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Full text of "Melius inquirendum, or, A sober inquiry into the reasonings of the Serious inquiry : wherein the inquirers cavils against the principles, his calumnies against the preachings and practises of the non-conformists are examined and refelled .."

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Melius Inquirendum. 


Into the Reafonings of the 

Serious Inquiry: 


The Inquirers Cavils againft the Principles, 

his Calumnies againft the Preafiaaigs-aQd-Pra&ites 

o f jrfRpStf*"" cr^. 



Examined an 

And St. Aiiguftine, the Synod of Dort, and the Articles of tt 
Church oi England in th^uinquarticHfer points, vindicated 

The third £diti$n % with CorreBions and Additions by 
the Author. 

Prov. 1 3. 17. 
He that is fir ft in his own Caufe feemeth jufi, but his Neighbor j \ 
cometh , and fear cheth him out. 

LONDON: Printed for Beny Alfop, at the Angel and 
Bible in the Ponltrey. 1681. 

To the Ever , and much Honoured 5. K. 

■ Worthy Sir! 

I Receive! yours, which hough along with it both its ownwel- 
come, the affurance of y w refiorcd health, and continued Love ', 
and alfo my own entertainment, The ferious and Companionate 
Inquirie. / have now perufed it with as much ferioufnefs as 'twas 
written, andreturnd it with more clemency than it deserves \ and 
mufl confefs my [elf cafl down [o much the lower by r/,y difippointments upon 
the Reading it, by how much the flattering title had raii'd me higher to ex* 
pett from thence mere healing ,counf els. I lave read of a PoliOi Em- 
bijfxxor in Queen Elizabeths days, who at his landing whi[per*d habroai 
that his Embajjy was Teace, but when admitted to his Audience, threat- 
ned a war : Her Majcjly vrith invincible patience attended the winding 
up of his long-winded Oration, and then cries out, Heu quam decepta 
fui, Legatum expectavi, H.raldum accepi! 1 expetfed a Dove with 
an Olive-branch in his mouth, and 1 tread upon a [nake, with a menacing 
jling in his Tail.' $uft fuch another treat has your Inquirer given me. 
The Title raifed me on tip* toes to [ee at length that famous weapon-falve 
which might conjolidate the Churches bleeding wounds ; but Ue l:ool^ pre" 
[ems me with a weapon r^ady drawn to reader thmmore wide, and more 
incurable. Tou fee, Real paflicn, will not long conceal it filf under 
feigned companion. • Nemo diu.egit Hypocrvaml A feverifi) preterna- 
tural heat in the body, u[ually l-ea'j out at the Lips ! The Crocodiles 
tears, are but a jhon formal Grace over his ^Prey. and yet his importunate' 
ftomac^tkin\s his throat cut till it be done I You aye pleis'd indeed to re- 
commend it to me, rs an Irenic, and whenlfiid, it had rather the me en 
of a Military Ta&ick. a friend of ours a little inclinable to be witty, re- 
plied, it was neither the one nor the other, but an innocent Game at Tick- 

It's come in fafuion again I perceive to La*dlean difcourfes with grave 
[entences j and therefore tvat you may not think 1 am cap't, let me remember 
you of Seneca. I~feiiciter aegrotat, cu: plus periculia medico , quam 
a morbo. That Patients cafe muft needs be defperate, wkoje l'byfuian 

A z is 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

«* a greater plague than his difeafe. And that Church muft certainly languish 
quae nee morbum ferre poteft nee temedium, that can neither endure the 
Remedy, nor the Malady : Its a fad choice, whether we will die of our 
wound, or our plaifter. And therefore your great ^retende s might do well 
to forbear their Jlighter Applications, which do but exafper te the Humour , 
for the more we tamper with improper Means, the lefs fuccefs muft we ex- 
pell from thofe' that are proper and proportionable. 

J hefeech )ou Sir ! ^yfnfwer me with more ferioufhefs and companion, 
than this gentleman makes inquiries $ Can you once imagine the je D ijf en- 
ter s fo irreconcilably fallen out with themselves, astovmraain an utter A- 
verfio-n to be diluted out of a Prifon into Liberty ? To be argued out of 
Poverty into Plenty ? Out of imminent danger, into a [afe Retreat ? Can 
you really believe them at fuch deadly feud with their own eafe and Repofe, 
fuch [worn enemies to their own peace, m to be more ambitious of ]{uin, 
than others are of [elf- preservation ? That they fould Court their Mifertes 
with the fame paffionate Careffes, that other Inamorato's do their Miftref- 
fes ? That theyfliould run over one mothers Heads for the frft grafp of De- 
ftruiiion, as if they rod J?oft, all upon the f witch and fpur for a prefentati- 
on to a warm Farfonage ? That whatever premises of fair and honeft conve- 
niences are offered, yet they are fo abfurdly obftinate at to holdthe Conclu- 
Jlon of [elf-created vexation ? Relieve it Sir ! (I know you believe it !') 
The Non-conformifts are Men as well as their Neighbours, as apprehen- 
fve of Trouble, as defirous of tranquility. They have their Interefts, 
and honefl concerns too, on this fide Another World > Their backs muft be 
(loathed, their families muft eat, or die : and as, pudicitia, & for- 
ma, fo confeientia, & integritate, in foro nil emitur. >A good con- 
fcience is not current ccyn in this worlds markets ; It will not purehafe one 
difli of meat , though with a good ftomack it makes moft Excellent 
fawce 5 and will make the foul a noble feaft Alone. Ton ought not there* 
fore , you cannot entertain a thought fo unreafonable , fo uncharitable, 
That any thing fiort of finning againft God, and thereby expofmg them- 
felves to his difpleafure, any thing on this fide pollutiug their Confcien- 
ces, and fo making their be ft friend their worft enemy , could be a tempta- 
tion ftrong enough , to prevail with them to expofe to apparent ha- 
zard whatever they enjoy of accommodation, to render their lives defira- 

7ou might perhaps pleafe your [elf with a thought, That the J{hetoric^ 
of this Di[courfe would profelyte one of whofe inteUettuals you had ]uft 
caufe to think, nothing but mean and contemptible. And had I found his 
Reafoas as cogent,, at his Stile is fluent ; his Arguments as bard, & fa 


The Epiftle Dedicatory.' 

words are [oft, you could net de[pair of fuccefs upon Kim, who is evtr ymA 
dy to offer himfdj to be pra&is'd upon at the fatisfaclion-ofnce : 'But kd 
that would do his wor^ throughly upon an Impartial Inquirer, muft ufe\ 
Arguments of Steel, as well as words of Oyl: *And the Main thin^ 
I complain of in his Declamations is, that whilft we furfeit upon Rheto-\ 
ric-k, we are chap-fallen for want cf Kea[on\ and the hungry J^eadeA 
fits picking his teeth like a Spanifli Don, after an infipid, as if 
he had dined upon .he Oxe at Bartholomew-fair. If ever you [aw the\ 
fign of the Porter and Dwarf, you have [eenthe true [cale of proporti-] 
on between bis Mellifluous Language, and pitiful argumentation. Ani\ 
I am re[olved that no importunity [nail prevail with me to ^Accept A well- 
meafured fentence, or Laboured period, for a Syllogifm, where two, 
gingling words fiand for the Propofitions , and a decent comely CaJ 
dence for the Conclusion : Tut this I will freely own , that Jince there is 
anecejftty {which yet we {now no Rea[on for) that the Ncn-conformiftsi 
be Reviled, it's [ome Comfort to be raiCd at in good Language, and to\ 
meet with Dirty Matter wrapt up in clean Linnen. ^And fince you wiU j 
needs have my judgment of the fiile and drefs , / Jhall only [ay thus 
much. Cum omnis Arrogantia eft molefta, ilia Ingenii, & Elo-j 
quentia, eft Longe moleftiffima. ^AU Arrogance is indeed naufeous, j 
but that of wit and Rhetborick in a polemical treatife is a downright Vo* j 

They that talk, fo Confidently that there can be No Unity hoped for amorg 
ChrijYtans, withont Uniformity - 3 nor peace maintain d, unle[s all Men ie\ 
of a [cantling in their judgments, or atleaft, that (though indulged to re-'] 
tain their different apprehenfions) they be obliged to conform to. the fame j 
pra&ifeitf every circumjlance j do [eemtometo have entertain d tiotionu 
very unworthy the Chrifiian Religion, or perhaps to under fiand very little of\ 
the Natnre and defign of it. An Epicurean can nu\\e\ in the fame ftraw 
with a [wine of his own ftye : and truly it was well thought on i fsevis in- 
ter fe convenit urfls. But Chrijtianity enlarges our love to a greater La- 
titude, it rai[e sour affections to a Nobler pitch, cordially to embrace with \ 
the be ft Arms of Good-will whoever are Dignified with the Image o£j 
Chrift, though not Diftinguiflit with our own fuperfcription, nor ex-i 
pre'fs the finer flroa^es of our private conceptions \ why can we not kveli 
Chriftian as he is fuch, though differing from us in Innocent Acci-j 
dents, as well as a Man, becaufe he is a Man, though his hair teofl 
another Colour, his face of another Symmetry and comp'er.ion than j 

our own 

The Ep'ftU Dedicatory. 
i th!l U Z e T U T\ Whh0 " t A**"** <*t K*coil of Spirit Mold 

fies Z ff lL r, r " m " h ' N0r ca ™ be " tho f e P'Odigiim Here- 

thefe 11 „ I P H ? d ' "P« a«ebau.hed Heart; yet even towards 
hLm! X °n %™<r^ " <"« behaviour, tha S , hey are 
H la "J f" WlU mv " hed anoth " r ' **«'« impof,. 

Ter'i" MVer CH Z jr0W ' rd I™'™™' h ™ A B of Hereford's 

ons and errors are the works of the fldh, * w ^.»»j from tr,deani 

«£ »y <fe.%/>, tfttoJeverjcmupOm-pAtcb the, pretend to purge a- 
'AlbZott m ! h 7t ' eddudetkm W w *> *»*Me other,, whofe great 

to eZa^l, . l '" ihism vbere promt/edit, roe have no *ea(on 
« >expeu a ^conclude n unattainable, and many judgit not tefoz. 

I trii lK'*'*"# beM ' Innscdra ™ ■*»: innon-ne- 

ZtITZ 7 s - fu r Umnul - '« « *«*»* ** uw <• tb aL-«. 

7eethe'r,etTn lete T rhS »*«*"<< '»*<* •** *«JW ~ 
MsupboZf/ a "T 0t r fMtbepeaceudglv,. That VeacewUcb 

he hi lit e 2T7 ,HC t " " Ue ^W *"*■*■«■ *"«* ihen 
ly t0 rf " 3****^ a quick aud vigorous fpiriwf 

mutual co.ndefcent.on and forbearance of one mother Inder ourd.ffent. 
ItlleoutT W'cmoh can poftbly reach thin inward grievance, 

ZvenTt^T'^^ «<¥«< of Malice, Envy, Hatred, Pride, 
*S»e»ge, and tie wound will heal of it (elf. 

ledbTfr'T'* tle emn " 1 Mot °f P " pe Vi<aot ' S mmr !> tht be e «*'oy. 
ftMtX n xdw ' e fip ,tk t^qmrto-decimzoeJmfertinenciet,i»be»te 

ieS o f *'* ?' ! tk "^ heM ™ i t erme "' s "f S f' tit - h "Moving the Sub- 
much i ,". eile ^ s V' e flion, or leaving it at Liberty as he found it ; but I 

VernOHi ' 7 y W ijC ever U ' ° r k " Succe tfo rs >» t! "» ufurpttion, m- 
. J ooa tee things that belonged to the Churches teace, whofe folemn me, 

■ 'J , . "' V f et th Ejnh o" * fi Me *>'tb (P*'*y kindled fiom f/ell, blown. 
:J?r:de> yet a!( along vijlty jujlijjei with the f ( eckm Plea oj 


The Fpiftle Dedicatory* 

Now the Plea (in Jhort) is this : Without Uniformity there can be 
no Unity, and withont Unity we mult expect no inward love ; Diver- 
fityof opinions lead to a diversity of pracliies 5 and theie alienate 
the affections, which works it felf into Ltticns 2nd parties to the 
difquiet and rending of the Church, a&d hazard cf the State* But 
tkefe reafmings lye very raked and open to the \hdic\ou atid. impartial Con** 
fider€r. Tor our true Vnity lies in the profejf'on cf one God, one Lord 
JefusChrifr, one Spirit, and not ill one Ceremony 5 and our love will 
therefore be the more eminent, iecau.e nlastkeje differ entes to pt eve its 
truth, and exercije itsftrehgtb : Aru ml tteve\ the evil may he in different 
apprehenjtons, the Remedy will never be haters, but Humility, and Charity > 
for Humility trill School me into this UfJ»n, totting well of the perfons, 
and judg modeftly of the principles of thofe that dijfent-, when a Halter wiU 
fooner break the neck, than convince the judgment: Jt*s eajie to play 
the ffypocrite a and praclife what another pleafes 5 but impoffible to believe 
what I pleafe my felf: But now, if thefe diversities of judgment and pra- 
tlice, fhall boy I up into Animofties, which through their ill management JkaU 
endanger, or but feem to threaten the fafety of the government : The Ma- 
gistrate in this cafe ha* 4 proper and fpecifick Remedy of his own, en- 
trufiedin his hands by divine right, vi%. to reduce Delinquents into the 
Way of fobriety by due punifbments, leaving the fober and peace Able DiJJ en- 
ters in the mean time to reap the fruits of their own innocency> with this 
fngular advantage, that they can now learn by thejufi and exemplary punifk- 
ments upon others, to watch again j} thofe corruptions of their hearts, lefl 
they (bould break, out into any dijloyal praciifes unbecoming the Gofpel which 
they do prof eft, and Jh fluid adorn. 

How beautiful Vniformity is in the eyes of Men, and what deformity the 
difference of A odes, I(ites, forms of worjlip, carry along with its * £ n- 
dring Religion it felf lefs pleafing and amiable in the ejes of curious and 
critical Spettators, is eajily pretended', and with equal right andre&fon 
might they complain, that God has not made all men of one fee, fmejiaiure, 
and thence tike occajion to make goodly Declamations again j] tlie uglinefs of 
the Creation, 

The variety which we behold in tte Vnivcrfc, is not its deformity, but 
its beauty : [As the eye is more ravijhed with a L&ndfcape which enriches it 
with the grateful inter portions of HiUs and Valleys, Woods and Ch my an, 
alternately ta'Ang up the thoughts, and feeding contemplation with the na\ui 
ral chequer -wortyf light, and o^ake, than if it were lei out to lofe it felf 
in the uniformity of a waft Horifon, or empty profpecl} fo is the foul wore 
fur priced with tbcglcty of the Chriftian I^ligion, when various apprebek 7 

A 4 font 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 
ft ons agree in the fame fubfiantial hlinefs, andfeveral flames bear the 1- 
mage of the fame God : one Star differing from another in Glory, yet all 
Jbming mu a Light borrowed from the fame fountain, the fmalleft eye of 
heaven ping up a place in the Afierifms of thofe of the firfl Magnitude, if 
tndeedaU men were foundly cudgel? d intooneeven way of profeffim andprL 
Vice, they whofe defign it is to jieep out their daysineafe, might emoy 
themselves, and their ^uifts over Confcience, with more foft and deli- 
cate touches of carnal contentmeet, dreaming all the while that the world is 
their own j yetfiiU the minds of men would fit as uneafie under Juch Rigours, 
as he that pinches hit body with too ftraitafuit, only to recommend himfelf 
to acceptation by the ne# and obtaining fafliion : And as we obferve an 
uneafie Out foon becomes an old fuit 5 fo they that ft pinch't under a 
jtraight-laced Religious form, do but grumble, and make fowr faces, wait- 
ing the good 'hour when they may fairly and honefily difcharge themfelves of 
an ungrateful cumber. ■ 

What advantage this Inquirer may promife to himfelf f rQ m fuch a way of 
mtting, I cannot divine. The befl ufe 1 conceive to be made of it, is to 
fupport the evil consciences of the Minifiers of their fury at fuch tolera- 
ble rates , that they may not tear their fouls in peices : for perfccution for 
Religion, is an impiety Jo abhorrent to the common light of Mankind, that 
confcience, though for a while perhaps it may contraft a Lethargick^drowfu 
fiefs, yet will awake and mutter, and grumble* filthily to he made a Pandar 
to covetoufnefs or malice, a fialkjng-horfe to bafe revenge, or T0 hold a can^ 
4le to the Devil •, and when it JhaU begin to lowre and fcold, itns no little 
gain that will make a fop for that barking Cerberus, no fmall fee will bribe 
it to hold its tongue. 'But now in comes one of thefe plaufible Declamati- 
ons, rendring the principles of the Differs fo filly, their grounds fo we&\, 
their lives fo wicked, their prallifes fo ridiculous, and yet of fuch treafon- 
$ble and fchifmatical Tendencies, which hufhes the clamour of confcience, 
md like the jogging of the Qradle rocks the peevifli thing ifleep again as 
foon as it begins to whimper. 

Really Sir! I cannot but exceedingly pity and pray for a fort of per fons 
of your own Quality, who to their more refined Extract, having added: all the 
ornaments of polite literature, and thofe more graceful accomplifiments 
fetch home by Iravel, and a freer converfe in the world,befides that Honour 
Which they have bravely won in the Field, and creditably worn at home, have 
yet their judgments fo far impofed upon, their fpirits fo Miner* d 'by pre- 
fuitees formed frommif-reprefentations, as to become the infflrumeets of 
$ther mens pafftonsAn executing thofe fever hies, which theif calmer thoughts, 
m&®m f*Am Sv^Wnt? Wjf needs $egret$ ^nd though a tr H egene- 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

rous Englifli temper, valiant, but not cruel, may confidently claim \\A 
^Magnanimous Lyon (Cui fatis eft proftrafle) as the Emblem of Courag* 
mixt with Clemency, for his Qrefi 5 yet fome few of more rigid inclinations 
will depopulate and lay wafie many a mile about them, who when they heboid 
an odd kind of Peace, as the happy fruits of their cruellies, applaud them-* 
felvesfor perfons of deep judgment, and great fuccefs, filling Defolation, 
Vniverfal quiet. 

If you ask^me why 1 have not underwritten my Nrme ? be fides that you 
know it well enough without my fubfcription, you may be pleas' d to remem- 
ber what you once told me, That though Truth needs no Mask, flie may 
want a Helmet ; and, feeing fie de fires no better, do not grudg her the co- 
vert of darknefs. Innocency knows no guilt thatfiould Dye her face with 
fbame, yet file apprehends danger, which may ma^e her Pale with fear. 
Truth feeks no corners, as to the juftice of her caufe ; and yet jhe 
may feeJ^ a corner as to the in juftice of her Judg. 1 am not confcious to 
my [elf of any evil defign j but they who will call Preaching, Prating, 
will hardly fcruple to call my Ears Horns, and I am not to be judg in the 

1 am confident yon commiserate our hard fate, and the unequal terms our 
buffing Ant agonifis impofe upon us : They challenge us to a paper-duel in 
the mofi provoking Language, fuch as would fet an edg upon the mofi obtufe 
coward, ifmodefiy, an£ ambition for peace, or love of retirednefs tempt 
us to decline the combat, we are then.pofied up for cowardife 5 but if we 
awaken fo much fpirit as to take up the Gauntlet, and return the mildefi 
Anfwer, then trufiy R. gets it in the wind, and immediately fummons his 
Hamlets, raifes the whole poflfe Ecclefias, andSpiritualWMuz vponus, 
and fir angles the kelplefs Infant in the Cradle : A wary Anfwer may fome- 
times [leal off the form before it's jlarted, then comes in Mr* Warden M. 
( the common Hunt ) whifiles out the whole pack, of his infallible Beagles, 
furfues, runs down, catches the poor fugitive, and then you know to fei$e 
aboo\isthe mofi effectual way to confute it : // one in athoufond has the 
happy fuccefs to efcape this inquifition,then the new Sme&ymnuan Divines, 
or Convocation of the Cofjee-houfe will reply upon it, that they will j if it 
was pend with becoming ferioufnefs and gravity, they have one ^eply 5 This 
is nothing but whining, or Raving: if the ftile be bris^t with a dafh 
ftr fo of facetioufneft, they have one word ready to confute it, This is 
DroUery, Burlefque, buffoonry! A blan \ Imprimatur lay ready every 
week, againfi poor Hobin {the doughty fecond of the Friendly debate, and 
Ecclefiaftical Polity) creeps abroad ; and to all his blafphemies, obfce- 
nhieSf fwrUines, ribaldries, \he\pr\v\tedg underwrites, This may be 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

printed : If Mr. Sh. goes big witbfome of his illegitimate Socinim-foole- 
ries, a Chaplain waits at the door to midwife the Brat into the world : But 
if a piece comes out with little \eal of Ceremonies, though in vindication 
of the old Dottrine of the Ancient Church of England, it expetts nothing 
but Lydford Law, firfl to be condemn d, and afterwards perhaps to be 
try A. : Againfl all which I fee no other remedy, but [lent complaints, or it 
may be this [\mt Rejoinder, Tolle Legem & fiat difputatio ! 

'But I have already given you too much trouble j what remains mufl be 
mine own, to jludy to be Maflerof a calm, ferene, [ubmij/iye frame of 
heart, which may enable me tofuffer tike a Chriflian, for doing like a Chri~ 
flian ! And if after ally I cannot efcape tte lap of virulent Tongues, and 
violent hands, yet at leafl I may not fall under the fever er flings of my own 

I fball not need to beg of you to give, this Paper a leifurely and impartial 
perufual, 'tis fo agreeable to your own Nature, and that (IriB law which 
your own Wifdom has imposed upon you. Not to pafs a final judgment up- 
on any thing, before you have duely weighed all things ; that as I 
cannot fufpetl you will decline your conflant and fixed method in my fingle 
cafe, fo I can hardly prevail with my [elf toas^thatzsz favour, which 
you in jufiice mufl needs grant, 

I Jhali only beg the pardon o] this interruption qiven to your important 
concerns 5 and if you fmde [ometimes at my fimplicity , let that be tkejbarp- 
eji cgrrcflion your affeftion will fufftr you to give to 

Honoured Sir I 

1( nr much obliged Servant, and 
woft unworthy friend, 

g. w. 


C» J 

The Introduction Conjidered, and the Enquirer's ex- 
pected Advantages from his Comparijon between 
the Religion of the former and prefcnt Times , 
feafonably difappointed. 

A Rhetorical Introduction is nothing but a Politic^ Shooing* 
horn to draw on an incredible difcourje more fmoothly over 
the Readers tender Belief, in cafe he fhould prove too high 
in the hflep : Or you may pleafe to call it a LeJJer Wedge* 
prudently applyed to a Knotty piece to make way for a 
greater ; For with fuch grave Maxims, wife men arm themfelves, 
To drive that Wedge, not which is heft in it felf, but which will go* 
The Learned Ferulam obferves, That they, are not thofe flings, which 
the Nofirils flraight abhor and expel, which are mofl pernicious; but 
fuch ^Aivs as havefome fimilitude with mans "Body, andfo infmuate them- 
felves, and bevayjhe Spirits. Thus downright Railing Difcourfes are 
in part their own Antidotes ; and we flop our Nofes at thofe ful- 
fom eructations of fome writers, who have bee.n certainly fed a 
long time with Carrion 5 whereas thefe more plaufible Tefts re- 
commended to our euftobytk- Vehicle of fupple phrafe, and glib 
expreffions, and with all Aromatized with a whiff of pretended Charity, 
creep into the affeclions, and fo with eafe betray the judgment ; for 
Perit judicium cum res trattjit in affectum. When a over fy once 
gets fair Quarter in the affections, it will foon undermine, and blow 
up the under jlanling ; fo hard it is to perfwade, that it cm be Toy fan 
which is fweet, or deftru&ive to Nature which accommodates it felf 
to the Critical Humours of the Palace. 

.It has pleafedthe Enquirer (upon kature advice no doubt) to 
ufher in the main Body of his Difcourfe, with a Pathetical com- 
fttrifon between the ancient Jhte of Christianity, and the prefent } and 
he very affectionately laments the Change : wherein he imitates the 
vain humour of our young travellers, who at their return unmea- 
furably predicate the glories of forreign Countreys • but can find 
nothing but mean and contemptible to bellow en their Native Soil : 
JVhether it be that t_hey would be thought to know fomething more 


C 12 ] 

than thofe home-bred Snails which never travell'd beyond the fight 
or fmell of their own Chimneys j or that they prefume to (helter 
themfelves under that Frotettion which all great Travellers are fup- 
pofed to carry in their Pockets ; Yet this is certain, that far-fetcht 
and dear-bought, will recommend a very trite and ordinary Jhry, to 
the Acceptation and Admiration of the Man). 

The Poets are never more tranfported into pleafing extafie, than 
when they are gotten into the *,H\& of the Golden Age ■ and then 
the Rivers (hill flow with pure Nettar and Milkj Tte Trees diftil ' 
Life Honey *, and the Prodigal Earth, without cultivation, gladly 
exhauft her Spirits, and fpin out her Bowels to pay Tribute to the 
fatisfa&ion of Mankind ; with a great many more Pedantick good- 
morrows j But when once that Iron Age appeared with its Harden, 
face -, Pandora's Box was then open'd, and whole Legions of Furies 
invaded the world. But above all. Navigation and Trade, thofe two 
implacable enemies to all Religion, were invented; and I cannot 
fufficiently admire, that amongft all the I{eafons mufter'd up againft 
thofe Schifmatical Evils, This Primitive one, That they came in wiih the 
Iron Age, efcaped our Enquirers Induilry, 

As all good Chriftians are ready to give the Primitive times their 
due praifes, and as willing to lament the Degeneracy and Apoftacv 
of the prefent 5 fo they look upon it as a piece of Incivility no modefl 
f>erfon would be guilty of; to fpend all his Frankincenfe in embalming 
the memory of the Ages Dead and gone * whilft the prefent lies like 
a rotten Carcafe ftinking above-ground without the curtefie of a 
Flannel flirowd to cover its nakednefs. A # vanity (to fay nothing 
more fevere) noted by Wifdom it felf, Ecclef.7. 10. Say not thou 
-what is the caufe that the former days were better than thefe ? For thou doft 
mt Enquire wifely concerning this. 

Had this Gentleman concern'd himfelf to appear a wife and im~ 
partial, as well as a compaffionate Enquirer, he had never been guilty 
of that folly to pelt witty Sentences and apothegms at his Readers 
head, as Boys do Snow-balJs/which with equal eafe, and execution, 
may be retorted. For thus might a vulgar Ingeny form a Paaegyrick 
of the Singular Piety and exemplary Holinefs of thofe Primiti*§ 
Chriftians : ' r < That they imployed their Affections in keeping the old 
■f Commandments, and never ftrained their Inventions to find out 
** new ones : They made no more Duties, nor Sins, than God had 
ff made j and left the way to Heaven no narrower, the Gate no 
"iiraicer than they found it; They judged him a good man that 

j'fo t uare4 


fi fquared his Converfation, a pious man that modelled his Devotl- 
«• ons by that of the Word, though he knew no other Rubrick: They 
" contented themfelves with Gofpel-fimplicity, and durft not be wife 
«« above what was written, left they fhould prove learned fools: They 
" underftood what a Spirit of bearing with, and forbearing of one 
'* another fignified j And the Fathers of the Church approved them- 
" felves to deferve that venerable Character, who never dafht out 
*« their Childrens brains, becaufe their Heads were not all of one 
*« Block, 

That little wit which there is in thefe popular Trappings, is only 
this, To fingle out the moft eminent injhnces of Refined Sanctity in 
the Primitive times, and from thence to take the general meajures of 
their Devotion -, and then again to cull out the moft Infamous Exam- 
pies cf prodigious Villanies inthepreftnt Age, and from thence to 
give us the idxa of our Modern Piety ; that is, to make a mif- 
Shapen Parallel between the plorcer of thofe, and the Bran of thefe 

He that would make a right judgment of the wealth of a Nation^ 
muft not vifit the Hojpitals only : He that would take a juft Pro- 
fpect of a Nations Piety, muft not inform his Pencil from the Re- 
cords of Newgate, or the Executions of Tyburn : Or if he would be 
fatisfied in the fweetnefs of a City, I would not advife him to hang 
his Nofe over the Faults and Common-Jbores : Or if he would take the 
exa& Height of the Nations Glory, let him not take inftruclions from 
fome depopulated foliage : If we confider the beft of the worft man* 
or the tvorfl of the beft man, If we only view the Mole or Wart upon 
the faireft face, and fome fingle feature in the moft deformed, we may 
eafily betray our felves in this falfe judgment, that Therfnes was 3 
great Beauty, and Abfolom a Gorgon : Thus if we will denominate the 
lapfed Ages from fome eminent Rarities of Virtue •, or the prefent, 
from fome notorious Examples of Impiety, we fliall never diftinguiih 
between the Common-wealth of Plato , and the Dregs of Homn- 

Suppofe we, that fome Tribunitial Orator, to exercife the gal- 
lantry of his Pen in a Theme fo common and copious, would fee 
himfelf to decry the Piety of that other World, let him Copy out 
the Treachery of tfudas, exaggerate the Apoftacv of Demas, the Here- 
tical pravity of Bymenaus and Philetus ; let him enlarge upon the 
jimbmon of Diotrephes , the Blafphemies of Cerinthus, the Debau- 
cheries of the Nicolaiuns 5 and above all , be fure to pHe the 


Villanies of the Gnofticks with warm Cloaths, and what a fright- 
ful Medufa would that Age appear, if drawn to the life by thole' Ex- 
emplars ? 

Suppofe once more, that our Orator had an itch to employ his 
mercenary Pen, to fcrape acquaintance with fome tempting prefer- 
ment ; to reconcile his lines to the Genius of the prefent Age, and 
imploy his Talents where he fliall not lofe his oyl and pains ; Let him 
with Apelles, take up on truft the particular Excellencies of the 
moft exemplary Chriitians \ let him borrow the fingle Beauties of 
Meeknefs, Patience, Humility, Charity, Faith, Self-denial, Con- 
flancy , that like the sporades lie difperfed and fcaaered up ».nd down 
the world ; let him AmaflTe all the individual worthin-iTvS that ire not 
yetbaniflit to Heaven, and unite all thefe in one Table, ai d fuch a 
draught perhaps iriall not need to be afliamed to fliew its Lee before 
the moft exact pieces of proportion that are referved in the Ar- 
chives o Antiquity. And to fpeaka plain truth, if one tenth part 
of what thefe men afcribe to their great Patrons in their De-dicAio\y 
Epijtitis were true, I could eafily evince that are very few who 
have the difpofal of fat advowions, but are more Jlluftrwus Sains, 
than any of the primitive Fathers, and perhaps we fliall not need to 
except the Twelve Aj&fifi& 

As he would fcand.loufly reproach the fhble fixed Providence of 
God, thatfliould conclude Nature to bealmoftworn off her legs, 
her Powers enfeebled, her Spirits debilitated from the precotious 
deaths of thofe who dig their graves with their teeth, and with the 
fheerso^ Luxury and Riot cu: trie thread of their lives before Ren fon 
would fay it was half fpun out to its juft length ; fo would he no lefs 
maliciouily bhfphem? the fteady Re^lementand fuperintendency of 
the only H.iad and Governour of the Church, with the efficacious 
influences of the H Spirit upon the Souls of true Chrifhans, who 
from Hvpocrifie the mother, and her daughter Apoftacy, of thofe who 
Court Religion for her Dowry, triall conclude againft the power of 
Godlinefs in thofe ChrifHans, which is very conspicuous to all who 
are not concernM in point of felf prefervation, and feU-julHfica- 
tion . to decry real Holinefs according to the Primitive pattern, 
whilft they would be thought the great Adorers of the Primitive 

A practice well-becoming the Legions of Beelzebub, or the 
Trainedbands of Accamn, whofe del ; ght it is with the importunate 
Fixe, to fix upon the galled parts, exaiperating fores with their ve- 


nomous probofces, which would heal of themfelves j whilft pre jvr 
dice will notfuffer them to nke notice of the entire and founded 

What Arguments our Enquirer hath furniflit Atheifm with to 
wound Religion, which he.would pretend to heal , I (hall not need to 
obferve, they are a generation quick- fighted to efpie and take their 
advantages without a Monitor : But when I hear him lament the pal- 
fable contradiftion of the lives of the Generality of Chilians novo, to the 
Rules of their own Religion 5 and that few ta\e the measures of their Atti « 
€n r » or the Rule of their lives from the New Tejlament, I expect to hear 
others asic, why they fliould be more obliged to the Humilty, Self- 
denial , Sobriety recommended in the Golpel , than their Teach- 
ers, who apparently conform themfelves to thefecular Grandeur 
and fwelling Pomp of the molt licentious times ? And it' a plain 
Truth might be fpoken, without any ones taking fnuft there can be 
no more Reafon afligned, why the Peop le fhould be tyed up to the 
Rules of the N. T. in their lives, than Cl.urch-men are to make it 
the Rule and Hubricl^ of their worflip : They who expect Primitive 
Submijpon, muft give Precedents of Primitive Moderation : And if 
they will exact and challenge the ^Ancient Manners, let us fee in 
them the ^Ancient Examples : In vain ilia 11 another Crab command 
her daughter to creep/or ward, if (he confutes her inftmttion by creep- 
ing backward. 

If then Matters be really fo Retrograde, and gone off from their 
true Centers ; yet it cannot becqme them to Condemn the World for 
being wrong, who refolve it ihall never be J{ight. He thatcomplams- 
things are not as they were, and yet Difputesthat they ought to be 
as they are-, fhall never difpute me into a Plerophory of his fincerity. 
They that confefsa want of the Ancient Difcifline, which yet they 
Will not rejhre, and complain at the fame time of a Defect of the 
Ancient Piety, which they pretend they cannot Remedy y do but weep 
over the Vineyard which is laid waft, whilft they either pluck up the 
Hedge, or refufe to repair the decayed Mounds and Fences - } or deplore 
an Inundation of Wtckednefs which is broken in upon us, and yet lhnd 
by the Sluce, and will not Jhut it down, nor fufter others to do it, be- 
caufe they have no Call to the Work. 

All things in this lower World infenfibly contract corruption, 
and with a filent foot decline from their Original Integnty ; fo 
that every day furnilhes us with New Reafons to lcowr off the en- 
croaching Ruft, and reftore them to tnur Primitive JBrightnefs. 


He that rows againft the Stream, mill inceffantly ply his Arms, and 
Oars, and work againft the preffing importunity of the Current, o 
clfe (hall find himfelf unawares hurried down the Stream, 

Sic omnia fato, 

In pejus mere, ac retro fublapfa referri. Virg. 

It was a feafonable Queftion of a Great Perfon many years ago, 
Why the Qivil State jhould be purged, and. reftored by good and wholjom 
Laws, mads every Third or Fourth Tear in Parliament, providing Remedies 
as f aft as Time breedeth Mifchiefs ; and contrariwise the Ecciefiaftical 
State jbould ftill continue upon the Dregs of Time, and receive no alterati- 
ons now for this jive and forty years, and more ? And I am fure it's ano- 
ther five and forty years and upwards fince that Complaint was 

It will then be very feafonable to complain of jModern corrupti- 
on, and cry up Primitive Devotion in thefe Men, when they fhall 
demonftrate a real willingnefs to reduce what is a mifs, into order, 
to ma^ke what is crooked ftraighf, by the Primitive Rule of Reforma- 

That the conversation of thofe early Chriftians was Commendable, I rea- 
dily admit j that there is a wretched Degeneracy in our days, I fadly 
fee ; yet give me leave to Note and Deteft the Hypocrifie of thofe who 
build Stately Monuments to, and beftow Ranting Epitaphs upon the 
Veceafed Piety of the Former, and j*et deftroy or difcourage the Re- 
maining Piety of the prefent Age : That pluck down the Living 
Temples of the Spirit, that upon their Ruins they may build their 
own P. laces } who firft Stigmatize Primitive Bolinefs with the Modern 
Brand of Fanaticifm, and then perfecute it •, and the fame time Ca- 
nonize Primitive Super ftition for the Ghriftian Religion, and then Im- 
pofe it. 

But our Inquirer has mark'd out fome of the peculiar Glories of 
thofe Elder Times, and perhaps it may not be unplealant to the Rea- 
der to run over with me fome of their Ex ellencies. 

1% Of old to be a cbriftian, was to be all that's Holy, $uft and 
Good, &c When I read thefe juvenile Declamations in praife of 
Vertuf, I am ready to fnatch the Anfwer out of his mouth, who re- 
plyed in a caf? not unlike : gut* entm unquam vituperavit> I wonder 
whoever (poke one word againft it ? But it's eafie to ftrain a S ring 
till it breaks, which being fcrewed up to its juft height, would 


£'7 3' 

Ibsar its part in the Harmony. To be All that's Holy* All that's ^ujl * 
Allthat's Good, is the Glory of Him whom 'tis our Duty to imitate/ 
our Folly to ftrive to equalize ; In a limited feme 'tis the Glory of 
thofe Blefled Ones, who are Comprehenfores > to Ijje really Hoi), truly 
fujiy fncerely Good, is pretty fair for thofe that pafs under the No- 
tion of Viatores : But if this were 'the Character of Primitive Saint- 
fhip, the Apoftle '~Faul mud not have worn a /{ed Letter in our En- | 
quirers Calendar, who profeffes, ^hil. 3.12, 13. That be had not al- 
ready attained* neither was already perfett, nor counted himf elf to have 
apprehended ; but yet he reached forth unto thofe things which were before \ 
t beprefs'd towards the mark, for the price of the high calling of God in Cbrijl 

* J e fn* . .. . .\ - : ... 

2. Wherever Religion came, it was a Principle of Purity in Jftlent. 

hearts, honefty in t\mr lives, and peace in Kingdoms, &c. Wherever 
Religion came ! Why Religion tidy come, either in the Declaration of it,, 
or in the Power, 2nd Cordial Acceptation of it. And I prefume this 
Enquirer will notaffert, That wherever J{eligicn came in the former, 
fenfe, it had; thofe bleffed effetts in the Purejl Primitive Times i and 1 ani 
confident he cannot deny, that wherever it comes in the latter fenfe, ft 
produces thofe happy Fruits even in the worfl of Times, frit fo eafie it. 
is to render trivial and common matter plaufible to the Ear, whilft wc 
are cheated with a Qharivaryof founding Br aft, of the Ditty of A iin^r 
lingQmbal. ■■ 

3. But then the Chrijlian Faith wm not d Trick, of Wit,' In it ft //in- 
deed it was not, nor is fo now •, yet crafty Knaves would ven r ure tbeni, 
xawntonv to/ Aoyoy t» ©is, 2 Cor, 2. i7# to dilute the Puy W>*e of 
Gods Word with the watry mixtures of their own invent i or $ and v, rg 
have thofe ftill that will be (hewing fuch tricks of audacious' wit up- 
on it now, ■ i ■■.'•-■ 

. What therefore he Quotes from LaHaniim, any man may venture 
to fay, and never hurt llmfelf , or I'poil his credit. Give me i 
fierce and contentious Man \ and if be will but apply himfelf to ihe : 
Grace and Injhtutions df the Gdfpel , he Jhall become ai mcci ai i 
Lamb 1 let a covetous Per fdn hearken to-the DcHrir.e of the Gofpc'? cn\i. 
he Jhatt prefentty difpenfe his Money. Nay, . for cbace I will fay a 5 bo I j, 
a Word as. that comes tor Give me themoft inhumane and barba- 
rous Perfeeutor* thatwichotft fcniple of Confcience eits up Gci\. 
People likeBread ;' and' if he Will but conform to the Dcclnrri. of, 
xh§ Oofpei he flrillf bf forced* to' fake oct a new Leffonf ana |tf'tf 
r tf tip £*#/• iv®6i 4 tbiityjSakl , become £ pm -, fj<*« 

C 18 3 

fefs, or preach the fame Jefus whom he has fo outrageoufty persecu- 
ted : Give me that Church-man that feeks his Peoples goods more than 
their good \ he that heaps Off a upon Helion, and Olympm upon both, 
one Steeple upon another, and a third upon the former, as if he 
hoped either to Scale or Purchafe Heaven, to take it by Storm or Sur~ 
render 5 and let him but attend, and give up himfelf to thofe docu- 
ments which he either Preaches, or however Heads, and he fhall 
prefently refund the frice of Souls, and errogite upon the Mem- 
hers of Chrijl, what he had once fqueezed out of Spungy Confcien.- 

But the Heathens could boaft as much as this comes to, of their Mo- 
ral Precepts. 

inv'id'M, Iracundm, aeer, vinofits Amatof \ 
Nemo adeo fern eft ut non tnhefcere poffn, 
Simodo culture patient em commodet Aurem. Horat. 

4. Then the Profejfors cf Chnftunity were all of one Heart, and one 
Lip I there wm then but one Divifxon of Men : ci/ersj3«* & *Vsj3«f , were 
the only Setts the World wm divided by : All good Men were of one way, 
and all evil Men of another. 

I have ferioufl/ confidered for what juncture of Time this Elo- 
quent Period was calculated J and when thofe happy days didfhine, 
that might deferve fo fair a Character: And I conclude it muft be 
fome Pre- ^Adamtical Sate, commencing with the fu'ian Period, or 
at lowell that of Paradife, where we may probably conjecture, That 
all good jMen weie of one mind, becaufe there was but one Man 
there. But if the Enquirer would acknowledg it as a favour, I 
would fhew him how he might reconcile*his Rhetorickto Truth, 
which is not often feaziMe :' All good Men were of oneway, the way 
of h'olmefs leading to Happinefs ) And all evil J7licn were of another 
wn, the way of Sin aud Jmpenitency which leads to Jrtfifery : But fo it 
is ftill, and thoufands of Ages will nev Alter the Cafe. But then, 
to be of one heart and lip in the minute Circumftances of Religion, 
that I never heard all Men were, nor never expect they will be [0 
on this fide abfolute perfection. The \oman Church even in the 
Apoflolical Times, was not without its Heats and Animofities: Some 
there were, who being weak, in the Faith, difcerned not their Chri- 
jinn Liberty , bat confined themfelves to Sdades , and judged o« 
tJiers that went beyond their fiprt Tedder, as Libertines, and Men 
<df a LimudinmxnConfcience 5 others who were Jkong, and under- 
Hood that Chrift had emancipated them from the Yoke of Mofaical 


Ceremonies j ufed their freedom, and thefe defpifed the reft, as a com- 
pany of fcrupulous Coxcombs , What fierce bandyings and joftlings 
there were in the Church of (^orinth, whilft one Party hangs out the 
Enfigns of Paul, another fhelters it felf under the headfinp of Peter 5 
and perhaps a third not afraid to entitle the Prince cf Peace to their 
Quarrels, and draw in Chrift himfelf to be the head of a Fattxn ' And 
yet thefe were all Members of the fame Church ; and whilft agreeing 
in the Subftantials of Rdigion, the Apoftle durft not ftrike in with 
one Party, to CTudi the cr/.£r,but maintains the Flame of Charity a iiyej 
amidft the Spares of their Contentions in things remote from the 

That great Promife that God would make his People of one Heart], 
and one Lip, is either not underftcod, or %ot fulfilled ; or if fulfilled in 
fome meafure, yet the more glor'10% Ac complement thereof referved for 
Times and Perfons of a more healing Temper, and to be brought 
about by more proportionable means , than Gibbets , Hal-, 
ters, Fire and Fig got, vi?. the pouring out the Spirit of Light and 

I think I may refer it to almoft any one to judg, whether he be not 
molt ridiculoufly abfurd, that fhall fo feverely Animadvert upon out. 
prefent Divifions, when he may at fuch eafie and cheap rates heal 
them all, and yet will not. By fome Mens rvords you would think 
they bated DiviJJons implacably 5 but by their afdngs you would think 
they lov'd them as desperately. 

Let the Primitive Rule of Reformation,, of which the Reverend 
Dr. Pierce has minded the forgetful Age, be feverely attended to ; 
To fet what is crooked fir aight, by what row fern the beginning \ Let all 
the Churches Conform to it, and Reform by it, and then will aiicord 
be as great a ftranger amongft Chrifiians,zs Peace is faid to be at tins 
day. Lay but the weight and ftrefs of Unity upon jsfecejfmes, Hi 
the reft exercife Charity ; and then as we never had Peace about the- 
Inftitutions of Men, fo we ftiali never have wars about the confefl d 
Inftitutions of Chrift. 

The Chriftian Religion numbers it amongft its peculiar Glories» 
and cbolceft singularities, that it teaches us to maintain brotherly 
Love, under differing Apprehenfwns, and variety of Praclifes, in thole 
lefler matters, ^-hich neither weaken Holinefs, nor crofs the defi^: 

. AiGbd in the fiffl Creation formed Men of differing Sizes, various 
&at&$,' aod rriulcifcrm Shapes iaj ComrfciodSi and yet nons 


<I uarrel upon that account ,• none isfo Jpijh to enaft, that the Fox 
&all cut off his Train, becaufe the other his none. None will impofe 
l^s own height a«rthe juft fhndard of all others that he that is a hairs- 
k r eadth taller (hA\ be adjudged a Monger, and he that is as much 
J°wer lliall wear the reproach of a Dwarf : So in the new Creation, 
lc> s none of (Thrift's defign to reduce all fincere believers to an uni- 
J b rmity in every Punctilio in judgment and pra&ife, but to perform a 
Nobler and more glorious work than this, namely to infufe fuch a 
Spirit of Love, and from thence fuch healing councels, to infpire in- 
to all his Difciples fuch Moderation, fuch Qondefcention, tha: notwith- 
standing theie diversities they.may all love as Brethren, and keep the 
unity of the Spirit in the Bond of Peace , and if in any thing any one be 
otherwife minded, to wait till the Cod of Peace from the word of Peace 
J})ould reveal it unto him 4 

Nor indeed is it any credit to the Religion of our Saviour, to be 
reprefented to the World, as if it taught fo narrow and retrained a 
Charity that would only embrace thofe that were call in the Mold 
of our own particular perfwalions: or to hang on a firing only 
with thofe who jump in wkh our own Points to a Tag : An Excel- 
lency, if it be one, to be found more eminently amongft the Lyons 
in the Tower, the Turis in their jMofques, or perhaps of old in 
the African Conventicle, (much Reviled, and as much Imita- 
ted ) who Monopo iz'd Salvation to them that wereisx parte Do- 

But that which is the mod pleafant in this Period, is, To fee what 
a world of Truth our Companionate Enquirer has Maflacredfor the 
fake or one poor forry Climax. There are r.ow (fays he) almofi as many 
opinions as Men, as many parties as Opinions, and as many Religions as 
either. That almoji may, I confefs, do him fome fervice ; it has in 
its days help'd many a lame Dog over the Stile : But furely there may 
be grtat diver fries of Opinions amongfl them that are of the fame I(e- 
tizion ; He might as well conclude, that the Spaniard asd the French 
are of two Religions, becaufe the one buttons his Doublet upwards, 
the oth ft downwards. I have been much taken with a Decree that I 
found in B. Jewel, made by Pope Innocent III. and might have be- 
come a far better Man. 

Qioniam i'nplerijque partibus, intra eandem Civitatem, C? Dioccfm, 
fermit i funt populi diver far urn linguarum, habentes fub una Fide, varios 
ftitus. & Mores, Diftintte pracipimm , ut Pontifices hujufmodi Civi- 
Wtunt provideam vires idoneos, qui fecundum diverjltates Fhuum, 03* 


l i*guarum , divlna Wis ojfcia Celebrent, 8> Sacramevta ^Aimhu 

" Forafmuch as in moft places, in the fame City and Diocefs, there 
"are people of divers Languages mingled together, who unaer one 
"and the fame Faith, do retain differing Ceremonies and Cuitoms 5 we 
" do therefore exprefly charge and comtmnd the Bifliops of the faid 
" Cities and Dioceffes, to provide able Rcrfons, who may Celebrate 
" amongft tnemthe Divine Offices, and Adminifter to them the Sa- 
"craments, according to their differing Languages and Ceremo- 

Differing Rites and Obferyations, whilft left indifferent, will uot 
make differing Religions ; what they may do, when impofed as the ne~ 
cejfary Terms of communion, Iihall not Determine. 

Nay, that there areas many Parties, as Opinions, will need not only 
fome Grains, but whole Eujhels of Salt to keep it fweet : Do we not 
fee thofe of the fame Party indulge each other in their prviate concep- 
tions j and none more than they who moft Triumph in a pretended 
Vnhy aid Vniformhy , who can agree in fe w things amongit them- 
felves, and yet can fweetly accord to extirpate all but them- 
felves ? 

5. Time was (fays our Enquirer) when Jftten fieri feed their Lives 
in Teflimony to their Faith, as frankly as fince they have done to their 
Pajfwri, Revenge, and Ambition. And That u (fays another) when 
K yyien roill facrifce the Lives of their Bre.bren, and the Peace of the 
Church to the fame wafpijh Deities, and their oven confeiences to boot, to 
another idol fyown of old by the Name of j7ltammon m Such Elegant O- 
rations have we penn'd about Time was, and Time U, that 1 lufpect 
they were indited from Frier Bacon's Brazep. Head- piece. But more 
Anger Hill I Then was Charity counted as Eternal a part of Religion, 
as Cenforioufnefs u now with too many. 1 his is witty enough in all rea- 
fon ! And one would not ftick to break a Jeft now and then, though 
it broke anothers Head, or perhaps his own with the Splinters. But 
Men are bad enough, and need not be made worfe than they are : 
Cenforioufnefs is a Crime too odiom to be Defended, and yet too 
notorioas to be denied \ .to cover a fault will make it twf ';'■' but to jujli- 
fy it, will make it many: But yet that any fiiould make this Cen- 
forioufnefs a part, much more an EJfential part of their Religi- 
on , is an Hyperbole too daring for my weak Faith to meddle 

B s Ihavfi 


I have been confidering into what place of Religion they cat* 
po0i:>ly crowd it, whether into their Creed or Ten Commandments i 
The Papiftshaverob'd the people of juft one half of a Sacrament, 
and then to give them their due, to make them ample fitisfa&ion, 
they have created five entire Sacraments de Novo : They have craftily 
alfo purloyned the whole fecond Commindment 5 but then, becaufe the 
Laity have an inkling that there were once Ten of them, left they 
fliould mifs one out of the Decalogue, they have very difcreetly 
fplit the Tenth into a Qouf-e : But where to wedg in this Cenforioufnefs, 
was a great difficulty, and had continued fo, had not fome repealed 
the fourth Commandment, as purely Ceremonial, and therefore if any 
where, there it muft go. 

Some perhaps may Cenfure this Cenfurer as guilty of more, 
Cenforioufnefs than half the World befides ; but fuch do not con- 
sider, that we muft allow for fhrinking in the Silk-grognin Phrafe 
of Rhetoricians; what a flat, humble, low, jejune expreffion 
had it been to have faid , Truly Jftlen are wo fenforiom ! But 
now the Stile mantles, and the Language brifles, and bur nifti- 
es , it comes off with a Nobler Grace, it fills the Mouth, and 
founds auguftly , to fay, They make it an EJfential part of their Reli- 

6. Nothing was then thought too good, or coftly, for the Service of 
God, or Religion : Men could not content themjelves to ferve God with 
that which coft them nothing. It was one, a Julian, or fuch another, 
that envied the coftly Veffels wherewith Chrifl was ferved. Ay ! Time 
vow indeed, (and pity it is, fo good a Time had not its Wings clip'd 
from flying away !) Time was, that Mens money burnt their Pocket- 
bottoms out, when the fire of Purgatory made it too hot for the 
mod frozen Ufurer to hold ; but now alas, that Time is pafi. * »»» ■ 
And fo the 'Brazen Head fell down, and dauYd out its brains ! 
If thefe things be truly represented, and that the glory of the Pri- 
mitive Times did confift in pompom Devotions, Tolijhed Altars, Gilded 
Organs ; Sumptuom Candle 'flicks, Embroidered copes, Silken Cowlesx much 
good may it do them, we neither envy, nor fhall imitate their Ini- 
mitable Excellencies. 

If Julian envied the Plate wherein Chrift was ferved, let him 
grow lean with envy; but furely the Chronicles are hugely wide, if 
thefe matters be not mi/hid : The coft and charges at which the Pri- 
mitive Chriftians were in the Service of their God, and Saviour, 
was quite another thing •, they beftowed their hearts upon him, bore 


reproach for him, laid down their lives, and whatever was dear to 
them in defence of his Truth; Silver and Gold they had none, and 
Chrift as little need of it. 

However, that Age could not well upbraid the prefent with irre- 
ligion, if the true meafure cf Gods Worfhip be to be taken from it?' 
exterior Garb and Splendor : As we cannot mock them with their mode* 
Vresbyters, fo I am certain they could not us with Wooden Chalices ; at 
leait in this one particular I expe& heOiould retraft, and free!y 
own, that for cofily Worship (which is the main) we havefheer out- 
vy'd the primitive Times, 

I fhall not much concern my felt to reflect upon that ufeful policy 
of thofe who have impofed upon the credulous world, a belief, that 
whatever is devoted to the priefis, is therein Confecra ted toGod\ but 
yet I may fikntly admire the eaiinefs of thefe Ages thatfuffer'd them- 
ielv.s fo tamely to be abus'd ; And above all, I cannot but wonder 
at the Chaldeans, a people renowned for wifdom, that they cculd 
once be perfwaded by the priefls of BeH, that his 'Hungry Drity had 
devoured all that good Beef and Mutton, which their blind Devoti- 
on offer'd at his Altar. The Truth is, their orvn B^Uy not their God, 
and poor Bell bore all the blame of their gluttony, Thus what they 
got over their Idols back, they fpend it under his, or upon their own 
infatiable Paunches. It's no new thing for Sacred Names to give Pa- 
tronage to Avarice : Thus the Kice foars aloft, as it (he deflgned f, ra- 
ven, when her Heady Eye is fix dupon the prey below: and glorious 
pretences to endow the Holy Mother Church, had aimeft reduced the 
Lay-world to beggery.. 

7. In thofe early days the chrijlian AffcmhWes drained the Thea-tres, Ay ! 
But where's the Antithesis ? But now (fo it ffcould run) the Theatres 
have drained the Chriftian AtTemblies : But that had been a Repartee 
tooclofe and home for one that w 7 ould be bind to l.imLlf. Had the 
Primitive Preachers expefed their own Religion, they had never 
drained the Theatres 3 and if our Modern Pulpits will drive that 
Trade, The Theatres will drain the Water, if not draw xhcjSrijt from 
their Mill 5 for they know how to expofe Religion more ingeniously, 
and ^ore effectually. 

But what other iffiie muft we exped, when fome Clergy- men fhall 
frequent, others plead jor, and juftifie the Play-houfes? when the 
Beares , with their decent and harmonious Bagpipes; the Fencers 
with their ratling Drums Hull find fair quarter, foall have free in- 

B 4 grefs, 

I Hi 

grefs, egrefs, and regrefs, when yet fome Chriftian AflembHes are 
difturbed, and broken in pieces. 

We poor folk are apt to think, that we may venture a ftep or two - 
nearer the brink of the Pit than our Teachers, and take a little more 
tautude than our Guidesi for they are well paid for their Gravity, 
whilel]: we mull be forced to be fober and auiiere at our own proper 
coft and charges. It has been an old obfervation, If Minifters be 
merry, the people will be mad j if they drint^, their people will be 
drun!^ jf they argue for the lawfulnefs of Theatres, and:other fuch 
Kurferies of good Learning, the people without fcruple m\\ frequent 
them : And then have a care in good earneft, left the Stage plunder the 
'Pulpit, and the Theatre drain the Christian AJJemblies more effectually 
than the Conventicles. 

8. Te Holy Men of tbofe times. that approached our Saviour, had as it 
ti*"\ fome l(i) s of his Divinity upon them, and their faces fl:or,e, &C And 
Would he indeed have tfeefe times talk of Rays, and Beams, and skinings ■ 
.fif fice ? On purpofe perhaps, becaufe they want new Matter for Ec- • 
cleji'jtical Burl: ftue, and Canonical Drollery / One fuch expreffion as 
t is dropt from the Tongue or Pen cf a Diffenter, had been enough to 
equip out a whole Fleet of Friendly debates for a Summers expedition : 
But yet he has qualified it pretty well ; thev were but fome Kays ; and 
m it were fome nays : and that may mollifie as dangerous a word as 
this, and faye the Primitive Times a Satyr. 

o. A Chnftian church was then a Colledg of holy and:good Men : Incom- 
parable proof, that all Churches were either then Cathedrals, or at 
ieaft c ailegiate •, and truly they might have continued fo ftill, had not 
Rem.jfnej, of Difcipline in juji caufes, and feverity of Difcipline in 
cduje< endangered to make them a Den of Theses. . 
It the church-doors were itrictly guarded, and the Church-windows 
n rrowly watch'd, that none might come in by the one, nor climb in 
by the other, that are unqualified : If Simonucal buyer * and fellers were 
f^und'y whip'd out, which have bribed their Admiflion by the Golden 
J^e\ ; and none denied entrance that claim Adminjon upon chrijh 
Term ; fuch as can produce Tefrimonial Letters from a found Faith, 
and holy Coverfation, ,the Church might JIM be a Colledg of good and 
faly Men : But if fome. mutt be forced in, in fpight of their|@reeth, 
though as unfit as Ignorance and prophanenefs can make them* if 
liki the American*, they mult be : compelledtogo to Heaven upon pain of 
death v if others be excluded by the Pali^ado's of Ceremonies, how^ 
ever meet Materials for fu;h a constitution, never hope. the Church 

. . ; OlOUld 2 Holy Coliedg, but a La^arhoufe ; for they that are of no 
Religion, will be of any Religion, rather than be undone for being of 
none ; and they that are really of any Religion, will endeavour to go to 
Heaven in better company. 

And fuch were the b -amies of the Primo-primitive Confejfors ; but 
now there is a fad Degeneracy j and that the Reader mav not fufpecl: 
I envy our Anthors Abilities, 1 fha'H give him a tafte of his Excel- 
lencies in expofing the Modern Piety. 

i. Nov; dry opinions are taken for Faith. Oh what a lucky hint had 
here been for one that was fo inclinable to be ingenious ! For dry opi- 
nions (you know) are very combuflible matter, which will catch at 
the fmallaf} fpark,, and therefore muft needs fet the whole World in a 

But i m Men have been bufie in making new Qreeds^ and hive forgotten 
to praftife the old. Whence note for your Learning, and lingular E- 
dification, that though fome miftake the Creed for a Prayer, yet it will 
ferve without fenfible error for the Ten Commandments : And yet per- 
haps prattiftng a Creed is not fo eafie a matter as he may imagine : Let 
Men but believe their Credenda, and pratlife the Agenda, and they (hall 
never be reproach'd by me for not prattifwg their Creed, whether it be 
Old or New. 

I am very confident the innocent Reader takes it for granted, that 
the Enquirer has all this while been comparing tie Piety of ancient days, 
with that of the prefent, as it ftands at home amongft our [elves : But 
he's meerly gulled* j for all this gawdy Eloquence has been fpent up- 
onforreign Countries, Such (fays he) is the condition of the Gree'^ and 
Latin Churches ; there 'tis that tney are fo bufie in making New Creeds ,' 
that they have forgot to pralife the Old. Juft as if one of jobs Mcjfcv- 
gers fhould cry out in the ftreets, Fire I fire I And one ftartledat 
the Ahrm, asks, Where? where? Oh at the Efcurial ! at the Eftie- . 
rial I in Spain, near Madrid I NTay then, we are all well enough ! I 
was afraid it had been my next Neighbour Vcalegon ; and therefore., 
I hope, we may have time enough to remove our Goods. But, Reader, 
be not too fecure, for the fparks are already flown over into England : 
if we come nearer home (fays he) / doubt wejhall not fnd things much 

There is one peice of tfuftice. or charity, which I rruft here ds- 
manly qx beg of my Reader ; and *t's This : That if the Enquirer has 
a priviledg to fuppofe his Ssarefire beyond the Seas, I may be allowed 
the priviledg to fuppofe, that my poor Tucket wm bejtowed there alfo 3 
FT . '" ~ t " " and 

. I 26 ] 

and that though the Tragedy of Mujtapb&v?z$ a&edin London, yee 
the Scene was laid at Conftantinople. 

That the Britifli Churches were fo famous for Religion in thefrjl Times 
of their Plantation, I am right glad to hear, and hope the News is 
true i but the evidence and the consequence do both exceedingly trou- 
ble me : The former is Jlender, that if we touch it not very gingerly, 
like the Apples of Sodom, it will moulder into duft ; and the latter is 
fo dangerous, that it concerns him to handle it gently, kit it prick 
his fingers. And i, for the Evidence : If theprefence of the Britifli 
Bifiops at the Council of Aries be his beft proof, it muft proceed thus : 
Ihe Britifli Sijhops were prefent at the Council. Their presence muft 
prefume their fubfeription to the Articles •, their fubfeription muft im- 
ply a virtual and implicit confent of the 'Britifli) Clergy, and then the con- 
fent of the Clergy muft involve the At probation of all the Churches- And 
laftly, the Churches Approbation of the Articles muft infer, that they 
pra&ifed their Creed, and that their Lives were fo eminent for Holi- 
nefs, that they did at it were fbine with fome Kays or Beams of Divi- 
nity. And (iere is a Team of connected inferences, that if one fails, 
the conclusion will be left in the Mire. And therefore he has ano- 
ther proof to help it out at a ftanding pull : At the time of the Nicene 
Council, Britain was accounted one of the fix Diocefjes of the Wejlern 
Empire, And then no rational creature can defire ckarer demon- 
stration, that they were eximioufly Holy, for if they were of any 
Diocefs, firft, or fixth, it makes no great matter, provided it be- 
but of the wejlern Empire, it will infallibly conclude their Piety, 
though it had been more clear in my mind, had it been a Diocefs not 
of the Empire only, but the Church. And then j. for the confe- 
rence, that feems very perilous ; for if the presence of the Britifli 
Sijhops at the Council cf Aries implies their fubfeription, and that fub- 
feription the confent of the Clergy, the Clergies confent, the Approbation 
of the People \ and that infers their fMinefs. Then (fay fome) the 
prefenceof the Englifli Divines attheSyaoc\of Dort, and their fub~ 
fcriptionof the Articles, will imply the eonfent of the Clergy, and the 
confent of the Clergy the Approbation cf the Englifli Church \ and there's 
no remedy for it that I can fee. If the of the one will evince 
the Kingdoms San&ity, the prefence and fubfeription of the ether will 
much ftronger evince ffe Kingdoms Orthodoxy ; Vov fubfeription is a 
good ftep beyond bare presence, and fo our Trcmifes are firongtt > and 
Sanctity is a good Jrep beyond Truth in the Vn. J cr ftarJing, and fo our 
conclufon is more mode[h 

;•>. \ We 

We are now coming to lovrer times, to the Catholic k times of 
Popery : and Religion holds very good ftill, and runs clear , but there's 
no help for it, hemufttjinr, or it will run Dregs in the Reform iti- 

The Inhabitants of this Ijland (Tays he) have not been more famous for 
Martial ^ProvefSf than for fine ere Piety arid Devotion : For Polydore 
Virgil, an Italian, and Erafmus a Dutchman, both of the Roman Com- 
rnufliot, and (therefore be furej competent Wiwejfes, ajirm there tvm 
pore true devotion and fincerity of Religion in it is C'r.nrcb, than in any 
one place of the World befdes : Auditum admifli. Rifum teneatis ? I 
have known a fober Horfe break Briale upon a far lefs provocation. 
We will for once, to gratifie this Enquirers longing, iuppofe that 
there wm more true Piety andfincere Devotion among ft the Enghlh Pa- 
pijis, than among the ^Ibigenfes and waldenfes> than in Bohemia 9 
or wherever elfe the Gofpel had begun to dawn ; but that Polydore 
Virgil , and Erafmus, fhould be competent mtneffes, and therefore. 
competent mtnejfes, becaufe of the Roman Commnion, does a little Hum- 
ble me ; and that it has ever £een as the imereft, fo the Religi- 
ous praftife[o£ thofe in Communion withi^w*, to ma gnifie thofe in 
Communion with her, and as much to depredate the Holinefs of all 
thofe that had once withdrawn themfelves from her Corrupti- 

The Argument, fuch as it is, proceeds thus : They th~ t were of 
the toman Communion, mult needs be fuppofed competent Wit- 
neffes of the truth of the Devotion, and fincerity of the Religion of 
thofe of the fame Communion : but fuch, # andfo qualified were this 
\?ol)nore Virgil, and this Erafmut, and therefore they mult needs be 
fuppofed leftes -Leslies, competent Witneffes of the truth of the 
Devotion- and fineerity of the Religion of thofe of the fame Com- 
munion, and fuch at that time was the Church of Englmi : and th? 
ftrength of the Argument depends upon fome old ftahle Maxims, 
whicn like the koivaI irvoteu, are never to be denied : as that, Ask. 
his feilom whether he be a Thief} And Bird? of a feather are impartial 
tn blazoning one another s vices.* But yet if he will define Piety by 
Superitiuon, and Religion by blind Zeal, and Devotion by hood- 
wink'd O' ;d snee, Charity by a Merit-mongering humour, laying 
out itfelf in uncommanded Fopperies, idle Self- Macerations, Idola- 
trous Maffes, Fool-hardy pilgrimages, Dirges, Trentalls. Obits, Re- 
quiems , and fuch-! ike Trafli and Trumpery > I will not contend. Let 
grafrnm and his fellow Volydore pafs for irrefragable Evidence, and 


the Piety of thofe days out-fhine that of their Contemporaries and 
Succeffors amongft the reformed Chriftians, Quantum inter ignes Luna, 

Well, but yet the Vniverfai Faflor obferved the fieep of Engl ;nd to 
bear fuch good Fleeces, and fo patiently to [ubmhto the Shearer, that he 
kept a vigilant eye over bit flocks, and his Kigdancy w<» rewarded with the 
Golden Fleece. This indeed quite fhames the pref^nt Age., and da- 
zles our eyes with the luftre of thofe brighter times. And here we 
are acquainted with two notable fecrets : i. That the Piety of the 
Engliihjkrp then lay very much in patiently fubmhtingto the Shea- 

And furely were men but ingenuous to confefs a know truth, they 
could have no caufe to reproach the prefent Piety of the Englifh/? ieep 
wpoHthat account. What they could defire more of the poor Jheep 
than the Fleece, unlefs they will flea of the skin, and eat the flefb* 
I cannot imagine, and that can be no profound policy in thePaltorl 
for the Fleece of the living, will give more than the skin of the dead : 
Irs much better husbandry to ftrip» them yearly of their Coats, than 
once for all to cut their Throats ; andithaspaft forwholfome Do- 
ctrine in the days of Yore, %oni pafioris eft pecm Tondere, non deglu- 

But 2. Another deep point is this, That the vigilanej of the pajior 
confiftsin looking ftridtly after the fleece of the flock. In which par- 
ticular I know no reafon why the vigilant i of former times fliould be 
fo Idohtroufly predicated above that of our ow* 

We are come at the times of the Reformation ; and whileft 
Ji.e engages in a juft and fober commendation of them, there's none 
iliall more cheerfully keep pace with him, provided always he gallop 
pot too faft, and ride us quite out of breath : And the Glories of our 
£nghjk Reformation were as followeth. 

i. It was the mojl orderly, not brought in with tumult and fedition, a/s 
mift changes are : Let God alone have the glory of fo great a mercy ! 
And fuch was this : though indeed the Excellency of a Reformation, 
lies not only, or chiefly in the ftiU andfilent manner of its Introduction, 
but in its Harmony with the Primitive Rule of Reformation, which is 
to reduce all things to their Divine Patterns and Originals : Peace 
is mainly valuable for purity 'j and the freedom from noilts of Axes 
and Hammers in the building of Solomons Temple, was, that they 
might more feverely attend to t)\dt\yircheiype. Where God gives 
Ref ormers more pc ace , he expects from them more purity $ and if they 



may work the fafer, he expects they thould work the better : It were 
great ingratitude to God if we ihould account our Go'pel cheap, be- 
caufe it came to us fo : and as much vanity to boafl how our Ance- 
ftors got it, unleis we can produce it as pure as they left it to us peace- 

*. It vdm the mofi moderate avid temperate. Moderation Is a vertue 
very much commended by thofe who never intend to ex^rcife it. As 
an old griping Ufurer commends his Coin fo highly, and loves it fo 
dearly, that he 'will not part with one penny. The Reformation 
might be moderate in a twofold Acceptation 5 either, rirft, mode- 
rate in our departure from Error and Corruption 3 or, fecondly, mo- 
derate and temperate in our approaching to the Word of God : Now 
torcfolve to be moderately reformed either of thcie ways, ought 
not to be Recorded amoagft the Glories of a Church : There are few 
that would be moderately rich, moderately great j they fear no ex- 
cefs that way : all the danger is, left we Ihould be too immoderate and 
unreasonable in obeying Chrifts Commandments, and conforming 
to the Apoftolical Churches : the meafure of our love to Chrifl, is 
to love him without meafure , the degree of our Obedience, is to 
obey :n the higheft degree j and the bounds of our Conformity to 
the Gofpel, to fet our felves no bounds but what Chrifl has fet us : 
Gods Praife can fufrer no Hyperbole, his Love need fear no Paroxifm : 
As He that prefumes he has Grace enough, may do well to queflion 
whether he has any Grace : fo he that is fo confident he is Reformed 
enough, ihall tempt others to fufpect he is very little Reformed : There's 
more danger of being lukewarm in Reforming, than fcalding-hot ; 
and though it be eafie to be over-righteous in impofing our own Inven- 
tions, it will be impoflible to be fo in imitating Gods Prefcriptions : 
But amongft all the kinds oi Moderation that were in the Reforma- 
tion,' one fmall quantity more of jModcraticn towards their Brethren 
would have fweetned all : and yet they fay that wanted not at riril, 
but is fince much decayed. But the Moderation of the firft^rformcrs 

Sett. 1. In that they did not purge out the good, because it had been 
jormerly abufed, as the humour of fame it. This indeed argued their 
lingular prudtmce, 2nd difecrning Spirit : But yet there are iome 
things not evil in themselves, but made fo by abufe. which without 
imputation of Humcnils they might have purged out. And this 
was He\eQ&tis humour (if it mull be fo called) . who made the 
Brazen Serpent a Wehujbtav ; and fcarcely that, when once it had 


C iol 
been abus'd to Idolatry, which yet had more to plead for it felf, than 
thofe good things, of which our Enquirer is fo tender j I mean the Sig- 
nature of an old <fm Divinunu 

Whatever is good in it felf, or made fo by Divine pofxtive law, and 
fhalJ afterwards be abufed to fuperftitiom ends and ufes, we muft 
take fome pains to fcowr off the filth, and file away the ruft, and to 
walh away the foil that it has contracted, and to vindicate it to its 
Native beauty and integritty : but for the inventions of men, I know 
no fuch fervice we owe them, to lie always fcrubbing and fcowring, 
and rinfing > and when all's done, their obftinate and inveterate Le- 
profie, like that of Geha\t, will never be fetch'd out : And this was; 
the humour too of Bifhop Andrews 9 Serm. on Fhil.i'.io. Whatfoe- 
ver is ta\en up at the injunction oj man, when it is drawn into fuperftiti-* 
on, comes under the compafs oi the 'Brazen Serpent, and u to be aboli- 
Jhed. And the Catholick Moderator, who was a greater friend to 
Jftloderation, than Reformation, was partly of this humour too : When 
the occafion of a Humane Constitution ceafes, and the abufes remain fo 
great, i A no time to win^at them any longer. To ftand pecking at abufes, 
whicfh have eaten themfelves into the fubftance of an old cuftom, is 
like the endlefs labour of weeding Ivy out of an old rotten Wall, 
the only way is to dig down the Wall it felf: Nay the great Legifla- 
tor of the jews, commanded them utterly to abolifti all theXnitru- 
mentsand Utenfils of' Idolatry, and not to dally in Lopping, and 
Pruning, but to chop them up by the Roots: Thus Lev, 18. 3. Af- 
ter the doing of the land of Egypt yejhall not do, and after the doings of 
the land of Canaan .k ftAU not do, neither fhall ye wdl^ after their Ordi- 
nances ; ye fhall do my judgments, and keep my ordinances. And whe- 
ther he will call this a humour, or no, I know not- But this I know> 
^ JM$\es, Ben. Maimon, with whom agree no fmall Names, allures 
us, that this was one reafon of many Negative Precepts given to 
the j$ws„ m not to Round the comers of their 'Beards j not to wear a gar- 
ment of linfey-wcolfey ^ nor to fow their ground with divers feeds 5 nor to 
cat the fruit of their trees for the three fir ft years, &C. Namely, that 
they might not fymboli\e with the Idolatrou Nations, Nay further, if 
thiswasa/^»»<?Mr, the Church of England is not aftiamed, was not 
afiiamed to own her felf of it, in her difcourfe prefix d to the Li' 
turgy : The moft weighty caufe of the atolifhment of certain Ceremonies, 
•wm their abufe : She knew well, that what was bred in the bone, would 
never be got out of thefiefb •, that which was naught in the Egg, will 
never te good in the Bird : It's not wafting, but burning, thatmuft . 


C 3i 3 

clnnk the garment [potted with the flefi. And therefore fhe routed 
whole Legions of thefe Pompous Trinkets, and had doubtlefs fcatter- 
edtberefcrves, and brought up her prattife to her ownrule, had not 
fome tender-hearted moderate verfons, flood by wringing their hands, 
and weeping for Tamnu\ j Oh deal gently, deal gently with the poor 
diftreffed Ceremonies for their Fathers fake. 

Sett. 2. Another Specimen of their Moderation is, That they did 
not abolijh a venerable Order, or Office in the Church j for the ill manners 
of xhem that bore it. What venerable Order, or Office this ftiould be, 
becaufe he is not fo open-hearted as to acquaint us, I havefomething 
elfe to do with my Conjectures, than to throw 'em away upon fuch 
defperate uncertainties : If it was an Order of Chrifh inftitution, tie 
ill manners of tkofe that bore it, might well warrant the thruftingtkm 
out of the Office^ but not the Office out of tiie Church : But if it could 
not juftly plead his Authority, no vretence of ufefulnejs to fome imagi- 
nary ends of I know not what Unity and Order, will conciliate to 
it ths Honourable Epithete of P7nerable, orfecure itsftation in the 
Church of Chrift: : as Chrift, the only Lawgiver of his Church has 
made abundant proviflon of Offices and Ordinances in his Church, to 
fuit and anfwer all the neceffities of Believers 5 fo of Officers too, to 
difcharge thofe Offices, and adminifterthofe Ordinances; and there 
is no need of mens over-officioufhefs to fupply his pretended de- 
fects either in the one kind, or in the other. Indeed we pray, that 
it would p'.eafe the Lord of the harvejl to thrujl in more labourers for num- 
ber, but not for kjnd : They who ftiall aflurae to themftlves a power 
to create nevo Offices, may by parity of reafon claim *an authority 
to erect new Officers : for it's athoufind pities, that any but humane 
Officers ftiould be put to the toyl to celebrate humane Ordinances ; or 
that any of Chrift s Minifers fhould be put to the drudgery to ad- 
minifler any but Chrijls own-Ordinances - y for indeed they have their 
hands full of work enjoyned them by their Lord and Mailer, and can 
neither fpare time nor jhengih fupernumerary to expend in fuperflu- 
ous exercifes. As Chrilt has annexed no promife of his presence to any 
but his own fervants, fo no promife of fuccefs to any but his own 
fervices'. He that runs upon Chrifts errand, his Mailer will bear his 
'charges: he that runs upon his own head, or the heads of others, 
for ought I know mu'ft bear his own : It's a fcandalous impeachment 
of theunqueflionable love Chrift always bore to his Church, once 
to imagine that he has not either provided work, enough for his La- 
bourers, or that he has not apportioned Labourers eww for his wor\. 


. ■ E 32 1 

The fame reproach will it be to his abfolute Sovereignty over ths 
Church, either to pretend to iupply his defects And Jhortnejfes, or to 
infiitute new Officers, and Offices, wilich plainly imply it. 

If it were only vitium perjona, the removing the fcandalous, had 
been a Plainer broad enough for the wound ; but if it proves vitium 
ret, you may purge all the Officers into their Graves before you can, 
purge away the evil of tie Office, which like Xanax, is fo baked and 
crufted to the fides of the VefTel, that till you knock off the Hoops* 
and take the frame in peices, no Art of Man will free the Cask from 
& tans, atleaftoi the old muftinefs. 

Set}. 3. They were not of opinion, that the Church could not arrive at 
Primitive Purity, unlefs it were reducedto Primitive Poverty I Purity and 
Poverty, I muft needs Ly, do Rhime fo fweetly, that no wife Man 
would have loft the Melodious Chime of two fuch Harmonious words; 
for a fmall matter: But what if the Church never propounded the. 
Primitive ^urit) for her Pattern ? If (he did, ftie has run all the things 
in Controverfie out of difrance j yet this I will fay, That if ever 
the Church be reduced to Primitive Purity, without fome fuch hum- 
bling Providence, and refining Difpenfation, which purged the Pri- 
mitive Chriftians from their drols, or the eftufion of fuch meafures of 
Grace, Humility, Self-denial, Condefcenfion. as may anfwer Primitive 
poverty, very wife men, and' her very good friends are rnuchmi- 

Sefjti 4. Their Moderation appears in this : That though they found 
fome Ceremonies then ufed that were fuperjlitious and dangerous , and 
thought too majty burdenfome, )et concluded not all decency in the fervice of 
■ God twm Popifh. It had been a. conclufion wild to Frenfie, to infer 
that all decency was P opifo, becaufe fome Ceremonies were fuper- 
fHtious : Nay, though they all were fo. and had accordingly been 
difcarded But this had been a fober and moderate conclufion, That 
becaufe *11 Popijh Ceremonies were fuperflitious and dangerous, the 
Worllnpof God might be decent without them : Gods lervice wa$ 
decent before they were horn, arid would be fo again,' it they were all 
in t/.eir Grave , as well as dead and rotten. And if thofe decent Ce- 
remoni s had a decent Burial, it were an Honour as great as thofe of 
a Nobler Extract , I mean Divine Ceremonies, had beftowed on 
them : I would ferioufly enquire of our ferious Enquirer : 1. It 
fome Ceremonies were aboliihed, becaufe they were fuperjlitiput , 
and therefore dan%ercut, why all the reft were not ierved with ,the 
lame fa wee, that were equally, or more ' fupcrftitiousj and therefore 

more dangerous ? I think its demonftrable. that all the fuperftitio 15 
that ever ftuck to Holy Water, Cream, Salt, Spittle, Oyl, was Inno" 
cency to that horrid abufe of the Sign of the ^rofs. But z. if the Su- 
perftitions of the remaining Ceremonies were capable of reparation 
from them, why might not a little Oyl and Elbow-greafe have been 
beftowed on the reft, and their Lives faved? It feemsmoftof the 
Ceremonies were knock'd oth* head, becaufe they would not go to 
the charge of Rearing them. 3. If many Ceremonies w:re a bur- 
den, whether were not half of that many, half as great a burden, and 
fo pro rata ? And if fo, where was the Churches CommifTion to im- 
pofe any unnecejfary burden upon the necks of the Difciples? 4. If 
fome of the old fuperftitious Ceremonies (when weil fcraped and wi- 
ped) were left for decency and comelinefs in the Worfhip, why were 
not the reft fcummer'd up/ that the Worfliip might be more decent ? 
For if two or three innocent Ceremonies will add a Decency, two or 
three hundred would have burnifh'd it to fuch a luftre, as muft have 
;either ravifh'd or blinded the eyes of all Beholders ? ? Who fliall 
infallibly allure us juft how few will be no burden , and the impofing 
of them no fin} and yet oh* more fhall make them all burdensome, and 
fo the impofition of them to become fxnful ? or juft how many to an 
Unite will render the Worfhip decent, and the adding of one more 
render all deformed ? If the Church, then why might not the Church 
of j^omein her days have determined the queftion? EfepeciaJly fee- 
ing that of all pretenders, flie alone challenges an Infallibility, which 
is the mod confiderable thing in this cafe, when the Church muft 
carry her hand even, and cut by athred, between decency and in- 
decency y A burden, and no burden ? 4, If the Church has a power 
to impofe a load (though a leffer load), has fhe a power to commu- 
nicate ftrength, though it be but little ftrength, to bear that little? 
Efpecially feeing the burden here muft not lie on the back,, but the 
heartj not on the Jhoulder s, but the conscience : She that pleads an 
Authority to inftitute, can (lie produce a power to He ft what (he in- 
ftitutes to any Spiritual end ? This encouragement we have from 
Chrift, whofe Prerogative it is to impofe 5 that he will give grace to 
bear what he impofes, and thereby make bis yoke eafie, and his burden 
light, gut mihi eft Oneri* Author, idem erit Adminiftraiionis Adjutor, 
faidZeo: And fo Auftin. Da quod jubes, !$ jute quad vis. If any 
Church could incline the heart towards her Teftimonies, or give a heart 
to keep Ur Statutes, Judgments and Commandments, and do them, or make 
" C .her 


her commandments mt greivom : Let her multiply Ceremonies till (he 
is weary, andfparenotj let herufe her discretion, and we fhallufe 
nothing but fubmijfion : but this dead weight finks our fpirits quite. 
7. Whether is not fuch an affuming. power exceeding dangerous in its 
conferences ? for upon this Principle the Church may impofe a round 
thoufand of Ceremonies, if Ihe will fay, and think them decent, 
and the Crow thinks all her young ones white, and all are fond of the 
Brats of their brains, as well as the Iflue of their bodies 5 yes, and ten 
thoufandmore, if (he will but decree they are not burdensome : which 
{he is the lefs a competent Judg of, becaufe Superiors who command, 
do not feel that load which Inferiors who rnuft obey, do groan under. 
So much of the Moderation of the Reformation. 

3. The Englifli Reformation wm the moft pcrfett and compleat in its kind. 
The perfection and compleatnefs of a Reformation, is to be taken 
from its agreement with its Rule and Idea, which (fay we) is the Word 
ef God •, and to this we do unmovably adhere, till we have good-fe-^ 
curity that they have found out a better : All perfection with us, i# 
but defection 5 and all compleatnefs, fancy, which is not meafured by 
that Rule : It will therefore be the great Glory of the Englijh Refor- 
mation to acquit it felf well in this point, wherein our Enquirer will 
endeavour our fatisfaction. 

