a great many persons 

(= many ^/persons). 
/low many patterns have you re- 
ceived (= how many of pat- 
terns) ? 

He has read few books ( =f cw of 


Vous avez fait irop de fautes You have made too many mis- 

{foht), takes (=too many <?/ mistakes). 

Apportez-moi plus d*^2M chaude, Waiter, bring me more hot water 

gar9on. (= more of \iQ\. water). 

5. De is used in the place of our English adjective 
describing a material^ as : 

Une bague ctax {tin bd/r dor), a gold ring. 

Une cuiller i/'argent (tin k'wie yih ddrjdng)^ a silver spoon. 

Une robe de soie, a silk dress. 

Un chapeau d€ velours (eiing shd-pdh di vi-lour)^ a velvet bonnet. 

Une table de bois {jin tdhbl di b' wodh\ a wooden table. 

N.B. — After numerals no article at all is used ; the same 
as in English : 

Deux^enfants {deu sdng-fdng), two children. 
Dix'^6coliers (dee' zay-kd-lyeh), ten pupils. 
Vingt francs {juaing /rang), twenty francs. 

The- most important Terbs of the first Coiyagatioii : 

parler (pdr'leh\ to speak, 

to say. 
causer (ko-zeK)^ to chat, 
raconter {rd-kong'teh), to 

tell, to narrate. 

affirmer (af-fir-meh) to af- 

nier {nee-eh)^ to deny. 

demander {di'mdng-deh\ to 

r^pliquer, (ray-plee-keh)^ to 
reply, to answer. 

prouver {proU'Veh),to prove. 

approuver {dp-prou-veK)^ to 

assurer {dS'Sii'reh)y to assure 

douter, {dou-teh)^ to doubt. 

i6p6ter (ray-pay'teh\ to re- 

d6clarer {day-cld-reh)^ to de- 

penser {pdng'Seh)^ to think. 

consid6rer (cong'Sei-day-reh)^ 
to consider. 


avouer {d-vou-eh)^ to avow, 
to acknowledge. 

objecter (olh/ek-tih), to ob- 

refuser (ri'fu'Zeh\ to re- 

Qjccorder (a^'Cor^deA), to ac- 

expliquer {ex-plee'kih)y to 

Tkc\tQr{ray'See'ieh\io recite. 

ignorer (tn-yo-reh), to ignore, 
to be ignorant of. 

oublier (ou-blee-eh)^ to for- 

deviner, {de-vei-neh)^ to di- 
vine, to guess. 

louer {loU'eh\ to praise, to 
let, to hire (dwellings). 

admirer {ad-Mee-reh)^ to ad- 

blamer (bldh'tneh\ to blame. 

imiter {ei'mei'teh), to im- 

enseigner {jdng-sin-yih), to 
teach, to instruct. 

6viter (ay-vei'teh), to avoid. 

reprocher {re-pro-shih), to 

crier (kree'eh)^ to cry, to 

disputer {dts-pu-teh^ to dis- 

persuader {pir-su-d'deh)^ to 

aimer (ay-miA), to love, to 

caresser {cd'ris-seh\ to ca- 

flatter {fidt-teh), to flatter. 

embrasser (ang-brdS'Sih)^ to 

m6priser (may-pree^zeh)^ to 

dedaigner {day-din-yeh), to 

oflfenser {of-fdng-seh), to of- 

ms\\\iQX {aing'Sul'teh), to in- 

quereller (ki-relMH)^ to 

braver {brd-veh)^ to brave. 

c61er {say ieh)^ to conceal. 

jurer {ju-reh)^ to swear, to 
take an oath. 

apaiser {a''pay-zeh)y to ap- 

baiser {bay-z€h\ to kiss. 

esperer {is-pay-reh^ to hope. 

donner (don'neh)y to give. 

honorer {d-nd-reh), to honor. 


d6sirer {day-zei-reh^ to de- | remcrcier {ri-mir'Syeh)* to 
sire. thank. 

souhaiter (sou-ay-teh)^ to, 

estimer (is-tei-m^n)^ to es- 

Translate tbe following 


into French, and then again, without assistance of the 
book, into English: 

What o'clock is it? — It is half-past seven. — Do you 
know what o'clock it is ? — I do not know {je ne sats) what 
o'clock it is. I forgot to wind up (remonter) my watch ; 
it {elle) has stopped {s* est arriUe). — Have you a time-table 
(=the hours of departure, les heures du d/part) f Please 
see at what o'clock the first train leaves (/flr/).^Did you 
write to him ? — Why did you not write to them ? — Why 
did you not write to him to send us another {une autre) 
set {collection) of samples {d*echantillonSy day-shSng-tee- 
yong) ? — Why did you not write to them that we have 
refused {refusi) the draft (la traite) ? — Have the kindness 
(ayez la bonti) to give us some information {des renseigne- 
mentSy rang-s6n-y6-mang) about {sur) Mr. B. — I take the 
liberty {jeprends [prSng] la liberti) to recommend (recom- 
mandery rg-com-mang-d€h) him to you. — Does Mr. N. live 
here .^— Yes sir, h\xtm^,sltr (monsieur) is not to be seen 
now; he is very bxxsy (tris-occup/) at present {ipr/senty ah 
pray zSng). Will you please give him my card (ma carte) ? 


Translate the following 


Buying some Oloth. 

i) I should like to buy some cloth. — 2) I should like 
to buy some good cloth. — 3) Will you be kind enough 
[don fieZ'Vous la peine =donvi&ci vou la pain) to pass to the 
rear {au fond=o\i fong) of the store, sir? — 4) Will you 
please show (w^7/^/r^r=mong-treh) some cloth to the 
gentleman ? — 5) What {quelle) sort of cloth do you wish, 
sir } — 6) Have you any samples {or patterns) ? — 7) Yes, 
sir, here are {void) samples of all the pieces of cloth {de 
ious les draps) which we have in stock. — 8) What is the 
price of this {celui-ci) ? — 9) It costs twenty-five francs a 
metre {le fn^lre= may tr). — 10) That (fa=sah) seems rather 
dear to me. — 11) I beg your pardon {pardonnez-moi\ sir, 
that {ce) is not dear for this {cette) quality. Feel {tdtez)^ 
if you please, how fine it is (=how \comme\ it is fine= 
fin^ faing). — 12) And that one {celui-lci)^ what do you charge 
for that (=of what price is it) ? — 13) The blue {ce bleu-la 
= s6 bleu l5h) ? I could not {je ne pourrais=]6 n6 pour- 
ray) give it to you for (i) less than thirty {trente=itr^iigt) 
francs. — 14) That is very dear ; it does not seem to me 
finer {plus fin=^\\i faing) than {que) the other. — 15) You 
are right, sir; it is similar {semblable^sdHigAAdL-hi) in 
{pour) quality {=the quality) ; but blue (=/>^ blue) is al- 
ways a little dearer {plus cher) than other colors (=/^ 
other colors, couleurs). 

^\lt ip[<i$i4t$<f(di-|pi4W. 





( Continuation, ) 

24. For less than a franc I bought in a large {grand) 
Vienna store {un magasin de Vienne)y where every 
thing is sold {se vend^) very cheap, a quire ( = a 
hand, une main) of this English paper, some ex- 
cellent steel-pens {des plumes metaUiqites) and six 
dozens of envelopes. 

25. You wish {or want) a silk dress, madam? Will you 
please step up {monter) to the * entre-nol ' ? 

26. Have you received any beautiful novelties {nmi^ 
veatites) ? 

27. I can suit your taste {or serve you to your taste). We 
have just received a very large assortment {assor- 

28. I do not like this shade {ntiance) very much. I want 
something darker {plus foncey i.e. with a deeper, 
richer color). 

29. You have there {Id) some brocaded silk {de la saie 
moirie). Please let me see it {voyons-la), 

30. Here, madam. We have the same quality with a large 
satin stripe (a large raie satinee), 

31. It is the most beautiful thing you can see. 

I. Tht passive voice is often expressed by the active ttntk se. 




24. J'ai achet^ pour moins d'un franc dans un grand 
magasin de Vienne oA tout se vend'^ tres-bon marchfe, 
une main {tin maing) de ce papier anglais, des plumes 
metalliques excellentes {day pliim may-td-leek zSg-sil- 
Idngt) et six {see) douzaines d'enveloppes (dou-zayn 

25. C'esf^une robe de sole que vous d6sirez {day-zee-ray)^ 
madame? Veuillez monter aL I'entre-sol (Idng-tr-sol)'^ 
[The entresol is an apartment between the ground- 
floor and the first story.] 

26. Avez-vous regu de belles nouveaut^s {nou-voh-tay) ? 

27. Je puis vous servir (s^r-veer) i votre goilt. Nous 
venons de recevoir un tres-grand'^assortiment (tds- 

28. Cette nuance {nii-dngs) ne me plait pas trop. Je de- 
sire quelque chose de plus fonc6 {fong-say). 

29. Vous avez \k de la sole moir^e {m wodh-ray), Voyons- 
la {vodh-yong Idh)^ s* il vous plait. 

30. Voici, madame. Nous'^avons la meme qualit6 i large 
raie satin 6e (ray sd-tee-nay). 

3 1 . C*est tout ce qu*on peut voir de plus beau. [Idiomatic 
phrase which is used very frequently.] 



32. Is this Lyons-silk ? 

33. Certainly {certainement)^ madam. It would be im- 
possible to find similar goods (pareille marchandise) 
among {dans) English products (lesproduits d* Angle- 

34. Will you please give me your address and I will 
send the package {le paquet). 

35. I should like to have some writing- (or note) paper 
{papier d lettres), sir. 

36. You wish small-sized paper {petit format)^ madam ? 

37. How do you sell the quire (fe matn) of this English 
paper ? 

38. We sell a great deal {heaucoup) of this paper to a 
number {or several, plusieurs) of offices. 

39. Show me some good steel -pens {plumes mUalliques). 

40. How do you sell the gross {la grosse) ? 

41. I should like to see ( = to have) some linen {de la 
toile) for shirts. 

' 42. Do you want something nice {or beautiful) ? 

43. Of the best quality. 

44. Here is some Dutch linen {de la toile de Hollande) 
which is excellent. 

45. How do you sell it? 

46. Four francs a metre, 

47. A dozen would cost me {me reviendra) therefore 
{ainsi) ? 

48. You will {surely) make me a reduction {une diminvr 
Hon) on the price ? 


32. Est-ce Ik de la soie de Lyon {lee-ong) ? 

33. Certainement (x/r-/a/«*.wa;2^) madamc; il serait^im- 
possible (taing'pos'seebt) de trouver pareille marchan- 
dise {pd-r^-yi mdr-shdng-deeze) dans les produits 
d'Angleterre {pro-dweet ddng-lit-tayr). 

34. Veuillez me donner votre'^adresse et je vous'^enverral 
le paquet {Je vou zdng-vir-reh le pd-kay), 

35. Je voudrais"^avoir du papier {pd-pyeh) k lettres, mon- 

^6. Est-ce de petit format {formdK) que vous le d^sirez, mar 
dame ? «r 

37. Combien vendez-vous {vdng-day-vou) la main {niaing) 
de ce papier anglais } 

38. Nous vendons beaucoup de ce papier i plusieurs 
{plu'z'yeur) bureaux (bii-roH), 

39. Montrez-moi de bonnes plumes m^talliques (mdy- 

40. Combien vendez-vous la grosse ? 

41. Je voudrais^avoir de la toile pour chemises {twodhl 
pour shi'tneeze), 

42. Voulez-vous quelque chose de beau {bo) ? 

43. De la meilleure quality {mi-yeur kd-iee-tay), 

44. Voici de la toile de HoUande qui est'^excellente 

45. Combien la vendez-vous ? 

46. Quatre francs le m^tre {mayfr). 

47. Ainsi la douzaine me reviendra {aingsee Id dou-zayn 
mi ri'Vyaing'dra)} 

48. Vous me ferez bien une diminution {dee-mee-nu'syong) 
sur ce prix {pree) ; or : Vous me rabattrez bien quelque 
chose ? 


Terms of politeness.^ 

A, Terms of ashing. 

1. May I ask {or beg) you to tell me. . . .? 

2. May I ask a favor of you ? 

3. I have to make a request of you. 

4. Be so kind {or Have the kindness) to tell me .... 

5. I have to ask you for a favor. 

6. Would you be so kind as to do me a service ? 

7. If I were not afraid of troubling you {d^Ure indiscret) 
I would beg you to ... . 

8. Would you have the kindness to . . . .? 

9. Would you be so kind as to grant me {de m*accor- 
der) a moment's conversation {or interview) ? 

10. If it were convenient to you to. . . • 

11. Do me this favor. 

1 2. I beg (you) for it. 

13. You would greatly oblige me if . . . . 

i) These phrases will be found very useful in every day conver- 
sation. I have often observed that foreigners are at a loss how to 
express themselves gracefully and naturally, not knowing how to 
make use of the words they really have mastered, and I beg that stu. 



Formules de politesse.^ 

A. Formules de dematide {for-miil di di-mdngd), 

I. Puis-je vous demander (<;r pner = frie-ih) de me 

dire {deer)....} 
z. Pourrais-je vous demander une faveur {d^mdHg-deh 

un fd-veur)} 

3. J'ai une pri^re {prie^r) 4 vous faire. 

4. Aye* la bont^ {ay^yeh Id bong-tay) de me dire. . . . 

5. J'ai une grdce \ vous demander. 

6. Voudriez-vous me rendre un service {rdng-dr eung 

7. Si je ne craignais pas (crin-yay pah) d'etre indiscret 
(aing'dis'cray)^ je vous prierais de {Je vou prie-i^reh 

^ { Auriez-vous la bont6 de . . . ,? 

8. \ 

{ Auriez-vous Tobligeance de. . . .? 

9. Auriez-vous la bont6 de m*accorder un moment d'en- 
tretien {ma-mdng ddngtr' -tyaing) (or un moment d'au- 
dience [do'dydMgs])} 

10. S'il vous convenait de , • • • 

11. Faites-moi ce plaisir. 

12. Je vous^en prie (ji vou zdng prei). 

13. Vous m'obligeriez (mo-HeeJi^ryik) beaucoup {or infini^ 
ment \aing'fii'nie-mdng'\^ si ... . 

dents will study these phrases veiy thoroughly, as they are continu- 
ally used in polite society, and serve to introduce various requests 
and statements, Similiar phrases will be given in the succeeding 


14. Count on (sur) my gratitude, 

15. I should be very grateful (reconnmssanf) to you if *. 

16. Would you please repeat what you were saying? 

17. I beg your pardon, sir? 

1 8. What was it you said, madam ? 

19. Please> listen to me {^coutez-mm). 

As I must leaye for Geriuftny to-night^ I should 

be Tory much obliged to yon^ if yoa were to ask 

him to please send me the patterns at once^ irhieh 

I selected three days ago. 

As I am obliged to leave for Gemtany to-nigfat. 

i) Liquid sound. 

2) o-a is only one sound. 


14. Comptez sur ma reconnaissance {cong-tay sur tnd r/- 

15. Je vous serais tres-reconnaissant {re-con-nai-sdng) si. . 

16. Veuillez r6peter ce que vous'^avez dit {dee)} 

17. Plait-il {play-t€el)j monsieur? 

18. Vous disiez {vou dee-zyeh), madame ? 

j Ecoutez-moi (ay-kod-teh m'wodh\ s'il vous plait. 
( Daignez m'&outer (dain-yeh may-cou-tay). 

Comme il fant que j'aille en Allemagne ce solr, 

kdm eel fdh ke ja ye ' ang a-ls-man-ye sS swoar' 
je Tons serais bien oblige si tous Ini demandiez 

jS voa s€ray byaing ob-lee-jay see voQ lU-ee ' de mang-dyeh 

de m'eiiToyer sur-Ie-ehamp les'^fichantillons que 

de mang-voah-yeh silr 16 shang lay zay-shang-tee-yong kS 

j'ai ehoisis il y a trois jonrs. 

jay sh'woah-zee eel ee a tro-ah joar 

Comme il fant que j'aille en Allemagne ce soir. 

kdm eel foh kg ja-ye ang a-ie-man-ye se sVokr. 

3) 11-66 is only one sound. 



it is necessary Pr/sent : il faut (foh). Pari, pass/: fallu. 

Imp,: il fallait. Futur: il i2i\x^x^(fdh-drdh), 
nlfini: il fallu. Pr/s. Subj,: qu'il faille (keei 

English expressions as ' I must ; we are obliged/ 
&c., roust be rendered by * il faut' '). 

that I may go 

I go ; I am going ; (thou goest ; he goes, &c.) 

I shall (or I will) go 

that I may go (that thou mayst go. that he may go, that we may 
go, that you may go, that they may go) 

I must go, or I am obliged to leave 

for (alUr must be followed by en when one travels to countries, as : 
Je vais en Angleterre) 


1. Mr.^Daudet has gone {or left) ; and that is the rea- 
son why his brothers must go to France. 

2. Did you not tell any one why I am obliged to go to 
England ? 

3. How much must I pay to the cab } 

i) Rule : ' il faut ' is used in the following way : 

a) With the simple infinitive : il faut travailler (I, he, we, you, 
or they) must work. 

b) With a personal conjunctive pronoun and the infinitive: il me 
faut vendre, I must sell ; il nous faut aller, we must go ; il vousfaut 
parti r, you must leave. 

c) With que and the subjunctive mood : II faut que j*aille, I must 
go. // faut que le X2\\\e\xr fasse mon habit, the tailor must make mv 
coat. // faut que je donne ce livre k votre frfere, I must give this 
book to your brother. 


Comme (kdm) 

il faut* {eel foK) (Is an irregular verb derived from the infinitive, 
falloir. It is used only in the third person 

que j'aille (ki-jd-yi) (Pr6s. Sub jonc. of the irregular verb <i///r) 

je vais (Present of aller), tu vas 
ils vont) 

j'irai {Jee-reh) (Future of aller) 

que j'aille, que tu ailles, qu* 
vous^^alliez, quails 

il faut que j'aille (eel f oh ki jd-yi) 

en {dng) {aller is followe 
Je vais h Londn 

Allemagne {d-li-mdn-ye) 

je vais (Present of aller), tu vas, il va, nous'^allons, vous'^allez, 
ils vont) 

que ]*aille, que tu ailles, qu'il aille, que nous^allions, que 
vous^^alliez, qu*ils^'aillent (>&/// ad^y/) 

en {dng) (aller is followed by 4, when one travels to towns ^ as : 
Je vais h Londres) 

1. Monsieur Daudet {do-day) est parti; c'est pourquoi il 
faut que ses freres aillent en France {d-y^ dng 

2. N'avez-vous dit k personne pourquoi il faut que 
j'aille en Angleterre {dn-ndng-gli-tayr) ? 

3. Combien faut-il que je donne* au cocher {don oh 
co'shay) ? 

Any of these constructions may be used when the subject of the 
sentence happens to be a pronoun But the third construction only 
is admissible when the subject is a noun, 

2) The pupil must nqyr make himself familiar with the sub- 
junctive mood. He ought now to learn, or rather to repeat all the 
tenses oi avoir^ ftre z.n& donner. Then t2Lke Jinir (2d conjugation), 
and vendre (3d coniugation), which are given in the Grammatical 
RpmarVs of Part VI. A table giving the principal peculiarities 
of the French grammar accompanies the next lessons. 


4. As I am obliged to go to Paris, please tell your 
brother to give me this address. 

5. Where must I go this forenoon ? 

6. Tell him, if you please that he must make tny coat 

7. That must be so. 

8. What must I get for dinner, madam ? 

9. The shoemaker must make my boots at once, as 
{parce qvs) I am going to leave. 

10. What? You did not hear the thunder ? {Literally: 
the clap \le coup] of thunder [de tonnerre]) ? You must 
sleep [que vous dormiez *] very heavily [profondemen{\). 

11. Must I send the silk and velvet {le velours) to your 
house ? 

12. Am I obliged to pay beforehand (d'avance) ? 

13. What do you need ? [II faut signifies also to need^ 

14. Waiter, give me another room. I need more air and 
light (/. ^., day-light =. jour), 

15. I need some money. 

16. How much do you need {or are you in need of) ? 

17. I need 33 {trente-trois) francs. 

18. Did you breakfast } 

19. I took {faipris) a cup of coffee with milk. 

i) Learn the subjunctive mood of the present of faire : 
Que je fasse, that I may make, que nous fassions, that we may make, 
que tu fasses^ &c. que vous fassiez, &c. 

qu'il fasse, &c. qu*ils fassent, &c. 


4- Comme il faut que j'aille i Paris, dites k votre fr^re, 
je vous prie, de me donner cette adresse (j// td-dres), 

5. Ou fauMl que j*aille ce matin ? 

6. Dites-lui, s*il vous plait, qu'il faut faire mon habit 
aujourd'hui {mdn nd-bee o-jour-cTweeY 

7. II faut que cela soit (fwodh). 

8. Que i2iM\.'\\ que je fasse^ ^o\xx le diner {dee-nay) ma- 

9. II faut que le cordonnier fasse^ mes bottes tout de 
suite, parce que je vais partir. 

10. Comment ? Vous n'avez pas entendu (zdng-tdng-du 
= heard) le coup de tonnerre (cou de ton-nayr = 
thunder)? II faut que vous dormiez^ hi^n profonde* 
ment (pro-fong-day-mdng = deeply, profoundly). 

1 1. Faut-il envoyer {dng-vodh-yeh) la sole et le velours 
(velour) chez vous ? 

12. Faut-il payer d!2L\2incQ'{dd'Vdngs) ? 

13. Que vous faut-il (ki vou fo-teel)} 

14. Gar9on, donnez-moi une autre chambre, il me faut 
plus d'air et plus de jour {plu dairay plu d^ Jour), 

15. II me faut de Targent (Jdrr-jdng). 

16. Combien vous faut-il? 

17. II me faut trente-trois francs (trdngt trodhfrdngy 

18. Avez-vous d6jil d6jeun6 ? 

19. J*ai pris (pree) une tasse de cafe au lait {oh lay). 

2) The subjunctive mood of the present of dormir, to sleep : 
Que je donne, that I sleep. que nous dormions, that we sleep, 
que tu dormes, &c. que vous dormiez, &c. 

qu*il dorme, &c. qu'ils dorment, &c. 




Second Conjugation : Finir^ to finish.^ 

Present Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

Je fini« {fee-nee)^ I finish. nous ^vd^sons {fee-mS'Song), 

tu finis, thou finishest. we finish. 

11 finiY, he finishes. vous fvainsez^ you finish, 

elle finiY, she finishes. ils fimssent {fee-niss) \ they 

elles ^mssent » finish. 

Je ^nissais {^fee-ni-say^ I nous finmtons, we finished. 

tu finfssais, &c. vous fmissiez^ &c. 

11 ^xiissait^ &c. TX%^vdssaient{^fee'ni'Say)jhc. 

Je fini5 {fee-nee)^ I finished, nous ^mmea {fee-neem)^ we 

tu finis, &c. vous ^niteSy &c. 

il fintY, &c. lis ^nirent {/ee-neer,) &c. 

i) Be careful to always pronounce fnir = fee-nere ; je finissais 
• feenis say ; nous Jintmes = fee-neme, &c. 


1st Future. 

Je finfraf {fee-nie-reh)^ I nous finirow^, we shall 

shall finish. finish, 

tu finiras, &c. vous ^nirez, &c. 

il finiVa, &c. lis ^niront^ &c. 

15/ Conditional. 

Je finfraw (/ee-nee-ray)^ I nous finiVfows, we should 

should finish. finish, 

tu finiVaw, &c. vous ^niriez, &c. 

il fin/raiY, &c. ils ^niraienty &c. 

FiniV, to finish. de or d finir, to finish. 


Finw, finish. ^nissons {fee-nt-song^ let as 

^nissezy finish. 



Que je ^nisse (fee-ntss\ that I (may) finish. 

que tu ^nisses, &c. 

qu*il Suisse, &c. 

que nous ^nissionSy that we (may) finish. 

que vous finissiezy &c. 

qu'ils ^nissent {/ee'ntss)^ &c. 



Que je fini55^, that I (might) finish. 

que tu finme5, &c. 

qu'il ^TiU{ fee-nee)^ &c. 

que nous ^nissionSy that we (might) finish. 

que vous finmiez, &c. 

qu'ils ^nissent (fee-niss)^ &c, 

Present. Past. 

Finma;^^, finishing. Fini {fri-nee)^ /, fintev 

en ^nissanty by finishing, &c. finished. 


ATOir fini (fee-nee)^ to have finished, 



J'ai fini (^ fee-nee)^ I have finished. 

tu as fini, thou hast finished. 

il a fini, he has finished. 

nous avons fini, we have finished, &c. 

Pluperfect. ' 

J'avais fini, I had finished^ &c< 

Compound of the Preterite^ 

J*eus fini, I had finished, &c. 


2d Future. 
J'aurai fini, I shall have finished, &c. 

2d CondiiionaL 

J'aurais fini, 
J'eusse fini, 

11 ) 

>- 1 should have finished, &c. 



Que j*aie fini, that I (may) have finished, &c. 

Que j'eusse fini, that I (might) have finished, &c. 


Ayant fini, having finished, &c. 

Conjugate in the same manner : bdtir, to build ; chotsir, 
to choose ; remplir {rdng-pleer\ to fill, &c. 


i) The verb liairy to hate, loses in the Present and 
Imperative singular its diceresis. Otherwise it is quite reg- 
ular and retains the two dots. 
P^res, Je hais, tu hais, il hait, nous haissons, vous halssez,' 

&c. Jmper, Hais ; PL haissons, haissez. Pret. Je hats 

I hated. 

2) The verb fleurir, to flourish, has a second form for 
the Imperfect tense ^ Je florissais, and also a second for the 
Part, present^ florissant, e, both of which are only used 
in a figurative sense, as : une ville florissante, a flourish- 
ing city, &c. 


Third Conjugation : Tendre^ to sell.^ 

Present Tense. 

Je vends {vdngd)^ I sell. nous vendons, we sell, 

tu vends, thou sellst. vous vender, you sell, 

il vend, he sells. ils wendent (vdngd)^ \ they 

elle (on)vend, she (one) sells, elles vend^?*^, j sell. 


Je vendafs {vdng-day\ I sold, nous vendfoTW, we sold, 
tu vendues, thou soldst. vous vendie«, you sold, 

il wendaity he sold, ils vendat^n^, they sold. 

Je vendw {vdng-dee)^ I sold, nous vendCmes, we sold, 
tu vendis, &c, vous vendi/cs, &c. 

11 vendiY, &c. ils vendtVm^ {vdng'deer)^ &c. 

Je vendraf {vdng-dreh\ I nous vendrofw, we 

shall sell. shall sell, 

tu vendms, &c. vous vendm, &c. 

il vendm, &c. ils vendrow^, &c. 

I) Pronounce vdng-dr; nous vendom = vdng^ong i ils vendent 

V; 197 

1st ConditionaL 
Je vendra/5, {vdng'dray)^ I nous vendnow*, we should 

should sell. sell, 

tu vendrats, &c. vous vtndrieZy &c. 

il vendraiY, &c. ils vendraiew^, &c. 


Vend^, sell. vendors, let us sell. 

vtndezy sell. 

Que je vende {vdngd)^ that I (may) sell. 

que tu vend^5, 


qu'il veude. 


que nous venAions^ 


que Tous vendi^;?, 


qu'ils vender/. 


Que je vendisse {vdng'diss)^ that I might sell. 

que tu vendtsses, 


qu'il \end% 


que nous vendi55«W5, 


que vous vendimiez^ 


qulls vendme?^^, 





Vendmity selling. 

vendt^ {vdng'du), f. vendw^, 

en vend«n^, by selling. 




Ayoir vendu, to have sold. 

J'ai vendu, I have sold, 
tu as vendu, thou hast sold, 
il a vendu, he has sold, 
nous avons vendu, we have sold, &c. 

J'avais vendu, I had sold, &c. 

J*eus vendu, I had sold, &c. 
id Future. 
J'aurai vendu, I shall have sold, &c. 

2d Condition at 
J'aurais vendu, 
J'eusse vendu, 



Que j'ai vendu, that I (may) have sold, &c. 


Que j'eusse vendu, that I (might) have sold, &c. 


Ayant vendu, having sold. 
Conjugate after this model : perdre, to loose ; attendre 
(at'tdng'dr\ to wait, to expect ; r^pondre, to answer, &c. 

1 1 should have sold, &c. 


The most Important Terbs of the First Coi^agratiom— Continued. 

TrsLiter (tray-teh)^ to treat, 
maltraiter (mdkl'tray'teh\ to 

illtreat, to abuse, 
pleurer {pleu-reK)^ to weep, 
soupirer (sou'pee'reh)^ to 

consoler {cong-soh-leK), to 

regretter {ri-grH-teH)^ to re- 
pardonner { pdr-don-neh), to 

excuser {ex-cu-zeh^ to ex- 
venger {vdng'Jeh\ to re- 
railler {rd-yeh)^ to joke, to 

make fun of. 
toucher {tou-sheh)^ to touch, 
goiiter (gau'teh)^ to taste, 
regarder {ri-gdr-deh)^ to re- 
6couter {ay-cou-teh)^ to listen 

aller {d-leh)y to go. 
marcher - ( mdr-sheh ), to 

retourner {ri-toar-neh), to 
return. | 

rencontrer {rdng-cong-treJi)^ 
to meet, to encounter. 

6chapper {ay-shap-peh)^ to 

sauter (sdh'teh)^ to jump. 

tomber {tong'beh)y to fall. 

danser {ddng-seh), to dance. 

jouer (joU'eh)y to play. 

monter (»i^«^-/i?^), to mount, 
to bring up stairs ; to 
get in. 

songer {song-Jeh)^ to dream. 

rever (ray-veK)^ to dream. 

manger {mdng'jeh\ to eat. 

dejeuner {day'jeu'neh)^ to 

diner (dee-neh)^ to dine. 

souper {soU'peh)y to sup. 

mdcher {mdh'Sheh)^ to chew. 

r^galer {ray'gd'leh)^ to re- 
gale, to treat. 

couper {kdd-peh\ to cut. 

d^couper (day-kod peh), to 
carve, to cut up. 

allumer {d-lu-meh), to light. 

filmer (fu-meh), to smoke. 

bSiller {bd-yeh\ to yawn. 

siffler {sif'fleh\ to whistle. 

tousser (touS'Seh)^ to cough. 


trainer (tray-neh)^ to puil. 
trembler {trdng-bleh\ to 

tirer (tee-rek)^ to draw, to 

montrer {mong-treh), to 

presenter {pray-zdng-teh) to 

accepter {ac-dp'teh\ to ac- 
gater {gdh-teK), to spoil. 
Jeter {^ji-teK)^ to throw, to 

throw away, 
ramasser {rd-rnds-seh)^ to 

pick up. 
chercher (sher-sheh), to seek, 

to search, 
trouver {trou-veH)^ to find, 
cacher {cd-sheh)^ to hide, 
nettoyer {nH-fwod-yeh), to 

d^chirer {day-shee-reh)^ to 

briser (bree-zeh), to pick to 

porter (por-teh), to carry, 
apporter (ap-por-teh)^ to 

amener {d'mi'neH)^ to bring 


mener {mS-neh), to lead, 
voyager {vod-yd-jay)^ to tra- 
arriver (dr-ree-veK)^ to ar- 
sonner {son-neh) to strike (of 

the clock), to ring (the 

entrer (dng-freA), to enter, 
fermer {fir-meh)^ to lock, 
marchan der {mdrshdng-deh) 

to bargain, 
commander {cdm-mdng-deK)^ 

to order, to command, 
envoyer (dng-vodh-yeh^ ta 

send, to forward, 
renvoyer (rdng-vodh-yeH) to 

send back. 
d6dommager {day-dom-mdh- 

jay\ to idemnify. 
acheter (dsh-teli)^ to buy. 
preter (pray-teh)^ to lend, 

to loan, 
emprunter {dng-preung-teh^ 

to borrow, 
rembourser {rdng-bour-seh)^ 

to reimburse, to repay. 
d6bourser {day-bour'Seh)y to 

disburse, to pay out. 
bonifier {bo-nee-fyeh^ to 


payer (pay-yih)^ to pay. 

empaqueter {dng-pd-ki-tiK^y 
to pack up. 

d6paqueter {day-fd-ki-teh^ 
to unpack. 

envelopper (dng'Vi4&p'peh\ 
to envelop, to wrap up. 

gagner (gdn-yeh), to gain. 

tromper {/r^f^-fih)^ to de- 

voler (vdh'lih)^ to steal. 

^tudier {ay-iu-dyih)^ to study 

compter {kong-tih) to count, 
to reckon. 

chiffrer {sMf'frih)^ to reck- 

additioner {ad-dii'Syon-neh)^ 
to add. 

multiplier {mul'tei'plee'ih^ 
to multiply. 

diviser (dei'Ve€'Zeh)y to di- 

copier {kd^pyeh\ to copy. 


signer {sin-yeK)^ to sign. 

dieter {dk'teh)y to dictate. 

plier {plei'fh)^ to put to- 

plisser {plts-sik) to fold. 

cacheter {cdsh'teh)^ to seal. 

commencer {cam-mdng'Seh^ 
to commence, to begin. 

continuer (cong'tee-nu-ih)^ to* 

cesser {sUs-seh^ to cease. 

achever (d'Shi'Veh)^ to per- 
fect, to fulfil. 

travailler {trd-vd-yeh), to 

colorer {co-io-reh^ to color. 

dessiner {di-see^nih), to de- 

laver {Id-vih^ to wash. 

enregistrer (dng-ray-jis-treh^ 
to book, to check. 

p6ser {pe'Z€h\ to weigh. 

planter (pldng-teh)y to plant 


The student will see that most of these French verbs, 
which are originally derived from the Latin, are also 
found in the English tongue, though our pronunciation 
differs materially from the French. The pupil, with very 
little effort, can, therefore, put himself in possession of i6o 
of the most necessary French verbs. 


Translate the followinjg 


into English, and then render it into French without 
the help of the book : 

z. Oa a Steamer. 

i) Quand le bateau aL vapeur (ba-t6 5h va-peur=x/^tf/«^r), 
partira-t-il (par-tee-ri-teel =^^//^ to leave ; start) ? — Le ba- 
, teau partira dans^une heure. — 2) Quel est le prix du 
passage ? — Les premieres places {pldhs) sont de deux gui- 
nees at les secondes d'uneguin6e. — 3) Est-ce que tout est 
pret {^r2iy=ready) ? — Oui, monsieur. — Eh bien, allons k 
bord! — 4) Nous voici. Voyez (voah-yeh = /^^>&y see) 
quelle heure il est, pour savoir (sa-v*woir = in order to 
know) combien de temps nous'^aurons^6t6 aL la travers6e 
(tra-ver-say = crossing). — II est deux'^heures precises. 

— 5) Combien de temps serons-nous en voyage? — 
Huit'^heures, je crois (kroah = / think\ si le temps 
(weather) est favorable (fa-v6-rabl = favorable), — 6) 
Avez-vous deji ^t6 sur mer [on sea) ? — 7) Oui, monsieur. 
Et vous? — J'ai 6t6 aussi (6-see =^also ) plusieurs fois (plii- 
zyeur-foah = several times) sur mer ; mais je ne suis pas 
sujet (sii-jay = subject) au m?al de mer {seasickness). — 
8) Vous changez (shang-jay) de couleur. Qu'avez-vous ? 
— La tete me tourne {whirls ; swims) ; j'ai mal au coeur. 

— 9) Vous paraissez (pa-rays-seh = seem) vous trouver 
mal {to feel bad)\ ne vaudrait-il pas mieux (ne v5- 
dray-teel pah myeu = would it not be better) rentrer (rang-tray ) 
dans la cabine {ka-bTen = cabin^ et vous coucher {lie down) ? 

— Je pr^f^re (pray-fayr =/r^/^) raster sur la pont (pong = 
deck , . 



^kt 1j(mt4r$#ft-|g$tp. 




20. That is not sufficient {assez); you must eat some- 
thing before dinner. (Literaily : While [en*] await- 
ing [attendant] the dinner). 

21. Have you any wine? Yes, sir; I have some. 

,22. If you need good sugar, we can furnish (/ourmr) 
you some at a very low price. 

23. Show me some good steel pens. Here are some 
excellent ones. 

24. Waiter, I have no napkin. Here is one, sir. 

25. I do not like this room. Have you not (got) another 
one which you can give me? (Literally: to give 
to me.) 

26. Yes, sir, we have several {plusieurs) unoccupied ones 

(= several free \de libres^^. 

i) To avoid breaking up the seveial tables in the Grammatical 
Remarks they have been consolidated into one part, thus shortening 
the Foundation Sentences for this Number. 

2) En is a * supplying pronoun/ and is used very frequently in 
French, though it cannot always be given in English. It is used 

a) to express the words some and any^ when they refer to some 
previously used substantive, as : Voici du jambon (ham): en voulez- 
vous? Donnez m'en, s'il vous platt. Here is some ham; do you 
want some ? Give me some^ please. 

b) En is used instead of it or themy when the French verb re- 
quires de{ue,y governs the genitive). This rule refers almost only 
to things^ rarely io persons. (It is immaterial what preposition is 
used in English.) Ex. : Vous parlez de son malheur {mS-leUr)! 


20. Ce n'est paslissez ; il vous faut manger {mdng-Jay) 
quelque chose, en attendant {dn^ndt-tdng-ddng) le 

21. Avez-vous du vin (vaing)? Oui monsieur, j'en* ai 

22. S'il vous faut de bon sucre, nous pouvons vous'^en 
foumiT (four'niir) i bien bon-marchfe. 

23. Montrez-moi de bonnes plumes m6talliques. En 
voici d'excellentes (d^g'Sil'ldngt). 

24. Gargon, je n'ai pas de serviette. En voici une, mon- 
^ sieur. {^En^ can frequently not be expressed in English^ 

but must be given in French, ) 

25. Cette chambre ne me plait pas. N'en avez-vous 
pas^une autre i me donner (ndn-nd-veh vou pdh zUn 
notr dh mi don-nek) ? 

26. Oui, monsieur, nous'^en^avons plusieurs de libres 
{piU'Zyeur di leebr). 

Non monsieur, je rCen parle pas. You are speaking of his misfort- 
une ? No, sir ; I am not speaking of it — J'ai fait une faute (fdht\ 
eifen suis puni {pu-nii), I have committed a fault and I am punished 
for it, — Vous m avez rendu service i^ang-dil sir-viise)] je vous en 
remercie (ri-mir-sii\ You have rendered me a service ; I thank 
you for it. 

En is alwavs placed before the verb (like the personal conjunc- 
tive pronouns). But when en meets with another personal pronoun 
It is placed last, as : Je^ m^en souviens (soU-vyaing), I remember. It 
is placed, however, after the affirmative imferativef as : Donnez-lui- 
eoy give him some. {Moi and toi with the affirmative imperative 
are changed into m* and /' before en, as : Donnez-m'en, give me 


27* Do you need a large room, or Will you be satisfied 
{votM contentereZ'VOus) with a (d^une) room (pi^e) 
with (d) one window ? 

28. I have received a letter from Paris and must answer 
it at once. 

29. Will you please do your correspondence {/aire voire 
courrier) in the coflfee-room ? You will find writing 
materials there. (Literally : You find there [y] every- 
thing which you need for writing.) 

30. It is of the utmost importance (== il fautjabsolument) 
that this letter leaves to-day. 

31. Waiter, a decanter of ice- water {une carafe frappie\ 
if you please. 

32. We have not any, sir, but I*D bring you {or get you) some 
ice (de la gldce) on a plate, if you like it 

33. This roast duck is excellent. May I help you to 
some ? ( V0U8 en servirai-je ?) [May /, in such and 
similiar phrases, must be rendered through the fu- 
ture tense.] 

34. This roast-beef looks very nice. Will you please cut 
me a slice of it {ni^en couper une tranche)? 

35. This meat {cette viande) is very tender ; may I offer 

you another small piece {un petit morceau) ? 

36. Give me a very small piece only (seulejnent). 

37. You are giving me too much (Irop) ; give me only 
(ne-que) half of it (la moitii). 

38. Do you want a fork ? Thanks, I have one. 

39. I must go to London for some weeks {semaines) on 
family-business (pour affaires defamille). 


27. Vous faut^il une grande chambre, ou voiis conten- 
terez-vous {cong'tdng-te'reh-vou) d'une piece k une 
fenStre {diinpee-ays ah iin fe-naytr) ? 

28. J'ai re^u une lettre de Paris, et il faut que j'y r^ponde tout 
de suite {ray-pongd toud^ s'weet). 

29. Veuillez faire votre courrier dans la salle des voya- 
geurs; vous'^y (vou-zee) trouvercz tout ce qu'il faut 
pour 6crire (ay-kreer). 

30. II fauf^absolument {tdh-so-lu^mdng) que cette lettre 
parte aujourd'hui. 

31. Garden, une carafe frapp^e, s'il vous plait. 

32. Nous n'en^avons pas, monsieur, mais si vous voulez 
je vous'^apporterai de la glace sur une assiette. 

33. Ce caneton {kd-ni-tong) est '^excellent ; vous'^en servi- 
rai-je encore {ay-tig^il-ldng ; vou zdng sir-vee-reh-ji 

34. Ce filet a tr^s-bonne mine ; veuillez m*en couper une 
tranche {trdngsh) ? 

35. Cette viande {vee-dngd) est tr^s-tendre (fdng-dr), 
vous'^en oflfrirai-je encore un petit morceau {vou zdng 
ndf'frei'reh'ji dng-kor eung pUee mor-soh) ? 

36. Donnez-m'en seulement {seul-mdng) un tout petit 

37. Vous m*en donnez trop ; ne m'en donnez que la moi- 
ti6 {nCwodh'tyeK), 

38. Voulez- vous^'une fourchette ? Merci, j'en^ai une. 

39. II faut que j'aille \ Londres pour quelques semaines 

(si-mayn) pour affaires de famille {fd'Tnie-ylf). 



The Adjectiye. 

The adjective agrees in gender and number with the 
substantive or pronoun it relates to. Le ^wt^enfant 
{bon ndng'fdng), the good child. La bantu femme {fdm)^ 
the good woman. Elle ^sXTheureuse {il lay t€U'reuse\ she 
is happy. 

Formation of the Feminine Form. 

The feminine of adjectives and participles is generally 
formed by the addition of the letter e. 

Masc. Fern. 

vrai, vraie. 


joli, jolie. 


connu, connue. 


g6ii6ral (jay-nay-rdht^^ g6n6rale. 


charmant i^shdr-mdng) charmante, 



Adjectives ending in e mute remain 

unchanged in the 

feminine, as : 

Masc. Fern. 

•age, sage, 


aimable (ay-mdhht), aimable. 