1. ForDo&rine. This Church retains (fays he) the moft Ancient Do- 
ftrine, and foundeft Qonfeffion of faith founded upon the H. Scripture: 
That the H. Scriptures are the foundation of Faith, we gladly hear 
fome intimation of, and fliall lay up the conceffion againft another 
time-, whether the Church has attended to this Rule in her Do&ri- 
nals, belongs to another Difcourfe. 

i. For Government 5 He tells us* The Englijh Reformation retains 
the moft Primitive Church-Government. Thcfe thing* are wifely and 
Warily penM (thought 1 3) A Scripture Creed, and a Primitive Church* 
Government ! Confefllon founded on ff. Scriptures , and Govern- 
ment founded on a word called Primitive; whyihould we not have a 
confcjfwn founded on fomething elfe than Scripture, as well as a Go- 
vernment ? Or why not a Church-Government founded on the Scrip- 
ture, as well as the Dottrine ? So that he has provided well for the 
Dottrine •, but for the Government, it may fink or fwim for any re- 
lief it can expe& from our Enquirer, except a hard word will do 
it, 'Primitive Antiquity is one of thofe Stulta Amulet a qua Controverji* 
coll$ appendants ut Arm\M Malefcarum ; Potent Charms, and Pom- 

C *5 1 

pous Enchantments not to cure, but conjure down a Controvert 
foriince Primitive may betaken in a Latitude of three, four, five/ 
or (for time of need) fix hundred year%after Chrift, it would be ve - 
ry hard if any Crotchet, Humour, and Fancy had not fetupfori t 
felf in that time, which fhall be enough to entitle it to the Warran - 
tic of the Primitive times: Let him therefore prove it Scriptural, 
andfe jure Divinn, and he has fa*d more to me, than ; f he had run 
up its Pedigree through a Dozen or more Centuries: But is not this 
fhort word [the molt Primitive Church-Govcr nntiii] a foundation 
too narrow for that high Boaft ? p» i. That our Church is of a found 
and healthful conflitution, J think J have fufficieml), though briefly ma- 
nifefted in the Introduction. Briefly and fufficiently | The two moft 
defirable qualifications in Argument and Evidence that may be I and 
furelyitmuft be brief enough, which is comprehended in this one 
Sentence: The Englilla Reformation ret ah s the mofi ^Primitivt Church- 
Government ; but whether it btfufficicnt tr no, let the Reader look to 
that. x 

3 . For the Liturgy, That is (as he thinks) the bcjl accomodate to re- 
concile and unite mens devotions. And how well it has anfwered its 
end, and the defign of its Inftitution, I fhall fay the lefs, becaufe 
others will {ay the more ; fome fay it has diftrattcd more devotions 
than ever it united : And others, That it has accommodated them as 
much as could be expected from a humane contrivance, that had no 
more of Chrifts ^Authority for its inftitution, and therefore could 
expect no more of his blejfing for the fuccefs. That this, or any 0- 
ther Liturgy was an expedient appointed by Chrift to unite mens devo~ 
tions, he may explain, and attempt the proof of at his belt lei fu re ; 
But that Chrift has not been wanting to his Church, in leaving her 
the proper andfufficient means for the advancing of devotions, and uni- 
ting affections, we are fatisfied, and fo fully contented, that we fhall 
feek no further. 

That Proteftants in the days of Edtf. VI. did Rejoice in the Liturgie, 
DifTenters will not deny : An Englijb Liturgie left free, was better 
than a Latin Mafs 5 Half a loaf, was much better than no Bread. To 
them who had been in fuch Darknefs and bondage, any Light, any Liber- 
ty were moil grateful. The firft Original of Liturgies (asisex- 
prefs'd in the Preface to our own ) was, that tie whole Bible ftould be 
read over (or the greateji part of it) once every ; intending there* 
by, that the Clergy, ani a') fuel as were Mimflers of the Congre- 
gation, JlouU by often reading, and meditation of Gods Mr J, be flirred 

C a %} 

up to Goilhefs themselves.- — And further, that the people,, by daily kat* 
ing of the Holy Scriptures real in the Churchy foould continually profit more 
in the Kjowledg of God. 5 — 3ft tbefe many years pafi, this Godly and De- 
cent Order of the Ancient Fathers hath been [0 alter* J, broken, negletted, by 
planting in uncertain Stories, Legends, fiefponds, Yerfcs, vain fie petiti- 
ons, Commemorations, and Synodals, that, &c. And moreover, whereof 
St. Paul would have fuch language fpo'zgn to the people in the Church, as 
they might underhand, and have profit by hearing the fame : Tie Service 
in this Church of England hath keen read in Latin to the people, which 
they under flood not, Jo that they have heard with their Ears only, aud their 
Heart. Spirit, and Mind have not been edified thereby. From hen. ewe 
are 'evidently taught, Firft, That the true Original of Liturgies, was 
only an Order for the Methodical Reading of the Scriptures for the 
benefit of an ignorant Clergy, and fouifli People. A r jd Secondly, 
That that wherein the Reformers gloried to have out-done Popery, 
and edifrVd the people, was, that they had procured them their Wor. 
fhip in a Language underftood. 

When therefore I hear thefe popular Harangues ; How happy this 
Church and Nation wot in Edw. VI. days } in what Glory and Majejly the 
Prince feigned ; in what Peace and Concord the Subjetts lived •, how De- 
vout and piom an Age that wis 5 1 am ready to think, that as the Graves 
of Patients do hide the faults of Phyficians ; fo the follies and vani- 
ties of thofe days are buried in their own Graves too : For Dr. Heylin 
had almoft perfwaded me, That the death of that Frince was none of 
the infelicities of the Church of England ! But our Enquirer has fet 
him right again 3 aud his days were the Golden Age of Reformation, 
his Reign the glorious pattern of Peace and Concord, and fo fhall 
continue, till the next occafion thofe men have to reproach the Re- 
formation 5 and then Edw. VI. days fhall be an Infelicity again, and 
as great a prejudice to Religion as ever. So eafie it is for a cunning 
Orator with his orient Colours, to fill up the wrinkles of a furrow'd 
Face, and again to deform the moft beauteous complexion, juft as it 
pleafes Mafter Painter. 

The total fum of all, is thus much '. The Primitive times were glo- 
rious for Piety ; in Polydore /Argil's days, and thofe of Popery, there 
was a great deal of fincere Devotion. In the beginning of the Refor- 
mation, affairs were in an excellent pofture j but now all's degenera- 
ted, and a Lukewarm Neutrality, and Lazy IndifFerency, has over- 
fpreadthe Face,and crept overthe Heart of Religion. And what fliould 
be the matter ? What is the Reafon of this fad change ? Why ! Men 


C 37 3 

are not fo fond of Ceremonies as they ufed to be, and people have re- 
iolved againft the building of Churches, and endowing them. 

But let us hear him lament the change : All Zeal then, All Indif- 
fcrevcy now. Then all Harmony, now all Di[cord. Then the Society 
of the Church vcM fo venerable, that to be caj} om by Excommunication, 
teas as dreadful as to be ihunier -[mitten •* 'But now iCs become a mutter of 
[ome mens aihbition i: be c aft out. Then f civ, or none, but fe^ucraed 
the churcW; now ike Qturch is become the Conventicle, and tie Conventi- 
cle the church, 06 to frequency. Then the Liturgy and publicly "Prayers 
•were counted a principal pn t of Gods Worft.ip \ now they tire nothing with- 
out a Sermon. Then there were few things that were fcrupled* But now 
h*s become the great point of Sanctity to fcruple every thing. Ic will be 
time tor me, and the Reader, to take our leave of this learned Intro- 
duction, when we have obferved and returned a few /hings. i. That 
the true Reafon why there i-s more difcord now than at that time, is, 
becaufe there are more difficult terms of Peace and Concord. Sevtrl! 
things were then in ufe which were not impoftd : Many were permit, 
ted to difcharge their Minifterial Functions without iubicription to 
the new terms and conditions of Communion It was pretty well in 
Queen Elizabeths Reign, before A. 2. whitgft could itrain conformi- 
ty to its height 5 and yet they are now f:rewed much higher. Reftore 
Indifferent things to their Ar.cienx Liberty, and we ilaill loon arrive at 
our Ancient Amity, z. That Excommunication has fo much loft its 
former Authority upop the Conference, and become fo like a Brutum 
Fulmen, is to be imputed to thefe Reafons, i.Becaule that Thunder- 
bolt is darted out for meer trifles; fomehave been delivered over to 
Satan for a Groat. Now it'safureMaxime, Tint nothing w 11 bring 
a Ldwfooner into difufe and contempt, than the disproportion of the faul- 
ty to the Offence. It will be difficult to perfwade weak underload- 
ings, that that can be of God which has biitW [on of pimiih- 
ment for all [orts of Crimes, and the fame rigour for Venues as for 
Vices } to be delivered ;up for a penny, expofestothefame inconve- 
nience as if it were a pounds and it fha'ufare as ill with him that 
fcruples at a Ceremony, as with him that commits Whoredom \ and 
fome fay, the former has more evil in it than the latter, though you 
throw in Drunkennefs, Swearing, and half a dozen more fuch into 
the reckoning. 2. It has been made an Engine to gratifie feme 
mens paflions, and exonerate their fpleen upon the Innocent -, and 
nothing renders Jupiws Thunder more defpicable, than when the 
wretched Sdlmoneus (hall dare to imitate it. 3. I: has been to fre- 

P$ <tuentl? 


fluently pra&ifed in pecuniary matters,, that men difcern it not to be 
a fpiritual weapon : Money has been a Lock to fliut men out of Hea- 
ven, and a Key to let them in again. 4. They that hive been ejected 
by that Cherem, find no evil confequences in their ejected ftate. In 
the Primitive times it was therefore terrible, becaufe Chrift abetted 
his own Ordinance, adminiftred for his own fpiritual ends, in his 
own regul r way ; but now men dare not trull Chrift with his own 
.Work, but have fupplicd his vengeance with a Signifcavit, a Writ 
de Excommunicato Capiendo, delivering men over to the Sheriff, whom 
thereby they call the Devil by craft 5 but otherwife the Excommu- 
nicated perfon eats his Bread, and Drinks hi* Wine with a ckearfuL heart, 
beeaufe the Lord has accepted him, 3 . That fo few frequent the Church 
is , becaufe they have either been fcoffed, or railed, or beaten out of 
doors, or barred out by conditions not comporting with Scripture 
Rule or Warrant. Men know that Chrift muft be their Judge, to 
him they muft give an account of their Souls, and Worfhip, in the 
great day, and therefore they are willing to worfliip God accord- 
ing to his Will revealed in his Sacred Word, unlefs any can give 
them Counter-fecurity to fave harmlefs and indemnifie them before 
his dreadful Tribunal: And if they muft fuffer for fuchrefolved ad- 
herence to a Scripture Religion, they have only this humbly to re- 
ply, Da veniam Imperator, Tu Career em, Me Gehennam. Ghriji threatens 
a HeU j the Law only menaces a Gaol. 4. That the Liturgy was then 
counted a principal part of Gods Worjhip, we cannot help : We judge, 
that none but God can make the leaft, muchlefs a principal part of 
Gods Worjhip ; God only knows which way he will be worfhippec} 
with acceptation : And it is our great happinefs, that he has ac- 
quainted us with that Will of his in his Word, to which we apply 
pur felves for our Directory, and are not folicitous about Apocry- 
phal Rubricks. As to matters concerning Religion, Nature reacheth no 
further than the obligation to the Duty '-, but leaves the particular determina- 
tion of the manner of obedience to Divine pojitive Laws : So we are in- 
ftru cted from the Author of Origines Sacra, p 171. 5. That it is novo 
become the great point of Sanftity to fcruple every thing, Was not fpoken 
with that regard to Honefty and Truth, as might have been expected 
from a Companionate Enquirer. They fcruple being holier than Chrift 
has commanded them 5 wifer in matters of Religious Worfliip than 
the Scriptures are able to make them. They fcruple giving up their 
Confciences to thofe whom they fee no great reafon to truft, till 
fitter evidence be given how they regard their own: They fcruple 


all retreats in Reformation, and all retrograde motions towards E- 
vangelical perfection and purity ; and they wiHi our Enquirer would 
foruple a little more this overlaying, that it's an Fjfenml pun of fome 
mens Religion to be cenj'or'iom ; and a great point of fanflity to fcruple e* 
very thing. Let him then continue to lament the change, and we 
will pray that God will make :^on through change, reducing Do- 
ctrine, WoHhip, Difcipline, to the Word of God, the only Rule of 



A Sober Enquiry into the Apocryphal Caufes of Non- 
conformity^ pretended by the ferious Enquirer : St. 
Auguftin, and the Synod of Dort vindicated 5 the 
Articles of the Church of England cleared. The 
Learnings Preachings and Converjations of the N. 
C. modefily juflified^ againji the fcandalcus Rfe* 
& ions of the pretended Compajfion ate Enquirer^ but 
without Recrimination. 

A Fter a very fiiort Epitf le. (or to fpeak Canonically, that which 
** ftands injfcad of the Epijlle) to very little, and a tedious Intro- 
duction to much lefs purpofe, the Enquirer falls full drive upon the Cau- 
fes of the feparation from the Englifh Reformed Church. In imitation 
of the French Embafladors Muficians, who would needs give the Grand 
Seignior a fit of Mirth, but were fo cruelly tedious in tuning their Fid* 
dies, that the Sultans Patience was quite worn out, and he could 
not be perfwaded to hear the firft Leffhn. 

Now the Caufes are either apocryphal and pretended, or Canonic 
cd and J{eal 5 and it's a wonder to me, when his Invention was once 
broached, that he did not feign this for another Caufe of reparation , 

C 4 that 


that fuch. Hetergoneous Caufes {hould be bound up together in the 
fame Volume and Cover & 

For thefe Apocriphal Caufes, let it not beget mother fcruple in 
your captious Heads, whether they are pretended by Dijfenters, or 
only pretended, by t':is Enquirer, to be amongft their pretences ; for it 
will come all to one, there being fome collateral matters, which it 
fhall go hard but he will entice or force into the Difcourfe, or 
elfe the Reader might have fung whoop Barnaby ! and Retreated to his 
Recreations the longefl Holy-day in the Tear. 

i. The very firft of thefe pretended Caufes, is, fome 'Blame they lay 
upon the Dottrine of the Church > and the main ( if not the only ) thing 
excepted againfi in thU kjnd is, That the Ihirty nine Articles are not fo 
jpunftual in defining the five Toms debated in the Synod of Dort m they 
could wifh, Juft as your common Haclyey Verifiers* or Water-Toets, 
make one Verfe for the Reafon, and the other for the Rhime fake j 
fo was this ob]ettion mounted againft the Doctrine of the Church for 
the fake cf his preciom ^Anjwers, wherein he will find or maJ^e as 
handfom an occafion, as impertinency will admit to vilifie St. Auftin, 
and the Syuod of Dort, 

It will be extreamly difficult to give our Enquirer a fatisfac"tory 
Anfwer in this Point. Shall we fay, This is pot the main thing in the 
Articles excepted againft by Diffenten ? He will readily reply, how- 
ever then you tacitly grant, that this is one of your little cavilst 
Shall we fay , This is not the only thing they fcruple ? he will return 
nimbly, Then it feems you confefs this to be one, though not the 
only thing you boggle at. Really if I knew how to content him, I 
Would do it , and the beft expedient that offers it felf at prefent, i$ 
this Anfwer: i. That the Church has otter Dottrines, not contained 
in the 39 Articles, impofed on the Faith of Subscribers* and perhaps 
the fcruple may lye againft them. a. That the 39 Articles contain 
other Dottrines, befides thofe relating to the five c Potnts debated at the 
Synod of Dort j as that of ^An. 20, The Church hath power to decree 
Jtitesor Ceremonies. And that of Art. 34, Every Particular or Na- 
tional Church* hath Authority to Ordain, Change and Abolifv Ceremonies 
Of J^ites of the Cburch, ordained only by Mans Authority. And what 
now if the quarrel fliould lie againft one of thofe ? And I am the 
rather induced to fufpeel: they. may hefitate in thefe particulars, be- 
caufe % have heard fome of them privately Speak, and feen others 
publickly Print, that though they can praftife fuch things which 
ftfing intherpwn natures indifferent, remain under all their con- 


current circumftances lawful $ yet they cannot find where the 
Church has any commiflion to impofe them : They can affert, and 
ufe their Qhrifiian Liberty, and yet cannot fubfcribe to the Doctrine of 
the churches "Tower to take i^away. 3. That the mod rigid Calvi- 
nifts do not fcruple Subfcriptionto the Articles, fofaras they re- 
late to the Quinquarticular Controverfies ; and for a clear experi- 
ment herein, for once let the Church make tkofe Articles only, the 
fingle Rail about the Communion-Table, and we fhall foon fee fuch mul- 
titudes of Diflenters crowd into the Couftitution, that flie will hard- 
ly find two Benefices a piece for them. 

It's my greater admiration, that they who deny Particular Eleclion, 
Original fin, the intereft of Ch rifts death in Reconciling Godtomi 
that they who aflert tfujVfi cation by our own Works, Free-will, &c. 
can fubfcribe them : and indeed It feems they fwallow'd them with 
fome Relu&ancy, and are now reaching and draining with many 
a fowre face, to difgorge, not the Bait of the Benefice, which is in- 
finitely fweet : but the Hook, of the Article, which is unmercifully 

This pretended Pretence then might fafely have been forborn, 
but that the Lapwing thinks it advifable to raife a huge cry, where 
'tis not, that we may not fearch where really it is *. to make a clam- 
pcring about the Non-caufes to divert our Enquirers from the true 
and proper caufes of Non-conformity : Like the ingenious policy 
of the Thief, that being arraigned for a Horfe, freely confefled the 
Sealing of a Bridle, but prudently concealed it was upon the fro*fes 

But (fays our Enquirer) though this neither needs nor defervcs an 
tAnfwer, yet I fiaU reply two things to it : That is, he will give us two 
needlefs Anfwers to one needlefs Objeclion, 

1. The fum of the former needlefs Anfwer is thus much, Common 
Arts and Sciences, which depend upon Humvne wit and Invention, are 
capable of daily improvements 5 but Chrijhanity depending folely upon 
Divine Revelation, can admit of no new discoveries. The bujie Witef 
Man may perplex, but it can never bring to light any new thing ; for if 
vne admit of any New Revelations, ive.lofe the Old, and our Religion 
together -, -we accufe our Saviour, and his Apoflles, -as if they had not 
Sufficiently revealed Gods mind to the World j and we incur St. Paul's 
Anathema nhick he denounces againjl him, (whofover it Jhall be, nay 
if an Angel from Heaven) that pall Preach any other Dottrine than what 
M been receive h 


. C 42 ] 

*» The Enquirer may call this a needlefs Anfwer (for who fhall hin- 
e r him from calling bis. own what he pleafes) but I affiire him it 
contains a great deal of needful Truth, which had he like a good 
Husband improved, the reft of his Bogk had been more needlefs 
than this Anfwer : Needlefs we confefs it to be as to the ob)ettion, 
which was it felf needlefs, but not fo for his own Confutation ', for 
thus the Diflenters will come over him : // neither time nor the wit of 
Man can make any new difcoveries in Cbrijlianity j then the Pope, who 
like another Columbia, or America, has made great and new difco- 
veries in the Terra Incognita of Tradition and Ceremonies, muft ei- 
ther be a God, or a Devil. That the Liturgy was a principal part of 
Gods Worfiip, he has told us in the Introduction j that it was difco- 
vered from the beginning, and not by latter Adventurers, he will 
be fore put to it to prove, for all the mufty Fragments of St. Jam 's 
liturgy : That it was not part of the Wifdom of Chrift, or his A- 
poftles, we are well enough fatisfied : That there was Wit and In- 
vention in it, we confefs: all the Queftion is, whofe Wit fliould 
have the glory of the Invention ? Again ! //' to admit new /{jvelatu 
ens be to lofe the old, and our J{eligion together : Let us make a fliort 
Query upon't, whether to admit of new Ordinances and Qonftimhns, 
be not to lofe the old, and our Religion together ? That is, whether Gof- 
•pel-Inftitutions be not exclufive of new ones, as well as Gofpel-Rc* 
velations ? And why we may not expect a new Credimm, as well as a 
new Mandamus ? New Revelations, as well as new Injunctions ? A 
new Prophet of the Church feems to me as neceflary as a new King o- 
ver the Church, and a new Higb-Priefi as needful as either : And 
I proceed upon this Principle, That the Law of Chrift was as per- 
fect as his Difcoveries : He has told us as fully and clearly what we 
fliould do, as what we fliould believe : He that may invade the l{oy- 
al Office, upon petence there are not Laws enough for the Govern- 
ment of the Church, may with equal appearance of Reafon invade 
the Prophetick Office too, upon pretence there are not Hevelau- 
ons enow for its inftruction : And therefore th* vigilant univerfal Pa- 
llor has found it as neceflary to fupply tie defett of Revelations by 
bis own Traditions , as the nakednefs of Worjlnp by decent Ceremo- 

As Jefus Chrift vindicated rite moral Law from the falfe gloflesof 
the Scribes and Pharifees , fo hefuperadded a ceremonial Law, de- 
pending meerly upon his ownfulnefs of Power and Authority j now 
what righc any can pretend, to M. new fmiculm to bis cermonh 

C 4J 1 

H Law, which they may not alfo pretend to add to his Moral Law, I 
Cannot Divine : And therefore one of our Enquirers great Friends, 
who had his Eyes in his Head, and faw farther into thefe matters 
than his poor Neighbours, was conftrained to aflert a power th^at 
had lain dormant fomewhere, of adding new particulars to the Divine 

But further, If new Revelations do accufe our Saviour and his Apo- 
Jlles, 06 if .they had not fufficiemly revealed Gods mind to the World : Then 
new ways of teaching Gods mind, new invented Symbolical Cere- 
monies will accufe him and them of the fame culpable failure in not 
difcharging thofe Offices committed by God to a Mediator, and by 
him to hisApoftles. 

And in (hort 3 If we incur St. Paul\f Anathema, which he denounces 
againft him that Jhall preach any other Dotlrine than what he bat received : 
Then they will do well to get out of the way of that Curfe who 
Preach this Doctrine, The Church has power to decree I{ites and Cere- 
monies ; Unlefs they be fure they have received it from Chrift : for 
its but ill venturing to ftand in the way of an Angel with a drawn 
Sword-, more terrible than which is one of the Scriptures Ana- 
thema's : Some will ask where , and when, and from whom the 
Church received that Doctrine which fome Preach, vi%: A Vower 
to impofe jftiyflicai and Symbolical Ceremonies , as the Terms of commu- 
nion with a Church ; but I {hall only fay, that our companionate 
Enquirer will need a mod companionate Reader, upon thefe two Ac- 
counts : Firft, that he makes an Objection for DifTenters, which is 
their Anfwer : And Secondly, that he gives an Anfwer to that Objecti- 
on, which is their very Objection $ but yet we have not heard the Con» 

T,:e confequence (fays he) of thefe premifes is $ That the elder any Do- 
ctrine of Chrijlianity can be proved to be, it mujl needs he truer 5 and he 
that talks of a more clear Light of the latter Times, and clearer difcove~ 
ries in Religion, talks as idly as he that fiould affirm he could difcern things 
better at a miles difiance , than a Man that hath as good an Eye as kint- 
felfy and yet flood clofe by the Objefi. This is that needlefs Conclusion 
drawn out of his needlefs premifes -, and having difcovered the weak- 
nefs of the former, I might leave him at his leifure to deny his own 
Conclufion •, but yet I fhall give him fome Items about that alfo. 
And 1. It's a crude unconco&ed Notion, that the elder any Doctrine 
of Chriflianity is, the truer it is : For it was a Truth that Cbrift was 
$orn* before it was that he was crucified', and yet the former Ar- 

tide, that he was horn of the Virgin Mary, is no truer, than that be 
was Crucified, Dead, and 'Buried : The Truth of the Doctrine de- 
pends not upon its Antiquity or Seniority, but upon the infallibility of 
the fievealer, quo ad nos, and upon the clofe connexion of the Terms, 
in it felf, whether a Truth was revealed by Chrift, or his Apoflles 
immediately infpired, all are of equal Truth in themfelves, and 
equal Authority as to us 5 that is, the latenefs of the Revelation 
will breed no differeuce. 2. The Enquirer might have informed 
himfelf, that there is a double Light, an Objective, and Subjettive 
Light: The former is the difcovery of the Thing it [elf ', the latter is 
the enlightning. of the Faculty : It's true there is, there can be no 
9iew Objeftive Light rationally expected : In this fenfe all new Lights 
are but old Darknejfes ; but yet there may be more Subjettive Light* 
or a greater difcovery made to us of what God has difcovered in 
his Word : the Papifts lock'd up our Bibles in the Lajin Tongue, 
and kept the Key of knowledg in their Poekets ; God by his gracious 
Providence in the Reformation, has taken off the Embargo and 
reftraint that was upon knowledg, and great Light is fprung in 
amongft us 3 we fay not God has put more Books, or Chapters, or 
Verfes into the Bibles, but that he has given us more light in our 
minds; he has not revealed new Truths, but given us advantage 
to difcover the old, Thus the Learned Stillingfleet fomewhere expreffes 
himfelf i The common way of the Spirits illuminating the minds of Be- 
lievers, is by enlightning the Faculty, not by proportion of new Objetts : 
A Man then may tal\of more Light in thefe latter Times, and yet not 
tal\idly\ if by more Light he intends no more than a clearer unders- 
tanding of Gods mind and Will revealed in his Word ; and a Man 
may tal^ of more Light in thefe latter Times, and tall^ very idly ; if 
•thereby he means, more Revelations of Gods' mind and will to fupply 
the defects of the Scripture; but yet none tal^foidly, as the Rhe- 
torical Men, whofe Premifes fpeak againft new Objettive Light, and 
their conclufion againft new Subjettive Light, If Subjective Light 
be not capable of growth, if it does not recipere magis & minus : Let 
him give me a Reafon why the Chuche s Articles of 1571, do clear 
Up the Doctrine more darkly and imperfectly laid down in the days 
of Edward VI. Refined Silver is more clear thau the fame Metal 
In the Oare, and yet there is no more Metal. But if it be capable 
of growth and increafe, what an idle flourifti is his Similitude of 
a Mans feeing better at a dijhnce than he thatftands clofe by the Objett z 
For if we have got no further light into the Scriptures by all the 


C45 3 

Advantages which Me rciful Providence has fumifli 'd us with above 
the Airier times of ?opery , they were very ill bellowed upon us 5 
and he that would repay him in his own Coyn might tell him -, 
That a Man may poffibly ftand too near the ubjeft, as well m too jit off 3 
and a Dwarf upon A Gyants Shoulders may fee further than the Gyant 

What he has hitherto philofophiz'd upon, has been little to our 
Edification ; nor had we been troubled with this firftMefs, but for 
the fake of that which is now to be ferved up in the fecond Courfe : 
and that is, a piece of Revenge that he will take upon Su AugujUn, 
and the Sv nod of Don. 

1. And firft, here's a heavy charge drawn up againft: one Auguftin, 
of whom I prefume the Reader may have heard at one time or other 
fome mention made. Now this Juguftin (or rather Aufiin : for his 
Name, as well as his Fame fuffers a Syncope) has been formerly a 
perfon in great danger of incurring thatCurfe denounced againft 
thofe of whom all Men fpeak^well, till of late fome Charitable Di- 
vines, loath to let a poor Man lie in Purgatory from Age to Age* 
when a few bad words would releafe him, took fome pity on him : 
And one of his beft Friends in this Nation is this Companionate En- 
quirer, who informs us, That no father, or Writer, Gree^ or Latin, 
before this Auftins time, agreed in Doftrine with the Synod of Dort, 
vchicb is fo notorioujly plain that it cannot be deny'd. And if he agrees 
therewith, yet it's certain that in fo doing he dij agrees as much with him- 
felf <x with us of our Church : That he wm indeed a devout Man, but his 
Piety w x. far more commendable than his B^eafon ; and that being hard put to 
it by the Manichees on the one hand, and the Pelagians on the other, he wm 
not able to extricate himfelf , and that he was rather forced into bis opinion, 
than made choice of it. 

He that (hall thus confidently dare to cenfure that worthy Father, 
muft be prefumed to- have read over his Voluminous Writings, with 
all thofe of Ancient Writers before him, both Grei^ and Latin, to a 
Man, to a Sentence, which might fufficiently have proclaimed his 
Learning, and recommended him to a Patron, (one would think) 
though he hd never reproached that Father himfelf: Many a poor 
Hungry Man have I known in my little time, that has fcnbledone 
piece after another, railing at the Pope, which yet never turned to 
fuch Account, as half a fcore Lines fmartly penn'd againft this great 
Sinner Auitin. And yet for all thefe Infinuations of Induftry in Read- 
ing, and Acutenefs of piercing Wit, in hunting and tracing tbepoor 

[4* 3 

Man through all the windings and turnings of his felf- perplexing 
Contradictions 5 it's our meer good nature if we will believe ilhat 
ever he faw any more than the back-fide of St. Aujhns Works, for 
indeed all this may be no more than an ingenious Paraphrafe of 
their great Grotim, who thus fpends his Judgment upon him-, Dif- 
cufs. p. 97* *- Ut dicam quod fentio puto Augufiinum adeo non cum 
*« prioribus, ne fecum quidem per omnia jp'ofle conciliari. Ita con- 
« r tranitendi ftudio, fe in illas Ambages induxk ut non invenerit, 
" qua fe extricaret ; Paucis Scripture Addu&us Locrs, qua? facile 
"commodam interpretationem recipiunt, aliis locrs, & pluribus, 
« & clarioribus, per quae Deus fignificatur omnium falutem velle, 
*< interpretations det violentas, &nunc has, nunc illas, Incertus 
" quo fe vertat ; ut dicam aliquid amplius fuit utilis Auguftinm ad mo- 
*f nita danda pise vita?, ad interpretandas Sacras Scr/pturas fads in 
" foelix. 

WhenJIfirft read this difmal charge againft Juftin, it minded me 
of our common forms of Indictments againft Breakers rf the Peace, 
how they did Vi & Armis, with Bills, and Staves, and Swords, and Gunu 
make an Affault and Battery, when it may be all the out-cry is for no 
more than a Fillip, or a forry Tox oth* Ear. 

But what will the Reader fay, if all this Blufter and Clamour 
which our Enquirer has borrowed upon Grotim his words, and the 
Publick Faith, be no more than what Grotim himfelf has borrowed 
from the Pelagians, who were bound in their own defence to re- 
proach his Perfon, before whofe Arguments they durft not ftand ; 
and who being the great oppugners of the grace of God, muft needs 
hate him who was its great Propugnator. I read indeed in Mar'm 
Mercator. p. 103. That Theodorus, Bifhop of Mopfuefiia , the Dad 
of the Pelagians , did at this rate nibble at Jfujlins Learning. 
f« Sed nihil illorum perfpicere potuit, Mirabilis peccati Originalis 
cr Aflertor, quippe qui in Divinis Scripturis nequaquam fuerit ex- 
" ercitatus, nee ab Infantia, juxta B. Pauli vocem Sacras didicerit 
jK Literas $ fed five de Scripturae fenfibus, five de Dogmate fsepius 
"Declamans, multa frequenter inepta, proprie communiterve de 
"ipfis Scripturis, Dogmatibufque plurimis impudenter depromfit. 
2?«* this wonderful maintainer of Original Sin, (Auftin) could fee none 
cfaU thefe Things - } being a JPerfonnot at all exercifed in the ff. Scriptures $ 
jVor me that had {according to St. Pauls faying) learn d the Scripture 
from his childhood ; but frequently Declaiming whether of the meaning of 
the Smftures, or of [owe Opinion, he oftentimes utters many fooleries, 
" . ' "~ ~*" ~ ■ *~"~ "-"" at 

C 47 3 

at aR adventures, Habnab, concerning the Scriptures, and many points of 
DoBme. But yet let us hear the Indictment againft Aufiin, in its 
feveral Branches. 

Sett, i. One Branch of the charge is, That he was a Novelift in 
the weightieft Points of ^Religion, m one Father, or Writer, Greel^ 
or]Utine, before hit time agreed with him. Adeo non cum prioribus 
pofle conciliari ; And this is fo plain, that it needs no proof, further than 
the bare fay-fo of Grotm j nor can it be denied. There's your Charge ! 
There's your Evidence! Thefe are indeed £/$ words, utter'd with 
that confidence which men commonly affume that would be believed 
in an unproved aliriood ; for I will fuppofe rtncentius Lirinenfis, that 
MaJUm Hareticorum, to have underftood the Sentiments of former 
Ages, as well as this Enquirer, or Hugh Grotiws. Now he tells us 
cap. 34. adverfiti heretic. Quis unquam ante Prophanum Mum Pelagium 
tantam virtutem Libert prefumpfit Arbitrii, ut hoc in bonis Rebut per Atlas 
finguhs adjuvandum, necejfarium Dei gratiam non putaret ? gui* ante pro- 
digiofum dijcipulum ejus Caeleftium, R^atu prtvaricationi* Ads, omne 
genu* Humanum adfirittum negaret ? " Who ever before that pro- 
" phane wretch PelagiuA, ever prefumed the power of free-will to 
** be fo great, as not to judg the Grace of God neceflary to help ic 
" in all good things, even in every particular Acl ? And who before 
" his monftrus Scholar Coeleftius. ever denied that all mankind flood 
rc guilty of Adams Apoftacy from God ? When henxm Bilhop of 
Lyons had excellently difcourfed of Original fin, how that; we were 
wounded Antigua Serpentis Vlag 0, with the old blow of the Devil, and 
how that Adftrittum ejl Humanum genus Morti \er Virginem, viz. Evam. 
lhat all mankind Was bound over to Death by the Tranfgrejpon of Eve: And 
Protoplafii pecato, vinculis aUigati eramus. " We are all bound in 
" Chains of guilt by the fin of Adam the Protoplaft. St. Aufiin made 
ufe of this Teftimony, lib. 1. cap. 2. contra Jul. Videfae Antiquum 
Dei Hominem, quid de Antiqua Serpentis Plaga Jentiat ? Quid deftmi- 
litudine carnis peccati, per quam fanatur plaga Serpentis in came peccati ? 
Jguidde Protoplafti peccato, per quod aUigati eramus. "Do you not 
" obferve (fays Aufiin) what that ancient Man of God thinks of that 
•• old blow given us by the Devil ? What his Judgment is concerning 
"thelikenefsof finfulflefli, {CMfi^camate)by which the Wound 
€S of the Serpent in our finful flefli is healed ? And what his opinion 
t€ is touching the fin of the Protoplaft, by which we are all guilty ? 
And Origen againft Celfus, Lib. 4. agrees exactly with him, » d& 
t£ AJVf* Koti » ndnat %$t, QTeixp 7k ywztKQU vx. £& jutfl' fa i 


C 48 ] • 

KiytTcu , The Curfe of Adam is common to all men, and there's no woman 
of whom it may not be [aid what wm faid of the firfi Woman. $0 Nayan{i 
Orat. 3 de lace, Eft fo ye Z ? & % Kov *»'£«$*, % hov JjcuwTct, $ 
Haar&KpMvT* U Tfc v?a>TWh<L<?« net&Wh', Keti Montis cLVTiKifAivXy 
J have need to be wholly faved, who am wholly lafped and condemned by the 
difobedience of Adam, and the fubtilty of the Devil. And Aufiin quotes 
Cbryfoftom to prove both the influence of the firft Adams difobedience 
upon our Condemnation ^ and that of Chrifts obedience upon our 
Acceptation with God^Orajr Kiyn o-otUvfcu®-, nat hfa hetTotfa- 

fa w &>t&e*vTQ- , <& 'AfeLfji. , « oiKxiAiyn K&TKttdtt , When a 
cavilling Jew [hall objett, how can the World be faved by the %ettitude 
or Obedience of one Chrifi} Anfwer him again, by asking him \ How came 
the World to be condemned by the difobedience of one Adam ? 

I fhall give the Reader no further trouble in this matter : The 
Gree^ and Latin Fathers were either of lAufths or Pelagim his mind ? 
if they were of Pelagim his opinion, then he has at once Canoniz'd 
them for Orthodox pelagians 5 but if they were not of PeUgim his 
mind ( for I know no Medium) they were of Auftins, and by confe- 
quence of the fame Judgment with the Synod of Don. 

St. Hierom indeed fays exprefly, That before that Southern Devil (he 
means Arius) appeared in the World, the Ancients [pake many things in 
the fmplicity of their hearts , and not fo advifedly, which might give fome 
advantage to the Heretic^ and Aujhn will confefs, That AnteMota 
Cenamina Helagiana, the Fathers feemed to fpeak favourably of free- 
will: but afterwards multo diligentiores , vigilantiorefaue fatti funt, 
they began to befiir themfelves, and watch over their words a little bet- 
ter. Now as it would be afevere charge upon all the Primo-pri- 
iriitive Fathers, that they were Arians, becaufe a fufpicious word 
at fometimes, drop'd from their Mouths^ or Pens ; fo would it be a 
ralri and ignorant cenfure of them, that they were all Pelagians, be- 
caufe fome odd expreflions fell from them, which may feem to favour 
Pelagianifm: And therefore lam in hope, fince Pelagim isrifen 
from the dead, this fleepy Age will awake, and give him no ground 
by unwary Expreffions -, at leaft we expect thus much, that Non- 
confomijh may not be ruined , becaufe they are no wifer than 
Aufiin. * 

Sett. 2. A fecond Branch of the charge is, That St. Aujlin agrees 
not with himfelf A pitiful forry felf inconfiftent Scribler he was it 
feems, that could not make his matters hang together ; One that 

caper 'd 


caper'd backwards and forwards ; that it was the eadeft thing in the 
World to trip up his heels - } fuch a Novice was this Auftin : all which 
I could eafily believe, when it fhall be proved, that he wrote the firfl 
and fecond part of the fer iota Enquiry, Really, that Man muft have 
amafled a vaft ftcck of confidence, that fhall hope with one puff of 
contemptuous breath to blow away that fair heap of Repute, /hat 
that Fathers Name has gathered in fo many Centuries •, and he mud 
have an over- weening conceit of his own Rhetorick, that can pre- 
fume to perfwade this Learned Age, that he was fo infignificant a 
Ceremony, fo great a Trifler. The Papifts with incredible zeal have 
itruggled for him ; the Proteftants have tooth and nail wreilled to 
draw him into their Tents j all parties have ambitioufly courted his 
fufrrage; atlaft comes one Hugh Groot, and our Enquirer, and they 
cafhier him as an inconfiderable fellow , not worth the whift- 

But Luther had this great fione thrown at his head by Bellarmhe : 
And the Learned Dr. Field thus puts by the blow. On the Church. 
Book $> Chap. 42. " Luther (fays he) was as worthy a Divine'as the 
*' World had any in thofe times, or in many Ages before , and that 
ff for clearing fundry Points of greateft moment in our Chriftian pro- 
c# feffion, much obfcured and entangled before with the intricate dif- 
rr putes of the Schoolmen : all fucceeding Ages flia'l b: bound to 
ft honour his happy Memory s That herein he proceeded by degrees, 
" and in his latter Writings difliked that which in his former he did 
"approve, is not foftrangea thing. Did not Jujtix, the greateft of 
" all the Fathers, and the worthier! Divine the Church of God ever 
tr had lince the ApoiHes time, write a whole Book of Retractations ? 
" Did w T e not carefully obferve what things he wrote whileft a Pres- 
" byter, and what when made a Bifhop ? What before he enter'd ln~ 
" to the Conflict with peUgWi and what afterwards? Did he not 
* c formerly attribute the Election of thofe that were chofen to Eter- 
4f nal Life, to the foreiight of Faith, which afterwards he difclaimed 
QS as a meer Pelagian conceit i And would it not vex a man of cur 
Enquirers humour, that Jujiin the Presbyter fhouli be more Qrtho- 
dox than Auftin the Bijbop. 

The truth is, St. Aufiin difagrees no more with himfelf, than it be- 
came a wife man, who by long ftudying the Scriptures, and the Pri- 
mitive Fathers,had gained a mere concofted and well- digeftedknow- 
ledg of Religion ; his Retractations were never laid iu his difli, but 
interwoven amongii thofe Excellencies which Crowned his Learn - 

D «4 

C 5« 3 

ed Head, before now. A peice of fuch felf-denial it was, that a proud 
heart could not bear, unlefs more politick Confederations turned the 
fcale ; this 1 ft Age has fewinftances of fuch an ingenuity as will 
confefsit felt Truths Prisoner, though it abounds with too many that 
furrender tbemfelves Captives to bale lulls, and worldly intereft : Their 
own Grotim profeffes he was progreffive and very prone to dijlike what a 
little before he was mil pieafcd with, and the Reafons of his Change 
were evident to all the World. 

Sett. 3. A third Branch of this charge is, That St. Auftin difagrees 
with the Qhurch 0} England. There ar j indeed a knot of Gentlemen, 
that in fpight of J{ight and Truth, are refolved to be the Church of 
England, and with thefe St. Auftin, and the Ancient Fathers have no 
very good correfpondence, nor are they ambitious of it : But that 
the Ancient Church of England had very high thoughts of Aufiins 
Judgment, is frorrrhence evident, that (he quotes his opinion for one 
at lead of the Articles of her Faith, and juflifies her Authority from 
his Do&rine^ Art. 19 But yet if the Church fiiould be a weary of 
him, (as I am confident fhe never will) and has no further fervice to 
command him, 'tis but tranfmicting him with Letters of fafe Conduct 
into Holland, where the Divines of the Synod of Don's perfwafion 
will give him better Quarter, and a moil Cordial welcome j and 
there's tio harm done. 

Seil. 4 Another Branch of this tedious charge is, That he was a 
Devout good /Tyian, but wbo[e Piety was far more commendable than his 
J^eafoit. Fuit utilis ad monita danda pia? vita*, ad Scripturas interpfe- 
tandas fatis infcelixj That is, The Man was a. well-meaning Zealot I 
One that according to his dim- light meant honeflly, but he never 
had wit enough to write Obfcxne Annotations upon the Qamicles j he, 
poor Man, wa; little verfed in ^/Cnacreons Ribaldry, nor had much 
iludied Ovid de ^ne Amandi j he was a meer Granger to Catullm and 
jttfartial •, and therefore mud needs be Saw, nay Nimit ad interpreter 
das Scripturas infclix. The mofl wretched unhappy creature that e- 
ver bungled at a Text of Scripture. It was never my unhappinefs 
but once to hear the learned A. B. Vjber reproach'd, and it was by a 
Grave Divine of the fame temper, and upon the fame account ^ 
That the Primate was indeed an honefi Man, but one of m depth of Judg- 

We need not fearch far for a Reafon, why thefe men cry down 
Auftins Heafon : In fhort, 'tis but to be reveng'd on him for crying 
down theirs 5 fov there's a certain Malepert fewcy thing,. as blind 


as a Beetle, and as giddy as a Gocfe, which they have Nick-named 
Reafon, and this ^Auflin decries with fome feverity. lhus the 
Learned Jewell againft Harding, Art, 4. Divif. 17, obferves, That 
xAuflin fpeaking of the Scripture, judging Myfteries by Reafon, faith 
thiis, " Haec confuetudo periculofa eft, per Scriptnras Divinas enim * 
if multo tutius Ambulatur : And again, Si Ratio contra Divinarunt 
" Scripturarum authoritatern redditur, quamvis accuta fit, fallic 
" verifimilitudine, vera enim efle non poteft. If Reafon be brought 
again)} the Authority of the Scriptures, though it may feem accute, and 
witty,- yet 'tis but fallaciom under the jhadow of Truth, for 'tis impojfible 
it fhould be True. And for this he quotes, Ad Marcellinum Ep, 7> 
And let the Reader have a fpecial care of the Quotation, for the Ec* 
cleflaflical Holititians fake. 

But that our Auflin was no fuch Shallow-brain d fellow, no fuch half- 
witted piece as thofe Divines judg it their intereft to reprefent him, 1 
fliall call in the Teftimony of Jerome, one whofe Learning and judg- 
ment may at leaft counterbalance thofe of the Enquirer, ihaved* 
ways (fays he to Auflin) reverenced thy holinefs, increafe in Vertue : Thou 
art famom through the world : Cathoiichs reverence thee as tb$ RebuL et 
of the Ancient Faith. And I promifeyouhe muftbe no Block-head 
that {hall be able to Redintegrate the ruinous Doctrine of the Chri- 
stian Church : But I fhall knock all dead with an infallible , therefore 
irrefragable Teftimony j 'tis no lejfs, Iaflureyou, than that of Cos- 
leflinm Bifliop of I(pme : " We have always accounted Auflin a maft 
•'of holy memory for his Life, and merits, of our Communion, 
« whom we have long fince remembred to have been of fo great 
" knowledg, that he was amongft the beft Matters. It would be im* 
pertinent to tell you, how Paujihm Bifliop of Nola, calls him TU 
great Light fet upon the Candle 'flick of the Church } or how Profpet gives 
him the Character of averyjharp w&> clear in his Difputations, caiho^, 
lick, in his Expojitions of the Faith : But to what purpofe fhould we 
controul him with inferior Evidences after that of a Pope ? or to 
what end Subpoena our little Witneffes after thefe Grandees ? For 
furely he that will break Auflins Pate, will not fear to da(h out Profe 
pers drains, 

£*■#. 5. Another Branch of this end lefs Indictment is, That being 
hard put to it by the Manichees on the one hand, and the Pelagians on the 
other, he was not able to extricate himfelf. Se in Was Ambages indux* 
it, uc non invenerit qua feextricaret. You fee, I hope, that if ever 
we fhould want an ableH'ad to tranflate Grot'm into Bn&ljh, our 

D a £s« 


Enquirer is the man : Never was poor man fo bewildred, fo fadly in- 
tangled 'in the Bryers,' as this Juftin, between the Manichaan fatal 
Necejfiy, and the Pelagian Qn.tingency , one while he's juli a fplitting 
upon the Scylla of Free-will j and whilft be goes a Point or twd too 
near the wind, he's ready to be fwallowedup of the delperate Gulf 
$i Stoical NeceJJfty. I lliall fay no more j let the Reader ferioufly 
perufe St. Auftins Works, and when he has done, ftudy this Enquirers 
Volumes, and by that time he may be fatisfied, whether all his Rhe~ 
torick and Confidence w ill make him a competent judg of St'. SSfiiis 

Sett* 6, His conclufion of his Charge is, that he rcaf rather forced 
into bis Opinions, than made choice of them. H~ whofe Tongue is his 
own, may employ it how he pleafes, but this ilander carries its con- 
futation, as well as its confidence in its Forehead. 'Tis as if we 
fhculd conclude, That men become enemies, becaufe they have fbed 
one anctbers blood ■■> whereas moil: think they wound "and filed one ano- 
thers blood, becaufe they vrerefirft enemies. It was the zeal of this 
Learned and Holy perfon for the Caufe of God, that put him upon 
Study, that drew him out in the open Field, againft the open Ene- 
mies of the Grace of God, who might othervvife have llept fecure in 
a- whole skin : Difpute cleared up Truths to him, but he was not 
forced from any, or into any. I fhall conclude this Head, with 
that of Bradwardhe, another famous Champion in the fame Caufe 
with Auflin, Ecce enhn quod non niji tatJite dolor e Cordis refero, ficut 
olim contra unum Dei Prophetam t otlingenti, £?' quinquaginta Prophet* 
Baal, tfjimilcs repcrti funt, quibvA & innumcrabilis populutadhatebat; 
Ita C£ hodie in hdc causa, jguol Domine, hoiie cum Pelagio, pro libe- 
ro s'rLitrh contra gratmtam gratiam tuam pugnar.t, & contra Paulum P«- 
gilem gratia fpecialeni} Exurge ergOj Domine, fufline, protege robora, 
eonfolarei [cisenim quod mfqu&mviriute mei, (ed tud cenffm, tantiUm 
aggredior ianiar,icaufam. " Behold ! (which T cannot mention with* 
i6 out grief of heart) as of old againft one Prophet of God, Eight 
tl hundred and fifty of the Prophets of Baal, and fuch like, were 
(i found, to whom a great multitude of people did adhere; foin 
« ' this Cufe, How many, O Lord, at this day contend for Free-will 
" with Petigisu againil thy free Grace, and againft St. Paul that fa- 
l * mous Champion of Grace ? Arife there fere, OLord, uphold, de- 
44 fend, lengthen, comfort me 5 for thou knoweft that not trufting 
* 5 to my own tfrength but thine, fo weak a Combatant has engaged in 
11 io greu a. Caufe. 

^2. His 

«f a. His fecond aflault is againft the Synod of Dm : A t:sk as need ■ 
lefs as the Anfwer it (elf, and fuch as will not quit for coft ; for ha- 
ving already routed Auflin, this poor S)r.odrcui\h\\ in ccurfewith 
him, and be buried und-.r his uiiines. 

That it was a Dutch Synod I cannot deny : Don is, and always was 
in the Province of Holland; and therefore to pare off as much needlefs 
Controverfie as may be, let him triumph in our Conceflion, and make 
his belt on't : Ike Synod of Dort was a Dutch Synod. 

That England was not within the jurifdicihn of Dort, IlTiall eafiiy 
admit : Nay, I can be contented that it be exempted from the Po?es 
IVejhmt Patriarchate, if Grotim, B.Brambal, and fome others would 
agree to it. The QuefHon then is, Hem? far the Church of Erigkpd 
wot, or is concerned in, at Agreement with, or obliged by tte Decrees 
thereof ? 

That King fames fent thither feveral of his mod Learned 2nd E- 
minent Divines, premunited with an Instrument, and thereby itn- 
powred to fit, hear, debate, conclude upon thole Arduous Feins 
that fhould be brought before them, I think is not denied, .but by 
thofe who deny there ever was any fuch S;?od. That they did ac- 
cording to their InftrucHons, go thither, fit there, debate upcr, and 
at lall fubferibe to the determinations of that Convention , is alfo 
out of difpute : If their fiibfcription did not formally otii'gi the Na- 
tion, yet it evidently proves what was the judgment of thz jsstxtn : 
Nor do I think it hud been for the Honour of this Church to have 
been of that Religion, becaufe thofe delegates had fuhftribed} nut 
they therefore fubferibed, becaufe they were in their own judgments 
conformable to that of the Charch, of the Religion and Judgment of 
the Council. 

Therebadbeen formerly one Biro in the Univerfity of Cambridge, 
who deli'red himfelf fomewhat broadly in favour of the Arrmian 
Novelties : Hereupon the Heads of that Univerfity, fent up Dr. 
Whha\er, zn&Dv.Tynddll, to A. B. tfhitgift , that by the interpofuion 
of his Authority thofe errors might be cruGYd in the Egg, which 
were but New laid as yet. and not batch'd in the bofom of this Church. 
The zealous Prelate prefently convenes fome ot the moil Judicious 
Divines of his Province 5 and Novcvb. 10, 1591, b: their advice, 
draws up the Lambeth Articles, coming up to, if net goir,^ beyond 
the Dordrelan Creed: Forthwich he tranlrtiits thefe Snides to his 
Brother of the other Province, the A. B. of Tor\^ 3 who receives 
ani approves them : So that now we have the Primate of'Dng'and^ 

D 5 2nd 


and the Pnmaxe of AU England owning more than virtually the De- 
crees of that Synod ; andfurely two fiichperfons, [o learned, as ha- 
ying been both of them Profeffors of Divinity in the Univerljty , and 
of ji ^great Power in the Church, muflbe prefumed, if any, toun- 
4erfiand the true meaning of the 39 Articles in the Five Controverted 
Points* After all this, King James allows the inferting them into the 
Articles of the Church of Ireland; and it were fomtwhat difficult to 
believe, that a Priuce fo wife and learped would allow that Doctrine 
for Orthodox in one of his Kingdoms, which was reputed Heretical in 
the other : unlefs we will fay, they were erroneous at home, but purg- 
ed themfelves like French-Wines at Sea, by crofting St. Georg^ Chan- 
nel >, or that the malignity, or latent poifon of them, was fuck'd out 
by the fanative Complexion of the Irijh Air and Soyl : If then the 
fub'fl: snee of the Articles was owned, it's no matter whether the Jurif- 
di&ion of the Synod was owned : for I rather think, that the Synod 
of Don owned the Doctrine of the Church of England, than that the 
Church of England owned that Synods Jurifdi<5tion. 

I muft here remember him of hisown difcourfe. in the Introduction, 
and delire to know whether he abide by that Doclriue he once Preach- 
ed to us : That the Pr: fence of the Britifli Bijlops in the Council of Aries, 
was good proof of the Notions piety. Let him fhow how that Proof 
proceeds^ and its very probable we (hall be in a fair way tofliow him 
now the pretence of the Englifli Delegates at the Synod of Don, might 
imply, that the Church of England did compromise with it in the 
Points now in queftion. 

I confers I do not well underftand the Myflery of one company of 
mens making a Faith for another s but yet I may plead from an equa- 
lity ot Reafon, that if the Non- conformiits are bound up by the De- 
crees of a Convocation at London, where they have no jreprefenta- 
tives, the Church of England may be as well bound up bjflpie Decrees 
of Don, where flie had her Reprcfentatives. If it be faid that this 
Church had no equal Number ztvon to make a full reprefentation 
of her Body; it may beanfwer'd, that in the Convocation 1571* 
there was no fuch equal repefentation of the Clergy, nor any at all 
of the people, who have Souls to fave , and Confciences to account 
for, and ought n otto be concluded in matters of Faith, by what a 
couple of Clerks fhall agree to, who are only chofen by *the Paro- 
chial Minifters : 1 never faw a good Argument to this day, to prove, 
that the people ought to believe all that their Minifters believe, or 
that the Ministers are bound to hold all that their Reprefentatives 
■"'■ ' < • — ' ' ' ~ l (hall 


(hall fubfcribe, feeing it cannot be fuppofed that they give them fo 
large a CommiiTion ; and if they ftiould, it were actual/ void, be- 
caufethey give away their Confciences, which are none of their 

How things are now, I know not well; but in former times a Con- 
vocation has been judged no equal repreftntation, either of the in- 
ferior Clergy, or the Body of the People. In the lower houie of 
Convocation, there have been in fome Diocefles, one D^an, one 
Clerk for the Cathedral, three or four Archdeacons ; and for the 
inferior Clergy of the whole Diocefs, only Two Clerks to Counter- 
ballance all the reft 5 So that all th ngsmutt of neceflicy be concluded 
according to the temper and intereft of the Cathedrals, and that 1 
think was no equal Reprefentation $ but thefe things are inconsidera- 
ble. He comes now to draw up a Charge again!*, not the Jurifdicti- 
on, but the Doctrines of that Synod. 

I. They were fuck as k?>ew not how God could be jufi, unlefihctv.-A 
cruel > nor great, unlefs he decreed to damn the fir greater pan sf Man- 
kind* A company of filly Souls I perceive they were, and their 
Heads juft of the fame fize with St. Auftins : But in my poor judgment 
they took the wrong end of the Staff} for it had been much the hard- 
er task to make him fttfl, if he were firftfuppojed Cruel: but this is one 
of thofe Chymerical Confequences, which the perfons of this diitem- 
per and prejudice ufe when their bloo4 is up, to faften upon the Prin - 
ciples of the Calvinifts. It was an ingenious Obfervation of the Au- 
thor of Orig. Sacr* p. 10, where he afligns this as oiie caufe of er- 
rour. " To queftion the foundnefs of Foundations, for the Appa- 
cc rent Rottennefs of the Superftruclures : For (fays he), There is no- 
r < thing more ufaal, than for men who exceedingly deteft fome ab- 
" furd Confequence they fee may be drawn from a Principle fuppo- 
tr fed, to reject the Principle it felf for the fake of that Confequence, 
"which it may be doth not necefifarily flow from it, but from the 
" (hortnefs of their o'wn Reafon doth only appear fo to do. And if 
it were poflible to perfwade thefe Cenfurers to io much humility, as 
to fufpect they may po(£bly not be infallible, in drawing Corxlufion: 
from other mens Principles, ail this heat might be over : What the Sy- 
nod of Don aflerts in this maiter is thus much. An. j y. Deus ho- 
mines quof dam ex liber rimo, juftitfimo, & imrnutabili bene placito decre- 
pit in Communi Jttiferid, in quam fe fud Culpa pracipitarunt, relivque- 
re , nee falvificd fide, & converfxone donare, fed in viU fuis, C? fuk 
jufio judicio relittos, tandem, non tantum propter infidelitatm, fed enam 

D 4 Qmert 

Cater a peccata nmnU, ad declarationem Juflitia damnare, Q> sternum pu- 
nire\ In which, as there is nothing hue whatis^/Ji, fo there's no- 
thing at ill that is Cruel, i. That A& of God which our Enquirer, 
for the greater Grace, will call a Decree to damn the jar greatefi part 
of mankind, the Synods calls a l(ejefthn of fome men, or a Decree to 
fafs by fome men. Quofdm Homines decrevit tfelinquere, 2, They fay 
not that God Decrees to damn Men absolutely \ but, Propter infidelita- 
tem, & cetera omnia peccata damnare, to damn men for their Infideli- 
ty, and all their other fins ; which is neither injuftice, nor cruelty. 
3. They fay indeed that G >d Decrees to leave fome men in ike common 
Mifery; but withall, 'cis fuch as whereinto they have threron themfelves 
through their own fault. In communimiferia, in quamfe fua Culpa pr*« 
cipitxrunt. 4. They fay, this is an AS of Jufiice in God to leave them 
to lye in th it common mifery, into which they had plunged them- 
felves j it is Juftiffimo Beneplacito. So that all th- difficulty will be 
to refolve, 1. Whether it be an A3 of Cruelty in God to leave man 
as he found him in Miff a corrupt a \ 6> damnabili ? And z m Whether 
it be an A& of Injustice in God to damn men for their unbelief and 
other fins. If neither of thefe, it will be no difficult province to 
make it out, How God may be juft in damning men for their fin , and yet 
not cruel in leaving them in their fi i 

I am aware that this whole Controvert at laft mud empty it felf 
into that of Origin tl fin. And a difficulty it is that may require Jhong 
/leads to prove, that will not bring humble Faith to believe, how 
men have plunged themfelves into tie common jflifery* wherein God 
leaves tbofe fome, by their own default, Culpa fua: But the Church 
of Enrtad will be refponfible for this difficulty, who determines in 
her Ninth Article, That in every Perfon born into the World it deferveth 
Gods tor at h and damnation. 

The pretence for this odious Imputation, is nothing but a' Fancy, 
whLhforfooth thefe great Mifters ot' Wit have agreed to call J{ea~ 
fon, That that which would be cruelty and injufiiceinMan, muft pre- 
fentlybe Co in Got: As thus. Eecaufe it would be cruelty and inhu- 
manity in me to fee my Enemy ( or if i: were bur his Oxe or his Afs ) 
lye in a Ditch ready to perifh, and not to put forth a helping hand 
to pluck him out, that therefore it muft be cruelty in God to 
fee a finner lye un ier fin and its prefent Confequents, and not to 
deliver him from thiMtate: Whereas we might confider that God 
has tyed us by the Laws of Charity and Imereft to fuch Affi- 
fiance., becaufe we may podl >ly call for the fame Affiftance from 


C S7 1 

°thers in our Mifejies ; but God is not fo bound up, having once fet 
his Creature on his legs, to raife him up as ofc as he: {hall pleafe to 

falL ... 

The vanity of this Reafoning will more eafily appear, if we take 
the pains ( a little pains will do it ) to put, and confider this Cafe. 
Scelm qui non prohibet cum potefi jubet'j 'tis Seneca's Maxime, and own- 
ed by all, That every man is bound to prevent and hinder all the 
wickednefs he poflibly and lawfully can: now, if we will meafure 
God by this Rule, we muft conclude , that God is unjuji and cruel, if 
he hinders not all the evil in the World, which he can poflibly and 
lawfully prevent } Nay, put the cafe as favourably as you can, That 
God is bound to prevent all the wickednefs of mankind, as far as he 
can by moral means, not exerting any Phyfical Influence upon his Crea- 
ture, to impede its vitiouspropenfities •, yet this will not excufe him 
from apparent injuftice and cruelty, if our Obligations muit be made the 
j^ule and Meafure of his : For he has not in many places of the World 
fent them fo much as the Preaching of the GofpeU nor help'd them to 
tbc beji Arguments againft difobedience, nor propounded to them the 
firongeft Motives to obedience. 

The fiemonftrants I perceive would gladly fatten this upon the Con- 
tra fiemonftrants, that there is the fame Reafon and Proportion be- 
tween forefeen Faith and Elettion, 2nd fore feen infidelity and di{obedi- 
ence t and Reprobation. So Ames Coron p. 27. " Paril tatem quan- 
cr dam inferre conantur inter, electionem, & reprobationem To 
which hethvA returns, " Sed line Ratione, privilegium enim exempti- 
cc onis, & liberations a pamamerita, bene pot ell aliquibus conce- 
<f di, fine ulla ratione Conditionis antecedents, & impelkntis •, & 
*' poena tamen ceteris infligi ratione fui meriti, /'. e. The priviledg 
• f of Exemption and Deliverance from deferved puniihment, may 
"fafely be granted to fome without any refpect had to an Antece- 
dent and moving condition, and yet the ptmfhment be iuflicled 
91 upon the reft, on the account of their own demerits : So that he 
feemsto have cleared what he faid, p. 14. interim atherfere debent 
aliam ejfe Raiionem infidel it at is ad J{ejeBwnem : aluim vero fid i ad Eie» 
ttionem: To (hut up this difcourfe : If by reprobation this Enqui- 
rer will needs underltand 1 peremptory Decree of God to damn any Mm y 
without refpett had to the violation of his Law, the Synod is a per- 
fect ftranger to it : But if by Reprobation, they may hive liber- 
ty to understand no more than they have a mind to. v\$. Gods pur- 
pofe r.oi to give Grace to fome to whom he ons it not ; As it ipe .ks no in- 


jujiice in him, becaufe he was not their Debtor ; fo neither does it im- 
ply any cruelty, if as a qigkteom, and juft fudge, he punilh them for 
tbofe fins which they commit for want of fuch /fecial and unde/erve'd 

x. A fecond Charge againft the Dofrrine of that Synod is j That 
they could not tell how man jhould be l^ept humble, unle/s they made him not 
a man, but aftock., or a ftone. And yet the harder task had been to 
make him Humble, if they had made him either a ftoc^ or a ftone, for 
it would have puzled them to Preach a Sermon of Humility with any 
confiderable fucce/s to fuch an Auditory : though the Legend would per- 
fwadeus, that Venerable Bede had once, and but once, thatHappi- 

But let the Reader hear what they fay for themfelves. Art. 3,4. 
SeBi$, 16. " Sicuti pofl lapfum, Homo non dcfinit efleHomo, in- 
"telleclu, & voluntate praditus, nee peccatum quod univerfum ge- 
«• nus humanum pervafxt, naturam generis humani fuftulit, fed /pmtu- 
tf aliter occidit; Ita etiam hsec Divina Regenerations gratia, non agit 
V in hominibus, tanquamtruncls, £5? ftipitibm, nee voluntatem, ejuf- 
«' que proprietates tollit, aut in vitam violenter cogit, fed fpirituali- 
" ter vivificat, fanat, corrigit, fuaviter fimulac potenter fleftit. As 
after the Fall, man cea/ed not to be a man, endowed with an understand- 
ing, and will ; nor hath fin, which overspread all mankind, taken &way 
the nature of mankind, but only jpirixually ftain it'. So al/o that Divine 
Regenerating Grace, worlds net in men, as if they were ftocks, or blocks , 
yortakes away the will, and its Effential Properties, or compels it by 
force againft its will, but spiritually quickens it, heals it, corretts iu And 
gently, but yet powerfully inclines it. H?nce it is clear, that this Synod 
were fatisfied that God in the work of Converfion deals not with 
Men as if they were Stocks , ( and the fame you may imagine of 
Stones) but the Queftion then will be, whether upon this Hypo- 
thecs, they knew how to keep jm an humble: Man indeed is a very 
proud Creature, andrit may exercife the skill of the wifeft how to 
keep him humble upon the beft Principles -, but cf all that have un- 
dertaken this hard task, Imoft admire at their want of skill, that 
kmw not how to keep jTttan humble unle/s they knock, him oth* Head. 
The knot of the Controverfie among the contending-parties lies 

The CorAU qemon/lrahts affert: Toft Del opentionem, non manet 
\r.H,m'xifioteftate Wegener ari, vel non Regener&ri \ So ^f me s Cor on, 

C 5p3 

p, 2t7. -^for the Work, of God (i. e. his utmoft Work that he de/igns 
in Coayerlion) it remains not intimitis power to be Regenerated, or not 
Regenerated; for they fuppofe that God does not leave his Work in 
the halves, bu: that before that effectual grace which proceeds from 
his purpofe of Regenerating, does ceafe to operate, the perfon is 
a&ually Regenerated ; yet ftill that in all the procefs of this glorious 
Work, he offers no violence to, commits no Rape upon the Natu- 
ral Faculties of the Soul : The Remonftrants on the other hand aflert, 
That " Pofitis omnibus operationibus, quibus ad Converflonem, in 
•* nobis efficiendam, Deus utitur, manet tamen ipfa Converfio, it£ 
*' in noftra poteflate , ut potfimus non Converti. Suppojtng the 
whole Worl^ of God, which be ufes to wor\Converfon in us, to befinijk- 
ed'y yetftii Converfionit {elf remains {o far in our power, that we nay 
not be converted. Which Principle feems clearly to afcribe Conver- 
fion not to Gods grace, but to jTHans will and jhengtb , it's the Man 
that triages bim{elf differ from another : It's Man that Regenerates him- 
{elf, when all is done that God does ; and perhaps our En^irer may 
have fomething to do to keep Man humble upon this npothejis. But 
whether pf thefe two Principles makes the nearer approach to the 
Church of England, I mean that Doctrine which is exprelVd in the 
thirty nine Articles, let the 10 Art. judge. The condition of jTHan is 
{uch after the Fall, that he cannot turn nor prepare bimfelf by bis own Na- 
tural jlrengtb to Faith and calling upon God ; wherefore we have no power 
to do gcoi Worlds pleajant and acceptable to God, without the grace of 
God preventing us, that we may have a goodwill, and working with us, 
when we have this good will. Our Enqiihrer will tell us by and by, p* 
9. That there h*s been little or no alteration made in the Dotlrine of this 
Church, Jince the beginning of the Reformation. And therefore I con- 
clude, that there has been no alteration made from an Anti-Armini- 
an to an Arminian fenfe : for that cannot be called little or no altera. 
tion. Now that this 10. Art. in the beginning of the Reformation, 
in Edward VI. Reign, had an Ami- Arminian fenfe, will be out of 
Queftion to him that remembers what Addition there was then 
made to it. The grace of Chrijh or the H. Ghofi by him given, doth 
takeaway the jlony Heart, and giveth an Heart oj Flejh: and although 
tbo{e that have no wiU to good things, he makftb them to wiU, and tkafe 
that would evil things, be maketh them not to will, yet nevertkelc{s he 
jorcexb not the will* Articles Printed by jp. Day. Anno ijsj. Gum 
Privilegio: If this then be the fenfe of the Article, let him go pra_ 
£ife at home, and turn his Brains, how to !$ep Man bumble , 


and yet neither m^e him floc^nor ftone: and when he has found out 
the Myftery, fend word to the Synod, who I am affiired never affert- 
ed higher than this amounts to : But if this be not the fenfe of the 
Article atprefent, though it wis once fo, then it muft follow that the 
Church has more than a little altered her Dottrine fince the Reformation : 
And then a worfe thing than all this will follow : for p. 8. He allows, 
That if this Qhurch did approach too near Popery, it would ferve to jnjiijie 
aSeceJfton from it. But fays another, if it approaches too near Ar- 
minianifm, it approaches too near Popery : and therefore our Enquirer 
will warrant any Mans Seceffian from the Church, without the leaft 
imputation of Schifm : What a clofe connection tfore is between 
thofe two errours we lliall heare're long, and thither we refer the 
Reader, when we have told him, that the Church of England is cer- 
tainly free from any Tin 6ru re of Arminianifm, and fo far free from 
any fpot of Popery : only it concern' d the Enquirer to understand the 
conferences of his own fcandalous Reflections. I have done with 
his firll Anfwer 

i. I come' now to his fecond : The Articles of the Dottrine of this 
Church do with fuch admirable prudence andwarinefs handle thefe Joints, 
at' if particular refpefl: wk had to thefe Men. and care taken that they might 
Abu nd ire fenfu fuo. 

I cannot iimgine what greater Reproach he could throw upon 
thefe famous Articles, and their worthy Compilers, than to fuggeft 
that they were calculated for all Meridians and Latitudes : As if the 
Church did imitate Aoji**, the Delphian Apollo , whofe Oracles 
wore two faces under one Hood, and were penn'd like thofe Amphilo- 
gies that cheated Crxftis and Pyrrhus into their deftru&ion : Or as if 
like Janus, they looked Tpaay » £, Maya, backwards and forwards ; 
and like the untouch'd Needle, flood indifferently to be interpreted 
through the two and thirty Points of the Compafs. The Papifts do 
never more, maliciouily reproach the Scriptures, than when they 
call it a Lesbian J{ule, a Nofe of Wax, a Leaden Dagger, a pair of 
Sea,nar t sTrowzes% a movxble DyaL you may make it what a Clock 
you pieafe ; And yet they never arriv'd at that height of Blafphemy, 
as to fay it was hiufirioujly fo pennd by the Amanuenses of the holy 

1 dare not entertain fo little Chanty for an Affembly of Holy and 
Learned men convened upon fofolemn an occafion, that they would 
play Leger de-wain , and contrive us a Sfteme of Divinity, which 
lhould be Injlrumenium pacts non verhxtis : The Conventicle of Trent 


C 6i 3 

indeed a&ed like themfelves, (that is, a pack of Jugkrs) who when 
they were gravelled and knew not hpw to hulh the noife and impor- 
tunate Clamour of the bickering Factions, the craftier leading Men 
found out a Temper (as they call'd it) to skin ever that Wound which 
they could not heal, anddurft not fearcb; And what was the fucceis 
of thefe Carnal Policies ? Only this ! Both parties retained their dif- 
fering opinions, believed juft as they did before V and when they found 
how they had been cajouled, the Controverts which for a while 
had been fmothered under the Aihes of a Hind Subscription, broke out 
into a more violent flame. 

The craft of this Politick Junclo, that impartial Hiftorian Pietro 
Polano has opened to the World : fi'ijl, Counc. of Trent, p. zi6. in 
the Tear 1546. (fays he) In the end of the Sejfion Dcrninicus a Soto, 
principal of the Dominicans, wrote three 'Books of Nature and Grace, 
wherein all his old Opinions were found ; Then comes Andreas Vega, a 
great Man amongfl the prancif cans, and he write no left than fifteen Hocks 
upon the 16 Joints of the Decree that paffed that Sejfion, and expounded 
all according to his own Opinions : And yet their opinions were directly 
contrary to one another, though both fuppofed to agree with the 
Decree of the Council. So righteous it is with God, that they who 
defign not their Co nfefiions for an Inftrument of Truth, which is Gods 
End, (hould not fiud them an Inflrument of Peace, which is all their 
End : They that will feparate Truth from Peace, ihail ceruiuly mifs 
both of Peace and Truth. 

The Title prefix'd to the Book of Articles does abundantly fecure 
us of their Honefty, The Catholic^ DoRrine believed and profejjed in 
the Church of England. IVow how fhall we at all believe, if we knONy 
not what to believe* And if the Trumpet. gives an uncertain Sound, 
'tis all one as if it were not founded: That which is every thing, and 
everywhere, is nothing, and no where. That which has no determi- 
nate Senfe, has no Senfe , and that's very near akin to Kon-fer.fez 
The fem indeed have a Tradition, that the Manna was Vi hat every 
Mans appetite could relifrV, andfuch a Religion would thefe Men 
invent as fhouldbe moj} flexible, where it ought not to bend 5 and 
where it lliould yield, there to be inflexible. Strange it is , that 
Religion of all things in the World fiiculd be unfix'd, and like Delos, 
or 0-°Bra\tle, float up and down in various and uncertain Conje- 
ctun s : What Arfjl. us'd to fay of one of his Books, that it was rdnus, 
£5" non Editus ; and what was the jull reproach of the Rhemifls Tcfta- 
ment, that it came forth (as fome report of a great Princes Sword) 


t 61 ] 

with % Taildc^ upont, fo fluffed with Pen and Ink-horn Terms, that 
it was almoft as unintelligible as Latin j the fame contumely does our 
Enquirer pour ouc upon the Articles of the Church, which were the 
moft famous Teftimony that then for many Years, nay Ages, had been 
given to the Truth of the Gofpel I conclude then, that he muft be 
very immodeft, that can entertain a thought fo unworthy the Learn- 
ing, Religion, and fincerity of our firft Reformers, which were their 
greateftOrnaments, as they were of their Times, and the Articles 
the greateft glory of them both. 

I know it's an eafie matter to draw up a Proportion fo dubioufty, 
that the greateft Diffenters may fubfcribe it , but what is the advan- 
tage of fuch dawbing Policy ? Peace or Unity of Judgment ? Some 
Men indeed have got a Worm in their Pates, and they fancy this an 
expedient for thefe ends, but there's no fuch matter ; for the Subfcri- 
bers in this Cafe do not bow their judgments to the Articles, but 
gently bend the Articles to their judgment. It's not the Bank that 
moves to the Boat, but the Boat that moves to the Bank, and each 
Party thinks it felf the ftronger, becaufe it can draw in the obfequi- 
ous Articles to abet their opinions. 

When therefore he infinuates, that they of the Calviniftical per- 
fwafion, in fu.bfcribing the Articles, are forced to ufe SckoUftic^Sub- 
tleties to reconcile their opinions rothenij we entreat them to ufe 
Scholaflirt Subtleties, who are of the other judgment , to recon- 
cile the Articles to their opinions, and they will find all too little, 
unlefs they borrow a Point or two of Confcience firfl to re- 
folve to fubfcribe, and then defend it afterwards as well as they 

And when he intimates that they were only fome few Divines of 
this Church that ufed this expedient; we know well, that till the 
appearance of the late Archbifliop laud, the generality of this 
Church were of the Don perfwafion : Armininanifm has been openly 
declared Schifm > ArrniniuA himfclf an Enemy to the grace of Cod, by 
our greateft and moft Learned Princes; and the greateft of our 
Church- Men have declared againft it, as a ftranger and enemy to our 
Church. But all this, as I obferv'd, was brought in to vilifie the Sy- 
nod of Don, and that eminently Learned and Holy Perfon St. Aujlin, 
whofe Credit whilft the Enquirer would wound, he (hall but like tie 
Viper in the fable, breaks hit own Teeth, and never hurt the impregnable 

a. A 

2. A fecond pretended Objection againfl the Church is, That it is 
not fujficiently purged from the drofs of Romifh Superftitions. 

It's a marvelous advantage to him that challenges another to fight 
if he may preicribe and impofe the Weapon ^this Authority has our 
Enquirer and Come of his Camerades arrogated as peculiar to them- 
felves, that they may put what objections they pleafe into the mouths 
of Diflenters. 

For though they cannot in the largeft Charity acquit a 'Party, 
(neither confiderable for Number or folid Learning; which ytx. by 
noife and l^ragmaticalnefs, and fome other Artifices, have yefted 
themfelves with the Name of the Church ; yet they are ready to clear 
the Articles of the Church from Popery and Arminianifm. 

I intend thofe alone, who would obtrude a meaning upon the 
Doctrine, as if it impugned particular EleBion, Original Sin, and 
aflerted Free will, purification by our own Works, and the reft of thofe 
Points whereof fome mention has been made. 

In the firft of Car. I. The Houfe of Commons exhibited Articles 
againfl: one Mr. Richard jftlountague : the fifth of which was thus : 
And whereas in the 17th. of the [aid Articles, his fiefolved. [That 
God hath certainly decreed by his Counfcl fecret to us, to deliver 
from curfe and damnation thofe whom he hath chofen out of 
Mankind in Q^ft* anc * t0 bring tnem by (fr'ft t0 Everlafting Salva- 
tion j wherefore they which be endued with fo excellent a Benefit 
be called according to Gods purpofe working in due time,- they 
through grace obey that calling, they be juititied freely, walk Re- 
ligioufly in good works, and at laft by Gods mercy attain to ever- 
Ming Felicity] ; ffe, the [aid Richard Mountague, in the [aid Bo* 1 ^ 
calledThe Appeal, doth affirm and maintain, That men jujhfied may faB 
away from that fiate which once they had. Thereby laying a mnjl malicious 
fcandal upon the Church 0] [ England, as if jhe did differ herein from the 
Reformed Churches in England, and the Reformed churches beyond the 
Seas, and did consent unto thofe perniciom Errours commonly called Ar- 
minianifm, whichthe late famous Q^ Eliz. and K. James of happy wemoty 
didfo pioufly and M^Ugioujly labour tofupprefs. And farther they charge 
him, That the fc ope and end of his %Q0k_, wafi to give encouragement to 
Popery, and to withdraw his Majejlies Subjefts from the True /{elixio-n 
efiablijbt; From whence we have gained this Point, that that Do- 
ctrine which denies Perfeverance in them that were once Juftified, 
doth abet Arminianifm, and therein draw near Popery : But if thefe 
men might expound the Articles, they would deny the one, and abet 



the ether j and therefore do draw too near Popery : Hereupon DifTen- 
ters have a warrant under his own hand to withdraw from the 
Church, for (lays he) p. 8. If the charge (of drawing too near the 
Church of Rome) were true, or if it were probable, it would jujlifie 
tbeir feparation from it. 

In 5. Car oli I. The Houfe of Commons made this proteftation, 
Whofoever fhaU bring in Innovation of Religion, or by Favour or Counte- 
nance feek_ to extend Popery or Arminiamfm, or other Opinion difagreeing 
from the truth, or Orthodox Church, fhali be Reputed a Capital Enemy to 
thu JQvgdom and Commonwealth* 

And fo dole has the connexion between Popery and Arminianifm 
ever been adjudged, that the jefuits, who throughly underftand their 
Intereft, and the moft proper and fuitable means to promote it, 
have pitchtupon This as the beii: expedient to introduce That 5 for 
thus in that Triumphant Letter of theirs to their Re&or at Brujfcls, 
they exprefs themfeives, Now we have planted that Soveraign Drug of 
Arminianifm, which will purge the Protejjants of their Herefie, and it 
fiourifces, and brings forth fruit in due feafon. Whence we are taughc 
both our Difeafe, and our Remedy: Thedifeafe under which poor 
England laboured was Proteftancy, the Remedy was the jefuits powder, 
or a round Dofe of Arminianifm, which is it feems a fpecifick purger 
of that Humor. 

Tha t the Divines of this Church did formerly maintain a juft fuf- 
picion, that the Opinions of Conditional kletticn, and falling away to- 
tally font grace, were an In-let to ^Popery, .we need ho other evidence 
than that Letter written by the Vniverjity of Cambridge to their Chan- 
cellor, upon the occafion of 'Barrets and Barus preaching up fuch 
like novelties : It was dated March 8. 152?. // (fay they) pajjage be 
admitted to thefe Errors, the whole Tody of Popery wiU breaks in upon us 
by\little and little, to the overthrow of all Religion. And therefore they 
humbly befeech his Lordfiips good aid and affijfance, for the furpreffing 
thofe Errors in time ', and not only of thofe Errors, but of grofs Pope- 
ry, Like by fuch means in time to creep inamongjl them, as they found by 
late experience it dartgeroujly begun. 

I fay, not that the Articles of the Church encline to Popery, nay 
they deceit it •, but this I fay, that if they did incline to Arminiamfm, 
they muft to Popery ; If they do not, why are they with allowance fo 
mifconflrued ? If they do, thtu the feceifion of the Non-conformifis 
is thereby juftified. 


, C55 n 

Having therefore made this Objection for the Diflenten; he wiU 
give then? their Aniwer, and prove the unreafonabienefs of this fug- 
gefiion, That the Church of England approaches too near the Super- 
ttitions of Home. 

i , 'it's certain (fays he) there hath been little or no Alteration made* eP 
thcr in the Dottrine, Vifapline, or Liturgy, fince the firft Reformation. 
Little or none > Does he rhean for the better, or the worfe ? To fay^ 
there has Intle orncnebeen made for the better, is a Commendation 
fo cold, that filence had been more an Honour than fuch praife. The 
Reformation was begun as the times would bear} A fair Copy was 
fet for porterity to imitate, never dreaming that their Rudiments 
fiiould have been our utmofi perfection, That their firft flep fhould have 
been our Hercules Pillars, and a Ne flm ultra to all future endeavours 
To fay, there has been little or no alteration mide for the worfe, is a 
more rriodeft way of defamation 5 but DifTenters have many things 
to fay to this. 

$e& m 1 . That there have been torfiderable alterations made in the 
Article.* themielves, if not as they remain in ScripxU, yet as they are 
puhtickly interpreted ; for we fubferibe not to a heap of Letters and. 
Syllabi- s, but to the fen fe and meaning ot certain proportions,, as 
they are owned by the Church. What the Church owns (fay they) 
we can no otherwife ucderftand, than by thofe writings which ap- 
pear every day Licenfed and approved by thofe of greateit Authority in 
the Church : Now if we may judg of the meaning of the Articles 
by thofe writings, They are as much Altered, as if Negatives had 
been changed into Affirmatives, or Affirmatives into Negatives, la 
former times they were generally fubferibed, becauft the mod fcru- 
pulous were generally informed by thofe of moft eminent place in 
the Church, that the meaning «vas found 3 but now (fay they) we 
are informed otherwife, we fee our miftake, the words have a diffe- 
rent and contrary meaning ; and therefore we mull be excufed in fub- 
fcription. 2. They wiiliay, That what the Enquirer calls little cr 
nothing, is a very great fomething: for it concerns us not fo much 
What is put into the Liturgy or Qtuais} as what is made a, Condition of 
Communion with the Church : Now in the beginning of the Reforma- 
tion, though many things were in ufe, yet few impofed as the; ueccf* 
firy Terms of enjoying a itation in that Society 3 Things fuppofed in- 
different were uied aslndifterent. In the i^of Q. Elizabeth, fub- 
fcription is only required to DoRrinaU, and fuch Subscribers, though 
not ordained by Prelates , were admitted to officiate as Minifters of 

E the 

C 66 ] 
the Church of England. But now fubfcription is peremptorily' re- 
quired to all and ever/ thing contained in the Book of Common- 
prayer , The Book of ordering Bifliops , Priefts , and Def cons, 
wherein areconfiderable Doctrinal additions and alterations -, fuch 
as the different Orders of Bifiops, Priejls, and Deacons, fuppofeci'co be 
tiiftmCt] *re Divino \ A.Dodtrine which Archbi&op Cranmer under- 
-ftood not, as is evident from his M. s. exemplified in Dr. Stil. his he- 

In the beginning of the Reformation, Ceremonies were retained 
to win upon the people who were then generally Papiils, and doted 
upon old ufages, and not as the neceffary conditions of Communion \ 
They were retained, not to fhut out of doors the'Proteftants, which 
is their prefentufe, but to invite in the Romanifts, which was their 
Original end j but there's nothing more common, than for Inftitu- 
tions to degenerate, and be perverted from the firft Reafons of their 
ufage, and yet ftill to plead the Credit oj their Originals : Thus Indul- 
gences, and J^emijjion oj fins, were firft granted to all that would en- 
gage in the Holy War, to recover the Sepulchre of Chrift out of 
the hands of the Saracens, but- inprocefsof time they were difpen- 
■fed to them who would maffacre the Mdenfes, and ^Albigenjes, and 
Hich as*could not obey the Tyranny of the fymifb faction : Thus 
Was tbe lnquifxtion firft fet up to difcover the Hypocritical Jftlws in. 
Spain ; but the edge of it fince turned againft the Proteftants And 
thus were the Ceremonies perverted, at firft made a %ey to let in the 
Papifts, and now made a Lock, to (but out Proteftants. What a glo- 
rious work muft it then be to abolifti thofe Engines, that feeing they 
are become weaJ^ to do Good, they may be rendred as impotent to do 
mifchief: Imitating herein the Apoftle, who once circumcifed Timo- 
thy to gain the weak Jews, yetftoutiy refufed to Circumcife Titm, 
left he (hould ftumble the weak. Gentiles, 3. The Ceremonies it's 
true crept into the Church pretty early, yet they laid no weight, no 
ftrefs upon was decreed by the Council of Sardica, that 
none Jhould be made a IBiJfjop, but he that had paffed the Inferior Orders,, 
and continue din them for fome time 5 and yet we fee they infifted not 
upon fuch a Canon, when it might prejudice the Church, and ex- 
clude ufeful perfons from the Miniftry : and therefore NeBarius wm 
chosen Patriarch of Conftantinople, not only being a Layman, but un~ 
hapti^ed. As our Enquirer commends and admires the Churchex wifi 
dom in forming her Doctrinal Articles, that men of various per- 
iwaflons might fubferibe them 5 fo her tendernefs and wifdom had- 


[6 7 3 

been no lefs admirable, had Che recommended Ceremonies With 
fuch £fi IndiflRrency, that they who were palfiopately fond of them 

might he humoured, and they that proteft they icruple them in Con- 
fcience towards God, might fairly let them alone : for it can bend 
dishonour to a Church to be as Lax in Ceremonies <f humane, confti- 
tution, as in Doctrine so f Divhe Revelation. 4. Difiu. liters fay fiO'tii 
good grounds, that that which makes allaainflipportable burden, 
vi%. That wemuft fubicribe according to the claufe of the 1,0th ' 
Article,' that ike Church bo* f&tbrs to dtcrce fijtis and (Ceremonies, is 
MdHfince the beginning of the Preformation. And this they thinM 
heavier than all the Ceremonies put together-, many could pra- 
ctice a thing; fuppoling it indifferent in it felf, and having a real 
tendency to a greater good, who can by no means fubferibe, that 
th'2 Church hasYuch a power to take away my liberty •. I have ta- 
ken notice, that in the Ancient Bides of this Church, the Contents 
of Ffalm i«-, 9. ran thus-, The Prep' ci exhertethto praife God for his 
Love to lis Church, and for hi* benefits. But in the latter days we 
had got high ranting Language, the Trophefexhoneth to praife God 
for k is- Love to hit Church, and j 'or tint power thit ke hath given to hit 
Church over the Consciences of Men: This is no little Addition. 
<j. They will tell him, that the number of Nonconforming was 
corifiaefabte rrom the very Infancy of the Reformation, though it 
could net be expected that their names fbould be inferted in the 
Church Cdlcvider dMMgft the tonfeJfors\ ?nd that Nonconformity 
has run a line parallel with the National Reformation to this 

But (fays cur V.rsuircr^ The mln parrel is, thit rrc are rot always 
J{cfo-m;ng. No, that's not the main, nor any Quarrel that Diffen- 
ters have with them : Let but Reformation be made in what is nece- 
[dry, and m efitn as is r.cceifc-y, and I know none difpcfed to quarrel » 
it were better never to be lick, thin to have aRenedy, yet upon 
fuppofidon of a Difeafe, in mv mind there's nothing likr an approved 
Medicine, Ie's more defirable not to make Shipwrack , than to 
efcapeby a Plank ; yet when a wrack is made, he deferves to (ink 
that deipifes a fubfid'iary Plank : If it were pcifible for Churches not 
to contract corruption,! know no need,becaufe no ufeof Reformation.' 