Adjectives ending in /, change / 

into ve in the 


Masc, Fern. 

9iCii{ (dC'Uif), active. 


bref, brfeve. 


neuf, neuve, 


vii{viif), Vive, 


\ 209 

Adjectives ending in / double it in the feminine : 

Masc, Fern, 

cruel {krii'it), cruel le, cruel, 

pareil {pd-ri-yi) pareille, similar, 

nul {niihl), nulle, no or null, 

^ternel, {ay-ter-nil), 6ternelle, eternal, 

gentil {jdng'teel\ gentille (jdng-tii-y^, pretty, 

tel, telle, such, 

vermeil (ver-mi'-yi^ vermeille, vermilion. 

In the same manner monosyllables in s^ n and / are 
formed ; viz., doubling x, n and / in the feminine : 



bon (bong). 

bonne, {ddnn), 


gros {gro). 

grosse (gr^ss), 


sot (sd\ 

sotte (sdft). 


To these belong also the following: 

6pals (ay-P^y), f^m, ^paisse, thick, 
expr^s (ex-pray), fern, expresse, express, 
muet {mU-ay), fern, muette, dumb, 
sujet {sUjay) fem, sujette, subject. 

Adjectives ending in x change the same into se : 

Masc. Fem. 

heureux (ea-rea), heureuse (ea-reOse), happy, 

jaloux (Jd-loa), jalouse {jd^loase\ jealous, 

paresseux {pd'ris-seH), paresseuse {pa-rg-seUse), lazy. 
^\xX.favx {fo)y false, makes its feminine /a^^w^ {fdss). 

Adjectives ending in er and et take in the feminine 
the grave accent : 

Masc, Fem, 

16ger {lay-jay\ Ug6re (layjayr)^ light. 

complet (cong^UK), complete (cong-pldyt\ complete. 

\AW* 1 


Of the adjectives ending in c the following three 
change this c into che : 

Masc, Fern, 

YA^nc {bidngk\ blanche (ildugsX), white, 

franc {/rdngX), franche i/rdngsA), frank, 

sec (//-r^) sdche (saysk), dry. 

The others ending in c take gu^ : 

Masc, Fern, 

public (^bliek), publique, public 

turc (tUrk), turque, Turkish, 

caduc {id-daJkX caduque, decrepit, 

grec {grik\ grecque, Greek. 

The following adjectives do not follow any of the 
above rules: 

Masc, Fern, 

long, longue, long, 

aigu (ai'gii), aiguS, acute, 

frais {fray), fraiche (fraysk), fresh, 

doux {ddd\ douce {dods\ sweet, soft, 

malin {md-laiHg\ maligne (mdleen-y^^ wicked, 

b^nin (bai-naing\ b^ntgne (bop-tuen-y/), benign. 

The following are more irr^^lar in the formation 
oi their feminine, as : 

Masc. Fern. 

Beau [bel] (bdh), belle, beautiful, 

nouveau [nouvel] (noa-^dA), nouvelle (noO^v/I), new. 

mou [mol] (moa)f molle {mdll), soft, 

fou [fol] {fou\ folle (fdll), foolish, 

vieux [vieil] {vyeii\ vieille (vyi-y/), old. 

N.B. The above words in parentheses^ bel^ nouvely etc., 
are used before masculine nouns beginning with a vowel or 
h mute, as: un beljirbre^ a fine tree; un nouvel jifrdre^ a 
new order; unfoljespoir^ a foolish hope, etc. 


Of the Plural of Adjectiyes. 

The rules given for the plural of substantives apply 
also to adjectives. 


grands, /. grandes. 
gras, /. grasses. 
Toyaux {rodh-yoh), f, royales. 
beaux {boK), /. belles, 
vieux, /. vieilles. 

Grand,/, grande ; grand, 
gras, /. grasse ; fat. 
royal {rodh-ydhl), /. royale; royal, 
beau ipdh), /. belle ; beautiful, 
vieux (vyea), /. vleille (vyi-y/j\ 

FoUy mau and bleu (blue) make in the plural fous, 
mous and bleus. 

Position of Adjectives in a Sentence. 
Adjectives are generally placed after the nouns which 
they qualify ; as, for instance : 

le tailleur frao^ais, the French tailor, 

lliomme heureux (eO-r^a), the happy man. 
de I'eau fratche, some fresh water. 

But the following, in their common acceptation, are 
generally placed be/ore their nouns : 

autre, other. 

beau, fine. 

bon, good. 

brave (brdhv), braye. 

cher, dear. 

m^chant {may-shdug), wicked. 

mauyais {mS-vih), bad. 

ineilleur (mi-yf^f), better. 

fi^indre (mo-^iftg-dr), less, 

fio^yeau ^tfo^ viX), ne^. 

demi {di-mi/), half, 
grand, great 
gros, large, 
jeune, young, 
joli, pretty, 
petit (p'-tie\ small, 
saint (saing), holy, 
tout (Mi), all. 
vieux (vyeaX old. 
vrai (vray), true. 


Many of these, however, may be constantly found in 
French books placed after^ and many of the others may 
be found before their nouns. The safe rule is to place the 
adjective after its noun. 

The following adjectives have a different 
meaning, according as they stand before or after their 
noun : 

Mon cher ami, my dear friend 

(denoting affection), 
un brave homme, an honest man. 

an cnntte homme^ an honest man. 

une fausse. clef, a false key, skel- 
eton-key, a picklock. 

une ja^^.femme> a midwife. 

la demihre ann6e, the last year 
(of certain space of time).^ 

Un livre cher^ a dear book (de- 
' noting the price). 

un homme hrave^ a brave (= cour- 
ageous) man. 

un homme honnite^ a civil or po- 
lite man. 

une clef fausse, a wrong key. 

une femme sag^e, a wise woman. 
Tannic demi^re^ last year (the 
past year). 

Degrees of Comparison. 

The Comparative is formed by placing the adverb 
plus^ more, before the adjective, while le plus or la plus 
(fem.) is prefixed to denote the Superlative. 

Positive, Comparative, 

haut (^^), (/w.) ) y, . plushaut ),. , 

haute (dht) (/.) <■ ^ • plus haute S *^ **"^* 

beau {bdh\ (m.) }' ,, , plus beau i more 

f.) [^^^»^^»^- plus belle I 

belle (dei), (/.) 

plus belle ( beautiful. 

i) For instance: He spent the lagt y^s^r of his life ^\ P^ris, il 
passa la demihre ann/e dt sa vie ^ Paris. 



le plus haut 

1 1 u * h ^® highest 
la plus haute ^ 

le plus beau 

. ., /"the most beautiful, 
la plus belle 

There is in French also a lower and lowest degree 
which is formed by the words moins^ less, for the Compa- 
rative, and le {Id) moinSy the least, for the Superlative. 

Positive, Comparative, 

cher (m.) ) , moins cher ) less dear, i,e,^ 

\ dear. v 

ch^re (/.) ) moins ch^re ) cheaper. 


le moins cher ) 

> the least dear, t.^., the cheapest, 
la moins chdre ) 

The following three adjectives have an 

Irregular Comparison 

Bon,/, bonne, good \ comp, meilleur, e, better; super, le meilleur, 
la meilleure, the best 

Mauvais, e, (mdh-vay), in the meaning wicked ; eomp. pire (peer\ 
worse ; sup. le pire, /. la pire, the worst. 

Petit, e ; comp, moindre {mo-^ing'dr\ less ; sup, le moindre, /. la 
moindre, the least 

Remarks : 

As before an adjective is rendered by ausst ; as after 
it, and than are both translated by que. Ex. : 

II est aussi bon que moi, he is as good as I am. 
Elle est plus ht\\t que sa cousine, she is handsomer than her 



Nouns and Adjectiyes. 














de la 

de V 




k la 








Plurat. of Nouns. Irregular Plura 

maison, maisons. | ciel, cienx. 

fils, fils. 

Toeil, yeux. 

tableau, ubleaux. 

aleul, aleux. 




grand, grande ; grands, grandes. 

bon, bonne; bons, bonnes. 

neuf, neuve; neufs, neuves. 

heureux, beureuse; * heureux, heureuses. 

blanc, blanche ; blancs» blanches. 

public, publique; publics, publiques. 

vieux, vieille; vieux, vieilles. 

doux, douce; doux, douces. 


f longue; 

longs, longues. 

Irregular Comparison. 

bon ; mQilleur ; le meilleur. 
mauvais ; pire ; le pire. 
petit ; moindre ; le moindre. 




je, me 

il, lul, le. 

nous, noufl, 
VOUB» vous, 
i\m, Leur, les. 
elles, leur, let. 

Disjunctive Personai^ 

moi, toi, lui, elle. 
nous, vous, eux, eUe«. 

Possessive Pron.: (Adject,) 

mon, ma, mes. notre, nos. 
ton, ta, tes. votre, vos. 

son, sa, ses. leur^ Uuro. 

Possessive Pronouns (Substant.) 

lo mien, la mlenne ; 
te tten, la tienne ; 
le siea, U sienne ; 
le notre, la notre ; 
le v6tre, la vStrc ; 
le leutj la leur ; 

les miens, les miennes. 
les tiens, les tiennes. 
les siens, les siennes. 
les ndtres. 1 

les votres. > iotA ^ef$dgri. 
les leurs. J 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

ce, get, ceice ; 
celui, celle ; 
celuUcii cclle-ci ; 
celui-l&, cellC'li; 


ceux, celles. 
ceux-ci, celles-ci;. 
ceox-lii, celles-llL 

Relative Pronouns. 

qui ^ que. 

lequel« laquelle ; lesquels, lesquelles. 

dOQt ; en ; y. 


Conjug^aison du verbe &TRE. 

Premier mode, 


Je suis, 
(u es, 
il est, 

nous sommes, 
vous Stes, 
Us sont. 


tu 6tais, 
il 6t.ait, 
nous ^tions, 
vous 6tiez, 
ils 6taient. 

PASst d£pini. 

Je fus, 
tu fus, 
il fut. 

nous fiimes, 
vous f&tes, 
ils furent. 


J*ai 6t6. 

tu as 6t6, 

il a 6t6, 

nous avons 6t6, 

vous avez fetfe, 

lis ont 6t6. 


J'eus 6t6, 
tu eus 6t6, 
il cut 6t6, 
nous eftmes 6t6, 
vous e^tes ^*6, 
ils eurent 6t6. 


J*avais 6i6, 
tu avals 6t6, 
il avail felfe, 
nous avions 6t6, 
vous aviez 6t6, 
ils avaient 6t6. 


Je serai, 
tu seras, 
il sera, 
nous serons, 
vous serez, 
ils seront. 


J'aurai 6t6, 

tu auras 6t6, 

il aura 6t6, 

nous aurons 6t6, / 

vousaurez 6t6, 

ils auront 6t6. 

Deuxiime mode. 


Je serais, 
tu serais, 
il serait, 
nous serions, 
vous seriez, 

PASsi {ire forme). 

J'aurais 6t6, 
tu aurais 6t6, 
il aurait 6t6, 
nous aurions 6t6, 
vous auriez 6tc, 
ils auraient 6t6. 

PASSt (2 me forme). 

J'eusse *ifet6, 

tu eusses ^i6, 

il eut ^te, 

nous eussions 6t6, 

vous eussiez 6t6, 

ils eussent 6t6. 

Troisiime mode. 





Quatrihne mode. 


Que je sois, 
que tu sois, 
quMl soit, 
que nous soyons, 
que vous soyez, 
qu'ils soient. 


Que je fusse, 
que tu fusse», 
qii'il f^t. 

que nous fussions, 
que vous fussiez, 
qu'ils fussent. 


Que j'aie 6tfe, 
qu^ tu aies ^t6, 
qu'il ait 6t6, 
que nous ayons 6t^, 
que vous ayez 6t6, 
qu'ils aient 6t6. 


Que j'eussa 6t6, 
que tu eusses 6te, 
qu'il t^l 6t6, 
que nous eussions 6t6, 
que vous eussiez 6t6, 
qu'ils eussent ^t6. 

CinquUme mode. 




Avoir 6t6. 





Conjugaison du verbe AVOIR. 

Premier mode, 



tu as, 


nous avons, 

vous avez. 

Us ont. 


J 'avals, 
tu avals, 
il avait, 
nous avionSy 
vous aviez. 
Us avaient. 

pASSt d£fini. 

tu eus, 
U eut, 

nous edmes, 
vous elites. 
Us eurent. 

pASs£ ind£fini. 

J'ai eu, 
tu as eu, 
U a eu, 

nous avons eu, 
vous avez eu. 
Us ont eu. 

PASsi ant£rieur. 

J'eus eu, 
tu eus eu, 
il eut eu, 
nous edmes eu, 
vous edtes eu, 
lis eurent eu. 


J 'avals eu, 
tu avals eu, 
11 av^t eu, 
nous avlons eu, 
lEOu$ avlez eu, 
iis^ ay^ient e|i. 


J 'au rai, 
tu auras, 
11 aura, 
nous aurons, 
vous aurez, 
Us auront 


J'aural eu, 
tu auras eu, 
11 aura eu, 
nous aurons eu, 
yous aurez eu. 
Us auront eu. 

Deuxihne mcde, 



J'aurals, ^ 

tu aurals, 
il auralt, 
nous aurions, 
vous aurlez. 
Us auralent. 

PASsi (ire formey 

J'aurais eu, 
tu aurals eu, 
11 auralt eu, 
nous aurions eu, 
vous aurlez eu, 
Us auralent eu. 

PASs£ {zme forme), 

J'eusse eu, 
tu eusses eu, 
U edt eu, 

nous eusslons eu. 
vous eussiez eu. 
Us eussent eu. 

Troisilme mode, 






Quatrihne mode, 


Que j*ale, 
que tu ales, 
qu'il ait, 
que iy>us ayons, 
que vous ayez, 
qu'ils alent. 


Que j'eusse, 
que tu eusses, 
quMl edt, 

que nous eusslons, 
que vous eussiez, 
qu'Us eussent 


Que j'aie eu, 
que tu ales eu, 
qu*U ait eu, 
que nous ayons eu, 
que vous ayez eu, 
qu'ils alent eu. 


que j'eusse eu, 
que tu eusses eu, 
qu'U edt eu, 
que nous eusslons eu, 
que vous eussiez eu, 
qu'ils eussent eu. 

Cinqttiime mode, 




Avoir eu. 




Eu, a3rant eu. 


Premiere Conjngaison, en ER. 



Je chants, 
tu chant^f, 
il chants, 
nous chaLTiUms; 
vous chanUs, 
ils chsLnUnt 


Je chantofV, 
tu chantai>, 
il chstntait, 
nous chsintions, 
vous cbant//2, 
ils chzniaim/, 

PASs£ d£fini. 
Je chant^if 
tu chantaj, 
il chanttf, 
nous chantdmest 
vous chstntdUs, 
ils chant^rent, 


J'ai chant/, 

tu as chant/, 

il a chant/, 

nous avons chant/, 

vous avez chant/ 

ils ont chant/. 


J*eus chant/, 
tu eus chant/, 
il eut chant/, 
nous edmes chant/, 
vous elites chant/, 
ils eurent chant/. 


J 'avals chant/, 
tu avais chant/, 
il avail chant/, 
nous avions chant/, 
vous avies chant/, 
ils avaient chant/. 


Je chznUrai, 
tu ch^nteraj, 
il chanUra, 
nous chsLnUrons, 
vous chant^ff, 
ils chant/r(pif/. 


J'aurai chant/, 
tu auras chant/, 
il aura chant/, 
nous aurons chant/, 
vous aurez chant/, 
ils auront chant/. 



Je chant^mij, 
tu chant^aij, 
il chant^atV, 
nous chantm<wj, 
vous chantm^, 
ils chsini^aient 

PASSi {jre forme), 

J'aurais chant/, 
tu aurais chant/, 
il aurait chant/, 
nous aurions chant/, 
vous auriez chant/, 
ils auraient chant/. 

PASSfi (2/w^ forme), 

J*eusse chant/, 
tu eusses chant/, 
il edt chant/, 
nous eussions chant/, 
vous eussiez chant/ 
ils eussent chant/. 







Que je chants, 
que tu chant^f, 
qu'il chants, 
que nous chanti^^ifj, 
que vous chantiVv. 
qu*ils chant^if/. 


Que je chant^ijj^y 
que tu chantATf/j, 
qu'il chant^/, 
que nous chantffjj»M»j^ 
que vous chantaxji^s, . 
qu'ils ^9XiXasserU, 


Que j*aie chant/, 
que tu aies chant/, 
qu'il ait chant/, 
que nous ayons chanty 
que vous a)rez chant/, 
qu'ils aient chant/. 


Que j'eusse chant/, 
que tu eusses chant/, 
qu'il eiit chant/, 
que nous eussions chanty 
que vous eussiez chant/, 
qu'ils eussent chant/. 





Avoir chant/. 




Chant/, chant/^, ayant 


Deuxi^me Conjugaison, en IR. 



Je finis, 
tu fint'j, 

nous inissoms, 
vous ^nissez, 
ils ^nissent. 


Je tnissais, 
tu ^nissais, 
il ^niisait, 
nous hnisswns, 
yous fknissie%, 
ils tnissaient, 


Je fintV, 
tu fintV, 
il fini'A 
nous ^ntmes, 
Tous hntUs, 
ils ^nirent. 


J'ai fini, 
tu as fint, 
il a finf, 

nous avons fint, 
▼ous avez fint, 
ils ont fini. 


J'cus fin», 
tu eus finf, 
il eiit fint 
nous e^mes fint, 
vous e^tes fint, 
ils eurent fint. 


J'ayais fini, 
tu avals fim', 
il avait fin«\ 
nous avions finf, 
vous aviez fim', 
ils avaient fint. 


Je fintnrt, 
tu fint/tij, 
il fintVa, 
nous fintnwx, 
vous fintVrr, 
ils tnirtfttt 


J'avrai fint, 
tu auras fint, 
il aura fint, 
nous aurons fint, 
vous aurez fint, 
ils auront fint. 



Je fintmir, 
tu finimti, 
il fintfTttV, 
nous finmVifx, 
vous fintrrVs, . 
ils fkniraient 

PASs£, (in forme). 

J'aurais fint, 
tu aurais fint, 
il aurait fint, 
nous aurions fin/, 
vous auriez fint, 
ils auraient fint. 

PAss£ {2me forme), 

J'eusse fint, 
tu eusses fint, 
il e^t fint, 
nous eussions fint, 
vous eussiez fint, 
ils eussent fint. 







Que je finm^, 
que tu hnisses, 
qu'il fintjj^, 
que nous ^nissions, 
que vous ^nissie$, 
qu'ils tmssent. 


Que je hnisse, 
que tu Anisses, 
qu'fl fin//, 
que nous Anusions, 
que vous AnissieM, 
qu'ils ^nissent, 


Que j'aie fint, 
que tu aies fint, 
qu'il ait fint, 
que nous ayons fint, 
que vous ayez fint, 
qu'ils aient fint. 


Que j'eusse fint, 
que tu eusses fint, 
qu'il eftt fint, 
que nous eussions fint 
que vous eussiez fint, 
qu'ils eussent fint. 




Avoir fin/, 




Fint, fint>, ajrant fini 



Je tends, 
tu rendx, 
il rend, 
nous Tendons, 
vous rend^ff, 
ils rendent. 


Je rend^fV, 
tu tendats, 
il xendait, 
nous rendions, 
vous rendi^s, 
ils xendaunt 


Je rendfV, 
tu xendis, 
il rendfV, 
nous xendtmes, 
vous lendiUs, 
ils xendirent, 

PASS£ ind£f1ni. 

J'ai rend«, 
tu as rendfi, 
il a rendf^, 
nous avons rendM, 
vous avez rendM, 
ils ont rendff. 


Troisi^me Conjagaison, 


Je rendmt, 
tu rendmj, 
it xendra, 
nous xendtvns,. 
vous rendr^f, 
ils xendront 


J*aurai rendt^, 
tu auras rendtf, 
il aura rendtf, 
nous aurons rendf#, 
vous aurez rend«, 
ils auront rendM, 



Je rendrflw, 
tu xendraist 
il xendrait, 
nous xendrionSt 
vous rendn^s, 
ils xendraient 

PASSfi {ire forme). 

J'aurais rendi#, 
tu aurais rendf#» 
il aurait rendw, 
nous aurions rendf#, 
vous auriez rendu, 
ils auraient rendM, 

J'eus rendf^, 
tu eus rendf^, 
il eut rendfi, 
nous eumes rendf#, 
vous eCites rend«t 
ils eurent rendt^. 


J'av5^is rendw, 
tu avais rcnd«, 
il avail rendw, 
nous avions rendti, 
vous aviez rendfi, 
ils avaient rendtf. 

PASsi {2me fomie\ 

J'eusse rcndw, 
tu eusses render, 
il e^t rendf^, 
nous eussions render, 
vous eussiez rendtf, 
ils eussent rendu. 


Rend J. 



en RE. 



Que je rend^ 
que tu rend^^, 
qu'il rend^, 
que nous xenjdons^ 
que vous rendt^ 
qu'ils xendent 


Que je rendm^, 
que tu xendisses, 
qu'il rendl/, 
que nous xendissioHS^ 
que vous rendissieM, 
qu'ils xendissenL 


Que j'aie rendu, 
que tu aies rendu, 
qu'il ait rendu, 
que nous ayons rendsi 
que vous ayez rendu, 
qu*ils aient rendu. 


Que j'eusse rendu, 
que tu eusses rendu, 
qu'il e<it rendu, 
que nous eussions rendti^ 
que vous eussiez rendu« 
qu'ils eussent rendu. 





Avoir rendu. 





Rendu, rendu^, iiyaiit 


The following table contains all the endings of the 
three conjugations, viz. : 

the ist Conjugation ending in er (= donn-er) 
« 2d " " " ir (= fin-tV) 

'« Zd ** " " re (= rend-r«). 

This table ought to be continually used by the stu 
dent, who had better paste it on a stiff paper-board 

1st COHJ. *> 















































PASs£ d£fini.' 











































eiaient , 












SUBJONCTIF. prAsbnt. ' 








































1 ir 1 
>ARTICIPE. prAsent 



1 issant 




1 1 

tt, ue. 

Translate the following 


into English, and then again, without assistance of the 
book, into French : 


I. At Dinner. 
Auriez-vous la bont^ de faire la salade pendant que 
je vais (j5 vay mm, I am going) d6couper {carve) le r6ti 
{roast). Prendrez-vous ( prSng-drSh v5u — will you 
, take) du r6ti ? Aimez-vous le gras (grab ^^fat) ? Don- 
nez-moi du maigre (maygr —t lean)^ s'il vous platt. J'es- 
p^re que vous trouvez ce morceau (m6r-s6h — //Vr^) d 
voire goAt (goQ). Vous n'avez pas de sauce. Comment 
trouvez-vous le r6ti? Permettcz-moi de vous servir 
{s6r'Y€€r wmB to serve) un morceau de . . . .? Vous n'avez 
pas mang6 de . . . . Desservez (day-s6r-v5h — b ^r/rar tAe 
things off)et apportez-nous du caf6. 

2. A BnsineBs Letter. 

Paris, le treize (trajse=i3th) Janvier {^^ng-vyeiti ^ January). 

Monsieur Charles Toussaint ^ Lyon {toU-saing ah Lei-ong). 

Occup6s (oc-cli-pay =- busy^ occupied) du rbglemenl 
(ray-gl6-mang — regulation) de nos 6critures (ay-kr55- 
tUr ■-■ books)y nous vous envoyons ci-inclus votre compte 
pour I'ann^e pass6e {last year\ en vous priant (Sng vofl 
pr66"ing ^^ re^uestingt begging) de vouloir bien le faire 
examine]^, et si vous ^tes d'accord {in accord^ accordance), 
avec nous, de nous cr6diter sur le nouveau (noil-v5h a-t 
new) compte du solde {balance) en notre faveur {favor) 
de dix mille francs. 

Agreez Tassurance (a-gray-eh la-sii-rSngs ^=^cucept the assur- 
ance) de notre parfaite consideration (par-faite cong-see-de-rah- 
syong = highest esteem). 

Gaillard ^ CiE. (ga-yar ay cong-pan-yee). 



i) Monsieur, je repr6sente (re-pray-zSngt) la maison 
de B. et Compagnie (B. & Cie.) i Lyon (leg^ong), et je 
viens vous faire mes off res de service. — 2) Abr je m'en 
souviens (sou-vyaing = remember)^ nous avons d6ji fait 
des affaires ensemble (zSng-sang-bl = together). Mius je 
ne puis vous donner d'ordre aujourd'hui. — 3) J'en suis 
bien fdch6 {sorry), Je ne puis cependant (s6-pSng-d2lng 
= however) vous quitter sans vous montrer quelques 
^chantillons enti^rement (ang-tyair6mang=^«//r^/^) nou- 
veaux (nou-voh). — 4) Ne vous en donnez pas la peine 
(pain = trouble) ; je ne commanderai {order) rien {nothing) 
pour le moment. Ce n'est pas une peine du tout ; je m'en 
ferai un plaisir. — ^5) Si vous voulez bien prendre la peine 
d'examiner (deg-zah-me€-nay) mes 6chantillons, je suis 
convaincu (cong-vaing-kii = r^«w«^^^/) que vous me don- 
nerez un ordre au moins pour essai {trial), — 6) Voyez, 
voici une nouvelle esp^ce {species) de mouseline de laine 
(moQ-z€-lggn de laine) qui se porte {is worn) beaucoup en 
France. — 7) On la porte beaucoup pour robes d*6t6 
{sumfner'dresses)\ nous en avons vendu I'impossible (laing- 



Comment trouvez-vous la nouvelle piSce de mon- 
sieur N.? A parler franchement (fr5ng-sh5-mang=/ra«i^- 
ly\ la pi^ce est ennuyeuse (ang-n*wee-yeuse=/^^/<wj). La 
pi^ce manque (mank=/V wanting in) d'action (dac-zyong 
= in action). Le d6no{iment est forc6 (16 day-nou-mSng 
ay for-say = the catastrophe is forced), L'intrig^e (laing- 
treeg = the plot) n'a pas le sens commun (16 sSng com- 
meung = common sense). Comment avez-vous trouv6 les 

'-' / 


couplets du vaudeville {tlu couplets, songs) ? Assez jolis {rather 
pretty) ; mais je ne stiis enchant^ (ang'-shang-tay = enchanted, 
charmed), ni {nt^ = neither) de vos chanteurs (shang-teur = 
singers), ni de vos chanteuses (shangteuze = lady singers). Us 
chantent (shangt = sing) presque tous faux~(presk tou foh = 
<rlmost all false). Un theatre de vaudeville ne peut pas etre 
\ien mont^ en chanteurs. 

Translate the following 


i) May I ask you to tell me if Mr. Gr6vy is at home? 
t) I am very sorry (Je regrette bieri)^ sir ; Mr. Gr6vy is 
not at home ; he has just gone o\xt(sortir = sor-teer). — 
3) May I ask you to tell me where you have bought this 
beautiful dress and how much you have paid for it ? — 4) 
Be so kind to pass me the salt {le sel). — 5) Have the 
kindness to read this letter ; I do not understand {Je ne 
comprends pas = jS nd cong-prSng pah) English. — 6) 
Have the kindness to give my card to Mr. Bronsard 
(brong-sar) and tell him, if you please, that I have just 
arrived by {par) this train. — 7) If I were not afraid of 
troubling you I would beg you to accompany me this 
morning. I have some shopping to do. — 8) Would you 
have the kindness to send me some patterns of the best 
Lyons silk you have in stock } — 9) Would you have 
the kindness to get me a physician } My sister is very 
ill (malade = mS-lahd). — 10) If it were convenient to 
you to give me some information (des renseignements = 
day rSug-sdn-yg-mang) about (sur) Mr. Beauregard, I 
should feel ( = be) very much {Men) obliged {oblig^ = 


ob-l66-jay) to you. — ii) You would greatly oblige me 
if you would give (=3cif you gave [Imperfect]) this letter 
to Mrs. Tourville. — 12) I did not understand you. 
Will you please repeat what you have said ? — 13) Would 
you be so kind as to grant me a moment's interview? I 
have just received a letter from my uncle in Paris and 
hope that its contents will be quite satisfactory to you. — 
14) You have greatly obliged me, sir, and you may count 
on my gratitude. — 15) Do me this favor. I beg far ii 
(en). — 16) Be so kind as to write to Mr. B. that I want 
two front-rooms. 

i) Tell the boy (garfon) that he must go to the sta- 
tion at half past five at the latest, as the train arrives at 
5.40. — 2) The dressmaker {ia couturi^re = koQ-tU-ryair) 
must finish my dress to-day as I am going to leave for 
Saratoga to-night. — 3) At what o'clock must you be at 
your physician's ? — 4) How much money do you need,* 
— 5) If the tailor should come {Imperfect]^ tell him that 
I have no time to try {essayer) the coat on this morning. 
He must call again {rtvenir) to-morrow at a quarter to 
twelve. — 6) Waiter, I have no knife. — Here is one, sir. 
7) If you want good gloves, go to the French glove- 
maker's in Church street. He keeps (= has) excellent 
ones. — 8) Mr. Littr6 must go to Rouen for some weeks. 
He wants to visit {visiter) his aunt, who is very ill.— r9) Since 
when have you been in Paris? — Since last night — 10) Well, 
I hope you will do me the favor to dine with me to-day, as 1 
nm obliged to go to England to-morrow morning at half past 
four. — it) If you want to I'^ave by this boat, you must hurry 
(I'fliis dephher), — 12) If I were not afraid of troubling you 
I would beg you to hand (ifonncr) this little package to my 
sister. But you must go there {y) at once, as she will stay 
(r ester) only one day in Paris. 

^ft* ^mt4n#!t-$fi$t4We 







I should be mneh obliged to you. 

1. I am very much (infiniment) obliged to you. 

2. I am sorry, but I cannot do it. 

3. With the besr. ^yiil (la volont'e) in the ^orld (du monde\ 

I could not (je nepourrais) do so (= it). 

4. I should be much obliged to you, if you were to tell 

me how I could find the new {nauveUe) address of 
this gentleman. 

i) Je pourrais, / skould be able, is the irregular conditional of 
pouvoir, which is conjugated thus : 

Present Imperfect, 

Je peux {pea), ) I can, Jc pouvais (poU-vay), I could, &a 

Je puis, ) &c. tu pouvais, 

tu peus {pen), il pouvait, 

il peut (peu\ nous pouvions {poa-vyong^ 

Tioxxs pouvoiiS {paa-van^ vous pouviez (/^-z^^M), 

vouspouvez» lis pouvaiem (/^ vo>)» 
ils peuvent {peav*). 




Je Yous serais bien oblige. 

ji vou siray byaing db-lie-jay, 

1. Je vous suis"^infiniinent'"oblig6 {ji vou s\vee zaing^ 
fii-nee-mang tob-lee-jay), 

2. y^^^\i\^i^ri\ih{jdng s'weefdh'shay\m%\s je ne puis 
le faire. 

3. Avec la meilleure volont6 du monde, je ne pourrais 
le faire {d^vik Id mi-yeUr vo-long-tay du mongd je n^. pour- 
ri^ U fair). 

4. Je vous serais bien^oblig^ si vous me disiez, comment 
je p&urrais ^ trouver la nouvelle adresse de ce monsieur 

{Jd nou-vel d-dres de se md-sycH), 

rr ttriie. 
Je pus {pit), I cou]d» &c. 
Ill piis, 

it put, 

ooiis p&me*i (Mw), 
vous imtes {piii)^ 
\\% puteni \pUr), 

Je pouTfaifi {pouir^ray\ 
lu pourralSf 
H pourrair, 

nous pourrions{/i?^r-rv<w^), 
vous pourriezj 
Us pourraienu 

Je pourrai {pour-reh\ I shall be 

able, &c. 
tu puurrjs, 
il pourra, 

nous pourrons (pour-rong), 
vous pourrez, 
ils pourront. 

Subj, Present. 
Que je puisse (pU-is), 
que tu puisses, 
quMl puisse. 
que nous puissions, 
que vous puissiez, 
qu'ils puisscnt. 


or the health. 

5. How do you do ? 

6. How are you ? {Literally: How do you go ?) 

7. How do you do ? 

8. How is (= goes) your health? 

9. Is your health good ? 

10. Thanks {nierci\ pretty good. {Literally : It goes 
pretty well.) 

11. How is your father ? [The French say more politely 
Mr, your father ; Madam your mother, \ 

13. Is every one {font lemonde) well at your house .^ 

13. They are all (tons) in good health. 

14. Thank you (Je vous r&niercie), my whole family {toute 
mafamille) is very well. 

15. How have you been since {depuis que) I saw you ? 

16. How is your friend.? 
Is your mother well ? 


Is your mother in» good health } 

18. She is not well ; she is a little (i.e. rather = un peu) 

( What is the matter with her ? 

19. \ 

{ What ails her? 

i) Bim portant = well^ healthy ^ is the opposite to malade^ ill, or tif- 
dUposi, indisposed. But of a healthy clime or food the French 








De la saiit6 (^^ir^-z^j^). 

Comment vous portez-vous? 
Comment""allez-vous (cd-mdng tdleh-vou)} 
j Comment cela va-t-il ? 
I Comment 9a va-t-il {kd-mdng sd vdteet) ? 
Comment va la sant6 ? 
Votre sant6 est-elle bonne {vof sdng-tay ay-tell ban) ? 

Merfci, 9a va assez bien. 

Merci, cela va assez bien (ntir^cee s'ldh vd d-say 

i Comment se porte monsieur votre p^re? 
1 Comment va monsieur votre pere ? 
Tout le monde {tou-li-mong) se porte-t-il bien chez 
vous ? 

lis sont tous'^en bonne sant6 {toils zdng bdn sdng-tay^, 
Je vous remercie (re-mir-see), toute ma famille est 
bien portante ^ {tout mdh fd-ntee ye ay byaing por-tdngt). 
Comment vous'^etes-vous port6 depuis que je vous^ai 
vu {d^-pu-ee kiji vou zay vu) ? 
Comment se porte votre'^ami ? 

Votre mere est-elle bien ? 

Votre mere est-elle en bonne sant6 {ay-till dng bdn 
\ sdng'tay) ? 

Elle ne se porte pas bien ; elle est^un peu indisposee 
(/// lay ieung peu aing-dts-po-zay). 
J Quelle maladie {md-ld-dee ) a-t-elle? 
\ Qyi'd^'t-eWe {kdh'tell)} 


use ihe word sain (saing\ healthy , and malsain {mdhUsaing\ un- 


20. She has a headache {mal d la Ute) and is obliged to 
keep the room. 

21. Your wife* has been rather indisposed (souffrante)? 

22. Yes, sir. Mrs. B. {or my wife) had taken cold, but slie 

has quite recovered (= she ts quite recovered [enti^re^ 
nient retablie]). 

23. I have a cold. 

24. Mrs. B. has a cold (in the head). 

25. Returning from the ball {or On my way home from 
the ball) I took cold. 

26. I should like to go to bed; I do not feel well (jeauia 
mal d mon aise = ease, comfort). 

27. I do not know what ails me. 

28. I have a headache. 

29. He is suffering with tV.e toothache. 

30. I have a sore throat {la gorge). 

31. I nave the stomach-ache. 

32. He is sick {mal au coeur = ill at the heart). 

33. Am I not pale? Yes, sir, you are looking badly. 

34. Get me a physician {midecin). 

35. Do you know {connaissez-vous) an English physician ? 

36. We must hope {or Let us hope) that this will not 
amount to much (= will be nothing). 

37. There is not anything the matter with me (= I have 


i) In speaking about one's own wife, or of the wife of another 
party, the French say simply Madame, 

' j:j 


20. Elle ' a mal k la tete et est'^oblig^e de garder la 
chambre (shdng-br), 

21. Madame^ a 6t6 un peu souffrante {soufrdngt)} 

22. Oui, monsieur. Madame B. avait pris froid; mais'^elle 
est'^entiferement retablie {a-vay pt^ frodh^ may zell /ay 
tdng'tyai-rhndng re-tdh-bree), 

( Je suis'^enrhum6* (zdng-rii-may). 
\ J'ai le rhume {rum). 

24. Madame B. est'^cnrhumee (du cerveau) {ay-tdng-rU- 
may du sir-voh), 

25. En revenant du bal j'ai pris froid. 

26. Je voudrais bien aller me coucher ; je suis mal^^ mon^aise 
{d'leh me kdd'ShehJes' uTe mdhlldh mm nayze). 

27. Je ne sais ce que j'ai {Ji ni say si kijay\ 

28. J'ai mal k la tete. 

29. II a mal aux dents (lidng). 

30. J'ai mal i la gorge. 

3r. J'ai mal au ventre {vdng-tr). 
32. II a mal au coeur {keur). (Refers only to nausea.) 
35. Ne suis- je pas p2lle(/^^/)? Oui monsieur, vous'^avez 
mauvaise mine {mien), 

34. Envoyez chercher {dng-vdhhyeh shir-sheh) un m6de- 

35. Connaissez-vous {cd-nay-seh-vou) un m6decin anglais.^ 

36. II faut_esp6rer que cela ne sera rien {ree-amg). 

37. Je n'ai r4en. 

2) Je suis'^enrkumi, I have a cold ; le rhume and la ioux are not 
svnonymous. Le rhume is the cold (in one's head), but la toux is the 


38. I am delighted {charmS) to see you in such good 


39. I have been coughing (=1 am coughing \^je io2isse\^ 
for [depuis] two days. v 

40. How hoarse {enroui) you are ! 

41. I am afraid {Je crains or fai peur) I will take {or 
catch) cold. 

42. You ought to take care of yourself (vous manager)* 

43. You will get ill (= You will make an illness of it 


44. What is it hurts him f 

45. Has he consulted a physician } 

46. Did he feel {a-t-il tdtk) his pulse .^ 

47. I am very glad {ravi) to see you looking so well, 

48. He will not outlast the winter {Vhiver). 

49. He is out of danger (hors de danger) now. 

50. I suffer frequently {souvent) with the headache 

B. Terms of thanking. 

1. I thank you very much, sir. 

2. Thanks! 

3. My best thanks ! 

4. Thank you very much. 


3^* Je suis charm6 de vous voir en bonne sant6. 

39. J^al la toux {lou) {or je tousse) depuis deux jours. 

40. CcjtiHne vous'^etes'^enrou6 {zdng-rou-aj) ! 

41. Je crains {or j'ai peur) de m'enrhumer (// craing de 
mdng-ru- may) , 

42. II taut vous manager (may-nd-jay). 

43. Vous^cii ferez^une maladie. 

44. Qu'est-ce qui lui fait mal {kayse kle lu-eefay mdhl) ? 

45. A-t-il con^uliiS un m^decin {kong-sul-tay cung mayiV- 

46. Lui a-t-il tate le pouls? 

47. Je suis ravi {rd-vie) (or enchant6 [dng's/idng'tay^ de 

vous voir SI bonne mine {mein), 
4S. II ne passera pas Thiver {lee vayr). 

49, I i est^hors do danger maintenant {or di ddng-jay maing- 

50, J'ai souvent des maux de tete (des maux de dents 

[day moh de ddng^. 


B, FhrmuUs de remerctments {ri'mir-see-mdng). 

I. Je vous remercie {ri-mer-see) beaucoup, monsieur. 
3* Mille remerciments {meel ri-mer-see-mdng). 

{ Tous mes remerciments {toil may re-mir'See-mdng). 
^ (Grand merci {grdng mir-see). 
4. Je vous fais tous mes remerciments. 


5. I am very much obliged to you, 

6. You are very kind. 

7. That would be an abuse of your kindnesa 

8. I am very grateful {smsiNe) for your kindness^ 

9. On the contrary^ / ought to thank y&u. 

lO. I do not know how to thank you sufficientlj. 

C. Terms of ecccu»s* 

1. I beg your pardon, wr. 

2. Don't mention it, pray, 

3. I beg you will excuse me* 

4. I may be mistaken ; I surefy am mistaken, but 1 believe 
that .... 

5. I beg your pardon, sir, but the affair is quite different. 

6. Do not take it amiss^ please. 

7, Do not be ang^, pray. 

8. Please, do not feel annoyed on that account ( pour 

i) Dot's is the irregular present or dtvoir. 

a) Saurais is the irregular canditional of savoir, to km^w, aad Is 



S. Je vous suis bien {or infiniment) oblig6 {db lei-Jay). 

j Vous^'etes bien bon. 

( Vous^avez trop de bont6 {trd di bong-iay). 
7 Ce serait^^abuser de votre complaisance (td-bU-zay di 

vof cong'play-zdngs), 

8. Je suis tres-sensible {sdng-siib/) k votre bont6. 

9. C'est nioi, au contraire, qui dois ^ vuus^cn remercier (kee 
dhifodh vdo zdng rr-mer-sye/i^. 

10. Je ne saurais '^assez vous'^en remercier {;i ni so-ray 
zdS'Say vou zdng ri-mir'Syeh), 

C. Forrnules d' excuse (dix-kus), 
Je vous demande pardon {di-mdngd pdrdong)^ mon- 
Pardon (pdr'dong\ monsieur. 

II n'y a pas de mal {iil nii ah pdh di mdhl)^ mon- 
Pas de mal, monsieur. 
Mille pardons (miel pdr-dong). 
Pardon mille fois {fod/i). 

4. Je puis me tromper {trong'pay\ je me trompe sans 
doute (sdng doui) mais je crois que {ji crodh ki) 

5. Je vou$ demande pardon, mais I'affaire est tout^autre. 

6. Ne le prenez pas'^en mauvaise part (zdng md-vayze 

Ne m*en voulez pas. 
Iq m*en veuillez pas {yeu-yih pdh). 
X Ne m'en voulez pas pour cela. 
' I Ne m'en veuillez pas pour cela. 


j Ne 
1 N'€ 

exactly synonymous With Jene puis; it is Ubcd when mental actions 
«re spoken of. 


If yon were to ask him to send me immedi- 
ately the patterns whieh I selected three days 

If (We say in English if you would ask him^ but in French we 
must always use the imperfect or the present after si) 

you were to ask him ; you would ask him 

to ask ; to demand ; to inquire for 

to ask for some one; to inquire for a person 

to ask a person for something (Observe the different con- 
struction in French) 

Do you want to see the master or mistress ? 

to send me 


the field 

at once; immediately 

which I have chosen {ckoisis has to be spelled with an s. Com- 
pare page 90, Note i) 

there ; in it ; on them ; on it (See rules on en, page 204) 
there is ; there are 
three days ago. 

W SI V0U8 


Ini demandiez de m'enyoyer snr-le* 

sS€ vuQ lii-SS dSmSlng-d} eh dS ni3ng-voSh-y€h sur 16 

champ les ^c^antillons que j'ai choisis il y a trois 

sliAng lay zay-shang-tse-yong k6 jay sh'woah-z€6 il ySh troSh 



Si (jff) (is con- trued either with the Present or Imperfect, but 
nev^r with the Conditional). 

vous lui demandiez {vou lii-ee de-mdng-dyeh) 

d e m a ti dc r {de-mdng- deh) 

demander quelqu'un {kel-keung) (Observe the construction) 

demander quelque chose h, quelqu*un (Observe the construc- 

demandez*vous Monsieur ou Madame ? 

dc m'envoyer (de mdng-vodh-yeh) 

sur (sur) 

le champ (// shdng) 

sur-le-champ (sur-li-shdng) 

que j'ai choisis (ki jay sKwodh-zee) (See rules on the past par- 
ticiple of verbs conjugated 
with avdr, page 90, Note i) 

3^ (<^V) (is used like eri) 
\\ y a {fci yah) 

il y a trois jours (eel yah trodh jour). 


N umer als. 

We have two kinds of Numerals, the. Cardinal and 
the Ordinal. The Cardinal Namerals (or numbers) 

are : 

I un (eanj^) 
% deux (dfu) 

3 trois(/mf) 

4 quatre (kdt) 

5 cinq (saing) 

6 six (see) 

7 sept (sit) 

8 huit (k'weet) 

9 neuf(^f?z') 
ID dix (deez) 
XI onze (ongs) 

12 douze (doUze) 

13 treize (irayte) 

14 quatorze (kdtorz) 

15 qvLxnze (kaingz) 

16 seize (sayz^ 

17 dix-sept (dii'SH) 

18 dix-huit (dei'Z^weet) 

19 dixneuf 

20 vingt (vaing) 

21 vingt r/ un 

22 vingt-deux 

23 vingt-trois 

24 vingt-quatre 

25 vingt-cinq 

26 vingt-six 

27 vingt- sept 

28 vingt-huit 

29 vingt-neuf 

30 trente (trdngt) 

31 trente et un 

32 trente-deux 

33 trente-trois 

34 trente-quatre 

35 trente-cinq 

36 trente-six 

37 trente-sept 

38 trente-buit 

39 trente-neuf 

40 quarante (kS-rdngt) 


41 quarante et un 

76 soixante-seize 

42 quarante-deux 

77 soixante-dix-sept 

43 quarante-trois 

78 soixante-dix-huit 

44 quarante-quatre 

79 soixante-dix-neuf 

45 quaiante-cinq 

80 quatre vingta (kdfr^ 

46 quarantesiz 

vaing) , 

47 quarantesept 

8x quatre-vingt-fiif 

48 quarante-huit 

)2 quatre- vingt-deux 

49 quarante-neuf 

83 quatre-vingt-tro!S 

50 cinquante {saing-kdngfj 

84 quatrevingt-quatre 

51 cinquante // un 

85 quatre-vingt-cinq 

52 cinquante-deux 

86 quatre-vingt-six 

53 cinquante-trois 

87 quatre-vingt-sept 

54 cinquante- quatre 

88 quatre-vingt-huit 

55 cinquante^:inq 

89 quatre-vingt-neuf 

56 cinquante-six 

90 quatre-vingt-dix 

57 cinquante-sept 

91 quaire-vingt-onze 

58 cinquantehuit 

92 quatre-vingt-douze 

59 cinquante-neuf 

93 quatre-vingt-treize 

60 soixante {/wod-sdngt^ 

94 quatre-vingt-quatorze 

61 soixante et un 

95 quatre-vingt-quinze 

62 soixante-deux 

96 quatre-vingt-seize 

63 soixante-trois 

97 quatre-vingt-dix-sept 

64 soixante-quatre 

98 quatre-vingt-dix-huit 

65 soixante-cinq 

99 quatre-vingt-dix-neuf 

66 soixante-six 

100 cent (sang) 

67 soixante-sept 

loi cent-«i» 

68 soixante-buit 

102 cent deux, &c. 

fig soixante-neuf 

200 deux cents 

70 soixante-dix 

201 deux cent un 

71 soixante et onze 

202 deux cent deux, &c. 

72 soixante^ouze 

1,000 mille {miel) 

73 soixante-treize 

2,000 deux mille 

74 soixante-quatorze 

i,ooo/X)0 un million (miil-yong). 

75 soixante-quinze 



i) The numbers 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, and 71 are written 
vingt et un, trente et un, &c., but S: and loi are written 
quatre-vingt-un, cent-un, witiiout the copula ef. 

2) Quatre-vingts, 80, has a final s which is omitted 
in all subsequent numbers. 

3) Deux cents, 200, trois cents, 300, &c., are written 
with a final J/ but when these numbers are followed by 
any other number they drop the sj as : deux cent un, 201, 
trois cent quatre, 304, &c. 

4) Mille never takes the s, , 

5) There being no modern French number to express 
70 or 90 (the old forms septante and nonnante being 
almost obsolete, ahd only used in Switzerland) one 
counts from 60 to 80, and from 80 to 99, continuously, as 
though one were to say in English, eighty-eight, eighty- 
nine, eighty-ten, eighty-eleven, &c. 

6) The expression, /am 20, 30, 40, &c., years old, can- 
not be rendered literally, but must be expressed thus : 
/at vingt ans, — /at trente ans, &c. — How old are you ? 
is translated : Quel Sge avez-vous ? £x.: 

Quel Sge a votre ami ? how old is your friend ? 
II a dix-huit ans, he is eighteen years old. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

Except le premier {/e pre-mye/i) and Id second {le se- 
gong)y tne ordinal numbers are formed from the cardinal 
by changing e mute into i^me; and by adding this syllable 


to those which end in another consonant. Among these, 
however, cinq takes u before i^tne {cinquilme), and neuf 
changes the / into v (neuvilme). The ordinal numbers are 
as follows : 

Le premier {pri-myeh) ) the 
la premiere (pri-myair) ) first, 
le second {si-gong) ^ 
la second e (si-gongd) I ® 

le, la deuxidme (deu- j second. 

zyaiffi) J 

le troisidme (trod-tyehm)iht third, 
le quatri^me, the fourth, 
le cinqui^me {saing-kyehm), the 

le sixifeme (sei-zyehm), the sixth, 
le sep*ti^me, the seventh, 
le huiti^me, the eight, 
le neuvi^iiie, the ninth, 
le dixi^me, the lOth. 
le onzi^me. the nth. 
le douzi^me, the 12th. 
le ireizifeme, the 13th. 
le quatorzi^me, the 14th. 
le quinzi^me, the 15th. 
le seizi^me, the i6th. 
le dix-septidme, the 17th. 
le dix-huitidme, the 18th. 
le dix-neuvidme, the 19th. 

le vingti^me, the 20th. 

le vingt-uni^me, the 21st. 

le vingt-deuXi^me, the 22d, &c. 

le trentidme, the 30th. 

le quaranti^me, the 40th. 

le cinquaniidme, the 5cth. 

le soixantidme, the 60th. 

le soixante-dixi^me, the 70th. 

le soixante-onzi^me, the 71st. 

le soixante-douzi^me, the 72d, 

le quatre-vingti^me, the 8oth. 
le quatre-ringt-unidme, the 8ist. 
le quatre-vingt-dixi^me, thtQOth. 
le centidme, the looth. 
le cent et unidme, the loist. 
le cent deuxi^me, the I02d, &c. 
le cent vingtifeme, the 120th. 
le deux cenii^me, the 200th. 
le six cent soixante-quinzi^me, 

the 675th. 
le millidrae, the loooth. 
le dernier, the last. 


i) Unihtne is used only after vingt^ trente^ quarante, 
&c.,as: Charles est le trente-uni^me de sa classe, Charles 
is the 31st of his class. 


2) Days of the month (except ie premier and It dcr- 
nier) are expressed by cardinal numbers, as : 

The first of April, Ic premier avril ; but : 
The fifth of January, Ic cinq )zxiv\ex (jdng-vyih). 
The 2d, 3d, 4th, &c. of May, Ic deux, trois, quatre, &c., mai {pf 
de mai). 
The eleventh of March, le onze (without apostrophe) mars. 
The twentieth of June, le vingt juin (juaing). 
The question, ' What day of the month is to-day ? ' is translated : 
Quel jour du mois avons-nous aujourd'hui? or : 
Quel quanti^me (kill kdngt-yihm) sommes-nous? {or avons 
nous]) ? 
Answer : C*est aujourd'hui le dix, or : 

Nous sommes le dix, or nous'^avons le dix. 
The English ' on the sixth,' &c., is rendered in French le six. Ex,: 
On the sixth of May, le six mai (may)7 

3) Proper names of princes, too, take in French the 
cardinal numbers without the article, except the first and 
sometimes the second^ as : 

Henri premier, Henri the first. 

Charles second or deux, Charles the second ; but Henry quatre, 
Henry the fourth. 

4) The distinctive numbers (adverbs of number) are 
formed from the ordinal by adding -pient or -ement to the 
final letter: 

Premi^rement (pri-myih-ri'mdng), first ; in the first places 
Deuxi^mement {dea-zyih-mi-mdng)^ secondly. 
Troisi&mement {trod-zyih-mimdn^^ thirdly, &c. 

5) FracHonal numbers are expressed by ordinal num 
bers, as in English, but only from five upwards, as : 

Un cinqui^me, a fifth. Un huiti^me, an eighth. 

Un sixi^me, a sixth. Un dixi^me, a tenth. 


The others are as follows : 

A half = un derai (dimie), f . ane demie. The half = la inoiti6 

A third = un tiers. A quarter or fourth = un quart {kdf). 
One pound and a half = une livre et demie {fUmii), 

Names of the months. 

Janvier (jdng-vyih), January, 
ffevricr {fay-vrii-ih), February, 
mars (mars), March, 
avril {d'Vrii-yi), April, 
mai {may\ May. 
juin ijiiaing), June, 
juillet {/wiiyih), July, 
ao^t, (a^oa\ August. 

septembre {set-tang'br\ Septem- 

octobre (oct-to-br), October. 

norembre {no-vdng-br) , No- 

d6cembre (day-sdngbi)^ Decem- 

en Janvier, in January. 

Names of the days. 

dimanche (dii-mdngsh\ Sunday, 
lundi {leang'dii), Monday, 
mardi (mdr-di^, Tuesday, 
mercredi {mir-kr-dii)t Wednes- 

jeudi {jea-dii\ Thursday, 
rend red i (vdngdr-dii), Friday, 
samedi (sdm-dii\ Saturday, 
on Tuesday, (le) mardi. 


Les Meubles {meubl), (m.). The Furniture, 

la courerture {coa'Vir-tar\ the 

une 6tag6re (ay-tdk-jayr), a what- 

le tapis {tdh-fiti, the carpet 
le tapis de table, the table-cover, 
le lit (///), the bed. 
le lit de fer, the iron bedstead. 

une armoire (dr^m^wodi^t award- 

la commode, the bureau. 

le tiroir (tii-ro^df), the drawer. 

la table, the table. 

la chaise {shayze\ the chair. 

le fauteuil (fdh-tea-yi), the arm- 


le dos {ddh\ the back. 

le sofa, the sofa. 

la glace {^ldhs\ the (large) mir- 

le miroir {meiro-dr), the (small) 

le tableau (tabid), the picture. 

le cadre (cdk-dr), the frame. 

la chemin6e {shi-mii-nay), the 

le chambranle {shdng-brdngl), the 

une pelle (pell), a shovel. 

des pincettes (paing-sit\ tongs. 

une pendule (pdng-diil), a clock. 

le traversin (trd-ver-saing), tlic 

le matelas {md C-idk), the inai- 

un sommier 61asiique(j^»«-j/^ ay- 

ld'Steek\ a spring-mattress. 
roreiller(/^A-r/-^/A), the pillow, 
le drap {drdK)^ the sheet, 
faire le lit, to make ihj bed. 
metire des draps blancs, to put 

on fresh sheets, 
une lampe {Idngp), a lamp, 
des allumettes (day zd-lU miC), 

une bougie (bou-jii), a waxlight 

Translate the following 


Into English and then render it again into French : 

Appartements a louer (dp-pdrti-mdng ah loti ih), 

Avez-vous des^appartements (day zSp-par-t-mSlng) k 
louer } — J'en^ai plusieurs et de differents prix (dif-fay- 
rang pree). — Vouiez-vous un appartement meubl6 ou 
non meuble } — J'ai besoin de chambres meublees. II me 
faudrait un salon et deux chambres k coucher. — Je puis 
vous satisfaire {satis/y\ madame. — Donnez-vous la peine 
d'entrer (dang-tray). Je vais vous faire voir (let you see ; 
sho7v you) les chambres. — L^escalier (les-k5-lyeh = the 
stair-case) est^un peu rapide (rSL-peed = steep), — 11 ena 
Tair, mais^il est tr^s-doux (doQ = easy) k monter. — Est- 


il ^tlaire {lighted up^ le soir? — Cela va sans dire {Why^ 
certainly J of course), — Vous voyez que le salon est sur le 
dcvant (d6-vang = to the front) et que les chambres a 
cuucher sont sur le dcrriere. — Quel est le prix du loyer 
{tent) ? — II est de cent francs. — C*est tres-cher. — Veuil- 
lez reniarquer, madame, que c*est ici le plus beau quar- 
tier (kar-tyeh =. part j quarter) de la ville et que la mai- 
son est tres-bien habitee (a-bee-tay = inhabited by very 
respectable people). 


In order to get a thorough mastery over the French 
verbs the student may now place the following verbs in 
proper form. 


Give the 

Indicative Present 

of the following verbs : 

Je tnener. — Nous avancer, — II acketer, — Vous appeler, — Trop de 
plaisir ennuyer.—Ces 61^ves r^p^ter comme des perroquets (per-ro- 
k6h = parrots). — L'in temperance (laing-tSng-pay-r Sings = intemper- 
ance) abr^ger {shorten) la vie (vee = life), — La nature (nSl-tlir) est un 
miroir fiddle (fee-dayl=:/rw^) qui r^fl^ter {repeat) ^ nos yeux la grand- 
eur de Dieu {grang-deur 4i dyeu = the greatness of God). 


Je commencer, — Nous rigner {to reign), — II Jeter. — L*arm6e avan- 
cer^ les^ennemis (lay z6-n6-mee) engager le feu ; la victoire (vlc-t'woare 
= victory) balancer. — Nous itablir. — Vous rougir {to blush). — lis bdtir 
(to build). — Le jeune gar9on unirlsL douceur k la modestie.— II d/' 
fendre. — Nous correspondre. 



^onsavouer, — £st-ce toi qui distribuert — ^Je Yaimer. — Dicu nous 
prot/ger. — Vous r/ynrZ/^Ie temps perdu (/i>//). — Vous saisir {to seise), 
— Le travail {u9ry9.')^=labof) vous /«rw"iir(ang-ree-sh€er=A? enrich), 
— Nous r^pondre. — \ovls perdre. 


t^ons perdre. — ^Tu ^if/ww/r^ (ftng-tang-dr = to Aear), — Sans la vcrtu 
{mrtue) vous pr/tendre vainement (vain*-inang = in vain) au bonheur 
(bon-near = happiness), — Vous/n>r. — Nous diner. 

Subjunctive Present.* 

II faut que vqms certifier (cSr-tee-fyeh. — II faut que chacun (shSh- 
keUng = every one) payer son tribut k la nature (nfl-tUr). — II faut qu'il 
aMger, — U taut qu'il envoyer les ^chantillons. 

Put the following singulars into the corresponding 
persons of the plural : 

Je pr/tends, — Tu as d/fendu, — J'avais rompu. — ]eperdrais si je 
jouais, mais je ntjoue pas. — Ton maftre ne veut pas que tu V inter- 
rompes, — Je hais, —Que je vienne, — Je vais, — II ira, — ]t faiblissais, — 
IXplaisante, — II assure. — ^Tu as donn/.-^Je suis venu. — £lle6tait/a/ift'. 
— Wpeut, — Jepourrai. — ^Je suis a/U, 

Translate the following 


into English, and then again, without assistance of the 
book, into French: 

At a th«Atr«. 

Oi voulcz-vous que nous'^allions'^aujourd'hui ? — Al- 
lons^aux Fran9ais.* — Je le veux bien. — Qu'est-ce qu'on 
donne ce soir? Voyons Taffiche (IS-feesh = hand-billy 
poster), Les FourchambauU {the Fourchatnbault [four- 
shang-bol] family^ com6die (c6-may-d€€) en cinq actes 
par (by) Emile Augier. Le nom de Tauteur (15-teQr = 
t?ie author) suflBt {is sufficient) pour me decider (day-see- 
day = to decide). J'entends dire (jSng-tSng d66r = / 
hear it said^ I am told) que c'est^une tr^s-belle pidce (wry 
good \fine\ piece). Quelle place prendrons-nous (prang- 
drong nou = shall we take) ? Quelles sont les meilleures 
{the best) places? Pour les^hommes (gentlemen) les fau- 
teuil^ d'orchestre (f5-teu-y6 ^oX'Sh^s-tr ^orchestra-stalls) ; 
mais les dames ne vont qu'aux premieres ou aux secondes 
loges (go only to the boxes on the first or secod Her), ** Uentf- 
ode (lang-tr-Sct) messieurs, le programme d6taill^ (day- 
ta-yay = detailed) du spectacle! Les noms (nong = 
names) de tous leslicteurs (actors) qui jouent (jew = play) 
dans les pieces de ce soir (s*vio^v=^eifemng) ! " — Qu*est-ce 
qu'ils crient (kr66 = scream) done ces'^individus (say- 
2saing-d€€-vgg-dii = these individuals) ? — Ils^offrent (eel- 
26ffr = they are offering) les petits journaux de Ih^&tre 
(lay-p'tee joQr-no = the small journals). — A Paris, ces 
journaux remplacent (rSng-plas = take the place of) le 
programme qui est distribue (dis-tree-bii-ay = distributed) 
en Am^rique par Tad ministration (lad-mgg-nls-tra-zyong 
= administration^ du th6Stre (tay-Slh-tr). — Combien ce 
journal ? Vingt centimes (sang-te€m). 

i) The best French theatre in Paris, or rather in France. 




La Ville {\BB\). 

Une rue pav6e {pdh'vay\ a 

paved street, 
traverser, to cross, 
passer de I'autre c6t6, to cross 

over ; to go to the other side, 
le trott Jir {trot-t* wodr), the foot- 
ie coin {ko-aing) de rue, the 

street corner, 
au bout de la rue (oh boudild rii), 

at the end of the street, 
tout droit {toil drodh), straight 

ahead ! 
I'arabassade {ldng-bds-sdkd\ the 

la police {pd-lies), the police, 
un sergent de ville {ser-jdng di 

veil), a police officer, 
le gaz. the gas. 
un r6verbdre, a street-lamp, 
une voiture {vodh-tUt)^ a carriage. 

une voiture "X 

de remise, ( livery- coach ; fly; 
un remise, T hackney-coach. 

{rimeeze) J 
le pont {pong\ the bridge. 

The Town. 

la deuxi^me k droite (deu-zyehm), 
second turning to the right. 

un passage (pdhsdge),^ thorough- 

une place {pldhs\ \ 

un square (pro- ( 
nounced in the f "" ^1'"»'«'- 
English way), j 

r^difice (lay-die-feis), the build- 

un monument (moh-nil-mdng)^ a 

une 6glise (ay-giieze), a church, 

un palais {pdh'lay\ a palace. 

rhotel de ville, the Town-hall ; 

le cocher (kdk-skay\ the cabman. 

une course, a tour ; drive. 

^ rheure, by the hour. 

^ la course, by the mile. 

le pourboire (pour-b' wodr\ a tip. 

une station de fiacres {Un sid- 
syong de fii'dki^y a cab-stand. 

un omnibus {bUs)^ an omnibus. 

rint6rieur est complet {laing-tayr- 
yeuray cong-play), full inside. 

ikt l|mt4t'$#!t-|pi#, 






I. At whose place did you find the new address of Mr. 
B. who lived *n Bank Street two months ago ? 

2. Ask the bookseller on your way {en passant)^ when 
he will send me the Italian book which I bought a 
fortnight ago. {Uteraily : fifteen uays ago \il y a quinze 

3. Are you going to the bank ? No, sir, I am not g^ing 
there (y). 

4* Do you think of it (y) ? Yes, ! am thinking thereof (y). 

5. Go there ! 

6. Think of {or reflect about) it (y). 

7. Drive me {or lead me) there. 

8. There are not more than {or not above) two or three 
persons there. 

9. There is no longer {ne-plus) any one there. 

10. I could not tell you whether {si) it is more than 
three months since {que) Mrs. D. has left here {or 
has gone from here). 

11. Is it longer than {plus de) two days since you did not 

see him ? 




1. Chez qui avez-vous trouv6 la nouvelle adresse. de 
monsieur B. qui demeurait rue de la Banque, il y a 
deux mois (md-syeuh bay kei di-meu-ray rii did bank eel 

yah deu nCwodh). 

2. Demandez en passant {dug pd-sdngy au libraire, quand il 
m'enverra ^ {kdng feel mdng-ver-rd) le livre Italian {ee-td' 
lyaing) que j'ai achet^ il y a quinze jours. 

3. Allez-vous ^ la banque ? Non monsieur, je n-y vais 
pas {^ji nee vay pah), 

4. Y pensez-vous? Oui, j'y pense {jeepdngs), 

5. Allez y ! [For rules on y, see page 204 rules on ^/z.] 

6. R6fl6chissez-y (ray-flay-shU'Say^zee) ! 

7. Conduisez-y-moi {fir better: Conduisez-moi Ui) 

8. II n'y a pas plus de deux ou trois personnes {eeln^ydh 
pdhplU di deu zou trodh pir-sdn), 

9. II n'y a plus personne. 

10. Je ne pourrais vous dire s'il y a plus de trois mois 
que madame D. est partie d'ici (k^ md-ddm day aypdr- 
tee dee-see), 

11. Y a-t-il plus de deux jours que vous ne Tavez vu ? 
[After ily a the second negation pas is left out when 
the perfect tense follows.] 


12. Is it a long time {longtemps) since you received news 
from your brotiier ? 

13. Yes, it is quite a long time {fort longtt^mps) since he 
wrote us. [The French say: Since he has not written 
to us.] 

14. There is no one there. 

15. There are a great many people {beaucoup de monde) 

16 There is a pretty large number of people there. 

17. Is there any room {de la place) ? No, sir, this com- 
partment is full. 

18. What is the matter? 

19. It's an age since we saw you. {Literally : since one did 
not see you.) 

20. We left a week ago. {Literally : eight days ago.) 

21. The matter presents two sides ; or. There are two sides 
to this affair. {Literally : There is something in fa- 
vor [pour], and something against it [contre]) 

22. Many thanks. {Literally: I thank you very mucK) 

23. Don*t mention it, pray. {Or : You are very welcome. ) 

24. I beg your pardon, sir. 


t», Y a-t-il longtemps que vous^avez re9u des nouvelles 
de monsieur votre frere (ydh-teel long-tdng ke vou zd- 
vek ri'Su day nou-vHl de md-syeuh vot frair) ? 

13. Oui, il y a fort longtemps qu*il ne nous'^a ^crit {Tel yah 
for long-tang keel ne nou zdh ay-kree). 

14. II n'y a personne. 

15. II y a beaucoup de monde (bd-kou di mongd). [Monde 
means literally world,] 

16. II y a passablement de monde (pd-sdh-bli-mdng di 

17. Y a-t-il de la place {ptdhs) ? Non monsieur, ce com- 
partiment est (au) complet (kong-play). 

18. Qu'y a-t-il done {kee-dteel dong)} 

19. II y a un si^cle [syay-kl') qu'on (kong) ne vous'a vu. 
[Sikle means literally a century,'] 

II y a huit jours que nous sommes partis {pdr-tee), 

20. -^ Nous sommes partis il y a huit jours (eel ydh h'weet 



21. II y adu pour et du contre {eel ydh dii pour ay dii 
cong'tr). . . .: .; 

22. Je vous remercie beaucoup. [Trh is never used with 
verbsy but only with adjectives and adverbs,] 
II n'y a pas de quoi {eel nee^dh pdh di k'wodhy 
Pas de quoi {pdh de k'tvodh), [Standing phrases.] 
f Je vous demande pardon (pdr-dong), monsieur, 
( Pardon {or mille pardons [meetpdr-dong^y monsieur. 



25* Please don't apologize ; or^ It's of no consequence ; 
don't mention it. 

26. One ticket, second-class, Paris ! 

27. There is no second-class; this is an express-train. 
{Literally : There is not of it \en\ ; this is an express.) 

28. There are only first-class tickets sold. 

29. What is the fare first-class ? {Literally : How much the 
first-class ?) 

30- j 

Is there any connection {correspondance) ? 
Do these trains connect {correspondent) ? 

31. Please go into the waiting-room. I'll join {rejoindrai) 
you there in {dans) two minutes. 

3a. Do not enter {or don't let us go) into this compart- 
ment ; there are two small children in it. 

33. You are right; they are not very delightful company 
on a journey. {Literally: That is not a very agreeable 
company in [en\ journey.) 

34. Have you anything to declare {i.e. at the custom- 
house) ? 

35. You must open your trunk. 
^6. Here is* the key. 

37. What have you {literally : What is there) in this 

38. Undo {d^faites) these straps {courroies)^ if you please. 



II n'y a pas de mal, monsieur {eil nei-dh pah dimdhl 
j^J^ md'^ah). 

^as de mal, monsieur. 

26. Une si^onde, Paris {finsi^ongd^ pa-ret). 

27. II n*y en^* j^ ; c'est^un^express {eel nee an ndh pah j 
say teung nix-pm^). [If j^ and en happen to be used in 
one sentence, y pm^edes en,"] 

28. II n'y a que des premidi^s {eel nee ah ki day prU-myair). 

29. Combien les premieres {k&s^byaing lay pri-myair) ? 

{Y a-t-il correspondance {cor-ris-pimg-ddngs) ? 
Est-ce que ces trains correspondent {c^kisay traing 
car-riS'pongd) ? 

31. Veuillez passer k la salle d'attente. Je vous^ re- 
joindrai {ji vou zee ri-joaing-dray) dans deux minute^ 

32. N'entrez pad dans ce compartiment ; il y a deux pe- 
tits^enfants {ndng-treh pah dang ci cong-pdr-tee-mdng; 
eel yah deU p*tee zdng-fdng), 

33. Vous^avez raison ; ce n'est pas^une compagnie bien 
agr6able en voyage {vou zdh-veh ray-zong ; ci nay pdh 
ziin cong-pdn-yee byaing d-gray-dhbl dng vodh-ydshJ) 

34. N'avez-vous rien {ree-aing) ^d6clarer ? 

35. II fauf^ouvrir votremalle {eel f oh tou-vreervdimdhll). 

36. Voici la clef {klay). 

37. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a dans ce sac de voyage {kays kielydh 
ddng ci sdc di vodh-ydsh) ? 

38. D6faites ces courroies {day-feUe say koUr'rodh\ s'il vous 


39. Ah^ jilJ these objects have been in use (^ worn [sont 

40. Conductor, two places for Lyons, if you please ! 

41. There are none (= no more) in these carriages; 
further down. {Literally: Descend ^ the train.) 

42. Any room, gentlemen? (Literally: Is there a seat 

43. No, sir, every seat is occupied (= we are full \au 

44. I beg your pardon, there is one. 

45. Has there anything come for me, waiter ? (Uferalfy : 
Is there anything? &c.) 

46. I am not well (souffrant or indisposS). Is there an 
Engli&h druggist (= drugshop [pharmaeie^ near 
(pHs de) the hotel ? 

47. Yes, sir, there is an English druggist (pharmctcten) at the 
foot (^<'£^ ^'y;/^/ of the street. 

48. Are there (y a t-zl) any letters addressed tp {an nam 
de) Mr. B. ? 

49- My name is spelled (feerif). ,.. 

50. Is it far from here {J&in d'ici) to the Champs- 

51. This street docs not lead (conduit) to it at all {point 
du t(mi). 

52. You are going in the opposite direction (d Topposi). 


39. Ah, tous ces^objets sont^usag6s {tail say zob-jay song tit- 

40. Conducteur {kongduC'i€ur\ deux places pour Lyon 
{pldks pour iee-ong)^ s'il vous plait 

41. II n*y en_a plus dans ces wagons (1^1 nee^dfCnak plu 
dang ce z/J-^^«^) , messieurs ; descendez du train (ni^symh ; 
de-sdng-deh du traing), 

42. Y a-t-il encore une place (diig-cor run pldhs)^ messieur s ? 

43. Non monsieur, nous sommes au complet {ok cong- 

44. Je vous demande pardon {pdr-dong)^ il y en_a en- 
core^une {eel ydh ndh dng-cor run). 

45. Y a-t-il quelque chose {ie-dh'teel kH-ke shoki) pour moi, 

46. Je suis souffrant {sou-frdng) {or indispose \aing-dU- 
pO'Zay]). Est-ce qu'il y a une pharmacie anglaise 
pres de Thotel {ays keel ydh tin fdr-mdh-sii dng-iayze 
pray de id- tell). 

47. Oui monsieur, il y a un pharmacien {phdr-md-syaing) 
anglais au bout {oh bou) de la rue. 

48. Y a-t-il des lettres .au nom de monsieur B, {day littr' 
oh nong^ di mo-syeuh bay) ? 

49. Mon nom s'6crit {mong nong say-kree), ... * 

50. Y a-t-il encore loin d'ici aux Champs-Elys^es [iing- 
kor lo-aing dee-see oh shdng-zay-lee-zeh) f 

51. Cette rue n'y conduit point du tout {nei cong-dwee 
po-aing du tou), 

f Vous^etes i Toppose. 
52- •< Vous^y tournez le dos {vou zee tour-nih H doh ^=^you 
V turn your back to it). 



S$. What can I do for you ? {Literally : What is there 
for your service) ? 

54. Take care, sir ( prenez garde, monsieur) ; there are 
two steps down there (Id-bas). 

55. There were a great many people (beaucoup de monde) 
at the concert. 

56. There are already (rfe/<i) some people there. 

57. We have company {du monde) to dinner to-day. 

58. There was an enormous crowd {un monde fou) 

59. It's always crowded here ( = There is always crowd 
[/owfe] here). 

60. Is there salt enough on it } 

61. What is the news in the papers (= What is there 0/ 
news in the papers) ? 

»2. I have not yet read (lu) to-day's paper. 

6^. How do you like {trouvez-vous) Mr. B.'s new piece } 

^4. There are some very nice verses (vers) in it, but — 
to speak frankly — the development {denoiXment) is 
forced (/or^). 

65. Could you not call your employer (voire patron) ? 

66. He is not in, sir; he is gone out on (po^ir) business. 

67. Look at this hat (or bonnet), please. It is the latest 
thing out (afest tout ce quHl y a de plus nouveau). 

68. I cannot give it you at a cheaper price (d moins). 
1 do not gain (or make = gagne) a centime by it. 


53* Qu'y a-t il pour votre service {kei'dh-teel paUr vof sir^ 
vees) I 

54, Prenez garde, monsieur ; il y a encore deux marches 
li-bas {iii yak dng-k^r deU marsh Id- bah). 

55, Il y avait beaucoup de monde au concert (eelyd-vay 
boh'kail di mongddh cong-sair). 

56, II y a d^j4 du monde {day-Jdh du mongd), 

57, Nous'"avons'"aujaurd*hui du monde k diner {ah dei' 

58, II y avait^un monde fou \fou means literally /<?^/wi]. 

59, U y a toujours foule ici (tou-jour fool ie-see). 

60, Y a-t-il assez de sel {d-say di sil) ? 

6r, Qu'y a-t-il de nouveau dans les journaux {kee-dh-teel 
dinou-voh dang iayjmr-noh) ? 

62, Je n'ai pas^encore lu le journal d'aujourd'hui \lu is 
the past participle of lire^ to read]. 

63, Comment trouvez-vous la nouvelle pi^ce de mon- 
sieur B. (fom-mdng trou-veh vau Idh nou-vHl pee-ays di 
md-syiuh bay) } 

64- II y a de tr^s-bcaux vers, mais — i parler franche- 
ment — le d^noiiment {di tray boh vayr^ may dh par- 
iih frdng-sk" mdng U day-nau-mdng) est forc6. 

65. Ne pourriez-vous pas'^appeller votre patron {yoi pa 
ir&ng) ? 

66. II n'y est pas, monsieur; il est sorti pour affaires. 

67, RegardezcechapeaujS'ilvous plait. C'esttoutcequ'il 
y adeplus nouveau {say tou s^keel ydh di plu nou-t'oh), 

68, Je ne puis vous le donner k moins. Je n'y gagne pas un 
centime {gdn-ye pak zeung sang teem). 


69. Do you not need any gloves, sir ? 

70. Yes, I need two pairs. 

j Tliis pair is too large for me. 

( This pair is too narrow for me. 

j They are too short in the fingers {les doigts), 

( They are too long in the fingers. 

73. Please pass them to me ; Til put a little powder 
(poudre) in them. 

74. Were there many people at the theatre yesterday ? 

75. The parquette {le parterre) was full {plein)^ but there 
was hardly any one in the boxes-{fe5 loges). 

76. Had you a good seat ? {^Literally : Were you well 
seated ?) 

77. Yes, I was near the orchestra. 

78. The orchestra-stalls {lesfauteuils d'orchestre) are the 
best seats for gentlemen. 

79. Ladies of fashion {les dames comme il faut) go to the 
boxes of the first and second tier only {literally: go 
only to the first and second boxes). 

80. Did you go to the soiree of Mrs. L. on Monday } 

81. Yes, why didn't you come there } 

82. I was at the theatre. 

83. What did they play (= give) ? 

84. They performed (= gave) Iphigenia, with a comedy 
{un vaudeville) afterwards (= at the end, d la fin) ; 
but I went to see the tragedy only. 


6g, Ne vous faut-il pas de gants, monsieur ? 

70. Oui, il m'en faut deux paires {ee/ mdng foh deu pair), 
j Cette paire m'est trop large (may troh Idrje), 
\ Cette puire m'est trop etroite {troh ay-trodht). 

72. \ 

Les doigts {d'wo-ah) en sent trop courts (Jroh cour). 
Les doigts {d^wo-dh) en sont trop longs. 

73. Passez-les-moi, s'il vous plait ; j*y mettrai un peu de 
poudre {jee me-tray eung peu di pou-dr). 

74. Y avait-il beaucoup de monde hier au spectacle (//- 
ayr oh spec-idkf), 

75. Le parterre etait plein {plaing)y mais^il n'y avait 
prcsque [presk) personne dans les loges {ioje), 

76. Etiez-vous bien place (byaing pldh-say)} 

1*1. Oui, j'^tais pres de Torchestre {pray de Idr-shestr), 

78, Pour les^hommes, les fauteuils d'orchestre sont les 
meilieures places {pour lay zom lay fo-teu-yi dor-shh-tr 
song lay me-yeur pldhs), 

79, Les dames comme^il faut ne vont qu'aux {ne vong 
kdh) premieres ou aux secondes loges. 

So. Est-ce que vous^etes^all6 {ays-ki vou zayt zdh-lay) kla 
soiree de madame L., lundi {leung-dee) ? 

Si* Oui, pourquoi n*y etes-vous done pas venu {nee ayt 
vail dong pah ve-nu) ? 

82, J'ai ^x€ au spectacle. 

^3' Qu'cst'Ce qu'on donnait {kays kong don-nay) ? 

84. On_a donn^ Iphigenie {ee-fee-j ay-nee) ^ avec un vaude- 
ville \ la fin {eilng vohd^-vee-yS ah la /aing)y mais ]e 
n'y suis^alle que pour voir la trag^die {mayje nee 
suee zdh-lay ke pour vodr Id tr a Jay-dee). 




Possessiye Adjectiyes. 

The following adjectives are mostly placed under the 
head of pronouns; as, however, they may be more prop- 
erly termed adjectives^ I have thought it better to insert 
them in this place. 





Both genders. 


mon (m(mg\ 

ma (mdh). 

mes (may), my. 


ton (tong) 


tes {tay\ thy. 


son (song) 


ses (say)^ his, her, or its. 



Masc. and Fern, 

Both genders. 

I. iiOiTt(ndf), 

nos (»J), our. 

2. votre (vdf). 

vos (vd\ your. 

3. Ieur(//j7r), 

leurs(/^»r), their. 

These pronominal adjectives agree in gender and 
number with the nouns which they qualify; as: 

mon tableau {ta-blo), my picture. 

ma clef (klay\ my key. 

mes^enfants {may zdng-fdng), my children. 

son portrait (por^tray), his {pr\itx) portrait. 

ses maisons (may-tong) his (or her) houses. 


not re (aval o (/d-vd-dS), uur washstand. 
nos servietrcs {sSr-vyit), our towels. 
l«ur biinquier [bdnk-yih), their banker, 
leurs^acqiiit a (««->&//), their receipts. 


I. The masculine forms mon^ ton^ sotij and not fna^ ta^ 
sa^ are used before nouns of the feminine gender begin- 
ning with a vowel or unaspirated ^, for the sake of eu- 
phony, and to avoid the meeting of two vowels ; as : 

tnoTt ^opinion {mon-no-pH-nyongX (f.) my opinion. 
tOQ^humeur {tim nU-meiii)^ (f.) thy temper. 
Bon^^^toire Uon nis-twodr\ (f.) his (or her) history. 

3, The pronominal adjectives notre^ our, and w/r^, your> 
have no circumflex accent (to distinguish them from the 
possessive pronouns h ndtre^ U vdtre^ see next Part), and 
are pronounced sh^ri^ almost as if written not\ vot\ 

Demonstratiye Adjeetiyes. 

The Demonstrative Adjective, sometimes called a de- 
monstrative pronoun, is thus declined : 

Singular. PluraL 

Afasc. ce 
Ftm, cett0 

> ihis er that ^ \ ces, these or those. 

J - Fern, ) 

The demonstrative adjective agrees with its noun in 
gender and number ; as : 

{^ cbeval {ci sk^-vdhl)^ this horse, 

ceite maison {cit maytong), this house, 

ces^enfants {say zdng'/dng\ these children. 


The form cet is employed for the masculine instead of 
ce^ when preceding a noun beginning with a vowel or 
mute h ; as : 

cet^homme (ci tdm), this man. 

cet^arbre (ci /drdr), this tree. 

cet^agent (r<r tdh-jdng), this agent. 

BelatiTe^ Interrogative, and Admiratiye Ad- 

The Relative, Interrogative, and Admirative Adjective 
quel is thus declined : 

Singular, PluraL 

Masc, quel (kil), ) Masc, quels ( which or 

^ .. ,. ^ }• which <?r whit. „ .. i . 

Fern, quelle {kit),) ' Fern, quelles ( what. 

It agrees in gender and number with the noun 
which it qualifies ; as : 

quel^homme?(!) {killdni) which man ? or what a man ! 
quelle femme? (!) {kilfdmm), which woman? or what a woman ! 
quels chevaux {shi-voh) ? (!) which horses? <?rwhat horses ! 
quelles fleurs {Jlear) ? (!) which flowers ? or what flowers ! 


Of Passive Terbs. 

Passive verbs are formed, in French as in English, by 
joining the Participle past of an active verb to the auxil- 
iary verb to be, Stre j for instance: of the verb donne*-^ 
the passive voice is 6tre donil6, to be given; of finir^ 
otre flnl, to be finished ; of venire^ fitre vendu, to be 


sold, &c. It is to be observed that in French the Par- 
ticipit past varus ac carding to the gender and number of the 
noun or pronoun it relates to and which stands as the 
Muhjtet of the sentence. 

litre I0U65 to be praised. 


" » M + Present. 

Je suis lou£ [or lou6e, fem,)^ I am praised, 

tu es louS {or \ou6e,/em,), thou art praised, 

il est lou^, he is praised, 

elle est lou4e, she is praised, 

nous sommcs loues (or \ou6es, /em,), we are praised 

vous etes loues (or loueeSf/em.)^ you are praised, 

lis sent lou^s, ) ^^^^ ^^^ p^^.^^ 

clles sont loupes, ) 


J*^tais lou^ {or louee,/m.), I was praisea, 

tu ^tais loue {or \owh^^ fem,\ &c. 

il etait loue, &c, 

elle ^tait lou^c, &c. 

' Preterite. 

Je fus loue or loude, I was praised, &c. 

■ ut Future. 
je semi lou^ or lou6e, I shall be praised, &c. 

\st Conditional, 
Je serais lou6 or lou6e, I should be praised, &c. 



Sols lou6 or lou6ei be praised, 

soyons lou6s or lou6es, let us be praised, 

soyez lou6s or lou6es, be praised. 



Que je sois lou6 or lou6e, that I (may) be praised, &c. 


Que je fusse lou6 or lou6e, that I (might) be praised, &c. 

£tant lou6 or lou6e, being praised. 


Aroir ^\k lon^^ lou6e, to have been praised. 

J*ai kxh lou6, lou6e, I have been praised, 
tu as et^ lou6, lou6e, thou hast been praised, &c. 

J'avais 6t6 lou6, lou6e, I had. been pfaised^ &c. 

Compound of thi Preterite. 
I'eus ^t^ lou6, lou^e, I had been praised, &c. 


2d Future. 

J'aurai £te lou^, louee^ I shall have been praised, &c. 

2d Conditional, 

J'aurais €lh lou^, lou^e, ) I should or I would have been 

J'aurais etd lou^, lou^ej | 
J*easse 6te louee, lou^e^ ) 

praised, &c. 



Que j'aie hti lou6, lou^c, that I (may) have been praised. 

Que j'eusse ii€ loue, lou6e, that I (might) have been 

Past, Ayant ^t^ lou^, lou6e, having been praised. 

Remarks : 

The English preposition by^ after the passive voice 

must be rendered by dt^ when the verb denotes a senti- 

mmt or an inward act of soui^2,nA by par ^ when it expresses 

an ouhvard action^ which by the by is mostly the case. 


He is ea teemed by everybody. 
I] est est I m^ 1^ tout le monde. 
This book is written by him. 
Co livr« est 4ciit par lui. 



Ileuter or Intransitiye Verbs- 

The neuter verbs admit no direct object^ as ailtrj to go, nr- 
river y to arrive, &c. 

Among the neuter verbs there are some which take 
itre in the compound tenses instead of avoir. Ex. : lire 
arrivi^ to have arrived. These are conjugated as follows: 

Pres, J 'arrive. Fut. J'arriverai, 

Imperf, J*arrivais. Cond, J*arriverai9* 

Pret. J'arrivai, 

Je suis arriv6 or arriv^e, I have (am) arrived, 
tu es arrive or arriv^e, &c. 

J*6tais arriv6 or arriv6e, I had arrived, &c. 