Some men hate Reformation, as the Bear hates the Stake. They 
pretend, that the Preformation of the church will difcov'cfe the Staei 
But the beft way to preferve the Iron, is to fecwr away the J(ii[i : A 
(Jirty Face may be waft'd, and yet the skin never rub'd off \ and the 

E 2 fflufc 

Kbufefaept, and never thrown out of the windows : They plead* 
a^ain, That no l(e formation can be made, but what will rot ably dimwijk 
the Revenues, Grandeur, and Credit of the Church, And this Objecti- 
on has more real weight in it, than all the reft. This is the Ccpital 
grievance, H'mc ilia Lachrimal But dees it not argue a Saleable and 
Mercenary Soul, that would Barter away Purity for Pluralities? 
The moll fevere Reformation would leave tco much, if any thing, 
for fuch an Objector j "whatever have b:en the ipecious Pretences , 
this has been the real obftruclion of an effectual Reformation i Kings 
and Parliaments hsve always been inclinable towards a Redrefs of 
Exorbitances i but the covetoufnefs and pride of Church-men have 
ever impeded their Pious endeavours. A Parliament in, Qeen Eli$, 
Reign, as we read in Dr. Fullers Ch. Hiftory, was bringing in a Bill 
againft Pluralities > and Archbifhop whitgift fends a Letter to Her 
Majefty, Signifying they were all undone Horfe and Foot if it patted : 
Obferve how he deplores the miferable ftate of the Church, The 
rvoful and dijhejfed eflate rohereinto we are like to fall, jorceth w, with 
grief of bean, in mojl Humble manner to crave your Majcjiies mofi So* 

veraign Proteftion » Why, what is the matter ? Were they ma- 

king'a Lawagainft Preaching? No! or againlt Common-Prayer? 

By no means ! what ailes then the diftrefled Man ? why, we 

therejore not a/s Directors, but m Humble Remembrancers, beseech your 
Bighnejfes favourable beholding of our prejent-jldte, and what it will be 
in time, if the "Bill againfl Pluralities Jhouldtake place. No queftion it 
muft be utter extirpation of the Chriftian Religion. Thus in another 
Letter to the fame Queen he complains with Lamentations that would 
foften a heart of Marble. That they have brought in a Bill giving 
liberty to marry at all times of the year, without rejhaint : well, but if 
men be obnoxious to the evil all times of the year, why fhould they 
not ufe the Remedy that God has appointed all times of the year ? The 
Apoftle who tells us, It's better to marry than bum, did not except any 
time of the year. But why may not a Parliament make a Law, as 
Well as the Ecclefiaftical Court give a Licenfe, that it (hall be Lawful 
to marry at any time of the year? Ay but the Parliament will make 
the Law for nothing, whereas thofe other will have Money for their 

Licenfes. But he proceeds,. It's Contrary to the old Canons, 

continually obferved by us. Why, but is it not contrary to the old 

Canons to take Money for a Licenfe ? Yes ! but , — It tendeth to- 

the (lander of the Church, at having hitherto maintained an Error. And 
now you have the bottom of the Bag: All Reformation muft touch, 



the Clergy either in their Credits or Profits ; and it were better nev e 
to put x hand to that work.* than to touch either af tbofe with a little 

2. His feccnd Anfwer is. All h not to be efteemed Popery that is bell 
by the Cburcb of Rome ; we are not to depxrt further from her, than f'ce j 
has departed from the Truth ; and tbofe things wherein the) agree, are fucb 
{^xnd no other) xs were generally received by all Chriftian churches, and by 
the Roman before it lay under any ill Character. Many things might be 
returned, but I {hall fay little 5 only 1. As all is not to be accounted 
Popery which is held by the Church of Rome; fq neither is all to be 
accounted Schifm which hot men in their pa(T;ons and prejudices will 
call fo. Let that be now accounted Popery, which inrhe beginning 
of the Reformation, by the moft eminent Divines of this Nation, 
was fo accounted, and he will hear no more I prefume of that Ar- 
gument. 2. I would be fatisfied whether l{ome departed from the 
Truth, fimplicity , and complexion of the Evangelical worfliip, 
when (he loaded the Church with fuch multitudes of unneceflary 
Ceremonies, and Superftitions j If not, why did the Church of 
England depart frcm her in Any} if fo, why did fhe not depart in 
All} 3. Why (hould we be fo tender of departing from an abomi- 
nable Strumpet ? Were it not more Chriftian to fay, we will depart 
from the Reformed Churches abroad, no further than they have 
departed from the Truth, and then the Argument will be ingenu- 
oufly ftrong, rather to part with Ceremonies that we may Syhc.retize 
with Proteihnts, than retain them, that we may hold fair Quarter 
with Papifts. 4. It cannot be made appear, that thofe things where- 
in the Agreement yet abides, were generally received by all Chrifti- 
an Churches : Kneeling at the Sacrament was not received in the 
Church, till ^owc came under an ill and moft odious character \ ma> 
ny Centuries after the Apoftles knew it not ; and when it was firft en- 
tertain'd, it was accommodated to the grand Idol of Tranfubitantia- 

But our Enquirer has a mind to beRefolved in a few Queftions for 
his own private fatisfaclion. 

l. Q11. If there be fuch a dangerous affinity between the Church of 
England, and the Romilh, how came it to pafs that the bleffed hflruments 
of our Reformation, Archbilhop Cranmer, and others, laid down their 
lives in Teftimony to this agxirtfl that ? I meddle not with his dangerous 
Affinities , nor Confanguinities , nor whether they come within the 
Prohibited degrees or no } what I am concerned in, is his Argument. 

p 3 Whicl; 

e 70 ] 

which may receive this fhort Anfwer. They hid down their lives 
in. teftimony againft thole Errors wherein they differ' d. and not a- 
gainfl: thofe w herein they might be agreed: They might polCbly a- 
gree i» wi«y, and yet di>ter ia fo many as mighx coft them their 
Lives 1 There was difference enough to juftifie their opfojition 5 
and yet there might be agreement e$ugh to jultilie a modeit com- 

i once heard a perfoti upon his Arraignment for Burglary plead 
flrongly, That he had ferved his Maj-.lly faithfully in his Wars > the 
Judg I remember took him up fomewh x too fhort: Friend ! you are 
not Indicted for your LoysiHy, but for brc^ng 3. fitoufe : The Noncon- 
forming agree with the Church of Englw/id in more, and more mate- 
rial points, than En5U.rJ.c2n befupppffd to agree with Rome \ and 
yet all his fmooth and oyly Oratory, will not perfwade the Diffenters 
that they fuffer not from their Brethren. 

The difference between the Church of England, and R$m, is very 
f oniiderable, it is Ejfem\x\ J it conilkutes them two diftinft Societies, 
andfuchas cannot Coalefce without fundamental alterations in the 
one j and yet there might poifibly remain fome things, which might 
fpeak too near an Approach. 

I fhould be loath to be mifunderftood ; and do queftion more my 
Wn infelicity to cloath my Conceptions with appofite expreflions, 
than the accutenefs of the Reader j and therefore I fhall give him 
this general Advertifement to prevent miitakes. \ am not concerned 
toaffert, that this Church Approaches too near that of Rome -, but 
modeftly examining whether the faquirer has proved his Negative, 
that fhe does not 5 and therefore does net, becaufe Cramer, Ridley , &c. 
laid down their lives in Tcftimony againit Romijb Corruptions. I deny 
not the confequent, but the ccxfcqaexce; Not that this Church main- 
tains a due difiance from Rome y but that it appears true upon this 
J{eafon , becaufe the bloody Papifts put many of her Ancient Fathers, 
and zealous Children to death, of whpfe weaknefs I am the more 
confident, being affared by good Hiftory, That they have moft bar- 
paroufly perfecuted and murdered thofe who differ 'd from them m 
feme jingle Point a whilft they held communion with them in all the 

The Church of EngUnd (I fay-it again) is departed from Rome, 
but yet it may be true, Sett. 1. That fome amongft. us have laid 
iuch foundations, as being regularly and proportionably advane'd 
m thejr {liperirriifriires^ will either re- introduce that Abomination 

C 71 3 

or condemn Crammers reparation. In the grand Debate, p. 91*93* 
The Reverend and Learned Divines lay down thrfe Rules. 1. That 
Go J. has given not only a Power, but a Command alfo of Impofing wbatfoe* 
ver frail be truly decent, and becoming hit IVorfiip. 2. That not Infer i- 
ours, but [uperiours nmfi judg what is truly convenient and decent : Nov/ 
allow buc the Pope 3 and his Conliftory, thefe favourable concefllcns, 
(and it cannot reafonably be deny 'd them by thofe who claim them) 
and all their Injunctions will be juflified, and Qranmer with his Bre- 
thren found Will -f offerers, who charg'd their perfecutors to be Wdl- 
worjhippers : The Pope commands us to worfhip an Image, not termi- 
nating our Adoration therein, but letting it Aide nimbly through 
that Medium to the adorable Object which it represents 5 and all this 
as A.gujl , and Decent , and a great exciter of Devotion, a mighty 
mover of Piom affections : I fuppofe my felf to be one of thofe Inferi- 
ours, who fcruple the lawfulnefs of this pracrife : He who is my fupm 
■pofed fuperiour asks me, whether I do not own it my duty to wor- 
jhip God ? I plainly own the Affirmative, but I am not fatisfied in the 
Mode of ^4uorutio>i, He anfwers readily, The Modes of Worfhip 2 re 
but indifferent cir cum} since s, in their ufe very decent, and commended 
too by thofe who have power to Impofe and $uig what is truly decent : 
I rejoyn again, This is very ftrange Doclrine, I have drunk in o- 
ther apprehenfions from my Mothers Milk : but he ftops my mouth, 
and turns me to the very Page, where fome of our moll eminent Di- 
vines of late years do plead on their behalf, what he pleads oa 

But further, he commands Holy Oyl, Holy Water, Confecratcd 
Salt, Cream. Spittle, Insufflations, Exorcifms, with abundance of fine 
Devices to be ufed in or with, or in order to Baptifm , The inferiou-r 
fcruples thefe as meer fooleries, too childilh and light to be ufed ia 
Gods Worfhip, But the Sup^riour takes you up : You are not Com- 
petent Judges 5 it belongs to him to impofe, and 'judg what is decent; 
andfuchhe has judged thefe, aud as fuch impofed them, and your 
work is not Difputation, but Obedience. 

When B. Bonner heard, that in our Reformation we had referved 
fome of the old Ceremonies, he anfwered with a f mile, They have be- 
gun to Tafl ofmir "Broth, and in time they* I eat of our Beef : The old craf- 
ty Fox knew well, that where there was a Neft-Egglzx, the Prie^s 
and Friers would lay to it the whole Racemation of sheir Superfti- 

£4 Th.y 

En 3 

They that take away a pradlife, and do not renounce the Principle 
upon which 'tis built, do but lop off fome of the more Luxuriant 
Branches, whilft the Tree is alive, or turn his Holinefs out of doors , 
and yet give him the Key in's Pocket to return at his leafure, or ,plea- 
furej And he might be too hairy that laid, The Engliih forced the Pope 
out of doers [o haftily, that he had not time to take his Garments with 

Iconfefs, I have been puzled what Anfwcr to give to a Cavilling 
Popifla Prieft ; when he asks fo pertly, why the # Priefr may not put 
his Fingers in the Childs Ears, in token that it fhall hearken dili- 
gently to the word of God 5 why not put Salt upon the Childs 
Tongue, (methinks I fee how the poor wretch fcrews and twills up 
its mouth) in token that its Speech Hull be feafoned with Salt, as 
well as make an Airy crofs over its fore -head, in tok;nthat it fhall 
confefs a crucified Chrift ; If we will give fcope to our wanton ex- 
travagant fancies, and fet our pregnant inventions on work, we 
might eafily excogitate a thoufand fuch pretty ingenious knacks, as 
might hear fome Imaginary Allufion to fome Spiritual grace or duty 5 
but amongft them all I wonder no lucky fancy never Humbled upon't, 
to put a decent Banner, with St. Georges Crofs upon't, into the Childs 
'Hand, in token that it (hall manfully (and not like a Child) fght under 
Chrifis Banner. 

2. Qu- flow comes it to pafs, that all thofe of the Roman Communion 
-withdraw themselves from ours, and all true Protejlants think, it their duty 
to abfent themfelves from their Worjhip •> 

Phyficiansdo carefully obferve the Indications of .Nature-, and 
therefore obferving that our Enquirers mind Hands ftrongly inclined 
to a little pleafantnefs, why fhould we check the Humour ? How 
comes it 'to pais ? Truly I neither know that it does come to paSs, nor 
why it comes to pafs. I am certain I have read or heard, that for the 
^rft iz years of Queen Elif. the Papifts came to Church j and if 
they have knock'd off tince, and why they have knock'd off, I wait 
for an Anfwer from this Enquirer. King Edw. VI. in his Proclamati- 
on to theDevonjhire Rebels, tells them ; That if the MaSs were goodin 
■Laths it could not be bad by being Tranjlated into Engljjb. It could not 
J>e ©b;edted> as 'twas againft the Commedian, Ex Greets Bonis, fe- 
cit Latinos non Boms \ This could not be the Reafon to be fure. No, 
fio, (fays he) They, are commanded So to do by the Head of their Church 1 
There's the Reafon > then what needed all this ftir > The command of 
.2 Sttpcfiour will ihUqw, or 'at leajl excuje an woneom Attion> as a Tranf- 


C 7i 3 

pendent in our Church fpeaks ! and if this Doctrine would but pafs, 
we fhould have a fweet time on't : Our Superiours muff, impofe, and 
judg what's indifferent and decent j and we have the eafieft life in the 
world, nothing but to win\ hard, and/i/t ufrour legs high enough, and 
there's no danger. 

And yet the Papifts learn'd not poflibly all this leffbn of with- 
drawing from the Church of England, from their own SuperioUrs 5 
jtfcey might be taught the Doctrine nearer home : A. B, Laud being 
ask'd by a Lady, Whether fie might be five d in the Romiih Communion ? 
Anfwered readily, Madam! ion may, and the good Lady, took his 
word, and ventured it. It's poflible it might be the fame Lady that 
Dr. Fuller, Ch. ffifi. 2?. 11. p. 117. tells us of: She being ask'd by 
the fame Prelate, wfyjke had changed her Religion ? Anfwered, 2te- 
caufe I ever hated a Crowd. And being defired to explain her meaning 
herein, Ihe replyed, / perceived your Lordjbip (it ihould have been 
Grace by her Ladifhips favour) and many others are hajhing thither 
06 fajt as you can •, and therefore to prevent a prefs , / Went before 

Whatdefign of Reconciliation with Rome, and upon what terms 
Groiim carri ed it on, is pretty well known by this time of day : that 
he had a Party here in England, or expectations of one, his own 
words teftifie. J%:.qiii* multis non difplicuijfe Grotii propace Labor es, 
ATorKHt Lutetia?, & in omni Gallia multi, multi in Polonia, £5>Germa- 
nia, in Anglia non pauci , placidi , pacis Amantes. Difcuf. p. 16. 
There werej fee by this, a company of loving, fweet-natur'd, tracta- 
ble Souls here in England, that would have itep'd half way over the 
Ditch to meet his Holinefs: efpecially «fince Mr. Mount agues time, 
Who informs us, That the controverted Points (between England and 
Rome) are of a lower and inferiour Nature, which a Man may be ignorant 
of without peril of his Soul, and may refolve to oppofe this or that without 
peril of perifhingfor ever. That Images may be ufed for inftruclion of 
the ignorant, and excitation of Devotion : And that the Qhurch of Rome 
has ever continued firm upon the fame foundations of Sacraments and Do* 
Urine inflituted by God. 

They are not fingle Inftances of thofe who have not abhorred the 
Communion of Rome, which I could give, but I will fpare the living, 
and cover the dead. 

Nor will I fay, that thefe, or fuch as thefe were 'Papifts ', yet me- 
jhinks they did incline, and warp defperately towards it : there's an 
idd difikftion we often meet with, of zsenfmC<.wjofn<t) and a senfm 


■C 74 3 

Divifm, which may a little illuminate us : Now becaufe my Readers 
are not like to be any of the more deadly learned fort, I will a little ex- 
plain the Diftinction to their Capacities, by a very familiar, {hough I 
confefs a very homely cofnparifon : ItVimpoffible (fay I) that a Mag- 
got ftiould ever be a Fly •, that is, in your Senfui Compofitm, or fo long 
as it continues to be a Maggot, becaufe thefe have two diftinft forms, 
and the one keeps the other out of poffeflion, whileft it hath a Nail or 
Tooth to fcratch or bite : But now us not only pojfible, but eafie for 
this Fly to become a Maggot, in Senfu Divifo ; that is, for the Maggot 
to ftrip her felf of her old fhape, 2nd appear in another iikene\s : I 
fhallbemodeitinthe Application, and hope the Reader \* ill not be 
immodeft : Such perfons as I have mention'd could never be Papifts, 
whiieft they adhered to the Doctrine of the Church of England : but 
yet fuch were their difpofednefles that way, that the tranfition was 
eafie, to Hide from fuch loofe Principles into Popery, and yet the 
Church the mean time might be innocent. 

3. Queft. whence comes it to pafs, that the Romifh (fhurch have more 
fpight againft our Church, than againft any Seft or 'tarty rchatfoever? 
When it is once well proved that they have fo, it will be time e- 
nough to enquire why they have fo j but we muft fuppofe one half 
of his difcourfe to be true, that we may have leave to anfwer the 

; The fpight of the Kgman Faction againft Proteftancy at fuch, has 
fo eminently difovered it felf, under whatever denominations they 
have been differenced, that none of them have caufe to boaft of it, 
or be ambitious to tafte further of it : It wefe well improved, if 
they who are Objects of their implacable fpight, could learn to love 
more, and agree better amongft themfelves: The Papifts think them- 
feives excufable in perfecting all j when one Protectant fo furioufly 
•perfecutes another, they know no reafon why they fliould love no bet- 
ter than we love our felves ; and trucly againft whom their fpight is 
liotteft, is hard to judg, If we compare the Cruelties of the Parifi- 
an Majfacre, with the butcheries of the Irifb J{ebellion, we fhall find 
the true Reafon why they flew more in Ireland than Paris, was, [be- 
caufe there was more to be ilain ; The fire may go out for want of 
matter, but I dare fay, never for want of a good ftomack to its food : 
In ftwst, their fpight is there the greateft, where they can (hew it 
rnoft ; as to one that's very hungry, the biggeft Dtfh is ever the beft ; 
Tne Papifts judg of the Object: of their hatred, as one did otTullie? 
Orations, the longeft is to be fure the moft excellent : and y^t I con- 

" " ' ** -■' ceive 

[75 3 

ceive the Enquirer to be quite out in this matter. The Papifts may 
fpight the Church of England upon the account of its fair and vait 
Revenues, great Dignities, marvellous Honours, Wealth, Splendour, 
and whatever is defiubie to the eye, becaufe hereby the Church is 
able to vye with her , and yet their malice upon the pure account of 
F^ligion, may be greater againft other lefTsr, weaker parties, whofe 
Principles itand more directly in oppofition to thofe of }{cme : I do not 
doubt but our Enquirer could bring better Arguments than thefe to 
prove the dilhnce of Religion between the Two Societies; for this 
I am fare is too weak, unlefs it may appear, that their fpight is le- 
velled againlf the Church, meerly on account of thofe Principles wherein 
fie 4^ers from Diffentets* 

4. Quell How comes it to pafs, that they of all men moft ^ealoufy 
find in the gap to oppefe the return of l'opery ? That gap at which Po- 
pery rnuft enter , if ever it enters into England, is the Divifxon be- 
tween Protectants ; and if t; at Gap were well ftop'd, Popery might 
loot^over, but would never leap over, or breal^ through the Hedge : 1 his 
Gap of Divifons is made by the impofiuon of fuch things, which in 
the judgment of the Impofers are indifferent in their own nature ; but 
in the judgment of the Diflenters, finful in their ufe and exercife. The 
Diflfenters fay, they cannot Jtop the breach, unlefs they make a wider 
in their own consciences: If now they whofeemfo zealoufly to ftand 
in the Gap to keep out Popery, would come out of the Gap, and make 
it up , which elfe will let in Popery 5 we ftiall think them more 
for making up or.e, than landing in, and keeping open a thou, 
fa rid. 

I know very well, that many men do oppofe the Introduction of 
Popery, and there's caufc for't : There's a Hfrpery that would take 
away their wives, and fome fear it, and others hope it upon that ac- 
count : There is a Popery that would fubjeel them to a fcrreign Me- 
tropolitan, and make them trot to l{ome upon every (leevelefs errand ; 
that would let Grangers like Locufts and Caterpillars into the land 
to eat up every green Herb ; that would drain the Thames into Tyber, 
and derive all the Blood and Spirits of the Nation into another 
Channel. Cafar had rather be Primm in ViVa, quam fecundus in Ro- 
ma. Every one may fooner hope to learn ABC, than to arrive fo 
far as P : A diftance then there is, and yet the oppofition againft Po- 
pery may not prove the dilhnce fo great, but there may be too 
great an agreement : The State of Venice did once expel the jefuits, 
and vet they expelled mt Popery, the French were long before they 


c 76 3. 

entertained the Decrees of Trent, yet ftill they were ropijb : I quote 
them for no more than this, that it's evident there may be fierce oppo- 
fuion upon tome fome particular accounts, when yet there may be a 
great Harmony upon other accounts : Many oppofe a Popery coming 
Top and Top-Gallant, that yet would compound for a Popery upon 
handfome terms. 

This laft Queftion has ftrangely tranfported him into a molt paffio- 
nate Panegyrick in commendation of fome Church-men, for fome rare 
exploit or other, which by all the circumstances, muft be the pro- 
curing the late Proclamation againjl Dijfenters : An A£t fo glorious, 
that no Age {hall ever wear out its memory : This is it which chal- 
lenges from poiterity, Statutes of Corinthian-Brafc, and will embalm 
their memories to all fucce'eding Generations : Hehadlaely expo- 
fed the Ignorance of thofe fimple men of Bort, that they kjtcw not tow 
to make. Godjufl, unlefs they mide him cruel too ; and what was their 
reproach, mull now be thefe mens glory; that they know not how 
to make the Magiftrategrm, unlets they make him cruel - 3 nor glori- 
ous, unlefs they deitroy a considerable part of mankind: Methinks 
Church- men fhould not be fo ambitious to furvive their own Fune- 
rals by fuch Epitaphs, Here lye they who fr ft taught Religion to be un- 

This high Encomium is attended in the rear with a fevere charge 
againfl the Difltnters, That they were inflrumental in procuring a tole- 
ration and fuff enfwn of the laws for J Popery : It is true, Confcientious 
Diffenters defire not the execution of Sanguinary Laws upon Papifts 
jneerly for their Religion ; there are proper ways enow to obviate 
the curfed tendencies of their principles, without dilhonouring our 
own : Nor ought the rflbdeft defire of a fober liberty for the exercife 
of their own Confciences, to be interpreted an endeavour for a Tole- 
ration of Popery \ they ever hoped that Governours know the difference 
between Differing Protefiantts >who agree with the Church of England 
in the Effentials of ChrifHanity, and l^ecufants who fubltantially dif- 
fer ; and the Wifdom of his Gracious Majefty in his Declaration for 
Indulgence, made a clear diltindlion between them, though fome 
wife Church-men could not fee it. 

Proteftants however differing in fome things from the prefent efta- 
Mithment, yet have no forreign Intereft, no tranfmarine dependen- 
ces ; they own no Exotick Head that may alienate their affections 
from their natural Prince and Leige Lord; their private peace and 
happinefc is wrapt up in the general happinefs of the King and King- 
dom \ 

[77 J 
dorn ; any eye but that of Envy might have difcovered-a fcnfible dif- 
ference between thefe parties, 

ThatProteftant DifTenters were inftrumeiralto procure fuch a tole- 
ration for Popery,is therefore a flander fo unworthy, that none would 
have forged, but they who never baulk an officious untruth, when it 
may fubferve their main-defign, to render the Noriconformifrs odious, the inftruments of their deftruCtion may, not be fetter'd with 
the reluctancy of their reftif Confciences. 

But we envy not them the Glory, fince they afpire after it, of re- 
ducing their Brethren to Primitive poverty, becaufe they endeavour 
Primitive purity ; let them enjoy the Glory, that no humble under- 
woods can grow under the fhadow of their fpreading Branches } let 
them take the glory of the Gardiners fbears, which fnips off every 
afpiring twig that would mount towards Gofpel-fimplicity above its 
fellows:fuch is the glory of an old aking tooth, that is in infupportable 
pain, till it may either chew the flefh of the Confcientious, or come 
ander the Diicipline of De la Roche's inftrument. For when His Ma- 
jefties Grace had for a while tyed them to the Ractyhves, they were 
ready to break, the Bridle till they could come at the Manger. Let it be 
a Quaere then, whether it be more probable to cure, or encreafe the 
old fufpicions of fome mens inclinations to Popery, That they could 
never be at eafe, whileft their Proteitant Brethren had any in thoir 
Native Countrey. 

/ jktll not need to aid to all this (fays he) that there are at undemand- 
ing men in Religion, ferfons of m holy Lives, and of as comfortable confci- 
ences of tits Churches Education, as are any where to befonnd in the rvorU 

They who are Mailers, or however owners of fuch comfortable con* 
fciences, do furely know what it cofts to get, what care it requires r* 
keep , and what torment it is to lofe a comfortable confeience. He that 
fhall fwear a thoufand times by the Great Ofyru, that he has a com- 
fortable confeience, and yet fhall thruit other men upon the tum-pi^cs 
of fm, and force them to acl: againft their light , that (hall rail at, or 
perfecute them for worfhipping God according to their convictions 
of Duty from the Word of G?od, muft give mc leave to be incredu- 
lous 5 and earneflly defire him to find out fome Solif.dian. that can be- 
lieve the Moon to be made of a green Cheefe. Let him farther con- 
fid er. 

Sett. i. That is not the main considerable in Confcience, that' it be 
comfortable, but that it be fo upon folid grounds. The Apoftle Pete r; 

i Mu 

C 78 ] 

1 Ep. 3. if. commands us to be rtddy to render a reafon of the hope that 
it in uf. If the reafon of our hope, comfort., and confidence, be not 
as firong, as the building is high/ the Towring Edifice will tumble 
down upon our own heads: It behoves us to be as folicitous about 
the fpring of our comforts, as the ftceetnefs of the ftreums : And I am 
the more earneft with this Enquirer to look sfcer the comfortablenefs 
of his own confeience, for as for the Religious and Orthodox Di 
vines of this Church, I doubt not both or the purity an'd peace of 
their Confdences, becaufe 1. he allows no cthc t f.le&iotf, than Gods 
determining absolutely of temporal 1 lefftngs* p 74. But the Church of 
England Art. 17. having described a particular Election to eycrlailing 
life, from Gods everlafting purpofe j tells us, That the godly confide- 
ration of Predeftinatiw, and our Elcttion in Chrifts is full of fweet, plea* 
fant, and unfpeakable comfort to godly pcrfons, and fnch as feel in them,' 
fehes the working of the Spirit of Chrift. Ke then that difowns this 
Doclrine, muft needs want one main ground of a pure and comfortable 
conscience. 2 They who own Judication by Works, want another 
bottom of a comfortable confeientc. So the Church of England, Art. 
li» Wherefore that rre are jujlified by faith only, is amoftvohoiefomc Do- 
Brine, and full of comfort : All peace then is founded in Grace: In 
Gods Grace as the Fountain whence it fprings, and in the Operati- 
ons of Grace upon the Soul, as the Evidences of that Grace in God ^ 
and though men may blefs themfelves in Evil aod flatter themielves 
when they find profperous Iniquity : yet if any one be a lyar, a per- 
fecutor, a hater of Godlinefs, and Godly Men, a flandtrer, &c. God 
fpeaks no peace to him ; and therefore it's more advift able to boaft 
left of a comfortable confeience, and mind the things that belong to a 
comfortable importance. 

3. The laft pretended caufe of the Diflenters withdrawing from the 
Church of England, is, A charge againfi the fufficiency, but efpe daily the 
fanttity of the Clergy. 

The Diffenters do gladly acknowledg, that the Learning and Piety 
of very many of the Minifters of the Church of England, is fuch as 
deferves an honourable place in their hearts that they have not fuch 
a valuation forfome of our Enquirers to- partners, they beg his ey- 
cufe, till they may fee more cogent Reafons to alter their Judgments ; 
when they are in the humour to take a few forry Sophifms candied 
over with Rhetorick, to be Learnings or uncharitable cenforiouf- 
nefs, crafted over with fmooth Hypocrifie, to be Piety, they fee 
nothing to the contrary , but they may enlarge their Charities. 


lis 1 

That there are many of the prefent eftablifiiment,- eminent for found 
learning, and exemplary Holinefs, who exercife Chriftian tender- 
nefs towards thofe, who diffsnting in confcience, do fufler for con- 
cience, is the rejoycingof their Souls under their great preffures ; 
and they know that the more Learned and Godly any perfon is, the 
more humble he muft needs be: A little knowledg ferments an im- 
potent heart, and makes it intolerably arrogant : but he that knows 
much, amongft other things muft needs know, that he Hands in 
need of mercy from God, and therefore will more readily fhew pity 
to Man : He that knows what a tender confcience is at home, will pity 
and indulge it, where-ever he meets with it abroad. Wi that knows 
much, cannot prefume all the World enioys his meafures of Light. 

The Enquirer might therefore well have fpared this odious and 
invidious difcourfe, had he not 'found it neceffary, firft to make a 
Man of Clouts, and then execute it: and yet his Viclory cannot be 
great, in trampling on thofe that lye on the ground, and can be laid 
no lower, but in their Graves, for to Hell he cannot fend them. Two 
needldS tilings he will fay tothis Objection, for he is full, Etfi non 
aii-qua noc.uiffetmcrwrn effei. 

i . Suppojing this Objection had been true, yet it could r.ot be made by my 
c Efotej}ant, without contradicting lis principles. No, why not ? Oh,for 
the Fapifts are taught, that the efficacy of all Divine Offices depends up' 
on the. intention and condition of him that adminifiers : but Proteftants are 
taught ic feems otherwife, that the efficacy of all Divine Ordinances 
depends upon the Divine Injiiiution, and the ccncurence of Gods Grace 
with my ufe of them 

The Reader muft give me leave to repeat my former caution,whicfi 
is always underftood, though not expreft, that I deny not the fanclity 
of the Engltjh Clergy \ my only is, to examine the flrength of 
his Arguments, which are fometimes fo weak, as would tempt the 
lefs confiderate to conclude, that cannot be true, which fo bold an 
undertaker cannot make out. His Anfwer to the Objection is cer- 
tainly more weak than the Objection it (elf; For, 

Se&m i. When he flanders the Church of i{ome, fure the Proteftans 
Diflenters muft expect no Quarter: The Papifts do indeed hold* 
That the efficacy of Sacraments depends upon the Intention of the Prieft : 
but that it depends on the condition of the Triefl as to Holme fs, they 
aflert not. I {hall produce one evidence of many. Tolet de inftrutlioxe 
facerdotu lib. i. cap. 9%. propounds this Queftion, Quin&o licet a 
mwijlrif malts ac riper e Sacramema ? When,, or in what caps is n lawful 



to receive the Sacraments from wicked jptiniflers? And the very mo- 
ving of the Que/Hon implies, that at leaf! at fometimcs, and in [om& 
cafestfs lawful: but this will more fully appear from his Anfwers, 
which he gives, i. Negatively, A non-toleraiis ab ncclrfa non licet 
ullum Sua amentum accipere etiam necejjhaiu tempore : " It's not lawful 
tf to receive any Sacrament from thofe who are not tolerated by the 
"Church, no not in cafe of neceflity. Here is Doftrine to his own 
hearts content, and wherein the J^fuit may nfliire himfelf of our £»~ 
quirers fuffrage. A Nonconform^! among them may not baptize, or 
Adminifter the Supper, though the Salvation or Damnation of ne- 
ver fo many depended on it. And yet when the'Cafuift thinks better 
on't, he will except Baptifm, and perhaps the other Sacraments in the 
Article and point af death. 2. Affirmatively; A malts mini jh is, dum 
nonfequatur aliquod grave fcandalumpojfumm facrtrecipere, NamLccle* 
fa ipfos tolerat, & ipfi talia admhiftr antes f bi folis nocent. '• We may re - 
«« ceive Sacraments from wicked Minifters(fuch as he theee defcnbes) 
" provided no grievous fcandal follow upon it> for the Church 
<c tolerates fuch as thefe 5 and when they adminifter the Ordinances, 
** they hurt none but themfelves. Nay he quotes. Pope tficl> to back 
him, Ifii funt ficut fax accenfa qua Alios illuminat, & feconJumh\ & 
uude aliis commodumexhibent, fibi difpendium prabent mortu* "Thtie 
•? evil Minifters are like a burning Torch, which enlightens others, 
*« though it wafte it felf, and delTroy thmfelves by that very means 
" whereby they advantage others : but at laft he comes to this, Ab 
hU quibm ex officio incumbit, five fnt pa\ati, five von, licet petere, & 
accipere Sacrament a , five ex necejjltate five non, quia tile ex officio te~ 
netur quandocunque petierominiftrare, nec^ego jus meum amino ex illim 
malitia. "We may demand and receive Sacraments from thofe, 
'• whofe duty it is to adminifter, whether they be prepared or not 5 
ft whether it be in a cafe of neceiftty, or not : becaufe fuch a one is 
tr bound by virtue of his office to minifler when I demand it, and 
" I cannot lofe my right through his malice. Na-ar indeed tells lis, 
That Jtfortale eft peccdtum Audire Miff am, aut KeCipere Sacr amenta, a 
%otorio Concubinario. That it's a mortal fn to hear Mafs from a notorious 
Whore-mafterly Trieft : but honeft Suare\ corrects that precifenefs,and 
clears it up, thatTifw Prohibition is repealed by the Council o/Conftance, 
So that in this one point, the Papifts are as Orthodox as our Vwauirer 
can reafonably defire ; and have laid no ftone of offence at which any 
one might ftumble into reparation. They do indeed hold, That Holi- 
nefs is neceflary in a Prieft necejfiute pt/cepii, and I hope even he will' 


■ c si 3 _■.;■: 

<oot deny that,, but that they held it not abfolutely neceff2ry,tiecejfiiate 
r»£i//'i fo as that the abfence thereof will make £ ««^- in all Minifte- 
rial A&s, and render them utterly void, and of none effett j and that's as 
much as he can prove. The Papifls then are taught no fuch matter. 
Sett. z. Proteftants may without cohtrac*H#ion to their principles, 
feparate from a perfon who by Law is vefted with all the Tythes, Pro- 
fits, Perquisites, Emoluments of a Parifii whatfoever, whether he 
be called Pirfon , Vicar , Curate , if withal he be ignorant, and 
not apt to teach $ Erronius, and does worfe than rot teach j and fcan- 
daloufly prophane, and lo does unteach all he taught before. He muft 
have a goodftomach that can receive the Sacramental bread from 
him, out of whofe nafty hands I could not take my Corporal Bread 
without a Vomit-." 

If a Preacher ihall conftantly Preach Herefies and damnable Do- 
ctrines, iiich as the entertainment of them would deftroy my Soul, 
rr.uft I venture the ruine of it out of civility, and run the rifque of 
being damned for fear of one of thofe Theological Scarecrows, 
which men have fet up to fright us into compliance? Can I in Faith 
expeit thit God will deliver me. from Evil, when I fold my [elf into 
Temp atoil Can I hope that he will preferve my judgment untaint- 
ed, when I expofe my felf to be pra<5Hfed upon by the cunning in/inu- a (1/ deceiver, and fet my felf as a mark for Satan to fliooc 
at ? M\ Warding* I remember, prefTes the Reverend fuel with this, 
Be the "Biftop of Rome'i life never fo tot eked, yet roe may not fever our 
[elves from the Church 0/Rome. The Learned man Anfwers from (j- 
prian, <( Plebs obfequens praeceptis'Dominicis, & D.urrfmetuens. a, 
,r peccatore prcepofico feparare fe debet. A People that obey Gods com- 
mands, and far him (not only may, but) ought to [eta, ate from a wicked 
Minijhr, Art. 4. And yet he underitood the Principles of Proteftants 
as well as our Enquirer. But let Cyprunm Af'ricanm go which way 
he pleafes, we have a greater than he, Cypriaxus Anglicut, who in his 
difcourfe with Fijher, from that Text, How. \6. ic. J*laij> them 
which cau[e divifions amongflyou j Obferves to us, That not the Divider, 
but thecaufer of the divifion is the Scbifmatic^. 

The prudence which weufe in flying the Contag-'on of a fcanda- 
lous Minifter, does not imply, that all his jninifleriat ABs are meer 
jsFullities, nor that God may not pc Tibly concur with his Miniftry to> 
advance my Spiritual welfare ; but that a Soul is a Being [0 precious, 
bought with.* Price fo precious, the lofsof it fa irrecoverable, ;nd 
ray whole concerns enihrauedin the bottm, that I ought not to expofe 

F it 

it to apparent danger, upon preemption of what God can or may 
do; for ordinarily we know that God delights to ferve himfelf of 
the labours of thofelnltruments. who having dedicated themfelves 
inwardly to the Service of God intheGoipel, do fincerely defign, 
and zealoufly purfue the glorifying cf his Name, in the turning Sin- 
ners from their evil ways to God i which we may reafonably fufpect 
of them, whofs lives witnefs, that they have no concern for others 
Salvation, who have fo little for their own. 

The Apoftle Faul commands his Son Timothy, lEp 4. i<£. To take 
heed to himfelf, and to the Doctrine; for in fo doing, he fhould loth 
jive kmfelj, and tkofe that heard him. More than implying, that the 
Soul of another will never be dear to him, to whom his own Soul is 
cheap : As my running from a Pejl-houfe does not fuppofe that all 
muft neceffarily dye that come within its walls j but that it becomes 
a prudent Man to dwell, not where he may pjftbly efcape death, but 
where he may moj} probably fecure his life : So my withdrawing from 
an heretical and fcandalous Minifler, does not imply a neceflity of 
damnation by attending upon his Miniilry ; but that a Scul is too 
precious a concern to be put to that adventure. 

In all matters*of leflfer moment we exercife our wifdom freely, 
without the leaft fcruple in our felves,. or rebuke from others. If 
an Ad of Parliament were made by advice of the Convocation it 
felf, that no fick perfon (hould confult any other Phyfician, but on- 
ly him that dwells in the Parifii 5 nor any one to take advice of other 
Councellor, than him that dwells in the Vicinage ; he that knows 
how difficult it is to keep and preferve health and e ftate, how much 
more difficult to recover them when loft, would without any Prefaces 
of modefty, take leave to feek out th? moft experienced in their fa- 
culties, and to become a civil Nonconforming to thofe Injunctions ; 
There's no man but will tell Money after his own Fath?r. and think s 
it no incivility that he will fee with his own eyes, and not anothers : 
and why my Soul muft be hazarded in a Complement as if it were 
the moft inconliderable trifle in the world, I cannot once imacine. 

And the rather, becaufe, if by my imprudent choicest fhould deftroy 
my Soul, the (in and guilt will lye upon my felf alone j but if I fl ould 
ruinc it by the neglect of timely efcape, none can give me fecurity 
that he will anfwer for my folly before the Judge of all the Earth. 

Nor can it be imagined, that I {hould be fuch an Enemy to my 
own Soul, as to deftroy it wilfully ; or that any other fhould have a 
greater kimkefs fork than my felf > and when I find them not over 

E 3i 3 

tmder of my Body, Efhte, Liberty, Good Name, life or lively- 
hood,' which they nave leen, they have cautioned me into a jealoufie 
that they can have no fuch miraculous good will to my better pare 
which they have net feen. 

lhave heard of a Gentleman, who having a Son fitted by Acade- 
mick Learning for fomeferviceablenefs and employment, was much 
perplext within himfelf, upon what particular Calling to fix for a 
future livelyhood ; he- contults his Friends, and with them thus de- 
bates the Cafe : If I defign him a Phyfician, he mull frudy long, and 
gain good expeiience, before any judicious perfon will put his Life 
into his hand, which ht values io dear. If 1 fhould educate him to- 
wards the Law, he mutt wear out many a year before the wary World 
will truit an Ettate under his management : The only way therefore 
will be to make him a Mimiter^ for inch are the low thoughts men 
have of their Souls, that they wiii inuuit them with the molt rav? 
and unexperiene'd Novice. 

Hitherto his dicourfe has proceeded upon a rtippofition, that hacf 
the Charge been true, yet the Inference he thinks wbulld have been' 
faife •, but now he comes roundly to the denial cf the Charge; and a 
laborious con'oitation of it to no purpofe. 

2. Qombir.ed wit and malice (lays our Enquirer) ftatl not be able to fix 
any fcandal upon the Body of the Englith Clergy, I hope they never 
ftiall i Nor have I met with any fo abfurd and difingenuous, as for 
the fake of fome, though many individuals, to calt an afperfion upon a 
whole fociety, excepting thofe who have leaf) F^eafon, If the Body of 
the Clergy be Innocent, all the Combinations of wit and malice (half 
not be able to eclipfe their unfpotted Innocency, that it ilia 11 break 
more glorioufly through thofe envious Clouds which had obfeured 
its brighrnefs : and if thev be Peccant, all tha combined Wit and 
Rhetorick in the World will not wipe away the guilt and filth; it 
mutt be Repentance and Reformation that can only be their Compur - 

• i. Firftthcn concerning their Learning: a thing that has been hi- 
therto indifputabie, and may continue fo Rift', if the weaknefs cf 
this Gentlemans proofs do not render the truth of the proportion 
fufpe&ed. But hear his Arguments. 

t. If the Preaching of the prefent ^/Cge be not better than thai of the 
former j I would fain know the %eaon why the Htmilies are in r.o greater 
Reputation ? And fo would I too ! In thofe Ancient Sermons there are 
tjm/'wjfefpecially remarkable, the Phf afecr Cloatfeing, HA the 

F t mac* 

CM 1 

matter or fubflance of them. Tis true, Time and the erowing-re- 
finings'of the Englifi) Language have fuperannuated the former; bu c 
why the latter iliould alio become obfolete, I would as fain know a 
Reafon is bimfelfs and that fom himfelf, who is bell able to account 
for his own Actions : I affure him I would not exchange the Old Truth, 
for New Pbrafes, and Modern Elegancy : I had rather fee -c P/ai« Truth 
in her fober homely garb, than gawdy error fpi uced up with all the 
Wineries of the Scene and Stage. 

The weaknefs of the former Clergy, was the great Reafon that ia* 
troduced both Liturgies and Homilies. And if the prefent Clergy are 
grown fo ftrong that they can defpife one of their Qrutches, perhaps m 
time they may go alone without both. Thofe Cogent Reafons pretend- 
ed for the neceflicy of the one, will* hold asftrongly fox the other 3 'tis 
full as eafle to diffeminate Herefies, to vent crude, raw, undigefted 
Non-fenfe in the Pulpit, as the Desl^ 

When I hear any of our Enquirers Sermons, I fhall fummon up my 
belt Reafon to make a judgment, whether he has fo infinitely out-done 
the Ancient Homilies as he pretends : In the mean time I fear the Lan- 
guage is not fo much poliftied and tricked up, as the Doctrine is defi- 
led , nor have they fliamed the Homilies fo much in the brisknefs of 
Fancy, quaintnefs of Words, and fmoothnefs of Cadencies, as the 
Homilies have fhamed them in plainefs and foundnefs of Truth. I 
would mind our Author of the lad words of the fecond part of the 
Homily of Salvation, and though he may mend the Phrafe, I doubt he 
will hardly mend the Dottrine : So thai our Faith in Chrifl (as it were') 
faith thm unto us : It is not 1 that tal^e away your fins, but it is Chnfl only» 
and to him I fend you for that purpofe ; forfakjng, therein, all your good 
Venues, Words. Thoughts and Worlds, and only putting your truji in Chrifi. 
In the Homily of the Place and time of Prayer, the Church praifes 
God, for purging our Churches from Piping, Chanting, oa wherewith God . 
is fo fore difpleajed, and the Houfe of grayer defiled. Hence perhaps 
fome would conclude, that the true Reafon why we have forfaken the 
ufe, is, becaufe we have forfaken the Dottr'we of the Homilies. 

a. Arg. AU Proteftants abroad admire the Englifti way of Preaching,., 
infomuch 06 fome forreign Congregations, a* I am credibly informed , (that 
was wifely inserted) defray the charges of the Travels of their Pajhrs. 
into England, that they may return to them injiruBed in the ^Method of the 
EngHfli Preaching. For the Logick of this Paragraph I fhall not fo 
much as examine it: AU Proteftants admire Englifh Treaching, for 
[me Congregations fend to be inputted int. There's the all and fome ; 
' M T ' " --" '" '- rrr "- "" of 

C 8j ] 

.of this Argument. Again, Prorefhnts admire Evglijk Preaching ; 
Ergo , they admire the Confomifts preaching 5 for ail Diffenters 
Preach in an unknown tongue. Again, .they fend them hither to be in- 
ftrucled in the method of Englifti Preaching ; aJi the excellency then 
lies in the method, which is to Preich without Do&rinc, Jfeajon, and 
Vfe : And now methinks I hear a Pallor of a Congregation in h'ol- 
land, returning home with a flea in his Ear, and giving an account 
of the expence of his time and charges : Beloved I we have been fad'y 
mifta^en all this while, for our Synod, of Dort was a pack, of Jill) igroran t 
fellows, that knew not how to ma'^e God $uft, miffs they made him cruel, 
or mm humble, un'efs they made him a Stocky or a Stone : *y£s for ut t we 
are informed, that we are not true jfttinifters of fefxs thrift, as wamirg 
a thing, J thinks they call it Epifcopal Ordination ; and if any of lis Jhoidd 
become JHinifters there, wemuft be re-ordained, though a Trie ft from 
Rome Jhall not need it 1 and therefore by your Baptifm is a nul- 
lity, all our J7Minifterial\Sitts void and of none effect, your Churches are 
not true Churches, your Information wot begun in Rebellion, continued in 
Schifm, and thml have got my labour for my pains, and naught for my la- 

3. Arg. The Preaching of the Church of England is beyond that of 
Rome. Yes fo it may be, and yet none of the beft neither ; What 
fleighty Topicks are thefefrom whence to evince the excellency of 
English Preaching ? Commend me to read one Sermon in the works of 
the Learned Bp. Reynolds, and it itorms the incredulous iooner than 
a Hundred of thefe Ridicules put together. But how does it appear 
that the Englifh tranfeends the Romiih Preaching? Pray mark the 
proof: Why Erafmm wrote a Book, of the Art of ^Preaching, and full 
of the follies andridiculous paffages in i'opifo Sermons. Molt Meridian 
Conviction ! Has not/. E. written a Book alfo full cf the .follies and 
ridiculous paffages in Englfi Sermons > Pray then fet the $®tes-kca& a- 
gainft the Goofe-gibleis. Ah ! but Lrafmus his Book is as full as his: 
very good, and fo is his as full as VrafmwCs : Really when the Act 
comes out againft Metaphors, I hope there will be a claule m't, that 
no Rhetorician (hall ever again ufe an Argument. 

As he would be injurious to the Truth that ihould cake the follies 
gathered up in this modern Author for the meafure of prefent 
Preaching ,* fo fhall he be equally vain, that {hall make thofe ^per- 
tinencies gleaned up by Lrafmm, to be the true meafure of the Preach- 
ing of thofe times: And why may we not charitably fuppcfe that 
the Romanics have furbifht up their rufty Preaching (jnce the days of 

E 3 &afmm t 

C36 3 

fnJw'M, as well as we have fcowred up ours fince the days of the 

4- Arg. His fourth Argument is none of the firongeft, and yet 
.worth all the reft put together ; which were but the vaunt-Couriers to 
ulher in this main one with morefolemmty.i Compare ( fays he ) hut 
the Preachings generally in our Churches, with thofe ordinarily in conventi- 
cles, you roil! find them unequally r.utcht. . 

Though we could be content they were modcflly compared, yet we 
can by no means allow this Enquirer to ufe his own falfe weights of 
comparing, and generally (uch co nip arifons are odious : Nomonfor- 
miits do not affect, ftrong lines, nor are ambitious of the Gigantick 
Vein and Stile ; they itudy not meafurcd lentences, nor ufe the Com- 
piles to every decent period ; they had rather with their Aufiin i have 
-4 wooden I^ey that will open the L-ocl^ ', than one of Cold, which maizes a, 
fidling din in the Wards, and yet confounds them. 

None of them but do praife God for the Learning, found Judg- 
ment, folid Preaching, holy Lives, which are to be found among 
the Conformable Clergy ; but can he rear his Triumphant Arches to 
their praifes upon no other foundations:, than the mines of other 
mens credits ? 

Forrpy part, I am always apt tofufpect that perfons credibility, 
who thinks more to confirm it by two or three ratling Oaths : And 
1 never received it as an argument of her honefty, that carries her 
tongue fo loofely hung, that fhe deals about moil liberally Strumpet 
dndwhore* But I fee he is impatient till he compares them. 

On the one fide you have found Theology, ftrength of Argument, gravity 
ofExpreJ/ion, difiin&nefs of Method 3 on tie other fide, nothing more fre- 
quent j than puerile, and fiat, oftentimes rude 3 and fometimes blafphemous 
txprejffions, fimilitudes inftcad af arguments / and either Apifh geftures, or 
Tragical vociferations kftead of Eloquence.. Reader, this Language is 
pure Cicero, I aiTare thee, Ex hac enhn parte Pudor pugnat, illinc pe- 
iuUhtUj, hincpietM, illinc fiupram\ hine fides, illinc fraudatio. 

I am forry our Enqwrer dwells by fo very bad Neighbours, that his 
cwn mouvh naiift be the very Trumpeter of his praifes: If the com- 
mep Cryer could have been engaged for love or money to proclaim 
them., no mod^.ft man would have done the drudgery. But nemo pa- 
piamfu'am ihav'tt auiaynagna eft, fed quu fua. Tis propriety that ren- 
ders all thing? fweet and beautiful: All this had been pardonable, 
but 1 fee foaic ihzt love so be fagenofi in alien* f ami, huge facetious 
Spoil other amis fames, and perhaps never witty in a Twelve-month, 

||it. w!«*£S they write Satyfc, . " .- As 

. .... ' ' 


As all impartial Readers kc«w one half of his Oratory to be f£fo • 
f o it's to be feared tru j y may fufpeCfc the other moyety not to be very 
true : That's all an honejl man (hall get by being; in a knaves company : 
.Truth has fometimesbeen fee in the Stocks, becaufe it has been found 
under the fame Roof with Falihood. He that willies well 10 his own 
due pniijes, let him never defire they (hould be yoaked with another s 
unjujl reproach \ left the hearer knowing the one unrightccujly /lander ed, 
conclude that the other is as unjujlly flattered. For it's an unqueilio- 
nable maxime, He that will be a Sycophant againft one, will be a T-arx- 
fite to another. 

Let our Enquirer then fweetly enjoy the raviihments of his pleaftng 
Dreams, I ihall not awaken him with loud recriminations, only fofc~ 
ly whifper that of the Poet. 

Bella es j novimns ! £5' Puclla ; verum efll 

Et Dives i Qids enixn. potej} negare ? 

Sed dumte nimium, pabuUa, laudo/s 

Nee Dives, nee Bella, necPuellaes. Mart. Ep. L 1. I*J. 

Yet there is one Salvo for their credits, with which all the Frater- 
nity of Gentlemen-Raylers do ufe to bring themfelves off, and heal 
all again, when at any time they have molt unconfeionably over- 
laih'd : and that is, when they have pcur'd out all the contempt and 
fcorn, haveheap'd up alltheflanders and reproaches that they can 
make or rake together, then to make an Honourable Retreat, ar.d 
tell you, they do confefs there may be one or two that may be ir.- 

God forbid (fays our Gentleman) that I Jlmdd charge ell the Novcor:- 
formifts with fuch Indecencies. Nay lean tell him more trnn that e 
God forbids him to charge any one with fuch Indecencies, unlei's he had 
better proof of them : And had he known any individual guilty of 
thefe crimes, he fhould have perfonally charged that one, that he 
might be brought to Repentance for his prophanation of Gods holy 
Name, and not involve a whole party under the fcandalous iufpition : 
All the charity that thefe words neceffarily contain is/that they are 
all fuch five one. 

Suppofe another as charitable ashimfelf fliould write after his 
Copy, and when he had with much pleafant Scurrility and Drollery 
made the Devil fport with the Indecencies of Church-men, fhouM 
come off at laft w j h this Epanorthofis, Qod forbid I JlotiM charge all 

F 4 the 

_ £.88 % 

the Conformijlswhh th r e extravagancies 5 What would it argue, but a 
shore crafty and fafe way of Hypocritical Calumny ? Thus 1 remem., 
ber a Gentleman once in a frolick, told his Companions, They were 
all Fools but one ) and when a young Gallant of the knot, more 
tender of his Reputation than it deferved, and willing to venture- 
rnorefor it than 'twas worth, began to draw, The other takes him 
ifide, and whifpers him in the Ear, How do you know but that Un- 
bended \eur (elf by that Jingle exception ? And this little duft parted the 
fray. • l 

• Well, I fee he isfsck till he comes to particulars: Afahel would 
aiottake Abners civil warnings fome men feek mifchief to them- 
selves, and all the Friends they have cannot ftave them; off from the 
Duel: the more you hold a Coward, the more eager he is to engage : 
let the man alone, pray let him alone, and in the mean time, I will- 
fortifie my felf with patience, that no provocation of his may tempt 
me to a bacl^ blow under the fifth. trib> for how then fiould I lift .up my. 
face to my dear Brethren ? 

1. Their Sermons are generally about Vredejlination. About it > ir<n- 
qv (xaQoir S trat what a word w^s that for a wife man ? The Church 
©f England in her 17th Article, propounds the Doctrine of Predefti- 
nation to be believed by us, according to *he Scriptures ; that which 
is the matter of Faith, ought to be thefubjett of our Preachings, 1 Cor. 
4. 13. we believe, and tlxr e fore we f peak. And yet I am confident 
that our Enquirer, ami his like, Preach more ,. Write more, and 
make more noife about that ferious point than the Nonconform 
mifts •, I prefume I may have heard my lhare of their Sermons 5 
and yet I can aflure the Reader , I never heard that Doctrine pro- 
feffedly handled in my life : I fpeak not this in their excufe or 
commendation; no, 'tis their juft Reproof ; and were I meet to 
give them their due, I would fpeedily come out of their debt ; What 
fhall the great Vutbs of the Gofpel, the Articles of the Church of 
England, the famous St. Auftin be trampled in the Dirt by the Foot 
of Infolence ? and mall a pretence of I know not what modefty, un* 
willingnefc to oftend them that are refolved to be offended, (top your 
mouths ? Reverend Sirs i It's high time to awake, and plead the Caufe 
of God, left he give you up to reproach and contumely, becaufe you 
iave left his Truth fo. , 1 _ 

If the Reader be fo curious, as to enquire wherein lies the great 
evil of Preaching about fredeftination I he may know, that there is a 
Preaching about, id. eft a Pro, and there is a Preaching about 9 id. eft, 

[8 P 3 

Con j To Preach ahout it, when is fignifies for it, that indeed is few 
dato'M and dangerous 5 but to Preach about it, when it fignifies againfl it, 
that indeed is laudible •> for it's well known, that when the Armwikn 
faction got a little heart in the rifing-days of A B. Laud, the Abet- 
tors of thofe novelties procured a Proclamation, that none ihoiild 
meddle about thofe controversies, pretending they were nice School- 
pints, unfit for vulgar Eats 5 but prefently the Arminkns fell pell-mell 
upon fiery Declamations aga'<nft them. 

. 2. They Preach about Vnion with God in Chi ft. About it ftill ! I 
doubt not but this Gentleman could be willing the DiiTenters had free 
liberty to Preach again , provided they Preach'd about pt& no- 
thing. If the Church- doors were unlock'd, the Pulpit-doors let 
wide open, and their months fealed up, and a Padlock hung upon 
their Bibles, the cafe would be much the fame j But to (peak free- 
ly, if they did Preach about it, at the rates that many Write about it, 
reducing all to a Politic'^ Vnion, e'ne Nail up their Pulpics, andfct 
the Arrow-head upon the doors of their Meetings : Tis then no fucft 
heinous crime to Preach about it, you may Preach about,- and about, 
and about the Bufl again, provided you never come near it, or doff it 
off with an Airy nothing. 

Ay j but the N. C confefs this Vnion to be unintelligible, and they help 
xom-a\e it fo. There are many great Truths in the Gofpel, which 
in their heights and depths, in theirutmoft improvements, we can- 
not comprehend ; yet fuch a knowledg of them is attainable, as 
may whet the edge of our Appetite after more, and in the mean time 
direct us. in our Duties towards God and Man, the perfect opening 
of which myfteries is referved for Heaven, when we Jl)all fee face t.t 
face, and know m we are alfo known. He that will throw away ever 
objecl of Knowledg which he cannot f adorn, muft throw away they 
two great Volumes of Scripture and Nature: The Doctrine cf the. 
Trinity is certainly owned in the 39 Articles and yet whatever' Key 
the great engroffers of reafon have got to that Tremendous My- 
fterv, in my judgment there's an unintelligible depth in it, for 
which Faith muft lye at the ftake, and the veracity of God be refpon- 

Our Union with God and Chrift have been cleared up from the 
Scriptures, to flay theStomacks, and give iomeprefentfatisfaction 
to the Holy Ardency of True Believers-, arid yet though the thing 
in its own Nature be cognofcible, yet lb glorious are the Priviledges 
that flow from it , fuch the Mercies which iflue out in Eternal 
i — ':...':.' "- " . ' . ■ ■ ••.- « Lifs- 

C ,f>.o J 

Life, that we freely confefs our Ignorance ; Eye, has not feen, note* 
heard, nor hat it enter' d into the heart of man, (fuch poor men as we 
are) to conceive all thofe Comforts which lie in the bofom of that 
Relation, and which God has laid up in ftorefor thofe that are in 
Covenant with him. Whatever is received, rnuftbefo according to the 
capacity of the Recipient • we do not think that the Ocean can be put in- 
: 10 narrow-mouth* d Vcffds j when God (hall raife our Faculties, :.nd 
enlarge our Capacities that we can hold more, he will give morej 
and therefore leaving the fublime fpeculative Gnofilcks to their own 
fancies, we (hall blefsGod for what we knot** and humbly afpire af- 
ter greater Meafures of Divine Light. 

But I fuppofe we (hall hear no more of this Cavil, when they 
fhall pleafe a little to remember themfelves of what they have fub- 
fcribed to , and do daily pra&ife ( that is whenever they have 
cuftomers) in the way of their trade of jMatrimony ; for there we 
are told, That Matrimony is an honourable fiate, infiituted by Chrifi in 
thepme of mans innocency, fignifying the ^(ftcal 3Ent0tl that is be* 
tvoeen Chrifi and his Church : And if they will not be concluded by their 
own Liturgy, they mud rail on their own pace, and when they are 
weary, perhaps they may be more temperate. 

3. They Preach of the fweetnep, beauty, and lovelinefs of Chrifis 
Terfor* They do fo ! and are willing to be Criminal , if this be a 
Crime 5 our Enquirer bewails the want of love amongfi Qhrifiians ; and 
if he were as folicitous to enquire into the I{cafons of that defett, he 
would find this to be a main one, That the loveliness of Chrifi is fo much 
depreciated •, he that cannot love Chrifi, cannot jjoflibly love a Chi* 
fiian \ (ince that for which every ChrilUan as fuch is Amiable, muft be 
chat he partakes of thofe Graces for which Chrifi is Amiable : It's an 
humane love that only tyes our own Image, but a Divine Grace that 
loves the Image of a, Saviour : But thefe things were not reproach in 
thofe days, when Ignatius upon every mention of Chrifi: ftiled him 
tis Love, 'O tpa< /t/« It a vfarcu My Love is Crucified ! But that 
the Preaching of Chrifis Lovelinefs ftirsi up fenfiiaC Pajfions, is a note 
of blafphemy above Ela, not to be parallel'd but by the Friendly De- 
bate, whofe Dunghill our Enquirer has firft naked, and then Epi- 

And thus much (hall fuffice at prefent to have defcanted upon the 
Ignorance of the Nonconfomifis Preaching : Now wipe your eyes, and 
you (hall read a Specimen of bis own. 

I have feen a Picture of fuch artificial contrivance, that as we 
'- —- ; ---- v : - — r ~ '-. cnter'd 

nter'd the Room, it prefented to us the ridiculous profpecx cf the 

t Fiddle-, we had not traverfed a few paces to the other 

Side, but it was by a ftracge Metamorphofs become a very 'Beautiful 

: Curiofity drew me nearer to view the Myflery of this dubious 

T eee, and it foon difcovered it fdf a trivial Effay of Mechanifm: 

Thus when we enter'd upon this Subject, the Enquirer gave us the 

Nonconforming, and his Preaching in Ridicule 5 now turn you 

twice abou\, and in a trice the Scene is changed, and you fhall 

have the lively Pourtaiture of a Rational Divine-in-all his Pontifica, 


And here firft we meet\vith Difcourfes of God, bis Nature and At- 
tributes : Which if fome of them found, not fo, they have left unintel-* 
In itle : Such a Nature as they have contrived, fuch Attributes as they 
are gracioufly pleafed co aflign to him; fo that Tertullians complaint 
is not more frequently than jujily repeated, God fhill not be God, but 
upon fuch terms as man fball prejcribe. And then of the Reafon of Reli- 
gion. Yes, no doubt you arc the men, and all wifdom Jhall dye -with you. 
What a fad Cafe had Religion been in, if thefe eminent men had not 
been raifed up to fet Religion upon its proper Bafts, and unfettle it 
from the feeble foundations upon which former Ages had erected it ? 
But then tiiey give us Arguments for contentment, under perfecution 
perhaps, fuch as would make a man weary of his life, and almoft 
Petition to be hang'd And of Reverence too 5 confiding in uncom- 
minded poftures of bowing at the Naming of Jeftet, worshipping to- 
wards the Eaft, and Altar $ and of Submiffion, viz. Of Private Rea- 
fon an i conscience to tbefublib\; But of all, and of all they excel 
when they Treat of the Eternal Reafons of Good and Evil j A Point 
admirably fitted to the Opacities of the vulgar 3 which nothing but 
unskilfulnefs could ma\c a man bold enough to undertake the unfolding of. 
An dantur .JF.terna Rationes Boni & Mali, in mente Divina indifpenfabi- 
les ? Oh how the Ladies fit and admire this .profound Theology ! 
Notions which cannot be Characterize better tban in Gondiherts 

Phrafe, -To char rathe We a 1 ^, and pofe the Wife. But then they 

Treat of the nature of Faith ; And how there's nothing a juftifiing and 
fuuing Faith as fuch, but what the Devils can ihew for it : And to 
conclude, of Charity too, to all of their own Cue, to a hairs breadth; 
with denunciation of Fire and Faggot to all that come not up to their 
Apices Juris, and jump not in with every Iota and Tittle of Con- 
formity : I had almoft forgot their difcourfes of obedience to Magi- 
strates : I fuppofe this Enquirer has not very long Treated of that Sub- 

C 9*3 

jeSt •, the meaning of it is, fo long as they are well paid for theii 
pains: Emperour ffaid one) Defend me with thy Sword, and l y le de- 
fend thee with my ^uill: Could you blame him? Itwillcoft more to 
maintain an Army, than a Penny-worth of Quills. Notwithftanc'in^ all 
thefe Bravadoes, the World mult fee, if their eyes be not out, that 
Differ f ters give more real obedience to Magiftrates to bare life, and 
v uncertain liberty, than fome do for all thefe Revenues which publick 
Indulgence has loaded them withal 5 for when the Finger of the Ma- 
giitrate is put forth to touch them, not in skin or bone, but fome forry 
Accident, they are ready to make good the Devils charge, and curie 
him to hi* face. . 

2. He has done with the Learning, and will now come to the 
lives of the Clergy : Whatever good he (hall fpeak of the Clergy, I 
can heartily agree with him in it, provided he could forbear the dif- 
paragementof others : Let it be accorded that the Lives of the gene- 
rality of Qburch-men are unblamcable ; yet that they need no foyl to fet 
them off, is fuch a childifh way of wheedling our belief of it, as if a 
Jeweller fhould fhew you* Stone with itsjoyU arid then proteft it needs 

Here then needed no Quarrel 3 we can rejoyce in, and Blefs God 
fot the Graces, as well asuifts j the Piety, as well as the Learning of 
our Brethren who differ from us. Nay we can pray to God to double 
his Spirit upon them in both refpec"ts 5 and for thofe who deride the 
Grace and Spirit of God, we can pray that God would give them a 
founder mind : We pray that there may be fuch burning and fhinjng 
1 ghts found amongftall them that profefs the Reformed Religion, 
however in fmall matters varying, as may confound Atheifm and 
Popery, with whatfoever is contrary to found Doctrine and Godli- 
nefs ; but yet this Compafftonate Enquirer, fhat he may not be uncivil, 
nor pafs by the door of a Nonconforming without a Salute, will call 
in, and fay a word or two to them, when he has fjrft given us a Rea- 
fon why he will Treat them like Qkriftians. 

1, R. Becaufe he will not render Evil for Evil , nor Retaliate the J{e, 
f roaches caji upon the Sons of the Church ; for he Icaa not fo learn* d Cbrift. 
And doubtlefs he that has learn'd Chrift to any purpofe, either in his 
Example or Dottrine, mufl learn quite another Leffon than foul- Lan- 
guage, and black mouth'd Taring, or he has gone to School to no 
purpofe, and rouft come back to his Horn-book, and begin at chrtfis- 
Crofs. ' ". . ' 

a. R 


a. R. Such unchirit able fie criminations have not only made an A jology 
for Atheifw, and the pfcpkane\s of the Age, hut they afford a pleafajtt fpe* 
dacle to all wicked men. 

3. R. Is taken from the example of Conjlantine the Great, who 
when the Bijiops and Clergy at the Nicene Council had exhibited a bundle of 
Libels one agiin ft another, burnt them all before their faces, protefting 
that 1) he Jhould fee ore of them m the moft fcandalom Commijj'.on^ he 
would cover his frame with hit own Purple. 

Being therefore convinced, chat all $e criminations arc unbecoming 
tbe-Gofpel, and that from the nervoufnefs of our Enquirers Arguments, 
I will make a reafonable motion, That all the Friendly Debates, t'e 
Ecclefaftical Polities , with the foul-mouth'd Colder of Qioce'fters 
Canto's, be condemned to the next folemn ^Bonfire. Unlefs you will 
make the compaffionite rnqtury the Protomanyr : And add the Porter, 
who when he fhould have covered the fcandalows^Commifjlon with his 
Frcci^, openly expofed it upon his Hack. 

Thefe Maffie ]{eafons (one would think) might have funk any o-dl- 
vary mans railing inclinations into a modeft ft ence, 2nd fufpended his 
proclivity to reviling, ab officio for three years 5 and yet (like a cm* 
paffionate, Jelf- confident, or feif condemned Enquirer) he will fay thefe 
two things fwther in this caje. Nay, I did look for it every moment, 
and that all thofe Reafons again!! flander were but a foyl to fet off Hy~ 
pocrifte, p opbanirg of Scripture, and the debauching of his confeience* 
with a greater Grace, when he fhall come to blazon the fcandalous • 
Impieties of the Nonconformift Miniften. 

And here I firft got a (atisfa&ory in- fight into one truth more, 
That there is the fame proportion between the Title and the Boot that 
thefe is between his ^hetoric]^ and his J{eafon, The Tit e calls the 2fo/ /> . 
A feriom and companionate Enquirer: but the Hoo^ ingenioufly calls tt 
felf, The and paffionaie Enquiry, And if they thus revile and 
fcold at one another, we mutt not admire il both joyn in reviling the 

1 . Two things then he has to fay 3 And the ftril of them is Three 
things a 1 one. 

Sett, i. If a man be ma' e^ content with the Government, and for facing 
the church, refort to private Affembliei, fucb a man may debauch his life 
too-, and yet have a very charitable conftruttion among the generality of ■ 
DiflTenters, That is., if a man will be a Rafcal in one particular,' 
he may be a villain in all the reft, provided he become a Noncon- 
form^ : Ay ! sit Sacrilegus* ft fur, ft vitiorum omnium flag i thrum fie 


I 9*1 

pinCeps— m At eft 'Bonm Fanaticzx ! Come but over to their way, and 
you may Lye, and Steal, and Whore, and Drink, and be Drunk i 
this was fpoken without all peradventure ouc of tendernefs of con- 
fcience, to fulfil that I(oyal command, of .not rendring evil for evil\ 
That it might appear how well he had learned Ckrift, But let him 
know, that they allow no Conformity ,, to compound for fever e 
fBietyi novdijfent from Ceremonies, to fubftitute affent to the Jubjian- 
t ids. of Chriftixnity. He that is not brought over to the Obedience 
of the Golpel, is with them no Chriftian, by what Name or Title, 
foever he be dignified or dijlinguijled ', and I lerioufly defire, that this 
'over-charged finder may not recoil, and hurt the Enquirer, 

But though he be very uncharitable, I (hall endeavour to give the. 
molt charitable ccnftrudtion of his words that they will bear : And 
therefore obferve, Th.t though he be engaged not to render evil for 
evil, yet he never fromifed not to render evil for good. 

Sett. a. If being a Qergy-mm ( fays he ) and continuing in the 
Church, he jhall debauch bis Office, and undermine the church which.: 
he jbould uphold, fuch a man (alfo) may then debauch hi, life too, and 
yet have a very charitable conjhuttion among the gener&Lit) of DiJJ en- 

What muft Enemies expect from this Man, who has no mercy 
on his Friends ? There . are many Holy and Learned perfons, now 
within the Bofom of the Church, who having confidered the terms 
of enjoying the more public^ exercife of their Mwiftry, have overcome 
the difficulties^ of Subscription - } and do yet retain their former Ortho- 
doxy, and fobriety of Conversation 5 Thefe perfons knowing what 
Conscience it, do exercife great tendernefs towards it in their Brethren, 
who cannot get over their rubs and ohftacles $ and thefe, if I miftake 
riot, are the Glory of the Church of England, for purity of Dottrine, 
and piety of Conversation, for all true Learning^ and ufeful knowledg 3 
Againft thefe perfons, the Enquirer has a desperate ftitck, as thofe 
that undermine the church which they Jhould uphold : that is, if they 
condefcend never fo little to a tender conscience, in one of thofe 
little institutions which themfelves call indifferent, the whole Church 
muft prefently fall about their Ears : but if the Church were built 
upon ckrift the fyck.,- and not upon the Wool-pxch of Ceremonies, 
fuch condefcenfion would never undermine it. Thefe are taxed alfo 
With debauching their office. And indeed if the Office of Minifters be 
to become Informers, If ^reaching the Gofpel be nothing but to make? 
pother about Ceremonies , I hope they will debauch \i ftitty but tha 


C 95 1 
any of thefe do febi&chtkeir Lives, and are' thereupon 'more accep- 
table to Dijfenters, is aloud falpood, only to let us underitand how 
well he has learned chrift. 

Sefl.$. If a man (fays he) be of the mofl Holy Conversation, but 
Zealous for the t/iterefi of the Church, this man jbatt have wurfe Quarter 
from the fiery Zealots of other parties, than one of a more looje life, 
and. meaner abilities. 'Let no man reply, If a man be of a loofe Con- 
versation, and but Zealous oj the Grandeur , and for the Qeremonies cf the 
Q?urch, this man [ball have fairer quarter, and more encouraging \refer- 
mentSrffom the f.cry 'Bigots of Conformity, than one of a fever e life, 
and greater minifterial abilities. To interpret this myftery, we mult 
inform our felves, what is the Churches true intereft as it is a 
Church: It's very eafie to miftake in itatmg the True intereft of any 
Society ; and if we miftake there, it's impoflible we i'hould be regular 
in the mcixs of purfuing it. ^#» error in the firfi concottion is never 
rettified in the fccnnd : The true Ihtereft of every true Church of 
Chrift, is to promote Holinefs and conformity to his commands, 
engaging thereby his prefence and protection) and a Spirit of Love 
and Peace among irs members, though under fome variety of ap- 
prehension in Adiaphorous matters : The mijhke is to advance a 
Churches fecuiar Grandeur, external fplendor, and worldly fomp, 
which every true Chriftian 'in his Biptifm has renounced, together 
with aU the works of the Devil, and the lujls of the fiejl : If ever a 
Church ihall be fo far miflal^en as to judg worldly Glory, its true in- 
tereft, I know not why it may not alfo miftake the works of the Devil,- 
and the lujls of the.flefb to be its true intereft alfo : A conforming 
Minifter, who defpifing that falfe, underftands and purfues this true 
Intereft, is truly dear to all the Nonconforming j but for thofe who 
are fo deluded as to think, it lies in deftfoying and ruining all that 
are not fatilfied with their Canons and Conftitutions, however aliene 
and forreign to the temper of the (joipd, theyconfeis they are no 
great admirers of them, whatever appearance of Holinefs they may 
mike : If the Intereft of a Faction irialllic in Tending poor Chri- 
ftians to the of Newgate, and the Hojpital of Bjdlam, and 
will^ive no Quarter to the moil Holy and Religious, if they fail in 
two or three Niceties ; I muft needs fay I fee no reafon why fuch 
fliould adorn themfelves with the plumes of Gravity and Devotion* to 
render their inhumanity more plaufible. 

% % But he has fomewhat further to fay than all this: If imper- 
tinent and fait ajiicd talking of Religion, endlefs 'fcrup"lojiiie$, cenforieu* 


C 9<5 1 

and raft judging our Su\eriours> Melancholy faking, going from Sermon 
to Sermon, without allowing our [elves time to meditate on what roe hear* 
or to infirutt our Families, be the main Points of Religion, then the Non- 
conformijls are Holy men. And now I hope- the Reader is abundantly 
fatisfied, that the Enquirer has otherwise 'learned Chri fl, than to render 
evil for evil : That he dares not furnijh Atheifm an I Prophanefs with an 
apology: That be make's a confcieneeof affording a fpe&acle to evil men •" 
That he dares not (for a World) drefi -Religion in a ihzntajlical Habit* 
that Boys may laugh at it : This is hk Conilantines %obe which he cajis 
over fcandalous Commijfwns. 

Serious difcourfes about the concerns of the World to come, about 
our own death, and the day of Judgment, is Phantajiical talking:. 
Tendernefs of Confcience, Holy fear of finning agaimjl God, is .endlefs, 
fcrupulofity j Modejl refufal to pra&ife every thing commanded, 
though Reafon, Judgment, Scripture Reclaim, is cenfuring and rafi) 
judgment of Superiours. Godly forrow muft be melancholly fahing > 
attending upon Gods Word, breached, ftiall be running from Sermon to 
Sermon : And a downright falfliood added to clofe up the whole : 
That they neither allow themselves time to meditate of what they have 
heard, nor to inflr.utt their Families : And yet if they (hall dare to 
practife this laft, with a few of their weaker Neighbours that 
drop in to hear .a Sermon repeated, they fhall be lyable to the Law, 
and puniflied as Seditious Conventiclers , and railed ar as Schifma- 
ticks. -,-' 

When all is faid and done , Machiavils old Rule is a Sacred 
Maxime witfr thefe fort of Men j Former calumniare,ali\uid adhxrebit % 
Throw Dirt enough, and fome on y t will ftick^: Wild-fire files further than 
the Water that fliould quytcb it : A reproach wiH run, where a juft 
Vindication will not creep. Had the Providence of God allotted the 
Nonconform ills their abode any where but amongft thofe whofe- In- 
tereft it is to render them Odious, they might have pafs'd for good 
Christians : It would be difficult to hire Men to be Instruments of 
cruelty, if they were not firft perfwaded, that they are Minijlers of 
tfuftice; and the only way to perfwade that, is to reprefent Dif- 
fenters as the off-fcowring of all things , not fit to live a day. The belt way 
to take away the life, is to render it abominable. None can handfomly be 
deftroyed, till they be drefs'd up in a jTyfalefaftorsCloaths. And it 
feems as much for their Enemies Advantage to make them feem wick- 
ed, as 'tis for theirs to be really Holy. 


CHAP, t X 

Of the more Remote caufes of the infelicities of this Church : 7% e 
Perfection under ^Mary: I'be bad prov'fwns for Mhn- 

jiers in Corporations : Frequent Wars', 'the mifchiefs of 1'rj'de 
. and 1 ravel : 7 he Defigns of J thrifts and Pap/fts enquired in- 

to\ with what influence they may have had upjn the prefent /*- 

paration from the Church of England; 

TA/Hen Airidh Vl.was preffedby the clamorous Importunitv * 
V V ofzheGerm,m r r'mC£Sto reform the Clergy, he anfvered 
very gravely, That a Reformation was necejfary, jet the danger if 
Reforming all at once wasfo dreadful, that he refolved to proceed Jhp 
by flcp. Some wife Men fmiled at the cautious advifement of his 
Holinefs, andfaid, They hoped he would nor break his fhinsfor 
haft, bur deliberaceJy make a h under ed years ar leafl between 
every fiep. 

The fame prudence which this politick Pope ufe i in hisadvanci 
towai ds d Reformation^ our wary Enguirer ufesin his approaches 
towards the caufes of Separation. Hitherto we have been enter- 
tained with certain Romantickjmagitiary caufes* and now heAVill 
give us a gentile Treat with the Real ones. 

Bur oithefe fome arc more remote, others near hanc'% rliefe come 
by the running Poft, rliofe by Tom Lorg the Carrier. Thus your 
Poching Fellows,when they have found the Hare Jitiing,go round 
about and about die Bufh, till they have fcrewed themfelves in:oi 
a convenient Diftance, and then give poor Pufs Club-Law ani 
knock her dead upon the Form. 

t. Now the firftofthefe Remote caufes is; That it was the mis~ 
fortune* ami is the 'great difadvar.tage of this Church, that it xvas 
not well confirmed, and fwa died in its Infancy, it conflitiedwith Ser~ 
pent S in its Cradle, and underwent a fever e perfecution. 

What he understands by that old blind heatheniflh beldame For* 
tune,\ cannot tell. The Scriptures have raughr us ro believe,Thac 
the Hairs of Our Head are allnumbred', and therefore much more 
the Heads of the Martyrs : Thar a Sparrow falls not to the groun J 
without the Providence afouf Heartily Father : Much lefs the blood 

O # 

[P8] ' 

of the Saints, which is more precious in his fight than many Spar- 
roves. But this is only a Shibboleth* which ferves for a Certificate 
that he is no friend to the immutable Counfels of God. 

However this early Perfection muftneedshave a confiderable 
influence upon the Churches pretent weaknefs ; for thus Mephi- 
bofheths N" r fe making more haft than good fpeed, in her fright 
andflighr threw down her Nurfery, and he became lame to his 
dying day. 

It was therefore politickly done ofLicurgus (thinks the Enqui- 
rcr)wken he had framed the body of the Spartan Laws-, to pretend an 
cccafion to Travel ; and having fir ft taken an Oath of the people, that 
they Jhould make no alteration in that Government (either in the 
Church or Stare) till his return, he refolvedly never returns again. 

If the old Matters of Ceremonies could have perfwaded the 
people to fome fuch fubfcription that they would never alter 
their Inventions till their return, and then had fentenced them- 
felves to a voluntary perpetual Exile,it had been afuccefsful piece 
offelf-denial to cheat a Nation into Uniformity, no lefs honour- 
able to themfelves than grateful to thoufands. 

But thus the cafe ftoodwith the Church in its Infancy. Kjng 
Edward VI. dying Immaturely, (too foon fays the Enquirer, zoo 
late fays Dr. Hey tin) Q^ Mary fucceeded him in the Throne, and fo 
the Church was put upon difficulties and trials, before its Limbs 
at/id Joints were fettled and confirmed. 
Perfecution has hitherto been efteemed one of the Churches beft 
friends, whereof it has been often afraid, but never hurt: Such 
was the conftant experience of the Primitive Chnftians : Exquifi- 
tior quxque crude lit as illecebra magis eft fecl<e,plures ejjicimur quoties 
metimur-sfanguis Martyr urn eft jemen Eccfef;<e. The cruelties ofEne* 
itiies does but more encreafe the number ; the oftner the Church is mow- 
ed down, the thicker it comes up, and thers no Seed thrives fo well as 
that which is fteepedin the blood of Manures. That which Chrifti- 
srs jofe by the mind of perfecution, is only their chaff' } that which the 
fire of Tribulation preys upon, is only their Drofs. The Marian 
Fires did the Church this one good turn^ that it melted down 
much of that impofwg Spirit and Lordly Temper, which reigned in 
fome Church men over their DifTenting Brethren, which Bifhop 
Ridley confeifed at the Stake : T hat Tree which is of Cods Plan- 
ting^ takes deeper Root by fhakeing ; and if it lofes any Ceremoni- 
ous Leaves, lev them go, the^ Tree will bear better and fweeter 
Wrun without them, Ccuid 


• I 99] 

Could Pcrftcutors have feen how much good the Wife God would 
exrrad: ouc of rhcir evil, they would never have aggravated their 
own damnation^ to be the initruments of the Chriftians Salvaton .- 
But malice is fo quickfighted to do mifchief, that it's blind in the 
reaftns of doing it ; and makes fuch haft to her end, that (he 
ftumbles in the means ; Thus Nero's fingers itcht to the burning 
of Rome ; but that he knew it would arifc a more glorious Thcenix 
out of its oven jjhes-, which could the Devil himfe ! f confided 
he would never be content 1> i bulos metere, dum nobis fpinasfer it, 
to few us Thorns , and reap himfelfa trop of Thi files. 