2d Future, 
Je serai arriv6 or arriv6e, I shall have (be) arrivedj &c 

2d Conditional. 
Je serais arriv6 or arriv6e, I should have arrived, &c. 

The most important verbs of this class which are 
conjugated with itre are : 

fitre all^, to have gone. 
6tre sorti, to have gone out, 
6tre tomb^, to have fallen, 
Stre vepu, to have come, 
fitre rest6, to have remained* 


Translate the following 


into English and then again into French : 

1. To ask for a street. 

Monsieur, pourriez-vous me faire le plaisir de m'in- 
fliquer (maing-dee-keh = to direct me) la rue de Riche- 
lieu (ree-sh6-lye£i) ? — Oui monsieur; prenez la premiere 
i\ droite {ta the right)^ et ensuite (5ng-s'weet = then) la se- 
cande i gauche (gosh = to the left). — Je vous remercic 
bien, monsieur. — Quel est, s*il vous plait, le chemin 
(sh^-maing = way) pouraller aux boulevards? — Suivez 
(s'wee-veK = follow) cette rue, elle va vous y {thereto) 
conduire (kong-d*w66r = lead ; bring). — Merci bien. — Eh 
bien, vous ne vous etes pas perdu {lost)} — Non, mais j*ai 
^t^ oblige de demander mon chemin trois fois (foah = 
three iimes). 

3* Terms used during a call. 

Tiens {ah! why l)^ comment 9a va-t-il done? Je ne 
fn'attendais pas (/ did not expect) i avoir le plaisir de vous 
voir ce matin, Je vous croyais encore i la campagne. 
Depuis quand etes-vous done revenu? — Voilsl que j'ar- 
rive (jil-ret!v) ; je n'ai pas encore 6t6 k la maison. — Avez- 
VQUS dejeune (day-jeii-nay) ? — Non, pas encore. — Eh 
bien, venez dune avec moi, nous d^jeunerons ensemble 
(day-jeii-nfi-rong zSng-sang-bl) au Palais Royal (roS- 



i) Good morning, my dear friend. How are you? 
I am very glad to see you. — 2) When did you arrive in 
Paris and where do you stay? — 3) How is your father ? 
Is he any better (mieux) ? — 4) How have you been since 
I had the pleasure to see you ? — Thank you, I have been 
very well indeed; but my wife has been quite ill. — 5) I 
am very sorry to hear you say so. Why, what is the mat- 
ter with her ? — 6) She was very ill last winter, but she is 
now out of danger. — 7) The egoist {rSgoiste) is loved by 
no one. — 8) The Arabians {les Arabes) invented {inven- 
ter) the numbers {les chiffres), — 9) The numbers have been 
invented by the Arabians. — 10) The emperor (/'«w//r/i^r) 
was assassinated in the midst {au milieu) of his people {ses 
gens). — 11) The birth {la naissance) of Christ (Christ) was 
announced by a star {une iftoile), — 12) The earth {la terre) 
was refreshed {rafraichie) by the rain {la pluie), — 13) 
Happy the people which is governed by wise {sages) laws 
{lots). — 14) We were astonished {/tonn/s) by his wisdom 
{la sagesse). 


Bruxelles, October loth, 1881. 

Messrs. Toussaint, La Rue & C'"., Rouen. 

Gentlemen : 

Would you have the kindness to give us some infor- 
mation about {sur) the firm in B. the name of which you 
will find at the foot of this letter (= of which [dont'\yo\x 


will find the name at the foot ^u-d^sseus]). This house 
possesses a great reputation for {d^ integrity {moralit/)^ 
and as I am going to do a pretty heavy {(£Shz importante) 
business with it, I am desirous {je desire) to know if this 
is true {m/rit/e). 

I thank you in advance (^iiz^a«r^=d5-v5ngs) for {de) 
the trouble you are going to hav6 (= you will take^ v&us 
prendrez)^ and beg you will count (compter) on my grati- 
tude {ma reconnaissance) and discretion. 

Very respectfully yours* . 

Translate the following 

into French: 

i) Are you going to Paris? — Do you go as far as 
(jusqu'h = jUs-kah) Paris? — Then I shall liave the 
pleasure of your society (sociiti = so-syeh-tay), for I am 
going there too (a«i^f/=5-s66). — 2) I am very glad of it 
(en). — It is very disagreeable {disagriable = day-zah- 
gray-abl) to travel (voyager) quite alone (seul = scQl). — 
But when (guand) one is in society (en compagnie) one 
talks, chats (cause) and the time passes (se passe), — 3) 
When (guand) do you think we shall arrive in Paris? — 
I hope we shall arrive this afternoon (cet aprh-midi). — 
4) Here we are at the first station. — How long [eomhien 
de temps) are we going to stop (rester) here ? — We shall 
stop here (y) but (ne-gue) three minutes. — There we are 



off {partis) again (de nouvtauy. — What is that (^'^y/-^- 
que) I see in front of us ( = before us, demnt ftous)?-!^ 
That 's a tunnel (uti tunnd ra tUn-nSl), -^ We are in darkness 
(Tobscuriii = iob^scii-ree-tay). — Here Is another station. Are 
we going to stop (s'arriUr) there? — Yes, we are going to 
stop there five minutes. — Where are we now? — We are 
passing over {iur) a viaduct (un viaduct vee-Sh-dQc). — 
We shall be soon at the end {au terme) of our journey. — 
This is the last station.^- Here we are at the depot — Let 
us look for ( = let us go to seek, allons chcrcher) our lug- 
gage. — Let us make haste ; there is a great crowd of people 


Poste; Teligraphie, 
la grande poste {Idh grdng pdst\ 

The General Post-Office. 
le bureau de poste (bu-ro dipdst\ 

the post-office. 
\e(2LCieuT(/dc-t^ur), the postman 
la botte {Jt'wodt) (aux lettres), 

the letter-box. 
mettre^une lettre^il la poste, to 

post a letter, 
une lettre^affranchie (d-frdng" 

shei), a prepaid letter, 
une lettre charg6e {shdr-jay), a 

registered letter, 
une lettre recommandee {ri-€d' 

mdng~day\ a registered letter. 

Po^t ; Telegraph. 

le porte, the postage. 

un timbre poste (Jaing-br^ -pdsi), 
a postage-stamp. 

le papier k lettres {pdp-yih ah ///), 

une feuille {fni-yi), a sheet. 

une enveloppe {dng-vilop), an 

le bureau t^l^graphique {tay iay^ 
grd'fiik\ the telegraph-office. 

le t^l^gramrae, the telegram. 

une d^p6che {day-paysK)^ a dis- 

t616graphier {tay-lay-grd-fyiK^^ to 

le cable, the cable. 


^^t ^eb^w#ft-|fi5iJi|m, 





Of Dress and Dressing. 

1. Hasten to dress yourself {de vans hdbiller). 

2. I shall not be long in dressing {rn'habiller). 

3. What ! you are not yet dressed ? It is a quarter to 

4. I was very tired ( fatigtU) this morning. 

5. I got up (or I rose =z je me mis levi) late; I shall 
soon (bientdt) be ready. 

6. Give me my shirt, stockings, garters, shoes, and 

7. Wash (lavez'vous) your (= the) hands and face (Je 

8. My hands are very dirty (sales). 

9. Why did you not wash your hands ? 

10. Wipe (essuyez) your hands with this towel (cette ser* 



(iV>. VL) 

De I'hablUemeiit {dt id^n-yi-mdng), 

1. D6pechez-vous de vous'^habillei (day-pay-shay voU di 

2. Je ne serai pas long^emps k m'hablller (ah ma-bee- 

3. Comment! vous n'etes pas'^encore habill6 ? II est dix 
heures moins'^un quart (dee-zeur mo-aing zeung kdr), 

4. J*6tais bien fatigu^ {fd-tee-gay) ce matin. 

5. Je me suis ley^ tard {tar) ; je vais^etre bientot pret 

(ji vay zay-tr b)aing-tdh pray), 

6. Donnez-moi machemise, mes bas, mes jarreti^res, mes 
souliers et mon pantalon (may bdh^ may jd-re-tyair^ 
may sou-lye h ay mong pdng-td-long), 

7. Lavez-vous les mains et le visage (lay maing ay li vie- 

S. Mes mains sont tr^s-sales (may maing song tray sdht), 
9. Pourquoi ne vous^Stes-vous pas lav6 les mains (ne 

VOU zayt vou pdh Id-vay lay maing) ? 
10. Essuyez vos mains avec cette serviette (h^s'wee-yeh voh 

maing d-vik sit ser-vyit). 



11. Clean (decroUez) my boots and brush my clothes, 

12. Did you black (cire) my shoes? 

13. Have this coat mended (raccommoder), 

14. Send me a tailor who understands (se charge de) re« 
pairing {reparations) ; there are some buttons off 
(= it wants some buttons, il rtianque quelques hou- 
tons d) this waistcoat 

15. This waistcoat is torn (dechire), 

16. There ! I have torn my dress ! 

17. Oh, that's only a slight tear {un petit accroc) ; I am 
going to put a stitch {/aire un point) into it. 

18. That will not be seen. 

19. Put oa (mettez) this dress. 

20. Wait {attendez) a moment ; I have only to put on my 

21. Put on your hat {or bonnet). 

22. I am putting {je mets) my stockings on. 

23. She dresses herself {elle se met) with a great deal of 

24. Take off {dtez) your hat (or bonnet). 

25. Button up {loutonnez) your dress. 

26. A buttonhole {une boutonni^re) of this waistcoat is 
torn out {d^faite). 

27. This dress {or coat) is very becoming to you. 


n. Dicrottez mes bottes et brossez mes"'habits, s'il vous 
plaSt {may zd-bie), 

12, Avez-vous cir^ mes souliers {see- ray may s^U-lyih) \ 

13, Faites raccommoder cet"^habit (x/ td-bi-i), 

14, Envoyez-moi doncun taiUeur qui se charge de repa- 
rations; il manque quelques boutons A ce gilet {dng- 
vodh^yih mwodk dong eiing td-yeur kci si sharje di 
ray^pd*rd-syong ^ ill mdnh kil M bou-tang ah si jie- 

T5» Ce gilet est d^chiriS {day-skci-ray), 

16. Voili que je decbtre ma robe {ki ji day^shiir mdra^e). 

17. Cc n'est qu'un petit^accroc; je vais vous^y faire un 
point (si ftay ktUng p^tii id-kroc^ji vay v&u zei fair eung 

iSp ^a ne se vcrra pas {sd ni sivir-rd pdh \virra is the 
irregular future of voir^ to see]. 

19. Mettez cet'^habit (j^ /J-^^^"). 

20. Attendez^un moment {dt-tdng-day zeung ma-mdng) j je 
n'ai plus que ma cravate 4 mcttre. 

aK Mettez votre chapeau {vdt shd-pdft), 

22, Je mets mes bas (j^ may may bd/t). [yir mefs is the ir- 
regular present of me^/r^y 

23* Elle se met^avec beaucoup de goiit (*?// se may id*vik 
bdk'ko^ d^ g&u). 

24, Otez votre chapeau. 

25, Boutonnez votre'^habit {pot rd-bie), 

26, Unc boutonni^re de ce gilet est dMaite {baulSn-nyair 
de sS/ei-lay ay day-faii). 

27, Cet^habit vous va fort bien {vou vdhfdr byaing). 


28. Which shoemaker works for you {vous chausse or 
botte) at present {d pr^enf) ? 

29. These boots are too tight for me (= press me, me g^ 
nent or serrent). 

30. Will you try these boots? 

31. I cannot put (or get) them on. 

32. Stretch your leg out {allongez votre jambe)^ please. 

33. All right; now put your foot on the ground {par 

54. They are too tight on the instep (du cotcde-pied). 

35. You know {vou8 savez) the first time one tries on (on 

met) a pair of boots, the foot feels always a little 
tight {on a toujours le pied un pen gini). 

36. Yes, but they squeeze me {elles me serrent) too hard; 

I cannot walk with them {marcher avec). 

37. I prefer {faime mieux) you to make me another pair. 
[After aimsr mieux the Subjunctive has to follow.] 

38. Undress yourself. 

39. Take off your dress {or coat)« 

40. I must take off my dress. 

41. Undress (dkshabillez) this child. 

42. You are not yet half {d moitii) undressed. 

43. Hasten to undress yourself. 

44. He is taking his boots off. 

45* I shall not be long undressing. 


Quel cordonnier vous chausse k present (kilcdr-don- 

28. •{ nyeh vou shdss dhpray-zdng) ? 
Quel bottler vous botte main tenant {maingM-ndng) ? 

29. Ces bottes me genent \jane or serrcnt \sir]) beaucoup. 

30. Voulez-vous^essayer ces bottines {zi-say^yeh say bdU 
teen) ? 

31. Je ne peux pas les mettre. 

32. h\\Qn%tz yoU^ \^xs\iQ \d'long'jay vot jdng\ s'il vous 

33. Bicn, mettez le pied i^pyeK) par terre k present 

34. EUes me genent {jant) du coude-pied (coud-pyeK)^ 

35. La premiere fois qu*on met des bottes, comme vous 
savez, on^a toujours le pied un peu gen6 {li pyeh eung 
pen jay-nay), 

36. Oui, mais^elles me serrent trop (sir trdh\ je ne peux 
pas marcher avec {mdr-shay d-vek), 

37. J'aime mieux {m'yeu) que vous m'cn fassiez {mdng 
fds-yeh) une^autre paire, 

38. D^shabillez-vous (day-zd-bee-yeh vau). 

39. Otez votre^'habit. 

40. II faut que j'ote mon'^habit {eel fo ki joht m§n nd- 

41. D6$habillez cefl^enfant {day-zd-bee-yeh si tdng-fdng). 

42. Vous n'Stes pas'^encore k moiti6 d6shabill6 {dh nCwod" 
tyeh day-zd-bee-yeh), 

43. D6pechez-vous (or Hdiez-vous) de vous d6shabiller. 
j II tire {or II 6te) ses bottes {eel tier [dht] say bdt). 

"^^ ( II se d^botte. 

45. Je ne serai pas longtemps i me d^shabiller. 



46. Have you (got) a pin (une ipingle)? 

47. This bonnet (or hat) is very becoming {vous cotffe) 
to you. [0/ hats ^ bonnets^ <5r*^., the expression coiflTer 
is used in the sense of to be becoming ; but of dresses 
one sxys fairo or aller.] Compare phrase 27. 

48. I dress my hair(y6 me coiffe) to suit my own taste. 

49. This is a very fine hat, and it is quite fashionable {or 
quite the style [d la mode]). 

50. The shape {la forme) is rather large {un peu lar0). 

51. Are you done with your toilette? Is your Wette 
completed ? 

52. This dress is very becoming to you (or Its you 

very well). 

53. This dress fits you beautifully (vous aerr^ Hen) in 
the waist (la taille). 

^4. It is very well finished (or made). 

55. She is not very (tout-d-fait) fashionably drwjsed (ha- 
bill&e d la mode). 

56. I must go to this barber's (^r hairdresser's =5 joiffeur). 

57. To have your hair cut (faire couper les chtveux) or 
dressed (faire coiffer)} 

58. I must have my hair cut. 

59. He is shaving (il se fait la barbe). 

60. Shave me, please. 


46. Avez-vous'^unc ^pingle {dh-veh-vou zun nay-pain-gr) ? 

47. Ce chapeau vqus coiSe bien (si shd-poh voU k^wodj 

48. Je me coiffe si ma fa^on (^Jr i mon goflt) {j^ me k'wodf 
ah ma fd-song)^ 

49. C^est un cbapeau qui est tres-fin et trfes k la mode {say 
teung shdr-pdh kee ay trayfaing ay tray zah Idh mode), 

50. La forme en^est^un peu large. 

( V o t re t o i I ette e st - ell e fi n i e ( vot fwod-lH ay-Ull fee-nee )? 
^^ \ Avez-vous^acbeve votre toilette {zd-sh'vay vU Vwod* 

\ m) ? 

52, Cet^habit tous va fort bien. (Compare phrase 47.) 

53, Cet"^habit vous serre [or vous prend) bien la taiUe 

{si id^bee vou sirr \^prdng^ hyaing Idh td-yi), 

54, II est trds'bien fait. 

55. Elle n'est pas^habill^e tout-^-fait i la mode {Hi nay 
pah zd-bie-yeh tou-td-fay dh Idh mode), 

56. II faut que j'entre chez ce coiffeur {kH jdng-tr' shay si 

57. Pour vous faire cooper les cheveux, ou pour vous 
faire coiffer ? 

58. II faut que je me fasse couper les cheveux {cm%-peh lay 
shi-veu. ) 

59, n se fait la barbe, 

60, Rasez-moi. — VeuiEez me raser. 


6r. Take a seat (asseyez-vous^), please. 

62. Please raise (levez) your head a little. 

63. A little to this side, pray. 

64. Does the razor (le rasoir) hurt you {vousfait-ii ma/)y 
sir ? 

65. A little powder, sir ? 

66. Please {faites). 

67. Curl the hair, sir ? 

68. No, please. Comb it a little. 

69. Part my hair, please. 

70. Here you are, sir. Please pay at the office. 

I) Asseyez-Tous, dg seated^ is the imperative of the irregular 
verb s'asseoir {saS'STHoar), to sit down. It is conjugated in the follow- 
ing manner : 


Je m'assfeds (mds-syih), 

tu t'assieds (tds-syih), 

il s'assied (sds-syeh), 

nous nous asseyons {zdssayr 

vous vous asseyez (zas-say^yih), 
ils s'asseient (sds-say). 


Je m'assis {mds-see), 

tu t'assis (tds-see). 

il s'assit (sds-see), 

nous nous asstmes (zds-seem), 

vous vous assttes {zOs-seet). 

lis s'assirent (sdS'Seer). 


Je m*2issey2xs (mSs-say^yay), 
tu t'asseyais (tdssayyay), 
il s'asseyait {sds-say-yay). 
nous nous asseyions {zas-say^ 

vous vous asseyiez (zdS'Say-yi/A), 
ils 8*SiSseySLient(sdS'Say-yay), 


Je me suis assis (zds-se/), 

tu t'es assis (zds see), 

il s'est assis (tds-see). 

nous nous sommes assis (^o^-j/?) 

vous vous 6tes assis (zds-see), 

ils se sont assis (tds-see). 

Je m'assi^rai orje m'asseierai {rnds-sei-i-rih or mdssi-yi^rek). 
tu t'assi^ras or tu t'asseieras. 
il s'assi^ra or il s'asseiera. 


6i. Asseyez-vous * {ds-sey'yeK)y s*il vous plait. 

62. Levez^un peu la tete, s'il vous plait {li-veh zeung peU 
Idh fay/), 

63. Un peu de ce c6t6-ci, je vous pne {ding peu di si co-tay- 
see^jivau pree). 

64. Le rasoir (lirdh^z'wodr) vous fait-il mal, monsieur? 

65. Un peu de poudre de riz (pdo^dr' d^rie)y monsieur ? 
6(i. Faites (or Oui, s'il vous plait). 
67. Un coup ' de fer, monsieur {eung cou d^fir nCsyeuK) ? 
6%. Oh non, je vous^'en prie. Un coup de brosse, s'il 

vous plait (ji vou zang preej eung cou di bross, see vou 


69. Faites-mor la rale, s*il vous plait. 

70. VoilaL, monsieur. Au comptoir* s'il vous plait {oh 
cong'fwodr see vou play). 

nous nous assi^rons or nous nous asseierons. 
vous vous assi^rcz or vous vous asseierez. 
ils s'assi^ront or ils s'asseieront. 

Assieds-toi (ds-syeh iwodh). 
asseyons-nous (dS'Si-yong ftoO), 
asseyez-vous (&s-si yih vou). 

s'assevant {sd-si-ydng ). 
assis (dS'Sei). 

Pres, Subj, 

Que jc m'asseie {mds-sey), 

que tu t'asseies. 

qu'il 8*asseie. 

que nous nous asseyions. 

que vous vous a8se3riez, 

qu'ils asseient. 

2) Le coup {koa) means literally the blow, stroke, knock, and is 
used almost as frequently as the verb to fix by Americans. Thus 
we say in French: Uncoup de peigne {eang koa di-pin-yiX s'il vous 
plait, please comb my hair {literally : a stroke of tne comb. peigne\ 
Un coup de brosse, s'il vous platt, please brush my hair (= a stroke 
of the biush, brosse). — Donnez un coup de balai ^ cette chain bre (don" 
nih uUng koU d*bdlaydh sit shdng-br), sweep this room, please (=give 
a stroke of the broom \balat\ to this room), &c., &c. 

3) All the money is received in French shaving-saloons and 
in most other mercantile establishments by the dame du comptoir 
{ddhm du cong't*wodr\ lady-cashier. One pays for shaving by saying ; 
Une batbe ; for hair-cutting by saying : Une taille or Une coupe. 


Terms of Begret. 

1. I am sorry that.... 

2. I am very sorry for it 

3. I regret it exceedingly. 

4. I am very sorry to ... . 

S) in the world I could not 

5. With the best will 

do so. 

6. I could not do so, even if (quand m^me) I should 
like to. 

7. I am exceedingly sorry that I cannot render you this 

i) It will be observed that hardly any of these terms have 
been translated literally. The French are more polite — ^at least in 
expressions — than we are, and the French idioms must therefore 
be commiued to memory. 

2) The irregular verb vouloir {voU-P wodr), to be willing^ is thus 
conjugated : 

Je veux (veu). 
tu veux {veii), 
il veut (veu). 
nous voulons {voU-iong), 
vous voulez (voa-leh), 
ils veulent (veul). 

Je voiilai^, I was willing ; I de. 

^ired ; I wanted, 
tu voulais. 
il voulait. 
nous voulions. 
vous vouliez. 
ils voulaient. 


Form ales de regrets* 

1* Je suis fSch^ que {rviih the subjunctive mood following). 

Ten suis fach^. 

Cela me fait de la p>eine ( pain), 

J'en suis diSsol^ U^^S ^^^^ day-zd-lay), 

J*en suis au d^sespoir {oh day-sis-p^ wodr), {Literally : 
in despair). 

Je regrette beaucoup {or bien ; fort ; infiniment) que 
(with the subjunctive mood). 

Avec la meilleure volont6 du-monde jene nepourrais 
le faire {d-v^k Idh meyeur vo-long-tay du mongd). 
Je ne saurais le faire quand meme je le voudrais* {Ji 
ni so-ray li fair kdng maim ji U vou-dray), 
Je £uis au d^sespoir de ne pouvoir vous rendrece ser- 
vice {je s'wee oh day-zis-p'wodr di ni pou-v'wodr vou 
rdng-dr si sir-viise)» 



Je voudraL 

Je voudrais, I should like to ; I 

iu voudras. 

want to. 

iL voudra. 

tu voudrais. 

nous voudrons. 

il voudrait. 

vifus vouclrez. 

nous voudrions. 

lis voudront. 

vous voudriez. 

Suhj\ Pres, 

lis voudraient. 

Qpe je veuille {vfu-yiy 
que tu veuilles {vea^yi). 


qu'il veuiHe (z'^^r/). 

Veuillez {veii-yeh), be so kind as; 

que nous voulions {vi^u-iym^. 

will you please ? 

que vous vouliez {v&u-lyihy 
qu'iiBveuille oi (vrti-yi ). 



Beflectife Terbs. 

Verbs are called reflective or reflected because their 
Scoject and object are the same person or thing. The 
subject acts therefore upon itself, and is at the same time 
the agent and the object of the action. Reflected verbs 
have thtrrefore, besides the subject, always another per- 
sonal pronoun, viz., w^, /^, j^ (myself, thyself, himself, her- 
self, itsellX for the singular; nous^ vous^ ^e (ourselves, 
yourselves, themselves), for the plural. It frequently 
happens that; in English, this second pronoun is omitted, 
whereas it must be expressed in French. Ex,: to repent, 
se repentir ; Pres. I repent, je me repenSy &c. 

Observe that all reflected verbs, without exception, 
are conjugated with the auxiliary 6tre, as: I have hurt 
myself, y> me suis bless/^ and not je m*ai bless6. 

The conjugation of the following verb may serve a» a 
model /or all the reflected verbs. 

Se rfejonir (si ray-jou^eer)^ to rejoice, 


Present Tense, 
Je me r^jouis {je tni ray-jou-ee)^ I rejoice. 

tu te r6jouis, thoa rejoicest. 

11 (elle) se nvtjuu, he (she) rejoices. 


nous iious r^^jduissons {ray-jou-h-song), we rejoice, 

vous vous rejouissciii you rejoice. 

ils (elles) so rejouissent {ray-jou-U^y they rejoice. 

Je me r^jouissais {ray-joa-U'Say)^ I rejoiced, &c. 

Je me r^jouis {ray-j&u-ii)^ I rejoiced, &c, 

1^/ Future, 
Jc me r£jouirai {ray-Jeu-ei-reh), I shall rejoice, &c. 

ist Conditional, 
Je me r^jouirais {r^y'jm-ie'ray)^ I should rejoice, &c. 


R6joui£-toi, rejoice. 
r^JQuissons-nous, let us rejoice, 
r^jouisse^-vous, rejoice. 


Que je me r^jouisse {ray-jQU'is\ that I (may) rejoice, &c 

Que je me rejouisse(r£y^i?4^-/!y), that I (might) rejoice, &c. 

Sc (me, te, &c.) r^joulssam {ray-jou-is-sdng^ rejoicing. 



8'Stre r6joni, r6jonie (rayjau'ie), to have rejoiced. 

» Perfect, 

Je me zuis r6joui, -e (ray-jou-ee)^ I have rejoiced. 

tu Hes rejoui, -e {tu tay ray-jou-ee)^ thou hast rejoiced. 

il ^est rejoui, he has rejoiced. 

elle s'ent r6jouie, she has rejoiced. 

nous nous sommes r6jouis, -ies, we have rejoiced. , 

vous vous ites r6joui(s), -ie(s), you have rejoiced. 

ils se sont r6jouis, ) ^i_ u • • j 

•' v they have rejoiced. 

elles se sont r6jouies, J 


Je vcCetais rejoui, -e, I had rejoiced, 

tu >iUais r6joui, -e, thou hadst rejoiced, &c. 

Compound of the Preterite. 

Je me fiis rejoui, -e, I had rejoiced, 
tu te fus r6joui, -e, &c, 

2d Future 

Je me serai rejoui, -e, I shall have rejoiced, 
tu te seras r6joui, -e, &c. 

zd Conditional 

Je me serais r6joui, -e, I should have rejoiced, 
tu te seraia r6joui, -e, &c. 



Second Compound of the Preterite. 
Si je me funM rejoul, -e, if 1 had rejoiced, &c. 

Que je me mi% rf&jouU -e, that I (may) have rejoiced, 
que tu te mi}^ r^joui, -e, &c. 
qull se mil r^joul (qu'elle se mit r^jouie)^ &c. 

Que je me/W^^e, r^jouij -e, that I (might) have rejoiced. 
que tu te fusses rejoui, -e, &c. 

^'Hani {m'Uant^ &c.) r^joui, -c, having rejoiced. 

- ^ In question! 

se r^jouir is thus conjugated : 


Me r^jouiS'je [bitter : est-ce que Je me rejouis \ays k^ j^ 

me ray-joii-ec ])y do I rejoice? 
te rejouis-tu {or est-ce que tu te rejouis), dost thou rejoice ? 
se r^jou it'll {or est-ce qu'il se r^jouit) ? &.Q. 
nous r^jouissons-nous ? &c. 
vous r^jouissez-vous? &c. 
se rejouissent-iis (-eUcs) ? &c. 

Me suis»je n^joui^ -e, have I rejoiced f 
t'es-tu rejoui, -e^ hast thou rejoiced? 
s'est-il r^joui, has he rejoiced? 


nous sommes-nous r6jouis, -ies, have we rejoiced? 

vous ^tes-vous r^joui(s), -ie(s), have you rejoiced? 

se sont-ils r6jouis, ) 

^ ,, .. . > have they rejoiced ? 
se sont-elies rejouies, ) j * 

With the negation. 


Je ne me rejouis pas, I do not rejoice, 
tu ne te r£jouis pa$, do. 

il (elle) ne se f 6jouit pas, do. 

nous ne nous r6jouissons pas, do. 
vous ne vous r6jouissez pas, do. 
lis (elles) ne se r£jouissent pas. 


Ne te rejouis pas, do not rejoice. 

ne nous r6jouissons pas, let its not rejoice. 

ne vous r6jouissez pas, do not rejoice. 


Je ne me suis pas r6joui, -e, I have not rejoiced. 

tu ne t*es pas r6joui, -e, &c. 

il (elle) ne s'est pas r6joui, -e, &c. 

nous ne nous sommes pas r6jouis, -ies, we have not re- 

vous ne vous etes pas r6jouis(s), ie(s), &c. 

lis (elles) ne se sont pas r£jouis, -ies, &c. 


Ne pas se r6jouir, not to rejoice, 

ne pas s'etre r6joui, -e, not to have rejoiced. 


With ti«g«tiaii aiui Laterrogatioii* 

Ne me rdjouis-je pas ? or 

?• do I not rejoice ? 

Est-ce que je ne me rejouis pas ? 

ne te r^jouis-tu pas? dost thou not rejoice ? 

ne se r^jouit-il pas? does he not rejoice ? &c. 


Ne me suis*je pas rdjoui, -c? have I not rejoiced? 

ne t'eS'tu pas rdjoui ? -e, &c. 

ne s'est-il (-clle) pas rejoui, -e ? &c. 

ne nous sommcs-nous pas rejouis, -ies? &c. 

ne vous etes-vous pas rejoui (s), -ie(s)? &c. 

ne se soat*ils (elles) pas rejouis, -ies ? &c. 


i) A great many verbs having no reflective pronouns 
in English are reflected in French. The following are 
most commonly used : 

Regular reJlecUm verbs of the 1st Conj. 

S*afflEger (sd-^/i-JiA), to be sorry- 
a'approcher {sd-prt^sMih)t to come 

ft'arrfitcr Uilr-ray-tih)^ to atop, 
se baisser (^ai>. j/A), to sloop- 
se couchcr (eou-^hih), to go to 

ie fier (f/i/A), to trust, 
tthguTex{/i^gii-r/A)f ) to fancy, 
i'imagincr {j//-wr(f /r/' r to 

HM)t * imagine. 

se hftter, to make haste, 
se lever, to rise, to get up. 
10 roarier, (mdr-yih), to marry, 
se d6pScher {day pays hi h\ to 

make haste, 
s^^crier {say'krii'ih\ to exclaim, 

to cry out. 
I'enrhumer {sdng-ril-tnelC)^ to 

take cold. 
s'6tonner {say-td-nih\ to wonder. 
B*6veiller (say-vi-yih)^ to awake. 


se iDoquer {md kih), to inock,scofiI 
se promener, to take a walk 
se reposer, to rest. 
se soucier (sou'syeh)^ to care. 

se troroper {trong-peK), to be mis^ 

se vanter {;vdng iih), to boast. 


I rise, I get up, je me 16ve. — Get up, levez vousi 

I have risen or got up, je me suis lev6. 

We have stopped, nous nous sommes^ari^t6s, &c. 

2. Observe also these expressions : 

How are you ? comment vous portez-vous ? 

I am well, je me porte bien. 

I am mistaken, je me trompe (trongp), 

I have been mistaken, je me suis tromp6. 

He is silent, 11 se tait (tay). Be still ! taisez-youf ! 


Impersonal Tevbs. 

1. In every language there are some verbs which are 
only used in the third person singular. They are called 
impersonal verbs. Their compound tenses in French are 
formed by means of the auxiliary avoir. Such are : 
Neiger (nay jay), to snow ; Pres. il neige, it snows. 

XiXexxwow {pleU'V' wodr\ to rain ; 
greler, to hail ; 
tonner, to thunder; 
geler (jileh), to freeze ; 
d^geler (day-fi-ieh), to thaw ; 

importer {aing-por-teh), to matter ; 

il pleut, it rains. 

il grele, it hails. 

il tonne, it thunders. 

il g^le {jail), it freezes. 

il d6gdle (day-jail), it 

il Importe (aingporl), it 



Some other verbs become impersonal, when em- 
ploy ed in the same manner, viz., in the third person 

' Examples. 

n ^Mf&i {sUf^f a jt it suffices. 
11 senible {sdng-bt\ n seems. 
11 vaui mieux {vdh myeU), it is 

il mc tarde, T long, 
il manque {mdn^k)^ it wants* 
il s'agit {sd-jii)i\i Is chc question. 

il convient, {fong-vyaing)^ it is 

il arrive (ar-reev), it happens. 

il reste, there remains. 

il ne tient pas^4 moi (/// nityain^ 
pah zdh m'wodh), it does not de- 
pend on me. 

Important Bemark 

The Subjumtive Mood with que must always be used al- 
ter the following impersonal verbs and expressions : 

U convient {kongvyaing)^ it is 

il faut, it is necessarjr, 
il Jmporte {amg^^dri), it is im- 

portanif it matters, it concerns. 
U suffit {sUf-fii), it is sufficient. 
U vaut mieux {voh-m'ym), il is 


And also after; 

n est ficheux {fdhsheH), it il 

il est temps (tdng\ it is time, 
il est juste {jUst), it is just, right, 
il est difficile (dif-feesiel), it is 

il est possible {pos-sie-bl)^ it is a 

matter of course, it is possible, 
il se peut, it may be. 
c*est dommage (dom-mdksh\ it is 

a pity, 
c'est^un malheur (say feting mdhU 

eut), it is a misfortune. 



II faut que TOnfl le fassiez tout de suite (/ds-syik toat s*w?it\. You 

must do it at once. 
// impotti beaucoup qae Tons J SOjei (/// aing-pdrt bdh^koo ki voa 

tie iwoih-yih). It is of great coniequence that you should be 

II faudrait^ pour vout donner des conseils (day congk-si-yi), que Je 

etmnaMe vos affaires {ki ji con^nuss vdh zdf-fair). In order to 

give you some advice {des conseiL), it would be necessary to 

know your affairs. 
// suffit que Tons le dMei {deezyeh). It is sufficient that you 

say so. 
// ist possible {foS'Sii-bV) qu'il rerteuBe ^ sept heures (ri-vyin dk 

sit t€ur). He may possibly come back at 7 o'clock. 

Translate the following 


into English and, then again, without assistance of the 
book, into French : 

Au hureatu 


Veuillez faire le compte-courant (Id congt cofl-rangt:= 
the account) ^e^, etCit, — II est d6j4 fait, monsieur. 
Apr^s deduction (day-diic-^yong) faite de leurs factures 
(fac-tiir = accounts) et de leur d-coiiipte {x>n account pay* 
ment\ il nous revient (r6-vyaing = there comes to us) en- 


core mille francs. Its proposent (prd-p5z) de nous re- 
mettre un billet 4 trois mois {a three months' note). — Mais 
ce sont des d6bours6s (cash expenses). lis auraient du 
(past part, of devoir) les compter {cong-tBh ^ pay) depuis 
longtemps. lis ont beaucoup perdu (lost) dans la fail- 
lite (iSi'yeBt=/at7ure) de D. et Cie., mais la maison jouit 
(^^<^x) d'une tr^s-bonne r6putation (ray-pii-ta-syong) et 
a toujours pay6 bien ponctuelletnent (pong-tU-ifl-l^-mang 
^=z punctually). — Eh bien! en leur envoyant Textrait 
(statement) de leur compte (cLccount\ 6crivez-leur {^rite to 
them) que nous ne pouvons leur accorder trois mois, mais 
que nous disposerons sur eux (jve will draw on them) k 
coixante jours. 


Voulez-vous me dire \ combien se monte (mohgt = amounts) 
mon compte? Je vais vous le solder (pay), — Le voici ; il 
se monte k cinq mille trois cent trente-huit francs. — Voulez- 
vous Tacquitter (la-kit-tay = to receipt)! Voici cinq mille 
francs en or ; vous pouvez verifier (vay-ree-fyeh = verify) les 
rouleaux (rou-l5h = rolls,) Pour ce qui reste (for the rest ; 
remainder), vous m*obligeriez si vous vouliez me prendre ce 
billet-A-ordre (note). — Quand est-il payable (pay-ya-bl*)? — 
Dans un mois. — Tenez, voyez ! * Au quinze juillet prochain 
(pro-shaing = next) je paierai d monsieur La E'ue, ou d son 
ordre, la somme de trois cent quarante francs, valeur (va-leur 
= value) re^ue comptant, Paris, le treize Avril 1882.* — Quel 
est ce nom-14. — Je ne connais pas le souscripteur (sou-scrip- 
teiir = maker), mais les endosseurs (lay-zang-do-seur = the 


indorsers) sont bons. — Je n'aimerais pas fetre oblig^ de le 
faire protester. 


The pupil must put all the verbs xnitalicsxvi their tense 
and person : 


Je {se f rapper), — Nous {se rendre), — ^ Vous (se tromper). — lis {se 
r^jouir), —11 (s*arriUr\ — Vous {st difpicher\ — Nous {fdtontur). — 
Vous {s*enrhumet\ 


Elle ($e d§uUr\ — Vous {se tromper). — lis {se nourrir), — Elle {se 
nommer). — Elles {se r^jouir), — Nous {se flatter). — Vous (s^imaginer). 
— Elle {se promener), — Je {se vanter), — Elle {se hdter), — Vous {se ma- 
tier), — Nous {se lever). 

Negative — Interrogative, Perfect, 

Tu {s*/garer)l — l{{s*avancer)7 — E\\€^{s*enricAt'r)7 — Nous {s*ar- 
r^ter) ? — Vous {se tremper) ? — lis {se fdcher) ? — Elles {se moquer)! 
Nous {se fier) ? — Je {se Jigurer)! — Elles {se reposer)} 

Negative, Present. 

Je {se nommer). — II {se tromper), — Tu {s* adresser), — Elle {se rendre), 
— Nous {se flatter). — Vous {se bldmer). — lis {se baisset). — Elles {se r/- 
fauir). — Tu {s'enrAumer), — Nous {se coucher\ — Vous {s*/ttmner\ — 
lis {s'/veiller), — Elles {s*Uner). — Tu {se d^chsr). 

^kt ^m^r$#ft-|fl$t([m, 

b'KEiN CH. 

rART Ai. 



To Ask and Answer. 

1. Who is there? 

2. Who are you ? 

3. To whom have I the Honor to speak ? 

4. What is your name ? My name is G amier. {Literaify : 
I call myself Gamier.) 

5. What is it you want * ( )^ nat Go t^c want ?) 

6. What do you desire ? 

7. I want to speak to 3'cu. 

8. I have something to say to yoti. (I must tell you 

9. Do you know me ? — I have not the honor of knowing 

I a Listen to me. — I am listening to you. 

11. Do you understand me? — I do not understand yon. 
— I did not understand you. 

12. Why do you not answer? 

13. I did not quite understand. (I did not hear well.) 

14. I beg your pardon, sir ? 




Pm»* Questwnner et R&pondre {kM-yon^niA ay ray^ 

I. Qui est \^ {kei ay Idh) ? 
z. Qui etes-vous ? 

3, A qiii ai'je Thonneur de parler {ah kei ai^jHon-neur di 

4, Com men t vo u s^appelez-vou s {kom-mdng vou zap-pi-lih 
V0u) ? Je m'appelle Garnier. 

5, Qlig voulez-vous? 

6, Q ue d 4 si rez- vou s (^ day-zee-reh- vou) ? 

7, J*ai besoin {be-zo-atnq) de vous parler. 

S. J'ai quelque chose i vous dire (Jay kil-ke shohs ah vou 

9. Me connaissez-vous ? Je n'ai pas Thonneur de vous 
connattre {mi ^d-nais-seh-vou t ji nay pah lon-neur di 
vtfu con-nay-tr)^ 
fo. Ecoutez-moi, — Je vous^6coute {ay-cou-teh m*wodh ; 

ji vou zay-€Out\ /- 

I r. Me cumprenez-vous ? — Je ne vous comprends {contf- 
prdffg) pas. Je ne vous^ai pas compris {cong-prie), 

12, Pourquoi ne repondez vous pas {ray-pong- deh-vou 
pah) ? 

13, J'avais mal entendu {mdh idng-tdng-du). 

14, V\z\t-\\{play^Uei)} 


15. What do you mean ? 

16. Come nearer (= approach, approchez) ; I have some- 
thing to say to you. 

17. I have to tell you some little thing (= word, mot). 

18. What can I do for you ? 

19. Can I do anything for you ? 

20. Do you understand ? 

21. Do you understand me? 

22. Do you understand me now {maintenant) ? 

23. I understand you very well {fort Hen). 

24. Do you understand what I am telling you ? 

25. What do you say {or What are you saying) ? 

26. What in the world do you mean {or What is that you 
are saying) ? 

27. What did you say ? ' 

28. I did not say anything. 

29. Do you understand what I say ? 

30. Will you please repeat it ? 

31. Will you have the kindness to repeat it ? 

32b Did you not tell me that. . . . {or Have you not tolcP 
me that....) ? 

33. Who told you that {cela) ? 

34. Who in the world has told you that? 

35. I have been told so (= One has told it me). 

36. Somebody told me so. 

37. I have heard it said. 

\^--^-- ■ *^ — 


15. Que voulez-vous dire (deer) ? 

16. Approchez (ap-prO'Sheh) ; j'ai quelque chose 4 vous 
dire (kii-kS shohs ah vou deer). 

17. J'ai un petit mot {^p'tee moh) i vous dire {deer). 

18. Qu'y a-t-il pour votre service (Jue ah teel pour vot sir- 
V€€s) ? Or : Que puis-je faire pour vous? 

19. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a (kayskeei ee-dh) pour votre service ? 

20. Entendez-vous (ang-tdng-deh-vou) ? 

21. M*entehdez-vous {mdng-tdng-deh-vou)} 

22. M*entendez-vous maintenant (maing-t^-ndng) } 

33. Je vous^entends fort bien (/<? vou zdng-tdng fohr by^ 

24. Entendez-vous ce que je dis {s^ ki ji dee) ? 

25. Que dites-vous {k^ deet-vou) ? 

26. Qu'est-ce que vous dites (kays-ki vou diet) ? 

27. Qu*avez-vous dit {kdh-veh vou dee)} 

28. Je n'ai rien dit {ji nay reeaing dee). 

29. Comprenez-vous ce que je dis (congprS-neh-voU sif ki 
ji dee) ? . 

30. Voulez-vous bien r6p6ter {byaing ray-pay-teh) ? 

31. Voulez-vous^'avoir la bonte de r6p6ter (zd^v^wodr Idh 
bong'tay de ray-pay-teh) ? 

32. Ne m'avez-vous pas dit que. . . .? 

33. Qui vous^a dit cela {kee vou zdh dee si-ldh) ? 

34. Qui est-ce qui vous^a dit cela {kee ays kie vaU zdh dee 

35. On me I'a dit (png mi Idh dee). 

36. Quelqu'un {kil-keung) me Pa dit. 

37. Je I'ai entendu dire [ji lay dng-tdng-dii deer). 


38. How do you call this? 

39. How is this called ? 

40. That is called. . • • 

41. That is called. . . • 

42. May I ask you ? {or May I inquire of you ? or May I 
beg you) ? 

43. What is it ? 

44. What is the use of that ? 

45. What is this? 

46. What does that mean (= What will this afiy)? 

To Affirm or Deny. ^ 

1. I say yes. 

2. I say no. 

3. I tell you that.... 

4. I assure you that .... 

5. I tell you it is true. 

6. It is certain. 

7. It is a fact. 

8. I warrant it {or I guarantee it). 

9. I guarantee you the fact. 

I) il seri is the third person singular of the irregular present ot 




j On app 

38, Commcnt^appelez-vous cela {kdm-fnang tdp-pi-leh voU 

ildh) ? 
39» Comment cela s'appelle-t-il {kdm-mdng s*ldh sdp-pH- 

appelle ceU . 
41. C'est ce qu*Qn nomme (says-kong nSm), 
" Puis-je vous demander ? 
Oserais-je vous demander ? 
Oserais*jc vous prier (prii^iK)} 
t Peut-on vous demander ? 
43* Qu*cst-ce que c'est (kays-ki say)} 
44. A quo! cela sert-il ? * 

( Qu'est-ce que cela {kays-ki s^ldh) ? 
' 1 Qu'cst-ce que c'est que cela (kays-ki say ki ^idh)} 
46. Qu'est"Ce que cela vcut dire ? 


Pour Affirmer ou Mer. 

Je dis que oui {j^ dee ki ou-ee). 
Je dis que non« 
Je vous dis que.... 

Je vous^ssure que (ji van zds-sUr ^/ ) . • • • 
Jc vous dis que c'est vrai {ki say vray). 
fi. Cela est certain {cir-taingy 

7, C'est^un fait {say teung fay). 

8, Je vous le garantis {gd-rdng-tee). 

9, Je vous garantis le fait. 

Jc scrs, tu sere, il scrt nous servons. 

iervir, tO serre, to help. Pres. 
vous Hcrvez, ill fterveDi {sirv). 


10. I suppose so. 

11. I do not suppose so. . 

12. I fancy so. 

13. You can easily conceive {or understand) that. 

14. Do you think so ? 

15. I do not think so. 

16. I don't know what you mean. 

17. Is it true that....? 

18. Yes, it is certain. 

19. I answer for it. 

20. I am certain of it. 

21. I am sure of it. 

22. You may be convinced of it. 

23. You may believe me as to that {en). 

24. I can assure you of it. 

25. It cannot be true. 

i) The pupil must learn the irre^lar verb 9B,'70\t (jd-vwodrS, to 


Je sais(j'<zy). 

tu sais (say), 

il sait (say), 

nous Savons (sdh-vong), 

vous savez (sdhveh), 

ils savent (sdhv). 


Je savais. 
tu savais. 
il savait. 
nous savions. 
vous saviez. 
ils savaient. 


Je sus (sH), 

tu sus. 

il sut. 

nous s^mes (sUm), 

vous s(ites (silt), 

ils surent (siir). 


Je saurai (sdhriK), 
tu sauras (soh-rd), 
il saura (sdh-rd), 
nous szvixons (sdh-rong)m 
vous saurez {sdh-rehV 
ils sauront (soh^rcng^. 


10. Je suppose que oui {jl! sup-poz hi ou^e). 

11. Je suppose que non (ji siippoz ki nong), 

12. J* imagine {jee-md-jSen) que oui. 

13. Vous comprenez facilement que {fd'See-le-mdng) .... 

14. Le pen sez- vous (// pdng-seh vou) ? 

15. Je ne le pense pas. 

16. Je ne sais ' ce que vous voulez dire (// ni say s*ki vou 
vou'leh deer). 

1 7. Est-il vrai que (ay-teel vray ki) 

18. Oui, cela est certain {cer-taing). 

19. Je vous^en r6ponds (// vou zdng ray-pong), 

20. J'en suis certain {jdng s'wee cir-taing), 

21. J 'en suis siir i^jdng s*wee sur). 

22. Soyez^en bien persuade {s'wodh-yeh zdng byaing pir^ 

23. Vous pouvez ' m'en croire {mdng krodr\ 
24- Je puis* vous Tassurer {Ids-su-reh), 

25. Cela ne peut *^6tre vrai {s*idh ni peu taytn* vray). 

Je saurais. 
tu saurais. 
11 saurait. 
nous saurions. 
vous sauriez. 
lis sauraient 


Subj, Pres. 
Que je sache {sash), 
que tu saches {s&sK). 
qu'il sacbe (sdsH), 
que nous sachions (sd-shyong). 
que vous sachtez {sd-shyik), 
qu*iis sachent {sash), 

Sachant (sdh-shdng). 
s<i {sU), 

2) Pouvoir, to be able. Part. Pres.: pouvant.^/*tfr/. past.: pu — 
Present : Je peux (or je puis), {puis is only used in the first person 
sing. / cannot is mostly expressed by je ne puis (without pas) or by 
je ne peux pas\ lu peux, il peut, nous pouvons, vous pouvez, ils 
peuvent. — Imperfect.: Je pouvais, tu pouvais, &.c.-^Pret,: Je pus, tu 
pus, il put, nous p&mes, vous p&ies, ils purent (pUr), — Fut. : Je 
pourrai, tu pourras, il pourra, nous pourrons, vous pourrez, ils 
pourront. — Comiit. : Je pourrais, tu pourrais, il pourrait, &c. — Sub- 
junct.:^ Que je puisse, que tu puisses, qu'il puisse, que nous puis- 
sions, que vous puissiez, qu'ils puissent {pU-is). 


26. That is true (= That's the truth). 

27. I assure you it is so. 

28. It cannot be. (It is impossible.) 

29. I assure you it is not so. 

30. You are right. 

31. You are wrong. 

32. There is no doubt of it. 

33. Every one will tell you sa 

34. Upon my word of honor ! 

35. That is a matter of course. 

36. I can hardly believe you. 

37. I do not know anything about it. 

38. There is nothing in it. 

39. Are you in earnest ? 

40. Are you- talking seriously ? 

41. Are you not mistaken ? 

42. I see I am mistaken. 

43. Is not this an error {or mistake) ? 

44. I doubt it. 

45. You are jesting {or joking). 

46. That is incredible. 

47. You are altogether wrong. 

48. Some one has imposed upon you. 

1) Dire, to say; to tell. — Part prts.: disant (dii-tSng), — Part. 
past. : dit. — Pres,: Je dis, tu dis, il dit, nous disons, vous dites^ ils 
disent (^/A). — Imperf, : Je disais, tu disais, &c. — Pnt. : Je dis (die^ 



26. C*est la y^TilL 

27. Je vous^assure qu*il en^est^ainsi {j7 vou zds-sur keel 
dng nay-tmng'See). 

2& Cela ne se peut pas ! 

29. Je vous^assure que non (ji vou zds-siir ke nong). 

30. Vous_ave2 raison {ray-zong), 

3 1 . Vous_aver tort {tor), 

32. II n y a pas dc doiite {dddt\ 

^^^ Tout le monde vous le dira * {dee-rdh), 

34, D'honneur {pr Sur mon^honneur, or Ma parole 

d*honneur) I 
^^. Cek s'eatend (s'la sdng-tdng) {or Cast bien^entendu 

{byaing nang-tang-du) , Or: Cela va sans dire. 

36. J'ai de la p^me h. vous croire. 

37. Je n'en sais rien (ree-amg), 

38. II n'en^est nen ( ee/ nang-nay ree-atng)^ 

39. Est-ce pour tout de bon? 

40. Parlez-vous serieusement {say-ree'eu-zi-mdng). 

41. Ne vous trompez-vous pas {ni vou trong-peh voU 
pah) ? 

42. Je vois {ji v*wod/t) que je me suis tromp6. 

43. N*est-ce pas^une^erreur {naysipdh zun nir-reur) ? 
44- J* en doute {jdng doot), 

45. Vous plalsantez {piay-zdng-ieh). 

46. Cestui ncroyable {say taing-krodh-ydbt), 

47. Vous^etes dans la plus profonde^erreur {pro-fong- 

48. On vous^en^a impose {ong vou zdng-ndh-aing-po-zay). 

tu dis, il d\U nous dimes {deim), vous dttes. ils dirent {diir). — Fut: 
Je dirai {dii-rih\ to diras, &c. — Subjunct: Que je disc (<///«), &c. — 
SuhJ. Jmp, : Que je dissc {dis)^ &c. — Imperative : Dis, disons, dites. 


This Irish waiter looked as if he had had a 

drop too much, when he came to take my letters 
to the post-oflBce. 

This Irish waiter looked as if he had had a 
drop too much. 


waiter (boy; bachelor) 



the look (the air ; the melody) 

of having* 

i) Before a masculine noun which begins with a vo7vei or h mute, 
cfi is used instead of ce. Ex.; cet^enfant {se tan^-fdh^\ this child ; 
cef'homme {si tdm) this man : cel^arbre {si tarbr), this tree. In the 
plural there is no difference. Ex.: ces.^enfants {say zang-fdng\ these 
children ; ces^^hommes (say zdtn\ these men. 


Ce gargon irlattdals arait I'air d'avoir trap 

s^ g^rsong iMlng-day a-vay layr da-^VoXr UQh 

bUj lor^qaHl est vemi chercher men lettres^ pour 

bH lors^k£6l ay ve-nU sb^r-shay may l^ttr* poQr 

les mettre h la poste. 

lay m&tt-r^ Ifth pOst, 


Ce gar eon irlandais aratt Pair d'aroir trop bn. 

sC g^r-song Ir-lSAg-day t-vay layr d^v^wo^r tiQh bd* 
Ce* {se) (firm, ceuc ; /Aw. ccs, these) 

garden (^dr-s&f^) 
irlandais {^r-ldfjg-day) 
avait {d-vay) 
l*air (/(yr) (w.) 
d*avoir' {tid-v^wffdr) 

a) ExpressiDDs Fiirh as : ihe desrre of strhtg yon, ilie honor ^/ 
i:no7mn^ her, iS:c must be ri^ndrrcd ^*y O^e In^niihe imfh d^,\,^, le 
d^sir d'^ vQiis voir, rhoTrneiir ^Z*- la conttailr^, 1] e^t ^e^/^^;*sf f^V J^iffir, \X 
is time to start ; 11 avait I'air tTflTwrtrop bu ; Jai Thonncur i/^ vous 


too much 


Why do yotf look so angry ? {Literally : Why have 
you the look of such bad humor {de si mauvaise 
humeur) ? 

Mrs. N. looked very angry when (lorsque) I told her 
that he would not come {qu*tl ne viendrait*jms). 

i) Boire (6'ztwdr), to drink, is an irregular verb. 



Je bois {p'wTaH), 

Je bus. 

tu bots. 

tu bus. 

il boiu 

ii but. 

nous buvons {bU-vong), 

nous biiraes (bUm), 

vous buve%. 

vous b&tes (bat). 

lis boivent (b*wodv). 

iisburent (bar). 


Subj, Pre.ent. 

Je buvais. 

Que je boive. 

tu buvais. 

que tu boives. 

ii buvait. 

qu'il boive. 

nous buvions. 

que nous buvions. 

vous buviez. 

que vous buviez. 

ils buvaient. 

quMls l»oivent. 



Je boirai. 


tu boiras. 


il boira. 


nous boirons. 


vous boirez. 


ils boiront. 


nier), to come, is thus conjugated 



Je viens (vyaing). 

Je vins (vaing). 

tu viens. 

tu vins (vaing). 

il vient. 

il vint (vaing). 

nous venons (vi-nong). 

nous vlnmes (vaingm). 

vous venez. 

vous vtntes (vaingt). 

ils viennent (vyin). 

ils vinrcnt (vatngr). 


trop {^raA) 

bu * (^fif) {Farh^. pasi of the irregular verb baire {b'woir) to drink). 

i< Pourquoi avez-vous Tair de si mauvaise humeur (di 
see md-z'a}$€ U-meur) f 

3. Madame N. avait Tair de trds mauvaise humeur^ lors- 
que jc lui a! dit, qu*il ne viendrait* ^2is{ke^l ni tfyaing- 
dray pdh)> 

Je venats, 
tu vcnais. 
il venaiL 
nous vent on a^ 
vous veniez. 
lis venaient. 

Perfect . 
Je tnis vena, I hare come^ 
tti es renu, &c. 
n est vcnu, &c* 

Je vieodrai. 
fu vicndras. 
il viendra. 
fious viendrons. 
V0U5 viendreK. 
lis viendront* 

viens i,py<iing\. 

Je viendrais {yyaing-dray\ 
tu viendrais. 
il viendrait. 
nous viendrions. 
vous viendriez. 
ils viendraient. 

Suhj, Pres^ 
Que je v'enne \vyin^ 
que tu viennes. 
qu'il vienne. 
que nous venions, 
que vous veniez. 
qu'ils viennent {vyin). 

Sub. Impfrf, 
Que je vinsse (vaings)^ 
que tu vinsses. 
qu'il Ttnt. 
que nous vinssions, 
que vous vinssiez. 
qu'il 8 vinssent. 

venant {vi-ndng). 


venu (vi-nii). 

In the same manner are con jugated : convenir^kdng-vi'neir), to agree, 
to suit ; tiiiisnir, to become : parvenir^ to attain, to reach ; pr/venir^ to 
be beforehand with, to inform ; se souvenir ^ to remember (je me sou- 
viens IsoU-'uyaingX I remember); revenir, to come back, to return 
(eel a me rovieni 4 I 'esprit \/ldh miri-vyaing ah lis-prei], there occurs 
to me). 



Exercises and Words used in Common Conversation. 

Conjugation of 8 'en aller, to go away. 

I give the conjugation of the irregular reflective verb 
S'enaller, to go away, on account of its difficulty to Eng- 
lish students. Observe that en is never separated Irora 
the reflective personal pronouns m\ t\ s\ nous, vousy s\ 
This is especially noticeable in the compound tenses, 
viz. : Je m^en suis all^, &c. 

Je m'en vais {j'i mdng vay). Je ne m'en vais pas {je ni 

mdng vay pah). 
tu t'en vas {tii tang vdh). tu ne t'en vas pas. 

il s'en va {eel sang vdh), il ne s'en va pas. 

nous nous en allons {nou- nous ne nous en allons pas. 

vous vous en allez (vou-vou- vous ne vous en allez pas. 

ils s'en vont (eel sdng vong). ils ne s'cn vont pas. 


Je m*en allais [je mdng-ndh- Je ne m*en allais pas. 



Te m'en allai {Ji mdng-ndh^ Je ne m'eo allai pas. 


Je m'en suig all^ {^ji niang Je ne in*en suis pas aU6. 

s^wie zdh-lay\ 

\w t'en es alle. tu ne t'en es pas alld, 

il s'en est all^ il ne s*en est pas all^. 

nous nous en sommes alles nous ne nous en sommea 

{nau^nou-zdng sdm zdh-lay)^ pas alles. 

vous vous en Stes all^s. vous ne vous en ^tes pas 


lis s*en sont all^s. ils ne s'en sent pas all^& 

Te m'en ^tais all6» Je ne m'en <§tais pas all^. 

%d Pluperfect. 
Je ni'en fus all 6, l^ r^e m'en fus pas all 6, 

Je m'en irai- Je ne m'en irai pas. 

^d Future i, 
Je m'en serai alle. Je ne m'en serai pas all^. 


Vat'en. Ne ten va pas. 

(qu'il s'en atlle.) {qu'il ne s'en aille pas.) 

allons-noiis^en. ne nous en allons pas. 

allez-voiis-en. ne vous en allcis pas. 

(qu'ils s'en aillent.) (quells ne s'en ail lent pas.) 



M'en vais-je? 

t'en vas-tu ? 

s'en va-t-il ? 

nous en allons-nous? 

vous en allez-vous ? 

s'en vont-ils ? 

M*en allais-je ? 
M'en allai-je ? 



Ne m'en vais-je pas ? 

ne t'en vas-tu pas ? 

ne s'en va-t-il pas ? 

ne nous en allons-nous pas ? 

ne vous en allez-vous pas ? 

ne s'en vont-ils pas ? 


Ne m'en allais-je pas ? 


Ne m'en allai-je pas ? 

M'en suis-je alle ? 
t'en es-tu all6 ? 
s'en est-il all6? 


Ne m'en suis-je pas all6 ? 
ne t'en es-tu pas all6 ? 
ne s'en est-il pas all6 ? 
nous en sommes-nous al- ne nous en sommes-nous 

16s ? pas all6s ? 

vous en £tes-vous all6s ? ne vous en 6tes-vous pas 

s'en sont-ils all6s ? ne s'en sont-ils pas all6s ? 

M'en 6tais-je all6 ? Ne m'en 6tais-je pas all6 ? 

2d Pluperfect, 
M'en fus-je all6 ? Ne m'en fus-je pas all6 ? 


M'en irai-je? 

M'ea serai-je all^? 


Ne m'ea irai-je pas f 
2d FiUurt, 

Ne m'en serai- j€ pas alld ? 


CmU du Restaurant 

1. Potages. 

Un consommtj hecf soup. 

uae julienne {JUt-^iH)^ Julienne. 

2, Voissou^ {p^wod-song) (m, 

Le saumon (sdk-m^ng)^ salmon. 

la sole, sole. 

une Iruite (ttU-iie)t trout. 

un hareng (a^-rutff^)^ herring. 

une anguille {dng^-^hii-yi), eeL 

un hontard {^mar\ lobster* 

3- Boeuf (^i^) (m.)* 

le biftek, ) 

le beefsteak, ( 

un beersteak i rangUfse, beef* 

bieo cuLt {byaing-k' wii)t well- 

4* Mouton {mSd-timg) (m.)* 

une c6telette, cutlet ; chop. 

un gigot U^i-g&h), teg of mutton. 


Bill of Fare. 
un potage au riz {ri/)^ rice-son p. 
un potage an vermicellCi Ver- 
micelli soup., 

pL). Fish. 

un turbot (^i/r-jd), tnrbot. 

]e maquereau {mdki-rdk\ mack- 

nn homard en flatade^ lobster- 

le brochet {b^^jhih), pike. 

dei hvilit^%{day s'7^i-fr), oysters, 


saignant (s/a-ydftg\ rare, 

le filet (///-///*), fillet. 

un filet aux truffes {0A hUlJf), 

fillet with truffles. 
un rosbif aux pommes {dh pdm)^ 

roast'beef and potatoes. 


un filet de mouton {mod~iimg\ 


5- Veau {vdh) (f.). 

une c6telette, cutlet. 

des rognons {rdnyong), kidneys. 

6. Volaille (vo-ld-yi) (m.). 
un chapon (shd-pong), capon, 
un poulet (pou-lay)^ chicken, 
un poulet en mayonnaise. Ma- 
yonnaise of chicken, 
un pigeon {pii'jong\ pigeon. 

un ris de veau (z/^A)» sweet-bread. 


un poulet en salade {sd'ldhd\ 

un caneton {kdhni'tong)^ duck, 
une oie {o-dk^ goose, 
un dindon (daing-dong), turkey. 

un filet Aec\kevte\x\\(shi-vrni'yi)t 

7. Gibier {jee-byeh) (m.). 

une perdrix (pir-drie)^ partridge. 

une caiile {kd-yi\ quail. venison. 

8. Patisseries {pdh-Hssi-ree) (f. pi.). Pastry. 

un p4t6 chaud de legumes {lay'gUm\ hot vegetable pie. 

i Pit6 de foies gras. 
un pat6 de foies gras, < 

9. Salades {sd-ldhd) (f. pi.), 
une salade de c61eri, celery sal- 
une laitue {lay-tU), lettuce-salad. 

goose-liver pastry. 


une salade de concombres (cong' 

congb'r)t cucumber-salad, 
du cresson {cri'Song\ cresses. 

10. L6gumes (lay-giim) (m. pi.). 


des^asperges {day %ds-pirj€) (f.), 

des petits pois {p^ivodh), (au 

beurre), green peas, 
des'^artichauts frits {day zdrtii 

sho free\ artichokes (fried), 
des'^haricots verts {day-zdr^rei-coh 

vayr)^ French beans, 
des choux-fleurS {shoo-Jleitr) (m.), 


des pommes de terre, potatoes, 
des pommes frites ( friit)^ fried 

des'^fepinards {day-zay pei-ndr) 

(m.), spinach, 
des carottes (f.). carrots, 
des'^oignons {day z'wodn-yoHg) 

(m.), onions, 
du macaroni, macaroni. 


n. Entremets au Sucre, 
{dng-ir-may oh su-cr*)^ 

une omelette, omelet. 

utie omelette au rhum, omelet 

with rum. 

j2» Dessert {d^-sayr) (m,). 

du fruit {/rU-ii)t fruit- 

des pruneau\ {prU-no) (m* pl.)^ 

slewed prunes. 
uue compote de pommes {cffng^ 

p6 di pdm\ Slewed apples, 
des confitures de groseiltes (^f7»^ 

fiiiUrdi-gro^niyi^i red currant 

de la gol^e de grQseiUeSi red cuT' 

rant jelly. 
una marmelade d'abricots {da- 

brii'kdh), raartnaladc of apri- 
une meringue A Ta cr&me {ktaym\ 

meringue vrlxh jelly. 
des macarons {md^kd-rong) (m, 

pU)i macaroons. 

Sweet dishes. 

des beignets {bM-yih), de pom- 
mes» apple fritters. 


de£ biscuits (m. pl.)> biscuits, 
une compote de p^ches (pdysh\ 

stewed peaches, 
des (quatre-) mendiants {mdng- 

dydng) (m. pi.), raisins, figs, 

nuts, and almonds, 
du fromage ^ la creme, cream 

du fromage de Gruy^re, Gruy^re 

du fromage de Brie {hree)^ Brie 

du fromage de Roquefort, Roque- 
fort cheese. 
des prune's k Teau-de-vie {lok-di-' 

vie), prunes in brandy. 

Translate the following 

into English and then render it again into French: 

On Sonne [Somebody is ringing), Serait-ce monsieur 
B*? — Madame, veut-elle recevoir monsieur B.? — Faites- 
le entrer dans le petit salon* — Madame, j'ai Thonneur 


de vous souhaiter {to wish) le bonjour. — Bonjour mon- 
sieur ; donnez-vous done la peine de vous asseoir. Com- 
ment vous portez-vous ? — Tr^s-bien, madame, je vous 
remercie ; et vous-meme ? — J'ai 6t6 un peu enrhum6e, 
mais je vais tr^s-bien aujourd'hui. — Je suis charm6 de 
vous voir r^tablie. — Vous Stes bien aimable d'avoir 
pens6 k moi. — Je me suis pr6senl6 (pray-zSng-tay) plu- 
sieurs fois chez vous, mais je n'ai pas eu Tavantage (IS- 
v5ng-tahje=/^ happiness) de vous rencontrer (meet). On 
doit (they must) vous avoir remis (given) ma carte. — En 
effet (yesy indeed)^ et je regrette bien de ne pas m'etre 
trouv^e chez moi pour vous recevoir. — Comment va 
monsieur votre pere? — II est indispose depuis quelques 
jours, il est oblig6 de garder la chambre. — J'en suis bien 
fSch^. J'espfere que cela ne sera rien. — C'est peu de 
chose (it is a mere trifle) ; mais ^ son Sge 11 lui faut des 
soins (he must be careful^. x 

With a Physician. 

i) I have taken (pris = prgg) the liberty to send (en- 
voyer ^hercher) for you, doctor. — Why, what is the mat- 
ter with you? How do you feel (comment vous trouvez- 
vous)} — I am not at all (du tout) well. I feel (je me 
sens = sang) very ill. — 2) Since when have you been HI? — 
How did this (cela) begin? — It (cela) took me yesterday 
in consequence of (par) a chill (un /risson=irXS'Song) ; and 
then (ensuite = ang-s'w6gt) I perspired (transpirer=ztrSing' 
spS€-r6h) very much. — 3) Did you feel sick (= Have 
you felt [senti=:s^ng-tQB] sick [des maux de coeurj) ? — Yes, 


I feel sick and am inclined to vomit (rr and have inclina- 
tion [des efwies = day zang-v66] to vomit). — Show me 
{vcyons) your tongue {langue). — Yqu will have (// vous 
faudra) to take a little medicine (une petite midecine), — 4) 
Give me your arm {pros = br3h). Your pulse {fouls) is 
rather high {un feu ilevi\ There is some fever {de la 
fihjre = fgg-ay-vr*). — You have a little fever. — 5) Do 
you think my illness dangerous (dangereuse = d3ng-jd- 
reQse) ? — No, but we must take care (frendre garde) so 
that it may not become (devienne) so. — 6) What have I 
to do ? — Have I anything else {autre chose) to do ? — No, 
only take care {ayez soin = s'woaing) to keep yourself 
warm {chaudentent). — Be careful not to take cold. — 7) 
What kind of a night did you pass (= How have you 
passed the night) ? — I feel much better, thank you. — 
I have slept {dormi = dor-m66) a little, and the fever is 
quite gone down {dimitm/e = d6g-m6e-nii-ay). — 8) Very 
well, I can assure you that this will be nothing serious 
{rien de sirieux = rSS^ing dS say-ryeG). — In two or 
diree days you will 6e well {gudri = cured). 


Which is the way to the Northern railway station {la 
gare du Nord)y please? — Go straight ahead, sir. — 
Which is the nearest {le plus court = 16 plii cour) way to 
go to St. Honore Street ? — Go straight ahead ; you 
cannot miss your way (= you cannot mistake [voustrom- 
prr] of \de\ the way). — Can you tell me if this road 
{fetie route) leads {conduit = kong-d'we6) to Amiens ? -^ 


You are on {dans) the right {vrai) road, sir. — You are 
not on the right road, sin — To {de) which side must I 
go? — Follow {suivez=s'vf&Q'\Qh) this street, it will lead 
\conduird) you to the great road -^ How far may it be 
from here (=How much can it there have [^ avoir] from 
here) ? — It may be about a mile (= It can there have a 
mile [un mille = m56l]). — It is not (// tCy a pas) more 
than a mile. — It is {ily a) scarcely (^ peim) a mile. It 
is {ily a) a good mile. — It is a little more than a mile. 


Lettre dHntroduction et de cridit 

Lyon, 3 Janvier 1882. 
Messieurs Michelet et C'^., k Paris. 
Messieurs : 

Nous prenons {we take) la liberty de vous presenter et de 
recommander k votre bienveillant accueil (kind reception^ \.^ to 
your kindness) M. Chas. Fruston de cette ville. 

Nous Faccr^ditons chez vous pour la somme de dix mille 
francs. Veuillez, nous vous prions, lui payer jusqu'^ concurrence 
{up to the amount) de cette somme, Fargent dont {whereof^ il 
aura besoin et nous en d^biter. 

Agr6ez {accept) Tassurance de notre parfedt d^vouement. 

D. ET C^, 

^4^ ]|[mt^r$^Itaft-J^li$tp. 



(CotUinuation. ) 

3. The old lady with whom you were at church is not 
beautiful, but she has a very distinguished appearance 
{^air tr^ distingui). 

4. Why did that English waiter look so angry ? 

5. My clerk is a^ Frenchman, but he looks like an 
Englishman (i7 a Vair anglais). 

6. Your Irish servant looks like a Frenchman. 

7. The old tailor whom my brother had in Berlin, did 
not look like a German. 

8. He looks good-natured (*7 a Pair bon). 

9. I met Miss B. ; she was looking very sad {elh avait 
Vair trhs triste). 

10. He is very angry. (Literally: He is of very bad 

I. A.) The indefinite article is ^mittedbefore national and prof essional 
names when the subject of the sentence is either a noun or 2i personal 
pronoun. Ex.: Ce m6decin est allemand {tah-U-mdng^ This physician 
is a German. — Je suis anglais {suee zdnj^-lay), I am an Englishman. 
— Mon p6re etait avocat {ia-vo-kdh). My father was a lawyer. — II est 
am/ticain {td-fnay-ree-kaing)^ He is an American. 

B.) But after rVj/, void aind voilh and when the noun is qualified by 
an adjective^ un must be used. Ex.: C'est un francais. He (^riO is a 
Frenchman. — ^Voici un mMecin, Here is a physician. — Robert 6tait 



3. La vieille dame avec laquelle {Id vyH-yi dahm avek liU 
kill) vous^avez^^t^ k T^glise, n*est pas belle, ajais^elle 
a Pair ires distingu6 (dU-taing-gay). 

4. Pourquoi le gargon anglais avait-il Tair de si mau- 
vaise humeur (di see mo-vayze iimeur) ? 

5. Mon^ employ^ (mong-ndng-plodh-yeh) est frangais* 
mais^il^a i*air anglais {zeel Idh lair rdng-lay), 

6. Votre domestique {do-mes-teek) irlandais a Tair fran- 

7. Le vieux tailleur que mon fr^re avait k Berlin (bir- 
laing), n'avait pas I'air allemand (lair dh-li-mdng). 

8. II a i'air bon. 

9. J'ai rencontr6 {rdng-cong-tray) Mademoiselle B. ; elle 

avait Pair tres triste. 
I or II est de tres mauvaise humeur. 

un officier {pf-feesyeK) distingu6, Robert was a distinguished offi- 

C.) When one substantive is used to qualify another — in the so- 
cailed apposition — the indefinite article must be omitted in French. 
ja^x ' Berlin, zn//e d'Allemagne, Berlin, a city of Germany. — Jeaneite, 
fille de monsieur Hachetie, Jane, a daughter of Mr. Hachette. 

The indefinitive article must also be omitted after the word what^ 
when used to express surprise. Ex : What a noise you make ! Qud 
^ruit vous faites ! — What a man ! Quel homme ! 


11. I am very angry. 

12. Don't you think' that this gentleman looks like a 
pedant ? ' 

13. You look very ill indeed. {Literally : You have really 
[bien] the look of being ill). 

14. He looks severe {dur). 

15. This German mini$ter looks like a man of the world. 

16. I do not like this Irish coachman ; he looks suspi- 
cious {mauvais). 

17. I saw your brother-in-law in the waiting-room of the 

Northern Station ; he looks very well (bien portant). 

18. Your sister looks ill ; is anything the matter with 

19. How well you are looking ! {Literally : What air you 
have !) 

20. He looks healthy. {Literally : He has the air of hav- 
ing health \de la sante]) 

21. Why are you so angry ? {Literally : Why are you a/ 

such [si] bad humor ?) 

22. Your employer {patron) is in (rfe) a very bad humor; 
he is very angry {fdchi) with {contre) you. 

23. For the past three days {jl y a trois jours que) our 

coachman has been very angry {=«• c/ bad humor). 

24. This young man looks like a good-for-nothing (a 

Hair d^un vaurien). 

25. He is not so stupid as {or^ He is not such a fool as) 
he looks. 

26. How does he look ? 

11. Je suis de trds mauvaise humeur. 

12. Ne pensez-vous pas, que ce monsieur a Tair d'uQ pe- 
dant {^pay-ddng) ? 

13. Vous^avez bien la mine (m^in, or bien Tair) d'etre 

14. II 2L l*air dur. 

15. Ce ministre^allemand a fair d'unjiomme du monde 

{deun-ndm dii mongd), 

16. Je n'aime pas ce cocher irlandais; il a Tair mauvais, 

17. J'ai vu monsieur votre beau-frered la sallc d'attente 
de la gare du Nord; il a Tair bien portant {/r?r- 

18. Mademoiselle Votre soeur a I'air malade ; a-t-elle 
quelque chose (kelki shohs) ? 

19. Quel^air vous^avez {kel lair vou zd-veK) \ 

20. II a Pair d*avoir de la sant6 {sdng-tay). 

21. Pourquoi Stes-vous de si mauvaise humeur ? 

22. Votre patron {pd-trong) est de tr^s mauvaise humeur ; 
il est tr^s fSch6 {/dshay) contre vous. 

23. II y a trois jours que notre cocher est de tr^s mau- 
vaise humeur. 

24. Ce jeune^homme a Tair d'un vaurien {si jcu-nom &h 
lair deung voh-ree^aing). 

25. II n'est pas si stupide {stU-peid) qu'il en^a Tair {keii 
dng-ndh lair). 

26. QutWe mint VL't'il (Ml mien nd'ieil) ? 


He looks happy {or amused [enjouS]). 
ty, ^ He looks sad (triste). 

He looks contented {content). 

28. The affairs look well. (The affairs look bad.) 

29. How does the matter look (^ stand) ? 

30. You are looking well. 

31. She looks angry. 

32. This young Englishman looks like a physician. 

33. Ah ! you take an air of unconsciousness (^ you make 

believe not to know it •= Ah ! [allons /] you g^ive 
yourself the air of not knowing it). 

34. He gives himself the airs of a scholar {de savant). 

35. Whenever I call on this man, instead of receiving me 

The irregular verb allefi to go^ is thus conju^ted : 
Present. Conditional, 

Je vais»(z/a)r). 

tu vas {valC), 

il va {vdK). 

nous allons {zdh-hng), 

vous allez {zdh-iih), 

ils vont {vong). 

tu allais. 
il allait. 
nous allions. 
vous alliez. 
ils allaient. 

tu alias, 
il alia. 

nous all&mes {zdh-ldhm), 
vous all&tes (zdh-ldht). 
ils all^rent (zdh-layr). 

J'irai (jie-rih). 
tu iras (ii^rdh). 
il ira (/i-rdA). 
nous irons (zee-rmg). 
vous ircz {zie-reh). 
ils iront (zie-ron^. 

J'irais (jii-ray). 

tu irais {ee-ray), 

il irait (ii-ray), 

nous irions (zie-ryong), 

vous iriez {zee'ryih), 

ils iraient (zee ray). 

Je suis all 6, I have gone, 
tu es all6, &c. 

Jitais all 6. I had gone, 
tu 6tais all 6, &c. 

Suhj. Pres, 
Que j'aillc (ki-jd-yi). 
que tu ailles (d-yi). 
qu'il aille {d-yi) 
que nous allions (zdhiyon^ 
que vous c^liez {zdhl-yeh), 
qu'ils aillent («a-j//). 

Subj. Imperf, 
Que j'allasse (idk-lds). 
que tu allasses (dh'lds\ 
qu'il alldt {dh-ldh). 
que nous allassions (zdh-lds-yong^ 
que vous allassiez {zdh-lds-yih)^ 
qu'ils allassent (zdh-lds). 

. 829 

II a Tair enjou^ {dng-JoU^y). 

27. -< II a Tair triste. 
II a Pair content {cong-tdng). 

28. Les^aflfaires z'^/i/ bien. ( Les^aff aires t'^«/ mal.) 

29. Ou en^est la chose {ou dng-nay Idh shohs) ? 

30. Vous^avez Tair de vous bien porter. 

31. Elle a I'air fdcW {fdh-shay), 

32. Ce jeune^anglais a Tair d'un m6decin. 

33. Aliens ! ^ vous vous donnez Fair {or : Vous faites semblant) 
de ne pas le savoir (j5-z/V<?5r)*. 

34. II se donne despairs de savant (sd-vdtig). 

35. Quand je vais voir* cet^homme, au lieu de {0 lycu di) 



Va (vah\ 





2) The irregular verb voir {p'wodr\ to see, is conjugated in the 

following manner : 



Je Tois (v'wokh\ 

Je voyais {v^wod-yay). 

tu vois. 

tu voyais. 

il voit. 

il voyait. 

nous voyons U^^woah-yonA. 

nous voyions. 

vous voyez {v*wod-yeA). 

vous voyiez. 
its voyaient. 

its voient (z^wodA), 



Je vis (v/4?). 

Je vcrrai {virreh). 

tu vis. 

tu verras (vir-rdh). 

il vit. 

il verra. 

nous vtmes {viim\, 

nous verrons. 

vous vttes (viit). 

vous verrez. 

ils virent (veer). 

ils verront (vfr-rong). 



Vois (v'wodK), 

Voyant (v*tvodydng). 

voyons {v^'md-yon^. 

vu {vit). 

voyez (v^wed-yeh). 

Observe that to call upon a p< 

erson is rendered either by alter 

voir quelqu'un or venir voir quel 




pleasantly, he frowns (= When I go to see this man 
instead of [au lieu de] making me good face [bonne 
mine], he makes me a bad face [mauvaise 7ni7ie]), 
I drink but little wine. 
Do you want ale ? No, thanks, I prefer water. 

38. I must first {d*dbord) drink something. 

39. I am dying with thirst 

40. Hand me {servez-moi) a glass of wine. 

41. I should like to take another glass {encore un verre). 

l) The irrggular verb faire, to 
following manner : 

Je fais {/ay), 
tu fais. 
il fait. 

nous faisons (fay-sumg). 
vous faites ( fait). 
lis font ( fong). 

Je faisais. 
tu faisais. 
il faisait. 
nous faisions. 
vous faisiez. 
ils faisaient. 

Je fis {fie). 
tu fis ( ///). 
il fit {fie). 
nous limes {fiim), 
vous fites {fat). 
ils firent {fier). 


do^ to make, is conjugated in the 

Je ferai (fi-rih). 
tu feras {fi-rdh). 
il fera ( fi-rdh). 
nous ferons {fi-rong), 
vous ferez {fi-rih). 
ils feront {fi-rong). 

Subj. Pres, 
Que je fasse {fdss), 
que tu f asses. 
qu*il fasse. 

que nous fassions { fdss^yong), 
que vous fassiez {fdss-yih). 
qu'ils fassent ( fdss). 

Subj. Imperf, 
Que je fisse ( fiss), 
que tu fisses. 
quMl fit. 

que nous fissions (fts-^yongy, 
que vous fissiez ( fts-yih). 
qu'ils fissent {fiss). 





2) The irregular verb mourir, to die, is conjugated : 
Je Rieurs {meur), nous mourons {moiiron^ 

tu meurs. vous mourez {mou-rih). 

il meurt. ils meurent {meiir). 


me faire* bonne mine, il me fait mauvaise mine {nid- 

vayze mien). 

36. Je bois peu de vin. 

37. Voulez-vousde la biere? Non, merci, je pr^fere de 

^2t, II faiit d'abord que je boive. 

39. Je meurs * de soif {nuur di s'wodf). 

40. Servez *-moi un verre de vin (vaing). 

41. Je boirais bien encore un verre. 

Je mourus {/nou-rii), 
tu mourus. 
il mourut. 

nous mouriimes (fnou-riim), 
vuus inour(ites (mouriit). 
ils moururent (mou-rUr), 

Je mourrai (mour-reh), 
tu mourras. 
il mourra. 
nous mourrons. 
vous mourrez. 
ils mourront. 

Subj, Pres, 
Que je meure {meur), 
que tu meures. 
qu'il meure. 

que nous mourions {moU-ryong), 
que vous mouriez {mou-ryeh), 
qu'ils meurent (meur). 





mort {more). 


Se mouHr means to be near dyings to be fainting, as: elU si 
meurtf she is fainting, 

3) Scnrir, to serve, to help to, is thus conjugated : 

Je servis (sir-vie), 
tu servis. 
il servit. 

nous servfmes {sir-vleni), 
vous servftes {sir-veit), 
ils servirent (sir-vier). 

nous servirons (sirvee-rong), 
vous servirez. 
ils serviront. 

servi (sir-vie), 

Se senrir, to make use of and desservir, to clear the table, are 
conjugated in the same manner. 

Je sers (sayr), 
tu sers. 
il sert (sayr), 
nous servo ns (sirvong), 
vous servez (sir-vih), 
ils servent (sirv), 

Je servi rai (sir-vei-reh), 
tu serviras. 
il servira. 

servant (sir-van^. 


42. I have the honor of drinking your health and that of 
your family. 

43. That is the best wine which one t:an drink. 

44. He is drinking out of {dans) a brge glass. 

45. He is pouring out something. . . 

46. Pour me out some water. 

47. What will you drink with you" dinner? 

48. Do you drink beer or porter ? 

49. From preference I take water. 

50. Please give me a glass of wi>«.er ; I am dying with 

51. To what can I help you {or, Wha*^^ ma} I offer you) ? 

52. Do you take soup ? 

53. Thanks. I will trouble you for a little beef. It. I^joks 

so nice. 

54. Do you like it well done {bien cuif\ or rare {peu cuit 

= little cooked) ? 

55. Not too much done, pray. 

Phrases used during a Ceremonial Call* 

1. Does Mr. N. live here } 

2. Is this Mr. N.'s {or Does Mr. N. live here)? 

3. Is Mr. N. in {or within? or Is Mr. N. at home) ? 

i) After the Superlative followed by a relative sentence, the SuJ^. 
juncHve mood is used when the relative clause expresses the inews 
and opinions of the subject. Cest le plus ^dnd des nuiux que je 
connaisse. That is the greatest evil I know. If. however, I wish to rep- 
resent the thin^r as certain or as a matter of /act, the Indicative must 


42. J'ai rhonneur de boire k votre sant6 et i celle de 
toute vo:re famiilc ^fah-mei-ye). 

43. C*est le meilleur vin que Ton puisse^ boire. 

44. II boit dans ' un grand verre. 

45. II verse i boire. 

46. Versez-moi de Teau. 

47. Que voulez-vous boire 4 votre diner (^^«<iy). 

48. Buvez-vous de la bidre ou du porter? 

49. Je prendrai de pr6f6rence {pray-fay-rdngs) de Teau. 

50. Donnez-moi, s'il vous plait, un verre d'eau ; je meurs 

de soif. 

51. Que voiis servirai-je ? 

52. Prendrez-vous de la soupe, monsieur? 

53. Je vous remercie. Je vous demanderai un peu de 
boeuf. II a si bonne mine {mien). 

54. Le voulez-vous bien cuit ou peu cuit {k'iiei)} 

55. Pas; trop cuit, s'il vous plait. 


Tisite de c6r6monie. 

I. Monsieur N. demeure-t-il ici (di'tneur'teeUlee-sei) ? 

( C'est^ici (say tee-see) chez monsieur N. ? 
' ( Est-ce^ici (ays see-see) chez monsieur N. ? 
3. Monsieur N. est-il chez lui? 

be employed. Ex.: Ce ne sont pas les hommes les plus riches qui 
sont les plus heureux, The richest people are not the happiest. 

2) The French say : boire dans un (not d'un) verre. to drink out 
of a glass; fumer dans une pipe (peep\ to smoke out of a 


4. Is Mr. N. at home? (/>. for callers), 

5. He is not in (or He is not at home). 

6. Is Mrs. N. also not* at home? 

7. Yes, Mrs. N. is at home. 

8. Will you please tell me your name ? 

9* Whom shall I announce ? 
10. Whom have I the honor of announcing? 
n. Will you take my card? 