All this while we are waiting to fee how he will make it outj 
thar This early Perfection did any real hurt to our Infant Church ? 
And after fome Preambles and Introductions, he will doubtlefs 
come home to the point: And firft,By reafoh of this Perfecution(you 
nluft underftand) a great number of the Mihiflers^ and other Members 
efthis Church, were driven into other Countries for refuge and Jhe Iter 
from the Storm. I hope their finding refuge and fhelter was no 
part of their mifery : but it was ftafonably remembred, for if the 
Minifters and other Confeflbrs of this Church, fdund-fuchCor- 
d;al Entertainment amongft the Reformed Churches beyond the 
Sea, if ever the like fad providence fhouldfend them hither, they 
may cxpecl to meet with proportionable welcome? and not be 
remitted with their Beards half fhaved, and their Coats dock>, 
with a Paper pinned at their Backs, intimating that they are Fu- 
gitives, Schifmaricks, and Rebels. 

But ftill, Quid hoc ad Jphicli Boves ? What is all th ; s to the mar- 
ter ? Oh now it comes ! There they were tempted with Novelty, and 
diftraftedwitb variety of Cuftomes and Rite s^ before they were well 
inftruTied in the reafons^or habituated in the practice of their own^ 
And hereupon they brought home with them foreign fajh ions :. The 
meaning is this, Reader! Religion travelled too young and raw, 
and drunk in the Ceremonies of the Reformed Churches, and 

. (he cannot be dif infedrcd to this day : Alitle matter will blow 
this duft out ©f the Readers Eyes, and let him fee the egregious 
trifling of this Harangue. 

§. i. He fuppofts that th oft exiled ConfeiTors, did but chop 
or Barter one Ceremony for another ; as fuppofe they carried ouc 
With them The Crefs, they exchanged it for Cream, or if they went 

' cut in the Surplice, they returned home in the Friers Coule ; As if 
the Coirfpetinon had been between two Cer (monies, which as Car.- 

Q 2 dlttdUt 

dictates vycd which fliould be mod for Edification, and the adorn- 
ing Religion : whereas they-who improved their affli&ed ftatc 
to the beft advantage, left their Ceremonies behind them, and 
brought no other home in their rooms : Alas ! to what end flhouJd 
they bring more to England ? This had been to carry Coals to 
■New-Caftle v or to what end fteal from the Reformed Churches j 
which had been meerly to rob the Spittle. 

§. 2. Thofe Holy Men made not the Forreign Churches -the 
Rule or Reafon of their Reformation in worfhip ; bur their help to 
iea J them to the common Rule of Reformation ; They that wets 
reduced to Primitive poverty, might be allowed to emulate Primi- 
tivepuritj. It was no wantOn.humour,butafenceof Dury,begor- 
ten by awaken d Gonfcicnce. rouz'd up by their afflid:ion,which 
brought them- ro a felf- denying compliance -with- the Inftitutions 
of Chrift : It would break the proud heart of them that live m 
£afc and Triumph*, to imitate their patience and refblutionyWhofG 
return to Gofpelfimplicity, they canfo pleafantly deride* 

§. 3. It's afcandalou? reproach which he throws upon the 
Englifo Reformation, as if it lay is Rites andCeremonieSiZndfuch 
kind of inventions. Before ((ays he) they were well inured to the 
Enghfh Reformation, they became enamoured of the Rites of other 
. Churches : The Reformation lay notmpreferving Rites and Cere- 
monies, but in purging' them away : fa for purged fj far reformed j 
you mav call the Scar upon the Pace, its Healing, if you pleafe : 
but I will rather chufe to call if ,a foot-fiep or relique of the old 
form§r wound: nor Willi call the dufl behind the door part of the 
Noufts cleanlinejs\ and yet I dare not impofe, let others call 
them as they pleafe : this is evident that thofe things wherein 
the Reformation confided, were oppofed by the Papifts,but the 
Ceremonies were not oppofed by the Papifts, therefore our 
Reformation confift ed not in Ceremonies. 

§. 4. No Iefsis the reproach caft upon thofe famous Exiles, 
that they were enamoured of the Rites of other Churches r \vc 'read 
indeed, 2 KJngs \6> ■ 10, 1 1. That King Aha^ in his Journey to 
Damafcu^faw an Altar there, which pleafcd his Humor,and hefent 
Jo Hrijah the Prieft, the fa fh ion of the Altar, and the pattern of it, ac~ 
cor, .ring to all the worhnianjhip ofit % and he like a tradable good- 
ra ur\i man, that would not offend the King for afmall matter, 
bulk an Altar according to all that Kjng Ahaz hadfent from Damaf- 
ms : butour baniilied worthies imitated Hot the Example ; it was- 


not the oppofing one Ceremony to another, but the opposition 
of all Ceremonies, which was their glory. 

Bwt our Enquirer is rciblved they n.aJl be in an Errcur ; and 
which looks Something like Charity, he will convince them of ic 

i, Their firft weaknefs was, That they confidered not whether 
thofe other Rites were bettered long as they were newer and frtjher. 
A groundless charge ! New or oM,fretTi or ftale, was nothing to 
them, it was Ceremonies as fuch which they rejected : and if he 
can evince, that the preSent Diflcnrers have derived frcm the 
TranSmarine Churches any Rite or Ceremony ,'whtch is not of 
Divine Inftitution, they are notfbinamoured of it, but they wil 
prefently deiiver it up into his hands to be dealt with at discre- 

2. Another failing was, that they obferved not, "That there are 
oftentimes reafons to make one form neceffa/y in one place or people* 
and not in anetter, when itspoffible they may be both indifferent. 

They obferved without his information, that the circumstances 
of time and place in general, were indifferent ; but they obser- 
ved not, that new invented Rites were necefTary in any time or 
place, to reprefenr the grace and dutv of the GoSpel 5 they knew 
Well; that all Chrifts Ordinances were decently to be adminijired : 
and they knew as well that there was no need to in.ftitute ?;en> 
Rites and Ceremonies to create a conciliate a rcfpecl or 
reverence to any of Chrifts Ordinances : If we muft have wen? 
Rites, to render Chrifts ceremonies decent and comely ,then we muft 
have new Rites alfo invented to render thole humane Ceremonies 
decent and comely ; and fo infinitely forwards : others to ei ke thofe 
Utter decent and comely \ bccauSe wc cannot imagine the wifeft 
man on earth able to contrive a moreperfeel Ceremony than Chnft 
has done: And thus we muft have a Lace to make the Garment de- 
cent, and then in edging to make the Lace decent-, and then we 
Shall make Religion a Suit, as fantaftick as that Prince's , who 
fitted it with Loop holes, hkc Argus his Eyes, and then hung a Nee- 
dle at every Loophole to make ail decent. 

I have heard of a Taylor ('from France no doubrjthat was Sent 
for to take meafure of,and make a Corderobe for the Moon ; flic 
was then very (lender, a? being in conjunction with the Sun ; and 
when at the fortnights end he brought her home her Gown, lie 
v/as grown Co corpulent,that it would not meet by a third pan f 

G * her 

her circumference; the poor man was fedly afhamed, blamed his 
Spectacles, and wjth more circumfpection rakes meafure of her 
Ladyfhip, and when he came to try her Stays, (he was grown fo 
flender, that ihe Jookcd iike a thnmp in a Lobfters Symar : Now 
the Moon is rhe Church,which according to the meafures which 
our modiftiFafhion- mongers rake of her, muft at every change and 
Full, appear in new accoutrements : And as Nations have differ- 
ing Attires each from ether and the Winters freeze differs from 
the Summers Stuffc, fo the fame Church muft have a Mourning 
JVorJhip and a Wedding- Worjloip, accommodated to her outward 
acceflions or dcclcnfions in wealth and Riches. 

The external Condition of the Church does vary, but her God is 
the fame*, her 707 may be turned intoforrow, her farrow into joy ; the 
has herfajling, as well as her feafting dayes\ lblemn Humiliations 
fblemn 1 hankfgivings, but her JVorJhip continues {till the fame ; 
Though the iVorJhippers may alter their garb, yet the worfhip 
Which refpects the immutableGodis immutable like himfelf : if new 
things pleafcd our God,it were our duty to ftudy new things. If he 
fliall declare for Summer-Ceremonies and Winter-Ceremonies, we 
muft provide accordingly *, but if with him there be no variable* 
nefs norjhadow oft a rni rig ,that worlhip and fervice which we offer 
to him, ought to obferve the fame fixednefs and ftabilicy, 

3. Another of their follies was,that they could not hit upon the 
right Rule of Reformation. ] t was their unhappinefs , that this En- 
quirer was not then born to direct them to ir, which advantage 
he prefent age may enjoy, if we be not wanting to our lei ves ; 
And ir is this :That thofe differing forms 6e fitted to the Humour, and 
< uflom of the People, and made cqnfonant to the civilConfiitutions : A 
Rule had need' be flrait, or el fe what ever is framed by it will be 
crocked: Now 1 .For the Humor of the People : This has fometimes 
the fad fate to be decryed as the caufe of Dcfor maj ion >and now the 
happinefs again to be as much cryed up for the Rule of Reformat ion ; 
^hich if it be varied according to the ebbing and flowing of this 
Euripus, muft needs be changed half .-a fcore, times in four and 
twenty hours. 2. Cujlom has 1 confeis a fairer plea, fome pcrfoi.s 
of no final] learning pretending it tobcthe onely rule of decency, in 
things indifferent. In p. 3 1 . our Unquirer intimates. That lhe Confti- 
tuticns (of a Church) by rime are digefled into Cuftomes, and made 
natural. Now if Cuftome be the only rule oj r decency, then the Chur- • 
c'r scotrl nut ions ough; to be of no things bur what are naturalix^ 

edto a People by Cuftom, and thereby made decent alfb, unlefs he 
has a power alfo*0 command all things to be done undecentjy i and 
then leave them to be made comely by long ufage and continued Cu- 
ftom but if the Churches Confti tut ions her power to impofe andjudg 
what is decent be the Rule of Decency, and the Reafon of our Obe- 
dience, then Cuftom is not the only Rule of Decency. 

How much better were it that the peoples fluctuating Humors, 
odd Cuftoms, and the Churches Confti tut ions, were all regu'ated by 
the\VordofGod\ which is Equal,lnfallible,and Impartial } tqual, 
and therefore we fhall not be to feek of our worfhip upon every 
accident ; Infallible, and therefore we may fafely confide in its di- 
rection ; and Impartial and fo abets no Party, favours no Faction 
or worldly Intereft,but faithfully and fully delivers cut to us the 
mind and will of God : Whereas our Enquirers rule, muft prove 
the Author of all mifrule and confufion amongft the Churches of 
Chrift, when Humours fhall trofs Cuftoms , Cuftoms thwart Hu- 
mors, and perhaps civil Conftitutiov.s fhall retrench both Cuftoms 

One inftance willa little enlighten us in his defign and meaning. 
Wi:e rfCfays he)theReformation bad not at the fir ft the Countenance of 
the Civil Government, there the Reformers were conftrained to enter 
into particular confederacies with one another Jrom whencePresbyte- 
nan Government feems to have taken its rife. Say you fo ? Then I # 
know who will affume ; but for the firft three hundred years after 
Chrift all along through the pureft Primitive rimes,theChriftian 
Reformation had not the countenance oftheCivilG@ver?iment y and 
therefore they enter* d into particular confederacies ; from whence 
the Presbyterian Government bad its rife, I cannot certainly tell , 
and therefore dare not conjecture, whether thefe particular con- 
federacies ,be not a kind of new Latin for thefolemn League andCo- 
venant ; but this I will fay,chat the thanks of the Clafjis are odered 
tobereturned to this Gentleman forhis learned Argument to 
prove the. Presbyterian to have been the Primitive Church Govern- 

All this while ft remains a great myftery, how thefe poor Exiles 
prejudiced the EngUjbReformatign \ And therefore in the firft place 
he will give us Come light into it by a plain and familiar illuftrati- 
on# As the Childre n,of Ifrael,ei/e/2 when they had bread fromHeaven, 
Angels Food, longed for the Onyons andGarlick^ofEgypUremembring 
bovQ fwett they were to them .under their bitter bondage\fo thefe Men 


retained as long as they lived q lingring after thofc entertainments 
nhich they juund then very pleafant, re hen the other j&as denied them. 
Ihc foundation of tins ingenious iJiufti anon lies in thefc two 
tjiings, Fnft, That the Rites and Ceremonies of England were 
Manna fire ad from Heaven, Angels Food: And Secondly, That the 
vvorfhip of the Reformed Churches without thefe Ceremonies 
were Onyons and Garlickj, he mult have an Oflrich ftomach that 
could concoct them, unlets they were firil macerared,and diilbl* 
ved in a Menftruum of Ceremonies : Now the parallel is fo lelf 
evident, that we lhall only need to gather what dropsof it felfj 
and not to ihake thcTrec •, For i .As the Manna was of Gods own 
appointment, fowc muftnot queftion but the Ceremonies alfl> 
were. 2. T\\cMa?jna was Angels food, and as w henever Angels 
will death themielvcs with a Garments hey cannot aflame one of 
more congrimy than light •, fo whenever they fhali pjeafe-tb conr 
defceni to a Treat from Men, they«cannot be jfervecl up with; a, 
more agreeable Dijh than Ceremonies. And then 3 As the Manna, 
was defpifed and accounted dry meatfo are thefe Ceremonies too; 
and therefore as wife Fathers take away the Chi id reus Meat, if 
they will nor eat their Bread, fo the Fathers of the Church think 
it wifdom todeny their Children Spiritual Food, if they will not 
down with the Cei emonies,or let them fail till they have a better 
Stomach : But the parallel comes cfTvery lamely at laft : For the 
*}.la;:na hfted only while the Church -was in the \Vildernefs, and 
(gqfedj-asfjpn as they, entred the Land <?/Canaan ; whereas the 
pocr abided and perfecuted Churches knew none of thofe Rites, 
but forfeited or them in the day of her Reft ai.d Profperity : And 
iherefore to have, carried on the humour, he might have feigned 
one thing more'as well as all the reft; That thofe exiled Wor- 
thies (iyed all the forty years of their Banifnmcnt upon nothing 
hut Rites and Ceremonies, but when they came to the Land of 
Brcmtie, the Manna ceafed. 

We have heard a long Narrative of the caufe of Nonconformity 
from the Exil'eb in Q^een Maries dayes : which had it been deli- 
vered without colour or fraud, had amounted more than 
this naked lirtle. When the Righteous God (aw^eceifary to un- 
chain the Devil, and to let him loofe upon thewfljjh Proteftants, 
to exercife their Graces and correit t?eir Follies,: he gave fome 
ofihemChriftian courage to ahi^le by rhe-rryais, to othei s of rhem 
C!;r<ifliMiFif.iu}H ,0 fee U) f tbemft Ives by flight : Had ail fled, the,, 

)■' '.'-'''. Trut.i 

C m ] 

Truth had wanted iVitneffes at home for the pre fait ; had allflafd, 
the Truth had wanted Succejjbrs for the future ; they rliac fted, 
found the c are of God attending them, and the Mercy of God as a 
harbinger going before them, to provide them firft a Room in the 
hearts, and then in the Houfes of their Brethren-* Where being e- 
manciparcJ from the prejudices of inveterate cuftom, got from un- 
der the durefs oiimpofwg power : humbled by afflictions, and mace 
more wiling to beat the Yoke of, C/:r//?,and finding the Reforming 
Churches a tolerable Counterpane ot the New-Teftamenr Wor- 
fhip,many of them not confult ingwitbfiejh and £/<W,came off from 
Ceremonies, content to worfhip God with the fame meafurc of 
Decency prescribed and practifed by Chriit and his Apoftles. 

When therefore he telis us, that thofc Exiles received a tin- 
clure of thofe other Rites, before thty had well imbibed, or fuffxienlly 
underflood the Reafons of the c hurch */f England : He favs no mors, 
then that the Rationale of the Lyturgy y 2.i.c\ the Companionate Enqui- 
ry, were not then written : for where elie to find the Reafons of 
the Church for impofing Ceremonies, I am yet tofeek. 

2. A fecond caufe of this evil effect is, the bad ar.d incompetent 
provifion made for a learned and able Miniflrj in the Corporations, 
and generality of 'the great Par ifhes in England. 
' But before this Incompetency can poilibly be remedied, it muft be 
known what is ^ competency for a learnedMinifter ? for fome that 
are leame d enoush, are alio able lofpend five times more than 
the people are worth, or can (pare. 

Two things are here confide rable, which have exercifed our 
Enquirers Politick Hcad-peice. 

The Grievance,, and the Rtdrefs of the Grievance. 

i . For the. Grievance, The multitude of Opinions that deform and 
trouble the Church are generally hatch' d and nur fed in the Corporati- 
ons and Market Towns. Nay not only the dijfatisj action with the rites 
and ceremonies, but the CQUvulfions and confufions of the State, took^ ^ 
their Origin from the bad humors of thofe greater Societies. But how ' 
eaUJy might all this mifcheif have been remedied, had hepurfu- 
ed his own Primitive Rule 0/ Reformation, i//\, Modelled the Rites 
and Gove) nment of the Church to the humors andcufioms Zf the People*. 
But his mean ng was, That Reformation fhould be accommodat- 
ed to the humors of the Villages, whpre the People mind nothing of 
Religion (as he thinks) : but nor of the Market-Towns, where they 
are intent uponnew Fajtjions: But the Reader muiLiook en thcie 


as the lefler fports of his wir,.and the dilatations of a pregnant 
Fancy ; for the true Reafbn of all the ditfatisfaiftion about thofe 
Rites, has been the want of good ground for them in the Word of 
God i and the main caufe of the troubles that have enfued there- 
upon, has been the unreafonable and unfeafonable impofitio'n of 
them upon the Conferences of Men. 

But our Enquirer is otherwise minded, and he imputes thcfe 
convulfions and confujions, 

§. i. To the F nine fs and Luxury of the fc great Towns. .Well! 
have a little parience till he can procure his Proclamation againft 
Trade, and to fhut up the Shops, and that will moft effectually 
take down their Greafe, andliumble their haughty ftomachs, and 
ihcy will grow tame and manageable :But then another difficul- 
ty will ante, how they fhould maintain a learned and abkMiniftry, 
and allow him fuch a Revenue , as he (hall confefs to be a competen- 
i7:but is not this inconvenience to be found in theCountry Towns 
and Villages ? No ! They are for the moft part quiet, *and peaceably 
comply with eftablijh'd Orders ; for they are tired with hard labour, 
and never trouble themfelves nor others, but apply them fe Ives to till the 
ground.and earn their bread with the fweat of their Brows. Let them 
have liberty to be poor and pay their Tythes, and they concern 
themfclve little in Religion or the laving of their Souls : they go 
by che old Rule. Si Mundus vult vadere ficut mult, 'Mundus debet 
vadere ficut vult : Theie Creatures indeed will make fit materials 
for Uniformity to work upon : you may put the bridle in their 
msuths, and clap the Saddle on their backs, and ride them till 
they are broken winded and foundred, and they will neither 
wince nor complain : and yet there are fome fowr Lads and 
knotty peices among thefetoo, that will not budge a foot, nor 
yield an Ace further than Conscience informed from the Word 
ofGodOiail command them. ••'•:;■' 

§.2. In thefe great Towns they have lea fur e to excogitate 
Novelties, and fpirit and confidence to abet them : and here there is 
great concourfe of People, where Notions arc more eafily ftarted, and 
f art ies fajner formed for the defence of them : Where the dividing 
Notions have been moft darted, I cannot infallibly tell '■> but I am 
(ure the richeft Corporations find themfelves fomething elfe to 
do than to excogitate Ceremonies, or other Novelties ; and whe- 
ther Convocations have al waves fat in the great Towns or little 
Villages, is eafily determined. 

3- The 

[io 7 ] 
§. ». The mifery of all is, Thacin thefe great Towns where 
Was meft ne°d of the mofl liberal maintenance, fo pitiful a pit ance is 
left to the Curate or Minifter, that he can fc tree afford hi mfe If Rooks 
to Jludy,nor per haps Bread to eat, without too fervile a dependence up- 
on the benevolence of his richer Neighbours, by which means either his 
Spirit is broken with adverfity, or the dignity of his Office obfcured,or 
he tempted to a fordid connivence *at, or compliance with their follies, 
andfo like Efau fells his birthright for * Mefs of Pottage. 

The bottom ofthe grievance in plain terms, is this : If the Cler- 
gy could but once procure a Revenue fettled hard and fait upon 
ihemco their minds, (which what it is, neiiher we, nor perhaps 
themfelves ever knewjhad they but more wealth to fupport their 
Grandeur out of the hard labour ofthe poor drudgingMoyls,that 
rug hard night and day to get bread ; had they but Midas his Op- 
non or Fortunatus his wiJhing-Cap, that every thing they touch d 
might be gold ; they would then make the Blew. aprons lacquey 
it, and trot to the Couns by their Horfe fides, and to: does ihem 
good but to imagine, how they would firk their lazyHides,and 
curry thefcabbed humour of Nonconformity our of them : Thus 
much ofthe Malady \ the Remedy follows. 

2. The Remedy of this infupportableGrievance,in fhort,is this : 
That a Law be made that all Corporarions,Market Towns, and 
great Parifhes provide a maintenance for the Vicars ,i n proportion 
to London > for till fame fuck courfe be taken J t will be in vain to ex- 
peel, that the Church of Engl and, or the beft Laws of Religion* Jhould 
either obtain jufi veneration, or due effect. 

So far am 1 from envying them their Honors ,Revenucs,and dc« 
nYedAffiuenccs.that I could be content theyjhadfta nine parts, and. 
the poor tenth only left to the Landlord, as a fmall quit -rent in me- 
mory that the whole was once his own : But what fecuriry can wc 
have, that that alfo will not be demanded in time to make up a 
Competency ? for Trade is too great, Corporations too ricb,evcry 
one has too much, only the Clergy havcjujl nothing till they have 
got their Competency, which is nothing left than rhe whole. 

This was the glorious defign managed by the Council ofTrent, 
when the Church was fo unmealurably rich, that ir maintained 
abundance of Cardinals,every ene carrying thePortandSrateof 
a Khg \ fo many Arch -Bifhops,Bifhops,Priefts, befides the infinite 
numbers and Avarms of Religious Perfons 5 all endowed with :-rii« 
pic Revenues, and yet they made a begging Decree; much wovld 



ftave more •, Cujus avaritice tot us non fufficit Orfrisjlhit all the faith' 
fuljhould be exhorted to give largely to the Bifhops andPriefls to 
maintain their dignities.^ But the Parliament of Paris, a wife and 
forefedng AiTenibiy^ohorTingthe Mendicant Tra«ie,and know- 
ing well, that your counterfeit Beggers hide iuxury under the co- 
vert of Rag3, and rcmembring pofTiDly that of Solomtn, Prov 1 3 . 
7. There is that maheih himfelfpoQt* and jet there is no end of his fub- 
Jtance : gave this cenlure of it. 

' That this had been good indeed, if they did ferve the people 

* as they ought, and were reaily in need ; for fo St. Paul exhorts, 

* That he that is inftru&ed fhould givefome part of his goods to 
'him that inttru&s him: but when he that bears filename of a Pa - 

* ftor,does rnrend any thing rather than to inftrud the People,the 
'Exhortation is not p. oper i and the rather becaule Ecclefiafti- 
c ca! goods formerly were for maintaining the poor, and re. 
' deeming Slaves i for which caufes not only the immovables, but 
$ even the Ornaments of Churches and holy VerTels were fold. 

* In the Mofaical Law God gave the Tenth to the L' vites, who 

* were but the 1 3th. parr of the people : but the Clergy now,who 
1 are not a 15' h. part have gotten already the 4th. parr, and doth 
'itill proceed to gain, ufing many Artifices therein. Mofes having 

* invited the people to offer for the fervice of the Tabernacle, 
'when as much was offer'd as didfuffice, forbaie them in the 
c name of God to offer any more ; but here will be no end found 
' till they have all, if men will continue, ftill in the Lethargy : If 

* fome Priefts and Clergy men be poor , it's becaufe orhers are ex- 
•ceflivcly rich, and an equal distribution would make them all 
c rich abundantly, l-Iift. Tret.t, Cow.c.p. 821. Again lb. p. 540. For 
' a Synod to put their hands into mens purfes to maintain Cu- 
! rates, fcemed if range, both for the matter and manner ; for the 
' matter becaufe the Clergy was fupc; fluoufly rich,and rather in- 
' debted to the Laity, for the manner, becaule neither Chrift 
c nor his ^poftles did-ever compel men ro make Contributors, 

* bur only gave power to receive them that were* voluntary ; and 
' he that reads Sr.Paut to the Corinthians & Galatians 0iall fee the 
1 Matters treatment of the Ox, that treadeth out the Corn ; and 
' the duty of the Catechifed, towards him that Catcdnfctji; yet, 
' fo tha- thole Laboui ers have no Action by rigour ofLarvyXior any 

* Chancery to relieve them. 

- |t was a notable' Conftitution of the wife and Potent Prince 


Carolus M. conftitut. fo\,j $. Vt decume Populi dhidantur in quafi/0? 
partes, id eft^una pars Epifcopo,alia Clericis, terti a pauper ibusfiuar- 
la Eccleficeinfabric^s-afplicetur,ut in DecretisGe/aJii f h .t$ntinet4tfi 
€ That the Peop ie$ Tyrhes fhoula be divided into four Parrs one 
'whereof fhould mamta.n the Bifhops,a fecond the Ciergy-men, 

* a third fhould maintain the Poor, and a fourth fhould go to the 

• repair of Churches. Now if the Churchwardens ana Over- 
feers of the Poor fhould have all iheir Levies raifed out of J^eir 
Tythes , wh ch was the firft and beft ufe of them, what 3 peal of 
lacriledge fhould we have ringing about our ears continually ! 
Let meloberly propound a few Queries 

1 &//. Whether they who are for a moderation in Reformati- 
on, a mediocrity in coming up to the Primitive purity,- ought nor 
to be as real for a moderation and a mediocrity in ma ntenance ? 
It feems to be very difproportionable, to cry out for a mean m> 
Trading, a moderation in Preaching, moderation in Reforming, 
and yet to be immoderate for Revenues. A little ' fee will ferve 
of any thing but Riches. Let men havcenough. ot Wages, and 
they can be content with little enough of work. 

2. Whether it be rational to proceed in this marter afcendend&fo 
bring up the lean Vicarages to the corpulency of fat Varfjnages . or 
defcendendo, to reduce the gouty Benefices to the modicum of the 
meagre Vicarages, and not rather to make an equality, that they 
may both meet in the halfway ? • 

3. Whena-Market Town or Corporation is low, anc3 not able 
to maintain its poor, the Law inables the Juftces o* the Peace ta 
bring thi Neighbouring Villages under contr burton; and they 
who underftand what Charity is in a mean eftate, are glad fince 
there is fo„ iM-eccafion todemonftrare their charity to^lay hold 
on it : Let it therefore be enquired, why the poor Corporation- 
Vicars ought n ot to be augmented out of ihe richer Parfonages 
of the Neighbourhood ? but many will cur a large Thong out of 
an^thers Hide, who will be fure to fpare his own Skin; and 
they whofe tails fweep the ground, will not lend an Inch to him, 
that is docked clofe by the Buttocks. 

4. Whether the poor Vicar ought not rather to be relieved out 
of the rich Clergy- mans Excrements, than our of the Life-blood 
ef the Laity ? if the Revenues of Pluralifts, and Prebends with o- 
t-her fuch afelefs Creatures, were annext -:o the ill-provided pla- 
ces, all would be well : but the Daughters of the Horieleacfr 


[ »° 1 

cry Mill, G/V, £ «/f, and yet rhcy are ready to burft With bloocf. 

5. Whether it be not more agreeable to the Primitive times, 
and the nature of me Chriftian Religion, that the Clergy fhould 
have fbme dependance on the people, /as to Temporals, who de- 
pend fj much on their Clergy in Spirituals ? we confider the In- 
conveniences of a depending Clergy ,but not the greater ones of 
having them absolute and independent ; who having got a ferled 
]Vlajntcnance,defie their Benefactors, contemn thofe rhatdrudg to 
maintain their fplendid Equipage,and torment- rheir Confciences, 
who keep the wolf from the«r doors : The middle way is there- 
fore beft,thac fo much be fetled as is abfolurely nccefTary.and leave 
them to fland upon their good behaviour for fuperfiuities : fince he 
that is nch,and able to contribute liberally this year, may become 
poor,and need Contribution the next*, and its not equal to be 
compelled to Charity ,when he cannot difcliarge his Debts. 

6. Whether it be not a nnoft fcandalous reflection upon the 
Englifb Clergy, which he intimates p. 39. That the motive* and 
invitations of the moft judicious Clergy to undertake the iror/^/viz. 
the charge of the flock ) is from the mofl liberal maintenance ? 

7. Whether the healing of the Clergies poverty, will not cure 
them of their Laborioufhefs in Preaching ? and whether doubling 
rhc Revenues will not fingle the Sermons ? I have read of a 
poor Vicar, that being taken notice of by the Bifhop for an in* 
dultnous Preacher, to encourage him in his work, he gave him 
a good bu IkieParlbnage ; butobferving that he began presently to 
flacken his pace,and come to once a dayj\c fends for him,expoftu- 
jares the Cafe with him, why he fhould work left now he had more 
wages ? to whom he anfwered ingenioufly, Parvai loquuntur Curte, 

8. Whether it was advifedly fpoken by our Enquirer , to com- 
pare a Minifters condefcention to his Scrupulous people in the . 
matter of Ceremonies, to Efaus felling his Birthright far a Mefs of 
Pottage ?for if the Minifter lhould happen to cut fhort 5 his Common: 
Service togratifie his Patron in hopes of a Dinner, the worfthe 
can make of it is> that he fells a Mefs of Pottage for a Sundays Pud' 
Am*. And if a Minifters Birth-right confJJi in Rites and Ceremonies, 
he that gives a Mefs of Pottage fir ;>,will certainly buy it too dear. 

3. The third caufe is the late Wars : And for proof hereof he 
will defire the reader to lookjto further kack& than the late Wars be 
iveeen this Kingdom 7 and the Starts of the Low Cmmtrhi. But why 


no further back ? we ufcd to be led bach^as far as the late Civh- 
Wars ; bur our Enquirer was betrer advifed than his Reader 
perhaps is aware of: It had not been fafe to follow truth too 
near the Heels, left it fhould have dafht out his Teeth. 

But into what a perplexed Dilemma has he brought the Church 
of England ? If we have peace with Holland ,and therewith Trade 
and Commerce, then comes in all the new-fangled commodities. 
Ceremonies and Rites of forreign growth, exotick Cuftomes+' 
in-a *boxes ; If we have War with them, then the Reins of Govern- 
ment are rem/' fSiindNoncjnformiry grows apace -.for that (fays he)the 
contempt of Religion isgreater,and the ft axe oj the Church worfe at the 
endythan the begining oj thofe Wars : Could but we underftand the 
miftery that lurks under that word Religion, and that Jurgon and 
Cypher [xheftatc of the Church] we might cafily return ananfwer. 
By Religion then underftand Ceremony ; by tbeflate of the Church 
underftand its power to Cru/h and ruin all that comply not with thofe 
Ceremonies ; and then it's very true, that Wars are a great enemy to 
Religion : Every thing is fo far to be xeputedevil as it crojfes, and 
fo far good as ir advances the Trade of Ceremonies and Impo/itiens. 
If Navigation and Marchandife be EfTential to the flourishing 
ftate of the Nation, yet if they ftand in the way of Ceremonies, 
dam them as Schifmatical, and Wars and Blood- fhed,and the 
beggering of the Nation, if they would but promote Ceremon ; es, 
were amongft the choiceft defirables r However the remedy is 
cheap and eafie ; 'Tis but parting with the Flag, the Soveraignty 
of the Sea,(which our enemies would have perfwaded us were 
but* Ceremony) the Fijhery, thcEaft India Trade, and perhaps 
two or three more fuch inconfiderable necejfaries, and we might 
have fecured our Innocent Ceremonies, and the Church-men 
fwaggered over the Conferences of DifTenters. 

He that has a mind to interpofe in a difcourfe of Wars,may pof- 
fibly get a broken Pate for his pains ; otherwife the valour of the 
Englifti Nation, has fojuftificd it felfe in our Naval Engagements,, 
that it needs not be afhamed to lookback upon its behaviour, 
but I fhail only obferve as I pafs along thefe few things. 

i. That the Ecclefiaftical Hiftories obferve to our hand (hat the 
Wars between the Emperour and the Verfmns, proved a means to 
check thofe perfections which the Arians raifed agairft the Or- 
thodox : and if the great G over nour of the World will over-rule 
publkkJOalamitieSyiQ render the condition of perfecuredChpfti- 


ans tolerable, we have the more reafbn to admirehis powerfal 
Wifdom, who out of fo great an Evil could extract fo great a Gdod. 

2. I mult Call to mind one of our Enquirers grave Sentences -, 
ubi fditudinem fecerunt, pa-cem vocam : That which fomc men 
count Ve ace is nothing but havock^and desolation. Like fome great 
Enctofers, who having depopulated all about them, and left no- 
thing but the bareRibs,and naked Skeleton^offometimes fliuriih- 
ingHirms, bkfs themfelves that they are at peace from the noife 
of the obffrepcrous Carters. Thus when our £cclefiaftical Pro- 
jectors, fhall have ruined Trade* routed the Cqnfcientious, and 
forced peaceable Diffenters into defcrts 5 beggered Corpora- 
tions, thofe Nefts of Schifm, they may applaud themfelves for 
profound States men, ihat they have wrought out their own eafe, 
with the miferies of the People. 

3. Wars rmy reafbnably contribute fomcthing to a juft and 
well bounded Liberty of Conference; for how could a Prince ex- 
pect his Subjects fhould hazard their lives in his righteous caufe 
arid quarrel'.and open theirPurfcs wide ^o maintain the\Var,when 
either they muft lofe them in his Service, cr if they return,having 
furvived apparent dangers, be trample i upon at home, by tho.'e 
who have all the while fat ftill areafe,wrapt up in warm Fur and 
fecurity ? There's no great difTerence,w/bf*V;er a man be killed by 
chain-foot or a finale bullet \ And yet a generous Spirit would ac- 
cept it as more Eligible to meet a noble death in the field, fighting 
for his Prince and Country, than rolanguifh and pine away an in- 
glorious Life in Servitude, under Ecclefiaftical Impofitions. 

4. If the effects of War were lamented 3 as letting in Debauche- 
ry and prophanefs, tolerating immoralities, annotating the pra- 
ctice of Religion,wc fliould mourfte with him that thus mourns : But 
when we fhall hive an Oration of the Evils of the War,andatJaft 
the great one is, that it makes people not fo fond of Ceremonies, 
whereas Peace and Prosperity multiplies them, it's enough to 
make a people entertain thoughts lefs evil of the one, and Jef ho- 
nourable of the other: for thus the Spartans made the lives of the 
people fo intolerable in Peace,xhat they might more readily engage! 
in Wass abroad. And indeed fuch miireprefentations of the rea- 
fon of things, have made the World defire, like tKi Salamander , 
War for its Element, that they might not dwell in the hotter fire 
of Verfecution in a more moderate Climate, called Peace 5 for a 
■ferfen of Honour that in defence of his Country has come up to the 


[ 113] 

mouth of a Cannon, f and come off with renown, to be flam by an 
Ecclefiajlical Canon} would make him relent his fall with regret, 
arid dying, bire the ground. 

4. The fourth, and indeed the greatcftcaufe of all thefe mif- 
chiefs,is a pcftilcnt evil, known by the game df Trade : This 
Kingdom of great Britain is an Ifland, which as by irs ficuarion it 
has the greateit need of, io the greateit advantage by Commerce. 
1 hat which Nature made a Neceffity , Art and Induftry have turn'd 
into a Virtue : Thar, as we cannot live Com fqrtablj without it, ip 
we are capacitated to live Ghrieujly by it : To fpeak of its uiefui- 
nefs ro Englifh men, were to be as impertinently abfurd, as than 
Soldier who would needs De re Mititdti coram, llanibale diffhrere, 
read a Lecture of Tactics, to one of the bra veil Captains of his 
time for Courage and Conduct, and he may feem almoft as vain, 
that fhould commend ir, as" lie would be impious that ftopJd 
difparage ir. 

Before Trade be irrcverfibly doomed for an intolerable eviJ, 
may we ask with Pilate, pray what evil has it done ? has it intro- 
duced the fins of the torrid Zone ? or made thofe wickednetfes 
Denizens, that were pecuJiar to hotter Climates ? has it impo- 
verish t the Subject, or leflen'd the Revenues of the Crown ? no! 
nothi-ng of all thefe ; but it has felonioufly, and of its malice 
forethought, brought "down the price of Ceremonies, which are 
the Maple commodities of the Kingdom.- But did not the dear 
Ceremonies come over by Shipping too ? they arc not drugs of 
our own growth, ani therefore in Civility, we are obliged to 
carry a decent reipecl towards Navigation, that brought us 
home ib rich a Cargo : But confide^ Shipping was ufeful till ir. 
had la :ded this fraught, and then like Julius C<efai\ burn them 
all, that they may never export fo precious a Commodity. 

In drawing -up a charge againft this Trade,our Enquirer looks 
like the very Picture of Modefty : He fcems to fay, Outinam ne- 
fcirem Literas 1 He could almoft wifh (had it not been coo grear 
an Injury to the World) that hehadmot been fo Eloquent : (f he 
might do it without offence, he would take the poldnefs to fay ; i Fi a r is 
if the Merchants would not be angry to have an Embargo laid 
upan their Ships, and their Goods feized, He would fay feme- 
thing—Nay pray Sir, fpeak our, the Merchants will excrcife fo 
much fclf denial, furc for once, as to be beggered. Why then 
this is thefomething he wouldfay, That the vafi increafe of Trade 


does ufualy reftefl fome ir, conveniences upon JLccleJiaftical Affair $ \ 
The molt favourable Indictment furely that ever was drawn up 
againft an evil of fo pernicious confequence, in all the world. 
i. They are bur inconveniencies; and what commodity is there 
but is attended by fbffic final! inconveniencies J 2. They are but 
fome inconveniencies neither, as perhaps, that one of the wealthy 
ungovernable Fanaricks cannot be called to account in the Eccle* 
jflatticaJ Courts, becaufc he is extra quatuor Maria, or fo. 3* Irs 
nor always neither, though ufualj t thaz thefe fatal effects follow it •, 
for fomerimes an Edipfe, or Quartiie AfpeCl may bedifappointed 
of its malignant influence, by the interpofition of a more benign 
Planer. 4. Nor has Trade a diretl fp ken zgzmH the Church; ic 
does butrerleft its malevolent Beams; Now ye know xhztRalius 
reflexus languet. 5. Nor is Trade quaTrade, in it (elf eonfidercd, 
bur the increafe and the vaft increa'e of Trade that has all the guik 
upon it ; fo that if we could perlwade Merchants and Tradesmen 
cither not to Trade, or not to thrive of their Trade?, it would 
prevent all this miichief ; and I durft undertake ro perfvvade one 
half of them at leaft to this latter, if that would reconcile them to 
him, 6. And thefe inconveniencies are but to EcclefiaftxalAffairs. 
Religion will not be prejudiced, nor Holinefs iuffcr, I hope ; 
but there zrcfon.e Affairs, what ever they are, that fbmc Eccle- 
jftaftiefes arc a brewing, will not workfo well : In one word, it's 
all but Ceremonies. 

1 he moft Chnftian Kjng is all this while endeavouring to fettle 
Factories and Plantations for Trade abroad,and to give ir all po- 
flible encouragement at home And indeed they fay* he feas a 
very wife Council about him; who verifie the old Proverb, 
Thar the French are wifer than theyfeem ; and they tell him, that 
whatever Quarter he carries with thefe Church-men, who have 
ever private defigns of their own diftind from the general inter- 
cft of that monarchy ; yet Navigation and Trade muft be en- 
couraged} and let the Priefts fume and fret, or whine, and put the 
finger in the eye, all's one 1 , he will fettle commerce for all the 
idle chat o! Kirk-ftae'mcn : But ro fpeak truth,I do not hear that 
the Clergy there, whether Regular or Secu'ar, have thefe dread- 
ful apprehensions, That the Rife of Trade will be the Fall of the 
Church; and perhaps the Reafbns of things, may differ: They 
Have Legions of Ceremonies: and may well fpareiome tattered 
Companies j their Commons arc ftockM fans Number \ and if 



they WW a little /tinted, the reft would thrirc the better \ but 
fhould wc lofe a Brace, or a Leajh, we were half undone : and 
yet I am confident that Wife ana Valiant Prince would fell us a 
dozen of the beft Ceremonies he has in his Empire, for one half 
of our Trade, and (hank us into the bargain. 

Wc fhould finite at the tendcrnefs cf the Gentleman that 
would throw himfelf, and hopes away, tofaisfethe impotent 
longing of a Grcen-ficknefs Girl*, and others would as much 
jfhaile ac us, fhould we facrifice the Wealth and Strength cfa 
Nation to the humour ofthofc, who for a few Ceremonies, 
which apprized by indifferent perfons, are not worth one of our 
Plantations, would loofeboth : But if the Trade of a Nation be 
of no more concernment than robe caft away for fuchrrifles, 
all we fhall gain by the hand, is an Additional Ikeafon why they 
are called Beggarly Rudiments. 

You arc therefore iatisfied that it was mannerly done to fcrapc 
a Leg to the Merchants before he would prcpoiind fj harfh and 
difpleafing a buflncfs : He would do h without ojfeme, if he might 
befoboldl He envies no mans wealth, Its farfom his thoughts t& 
vpijh the Tide of Trade dammed up : effenced ! I wonder who 
could find in his heart to be offended at fuch civility ! fuch potent 
charms of Rhetorick arc able to pei f.vade them to Mcor up 
their Ships for ever, rather than import any of thofe Holland 
prohibited Commodities. 

Readers, you are now to give your Attendance to a moil. 
eloquent Oration, which is the Embalming of Trade, before 
it be converted to Mummy : for thus the Orator : 

Trade is hugely advantageous to the publicly, as well as private, 
perfons, in many refpetls: It much raijes the parts, and jharpezs 
the Wits of a Nation by foreign Converfations-, it opens a paj] "age to 
the difcovery of other Countries, and of the work* of God and Man 9 
of Art and Nature-, it's the great Incentive, and Inftrument cf hu- 
mane Society : It makes all mankind of one Body, and by mutual in* 
tercourfe to ferve the occafions, fupply the needs, andminifter to the 
delight and entertainment one of another. \t enlarges the mind of 
men,as well as their fortunes \ infonr.uch that any Nation is unpelite 9 
unbred, and half barbarous, without it ; It inures men to hardjhip 
and danger, and injlrutls them infubtiliy, and all the arts of living 
and felffecurity ; it adds much to the Beauty, povrer and firength 
of a Nation , and xq ths Riches 'and Revenue} ofth: l 3 rince--D\x\ I 

H 2 -vflh/ 

And yet all this notwitflanding—Ky \ thercs one evil in't Whic*h 
we little dream of, which our-weighs all thofe Conveniencies : 
Inlargement of Trade hath ufualy been attended (he muft crave leave 
to fay \t) with as much latitude ofConfience, (then fome mens Con- 
ferences have above Seventy degrees of South and North Latitude.) 
And the heat of that, with as much cot 'dm fs and indifference in Reli* 
gion. It ( s commonly obferved to introduce great diverfity of Opinions , 
ana confequently to abate of mens xealfgr, and reverence of an uni- 
formity in what was before eftablijhed. And therefore better the 
publick were undone, Mens Parts and Wits made as dull as a Beer le, 
foreign dif cover ies left to the pragmatical Dutch, all Commerce 
with other Worlds interrupted, and the Britains once again ex- 
communicated from the reft of Mankind : Better a thousand times 
Mens Fortunes and Hearts were broken, the Glory of the Nation 
ftained, its ftrength fhattered, the Exchequer exhaufted, zhanVni- 
jormity in fome little things endangered, one Ceremony difparaged, 
the wills of fome Clergy -men crofted, wich might fhonen their days, 
or one pair of Organs put out of Tune, wich would make them 
grumble like a pair of Scotch Bag-pipes- 

And to fpeakthe truth, all the great ends of Trade might befecu- 
rcd by Ceremonies, and an exad: uniformity in them ; for it will 
Wonderfully fharpen Mens wits, and make them both as keen and 
blew as a Razor, to find out every day fome happy new conceit : 
PopeVitalian was the mart that glories firft to have taught man* 
kind the Art of worshipping God with a box ofWhiftles. Society 
will be maintained by being all of apiece at home ; andinftead 
of Foreign difcoveriesy an Inquifition will better fearch out the 
Terra incognita of Conicience, and let this Enquirer be one of the 
Lords In qui fit or s of that Holy Houfe -, and the flrength of the Nation 
would be better fecured, if the train'd Bands were untaught ail 
their old Poftures, to the right and the left, and knew nothing but 
face about to the Eaft. The Beauty of the Nation will be lb en- . 
hanceJ, that we fhall fhine with a painted face of Religion : and 
the old controvcrfic between Mare Liber urn, and Mare Claufum, 
will be for ever determined, and that on the right fide : which out 
of Zeal to the Honour of the incomparable Grotius, every devout 
'perfon is botind to pray for ; nor fhall the Seas any more be 
proud of their blood, which have foughc to aflert their Righc 
?o that rolling Empire. 
Ic was then feafonably, and well thought on, to propound to 



US thevoifdom of the Lacedemonian?,^ thai the Laws and Govern* 
ment might not be difturbedwith Novelty , absolutely for had Trade or 
Traffic^, or fo much as Travelling into other Countries , left the Citi- 
zens jheuld barter away theit oven Laws and Cuftoms.for thoje of other 
Cities. But then I doubt their Laws w<re about the great thingi 
thar concerned the Nations being. They did not make Laws. 
That every mans hairjhouldbe of a length, and thenfwear the people 
ro obierve them, and forbid Trade* left t!-iey fhould bring in the 
Geneva Cut, and deftroy Periwigs : And befides all this, they pro- 
hibited Travel! as well as Trade ; as good leave all the doors of a 
Houfe open, as one : and flop never a leak, as not all, for ore will 
fink the Veflel. Now how to reftrain Travel, deferves more 
confederation \ and therfore let it be remembred, thar Trade and 
travel are no otherwife evil, than in their mifchievous confequences ; 
and cculd we fepai are the grand inconveniences from them, they 
would not be mortal ; feeing then we Trade more into Holland, 
and Travel more into Italy, fimple Travel cannot be lb deftru- 
Clive as compounded Trade. 

Thefe Arguments C jok'd up in good Language,may perfwade 
all Men to itepout of the way, and thro\v themfelves over the 
Bridge in convenient f afon ; for what can be impofllble to thefe 
Arts? But h~ had told us, p. 35. That there are oftentimes Reafont 
that make one form necejfa^y in one place and to one people, and not 
another. And therefore his Keafonings from Sparta will hardly go 
current in England ■ Same fay Sparta was a free State, and there- 
fore it may not hold in a Monarchy ; and others fay, the.e were 
the fundamental Laws of their Magna Charta, which they would 
fecure by abridging Trade and Travel: and notfbmeodd Arti- 
culi C/er/,what Garments their Priefts fnould wear on Holy-days. 
Eut never was Man in iuch a diftraclion between his remain- 
ing pity to the diftreffed Merchant?; and his yearning Bowels to, 
the precious Ceremonies-, fo has the Merchant himfe If been di- 
itracled in an Aporerick Deb; te between hit Lading, and his 
Life, till at la! dear Life overcame the ft.ckie of combarmg-Ob- 
ieolions, ard ( ver board went all his Merc-handife : Thus this 
Companionate P&fon would not have Traie die, but yet he mufr 
have Imp fit ions live : and where are thafe grave Head-pieces 
that can reconcile thefe differing Interefts ? Why, yet he hopes 
that the Englifh Reformation isfuch, that it may rather ga 19 than 
Icjl Profelytef, by being confronted with any other Inftituticn : And 

H 3 there 


there is no qneftion but under us prefent Advantages it would 
dofb»did nbc the feverity of Impositions* and rigorous exacting 
of things, which at beft are but indifferent, at moft> doubtful, and 
70 many, finful, againit which Handing Caveats have been entred 
; from the beginning of the Reformation, a little marr the fweec 
air of her truly bea:e3us face, and thereby render her not alto- 
gether lb fLrprizing. 

But as the Cafe ftands, from whence fhould we hope for this 
numerous Off-fpring of Profely tes ? from amongft the Papifts ? 
Alas, they have conceived greater hopes of us, '1 hat their Tyber 
fhall fwallow up ourThames t before our London (hall Profely te 
their Rah Ion ; And' they are encouraged in their hopes, becaufe 
they lay our Ceremonies arc a Bridge over the Narrow Seas, 
not to let all the Women of Europe into England, as we fancy ; but 
to admit Home amongft us with all its Retinue of Pompous no- 
things. From the Reformed Churches then? Alas they are 
fatisficd in their Primitive fimplicity, they content themfelves 
that their Churches are True Churches, their Minifters Gofpel 
Minifiers\ and though they may perhaps make a Journey now 
and then to learn Englifh Prea'hin^ihcy think it not worth the 
while to fetch Fire. The Expedients propounded to reconcile 
Trade and Uniformity,arc as follow. 

I. That there maybe fuch Laws provided, and fuch care takrn 
that the one (I fuppofc he means Trade) be not di fc our aged aior the 
other (D.fcipline no doubt) corrupted. I have been ftudying what 
further Acls of Uniformity this Gentleman would have enaclerd, 
whether wixhthcgrme Recorder ht would introduce the Spanifo 
Inquifimn t or revive the Aclfor Banijhment, or extend the Starute 
cf Praemunire to every one that fhall keck at a Ceremony : I hope 
God will pour cur the Spirit ofwifJom and underftaniing, of Council 
ani the fear of the Lord upon our Legislators :' we may make 
Rods to whip our (elves upon our Childrens backs : and the Teeth 
«tf Poffceriry maybe fee on edge with thofefbwr Grapes, which 
though the Father; did net car, yet they Planted the Vines that 
bore, them. But what would he have? Why he would have a 
more fwip'e way of Agriculture attended ' to s as if was amongft the 
Spartans, and this Nation formerly : Really if it had not been for 
thefe Spartans, I cannot tell what we fhould have done: Bunts, 
always thus when Divines will be Statdmen, and dictating to 
their Superiors : Scholars lit up liic at tbeir Studies, till the Cockj 
■ ■ ' ml 

and their brains begin to Crow : and what then uncouth whimfcys, 
breed in their heads ? there was once amongft us an odd Genei a- 
nonof Folk,\re call'd 'em Adamites, 2nd they would levelall 
things> reduce all things to the mode of Paradife ; fuch another 
Capricio is our Enquirer, who though he will not reduce Reiigi- 
ous affairs as high as the Apoftle, yet Trade mult be earned 
higher, and new modeled Secundum ufum Sparta?. I am a think- 
ing what wc fhoujd do with our Wool, which was once the 
ftaple-commodity of the Nation till the Ceremonies carried it : 
when we have ipun it, woven ir, and worn as much as we need, 
what muft we do with the reft ? 1 fhould never haveguefied, 
but that there's an old fluff fet off with a new Name, they call k £- 
pijeopacy revived, and that muft employ the remainder. 

I have heard of a fupercilious Spaniflo Don, who being asked 
by his Friend, How the Englifh men lived J Anfwered, Oh they 
live by felling Ale to one another. The A nfwer was unpardonably 
icandalous, yet agreeable to the Morofe Humour of that people : 
B it to this very pafs muft wecome,when thedefgn againlt Trade 
takes, to Barter Food for Raiment ; and both for Ceremonies 

2. His next expedient is ; lhat every one have fo much Charity 
towards the Governours of his own Countrey, and this Church, as to 
thinkjhem both as tr/je and hor.eft as in other places. And let me 
add: A great dealhonefter and wifer too. We hope our Gover- 
nours are fo wife, and render of their Subjects, as to allow them 
their Ccn ciences, the only thing God has referved to himfelf ; 
and that they are ambitious to preferve intire for him; which 
will fweeten all that coft and pains they are atinthefervice of 
him , whom Divine Grace has fer over them: But the higheft o- 
pinion we can pofTibly entertain of the Wifdom and Sincere Piery 
of our Governours, may well conftft with an Humble Petition, 
to be excufed in that one thing, the Immediate Worfhipcf God. 

As it does not imply that I am wifer or better than every man 
uhofe Religion I cannot own in eve: y particular; fo neither 
does it fuppofe that I entertain low thoughts of the Legislators 
wiflom, becaufe I cannot fubferibe to his Tendries, whilft I pa- 
tiently lubmit to his penalties; for ir muft needs be (uppofed 
that I judge him vcfted with Authority from God to Govern me, 
and wife in annexing a fanflion to his Law (b cq<;a', that I fubmic 
to it, whole pi ereptive part I cannot difcern fj to be. 

J have heard fomc plead in /uftifieation of the Severities in- 
H 4 flidcdl 

L I2C I 

fli^ed on the Jefuits inQ^Bll^befh and K. y.-r/wf j his P e'rgn 
rliartbey f rfiere 1 not for K.eJiu;ion, bur diiturbingthc Govern- 
ment, we humbly beg the fame favour •, Let not our Worflnp be 
accounted a Breach of the Peace, iffifatfa,buT&the rtxarrerbja, 
difloyal , or rhc Co.r,fequences turbulent and tumultuous, we have 
no farther to plead in our own behalf. 

3« A third expedient is, That we impute nor all the diflratlions 
of mens minds, and the quarrels agaitift the Church , to the badnefs o-f 
its Confuiutiun, this point o[T>aae hath fuch an influence as 
rve fee both in tie nature of the thing, and in the r, 'feels of ir. 1 have 
'nppowc i ro compound for the Trading p.irt, and prefume he lias 
as little to treat on the behalf of the ether Part. The blame of our 
Difiraclions, Diviftons and Quariete, will lie where they ought, 
Jet him or I lay them where we plcafe ; If Trade brings in 
multitudes of Opinions, ye; ihat thole Opinions make quarels, is 
becaufe perhaps one needlefs Opinion is made Cocl^of- the Dung- 
hill, and Crows over all the reft its equals, and may be its betters. 
I, think imparrialy, there's blame on all hands ; and if we could 
wave that forry way of excufwg our [elves, by accufing others, we 
were certainly in a fair way cf Healing : yet oise point he has 
.left unproved to the Charity of the well-difpofed Reader, vi%. 
Thar Yrade it] its own Nature has fuch an influence upon our 
Dijl actions 

.4. /-/islafl: remote Caufeisfrom the Papifls and Atheifls,voho 
both, though upon ftveral grounds ) combine their malice againft the 

■ I. And f,r& for the Papifls, concerning whom, he wiil treat of 
two things : fi.rft r why they are. fuch enemies to our Church % 
and thei; wherin the Enmity discovers it feJf. 

,§. t. What istheresfm that thefe Papifis fnould be fuch im- 
placable enemies to this Church ? Did we ever go about to blow 
up the -Pope and his Confiftory with Gun powder? Or ever 
MafTacre a Hundred 7 noufand of his Catholicks in Ireland ? Oh 
no ! It was a higher, or a deeper caufe, no matrer which, whilft 
pur Enquirers penetrating Head can reach it. . 

\ . 'The decent order of our Church foames their Pageantry ; Rome 
hz>a Brazen-fate cf her own; and I afllire this Gentleman for 
all his confidence, if snot a little matter will fetch the blood into 
her Chet kj- She has caufe enough to bluffr , bur Ihe-wanrs a Fo^e- 
Ufld] though Che biood.of i houfcds of Pro te It ants lies uponber 



Canfcie'tWi yet ir appears not in her looks : But before our £;;?///> 
rer upbraid them with tieir Pageantry, it will be neceflary that 
he gives us the Nice crit cal difference between Ceremomes y De^ 
cemy, and Pageantry ; for if the definitions of both be nor fixed 
re a hairs breadth., either the Papills will prove their TheatrJc y/ 
pomp to be Decency, or our Ceremonies to be Pageantry \ Mall 
myjiical Rites be Decent, they will ftiew us Twenty for One; and 
Will hardly be made to blujh for their penury, cr to envy our grea- 
rer plenty : But if they fhould be found a piece of Pageantry, they 
have infinitly out-done us : but withall, it's no great com\i\cc\C\zn- 
cn ro have but little Pageantry in Gods fervice. 

2. The Dignity of the Churcnfij imes theirs : Dignity is a Term of 
Art, and capable of federal meanings : If by Dignity we (bould 
(as we ought) roundcrftahd, A real ejfiential worthiness, anting 
from Something e reellent in the account of God ; then this Church 
has ib out ftript her, that (he ought not to be named in the ikMie 
day and year. But if we (peak with the Vulvar, and rake tins 
Dignity for fjme external glory Jhimng autinficular L<fi c, \\ hich 
is rhar current fignification ? which Cuflom the Mafic r if 'the mint, 
has (tempt upon it, I doubt flic will holdup her Head, and nor be 
dajht out of Countenance \ (he can produce her purpuratos paircs, 
her Cardinal?, (Princes fellows) her Dignitaries ; (he cm\ pro- 
duce you herAcolyres, dancing atrendancc upon her Deacons ; 
her Deacons footing it after her Priefhsher inferior Clergy bow- 
ing before her mitred Prelates; and a'l thefe orderly Re* erencing 
their Mcrropeliran : but then fne boafts unmeafurcably, thatfhe 
has an frccJefiaftical Head ro be the Cenrer of Union ro all rhofc ; 
fo (hat whether you run up z\\q fcaie from the poor Ofiiary to the 
Exercift, and ib upwards, or down the icale from the fupream 
infallible Noddle, moving all rhe inferior Wye rs, lTic will brazen 
ic our, and < ever hang down her Head. 

3. The Ancient Gravity of our Cliurch reproves theirs ; T am fer- 
ry for rhe Honour of our Church, which 1 truly Revei ence, thai 
this Gene'emanin vying with Rome, Should pitch upon chafe parti- 
culars, wherein if \vc do excel, 2nd cury rhe day, it will be no 
fuch Vicloiy as ro challenges Triumph \ and yerfuch is rhe du'a- 
cuircfs of the cafe, that perhaps we may Icfe the day : I do nor 
yer hear that Rome has difclaimed Antiquity ro he one of the hte> kj 
of the true Church- and know fome thing of her pKeiuniption id 
applying it to herfelf; Let any Anriquity firort of bcr.pture 


Bpocha, be fixt upon, and die will makeaforry fhift to Scramble 
through many a tirefome Century, and fcuffle to come as near 
the ApoftoJica! days as fome others : Both fides I think have 
play'd at the game of Drop- father, To long till they are weary, 
and forced to confefs, that fbmethings now in ufage, were unknown 
to the Fathers, and many things practiced by the Fathers, which 
we have filendy differed to grow obfblete by defuetude, 

I look upon thefe things as matters of courfe and form, to look 
big, and fet the beft foot before : for if ever we confute Rome 
With an Army of hard words, Decency, Order, Antiquity, Gravity, 
they muft be luch as the word of God has made fo. it muft be a 
Decency warranted by God himfelf either from the light of nature, 
or Scripture •, an Order of Chrifts Eitablifhment ; a Gravity 
exemplified from the Apoftles ; and an Antiquity which was from 
the beginning ; and when Scripture is once made f)le Umpire in the 
Quarrel j a3 the Church of England wiif certainly run the Papift 
out of all diflance, fo the Nonconformist will begin to put in his 
itake, and perhaps win the Plate. 

§, 2. If you ask how the Church of Rome undermines our 
Church, he anfwers. 

i . other parties with Arguments aga'nift it. It were 
much eafier to evince, that the E7iquirer has rather borrowed his 
Arguments from Rome* than Rome lent one to the Nonconform - 
ids : 1 think there's not one Arrow he can fhoot againft them, 
but I can fhew him where it was borrowed, orihortcn from a 
Jcfuits Quiver : Where was the Argument taken from Axes, 
Halter?, Pillories, Galleys, Prifons, Confiscations, as fome ex- 
pref; it, or as he morcconcifely, Executi7ig the Laws, borrow'd, 
put from Rem?? The Scripture knows it not, the better fort of 
Heathens abhor'd it,Proteftantsdifovvn ir,Papifts only glory in it, 

V?*rejure tuo Ctf far, fehlamq u.e Lutheri, 
E/ifc-, Rota J Yonto, Funibus i Igne Nee a. 

And whence wsis that argument for Active unlimited Obedi- 
fifir to all things commanded by the Church, borrowed? for 
though ir becomes no nlouth fo well as his that can boaftof Infalli- 
bility, yet ftill we arc pietfed with the fame Argument, and in 
rb* laft refort PuUk\ Ccnfcietice muft carry it. /am fori y this 
imprudent pel ion ffepuld give any one occafion to fay further, 



that fbme of us at home have furniflit Rome with Arguments 
againft the Reformation, Arguments from the Scripture 5 Rome 
has none; from the nature of the thing, not one; butfomehave 
put into their Hands a left-handed Dagger, which docs mifchief 
enough, it's called Argument urn adHominem. Thus when we are 
earneit with them to throw away their Oil and Cream ; they bid 
us, throw away our Crofs ; if we defire her to reform her Cowles 
and Copes, fhe calls to us to reform our Surplice. When we in a 
friendly way caution them not to feed upon the Devils flejh, they 
anfwer, As good eat hisflejh as the Broth he was boiled in. 

2. She is all for blind Obedience at home'* but preaches up tender* 
nefs of Confcience abroad. And what the difference is bcrween 
blind Obedience, and Obedience meer ly on the account of the Cem~ 
mand } /would willingly learn : and if any can ftiew us a better 
reafon for the things commanded and injoyned than that, we fhall 
return him thanks. 

If I might now borrow the Enquirers place fo long as, whilftl 
propound a few Enquiries, I would immediacly refign to him his 

§. i . Jf the enmity between the two Churches be Co great as is 
pretended, what was the reafon that fo many Stars of the firft 
magnitude in this Orb, were in Conjunction with tke Dragons Tail ? 
Why were they fo ready to yeild him his JVeflern Patriarchate, 
and all within the firfl four hundred jears ? Which will at once 
bring England under his Subjection : though / much queftiort 
whether the Grand Seignior will have fomuch good nature as to 
refign him the Eaftern Patriarchate fo eafily. 

§.2, if the Church of Rome be this Churches Enemy, is (he not 
then concerned to get more Churches to be her Friends? It's a 
wild Humour of fome Church-men, that they will difoblige all 
the world, provoking every ones hand againft themfe'ves, whilft 
their hand is againft every one; IfRomebean Enemy, lheisa 
potent, malicious, fubtil, and United Enemy, and it concerns a 
P'larch not to be divided at kerne* when her Enemies are Vnited 
abroad: and to Combine with the foreign Protectants in Love, 
were as excellent way ro prevent the Combinations of Komes 

. §. 3. Ttwoullbe enquire.!, ifR<?7/?befuch uii Enemy, what 
fhould be that which prvokes her wrath and indignation? What 
that fliould be that makes the envious Snakes, wlierewich Anri- 

Antichriftshead is Periwigg'd, to hifsand fpir out their Venom ? 
I)oestn'e ftorm and rage becaufe we have retained two or three 
of her fine Ceremonies.- 3 That cannot be the Origin of her 
fpight! They are ihofr things wlvrein the Church of England, 
and Nonconformists are murualJy agreed, that Rome oppofes this 
Church m", and they are thofe things wherein this Church Sym- 
bolizes with Rome, wherein (he differs moil from the Noncon- 
form i(ts. 

When the Heathens triumphed in the great feats of their 
Maximus Tyrius, and Apo'lonius Tyanaus t t\\e CJhriftiansaniw ered ; 
That whatever good effect their Religion ever had upon the 
Lives of Men, was owing to thofe Principles ana Truths, which 
it had in Common with Chriftianity. Thus will DerTenters plead : 
That whatever fu'ecefs this Church has had in its Miniftery upon 
the Souls of Men, is due to thofe fundamental Truths and Doct- 
rines of the Chriftian Faith, which (he obtains in Common with 
the Reformed Churches: On the of tier fide ; The Roman Facti- 
on persecutes and undermines this Church upon grounds equal 
to all the Reformed Churches ; and this Church is angry (at lead) 
with DefTenters for thofe matters wherein (he feems to approach 
too near Roman corruption. 

2. VVecomchowto//>? Atheifls; A Generation io abominable, 
of whom we may yet fay as was faid of the Aflrologers in old 
Rome, Hoc genus hominum femper vetabitur, & femper inurhe nojlrH 
fhtihcbiiur \ A people always banifhed* yet never departed from the 
City, fuch a Tribe are thefe Atheifts. Every one has a hard 
word for them, yet many entertain them : you fhall not meet 
with a Man in a Thoufand, but will liberally rail at damned Ma- 
ckiaviHian policy, which yet according to the proportion of their 
little wit, they rtrivc r to imitate : wich tempts' me to think, that 
they hate not fo much his FQiavery, as they repine at their own 
folly \ and judge not his politicks foev /7,:.s they are vext that 
they cannot equalize \\\m\ That they Nibble at his principles^ be- 
cauferhcy cannot reach his wit. 

Jr is but a (lender evidence that another is in the right, becaufe 
A'hcifts are fo grofly wrong •, And yet to declaim againir. Atheiftai, 
has thefe considerable advantages: Firft, fame think they may- 
be fecurely Atheiftical themfelvcs, if they can but fiourifli with..a 
feW ingenious Sentences, againfl them: and a witty Libel aigainft 
fuch, is a fufficicnt Purgation for him that has a Talent to expofe 


the reft of Religion. Secondly, it's a plaufible Argument, that 
thar ReJigion muft needs be excellent ,that hasr/?e worft of Men for 
its Enemies> and they muft certainly be adjudged worthy per- 
fons who arc fo Zealous againft fuch Impiety ; what Man of 
Charity would fufpcd Irreligion to wear the Cloak of fervency 
againft Atheifm ? And yet it's c< mon to hear it hotly profecuted 
in the Pulpit, by fome who come warm from that Service to the 
pra&iceof it/ I dare refer it to the judgment of the impartial 
world, whether he be not a kin to a praHical one, whodifputcs 
for aGod,znc\ then tears Men in pieces jbr wo^Jhipping him accord- 
ing to the beft L?ght they can get from Scripture and Nature ? 
And in fucb a manner, as wherewith they can find no fault, but 
that Vis not their own ? and poffibly was their own toonot many 
years fince, and probably had been fo Hill, had they not been 
purchafed into a better ? 

There are three Queftionshere to be refolved. What Atheifm 
is ? Whence it comes ? And wherein does it oppofe the Church, 
and contribute to a feparation from it. 

i. What Atheifm is> and who is the Atheift ? And this is as need- 
full an enquiry, as any of thofe ne edlefs ones, wherewith he tor- 
mented us in the laft Chapter : I allure the Reader, it is a word 
of a Volatile Nature, and Vcrfatile fignification, as any that 
gives us trouble with its double meaning. In Germany an Atheift 
once fignified a Perfon that mcdled with the Popes Miter, or the 
Monks fat Bellies: Epicurus of eld fome think was branded with 
Atheifm, becaufe he could not fwallow Polytheifm : At home 
fome conclude he muft be an Atheift that fcruples the Jus Divi- 
num of Tyths : and if he fhall detain a Tyth Pig, he is a Sacrilegi- 
ous Atheift to boot: Formerly it border'd upon Atheifm to have 
denied the Divine *Right of Epifcopacy ; but J fee that one may 
Queftion that now, and yet be a Chriftian ; What then an Atheift 
is, I fhall leave to the Induftry of this Enquirer. 

2. Eut from whence this Atheifm fhoula proceed, is a Qjjefli- 
on that has been fo fully AiTvvered by a Learned and Honourable 
Pen of late, I fhall not need to rerTeat any thing : Yet this is ob- 
vious, That when Preachers Preach againft Preaching, their Audi* 
tors may eafily ftumble into a belief, that what they Preach is 
not much material to be believed, when they had rather it fliouki 
not be preached at all, than not under their Formalities : If ever 
I fhould hear a Tradefman bitterly inveigh againft Trading *, that 


it never was a good World fince there was fo much Trading; 
that we never had peace fince we had Markets twice a weekly 
that there can be no peace or fettJcment expected, fo long as 
Men may lay out their Money, and buy their Goods where thej 
pleafed : let fuch a one be dcalr with as Severely as the Enemies 
of Tradecanwifh,I (hall not plead hiscaufe: To this if we (hall 
'^dd, that when the World takes notic.% that they who are called 
the men of God, and are therefore fuppofed to kngvo mofl of him, to 
be mofl like him, and to reprefent him in their lives as a Holy, 
Merciful, Tender, and Gracious God ,as they prefent him/'w their 
Doftrine, fhall yet with unwearied fury profbeure Men to Pover- 
ty, Prifon and Grave, meerly for non-complyance in thofe things 
which themfelves have invented: they give great occafion 
to Atheiftical inclinations to fay in their Hearts, As good beleive 
no God, as one. /"a cruel and unmerciful, as his own Servants repre- 
fent him to us. 

3. But .the lad is the moft important Queftion : How, or where- 
in does Atheifm undermine the Church ? Or contributw to feparation 
from it ? That Atheifm doesoppofe all Religion as fuch, was ne- 
ver doubted, in that it takes away the great Principle pre- (up* 
pofed to all Religion, That there is a God ; but how it does par- 
ticularly oppofe the Church of England, fo far as (he differs 
from others, is I conceive the prefent Queftion. It is fomewhat 
difficult to imagine, that they who have put off Humanity, fhould 
fcruple to put on any garb of obtaining Conformity. They who 
have renounced one God, will cafily own a thoufand Cerem onies ; 
what were it to them if all the Numerous Rites of /ton? were 
introduced , could they but get the fence of a Diety obliterated 
out of their Conferences, that they might (in without the flings 
and twinges of an approaching Judgment,which is the perfection 
rhey aim at ? Their Heaven has no God'm it, their Hell no Devi I'm 
it i It muft be a ftrange Impofition which an Atheiftical Throat 
cannot Avallow ; he that is of no Religion (as I (aid; can fubferibe 
ro any Religion, to which thofe principles are very cognate, which 
are contrived to avoid perfection under all Forms and Conftitu- 
tions : How therefore they fhould be fuch grand Enemies to 
Conformity, I wait to be refolved. 1. The Atheifls (fays he) 
tkV.1 notfet their wit againft a Fanatick^ they mufl have higher Game : 
by this Argument our Enquirer has demonftrated himfelf to be 
no Atheift j yet I would not have him truft much to it , I fuppofe 


[ I2 7 ] 

too, they have found higher Game than Ceremonies, when they 
open rheir black mouths againft God himfeif, 2. They inflame 
the Caufes ofDiviJions, provoke Mens PaJJions, and exajperate Mens 
minds one againft anothei . He has fpoKen more truth than per- 
haps he is aware of in thefe few words : I have ever fsfpe&ed, 
and now have warrant to utter my fufpicions: that it is a fpice 
of Athcifm, that exafperates Men againft thofe who quierJy and 
peaceably worihip God blefled for ever. 3. They fcurriloufly tra- 
traduce all that's ferious ; and what they cannot do by Manly difcourfe, 
they indeavour by Buffoonry : Thus thefe blind Beetles that rofe out of 
filth and eoccrement Buz about the world. And now I ?m lure 
where to find the whole Club of Atheifts : Amongft thofe Church- 
men who blafpheme the Office of the Divine Spirit as a Noife and 
Bu^: Amongft thofe who openly feoff at the Beauty, Love line fs, 
and Precioufnefs of a Redeemer : Amongft them who have no 
better way to confute the fitisfaclorinefs ofChrifts death, than Co 
make God like an angry Man when hispajfions over, and haj glutted 
himfeif with revenge: amongft them who can no otherwife de- 
fcribe the Zeal of Chrift for his Fathers Hou/e, than by the 
furies of a Jewijh Zealot. 

He has now difpatched the remote Caufes of Reparation -, and if 
the Reader complains, that amongft all thefe Caufes he hears not 
a Syllable of that grand Caufe ofall Divifions, the needlefs impofing 
of things doubtful or finfull,as the Terms of ' XJnion and Communion 
with the Church : Let himhave a little patience ,he may find it in 
its proper place, vi^. amongft the nearer jmmedi ate , dire cl.and pro- 
per Caufes of Reparation, whither wc now follow our Enquirer. 


Jfbrre the more immediate Caufes ofDiftraflions, viz. Rajhnefs 
of Popular Judgment^ Judaifm^ Fr.judice, want of intz 
Zeal^ a^e confidered and the Enquirer mamfejied to have 
bten fomething ridiculous, 

O Itherto our Author has acled with good Applaufe the part of 
**-* a Companionate Enquirer ; he will now alter his Properties, 
and play the other pare of ihe Pajftona^e Enquirer. He has wof a 


L 123 1 ; 

the Per fon of a Friend long enough ; and will now .put on fhe Se- 
verer Habit of a 'judge* and then he is refolved fome body or other 
jhall (mart for it, though thac belongs properly to the Lictor'sor 
Beadle's Office. 

There is only one (mall matter which he would kfpea^nd if 
he could procure it too of his Reader, he need not doubt the hap^ 
py i(Tue and fuccefs of th's Difcourfe ; and that is a certain Com- 
modify which Men call Candour \ a very fcarce and dear Com- 
modity it is grown, fince the Writers of this Age Appealed from 
the Tribunal of (heir Judicious and Ltaftied, to the Chancery of 
their courteous and candid 'Headers. 

If any (hould be lb Critical as to enquire, What.^/V Candour is.; 
he may under ftand that ir is a native Whitenefs of Judgment, that 
lias not yet received the Vrejudicate Tincture of any Colour, bur. 
retains its Indijperency and Neutrality ro every Cuftomer, Such a 
mind the Reader is defjred to bring to the Perufing of this Chap- 
ter ; that he be neirher Black nor Blew, his affections devirgina- 
ted neither with Aff. nor Diff. but a meer Rafa Tabula, Bur how 
much of this Candour nvghi pleafurc him, is a great Queftion ; 
for if a \mall Quantity would ferve his occajlons, no more than 
may incline one to think he never expected a Bifhoprick,or more 
than afirft-rareik/;f/*c<?,for writing this elaborate work; I have 
ju'k fuch a parcel of Candour lying, by me, that will exaclly fr 
his turn, But this will not do ! He has bifpokefo much of his Read- 
er \That b? will believe, it is not any delight he takes to rakg in the 
Wounds of his Brethren and fellovo-Chriflians, that prompts Jiim to 
this undertaking: A Candour tobeleive all this! Itmuftbe aftxetch- 
ingwhite-learh( r Car d ur,that will reach tothebeleifoffuch In- 
credibks,That he that makes Wounds does not delight to rake m 
their* : that he that forges Crimes, takes no pleafure in divulging 
them .- that I^e who reproaches his Brethren moft paffionately. ten - 
ders their repute ; That he who would ruin Mens bodies 9 \us fuch 
a companion for their Souls ; I confeft I cannot furafh him withfuch 
a Lor of'Candour: bur if I meet with Apeila'thc Jew,or any other 
Candid ^y?.7cre;,thathave'cnough to fpare,he may pDfiibly hear 

Proceed we therefore to the next and immediate Caufes of 
the Diffractions of the Church of Er gland. 

I . The firft afllgned Caufe, is popular rafknef; and injudicioufiefs. 
Whom he fliould intend byphe people, that are// rajh and injudici- 


««/,fam;at a great bfs in my Conje&ures^One diviibn of a 
Kingdoms into tie Soveraign, and his Ucig&pe'fyle* Nowitmuf! the people in rhis Notion, rharare io hair brain'd, for that 
WouJd include the CJergy.. Again,rhe Subjects of a i^ngdoQi may 
be: divided inro the Nobility, and the common people : bur neither 
under this notion mud rafhnefs and injudicioufhefs be charged up- 
on the. people; for befides that, this would ftill reffcdt upon the 
Inferi our Clergy jt would aft caft reproach upon t'ac Peoples Re- 
p; efenrarives. There is therefore another diftin&ion of. us ail, 
we are all either of (he Clergy, or the Laity jtizi is in plain Enghjh , 
the Populace or Volge : and there is good ground for this clafljcaJ 
distinction, not only becaufe we hear of Sermons ad Clerum, tha: 
is, to thofe who are Gods Lot y Vortion, and Inheritance; and o- 
thers ad Popufum, the common Herd and Drove of Animals ; £pp 
becauib we read of old, fuch a divifion made by the Learned and Ju- 
dicious Pharifees, Joh. 7. 49. Have any of the Rulers or Pharifees 
believed on him 9 hut this People, 'hat knows not the Law, is accurfed* 
And yet it will be thought icandalouily harin to fix the gulk of pa- 
pular rafhnefs and injadicioufiids upon the people in this acceptatl^ 
on ; for under this denomination will come not only the Nobility 
and Gentry of a Nation,butr/;? Pr/;7rehim(elf,unlefs heihould take 
on Ji'.m the Office of the Prieflhood. We mui't therefore f nd out an- 
other fort of people that myft bear the burden of this reproach : than 
which comes next to my thoughts, and offers faire:t toaffoil the 
difficulty, is the diitincnon between the Conformifts an i the Nor - 
corformifis : and thus we (hall need to feck no further for this. 
grandCauCe of Nonconformity. The Nonconformifts zrtaRable- 
7 out of rajh and injudicious people; and there needed net half f* 
many words to afTert ir, though, t^ice as many will not prove ir. 
This Caufe of Popular rafhnefs, is like the Cham.vleon^ whic'f. 
they fay accommodates it felt to the nearefl Subjecf, and will 
refembie all colours lave one, only .it's not fuiceptib.'e of than 
which cur Enquirer , wants molt, Candour: For the DifTenrer.. 
complain of the injudjciousnefs of the people, the rafhnefs of 
their Cenfures, how little they underftand their Principle:, 
how wrongfully they interpret their Practices \ and thus at fa ft: 
it wheels about to be a reafon of Conformity . 
; There is no Theme upon which School-boys are more franlc 
in their Satyrical Invectives, than of the common people, -char ic. 
is -rcAv/i^©* Beflia multiceps, a Hydra with. njahy heads; 

I ancf 

L i 3 o ] 

and yet in none of them, velConfilium, velRxtio^ vei Difcrimen, 
vel Diligently \ fo faith his Compere the greac i?e^^;z Orator. 

B'Jtl admire how thefe Mc*/? of wit and Judgment would live, 
if r/>r people whom they fo undervalue as not worthy to wipe their 
jhooes, did not Moil and Toil, and Plow and Sow, and Spin, that 
the j might lie at eafe, arrayed like Solomon in alibis Glory. 
■- The method of our Enquirer'm managing this bufinefs, is this, 
Firft, he will fpeak to the purpofe, then a little nearer to the pur- 
pofe, and laft of all dole home to the purpofe. 

i. That which he fays ro the purpofe, is this : when weak^per- 
fans judge of the Determinations and CounfeUofwifer men : and tkofe 
that pierce no further than the meer fur face of things, pafi a Verdi c} 
upon thofe wkofe Judgments are profound and deep ; there can no good? 
ijfue be expected. 

The Vulgar indeed do not wear the Head- pieces of States-men, 
nor the Helmets of Commanders: they have no need for, and there- 
fore no ufe of them : {hey prerend to no Authority to infpecl 
the fecrcts of Stare, to dive into the Intrigues and Myfteriesof 
Government; but yet under correction, they area degree re- 
moved from Beafts, and pretend and plead a right tojudg of their 
s 0im Actions , as they are accountable to the Divine Majefty. 
They are not Concern'd to enquire upon what reafons the Le- 
giflators fhall bring in a Law ? but they are concerned to enquire 
into the lawfulneis of the thing , mar they may give a more 
humane, chearful, and rational Obedience. Underftand me in 
thingscf]>:cialjy relating to the immediate Service of God, and 
their Acceptance with him therein: In other things , they can 
jpart with their own Right', and though the Command (hould prove 
unrighteous, they may yigbteoufly fubmit \ but in matters of Reli- 
gion they ought to be conducted by more manly Arguments; 

Gods Worship is a Service reafonable, and if I muft not ufe my 
Reafcn there to judge of i'S lawfulnefs, it had been an advantage 
to be made, whatfome would make us, Brutes : for as he that 
has loft hisfmelhhas this to comfort himfelf withal, that as he 
enjoys not the fatisfaclion of the worlds perfumes, fb he is not 
tormented with, its ft inks. Thus though the Beafts have not the 
contentment of auchi fed reafon , they are difcharged the 
cumber and torment which neceffarily arifes f/ om reftraint put 
upon the dictates of Right Reafon. J fhall never therefore re- 
cancile the contradictions of thofe whocry up<* Rational Clergy? 


[ tp ] 

ZpA yet at the false time reviie a Rati oral Laity. 

There was once one Virgilms Bifhop of ' Sakxburgh 9 that heli 
an old Opinion, that there were Antipodes-, the i ope ir teems 
fuf-pecl-inr fbrac dreadful Heretical praviy to lurk under rhar un- 
couth Opinion , convenes, condemns, executes him for a down- 
fghtHeretrck : Qiw Emuirer,proteftsHeea#l>j no means commend 
the Zeal of the Biftop. Irs like there was fome of that popular 
riijlonef and mjudicioufnef in it : But what would he have had 
the poorhoheft man have done ? fubforibe that twic$ two make five 
dnd twenty ? or againft Mathematical Demonftration fwear, and 
dec are. that the Globe of the earth has no Diameter ? I grant that 
weak^perfon, (and we are z\\fo we*kj) ought to fiifpecr. themfelves, 
and give very much to the CounceJs andReafons of wifer men : 
But to deny our Reafbn in its moil eafie velitations, and. familiar 
inftanees, for fear of being Schiimaticks, or caufing Diftra&ions, 
is but a Whim r ey, or a Wind- mill got into fome mens heads; and 
as i> came in, fo Jet it ceme onr again at its ieirure.. 

■p>ut this example of Virgilius was unrowardly applied; for If 
the good Bifhop had on his fide Demonftration againft Papal Deter- 
mination, as it proves that ihe private reafon may be more Ortho - 
dox than the public kj, fo I dare refer it to any ordinary body to judg 
whether in cafe any Diftraclions or fcparations had followed in 
the Church rhereon,the Pope or the Bifhop had been the Culpable 
ca.ufc of them -? The latter for averting that which was limply 
impoffibieJhoiiU be .otherwife \ or the former, for executing him as 
an Hererick for not denying a demonftrable verity > 

2. Bur now he Will come nearer to the purpofe. I affurchim he 
had need; for hitherto we have been a filthy way off: Its an 
Observation not more ancient than true, That the fame thing feldom 
pleafes the many and the few And a wife Obfervation it was,who- 
ever firft obferved it rorhe World ■ Jones heard a Grave Pi vine 
in rhe Pulpir, after all the Civil Prefaces of the Learning, Piety, 
and Ort^odoxie of that Father, quore St. Auftin fosfuch another 
Obfervation , not more Ancient then trtie, Omnes homines \unt fecc a - 
tores « All the £ueftion here will be, whether the many, or the few 
are more probable to be in the right? Oh no doubt ths few : for* 
the many are the people, the Vulgar : why then I refer it again, 
whether popular Judgment can be the Caufe or Reafbn of Noncon- 
formity ,vv hen the many are infill ibly of that Religion which rh£ 
]Law allow* and encourages, and the few ever of that way which 
is difcouraged and perfecuted ? I 2 B'K 


'But ([ay a he) wife 1 men generally take middle Counfels ; Tliat 
vva§ indeed d link nearer the purpofe, if not too near : for hence 
the World will difcern, that many Church- men are none of the 
veifeft, who are all for high flying, or high trotting Councels r But 
what are thole middle Counfels ? He tells us in the inftance of 
~Erafmus,who was the glory of his time andCountrey 3 for the fagacity of 
his Wit, and fimplicity of his Temper ; and he indeed hung in t he 
middle between Popery and Proteftantifhv, or as fbrric U,f f - be- 
tween Heaven and Hell: fo that hence we learn another fecret, 
what are thofe middle Counfels which wife men wouRtakei if 
©ccafion ferved -, but then I doubt the many y an& not the jew would 
entertain thofe middle Counfels. 