12. Please walk in. (Walk in, if you please.) 

13. Will you please walk in (or Step this way, if you 

14. Whom have I the honor of addressing (or With 
whom have I the honor) ? 

15. My name is B. 

16. May I inquire whom I have the honor of addressing ? 
[The French say more correctly : May I know Puis-je savoirt\ 

17. My name is B. 

18. Have I not the honor of addressing *Mr. N, ? 

19. That's my name, sir. 

{I beg of you, be seated. 
Sit down, pray. 
Will you please take a seat ? 

i) Must be translated thus. Ex.: Are you goin^ to the concert ? 
— No, I am not going there. — Neither am J. — Allez-vous au concert ? 
— Non, je n'y vais pas. — Ni mai non plus, 

2) S'asseoir {sds-stvodre), to sii down. — Part pres, s'a«seyant {sds- 
say-ydng). — Part pr : assis (dj j//). — Pres.: Je m*assieds(yyw<iJ-j^/-4), 
tu t'assieds, il s'as'sird, nous nous as«:eyons {nd5 nod zas-sek-yong)^ 
vous vous asseyez, ils sasseient. — Jmp. : Je m'asseyais(y/ rnds-seA- 



4. Monsieur N. est-il visible {ay-teel vii-zee-bP)} 

5. II n'y est pas. 

6. Madame n'y est pas non plus ? * 

7. Oui monsieur, madame N. est chez^elle. 

8. me dire votre nom (nong) {or Votre 
nom, s'il vous plait) ? 

9. Qui annoncerai-je (kee dn-nong'Se-ray-je^t 

10. Qui aurai-je Thonneur d'annoncer {ddn-nong-seh) ? 

11. Veuillez remettre ma carte {or Voici ma carte, or 
Remettez ma carte). 

12. Y e^xxWlQzjdntvtr {zdng'trih) {or Entrez, s*il vous plait). 

13. Donnez-vous la peine d*entrer {ddng-treh). [The most 
usual and polite form.] 

14. A qui ai-je Thonneur de parler.^ 

15. Monsieur B. [Must be answered thus.] 

16. Puis-je savoir k qui j'ai Thonneur de parler.^ 


17. Monsieur B. [Any other answer would be wrong.] 
j Est-ce^A monsieur N. que j*ai Thonneur de parler ? 
I Cestui monsieur N. que j'ai Thonneur de parler.^ 
19. Moi-mSme, monsieur {or C'est moi-mSme). [This is 
the only way of answering such questions.] 
( Donnez-vous la peine de vous^asseoir * {voo-zas- 
Asseyez-vous, s*il vous plait. 



yeh), tu t'asscyais, il s'asseyait, &c. — Pret.: Je m'assis (jimd-sie), tu 
t'assis, il s'assit, nous nous assfmes {nop tiod zdS'seim)^ vous vous as- 
sties, ils s'assirent {eel sds- seer). — Fut. : Je m'asseierai, tu t'asseieras, 
il s'asseiera, &c.,^r Je m*assi6rai, tu i'asbi6ras, il s'assi^ra, &c — Fres, 
Subj.. Que je m'asseie, que tu t'asseies, qu'il s'asseie. — ImperaL : 
Assieds-toi (qu'il s'asseie), asseyons*nous, asseyez-vous. 


21. Take a seat on the sofa. {Take a seat on this chair.) 
\Prendre place cannot be used without designating 
some particular article of furniture on which to be 

22 What can I do for you ? 

ej How can I be of use to you ? 

24. I shall be {je suis) at your service in a moment. 

25. What procures me (^r To what do I owe) the honor 
of your visit ? [0/ your visit need not be translated.] 

26. Will you grant me a few moments' conversation ? 

27. I have something to communicate privately {en par^ 

28. Can I have the honor of paying my compliments 
to Mrs N..> 

29. Good morning {or Good evening, &c.) [These phrases 
are used in taking leave.] 

i) Prendre {prdng-dr\ to take. — Part, pres.: prenant (pri-ndng),-^ 
Part, p.: pris {pfii). — Pres,: Je prends { prang), tu prends, il prend, 
nous prenons \p>i'ndng), vous prenez, ils prennent (prM). — Imperf,: 
Je prenais, lu prenais, il prenait, &c. — Pret,: Je pris {pre/), tu pris, 
il prit, nous prtmes {preem\ vous prttes, ils pVirrnt {preer). — Put.: 
Je prendrai (prdng-dreh), tu prendras, &c. — Pres. Sufy\: Que je 


21. Prenez * place sur le sofa. (Prenez place sur cette 

22. Qu'y a-t-il pour votre service {kee dh-teelpour vdf sir- 

23. En quoi puis-je vous^etre agr6able {dhgray^V)} 
[This phrase is more polite than the preceding one.] 

24. Je suis k vos^ordres dans^un^instant {ddng-zeung- 


25. Qu'est-ce qui me procure Tavantage (kays kie mi prd- 
kur Id'Vdng'tdhJe) ? 

26. Voudriez-vous m'accorder un moment d'entretien 
{mo-mdng-ddng'tr^'iyaing) ? 

J'ai quelque chose k vous dire en particulier {deer 

27. ^ dng pdr-tee-cii'lyeK). 
J 'aurais k vous parler en particulier. 
Pourrais-je pr6senter mes^hommages {pray-zdng-teh 

28. ^ fnay zdm-mdhje) k madame N. 1 
Pourrais-je rendre mes devoirs k Mme. N. ? 

' Je vous salue {sdh-lu)^ monsieur. 

29. ^ J*ai rhonneur de vous saluer. 
J*ai rhonneur. 

rrenne (prin\ que tu prennes. qu*il prenne, que nous prenlons:, que 
vous preniez, qu'ils prennent (keilprin). — Imperat,: Prends i^pr&ng), 
prenons, prenez. — N.B. Conjugate in the same manner the com- 
pounds oi prendre : apprendre^, to leain ; rapptendre^ to learn over {or 
a^ain) ; comprendre, to understand ; entreprendre {dngir^-prdng-dr*), 10 
undertake ; surprendre^ to surprise. 




Demonstrative Pronouns* 

These are: 

McLsc, Fern, 

Celui {s'luje), celle {cell), that 

PL ceux {seu)y celles {cell), those. 

celui-ci {see), celle-ci, this or the latter. 

PL ceux-ci {seu'See), celles-ci, these. 

celui-1^ {s'liTee'ldh), celle-la, that (one) or the 

PL ceux-1^ {seu'ldhy celles-la, those. 

ce and cela (abridged 9a), that ; ceci {si^ee) this. 


1. Ce has only one form for both genders and numbers. 
£x,: Ce fut mon ami; ce fut nion amie ; ce furent mes 
amis s ce furent mes amies, 

2, Ce is frequently used before the third person singular 
or plural of the auxiliary verb etre, and means either l/i/s 
or l/iaf. CVx/quelque chose que je neconnais pas. That is 
something (which) I do not know. — jEsf-ce Id votre malle ? 
Oui, c'est ma malle. Is that your trunk ? Yes, that is my 
trunk. — Soni'Ce Id vos bas.^ Oui, ce sont mes bas. Are 
these your stockings.? Yes, these are my stockings. 


3. Celui-ci ceile-ciy ceux-ciy celles-ci^ are translated thiSy 
t/lesf, or tAis one, etc. These pronouns are used in speak- 
ing either of persons or things, when it is necessary to 
indicate clearly which person or thing is spoken of : Tliis is 
my hat, celui-ci est mon chapeau. 

Celui-ld, celleldy ceux-lh, celles-ldy are used in the same 
manner, ancimust be translated by that, those^ that one ^ &c. 

4. Celui'ci, celle-ciy ceci, point out objects nearest to the 
speaker, while celui-lh^ celle-lhy cela, signify those farthest 
from him, as : Voici deux livres ; prenez celui-ci, Charles 
garde ra celui-ld^ here are two books ; you take this one 
and Charles will keep that one. 

5. Celui, celle, &c., must be used instead of celui-ci, 
celle-ci, celui-lA, celle-ld, ceux-ld, &c., before a relative 
pronoun or preposition. They are then translated very 
frequently by the one who, or he who, she who, they who. 

It is my father's (that of my fa- c*est celui de mon p^re. 


This horse is the one of which I ce cheval est celui dont je vous 

spoke to you, ai pari 6. 

Translate the following 


Heureux celui qui trouve un vrai ami. — C'est celui-ld. qui 
m'a frapp6. — Voyez-vous ces deux maisons i*^ Celle- ci 
qui a coiite cinquante mille francs, ne vaut pas (is not 
worth as much), celle-ld que j*ai eue pour la moiti6 de cette 
somme. — Voulez-vous ceci ou cela ? — La rose et la tu- 
lipe (tU'liep, tulip) sont deux fleurs charmantes (charming 
flowers) ; mais celle-ci est sans odeur (odor) et celle- Id 


exhale un parfum {pdr-feUng, perfume) d^Slicieux. C*est 
surtout {especially) k T^tat de dpmesticite {in a domestic 
state) que le chien {sheering, dog) et le chat {shdh^ cat) 
iriontrent la difference de leur caract^re; celui-ci s'at- 
tache k son maltre {master), celui-ld ne s' attache qu'i la 

Of Possessire Prononns. 

1. The possessive pronouns are formed from the pos- 
sessive adjectives mon, ton, son, etc. They are : 

I^ mien (myaing), la mientu {myin)^ mine (my own). 

le Hen {tyaing\ la Henne, thine. 

U Hen (syaing), la stenne, his» hers, its own. 

le ndtre (ndtr')^ la nStre^ ours. 

le vdtre (vdlr^^ , la vdtre^ yours. 

le leur {tear), la leur, theirs.. 

PI. les miens, f. les miennes ; — les nStres, Us vStres, etc 

2. They agree in gender and number with the object pos- 
sessed: Avez-vous votre billet .> Oui, j'ai le w<V«. Have 
you your ticket 1 Yes, I have mine. Votre soeur est plus 
Sg^e que la mienne, Your sister is older than mine. Mon 
intention {aing-tdng-syong) est aussi bonne que la votre. 
My intention is as good as yours. 

Translate the following 


into French: 

i) Have you (any) rooms to let {hlouer) ? Yes, sir, we 
have several. What kind of {quellesYxooxn^ do you want? 
Do you want a furnished apartment {un appartemeni 


tneublif) or an unfurnished one {;=. or not furnished) ? I 
need {fat besoin de) furnished rooms. — I would need (/V 
me faudrait) four bedrooms, a drawing-room and a 
kitchen* — 2) Will you be kind enough- to walk in (en-- 
irer). I will (=1 am going to) show you the rooms. 
Here is the parlor. — It is not very large, but it will do 
(= it can do my business). — You see there is everything 
you can want, sir (= everything that is necessary, // 
faut). There are four arm-chairs, six chairs, a new car- 
pet, a very nice looking-glass, and some very elegant cur- 
tains. Besides {de plus) there are some wardrobes. — 3) 
Let me see the sleeping- rooms, if you please. — Here {par 
ici) sir, please. Let me see {voyons) if the bed is good, for 
that is the main thing {le principal = Ifi praing-see-pShl). 
As long as (= when, quand) I have a good bed, I don't 
care {je ne me soucie guhre) for the {du) rest. — 4) You 
cannot wish for a better one, sir. Does this room lie 
{donne) towards the street? — No, sir, towards the garden 
{le Jar din = jar-daing). — So much the better {tant mieux 
= tang m'yeO). — I think the bed is quite good. Now 
how much do you ask for the five rooms and the kitchen } 
— 5) I have always let {lou^) the parlor with one bed- 
room for twenty francs. You can have the five rooms 
for forty francs per week. — I think that is a great deal 
of money (= much money). — But you must consider 
{consid&er), sir, that this is one of the most beautiful parts 
(guartiers) of the city, where all the houses rent at a very 
high figure (= where the houses are of an exorbitant 
price). — Very well, I will pay you your price, but I need 
a part of your cellar {la cave = kahv) to put some wood 
{du Ms) and coal {du charbon). — 6) Of course {cela va 


sans dire). You shall have a place which can be locked 
(= locked with a key \^ferfnde a clef^ When do you think 
you will take (= to take) possession {possession = pos- 
sfis-syong) of yt)ur lodgings? — I think to sleep here to- 
night. — You can come as soon as you like (= as soon 
as it will please you [aussitdt qu'il vous plaird^. 

Interrogatire Pronouns. 

I. Lcqud (i^->&///) ? Laquellc (/.z>t///)? 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc* Fern, Masc, Fern. 

JV. & Ac, lequel ? laquelle ? lesquels ? lesquelles ? 

Gen. duquel ? de laquelle ? desquels ? desquelles ? 

Z>af, auquel? d laquelle ? auxquels? auxquelles? 

This pronoun is used either without a noun, or is sep- 
arated from it by de ; but it agrees with the noun it re- 
fers to in gender and number. When the pronoun which 
(of) is used interrogatively^ it is always expressed by lequel^ 
laquelle^ &c., as: 

Lequel de ses fils est malade } Which of his sons is ill ? 
Laquelle de vos soeurs est marine 1 Which of your sis- 
ters is married ? 

Voici plusieurs^appartements. Leqiiel choisirez-vous (// 
kHl sh'wod-zee-reh'Vou)} Here are several apart- 
ments. Which will you choose ? 

A\uquel de ces messieurs avez-vous donne ma lettre ? To 
which of these gentlemen have you given my letter t 


3. Qui (I'ie)? Quoi {k*wodh)} Que (ki)} 

Masc^ and Fem, 


Quey quoi, what ? 

^ (of what? 

Nom. Qui^ who? 

Gen. de quiy whose, of whom ? 

from whom ? ( from what ? 

Dat* i qiil^ to whom, whom ? h quoi, to what, at what ? 
Ace. ' qtii^ whom ? que^ quoiy what ? 


1. The interrogative pronoun quil is only used of 
persons u Ex. : 

Qui est arrive ? Who has arrived? 
Qui est U ? Who is there ? 

De qui parlez-vous ? Of whom are you speaking? 
A qui est cettc malle ? To whom does this trunk be- 
long- ? 
Qui cherchez-vous > Whom are you looking for ? 

2. Whasf^ when used interrogatively, must be rendered 
in French by ^ qui, Ex. : 

Whose book is this? h qui est ce livre / 
Whose trunk is this ? k qui est cette malle? 

3. Quoi^ what^ is disjunctive, and is used either by it- 
self, or after a preposition, as : 

De quoi par iez-vous t Of what are you speaking ? 
Quoi I vous etes mari^ ! What ! you are married ! 
Quoi ! il ne veut pas le faire ? What ! he will not 
do it? 


4- Qt*€f what? IS conjunctive^ ^nA is only used before 
verbs, as : 

Que voulez-vous ? What do you want ? 

Que demandez-vous ? What do you desire ? 

Qu'avez-vous vu ? What have you seen ? 

Qu'avez-vous ? What is the matter with you? 
Que as an interrogative means what^ never whonu 

5. Instead of the simple form gut ? the form gut est-ce 
gui^ who? is very frequently used for the Nominative, and 
gut est-ce gue^ whom ? for the Accusative (/.^., Objective 

Qui est-ce gui rit (ree) ? Who is laughing ? 

Qui est-ce gue vous cherchez ? Whom arc you looking 

Qui est-ce gui Ta fait ? Who has done it ? 
Qui est-ce que vous avez-vu ? Whom have you seen ? 

6. Instead of the simple form gucy what? the form 
gu'estce gue? or even gu' est-ce gue c'est gue? is frequently 
used, ^t only for the Accusative (Objective case). 
Qu*est-ce que vous voulez ? What do you want ? 
Qu'est-ce que vous faites W ? What are you doing 

there ? 

7. What — when Nominative — may be given by gu*est^e 
qui ? It must, however, be always the subject of the sen- 
tence and the pupil must be careful not to confound qui 
est-ce gui? who? with qu'est-ce gui, what? 

Qu'est-ce qui vous afBige {df-fleeje) ? What afflicts you ? 
Qu*est-ce qui vous 6tonne ? What astonishes you ? 
Qu'est-ce qui vous manque ? What are you missing? 

8. Observe the following idiomatic phrases : 
Qu'esi-^e que cela {kays-ki silah) f j 

Qu'est'ce que t, est que cela {kays ki say ki siim? \ ^*^*^ *^ ^^^^ ^ 
Qu*esi'ce que la vie (vie) t 

m virViskjt \R life f 
Qu'est-ee que ^est que la vie ? 

Qu'y a-t'il de mmveauf ) 

^ , ^ , .. . A what is the news ? 

Qu est-ce qutl j a de nouveau f ) 

Note, — ^The interrogative adjective what, joined to a noun, is al- 
ways expressed by qftel, fem. quiile,—^!., : QueiU est la difficult^ 
qui vous arrSte, what is the difficulty that detains you ? 


Qu*est-ce que * vous d^sirez ? — Qui est-ce qui veut venir 
ce soir ? — Quiest-ce que je vois ? — A ^«iavez-vous parl^ 
de cette^affaire ? — A qui est-ce que vous^avez parl6 de cet- 
te^affaire ? — JDe qui est-ce que vous parlez?— - Est-ce que 
vous^etes fatigu6y mon cher ami ? — Qu' est-ce qu*\l vous^a 
dit ? — II m*a dit, que vous^alliez vous marier (m5r-ygh 
= to get married). — JDe qui est-ce que vous parliez quand 
je suis^entr6 ? — Qui avez-vous^entendu (zSng-tang-dii, 
heard) prScher (pray-sh6h, preach) dimanche dernier ? — 
Monsieur B.: il a fait^un sermon (s5r-mong) tres^61o- 
quent (tray-zav-15-k5ng). — ^«'aIlez-vous faire demain 
matin ? Je vai& , 6crire au n^gociant (nay-gO'Zy5ng= 
merchant) ae qui je viens de recevoir una lettre. — 
C'est^une maladie dontjon ne connait pas la cause. 

i) Give the rules why these relative pronouns have been used. 



Oouleurs {cod-leur) f. pi. 

Une couleur claire, 

Une couleur fonc6e {fong- 

LUncarnat {laing'Cdr-ndh)m. 
L'aziir (Id'zur) /«., 
blanc, blanche (d/dng^ 

bleu (bleu\ 

bleu clair, 

bleu fonce, 
brun {breung\ 
chdtain {shd'taing\ 
cramoisi {crd-nC7vod'Zee\ 
6carlate {ay-cdr-ldht\ 
gris {gree\ 
jaune {jone), 
noire (rCwodr), 

orange (prdng'jay\ 
rouge (rddje\ 
roux (rdd\ 
vert {^vayr\ 

Le vermilion {vir-mee-yong)^ 
violet {vee-o-leh)^ 


A light color. 
A dark color. 

The carnation. 
The azure, 


light blue. 

dark blue, 

The vermiiioik 

f ft* i^^hi^nifl^it'^p^UL 






I b^ your pardon {or Pardon me) for having dis- 
turbed you (cfe vons avoir diratvyi). 
I hop* v-oi" Turill pay me another visit shortly. (Lit- 
erally A> me the honor of renewing [de renouv^ 
for] your visit shortly \bieni6i'^. 
32. The honor is nnine ( pour moi). 
'I am exceedingly honored. 

I am exceedingly flattered. [These phrases, which 
no Eng-Ush-speaking person would use, are 
commonly employed by the French.] 




Phrases during a Friendlj Call. 

I. May I be permitted to enter ? 

j Do I intrude ? 
^' ( I hope I don't intrude ? 

$. Pray do not let me interrupt you. 



30. Je vous demande pardon (pdr-dong)^ de vous^avoir de- 
range {day-rdng'jih). 

31* Faites-moi Thonneur de renouveler bientot votre vi- 
sile {di re-noo-vileh byaing-toh votr* vee-zeet). 

32* L^honneur tsipour Pioi, 

me trouve bien honor6. 

«■ 1 /^ 

$uis bien flatt6. [Standing phrases.] 

Yisite familidre. 

r. "E.%tA\'p^rm\%di^Vi\xQx(ay-teelpir-mee ddng'ireh)! [Per- 
mh^ past pariic. of the irregular vQvh permettre. Comp. 
tnettre page 352]. 
Est cc que je vous derange {day-rdng-j"^) ? 
Je vous derange peut-etre {peutaytr*). 
Je ne vous derange pas ? 
Je vous prie {pree) de ne pas vous deranger (day- 

Ne vous d^rangez pas, je vous^en prie (// vou-zdng- 
l^ prce). 


4. If I disturb you, I will leave {je me sauve) at once. 

( Not at all. 

5. •< Not by any means. 

( Not the least in the world. 

6. On the contrary, I am very happy to see you. 

7. I am very glad (or happy) to see you. 

8. You are a stranger (or We are glad to see you again 
iit last [enjin]), 

9. What has become of you ? 

10. It is an eternity {un Steele) since I saw you. 

11. It is long since we have heard from you. {Literally : 
that we have not had any news from you [de ' vos 

12. It is4ong since I have heard from your brother (de 
nouvelles de monsieur voire fr^re), 

13. Have you had any news from him (de ses nou- 
velles) ? 

14. I shall wait till I hear from you before writing (Ob- 

serve : de vos nouvelles). 

1) The Injinitive preceded by de tavisi be used after the adjectivf- 
digne {deen-yt)^ worthy of ; capable {cd'pd-br\ capable of ; incapable 
{aing-ca-pd-br\ incapable of ; enchants^ charm/^ glad, happy, — In fact, 
after most adjectives. {Adjectives which take the Infinitive witk h, ^vill 
he given later.) 

2) These phrases with nouvelles (news) cannot be translated lite- 
rally and must becommited to memory. The de is idiomatic. 

3) Ecrire {ay-kreer)^ to write. — Part, pr.: 6crivant {ay-krei-^vang). — 
Part, p.: hcni {ay 'krei),—Pres.: y tens {jay-kree)^ tu 6cris, 11 6crit, 


4. Si je vous derange, y<? me sauve tout de suite {j^ mi sdv 

tddtsueet). • 

( Pas du tout {pah dii too). 
5.-/ Point du tout {po^aing du-too), 

\ Pas le moins du monde. 

6. Au contraire {cdng-trayr)y je suis^enchante {zdng- 
shdng'teh) de ^ vous voir. 

7. Je suis bien'^aise (^a- Je suis charm6, or Je suis ravi 
[rd'Vee]) de vous voir. 

Enfin {dng'/aing) on vous revoit. 



^ Vous voili enfin. 

9. Que devenez-vous done? [Comp, vemr^ page 163, 
No. I.] ^ 

10. II y a un siecle que je ne vous^ai vu. (Comp. page 
253, No. II.) 

11. II y a bien longtemps que nous n'avons^eu do vos nou^ 
velUs * i^e nou nd-vong zii di voh nou-vHt), 

12. II y a longtemps que je n*ai eu de nouvelles de mon- 
sieur votre frere. 

13. Avez-vous^eu de ses nouvelles.^ 


j J'attendrai de vos nouvelles pour^6crire. * 

I Je n*ecrirai pas^avant d avoir de vos nouvelles. 

nous 6crivons {ndd-zay-krei-vong\ vous 6crivez, ils 6cnvent {eel-zay* 
kreev). — Imperf,: J'ecrivais, tu ^crivais, &c. — Pret,: J'ecrivis {jay- 
krei'Vii), tu 6crivis, ii 6crivit, &c, — Fut.: J'^crirai ( jay-kfii-rih), tu 
6criras, il 6crira, nous 6crirons, &c. — Pres. Suhj.: Que j'6crive {ki 
jay-kriev),qae tu derives, qu'il 6crive, &c. — Imperat,: Ecris, 6crivons, 
6crivez. — N.B. Thus are conjugated : Dicrire, to describe ; circon- 
scrirc (cir-kong-skreer\ to circumscribe ; inscrire {aing-skreir)y to in- 
scribe ; prescrire, to prescribe, to order ; ricrire, to write again, to re- 
ply ; souscrire {sddskreer)^ to subscribe ; transcrire {trangs-krier), to 


( You are quite a stranger. 
^* ( You have become quite a stranger. * 

1 6. And how are you? [It is impossible to put these 
overpoiite French phrases into common-sense Eng- 

17. I am glad to see you. {Literally : Be welcome.) 

18. It is very kind of you (de votre part or & vous) to 
call upon me. 

19. I am so glad (que je suis content) to see you at last 


20. My father will b^ particularly glad ') to see you. 
'21. My mother will be very glad. 

23. And my cousin too. 

23. But pray be seated. 

24. Don't you prefer (or Would you not rather sit * on) 

the sofa.^ 

25. Thanks, I have but little time ; I cannot sit down, 

26. Thanks, I am *) very well here. 

27. I must go now. "" 

28. Why are you in such haste ? 

i) If a noun is specially empha*:ized, c*est gut must be used with 
the subject of a sentence, — Ex,: Cest votre soeur qui m'a vu, Your 
sister saw me. — Cest votre patron qui I'a envoy^, Your employer sent 
it. — Before other members of sen*^ences c^est que must be employed. 
Ex,: Cest k votre m6re que j'ai donn6 ce billet, I gave this ticket to 
your mother, Cest hier que je le lui ai donn£, I gave it to him yester^ 

2) Meitre^ to put, to place. Part.pres, : mettant. — Part, p, : mis 
[mee), — Pres,: Jo mcts {ntay\ tu mets, il met, nous mettons, vous 
mettez, ils mettent (mit\ — Imperf, : Je mettais, tu mettais, &c. — 
Pret.: Je mis {mii\XM mis, il mit, nous mimes {meem\ vous mttes, 
ilsmirent {meer), — Fut.: Je mettrai, tu mettras, &c. — Pres. Subj : Que 
je mette, que tu mettes, qu'il mette, &c. — Imperf. Subj, : Que je 
misse {miss), que tu misses, qu'il mIt {mii\ &c.— Thus : Admettrt, to 


{Vous devenez rare (rdAr). 
On ne vous voit plus. 
On vous voit rarement {rdh-rS-mdng). 
i6. Permettez-moi de vous demander (di'mdng-^deh) des 
nouvelles de votre sant6 (^idng-tay). 

( Soyez U bienvenu {byaing vi-nii) [to a gentleman]. 
'* I Soyez la bienvenue [to a lady]. 

18. C'est bien^aimable de votre part {or C'est bien^aimable 
d vous) de venir me voir. 

19. Que je suis content {cong-tdng) de vous revoir enfin 

20. C'est mon p^re ^ qui sera contcfnt de vous revoir. 

21. Que ma mere sera contente (cong-tdngt), 

22. Et mon cousin done (koo-zaing dong). 

23. Mais^asseyez-vous done, je vous prie. 

24. N'aimez-vous pas mieux vous mettre ' sur le sofa ? 

25. Merci, j'ai peu de temps, je ne m'assi^rai pas. 

26. Merci, y^ suis^ trbs-bien ici. 

27. II faut que je m'en aille^ maintenant 

28. Etes-vous done si press6 ? 

admit ; commettre^ to commit ; dSmettre^ to turn out ; omettre, to omit ; 
prrmettre, to permit, to allow ; promettre^ to promise ; campromettre 
(cong-pro-mttP), to compromise, to expose ; remettre, to replace, to 
hand over ; soumettre (s&d-mitr')^ to submit ; transmettre {trdngs-miir'), 
to transmit. 

N,B. — Se mettre i signifies to begin^ as II se mit k pleurer, he be- 
gan to cry. 

N.B, — Mettre signifies frequently to sit down, to be seated when the 
place where one sits down is either given or self-understood. 

3) Etre signifies often to sit down or to standi especially when the 
place is understood. Ex.: Was he sitting dotvn or did he stand ? 
Etait-il assis ou debout {di-bdd)! — He stood, II 6tait debout. — Where, 
oti done ? — He was standing^^ the window, il ^tait ^ la fen^tre. 

4) Compare page 314. 


29. I do not like leaving you, but I really must be off. 
{Literally : I leave you [je vous quitte] with [d\ re- 
gret, but it really [absolument] must be.) 

30. Call soon again. 

31. Don't be such a stranger. 

32. Call again (= another time [une autre fois]). 

33. You will do me a great favor (or You will confer a 
great favor upon me) by calling soon. 

34. My regards to all at home, if you please (or Remem- 
ber me to all at home, please). 

When he came to get yonr letters. 


he came ' 

to seek ; to search ; to look for ' 

your (pi.) 


I) The following intranHHve verbs must always be conjugated 
with itre : 

AlUr, to go. 
venir^ 10 come. 
devenir, to become. 
intervenir (aing-Hfr-vi-niir), to in- 
parvenir^ to attain, to reach, 
revenir, j to come back, to re- 
retourner, j turn, 

tomber (tong-bih) to fall. 

Arriver {dr-ri^-vih), to arrive, 
parti r pour, to start for, to leave 

entrer {dng treh)^ to enter, 
sortir, to go out. 

nattre, to be born. 

As : Je suis all6 ; je suis tomb6 ; il est parti ; nous sommea ar- 
rives, &c. 
2) The Infinitive without preposition is used : 
a) after v.rbs of motion, as aller, venir, eourir^ and envoyer. 

«o5 . 

29. Je vous quitte^i regret, mais^il le faut^absolument 

(y? voo kit tdh re -gray may zeel U foh tdb-sO'lu-mdng), 

30. Reveijez-nous bientot. 

31. Ne soyez pas si rare (rdhr). \Mnst be translated thus.] 
33. Venez-nous voir une^autre fois {fo-dh), 

33. Vous nous ferez grand plaisir si vous veniez nous 

voir une^autre fois. 
24. Mes compliments {cong-plee-mdng) chez vous, s'il vpus 


Lorsqu'il est renu chercher ros lettres. 

lors keel ay v6-nU sh6r-sheh vO I6ttr*. 
Lorsque (lorsk) 
il est venu * {eel lay vinii) 
chercher ' (sher-sheh) 
vos (yo) (pi.) 
lettres {Uttr') (pi.) 

(Observe that aller chercher means to fetch, to get ; alter trouver, to 
look for ; atler voir, to pay a call ; venir chercher or prendre ^ to call 
for; envoyer chercher ^ to send for.) 

b) pfter verbs that denote z. pei c ption of the senses as entendre (dng- 
fdng-dr), voir (vd-dr\ sentir {sdng-teer). Ex.: Je Tentends venir, I hear 
him coming. 

c) The simple Infinitive is governed further by the verbs : aimer 
when used in the Conditional, i.e. j'aimerais, I should tike ; pr6f6rer, 
to prefer ; il vaut mieux, it is better. Ex. : 

J'aimerais le voir^ I should like to see him. 
II vaut mieux a^dery It is better to yield. 
Je pr6f6re resterk la maison, I prefer staying at home. 
l^pte. When, however, in the second member of a comparison, a 
second Infinitive follows que, this latter must take de before it. Ex.; 
Taime mieux mourir que de trahir mon secret (si-crayX 
I will rather die than betray my secret. 


1. I am very thirsty; will you please give me something 
to drink ? 

2. There is no more wine in the bottle; I must go into 

the cellar {la cave). 

3. That is not worth while ; give me some water (onfy)* 

4. That in the pitcher (de la carafe) is not fresh; I am 
going to get some more (iTauire). 

5. Some one has rung, Pauline; go and open' the 

6. Will you please go and tell Mr. B. that the gentleman 
is waiting for him (V attend) ? 

7. Where are you going to pass your vacation this year ? 

8. I don't know yet ; perhaps I shall go to * France. 

9. Well, how do you do this morning ? 

10. I am much better, thank you. 

11. You ought* to get up; we would \\k^\.o{naus irions) 
take a walk {/aire nn tour), 

12. I have a good mind {tPai encore envie) to sleep* a 
little longer (=yet). 

13. In that case (or Then) I am going to take a walk by 
myself {tout seul). 

i) Some of the follomn^ sentences are taken from Le Page^ * LEcko 
de Paris' (London, 4Sth edition), edited in Germany by Dr, FHess^ 
bach, and reproduced in America from the London edition, but 
without acknowledgment. 

2) Ouviir, to open. — Part, pr. : ouerant. — Part, p.: ouvert. — Pres. 
J*ouyre, tu ouvres, il ouvre, nous ouvrons, vous ouvrez. ils ouvrent. 
— Pret. : J'ouvris, &c. — Put, : J*ouvrirai, &c. — Imperat, : Ouvre, 
ouvrons, ouvrez. 

3) j4//er is followed by i when one travels to towns, but by ^« when 
reference is made to countries, as : Je vais i Paris ; but Je vais en 
France ; Je vais en Angleterre. 

4) Devoir, to owe (ought to). — Part. pr. : devant. — Part. p. • (^ft. — 


1. J'ai bien soif ; voulez-vous, s*il vous plait, me donner 
a boire * (pT-dre) ? 

2. II n'y a plus de vin dans la bouteille (boutdy-yi^ il 
faut que j'aille a la cave (kdhv), 

3. Ce n'est pas la peine {pain) ; donnez-moi de Teau 
seulement {seul-mdng). 

4. Celle de la carafe {kd-rdf) n*est pas fraiche : je 
vais^en'^aller chercher d*autre. 

5. On'^a sonn6 Pauline ; allez done ouvrir * la porte. 

6. Voulez-vous'^aller dire k monsieur B., que monsieur 
Tat tend {Id-tdng) ? 

7. Ou irez-vous passer vos vacances cette^annee ? 

8. Je ne sais pas^encore ; j*irai peut-etre^en * France 

9. Eh bien, comment 9a va-t-il ce matin ? 

10. 9^ va mieux, je vous remercie. 

11. Vous devriez* vous lever; nous^irions faire^un tour 

12. J'ai encore^envie (rdng-vee) de dormir.* 

13. En ce cas-li, j*irai me promener tout seul. 

Prcs, : Je dois (dwodh\ tu dois, il doit, noud devons, vous devez, ils 
doivent {dwodhv).—Imperf. : Je devais, &c. — Pret, : Je dus {dii\ tu 
dus. il dut, nous dftmes, vous dfttes, ils durent {flUr), — Put.: Je devrai, 
tu devras, il devra, &c. — Condit. : Je devrais, tu devrais, il devrait, nous 
Hevrions, &c. — Subj, Pres.: Que je doive. que tu doives, qu'il doive, 
&c. — Suhj. Imp. : Que je dusse. — Je dots, followed by a verb, corre- 
sponds to our I am to, I must, while the Conditional, Je devrais, 
signifies./ ought to, I should. 

5) Dormir, to sleep. — Part, pr, : dormant. — Part, p, . dormi (dor- 
mie\ — Pres.: Je dors, tu dors, il dort, nous dormons, vous dormez, 
ils dorment {fbrm\ — Pret.. Je dormis {dor-mei), &c, — Subj, : Que je 


14. Do you know^ Mr. B. ? [Tif knaw:=to be personally ac- 
quainted with, must always be given by connaitre, 
never by savoir,] 

15. Yes, very well ; wg have been school-fellows. 

16. They say {or People say) he is going to get mar- 


17. If any one should come' to inquire for me, porter, 
you'll please Say that I have gone to the exposition 
(au palais de Vexposition). 

18. If any one should call [/>. to inquire for me], please 
say that I shall be back about 9 o'clock. 

19. Please tell all callers that they must come before 

10 o*clock in the morning. [Literally: Will you 
please tell to all persons, who should come [^ui men- 
dront] to inquire for me, to come, &c.) 

20. If Mr. B. should come, tell him, that I could not wait 
for him any longer (plus longtemps), 

21. If the tailor should come with my coat (= to bring 
my coat), tell him that he must call again (repasser) 
to-morrow morning. 

22. Did any one call during my absence? 

23. I must reproach you (=1 have some reproaches to 
make to you). 

24. Why so ? — Because you have not yet called upon 
us since we moved {depuis que nous sommes (16- 

I) Connattre.Xo know. — Part, pr.: conn nssant. — Part, p.: connu. 
— Pres. : Je connais, tu connais, il connalt, nous connaissons, vous 
ronnaiss-*z, &c. — Impeif. : Je ronnalssaU. &('. — P/et. : Je connus, 
&«'. — Fut.: Je connaitrai, &c. — Thus: Mdconnaitre, to mistake, not 
10 acknowledge ; reconnattre^ to recognize, to know again. 


14. Connaissez-vous * monsieur B. ? 

15. Oui, tr^s bien; nous'^avons"'6t6 camarades d*6cole. 

16. On dit qu'il va se marier {mdr-yeh), 

17. ConciQvgQ {kong-syerje\ si'Tonvient me demander, 
vous direz que je suis'^all6 au palais {pd-lay) de Tex- 
position (Jex-pd'Zei'Syong). 

18. Si quelqu'un vient (^rvenait) me demander, dites, sMl 
vous plait, que je rentrerai vers neuf^heures. 

19. Veuillez dire A. toutes les personnes qui viendront me 
demander {kee-vyaing-drong me de-mdng-dek) de venir 
avant dix'^lieures du matin. 

20. Si monsieur B. venait, dites-lui que je n'ai pu Tatten- 
dre plus longtemps (Idt-tdng-dr plU long-tdng), 

21. Si le tailleur venait m'apporter mon^'habit, dites-lui 
qu'il faut repasser demain matin. 

22. Est-on venu me demander pendant mon'^absence 
( pdng'ddng mon-ndb-sdngs) ? 

23. J'ai des reproches (re-prosh) k vous faire. 

24. Pourquoi done ? — Parce que vous n'etes pas'^encore 
venu nous voir depuis que nous sommes deloges. 

2) After si, if, the Present, Tmperfect or Pluperfect must always fol- 
low (but ilPver ibe Future ox Conditional)^ while in the main Fcntencc 
the Cbw^///V«^z/ must be employed, as : Si vous veniez me voir, vous 
seriez bien re^u. You would be received well, if you were to come 
to see me. 


25. If you wish to behave amiably, you would come to 
dine with us on Friday next. 

26. Would you do me the favor to accompany me after 
breakfast to make some purchases {or to do some 
shopping) ? 

27. Please send^ the laundress to me one of these 

28. I am going (firai) to see her to-night and I can tell 
her to call upon you to-morrow morning. 

29. Will you come and take a walk {vous promener) ? 

30. I come to bid you good-bye. 

31. What ! are you going to leave us (nous quitter) ? 

32. Yes, I am going to London to seek a place. 

33. Please don't go yet ; breakfast will be served at once. 

34. I have come (=T am coming) to take you with me. 

35. To go where ? 

36. To come with me to the Museum, to look at the new 

37. What is the news ? 

38. Didn't you read* the paper this morning.^ It is said 
{or reported) we are going to war with England 
{nous allons avoir la guerre avec V Angleterre). 

i) Envoyet^ to send. — Part, pr, : envoyant.- Part. p. : envoyfe. — 
Pres^ : J'envoie {Jdng iw-dh), tu envoies, il envoie. nous envoyons, 
vous envoyez, ils envfiient. — Imperf.: J'envoyais. — Pret.: J'envoyai. 
Fut. : J'enverrai {jdng-vir-rih), tu enverras, il enverra, nous ehver- 
rons, vous enverrez. ils enverront.— C>//</i/. . J'enverrais. 

25, Si vous'^etiez bicn'^aimabJe, vous viendriez diner 
avec nousvendredi prochain {va/^-dri-dei pra-shaingy 

26. Voudriez-voas me (aire le piai.sir de venir avec moi 
apr^s le d^jcQner, faire dcs^emplettes ? 

^jp Eavoye^-moP done la blanchisseuse cesjours-cU 

28. J'irai la voir ce sotr, et je peux lui dire de venir vous 

parler demain matin, 
29* Voulez-vous venir vous proniener ? 

30. Je viens vous faire nies^adieux i^may zd'dyeu)* 

31. Comment? est-ce que vous^allez nous quitter {kit- 

tch) ? 

32. Oui, je vais k Londres cliercher une place {pidhs), 
33* Ne vous^en^allez done pas ; on va servir le d^je finer tout 

de suite. 

34, Je viens vous chercher- 

35, Pour aller ou done ? 

36, Pour venir avec moi au Mus6e (mil-zay) voir les nou- 
veaux tableaux {ndd-va id^bloY 

37< Qu*est-cc qu'il y a de nouveau ? 

38. Vuus n^avez pas lu * le journal ce matin ? On dit 

que nous^allons'^avoir la guerre arec TAngleterre 


11) Lire {ifer\ to read ^Part pr. ■ lisant {Hi z3ngX—FnrL *. - lu — 
prt^x. ' le Ivs {/e/), tu lis, i1 lit. nous lisons {Ifi-zonA, vous Vx^^z^ ijs 
M^nv {Uez\^ PreL : Je lus. tti lus, il tut, nous Ifimes, vous lutes, 
&c. — Fut. / Je WraX {lii-rik), tu liras, it lira {Hi rdk), &c, — Irnpfrf. 
SubJ.: Que je lussc. 




Exercises and Words used in Common Conversation, 


Does Mr. N. live in this house ? — No, sir, I do not 
know this gentleman. — But isn't this No. 68 (= Is not 
this then here \ce n*est dmc pas id] No. 68) ? — Certainly, sir. 

— Then he must have moved (= it is necessary then that 
he /lave moved [d/m^nag/]). — A person of this name has 
never lived in this house since I have been here ( = Never 
[jamais] a person of this name has not [na] lived in the 
house since [depui§ que] I here [ j] am). — Is Mr. N. at 
home ? — I am not sure of it (en). He usually {d/iadt- 
tude) does not go out till noon (= he only [tie- — que] goes 
out [sort] at noon). — Mr. N. is not at home any more 
(not any more = [ne-plus]). — He has just gone out 
(= He comes from going out). — Can't you tell me when 
he will come home (il rentrera) ? — I really cannot tell you. 

— Will you please give him this card ? — Yes, sir, with 
pleasure. — But do not forget it ; / am very anxious that 
{je liens a ce que) Mr. N. should know {sache) that I have 
called on him (=That I have [suis] come in order to [pou ] 
see him). — He shall have it as soon as he comes in ( = 
He shall have it on [eti] re-entering [rentrant'\), — Is this 
Mr. N.'s? — Yes, sir, but master cannot be seen. — Tell 
him that a stranger is here who is going to leave in a few 
days (= Tell him that it is [c'est] a stranger who leaves 



[/^r/] :n several days). — I'll see, but I do not believe 
that Mr. N, can {puisst) receive {recezmr) you. — Whom 
haTC I the honor of announcing? — Mr. B. — My master 
{monsieur) is very ^orrj ( = regrets very much, injiniment)^ 
but he is not well and cannot receive any one. — Then 
[en iC fi/j) give bim (= you will give him) this letter 
which I was charged to put {remettre) in his awn hands (en 
main prof re) ^ 


Will you please give me my key {made/)} It is 
Number 23. — Here, sir {la voici^ monsieur) \ don't forget 
your candle {vatre bougie =iho\X']et), — Will you please give 
me some matches {gueigites allumettes) ? — You arc going 
to leave to morrow, sir ?— Yes ; / have just come home {je 
rentre) to pack my trunk { faire ma malle) — You are 
V?rong» sir; you ought to stay a fortnight longer {=en- 
eore). — ^At what o'clock do you leave? — The train leaves 
at 7 A-M- {du matin). You must order a cab for 6 o'clock. 
— ^ Have you had the kindness to make up nvy bill for 
(de) last week {/a semaine derni^re) ? — Yes, sir, I am just 
about {je suis en train) finishing it. Here it is. — 
Thanks, will you please see {regarder) if this is all right 
{si i'lst bien or d ceia fait Men votre compte) ? — That's all 
right {c^ est ceia mhne)^ sin thank you. Allow me to receipt 
[acquit tcr) your bill and to put {mettre) a stamp {un timbre) 
on it {y), — May I {puisje) hope that you will recom- 
mend my hotel to your ci)untrymen ? — With the greatest 
pleasure.— I sliall be greatly obliged to you, sir. 


Belatire Pronoiing. 

The interrogative pronouns quiy quoi, and iequel serve 
also as relative pronouns* The declension of quoi and 
lequel has been given. That of qui^ when relative, 
differs from the interrogative qui. 

Sing, and Plur, Masc, and Fern. 

Nom . Qui^ who, which, that. 

Gen. de qui and dont^ whose, of (from) whom, of which. 

Dat. ^ qui, to whom. 

Ace. quey whom, which, that. 

1. Whoy which, and that are rendered by qui, when 
they are in the Nominative case, whether they refer to 
persons or things, both for the singular and plural. 

L*employ6 qui a 6crit cette lettre, n'est pas ici. 
The clerk who wrote this letter is not here. 
Passez-moi le plat qui est sur la table. 
Hand me the dish which is on the table. 
Les hommes qui Tout dit, sont partis hier soir. 
The men who said it left last night. 

2. The same pronouns — ^when in \h^ Accusative — whom* 
which, that^ are rendered by que. 

Est-ce li le chapeau neuf que vous avez achet6 } 
Is that the new hat which you have bought } 
La leyon que vous m'avez donnee, est tr^s difficile. 
The task which you have given me is very difficult. 
Observe that the French must always express the reliUi^it 
pronoun^ though we frequently omit it. 


3. Dont, whose^ of which, is used for persons and things 
of both genders and numbers. 

. Voici la dame dont je vous ai parl6. 
Here is the lady of whom I spoke to you. 
C'est le monsieur dont il a achet6 le cheval. 
That is the gentleman whose horse he bought. 
C'est une maladie dont on ne connait point la cause. 
That is an illness the cause of which is unknown. 
Est-ce U le jardin dont vous m'avez parl6 ? 
Is that the garden of which you spoke U) me ? 

4. Th^ Genitive de ^«/ (both singular and plural) and the 
Dative h qui, to whom, are used only when referring to per^ 

Le n6gociant de qui j'ai regu ces 6chantillons, vient 

de faire banqueroute. 
The merchant from whom I received these patterns 

has just become bankrupt. 
Voild le monsieur & qui j'ai donn6 votre lettre. 
There is the gentleman to whom I gave your letter. 
When, however, animals or inanimate objects are spoken 
of, auquel, d laquelle, auxquels, or auxquelles, must be used. 

Tel est le bonheur auquel j 'aspire {Jds-peer), 

Such is the fortune to which I aspire. 

C'est le chien auquel \*2X donne i manger. 

That is the dog which I fed (=to which I gave to eat). 

C'est une occasion h. laquelle je ne pensais pas. 

That is an occasion I did not think of. 

i) Qui is mostly used after prepositions when persons are referred 
to ; but after entre^ between, and parmi {par-mie\ among, we must 
always write lesquels or lesquelUs^ whether persons 01 ^\Tk%'& arc spo- 
ken oi. 


Les sciences (sie-dngs) auxquelles je m*int6resse. 

The sciences in which I am interested. 

5. Difference between dont, de qui, and the genitives of 

J)0lit is used when it is governed by a noun which 
stands either in the Nominative or Accusative case^ as : 

Voici le monsieur dont je vous ai parl6. 

There is the gentleman of whom I spoke to you. 

VoilgL une fleur dont la forme est tres curieuse. 

There is a flower whose form is very strange. 

La dame dont vous voyez le portrait, est k present 
k Berlin. 

The lady whose portrait you see is at present in Berlin. 

Le monsieur dont j'instruis les enfants, est tres riche. 

The gentleman whose children I instruct is very rich. 

But de qui or duquel, de laquelle^ &c., must be em- 
ployed when the noun which follows whose is in any other 
case than the Nominative or Accusative ox \s governed by a prep- 
osition, {De qui refers only to persons^ while duquel, de la- 
quelle, &c., may be used both for persons and for things), 

Les amis sur qui vous compter, vous abandonneront. 

The friends on whom you count will forsake you. 

C*est un homme ^ la discretion de qui vous pouvez 
vous fier. 

He is a man to whose discretion you may trust. 

J*honorc cet homme aux bontes duquel (ordeqili) 
je dois ma fortune. 

I honor this man, to whose kindness I owe my fortune. 

C'est un regiment {ray-jee-md>ng) a la valeur duqiif^ 
Tennemi n*a pu r^sister. 


That's a regiment whose valor the enemy has been un- 
able to resist. 

C'est un jeune homme sur la parole de qui (or du- 
qiiel) on ne peut pas compter. 

That is a young man upon whose word one cannot rely. 

6. Lequel^ laquelle^ &c., are used after prepositions when 
reference is made to things, while qui must be employed 
when persons are referred to. Ex. : 

•Voila le banc sur lequel je me suis assis. 

Here is the bench on which I sat. 

C'est une condition {kong dee-syong) sans laquelle il ne 

veut rien faire. 
That is a condition without which he will do nothing. 

Le marchand avec qui^ j'ai voyag6, est mort. 
The merchant with whom I travelled is dead. 

7. Lequel, laquelle, &c., must be used instead of qui or 
que^ when by the use of the two latter pronouns an am- 
biguity might arise. As : 

La tante de mon ami laquelle demeure i Londres. 
My friend's aunt who lives in London. 
{^qui demeure ^ Londres, would mean : The aunt of my 
friend who is living in London, and would signify that 
the frien3 lives in London.) 

J'ai vu le cocherdevotre cousine, lequel viendra vous 

I have seen your cousin's coachman, who will call on 

i) Qui always remains unchanged, even before a vowel or h voyelU, 
as : L'homme qui arrive ; — ^ qui il parle ; — \ qui elle pense ;— de qui 
on se plaint. 

8. Such expressions as he who^ she who^ they who^ those 
who must be rendered by celui qui^ celle qui (fem.) ; ceux qui 
(pi. m.) ; celles qui (pi. f.). Ex. : 

Celui qui est content, est riche. 

He who is contented is rich. 

Je I'enverrai & celle que j'airae le mieux. 

I will send it to her whom I love best 

Je parle de celui que nous avons vu chez le m6de- 
cin allemand. 

I speak of the one that we saw at the German physi- 

J'ai donn6 le livre & celle qui a trouve la clef ayec la- 
quelle votre soeur a ouvert la porte. 

I gave the book to that one who found the key with 
which your sister opened the door. 

9. That which or what^ meaning really * that thing which* 
is rendered by ce qui for the Nominative, and ce que for 
the Accusative. — All that is rendered by tout ce qui for 
the Nominative, and tout ce que for the Accusative. Ex. : 

Aimez tout ce qui est bon et beau. 

Love all that {or everything which) is good and beau- 
Faites ce que je vous dis. 
Do what I tell you. 
Ce qui est beau n'est pas toujours bon. 
What is beautiful is not always good. 

10. Proverbs and general statements usually commence 
with Qui^ whoever. Ex, : 

Qui sert les malheureux sert la divinite. 

Whoever helps unhappy persons helps Providence. 


Qui casse les verres, les paie. 

Who breaks (the glasses), pays (for them). 

II. Quoi^ whaty is only used after prepositions referring 
to a whole sentence, or to voilh, voici^ ce^ rien, 
VoilA de quoi il m'a entretenu. 
That is what he entertained me with. 
Je sais ^ quoi vous pensez. 
I know what you are thinking of. 
C'est h quoi je pense le moins. 
This is a thing of which I think least. 
A quoi vous vous fiez, est tr^s incertain. 
What you trust to is very uncertain. 
Je ne sais & quoi il s'occupe. 

I do not know what he is engaged in. 
Quoi ! n'est-ce que cela ? 

What ! is that all ? 
De quoi s'agit-il IjI ? 
What is the matter there ? 
X qaoi s*occupe-t-il ? 
What is he occupied with 1 

II faut qu'il signe {seen-yf) le contrat ; sans qiioi il 

sera nul. 
He must sign this contract ; otherwise it will be void. 
Avez-vous de quoi payer ces f actures ? 
Have you enough to pay for these bills ? 
II n'a pas do qiioi vivre. 
He has not wherewith to live. 
A quoi bon de sortir par ce temps ? 
What is the good of going out in such weather ? 
Aprh quoi after which. — Sans quoi^ without which. 




You have apartments to let (i louer) ? — Yes, sir, I have 
two ; one furnished, the other unfurnished. Which of 
tne two do you desire to see ? — I do not know yet whether 
I shall buy furniture or not {sije me mettrai dans mes 
meubles ou nori), — In that case, see them both (les deux). 
The unfurnished apartment is on the first floor, the other 
is on the second. — What is the rent {le prix du layer) ? — 
That is. very dear. — Please to remember {ifeuillez remar- 
quer) that the apartment is newly decorated {frakhement 
decor/ \ and that there are looking-glasses over {sur) every 
mantel-piece. — Will you have the goodness to show me 
the second floor? — Here is the room ; will you f lease {don- 
neZ'Vous la peine) step in .^ — It is not large, but it i^A^ery 
neat {propre) and light. — The furniture is mahogany (en 
acajou)^ sir. — The paper is simple, but quite new {/rats), 
— What do you ask for this room } — That depends {cela 
d/pend). Will you take it by the day (au jour) or by the 
month (au mois) ? — As I don*t know yet /io7£' long (combien 
de temps) I shall stay (yV resterai) in Paris, I prefer to hire 
it by the day. — That would be {then^ alors) four francs 
per day ( par jour). That seems (semble) to me rather 
(assez) dear. — Oh no, sir, you know that everything (tout) 
has grown dear (a renchM) in Paris. — The price of rents 
{des loyers) has about (h peu prh) doubled. — Take this ro<jni 
by the month and / will let you have it{je vous la laisserai\ 
for one hundred francs. — That is quite a reduction (= a 
considerable reduction, une diminution [or un rabais'\ con- 
sta&able) which I am offering you. — Very well, 111 
take the room. 

ifjl^ ^mt^t$#lt-f g$lp. 






1. Where is Mr. B, ? 

2. He has just gone out (iZ vient de * sortir •), but for a 
moment only ; he will be back {il va rentrer) imme- 

3. The postman has just brought a lettei i. ^ you. 

4. I have just observed (Je viens de m^apercevoir *) that 
there is no blind to my window. 

5* I have just invited Mr. N. to dinner. 

6. I have just received* this telegram, and I hope its 
contents will be satisfactory to y? a. 

7. I have just received a letter from Mme. de N. an* 
nouncing (qui m^annonce) the death of her father. 

& My brother has just sold his furniture. Did I tell 
you that he is going to live in the country ? 

9. My sisters have just taken their places in the mail- 
coach; they are going to leave (pariir*) to-morrow 
evening at six o'clock. 

i) Ventr de^ with an Infinitive, corresponds to the English to have 
just, as : Jf viffts d'arriver, / have just arrived. — Nous venans de le 
voir, We have just seen him. In order that the student raay get 
thoroughly familiar with the different consiructions oivenir, I repeat 
here the examples of venir de as given in a former lesson. 

2) Sortir, to go out.— Is conjugated in the same manner as senir; 
compare page 304, Note \.—Part. pr. : sortant. — Part, p, : sorti.— 
Ptes.: Je sors Xsdr)^ tu sors, il sort, nous sortons, vous sortez, ils sor- 
tent.— /'r//. .• Je sortis (x^^r^/r^O.—ZW. .• Je sortirai.— 5«^^ .• Que ja 
sorte. J ^ I 



I. Oh est monsieur B. ? 

tt. II vient d^ sortir,' mais pour un moment seule- 
ment ; il va rentrer tout-4-rheure. 

3. Le facteur vient d'apporter une lettre pour vous. 

4. Je viens de m'apercevoir * qu'U n*y a pas de store ^ 

ma croisee {kro-dh-zay). 

5. Je viens d'inviter (daing-vii-tih) monsieur N. i diner 


6. Je viens de recevoir * ce t616gramme et j'esp^re que 

son contenu {kong-ti-nii) vous satisfera. 

7. Je viens de recevoir une lettre de Mme. de N. qui 

m'annonce la mort {mdn-nongs Id mdr) de son pere. 

8. Mon fr^re vient de vendre son mobilier (vdng-dr song 
md-bei'lyik). Vous""ai-je dit qu'il va demeurer k la 
campagne {kdng-fdn-yi) ? 

9. Mes soeurs viennent {vyin) d'arreter leurs places d la 
diligence {pldhs ah Idh die-lee-Jdngs) ; elles vont par- 
tir * demain soir k six^heures. 

3) Apercevoir^ to perceive, is conjugated = recevoir, to receive. — 
Part pr. : recevant. — Part, p. : re^u. — Pres. .• Je re9ois {ri-swodh), 
tu re^ »is, il regoit, nous rccevops, vous recevez, ils re^oivent {ri- 
sivodhv). — Pret.: Je re9us, tu re9us, il re9ut, nous re9(imes, vous re- 
9iites, ils re9urent. — Fut. : Je recevrai, tu rccevras, il reccvra, &c. 
— Thus also : Concevoir, to conceive ; ddcevoir^ to deceive. 

4) Partir pour, to set out, to leave for. —,: partant.— /'ar/. 
/./parti (pdr'tay—Pres.: Je pars {par), tu pars, il part, nous partons, 
TO«8 partez, &c., as servir. Comp. page 304. — Per/,: Je suis partis 


lo It has just struck nine. 

11. It is just going to strike nine. 

12. May I offer* you something to drink, madame? 

13. I thank you very much, I have just had something. 

14. Is it long since you saw Mr. D. .> 

15. I have just met him. 

16. Is Mrs. L. at home.^ — No, madam, she has just gone 

17. Then (en ce cas) I'll come back in an hour. 

18. I have just seen Mr. T. 

19. Does he get on well in his business.' 

20. Yes, his business goes very well. 

21. Have you called on Mrs. B. ? 

22. I have been to her house, but did not find her in; 
she had just gone out. 

23. Do you know that this poor C. has just lost his wife ? 

24. I come to pay you my debts (= what I owe you). 

25. You need not have come expressly for that. 

^ ( Waiter, did you order a cab ? 
20. J 

{ Have you got me a cab ? 

27. Let him come. 

28. Has any one called here ? 

29. That happens very opportunely (fort d propos), 

30. I have come expressly for that. 

31. I shall be back at ten o'clock at the latest. 

32. When did you return from the country? 

i) Offriry to offer. — Part. pr. : offrant. — Fart. p. : offeit. — Pr^s, : 
J 'off re, tu off res, il offre, nous offrons^ vous offrez, ils offrent (zoffdfr). 


10. NeuT^heures vienneni de sonner, 

11. Neuf heures vont sonner, 

12. Mademoiselle, vous^offrirai-je * d boire ? 

13. Je vous remercie bien, monsieur; je viens de boire 


14. Y a-t-il longtemps que vous n*avez-vu monsieur D. ? 

15. Je viens de le rencontrer {rdng-kong-treh), 

16. Madame L. est-elle chez'^elle.^ Non madame, elle 
vient de sortir. 

17. En ce cas je reviendrai dans^une heure. 

1 8. Je viens de voir tout-sL-rheure monsieur T, 

19. Fait-il bien ses'^affaires ? 

20. Oui, son commerce va trds-bien. 
a I. Avez-vous'"6t6 voir Mme. B. ? 

22. Je suis^alle chez'^elle, mais je ne I'ai pas trouvee; 
elle venait de sortir. 

23. Savez-vous que ce pauvre C. {say) vient de perdre sa 
femme (/dm )? 

24. Je viens vous payer ce que je vous dois {cTwodk). 

25. II ne fallait pas venir expres. 

j Gargon, avez-vous fait venir un fiacre {fee-dkr) ? 
I Etes-vous'^all^ chercher un fiacre ? 

27. Faites-le venir. 

28. Est-il venu quelqu'un ici (kH-keung ie-sie) } 

29. Cela vient iortTk propos {pro-pdh), 

30. Je suis venu expres pour cela. 

31. Je reviendrai sL dix'^heures au plus tard. 

32. Quand etes-vous revenu de la campagne^ 

— Pret : J'offris. — Fut : J'offrirai, — Imperat : Offre, offrons, 


33- Please get out, gentlemen ; we have just passed the 

34. The train will soon be here. 

35. Please hurry, gentlemen; the train from Brussels 
has just been signaled. 

36. Shall I carry your trunk, sir, and get you a cab? 

37. Would you allow me, sir, to put this little package 
under your seat {banc) ? 

38. Yes, please. {Faites^ je vous en prie.) 

39. Is it not in your way (ne vous g^ne-t-il pas) as I have 
placed it just now ? 

40. Not the least in the world ; I am quite comfortable. 

41. The train starts at seven o'clock in the morning. I 
have just ordered (retenir) a cab for half past six. 

42. Do you know this gentleman ? He has just addressed 
me in the street. 

43. The carriage which has just passed has spattered me 
{m'a eclahoussi) from head to foot {du haul en bos). 

1) Tarder h signifies to delay y as : Ne tardez pas h lui envoyer ces 
6chantillons, Do not delay sending him these samples, /;r Hasten to 
send him these samples. — Tarder de^ as an impersonal verb, means to 
long, as : II me tarde de, I long to. — Qu*il me tarde de vous revoir. 
How I long to see you again. 

Venir h means to happen, as : Sil venait h apprendre que vous ^tes 
ici» If he happened to know that you are here. — Pendant que nous 
parlions de monsieur C, il vint h passer dans la rue. While we were 
talking of Mr. C. he happened to pass by in the street. 

2) The Subjunctive mood must be employed after verbs of command-- 
ing, ordering, wishing, permitting^ &c. Such are : 

commander to command. 

demander, to ask. 

d6sirer, to desire, to wish. 

defend re, to forbid. 

exiger, to require, to demand. 

ordonner to order. 

aimer mieux, to like better. 

permettre, to permit. 

prier, to beg, to ask. 

recommander, to recommand. 

souhaiter, to wish. 

souffrir, to suffer. 

Supplier, to beg, to request 

vouloir, to be willing. 


33- Veuillez descendre, messieurs ; nous venons de passer 
la fronti^re {frp^g'tyair), 

34. Le train ne tardera * pas 4 venir. 

35. Depechez-vous, messieurs, le train de Bruxelles vient 
d'etre signale (sin-ydh-leh). 

36. Monsieur, voulez-vous que je vous porte* votre malle 
et que je vous aille ' chercher un fiacre ? 

37. Me permettriez-vous, * monsieur, de uiettre • ce petit 
paquet sous votre l^anc ? 

38. Faites,* monsieur, je vous^en prie. 

39. Nervous genert-il pas, comme je viens de le placer? 

40. Pas le moins du monde. Je suis touted mon'^aise. 

41. Le train part k sept^heures du matin. Je viens de 
retenir ' un fiacre pour six'^heures et demie. 

42. Connaissez-vous ce monsieur? II vient de m'accoster {or 
m'aborder) dans la rue. 

43. La voiture qui vient de passer m'a eclabouss6 du haut 
en has {dii d-tdng-bdh). 

Examples : J^ordonne qu*il le fasse, — J^aime qu'il soit courageux. 
— Il souffrait que je lui disse ia v6rit6. — Je supplie qu*oa mepemteite 
de partir. 

3) Permettre 9Xkd meiireiSee page 352, No. i. 

4) FaiteSt meaning ^^j, is often used in this manner. 

5) Tenir^ to hold. — Part, pr, : tenant. — Part. p. : tenu. — Pres, : Je 
tiens {tyaing), tu tiens, il tient, notis tenons, vous tenez, ils tiennent 
(tyin). — Imperf. : Je tenais. — Pret, : Je tins (tain^), tu tins, il tint, 
nou«; tlnmes, vous ttntes, ils tinrent (taingr'\. — Fui. : Je tiendrai 
{tyaing'drih), — Pres. Subj. : Que je tienne (/y/«), que tu tiennes, qu'il 
tienne, &c. — Imperf, Subj, : Que je tinsse, &c. — fmperat. : Tiens^te- 
ridns, tenez.' ' 

Thus also : Appartenir^ to belong ; s^abstenir^ to abstain ; contemr, 
to contain : d/tenir, to detain ; entretenir [Sng-tr* -ti-neer), to keep »p, 
to entertain ; maintenir {maing-ti neer\ to maintain; ^htenir^ to ob- 
tain ; retenir^ to retain ; soutenir^ lo sustain, ^o. uphold, to s«p- 


44* I ain too warm ; I must take off niy hat. 

45. You will take cold if you stand bare-headed (;*«- 


46. I would not do that for all the money {tout For) in 
the world (du monde). 

47. I must ask your permission to go away ; I have sev- 
eral business errands {courses) to do. 

48. I have just seen in the advertisements {les affiches) 
that there is a house to be sold in St. Martin's Street, 
inquiries to be made at your place {s'adresser chez 
vous). Would you do me the favor to tell me what 
it consists of ? 

1. Where are you going? 

2. I intended to go to you (=1 went to you), 

3. Where do you come from ? 

4. I come from my brother's. 

5. And I come from church (= from the church). 

6. Will you come with me? 

7. Where do you want to go ? 

8. We are going to take a walk. 

9. I'll gladly accompany you (=1 will it gladly [J«m]|). 
Where ( par oijt) shall we go ? 

10. Wherever you like (= We shall go where [par ott] 
you will like). 


44. J'ai trop chaud ; il faut que j*6te mon chapeau. 

45. Vous"^allez vous'^enrhumer, si vous restez nu-tete. 

46. Je ne voudrais pas faire cela pour tout I'oi du monde 
{du mongd), 

47 . II faut que je vous demande la permission de m'en'^al- 
ler; j'ai plusieurs courses k faire. 

48 Je viens de voir dans les'^affiches {lay zdffeish) une 
maison i vendre rue St. Martin {mdr'taing\ s'adres- 
ser chez vous. Voudriez-vous me faire le plaisir de 
me dire en quoi eile consiste {cong-shf). 


1. Oi allez-vous? 

2. J'allais chez vous. 

3. D*ou venez-vous? 

4. Je viens de chez mon frire. 

5. Et moi, je viens de I'^glise. 

6. Voulez-vous venir^avec moi ? 

7. Ou voulez-vous^aller ? 

Nous irons (nou zii-rong) nous promener. 

8. ' 


Nous^irons faire un tour. 
9. Je le veux bien. JPar ou irons-nous (ie-rong nou) ? 

10. Nous^irons/^r oA vous voudrez. 


11. Let us go to the Park {au parc\ and let us call for 
your brother on our way {=^ in passing [en passanf]). 

12. All right (= As it will please you, or As you will). 

j Is Mr. D. in } 
^^'\ Is Mr. D. at home? 

14. No, sir, he just went out. 

15. Can you tell me where he has gone ? 

16. I really cannot tell you, sir. I think he went to his 
sister's (= that he has gone to see his sister). 

17. Do you know when he will return ? 

18. No, he did not say anything when he went -out (= in 
going out [en s^enallanf]), 

19. In case (si) any one inquires for me, porter, please 
say (= you will say) that I have gone to the ex- 
hibition {d rexposition)^ 

20. I shall not be back the whole day (de lajournie). 

21. Did any one call during my absence ? 

22. Yes, sir, two of your countrymen came to pay yoi a visit 
( = wanted to see you). 

23. I am curious {curieux) to know who can have called 
(= come) the very day (le jour m^e) of my ar- 

24. Upon my word {ma foi), sir, I do not remember any 
more {je ne me rappelle plus) ; I cannot keep {refe- 
nir) those English names in my head. [In my head is 
not to be translated.] 

25. But the (= these) gentlemen said that they would 
call again to-morrow morning before 12 o'clock. 


II. Allons^au pare et prenons votre fr^re^en passant 
{dng pd-sdng), 
Comme il vous plaira. 


Comme vous voudrez. 

Monsieur D. est-il chez lui ? 

Monsieur D. est-il k la maison {niay-zong) ? 

14. Non monsieur, il vient de sortir (sdr-tiir). 

15. Pouvez-vous me dire oi il est^alle ? 

1 6. Je ne saurais vous le dire^exactement {deer rik-zag-ti- 
mdng)f monsieur. Je crois qu*il est^all6 voir sa 

17. Savez-vous quand^il reviendra ?' 

18. Non^; il n'a rien dit en s*en^allant. 

19. Concierge, si Ton vient me demander, vous direz que 
je suis^alle k I'exposition. 

20. Je ne rentre pas (rdng-tr* pdh) de la journ/e, 

21. Est3on venu me demander pendant mon^absence ? 

22. Oui, monsieur; deux de vos compatriotes (kong pd-tree* 
of) d^siraient vous voir. 

23. Je suis bien curieux {ku-tyeu) de savoir qui peut^etre 
venu le jour mSme de mon^arriv6e {dr-ree-veh). 

24. Ma foi, monsieur, je ne me rappelle plus; je ne peux 
pas retenir les noms^anglais. 

25. Mais ces messieurs^ont dit qu'ils repasseraient de- 
main matin avant midi. 


26. If these gentlemen should call in {en) my absence, 
you will please request them to write their names 
and addresses (down). 

27. lam going to the country. I shall not come home this 

Idiomatic expressions with aller and Tenir. 

1. How do you do ? 

2. How^ are you ? 

3. How is your health ? 

4. That will do. 

5. That will not do (^v, That won't do): 

6. That's a matter of course {or. That is understood, 
or. Of course). 

7. That suits me ; done ! 

8. That does not suit me in the least {or, at all). 

9. This trimming is very becoming to you. 

10. This coat does not fit you well. 

11. Do you think that this dress fits me well ? 

12. This trimming is too light; it does not match well. 

13. That might do (or, That might answer). 

14. This key does not fit this lock. 

15. How old is he ? He is about ten years old. 

16. It is very nearly 10 o'clock. 

17. Business is very dull nowadays. 


36, Si ces messieurs revenaient^en mon^absence, vous 
les prierez d'ecrire leurs uoms at leurs^adressel 

27. Je vais k la campagne, je ne rentrerai pas cette nuit. 


Idiomatic expressions with aller and yenlr. 


Comment^allez-vous ? 
Comment cela va-t-il? 
Comment ga va-t41 ? 
3, Comment va la sant6? 
i Cela va. 
1 Cela ira {ee-rd). 

5, Cela ne va pas. 

6. Cela va sans dire. 

7. Cela me va, j'en suis. 

8. Cela ne me va pas du tout. 

9. Cette ^rniture ( gar-nii-tur) vous va tr^s-bien. 

10. Cet^habit ne vous va pas bien. 

11, Croyez vous que cette robe m'aille b:en ? 

J 2. Cette p^arniture est trop claire; 9a ne va pas. 
13* Cela pourrait^aHcr, 

14. Cette clef lie va pas ^ cette serrure {ser-rur). 

15. Quel^^e a-t il done ? II va sur ses dix^ans 
16* II est pr^s de dix_heures. 

17. Le commerce va bien peu maintenant. 


1 8. Has he brought it about ?* (^r, Has he succeeded?)* 

19. You will never succeed with it {or^ You will never 
accomplish it). 

20. I doubt ?f he can bring it about (or^ if he can ac- 
complish it). 

21. I do not think he will accomplish it. 

22. I do not think you will succeed with it; the under- 
taking (r enterprise) is too difficult. 

2^. He has spent all his money. ^ 

24. Did you read this book ? 

25. No, sir, it is so tedious {ennuyeux) that I have not 
been able to riead it through. 

26. He married her at last. 


to take them to the Post-Offlce. 

in order to • 

i) The pupil must study the following: idioms: 

Venir i bout d'un dessein {di-saing\ or Venirslboat d'une enter- 
prise {dUn ndngtir-priize) means to bringr about ; to accomplish ; 
to succeed. 

2) Venir k bout d'une chose, to make an end of a thing ; to 
bring a thing to an issue. 

3) Pour is used before an infinitive to express an intention or de- 
sign, answering to the English in order to ; whenever therefore the 
English to before an infinitive can be changed into in order to^ 


i8. En est-il venu k bout ' (3o^) ? 

19. Vous Q*en viendrez jamais k boiit. 

20, Je doute (ddot) qu'il e.a vienne 4 bout. 

31* Je ne crois pas qu'il en vienue k bout. 

22, Je ne crois pas que vous^en veniez k bout; l*enter- 
prise {Idng'tir-preeze) est trop difficile. 

23, II est venu ^ bout de son argent^ {son ndr-jdng), 

24, Avez-vous lu ce livre? 

25, Non monsieur, il est si ennuyeux {dng-nu-ei-yeu) que 
je n'ai pu venir k bout de Je lire en^entier (dn-ndng- 

26- 11 est venu k bout de Tdpouser {lay-poo^zeK). 

pour les mettre & la poste. 

pour lay mit rah Id pdsU 


les (Ace, pi.) 

pi^ur must b« used in French. Ex»: J*ai fait nion possible/ «r payer 
mus dettes, I have done my utmost to pay my debts. — J'ai fait tout 
re qu^ j'ai pu pcurVtXi empScher. I did ail I could to prevent him 
fmin It. — Je suis all6 moi-m6me/(7ifrne pas vous d^ranger, I went 
invi^elf in &rdtr not to disturb you. 

The preposition pour is also used before the infinitive after the 
words asses^ trop^ and suffissant (and after the verb suMre), Ex, : 
£11 e est assez riche /<7»r acheter cette maison. She is ricn enough to 
buy this bouse. II est trop jeune pour y aller. He is too young to go 


to put, to place, to lay, to set 

to the post-oflBce. 

1. Will you send for some wine ? 

2. I will send for some. 

3. That is what I am looking for 

4. Did you send for me ? 

5. Get this book, please. 

6. Your sister is quite ill ; I must get a physiciati. 

7. What are you looking for so eagerly [= in such a 
hurry] {avec (ant d'empressement) ? 

8. He is looking for difficulties where there are none. 

9. You are searching in vain (= beau). 

10. What are you doing? It is like looking for (c^est 
chercher) a needle in a bundle of hay (une botte de 

11. Take this letter to the post. 

12. Till what hour can letters be put into the box which 
are to leave by the evening mails {par hs courriers du 
soir) ? 

i) Mettre irregularly conjugated ; comp. p. 352, No. i. Ol serve 
the following idiomatic expressions: Mettre h la voiie, to set sail. — 
Se mettre ^ crier, pleurfy rire, to begin crying, weeping, I uighing. — 
Vou!ez-vous vous mettre avec mot. Will you be on my side (ai play) ? — 
Mettre h part (or de cole), to put aside. — Mettez votre chapeau. Put your 
hat on. — Elle se met avec goiit. She dresses stylishly. — Mettre ^ profit 
{fee), to profit. 

2) Plaire, to please. — Part, pr, : plaisant {zdng).-^Part. p,: plu. — 
Pres.: Je plais, tu plais, il platt, nous plaisons, vous plaisez, ils plai- 


sL la poste. 

1. Voulez-vous'^envoyer chercher du vin P 

2. Je veux^en'^envoyer chercher, 

3. C'est ce que je cherche. 

4. M'avez-vous^'envoye chercher? 

5. Allez chercher ce livre, s'il vous plait' 

6. Votre soeur est bien malade; 11 faut que j'aille chei- 
cher un m^decin. 

7. Que cherchez-vous avec tant d'empressement {tang- 
ddng'Pris-se-mdng) ? 

8. II cherche des difficult6s 06 11 n'y en a pas. 

9. Vous'^avez beau chercher. 

10. Qu*est-ce que vous faites? C'est chercherune aiguille 
{ai'ghee-ye) dans^une botte de foin (fo-aing), 

11. Allez mettre {or Allez jeter) cette lettre k la poste. 
13. Jusqu"^i (jils-kdh) quelle^heure peut-on jeter k la 

boite les lettres qui doivent partir par* les courriers 
du soir? 

sent {playz).-~Pret.: Je plus, tu plus, il plut, nous plfimes, vous plft- 
tes. ils plurent {plUr\ — Fut. : Je plairai, tu plairas, il plaira, &c. — 
Pres. Subj.: Que je plaise, que tu plaises, qu'il plaise, &c. — Thus 
.t!so : Se compMre, to delight in ; d^plaire^ to displease. — SUl vous 
plaiU if you please. 

3) By — with the passive voice — is usually translated by par ; but it 
must be rendered by </<?, when the verb denotes a sentiment or an in- 
ward act of the mind, as : II est estim^ de tout le monde, He is es- 
teemed by everybody. 



Exercises and Words used in Common Conversation. 

Of the Indefinite Prononns. 

On or Ton, one, they, people. 

Tout le monde, everybody. 

Chacun {shdh'keung)^ f. chacune (sh4h'kii»\ each, every 

Aucun {3hkeung\ f. aucune {dh-kun)^ (with ne), none, not 

Quelqu'un {kil'keung)y f. quelqu'une (kii-kun), some one, 

somebody, anybody. 
p/, quelques-uns (kil'ki'Zeung)y f. quelques-unes (kil-ki^ 

zun)y some. 
Personne {with ne), nobody. 
L*un, e, — Tautre, the one — ,».the other. 
pL les uns (les unes), — les autres, the one —, the others. 
L*un (I'une) et J'autre, both. 
L*un (rune) ou Tautre, either. 
Ni Tun (rune) ni Tautre, neither. 
L'un (rune) l*autre, Gen, Tun de Tautre, | each other; 
//. les uns (les unes), les autres, ) one another. 

Un autre, f. une autre, another. 
D'autres, //. others, other people. ^ 


Autrui {dh-trU'ie), {Gen. d'autrui, DaL k autrui)^ others, 

Tel, f. telle, many a (man). 
Plusieurs, several. 
La plupart, most (with a following Genitivei as: La plu- 

part des hommes, most men). 
Quiconque (kee'kong\ whoever. 
Tout, ft toute, ail, everything. 
//. tous, toutes, all. 
Quelque chose, something, an3rthing. 
Rien (n//M ne), nothing. 
Le meme, la meme, the same. 

1. On and its use has been explained. 

2. A1ICIIII9 personne, and rien are always used with 
ne^ as : Personne n*3. parl6, No one spoke. — II «'a rien 
fait, He has done nothing. — A vez-vous toutes les bottes ? 
Je «*en ai aucune^ Have you all the boxes? I have 

a) When, however, these three pronouns serve to answer 
a question — without repeating the verb used in the ques- 
tion — they cannot take ne^ as : Qui est Ik? Personne^ Who 
is there? No one. — Qu'avez-vous? Rien^ What is the 
matter with you ? Nothing. 

^) In interrogative sentences or in sentences expressing a 
doubt and after words of a negative meaning, as sans^ ja- 
mais^ nulle part, m\ &c., aucun, personne, and rien are used 
without ne; aucun then stands for any; personne for any- 
body ; and rien for anything. As : J'ai fait ce long voyage 
sans voir aucune de mes connaissances, I made this long 


journey without seeing any of my acquaintances. — II ny 
a jamais personne chez lui, There is never any one at his 

c) These pronouns always require de before any adjective 
following them, as : II n*y a rien de plus beau, There exists 
nothing more beautiful. 

3. Not one or none are rendered by ancnn ne or pas 
un He, as : Aucun de vous n'y 6tait, None of you were 
there. — Vojez-vous ces personnes ? Je v^en aperfois ancnne 
{or pas line), Do you see these persons 1 I see none. 

4. Somebody^ some one, anybody^ and any one are expressed 
by quelqn'un singular and masculine; some, pi. by 
quelques-uns or qnelqnes-nnes. Ex. : 

Somebody told me so, qnelqn'un me Ta dit. • 
Do you know any one here ? Connaissez-vous qnel- 
qn'un ici } 

5. Laplupart, most, takes the Genitive plural after it. 
The predicate must also be put in the plural. Ex.: 

La plupart de ces pommes ne sont pas encore mures. 
Most of these apples are not yet ripe. 

6. Another is usually expressed by nn antre, and the 
plur. others (Nom. and Ace.) by d'antres or les autres. 
Ex. : Un autre vous servira, Another one will help 
you. — Donnez-moi d" autres raisons, Give me some other 

7. Of or from others is rendered (Pautrui, and to others^ 
h autrui, as: Par soi-mSme on p ut juger d'autrui. From 
one*s own self one can judge of others. 


8. I/un et Tautre, fern, tune et V autre (pi. hs uns et 
Us autres, pi. fern, les unes et Us autres), both.— They agree 
with the noun they refer to, in gender and number. Ex. : 

L'uii et 1 'autre sont all6s au concert, Both have gone 
to the concert. 

When preceded by a preposition we have to repeat the 
same in French before each of them, as : 

Je U ferai ^fOJUV Tune et ^OVLV fautrcy I shall do it for 
both of them (/fw.) 

Ni Pun ni I'antre (fem. ni rune tdV autre) requires 
ne before the verb, as : Je ne U ferai ni pour Pun, ni 
pour Pautre, I shall do it for neither of them (masc,) 

9. L'un Pautre (I'une lautre [fem.]) ; les uns les au- 
tres; les unes les autres (fem.), one another or each 
other. Z*un, funey Us uns^ Us unes sltq always the sub- 
jects, Vautrey Us autres the objects of the sentences. All 
active verbs must in such cases take the reflective pro- 
nouns sey nouSyVouSy although no reflective pronoun is 
used in English ; as : Ces deux soeurs %^aiment Pune Pau- 
tre, These two sisters love each other. — Vous vous nuisez 
Pun & Pautre, You are hurting one another. — ElUs par- 
/r»/ ^W Pune de Pautre, They speak ill of each other 

N.B. — Observe that the prepositions must be placed 
between Tun and Tautre. 

10. Tel has two significations, such and many a (man). 
In the former it is an adjective and agrees with its noun; 
in the latter it is used without a substantive. Ex. : Te/U 


//aiV la difficult/, Such was the difficulty.— TV/ farle de 
chases qu'U ^en^nd pasy Many a man speaks of things 
which he does not understand. 

NoU. Un t6l has also the meaning of so and so, as : 
Chez Monsieur un tel, at Mr. So and So's. Madame une 
telle y Mrs. So and So. 

II. Notice also the expression: II n'y a rien de tel 
que. . . . or il n'est rien tel que. . . ., There is nothing 
like. Ex. : 

// fiy a rien de tel que d^ avoir une bonne conscience (kong^ 

There is nothing like having a good conscience. 


Division (/) dti temps {dee- 
vei'Z'yong dii tang). 

Un si^cle {see-ay-kT), 
Une ann^e {an-nay)y 

rann£e pass6e. 

Tannee prochaine (pro- 
Un mois (nCwodK), 
Une semaine (si-mayn), 
Un jour, une journ6e, 
Une heure (tin neur)^ 
Une demi-heure {de-mee 


Division of Time. 

A century. 
A year. 

last year. 

next year. 

A month. 
A week, 
A day. 
An hour. 
Half an hour. 


Un quart dlieure {kdrdeur), 
Une heure et demie, 
Une minute (mie'nut)^ 
Une seconde (si-gongd)^ 
Le matin, 
La mating, 

L'apr^s-midi, {m.) 

Le soir {s'wadr)f 

La soit6^{s'zi!od-ray)t 

La nuit (nu-ee^ 

Minuit {mii-nu'ii) (/«.)> 


Hier {ei-ayr\ 

Avant-hier {d'Vdng'tyair\ 



lie lehdemain 

Le commencement 

{idm- mdng'Se-mdng). 
Le milieu {mei-lyeu\ 
La fin (fatng)y 

A qtmit^ of an hour. 

An hour and alial£. 

A minute. 

A second. 

The morning. 

The forenoon. 


The afternoon. 

The evening. 

The evening. 





The day, before yesterday. 


The day after to-morrow. 

The next day, the morrow. 

The beginning. 

The middle. 
The end. 


Lm saisans (say-zong) /. /^ 

Le printemps ( praing'tdng)^ Spring. 

L'6te («.)• Summer. 

L'automne (ld'tdn\ Autumn. 

I^'hiver (lee-vayr) m.^ Winter. 

La belle saison. The fine season. 

La mauvaise saison, The bad season. 



Omnibus. — Tramway. — Cab. * 

Do you pass* through the 'ruede Richelieu'? Yes, 
sir. — Please put me down* at the * Palais- Royal.' — 
Fares,* please. — Would you be kind enough to hand my 
fare' to the conductor ? Would you be so kind to move* 
a little ? — Take a seat in that corner. — Why do we stop^ ? 

— The street seems to be~ blocked up with carriages.* — 
Would you be kind enough to give * the conductor a 
sign • to stop ? — Let me get out first.** — Give me your " 
hand.— Don't hurry, wait till the 'bus stands quite still." 

— Conductor, a connection-ticket " for Passy. — This is 
too late, sir ; you ought to have spoken when you got 
in." — Have you a connecting-ticket"? Then get out 
and enter this office. The omnibus for Passy has not 
yet come in, but it will be here in a minute." — I am very 
tired ; let us take a cab. — Cabman, here *'!-7S top, please, 
and turn round." — Drive us to the * Bois.* — On time." — 
(Vou will) drive us " through the * Boulevards, la place 
de la Concorde and les Champs-Elys6es.' — What is your 
fare," cabman.? — Is the charge for the luggage includ- 
ed " } — That is very dear. — Cabman, drive me " to the 
N . . . hotel, R . . street. — Do you know the hotel ? 

i) fiacre. — 2) est-ce que vous passez ? — 3) descendezmoi. — 4) 
Places. — 5) ma place or mon argent. —6) reculer. — 7) s*arreter. — 8) 
// sterns (il parait) iAat the street is blocked up (encombr6e) of carriages. 
—9) defaire signe. — 10) le premier. — 11) /« main. — 12) attendez que 
la voiiure soit tout i fait arrlt^e. — 13) une correspondance (need not be 
paid for extra). — 14) il fallait le dire en montant. — 15) une corre- 
spondance. — 16) il ne tardera pas ^ venir. — 17) Cocher, par ici \ — 
18) tournez. — 19) i I'heure or nous vous prenons ^ I'heure. — 20) 
Vous prendrez les Boulevards, &c. — 21) combien vous dois-je? — 
' 22) le prix des bagages est-il compris ? — 33) conduisez-moi. 