I meet with this moderation the word at- every corner, bur mo- 
deration the thing is as great.? rarity as Candour ; moderation in 
Ceremonies , that's a Vice : hence we hear of theft famous Ser- 
mons : Conformity according to Canon juftified, and the new way of 
moderation reproved. A Sermon preached at Exon./fl the Cathede^al 
cfSt. Peter : At the Vijitation of the Right Reverend Father in God 
Anthony — - This is that moderation our Enquirer attacques fo 
'briskly,/*. 2 ^charging the belt of Clergy-men with debauching their 
Office t and undermining the Church : but now to be moderate like B" 
fdftmis, between Canterbury and Rome that's your commendable 

And fuch a Religion did Calvin fear,like the Interim, of Germany, 
the Articles of Hsff,%.EyfoiK.w of Zenoyihe^EahtTii ofHeraclius, 
theTuT©- of Conflance. Such a one as was too high for this world, 
arid too low for the next : fuch a one as whether or no it provided 
a Heaven in the other world, would make a Purgarory of this : 
Calvin was taught when to be Zealous^nd when Remifs: to be Zea- 
lous in Godscaufe, and Remifs in his own Much teems fomewhata 
better frame then theirs who are fire tndtow for their own inven- 
tions, but as cooi as patience h felf in the concerning -Truths of 

the Gofpel- * n 

To prove me moderation of our Church, and xh^Jhe cuts bf 
a Three! (or by Thfeds) between both' the fe extreams ', he produces 
an Argument both from Papifts and Proteftants ; Thofe of the 
Church of Rome cannot but cotlfefs all is good in our Liturgy : Pro- I 
tenants on the other Band generally acknowledg the main to be good% 
and fo between them botb.pive a glorious teftimony to this Church af 
duUty ofnei'thcT extredm ■-.' There is nothing more childish than to ufe 

an Argument,which with the fame cafe may be retorted as ufed ; 
for thofe of the Reman Church condemn the Liturgy zsdefe3iv-' 
in neceffaries and fundamentals, and Proteftants complain 6: 
many Redundancies and Superfluities ; arid fo between (hem both, 
they charge her as guilty ojboth tbeextrjeams. 
But I am afraid he has promifed hjmfelf more refpeel: from Rone, 
than they will aliow her. If they will confels that all is good 
in the Liturgy now, I am fure they would not have confeft fo 
muchjWhenitpray'd to be delivered from the Tyranny of the Bifioop 
ofKome,andallhis detefiable Enormities. But if it hath been fo well 
amended togratifie the Papijts, give it one amendment more to gra- 
tifie the Proteftants, that they alfo may fay, There » nothing but 
vehat is good in the Liturgy. 

I have read, that when the £mbaflador of the Duke ofBranden- 
burgh prefented his Mandate in the Council of Trent, he fbewed 
his Matters good affection to, and Reverence of the Fathers of 
that Synod ; They anfwered very difcreetly, 'That the Council 
'had heard Ms difcourfe with great cenrdnt, efpecialy that part of 
*ir, wherein the Elector dorh.fubmit himfelf to the Council and 
'promifeth to obferve the Decrees ©fir, hoping that his deeds 
'will be anfwerable to his word. But here (as the Hiftorian ob- 
ferves) 'the Council pretended a promife of Ten thou(and,when 
s the bargain was but for Ten. The Embaffzdorprojfered Reve- 
rence, and they, accept of Obedience. And thus the Fathers of th<? 
Council of Carthage tgivingaxi account to Innocent I. that they had 
condemned Caleftiui and Pelagius, de fired him to conform him- 
felf to their Declaration : He commends them in his Anfwer» 
that 'remembring the oldTradirion,and Ecclefiaftical Difcipline* 
't hey had referred all to his judgment, whence all ought to learn 
'whom to abfblve, and whom to condemn. An ufual and pious 
'allurement of the Church of Rome, which yielding to the Infirmi- 
ty of her Children, maketh (hew to believe, that they have performed 
ifieirDuty. By the fame Artifice would our Enquirer wheadle 
the Nonconforming into a good mood, to acknowledg the Li* 
turgyto be good in the main, and that there are only fom? Redun- 
dancies which they would have taken away 

3. And sow at lad he will come home, and clofe to the pur^ 
pofe. That which I chiefly intend (fays he) 'is that a great part of 
'men have not their minds Elevated above the Horizon of their 
'.Bodies, nor take a.i eftimate of any thing, but by its Imprefen 

I 3 'upon 

C ml 

' upon their fenfes t from, whence (lay 1 ) it rauft nce-ds follow, 
Thar moft men judge of the ExceilenVj of a Religion^ it approves 
it fclftQ their carnal intffy efts, and ambition* Expectancies ; and if 
that will make to t he pwpofe to prove, that popular injudiciotsf* 
nefs is a caufe of feparation from the Church, let him make his belt 
of it : fomc think it proves the contrary. 

Two things he will fpend his Rhetorick upon as he goes along, 
the Excellency of the Liturgy, and the Excellency of his owri. 
Preaching ; which laft we have had enough of to fatiety, if not to 
uaufcournefs, very lately. 

The Excellency of the Lirurgy lies, in be i tig compofed plainly, 
gravely, and modeftly, no turgid or fuelling words, no novelty of 
Phafe or Method,* no LuxuriancyofvtitorFaticy, And might nor 
this have palled for proof of the Excellency of the Homilies ? If 
the plain Compojiti en , the Gravity, the Modefty of the liomi lies, in- 
nocent of all turgid or [welling exprejjions, free from novelty ofphrafe, 
crcurjojiry of method, could not procure a reprieve, bur they are 
condemned tofi]cnce,and inftead of them,we are all for Artificial 
Compofures, fugaredphrafe that will melt in the mouth , And method, 
f iich as brings Foreigners to England to he inftrutled in it \Quaint- 
nefs ofJixprejjiGJitind Luxuriancy of Wit and Fancy *, why then was 
not the Liturgy a littie lickt over, and trimmed up more fprwee- 
Jy ? But if thofc Characters of plai nefs, gravity, modejryjhumble i|ir- 
prejjions ^ordinary Language, be the Glory of the prayers, why not of 
the Preaching alfo ? the old Homilies were too courle fpun for 
modern Ears to hear, the phrafe too heavy and common, the me* 
th^d cryptic and obfcurc ; but Preaching is now more finical, 
and accommodated to the Itching ears of well bred Chrifiians* 
we are got into the mode of Lovedays Letters-, and CaJfandrazruX 
Cleopatra;, as if God did not undcrftandjftronglines,as well as the 
Ladies ; and as if we were not as much obliged to tell the People 
their duty, as God our frn a 11 En glifh. 
Popular rafhnefs and Injudicjoufhefs are great evils,a6 it appears; 
but how 16 apply a proper and ruitabie Remedy to the evil, is all 
.theS'dll. And firft/rhe Church of Rome frays he) have a Cure 

* for this i they appropriate all Judgment to the Clergy,and deal 

* with the reft of mankind as Sots and Ideots. But the Church of 
K F J ngljnd makes not her f.lf the Miftrefs-cf Mens faith,or impofes 

* upon their understandings ; die teaches that our Saviour hath de- 

* iirered the mini of God touching', the points of Neceffary belief 



plainly, and in other lefler matrers fhe allows a Judgment of Dif- 
'cretion. And will nor this Judgment of Difcretion, or Indifcreci - 
'on, become a caufeofall chofe Divifions,Separations and Schifins 
of which fo loud a peal has been rung in our Ears ? And is not-this 
'a new Name for popular rajhnep and mjudicioufnefa ? 'Oh (fay a he) 
Ymce che peac of the Church often depends upon fuch points as 
'Salvation does not; and fincc in many of theie,every Man is not 
'a competent Judge, but muft either be in danger of being de- 
ceived himfelf,or deceiving others,or of ncccfliry muft truft fome 
*body wifer than himfeJf,rne recommends as the fairway for fucli 
'private perfons to comply with publick determinations ;and in 
To advifmg fhe joyntly confult s the peace of the Ch urch, and the 
qniet o/Mens Confciences. Thefe matters feem very Artificially 
put together, and the taking them aluncer will difcover their 
weaknefs. Let me have a folid Reafbn givcn,why the peace of the 
Church fhould belaid upon thofe things which Salvation depends 
not upon ? Is the peace of the Church grown fo cheap and vile than 
it fhould be fold for things unnccefTary ? One while he cries up 
peace fo high.,;. 180. 'That he protefts,if a Man muftfuffer Mar- 
'tyrdome, he thinks it equally acceptable to God to lay down a 
'Mans life for preservation of the peace and unity of the Church, 
'as in Teftimony againft flat Idolatry : Are they not to be admi- 
red that value peace more than their Lives, and yet will venture 
it upon indifferent things ? Are they not more to be admircd,thac 
extol peace fo highly, and yet facriefice it to their own meer wills, 
and pleafures ? But is not this yet the greater!: wonder, that peace 
fhould depend on that which Salvation dees not \ and yet he will 
facrifice his Live for it, as foon as againft that, upon which his Ex- 
ternal Damnation depends ? 2* If Men be not competent Judges of 
their own A3ions,\vhat is become of that Judgment of Difcretion^ 
wherewith we were even now gratified ? Is this the Judgment of 
Difcretion,to furrender our Confciences upon Difcretion ?The Ro* 
maniftSiVaho appropriate all Judgment to the Clergy, and dcsil with the 
reft of Mankind as Ideots arid Sctf/, could have laid no ffiore,than that 
Men are not competent fudges of their own good : And if we ma; 7 
notbe allowed a liberty to judg for our felves in thefe lejfer maters 
debatable amon?ftChriftians>m\ic\\ lefs in thofe great matters which 
they lay admit of no debate : And how much our Authors Cure is * 
better than that of the Romanifts,! know-not; I think they are both 
worfc then the Difeafe. 3. Why is not the danger of crafting = 

I 4 cher- 

[ 13-0 
tilers, as great as trufting to the word of God ? Mine Eyes may 
be prefur/.ed'to fee for my conduct as 'faithfully as another 'Ma'hs ; 
ancLiiiy own Confciene will probably be as faithful! to my Etern- 
al concerns as any ones I could find. And I have tried it, rhar its 
mu ch caller to obtain a moral certainty ihat 1 have the mind and 
will of God*) than that I havegrafped the mind of any Church from 
their moft Authentic!? Articles,. or Confcfions of Faith. 4 Why 
lhould ethers be troubfcdjhar I am not fo wife as they ? its none 
of my trouble that they ufc their liberty without defpifing,whilft 
I exercife that which Gcd hath given me without judging. Kwc 
nrjft truft others in composing wcrfhip and Divine fervice for us, 
Terms of Communion ofChfiftians, where is then the difference 
between I)!?.?/-, and the Popifn Implicit Faith ? This will make the 
People Sheep indeed, but filly ones, I amfiiref fuch is my wcaknefs, I 
fcanfee'nO diffeieifce between blind Obedience and truftifig diker* 
tviththe determination of it ; or between implicit Faith y zv&truft4ng 
others as theReafon ofmyBelief, either then here's 'no Remedy ,ov one 
ivdrfe than- the Difeafe : The difeafe at wont is but to ehjoyia liber- 
ty in thofe things Chrifi left free ; nor is there any neceffity that 
freedom lhould be abridged ; and the Remedy to truft others blind- 
fold with our Consciences, whom we have no aiTurance will; be 
over tender of them'; and if we had, have no Commiffion from 
Chr.ft to intruft them any where but in his own hands. 3 : 

' But' what now if the people be foolifli,proud,and contentious; 

* what remedy has the Church tlien ? Way (he only declares them 

* guilty of fin and contumacy, and cafts them out of Communion. 
hat what if they be Iaumble,and meek,thd peaccable ? only cannot 
iiv feartTung, ftudying, praying, difcourfing,fee thelawfulnefs of 
ill . impofed Terms of CommunionfMuft the Church declare them 
fc'antumacious, and cgftfyem out of CommuriionH It may tempt us to 
fhink th it is no remedy of Gods prescribing, that deals' alike with 
humble and pro"ud,the peaceable and contentious. But forall this 
ckmurehefs,! doubt there are other Rehiedies befides aDexlaration, 
other Weapons befides Paper~Pe!lets.Thcrei$ a Signifitavi^a Writ 
de Excommunicato capiendo ,de B&retico comburendo. An Oath of Ab* 
juration^ Warrant ofDiftrefs, if they fubmit not to thofe impcfiti- 
Vws, upon which Salvation depends net •> and in rheir judgments, 
fuch as are finfuJ, and then damnation is hazarded by them. 

'" I have often admired themodeily of the Church of Rom.- : She 
tiever put cay m.i:i U de.nh • She never g-Sta}^. : Jxs not 
■■...... * for 


for Holy Men, Men of Ptace to fhed blood, to be Inftrumenw of 
Cruelty ; No, the Church only delivers them over to tbefecuLtr 
Power, and what he does with he treats them,(he knows 
nothing : Thus having drawn in the Magiftrate to do her Drud- 
gery, (he wipes her mouth, veqjkcs her fravds, and protefts (he is In- 
nocent of the blood oftheje men, 

• An Oojecnon was timely forefeen that might be made fgainft 
his difcourfe, and like a perfon that knew how to be friendly to 
himfelf, he has put it in favourable and gentle Terms 

• 'This will equally extend to all other Reformed Churches. as 
'well as our own ; and might have brought forth all the evil wc 
^complain of,and impure ro ir,in former Ages as weil as now ; for 
the generality cf the People were not much wiier than now. 

Thar is rhe Proreftant Churches have their Members as lyable 
to miitake beyond Sea, as ours on this fide 5 they have private 
Re a fori as well as we, and a Judgment of difcretion too, and Co had 
the Primitive Times too-, Chnftians then were equally in danger 
of being (educed by their owninju licioufncfs,and}jet the one con- 
tinued in much peace,and the. other ftill continues fo,without r/><? 
Remedy, cfimpojjng myftical Ceremonies : Nay, ro /peak pr©perly, 
without the difeafe of Impofitions : The not impojitig doubtful things 
& the terms ofCommunion, were with them the Prcphylacrirks of 
Schiims and Divif7ons,and the impofing of thcm(which is ftrange) 
is the Therapeurick of Schifms and Divifions i to which he an- 
fwers two things. 

> § 1. 'That other Churches found the effects of Ignorance and 
'Arrogance mere or lefs, as well as we : To which might be re- 
turned that they found it not in thole things which they left free ; 
but if at any time they laid the weight of the Churches peace up- 
on unncceflaries, they found in proportion the fame effe&s of 
the fame caufe, which we have found : 'But (fays he) that was to 
'be afcribed not to the happinefs of their Constitutions, bur to the 
'unhappinefs of their Conditions. ]" confe/s I am not pltogether 
cf his mind ; it was mainly due to the happinefs cf their Confti- 
tutions; there were fewer contentions, becaufe fewer bones of 
contention j and lefs of Divifions, becaufe they united upon a' 
Scriptural, and therefore fecure bottom. 

That the Church of Corinth needed a cheeky for her Divifions, is 
very tjue, and a flnart one flie deferved: And 'tis as true too, 
1 hat the Apoitk had riot reccurfe to pur modern Remedies,™ ex- 

er this Apoftolical power, to filcnce the clamour by darting the 
Thunderbolt of Excommunication againft the weaker Party : and 
yet he had a far more fpecious pretence, than any Church- Gover- 
nours can now juftly claim : His Apoftolical CommiiTion to plant 
and water Churches, which would hafre commanded Reverence to 
his Pe^on,and conciliated Authority to his Determinations .-and 
yet he either had no fuch power, or durft not-ufe it, but took the 
Healing way, tolerating things tolerable, and prclTing them mu- 
rualy to Love and peace under their various apprehenfions abour 
Mint, Annife and Cnmmin. But yethethmks, That the Reafon 
rohy Primitive Chrijlians, vchilft under per fee ut ion, had one heart and 
mmdjvaSfbecaufe they [ulimitted their private Fancies top ublicl^ 
Safety :' Which is only the afTigning of an Imaginary caufe for a 
.Real one. Primitive Chnftians, whilft furrounded with Adver- 
saries, were of one heart and mind in the main,- nd the true Reafbn 
Was, becaufc their dangers and prefiing-fears had not yet let in 
that Prelatical Impofmg Spirit into the Guides of the Church, 
Whicheafeand Liberty afterwards produced. And though we 
dare not charge our. Divisions upon Peac e, Plenty and Liberty, 
frhich are great mercies to afinful people : yet We would lay the 
Saddle upon the right Horfe,the blame at the right door : Tis not 
the injudicioufhef^ofthe People, who are willing to bequiet,and 
accept of reft upon tolerable terms : but the obftinacy of Clergy- 
men, who make their own Wills the reafon of their Injunctions, 
not conflicting that all mens Intellectuals are not of one fixe and 
height : and yet as if Consciences were to befooled with, Mens 
tSouls fported with, they necefiirate the People either to act a- 
^ainft their Light,or fall under the fevere lafh of aPoenal Statute. 
§ 2. 'That theie evils broke out no fooner (fays he)is due to 
* ths contentment generally took in their fir ft Emerging out of 
f the darkuefs and luperftitions of Popery: Very true! they were 
fo ful i of admiration at what God had done for them : that they 
confidered not what further to ask God to do for them :To tran- 
fported. that they were out ofEgyptfhzt they never confidered how 
'fljort the Wilder ne\s was of the promifed Land : And hence he might 
have anfwered himfelf, p. 1 3. ? If there be fuch a dangerous AfT- 
l nity between rheChurch of E?ig land and Rom e,ho\v came it topafs 
c thzrCranmcr and Ridley^cJaid down their lives in tcftimony to 
s this againft that . ; Rome was not built, nor will it be deftroyed in 
one day. : Our firft Martyrs laid down their lives inTeftimony, 


that Rome was guilty of dangerous -Do brines, but not that we 
had nothing remaining, thar needed a Reformation, 

2. ' Afeccond caufe is, That a great Part of this Nation having 
'been Icvened with Jewifh Superititiorisor Traditions,hath there- 
1 by been in lifpofed to an Uniform reception of, r.nd Perfevcrence 
*in the Reformation of Religion held forth by this Church. 

When I firft read the charge of Judaifm brought in againft the 
pilT^nters . I remembred what I had met within the virulent 
Titles of fbme Lutheran Books : Calvinus Judaizans,Calviniano- 
rum Neftorianifmus, Cahino papifm-us 3 Novus Caluinijlarum Dew : to 
which we may add ,Calvino-Turcifmus\Anc\ fame others. I began to 
caft about in my thoughts for the rcafon of fuch an Imputation : 
have they fet up an Image of ' Aaronical Priejlhood ? Have they their 
High-Prieft, their Inferior Priejls gnd Levites. attired in the Linen 
Ephod ? With all the Accoutrements of the Air onical Wardrobe ? 
And that they may more exactly fymboHze therewith, have they 
provided for their Priefts an Altar ? Settled upon them a Leviti- 
cal maintenance ? And to carry on the parallel, have they ere tied 
Temples diftinguifht by [acred Apartments ? Havethey their Holy 
and moft Holy place, Chancered in for the greater Reverence 
of the fac red Mjftries, to fecure them from the Approaches of the 
prophane and injudicious Rabble . ; and have they all thefc cnclo- 
icd within Ho\yGround\ And iherather becaufe Dionyfius allures 
us. That the Chriftians in his time, had (blemn Temples like the Jews; 
and the Chancel fevered asith fptcial Janciifications from the refiof 
the Church : whereas ( /ays he J the Cluiftians of the firft age made 
thiir ajfemblies both in fuCh private p laces , and in fuchfimplicitj 
as the Apoflles did, 1 confidered again, whether the Nonconfor- 
ming had not introduced a pompous p^dagogie of Ceremonies, and. 
impofed them upon the People ? Whether they might no: per- 
haps have inftituted fome Feaftsand Holy-days, upon an old Ju- 
dical account, as of the Circumcinon, Purification ? Or whether 
they had not appointed fame Office, or folcmn facial Service for 
Lufiration of Women after Childbirth, in correfpondence with 
thejewifo Purification of Women after their unclec::ef* ? Whether 
they obferved any (acred time Analogical to the PalTo.ver, or had 
any Foct-ftcps of the ancient difiihtlion sf Meats into clean and 
unclean? Or any thing that might give caufe offu (pit ion,th at they 
had by a k^lo^U revised M&fts, his extraordinary Qnadragefi- 
nial Abftinence ? Or whether they introduced Temple irftru* 


mental Mufick ? whether loud founding Cymbals or Organs, 
having fuch good proof in 'Durannt* his Rationale, from that 
*Text, Let every thing that hath breath praife the Lordl And when 
I could find no tract of reafon for the charge upon theie accounts, 
I went to enqiure of the Enquirer 

'' And it does appear (by his talk) that a more fecret and myfte- 
Xrous Judaifm than all this, has of old been rooted in this Nation, 
that no Ecclefiaftical Pick axes have been able to extirpate ir> 
l for(fays he)ihe greateft difficulty that Auftin the Monk found here, 
' was to bring the Inhabitants from the obfervation of Eafter, and 
Tome other Rires,according to the manner of the Jewifh and Ea- 
•ftern Churchcs,to that of the Roman and Weftern : and the do- 
ing it, cod the lives of twelve hundred Monks, who ftubbornly 
bppofed his innovations. 

This Aufihi was certainly as Formal a Fop as ever this poor 
Nation was haralTcd with. Two third parts of his whole Minifte- 
nal or Apoftoiical work, was Ceremony ; for upon thefe conditi- 
ons he propounded Peace to the Britains. Tf you will in theie 
'three things obey me,in celebrating Eafter indue time : in Bapti- 
sing according to the maner of the Roman Church>and in Pi ea- 
'ch'mg the Word to the Nation ; all other Ceremonies, Fafhions 
'and Cuftoms,though they be contrary to ours, yet we will will- 
'ingly bear with them. Was not this a perfon of great moderati- 
on ? But why not condefcend in thofetwo, as well as all the reft ? 
Oh, its the Religious policy of Romero reierve as much of Cere- 
mony, as, like a Quit-rent, will ferve to Recognize the Papal So- 
veraignty ; and that point of Soveraig?2ty alone will in due time 
fetch in the other. 1 To own that Churches power to impofe, its 
jurifdicliOn, to award terms of Communion, though but in one 
/ingle inftanccjs the delivery of a Twig and a Turf which give her 
Livery and Seifin of the Confidence in the name of the whole 
Man. But lfAuftins Reformation was fo Ceremonious in it felf and 
p bloody in its effe&s, which are, if not infeparably, yet commop- 
Jinked together : Jf he could have (pared their blood, they coirid 
well have fpared his Ceremonies. - 

But was this Auftin fo great a Saint* that he muft be quoted for 
the famous Reformer of Judaifm? Or were thole Marty res of 
Bangor fuchi Wicked ]ew c ,that the Noronformifts fhould be 
ihar Spawn ? No 'This Auftin made our # Anceftors only Roma- 
feiftSihe fotlhd themChriftians before? and perhaps -of a better, itid 
* * ' more 

C 1$ ] 

'more generous race of Religion, than that he engrafted upon the 

'old Stock. Thenitfeems that ChriJlians 9 ho\\ T cvcrfudai^ngin 
one inftance, may be of a Nobler temperature than an old doting 
Ceremony-monger, that for a meer Caprice, would mingle their 
blood with their Sacrifices : But how docs the Example come home 
lo ikepmpofe ? Auflin was mad upon his Ceremonies : The Brita- 
in* were tenacious of their E after ? Wherein are Diflenters con- 
cerned in their quarrels,who neither dogmatize with the Qutrto 

1 fimaitef orQu'tnto-decimanes ? Let the one plead Traditions from 
Papias and St. John, with the Eaftern, the other pretend the Pope 
and St. Pe^r,with the Weftern Chriftians,we can be content they' 
flrould fcuffle it out,aboutGoats wool,or Moonshine in the water. 

Our Enquirer nevertheleis,will give us an Anatomy of Noncon- 
formity, and lay open their principles to view, that it fhall appear 
that a vein of Judaffm runs through the vchole Body of DifTenters. 
i . The flrft Vein is : Their great Hypothecs is, That nothing is law- 
ful in the Service of God, but what is exprefly prefcribed in the Scrip- 
rnre. Which propofi don needs many limitations, before the Di- 
rfenters will Father it, ana when it is fo limited, they will chal- 
lenge him to prove, that there's the leaft Capillary of Judaifrn in 
it : And i . If by Nothing he underftand no meer Circumfiance, as of 
general time, place, he may know what they have told the World 
a thousand times,they hold man) fuch things lawful, which are not 
prefcribed particularly in the Scripture : but if by Nothing he will 
underftand no Ceremony, being an outward and vifible fign of inward 
ahdinvifihle Grace •, they do alfert, that no fab thing is lawful in 
worfhip, but what is prefcribed in the Scripture. 2. \fby in the 
fervice of God he mean^only an aclion accompanying Gods Wor- 
ship, not of Religious application, but fuch as is common to civil 
and ordinary affairs , they deny it any principle of theirs, that no- 
thing may be done in time of Worfhip, by the \Vorfhir.pers,rhar is 
not commanded by the Scriptures. Eut if by in the fervice of God, be 
meant, fo in it, that it is pari of it, they own it to be their avowed 
Judgment, that nothing is lawful in the fervice of God, as a parr 
of worfhip, which is not commanded by God himfelf. 3. If by ex- 
f re lly commanded, be intendcd,whatis literally andSyllabically called 
fo\ they difown it as any H)potbefi>' of theirs: But if by exprefiy 
commanded, be intended what is either.^ fn7ov>or by juft confe- 
rence derived thence, they are ready to juftifie it without fear of 
Judaizing,That nothing,no outward vifible fign of inward and in- 
Vifible Grace/is lawful in the fervice of God. as a part of that fcr- 


- [H2] 

Vice, which is not exprefly, or by juftandclear ccnfequence pre* 
fcribed in the Scripture, not excluding whatever help from the 
Light of Narure, to give us a fuller prolped into the mind of God 
in his word. Nor ought this to beftigmatized as a principle pecu- 
liar to the common to them, with all other true worihip- 
pers ofOod,from thebegining of the World. To impofeapart of 
worjioipyis not only an Impofition upon Man, but upon God. The 
Impofer does nor only compel Man to offer, but God to accept 
what is offered : for feeing the End of all worfhip is Acceptation 
'.With him whomweworfloip,t his End rriuft influence our whole wor- 
fhip. And this is fuppofed by the Church of England ,\\ T \\o prays Cor 
invires to pray))!?/- tru? Repentance and the Holy Spirit, that thofe 
things way pleafe him which we do at this prefent: Now its neither 
our own fancies , nor the will of Men , but the word of God, that is a 
competent Declaration of what will pleafe our Creator. Difien* 
rers plead further : That the fame God, that jealousGod who com- 
mane'ed the Jews not to add to Gods commands, commanded it up> 
on Reafons, common to all mankind. It was well urged a'gainft the 
fem by the learned Author of On'g. Sacr. p, 214.' That the mean-; 
«ingof~thar ftri& Prohibition, Deut.ii' 32. was no other than 
' that Men fhould not of their own Heads offer to find out new 
'ways of worfhip, as Jeroboam did *, but that Gods Revelation of 

* his own will, in all its different degrees, was ro be the adequate 
'Rule of the way and parts of his own worfhip. And I wou<d 

* fain know of the Jews, whether their own fevere and ftricl pro* 
•hibirion of things, not at a'l forbidden in the Law of God,carne 
'not near the adding to Gods Law ; Again, God having given no 
rule to direct us in excogitating amd impofingnew worfhip, it's 
impofUble but we fnuild mlftafce; or if *ve fhould hit now and 
then upon fbme happy contrivance, we rauft thank his blind god- 
defs Fortune, rather than the fruitfulnefs of our own underftand* 
ings : And this loofe p; inciplc would make the World a Pantheon, 
cr encumber it witha.~«irtfijg*j<*,and would multiply Religions 
according to the multitudes of the Churches. as they of old multi- 
plied their Idols, according to the number of their Cities. They do 
alf.'. (bli believe from Heb. n, 1 hat Chrift waus faithful to him that 
appointed him the Lord of the Churchjn making all neceffary pro - 
vifions for the encreafing,confirming,and perfecting their graces; 
for their comfort ,edification, and allfpiritual necefllties, without 
anynew Additional contrivances for thofe ends.; Nay they fay yet 
further ; That as chefe new ways and parts of worfhip, do inv, 


['43 ] 
peach Chrifts fahhfulnefs in discharge of his truft, fo tliev doln- 
vade hisRegal Office too,in making new Laws to bind the Consci- 
ence y An usurpation which no Earthly Prince would endure ; for 
when a Prince haseftablifht his Laws,though he fuppoles ; that the" 
Inferior Magiftrates muft have time and place to execute them in, 
which arc left at liberty according as emergency in particular ca- 
fes (hall invke to determine them,yet he allows them to make no 
new Lavs, upon pretence of neceflity to execute the old cries, nor 
to inftitute new Obfervance s,under colour of more effectual mana- 
ging old Cuftoms : And it feqpis reafonable, that the People fhouid 
not praclife what Minifters may not Preach \ nor the Church im- 
pofe what it cannot command in Chrifts name y but k can only ufe 
Chrifts nam. to urge whatsoever he has commanded them; nay the 
Enquirer, when perhaps he did not think of afcer mifchief, told 
us,/>. 4. That ' we incur Sz. Pauls Anathema, which he denoun- 

• ces againft him Cwhofoever he be, nay if an Angel from Heaven > 

* that fliall Preach any other Do&rine,than what hath been recei- 
' ved: And if the Church has received any fuch command to invent 
and impofe Ceremonies, fhe can tell us w here others may read it 
as well asherfelf. And to conclude at prefent,they fay/That this 
pne Principle granted, That the Church may impofe uflon her 
Members whatever is not exprefljr forbidden, docs either put the 
Body of Chriftians under a more heavy Yoke than that of the 
Jens&r elfe torment them with fcars,that they may be i'o : And in- 
deed fuppofing this exorbitant power to impofe parts of worfhlp 
or Ceremonies, oranyofthefe things in Debate, the condition 
of the Jews was much more deferable in this refeetl than chat of 
Chriftians. For, 

§ 1. Their Law-giver was febova,who had an abfjlute and tin ■ 
limited power over them, and they that are Gods creatures will 
not grudg to be his Servitors: He wasLord paramount of Worfhip 
and Confcience,and might he not be allowed to do what be would with 
his own ? He is the God of the Spirits ofallflefh, aad fhall they not 
Hue infubjettion to bim,\vho expect to live in a Kingdom with him? 
Since there is a neceftity of obedience, it fweetens it unfpeakabiy , 
that it's both Inter eft and Privile age to obey *, and that he wko re- 
quires obedience is their God, a God whofe J^/7/is the rule ofRigb- 
teoufnefs-y and therefore the moft fatisfaSlory Re a foil of his com- 
mands, and his Creatures Duty ; an implicit obedience is then Ho- 
nourable, when God calls for it, 

§2. As 

§2. As their Lawgiver had (£wUv, authority to command 
Jo he had JV-x^/v, a power to influence the weaken; Elements. He 
was aVJo*££r<y?5 and had abfoJure Sovereignty, and iravloK&Ta>j y 
oneofAlmighry power> which was a double encouragement to 
the obfervers of his preceptsrFor i.Hc was hereby able to fecure 
the obedient in his Service ; upon which account Chrift claims the 
Legiflative power qver Conference . jam. 4. 1 2. There is one Law- 
giver, who is able tofave and to defray. 2 By this Power he could 
render efficacious thefe Rudiments^ which in therafelves were but 
beggerly Ordinances : and produce by fhem Spiritual and Superna- 
tural effeifcs. And I am enclined the rather to think that God ttas 
not committed the Moral Power of \nftituting, much' lefs the Save* 
reignPower of tmpojing religious Ceremonies andobfervahces,bccaufc 
he has not communicated that other Power to blefs their own ap* 
pointments, nor invigorate them with fuccefs : God may well-bd 
allowed to command what hepleafe s, feeing he can and will blefs 
vehatfoever he commands. 

§ 3. Their Law- giver, was Faithfu!,Qne to whom they might 
fecurely commit their Confidences; one with whom they might 
With the greateft fatisfa&ion of Heart commit their Souls; He 
that ha% a lole right to any thing,will be faithful in keepmgir, be-i 
caufe 'tis his own \ and who may better be intruded with the Guar- 
dianjhip of Worfhip and all Religion, than their Owner ? But 
though we ought not to be Cenfbrions 5 yet we may, and ought xd 
exercife feme prudence and caution to whom we refign our felves 
in matters of Rcligion^hough the befl of Men, not knowing how 
they may ufe us,but well knowing,that we may moreeafily Cap- 
tivate ourfelves to the Will of an impofer,than being once en- 
thralled, vindicate our (elves in»o our Chi iftian Liberty : Or if 
for no other ReaOib yet for this, becaufe they arc but Men. 
§ 4. The Jewifii Yoke was a determinate Take : It was Onus, bu t 
Determinatum. AEurden,bnz z flint ed Burden; It's no final 1 allevi- 
ation to the Labourers zvyAwhen he knows his work : to the Travel** 
/^r,that he knows hisjpurnies end:7 hcjhvs had their work before' 
them but upon the Modem principle'- 7 he burden of the Chrifti- 
ans is Indefinite,\vhich is bur a better ward for Infinite : The Truth' 
is, in thefe humane impositions we fee the beginning, but no Man 
Knows the end oft hem; it's a Ncnwfi't. Our load mult be bounded 
with no other Linihs than 2,Ch arches Will, and that Will perhaps 
founded with no other than its Power, frnce itVcahoni^'d for 


[ 145 J 

g-ood Di'viniry, That the Chinch may mpfe whatever is Decent, and 
that th° Church is Judge of what is Decent, tho who the Church is, is 
nor fo certain. 

§. 5. Their Law-giver was one of known and approved Ten- 
dernefs, who either apportioned his work ro their ftresgrh, or 
their ffrength to his work ; he firred the -Yoke to their Neck, and 
their Neck ro the Yoke. The main thing rhac render- Chirifrs 
own Yoke fo eafie, his Burden fo light, is, that as his Auth&rin 
impofes, io his Strength fupports. Men may lay heavy burdens on 
our Shoulders ; but where there is molt need, Cannot touch them 
'Tilth one of their Fingers. 

§. 6. Their Law-giver was one, who in a!J his ImpofaiGns 
confuted their own good and benefit, as well as exerxtfea his m& 
Authority : The Jews wrought hard indeed, but their work had 
much of wages in't. The defign of their Myftical Rites and Cere- 
monies directed them to a Saviour: Legal Admimflratians well 
ordered, were Gofpel Prhnledges: Before Cfiriflj same, Cere* 
monies were Illufrrantia , fuch as difcovercd tjie Per/on/ Na- 
ture, Office and Grace of the Mejfiah \ a Candle is better than na 
Light ; but to us thev are ail Objcurantia, fuch as darken the flat fi 
$fCir,ijl unity. As before the Sun rijiug, theProdromous Clouds, 
whofe edges aie fringed with Gold, comfort us with the hopes of 
an approaching greater Lighr, which when the Sun is up, d > 
but darken the Horizon. Thus did Ceremonies IUuflrarc Chrift: 
at the- Annuntiation^ but obicurehimat MiSAdvent, 
• It will be needlefs further to Vindicate the Diflenrers « I ft 3, { 
(cave the n to the Enquirers,, Patronage \ who by the fame Reafbn, 
that he juftifies the Church of England from Popery, will I hopa 
clear the Nonconforming from Judaiirn" s />. 12. A'Kihys he) is not 
to be 'accounted Popery which is held or praliifeTi by the Church of. 
Rome : Nor (fay I) is all to be acccounred JuJairm which; was 
either the principle or the practice of die fewijh Church : P*ji No* 
is it fay fuch a thing is received from theChurch ofKoaie 
btcaufe it is thereto be found, unkfsitbe to be found no where elfe 
■ And as little Ileafon to lay the D'flenters have received this 
Principle from the Jews,[Tfo/f now&rjhip is lawfid (for than'., their 
Principle ) but what is prescribed by the Scripture'} unlefs it were 
found no where elfc: But this was a Principle fo clear \n the Li^ht 
o>. : Nature, that Numathe great Ricualift of Heathen -Rome-, durfc 
f$t hope that eyerhis Ceremonies would ever Q^taina^nongftc^ 

& Peo;,j^ 

people that bad eyes in their Heads, unfefs he had, or pretended 
to have, a Conference with his Goddefs /Egeria. Thus the Palla- 
dium of Troy, that Myftick Ceremony, in which the fate of their 
Cky was wrap'd up/is fuppofed to-have come down from Miner- 
va \ the famous Image in Dianas Tcmple^flj 19. 35>is fuppofed 
to be Aioirijltff alien from Jupiter ; and whilft the World was filJy 
enough to be impofed upon by thofe little Artifices , we had fear ce 
a New Shrine, Altar,Place of Pilgrimage eredted, but upon pre- 
tence of fome rifing from the Dead, or an Angei from Heaven 5 or 
a Letter from the Virgin Mary, or fomefuch Pious Frauds and' 
Religious Cheats, which the Priefts had at their Fingers ends. • 
Let us now confider th.eE/797//Yer.yDifcourfc upon this Principle, 
"That all absolutely neceffaries are fo determined, we readily 
" granr, (fajsheyhnd that all thofe Rites prefcribed by our Sav.:ur 
' areneceflary to be obferved,we will yield 'them; bur that nothing 
1 is lawful* but what is to be found {'0 prefcribcd,we utterly ,eny. 
And lb do we ! Let that end the Controvert e : When Rhe toriciJ 
ans have flanteefcit out in fine Language, and Ruffled a little iu; 
Phrafe, appofite words and expreflions, they have Satisfied their 
Office.and are not obliged by the Rules of their Art,either to ftate 
the Queftion,or fpeak to it : fometking may be practifed which is not 
prefcribed , that we grant ; but from fomething to every thing is too 
great aheap forBucephalus-^rompraclifing toprefcribing is another 
large ft ride j from Circumftances to Ceremonies is a third ; from 
Civil things to Sacred is one more ; from Indifferent to Necejfarj 
Conditions of Church -Com uni cm may go for another \ and from the 
common Accidents that attend the Worjhippers as Men^o Parts of 
ip<?r/?.?//\areInfcrcnces which we can neither make to lead or drive. 
2. We come now to a Second Judaical Principle : That all Prin- 
ces and Lawgivers are bound to conform the Municipal Laws of their 
fever al Dominions to the Rifti tut ions of Mofes. This indeed has a 
ftrong raint of Jewifh Leaven in't ; which they that plead fo z.ea- 
loi'fly for the Jus DivinumofTythes, and Holinefs of Places, be- 
en i:fe Mofes ence put ofbisjhoes, may do well to advife upon ; the 
Nonconform ifts for ought I know are Yntlc concern'd in't. We 
£ranr that there is noneceffity that the Temporal Sanction even 
of the Moral Law it felf, Should be the fame under the Gofpel,that 
it was under the Adminiftration of Mofes : That the Violators of 
rhe Lords days Holy Reft fhould be ftoned,as the infringer of the 
ikh&athvrzs of old \ the Adulterers fhould be punifb'd with Death, 



or a Blafphemer endure the fame now which then was exacted; 
Law givers do consider the tempers and difpofitions of their Sub- 
jects in thefe matters ; we are no further concerned herein than 
ro pray, that they who moderare the Affairs of the Empires of 
rhis World, may be directed with Wifdom from above, may or- 
der all rhings in a fubferviency to his glory by whom they Reign, 
and the publick peace, welfare and prosperity. 

3. A Third inftance is in Excommunication « Which (fays he) 
' they hold muft be by a Synod or Presbytery, and the Prince as 
1 wed as the People muft befubjed to the Sentence. Here are 
fcverai Queftions that invite our ferious debate; as 1. What is 
the proper Seat of ihe power of Excommunication ? 2. Who are 
the proper Objects of this Power? 3. Whether to fix the power 
of Excommunication be ajudaical Principle? And 4. Whether 
a Prince may come under the Edge of that Sword . ; Any one of 
which would require more room than I have allotted my felt to 
turn in : Whatl.fhall Qy is this. 

1. That the Synod or Presbytery are the Seat of Excommunica- 
tion, carries as fair proof at Jeaft, as the Chancellor who is a Lay- 
man, or at beft a Deacon of no Scripture- Inftitution, can (how for 
himfelf by Divine Right. 

2. That all fcandalous perions are Iyable to that Cenfure, is 
true in the general ; but that it may not be executed upon a Su- 
preme Magiftratc,arifcS from peculiar Maxims of Government; 
upon which the i^fezy^ of a Kingdom depends : I know not that 
this is a Principle of the N. G. for my part I di'fown it. 

3. That this was a Jewifli Principle to excommunicate their 
Kings, I do not certainly know, ncr dare pofitively determine: 
That rhey received any fuch ftanding Law from God, I do not 
find : That a High- Pn eft did once actually Separate a King upon 
the fcoreofhisLeproTie,we read \ and that others perhaps would 
not do as much if a Prince pleated not their Humours,we have no 
fecurity: I fhould fhrewdly fufpect their Inclinations thiswav, 
whoever they were, that inferted ithis Dodtrine into our Bi- 
bles : which we find in the Contents of the 149, Vfalm. The Pro- 
phet exhort eth to praife God .for that power he hath given to the Church 
to Rule the Consciences of Men : Which .they refer toverf. 5. and 
the following. Let the Saints b'e joy full in Glory : let tbemfing aloud 
I'Pon their t Beds, Let the high Vraifes of God be in their Mouth, and a, 
pta*edjjed Sjvcrdin their Hand:, To execute vengeance upon the Hea- 

iv 2 tkcii 

then) and puni foments upon the People : To bind their Kings' with 
Chains^and their Nobles with Fetters of Iron. If this be the Power 
God has given the Church over the Conscience s ofMenfhe Nohcon- 
formifts did nor infertit, and wi(h it may be expunged the Bible. 
4. He mufl by\ no means omit their Suferftitions about the Lords 
day : which muft be called a Sabbath too .though fuch Name is nowhere 
given its either in the New Teflament,or any Ancient Writer that he 
knows of. Here are two Branches, the firft de Nomine, the fecond 
de Re, 

i.De Nomine : whether the Lords-day may be called a Sabbath, 
especially with the ufual Epithere, The Chriftian Sabbath > Thar it 
mufl be fo called (as he falfifie^) the N C. affert not : Thar it may 
be fo called^ they are willing to enter afober difcourfe .with n>m 
when he is at Jcifure. A Sabbath in genera!, fignifies no more than 
a Day of Reft. And he that owns the day may be called the Lords- 
day, muff needs own it to be a re fling day, and by confcquence a 
Sabbath-day *, and the greateft fault herein is,rhar it's good in Eng. 
hjh, but Itark naught in Hebrew. Nay ther's fomewhat more will 
follow, This day of which we (peak, is called the Lords*day,Kev. 
1. 10 I was in the Spirit* on the Lords- day And the reafbn of the 
Appellation is this , becaufe the Lord Jefus has a fpecial inrereft 
3nd propriety in that day : As the great Handing- Ordinance of 
the Gofpel iscalled the Lords Supper, 1 Cor. t 1, becaufe it was//?- 
(litutedby Him, and was to be devoted to Communion with him \ fo 
this day is called the Lords-day, becaufe it was determin'd by him, 
and ought to be dedicated to him in his Service and Worfhip, that 
we may approve our felves eminently the Lords Servants, upon 
that day which is eminently the Lords-day. And if fo, it will chal- 
lenge the Title, nor only of a day of Reft, but Holy Reft : And if 
men were not fwarming full of Crotchets; and I ale Whimfcys, 
and Superftirious Detages, they would never fcruple to call that 
a Holy Sabbath-day, which they muft ponfefs a Holy refting day. 
Bur how came thisprecife qualm over our Enquirers heart, that 
he is fo okiftifh ar rhe word Safibathjbccaufc Lrfoorh ir's nor given 
rhe Day in rhe New Tcftamenr ? They have fbme fingular privi- 
Jeao and prerogative iurely, thar may inftitute whar OJ/zVm,\vhac 
Offices they pleafe, though neither Name nor Thing be found there, 
nor pr inr nor maik of the lean: Foot-ftep, when the poorNon- 
doriforrnifts may r.orufc indifferently an innocent word, wire!? 
Unifies no more in it fclf, than he wilfacknowledg to be found' 
there. But- 

C *45> 1 

Bar how is this a point of Judaifln ? or bow one of the nearer 
taufes of reparation ? If it be,we may confidently fay we have im- 
bibed both from the Liturgy of rhe Church, which teaches the 
Minifter to reheane the fourth Commandment. Remember toe 
Sabbath day to keep it Holy, and then cnjjyns us ail to pray 
Lord have mercy upon us, and enclitic our beans to keep this Law. 
But if ibis Word, this Dsftrine* be of lb pernicious a contagion, a* 
to infecd us with Judaifm and Nonconformity, we have need of 
another mi fere re mei Deus ! for keeping it. 

That this name Sabbath, applycd to the Chriflian Holy-nay of 
Rejigs found in Ancient Writers, I fhall nor urge. Ignat. 
Magnef. Let every one of us keep the Sabbath Spiritually jiot in bjdily 
ei r e, (only) but in the fludy of the Law. Nor the Author of the 
Sermons de Tempore, (none of Auflins. for any mans word will 
go further than his; for fuvoe rightly fanclifie the Lords Sabbath, 
as the Lord hath faidjin it thoufoalt do no manner ofnor^ but this I 
fhall fay, that he thar denies lr to be a Day of Holy Reft,it s no greac 
matter what he<alls it. And he that owns it fuch,itttift be molt ri- 
tiiculouily obftinatc, that denies it may properly be fo caJied. 

2. We come to -the difpure De Re. And firft he charges the N. 
C.That the Lords ^amongft thcm,mufi have nil the Nicety of Ob- 
fprvation that thejewijh Sabbath had: and which is yet voorfe,fuch Ob' 
fervation thereof is made one of the principal parts of Religion. 

What the Nonconformifts hold and practice in this point, is fo 
Well known from their Writings and conversations, that no man 
can polTibly flai.der them, but hemuft do it againft his Consci- 
ence •, winch had the Enquirer attended to, it would have taughc 
him other Language: what was the practice of the beft Ch ifti- 
ans who lived up in any good meafure to the Holinefs of their 
l*rofeffi:>n,thar is the practice of the Nonconforming •, and where- 
in they come fhort, have caufe to be humbled in rhe fight of God s 
If any Individuals have added any Jewith Aullerities, or invent* 
cd any fupei flitious fevei ities to make the day a Legal Yoke, \v& 
Wifh they may be no more favourably dealt with,than thofe other 
additions chat havebcen made to Religion. 

For the publick Service of the day, I fhall give the Reader a 
piece of Clemens Rom. Lib.i. cap. ^9. ' On the Lords-day frequenr 

* more carefully the Temple of the Lord, that ye may praife God 

• .who made all things by jefij* Chn'ft \ whom he few unto us,and 
•jjiffered him to dye for us^a^d ra.ifed him from :he dead-> for what 

K 3 can 

C '5° ] 

f can excufe him withGod,who meets not to hear the fa ving Word 
'of God concerning the Refure&ion ? On which day, we pray 
'thricejftanding,remembringhim who after three days rofe again. 

For the private obfervation of the day, the lame Author hb. 5. 
fap.y> thus* We admonifli you, Brethren and Fellow Servants, 
'that you fly vain words and 'filthinefs, pleafant jefis, &c. for 
' on the Lords days, which are our days of Rejoicings, we do 
'not permit you to do or fpeak any thing not favoury j for the 
' Scripture faith, ferve the Lord with fear. 

St. Hierom commends the /Egyptian Monks, that they de/igned 
the Lords days vchoiy to Prayer, and reading the Holy Scriptures. The 
Author of the Sermons De tempore. ' This day is called the Lords 

* day, that in it abftaining from all earthly works and wordiy 
' pleafuies, we fhould only give our felves to the ferviceof the 

* Lord : Let. us therfore, Bretheren, obferye the Lords day, and 
'fanclifie it, as ic was commanded them of old concerning the 
' Sabbath. If our Enquirer had the trimming up of this Author,hc 
had drefTed him up-for a Marane,a baptized Jew. Chryfjfi. on Gen. 
2. 'God from the beginning didinlinuare unto us this ijnftrudtipn, 
6 to fet apart, and Separate one whole day in the Circle of every 
' Week, for fpiritual exercifes; And in Homil. <;. on Math. Let us 

* prefcribe this as an unmovable Law to our tb\ ves # to our Wives 

* and Children, to let afide one day of the Week, ana that wholly 

* tohearing, and laying up of things heard. Iftdore Hifpa/enfis ; 

* The Apoftles therefore ordainedihe Lords-day to be kept with 
'Religious Solemnities, becaufe in itour Redeemer rofe from 

* the Dead, which was therefore called the Lords-day, that reft- 
*ingon the fame from all Earthly acts and temptations of the 
« World ,we might intend Gods holy this day due 

* Honour for the hope of the RefurrecTlon we have therein, 

Eut becaufe our inquirer admires the Piety of former Ages in 
this our Britain,] fhall cornea little home and fee what were the 
pubhek Conftitutions of our-own Nation. Leg.Ina?.cap.3.An.6$2 4 
tit fervus overt tur die dominicA per prccce^ turn, domini fui,fit liber \ 
& Dommusemendet 308. ad Wit am \ fi fer-vm/ixe teftimonio Domi- 
ni fui operetur^Corium ferdat,(\. e. vapuletj fi liber cper el ur ijfj die, 
Jmejujfu Domini fu'h ferdat 'liber t ate m : If a Servant Work^on the 
Lords day at his Majlers Command^ let him be free, arid his Mafler be 
finedthirty Jbillings. If a Servant without his Ma/iers Order do any 
work: 1st him be vekipl edc. 1 2. If a freed man rrork^on that day t vpiih- 


[ «Si] 

Out the Command of his Mafter, let him lofe his Freedom*, 

Concil. Bergham, cap. ^o. An. 697. < Si in vefpera precedent? 

' Diem folis, poft quam fol occubuir, aut invefpera vpraecedente 

* Diem Luna?, poit occafum folis, fervus ex mandaro Domini fui 
■ opus aliquod fervile egerir, Dominusfadumo&aginta foiidis 
€ Luiro. // a Servant en the Evening before Sunday* after Sun fet y 
or on the Evening before Monday, after Sun-fet,Jhall do any fervile 
work^ by order of his Mafter, let his Mafler pay for his fault four 
pounds, c. U. If a Servant on thefe daysjhall travel, let him pay to 
his Mafter fix Jhillings, or be whipped, c. 1 2. If a Free -man be guilty 
of the fame offence, let him be liable to the Pillory. 

Excerpt. Egb. Archiepifcopi EboracAn.Chr.750. c. 36. ' Go.i 
' the Crearour of all things made man on the fixr day, and upon 
6 tke Sabbath he refted from all his Labours, andfandificd the 

* Sabb. th for the future fignification of the fufferihgs of Chrift,and 
c his reft in the Grave ; He did not reft becaufe he was weary. 
' who made all things without Labour,whcfe Omnipctency can- 

* not be wearied ; andhefo refted from his Labours,that he made 
' no other Creatures than he made before : He made no other 
' Creatures afterwards ; but whatfeever he made 3 he makes them 

* every year, to the end of all time : He createth Men in their 
f fouls and bodiesjiving Creatures and Beafts without fouls. The 

* The Soul of man is given by God, and he renews his Creatures, 
' as Chrift faith in the Gofpel, My Father veorketh hitherto, and I 
1 workj Chrift fuffered for us in the fixth age of the Wor!d,and on 
' the lixth day, and reformed loft man by his fufferings , and the 
1 Miracles which he wrought. He refted in the Sepulchre on the 
' Sabbath-day and fan&ified the Lords day byhisKefurrecliion ; 

* for the Lords day,is the firft day of the new World, and the day 
' of the Refurre&ion of Cbrift ; therefore it is Holy, and we ought 
'to be his, fpiritually keeping a Sabbath-day, Sabbatum Sabba- 

Leg. Presbyt. Northumbr. ' Mercaturam in Die folis excrcere; 

* 5c Curias alicubi celebrare prohibemus, opus etiam qucdlibcr, 
' &c omnimodam veclionem, five in plauftris, five in equis, five-in 
" aliis oneribus ferendis, Qui contra hoc deliquerit folvat, -We 
forbid any to Trade or keep open Courts on the Sunday, and alfo all 0- 
ther rvorkjvkatfoever.and all manner of Carriage s, whether with Carts 
or Horfes, or in bearing any other burdens : He that tranfgreffes this 
Degree fliall pay--' nil! fir viator neceflitare compulfus.vel ob cibi 

K 4 inopiam 

L *52 1 _ 
' inopianij aur ex canfji eyitandi inimicos. 'Except he be a Traveller 
' compelled ty necejjity, either by. the want of Food^or to' avoid tfe 
Encvues. Header, whether this be Judaifm or no, 1 fhali leave to 
thy more fedate Judgment ; bur it is a mighty 'ftrong temptation 
J arlier to be one of thole old Jews, than one of the nevo Chrijiians. 
Leg. E( clef. Canht. An. ChriJU. 1032. ' Die quideni Dom<nico, 
c meica r a concclebrari, Pop.uiive conventus Agi, (nifi fiagitanrc 

* neceflitarej-planifTimc veramus. Iplo Die facrofancto, pra?rerea 
■ a venationibus, & opere terreno prorfus omni, Qinfque abftinc- 
' to. We do a.folutejy forbid all MarJ^ets, and Ajfemblies of the 
People to he kept on the Lords-day. (except itf cafe of urgent necefjity) 
and moreover, Let every one refrain from [Ffuntir<g t and from alto- 
ther earthly bujlnefs upon that j 'acred day. 

A little now for divcrfion Jetu^ ftep over tne Seas, and lock 
jiuo the temper of the times under the Reign of Char Us theGrea*t: 
c Sratuimus lecundum quod Dominus in lege prsecepir, ut Opera 
« Serviiia dicbus Dominicis non Agantur,fkut, 5c bona? memof ise 
^Genitor mens (Pipinus) in fins fynodahbus edictis mandavir, /'. 
c e. Quod nee viri Ruralia opera exercearit nee in vinea eolenda* 

* nee in campo Arandb, vel fcenuni iecando vci fepem ponendo. 
« vel infylvis ftirparc, vel cohere, vel in Ferris Jaborare > 

* dcmusconftrL]erc,ncchortum laborent, ncc ad placita con- 

* veniant, nee venationem exerceam : We or dam, as alfo the Lord 
hath commanded in the Law } that no fer vile works be done on the Lords 
day. As alfo our Father of happy memory Jn his Synodal Edicts hath 
commanded,that is to sayThat men neither exercife the labours of their 
Farms, neither indreffnigVineyards. nor in Flowing, nor in mowing 
Grafs* or in laying a Hedge or to grub up, cr cut down Trees, or to la- 
f-our in Quarries . or to build' a Houfe, or to order a Garden, or to hold 
Fleas, or 10 practice Hunting. * Item fepmina? opera'Textilia rion 
V'cxerceant, ncc Capillenr, veftsnis non confuant, vel Acupi&ile 
\ facianf, nee I a nam Carberejnec linum barrere, nee publice ve£i- 

* mcntalavaremec verveces tonderejiabeant licirum uromnimo- 
r dis, Honor 6c Requies die) Dominic* fervetur. Let not Women 
fraciit'e Weaving;? let them not take pains about their Hdir^nor mend 
ljpeir Qloaths nor work^^eedle-wor^orFdintaior ca'rdWjol norHeck[e 
Flax nor wajbCloaths openly, nor fteer jhcefthat'lie hhnour andKefl 
1' the Lords- -day may by alt means be fecure. Conft. Carol. M. fol. 32^ 
It will be time now ro draw to a concludes, when 1 have noted ! 

§< 1. It looks like a piece ofgrear difingci uiry ro baitD ffen- 
ters like Jews,fbr"me'in different ufe of the- woi\\ SiW^/^becaufe 



hot found in the Net* Teftament, and at the fame time to worry 
them wall Barking words and biting penal ties? for not pra&icing 
upon that very day Humane Ceremonies, which ( name and thing ) 
arc perfectly ilrangers to the New Teftament. 

§. 2. It fccmsiotarfroma nextcaufe of Nonconformity, Religi- 
oufly to obferve the Lords-day* that it were rather an Ailurcmejft 
to conformity ,when wc obferve the Church Co ftricHy commands 
her Children in the Rubrick- after eveyy Commandment, kneeling 
to asi^God mercy for their trangtejjion of the fame. And if ihe Di- 
ffewers were of this Enquirers principles, they rauft be obliged to 
be Nonconforming, till the Liturgy in that particular fhould be 
Reformed. ' 

§. 3. It's highly difagenuous to upbraid them with thclefs 
flr.cTneis of fome of the Reformed Churches abroad in this one 
point, when rrrby are not aKow'd to vouch their principles and 
practices in twenty others. 

§. 4 It deferves a moftferious. Enquiry, whether any Church did 
'Jong maintain any (plendour of Practical Religion, that grew re- 
liefs and loofe in theConfcientious Obfervation of the Lords-day. 

§. 5 . Whether the drier, and Religious attendance to the wor- 
ship of God on that Day, be a cattrfe of Nonconformity or no, is 
rncerrain •, but this is certain, that the loofe and formal, obfervation 
of it, has been a direct and immediate catfe of that Atkeifm and 
Prophanefs, and perhaps of thofe Judgments which have broken m 
upon us. 

§. 6. It ought to be matter of ferious Humiliation and Repen- 
tance both to the Conformifts and Nonconforming, and between 
them both, rhey have fuffered Piety to decline iii their hands, by 
a vifible degeneracy from the ftriclnefs of former time, infancU- 
fyir.gQodi name on his Holy-day \ 

§. 7. Ir ought tdbe Considered , Thar they who of late times 
have written againft the Divine Right of that day,havc yctipokea 
Co honourably of, and pleaded for the Hc l y ufe of the day , as wj'l 
Juffifie greater Reverence to the day, than 1 fear the Nonconfor- 
ttlifls are guilty of. The Learned Breremod- Tract. i.]>. 4.7. c i 
* confefs It is meet that Chriftians fhould on the Lords-Jay aban- 
? don all wordJy affairs, and dedicate it v. holly to the Honour of 

* Coi}. TkeB. of Ely. p. 255. Devout Chrillians.who arefopicufly 
1 affected, as that on the Lords-days, and other Holy-days, tfcey 
c do refolve to rerre, and iequefter themfeltes from fecular bufi- 




• ixi's, 2nd ordinary pleasures and delights, to the end they may 



* more freely attend the fervice of Chrift and apply their minds 
' ro/piricual and Heavenly Meditations, are to be commended 
' and encouraged ; far the doing thereof is a wcrk of Grace and 
Godlinefs, and acceptable to God. 

§. 8. Ir would be enquired, whether it have not a greater 
Tincture of Judaifai, to en joy n other days for Holy- days, which 
have no footing in Gods word, than to fpend the Lords day in pur- 
/uic of thole things which concern our Everlafting peace, which 
is clearly warranted thereby. B.Andrews urges this againft Trasf^. 
'ThcApoftles kept their meetings on that day •, on that day they 
'were triunyotjbJot i. e. held their facred Synaxes, their folemn 
' AfFemblies, co preach* to pray, toceleberare the Lords Supper, 
m c^dTrvoy Kvetctah ^y iip$£$ Kv&zKn, The Lords Supper, on the 
' Lords day ; for thefe two words only, the da^and the Supper, 
' have rhe Lpithete of xvewt&av in the Scripture, to fhew that its 
c alike in both. 

<. A fifth inftarxe of their Judaical Principle is their DoHrine 
cfabfolute Predeftinaticn. 

T. his Doclrine has perplext the Enquirer beyond meafure ; he 
would mention ir every where willingly, but knows not where to 
mention it pertinently : Ir. was lately one of the Pretended,or Apo- 
cryphal, and now its become a Real and Canonical, nay a near 
ctnd immediate caufe, or at leaft the jufifixth part of a caufe offepera- 

■ ■ I frail for once fuppofe, that all the Nonconformiftsare/^/#/>- 
ftrians : Now ler him (how me rhat Article or Do&rine to which 
this Church requires fubfcriptioUj relating to the decrees of GoJ , 
to which zSublapfcirian cannot freely fubferibe. • , 
< The 17 Art. of the Church (peaks without qucftion her fence 
in the matter: ' Predeftination to life, is the everlafting purpofe 
* of God, whereby before the foundations of the World was laid, 
<he hath conftant ly decreed by his Councel lecret to u?,ro deliver 
■' from curie and damnation thofe whom he hath chofen in Chrift 
I our of mankind,and to bring them by Chrift to everlafting Sal- 
iva tion. 

It were more for this Gerflemans comfort and credit,to write 
a ferious aniComp.jjJiQnate Enquiry into the pretended and real, the 
remote ^Wncar caufes of his own conformity to that Doctrine which 
■ y *fo pleafantly derides ; and with what Engines, Machines,Screws 
Jnd Pulleys he could hale his Confciencc ro a Subfcription : The 
old device was good. Lingua )uratusfw> m^ffte jurdvi nihil: It's 


a happy freedom of Spirit, a blcffed enlargement of mind to fub; 
fcribe any things and believe nothing. 

Two things there are which ought to have been cleared ; firft, 
that the Doctrine ot Predeftination is a Jevoifh Principle-, fecondly, 
that it's a caufe, or a Piece of a caufe of Nonconformity. 

For the former he makes it out thus : ■ He that feek3 the fburce 
' of fo odd an Opinion can in my mind pitch no where more Pro- 
f bably, than upon the abfolute Decree of God to favour the Po- 
' fterityof Abraham for his fake: Alas poor Man! And had the 
Church of England (thinks he) no more wir, th n to talk of an 
everhjlingpurpofe before the foundation of the 'World ,of 'a conflant Of 
cree to deliver from curfe and damnation fome that he had chofen out 
of mankind, and bring them to Everlafting Salvation, from fuch.a, 
Ridiculous ground ? But the difficulty was, how to make this a 
piece of Judaifm ; and when Men let themfelves insuperable^ 
Taskj, they mud rub through them as they are able. 

The jecond will be more difficult : For many Conformifts 
have been,andare Suhlaplarians.aaifome Nonconformifls Subter- 
Sublapfarians ; And the Enquirer told us, p. 7. * That the Articles 
c of the Doctrine of our Church do with i'uch admirea 'jle pru- 
f dence and warinefs handle thefe Point?,0/>e five Points) as if par- 

* ticutar refpedr. wa- had to thefe Men, and care raken that they 
' might Abundare fenfa fuo. So neceflary it was oir Author flioukl 
confute his own contradictious Cavils ! 

Well ! Whether this Church, the Jevcijh Church, the Noncon- 
formists, or any, or all, or none of them be of this opinion, yet it 
is a moil monftrous one! ForCfays he) ( The Holy Scripure has of* 

* ten allured us, rhat at the great day God will judg the World in 

* Righteoufhcfs ; and ihar without refpeel of Perfbns,hewill ren- 
' derto everyone according to his works. Wonderful!! And 
are the Sublapfarians ail this while to feck, hov God may be righte- 
ous in the great Day, if he Decreed to give grace to fome Men 
which he never owed them, and left others to perifh under the Fruits 
of their own Apofiary and unbelief? 

6« The laft Inftanceis/^fir fuperftitious obfefvation and into -po- 
tation of Prodigies. 

The works of God are ail admirab'e,thofe of Creation Glorious \ 
rhofe of Providence Myfieriom ; we have reafon to revere hit 
Greatnefs in all that he doth them \ his Wifdom in all, in that/;? can \ 
his Goodnefs, in that he will make them Bow to fubferve his own 
Councelr, and Furpcics, in working together for good in them thai 

fef /?/>. To fetch our Creed from fto IW^ of Providence We 
allow, nor,ir's well if we can make Gods ufe of then?, to awaken 
a :1 cepy world to Repent mce. 

; , The greateft Prodigy that has ftartled me of late, has been a 
ftory rhir many tell us, Thau in feveral places in the Nation • the 
[ Graves have been fecn to open and many oidHereticks to Iiave: 
' i ifen, and walk'd, and talk'd, and Preach'd, and Printed Books : 
whom wc verily believed to have been as dead and rotten as the/r 
2-lerclics. Thus I remember Lirinenfis cai s Coclftius, Prodigio- 
san Pelagij Difcipulum, That Prodigious Scholar ofPclag'ius : Some- 
thing was uiefui to have been faid about Prodigies, and it muft: 
come in here, or no where, and therefore Jet it pafs for a Jevoijk 
Opinion, and a llxrh part of one whole caufe of Nonconformity. 
[3] He reckons Prejudice amongft thecaufes of our diftradii. 
ons,and let it pafs for a third : There is a found fence, in whiclji 
bur Enquirers notions may be very true^could we be but fo happy 
<is rohir on't. 

Tertullian complained fadly ofthcie infuperable prejudices a- 
gramft theChriflian Religion, under which they all groaned. Non 
fceJui all quod in caufa cj}, fed No men. 1 c was the Name of a Cbriftian 
that was their greatefl Crime. Bonus Vi* Cajus Sejus tanturh quod 
Chriflhinus. A poor Woman amongft the Ignorant Devoto'b of 
JK'ffwe,was inftructed by her ghoftly Father, thatr/x? Hugonots were 
all Monfters : It hapned that one of her Neighbours fpying a Pro- 
teftantpaiTrng by,to!d her, That Man is a Uugonot : Ifs impoiTible 
reply cd fhc> He looks as like a Man *# ever Ifaw one in my life. Thus 
are Diflenrersby prejudice and partiality fentenced and executed 
in the per crntory Judgments of many,before their caufe is heard, 
or they admitted to a fa.rDefencc and Tryal. 

I ihali therefore (pare my com non place-Book, and referve 
my ftorcs for more importam occafions, and at prefent borrow 
o.ur Enquirers more refined Collections (for they will fcrve any 
Asians turn) to evince, that prejudice is a caufe, not why there 
; ycfo many Nonconformists, but that there are no more. 

Jl his Piejudice alone was able to Seal up the Eyes of theGen- 
l tile World againft the Sun of Righteoufnefs, when he fbone upon 
3 them in his brigh reft Glory \ and to confirm them in their blind 
9 Idolatries, when the God that made Heaven and Earth gave the 
3 f iUeit difcoveries that it was fit for mankind to expect. . 

k Uoonthe account of this, the J :"ipj rejected that Mcjjias, they 
6 had fo long expe."te J, zrA gloried in before he came* though i.c 


• C r 5? 1 

* exzttUy anfwered all the Charactersof Time, Place, Lineage, 
1 Do&rine and Miracles, thar their own Writings had defcribel 
1 him by. 

No wonder then if the Nonconforming fufTer under Prejudice 
amongft thofe that have not only leen theirDoctrine ftigmarized 
with the odious Marks of Judaiim, their Churches with thebrard 
of Schifm, their Perfbnswith Treafon and Rebellion, but alio 
had been formed into a Combination againft them; and fbhad 
both their Consciences and worldly Intereft engaged againft them 
and it. 

'Ftfrfew have the generofity and ftrerigth of mind to bear up 
'againft the Torrent of Times, or confidence enough tooppofe 

* the Imperuoufhefs of common Vogue, or prevailing Opinion. 
' There are not many that have the fagacity to difcern the true 

■ Images of thing?,throughtho(e thick Mifts that cunning Politici- 

■ anscaft about them. I t's very ordinary to take the Condemna- 
tion of any Perfon or party forafufficienr proof of the Accufari- 
' on, and to think the Indictment Proved. It was enough both 

* with the Jevps and Gentiles againft our Saviour, that he was con • 

* demned as a Malefactor: the Ignominy of his Crofs wasajgr*afc- 
' er Argument againft him with the Generality, than the excellen- 
cy of his Doctrine, or evidence of his Miracles was for him! 

The Arguments againft Nonconformity were not wefehed/jtf num-. 
bred : An Impeachment of Accumulative Diiorder, Schifm, Faction, 
Judalfm Popular Raftnefs, and Difobedience to Magiftrares.was 
formed againft them, and ftill there vcas more in the Conclufion than 
Could be made out by the Premifes '-> and in the Sum Total, than in' 
the Particulars of which it confifted \ for though no Point of all thefe 
could be proved againft their Doctrine, Worfhip or Discipline, yet 
they mufl be fo upon tl>e whole, This being agreed^ the cry is then,Cru~ 
cihe ! Deftroy it Root and Branch. 

To all which add, that it was the corrupt intereft offome to deceive 
others into an illOpinion of the Reformation,/? artly as being enrared 
that any fparks cf Primitive Purity fhould be left unquenched, 
which might burn up their vaft hopes they had conceived ofdivr-i 
dirg the fpoil amongft themfelves ; Partly being confeious to them- 
fetves,that by Re a fon of their no more than Declamatory, Vulgar 
and Puerile Abilities improved from Apothegms and Prove; biai 
Sentences, they could not be fit to fill any confiderable place in a 
Church Reformed according to the Scriptures •> nor yet ta. content 
themfthes with a private ftation in n p'erfecuted' Society ; ihey 


[•53] . 

therefore cbofe to fall in,where they might be entertained an ufe- 
ful Tools, and rewarded for their Angular Talents of Reviling. 

And when it is once come to that pa fs. That by this Craft we get 
our Living, Cone, two, or three) like the Silver -fmiths of Epheius, 
fio vponder if the Apoftolical Dotlrine and Government be cried down^ 
and the Great Diana of Vauls conformity cried up,fooner than built. 
The fum is this } fame men are blindly led by their Education, 2nd care 
taken that they never come to a view of theDilTenrcrs principles - 7 
ethers by Inter eft, forced toefpoufe that Religion that has the fair- 
cft Dowry ; A third fort ^by their Reputatiotifhzx they may notieem 
to have been in an Error *, and when all thefecaufes (hall (as they 
too frequently do) happily concur, fuch an affociated and compli- 
cated Temptation, will form a prejudice ftrong enough to oppofe 
the cleared Demonftrarions, and to ftir up fo much rancour and 
malignity, as fliall incerTantly pcrfecute mifreprefented Truth,' 

1 1 will add one word from the Learned Author of Qrig.Sacr. and 
' conclude. It cannot be conceived, That many cut of affectation of 
f Novelty, fhould declare themfelves Chriftians in the Primitive 
' times, when fo great hazards were run upon in the profefllng of 
*it: Few foft ipirited men, and lovers of their owneafe,buc 
'would have found out fome fine diftindtions, and nice evafions,to 
' have reconciled themfelves to the publick Laws, and fuch things 
* which the Primitive Chriftians fo unanimously refufed, when 
' tending to Icfolatry andProphaneis. 

An ordinary Judgment will foon determine, whether party 
may more plaulibly complain of being prerTed down with unrea- 
fonable prejudices. They that will appear in the Quality ofDiJjfen- 
ters, muftftem the violent Current of prevailing Example, inve- 
terate Cuftdra, whilft others have nothing to do but skull away 
with the T;.!i,when it comes in,with ihe Celeufma of Quej:n- hithe, 
Weftward hoe, Lambeth hoe ! DifTenters muft flormthe Turn- 
pikes of reproach, poverty,and thofemorc formidable ones of the 
cifpieafure of Friends, and wrath of Superiours, ftnoaking out in 
Iraprifonment, or other penalties, befides the Ecclefiaftical Chari- 
ties of Excommunication : the reft have.norhing more to do, but 
pad-ntly and meekly fiibmit to Preferments ar?d Dignities > and 
jfrhey can but compats fuch a meafure^f felf denial,as to renounce 
ruin and mifery, and rife to fuch a height of contentrnent,as to be 
wiping to enter upon cafe and affluence, the worft is over, and 
their greatcft prejudices conquered 

4. The loft caufe of the Diftratlicns and Hi Eft ate of this Church, is , 



then ant of true Chriftian Zeal, and of a deep arid f€?:ous fer.fe of 
Piety. And the Enquirer wifhes that it be not the grexteft as well as 
the I aft And fodo I too ! For the want of Zeal for Gods commands, 
makes us fofcalding hot for Humane Confiitutions. T he want cifuch 
Zeal for the Authority of Chrift as a Kjng, makes us lb bold to 
Invade his Office. The want of Zeal for the Perfection of Scrip- 
tures, makes usfo Zealous for unfcripturalTraditions. The wanr 
of Zeal for the fubftanc e , makes usfo Zealous for Ceremonial faa- 
4pws. When all thofc Spirits, that Holy ardour of Soul, that flame 
cf affection which ought to be expended in the love of God, and 
his Law, is evapourated in Airy fpeculations, contentions for, 
and impofitions of new Inventions. . 

This Caufe is plainly in the number of thofe, which like the 
Weathercock, conform to every guft of Wind, it is Communis ju- 
ris, and therefore thefirft occupancy creates a Title. 

What was it made the PrimitiveChurch fo unanimous jkat it was net 
crumbled into parties, nor mouldered away in Divifions-, nor quar- 
relled about opinions? nor feparated one fart from another? upon ccca- 
fion of little fcruples, but becaufe the turbulent Spirit of Imposition 
was not yet raifed, nor ambitious domineering over the Faith 
and Consciences of the brethren, had not yet got any confiderable 
Head? It's true,there was afpice of this encroaching Humour 
found amongft thefudai^ingChriftians,\vho would needs obtrude 
their Ceremonies upon the neceflary to Com- 
munion withthe Church : but the divinely inspired Apofties were 
ready at hand to check the growing Evil,and vindicate theChurch- 
es froffl-the Servitude of beggerly Rudiments. Its true, Dtotrephes ' 
his fingers itched to be tampering ; but the beloved Difciple that 
lay in his Matters Boftm,who was privy to his meek and gracious- 
temper, and knew how difpleafingfuch imperioufhefs was to him, 
gave an early and timous rebuke to attemts and effays of Prelarical 
arrogancy vand indeed he could not but remember, and was con- 
cerned in it, how fmartly Chrift had {nibbed afpiring Church-men* 

That there was fa much Tranquility therefore amongft the 
Primitive Chriftians, was not that they were without differing ap, 
prehenfiom *, for mens part' were no more alike, no>° their Educations 
mo>e equal than now: But becaufe there was a Spirit ofCondefcen* 
fion to, and mutual forbearance one of another. Theftrong^elthcr 
in knowledge or authority,did not trample upon the weak ; Thee 
was then fome diverfny of exprejjions, in which the Pafto-s of feveral 
Cbtfcbe-i delivered themfelvef, (for there were neither HomilicS 


lior Liturgies);^? they did not difpute themfehe into parties fidcHuft 
they made not their own lent iments the Teft of Onhodoxy-jhof 
their private Faith the publick ftandard and meafure,to which all 
Chriftians fhould be ryed to fubferibe ; They allowed a latitude 
in things not fundamental) nor had learned the modern Artifice of 
fettering Consciences in the Chains of affent andconfent, to the 
Dogmas of a prevailing party. ' ; " 

l Inthofe daysmen were fincerely good and devour, and fet 
'their Hearts upon the main 5 the huge cdniequence and concern" 

* of whiclre.jfily prevailed with thofe Holy men, to over- look other 

* mens private Opinions : They were intent upon that wherein the 
' power of Godlinefs confifted, and upon which the Salvation of 

* Souls depended ; and 10 all that was fecure, they were not fo fii - 
c perftitioufly concerned for Rituals,eirhcr to • practice them,much 
Ie(5 to impofe them •, They would not ftake the Churches Peace* 
againft Ceremonies, and then p'ay it away rather than not be 
Gameiters. They considered that they had all one God, one Faiths one 
BaptiCm, one Lord Jeffs Chrifl ; and never infiOed upon one Pofture,' 
one Gefture, one Garment, one Ceremony ■. They Good rr-cn\- 
found enough to do to mortifie their Pajfions, to hear Their Burdens 
of AffUclions and Perfecution, to withftand the temptations of the' 
Devil, and the contagion of evil examples ; And had no ftrength to 
fpare, nor fuperfluous time to waft, to Conn the Theory of 
Ceremonies, and practice new devices. 

But -when men grow cold and indifferent about great things, then' 
they become fervent about the leffer ; when they give ever to mind a 
holy life and heavenly Conver far ion, then they grow fierce Difpwants. 
for, and rigid Exactors of the full Tale of Ceremonies. Thus 
when the Scribes'and Pharifees became Co violent for the neceility 
tfvpafhing hands,they little regarded the cleafwng of their Hearts ; 
They that will make things indifferent to become neceffary^ the 
next news you heaf of them-ls, that they mike things neceffnyto 
become indifferent: when men ceafe to jiudy their ovn Hearts, 
they become very ftudious how to vex and torment other mens \ 
for then they have both leifufe and confidence enough to trample 
lipon their inferiours. Then it (hall be a greater fin for a Monk to 
lay afide his Cowle, than his Chaftity r and to be a fcrupulous Kon- 
conformifl to the Laws of Men, than a f'candalbut Nonconformift to 
the Laws cf God: 

I Jnjhort (that I may fay the fame thing over again,\vhich I have 
tweniy timeS already faid, and that I may convince the Reader 


that I 'have read Erafnus deJJopia'veMrum, as well as h;s famon* 
piece 0/ fJ^e Art of Preaching) Then, and not till then, do the liw* 
Appendices of Religion grove g re at and might j matters in mens eft? cm* 
when the E/Tentials, the great and vceightj matter s> arc become IttW 
and inconfiderable .which I had little need fc> have mentioned, 
but for the fake of rhofe Elegant and Modifh words, Appendices 
and ErTentials, which in an Eloquent Oration ought not to have 
been forgotten. -•-&*/! 

That there are Diftraclions in the Nation, Divifions amongft 
ChriftianBrcchren, and a feparation from the prefent Church of 
England in various degrees, is evident ; The Induftry of our "Enqui- 
rer in Tracing omfbe Caufes of them, has been very commendable. 
though his fuccefchas nor been anfwfrabte. Had he pleafed to'ap- 
proVe hirhieii a skilful and well .as zferious Enquirer, 
he had certainly directed us to one caufe more, which for wans: 
ofAriadnes Thred,in the Anfractuous windings of this Labyrinth, 
he has quite loft himfeife,and his Travels, Honcft G erf/a of old 
has notified it to the non obferving World, and from him I (hall 
recommend it to the Reader.: - ; : 

« There can be: (faith he) no General Reformation wirhout the 
'Abolitions offundry Canons and Statures, which neither are, 
' nor reafbnably can be obfervedin thefe times, which do nothng 

* but enihare the Conferences of men to their endlefs Perdition: 

* no tongue is able to expreis what -evil, what danger and confu i- 
' on, the neglect and contempt of the Holy Scripture, CwhicS 
€ doubtleis is fufficient for the Government of rhe Church, eife 

* Chrift had been an imperfect Law-giver ) and the following of 
'Humane Inventions, hath brought in r o the Chnrch,S?rm. in dir 
tire, part i. 'Tis that "which has ever been lamented, and by all 
moderate perfons complained of, That unheceffary Impofit ions, 
have been made the indiipenfible conditions of Church Commu- 
nion, wirhout precept or precedent from the word of Gcd.' 

To this caufe had he' reduced all our divifions-; he laid more in 
'thofe few plain rvords,\han in all thofe well concht periods where- 
with he has adorned his Difcourfe,'and darkened CqumH A& 
the matter of Lav? arifes out of the matter of Fa£? x (o'the Juffice of 
the Nonconform'! (Is Caufe, appears from the terms that are pur 
upon them in order to Communion; If the term's be unjuflyt will 
juftifie their caufe •, If they have finfully managed their caufe, its 
^oodneis will nor juftifie their Psrfon?';' what DirTenters ufuallv 

f> 2 1 

sMift upon for their Juflificarion, I (hall reduce tothete Heads* 
§• i. They plead, that fome things are lmpofed upon their 
-ami, tendered to Subfcription, as Articles of Faith, which are 
cither fa he, or arbeft, they have not yet been fo happy as to dif- 
cover the truth of them : In Art. 20. They are required to fub- 
Scribe this Doclrine, The Church hath porter to Decree Rites arid 
Ceremonies ; which claufe of the Article, as we fear, it has been bv 
fome indi reel means Ihuffled into the Article, it not being found 
in the Authentick Articles of £aWd? 6. fo it proves alfo, that the 
rerms of Communion have been enlarged fince the firft times of 
the Reformation. 

. They obieel alfo againft thar Doclrine m the Rubric^ That 
•ins certain from the word of God, That Children Baptized, 
, and dying before the CommifTion ofaclual fins are undoubtedly 
' faved. The Scripture, the Protcftant Churches, nor any found 
Reafbn, have yet given them any tolerable fatisfaelion of the 
Truth of the Doclrine about the Opus ope/atum, of Sacraments : 
That Doclrine laid down in the Catechifm,That Children do per- 
form Faith and Repentance by their furetiesjs alfo as great a Humbl- 
ing to our Faith,and we cannot get over it,How the Adult fliould 
believe and repent for Minors, or Infants believe and Repent by 
Proxie. I omit many others. 

J. 2. They plead, that they are not fatisfied in the ufe of any 
Myftical Ceremonies in Gods worfhip ; and particularly they 
judg the ufe of the Crofs in Baptifm to be finful : A Sacrament of 
Divine Inftiturion according to the Definition of the Churhin her 
Carechiffn,' is an outward and vifible fign, of an inward and invi- 

* fiblc Grace given unto us, ordained by Cbrift himfelfas a means 

* whereby we receive thcfamc,and a pledge to affure us thereof: 
where we have, 1. The matter of a Sacrament, An outward and 
njifible jign of an inward and fpiritual Grace. 2. The Author of a 
.Divine Sacrament, thrift himfelf. 3, The End of it : to be a means 
to convey the thing fignified, and a pledge to affure us of if. Hence 
its evi lent, that its fmply impoffible that any Church fliould infti- 
tutca Divine Sacrament, beciufe they cannot give a caufality to 
thofc Graces it is instituted to fignifie: nevertheless It's pofliblefor 
!Men to inftitute humane Sacraments ; which fhali have thcMatter 
of a Sacramenr/hat \$ y an outwardVifiblefign of an inward Spiritual 
Q)\7ce\ and they may pretend to afciibe an erTecl to it alio toftir 
tif 3 to excite, or encreafe- Grace and Devotion: And yet beeaufe it 



wants the right efficient caufe, its no lawful Sacrament, though it 
be an Humane Sacrament \ Such an inftitutionCfay they) is the Sign 
of the Crop. 'An outward Vifible Sign of an inward Spiritual, 
Grace Ordained by Men as a means to effect whatever Man cam 
* work by his Ordinance. Here is the matter without Divine 
Signature, which is the thing they condemn it fnr. 
• 3. They plead, that fince Communion with the Church i? fu- , 
pendedand denyed but upon fuch Terms as take away Chriftiari 
Liberty in part and by confluence leave all the reft at Mercy v 
they dare not accept ©f Communion upon ihofe terms : There 
are fome things which God has in the general left free and indif- 
ferent, to do or not do; yet at fome times,and in fome cafes It may. 
be my great fin if Ifhouid do fome of them, as. when it would 
wound the Confcience,and deftroy the Soul of a weak Chriftian :■ 
If now I fhall engage my felf to the Church,that I wil] never omit 
fuch an indifferent thing ; and the Soul of that- weak Chriftiari, 
fhouldcall to me to omit ir,I have eyed my hands by engagement^' 
1 cannot help him, though it would favehis or a thoufand Souls 
out of Hell,bccaufel have given away my freedom to theChurch. 
j 4. They plead,that they ought not to hazard their Souls in one 
Congregation, if they may more hopefully fecure them in ana-., 
ther ; for that their Souls are their greateft concernment in this 
World and in the next : Now fay they, ther's no Queftion btfr 
Men Preach fuch as they Print with public. 1 ; allowance; ar.i 
therefore they ought to provide better for theirSouls elfc where . 
Eipecially they fay, That the Doctrine of Juftifcati on is Articulu$. 
ftantis vel cadentisEcclefice^xi Article with which the Church falls 
or ftands : thisArticle fay rhey,in theParifh where we live is quite 
demoiifh'd by theDo&rine of* J ■unification by Works ; we are bound 
therefore to provide for our iafety and depart ; and when we arc 
once out,we will advife upon another Church, not which is toicr- 
rable,but which is eligible,and in all things nearelt thefford. 

5- They piead.that there's no obligation upon them ro own the 
Churches Power to irnpofe new terms of Communion, unlefs. 
the Church can prove her Power from Chrift : Its not for them to 
difprovc it ; h lies upon her to prove it, and toprcve it fubltanti- 
ally roo,orelle ir will be hard to prove it rheir duty o oWn it. 

6. They fay,the World is pefterd with Difputes about worfliip, 
about Religion; and therefore fince all cannot be in the rights 
f^cy are waling to go the ftfeft: way,*nd werfhip Go i accord in j 

t 2 ta> 

L T ^4 1 
to his Word : If the things difputed be lawful to be done, let 'err* 
be fo 5 they are Cure its lawful let'em alone, and they think trier's 
no great hazard in keeping to Scripture Rule, nor can believe 
thatChrift will fend any to Hell, becaufe they did not worfhip 
God in an External Mode, more near and fpruce than God com- 

7. They pretend, that the things impofed arc parts of worfhip, 
which none can Crca _ e but God, n >r will' God accept of any but 
fuch as are of his own Creating •, and whether they be Integral or 
EJfential Parts they do nor know, but in the worfhip of God they 
find them ftaftding upon even ground with thofe that arc certa inly 
Divine, cy at lean: as high as Man can lift them. 

8- They do not find that God ever commanded the thing's im- 
poled, cither in general, in fpecial, or their fiagulars; If God has 
commanded a Duty to be done, the Church muft find a place to 
do it in*-, but though the Church muft find a place for the Duty, a 
time for the Dutyjfhc &*y not find nervDuty for the time and place. 

9. They are the more cautious of all Ceremonies, becaufe the 
old Church of England jn her Homilies Serm. 3. Of good Works 
tells us: ' Thar fuch hath been the corrupt inclination of Man, fu- 

* perftitioufly given to make new Honouring of God of his own 
'Head, and then to have more Affection and Devotion to keep 

* that,than toiearch cut Gods Ho!yCommandments,and do therri. 

10. They fay,they have read overall the Books thai have been 
written in juftification of thoie thing?, and they find their Argu- 
ments f j \veak,th?irReafrns fo futi!ous,that letting afide Rhetor- 
ic k and Railing, thei's nothing in them, but what had been either 
anfwercd by others, or is contradicted by themfelvcs, which 
hardens them in their Errour, who are gone aftray into the 
right way. 

1 1. They fay, it's their dury to endeavour a reformation ac- 
cording fo the Word , which if others will nor, they cannot help 
it, and hore they will not be angry with the willing. 




The f vera I ways for prevention of Cb.'trcb-Vivifions mentioned by tb? 
Enquirer, considered. The Papal Methods^ I. Keeping tb* 
People in Ignorance. 2. An infallible Judge. 3. Accomodating 
Ilcligionto the Lujis of Men. Torek other ways mentioned by 
the Enquirer. 1. Toleration. 2'.Co>npnhenfidn\ 3. Injlruciion. 

A S that Fcrfon will highly merit: of this prcfenc Age, whofe 
*** difcerning eye fhall dilcovcr, and his chancy propound ro the 
world fuch rational expedients as may amicably compote our 
prefent differences, upon terms comporting with the Conscienti- 
ous principles of the cenrending parties ; 10 our fears of t!ie luc- 
cefsare juftly greatned by the frequent difappointment of our 
hopes ; confident Pretenders pofting up their Bills in every Cor- 
ner.proraifing nothing le(s than miracleSjbut performing nothing 
more than pretences. 

Ir is ibme encouragement xo expecl more than a Palliate Cure 
from this undertaker, to fee him fdl to his bufinefs lb like an Ar- 
rift : ' It cannot be hoped (fays he) thar where the bulmefs is Reti- 
* gion, and the concern Eternal Lfe, that men fiiould incunoufly 
c Swallow every thing without moving any Que/tion,or ftirrin^ 
any Debate. To which I fubjoyn, Nor can it be expecied that 
when they have moved the Queilion about the important con- 
cerns of Eternity, they fliould acquiefce in their own Qucftion, 
'without a Satisfactory Anfwer , like that Governour who Scorned 
ro Surrender before a Gun was Shot orf,but then thought it enough 
for his credit to Capitu'ate. 

Mod men f»valIow their Religion, as the Infant does its Pap. 
which has no other previous chewing, than what the NurSe gives 
it ; and are driven into profeffion juft like a flock of Geele, with 
no greater difficulty ,rhan holding over their Heackrhe Cereniony 
of a Long Pole. And I will add further^ that as this is not to be 
foped from aJi 5 fo neither is itdefirableinany, that they Should 
tcafc to be rational Creatures, before they become Cirri (Hans 

L 3 ' Ihe 

[ i66 ] 

The £;?f uirer has curioufly and carefully fearched all the Dif- 
penfarories , and our of rhofe ftorcs, prcmifes us the choiceft Me • 
dicines that may fir the Patients Cafe, and feem moft practicable : 
And we cannot pray for a Phyfitian better quahfied.than one who. 
is Af after of many Remedies,' and of a judgment ro chufe out 
jhofe which are agreeable. 

The Church of Rome has been an old Empirick: Co noted a 
Qusc k. for a defperateCurein adefperareCafe,thatthe greatcft 
civility we can allow her here, is thar which we commonly give 
your MounrebanckSjIend them a hearing, and do as we fee CaufL* 
She glories indeed in her Unity and Peace, and it might invite a 
iriccieft curiofity todefireafight of that Sympathericai Powder 
•which has effected fuch wonders : And ro fatisfic you in one word 5 
-it- nothing but the Jefuits Powder, or a Great nothing in a Juglers 

i. Her rlrft prefcription is Prophyla&ick, by way cf preven- 
tion .* the bed of Remedies (no c oubr), fince it's more defireable 
nor ro have needed, than having fo, ro have obtained theheip of 
i/gfetdapius. And it is nothing more than this plain, cheap, and 
ealie Recipe, Thar the people be kept in profound ignorance. Thus 
when the Phi lifti res had put out Sampfum eyes, 'they knew he 
would make, a flour Mill horfe : 1 hus when rhe Emprefs here 
had pluckt our her Sor.s eyes who could fee, flic found iteafie ro 
fct up Jmares which have eyes and fee not. Bur our Enquire r 
looks upon this prefcription as tooftrong a Narcotic, that it will 
act down in England, though ir has done grear feats in ita/jand 
ypain ; and the Uniformity of thofe Nations, is an unquefticnable 
C crtificate ro avouch its excellency. And it's to be feared at pre- 
Unt: it will nor.- for fome Learned Men are very confidenr, that 
cur own Englifh topics are more connatural to Englifh Bodies, 
thrm the exotick Druggs cf Pont us; and that we have the true 
DiHamnum growing in our own Gardens, had we but skill to ufe 
and ^yAy ir. • . 

But we ever dored upon foreign Novelties, and prize nothing 
thar liberal nature has beftowed en us : King Lucius, the glory of 
our IQsnd, and the whole world, who rlrft fubmitrcd his Crown 
of Gold ro one of Thorns, and laid his Scepter at the foor of him 
who bore a Reed, not well inftru&cd in the Riches of his own 
Dominions , muft needs fend ro Rome for advice; Ekutherius, 
good Man, who had riot yet iearnr how to make all Thrones de- 

pcnd upon his Infallible Chair, fends him this Anfwer, « That 
' there were already in Britain, theOld and the New Teitamenr, 

• ouc of which, by the Council of.his Kingdom, he might rake a 

* Law to Govern it. Did England know its own ftrength, it's fo 
well furnifht at home, that it might fparc irs Travels, and never 
crofs the Seas,or climb the Alpes to fcek new Models of Religion; 
The Holy Scriptures being (as Lirinen/is well faysj per feci ,and a- 
bundantly fufficient for all things, yea and more than Sufficient. And 
on this account too there would be lefsneed of Trade and Navi- 

Two Reafons there are why our Enquirer thinks this Papal 
Dofe of Ignorance will not be admitted in England. 

§. i. Becaute it conies too late : Ah ) it's a thoufand pities that a 
Receipt of fuch fame fliould be like, pofl mortem Medicina \ But is 
there no hope left under the lid of Pandora's Box ? The Church is 
a fuccejjive Bozy ; and though fhc may be Incurable in her prefent 
Individuals, yet flic may recover, and revive in thole of the next 
Generation : The Difcafe is not Peracute* but Chronical, and there 
may be fomepolTible room for endeavour. What if a Thoufand 
or two more of iMinifters were filenced , and the Labours cf as 
many difcouraged and prevented? what if LecTcres were pro- 
fci ibed ? private Conferences interdicted ? and your Twicers CuC- 
pended ? If it perform not all that may be defired, it might effect 
more than could be hoped : Oh no,//- comes too late ! for the People 
ef England know fo much already, that the only way to Cure the Incon- 
veniencies of that, is to let themk&ow more : This is excellent indeed, 
when thePoifon becomes its own Antidote, and Death proves its 
own Cure, which but in one only Cafe, the amazed world never yet 
faw, and will hardly yet believe ; but thus they tell usofQuick- 
filver, that a little Dofe will certainly kill, when a great one will 
Cure the twitting of the Gurs, and thole Intefline DiiTentions 
which thence arife in the Bowels .• yet fo it is : A little knowledg 
only ferments the natural pride of the Heart, which a roundquan- 
tity would wipe off, and carry away : or to exgrels it more ele- 
gantly from our Author, * When men know a little, they conceic 

* they underftand all that's knowable, and hereupon refute in- 

* ftruction, and oppole their private Opinions to the pubjick Wif- 

* dom : whereas,did tht fe Men fee further into things, they would 
1 then diicover a reafon of many things they are now diiTatisfiei 
4 with, or at ieaft diftruft their own underftandings, and grow 
1 mode {land p eaceable. It becomes every good Chriftian, and 

L 4 good 

good SubjeeT, ("and he that is really die former, will certainly be ; 
rjie latter') ro fufpect the ihallownefsof his own judgment:, and 
to Revere the depth of his Governours Wifdom ; he may bean 
ufeful Mariner, that is no skilful P/7<tf, nor knows howtoftcer 
the publick bottom-, but I donor' remember that we have been 
ddcouriirg about the expediency of the tranfportirg of Wool, the 
making of War or Peace, or the illyfteries of Government, £&e 
fopranos, nihil ad nos ; but our bufinefs is Religion, and the direct 
and immediate concerns of another "Life: and how roCure the 
Pride of the Underftanding without putting out its Eye, and 
making it a Polyphemus : And here, though I fufpeJt not the fhal- 
iowneisofme Governours Judgment, 1 dare nor ad againft my 
own. I confefs my feif to leek in the great itcfet of a private an ( i 
publicly Wifdom, as much as I am in that of ilk private and public ' 
£onfience,a fupcrftruclure railed upon that foundation : Nor**- 
hive I learnt the difference between the Roman Ignorance, and re' 
ping rry on n Keafin ; between dai knefs, and no ufe of Light. $ 
between having noprhiuxe Reafoft, and renouncing it for \he pu6- 
Reafon m things dlre.clly refpecTing God and his Worflnp : 
The one istorn blind, and the other has loft his Eres ; the one is 
the Romijh Opiate, and the other a more gentle ( if more gentle). 
preparation cf Laudanum, 

§. 2. Heanfwers,fecomlly, ' Ifit had come timely, yet the Re- 
' rnedy is' worfe than the Difcafe ; we eftcem it better if one be 
' neccfTary,ro err like men, than to be driven like Eeafts, or acted 
Mike Puppets : An Hercick Spirit] and fuchas may affureus, 
tine our Fhyfttian will nor call us into a Lethargy, to prevent the 
Ravingsofcr Fever - 7 ana that he will not follow that Bifhops Me- 
i liod, who had no other Cure for the Hcad-ake, than to cut it off. 
1 have read of a Kjng of France, who was extremely delighted 
p a Gentleman oFhis Bed-chamber, who had the proper Cafe of 
a Man,but Ins upper Rooms,it ieems,wcre but furniuYtlike Cock- 
loft f, with Lumber : This young Courtier, by fonie accident,took 
an cccafion to fall into a f hrenfic which elevating hisBrain above 
its nature and dull tempered a due height requifite for Raptures, 
created him ex tempore, a mdft'accpriiplifht Poet : Phy/itian* are 
pi I iummon"d,and they fumman their Art torcftorehim to his 
former little teff;' fuccefs attends their Endeavours, and the 
Gentleman is at once delivered from his Diftra&ion, .and that 
greater mad nets, Pcetry.: 1 he King having loft the fatisfaction he 
conceived in kis Airv Fancied arid valuwl'| a Mad Vntucfo before 


E rt* 1 

a fober Logger-he ^threatens ro hang 'em up every Mothers 5otf». 
tinlefs rhey did prefently recover him again to Wit, by putting 
him bejides it : fuch Mountebanks there are in the World, wh,p 
cannot keep Men peaceable, utile fs they make themflccks andfiories., 
2. A fecond Remedy for Diriiions much u fed by. the Romanifis % 
i? their Infallible Judg, to which, whofoever pretends on this lide 
a D^ity,needs only his own mouth to confute him; what follows 
in our Enquirer, \ read with much complacency ; The. Scripture 
plainly tells us that all men aie lyars,y^d> as may deceive, or be de- 
ceived ; and mofi undoubtedly would never hav- made fuch a deftincli- 
on of Chriflidns, as ftrong men, and Babes in Chnft, nor made it 
our duty to confider one another s weaknefs t andpraclice mutual for- 
bearance, if it had intended any where to direll us to fuch an Umpire.* 
asjhouldhave ended all differ ences^and made all men equally certain. 
Much lefs, that the we ak^in judgment fhould be forced to keep pace 
with the ftrong in their practi'fes, or that Babes fhould drive at 
the rare of grown men, Again, * 1 here was (fays he)z time when 

* ihe Apoftleshad the aQiftance of the Holy Spint,in fuch a man-. 

* ner as to guide them into all Truth, and give miraculous proof 
4 that they had Co, and yet this would not cure all the Schifms, nor 

* refblveall the Scruples, norfilence all-Djiputes : It muft needs 
therefore fecm unreafonable for them,who confeffing a fallibility 
of judgment", fhould yet as peremptorily bind their Decretals u- 
pon the Consciences, as if they not only pretended to, but could 
give evidence of their Infallibility : It's noted for one of the im- 
pudent E flays of Papal preemption and Hypocrifie, that he calls 
himfelf, Servus Nervorum Dei, and yet acts as if he were Rex Re- 
gum &Dort:inus Dominahtium. I never liked Jacobs fmooth voice, 
when I felt E fa us rough hands, and heavy Fifts : when we hear of 
the public^ JVifdem and C&nfcience, and both fallible ; and yet like 
M'jes his Rod, (wallowing up the private Wifdom and Confcience, 
becaufe they are fallible, I rejoyce in the great advantage of an 
Infallible God, who guides us by an Infallible Rule, to whom we 
mayfecurely commit our Souis. 

Nor can I fee the fo much boafted preheminencc of their Infal- 
lible vifible Judg, above our certainly Infallible Rule \ for whatever 
this Infallible Gentleman determines, it muft come toourcogni* 
zance either by word or writings and then it amounts to no more 
than an Infa'lible Rule, and by confequence lvable to rmf interpret 
rations, and all the inconveniences which rhey have unjuftly 
'charged upon the TVordofGod^vliidih^s been confirmed to us by 
i Autopfy\ 

[i 7 o] 

Autopfy *, for whatever have been his Determinations De fide,thc 
Contenders retain their former fentiments, which they proteft 
they would never do, were they allured in the true meaning of 
his Decrees. 

Here I began firft to fufpecl: that this fecondpart of the Enqui- 
ries could not poflibly be the Child of the fame Father with the 
former : For that other Enquirer allured us, that in the Primitive 
Time s>all good men were of one way f and all bad men of another ; that 
there was tut one divifion of mev, that l^<rt@ei; © <*<rs£«<r, were 
the only Setts that the World was known by; but this Enquirer X e\\s 
us, That there were Schifms, Divijions, Scruples, Difputes'm thofe 
early days, which the Holy Spirit given to the Apoflles in fuch man- 
ner as to lead them into allTruth, would not Cure, refolvc,nor filcnee. 

Hal the Apcftles underftood thofe frightful confequencts 
which we have karnt to impute to diverfities of judgment in lelTer 
matrers, withfutabie variety in pra&ice attending it, they might 
eafiiy have fiienced thofe difputes by the interpofition of their 
Authoriry ; and the Churches,no doubt, would as eafiiy have ac- 
quiefced in the judgment of the Apoftles, who could give irrefra • 
gable proof rhar they were fent of Chrift. 

Nor have thofe rigorous Dccifions ever reacht their pretend- 
ed ends, in healing differences, but only confopited them under 
theAflaes for a while, or raught men a little more craft to draw- 
ever the Articles to their private Opinions* rather than conform 
thefe to the publickbelief 

3 . Another Papal Remedy,is theAccommodxtion of Religion to the 
hufls amdlnterefts of Men, allowing them to thinkj believe, do 
anything in the world, provided they befubjecl to the universal 
Paftor ; for the Pope feeing that [\\c World will not be brought 
over to him upon the terms of Chrift, is content to come over to the 
world in Morals , if they will but come over to him in his Cere* 
monials. Much what of the fame good nature with that other 
grand Impoftor Mahomet, who when thztfullen Mountain would 
not ftir a foot to come to him, very courteoufly anfwer'd, Then 
let us go to the Mountain. 

Whether this Prefcription will be agreeable to, or practicable 
upon Englifh Conftirurions,is a great Queftion ; The Author of the 
Second part, concludes that we of this Church have too much fimpli- 
city andjincerity of Devotion to make ufe of this Remedy to put an end 
to our Diftraciions And yet I find fome have been tampering with 
it, who will be very fir ait-laced in Ceremonies to gratifie the fu- 



perjurious,*!*! widen rhcmoral part to humour the voluptuous j 
Thus if mens Lufts will not bend to the ftrait Rule of the Word, 
they can gently bow the Rule to their corruptions and crooked pro- 
pensities : And the Author of the former part feeing well that Men 
are grown too Purfcy to be crampt up with the Religious obfer- 
vation of the Lords-day, has prudently accommodated the day 
to their latitude ; They that have no great mind to kcepaCbriJii- 
<m Holy-day \ (hall need but to call it a Judaical Sabbath, and they 
arc well fortified againft all the checks of cheir Consciences. I 
know the Reader will pity him that muft contend with two fbch 
Adverfaries, (.Hercules himfelf would not engage a couple; but 
though rhey be Two, they have but one fingle weapon. 

We wane not fome who can reconcile the levity of the Stage 
andThearer,to the gi avity and feveri ty of the Chr iftian Dodxine ; 
that can teach men by their writings or Practice, how they may 
retain thefe vanities, and never throw off their Bapt ifma I Livery , 
and it is upon good Advice: for fhould they lofefuch numbers 
from the parry, it would make a filthy Hole in it; and the weed- 
ing'out fuch Tares would make a thin Field ofCorn ; and there- 
fore fome plead that they ought to grove together till the Harvefl. 

4 We are now come to the great and infallible Remedy, which 
the Pope trulls more to, than his great Infallibility ; But there are 
confiderable diverfitics about the form of this Medicine in the 
Difpenfarories : fome ( as Mr. NeceJJity hays)c&prefs it by a te- 
dious Periphrafis, Axes, Halters, Racks, Fire, Faggot, wirh an Et- 
cetera, which has more in't than all the reft; but the Romanes 
who are concife men, and love fhort work, and to exprefs multum in 
farvo, have Epitomiz'd all in that one word, the Holy-Inqu\jition, 
fo called by the fame Catechrefis, by which we call our former 
Anragonift/ta- Compaffienate Enquirer. 

If you enquire a Reafon of this various Reading ; know that it 
arifes from the different Copies of the Difpenfatories : The Pharmo- 
copc-eia of London Galls it one thing, that of Rome another; the 
Titles differjbut the Medicine is the fame : only Rome, according 
to her old overdoing undoing Humour, has added a few drops 
of the Spirits of Vitriol ; A n d yet the laft Edition of ours at**e 
Old-Bayly, re-affumes its former Title, and calls it downright, 
The Inquifition of Spafn. " 

This Medicine is truly Soveraign ; it fras the probatum of thou- 
frnds who beingdeadyyet fpsak, itsanfwerablenefsro its primitive 
deiigivto ftlence all difpute^ad ftop she mouth of ali gain-fayers: 


'[ f7» ] 
when all is done, there' s no Argument convinces fo effeftuadly 
as Stent- dead; The wild-Irifh themfelves will beleive their Ene- 
my to be dead, when his Head lies lever' d a Yard from his Body : 
But the Queftion will be ftill, whether itwill down with Englijh* 
inen ? for though they have good Beef-Stomachs, they want that 
cf the Qftrich to digeft Axes and Halters : There's no Queftion 
but it will go down well enough With them that ^ruf it; butit 
needs the afliftance of much Rhetorick to perfwade them into a 
rwillingnefs of mind, who are to take this wallowifh potion : If 
we could agree who fhouid be perfecuted, there are enow could 
he content to be the pcrfeCutors, and this is one of the greateft 

i i That the Genius of this Nation ( as our Enquirer informs us; 
is fo couragious, and withall fo companionate, I am very glad to 
hear \ the one part fo tender- hearted that they will not infliti, the 
qther fo tender Cojrfcienced that they will endure what fhall be fo 
inflicted, rather than proftitute them to the luft and tyranny of 
>men : but .than I mull conclude, that feme of our Church-men 
are either not Englijh men, or no Chnftians, whofe ferder mercies 
have been Cruelties.- and whofe companions, 1 ike DracosLaw, are 
written in blood •• And I rej yce to meet with thefe concluding 
words : The execrcife offo much cruelty upon the account of Religion 
in Q^_ Maries dap, -hath made that pro fe (port deteftable to this day ; 
.and it looked fo ill. in the Rotmnifts., -that we jh.all never beperfwaded 
to practice it our-fehes*. Had we but now an exact Definition of 
Cruelty, we 'fhouid ibon, be fatisfied- whether the Enquirer would 
not pei f.vade another to it, if not be perfwaded to it himfeif. 

None of the Romanifls Expedients then will work thisbkifed 
Cure, they are cither Impracticable, or come too late, or are worft 
than the Difeafe, or one mifchief or another, There are therefore 
three others, which he will mention. VniverfalTokration^om' 
prchenJjon,2ndlnfiruH'ionand Confideration. ."- / 

i . The fir ft is Vniverfal Toleration : But here the Doctors Man> 
whom he lent afimpling, was horribly mifta-keji. And like Etijhas 
Servant whom he fent to gather good wholefame Pot herbs, has im- 
prudently pickt up your poyfomus Coloquintidci; An overfight thac 
might have colt thcPaticnthis Life. \ v —. 

)t- VniverfalToleration ? 1 have obferved Englifh Spirrs to bear 
•fbme fecret Antipathy to thefe Univerfals -, They like not either 
Univerfal Bifliop, nor Univerfal Monarch, nor Univerfal Gracft 
por Univerfal Admiflion.nor this Univerial Toleration . But what 


if he-had omitted This Vniverfal'm the Receipt ; There may be a 
Toleration of what is Tolerable, whatever difturbs not the pub- 
lick Peace ; whatever contradicts -not the Scriptures, the Creeds ; 
whatever croifes not the great ends of Religion; whatever is 
peaceable, holy, humble, juft, modeft, righteous, though perhaps 
not Ceremonious : This Corre&ed Toleration has been given with 
Admirable fuccefs in the primitive and purer rimes ; It fills up 
both pages in the Apologies of Juftin Martyr, Athenagoras, and 
Tertulli an, who pleaded for a Toleration of their Innocent profeiTt- 
on : It is the main ingredient in that famous Mafs of Pillule fine 
quibus effe nolo, nay of Pillule fine quibus effe nequeo. The Scripture 
(fayd the Enquirer jufl before.) has made it our Duty to confider one 
another s rveaknefs, and practice mutual forbearance : and what for- 
bearance is without Toleration, I do not underftand. Had the 
Impofing Spirit obtained in the Infancy of the Church, they had 
faved the Heathens a Jabour,and deftroyed each other ; He might 
fjfely therefore in his Irenicon have ufed from a Scruple to a drachm 
of this Toleration ;'Tis the Herb Gratia Dei, the great franiim 
cholera, wrrcVi Adulces the blood, begers good Spirits, reftrains 
furly Humours, and fwcetens the tempers of one thriftbn to* 
wards another. 

'Tis not the opening a Pantheon, but not [hutting up the Temple 
of the one true God ; nut a licenaouihefs to biafpheme,but a liber- 
ty to glorifie our Redeemer, that we plead for ; 'tis a priviledg 
that every one has a claim to, that the Lives and Souls of thefn 
that have not wronged their Country, may be fecure in it ; If the 
rvorkj of the fiejh be found amongft us, Adultery, Fornication, Vn- 
cleanefs, Lacivioufnefs, Idolatry, JVitchraft, Hatred, V ' ariance^Ema- 
lation, Bitter fiefs, Strife, Seditions, Here fie s, Envyings, Murder r, 
Drur.kennefs, Kevellingsand fuch lil s e. We plead not for the guilty; 
only let the innocent find me r ry at home, who in other places 
might expeCr. a Reward. Is he a meet perfon to undertake the 
Healing of our Breaches, to compote our differencs, that can- 
not diftinpuidi between aToleration in Ceremonies, and the Tolera- 
ting of Idolatry ? that knows not the nice difference between, To- 
lerating every thing, and nothing ? If it be all one to indulge in 
things, conferled Adiaphorous atbeft,and the neceiTary duties of 
the Decalogue,ralk no more of Healing ; he mbft prove a Phyfici- 
an of no value, that when the balm of Gi lead crops into his mouth, 
jsnowsnothow to Apply it: 

2. 1 he feeond propounded Remedy, is ai excellent Opener ; 
^ known 

['74 3 

known to this prcfcnt age by the name of Comprehenjion, Which 
in our Authors GlofTary fignifies, The making the Terms of Commu- 
nion more free and eafie, opening the Arms of the Church, to receive 
more into her Bofom, thereby to enlarge both, the Society and Inter eft 
of the Church : and one would think that fo much Reafbn couchr in 
ib few words, might have vindicated the Receipt above con * 
tempt.and recommended it to a probationary experiment -, (elf pre- 
servation would make a harftier medicine than this go merrily 
down*, if any thing make a Building ftrong, that mult be carried 
rofuchavaft Height, that muft bear fuch a weight, that iTialJ be 
expofed to fuch fhaking\Vinds,it muft be a proportionable widen- 
ing the foundation : But let us hear our Betttrs. 

§. I . For my part (fays he) If fuch a courfe pleafe our Governours, 
I have no mind to oppofe any thing to it. Thy are infinitely obliged 
to him,fure!y,that if they pleafe to fhew kindnefs to tender-confei- 
enced Sub;edts,he will not oppofe t not declare againft them. This 
is a Moderation far beyond Mr. Bayes's hotter temper •, he will 
tell them: If they will Rule y they muft, they muft, thej mufti— but is 
this all? 1 had thought he had brought with him Licentiam ad 
praSzicandum. ACommiflbn to prescribe , and now I fee he can 
do nothing without the Colledge : but what now if fuch a whole- 
fbmc courfe pleafe not, though it profit, might ir not have become 
a Companionate Enquirer xo have forwarded them with an humble 
Hint or two of their interwoven Intereft and Duty ? when he 
preaches fo admircably upon thofe points of Reverence, Content- 
ment, SubmiJJion, Charity, and has fhown his skill in the Theory, 
docs he ufe to Rivet it no better than thus ? if thefe virtues pleafe 
my Auditors, I have no mind to oppofe *, If you will be charitable, 
you may for all me, Tie promife you I fliall never ftudy your ruin, 
and plot your deftruclion. IfChurch-Governours pleafe to en- 
large the Society and Intereft of the Church, If thsy pleafe to 
ftrengihen it againft its Enemies abroad, and procure it Peace and 
Contentment at home, he will not oppofe : The beft narur'd man 
that ever .was in the World. 

They who are Governours of the Church, are bound in Con- 
science to make the Terms of Communion e a fie and free ; not ro make 
the Yoke heaveir than Chrift made it. They that came in eafily, 
ought to let in others upon the fame terms r whoever they, were 
that fir ft clogg'd the Churches Communion with multitudes of 
tmneceffary conditions, are like him that received a clear Eftate 
'.f'1-nheritance from hisf athor> leaves itencumbrei, and charged 


to his Son, who perhaps may never be able to rake off the Mort- 
gage, andfbfhall thank his Father for juft nothing: Chriftmadc 
the way ro Heaven narrow enough, and there's no need to make 
it ftraiter: Governours in the Church may eafily miftake in the 
Quantity of their power, but this is fure, How great foever it be, 
they have all for Edification, none for Deftruclion. They ought not 
to rejcd thofe whom Chrift will receive -, And a little plain 
Englijh would here have done no hurt, but have been Acceptable 
ro the beft of Church-men, whofe mifery it is to have many flatter- 
ers about them which ler them know their virtues, but few faith- 
ful Monitors , who will acquaint them with their Duty. 

§. 2. He de fires it may be conJidercd,that there are many things that 
took^ very probably in the general notion and fpeculation, that would 
flatter one into a great opinion of them,which when they come to be try 
ed,are no ways anfwerable. Therefore never attempt any thing that 
wears the Appearance of Honourable to the Worlds end ; the 
benefits may poffibly exceed, as well as fall below expectation. 
It was Davids councel to Solomon , up, and be doing, and the Lord 
he with thee ! There are many things which in the general notion: 
and (peculation would terrifie one with appearances of Inconve- 
niences, which when they come to be tryed, were the f uggeftions 
of Cowardice. Thu s Children in the Twilight, feeing every ob- 
ject through the fpe&acles of rfyeir own fears, make that a Bear, 
which Nature calls a harmlefs Bufh 

. 3. But many difficulties occur in the Keducing things of this Na- 
ture intoprattife, that were not forefeen in the Theory \ and many 
bieffings and mercies may and will occur, which will overweigh 
the difficulties in attaining them: the difficulties momentany, the 
advantages perpetual; the inconveniences perfonal, the benefits 
general, the prejudices to fome few mens too much plenty, the Ad- 
vantages to many mens Souls. It's a itrange refblution,that we 
will not endeavour to be happy, for fear we fhould encounter a 
difficulty in the way thither; If the knot cannot be untied, Alex* 
anders Sword will cut it : To withdraw from Apparent Duty, 
for fear of uncertain danger, is but like his, that would not fhoot- 
the Bridge, becaufe it might poffibly fall orfs Head. Thofe ac- 
cidents which can neither be foreseen nor prevented in doing a 
good work, are by wife men not to be regarded. I never hear 
fuch Arguments ufed againft t{ie attempts for preferments : I 
ftall judge them real in their Declamations againft Comprehen- 
fSan^when tktry ufe to difcouragc themfcives from the fame Dif- 

faculties in feeing great things for tbemfelves. The Sluggard cries 
our, Theresa Lyon in the way, when it's nothing bur his own Iazie' 
Soul, rhar paints our dread and rerrour rohis Imagination : ler 
none hereafter eat, becaufe he may poffibly find his Death, where 
he fought his Life : ler none Travel, becaufe he may be robb'd nor 
ride on Horfcback, becaufe he may poffibly get a fall : There's no- 
thing rruly Glorions,but muft be waded to, through' difficulties 
butlome fecret Lulls commonly pretend them greater than rhey 

, §. 4. This is not done (fays hej and we do not know when it wilt be 
fet about. Thar is,we will u/e the means when theend is efTeded : 
•How happy had the Chriftian World been, if the firft Impofers 
of Ceremonies had adted by thofe principles : fuch conditions 
arc nor Impofed, and we know nor when they will, therefore 
we will never begin. But though ir be nor yer done,I krovv when 
ir will be .; When God fh all open the Eyes of Church men ro fee 
the tilings that belong ro their Duty, and the Churches peace; 
when all our- ror.terings and fhakings, fliall have humbled us into 
more Condefcenfion and Evangelical rendcrnefs ; When men 
fhall feeir both their Int-ereft and Duty to fecure the Building by 
enlarging the foundation, and rhar the Security and ftabiliry of 
Society, lies in the Clofe Union of the parts ; rhar rhe Beaury of a 
Church confifts much. in. the amplifying of rhe fold; Then will 
fomerhing of rhis nature be done, for which all generations flial! 
call the Authors Blefted. ; • 

3. If then none of thefe Remedies be practicable, what muft 
the languishing Parienr do > There is yer one thing more, which is 
like rhofe Cordials we drop inro the Mourhs of the dying, 
to procure the old admired ^Wctcr/a, ; and that is InftruElion or 
Information. Its pity rhe poor Clinical Church /hould dye under 
fo many hands, and in rhe view ot aAyholejhop of Medicines, and 
therefore rather this than nothing, which may be efte&uaJ, 
ir will be neceilary ro confider. 1. Who are meet ro give, ?. Who 
ought ro receive Inftruclion. 3. From what grounds theinftrucli- 
ons are to be fetchr, 4. What other means may poffibly be ad- 

§. r, Ifs very considerable who arc ro be the Infiruciors, and 
called into theConfulation ? For every one would be in theChair, 
and none willing to be Auditors. The Brethren of the Epifcopal 
f>erfwafion having .got the priviledgof Law, rake it- for grafhre.d 
that they are the onjy perfons meet for r his fervice; whereas, h' 

the Do&rine, Worfhip, and Dfcipline of the Di (Tenders fhould 
prove nearer co the prefers prot Script are, no fubfequent Law can 
poffibly fet it further off: That which was better before the Or- 
dinance of Maa, cannot be made worfe by it; Let therefore 
neither the one nor the other be the Inftructors,but lee the word 
of God. inftrud: both: and this was the expedient of C&ifaritine 
the Great at the opening the Council of Nice •, He did not tur.i 
the Scale by his Aurhoritv •, but delivers himfelf thus impartially. 
to the wrangling fa&ions. A'l fedinous Contention fet afxde (fays 
he) let us difcufs the things in Contr over fie by the Teftimony of the di- 
vinely infpired Scriptures, as we are informed from the Cath. Mo- 
derator -. And it was Auftins great reierve when he was prefied 
with the inartificial Argument of Authority ,Ne audiantur h&c wr^ 
ba, Egodicod) tu dicis % fed quid dicit Dominns. Tell me not what . 
you fay ; any more than I tell you what Ifty,but let us both hearken 
to what God fhall fpeak^Q^ocX enim (as Hierom) de lacris Scriptur- 
is non habet auchontatem eadem facilitate contejynitur, qua 
proponitur ; iVhatfoever is not grounded upon the Scriptures , may 
with as much eafe be flighted as 'tis urged. > 

§ 2. Its material too, who are to be inflruHed ? It's prefumed by 
pur Enquirer, that the DifTenters alone want, 
they only are Crooked ; but whatever they want,as they will fub- 
rnit to, and be thankful for wholefome Councel, lb they conceive 
a word of Inftructdon will be neceiTary another way. When thi 
Nonconforming are come to the End of their Tedder- .-when Con- 
fcience will iuffer rhem to Advance not one ftep further. Others' 
will need an Life of Inftrudtion too, to go to the End of theirs : 
fuch Instruction as this of our Enquirers, the Creditor can give 
his Debtor whom he laid faft in Ludgate : Truly Friend. I Tou have 
been reputed a difcreet perfonj. wonder at you, andfo do all that knovo^ 
you, that you will be fo little a Friend to your eafe, foobflir.ate againfh 
liherty, as. to lye reexjng your' felf in a fmokie hale ought to M'- 
miz your private judgment to that of the generality of mankind, wko\ 
with one voice agree,that the frefto Air is much fveeter than this ndfif 
Lodging ! How much more proper had it been to have expoftu- 
Ja ted with this Cruel Creditor? 

. Sir ! The poor man has paid you all he has, he is nor worth i 
groa:mjre in all the world : you may have his skin, batfiefh he, 
has rone, (liew now your Charitv, and fince h? cannot reteafd 
hir»felf,but you m ay, fhew your Charity. The Ditfentcrs fay this 
is their Cafe : they cannot go ne up to the propounded conditions' 

M without? 


whithout fin, the impofcrs may abate of the Conditions without 
fin, and therfore they are the proper Subjects of Inftru&ion : 
Indeed I find the Nonconforming very fhy in charging the terms 
to be finful v they are loath to fpeak a word that may be interpret- 
ed any reflection upon the Church, and therefore commonly in- 
fill upon other pleas.- but when Imporunity fhalJ extort it from 
them, they mult deal liquidly, and ajlert, that they cannot do tkefe 
things, and fin again}} God thereby. 

§. 3. From what grounds will this Inftruclor draw his inftru- 
ctions ? I do the rather propound ir,becaufc I meet with great va- 
riety of them : fome fayyMafier^ave thy felf; and to this they an- 
f\vcar,/7y Soul is my felf, and if the Soul he I aft, 'he Mm is loft. O- 
thcrs cry, oh be very render of Peace [ And they reply yes, and a 
litrle ci'Tru+h cdb. Others exclaim, you will bring in Popery] And 
they return, we did no r make the terms of Comm.nior.; They 
thar freak thus, are more Zealous to keep us our than Popery. The 
Arguments |hen muft be drawn from fuch heads as are agreeable 
to the fixed Scripture-principles of thofe that come under inftru- 
ction. CKherwife the Advice is no more but this: come over to 
our party, and there will be Peace ! Why, fo there will (reply the 
DifTenters) if you come all over to ours, or to any third party, 
1 here would be a Peace, an ill Cemented, i|J grounded one ; and 
fuch,as upon every occafioa would break out in a more defperate 

§. 4. it's very confiderable what this Genleman will do, if his 
Jfifrruclion fihould prove Addle; For if neither rf well Buttrejfed 
Toleration, cramped down fcundJy with wholefomc Laws, nor 
vet a due Combrehenfwn will be admitted ; The condition of Diffen- 
rers would yet be fupportable,if they might be kept to this whole- 
fomc Kjtchin Phyfick^of Inftruftion : But his Inftru&i'ons look very 
Jilce thofe of Spain, who ufe to exhort and inftruct the poor 
wre ches caught in the Iron Claws of the Jnquifition, to be pitiful 
to their Souls, not to throw away their Lives,and prefently fhuc 
rp their ! aii words with the Flames: What the Operation of this 
JThftrudrion may be, I cannot tell, but the DiMenters /perceive 
have rheir Ja<t proportions tent in, and the next is Efcalado ; for 
he rdl'»us,p4f. 214. ' That if they will not be inftru&ed,hefees 
* no Obligation upon the Magiftrate to forbear to makeorexe* 
' cifte fuch Laws as he apprehends for the good of his Govern- 
4 menr : fo thar after all his experiments, and great fhew of skill 
m healing, he is \y healed about to that Jaft, and worit of Papaf 



Remedies, Which fbme Cill Axes, Halters, Gibbets, Each, Pillories* 
Imprifonment, others the Holy Inquifnion > which js juft the PJea cf 
the Papiits for all their Barbanae., That if the People will not be 
perfaaded, they fee no Reafon why the Church Jhould not deliver them 
ever to the fecular powers to be burnt for Here ticks* 


The Enquirers notion of Schifm examined, and as applied to the fiber 
Nonconformifis, proved uncharitable, unfufk andfalfi. 

CChifm is an EcclefiaflicalCuherine fWhlch being over charged, and 
*^ ill-managed, Recoyles, and hurts the Cannoneer. He that un- 
dertakes to play this great Gun, had need be very Curious, and 
careful to fpunge his Canon well, left it fire at home. Nothing has 
more naturally tempted the Imprudent to account nothing to be 
Schifm, than ; hat fome hafty angry men have made every thing fo. 
That caufelefs feparation from a particular Church ofChrift, 
whereof we were once duly Members, is a fin of a deep dye.,is own- 
ed by all that own theGofpel, and have any tender regard to the 
profperiry oftheChurch,or propagation of the Truth, but yet we 
oughrnor to be fo eafily credulous,asto believe every departure to 
be that heinous itag,whichpafnonate men,in hot blco.l,0'Jt of Pre- 
judice to rheperibnsofothersjor aneceftity tofecure andeilablifh 
their own Acquifts over mens Confciences,are refblved to call fo. 
' It was not therefore lightly, but with great judgment-, that the 
learned Hales calls it, c one of thofe Theological Scarecrows, 
'with which they who ufe to uphold a party in Religion, ufe to 
' fright fuch as makeing any enquiry into it, are ready to Relin- 
*quiOi and oppofe it, if it appear either erroneous or lufpicious. 
St. Cyprian (it teems) affirms it to be offo horrib)y a Guilt, that 
Martyrdom was not a fujficient Expiation of it. And upjn the like 
ipccaiion he might have faid as much of any other fin; fori have 
not learnt, that Martyrdom was defign'd to expiate ourfins,bu'to 
bear voitnefs to Gods Truths : and the fame Cyprian at another time 
will inform us", that ' Plebs obfequens pr^ceptis Dominicis, pc 

* Dcum metuens a peccarore pnepofito feparare fe debet. A 

* peonlefearingGod, and Confcientioudy obfequious to his Com- 
' HTands,(ff^ only may, but) oughttofeparateit felf from afcanda- 
Moiis and wicked Paftor. And therefore we may fecure our 

M 2 Mrsi 

L 180 1 

ielves, fto fuchfeparation fin his judgment j is not Tto Scfci/Ttf 
which Martyrdom will not expiate. 

The true reafon why Reparation in the Scripture, and purer 
Primitive times, wasefteemed a Crime fo unpardonable , was ,be- 
caufe the Church made no other Terms of enjoying herComuni- 
on, than Chrift had made : That Superiors durit not venture the 
Churches Peace upon fuch a fandy foundation,as her own Inventi- 
ens. turned into Impofitions for if the Terms of Communion, be of 
Mans making, the feparation that enfues will be but a Schifm of 
mans mahing too.and whether a Church has firft a power to make 
ajin^nd then to make it damnable,! have fome reafon to queftion. 

Let nothing be declared Schifm, but what the Scriptures have 
ni3de fo, and w,e (hall be content it 'be made as great 9 fin as he 
can reasonably defire. 

Had not our Enquirer been caried down in the torrent of his 
awn overflowing Eloquence, till he had quite loft himfclf, he 
might have anfivered himfelf from his own words, p« 109. ' For 
' this caufe (fays he) it pleafed God that his Church, in thofe early 
' days, fhould rather be harafled with perfections, which made 
• it unite it felf the clofer, and paring off all fuperfluities, keep to 
1 the neceffary and effential Docfrines delivered to it, than to be 
foftned, and made wanton by ea/e, and fo to corrupt the fimplici- 
' ty of rhe Gofpel. Let a Church then return to the fimplicity of 
tbeGofpel: Lerher repent of that foftnefs and wantonness oi' Spirit, 
which by Eafe {he has conrracf ed. Let her pare offallfuperfluities, 
and keep Clofe to the neceffary and effenialDo'cirines delivered to 
it, and (lie fhall find us as ready to write Philippics againft Schifm 
as himfelf, though we want his Ciceronian quill, and wordy ex- 

Kow though we are all convinced that Schifm (veri nominis) is 
aruoft dcteftable Impiety ; yet to beget in us a greater averfation 
from it, it may be profitable to liften to his reafonings,which are 
fo potent, as will doubtlefs drain both the Conventicles and the 

§.■ 1. ' None (fays he) can doubt of this, who confiders what care 
' our Saviour took to prevent it, what pains he took with his A- 
4 poftles that they might be throughly inftrucled, and not differ in 
€ the delivery of his mind ro the World, wee do with all humb'e 
t hankfuJnefs own rhe faithful nefs of our Saviour in intrufling, and 
the ca r efuinefs of rhe Apoflles in following their inftruftions. 1 hzy 
usiivered td the Churches, as the whole Councel ofQod , c£s 2 j t 

27. fb, only the Councel of God, 1 . Cor. 11. 2 3. 1 have received of 
the Lord that which I alfo delivered unto you ; And let bur the 
Paftors of the Church imitate thefe patterns, keep exactly to their 
inftruHions from the Lord Chrift, which we doubt not are pr j- 
portionable to reach the ends of Unity and Peace, (elfe they had 
not been fufficicntly iuftrutted) and either we fhall have no fepar i* 
tions or the cafe will be fb famjhefeparatfan fo evidently fchiOn, 
that the Schifmaticks fhall not be able to obtend the lealr umbrage 
to cover their grofs prevarication : Buc when Emdafladors 
throughly infruFled in all the means to prvettt that evil, (hall go be- 
yond their Inftru&ions ; and impofe new. unheard of Terms. of 
Communion, which never came into his heart to approve, nor e- 
ver came out of his mouth to impofe ; give me leave to /ay, rhus 
far they are not Embajfadorij and by a Nan compli- 
ance with them therein, cannot be interpreted any a fronts bur 
faithfulnefs to him who entrufted them wiih thofe difpaiches •• 
And if Chrifts instructions given to lus Apoftles to prevent this 
growing evil were infujficient, I am affraid they will be but fom- 
ly helpt out, who have recourfe to men for fuller inflruclhns. 

§.2. To prove the greatnefs of his Cm, he observes (and we 
thank him for his obfervauion) ' that the Apoitlcs were induftri- 

* ous to refill all beginings of fchifm in every Church, to heal sll 
1 breaches, to take away all occafions of Divifion, to unice all 
' hearts 3 and reconcile all minds : and to requite his kindne.s, I 
will repay his obfervation with this other; that they either are 

not the Apoftlts Succejfors in their healing Spirit, or elfe have feci 
fome weighty reafento depart from their judgment about the 
heinoufnefs of that fin, who inftead of taking away the occafions of 
Div ifions. which they have given : or removing the ft urn ling Blocks 
out of the way of Union,"' hi ch they have /aid, do give greater to, 
and lay more obstacles before the Chriftian world. 

§, 3. His third proof is taken from the love linefs eJVnity. « Jr's 

* nox (fays he) the fublimity of Chriftian Doctrine, nor theglori- 
« oufhefs of the Hopes it propounds, that will fo. recommend it ro 
( the opinion and efteem of beholders, as when it fnall be faid 

% Ecce ut. Cirri fliani Amant : when they fhall obferve the Love,Con* 
1 cord, an.l Unanimity amongft the Profeflbrs of it. The Enquirer 
has here ftumbled at unawares upon the formal reafbn of ft :7.y fa 
or finful ftpa-ration, which lie? not in the variety of Opinion-, or 
differing practices, modes or forms of Worfnip, but in a want of 
true love and charity: iliac which renders Chriftiantiry crulv 


M } beauii. 

C '8* 1 

beautiful and amiable in the Eyes of Beholders, is, that it teacher 
the ProfefTbrs thereof to love one another with apure heart fer* 
vently, though under different perfwafions,as to Modes of Divine 
"Worftnp and Difcipline ; That their hcarcs are larger to receive 
one anothers perfbns, than their heads are to conceive one ano- 
hers notions. But yet, as he is a fond Lover that chutes his Wife 
i>j the Eye, for the {ymctry of her external frame, or cloathing of 
wrought Gold, rather than thofe virtues which adorn the Soul •, fo 
he that chufes his Religion by Senfe, and not by Faith, will make a 
rrioft Jamentable bargain ; He that falls in love withChriftsChurck 
lipon External Allurements and Extrinfick Motives, will either 
repent, or quit his choice when fhe is perfecured, her outward 
frame difcompofed, her order violated, the Jhepherd [mitten, and 
thefreep fcatter'dy whereas, he that cfpoufes Religion for thofe 
invifible glories which fte propounds,and keeps in his fteacly eye, 
the recompence of reward, will adhere to his choice when (he is moji 
blacky a\\\4be Sun of Perfection has too familiarly looked upon her. 
Bur I (hall not need to trouble my fclf, or the Reader, with any 
more of thefe fine Arguments*, Schifm is anevil, whether he be 
angry at it or no : and Separation may be good,\\ y \\QXheY he be pleaf- 
ed or no. All the Queftion will be, that feeing there is an appa- 
rent reparation found amongft us from the Political Church of 
England ,and fuppofing that there, is fin one where or other,where 
the guilt of it ought to lye ? The Enquirer has fpoken a great deal 
cf Truth in a few words, ' That fome have found pleafure to get 

* that Child, which they would by no means have laid at their 

* ovf'n doors ; A fuccefsful peace of Villany it is, which fomettmes 
piTes for a Virtue for the Fathers who have begot thefe Brats, to 
opofe them to be kept and maintained at thecoft of the poor in- 
nocent Pariilh, and if we might guefs at the true Father by the 
Child s Phyfiognomy, All the divifions which have fo heavily 
cruised the Churches having fprung from Ceremonies, from 
needled Impofitions, from unneceffary Terms of Communion ; 
They Who take (nch pleafure to beget the one ,may be prefumed 
to have been the Grandfathers of the other. 

If yet there be any controvert depending whofc the Child is : 
The Enquirer recommends to us the Wifdorn of Solomon, for dis- 
covering the True Mother, andbecanfe we know, Partus fcquitur 
veritrem, if we c?n orce find ont the Damm, we fhall make her 
confers tie Sir e : c 1 1 was the early proof (fays he) Solomon gave of 
'his Wifium in difcevcring the true Mother of the living Child, 


I '83 ] 

• c to which both the Litigants laid equal claim — *I confefs his 
illustration proceeds hitherto but very oddly; for there y the quar- 
rel was, who fhould have the Child, andbcrepured the true 
Mother : But with us&W the controverfie fs who Shall be discharg- 
ed of it : But all Similitudes do not run on fourLeggs.and it's very 
well if this will hop on one : oblcrve how he lays both ends of his 
difceurfe together : ' As that wife Prince discovered the true 
' Mother by the tendernefs of her Bowels towards the Infant, fo 
1 we may perhaps difcover the true Children of the Church by 
' their refped: and tendernefs to her. Ay ; juft Co no doubt ! Even 
as the Wheelbarrow rumbles over the Pebbles,fo a Thumb rope 
of Sand, will make an excellent Cable for Fifhers-folly 5 1 he 
comparifbn would run a little more naturally and regularly rh s. 
As the true Mother was difcerned by the tendernefs of her 
Bowels towards the Infant, who would rather part with her 
right, than that her bleeding Eye fhould ever fee her Child divi- 
ded, fo we may perhaps difcover the true Mother of the Church, 
by her condescending and relenting pityjiyho would rather wave 
her ciaimes, and refign her right in fome letter inftances, than 
ever endure to fee body of Chrift divided, by a Schifmancal Di- 
chotomy. And as the Hariot> not withstanding all her pretences, 
bewrayed her felf to the difcerning eye of that Judicious Prince, 
, who could be content the Child fhould rather dye, than fhe lofe 
her moyty , fo will fhe evidence her felf ro be a Stepmorher 
Church, which peremptorily infills upon a pretended right to 
Impofe, at the Peril of the Churches Peace, rather than by wa- 
ving thole pretences, fave the endangred Church from imminent 
destruction : but fbme mens Allegories are never fo excellent, as 
when they areimpertinent,or non-fenfe ; and I prefume he found 
this Allufion in the Wifdom of Solomon ,in the Apocryphal Writings. 
We are come at length to the Queftion,T*>ta? is the true notion of 
fchifm ? A point that deferves to be handled with the greatest ex- 
adtnefs; for upon the True dating hereof, theifTue of the whole, 
controverfie depends. His notion, or definition of Schifm,is this, 
' Schifm is a voluntary departure or Separation of ones felf, with- 
'outjuft caufe given, from that Christian Church, whereof he 
'was once a Af ember : O, Schifm is a breach of that Com - 
'munion wherein a man might have continued without fin. I 
fhall not need to find faults, or pick holes in this definition, they 
Will offer themfelves as he opens the Terms, only I obferve, 

M 4 : CO 

[i c 4] 
( O Thar ir offends againft one of the tiered Laws of Definition, 
Which ought to be rttoft re'igioufiy and inviolably prcferved, 
Definition*: s debent cujn Dcnnito nciprocari ; The Definition 
ou gkt to be convertible with the thing defined: And rhat this is not 
fib is evident, becaufe there may be a Schifm where there is no 
feparanon from External Communion : 1 here is a Schifm in a 
Church, as well as from Church. The Churches Garment 
maybe rent, and yet not rent in two : Thus the Apoftle, i Cor. 
J i. i 8. f When ye come together in the Church, I hear there 
^are Divihons amonft you : cIkI*^*?*!* **W* vW ? *«v, 
' ch. i2. v. $. That there may be no Schifm in the Body 
tro, fxvi J %iep& vi tJ (td^ATh That Definition which is as 
harrow as bis Chxri'xy^ and leaves out thofe who ought to be 
taken in, mult neceffarily be ftark naught. (2.) This Defi- 
nition is very ihort , in exprefTing that which is indeed the 
Poipn andVenom; the formal Reason of all Schifmatical departure, 
viz. the want of Charfty and true Evangelical Love I for he that 
departs from a Society, yet loves the real Christians therein, 
and []\q Society it felf, fo far as it is a Church of Chnfts in- 
ftitution, only he loves his own Soul with a more inteiifelove 
and accordingly makes the beft provifion for it he can, and 
would repyce that others would accept of the fame Advanta- 
ges, ought cot to be called a Schifmatick ; but if they who 
pretend to a power toftampwhat unifications they -pieafe up- 
on words-, will call him Jo, the beft is, no Nicknames will 
prejudice him in the light of that God, who fearcheth the 
heart, and tryeth the reins . As Herefie is oppofed to the Faith, 
i'o Sch if in is oppofed to Love ; and Herefie and Schifm are diftin • 
guiftit by thofe things to Which each of them is oppofed. 

3. -It's faulty for its ambiguity : becaufe he tells us not what 
the Chriftian Church is, from whence the departure muft be 
made to denominate it Schiimatical : If he means a particular 
Congregation united under its proper Paftor according to the 
Laws of Ch^ift, it will prove it Schifmatical to depart from 
a Church of Nonconformifts. If he undcrftands a National 
Chu'rh, hefhould dp well to prove, that fuch aChurchis of 
Chrijls inflitution\ but I fhaJl wave thefe and many more till 
he has difcanted upon the par r cu!ars of his own Definition 
§. 1. \ I call it( fays he) 2. departure or feparation from the 
' Society of the Church, to difttnguilh it from other fins; whirch 
>•;'-«. l ' though 

ihough they are breaches of the Laws of our Religion, and 
'conlequenrly of theChurch, yet are not arenuncianon of the 
4 Society. There may be fuch a Perfbn, who for his wicked- 
c nefs deferves to bccaft out of the Church, as being a fcandal 
' and difoonour to it, yet neither feparating himfeif, nor be- 
'ing call out of the Society, remains ftiii a Memoer of it. 
This is indeed too true, and hence it is, that many Churches 
are f> over run with (candalous Debauches, that rher's very 
iitrie difference between the impaled Garden, and the wide 
Wildernefs : And perhaps was there more of this Authoritative 
feparation, there would be lefs of that prudential feparation: 
If rotten ajii gangreened Members were cut eff, the found 
would not have that neceflity to provide for their own fe- 
curiry; If the Contagion were not fo Epidemical, there 
were lefs need to fcek our for better and more wholefome 
Airs: when an Impudent Biafphemer, who out- faces the Sun, 
the Notoriery of whofe crime needs no Dilator, fhall yec 
quietly maintain his ftation in a Church, whilft. others for 
not comeing up to a Ceremonie , fhall bereje&ed, though 
otherwile holy and inoffenfive, men may make Models and 
Idea's of Schiim to fave their credits long enough, before they 
will be much regarded. 

§. 2. J call it ( fays he) a voluntary feparati on to diflingwjh 
Jin from punjjhment, or Schifm from Excommunication. Yes, but 
he ought to have called it Voluntary upon a higher account, 
in oppofuion to fuch departure as is made with regret and 
reluftancy*. for when a fincere Chriftian has ufed all due. 
means to inform himfeif of the Truth of fuch a Principle, 
or the Lawfulnefs of fuch a praclice as may be made the 
condition of Communion with that Society; when he has 
asked advice of God and his Word , when he has prayed 
With David , that God would open his Eyes, when he has 
conferred with the raoft judicious and impartial Chriftians, 
when he humbly and modeftly reprefenred to the Paftors has 
and Governours of that Church , the fufpecled condition, or 
the innovation crept into the Church, and yet can neither pro- 
cure Reformation of the abufe, nor federation of his particu- 
lar non complyance, nor yet find fansfaction of the Lawful- 
nefs of fuch practice, he may without guilt withdraw him- 
felf from that Society ; nor ought th.s zo b^ charged upon 


£ »*« ] 

him as a departure . having in it any thing of finful voluntary 
nefs: when a Merchant throws his Lading over-board to 
preferve Life, I grant that he may be faid willingly to throw 
it away , becaufc his precious Life preponderates and turns 
the Scale of the will, yet none will condemn that poor Mer- 
chant of too little affection to his Merchanu'ice. Thus when 
a Chriftian cannnd no reft, no (Satisfaction to his Confidence 
from thofe fufpecied conditions, which in the conftant exercife 
cf his Communion do recur, and fhall recede from that So- 
ciety, joyning himfeifto another, where with full Satisfaction 
of Spirit he may purfuehis own Edification, fucha one ought 
riot to be charged wirh a voluntary departure, nou fhall it be 
charged upon him as fuch in the judgment of him that fhall )udge 
the World. 

§. 3. '■ Icail it C fays he ) a departure from a particular 
.'Church, or from a part of the vifible Church, todiftinguifo 
•it from Apoftacy, which is a cafting of the whole Rcligi* 
'en , the name and profcfilon cf Chn&ianity : But here his 
definition is very crazie , and ill joynred : for it ought to 
be defined a departure from a particular Church of Chrift ; 
To diftinguifh it from fuch a Conftitution, as is either no par- 
ticular Church of Chrifts institution , or none, fo far as the 
feparation is made f om it : fuch a one as is not united un • 
der Chrifts Officers , nor conjoyned by Chrifts Ligaments : 
Chrift has taken fpecial care that there may be no Schifm in 
xhe Body, 1 Cor. 12. 25. And for this end he has command- 
ed a ' fpir it of 'mutual forbearance and condefcenfion '■> he has mingled 
and tempered the Body together with fuch exact geometri- 
cal proportion, that each of the parts may care for theo- 
ther ; for this end a ! fo he has inftituted fame extraordinary 
pjjicers, whofe work and Office was to ceafe with the pre- 
sent exigency and oc:a r ion , and the ordinary* whofe Office 
and Employment ( as the Reafbns of them ) were to be 
perpetual. Now if any Society of Men , calling themfe\vesa 
Church (and in the main refpects being really fo ) retaining 
the great Doctrines of Chriftiamty , and fuch Ordinances 
whereby Salvation is attainable, fhall yet put it felf under 
other Officers than Chrift has appointed, and practice other 
Ordinances than he has inftituted , and make Communion 
with her impracticable, without Submitting to fuch Officers* 


C«s 7 ] 

inch Ordinances; Separation from that Society i can be no ft- 
paration from a particular Church ofChrifi: Becaufe , though 
they may be fuch a Church in the main , ycr fo far as the 
reparation is made, they are not fo , and they deny Commu- 
nion with them, fo far as they are a Church of Chrifl; be- 
caule of non fubmifTion to them, fo far as they arc not a, 
Church of Chrifl. 

§. 4. ' I add (fays he ) thefe words-rvhereof be was one? 
* a Member, becaufe Schifm imports divifion, and making two 
I of that which was but one before. So that if an Act was 
made to divide fome of our greater Parishes ( which are 
much larger than lbme of the Primitive Diocefles ) into 
two, under their diftind Paftors , this muft be a Schifm, ac- 
cording to this famous definition ; for here is, 1. A voluntary 
departure, 2. From a particular Church. ?. Whereof once 
they were all Members; and wherein 4. they might all have 
continued without fin. 

But the moil confiderable thing here will be, how I be- 
came a Member of that Church, from which the depar- 
ture is fuppofed to be made; for 1. To be forced into a 
Church, will never make me fuch a Member , but that I 
may re-afTume my liberty and right when the force is re- 
moved; Violence and Conftraint unite me no otherwise to 
a Church, than a great Beetle unites a Wbdge to a Tree y 
which though it may by main ftrengh be driven into the 
Tree, yet not being engraffed into it, no Union is created 
with it,- nor does k derive any nourifhing juices from it. 
2. Baptifm alone will not do it : becaufe as 1 conceive, that 
Ordinance lblemnly unites me only to the Catholicl^vi/ible 
Church, and not to a particular Congregation ; otherwise, 
whenever the Providence of God fhall transplant me into 
another particular Church, I muft be re-baptized, and fo as 
often as I removc,becaufe as to that Church lam unbaptixed %, 
Nor will my being born and bred within National limits and 
precincts denominate me a Member of fuch National Church 
or Conftitution, becaufe it pafles for a currant Mxim, That 
the Church is in the Commonwealth, and therefore Church and 
Kingdom ; Church-member and SubjeB are not Terms of -equal 
extent and dimenfions. Ana* befides, there are many Con- 
gregations of Chriftians in this Nation ', nqt fyncrctizing 



with the National Policy , who yet are not ftigmatizeei 
with the Brand of Schifmatical , but without the lead re- 
proach of Schifrn Worihip God, and excrcife Difcipline 
according to their own private and peculiar Laws. -4. 
Therefore to make me a Member of a particular Church, 
there rauft be the concurrence of my own free choice, 
which whether it ought to be fignified by exprefs and overt 
Ads, or that an impiicirc and tacite content may not iuf- 
fice, is here no feafon to Bifcourft, 

§. 5.- But the only difficulty ( I am fure the greateft ) 
is, that which hefubjoins in theft words - VAn unneceflfary 
' ftparation, or without juft caufe, or to feparate from that 
' Society wherein I may continue without fin. fwo extreams 
there arc it teems. 

1. Of The Zealots of the Church of Rome, who fcarcelj 
allow any thing as a jufficient caufe of fe par at ion : But 1 look 
on this as a very unjuft furrnife of the Romanifti\ for their 
moft rigid Zealots will in Theji allow finful conditions , //»- 
pofed for a juft ground of fmlefs departure, only they deny 
to individuals a judgment of difcretion to dctcrmiac each for 
himfeif of the finfulnefs of the condition ; And thus what 
they ftcm to give with the right hand, they take away 
With the left: And herein our Enquirer is as ft rait laced as 
they; for though in the general he will prodigally allow 
us, that finfull Impofitions are a juft plea for ftparation, 
yet he has forestalled that conceffion all along with a fin« 
contrivance 5 That our private Wiflom rauft lower the Top- 
fail to the publicly Thus p. 64- ' Since the peace of the 
'Church often depends upon fuch points as Salvation does 
e not , and fince in many of thoft , every man is not a 
4 Competent judge, but rauft either be in danger of being 
'deceived himfeif, and of troubling others, one of necei- 
' fity muft truft fome body elft Wifer than himfeif; fo that 
the matter according to this Gcntlemans Hypothecs, is juft as 
i org as 'tis broad; but that the Church of Rome freaks that 
With open Mouth , which he delivers between the 

2. The other fuppofed extream is , that of fome Pro- 
EcilantSj who make the caufe •s of feparation as many, an4 as 


[i8 P ] 

light as the Jews did of Divorce, almoft [or any matter what- 
foever : Bat as our Saviour, when the cafe was put, found 
out a middle way betwixt Divorce for no caufe at aU, 
and for every caufe , fj ought it to be done in this bufinefs of 

Reader, we are now in a hopeful way for the compro- 
mifing all the controverfies thar have vext our Northern 
Climate, and to leal general Releafes of all Actions, and 
caufrs of Anions againft each other , from the beginning 
of tie Reformation , to the day of the Date of thde pre- 
fents : fcr as we may charitably prefume of all our £- 
pifcopal Brethren, that they will ftand to the fi^al award 
of fo great an undertaker as our Enquirer, fo 1 aia 
confident I may engage for all the diffenting Brethren, 
thar they will abide by the Umpirage of Jefus Cbrijt; and 
that whatever expedient he hied in deciding the grand 
Qucftion about Divorce, fhall conclude them in all their de- 
bares about Schifm : Now the final Decilicn of that affair 
we find, Mat. 19. 8. Where our Saviour cenfiders not 
What could plead inveterate Cuftom or a gray headed pracfife 
to abet its pretentions , he flights all the Arguments 
from laudable Examples , and the Traditions of their, Fore* 
fathers, and runs up the practice to its Primitive J72- 
fiitution\ and tells them, From the beginning it was not 
fo. And indeed if a Iranicirpt be blotted or blurrd, 
we prefently have recourfe to the Original, and from 
thence redintegrate whatever the hungry worm > or 
greedy Moth hath defaced : when rhe Streams are mud- 
died and polluted , we relieve our felves from the Spring, 
where the Virgin , and enpollute^ waters, flow cleared 
and fiveeteft , without Adulterate mixtures. It was th^ 
cry in the Council of Nice, Af^eS"* «9h k&Ihto , and we 
cry the fame one and all, Let the Terms of Communion 
in the firft Plantation of the Gcfpel-Church be produ- 
ced , and he that will rot fubicribe , and fubmit to 
thoie Archetypes, let him be branded for an obliinate Schif- 

Now therefore if ever our Erquirer premises himfclf 
and us, that he will H,t the ma.\; I [ay then , and then 



My , // there juft caufe ef feparation + when p'erfev e ra 
m the Communion of fuch a Church cannot be with our fin , 
that is , when Jhe jhall impefe fuch Laws and Terms of So-, 
ciety , as cannot be fubmitted to* . without apparent breach of 
the Divine Law , Thus he fays/ And if I fhould tell the 
Reader , I fay rhe contrary, we fhould make a fquable 
on't, to -render our /elves ridiculous *, let it therefore 
neither be what I fay, nor what he fays, but what 
wifer men than us both faf , who may be prcfjmed more 
impartial in their Judgments, wherein they vindicate the 
. Diflenters , becaufc they were, or arc eminent Members 
of this Church. And firft I will prefent him .with the. 
judgment of Mr. Hales, a Perfbn of whom the Church 
of England has great caufe to boaft. Now amongfi many 
other things to our purpoie, in his Treatife of Schifm, he 
acquaints us; r. "That when either faife or uncertain 
' conclufions are obtruded for Truth, or ads either un- 

* lawful or miniftring juft fcruple 5 are required of us to 
*be performed? in thefc cafes, confenr. were Confpira- 
'cy, and open Conteftation, is not Faction or Schifm, 
*but due Chriftian Animofity. 2. Th-it nothing abfblves 
*mcn from the guilt of fin, but true and unpretended 

* Confcicnce. Therefore fticb a Conference will abfbJve front 
the guilt of it. 3. That where the caufe of Schifm is necetfa- 

* ry y there Rot he that fcparates, but he that is the Caufe 

* of the feparation is the Schifmatick. 4. That to require 

* the execution of fome unlawful or fufpedtcd ad , is i 
1 juft caufe of refufing Communion ; for not only in Reafon, 

* but in Religion too , that Maxim admits of no Ile- 

* leafc , Cautijfimi cujufque praceptum , quod, dubitas he fe- 
*ceris. 5. That it hath been the common Difeafc of Chrifti- 
•ans from the beginning, not to content themfelves with 
'that meafure of Faith which God and Scriptures have 
'cxprefly afforded, but out of a vain defire ro know more 
' than is revealed , they have attempted to devife things , 

* of which we have no Light neither from Reafon nor Re- 
*velaticn; neither have they refted here, but upon pretence 

* of Church Authority ( which is none ) or Tradition , 
« f which for the malt part is but feigned ) they have pe- 

* reaitorily concluded, and confidently rmpofed upon others 

* a neceffity of entertaining conclufions of that narure. 6. To 

• loa<i 

load onr publick forms with the private fancies upon which 
wc differ, is the raoft Soveraign way ro perpetuate tfcHrfS 
unto the Worlds end. Prayer, Confeffion, Thankfgivmg, 
Reading of Scriptures, Adminiftration of Sacraments iff 
the plaineft and rhe fimpleft manner, were matter enough 
ro furnifh out' a fufficienr Lirurgie, though nothing, either 
of private Opinion, or of Church Pomp, of Garments, 
or prefcribed Geftures, of Imagery, of Mufick, of matter 
concerning the Dead, of many fuper flumes which creep' 
into the Church) under the name of Order and Decency, 
did interpofe ir felf. To charge Churches and Liturgies 
with things unnecerTary, was the firft beginning of all Super- 
ftition. 7. That no occafnn hath produced more frequent, 
mere continuous, more Sanguineous Schifms, than Epifco- 
pal Ambition harh done. 8. That they do but abufe them- 
felvcs and others, that would perfwade us, that Bifhops, 
by Chrifts inftitution have any Superiority over other men, 
further than that of Reverence : or that any Bifhop is fu- 
perior ro another, further than pofitive Order agreed up- 
on amongft Chriftians, hath prefcribed. 9. In times of 
manifeft Corruptions and Perfections wherein Religious 
affembling is dangerous : Private Meetings however, beddes 
publick Order, are not only Lawful, but they are of ne- 
cefllty and duty: All pious ArTemblies in times of Perfe- 
ction and Corruption, however pra&ifed, are indeed, or 
rather Alone the Lawful Congregations, and publick AfTem- 
blies, though according to form of Law, are indeed no- 
thing elfe but Riots and Conventicles, if they be ftaincd 
with Corruption and Superftition. 
There is one Perlbn more, whom, fmcehe has quoted Incogni- 
to for an excellent Perfbn, I will the rather recommend to his 
confederation. .Ircnic. p. 109-. where fpeaking of the privarc 
Chrifliar , he fays ; He is bound to adhere to that Church, which ap- 
pears mojt to retain the Evangelical purity. And p 116. lie is 
bound to break^off from that Society which enjoins a mixture of fome 
Corruptions astopraftice : One word frcmDr.^c^w, chap. 14. 
of the Church : where he acquits thofe of the Schifui which with- 
draw from that Church which impofeth Rites andCuftoms, than 
crofs the Rule of Faith and Charity. Bifhop Bramhalh Testimo- 
ny wil! pafsfor fterling,/>.7, 8. of Schifm : When the, e is a mutual 
divifion of tree fart s, or members of the mjftical VGajofChrrJlone 



from the other ; yet both retaining Communion with the uni-berfal 
Churchy c quamcunque parrem amplexus fueris Schifmaricus 
*non Audies, quippe quod, univerfa Ecclcfia neu-tram dam- 
'navit: Woich fide foever you clofe with, you Jhall not be re- 
proacht for a Schifmatic^, becaufe the univerfal Church has con- 
demned neither fide : And he plainly tells us, p, 101, That it 
was not the erroneous Opinions of the Church of Rome , but 
the obtruding them by Laws opon other Churches that warranted 

Next we will hear a word from the Learned Lord Veru- 
/am, ''Tis a fig a (fays he ) of exafperation to condemn the 
« contrary part as a Sed ; yea, and fame indifcreer Per- 
•fbns have been bold in open Preaching, to vfe difhonour- 
«able and derogatory fpeaches and cenFurcs of the Churches 
4 abroad, and thar fb far, as that fbme of our men (as I have 

* heard) ordained in foreign parts, have been pronounced no 
'Lawful Mmi^ersr" Aod further -j Jet us remember, thar the 
' Ancient and true bounds of unity, are one Faith, one Bapzifm^nd 
'not one Ceremony, one Policy , and endeavour ro comprehend 
' that faying, Differentia Rituum commendat unitatem Doclrince ; 
' Chrifts Coat was indeed without Seam, yet the Churches Gar-' 

* inent was of divers Colours. 

Amongft all thefe, we mult not forget the Noble and .Gallant 
Perfon the Lord Falkland, A little fear th wilt find them, ( He 
fpeaks of no hrtlc ones ) to have been the deftrueHen ofVnity, un- 
der pretence of Vniformity \ to hive brought in fuperftition and fcan- 
dal under Titles of Reverence and Decency, to have flacked the 
ftriclneft of "Unity , which was between us, and thofe of our own Reli- 
gion beyond the Seas. 

Socrates, lib. 5. cap. 21. tells us, that in his' time there Could 
fcarcely be fund two Chruches that u fed the fame Forms of Prayer* 
iwFrance, the Ritual of Paris differed from that of Anjou, and 
in England we had our Devotions fecundum ufum Sarum and 
fecundum ufum Bangor \ and yer the one never reproacht the o- 
ther for Sectaries or Schifmaricks ; I am confident therefore- to 
a/Fert it, Thar neither the Wit nor Malice of man can prove 
him a Schifmatick, wh^mimzimng.Evangelical Love towards, 
and holding the Fubftantial Do&rines owned by the Church 
of England, (lull either one of choice, or neceJiry, tranfpiant 
hirmcif from under the fpreajing fhadow of a goodly Cathe- 
dral, to a Parochial Church, and yet the one hath its Organs, 


Adoration towards the Eaft, and Altar, Adoration at the naming 
cfjefus, with multitudes of Rites and Obfervances, unknown 
to the Villages, and far more differing from the Parochial li- 
nages and Cuftoms, than theWormip of moft country Towns 
diifer from that of the Ron-conformifts. 

After all this, Ifhall throw up the Authority of thefe great 
names, and give him full fcope for his Rational Abilities, to 
prove his Propofition,when I have firft noted thofe few things. 

§ I.. He requires an apparent breach of the Divine Lav, as the 
only thing that can excufe Separation from the guilt ofSchifm : but 
will not a real breach of the Divine Law ferve the turn, unlefs 
it be fo apparent as he can defire ? I perfwade my felf, God ne- 
ver yet fpakefo loud, that they who have barracadoed their 
ears with prejudice, will hear him : nor ever yet wrote Co 
plain, that they will fee his mind, whofe eyes Intereft hath 
fealed up : And what if it be an apparent breach of the Divine Law 
in the fmcere judgment of him that Separates ; muft he never dis- 
charge his Duty, till he can perfwade all the world to fee 
. theirs, and purfue it. 

§ 2. Who (hall be Judge, whether the Impofed Terms con- 
tain an apparent breach of the Divine Law? andfuch as will juftifie a 
fcpafation? Mr. Hales indeed tells us, It's a point of no great depth 
er difficulty \ but yet the true folution of it, carries fire in the tail of 
it ^ for it brings with it a piece of Doftrine which is feldom pleafing to 
Superiors. But were it not that men hate chargeable Truth more 
than cheap Error, and love cheap Cor ruptions beyond coftly Reformat 
Hon, there could be no great difficulty who fhould be Judge 
in this cafe: For i. Who may more juftly challenge a Liberty 
to judge what is fin, than he that muft be damned if he do fin: 
He that fins at anothers Command will hardly perfwade him 
to be his fubftitute in the Condemnation, nor will God ac- 
cept him for the finners proxy. 2. If the Church may judge - 7 
Then though her terms be the moft apparent violations of the Divine 
. Law, yet there can never be any lawfull feparation, unlefs we can 
imagin her fo modeft, as to ccnfefs a fm,and yet at the fame time, 
fo immodeft as to impofe it. To acknowledge her Terms finfull, 
and yet with the fame breath to enjoyn them as neceilary to 

It will be pretended, that the fame inconveniencies will fol- 
low the other way : far if a particular perfon who withdraws,muft 
judge, then let the Terms be perfectly innocent, vet to be fure, 

N he 


he will plead, that they are Jinfull , unlefs we can fuppofe him 
fo modeft, as to confefs himfelf a Schifmatick * ? and yet at the 
fame time fo immodeft, as to perfevere in his Schifm. But I 
conceive that this arguing is very wide: 1. Becaufe every 
mans Soul lies at flake, and it cannot be imagined that he mould 
either notftudy its Intereft, or that undemanding it,he mould 
not endeavour to fecureit : I fpeakof fuchas are otherwife con- 
ftientim'i for if he he a perfon vitious, and profligate, one 
eaten up of wickednefs, we ought not to flatter our felves 
with any great hopes of the impartiality of his determinati- 
ons : And if he have thus debauched his Confcience, the Laws 
are open •, TheMagiftrate who has his power from the Moral 
Law, has by the fame Law fufftcient Authority to coerce by 
punifhments, whatever Enormities are committed againft it. 
2, We have no reafon to fuppofe any man to be a Hyprocrite 
in the matter of Separation, which is attended with fo many 
dreadfull penalties, unlefs notorious evidence will warrant 
fuch a Judgment. 

§ 3. A rational fufpicion of the breach of a Pivine Law is enough 
in the Apoftles judgment to juftifie the fufpenfion of my own 
Aft -, and if it prove no other then a thing indifferent in it 
felf, yet fuch diffatisfa&ion will excufe from fin : for fo the 
Apoflle, Rom, 14.5. Let every man be fully perfwadedin his own mind, 
1 4. To him that efleemetb any thing to beunclean y to him it is unclean, 
23. He that doubtetb, k damned if he eat, becaufe be eateth not of Faith', 
for whatfoever it not cf Faith M fin. 

The Enquirer has all this while flood like the very pi&ure of 
Modefty, equally placed between the two extreams of all Se- 
paration, and no feparation : have but a little patience, and you 
fhall fee jiow manfully he will behave himfelf againft them 

1. For the poor Romanics, he gives them a fmall pat with his 
Foot, and they are filenced for ever. It's plain ('fays he) it can 
be no fin to fe far ate, when it's afmto Communicate, Yet very plain 
it is ! bu So fay the Difenters, It can be no fin for us to fepa- 
rate,whenit'safm to communicate : Ay but (fays he) It was 
an apparent breach of the Divine Law upon which we feparated from 
Rome, why fo fay the DhTenters : It's an apparent breach of 
theDivineLaw, upon which we feparated from the Church 
of England. Ay but ( will he fay ) you ought to have trufled 
wifer men than your felves, and not like the Antipodes, to have run 


upon your heads: Oh! but then comes in the Komanift, and 
falls upon his bones : Ton ought to have trufted wifer men than your 
jelves, your- Superiours in the Church, from whom you fepa- 
rated , aud not have ran upon your heads : Nay,replies he,but 
we have a judgment of Difcretion^ and ought to be Mafiers of out 
cm Keafon, fo far as to take Cognisance of our own Acls : Well ! The 
Hon-conformifts catch that word by the end, before it be well 
out of his Mouth :, We are for a judgment of Difiretion too, and 
oughtfofartobeMaftersof our own Reafons, as not to aft 
againft them j nothing can be returned than I can forefee, but 
that it is not for fuch pitiful 1 fheaks as the Dijfenters, to talk 
of Confidence, and a judgment of Difiretion, its enough for the Gen- 
darme of reaf on tomakeufeof that plea againft Rome, But I will 
leave him to fquabbleit out with the Romijh Synagogue. 

2. He has quickly (you fee) fhaken them their foddering ", 
but thefe cumberfome Fanaticks ftick as clofe to him as a Burr, 
and therefore he muft now give them a rattle. 

It's flain ( fays he) that Schifm being fo great a fin, and of fo ex* 
tream bad conferences, that which muft acquit me of the guilt of it in 
my fefaration, can be nothing lefsthan an equal danger on the other hand, 
and that when I may f er fever e without fin, it muft of ?iecefiity be a fin to fie- 
far ate uf on inferior diflikes. This looks pretty w r ell at firft but 
for a few Inconveniences in the Argument, i. That he begs 
the whole Queftion at a Clap, the queftion was, whether the fa- 
fcfition of fuch Laws and Terms of Society as cannot be fubmitted to with' 
eut affarent breach of the Divine Law be the only juft caufe of feparati* 
on ? He affirms it, and for proof gives us this, that Schifm be- 
ing fo great a fin, that which muft acquit me of the Guilt of it in my fie- 
faration, muft be equal danger of finning : wherein he fuppofeth 
that all fefaration is Schifm, where there is not equal danger of finning^ 
that is, of an affarent breach of the Divine Law, which vs but the queftion 
a little difguifed to make it more pafoable to the unwary Rea- 
der*, the truth is, Schifm is fo great a fin that no danger of fuming 
whatsoever can acquit me of it, for I do not know that any 
thing will compound for uncharitablenefs, for pride, for cbftinacy y 
but fepration for the benefit of all Gods Ordinances, but I 
maybe edified and built up in themoft holy Faith, but no- 
thing of the nature of the abominable fin in it. 2. DifTenters 
Will anfwer, that the danger of finning vs more clear and evident 
When I aft againft my Confiiente, than in the feparating peaceably 
and modeftly from a particular Church ; for it cannot be law- 

N a ^11 

full in any Cafe to aftagainft my light, but it may be lawful! 
in fome Cafes to feparate from a particular Church : there islefs dan- 
ger of fin in breaking a humane Conftitution, which ( 'tis at 
leaft ) quemonable whether man has power to enjoyn, than 
of violating the dictate of my own reafon informed by all the 
mean I can ufe from the Word of God. 3. Non-conformifts 
fay, that they ought not to feparate, but when non-feparati- 
on is fmfull, but then they fay, that non-feparation may be 
finfdl upon other accounts than the apparent breach of the 
Divine Law made the terms of entring into , or continuing 
in communion : for,fay they, it is our fin, if a Church retains 
fome corruptions in it, which prejudice edification , and (he mall 
refolve never to make any further progrefs towards a through 
Reformation,not to provide for my felf elfewhere, and having 
opportunity,! fin if I takenot,accept not the advantage which 
providence offers me, and wherein the Word warrants me. 

And yet he wonders that any doubt Jhould be admitted in this 
Cafe. Let me advife him to beware of Exceflive wonderment : 
they fay, it will make a man as lean as a rake: but what's the 
Cauie of his admiration ? Why fome think to waih their 
hands of the Imputation of Schifmupon other terms^as name- 
ly, if a Church [hall not require fuch terms of Communion as are Ex- 
pre fly finfull^yet if foe fhall require indifferent unnccejfary, or at mojl fuf- 
petled things, that in tjjii cafe there vs enough to Excufe the perfen that fhall 
feparate from a participation of this fur. There are fome no doubt 
of that Judgment : and when I have pradibated a few things, 
he (hall have his full blow at them. 

§ 1. That when they joyn iffue upon this* point, 'tis not 
becaufethcy are fatisfied that the things required unto Com- 
munion as the antecedent conditions of it, or to be pradlifed in 
communion as the matter of it are indifferent in their ufe and ap- 
plication, for they are ready to maintain it upon equal laws, 
before equal Judges, that they arefinfull in their ufe, ante- 
cedent to their impofition, but the true reafonswhy they ufe 
this place,are, 1. Ex abundantly thinking that their very out- 
works are impregnable againft his batteries. 2. Out of this 
Church which they highly honour, and reverence her too 
much then to charge* her flatly with finfull impoiltions *, and 
therefore do offer this ftate of the queftion, and are hardly 
capable of fo much incivility to fo confiderable a body, and 
fo great a part of the vifible Catholick Church, unlefs the 


importunity of fome modeftmen did extort thatanfwcr from 
them. 3. They doubt whether fome Churchmen will. be Ma- 
tters of fo much patience as to bear freedom though tempe- 
ratenefs of fpeech, which is abfolutely neceffary to the ma- 
naging the Coutroverfie when thus ftated : and have reafon to 
fear that fome who provoke them to aflfert the fmfulnefs of the 
terms, will make fuch an Affertion an unpardonable lin, not to 
be expiated without, if with Martyrdom. 