^I|e ||ebti[r5j|f(a!t-^^g$l4m» 

B^ R E isr c u . 





13. I want to have {/aire charger) this letter registered. 

14. They are received at the office till four o'clock only. 

15. What! my last letter has not beett received? Did 
you forget {auriez-vous oublie) to post it, John ? 

16. Oh no, sir ; I have put it into the box myself. 

17. And I wrote the address correctly; it is impossible 
that it should have been miscarried. 

18. I shall go and inquire {je vats aller) at once at the 
office of information {bureau des reclamations). 

19. I have sent a letter to Marseilles, and it did not reach 
{elle n'est point parvemie) its destination {adresse). 

i) The French vexh faire is used for to do, to make, and to get or to 
cause, and to have ; it must always be followed in French by the in- 
finitive {active) without a preposition, as : 

Oil voulez-vous le faire faire ? Where will you have it done ? 

Observe the following idioms : 

faire savoir ii quelqu^un, to let 
one know ; to send word. 

il fait chaud. it is warm. 

il fait f void, it is cold. 

faire un tour de promenade, to 
take a walk. 

ne faire que, to do nothing but. 

vousferiez mieux de ne paste faire, 
you had better not do so. 

faire faite, to get made; to order. 
se faire des amis, to get friends. 
faire semblant de {sang-bldng), to 

pretend. • 
faire voile, to set sail. 
faire de son mieux, to do one's 

cen est fait de mot, I am undone ; 

it is over with me. 





13. Je voudrais faire* charger {or faire recommander {ri- 
com-mdng-deK) cette lettre. 

14. On ne les re9oit' au bureau que jusqu'^i qua- 

15. Comment? on* n*a pasre9u ma demiire lettre? Jean 

(y^ii^), auriez-vous'^oublie de la mettre^i laboite ? 

16. Oh, que non, monsieur ; je Tai jet^e moi-meme k la 

1 7. J'avais cependant {s^pdng-ddng) bien mis {mee) Tadresse; 

il est^impossible qu'elle se ^^i/^6gar6e. 

1 8. Je vais^aller tout de suite au bureau des reclamations 


19. J'ai envoy6 une lettre k Marseilles, et elle n'est point* 

{po^aing) parvenue d son^adresse. 

2) Compare page 372, Note 3. 

3) The word on (derived from homme^ man) serves to render all 
general and vague reports expressed in English by they say, it is report' 
et/, people say, S.C. = on dit. The verb following on must always be 
in the third person singular. Ex, : Oncroit, People think.— 6» ne 
pcut pas faire tout. One cannot do everything. 

When — which is frequently the case — ike passive voice is used in 
English, the verb must be changed in French into the active voice with 
on, as : 

It is said, on dit. 

I was told, on m'a dit. 

On me trompe, I am deceived. 
On n'a pas re9u mes lettres. My 
letters were not received. 

4) The negative not is expressed by ne—past or ne^oint. 


20. I am surprised at that.* — When did you send off 
your letter? 

21. A week ago to-day. 

2 2. How do you know it did not arrive ? 

23. By a letter I have just received. 

24. We are just going to sit down to dinner. 

25. Waiter, lay another cover, opposite to the other 

26. Place the soupe-tureen in front of me and hand me 
the ladle. 

Idiomatic expressions witli faire. 

1. I am having that engine repaired (riparer). 

2. Have this coat repaired (raccommoder). 

3. I am having a silk dress made at this dressmaker's. 

i) Observe the difference between the French and the English 
2) The following prepositions govern the Genitive: 

tJ cd/tfde, by, beside. 

d cause de^ on account of. 

au travers de, through. 

an viiluu df idh iniil-ycu di\ in 

the middle of. 
au lieu d€^ of. 
prh de, \ by, next to. 
auph de, \ near, close to. 
au-dvant de^ before. 
au-dfssus de, above, upon. 
au dessous de^ beiow, under. 
ioin d\ far from. 

en de^a de, on this side of. 
au kaut de, on the top of. 
du haut de^ from above. 
hors de out of. 

au dehors de, outside, without. 
autour de, around, about. 

lelong de, alon^. 

h r/s^ard de, with regard to. 

faute de, for want of. 

en vertu de, in consequence of. 

au moyen de {oh mwod-yaing di\ 
by fnean«! of, 

3) The following simple prepositions govern the objective case : 
h (before /^ = au ; before les = I avant (denoting time), before, 
aux), at, in, to. | envers, to, towards. 



20. Cela in'6tonne.* Quand^avez-vous fait partir votre 
lettre ? 

21. II y a aujourd*hui huit jours. 

32. Comment savez-vous qu'elle n'est pas^arriv6e ? 

23. Par une lettre que je viens de recevoir. 

24. Nous'^allons nous mettre'^d table. 

25. Garden, mettez'^encore un couvert (sur cette table), 
vis-d-vis de ' Tautre. 

26. Mettez la soupiere devant • moi, et passez-moi la cuil- 
lerji soupe. 

Idiomatic expressions with faire. 

1 . /e fais r/parer cette machine {md'Sheen). 

2. Faites raccommoder cet^'habit. 

3. Je fais /aire une robe de sole (s'wodA) chez cette 
couturiere {kdo-tur'yair). 

avec^ with. 

chez^ at, at the house of. 

contre^ against. 

dans, in, into. 

de (before /^ = du ; before les 

des), of, from. 
depuis^ since. 
derrihre^ behind. 
dh^ from. 

devant (denoting place), before. 
pendant (pdng-dang\ \ . . 
d It rant, ) *»' 

en, in, within, into, to. 
entre {dng-tr\ between. 
aprh (denoting time), after. 

Devant is a local preposition 
We were before {in front of) the 
nntes priority of time and order^ 
rived before you. 

hors, ) except, besides. - 

Aormis,) save. 

outre, besides. 

malgr/^ in spite of. 

moyennant {m* wod yin-ndng\ by 
means of. 

par, through, by. 

jf>armi ( pdr-mee )* among. 

pour, for. 

sans, without, but for. 

sous, under. 

selon (s^'lon^), ^_ according 

suivant (siieevdng), ) *'^' 

sur, on, upon. 

vers, towards. 
, as : Nous ^tions devant la maison, 
house. ^Avant, on the other hand, de- 
as : Je suis arrive avant vous, I ar- 


4. Have some fresh coffee made. 

5. I had some beef- tea made for you. 

6. I am iiaving a silk dress made by the same tailor who 
made yours. 

7. They are having some boots made at the French 

8. I shall let him know. 

9. You kept my clerk waiting (= You have made my 
clerk wait). 

10. Let him know that I shall call again to-morrow 

1 1. Will you communicate * that to your agent ? 

1 2. Why have you not informed them of the news ? 

13. He is a cringing fellow. (He cringes.) 

14. I shall never lower myself (/e ne m^dbaisserai ja^ 
mais) to toadying {d faire des courhettes = cringing 
to a person). 

15. You have made {or committed) a great blunder {un 
pas de clerc). 

16. By coming here he has committed a blunder. 

17. You have made a great deal of fuss (des^embarras). 

18. This boy makes a great deal of fuss. 

19. You pretend (or you make believe [vous faites sem- 
blant]) that you are pleased with it. 

20. He pretends to be ill. 

21. He pretended to be ignorant of it (= not to know 
anything about it). 

22. I am going now to pack my trunk ( faire ma malle). 

I) Faire part de quelque chose a quelqu*un means to commu- 


4. Faites faire du caf6 frais. 

5' J^cti f(iit faire du bouillon (boo-yong) pour vous. 

6. Je me fais faire une robe de sole par le meme tail- 

leur qui a fait la votre. 

7. Elles se font faire des bottines chez le cordonnier 

8. /e le lui ferai savoir. 

9. Vous^avez /tf/'/^attendre mon'^employ^. 

10. Faites-lui S2L\o\T que je reviendrai demain matin. 

11. Ferez-vous part de cela * i votro^agent. 

12. Pourquoi ne leur avezoous pas fait part des nou- 

13. II fait des courbettes. 

14. Je ne m'abaisserai jamais h faire des courbettes. 

15. Vous^avez faitjunpas de clerc, (But rarely used.) 

16. II a faitTun pas de clerc en venant ici. 

17. Yo\\s^?iWQZ fait des jembarras {day-zattg-bdr-rdh). 

1 8. Ce'^gar9on fait bien des^embarras. 

19. Vous faites semblant {sdng-bldng) que cela vous pla!t« 

20. // fait semblant d'etre malade. 

21. II faisait semblant de n'en rien savoir. 

2 2. Je vais faire ma malle k present. 

nicate something to a person ; to inform him of a thing ; to im« 
part or to convey knowledge. 


23. I must pack my trunk at once. 

24. Why have you not put my room in order {fait ma 
chamhre) ? 

25. How many times must you be told to put my room 
in order (or to clean my room) ? 

26. He tells stories {des contes). 

27. You told us a story. 

28. You are telling me a story. 

29. He plays the lord {le grand seigneur) in Paris. 

30. This man is very shrewd (ruse) ; he acts the saint (= 
the good apostle [apdtre]). 

31. He got himself into a scrape {or into a difficulty). 

32. He got himself into a scrape when he was in Sara* 

Idiomatic expressions with mettre. 

1. I have placed him among my friends {or among the 
number of my friends [au rang de mes^amis]). 

2. I know him well. He has placed me since a long time 
{depuis longtemps) among the number of his friends. 

3. They turned him {on Va mis) out of doors. 

4. Mr. B. is a man who knows how to take advantage 
{mettre d profit) of everything {or who knows how to 
make the best of everything). 

5. I shall endeavor to turn {mettre) ray German to ad- 
vantage {d profit), 

6. I defy you {je vous mets au defi) to prove it. 

7. He defied me. 


23. U me f ant f dire ma ma.'L' tout de suite. 

24. Pourquoi n'avez-vous ^2^ fait ma chambre? 

25. Combien de foj,s faut-il vous dire de faire ma 
chambrt ? 

26. II fait des conies {kongt). 

27. C'est'^un conte que vous nous'^avez fait. 
2d>. C'esf^un conte que vous me faites let, 

29. // fait U grand seigneur (li grdng sen-yeUr) ^ Paris. 

30. Cef^homme est bien rus6 ; il fait le bonjtpdtre, 

31. II s'est fait des jiff aires, 

32. II ^^Qsifait desjoffaires quand'^iP^*^ait^4 Saratoga. 

Idiomatic expressions with mettre. 

1. Je I'ai mis {mee) au rang de mes'^atnis. 

2. Je le connais bien. Depuis longtemps (l^g-idng) il 
m'a mis au rang de ses'^amis. 

3. On Ta mis k la porte. 

4. Monsieur B. est^'un^homme qui sait mettre toui^i 
profit {pro- fee), 

5. Je tdcherai de mettre mon^allemand h profit, 

6. Je vous mets {may) au d^fi {day-fee) de le prouver. 

7. II m*a misjSLVL d6fi. 


8. She made me acquainted with it« (She imparted the 
knowledge of this fact to, me.) 

9. Your imprudence has long since acquainted him 
with it. 

10. He will easily 'familiarize himself with {or see 
through) that matter, 

11. He begins to (77 se met d) work at half past five. 

12. Don't begin to work, tired as you are. 

13. Set about it imnjpdiately, pray. 

14. They began to laugh. 

15. He goes through fire and water {il se met en qu(itre) 
for his friends. 

16. She would do anything for her friends. 

17. The poor girl is indefatigable in his behalf. 

Idiomatic expressions witli prendre. 

1. Do not take it amiss. (Don't be offended at it) 

2. Don't be offended at what I am telling you. 

3. Instead of taking the affair as a joke {en riant)y he was 
offended at it. 

4. You must not always take his compliments literally 

{au pied de la lettre), 

5. He is simpleton enough {assez simple) to take all these 
compliments literally. 

6. She takes all this for gospel {au pied de la lettre). 


8. Elle m'a mis jiu fait de cela. 

9. Votre^imprudence {aing-pril-ddngs) Ta mis depuis 
longtemps au fait de cela. 

10. II se mettra ais^ment {ay-zay-mdng) au fait de cette'^af- 

:i. II se metjt travailler (trd-vdh-yeli) al cinq'^heures et 


12. Ne vous mettez pas'^d travailler, fatigu6 comrae 

13. MetteZ'Votis-y tout de suite, je vous prie. 

14. Elles se mirenf^d rire {meer tdh reer\ 

15. Ji se metjtn quatre pour ses'^amis. 

16. Elle se mettrailTen quatfe pour ses'^amis. 

17. La pauvre fille se metjsn quatre pour lui. 

Idiomatic expressions with prendre. 

1. Ne \eprenez pas^en mauvaise part, 

2. Ne prenez pas ce que je vous dis^en mauvaise part. 

3. Au lieu (lyeii) de prendre la chose en riant (ree-dng^ il 
la pril^en mauvaise part. 

4. II ne faut pas toujours prendre ses compliments {kong- 
plee-mdng) au pied de la lettre. 

5. II est'^assez simple {saing-pl) ^our prendre tous ces 
compliments au pied de la lettre. 

6. Elle prend {prang) tout cela au pied de la lettre. 


7- We have appointed a day {nous avons pris jour) to 
settle this affair. 

8. He has appointed a day to meet you. 

9. Vou have no right to examine {prendre connaissance 
de) his conduct. 

10. She would look into that affair. 

11. How do you manage {voua y prenez-vous) to prepare 
your lessons without a dictionary ? 

12. You do not set about it rightly. 

13. They manage very well indeed. 

14. They managed very badly. 

15. How did you manage it? 

16. This is the way he managed. 

17. They managed it somehow. 

To Speaky to Chat; to be Silent. 

1. Speak {or talk) to me ; speak to him (or to her) 

2. Speak loud ; speak low (softly). 
3 To whom are you talking ? 

4. Of what are you talking ? 

5. Are you talking to me.^ 

6. Why did you not speak before (sooner) ? 

7. Don't talk to me of it. 

8. I do not want to know anything about it. 

9. Talk sensibly. 

10. The matter speaks for itself. 

11. Let us have a chat. 

12. You do nothing but talk all day long. 


7- Nousjavons pris jour pour r^gler cette^affaire. 

>i>, 11 a pi is jour pour vous rencontrer. 
9. Ce n'est pas^sL vous sL prendre connaissance de ses ac- 

10. Elle a voulu prendre connaissance de cette'^aflfaire. 

1 1 . Com merit vousTy prenez-vous pour preparer vos le9oriS 
sans dictionnaire? 

12. Vous ne vous^y prenez pas bien. 

13. lis s*y prennent comme il faut. 

14. lis s'y prirent tr^s mal. 

15. Comment vous^y ites-vous pris ? 

16. Voici comme il s'y prii, 

17. lis s'y sont pris on ne sait comment. 

Parler, Causer; se Taire. 

1. Parlez-moi; parlez-lui. 

2. Parlez haut ; parlez bas. 

3. A qui parlez-vous ? 

4. De quo! parlez-vous ? 

5. Est-ce jL moi que vous parlez ? 

6. Pourquoi ne parliez-vous pas plus t8t ? 

7. Ne m'en parlez pas 

8. Je ne veux pas'^en'^entendre parler. 

9. Parlez raison. 

10. La chose parle d*elle-meme. 

11. Cau5>ons^un peu. 

12. Vous ne faites que causer (or jaser) toute la journ£e. 


13. Be silent ! 

14. Hush! Silence! 

To Know^ to Say. 

1. Do you know anything new? {pr^ What is the 
news ?) 

2. I do not know of anything new. 

3. What? you do not know what the whole town is 
talking of ? 

4. I have not heard anything. 

5. You pretend (vous faites semblant) not to know it. 

6. If I knew anything about it 1 would tell you. 

7. This is a false report ; otherwise (sans quoi) you 
ought to know it. 

8. Who says so ? Every one says so. 

9. May I inquire (^avotV) who told you ? 

xo. A person worthy of confidence. I have it from 
Mr. N. 

To Enow ; to Forget : to Remember, 

1. Do you know me ? 

2. I have not the honor of knowing you. 

3. What, don*t you recognize me ? 

4. I cannot recall you. I cannot remember your name. 

I) Tair^^ to conceal. — Part. pres. : trussint. — Part p, : \^. — Pres. : 
Je tais, tu tais, il tait, nous taisons, vous taisez, ils taisent {taiz\ — 
Pret. : Je tus, tu tus, il tut, nous tftmes. vous tfttes, ils turent {ftir). 
— Put : Je tainu -^Pres. Subj, : Que je taise. que tu taises, qu'il 


1 3. Taisez-vous!* 

15- Chut {shut) ! Silence (sei-ldngs) ! 

SaToir; Dire. 

1. Savez-vous quelque chose de nouveau {or Qu'y a-t-il 
de nouveau) ? 

2. Je ne sais rien de nouveau. 

3. Comment ? vous ne savez pas ce que Ton dit dans 
toute la ville ? 

4- Je n ai rien^entendu dire. 

5, Vous faites semblant {sdng-bldng) de ne pas le savoir. 

6- Si j'en savais quelque chose, je vous le dirais. 

7. C'est done un faux bruit, sans quoi vous le sauriez^ 

8, Qui le dit ? Tout le monde le dit. 
9- Puis-je savoir qui vous I'a dit } 

10. Une personne digne {deen-yi) de foi. Je le ticns de 
monsieur N. 

Connaitre; Oablier; se Souyenir. 

1 . Me connaissez-vous } 

2. Je n*ai pas Thonneur de vous connaitre. 

3. Comment, vous ne me reconnaissez pas ? 

4. Je ne puis vous retnettre. Votre nom ne me revieni 


taise, etc. — Thus: 5!? taire^xo be silenU— P^rj. .* Je me tais, I am 
ftilcDt.— /"/vr/. Je me tus, I was silent.— /*^f/..- Je me suis tft, I have 
|»eeD ailent. — Imperat: Tais-toi ; taisez-vous, be silent. 


5. I do not remember having had the honor of meeting 

6. 1 beg your pardon ; I remember having had tlie 
pleasure of seeing you last winter at a ball given by 
Mrs. B. 

7. Do you remember it ? 

8. I remember it very well. 

9. So do I ; I shall never forget (= always remember) it. 

10. I have not forgotten what you ^aid to me at that 
time (alors), 

11. I cannot recall it ; I have a bad memory {la memoire 

12. May I ask you to remind me of it ? 

If the weather is just as cold to-morrow 
morning as it is to-night, make a Are in my son's 
room as I am afraid he is 111. 


5 . Je ne me rappelle pas^avoir^eu cet^honneur. 


6. Pardon nez-moi, je me souviens d'avoir eu le plaisir 
de vous voir Thiver dernier au bal de M"*®. B. 

7. Vous^en souvient-iU 

8. Je m'en souviens tres-bien. 

9 Mot aussi^ je m'en souviendrai toujours. 
ID. Je n*ai pas^oubli6 ce que vous me dites alors. 

11. ^e ne puis me le rappeler ; j*ai la mSmoire ingrate, 

12. Oserais-je vous prier de m*en faire ressouvenir? 


8M1 fait demain matin anssi froid que ce soir, 

seel fay de-maing mSl-taing ds-see fro^flh ke s6 swokre, 

faites da feu dans la chambre de mon flis paree 

fait dU fetl dSng la shang-br* dd mong fees pSr-sS 

qn( je crains qa'il ne soit malade. 

ke je kraing keel ne swokh mSlad. 



If the weather is just as cold to-morrow 
morning as it is to-night. 

If ; whether 

it makes 

if it makes 



to-morrow morning 

also; too; likewise; as 



to-night ; this evening. 

I) Si belongs to the so-called simple conjunctions. Conjunctions 
are used to connect either words or sentences. They are either 
simple or compound ; the simple consist of one word for each clause, 
the compound are formed of two separate words. 

Simple Conjunctions. 

Et. and. 

et — ety both — ^and. 
aussi. also, too. 

tantSt — tantSt, sometimes — some- 
oUf or. 

cu — ou^ either— or. 
plus^plus, the more — the more. 
plus' — moins, the more — the less. 
moins—moins, the less— the less. 
autant—auta^t^ as much as. 

car^ for. 
mais^ but. 

pourtant^ yet, still. 

autrement, \ .^ . _ , 

sans cela. \ °''»er'"se. «»»se. 
nMnmoins^ nevertheless. 
d*ailUursy besides, moreover 
Ji, if, whether. 
sinon. if not 


8M1 fait demain matin aussi froid que ce ^oir. 

ssel fay dS-maing ma-taing ds-s66 fro-ah k^ &£ swoSre. 



s'il fait 


matin (m.) 

demain matin 

aussi • 



ce soir. 

quandy when ? 

oii^ where ? 

tCoh, whence ? 

puisque^ since, as, 

lorsaue, when, as. 

quoique {vr'wh the Subj.), though, 

pourquoi^ why? 

pour^ in order to. 

j^fV — s<nty be it — or. 

ni — niy neither — nor. 

comme^ as. 

fommenty how? 

dime, consequently; then. 

ninsi. thus, so. 

ptiis ; a/ors, then. 

qt4e, that. 

qttf, than (after a comparative). 

2) ilfait^ il faisait, etc., is used in speaking of the weather ; as, 
il fait beau^ it is beautiful weather. 

3) aussi — que ( just) as — as, is used in comparisons^ as : II est aus^ 
heureux que son frfere. He is just as happy as his brother. — [n ne^^- 
Hve comparisons aussi — que^ or si — que may be used: Nous ne 
sommes pas si riches {or aussi riches) que vous, We are not as nch 
as you. 


1. What kind of weather is it ? — It is fine weather (It is 

2. It is bad weather. 

3. It is very fine weather. — The weather is splendid. 

4. The weather is very bad {or awful ; abominable). 

5. The weather is nice (agreeable). 

6. The weather is not pleasant. (The weather is dis- 

7. It is clear. 

8. The sky {le temps) is cloudy (overcast). 
( It is gloomy. 

9. -< It is dry. 

( It is damp. 

10. The weather is certain. 

11. The weather is uncertain (or changeable). 

12. It is pleasant (or mild). — It is stormy. 

13. Will it be fine to-day ? (Are we going to have fine 
weather to-day?) 

14. It looks as if we were going to have fine weather. 

15. It looks as if we were going to have bad weather. 

16. The weather is growing (^r turning) bad. 

17. It is growing fine. 

18. It does not look as if we were going to have fine 

i) Couvrir, to cover. — Part, pr» : couvrant. — Part, p, : couvert.- 
See ouvrir. 


1. Quel temps {tang) fait-il? — II fait beau temps (<?r, II 
fait beau). 

2. II fait mauvais temps (^r, II fait mauvais). 

3. II fait^un temps magnifique (superbe; splendide; 

j II fait^un vilain temps (yee-laing-tdng), 
'** [ II fait^abominable (ndhbV), 

5. II fait bon (agreable). 

6. II ne fait pas bon (pr^ II fait d^sagr^able). 

7. II fait^un temps clair(serein \si'raing^. 

8. Le temps est couvert (koo-vayr)} 
II fait sombre {songbr). 
II fait sec. 
II fait^humide {tumeid). 

10. Le temps est constant [kon-stdng), 

11. Le temps est variable {or inconstant [vdA-ryddf, aing' 

12. II fait doux {dod), — II fait^orageux. 
Le temps se mettra-t-il au beau aujourd'hui ? 
Fera-t-il beau aujourd*hui ? 

'+• 1 On 

II y a apparence {d-pdrdngs) de mauvais temps. 


Le temps a Tair de vouloir se mettre^au beau. 
diraii* que le temps va se mettre^au beau. 

j II y a apparence {d-pdrdngs) de 
^ « On dt'rau qu*il va faire mauvais. 
16. Le temps se d6range {or se gdte [gd/if]). 
ry. Le temps se remet^au beau. 
18. Le temps n*a pas Pair de vouloir se mettre^au beau. 

a) On diraii, one would think \ onne le dirait pas, one wonid not 
believe it. 


19. It is beginning to grow fine again. 

20. The weather is clearing up. 

21. Tliat's a sign of fair weather. 

22. What beautiful weather we are having nowadays. 

23. What weather ! [These expressions may be used in 
regard to good or bad weather.] 

24. You want to go out in such weather {or in this 
weather) ? 

25. The barometer points to fair; to rain; to change. 

26. The barometer has risen (has fallen), 

27. The sky is overcast ; we are certainly going to have 
rain {de Veau). 

28. So much the worse, for (car) I have to make some 
calls {or to pay some visits). 

29. You can put them off (remettre) till to-morrow. 

30. But to-morrow we have to go {nous devons aUer) to 
the country with Mr. Godet. Don't you remember 
that he promised to fetch us provided the weather 
were fine ? 

31. Do you think it is going to rain to-day ? 

32. Yes, it is raining already. [Observe the French 
mode of expressing these phrases.) 

33. It rains {or^ It is raining). 

34. It has been raining. 

35. It will rain. 

i) commencer^ to begin, is generally followed by ^, as : On a com- 
mence h jouer. They have begun to play. — But if a certain time is 
stated, it is followed by de^ so as to avoid the repetition of ^, as : II 
commen^a de parler h cinq heures^ He began to talk at 5 o'clock. 

3) Tant^ so much, so many. — tant que, as long as. — tan( mieux, so 
much the better. — tant pis ^ so much the worse. 

3) After the verbs of thinkings believing^ sayings etc., the Indicative 
follows, when the verbs are used dffimimHvely ; but the Subjunctive 
must follow, when they are used negatively, intenvgativeiy, or condi' 


1 9. 11 recommence* k faire beau. 

20. Le temps s*6claircit. 

2 1 . C'est signe {sien-ye ) de beau temps. 

22. Quel beau temps nous'^avons'^aujourd'hui. 
j Quel temps ! 

( Voilk un temps! 

24. Vous voulez sortir far ce temps (or par un temps 
pareil \^pd-ri'yi\ or par le temps qu'il fait) ^ 

25. Le barom^tre est^au beau ; k la pluie ; au variable 

26. Le barom^tre est mont6 ; (tomb6). 

27. Le temps est couvert; nous'^allons s&rement (sii-ri- 
mdng) encore avoir de Teau. 

28. Tant pis' {jfie) ; car j'ai des visites k faire. 

29. Vous pouvez les remettre^d demain. 

30. Mais demain, nous devons'^aller k la campagne avec 
monsieur (5odet. Vous rappelez-vous qu*il a promis 
de venir nous chercher, s'il faisait beau ? 

31. Croyez-vous que nous ayons* de Teau aujourd'hui ? 

32. Oui monsieur, il en tombe d6j^ 

33. II pleut {ory II tombe de Teau). 

34. II a plu (^r, II est tombe de Teau). 

35. II pleuvra {o'^^ II tombera de Teau). 

thnally, i.e., when thev are preceded by the conjunction si. It 
I say. for instance : Je crois que son employ^ est parity I repre- 
sent the departure as a fact^ I believe he has left. But in the senr 
fence: Je oe crois pas que son employ^ soit parti, I speak of his 
departure as something uncertain, as somethinf^ which may have hap- 
pened, consequently the Subjunctive mu<;t be used. — Pensez-vous 
^M'fVpuisse faire tout cela? Do you think he can do all that ? Sor- 
tons, si vous fensez qu'il fasse beau temps, Let us go out, if you 
think it will be fine weather. 


36. It is going to rain. 

37. It is raining very fast. 

38. It is raining faster and faster {de plus belle). 

39. It rains as fast as it can pour {d verse) ; let us get 
under cover {d convert). 

40. It looks like rain. 

41. Do you think it is going to rain ? 

42. It does not rain so heavily (a diminuk), — It has left 
off raining. 

43. The rain has settled the dust. — All nature has been 
refreshed by the rain. 

44. I am afraid I shall get wet (mouille). 

45. I am wet through and through. — I am wet through 
to the skin. {Literally : to the bones [jusqu*aux os]). 

46. My clothing {or my dress [ladies']) is soaked through 
and through. 

1) Craindre^ to fear. — Part, pr, : craignant {krht-yang\ — Part, p. .• 
craint {kraing). — Pres, : Je crains (kraing)^ tu crains, il craint, nous 
craignons {krin-yong), vous craignez, etc. — Pret, : Je cratgnis (krin- 
yii).— Fut : Je c\2AnAx2M^kraing-drai), — Thus also: Plaindre, to 
pity, se plaindre ^ Xo CQm^\2i\n \ contraindre, iocom^ftX^ 10 constrain. 

2) After verbs of permitting, allowing, promising, /eating, rejoicings 
etc., the Infinitive with de must follow, if i) the main sentence and 
the dependent clause have one and the same subject, or if 2) ihe subject 
of the dependent clause is a pronoun which has been mentioned al- 
ready in the main sentence, as : /am afraid /shall get wet, Je crains 
d'etre mouill6. — Tell him he should write to my father, Dites-lui 
d'6crire ^ mon pdre. 

I add a full list of these yerbs : 
Accuser, to accuse. 
achever, to finish. 
avertir, to inform. 
s'aviser, to determine. 
bldmer, to blame. 
charger, to commission. 
cesser, to cease. 
commander^ to command. 

conjurer, to entreat. 
continuer, to continue. 
conseiller, to advise. 
craindre, to fear. 
d/fendre, to forbid. 
d^picher {se\ to hasten. 
d/toumer, to deter. 
diff&er, to differ. 


36. II va pleuvoir {or, II va tomber de Teau). 

37. II pleut bien fort. 

38. La pluie tombe de plus belle, 

39. II pleut^k verse ; mettons-nous^k couvert. 

40. Le temps estj^ la pluie. 

41. Croyez-vous qu'il pleuve (or que nous'^ayons de 

42. La pluie a diminu6 (La pluie a cess6). 

43. La pluie a abattu la poussidre. — La pluie a rafralchi 
(shie) toute la nature {nd-tur). 

44. Je Grains* d'etre* mouill^ {nidd-yeh), 

45. Je suis tout mouill6. — Je suis tremp6 jusqu'aux^'os 

46. Mes vStements (vay-ti-mdng) sont tout mouill6s. 

dire^ to tell. 
dispenser^ to excuse. 
d/sesp/rer, to lose hope. 
dissuader, to dissuade. 
^crire^ to write. 
tmpicker, to hinder. 
s*empress€r, to hasten. 
entreprendre^ to undertake. 
tssaytr^ to try. 
Anter, to avoid. 
feindre, to feign. 
fdlieiter, to congratulate 
hdter (sg), to hasten. 
furer, to swear. 
menacer, to threaten. 
tnMter^ to deserve. 
ndgliger^ to neglect. 
nUt^ to deny. 
offtir^ to offer. 
0M€ttre, to omit. 
ordontur, to order. 
oublier, |o forget 
permtttre, to permit. 

persuader^ to persuade. 
plaindre^ to pity. 
plaindre {se\ to complain. 
prescrire^ to prescribe. 
presser, to urge. 
prier^ to pray, to ask. 
promettre, to promise. 
proposer , to propose. 
recommander^ to recommend. 
refuser^ to refuse. 
regretter^ to regret. 
r^ouir {se\ to rejoice. 
remercier, to thank. 
j^ repentir^ to repent. 
reprocker^ to reproach. 
r/soudre^ to resolve. 
risquer^ to run risk. 
sommer^ to summon. 
soupfonner, to suspect. 
supplier^ to beg, request 
tdcker, to endeavor. 
trembler, to tremble. 
e'tfi»/^(j^), to boast. 


47' My hat is in a terrible condition ^in an awful state). 

48. What an object you look ! 

49. I was surprised (or overtaken) by a sudden rainstorm 
{;une averse). 

50. And you had neither an umbrella nor an overcoat ? 

51. The sky looked so fine when I went out that I did 
not take any precaution. 

52. Yes, but the weather was sultry (Idurd) and the heat 

stifling (la chaUur accahlante), and there were those 
little clouds on the horizon which foretell a storm. 

53. J fancied they would blow off. 

54. You counted without your host. [French proverb.] 

55. I am afraid it is going to rain. 

56. It looks like a thunderstorm. 

57. How hot it is to-day ! It has not been so warm all 

58. I am afraid we are going to have a thunderstorm; it 
is going to rain at once. 

59. That is nothing. That will soon pass over. 

60. The weather is clearing up. The sun is shining 
again. It is going to be fine. 

61. The sun is shining. 

i) ni — ni {nee) must always be accompanied by ne. 

2) The present participle with en denotes a) either a means, or b) a 
simultaneous action, i.e., an action duriog the transaction of which 
another one is acted by the same subject ; it is always invariable, and 
corresponds to the English present Participle preceded by the pre- 
positions by, in, on, or ivhile ; or it is sometimes rendered by the sim- 
ple Participle without preposition. Ex.: 

II riait en me regardant. He was lau£^bing while he looked at me. 
— On se forme Tesprit en lisant de bons livres, Wu form our minds 
by reading good books. 

3) The verbs avoir peur, craindre, and tfembler require the particle 
ne before the verb in the Subjunctive Mood, but only when these 
verbs themselves are affirmative or negative-interrogative. Ex.: 


47- Mon chapeau est bien arrang6 {dr-rdng-jay). 

48. Cumme vous voila fait ! 

49 J'ai 6te surpris par^une averse. 

50. Vous n'aviez done ni * parapluie ni paletot ? 

51. Le ciel (syel) ^tait si beau que je n*avais pris^aucune 
precaution {preh-ko-syong) en partant.* 

52. Oui, mais le temps 6tait lourd, la chaleur accablante, 
et il y avait au ciel de ces pet its nuages (nu-dhje) qui 
annoncent I'orage (dn-nongs lo-rdhje), 

53. Je croyais qu'ils se dissiperaient. 

54. Vous^avez compt^ (kong-teh) sans votre^h&te, 

55. Je crains qu*il ne pleuve.* 

56. Le temps est^d Torage. 

57. Qu'il fait chaud aujourd*hui ! II n*a pas'^encore fait 
si chaud de Vete,^ 

58. Je crains que nous n*ayons de I'orage ; il va pleuvoir 

tout-fiL rheure. 

59. Ce n'est rien. (Ja va etre bientot passe. 

60. Le temps s'6claircit. Voil^ le soleil qui paratt,' II 
va faire beau. 

61. II fait du soleil (so-U-ye), 


Je crains qu'il ne vienne. 
It, craignez-vous pas qu*il ne vienne ? 
But if the sentence be simply negative or simply interrogative , w 
is not used, as : 

Je ne crains pas quit vienne, 
Craignez-ATous quit vienne ? 

4) de ret6, the whole summer through ; de la nuit, the whole night. 

5) Patattre, XQ 2Lp\iQ2iX.—Pa^t. pr.: paraissant.— Par/. /. / paru.— 
Pns.: Je parais, tu parais. il paratt, nous paraissons. vous paraissez. 
ils paraissent {pd-ris). — Fret. : Je parus, tu parus, il parut, etc. — 
Fut. : Je paraltrai.--/'nrj. Subj. . Que ie paraisse.— Thus also : Ap- 
parattre, to appear ; disparaUre, to disappear ; repatattre, to re- 


62. There is every indication of hot weather. 

63. I feel warm. — I feel very warm. 

64. How warm it is! — The heat is fairly choking (^r 

65. The air is parching (brUlant); I am dying with 

C6. One can scarcely bear the heat {^Literally: It is almost 
impossible to endure the heat.) 

67. It makes one perspire {transpirer). 

68. Let us step into the shade {d Tornbre). 

69. Let us go into the shade. — It is shady here. 

70. It is windy. — It is very windy. — There is a cold 

71. From which quarter is the wind ? 

72. The wind has changed {or turned]. 

73. It is pleasant for walking to-day. 

74. What do you think of the weather ? A little rain 
would not be amiss {ne ferait pas de nuH). 

75. We need rain. 

76. Don't you think it is very warm weather for the 
season of the year? 

77. Yes, this is one of the warmest springs I can re- 
member, i 

78. The sun is as hot as in the midst of summer. I 

79. I am afraid we are going to have a thunderstorm to- f 
day. j 

80. What whirl-wind ! It thunders already ! Do you hear ? ] 



II y a apparence de chaleur (shd-Uur), 

j 11 y a J 
\ On dir 

irait qu'il va faire chaud. 

63. J'ai chaud. — J'ai extremement (or excessivement) 

64. Ah ! qu'il fait chaud ! — II fait^une chaleur 6touf- 
faiite ! 

65. L'air est brillant ; je meurs de chaleur (or de chaud). 

66. II est presque impossible de supporter la chaleur. 

67. Cela vous fait trsLnspirer (frdngs-pfe-riX). 

68. Mettons-nous k T ombre (long-br'). 

69. Marchons k Tombre. — Ici il fait de rombre. 

70. II fait du vent {vdng),— !! fait beaucoup de vent. — II 
fait^un vent froid (frodH). 

71. Quel vent fait il ? (^r, Quel vent^avons-nous) ? 

72. Le vent^a chang6 (or tourn6). 

73. II fait^un temps tr^s-agr6able pour se promener au- 

74. Que dites-vous du temps .^ Un peu de pluie ne ferait 
pas de mal. 

75. Nous'^avons besoin de pluie. 

76. Ne trouvez-vous pas qu'il fait bien chaud pour la 
saison (sai-zong) ? 

77. Qui, ce printemps (praing-tdng) est^un des plus 
chauds dont je me souvienne. 

78. Le soleil est'^aussi chaud qu'au milieu (mee-lee-eu) dc 

79. Je Grains que nous n'ayons de Forage aujourd'hui. 

<So. Quel tourbillon (tddr-bee-yong) ! II tonne d^j^. Entendez- 


8i. I just !^w a flash of lightning. 

82. The thunder roars. 

83. What clap of thunder ! the lightning has struck. 
Now it begins to rain. 

84. Let us escape as fast as possible into this house. 

85. God be thanked ! the storm is over ! 

86. After the rain follows the fine weather. [French 

87. There is a draught here. 

88. It is dusty. 

89. It hails. 

90. The hail has broken the window-panes (les tttres). 

91. It is foggy. 

92. It is quite fresh. — It is cold. 

93. I feel cold. 

94. It is freezing. — It freezes hard. 

95. We had a hard frost last night {cette nuit). 

96. We'll have a cold winter. 

97. I am trembling with the cold. 

98. It is growing colder. — It is growing warmer. 

99. How many degrees have we ? We have 3 degrees 

below zero. 

100. It snows. — It is snowing hard. 

loi. It is thawing. — The ice is broken. — The snow is 

102. It is dirty. 


8i. Je viensde voir un^^clain 

82. Le tonnere gronde. 

83. Quel 6clat de tonnerrc ! la foudre est tomb6. Voili 
qu'il commence k pleuvoir ! 

84. Sauvons*nous bien vite (v^if) dans cette mai'son. 

85. Dieu merci ! Torage est pass6. 

86. Apres la pluie le beau temps. 

87. { 

II y a un courant (rdftg) d'air ici. 
Nous sommes_ici entre deux_airs. 

88. II fait de la poussiere. 

89. II grele (^r, II tombe de la grele). 

90. La gr^le a cass6 les vitres {yee-tr'). 

91. II fait du brouillard (brod-ydre). 

92. II fait frais.— II fait froid. 
93 J'ai froid. 

94. II g^le. — II gele fort. 

95. Nous^avons'^eu une forte gel<Se cette nuit (nu-ee.). 

96. II fera un hiver tr^s-froid. 

97. Je tremble (trdng-bV) de froid. 

98. Le froid augmente (mdng/), — Le froid diminue. 

99. Combien de degres^avons nous ? — Nous^avons trois 
degres de froid (^r, Nous^^avons trois degres au- 
dessous de z6ro (zay-rd), 

100. ll neige. — II neige i gros flocons {fld-kong). 

1 01. II d^g^e. — La glace s'est rompue {rong-pu). — La 
neige fond (fongd). 

102. II fait sale {sdhl) {or, II fait de la boue). 


But before doing so make a fire in my son's 

room, as I am aflraid he is ilL 


before (Adverb) 

make (Imperat ) 

some fire 


the room 

of my son 


I am afraid 

that he is ill 

1. Please make a fire before bringing me the w^m 

2. If there is no fire in our bed-room, make one. 

3. I cannot act otherwise (autrement). 

4. I shall do it one way or another. 
5 I have done my best. 

■ais AnparaTant faites da feu dans la chambre 

ma.j zD-pa-rfl-vftng fate dU fetl dlkng 12 shang-br' 

de moQ flis paree que je cralns qu'll ne soit malada* 

de mong fESs pftr-s6-ke j6 craing k66l n£ swoah mah^lttd. 

Mais = 



du feu 


la chambre 

de mon fils 

parce que 

je cralns 

qu'il ne soit malade. 

I* Faites du feu, je vous prie, avant de m*apporter de 

Tcau chaude. 
2. S'il n'y a pas de feu dans notre chambre-^-coucher, 

3_ Je ne puis faire autrement {oh'tr*mdng), 

4- Je le ferai de manifere ou d'autre. 

5- J'ai fait pour le mieux {or de mon mieux). 


6 Do unto others as you would they should do unto 

7. You can do what you like. (You may act as you 

8. Have you anything to do ? 

9. Do what you please. 

10. He has done it on his own responsibility. 

1 1. That shall be done {or will be done) at once, 

12. He does it very clumsily. 

13. That happens sometimes. 

14. It is getting late. 

15. How does it happen that ..,,.? 

16. I am not afraid of his coming. 

17. I am afraid he is not coming. 

18. Is there anything to fear (or to be afraid of) ? 

19. It is to be feared that this may happen {que cela 

20. I am afraid he will not succeed. 

21. I am afraid ray )3rother will loose his suit {prochsY 



6. Faites^aux^autres ce que vous voudriez qu'on vous 
fit {fee). 

7. Vous ferez comme^'il vous plaira (or comme^il vous 
semblera bon [sfing-bli-rdh bdng\), 

8. Avez-vous quelque chose k faire ? 

9. Faites comme vous voudrez. 

10. II I'a* fait de son chef (or de son""autorit6 priv6e 

11. Cela va etre fait (or achev6, or fini, or termine). 

12. II le fait tr^s-gauchement (gdsh'mdng), 

13. Cela se fait quelquefois. 

14. II se fait tard. 

15. Comment se fait-il que . . . . ? 
J 6. Je ne crains pas qu'il vienne. 

17. Je crains qu41 ne vienne pas. 

18. Y a-t-il quelque chose d craindre ? 

19. II est ^ craindre que cela n'arrive (ndr-reev), 

20. J'ai peur qu'il ne reussisse pas (keel ni ray-us-sh pah) 

21. Je crains que mon fr^re ne perde son proems (say). 




f TO 30 |ff4 

^ MAH ;gl 1935 

DEC 2 1M3 



fcP-^Bt B-7&-9An 

/ ^ 3 1 573 








LD 2l-lO0fn-Va3 

YB Olk!UU