§ 2. Whenheftatesthe queftion about things fufpefied to be 
flnfull, I hope he will give them the common civility to draw 
up their own plea in their own terms, and to Explane what 
they mean by fufpefted things in the queftion : becaufe they are 
not compelled to maintain Every proportion which he in his 
well known charity fhall obtrude upon them : A pra&ice then 
may be taken upon fufpicion of fmfulnefs two ways, firft, upon 
light, flighty, trivial grounds of fufpicions, which have no weight, 
with a ferious and rational Confiderer : Or 2dly, upon violent 
frefumptions, fuch as may ftaggera perfonof good judgment and 
diligence : and 'tis thefe that they are willing to argue it with 
him*, whether if a Church fhall impofe fuch things as the 
terms of Communion with her, as have, or do, or may puz- 
zle judicious perfons about their Lawfulnefs, and cannot clear 
it up to their Confciences thatthey are Lawfull, yet they may 
not forbear Communion in this Cafe. 
§3. They defire thefame juftice in explaining themfelves about 
the term indifferent: A thing may be indifferent in its own nature, which is 
notfo initsufe, as implyed to and pradcifed in the immediate 
worfhip and fervice of God*,lfthe things under debate be found 
upon diligent fearch to remain indifferent after they were veil- 
ed with all their circumftauces in Gods worfhip, they have no 
quarrel againft them that I knowof jbut if they be only indiffe- 
rent in their own general nature, xhzy defire to beExcufed if they 
dare not admit the confequence,that therefore they muit needs 
be fo when ufed in GodsworJbip,6>c then made the 'terms of Communion. 

§ 4. Unneceflary things may be either fuch as are Abfolutely 
unneceffary, or fuch as are hypothetic cJly [0, fome things that 
are not abfolutely and in themfelves neceffary, yet may become 
neceffary pro hie tenunc, even antecedent to the interpofition 
of the Churches Authority *, And Diffenters fay, that whatever 
the Church fhall impofe ought to be neceffary, either in it felf, 
or by concurrent Circumflances, which when they fhall confpire to- 

N 3 gcther, 

[i 9 8] 

gether, maybe by a Lawfull authority Enjoyned pro tempore, 
that is, fo long as fuch neceflity (hall continue, which when 
once removed, the things ought to return into their former chf~ 

jis of Indif events. 

§ 5. When they deny the Churches power of impofing 
things expejly frnfiiU , they deny alfo a power of impofmg 
things fnfall by jujl conference-, They judge many things fmfull 
which are not forbidden, *T 7» p«tb>, in the Scriptures, and 
many things duties which are not Literally and Syllabkally com- 
manded in the Scriptures : They fay not that the fign of the 
Crofs w r as ever by name prohibited : but they fay there are un- 
doubted maxims laid down in the word,from which it will un- 
deniably follow tjiat in its prefent ftation in the Church it 
is fmfull *, And now 7 he may when he pleafes fpeak his 
three things, which if they be pertinent and proved afirongly 
a* they are ffoken confidently, I am content, 

( I.) His fir fi fay confifts of a Concefiion and an AJfertion. 

§ I. His Concejion, I willingly acknowledge that fuch a Church as fiall 
(ludioujly orcarelejlyclog her Communion with timeeejfary, burdenfome and 
fufpefted conditions, is wry highly to blame, that is, fie fins *, but 
that it became not him to tell her fo*, and then I will venture 
to fay a few r words aifo, 1. If it be the churches fin to com- 
mand unnecejfary, burdenfome, and fuffecled conditions j It cannot be 
my duty to obey : A Church may poffibly fin in the manner of 
her Command, and yet J not fin in doing thematterof the Command, 
but when fhe fins in the Enjoyning, I cannot conceive how it 
fhould be my fin not to give Obedience ; for I look Upon my Duty 
as the refultoi the Churches Authority, and wherein fhe has no 
Authority it will be impoflibJe to find a Foundation upon W r hich to 
build my Duty: All offices of Juftice arife from that relation 
wherein he that claims and he that yields fubjeftion ftand to each 
other : And where there's no relation, there can be no relative 
duty : now in this cafe before us where the Church has no 
power to command, nay, where jhe fins, if fie commands, fo far fhe 
is none of my Super i our ', and therefore fo far the relation is none, 
and by confequencethe duty juft as much. 2. If the church be 
to blame highly, nay, very highly to blame, that clogs her Com- 
munion with thefe burdenfim things, then we may prefumejfie 
pis, for who fhall dare toalTumefo much freedom as to blame 
her, unlefs fhe tranfgrefs the Law of her God? If then fhe have 
finned and tranfgrefTed fome Law of God, it muft be fome ne- 

fa : - *• • _ : •' _" • ; gativc 

l l 99l 

gative precept, thou jhalt not impofe burdenfome things *, for it is a 
principle our Enquirer will not fell for Gold : that whatever it 
net forbidden^ is Lawfully If then God had not forbidden her to 
impofe fuch burdenfome things, (he could not fin, or be to 
blame in fo doing (according to his principles) nowfayI,the 
fame God that has prohibited the Churches Impofition of,has 
alfo prohibited my fubjetlion to hurdenfom conditions : And let this 
Gentleman produce his Scriptures for the one, and I will drop 
Texts with him for the other when he pleafes*, Thus we are 
commanded, 1 Cor. 7. 25. not to be the Servants of men : not only 
bought with a price, and fet free once, but commanded to ajj'ert 
that freedom, and Gal. y I. to jland fajl in that Liberty wherewith 
Chrift hath made m free, and not again to be entangled in the yoke of 
bondage : Now if ever thefe Scriptures do us any fervice, or be 
ofanyufe, itmuftbein this particular, that I am obliged not 
to take a burden and cumber upon my Soul, at his hands who 
hasw Authority toimpofe it : If then a Church mail clog her 
Communion with burdenfom things, fhe is to blame, fhe 
fins, and I am not bound to obey, and therefore my departure 
can be no Schifm, I mean no Schifm but one of mans creating. 
3. If a Church fin in clogging her Communion w r ith things 
w T hich without crime or fraud are fufpetled of fin upon fuch 
grounds as are allowed juft and ponderous in other cafes,t hen 
it cannot be my fin to feparate: for the Church fins in comman- 
ding,and I mould fin againftthe Authority of God in my Con- 
feiencein doing what I really upon Jlrong preemptions judge to be 
finfull, though it were not commanded : And now one would 
think it could be no fuch meritorious work, no a£t fo accepta- 
ble to God to perfevere in the communion of a Church,when 
flie fins in commanding,and I fin in obeying fufpefted conditions. 
§ 2. We come now to his Aflfertion: Notwithftanding all 
this which he has granted, he will fetch it back again, if it be 
poflible, and we mall gain nothing by any thing he gives us, 
and there are alfo two parts of his Afiertion. 1. The nega- 
tive part} '7/5 notburdenfomnefs, nor every light fufpicion of fin that 
can jufiifie any Separation ', concerning the burdenfonmefs we have 
fpoken fomewhat before, yet a word or two about the fuf- 
fpicion ', 'tis not a light, or however net every light fufpicion that 
is but like the dujl of the balance that will do it: really it was 
cunningjy fenced ! He experts perhaps that we fhould afiert 
every light fufpicion that weighs no'more than a feather; 

N 4 fhould 

[ 2,00 ] 

fhouldbe enough to juftifie a reparation *, Ay, but there are 
violent preemptions jm\\\q\\ they fay in fome cafes are admittecffor 
good evidence. If I meet a perfon coming out of the houfe 
in a great rage with a bloody Sword in his hand, and imme- 
diately I enter in and find a perfon lying in his blood, I do 
afure you I fhallnot condemn myfelf for Ughtnefs of beliefs or 
eafinefi of entertaining fufpkions, if Ifufpe£t the man I met to have 
been themurderer •, light fufficions may be as eafily fhook off as 
fattened on, and contemned as tendered : but it becomes no 
wife man to aft againft thefe ftrong preemptions of fin , which 
the Dififenters have of the impofed terms of Communion *, 
And it will appear they are fuch as may make a hardy refolute 
perfon ftand and paufe before he mines upon the praftice. 
i. They are fure that Chriftis the perfect, and therefore the 
oncly Law-giver of his Church : had he not been the former, 
there had been no pretence hefhouldbe the latter: Now fee- 
ing thefe terms of Communion are Laws impr>fed upon the 
Church} they feemto impeach his wifdomethat hefawnot 
the fittcft terms for his Churches to hold communion upon, 
they do reproach his care that he has jiot left Laws enough 
for his Church, and they feem to invade his Authority with- 
out any Warrant : all which things are enough to raife a fuf- 
picion (at lcaft) of good ftrength in a wife mans breaft , 
which none but a hardy fpirit would act againft. 

2. They are fure that fome of thefe.conditions have been 
occaficned by and ufed in and with, and are fuited and ac- 
commodated to the grotfeft Idolatry that ever was in the world, 
and is at this day ufed to give countenance to it : And they 
fay that they are fure that God did once bate Idolatry, and fo 
hate it as that he could not endure to be ferved in the Vef- 
feis, worfhipt in the places, nor after the manner (in the 
moft minute circumftances ) that Idolatry was committed in *, 
and therefore we have reafon to fufpect that the things requi- 
red of us are difpleafing to God: our ufingof them has em- 
boldened Idolaters, and hardened them to go on without Re- 
pentance in the way of fo great abomination : Nor have they 
been a Bridge, as we hoped, to bring them over to us, but a 
Boat to wafr us over to them, they being more hardened by 
our retaining them, and fome of our own made more wave- 
ring •, thinking there # can be no great difference between 
thofe Religions, where there is lb great a Symbolizing in 
outward modes and Ceremonie», 3. They 


3. They are fure that all uncommandedWorfhip k forbiddenWir- 
(hip, and do think their time ill beftowed with him that fhall 
deny it : Allworfhip being part of that Homage and Service 
we owe to God, it will be impoflible to guefs what he will 
accept as fuch without Revelation: Now we are fure that the 
Enquirer owns the Liturgy to have been a principal fart of Wor- 
Jbip: and we are as fure that the Ceremonies are fart if the 
Liturgy, and that which is a fart of a part,\s part of the whole } 
nor can any man difcern any difference between them and 6- 
ther things which are confeflfedly parts of Worfhip, and 
therefore they think they may with modefty fay , there's 
ground enough for a violent fufpicion of their fmfulnefs. 

2. The affirmative part of his ArTertion follows *, It mujl be 
plain necefiity or certainty of fin in compliance that can jujlifie any feyara- 
tion; I mould be glad to know what certainty of fin he will allow 
to jujlifie a fef oration : docs he expect a Mathematical certainty ? 
or onely a Moral ajfurance? If you ask an Arethmetician, fays 
(J. Martyr m his Dialogue with Tryfho) how many twice two 
will make ? he will anfvvcryou as often, four: and if I were 
asked a thoufand times what certainty of fin were required to the 
fufpenfion cf my own atl, I would as often anfwer, no more of 
neceflity than that the thing does not af pear to my beft and im- 
partial judgment to be Lawful!, feparation is not ?iecejfarily a 
fin, there are as f regnant Commands for it, as f inhibitions of it. It 
may be a Duty, and it may be a Sin, and why need we not as 
flain argument to prove that feparation is not wy duty *, as that 
it is not my fin? Seeing it may be one as well as the other? 
why now he arrefts us with his Reafons. 

§ I. Forafmuch (fays he) as 1 cannot be difcharged from a flain 
duty , but by an equal flainnefs of fin. This Reafon looks very 
prettily at fir ft fight, and yet it demonftrates no more than a 
great goodwill to thecaufe: And, 1. 5 Tis no more than a 
plain begging of the Queftion •,• vit(i That Compliance is a flain 
duty, Schifm indeed is a plain fin, but feparation is not plainly 
Schifm^ It is a plain contradiction to the Affertion, but not a 
plain confutation of it, unlefs the denial of it in other words be 
a confutation. The bufinefs in fhort is this *, I fufpe£t fuch Com- 
flyance is not my duty: and again, I fufpeft the terms of Communion 
are finfull, and furely we may fet fufpetled fin, as a Bar to what 
is but fufpetled duty at any time of the day *, let us a little 
compare things : that which he calls plain duty, is comply- 

[202 ] 

anccwithfucha Church as impofes things unnecejfary, Burthen- 
fom and fufpiciom : that which*he calls plain Jin, is refufing fuch 
compliance*, now this, fay I, is a plain begging oftheQue- 
ftion, which is all the plainnefs in his Reafon : Firft, to en- 
quire whether fuch a feparation or non-complyance be law- 
full, and then to fuppofe fuch Complyance to be plain duty. 
And then to aflign this for the Reafon, that nothing but e- 
qual plainnefs of fin can difcharge me from a plain duty. 2.Dif- 
fenters do affirm that it is as plain, nay more plain, and if he 
will have it fo much more plain a fin to pra&ife the Ceremonies 
than to feparate, for feparation may be a duty in fome cafes, 
but the praftifwg of fuch Ceremonies cannot be a duty in 
any cafe, on this fide divine prefcription : God has warranted 
feparation in the General, but he has not fo warranted Cere- 

§ 2. Hisfecond reafon is, And for this phrafe, fufpeaed *, it 
is fo loofe and uncertain, that there's no hold of it *, men mil eafily 
fufpeel what they have no mind to: whether this word- fufpetled be 
a phrafe or no, I fhali leave to the wrangling Grammarians, 
onely 1 am afraid in a while every fmall particle will be a phrafe, 
where thefe Gentlemens occafions require it. A fufpetled evil 
is no fuch trivial tiling in the Apoftles Divinity, as the Enqui- 
rer would pcrfwade us : to aft in any cafe when we have not 
clear light into the Lawfulnefs of the aftion, is fin, and fuch 
a one as renders the a&or obnoxious to eternal damnation : 
He that doubts is damned if he eat. And indeed to a£t againft the 
reftraintof our own judgment though mijlaken, argues a mind 
prepared to a£t againft our judgments, if they had not been mi- 
jlaken : He that (hall attempt to dip the Kings Coyn, may meet 
with a plaited piece, yet had it been right jlander'd, he would 
haveferv'dit no better: that men will eafily fusjetl what they have 
no mind to, ought not to prejudice thofe who have no mind to 
4 thing, becaufe they fufpeel it to be evil. 'Tis as eafie for another 
to fay that what men have a defperate love to , they will never be 
brought to fufpetl its fmfulnefs. What wife man would fufpeft 
four or five hundred pounds per Annum to be unlawfully our In- 
clinations naturally warp towards eafe, and reft , and they 
that know no God but their miftaken felves, will own no 
Scripture but what is diftated from the infpiration of flejhly 
Jntere/l. The Byafs of nature draws US more to fufpeel the Law- 
fulnefs of that which being unlawful would undo us, than to 


[20 3 ] 

fufpeft that to be unlawfully which being LawfuJl would ad- 
vance us. 

And this may juftifie all fober Diifenters, that they who 
condemn them are confeflfed to be to blame in clogging their 
Communion with unneceflary, burthenfom and fufpe&ed con- 
ditions, and they who are condemned for fufpefting it, to 
be as finfull in them to obey, as it in others to command, 
and thereupon fufpending their complyance, are either vio- 
lently caft out of, or not admitted into communion. And this 
is your monftrous Schifmatick. 

And I am very confident that not onely the Scripture, but 
all Antiquity with the unanimous fuffrage of the Reformed 
Churches will juftifie and acquit that perfon of the guilt of 
Schifm, who being found in the faith, holy in his life, earneft- 
ly pleading, and petitioning for Reformation, humbly defi- 
ringhemayhaveChrifts ordinances upon Chrifts terms, and 
yet being denied his Right fhall make his applications tofome 
other particular Church of Chrift, where his admittance may 
be moieeafie, his continuance more certain andfafe, his mini 
not diftra&ed with fufpicions about his own aftings, but his 
whole ftrength and fpir its expended in the edification of his 
own foul in truth, holinefs, and peace, which before were 
wafted in doubtfulldifputations. 

( 2. ) Thefecond thing he will fay is, if the non-neceffity of fome 
of the terms of Communion be a van ant offefaration, then there can be no 
fuch thing as Schifm at all : I doubt not but he intends that his 
argument fhall proceed a remotione Confequent'vs ad remotionem An- 
tecedentK : But there is fuch a fin as Schifm, therefore the non- 
neeeffity of fome of the terms of Communion is not a warrant 
of fcparation: there are many things I would anfwer to this 
argument: i. That the whole Syllogifm is troubled with an 
old malady called ignoratio Elenchi, for it is not half an hour ago 
fince he undertook to prove that the Churches requiring indife- 
rent, unnecefary, or at mojl fuffefied things would not excufe the per- 
fon that fhculd feprate from the Guilt of Schifm, Afterwards he put 
in burthenfom into the Queftion : And now I perceive he would 
be glad to take Eggs for his money, if he could get them, and 
fit down content with thisforry conclufion, that the the nonm- 
cejjity of fome of the Terms is no fufficient warrant of fefaration: which 
fault is an argument fome call an Ignorance of the Queftion, 
but I call it a fighting with his own fbadow, what if bare non~ 



necefiity alone, without burthenfomnefs , or what if both 
thefe, without ftrong fufpicionof fin will not warrant it, yet 
if all conjunft will do the feat, Diflenters will efcape the Hue 
and Cry after Schifm, and Schifmaticks. 2. I deny his Confe- 
quence : there might be, there would be. Schifm, too much 
Schifm, though I confefs not half fo much as there is,though 
the non-necefhty of the Terms were a good war rant of fepara- 
tion : If Schifm lay in nothing indeed but running away from a 
Church ( as the vulgar error carries it ) he had come a little 
nearer the mark •, but if we durft content our felves with the 
Scripture notion of Schifm which includes thofe feuds, heats, 
inteftine broils, thofe envyings, malignities, wherewith fa- 
ctious and bandying parties in the bofom of a Church do per- 
fecute each other, there might be as much Schifm as almoft 
the Devil could defire,and yet no. reparation : But let us hear 
his proof of the Confequence, forafmuch (fays he) as there ne- 
ver was, nor probably ever will be fucb a Church as required nothing of 
thofe in her Communion, but things ftriclly and absolutely neceffary, Et'gO 
What ? why therefore if the non-necejfity of fome of the terms of Com- 
munion be a fufficient warrant of feparation, there can be no fucb thing as 
Schifm, pray forbear, there is a medium as I take it between 
von necejfary, and ftriclly and abfolutely necejfary ', I mean thofe things 
which being neither necejfary in their own nature, nor made fo by 
any pjitive Law of God in particular: yet by a concurrence of 
weighty circumftances fcrving under fome General Com- 
mand of God, do become at that time, and under thofe circumftances 
neceiTary, and thefe are thofe things wherein many Churches, 
I fuppofe, all Churches have ac one time or other Exercifed 
their power, now then though 'tis true that if the non-abfolute 
necejfty of the Terms of commuion be a warrant of feparation, 
there would be no fuch thing as Schifm at all by unwarrantable 
feparation from a Church, becaufe perhaps there never was a 
Church that required nothing of thofe in her Communion but things abfo- 
lutely necejfary, yet it may be true, that the non-necejfty of the 
Terms of communion may be a good warrant for feparation, 
and yet there may be Schifm enough in the world : for capti- 
ous fro ward Spirits will be cavilling at, and dividing upon the 
account of thofe things which by a particular Church are re- 
quired becoming neceffary from circumftances : but to inform him a- 
rightin this matter-, Non-conformiftsdo affirm, that whate- 
ver is made a condition of Communion, ought to have fome kjnd 



cf necefity in it or With it, antecedent to its ifnfofition ; and being 
made fuch a condition , ftill he is harping upon,and has great 
mind to prove what we are not concern' d to deny *, but if 
he tempts to it, perhaps I may deny it, That there was never, nor 
ever will be' any fuch Church, tec. And becaufe I would entertain 
the Reader with a little of our Enquirers merriments, he fhall 
hear his proof of the point. 

I. He tells us he has fhewed w> tha partly in the Introduction, and 
fo pag. 2. For proof of the foundnefi of this Churches covflitu- 
tion, hepoftsusover to the Introduction, and when we come 
to turn over this Introduction, there's an honeft well-meaning 
oration of fomething or other without proof. 2. He could eajlly 
?nake it appear at large through all Ages ; well, then we will fufpend 
our belief till his Magdeburgenfis come abroad. 3. He willow 
himfelf, and the Reader the labour ( of writing the Century's) very 
good ! Wearefatisfied any way i'rh world, he fhall rind us the 
inoft reafonable people in the world, if he will but abate us 
thefe unnecefary imfofitions: But which way fhall we fpare our 
pains ? Oh thus ! name oneChurch if you can that hath admitted of no 
other opinion or Kites, but fum at have been abfolutely necejfary. And 
has this great mountain teemed this little moufe ? He fhould 
have proved that never any Church in any age, in any Country, but had 
impoied things not abfolutely necejfary, and he like a modeft man 
that can be content with a competency, proved onely that 
there never was any fuch Church but admitted fuch things : is 
there no fmall critical difference between admitting in the ufe 
and praclifefome things indifferent in an indiferent way, and im- 
fofmg, requiring, and enjoyning them as nee ejfary terms of Commu- 
nion : I will make a fair motion ', Let this Church admit of the 
ufe and practice of forae things not abfolutely necejfary, yet nei- 
ther in their nature finfull, nor for multitude burthenfom, 
nor for abufe fufpedted, nor in their inftituted ufe Sacramen- 
tal, and yet not impofe them as necejfary conditions of Communion, and 
if there belefs Uniformity, there will be a thoufand times 
more unity, and true inward love, Evangelical tendernefs, 
and fraternal forbearance to compenfa tea little outward de- 
corum, which perhaps is very Surprizing with women and 

All this while I diftruft not the Readers Acumen to fee the 
Sophiitry, He would make it out there's no Church which 
admits not fome determinations, not fiddly and abfolutely 

neceflary ; 


neceffary \ and he would thence infer that there's no Church, 
but what impofesiuch not abiblutely neceffary determinations, 
and thence, that if non-neceffary Terms of Communion be a 
warrant of reparation, there can be no Schifm in the world 
at all : whereas there are fuch things as being neither unneceffa- 
ry, nor yet abfolutely neceffary, may be fit matter of agreement 
in Chriftian Societies, that they may be more fteadily gover- 
ned, more peaceably and inoffenfively managed, the Ordi- 
nances more methodically and orderly adminiftred, and the 
fpiritual and eternal welfare of fouls more effe&ually ad- 

(3.) The third and laft thing he will fay, is, that fome things 
are neceffary to the Conflitution and Admimjlration of a particular Churchy 
that are not in themfehes neceffary absolutely considered: This he will 
fay, and who can help it? why will he fay it? whydoubtlefs 
as a medium to prove his conclusion, or he had better have faid 
nothing *, now that which he engaged to prove was this : 
That things indifferent, unneceffary, toe. imfofed as conditions of Com- 
munion are not enough to Excufe the Perfon that fefardtes, from a parti- 
cifation of the fin of Schifm -, the Argumfht marches in this order : 
If fome things are neceffary to the Conjlitutionot a Church, which 
are not abfolutely neceffary in themfehes, then the Impofition of un- 
neceffary terms of Communion is no excufe for Separation *, but the 
former is true, Ergo, fo is the later ; or in fiiort, if fome things 
be neceffary then, the Church may impofe things net neceffary : 
quoderat demonftrandurri. 

He has been told over and over again, that many things not 
neceffary in themfehes, may become neceffary fro hie to nunc, but 
then they muft be thus qualified, before they can be fit matter 
of a Churches determination. 1. They muft be neceffary one 
way or other, Antecedently in the Churches determination. 
2. The neceffity muft extend as far as the determination'. For if they 
become neceffary to one particular Church, and not to ano- 
ther, it will not oblige the other Church to come under the 
Impofition,unlefs they come alfo under the neceffity. 3. That 
when the neceffity evidently ceafes, the Impofition ought alfo 
to ceafe, and the Members of the Church may claim it of 
right to be relaxed of the burthen, and may re-affume their 
former liberty, which the prefent neceffity did reftrain. 
4. Churches are not to feign neceffities, and imaginary Exi- 
gences as an Engine of ambitious Spirits to try conclufions upon 


mens confidences, orpra&ifeupon their tamenefs, and there- 
fore the neceflity ought to be fuch as carries its own evi- 
dence along with it. 

There are many things which the Divine Authority had de- 
termined as to its kind and forty which yet are not fo determi- 
ned in the individuals \ now when a Church meets with any of 
thefe^ {he muft come to a determination, for otherwife the Di- 
vine commands cannot poflibly be reduced into a&, nor our 
Duty exercifed : Thus he has commanded his Churches to a£ 
femble themfelves together for publick worfhip, he has ap- 
pointed them Ordinances wherein to receive mercy and grace 
from him, and Officers to adminifter the Ordinances in the 
Church, the Church therefore is obliged to doe whatfoever is 
necefTary to the doing of her duty: Thus God having obli- 
ged them to worlhip, they muft come to an agreement about 
the place, meerly becaufe 'tis impoflible to meet nowhere. But if 
the divine mil hath not determined in fteiie, man cannot under 
the moft fpecious pretence of decency, or adorning the wor- 
fhip, inftituteany thing, becaufe it w r ants fome bead of a Divine 
command, to which to reduce it*. Thus God having given no 
Command to any church , to worfhip him under fenfible forms, 
and figns of invisible Grace , no church has power to inftitute 
any fuch, and worfhip God by them *, For in this cafe Divine 
wifedom, love, and authority, have demonftrated themfelves, 
and fettled enow to anfwer God's ends and ours. 

If he had faid, as often as you baptize, befides the warning 
with water which I have commanded you, fee that you make 
fome figure over the face of the Perfon to be baptized, and 
not determined the figure, whether Hexagonal, Pentagonal, 
or the like, the Church muft come to a conclufion about fome 
figure, or the Duty muft ever lye fallow. 

But a general command , that all things be done decently and in 
Order y will never introduce thefe fymbolical ceremonies, be- 
caufe the command may be fatisfied without them , or any of 
them,they are not necefTary fo much as by disjundion -, whatfoe- 
ver is comprehended under a Divine Precept, is a necefTary du- 
ty at leaft by disjun£Hon, antecedent to any command of any 
Church :, but thefe Ceremonies are not necefTary in any fenfe 
antecedently to the command of a Church, and therefore are 
not comprehended under that general precept, Let all things be 
dene decently d?id in Order j And indeed if they were, the fign of 



the Crofs would be a neceffary Duty, not onely in or at 
Baftifm, but in the Lord's Suffer , in every Prayer, in all Preaching, in 
fingingofPfalms, and in every Religious Exercife, feeing that precept, 
enjoyns all things to be done deecntly and in Order. And we may pre- 
fume that our Saviour, with hisDifciples and Apoftles, per- 
formed all Divine Service in the moft decent, congruous, and 
edifying Modes, and yet they never pra&ifed that, or any o- 
ther ceremony of that fort *, and therefore they are not com- 
prehended under the Rule. 

Neverthelefs our Enquirer is refolved he will give us two 
inftances of this Truth , that fime things are necejfary to the conftitu- 
tion and adminijlration of a f 'articular Church , that are not in themselves 
necejfary abfolutely confidered : And if he thinks it worth the while, 
he may give two hundred^ for we are perfectly unconcerned 
in them all. 

( i.) The firft inftanceisin the Apoftles times : the abjlaining 
from things fir angled andbloud was by the Council ofjerufalem adjudged 
and declared necefiary to be obferved by the Gentiles, in order to an ac- 
commodation between them and the Jews * 7 and yet I fuffofe fcarce any body 
things the obfrvation of that Abjtinence fo enjoined necejfary in it felf: 
Let us apply it, either then the abjlaining from Ceremonies muft 
be adjudged necejfary in order to an accommodation between our Church 
and other Protefiants, or the obferving of them be adjudged neceffa- 
ry in order to an accommodation between us andtheRomamfis', which he 
would chufe, I am not informed. 

But let us examin a little his great Inftance. 

§ I. It was adjudged and declared necejfary to be obferved ( faies he.) 
Therefore ( fay I ) it was enjoined, becaufe firft necejfary, and 
not made neceffary by the Injunction : The thing was not unnecef- 
iary before the Synodal Letters , nor the Council at liberty to 
have determined the contrary , unlefs an accommodation between 
jew and Gentile was a thing unneceffary, Alls 1 5. 28. It feemed 
good to the Holy Ghofi and to m to lay upon you no greater burthen than 
tbofe necejfary things , mhlw r%S rimy. Now let him try 
his skill to conclude a power to impofe things unnecejjary from 
this fafr of theirs, who onely impofed things necejfary. 

§ 2. That a Council had the Immediate ajjifience of the Holy Ghcfi y 
and might more fafely adventure upon fuch anlmpofition, than 
any particular or National Church, who, as they have no fro- 
mife, cannot in faith expeft any fuch extraotdinary direction *, 
and wc hope that no Chuch will alfume equal Power to im- 
pofe , 


pofe y unlefs they could produce equal Authority for their 
Power, in which the Confciences of Chriftians might fecure- 
ly acquiefce : It would be ftrange language from a Synod, It 
feemed good to the Holy Ghofi and to U6 to lay upon you no other burthens 
than theft necejfary things r that ye obferve all Ceremonies of our 

§ 3. The People might reafonably conform to that decree 
which had their own antecedent confent , and the more patiently 
bear the burthen, which was not impofed upon .them, without 
themfelves, for this Canon was not onely fent to the Churches 
by the Order of the Afoflles, and Elders, and the whole Church, v. 22. 
but whatever obligatory power there was in it from man , it 
ran in the name of the Apojlles, Elders, and Brethren ; But, alas ! 
the cafe is otherwife with the poor Churches in reference to 
Impofitions of late Ages , who know no more what Impofiti- 
ons mail be laid upon their Confciences , then the poor Horfe 
is acquainted whither his Matter intends to ride him. 

§ 4. This was a Decree, not to burthen them, but to eafe and re- 
lieve them, not to pinch the Gentiles, but to difcharge them 
of thofe fervil loads which fome Judaizing Converts would 
have impofed on them*, we reade, v. 1. that certain came down 
fromjudza, which taught the Brethren, andfaid, Except ye be circum- 
cifed after the manner of Mofes ye cannot be faved. And when Paul 
and Barnabas oppofed this Tyranny , yet fuch was their Zeal 
for their old Ceremonies , that they re-inforced their fcat- 
ter'd Squadrons from certain of the Sett of the Pharifees who be- 
lieved , (v. 5. ) faying, That it was necejfary to circumcife them, and 
command them 10 keep the Law of Mofes : At laft the Cafe comes be- 
fore the Council , and they determin againft thefe Judaizirig 
Bigots *, That their blind Zeal mould not be the meafure of 
what was neceflfary , or unneceffary * 7 and yet not to exafpe- 
rate them , left perhaps they might apoftatize wholly from 
chrifl, and relapfe toMofes, ( as they were in a fair way :) They 
determin to lay no other burthen upon them but thofe (really) necef- 
fary things \ in oppofition to thofe other, which the Jewifn Bre- 
thren/^ pleaded to be neceflfary: fo that they eafed the 
burthen which fome would by Voftrin have laid upon their 
fhoulders , and onely charg'd them by their determination 
with what was *&*#> 'necejfary. 

§ 5. Let us confider the things impofed, v. 29. Abftaining 
from meats offer* d to Ms, and from Bloud, and from things ftrangled 9 

O and 


and from Fornication, Of which, Fornication Was unlawfull in it felf*, 
By Blond many Learned men underftand Murtber, which Opini- 
on the Learned Dr. Hammond recites, and, as I remember, ap- 
proves : As to the not eating of things fir angled. It had contra£red 
a very reverend and grave Countenance by its antiquity, be- 
ing numbred among the feven Precepts of the Sons ofKoab: 
And laftly, as for meats offered to Idols, under that notion it was, 
and is fall, unlawfull. 

§6- All this was for avoiding Scandal :, The Morality of 
which Precept , had it been underftood by the Raw Novice 
ProfefTors of the Gentiles, it had taught them to abftain from a 
greater matter than Bloud or things fir angled , (fuppofing them 
indifferent ) that they might give no offence. And therefore 
whilft this Canon was in force, and the fharpeft edge fet on it, 
I queftion not but that the Gentile Chriftian might have ea- 
ten the to vvMy privately, or in company where no offence 
was taken, for what were the Jews concern' d what I mould 
eat at home, either of the ftipVta fragments, or portions of 
the Sacrifices fent to me by the Heathen Relation, or of thofe 
things 'that were killed by fuffocation: for thus was the end 
of the Decree attained, the Apoftles fatisfied, the Jews plea- 
fed, and Chriftan Liberty aflerted and vindicated : But the 
cafe is otherwife with us •, for fuch is the Holinefs of a Crofs, 
or Surplice, that if a Minifter fatisfied in their ufe *, and yet 
convinced that they ought to know their diftance , and give 
place to the Confcience of the mah^, or \{the firong , who is 
fuppofed weak in inftance, fhali omit them , he fhall be li- 
able to be reviled by the Author of the former fart of the Enquiries, 
pag.25. for an underminer of the Church, a debaucher of his Office, and 
wear not, and for want of a white garment, fhall have a hole 
pick'd in his black coat , and fufpended both ab officio , & be- 

§ 7. Here was no penalty annex'd by way of fan&ion to this 
Decree. The Apoftles contented themfelves with that fpiritu- 
al Power wherewith the Lord Chrift had armed them : nor 
do we read that ever any were excommunicated about it , 
nor urged it as an indifpenfable condition of enjoying the or- 
dinances of the Gofpel. 

§8. It appears from the Apoftle Paul, that when this De- 
cree had a little gratified a people tenacious of old ufages, 
and humour'd them into fome handfome compliance, it expi- 


red of courfe, (as to whatever obligation arofe from the pro- 
hibition of things in themfelves indifferent ) and lay amongft the 
obfolete Canons not regarded, for when the reafon of an Ec- 
clefiaftical Law ceafes, the Law it felf ceafes, without any for- 
mal repeal •, which fome expecling mould have been more 
folemn, conceive it in force to this day. 

There is no queftion but thofe Churches who going off 
from the Dregs of Rome, finding their people both ignorant and 
obftinate, and extreamly averfe to a through Preformation, did 
in prudence leave them fome of their old little toies, till they 
fhould know better, and then they would throw 'em away of 
themfelves *, They that had fuck'd in Popery with their Mo- 
ther's milk, would be very peevifh, and wrangle unmercifully 
to be weaned all at once: ftaied Nurfes did therefore deai 
with them as they could bear, expecting when they fhould fall 
to more manly food : But feeing by this time they have either 
reach'd their end, or never will •, and feeing the fubtle ene- 
my of Purity and Peace would pervert their ends , if they 
be permitted quietly to expire, and die of themfelves, (which 
they would foon do, if not fetch'd again by their over-offici- 
ous friends importunity ) The Proteftant Religion fhould have 
no caufe to bewail their Funerals. • 

( 2. ) His fecond Inftance is in church-government. The fhort 
of it is thus much : That fome Church-government is ne- 
ceffary, yet no particular form neceflary. As whether it ought to 
be Monarchical^ or Arijhcratical, Efifcofal^ or Confiftorial. This feems 
very dangerous Do&rin , for now it feems Efifcopal Government 
is degraded of its old pretence to a Jus T>ivimm : And now the 
Presbyterian and Congregational forms ftand upon even 
grounds with the Practical , faving wherein this lafthasgot 
the advantage by Law. But here we are to underftand that hvs 
Text and, his marginal reading^ his Chethih and Keri 9 do ftrangely 
vary, and it's like to cruciate our Rabbins to reconcile them } 
for his Text reads thus : Few y or none, will affirm that either of thefe 
forms ( Epifcopal or Confiftorial ) are necejfary. But his Margin 
reads thus *, / do not mean to weaken the Authority and Refutation of 
Efifcofal Government , which I fincerely thinks to be both bejl in itjelfy 
end Apflolical for its antiquity : Thus the Author of the Introduc- 
tion calls it, the mofl frimitive*Government. Now fome will per- 
plex themfelves how to agree his Scripio and his Letlio , the 
Text and the Comment ; He tells, The Efifcofal Mode is not necejfary, 

2 and 

and yet he does it not at all to weaken its refutation *, though it 
has been hitherto reputed to ftand upon a divine bottom by our 
learned Churchmen j but yet he does not mean any harm, Good 
man , no not he : but with fuch good meaning filly Souls ufe to 
palliate the irregular effects of grofs ignorance. If a man 
fhould come to my houfe, and with his Crows and Pickaxes be- 
gin to belabour the foundation *, alarmed with the noife , I 
come out *, Friend ! what do you mean to weaken the founda- 
tion of my houfe? 1 fhall have the roof {hortly come about 
my ears : Oh Good Sir , ( replies he , ) I do ajfureyottlbave no mean- 
ing to weaken your bcuje, or fhake its walls, Ifmcerely thinl^your houfe is the 
Jlrongefi houfe in all the Panfo: and to his work he falls again as 
hard as he can drive : A Declaration contrary to theFaft has 
no more credit with me then it needs muft. 

But this is not the worft on't. Here feems to be an irrc- 
concileable cantradi£rion. Epifcopacy is indifferent, and yet 
hefl in itfelf: Hotnecefary, and yet Apoftolical, and yet fome think 
there was an abfolute neceffity of this quarrel between the 
Text and Margin \ The Margin was added to make the Text 
pafs Mufter, and if the one had not been a Deleator, the other 
had mifs'd of an Imprimatur , The neceffity of the argument re- 
quired Epifcopacy Ihould be a Thing indiferent: but the neceffity 
of pleafmg his Patron required it fhould be Beft in it felf; And 
in what a lamentable plight muft a learned" Author be, to 
grati fie fuch contrary demands? Let him then agree himfelf 
with himfelf, whilft I examin his Reafonings. 

Church government is Receffary in the general ; but this vr that form of 
Government, in particular, is not necejfary, (not ahfolutely necejfary) 
therefore fome things, not necejfary in themfehes, are, or ma) he necef- 
fary to the conftitution or admimflraiion of a particular Church. This, if 
I greatly miftake not, is the whole ftrength of this Period. 
To which I anfwer in thefe particulars. ( 1 . ) That though 
the Scripture does not trouble us with Terms of Art, Mo- 
narchical, Ariftocratical , Democratical', yet at leaft all the Officers 
belonging to the Church of Chnit are there ftecially determined: 
And, from the nature of the Officers,, the /pedes, or particular form of 
the Government r will of neceffity emerge *, If the Officers of the 
particular churches ftand upon equal ground one with another, 
the Government which' refults fsom thence will be Ariftocrati- 
cal : If there be an Imparity, and fubordination of the Go- 
vernors of one church to another, the Government which re- 

0*3 3 

fults from thence will be Monarchical, And if the churches go- 
verned by their refpective Pallors are not knit together by 
fome common bond , the Government will be denominated 
congregational. (2j Suppofing that the Government is onely 
commanded in the general, but the particular form not determined, yet 
this will never conclude, that the church may impofe fuch 
things as Terms of Communion which are not commanded in the 
general. It can never follow that a Church may inftitute and impofe 
Ceremonies, for which there is no general warrant, becaufe it muft 
agree upon a Government, for which there is a General warrant ; 
Nor that fhe may impofe thofe things which are not mcejfary ei- 
ther to the Conftitution or Adminiflration of a Church, becaufe fhe muft 
determin upon that which is neceifary both to the conftitution 
and adminiflration of it. (5.) He pretends to prove that it is 
unlawfull to feparate upon the account of unnecejfary Conditions of 
Communion, and he gives us an inftance in Epifiopacy, which yet 
his Margin affirms to be heft in itfelf, and Apoftolhal for Antiquity : 
from hence we are inftruded, That unnecejfary conditions are fuch 
as are or may be left in themfehes: And let him but produce 
fuch Terms of Communion as, being unnecejfary in themfehes, are yet 
heft in themfehes, and I am confident there will be an end of this 
■ Controverfie : whereas therefore his Margin tells us, That this 
is Argumentum ad homines : he faies very true, it is fo to himfelf 
wd his friends. If Epifcopal Government be be/i in it felf, how 
ivill he thence conclude the churches power to impofe indife- 
r ent things, unnecejfary things', which are not heft in themfehes ? But if 
Epifcopal Government be indiferent, and unnecejjary in it felf, how 
is it heft in it felf, and A.oftolical for Antiquity? An indiferent things 
heft in it felf', An unnecefary Apoftolical conft'rtution, is a notion which 
founds very hardily in m/ ears , and perhaps the raoft of our 

Bnt we are all tired out with thefe paralogifms , we have 
heard a great clamor of Schifm, Schifm, as the manner is, and 
when we come to enquire after the Reafon , we are retur- 
ned with a nihil dicit, or, which is all one, nothing to that pur* 

O 3 CHAP, 



Of the Mature of things fcrupled by Diffenters : Shewing that there k 
no neceJJIty to facrifife either Conference or Truth to Peace. , which 
may be fur chafed at lower rates, or elfe would be too' dear. 

IT was my unhappinefs to read of one, who, to an excellent 
Difcourfe of the Influence of Adam'j Tranfgrejion upn the mifery 
of mankind, made this Blafphemous return t What a flir is here 
about the eating of an Affle ? Much what of the fame Temper was 
that bluftring He&or, Pope Julius the fecond*, who being 
humbly advifed by a Cardinal not to rage fo immoderately for a 
JeacocJt, (which it feems wasftoln) anfwered like himfelf, 
God could be angry and flague the world for a forry Affle, andjhali not I 
much more for a delicate PeacockJ 

When our Enquirer would perfuade us , that the things in 
Controverfie are oifmaU Importance : Let me perfuade him, that 
no Vifibedience to God, or Treachery to our own Souls, can be 
little to thofe who underftand the Majefiy of the one, or the 
Worth of the other. 

When the Compilers of our Liturgy {hall plead on the behalf 
of the Ceremonies, that though the keefing or omitting of one, in it felf 
confidered, is but a [mall thing *, yet the wilful and contemftuows tranfgrejion 
of a common Order and ~Difci\line, is no fmall fence before God: 1 hope 
without offence we may affirm a little more of the leafi ofchnjTs 
Trecefts, That little fins will find a great Hell. . 

It's the Solemn and Religious cuftom of thofe who would 
make their own Pkafures the fupream Reafon of their own 
Commands, and our Obedience*, firft, to flatter us, that the 
matter is inconfiderable, till we have fubmitted*, and then, to 
threaten us with the fanftion of thofe Commnds, as no lefs than 
'Sternal ^Damnation, when violated. 

But if he making the Things in Difpute a Sacrifice, would fa- 
tisfte our Enquirer, we are content they be immediately offered 
up as a Holccaujt, to the Peace and unity of the Church, in thofe flames 
they have kindled : But he comes to explain himfelf. 'Tis not 
that the Ceremonies (hould become a Burnt-Offering to Peace *, but that 
the Confciences of the Diffenters fhould be Sacrificed to the Cere- 
fUtfnm : o'r, which is more to his purpofe, their Per fins Sacrificed 



to thofe Touchy Deities, (as he calls them) of Cujlom and Vulgar 

Thofe fins, which men count Jmall, are therefore great, becaufe 
their temptations are lefs prejfmg, and fo being moreeafily a- 
voidable, have lefs to plead in their Excufe, or Defence : But 
an Imfofmg Spirit, always turns the wrong end of the Perfpettive glafi, 
which fhrinks a Mountain into a Mole- hill, and a Bulky Min- 
fter,with all its Cathedral Appurtenances, into a chappel of Eafe, 
where twenty Nobles per Annum will not defray the Charges of 
a Ceremonious Conformity. 

All things are Little or Great, as they ferve the prefent oc- 
cafion: Little, when their Impofing is vindicated*, and Great, 
when the Negleft of them comes to be punifhed. Little or nothing, 
till the yoke is fattened on *, and then weighty, when once their 
Confcience is fhakeli'd with Canonical Obedience. 

The undoubted way therefore to fettle a Righteous and a 
durable Peace, is to tskejuft Meafures of things : Not to keep one 
Bujhel, by which to mete out Jmpofitions, and another, by which to 
deal out Cmfures , neither on the account of Peace to Reneger any 
of Gods Truths', nor by unnecefiary Impofitions to difturb the 
Churches quiet. 

And if men could be perfwaded to fet afide Paffion, and thofe 
alluring baits to Empire over Souls, and calmly confider how 
mean (at the beft ) thofe things are upon which they lay the 
vaft weight of our Concord, they would fee Reafon, not to per- 
petuate our Divifious, nor intail Quarrels upon innocent Pofte- 
rity , who are not yet imbroyled in our Contentions i upon the 
account of thofe things, which the Church may well fpare with- 
out any Eclipfe of her Glory *, part with without impeachment 
of her Wifdom j leave free, without prejudice to the Wor- 
ship, or juft offence to any, to the unfpeakable joy of all cooler 
fpirits, befides the infinite fatisfaclion that would arife to our 
Brethren of the Reformed Religion beyond the Seas. 

There are three things, which the Enquirer has propounded to 
himfelf to Treat of in this Chapter. 

( I.) That the Caufe of Dilutions amongfi us, are not like thofe upon 
which we feparated from the Roman Communion. We ackno fledge it 
with all cheerfalnefs .' Yet a man may die of many other D C- 
eafes befides the Plague. We Rejoyce that the Church of 
England has fach clear grounds to juftifie her departure : And 
we wifh we had fewer grounds to juftifie ours. 

O 4 But 

But here for the credit of his Difcourfe (wherein we are 
all equally concerned with himfelf) I could have wifh'd he 
had not prefaced it with fo foul and grofs a (lander : It is 
[aid by fome, that there vs ai much caufe for Secejfwn from this Church now 9 
as there was from the Roman in the time of our Anceflors. I onely de- 
mand fo much Juftice from the Reader, as to fufpend his be- 
lief till this judicious Imputation be made good, and in the 
mean time, return thus much in Anfwer. 

§ i. There may be ajuft Caufe where there is not an equal 
Caufe of (eparation. There may be a great latitude in the 
terms of Communion, and yet all unjuftifiable 5 and there may 
be great variety in the Reafons of reparation, and yet all may 
be warrantable. Had the Pope's terms been much lower, they 
had been much too high for our Anceftors to come up to : 
And though the terms of this Church are lower then thofe of 
Rome , yet they are fomething too high for Diflenters , who 
humbly plead that they have juft caufe for a peaceable Departure , 
iince they cannot peaceably abide in the Society. 

§ 2. Upon our Enquirer** Principles* it had been as lawfull 
for our Anceftors to have continued in Communion with the 
Romany as for Diflenters to conform to the prefent demands of 
this Church. For let me have a clear Anfwer, why their pri- 
vate wifedoms ought not to be facrificed to the publkk^wifedom in 
Queen Marfs Reign, as our private wifedom refign to the pub* 
lick under our prefent Circumftances? For in this cafe, we 
confider notihe lawfulnefs or unlawful™ fs of the terms as they are in 
their naked [elves *, but where the final decifwn fhali reft - whether 
they be lawfull or unlawfull ? Now the Enquirer tells US , page 168. 
lt y s enough to warrant our obedience , that the thing h the command of the 
Super iour , and not beyond the fiber* of his authority. But who can 
meafure the fphereof the Magiftrate's Authority, unlefs we 
could take the juft diameter of it? Again, page 178. the Re~ 
fult of all will be, that injlead of prefer thing to the Magijlrate what hejhall 
determin , or difputing what he hath concluded on , we Jhall compofe our 
minds and order our circumftances for the more eafie and chearfull comply- 
once therewith. What Rivers of precious Bloud had this Doc- 
trinfaved , had it been broached in Queen Mary's days: That 
men muft not dilute what the Magijlrate has concluded on : And though 
he thinks to heal all this by laying, page 166. That God has made 
the Magijlrate a general Commijfwn^ and made no exception of this kfiid\ 

( meaning as (ar as Circumftantials, and thofe things that God 


[117 ] 

himfelf hath not defined) yet this will not falve the difficulty, 
becaufe, i. Who fhall judge what is a circumflantial, and what a 
fubflantial ', what an integral part only, and what an efentialfart of 
Religion? Where fhall we lodge the determination ultimately, 
what God has defined and not defined ? If the Magiftrate ! Thenour 
Anceftors are gon by the Common Law. If the private Perfon, 
we are all in fiatu quo. 2. God has no where determined cir- 
tumftantials from fubfiantiah in the Magiftrate's Commiflion •, for 
though our Enquirer has excepted the one, yet it is by his pri- 
vate Authority, which binds not the Magiftrate : His Com- 
miflion is Patent, and therefore it may be read. Rom. 13. 1. Let 
every foul be fubjett to higher powers, &c. This Commiflion does 
no more except an obedience, then a circumftance ; he that will 
put in the one, may at pleafure infert the other *, and he that 
will except the one, may and will except the other. So that 
I conclude, or at leaft fee no reafon why I may not *, that ac- 
cording to this Enquirer's fentiments, had Providence allotted 
us our Habitations under a Prince of the Roman Communion, 
we might have praftifed all hislnjan&ions, without warrant 
to plead our Confciences in Bar *, which Principle will bear a 
man's charges through all the Tur£s Dominions, and make any 
man a free Citizen of Malmbury, w r hen once Confcience is fa- 
crificed to the Deity of Leviathan. 

Every true Proteftant will gladly reade his Juftification of this 
Churches departure from Rome : And therefore though it be not 
much to the matter in hand, I fhall not grudge to go a little out 
of my way with him for his good Company and profitable Dif- 

I. We could not ( faies he ) continue in the Roman Church upon any 
better Conditions, then Nahafh propounded to the men of Jabefh Gile • 
ad, to put out our right eyes, that we might be fit for their blind devotion, 
W 7 hether the eye be put out that it cannot, or hood-winck'd 
that it may not fee, is no fuchconfiderable difference •, but we 
have the lefs need of a private, if there be a public^ eye that can 
fee for us all , and better difcern the fit Terms of Communion t 
And whether it be the right eye, or the left, or both, that our 
Enquirer would pluck out of our heads I cannot tell : for when 
we haveconfidered w T ith the beft eyes we have, whether it be 
our duty to withdraw from the prefent eftablifhment infome 
things , and the refult of oar moit impartial inquiries, con- 
cludes in the affirmative , yet we are Schifmaticks , and all 
'•<•-•.• ■ - that 


that is naught *, if then we may not fee with our own eyes, as 
good pluck them out. 

Theythatfancymanbe but an Autamotm, a well contrived 
piece of Mechanifm, have certainly fitted him to this Hypo- 
thesis: Forfuppofehim to be like a Clock, which once put in 
motion, will jog on the round, and drudge through the Ho- 
rary circle, and perform you a twelve hours work, in twelve 
hours time without attendance, or other charge than a little 
Oyl ? and you may then fet him to what hour you pleafe. And 
he fhall as freely ftrike twelve at Sun-fet, as Mid-day. 

2. We muft not here have renounced our Re 'a fin , What if we had? 
O.ur own private Reafon is not. worth fo much as to contend 
with the public^ ' and thanks be to God, that our Governours 
are counfelled by their own Reafons •, for had they been guid- 
ed by theCouniels and Intereftsof fuch Divines, we muft have 
renounced ours too long ago. 

3. That Church in lieu of the Scriptures gives them Traditions : Nay, 
do not wrong the Grave Tridtntine Fathers *, it was but Pari pe~ 
tatis afeciu veneramur. The Church of England abhors indeed 
that Sacrilege, in her 34 Article, who/sever through bit frivate 
judgment willingly andpurpofely doth openly breaks the Traditions and Ce- 
remonies of the Church, which be not repugnant to Gods word, ought to be 
rebuked openly : And I am confident the Roman Church will 
allow us openly to break any of hers, when fhe mall confefs 
them to be repugnant to the Word of God. 

4. Injlead of fuch things 06 were from the Beginning, it prefcribes 
thofe things thjt had their beginning from private Inter eft, and fecular 
Advantages : It has been a piece of policy of our Duellers to 
efcape the Laws, to crofs the Channel, and fight it out upon 
Cnllice Sands: If our Enquirer will go with me thither I would 
difputeit fairly with him, whether the Terms of Communion be the 
fame that were from the beginning ? If the Church of Rome be war- 
rantable/ deferted, becaufe her matters ftand not in the Pri- 
mitive pofture : They that can make the plea, will expect the 
fame priviledge. The learned Author of the Irenicum, p. 121. 
affures us, that it is contrary to the pra&ice and moderation then ufed, 
to deprive men of their Minifterial functions for not conforming in Habit, 
Cefiuresj and the like: and he adds his pious wifhes: That 
God would vouch fife to convince the Leaden of the Church of this Truth, 
It will be lefs material therefore, whether the things fo ftifly 
infilled on 3 had their y( ginning from private Inter eft and fecular Ad- 


[2I 9 ] 

vantage*, for if they were not// omthe beginning, is' t little to us 
where they had their rife. 

The Canons of 1640. leave bowing towards the Altar indiffe- 
rent, and p-obibit Cenfurlng and Judging : Extend but the lame 
Moderation to all other things as far from the beginning as 
they, and of no greater importance, or confine them to Ca- 
thedrals as Organs once were,where they that have little elfc 
to do, are at moreleazure for fuch operous fervices *, and we 
fhalJ be fecure as toSchifm, which the Enquirer will certainly 
yield to, fincehe equalizes that fin to the moft horrid crimes 
of Idolatry, Murtber and Sacriledge. 

5. They make [even Sacraments. And at our Enquirers Rates may 
make fevenfcore : What is a Divine Sacrament, but an outward 
vifible fign, of an inward and fpiritual grace given unto us, ordained by 
Cbrift bimfelf, as a means whereby we receive the fame, and a fledge to 
afire m thereof: And let him define a humane Sacrament more 
appofitely if he can. Then an outward vifible fign of an inward 
and fpiritual grace ordained by mm bimfelf , at a means whereby were- 
ceivethe fame grace. And wherein does a Myftical Ceremony 
come fhort of this Defcription, whofe declared end is, Tofiir 
up the dull mind of man to the remembrance of b'vs duty to Cod^ by form 
notable and fpecial fignif cation , whereby he may be edified. Nor is 
there any thing wanting but the Royal alfent, the Divine 
ftamp of authority to make it a Sacrament,as accomplifht at all 
points as thofe which are declared Generally necefiry to falvation. 
And if the Papalins erroneoufly judge their five ordained of 
God, and we confefs ours are not ib -, all the difference is 
this *, That they are miftaken, and act proportionably to their 
miftake, and we fee better, and yet ad difproportionably : 
But the truth is, man y^of their moft learned Writers freely 
own their five Sacranftemkio be no more than Ecclefiaftical 
Traditions and MyfticarCSfemonies *, fuch as the Sign of the 
Crofs , though to fet thelh dff to the eye, they honour them 
with the auguft title of the Sacraments: Thus Vetrm a Soto. 
. Omnes ill* Obfervationes funt Traditiones Apofiolicx, quarum frincipium, 
author & origo y in facmScripturis inveniri non potejl. Cujujhicdi fitni, 
ablatio facrificii Altam, utitJio Chrifmatit, invocatio Sanftoruni, Oratio- 
?ies prodefuntlpSy totum Sacrament urn Confirmations, crdi?w,Matrimcni:, 
Pc£?iitenti<2) VnQioim extreme Merita Operum, necefias fatvsfaft'wm , 
enumeratio peccatorum facienda facer doti. We are to account all thofe 
Qbfervations, Apojiolical Traditions f whofe Beginning, Author and Origin, 



&re not found in the Holy Scriptures : Such as are the Oblation of the Sacri- 
fice of the Altar j the Anointing with Cbrifm, Invocation of Saints, Pray- 
ers for the Dead: The whole Sacrament of Confirmation, of Orders, of 
Matrimony, ofPenitance, of extreme Vnclion, the merits of Good Works, 
the neceffity of fatvsfatlion, and Auricular Confeffon, 

6- They have taken Away one of the ten Commandments, and have Arts of 
evacuating alltherefi : and why may they not evacuated fecond, 
as well as our Author the fourth Commandment ? all were equally 
promulgated in Mount Sinai, all have the fame fignature of 
Divine Auih<*rity, and he that can make Schifm equal to Ido- 
latry, may when he fees his time, throw oft" the fecond as he 
hath done the fourth for a piece of Judaical Superftition. 

7. They have brought in Pageantry inftead of Piety and Devotion, e fa- 
ced the true lineaments of Chriftiamty, and in/lead thereof recommended 
and obtruded upon the world the diclates of Ambition, the artifices of 
gain. He may fafely talk his pleaiure at this diftance ^ though 
it would not be fo prudent to preach thisDo&rine where the 
Popes great Horfe lets his foot : all the ufe I (hall make of it is 
this little. That if the Introdudion of Pageantry inftead of 
Piety and Devotion be a good warrant to juftifie our Separa- 
tion from Rome, let them judge ( who have to do with it) whe- 
ther it were Felony to remove a mans Quarters ten miles from 
iome Cathedrals. 

8. Laftly, ("fays he) the fe things could not be fubmitted to without 
grievcu fin, and manifeft danger of Damnation : No! nowobferve 
how the Romanifi will belabor him with his own Cudgel, p. 122. 
It's the cufiom of thofe that have a mind to quarrel, to aggravate, and 
heighten the caufes of Difcontent, to the end that the enfuing mifchief 
may not be imputed to the frowardnefs of their temper, but to the great- 
nefsof the provocation. And pajfon is fuch a magnifying glafs, at is able 
to extend a Mole- hill to a Mountain: If men would be perfwaded to lay 
afide their Paffions, and calmly confider the Rature of thofe things that 
they divided from the Catholick^ Church upon, they would be fo far from 
feeing Reafon to perpetuate the Schifm, that they would on the contrary be 
fei\ed with wonder and indignation that they have been impofed upon fo 
far as to take thofe things for great deformities, which upon mature con- 
federation^ are really nothing worfe than Moles, which may be upon the 
mft beautifull Face: But the Reader will eafily fee that theieare 
nothing but iome ill gathered fhreds out ofyomFormulo Oratorio, 
or ClarkjTranfitions, which will fit Prat eftant or Pa pift, and indeed 

any School-Boy that has a Theme, or Declamation tocompofe. 



That the caufes of Separation fr6m the Church of Rome were 
pregnant, every way clear and evident, we do therefore a- 
gree: and that tl.eReafonsof Separation from the Church of 
England* are not fo great , but then neither is the Separation fo 
great * 9 for as we agree in the Fundamental Articles of Religi- 
on, lo we may quickly agree in all the reft, when fome of a 
more fiery temper will let their Mother alone to exercife to 
all her Children fuch an Indulgence as is agreeable to their 
various meafuresof Light in letter concerns. But (faysour 
Author ) It's quite otherwife in the Church of England. For, 

1. Ho man here parts with his Faith upon Conformity \ But I am a- 
fraid they muft part with it, or they will hardly be accepted. 
Their Faith is, that the Lord Chriitis the onely Law-giver of 
his Church *, that the Scriptures are the adequate and com- 
menfurate Rule of all Religious Worfhip, and if they do not 
part with thus much of their Faith, they muft live in a con- 
tradiction to it :, but perhaps he may underftand tiieir Faith 
better than they themielves. 

2. Ho man is bound to give away hkKeafon for Qiiietnefs fake '. Then 
I know who was miftaken, p. 64. who tells us. 7b.7t face the 
Peace of the Church cften depends upon fuch pints as Salvation does not 7 
and fmce in many of thofe every man is not a competent Judge* but muft 
either be in danger of being deceived himfelf* and of troubling others* or 
if neceffty muft iruft fome body elfe wifer than himfelf /he recommends 
in fuch a cafe* as the fafer way for fuch private perfons to comply with 
public^ determinations. And we may allure our felves of our 
Enquirers good Nature in this particular, who condemns Vir- 
gilius for afferting the Antipodes, though it were demonftrably true* and 
the contrary impojjible. And then I am afraid- we mult facrifice 
our Reaion to Peace, and rather iubferibe lik§ Brutes , than 
run the rifque of being per fecuted like Men. 

3. A manmay be as holy* and good as he will. The goodnefsand 
holineis of a Chriftian lies very much in ufing Holy Means for 
Holy Ends •* Gods holy Ordinances, in order to Holinefs in the 
habit and complexion of the Soul : He that may not ufe the 
means of Holinefs when he will, may not be as holy as he 
will, but as Holy as he can without them : Hethatwillufeall 
the means of God in order to that great end, it may pofiibly 
coft him more than he would willingly lofe for any caufe but 
that of Righteoufneis: Methought it was an odd fight t'other 
day to fee a Grave Divine in his Canonical Habit, marching 



with a brace of Informerspiping hot on either hand, the one 
like the Gi\\ard, the other the Liver ftuck under the wings of 
his Sacerdotal Habiliments, from one of his Reftories to the 
other, to give difturbance to a company of poor Innocent 
People that would have been a little more Holy if they might *, 
when this is reformed, I'll believe that the more of Holinefs ap- 
pears, the better Churchmen we are refuted, 

4. Thvs Church keep none of her Children in an uncomfortable fiate of 
darknefs, forwemiift know that there's a two-fold eftate of dark: 
vefs, a comfortable, and an uncomfortable eftate : Now the comfor- 
table eflate of darknefsjies in trufting others, fubmitting cur pri- 
vate to the fuhlitk. wifdom ; this is mat blefTed ftate wnereinto 
he would wifh t is bcft Friends : But the uncomfortable eftate is, 
that Remedy wi ich is pra&iied in Spain and Italy' for the cure 
of Church-Divifions. An excellent Remedy it is, but it 
comes too late to do any good here : The difference between 
them was obferved before,either to be born blind, or made 
blind, .to have no Confcience,or prohibited to exercife it *, to 
have no Eyes, or not to uf e tuem , and in my private opini- 
on there's no- great comfort in either of them. 

5. She debars none of her Members of the Comfort and Priviledges cf 
thrifts hftitutions. Some that have ftruggled with a doubting 
Confcience, have atteited the contrary *, but however fhe 
may pofftbly debar fome of thofe Priviledges and comforts, that 
would have been her Members, becaufe they dare not give 
the price fhe rates thofe priviledges and comforts at. 

6. She recommends the fame Faith, the fame Scriptures, that the Pro- 
u ft ants are agreed in: Yes ! but then fhe • recommends thofe 
Ceremonies to boot, in which Proteftants neither are, nor 
ever will be agreed in. 

We do therefore ferioufly triumph that the Church of 
England with the Proteftants are alfo fully and perfe£tly a- 
g^eedj that they have not onely the fame God and Chrift, but 
the fame objeH of mrfiip too, (though I know not wherein 
<;od and the Objeft cf Worfhip differ) the fame way of Devotion in a 
k^cvrn Tongue, the fame Sacraments, the fame Rule of Dfe, which are 
, the great things wherein the confciences cf men are concerned. To 
which I (hall need to fay no more, but that we in the gene- 
uil profefs our owning of all theie, and yet our differences 
:-C very considerable, but let our confciences be concerned about no 

'. chcr : no other Sacraments, no other Rule of Life, no o- 


ther Devotion, and what is necelTary to reduce all thefe into 
praftice, and I can affaire him Diifenters will flock apace into 
the bofom of the Church. 

He promifes us now that he will faithfully and briefly recite the 
matters in difference. And I confefs for brevity, he has perfor- 
med his promife well 'enough, but for his Fidelity^ the DiC- 
Jenters fadly complain of him : I mall therefore crave the li- 
berty to ufe a little more polixity, and I mall endeavour to 
compenfate it with much more Fidelity, to reciting the mate- 
rial points wherein we differ. 

As § i. Whether a Minifter Ordained according to the 
apppintment of the Gofpel to the exercife of the whole Mini- 
fierial work, may without fin confent, that a main part of his 
Office be ftatedly and totally taken out of his hands, and his 
work cantoned at the will of another ? 

§ 2. Whether any Church has power from Chrift to ap- 
point in, and over it felf, or Members, any Officers fpeci- 
ally diftinft from thofe Chrift hath ordained ? 

§ 3. Whether any Church hath authority from Chrift to 
inftitute any other Ordinances of fixed and conftant ufe in the 
Church than Chrift hath instituted ? 

§ 4. Whether it be an apparent invafion of, and open re- 
proach to the Regal office of Chrift, for any Society, of his 
to inftitute either new Officers or new Offices, for the go- 
verning and adminiftring that Society, which the Head hath 
not allowed ? 

§ 5. Whether it be not the Duty of every particular 
Church to conform all the Worfhip, and administration of Re- 
ligion to the Laws of their Inftitution ? And that whatever is 
not fo conformed, be not a corruption, which ought to be 
reformed by thofe Laws? 

§ 6. Whether if a Church fhali peremptorily refufe to re- 
move fuch Officers, Offices, Ordinances fuperadded to the 
Evangelical Law : A perfon that mall feparate from its Com- 
munion in thofe things wherein it refufes to reform, may 
without breach of charity be called a Schifmatick ? 

§ 7. Whether a Chriftian may act againft the fuperfeding 
Di&ateof hisconfcience, and may give it up to be ruled by 
an imaginary publick confcience. 

§ 8. Whether, feeing w r e have the unerring word of God 


to guide us, to be millcad by our Leaders is a good counter- 
fecurity againft the Judgment of God ? 

§ 9. Whether it be lawful! to break the leaft of Scripture 
Commandments to purchafe our Quiet with men, or fecure 
our own Repofe in the world ? 

§ 10. Whether the command of my Superiour will juftifie 
me in murthering the Soul of my weak Brother, when I may 
avoid giving the fcandal in things indifferent *, 

§ 1 1. Whether can the command of a Superiour make that 
no fin, but a duty *, but without that command, had been no 
duty, but fin ? 

§ 1 2. Whether a Minifter of the Gofpel may fubmit to 
have his Prayers and Sermons compofed for him by others, 
and whether he be a Minifter at all, who is not able in fome 
meafure to difcharge both to Edification ? 

§ 13. Whether a Chriftian may without fin wholly and 
perpetually fuffcr" his Chriftian Liberty to be determined 
one way, tfiough under future circumftances, it may be 
the command of God for a feafon to determin it the other 

§ 14. Whether a Chriftian, willing to fubfcribe to all that 
Chrift has propounded to him to believe, and to engage fo- 
lemnly to do all that Chrift requires him to do, and not con- 
tradicting fuch engagement by converfation , arguing him 
of prevalent Hypocrifie, but having given good proof be- 
fore men of his Holinefs, ought to be denied Chriftian com- 
munion ? 

§ K. Whether upon fuch tendries made, and their refufal, 
onely necaufe he will not fubmit to new Terms of commu- 
nion not approved by the W 7 ord of God, he mail adjoyn 
himfelf to fome other particular Church, where the Doilrine 
of Chriftianity is purely preached, the Sacraments duly ad- 
miniftred, and the conditions of enjoying all thefe, and o- 
ther the Ordinances of Chrift, honourable and eafie*, fuch 
Departure from the one, and conjunction with the otiaer, be 
that Schifm noted in the Scripture ? 

§ 16. Whether any Church hath power to advance indif- 
ferent things above their indifferent natures, and make them 
Holy in their ufe and relation, appropriated to Gods imme- 
diate Worfhip, and impofe them as the Terms of exercifing 
the Minifterial Qrnce ? 

§ 17. Whether 

§ 17. Whether any Church hath power ta inftitute new 
dedicating and initiating figns and fymbols, whereby perfons 
are declared and profefled to be vifible Chriftians ? 

$ 18. Whether, being clearly convinced by the W 7 ord of 
God that there are Corruptions in a particular Church where- 
of I am a Member *, I ought not to endeavor in any place and 
ftation lawfully to reform them : And if a prevailing number 
in that Church thall not onely rcfufe to reform, but require of 
me to renounce all fuch lawful endeavors, upon pain and peril 
of cafting out of Communion *> I may not wave the fociety of 
the corrupt Majority, and adhere to the more fober and mo- 
derate party who v\ ill reform themfelves ? 

(2.) His fecond task is to prove that fomething muft be.forgonfor 
fence. The defign of this loofe Difcourfe may be reduced to 
this Argument. Small matters though truths, or duties, are 
to be facrified to Peace : But the things that DiiTenters flick 
and boggle at, are fuch fmall matters, therefore they ought to 
be facrificed to Peace. To which lonely fay at prefent j That I 
modeftly deny both his Premiflfes,and do hope he will as mode- 
ftly deny the Conclufion. And perhaps fome Sawcy Fellow ot 
other will take up the Argument, and give it one turn- Small 
matters that are indifferences ought to be facrifie'd to Peace, 
but the things impofed upon DiiTenters (in the judgment of the 
Impofers ) are fmall indifferent things, therefore tuey ought to 
be facrificed to Peace *, or thus, Thole things which we account 
little, we ought not to make neceffary to Peace and Union, but 
the things which are in difference, are in our own account 
little, therefore we ought not to make them neceffary to 
Peace and Union. 

Something then we would give for Peace, and more then we 
can modeftly fpeak of : If it were to be had for Money, we 
fhould not think that Gold could buy Peace too dear , though 
Truth may. 

But may we humbly enquire of the Enquirer , whether he have 
this Peace to fell ? And at what rates it may be purchafed ? t 
have Carefully, not to fay Curioujly, perufed his whole Difcourfe*, 
and I muft confefs to the Reader, that I am fo far from under- 
standing how the Market goes, that I fufpeft he knows not his 
own Mind. Page 131. He tells us : We muft be at fome coft to fur- 
chafe it, and fart with fomething for it. Well 1 but what is that fome- 
thing? Will Petitions, Supplications, Prayers, Humbling our? 

P felves 


felves at his footftool procure us Peace? No ! That fomething, 
is nothing : Men are not fo mad, as to part with fuch a rich Com- 
modity as Peace, for an old fong of Petitions. What is it then ? 
Oh ! pag. 1 30. He told US from Erafmus, That Peace was not too dear 
at the pice of fonie Truth, Very good! Will then telling half a 
dozen round lyes procure us our Peace? or the renouncing half 
afcore Scripture-truths, or fo? Oh but we are commanded to 
buy the Truth,not fell it : Hot to do evil that good may come. Andbefides 
that Peace will never wear well nor laft long that is purchafed 
with the lofs of Truth. To war with God, or skirmifh the fcrip- 
ture, is no approved method to fecure Peace amongft our 
felves. Well then, pag. 132. He tells us we mufi fubdue our 
fafjions and cafiigate our heats : And I think we have had pretty good 
Coolers ', then we muft take in our Sailes, lighten the Ship, cajl over 
board the Fardles of our private fancies and opinions : And we are Con- 
tent to caft overboard any thing that is purely our own ^ onely 
if any of the Rich Lading of Truth fhould be packt up in thofe 
Fardles, we humbly pray that may be fpared : if our own pri- 
vate perfonai Concerns were onely called for, he fhould find 
the Non-conformifts as one man-, faying,)?* autem Jonas ille ego Jim, 
frojicite me, in Mare ut temfeftas defaviat : Pray throw US into the 
Sea, onely do not throw any concern of Chrift, nor Reforma- 
tion after us: Well 1 then he would have us offer fomething to 
tboj'e touchy Deities of Cufiom and Vulgar Opinion. But really thefe are 
a Couple of fuch Infati able Idols, it were cheaper to ftarve 
them, then feed them •, we may Maintain Bell and the Dragon 
at as eafie rates : W hat is it then we muft part with for Peace ? 
At laft it comes out with much ado*, Loth to confefs till 
juft turning offthe Ladder, for thefe are his laft words under 
this head, pag 137. hi a word, that we fart with all that which is no ejfen- 
tial pint of our Religion, for Charity which is. lam heartily forry 
that Peace is not to be had upon eafier terms / But efpecially 
that charity, a Lady of fo much Debonairete, that feekj not her own, 
much lefs to rob another, that ufes not to look 16 Big, and 
ftandupon Terms-, fhould enflame the Reckoning: It is not, 
it cannot be charity, 1 know her Temper too well j that requires 
Confcience or Truth fhould be facrificed upon her Altar : A true 
friend fhe is to Truth, and no lefs to Peace, and will wait on 
her ufque ad Aras and no further. No! It's. the Tyrian Idol 
Moloch that old Canibal and blood fucker, that delights in Hu- 
mane Carnage*, For thus we read in %. curtius, that when they 


Were in a great (freight. Sacrum quod quidem Diis minime Corde ejfe 
Crediderim , jam multis feculis intermiffum , refetendi quidem Autores erant y 
which we may accommodate in the Tranflation thus, Some there 
were that ferfwadedthe State to revive an old and obfolete Statute^ which fince 
the time of Ancient ?erfecutions*had lyen Dormant, and to Sacrifice Freemen 
to the Common fafety ', but for my fart, though pu count me a. Heathen Writer } 
J can never believe, according to thofe notions I have of the Gods, that fiich 
Cruelties were ever acceptable to their Deities. I would have Peace 
upon any terms that are Reafonable , but to fart with all that in 
Religion, which he fhall fay is no epntial fart of it, is a very hard 
Chapter- We may chop off a mans legs, Arms, put out his 
Eyes, cut off his Nofe, and yet though tiius miferable difmem- 
bered and mangled in his Integrals, hisejjential iarts,Body and Soul 
remain : Thus he may cut off even what he pleafes of Religion, 
all worfhif, all Sacraments, all Difcifline, and leave us but Faith, Hofe 
and charity, there's as much as is effential to our Salvation, 
and then difpofe of the reft. 

To this, or fome otter, or no purpofeat all he quotes us Greg. 
Ka\ian?en, who asks US this Queftion: n'ti »/i/S7s?b hbyn ?&K\i<;ov ; 
What's far more beautiful than our ownReafon ? And he anfwers : E/- 
pm-H Gfiotim* Q otd K) kv 0177 hi?- clti v. Hay I will add, the moft frofitable 
too. We were made to believe, page 126. That no man fin 
England) vs bound to give away his Reafon for quietnefs fake : But now 
four pages further, Peace is far more beautiful and ufefulthen our 
own Keafon : How fhall we reconcile tiiefe crofs capers ? Why, Qui 
bene diflinguit, bene reffondet. T-ien he was commending the Mo- 
deration of the Church of England in oppofition to Rome. How 
that Imperious Lady that fits on the feven Hills, Hectors the 
World out of their Reafcn , and Common Senfe ', and then Reafon K 
more frecious then Teace ', but now he's arguing the Nonconformists 
into obedience, and then Peace is more frecious than Reafcn. 

To the fame purpofe he gives us that excellent counfel of 
the Apoftle, Rom. 12. 18. If it befoffble, m much as in you lyes, live 
feaceably with all men. Admirable advice it is, God grant us grace 
to take it. And truly the Non-conformifts can live peaceably 
with all the world, if they might be let alone, but its not in 
their power to prefcribe Terms to others,but to receive them. 
Leges a vicloribus dari, a vittis Accifi, faid Cxfar : If then reafonable 
Terms be offered us, we will accept, and love them : If un- 
reasonable, we will refufe, and love them. If we be taken 
into the circle of their Charity, we will love them ' if we be 

P 2 excluded 


excluded, yet ftill we love them : Amabo to ft xolis , Amabo to 
ft Holim iffe. We will love whether they will accept our 
love, and thank us for it or no : Nay we will love them whe- 
ther our own exafperating fufiFerings willperfwade us, or no*, 
that is, we will follow them wit» aChriftian affe&ion, in 
fpight of their teeths, and of our own. But this e^plminv, to 
live, corner je peaceably, perhaps may be Impofible, and the Apoftle 
we fee will not tye us up to Impoffbles : Now finful Conditions 
create a Moral impojfibility, for idtantum pojfumus quod jure pojfumus. 

I confefs it coft me a Smile when I read his improvement of 
the Apoftle's exhortation. Surely ( faies he ) be did not mean we 
Jbouldonely accept of Peace, when its ofered us for nothing, or be quiet till we 
canpick^ a quarrel, but that we jhould be at fome coft to purchafe it, and 
fart with [omethng for it: The old fomething ftill ! Why,\ve are will- 
ing to part with all our outward Concerns, we will give skin 
upon s#»,will neither God's Terms, nor the Devil's pleafe him ? 
Onely we would not part with our Confciences inftrufted from 
the Scriptures, the Soveraignty of Chrift, the Perfection of the 
written Word ', and is all this Nothing ? 

But ftill he's at it again — we muft deny our [elves fomething upon that 
account. Why, we will take an Oata in the prefence of Al- 
mighty God to lead quiet and peaceable Lives, as become good Sub- 
jects, in all Godlinefs end honefly; Will that ferve to purchafe our 
Peace? No! It muft be fomething elfe, which before he ac- 
quaints us with* he will firft prove the neceflity of it ^ and thus 
he Reafons. 

There are hardly (fays he page 131.) any two ferfons perfectly of the 
fame apprehenfwns, or fiature of under ftanding in the whole world. So 
much difference there is in mens Conftitutions } fucb diver fit) of Education, 
fuch variety cf Inter eft, and Cuftoms, and from hence fo many prejudices and 
various Conceptions of things, 4bat he that refolves to yeild to no body, can 
Agree with no body. What now is to be done in this perplexed 
Cafe? Muft we take our Conftitutions in pieces? I doubt we 
fhall never put them right together again •, or muft we have no 
Peace till all the propenfities and inclinations, rooted and 
riveted in our Beings, Natures, Temperaments, befides that 
fecond Nature growing out of Cuftome •, be ftormed ? The 
Terms of Peace will be next too defperate this way. What 
then, muft the prevailing party commit a Rape upon the Intel- 
lectuals of the depreffed Minority , and Marry them after- 
wards to make them amends : Yet ftill there is a Tower called 


Ajfent and Confent, can never be forced by affault: What, then, 
muft the lefier number openly profefs themfelves Convinced, 
and make Recantations before they have caufe for't ? Alas 
this is but to Profelyte.a few Hypocrites, who are not worth 
the whittling ! Or muft we tarry till we come to Heaven, where wejhall be 
of one mind? Oh our Enquirer is not fatisfied in that point to 
Plerophory, fome think^fo indeed •, but he wifely keeps his faith 
to himfelf. What courfe muft we then fteer : Why we muft 
cajligateour heats, take in our fades, lighten the (hip , and ofer facrifce 
to the touchy Deities of received Cuftome and Vulgar Opinion, with all the 
fine ftuff you heard before : But furely there's an eafier, chea- 
per, more honourable and Chriftian way then all thefe put 
together : To bear with one another, to leave judging, cen- 
furing,defpifing,perfecuting-, to leave men to thofe Senti- 
ments wich they have contra&ed from infuperable weaknefs, 
or lefs happy Education, whilft they are good men, good fub- 
)e£ts, good Chriftians, found in the Faith, and W 7 orfhip 
God no worfe then the Scripture commands them. And he 
that cannot Indulge his brother found in the Fundamentals, 
and walking together with his brethren fo far as he has attain- 
ed, let him prate of Peace till his Tongue akes, 'tis evident 
he would not purchafe Peace with Shoo-buckles. 

The Apoftle has recommended this expedient to us by his 
own example, i Cor,y. 20,21. which the Enquirer could fee to 
quote, and not to uuderftand. Unto the Jews I became as a Jew, 
that I might gain the Jews ', To them that were without the Law as without 
Law ( being not without Law to God, but under the Law to Chrift ) that I 
might gain them that are without the Law ', To the weak, became las weak, 
that Imight gain the weakj, lam made all things to allmen^ thai 1 might by 
all means fave fome. It feems the BlefTed Apoftle had not yet 
learnt to fnickle the private Confcience, with his public^ Authority. 

That which he quotes from Greg. Ka^. is indeed more con- 
fiderable to his delign : Who affirms how St. Bafil difembled the 
Coejjentialty of the Holy Ghojl, and delivered himfelf in Ambiguous Terms 
on that point, left hejhould of end and lofe the weak* The Reader will 
conclude by thefe inftances that though the Enquirers defign 
lye open to condemn the Diflenters , yet his Mediums do 
ftrongly plead their Caufe: We are illuftrated with an Apoftle ■, 
with a famous Bifnop, both eminent for their Condefcentions to 
the weak, fuch as laid not the ftrefs of the Churches Peace 
upon their own Wills, or Apoftoltcal power, or Ecclefiaftical 

P 3 Autho- 


Authority, nor defined too feverely Controverted points, 
and yet when he comes to the Application, the duty of yeiid- 
ing isprefifed upon the Diflfenters : Whofe coming up in a hun- 
dred points were perfe&ly infignificant unlefs they could nick 
the very £K&&ofk*.iov of Canon-Conformity. I would ask the 
'Enquirer whether the Diflfenters ever pleaded to be gratified in 
fo weighty a point as the Coeffentiality of the Holy Spirit ? Or whe- 
ther ambiguity, orahandfome equivocation there, muft be 
one of thofe things we muft give for Peace : If neither of thefe, he 
might have fpared Bafil, if not for our fake, yet for his own. 
And out of all theie excellent materials we expefted he mould 
have compofed a Speech to the Reverend Bifhops. 

My Lords ! I have humbly fet before your difcerning Judgments the 
great Example of the Great S. Bafil, and the greater inflame of the fa- 
mom Dr. of the Gentiles, ferfons, whofe Authority in the Churchy and 
wifdom to manage that Authority , was ( without difparagement ) equal to 
the fame Qualifications in your Lordfhips ', and yet their hearts fo hum- 
ble , when their places were fo high, their condefientions greater than their 
exaltations, carries fomewhat in it of that Divinity which befpeaks your 
imitation. They would become all things to all men, though fin to 
none :, they were ambitions to win the weak, by Meeknefs , ' and not to 
wound the weak, by Majefty. The way of Peace lies plain before you 9 
jloop to them in things Indifferent, who cannot rife to you in what they 
call finfull,- your yielding to the we ak^ will be 'your ftrengtb, Andwhilft 
you gain tender Confidences to the Church, you will gain Immortal honour to 
your felves. Let it be the Glory of \ our Lives, you have made up our 
Breaches, and not the Epitaph cfyour tombs ', That the way of Peace 
you have not known. 

He comes now to the Grand example indeed, that of our 
Bleffed Saviour, which if it be but faithfully alledged, and 
congruoufly applied, muit filence all difpute, and conquer 
the moft reiif reluftancy : Let us then hear how Chrifts Ex- 
ample lea^s us to Conform. 

I. Chrift complied with the Rite's and Cujloms he found; what, right 
/or wrong ? 'Tis true ! he complied with thofe he found, 
becaufe hefourKl fuGh Rites andCuftoms as were warranted 
by the Law. He was circumcifed. True, it became him to fulfil all 
righteoufnefs. He id id eat the Pafsover. Very true ! He was made 
under -the Law. He wore their Garments, fpoke their Lan- 
guage, No doubt of it \ He was a Jew by birth, and ap- 
proved himfelf a Minifler of the Circumcifwn for the truth of God. 

2. He 

2. /f? condefcended to the very humours of that flublorn people. 
True! Not by imitating them, not afuming the perfon of a 
Jewifh Zealot, but mildly reproving their irregularities •, he 
came not in the bluftering Whirlwind, nor in the terrible 
Earthquake, but in the flill, fmall voice of Evangelical meehnefs. 
He came not to break the bruifed Reed, nor quench the fmokjng Flax j 
but rebuked his miftaken Difciples, that they underftood not 
the fpirit of the Gofpel, nor what a temper it called for, that 
they muft needs fetch fire from Heaven to confumeXht truly Schif- 
matical Samaritans ; when they fhould rather have caftigated their 
own heats, and calmed their own paffons, which w r ere kindled from 
a worfe fire: I expert ftill how he will accommodate this con- 
defcention of our Bletfed Saviour to his purpofe *, for either 
the Diflenters muft be thofe flubbom People, and then if the Cler- 
gy will imitate their Lord and Matter, they muft condefcend to 
their very humours', or elfe Diffenters muft in imitation of 
Chi ift condefcend to the Clergy, and then it fuppofes them to 
be the flubbom and inflexible Party. Befides condefcention in in- 
feriours toSuperiours, will be very improper language. 

3. He ufed their phrafe in his difcourfe. And the Non-confor- 
mifts fpeak as proper Englifh as their wit ferves them, that 
they cannot adorn their conceptions,or clothe their thoughts 
in thunder-thumping Phrafeology, may perhaps be their mi- 
fery, but certainly not their fin. 

4. He obferved their Feajis. We queftion it not *, He came to do 
his Fathers Will, and amongft other particulars, that alfo of ob- 
ferving whatever Ordinance was of Divine Inftitution : But 
the Reader muft know, here's a fecret Argument coucht in 
thefe words againft Non- conformity, which I will ingenuoufly 
own, and 'tis this : The Jews had inftituteda Feaftin me- 
mory of the dedication of the Temple. Nowthisfeftival had not 
the character of Divine Hflitution, and yet this feaft our Savi- 
our folemnized, and who then can be fo refra&ory as not to 
obferve the Holy-days, and confequently all other human Conflituti- 
ons, which bear no diretl repugnancy to the Law of God ? I fhall 
neither ajjert at prefent that this Feftival had Divine warrant, 
nor deny that it was properly of a Religion, nature, but this I 
return, That it appears'not that our Saviour performed any 
Ail, or fpoke any Word, that may be interpreted or conftroed 
an approbation of that pra&ice. All that appears is from 
John 10. 22, 23 . And it was at Jerufalem the Feaji- of the Dedication, 

P 4 and 


and it was winter, and J efwi walked in Solomon's Torch: how fhall 
we draw in Chrifts conformity from thefe words, it was winter ? 
Ergo , Jefus approved the Feaft. He walked in Solomon's 
Porch J Ergo, he condefcended to that ufage: The bufinefs 
was no more than this *, chrift went uf and down \ doing good, and fee- 
king all occafions for that great end of his coming into the 
world : where moft Fiihes were, there he threw his Net *, 
where the greateft confluence of people were gathered, • 
there he preached j he took them where he could find them, 
they would not come to him, he would go to them : what- 
ever was the lawful nefs of that Feaft, or the occafion of 
their Affembly, Chrift could make a holy advantage of it, to 
preach the Gofpel for their Salvation. 

5. H? made hk own Inflitutions of Buftif?n and the Lords Suffer at 
tcnfonant to their Cujloms as 'twas fojible. A notable Inftance it 
was of his condefcention, if it was but true •, but I am afraid 
wefhall not be fo happy as to fee clear evidence of it, which 
is therefore to be lamented, bccaufe our Enquirer will mifs an 
advantage of charging Diffenters with Judai^ing in the Sacra- 
picnts. But I will prpmife him thus much} when Non-con- 
formifts have a commiflion from heaven to inftitute Sacra- 
ments, theyfhall, if I can prevail, make them as confomnt to 
all ho72eft Cuftoms as y tn foffAle \ but till then I hope he will not 
be difplealed that we regulate all our cuftoms by Chrifts 
commands, and not warp his commands to our cuftoms. 

6. lie would not difiurb them with Hovelty, but ingratiated him [elf 
and his Vcdrine by thefe com fly antes* I have but one Anfwer to 
thefe Obje£Uons. Let him be imitated. Let all that profefs 
the Name of Chrift, fo far evidence the fmcerity of their 
profeffion, as not to torment mens confciences with new 
fangles, nor vex an Age ( wearied with contending, and 
willing to be quiet ) with novel inventions. Let all junior 
Obfervances be reduced to the Sacred Rule and Rubrick , 
and then wefhall all conform and joyn cheerfully in the An- 
tiphony *, As it was in the Beginning, fo it it now y and ever Jball be, 
W^rld without end, 

7. When a certain tribute was demanded of him, he firjl f roves he 
was not obliged to fay 'it *, yet lejl he Jhould of end them, determins U 
fay it, and workj a miracle to enable Peter to. fay it. An unan- 
fwerable argument that Non-conformifts are not exempted 
from Taxes and Subfidies •- but what's their Coin to their Cenfcime ? 
'' It 


Itmayfeem a piece of unpardonable boldncfs, to fay that 
Diffenters go beyond this pattern *, and yet, i. they plead no 
imnunity from Aflefiments. Nor, 2. pay they Levies meerly 
to avoid ofence, but out of fenfe of their duty, 3. Can they 
raife money fo eafie as by Miracle, they are glad to work hard 
for it, and yet they endeavour to get their Silver ready a- 
gainft it be called for*, and if their perfons and purfes mayfervc 
their Prince,they know nothing too precious for his fervice, 
that under the Aufpices of his Gracious Government, they 
may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all Godlinefs and Honefty. 

Andnowletthe£»«wm-caft up his accounts, and fee what 
he has gained T>e ckro, by all thefe great Examples ? The A- 
poftle who was Jlrong in the Faith, parted with fomething of 
his Liberty, to pleafe and gain the weak, ', therefore the weak 
muft part with their Confciences, wherein they have no Liberty 
to gratifie the jlrong : Jefus Chrift, who was the Lord of Wor- 
jhip, accommodated his Ordinances to the Jewifh cuftoms, 
therefore the Non-conformifts who have no fewer over Worjhip, 
may accommodate their practice in Worfhip to the prefent 
cuftoms. St. Bafd concealed his Judgment in a great Truth } 
Therefore Non conforming may fubfiribe what they judge a. 


From the publick inftances our Enquirer at Iaft appeals to 
our Confciences. Let me affeal ( fays he ) to the consciences of 
men, is it net plun from hence, that although I be perfuaded that fuch a 
certain Kite is lefs commendable initfelf, yet if it appear to be aninflru- 
ment of Accommodation, that it is therefore in that cafe bejl on that ac- 
count. Thefe retrograde appeals from the public^ Judgment to the 
private Conscience are wholly irregular *, yet fince he has appealed, 
to Co?fcience>, to Conscience he Jhall go, whofe determination in the 
cafe, if it may be heard (peak, is this*, That it is plain from 
thofe Inftances , that if any Rite in it [elf indiferent, mail 
prove an inflrument of "Diftraclion and Vivifwn, it's juft Upon that 
account to abolifh it, but his Appeal was not drawn Clerk- 
like *, for the competition, and conteft is not amongft us, 
between one Myjlical Ceremony, and another, but between Ceremo- 
nies, and no Ceremonies'. If the controverfie were about a meer 
circumftanceoftime, or place, or the natural cloathing of a 
Religious a&ion *, as whether the publick Worfhip fhall com- 
mence at Nine, or Ten a Clock, or whether it fhall be cele- 
brated in a houfe of Timber or Stone, in which Determina- 


tion the Worfmppers may perhaps fuffer fome inconvenience, but the 
Worfhip it [elf no prejudice, feeing we muft Worfhip our God at 
fime time, and fome place, we can have no concern for ftifnefs or 
obftinacy ; but when the Controverfie fhall be about fuch 
Rites, which being neither in general commanded, nor in their 
individuals exfrejfed, do enter into the Worfhip it felf, as an 
integral part of that Devotion which we prefent to the Di- 
vine Majefty, we fay fuch Rites are finfull, on this fide the 
command of a Church, and can be no fit inftruments of accom- 

After many an impertinent Paragraph, the Enquirer ftarts a 
new Queftion, which, though I never once dream't of it, 
fhall have that attendance it deferves. // / am perfuaded that 
fuch an Opinion is more true than that which is publicly owned, (fo long 
as the m&in doclrine of Chriftianity is not in difpute) may I not rather 
tonceal it, than difturb the church 1 The cafe I is confefs before a 
mean Cafuift, and the beft aftiftance I can contribute to it's 
refolution, is to recommend him to the Apoftle, Rom. 14. 22. 
Haft thou Faith, have to thy felf before God! upon which Text our 
Enquirer defcants notably. 1. By Faith in the text (fays he) 
the Apcftle means not the Do&rine of Chriftianity : For then the 
meaning fhould be, that he that underftands the great Doftrine 
of Chriftianity fhould conceal it , well, but what hurt in a con- 
cealment ? St. Bafil was juft now applauded, for diffembling the 
Coefentiality of the H. Sprit, which, if the Athanafian Creed fay 
true, is one of the great Dodrines of Chriftianity, necefary 
to be believed for Salvation. 2. By Faith ( fays he ) vs not meant the 
habit of Saving faith; we agree to it ! and are glad he can find 
fuch a thing as a habit of faving faith. 3. By Faith is meant onely 
a perfuafwn of the lawfulness of fuch a thing in it felf indifferent, I 
fhall not contradia, yet let me fay, 1. That though it be a 
eonfeffed Truth, that celare verum inter dum licet, yet 'tis as true 
prefer ibere falfum, mnquam licet : Though I may conceal a truth 
fometimes, I may never afferta falihood. I may forbear to 
fay they are Antipodes, yet may I not fay, or fubferibe, or 
fwear, there are none, and yetthefe are none of theEffen- 
tials of our Religion. Negative precepts bind us femper, and 
ad femper, that is, there can be no cafe put wherein, no time 
afllgn'd when it may belawfull to deny or renounce the fmal- 
left Truth, or violate the lcaft of Gods Commands by my 
praSice. 2. Though I may conceal my judgment, or fufpend 



my praftice in fome of thefe lefler matters , yet when a 
fweet concurrence of inviting circumftances {hall call for my 
afierting that Truth, or praftifing that duty, I am then to 
aflert the one, and praftife the other. In fome cafes I may 
wave an explicite profeflion, or open practice, when fuch 
forbearance fhall be compenfated with a greater good, when a 
little time fhall pay the truth, and Gods glory, interest, and make 
amends for the lucrum cejfans, and damnum emergens, the Spiritual 
lofs fuftained, or Spiritual advantage delayed. 3. Though I 
may conceal or fufpend as aforefaid, yet I ought not to give 
away my Chriftian Liberty, nor commit any aft, or afts, 
that may deftroy my future claim, or be pleaded in Bar to 
my rigor. 4. When the Confciences of Chriftians arenoto- 
rioufly hazarded by my filence or forbearance, when I amin 
danger of betraying my Brother to errour, or hardening an- 
other in his, I have need of much wifdom and prudence how 
to fpeak and aft, but fpeak and aft I ought*, for it's a moft 
monftrous cheat, to urge the manner of a Duty againft the Duty it 
felf; as that becaufel ought to atl prudently, that therefore I 
ought to fit flill. 5. I am much diffatisfied how it fhould 
follow from hence, what he makes his conclufion : That we 
may change any Kite or Ceremony that xoe have a great kindmfs for y 
for one more grate full to others: Nay, if any Ceremony I have in my 
worfhip not commanded by Chrift, may do him akindnefs, I 
have no fuch kindnefs for it as to difoblige him, nor fhall 
he need to fend me back one of his beloved ones in ex- 
change, I fhall never feel the want of it. But now the 
Reader muftbeintreated to ufenis eyes *, the Afiertion was 
that it is lawful! to conceal my Opinion (when the main Votlrine of chri- 
ftianity is not in difpute) rather than dijlurb the Peace of the Churchy 
from whence he would wifely infer, therefore we may pra- 
ftife Ceremonies, which I am either fu 11 y fatisfied are finfull, or 
not fully fatisfied that they are lawfull *, for this is the upfhot : 

! That we may comply with the Laws in being, fo they be not palpably 

contrary to the Scriptures or common Reafcn; It is very amazing to 
me, that I cannot conceal what I think true, unlefs I rauft 
affert what I judge falfe:, nor bite in my fentiments about an- 
others unlawfull praftice, but I muft praftife with him : I may 
fupprefs my judgment that fuch a tiling is finfull, and yet not 
dare to deliver my judgment that it is lawfull. He that com- 
manded me not to judge my brother, did not command me to imi- 
,/*/<? him. It 

It mnft not be overlookt, what an Emphafis he lays upon 
this word palpably, we may comply with the Laws, fo they 
be not palpably contrary to the Scriptures. And pag. 1 1 . It 
muft be an apparent breach of the Divine Law, that gives juft 
caufe of Separation. And pag. 1 18. Conditions of Communion 
that are not e xprefly finfull, and fuch, wherein there is not a 
flain necefity, and certainty of fin in complyance, are juftified. Sin- 
full terms will not juftifie Separation, unlefs they be apparently, 
exprejly fo. Nor will a fwfull command warrant my non-obedi- 
ence, unlefs it be palpably fuch. It muft be fomegrofs impiety , 
which like the Egyptian darknefs may be felt : Thus if I be 
prohibited to partake of the Lords Supper, oftner than once in 
three, four, or feven years, I muft pocket up the wrong, be- 
caufe here's no palpable, apparent, exprefs violation of the 
Law of God. The Law fays indeed, As often as ye eat this bread, 
and drinks this cup ; but has not deter min'd how often. As one of 
your Roman Cafuifts determins, that we are not bound adu- 
ally to love God above once in three years ; and another thinks, 
ence in a mans life will ferve the turn , provided we do not 
down-right hate him; becaufe the command of loving God, is 
an affirmative precept, which binds indeed femper but not 
ad femper. And if all the Rabble Rout of Popiih Ceremonies 
were commanded, and five times as many more, yet theie will 
not juftifie non-obedience, becaufe (forfooth) they are not ex- 
pefly forbidden by name, nor palpably contrary to any one Text 
of Scripture. 

And to conclude, the Reader fhall now know at a word the 
ttweft price of Peace. That .we part with all that, which is no efential 
point of our Religion, for Charity, which is. This istheloweft pen- 
ny, take it, or leave it, try the world, and mend your felves, 
where you can. But, i. Its palpably ridiculous, to oppofe cha- 
rity to any point, or part of Religion ; as if Charity, which is 
commanded by the principles of our Religion, mould crofs thofe 
frinciplesi Charity commands a religious per fon toftoop to all in 
his private concerns, but requires not that any Principle of Re- 
ligion fhould ftooptoit. 2. It's weakly fuppofed, that its the 
imam of charity, that we be of one uniform practice in the 
Minutes of Religion, when her higheft and nobleft Exercife 
is to embrace thofe that differ from, us in finlefs practices. 
For I cannot yet underftand, what intereft Evangelical Love 
has to reduce us to an uniformity in Rites and Ceremonies *, 


and do know that Proteftants, who differ in the letter points 
of Religion, as to Principle, and Praclice, do yet mantain 
a more entire and cordial" love amongft themfelves, than the 
Papifiswho are cudgelled by the iron rod of the Inquifition 
into a precife Indentity, in their little fopperies. 

Did we never hear of two friends that could really love 
each other with the raoft endeared affections, though their 
cloaths were not made by the fame Taylor , nor trim'd up 
with the fame ceremonies of Ribbonds and Lace ^ let the 
Worfhippersof Mahomet quarrel about their Green and Red 
Turbants, yet Chriftian Kingdoms can hold firm peace, and 
inviolate amity, without abolifhing their refpeclive Country 
cuftoms. The ln(h in one of our Kings Reigns could not be 
periuaded nor forced to leave their odd way of plowing and 
threfhing out their grain, and yet that prudent Prince never 
fent Taim amongft them with his Iron flail to threih them into 
a compliance with more decent andufefull manners. s.This 
diftin&ion of the Points of Religion into accidental or circumftan- 
tidy integral and effential, ( or however el:e they pleafe to 
marfhal it ) had need be well warranted, fufticiently cleared, 
carefully limited, and diitinaly butted and bounded, that we 
may exactly fee where the Circumftantials end, and the Integrals 
begin, and where the integrals expire,and the ejfentials commence, 
orwemayfoon be diftinguiiht out of all our Religion-, for 
under the covert of fuch arbitrary diminutions Rome has alrea- 
dy rooted out much of Religion within her Quarters, 

She confeffes that Chrift did inftitute both the eating of the 
Bread, and the drinking of the Cup; butwithall affirms, that he 
that eats the flefh of Chri/i, receives the Blood alio per concomitantly 
am. Drinking is not ejfentid to the Sacrament, and therefore 
fhe has upon prudential grounds, ( as fhe thinks ) appropria- 
ted that Moity to the Priefts, who need it moft, and love it 
beft : and in the judgment of Grotm, both Bread and Wine 
maybeipared, as he learnedly determins upon that Quefti- 
on. An femper communicandum }er fymbola ? and 'tis but fui table 
to what he endeavours to evince ( as our Enquirer cites him, 
pag. 163.) That the Magi/Irate exceeds not his commijfion when he inter- 
fofes y for the Determination of the circumjlantials of Religion. And fee- 
ing Bread and Wine in his judgment are not ejjential to that Or- 
dinance,by his own,and our Authors principles,the Magiftrate 
may (for fome time at leaft)prohibit both j for if the Magiftrate 


has a power from God to determin the Circumftantials, he 
muft be fuppofed to be Judge what are fo, and thus we may 
have all our Religious Inftitutions diftinguifh'd, and determi- 
ned away in a moment. For though at prefent, whilft we 
are under the care of faithfull Governours* we are fecure of 
the ejfentials', yet we have granted a Principle in this generati- 
on which may utterly eradicate all pofitive and inftituted 
Worfhip in the next -, and we hold all the Ordinances of Chrift 
upon precarious terms, that is, we are Fiduciaries of that 
grand Vepoftum, tillfome men fhall pleafe to call for it, and 
then like the Traditores of old, muft refign and betray the con- 
cerns of the Gofpel. 

( 3. ) He is now entring upon his third labour, which is to 
prove, That the things in difference are of fuch a nature, as may be 
ft to become a pace-offering, and facrificed to the Magijlrate, the Lam, 
and the Church. For the proof of which, he Will give w> thefefve 
following Remarks. 

( I.) That the things now fcrupled in th'vs Church are fuch as were 
heretofore fubmitted to , by the mcft Leading- men of thofethat now depart 
from it. To which I fhall very briefly return thefe few parti- 
culars. 1. That the Non-conformifts are not led by me?i, far- 
ther than as they have authority in the name of Chrift to 
lead them. The Leaders or Paftors difclaim all other con- 
du£t, than by the Gofpel Dire&ion:, their power is Minifte- 
irial not Defpotical *, and their People difclaim all fuch Leaders, 
as would lord it over their Faith, and take away the judge- 
ment of Difcretion over their own a&s. It's a very uncome- 
ly fight to behold a drove of Rational Creatures with their 
Confidences tayled to one fere horfe, and fo conduced to a 
Fair, there to be fold for p eace and expediency. 2. With equal 
reafon the Diflenters will p!ead,That the Worfhip which they 
now ufe, is the very fame that was lately ufed, and prafti- 
fed by fome of the moft Leading-men amongft the Confor-. 
mifts ; and is it not a wonder that whether men go back- 
wards or forwards, yet both mail form an argument for Con- 
formity. If they have fometimes been Ron-conformifts^nd are now 
reclaimed, that fhall conclude for Conformity, becaufe they 
muft be fuppofed to have their eyes anointed with fome ex- 
cellent Collyrium, and to fee better *, If they were once Con- 
formifts, and become at laftDi Centers, yet that will conclude 
full as well for Conformity, becaufe they once faw better } 



fuch muffling Arguments would with equal truth ferve the 
occafions of the Diflenters too. Many of the Conformifis were 
once Hon-conformijisy and therefore we are no worfe now, than 
they were then -, and many of the Non-conformifts were 
once Conformifts, and therefore having tried the difference 
are more competent Judges which way of Worfhip is the 
neareft Rule. And though both thefe ways of Reafoning 
are none of the heft, yet if their be any advantage, the lat- 
ter carries it/, becaufe there can be no fuch arguments from 
Worldly intereji the one way, which may pofiibly have a ftroke 
of the other, few are ambitious to be flawed, and as few that 
are fo irreconcileable to Preferments. 3 . Not former appre- 
henfions, but prefent light into the Mind of God from his 
Word, ought to be our immediate and next Dire&or in our 
Worfhip of him : Men may change, as times and external ac- 
cidents change, but the Rule of Religion is unchangeable, and a- 
hides for ever. 

( 2. ) Some Ron conformifis dayly come over to the Church, and thofe 
none of the meanefi for Ability or Piety ; but let them brag of any one 
if they can find him, that hath fince the Refettlement of the Chunh apo- 
flatiied to them. The DifTenters lend back the Challenge, let 
them brag of any one if they can find him, that has apcfiati^ed 
to them. But yet I fhall fay alittle more. 

§ 1. It's no wonder to hear of few Conversions to- a perfe- 
cted Profejfion. It muft be deep impreflion of duty to God, 
and a violent refpecttothe reward of another World, that 
will prevail with Flefh and Bloud to fet its face againft the 
bluftering wind of Oppofition, and row againft the impetu- 
ous current of general Example. Men are not eafily indu- 
ced to clofe in with that Worfhip, which will not onely 
prejudice, but ruine their Temporal Concerns. It's ordinary 
to fee Secular advantages to command the minds of many,but 
no turning to a reproached Reformation , but what ariies 
from clear and irrefiftible convi&ions. All the avenues to 
Preferment, all the paiTes to a Livelihood are fo ftri&ly 
guarded, that men of parts, whofe Educations have promiied 
them the outward rewards of Ingenuity and Learning, are 
fometimes neceffitated to fowzeover head and ears into Com- 
pliance at firftdafh} all Arguments are dtxwnedin thenoife 
of a croaking belly, and hungry ftomacks 1 wallow firft, and 
leave it to the ftrength of nature to concoct all as well as it can. 



Nay, from the good old Woman at the Towns-end, that 
teaches the Crifs-crgfs-row, to the Belfray-Scbool-mafter 7 and to up- 
wards, all the places of education are tinftur'd with 
Conformity *, every Puifny is taught firft to fwim with blad- 
ders, that atlaft he may venture alone*, firft, to aft without 
knowledge, and then with it, andagainftit, like the Crotonian 
Milo 9 who firft carried the fucking calf, till by gradual efiays 
he could carry it when a bull. Thus traps of temptation muft 
needs take when they are baited at both ends, great Kecefities 
and great Preferments. 

§ 2. This Argument is borrow'd, or ftollen from the Papifts, 
who ufe and urge it every day againft the Prcteftants *, I mail 
propouud and anfwer it in the words of Monfieur dela Motte, in 
h\S IzXZ Motives to Ccnverfion, p. 108, 109. D^cu vient done ( di- 
fent Us ) qu'il y a fi feu de ferfonnes qui quitent la Religion Komane ? 
i3 que, de ceux qui font quitee pur embrajfer la Proteftante, on en voit 
me grando fartie, qui y reteurnentj & qui font, commc on dit, leur 
Recantation 1 Whence comes it ( fay the Romanifts ) that fo few quit 
the Roman Religion ? And that of thofe who have forfaken it, to embrace 
that of the Proteftant, we fee many thai return back, and at we fay, make 
their Recantation? To which he gives this Anfwer,jF<? four ok alleguer 
mille raifons farticuliers four lefquelles, plufieurs illuflres Proteftans ont 
quite leur Religion en France, qui n'eft flm d la mode, (dit on) en ce 
Pavs-ld, ,&* ont embrace la Romaine, je dps fculement en general^ ce qtfil 
eft facile de remarquer dans les farticulieres, que Ceft C inter eft y qui les 
went) is les retient, qui les fait changer, & qui les emfiche de rechanger, 
J could give a thoufand f articular reafons, for which fome eminent Prote- 
ftants have quitted their Religion in France, which, fay they, is now no 
longer the mode in our Countrey 7 and have embraced the Roman Faith : 
But I onely fay this in general, which is very eafie to cbferve in the f arti- 
cular s, That it is meer Inter eft that allures them firft, and then fixes them *, 
that makes them change^ and then hinders them from a rechange. The 
fenfion of a thoufand Crowns ( as he goes on ) which they fromife to 
a Minifter, in cafe he will renounce his Calling, is a moft violent tern- 

§ 3. I could tell the Enquirer of thofe that have deferted 
their ftation in the Church of England, and have given their 
reafons for it, and have embraced a Perfecuted Reformation : 
I could tell him of many young Scholars eminent for Piety and 
Learning, who have rather chofen a retired Eftate and mean 
Condi tion,than thofe Allurements, which would make many a 



mouth water at them. But let every man (land or fall to his own 
Majler, I am not qualified to judge either way ', but this I will 
fay, that whoever ftiall reafon the oneway or other, will find 
his Argument inconclufive, and I have known fo much in my 
fmall Obfervation, and known fome men too w^ell,then either 
to be much confirmed in my judgment by their prefence, or 
ftagger'd by their abfence. 

(3.) There are men of as clear under/landing, as good life, and as 
comfortable Conferences in the fociety of this Churchy as are any where elfe 
to be found. And if I fliould fay, there are perfons of as clear 
under/landing, a* good life , and as comfortable Conferences in the fociety 
of the Non-conformifts, as are any where elfe to be found, I 
fhould difcover a vanity equal to that of the Enquirer. I cannot 
be of every mans Religion, that is of much clearer under/landing 
than my felf, unlefs Irefolveto be of twenty contradictory 
Religions at once -, nor can I judge it my duty to imitate eve- 
ry one of a Holy /ifofurther than in his holinefs *, nor of every mans 
way that pretends to a comfortable Confiience in his way, becaufe 
I fee fome fetch in comfort to their Confciences from their great-, 
eft provocations, or groffeft delufwns : Befides its no part of the 
clearnefs of mens under/landings, to be wifer than the Scriptures, or 
to ftudy reafons, why they ought to deftroy all that are not 
of the fame intelle&ual ftature with themfelves. Nor does it 
add to their holinefs, that they can perfecute others whofe 
lives are holy -, nor to the folid comfort of their Confciences, 
that they endeavour to weaken the comfort of other mens } 
and I will further add, that fince my own Confcience can only 
directly witnefs to my felf, it can never be allowed credence 
with another, if I deny it its proper work and office in an- 
other. But we have met w 7 ith this Braggadocian Pyrgovolinias be- 
fore, whither the Reader is referred, if at leaft he mall judge 
fo inconfiderable a trifle to merit further Confideration. 

( 4. ) The things obje&ed again/1 this Church are but at mofi dilu- 
table matters, becaufe all wife and good men are not agreed upon them, but 
that which fubjudice, and yet under dilute, cannot be called evil, till the 
dilute # ended, and the decifion made again/} it. To which I crave 
leave to anfwer. 1. That then fome of the greateft and molt 
important Points in Religion muft be called difputable, feeing 
all wife men, and fome good men are not agreed upon them. 
2. If the matters be ftill fub judice, and cannot be called evil 
till the difpute be ended *, why are the Ngn-conformifts eze- 

cuted before condemnation ? For I hope he arrogates no fuch 
■partial tribunal to himfelf, that the things in controverfie fhall 
be reputed undecided when he would juftifie the one, and yet 
decided when he would condemn the other. 3. We fay the things 
are already decided by Scripture long ago, if that may be 
judge, and if any other Judge be fet up, the Condemned 
party will appeal thither, as the higheft Court of Judgment 
in matters relating to Confcience and the immediate Worfhip 
of God, where alone they ought to be judged. 

(5.) The things fcrufled in this Church are fuch <x the like may he 
found, and complained of in any Church of the whole World, at le aft fince 
the Apoftles times. To which I fay, 1. That I have been too 
much beaten to the game, than to be overborn by the Enqui- 
rers daring Confidence, and do fmoothiy deny the matter of 
fa£t. Many particular Churches may be found at this day, 
where Myjlical ceremonies are not found, much lefs made the 
Terms of Communion. But he has two wide creep- holes at 
which he will efcape. 1. That we choofe what Rational Church 
we will: Itfeemsthen, a' -particular Church, and a national Church 
are Terms that meafure each other. And thus, if we in- 
ftance in the ancient Albigenfes, Waldenfes, or the prefent French 
Churches, he may rejeft the iflfue, becaufe they are not Rational 
churches. And all the Churches for three hundred years after 
Chrift, becaufe they were not National. 2. He will under- 
take this task, If he may have the hiftory and knowledge of that 
church, whatever it be or was fince the Apoftles times, as we 
have of this. I commend his difcretion, for he knows it diffi- 
cult to get the Church-hiftory of other National Churches,fo 
full as we have of our own. 

2. If the Churches in the Affiles times had none of thefe 
things now fcrupled, we fhall rather chufe, and fuch choice is 
our duty, to conform to their Patterns than any junior and 
more green-headed Conftitutions. They are the Apoftolical 
Times and Churches, of whofe Conftitutions we have infalli- 
ble Records, which we propound for our Exemplars, and he 
will be tryed by any others, if we will bate him them, for 
which we thank him. lam now expefling a ferious Propo- 
rtion, and he fends us this offer : That fince there is no grand mat- 
ter of Religion concerned in the controverfies between ut, nor any violation 
of the Laws of God in our complying with the Laws of this Society, and 
fince Mahomet mufl either go to the mutntain, or the mountain mufl come to 

M ahomety 

Mahomet, i.e. one fide or ether muft yield ', we will be ferfiuded to think 
it reafonable, that the fubjeel Jbould pabmit to the governor ; and Opinion 
give place to ancient cuftom, and novelty to the Laws in being. This is 
his friendly motion, and one fo modeft, that we would be pet -- 
fuaded to think it reafonable, if he had given us reasonable argu- 
ments to be perfuaded, which that he has not I think is evident 
from what has been already faid, withthefe further Confide- 

§ i. That his motion is grounded on a falfe fuggeftion.,That 
there's no grand matter of Religion concerned in the coiitroverfie, nor 
any Law of God violated by our comply ance ; for the Perfection of the 
Scriptures as the rule of Faith, Worfhip, and Church-Govern- 
ment, is a grand matter of Religion, and greatly concerned 
inthisDifpute. The Soveraignty of Chrift over his Church, 
hiscompleat Difcharge of all his Offices, his Kingly office iri 
making Laws, his Prophetical in revealing the whole Mind 
of God, is no fmali matter of Religion, and greatly concern'd 
alfo in this Difpute •, which Law-giver, by his exprefs Law, 
and Royal Edidrhas commanded all his true Miniiiers, Matt. 
28. 19,20. To difciple all Rations, baptising them in the name of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghcji: Teaching them to cbferve wbatfoever he has 
commanded them ; adding a gracious promife of his fpecial afuft- 
ing Prefence in this work, That he would be with them always 
unto the end of thefForld : we think that the Terms of enjoying 
all the Ordinances of Chrift, is but obferving whatfiever chrijl 
has commanded ', which Law is apparently, exprefly, palpably viola- 
ted ( to ufe his own exprefllons ) when any thing elfe or lei's 
or more is made the condition of our admittance into the Kingdom of 

§ 2. I know no reafon why any party fhould be the immo- 
vable mountain, that is too ftifr in the hams to come to Chrift ; I 
have ever judged Chrift himfelf to be that Mountain, to which 
Mahomet and all Pretenders ought to move. It was noted as a 
piece of arrogant morofenefs in Aujlin the Mcnk^, that he would 
ftir no more than a Mountain to meet the Briiijh chrijlians half 
way in an amicable affociation : But if the Church will needs 
be the Mountain, yet let her remember that Chrift isfet upon' 
that My mil, and it (he will not move in deference to his Autho- 
rity.He that touches the mountains and they fmoak,and makes 
the hills to tremble, can by his almighty power fend fuch an 
Earthquake in her bowels,a$ may caufe her to yeeld to reafon, 

Q^2 § 3. Though 


§ 3. Though opinion and Cuftom may fight it out- for me, yet 
let the proudcft ancient Cuftom bow down to the Inftitutions 
of Chrift. It has ever been i\$ a common, fo afuccefsfull policy to 
clap hoary Ferrimgs Upon juvenile innovations, to conciliate fome 
reverence to their antique lo'oks : Error has often a more winckc 
led face than Truth, but Trnth always carries the graver afpeti. 
They that imp their pin-feather'd inventions with plumes 
borrowed from Time's wings, do not teach them to fly, but 
flutter : Antiquity is like Romulm his AJfylum, where all pur- 
fued corruptions take fan&uary, fas the grand Burrough and 
fafe retreat of Superftition, when ferreted out of her lurk- 
ing holes of counterfeit Reafon. He can fay very little for 
his opinion, that cannot plead antiquity, cuftom, and fuch like 
Mormo 7 s : Thus the aquarian Hereticks pleaded cuftom to ufe 
water mingled with wine in the Eucharift, whofe folly Cypri- 
au thus cenfures, Villi ration, apponmt confuetudinem, quafi confue- 
tudo major efet veritate : Being beaten at the weapon of Reaion, 
they fetch out the old rufty fwordof Cuftom-,as if fuch a Bilbao 
fword durft try its edge againft the tryed Scimitar of Truth -, 
fuch aroatdoes Tertullian give thefe childifh pretences. Con- 
fuetudo ah aliqua ignorantia, vel ftmplicitate initiam fortita, in ufum 
fer fuccejionem corroboratur ', iff it a adverfm veritatem vindicatur, fed 
Dominut nojler Jefa Chriftm, veritatem fe, non confuetudinem cognomi- 
navit : Hxrefesnon tarn novitas, quam Veritas revincit, quodcunque ad- 
verfm veritatem fa fit, erit berefis, etiamvetm confuetudo. A cuftom of 
hnfe and dunghill exiratl, yet gaining fome refute by long ufage, and 
f refer ibing for its gentility timeout of mind, grows fawcy and malapert 
againft Truth it felf', but our Lord Jefm Chrift called him felf by the title 
of Truth, not of Cuftom : the clear eft conviliion of Herefie is not by the 
leaden Lesbian rule of Vrailice, but by the golden rule of the Scriptures. 
Error is -error fill, and will be fo, of Plebeian breed and igno- 
ble parentage, though it hath purchafed a Coat of Arms, 
fcrapes acquaintance with fome ancient families, and would 
make it out, that it came in with the Conquerour. 

The Gibeomtes a&ed very fubtlely, w< hen they came to Jo- 
Jhua With old fac^s upon their ajfes, and wine -bottles old, and rem, 
. and bound up, and old Jbooes, and clouted upon their feet, and all their 
frovifion dry, and mouldy at if they had come from far, when all this 
while they were but their next Neighbours. It's a pretty 
fight doubtlefs to fee the State which the Great C\ar of 'Mufcovy 
uies upon publick feftivals and enter tainments*,the greatCham- 



ber all befet with grave Perfonages, adorned with Ermines 
and Gold from head to foot, dazling the weak eyes of vul- 
gar fpeftators, and yet perhaps you fhall find fome of thefe 
Kne\\es next day'in their Blue Aprons, who fhall think it noem- 
peachment of their late glories to fell you a penny worth of 
pepper •, fuch a mafque we have presented to us of old cufloms, 
all gorgeoufly attired like the Antediluvian Patriarchs, and when 
we come to examin them, they are little better than (toufe 
our Authors expreflions ) the ditlates of ambition, the artifices of 
gain, and a colluvies of almofl all the fuperjlitions, errors, and corrupti- 
ons of former ages. 

§ 4. Since there muft be a yielding in order to peace, then fu re- 
ly they have all the light and reafon to their fides to have the ho- 
nour of the Condefcenfion. 

1. Who confefs that the matters in difference are indiferent 
in themfelves, fuch as wherein no grand matter of Religion is concern- 
ed, rather than they who are bound up by immoveable per fuafiom 
that they are finfull. 

2. They Who are mob remote from the primitive fmplicity, and 
not they who have no higher ambition, than to perform all 
things which, and as Chrift has commanded. 

3. They who have made the additions, which caufe the Vivifi- 
ons -, and not they, whoonely take up their Religion, as near 
as they can, as they found it delivered and recommended to 
them by the unerring Word of God, 

4. They who have enough to flare, and may part with fome 
excrefcences, and never touch the Quid of Religion, rather then they 
who own a naked Religion without any additaments, and if a- 
ny fuch be found amongft them, they are content to furren- 
der them up as a facrifice to Peace. 

5. They who by their authority are qualified to make a 
through Reformation, and fuch abatements in fupernumera- 
ry obfervations, fuch fillings up of the chafms and vacuities, 
as may not onely retrieve Peace at home, but procure 'a ge- 
neral Union with all the Reformed Churches abroad, to the 
ftrengthening of the Proteftant Religion, weakening the hand 
of the common Enemy, rather than thofe poor People,whofe 
circumftances are fuch, that they cannot propofe the terms of 
Peace to others, and what alterations they fhall make in them- 
felves, will be infignificant to an univerfal Settlement. 

6. They who have already given fome fpecimens of their 

Q^a conde- 


condefceniions to the Romanifts, by removing fome exafpe- 
rating pailages, andit may be hoped and expe&ed, thatthey 
will take a few fteps .towards a complyance with diffenting 
Proteuants. For as the Author of the henicum obferves well, 
pag. 132. That which was laid as a bait for them ( the Papifts) 
was never intended as a hook^ for thofe of our own Frofejfwn. And there- 
fore to conclude this chapter,! will take the freedom to quote 
that celebrated Son of the church for ^ Theological Uotion, whom 
he has already quoted for a Thilofophical one. Did. 3. p. 399. 
fpeaking of the Papacy as the Kingdom of Antkhrifi, he has 
thofe notable words. Which we knowing fo experimentally, not to be 
com fafed by needle fs fymboli\ing with them, in any thing *, J conceive 
cur beft policy is, jludioufly to imitate them in nothing j but for all in- 
different things to think, the worfe of them for their ufing them. As no 
ferfon of honour would willingly go in the known garb of any lewd and 
infamous per fen', whatfoever we court them in, they do but turn it to our 
Jcorn and contempt , and are the more hardened in their wickednefs'j where- 
fore feeing that needlefs Symbolizing with them, does them no good . but 
hurt, we fnould account our felves in all things indifferent, perfectly free, 
to fatvsfie and pleafe in the mojl univerfal manner we can thofe of our own 
Tarty ', nor caring what opinions, or cuftoms, or onward formalities the 
Romanifts, or others have, or may have had from the firft Degeneracy of 
the Church, which we ought to account the more hideoufly foiled by the Ro- 
manifts ufing them ', but fupporting pur felves upon plain Scripture and 
folid Reafon, to ufe, and profefs fuel) things as will be mojl agreeable tows 
all, and make mojl for the fafety and welfare of the Kingdom of Chrijl ', 
for this undoubtedly, O Philopolis, k the mojl firm y and true interefi 
of any Frotefiant Church or State whatfeever. 



. vanity of the Enquirers confidence noted, in boafting; thatthey 
who find fault with the Churches Conftitution, will never 
be able to find out, or agree upon abetter ; his Reafoning a- 
bout th'vs matter examined. 

IT was a piece of the old Roman valour, to kill themfelves, for 

ir of being killed*, and it's a considerable piece of the 

*p Roman petyjiQtto&ix, for fear of going out of the way, to 


refolve againft Reformation upon fome dangers which are fan- 
cied may attend Reformation : That Churches always appre- 
hending, or pretending to apprehend dreadfull inconvenien- 
ces in all changes, though apparently for the better. 

Before we can poffibly know whether a better way may be 
found out j we muft firft be agreed what is a good way. Now all 
goodnefs confifts in the due conformity of a thing to \tsRule and/i^, 
by which it ought to be meafured*, and its fitneft to reach that 
end to which it is a means : and therefore the betternefs of any 
thing muft be judged of by its nearer approach to that Rule,and 
its greater proportionablenefs to the attainment of its defign: U 
then we could find out a Worjhip more agreeable to the rule of 
Worfhip, or a Conftitu:ion more apt to reach the great intendment 
of Holinefs and Peace, fuch a Worfhip, fuch a Conftitution will 
juftific it felf to be abetter, than any of its competitors which 
fhall deviate from that Rule, or more uncertainly attain the 
defired End. 

( i.) The firft part of our task then will be to find out our 
Kuk, which when we have done, wehave nothing remaining, 
. but to apply that Rule to thofe Models which we would erefr, 
or having ere&ed, we would examin their Regularity. And 
as they mall be found to approach nearer, or depart farther 
from that Rule, we may confidently pronounce they are 
therefore by fo much the better, or the worfe. Now the onely 
rule of Reformation, in our judgment, is the infallible Word of 
<W,which we therefore judge fufficient and adequate, becaufe 
they give this teftimony to their own Perfe&ion : And, fee- 
ing we have now to do with thofe who own the Scriptures to 
afifert nothing but truth, it will be evidence enough that they are 
fuch a Rule if they do but ajfert that they are fo. 

It is indeed a new thing to hear them charged as lame and 
defective, fuch as muft be pieced and eked out either with im- 
mediate Revelations, or human Traditions, to render them a com- 
pleat and perfeft ftandard of our Faith, and acceptable Obe- 
j dience. To which we onely oppoie the Teftimony of theApo- 
ftle,2Tim.3. 16,17. All Scripture is given by infpiration of God, and is 
profitable for dotlrine, for reproof, for correction, for inftruEtion in righ- 
teoufnefs, that the Man of God may be per fell, throughly furnifht unto a 1 ! 
good works. Concerning which facred Rule, I will ufe our Au- 
thors confidence with (I think ) better warrant , That they 
who find fault with this Rule } will never be able to* find out or agree upon 

CL4 * 

[ MS I 

a better, whereof the endlefs Mazes, the perplexed Laby- 
rinths into which they have caft themselves, who defpifing and 
forfaking this onely Canon, have delighted to find out by- 
paths, is very clear, but very fad demonftration •, for when 
they have tryed Traditions, or gaped for Revelations, or depended 
on the churches Authority, and yet found no fatisfa&ion *, they 
think to fecure themfelves, and gratifie the Magiftrate with 
a new fewer, who has already fuch burthens upon his fhoulders, 
that we have more need incetfantly to folicit the Throne of 
Grace on his behalf for wifdom, counfel, ftrength to manage 
and bear them, than fondly to think to do him a kindnefs, 
by impofmg upon him a greater work which all others are 
weary of. 

But this one Text which I have mention'd, may abundantly 
fatisfie us that there can be nothing requifit to equife and fur- 
uifh out a chrijlian, a Minijler, a church for duty and obedi- 
ence, but what is fummarily therein afcribed to the written 

§ i. That the Scriptures are of unquefiionable Authority 
to determine all thofe controverts whereof they have cogni- 
zance,becaufe they are Zn'oTrviv m, divinely in] r pired, which no Per- 
fon, no Church,no Convention of men,can with any colourable 
pretext affirm of their Diaates, Canons, Decretals or Con- 
iiitutions *, and that amongft many other Reafons,becaufe they 
w r ere not indited in heat or paflion, were not contrived to 
advance one Party, or to deprefs and crufh another,but were 
the refuitof infinite Wifdom, impartially refpefting Truth x 
faithfully acquainting us with the Mind and Will of God, 
without adhering to any Fa&ion. 

§ 2. That there can be no concern of any Church, or Of- 
iicer in the Church, or Member of the Church, but the Scri- 
pture fpeaks fully to it. As, I. If a Church will prove her 
ielf to be the pilar cf truth, and expofe to all her Members the 
Do£trine of the Gofpel, the Scripture is, «V>^©~ «*£?>' cO- 
dkawhiav, profitable for injlrudion, or, 2. has fhe OCCafion to 
convince the cavilling World, and ftopthe mouths of gdnfayers » 7 
the Scripture is d^/^Q-^f %kiy%$v. It lays down theTrutf*, 
and thereby difcovers Errour, Herefie, falfe DoeTrine, all 
Corruption in worfhip and manner, it gives us what i$Jlraight y 
and therefore enab'les us to judge what is crooked? or, 3. Are 

there any tares fining up in the field of the Church, [own by the enemy 
vhilft men /left, (and men will fleep)it is profitable alfo wYt*a- 
topS&OTr, for the Correfiion, rectifying, and redintegration of 
whatever is warped, and declined from its Original. Itfup- 
plies and fills up the wide chafmsof defe&ives, and pares off 
all excrefcences, and prunes off fuperfluities •, or, 4. Muft 
Chriftians be trained up under Gofpel-difcipline and order, 
that they may grow up in Knowledge, in every Grace, in mu- 
tual Love, it's ufefull vrejiTwAlav, no Paedagogy, no Confti- 
tution, no Difcipline to be compared with it. 

§ 3. That it is a Rule which muft direft all the Builders in 
Gods Houfein whatfoever quality, under whatfoever Chara- 
cter they appear \ It's profitable for the Man of God, and indeed 
itonely becomes the man of fin, he that is the "avo^©-, or law- 
lefs ferfon y who has a curb for every mans confidence, but will 
not endure a fnaffle upon his own to defpife this Rule, and cry 
up another. 

§ 4. The absolute perfetlicn and compleatnefs of this Rule is alfb 
aiTerted *, It's able to make the Man of God per/eft, throughly furnifid 
to all good works, 

Notwithftanding this Perfection of the Scripture as a Rule* 
it is always fuppoled, that every one in his private, or more 
publick capacity, be able to aife and apply the Rule. As the 
Square, or Rule of the Architect, however exaft initfelf,yet 
prefuppofes him to have eyes to fee, and brains to apply it to his 
work •, lb the Scripture as a Law teaches duty, and whatever 
of well-pleafmg obedience we can perform to God, yet fup- 
pofesus at leaft to be Rational Creatures, that can apply that Law 
to our own particular anions : Whence thefe two things muft 
neceflarily follow. 1. That it was not onely needlefs, butww- 
fofible, that the Scripture mould enumerate or determin upon 
the particular natural circumjlances, of general time, place, perfon y 
when, where, who fhould w.orfhip God, eVery day, hour, and 
minute to the end of the world •, for fo the whole world 
would not have afforded fufficient ftowage for Rubricks, nor 
have been able to contain the Volumes that mujl have been written ', for 
as the end and ufe of the Rule, is not to teach the Artificer 
when he fhall begin to work, but hew he may do it like a 
work-man whenever he begins , fo neither was the Scripture 
ilefign'd for a clocks to tell us at what hour of the day we mould 
commence the Publick Service of God, but that whenever 


[ xjo ] 

xvt begin or end, wemannageall according to this Rule. 2. That 
when the Scripture has prefcribed us all the farts of Worjhip^ 
inftituted the Adminiflrators of Worfhip, given- Rules how to 
fef urate them to that office, and laid down general Rules for the 
regulating thofe natural circumftances, which could not par- 
ticularly be determined, as that they be done to edification, de* 
antly and in order , and haswithall commanded us to attend to 
this Rule, and no other, it has then difcharged the office of a 
Rule , and as a Rule ts comfleat and f erf eft. 

( 2. ) Befides our retrofpeft to our Rule,w€ mud alfo look 
forward to the end and defign of all Religion, and when that is once 
well fixt, we fhall have another great advantage to judge 
what Worfhip is better, and what is mrje *, Now the great end 
of all Religion, and fpecially of Religious Worfhip, is the 
glorifying of God, the ? leafing of God: And therefore whatever 
lliall pretend to that glorious Title, and dignity of being an 
aft of Religion, a fart of Religion, and yet has no real tendency 
to the advancement of his Glory, ( which it can never have 
without a due regard to the Rule ) ought to be expunged 
out of the Catalogue of lawfull a£ts, or parts of Worfhip - 
and is io much the more abominable both to God and Man , 
to God, becaufe it offers him a facrifice not fubfervient to his 
praife*, and to Man, becaufe itdeludes him with a pretence 
of- recommending his perfon and fervice to God, and yet 
leaves and expofes both to Gods abhorrence. 

From what hath been faid, I might plead my felf compe- 
tently qualified to gratifie the importunity of the Enquirer, 
and anfwer the Queftion, whether a better frame of things might 
not pfibly have been found out ? Ifwhatfoever agrees with the Rule 
is good, then what is difcrepant from the Rule is evil * ? If what 
maKes a nearer approach to the Rule, is better, then what departs^ 
farther off, is mrfe^ but I look upon thefe kind of Queftions 
as a 'vapouring party fent out to draw the unwary within the 
clutches of an Ambufcado. 

Whatever Conftitution fhall impeach the only true Rule of 
Jhortnefs & dejjciency,\slefe good.than that which implies nofuch (kort- 
nefs and deficiency \ but there are fome Constitutions in the world, 
which impeach the only, true Rule of fhortnefs and deficien- 
cy , and therefore they are lefs good than thofe which im- 
peach not the Rule of fuch deficiency, whatever Confutati- 
ons are made, fuppofed ufefull for decency, which are not 

compre ; 

comprehended under the Rule, do impeach that Rule of de- 
ficiency, but there are fome Conftitutions made, fuppofed 
nfefull for decency, which are not comprehended under the 
Rule^ and therefore there are fome Conftitutions which im- 
peach the Rule of deficiency. Whatever is comprehended 
under a Rule, muft at leaft be neceffary by way of disjunction :, 
but there are fome Conftitutions in the world which are mt 
necefary, fomuch as by way of disjunSion m therefore they are not 
comprehended under the Rule. There is not the fmalleft or 
mojl minute circumftance which can cleave to any Religious Adr, 
or wherewith we can lawfully cloath Gods Worfhip, but it 
is by the Command of Chrift made neceffary, at leaft disjun- 
[lively. But there are fome Conftitutions which are not made 
neceffary ditjuntfively, and therefore they are fuch as where- 
with we cannot lawfully cloath Religion, or the Worfhip of 
God, We are commanded by Chrift to bapi\e\ now though 
it was not poffible that it mould be determined bow often, in 
what flace, at what hours, withwhat number of ferfons the Ordinance 
fhould be adminiftred in every Age and Country from its firffc 
inftitution, to the end of the world, yet it's determined that 
they to whom of right it belongs, do baptize at one hour 
or other, in one place or other, and fo time and place are de- 
termined by way of ditjunfiion *, but there are fome things which 
'tis not neceffary to do, the one or the other to thecompleat ful- 
filling and decent performance of the precept, and therefore 
are not commanded by way of disjunction. 

It would .therefore be no fuch difficult labour to find out 
a better way, fo all the difficulty would lie in reforming a~ 
bufes, removing corruptions, and reducing Chrifts Ordinan- 
ces to their Primitive Inftitutions: "Hocenim adverfus om- 
<c nes haerefes valet : IdefTeverum quodcunque prius : id effe 
<c adulterum, quodcunque pofterius. This is ( faith Tertullian ) 
the great Mawl of all Herefies, (and I will add, againft all Cor- 
ruptions ) that whatfoever was frji is true, whatfoever was introduced 
afterwards, is a corruption. 

But though perhaps the Diffenters may pofablyfnd out what 
abetter, yet they will never agree among tbemfelves, which is ail 
old politick put-off for Reformation : The levity of which 
Objection is eafily difcovered, for, 

§ i. We are all agreed, that the Scriptures are the onlyRule 
cf Worfhip and they that are thus far agreed, are in a fair may 


towards prfett kj'nity, fo far as 'tis attainable in this ftate of 
imperfetlion ; for though they may mifs in the Application through 
the weakncfs of their judgment *, yet being fecure that their 
Rule is good y and fincerely endeavouring to come up to it, and 
reform by it, they cannot be fatally vide, nor mortally difer: 
All that are agreed in their Rule, have this Angular advantage, 
that they can debate their differences amicably upon com- 
mon Principles, whereas they who difer in the Rule, muft needs 
differ in all the reft *, they that divide in tbi Center, muft needs 
divide infinitely in their motions towards the ' circumfereme,and 
they that differ in the Foundation, muft neceffarily dif agree in 
the Superftrutlures. ' 

§ 2. All that agree in the Rule, have prepared minds imme- 
diately tocafhier whatever they mall once difcover to be re- 
pugnant to that Rule, and will eafily part with any miftake 
as it ftiallbe made out to them*, whereas they who fet up 
falfeRulesof Worfhip, and yet fuppofethem to betrue, are 
as tenacious of whatever they find fuitable to thofe erroneous 
meafures they have taken, as if they were the moft Sacred 
Concerns of Religion. 

§ 3. They that own the fame perfect and infallible Rule, 
are thereby kept within fuch bounds of found judgment, war- 
rantable Obedience, and Chriftian Moderation, that they 
can maintain Commnnion with each other,and both of them 
with the fame, one God, one Lord, one Spirit, in the Ordinan- 
ces of the Gofpel, though ftill differing in leiTcr matters *, 
whereas they who fet up new Rules of Worfhip, exclude 
all others from their Communion, but fuch as fubmitto their 
novel Canons and Conftitutions, impofed as the Terms of that 

§ 4. They who embrace the Word of God for their Rule, 
do keep alive the fire of Evangelical Love towards each 0- 
ther, notwithftandingthe little diverfities that are found a- 
mongftthem, when they who advance their ownpleafures for 
the rule and reafon of Obedience, are ingaged in a zealous 
perfecution of all thofe who comply not with their Concepts, 
as is evident in the Church of Rome at this day. It will be de- 
lightfull no doubt to the Reader, to be refrefh'd with the 
Enquirers Rhetorick, who has been tired with my duller 
Difcourfe, and therefore I fhall gratifie him with his Rea- 


Jfs reafonable (fays he) we jhould be able to agree upon, andpro- 
duce a better models left inftead of having a Kew Church, we have 719 
Church at all; Yes, highly rcafonable it is*, For— (Let him that 
reads now endeavour to underftand the ftrength of his four 
Arguments. ) I. Such a Society &. A Church can never be conferved 
without fome Rites or ether. 2. Neither any Society can continue , nor any pub- 
lic^ Woifhip be performed, if all Ceremonies and Circumftances, fuch at of 
time, Place, perfons, and the like, be left indefinite and undetermined* 
3. if there muft be fome determination cf Circumftantials, it mujibe made 
either by God or Man. 4. If there mult be fome determination if 
Circumftances, or no Society, and Godhaih made no fuch Determination, 
what remains but that men muft ? and then who fitter than our Gover- 
nors? and what thefe four learned Arguments contribute to 
the proving his AfTertion : Th&t Difenters will never be able to find 
or agree upon a better Conftitution, I hope the Learned do perceive, 
for my own part fuch is my dulnefs, I cannot difcern it j but 
let usexaminthe AlTertions as they lie in order. 

£ 1. ~\ It can never be thought by wife men, that fuch a Society as a 
Church can be conserved without fome Rites or other: Q Rites, Cere- 
monies, Circumftances, ] are the Terms under which all the 
collufion lurks : when he would flatter us into the humor to 
yield him a Point or two, then he fpeaks of nothing but cir- 
cumftances ; when he would amufe us with an obfeure Term, 
then we hear of nothing but Kites, and when he would kill us 
with a mortal Conclufion, then out comes Ceremonies ' but I 
anfwer ; 

§ I. If a Church cannot be conferred without fome Rites, then let 
the impoied Terms of Communion be onely of fuch Rites, 
without which the Church cannot be conferved, and we will con- 
tend no longer: It any Rite be fo neceffary to the being of a 
Church, that its Conftitution muft moulder away into duft, 
without it, we are content that Rule be made a Term of Com- 
munion : 

§ 2. From hence then it will evidently appear that Myftkal 
Ceremonies, fuch as the Crofs in Baptifm, the Surplice, ought not to 
be impofed as the Terms of Communion, becaufe that without fuch 
Rites of human Appointment, the Society of the Church may 
be conferved : I would fain know how the Church was con- 
ferved in the early, purer times of Chrift and his Apoftles? 
They had hot recourfe to the Ladies clofet opened, they un- 
derftood nothing of the modern curious Arts of conferring, 


candying, and preferring Religion in Ceremonious Syrrups, and 
yet Religion kept fweet and good. They were fome of his 
HolmeftcsLadies of Honour thatfirft taught the World, out of 
a miraculous good will, and tender pitty to the Church, to 
confer™ the two Sacraments of Chrifts Institution, in five more 
of their own invention *, becaufe our Saviour had not prefcri- 
bed enow to conferee the Church from Vijfolution. 

§ 3. Thisfeemstobe a little too high preferment fqr hu- 
man Ceremonies,to make them conferring caufes of the Church*, 
at Rome they have proved defiling Caufes, in other places Caufes 
cf Offence, Scandal and Divifion *, they have burthened fome,and debau- 
ched others,and raifed perfection againft the reft *, but they were 
never yet Confervators of the Churches Purity or Peace*, fure- 
ly the parts of a Church are very forrily put togedier, that 
has no other cement to unite them, and the frame and con- 
texture thereof exceeding brittle, that muft diflfolve upon the 
removal of a Ceremony. 

§ 4. If by Rites, he underftands nothing more than meet- 
natural Circumfiances we grant that no Church can be conferred, no pub- 
lic^ Wbrfhif celebrated without the Obiervation and Determina- 
tion of fome fuch Rites, that is, in plain Englifh no Church can 
w r orfhip God, except they agree to worfhip him fomewhere, 
which is a difcovery well worthy of all this Peripbrafis, and 
tedious circumlocution *, for whoever thought in a Dream, that 
a body could exift, and yet poflefs no place ? or an attion be 
fpun out by men for an hour, or fo, and yet not be meafufd 
with time* It muft be fome ftrange vertigo therefore that whirls 
the brains of thefe Ron-conformifts, that they will endure the 
utmoit extremities, rather than renounce and abjure fuch 
crofs Non-fenfe, That God muft be worfhipt, and yet may he 
worfhipt no where •, That a Sermon may be extended to an hours 
lengthy and yet preacht in an indirifible injlant : fome or other 
muft needs be out of their wits. 

God ( lays he ) cannot be worftnpt by men without all Circum- 
fiances ; by Men ? No, nor by Angels ! they have their v bi, and 
definitive place, nor can they traverfe the Poles in a moment, 
though they arefo fwift winged, as to difpatch it in imperce- 
ptible time *, fo that this Argument will enforce the cherubims to 
conform to the Ceremonies, as well as the poor Ditfenters', and 
well did he fay, // can never be thought by wife men f —For he muft 
be a natural Fool or Idiot that thinks otherwifej and to make 


fure work, he will confound us quite with two moft unmer- 
cifull Reafons. i. Reafon, Forapnuch (fays he ) as no petty Cor- 
poration or Company can * 7 nay, I will ftrengthen his Reafon for 
once :, Not only no petty, but non£ of the great trading Corpora- 
tion, thofe mirferies of Schifm, and nefts of Ron- conformity can be con- 
ferred without fome Rites or other : They have their pageants/ md 
goodly things they are, and contribute wonderfully to their 
confervation,) but yet to deal freely and plainly with our Enqui- 
rer, though I allow his Conclufwn, I cannot fwallow his Medium. 
Arguments taken from my Lord Mayors Show, will never enforce 
religious myftical Ceremonies *, Bodies Politick may be be- 
holden to fome little artifices to conciliate Admiration, if not 
Adoration from the tbic^skin'd Vulgar, who fee no further than 
the Scarlet and Furr *, But Religion needs none of thefe tricks 
and devifesof wit tofet her off. She is never more glorious 
than when fhe mines in' her naked and native luflre *, fhe adorns 
her attire, but borrows no ornament from her cloathing. She 
is none of thefe empty Qytlque chofes, who wanting intrinfick 
worth to recommend him to Society, thinks to ftrike the Spe- 
ctators with reverence to his Pantaloons and waving Plume ; 
fuch was theAnfwerof Luther to Vergerm; That it was the great 
fault and folly of Rome, to ejlablijh the Church with a Government ta- 
ken from Human Reafon, as if it were fome temporal State. 

Reafon 2. Becaufe men have bodies, and are bound to glorifie God 
with their Bodies as well as Souls. I am fometimes ready to fay 
in paffioii of an Age cheated with fuch filly Arguments, Qui 
decipi vult,' jftifiatur : he that has a mind to be gulled, much 
good may it do him. That we have bodies, Will only infer, that 
^natural circumfiances, which neceflarily adhere to 'a Body, muft 
be determined *, but not at all, that we worfhip God by my- 
ftical Ceremonies, for that I may worfhip God acceptably with- 
out them, I cannot demonftrate. Becaufe Chrift did fo •, but 
that we may worfhip him acceptably with, or by the Cere- 
monies, he has not yet offer'd us a Demonftration. I never 
yet underiiood that the Diffenters did worfhip God in ftatu 
fiparato, which if they could, 'tw T ould notably difappoint the 
Informers, who could never fwear their prefence at a Conven- 
ticle, becaufe they never fawthe complexions of their Souls. 

£2.] Its as plain ( fays he) that neither any Society can continue^ 
nor any \ublick. Worfhip be performed, if all ceremonies and circumfian* 
cesy fuch as of time , place, per fins, andtbHik?, be left indefinite and 


undetermined. All the ftyle in this Propofition lies in this, that: 
he has wifely foifted in Ceremonies amongft Circumfiances ', and 
to prevent all fraud and legerdemain, let him ufe a little of 
that candor he borrowed of his Reader not long fmce, and 
tell us uprightly, whether he takes Ceremonies and Circumftances 
for Terms of the fame import ? And if fo, then whether he 
will degrade the word Ceremony, from its uiual repute, to fig- 
nifie no more than a natural circumjiance , or advance the term 
circumftance to fignifie myfiicd ceremonies ', for if by circumjiance he 
underftands ceremony y in the common and received acceptation 
of the word, the Propofition is falfe •, That no Society can be con- 
ferred without fome circumfiances ', that no fublick^ Worfhip can be per- 
formed without fame circumfiances ', that is, without unfcripturalfym- 
bolical Ceremonies, and all this difcourfe will not reach the hun- 
dredth part of a proof of it •, for its the eafieft thing in the 
world to worfhip God without the fign of the Crofs, or any fuch 
like circumftances, and there are thoufands that have made the 
experiment :, but if by ceremonies he intend no more than bare 
natural circumftances ; the whole Propofition is granted him, but 
then the mifery is, it will do him no fcrvice, contribute no- 
thing to his de fign. 

The Reader maybe at alofs perhaps as well as my felf a- 
bout the determinate fenfe of his words, and it's conveni- 
ent we mould be fo at prefent :, matters are not yet ripe for 
difcovery:, I know his caufe requires, his conctufion needs Cere- 
monies, but his pemifes are modeft, his inflames only pretend 
to circumfiances, fuch ( fays he ) as of time, place, ferfon, and the 
like -, which muft be a little examined. 

( i.) Time. That Time is a natural circumfiance, infeparably 
adhering to, or if you will, fay accompanying, every a&ion 
facredor civil, wants not the authority of thefeven wife men 
of Greece to confirm it ', that is, fome time in general, yet time in fe- 
cial, that is, religion time, is no fuch circumfiance : No a£Hon can 
be done without time to do it in, yet adions may be done 
without fuch time, as fhall render them either morally better or 
wo?fe; that is, fuch as add any moral goodnefs or evil to the ani- 
ons : Jf then he take time in the former fenfe,\\s then very true, 
that no publick Worfhip can be performed without the determi- 
nation of time ; it muft be determined by fome or other when 
the Publick Worfhip fhall begin, as whether at eight, nine, or 
ten of the clock, , other wife it cannot be attended on by the 



whole Church. But if time be taken in the Utter finfi, for fuch 
time as mall render the Worjhif more acceptable to God, becaufe per- 
form'd in fuch time, there's no neceflity man mould determin 
it, both becaufe all the skill he has, can add no fuchrefpeS to 
Time, and becaufe God has already determin'd for fo much 
of that time, as his Wifdom has judged neceflary. 

There are three confiderations of Time which may delerve 
bur thoughts in this cafe. 

1. The Quamdiu, or the quota pars temporis: how long the A- 
<frion fhall continue. 

2. The Quoties, how often the Adtion fhall recurr, as whe- 
ther in an annual, diurnal, horary, or fepienary Revolution, ( let that 
word pleafe ordifpleafe. ) 

3. TheQuando, or Epocha, from what point of time the A- 
clion fhall ftart or bear date. When therefore he fays, nd 
Worjhif can be performed ',unlefs this ciraimftance of time be defined and deter- 
mined:! would know,to which of thefe confiderations of Time, 
his Aflertion does relate?for its certain, that in every of thefe 
refpe&s,Tiiue either is, or muft be determined by God or Man." 

§ 1. Then for the Quamdiu oifilemntime, we affirm that God 
has fanftified to his Service, and commanded us to keep holy one 
day in [even-, but how much of this time mall be allotted to 
private and pet -final Devotions, how much beftowed upon dome-' 
jlick^ and family duties, how much affignedto public^ firvice, is not 
precifely determined by God •, yet thus far he has determin'd 
by the Light of Nature,and common Reafon,that if a day muft 
be expended in, and divided between thefe three kinds of Devotions, 
that each ought to have fuch a proportion affigncd to it, as the 
weight and dignity of the Work requires *, lull apportio- 
ning the whole time amongft them, excepting fo much as 
he has refeved for the incident duties of neceffity, and cha- 
rity, Which exception he has put in to all affirmative precepts. 

§ 2. For the kuoties: how often this foiemnfacred time fhall 
return : we affirm that God has fufftciently determin'd it, nor 
can we be afftrighted out of our fenfes, with the empty clamours 
oijudaifm, Sabbatarianifm, or whatever other noifes, irreligion and 
prophanefs can mufter up : There is no neceflity therefore 
that any Church fhould determin upon any other Revolution 
of facred time, and, if fhe fhall make the Adventure, fhe will 
apparently fin, forme muft either make the Revolution narrower j 
and fo fin againft the churches liberty, by prefcribing too freequent a 

R Return ^ 


Return \ or wider, and to Tin againft the Churches Edification by too 
Seldom a Return of the publick worfhip. 

§ 3. For the Quando : when this folemn and facred time fhall 
commence *, Ke that has determined,when the day of Labour , has 
determined thereby, when the day of Reft fhall begin •, as in the. 
one he commands us , to doe All our work, *, To in the other he 
commands us, to doe All his •, which is therefore the more ours, 
Becaufe it is wholy his: But for the Quando of the pblickworfhip, As' 
God has not determin'd it, fo it's neceifary, fome or other muft : 
Butftill, what's all this to Ceremonies? Now the Great 
Queftion here will be, who ought to make this determination ? And in 
my weak judgment, They who are upon the place, who know 
beft the particular circumftances, out of which the expediency of fuch 
Determination muft arife •, they who fee the conveniences, and 
inconveniences of determining this way or the other, are the 
molt competent Judges in this Cafe : Suppofe the Queftion 
were,whether we ought to meet together for publick worfhip 
at nine or ten of the clock? what could a convocation fay to this ? 
or what general Law could be made for all the particular Churches 
in athoufandmiles Circuit? if we look upon the Country Villages y 
they have the Ox and Afs to water and feed, their cattle to attend in 
in the field, for whom God has made provifwn, that they fhall reft, 
andnot fe'rve upon his day : If you look on the petty, or greater Cor- 
pmimsjlhty have no calves in the Ml, no flocks in the field, 
their fhops are fhut in, their affairs reduced to a narrower com- 
pafs, and therefore may commence fooner then the country 

Suppofe, neverthelefs, that fome will needs Determine this 
affair •, That all Churches under whatfoever circumftances, ex- 
pedient, or inexpedient, right, or wrong, with all their parti- 
cular members, fhall upon pain of excommunication affemble 
for publick worfhip, ftridly at nine of the clocks upon pretence of 
Uniformity,and that all may unite and affociate their devotions, 
as it were, at once beleaguering heaven, & wreftling for a blef- 
fmg *, I cannot but think what diftra£tions, confufions it would 
raife in mens hearts, and confciences *, what fquabbles, what 
quarrels it would create in the vicinage •, For my Neighbours 
Dial, Iobferve, goes a full quarter of an hour before mine, 
and he fets his clock by his own Dyal *, and then rifes in the 
Morning by his own clock : If for no other Reafon, yet be- 
caufe he can hear his clock, ftrike , better then his Pial 7 fo that 


here's an endlefs controverfie like to arife between us, whether 
his clock, or mine fhall deferve Excommunication ^ Now to part 
or prevent this fray, there is a certain infallible officer erected, 
called a Sexton or Sacriftan, one that will take his oath, his clock 
goes true, whatever Sir Sun fays to the contrary, and he mall 
decide this Brawl, when he chimes all-in , fo that in theupfhot, 
this great Queftion the Church troubles her felf with, muft be 
refolved into this Momentous Canon, That all Churches fhall begin 
their publick worfhip , when my Gafer whatchkallum pleaies. 
And thus much for the Circumftance of Time. • 

( 2. ) Place. This is indeed a Circumftance, and confidered in 
general ,an infeparable Circumftance of* Body •, fo that it haunts us 
where ever we go like a familiar, and purfues us more earneftly 
then our fnadcw , and therefore, as to publick worfhip, there 
muft be fome determination of Common place, where a Churcb fhall 
aflfemble for the ordinary worfhip of God. But if place becon- 
fider'd as Religious, that is, as fitch a place as renders the worfhip 
more acceptable to God, we fay, It's not in the power of Man to 
Determine of any fuch Religious, or holy place, becaufe he cart 
make none fo. 

And yet though he cannot determine the place as Religious^ 
he may determine it as convenient, and perhaps expedient *, And 
befides, fmce the Magiftrate is concern'd to keep an eye upon 
all afemblies whatfoever, that the vublkkjeact committed direftly 
to his charge, may be preferved, and not violated by feditious 
Meetings, he may therefore command all the Churches under 
his jurifdi&ion to convene in fuch open places where his officers 
may come, and make inflection into their demeanours, and be- 
haviours, and the churches are bound in order to this end, to fub- 
mit to his determinations, in confcience to God: for if the 
Place (or time) be inconvenient, yet that's onely fome prejudice 
to the worflrippers, but no pollution to the worfhip it felf ', and the primi- 
tive Chriftians no doubt would chearfully, and thankfully have 
ftruggled with many incommodities, provided die freedom of 
worfhip at any time or place might be fecuredto them. 

But if more open places will certainly expofe them to ruin,they 
may Lawfully keep their foot out of the fnare *, for, as Mafter 
Hales fays well, hi times ofmanifeft Corruption, wherein Religious ajfembling 
is dangerous ", Private Meetings, however befides public/border, are not onely 
Lawful!, but ofnecefity and duty, elfe how fhall we excufe the meetings of our 
felves in Q. Marv'i days ? 

R 2 OO For 


( 3 .) For Perfins : they alfo will fall under the fame diftin&ion. 
The Circumftances of the Perfon in general, as whether his Name 
hex. of little, or no confideration in the cafe * ? but for 
perfons in [fecial, as marked out for publick fervice, that is very 
material. And we affirm that Chrift has already determined 
upon that pointy The Qualification, calling, fetting apart of 
fuch a one to his office, with the Nature and end of his Office, 
together with his whole imployment, work and duty towards 
the Church, are all determined , and none has power that I 
know of to difpenfe with thofe determinations. The Mate- 
rials out of which a Church is to be formed, the ends of that 
embodying, by what bonds and ligaments they are united, the 
duty of Paftors, Teachers, and all Church Governours pre- 
fcribed, by what Laws they fhall govern, and how far the 
members are to give obedience, are allfo far limited, that the 
Church has nothing to doe but to fubmit to commands of her 
Lord, and if fhe be a true Spoufe of Chrift, fhe will fubmit, 
exercifmg all prudence in applying general Rules to particular 
perfons, and emergent cafes. 

(4.) But his laft word Q And the like ] will do him more 
fervice and us more mifchief then all the reft : for how to 
bring in the Crofs, Surf lice, and other Myjlical, Symbolical Ceremonies, 
under time, flace, or ferfon, was very difficult *, But this Et cetera 
£And the like] will doe the feat *, and at this back-dore thou- 
sands of Ceremonies, fuch as Holy Oyl, Spittle, Cream, Salt, 
Ephata's, and the like, may be introduced. But what now if 
thefe Coremonies be not The like but other-like? why, then is all this 
pompous difcourfe blown up ! A moral Circumftance is not the like 
with a natural y That which adds neither moral good, nor evil to 
the wormip, is not the like, with one that does fo , That which 
is commanded with the duty, is not the like with that which isnotfo. 
That without which the worfhip cannot be performed is not the 
like, with that which is not ret/uifite to its performance. I con- 
clude therefore, that And the like conceals fome myfterious point 
from us, which 'tis not as yet convenient to difcover to us j 
And keeping a wary Eye upon it, let us proceed to his third 

[3«] V there mufi (fays he) be fome determination in Circumftantialsj 
it ttiufi be made either by God or man : very true ! If it muft be done, 
it muft be done,there's no remedy. And for all Religious circum- 
fiances fuch as may render the Worfhip either more ufeful, and 


edifying to men, or more pleafing and acceptable to God,they 
are already determined by the Lord ofWorfhip •, an&Kirks 9 
or Key far, have nothing to do herein, at leaft he has not pro- 
ved that they have : for thofe other Circumftances, which 
are neceflfary to reduce the Ordinances of Chrift into at! and 
exercife, its no very great matter who determins them, if they 
have but f ower, and abufe not their power. God has determined 
in general that we worfhip him, and has prefcribed all the Or- 
dinances by which we ought to worfhip him *, and therefore 
we muft come to a determination when, and where, we will 
worfhip him : He has determined more fpecially, that the 
Churches worfhip him folemnly upon his own day, and the 
Churches muft come to a fixed refolution, when they will 
begin that Worfhip : he has determined we fhall baptise 
with water, and therefore if we will execute that Command, 
we muft ufe fome water or other *, but he has not determined that 
we fhall make any Figure, either of triangle, fyuare, crofs, or circle, 
and therefore none candetermin in funicular, where God has 
not determined in the general: he has determin'd that I muft 
worfhip him decently, and therefore that I worfhip him in fome 
garments, for nakecLnefs is contrary to natural decency \ but he 
has not commanded me in general, that I worfhip him in holy 
garments, and therefore none can determin holy garments'^ Wor- 
ihip. Again, he has determined the officers of the Church, 
and therefore fuch and fuch perfons, duly qualified according 
to his Rulers, muftbechofen to execute the Offices*, but he 
has not empowered the Church to erect new officers, and new offi- 
ces, and therefore fuch an attempt is beyond the Churches 

But now (fays he) God bat made no fuch determination. Ah ! but 
we fay, and muft fay it a hundred times over, if the contrary 
be a hundred times afTerted without proof, That God has al- 
ready determined all Religious circumftances, which we call 
Ceremonies, all Ordinances of Worfhip to exhibit, feal, con- 
vey any Spiritual mercy, or Supernatural grace : and for 
thofe natural circumftances which attend all actions whether 
facred or civil, they muft be agreed on before fuch anions 
can be performed in a Community : And if this be the game he 
flies at, believe it, he ftoops to a very mean Quarry. 

The Reader is often vextwith an odd word, which fre- 
quently occurs in the Enquirer called Determination. A term both 

R 3 Of 


of a mifebievoM and a lubricous nature, and it would be good fer- 
viceto the peace, to bind it to its good behaviour. To de- 
termin, fignifiesto fettle or fix to one fide, that which has hung 
in the sequipoife of neutrality ^ when thofe things which 
have played in a pendulous pofture between good or evil, ufe 
ornon-ufe, come to be fettled one way or other, they are de- 
termined: NowtheQueftion is, whether any have power to 
determin things in themfehes indiferent, that they mall be no lon- 
ger indifferent in their ufe? To which all that I (hall need fay 
as to the prefent occafion, will be comprehended in thefe fol- 
lowing particulars. 

i. That where two circumjlances of the fame kind offer them- 
f elves, if the one or the other be neceffary to the difcharge of fome 
neceffary duty, there's a power lodged fomewhere, to de- 
termine whether of thefe two fhall carry it : otherwife a 
necejfary duty ffiuft be eternally fufyended, its ends fruftrated, and it 
felf hang m ptentia for ever, without ever being brought into 

2. where two or more Circumftances offer, thcmfelves, 
noneof which are neceffary to the difcharge of the Duty, 
thu e's no power lodged in any to determinefor any of them j 
for if one unnecejfary arcumftance (w 7 hich is e very way unnecejfary) 
may be determined by power from God, ten thoufand fuch 
may be determined, and then our mifery will be this, that 
though our burthen be intolerable, yet we can have no caufe 
to complain , but with IJjachar muft patiently couch down under 

3. If Circumftances befides their natural adhefwnto an dtf,have 
any Morality afcribed to them, as if they render'd an a& of 
Religion either better or worfe, none is vefted with fower to impfe 
them, nor any with a liberty to ufe them : becaufe we ought not 
to make Gods Worfhip worfe', and we are fure we cannot make 
it better than he has made it. 

4. In thofe cafes where God hath vefted any with a power 
of determination, it ought to be made clear that they who 
pre. end to the power, have a commiffion to fhow for it *, be- 
caufe libertv; is a thing fo precious, that none ought to be de- 
prived of it without good reafon : and this is the task which 
our Enquirer will in the laft place undertake forus. 

' - [ 4. ] If Circumftantials ( fays he ) ntufi be determined, or no So- 
cisiy) and God bath made no fuch determination) what remains but that 


man muft ? and then who fitter than our Governor $, who hefi underjlani the 
civil Policy , and what will fuit therewith, and with the c.fioms and in* 
clinations of the people under their charge. In which notable Thefrs 
two things call for examination, his AfTertion, and the Rea- 
fon of it. 

§ I. His Affertion :, That none is fitter to deiermin Circumjlantials 
than our Governors, Where, i. Wc muft fjppofe thtt he under- 
ftands civil Governor 5, orelfe hisReafon will bear no proportion 
to his Affertion. 2. Let it beobferved, t\\zt its no great , or how- 
ever no killing matter to the Non-conformifts, or their c^ufe, 
who it is that determins meer Circumftantials , for they are 
things of a higher nature than thefe, about which the Co;i- 
troverfie is, if fome mens Intereft would let them lee it. 
3. Seeing that the Determination of fuch meer Circura fiances, 
in fome cafes is matter of meer trouble *, in fome cafes impcjible for 
the civil Magiftrate to detcrmin them, lam comdent :hey 
Will not be difpleaied if reafon difcharges them of fo ufelefs a 

As Time, in general, is a circumftance concreated with every 
human aclion, fo with every command and obligation to duty, there 
is a concreated command and obligation to determin of fome time, 
wherein to difiharge that duty. And hence it muft unavoidably 
follow, That to whomfoever God has immediatly and diretlly given 
a command to worfhip his Great and Holy Ha?ne, to them he has imme- 
diatly and diretlly, at the fame time, ipfo fafio, given a concurrent 
Command to determin of all thofe Circumftances which are neceffary 
to the executing of that Command. Thus, if God has obli- 
ged every individual perfon to fray, he has therewith com- 
manded him to fingle out, and fet apart fome time wherein to put 
up his fupplications to God. Tnus alio, if God has diretfly, 
and immediatly commanded every particular Church to worfhip him 
jointly and publickly, he has alfo by virtue of that Command 
enjoyn'd them to agree upon a time to celebrate and folem- 
nize that Worfhip: Now this Command is fo ftreighdy bound 
upon the Confciences of all Churches, that though nonejhouU 
determin for ^/« ? nay,though all (hould determin againjl them, yet are 
they under its authority, and muft come to an lifue about it, 
unlefsthey will draw the guilt of the negleft of worshipping 
God upon their Souls, with that wrath which is due to fo 
great contempt of the Divine Law. 

Now that every particular Church has a direct command to 

K 4 worlhip 

C *<S4 3 

worfhip God, and by confequence to determin of thofe Cir- 
cuniftances which are neceiTary tothe Worfhip,is evident front 
this one Confideration, That they all did fo in obedience to the Au- 
thority of Chrifi in his Word, whilft all civil Governors were fo far 
from determining the Circumflances, that they determined againfl the 

The Graoiious God has now made fomeof the Kings of the 
earth Hurfmg- fathers to his churches, but yet we cannot believe, 
that the Churches power is lefs under her Fathers, than it was 
under thole bloody Terfecutors : And if this power be lodged in 
the Civil Magiftrate, and he have no Rule to direft him a- 
bout the when, and where, what a miferable cafe would the 
Churches be in, if he mould never determin thefe Circumftan- 
ces, without which the Churches can never worfhip God: for 
thus proceeds his Argument. Mo pub lich^Worfhip can be performed 
without the Determination of fome Circuniftances (as time for one, and 
place for another.) But God has determined none of thefe circum- 
flances, therefore unlefs fome other Determination be made, 
befides what God has made, no publick Worfhip can be per- 
formed : Again, If fome other Determination muft be made be- 
fides what God has made, then it muft be made by man, but fome 
other Determination muft be made befides what God hath 
made, therefore it muft be made by Man: Again, If a De- 
termination of Circumftantials niuft be made by Man, then by 
the civil Magijhate, But a Determination muft be made by 
Man, therefore by the Civil Magiftrate, from whence it will 
jbeeafieto argue •, That if a Magiftrate will not determin of thole 
Circumftances which are neceiTary to the publick Worfhip 
of God, there cm be no publick Worfhip *, but when the 
2viagiftrate is an enemy to the Chriftian Religion, he will ne- 
yer detenr.inof thofe Circuniftances which are neceiTary tothe 
publick Worfhip of God. Therefore when the Magiftrate 
proves an enemy to the Chriftian Religion, there can be no 
publick Worfhip of God*, Nay, there ought to be none'. And it 
will hold againft the VrottftantsWorfhip where the Magiftrate is a 
fevere Romamft. 

Now though it be true that the Command to worfhip God 
publickly, bedire£ly and immediately given tothe Church, 
'yet feeing every Church is in the Commonwealth as apart of it*, 
and that every Soul therein ought to be fubjetl to the higher 
'fever:, and becaufethe Peace of a Nation is not a little con : 


cern'd in the prudent or diforderly management of publick 
Affemblies, and feeing that the Chief Magiftrate is the Vice- 
gerent, and great Minifter of God to prefcrve the peace, that 
this lower World may not be too like a Hell, therefore has 
he a very great concern herein. Re quid Refpublka detriment* 
capiat: And therefore, if any Church fhall chufe fuch unreason- 
able times, or places , asmaygivejuft occafion of jealoufie, that 
fome mifchief is hatching againft the Goverment, he may 
prohibit them that fufpetled place, time, or other jealous circmn- 
ftance, and command them to ele£t fome more convenient, 
and inoffenfive ones *, that fo Religion may be cleared, the Ma- 
giftrates heart eafed, the Peace fecured: only it feems reafonable 
to affert, i. That the Magiftrates power herein is but m&- 
retl, and in order to Peace, and that the Chriftian Church had fuch 
power to determin all fuch Circumftances, before ever Ma- 
gijlrates owned cbrijlianity. 2. That the Magiftrates power feems 
not to extend to determin between contradictories but difparates } 
that is, that he hath no power to determin whether the 
Church fhall mrjhip, or not worfhip :, but that of tm times, or f la- 
ces, or other natural circumftances, the one carrying fome appea- 
rance of fufpicion, the other none, he has therein a juft pow- 
er. 3. That where no private per [on might determin of fuch a 
Circumftance in his perfonal Devotions, nor a particular church 
hath any power to determin for themfelves in their publick 
Worfhip, there it feems the Magiftrates power reaches not, 
becaufe he might then make that a Perion's, or a Churches 
duty by bis Authority, which without his commmd had been their 

1. If then the Queftion be, who is fitteft to determin thofe 
Circumftances which are neceffarily to be determined ? The 
Anfweris ready: They are fitteft to determin to whom the Com- 
mand hdiretlly given, andwho muft anfwerit to God, if for 
want of fuch determination the Worfhip of God belaid afide, 
and negleded. 

2. If the Queftion be put, who is fitteft to determin of 
thofe Circumftances in publick Aflemblies, which relate to the 
public^ peace ? The Anfwer is clear : He to whom the conservation 
cf the public^ Peace is committed, is accountable to God, if through 
his default it be violated. 

3. If the Queftion were once more moved*, what if the 
Magiftrate fhomd forbid a Church to worfhip God at all? The 


Anfwer is obvious, though the Duty be hard. He that has 
made it a Duty to fuffer quietly and patiently, has promifed 
fuifering Grace, that they may fuffer comfortably and cou- 
ragioufly, taking up the crofs willingly, bearing it comly, 
aid following their Mafter faithfully. 

4. But if the Queftion were put ( as it ought to be, if it 
anfwerstheEs^fl/'ws deiign) who is fitted to determin of Ce- 
remonies, which are not anyways neceffary to the difcharge 
of the Duty, fuch new Ordinances, whereof God has notfpoken 
one word, either in general, or particular ? It will be hard to 
fay who is the fitteft, becaufe*ew is fit: That is, though many 
may be meet to determin of meer natural Circumftances, and 
they the fitteft to whom the command to perform the Duty is 
dire&ly given, yet none is empowered to make new Worfhip, 
or new farts cf Worfhip, or to add any thing to the Commands of 

§ 2. The Reafon of his AfTertion follows, They heft under- 
(land the Civil Policy, and what will fute with it, and with the cuftoms 
and inclinations of the People. 

This Divinity, That Religion is to he modelled according to Civil 
Telicy, the cuftoms and inclinations of the People, was certainly bor- 
rowed from Apollo's Oracle -, and the Idol was therein true to 
his own intereft, who ufed this one Principle to root out all true 
Religion, wherever he bore fway. 

Where Raman had learn't it I know not, but I am fure he 
had it at his fingers ends. Efth. 3. 8. And Haman [aid unto the 
King, There is a People difpersd and fcatter'd abroad among the people, 
in all the Provinces of thy Kingdom, and their Laws are divers from all 
Peoples, neither keep they the Kings Laws : therefore it 7 snot for the Kings 
f refit to fufer them. 

Thus Anflotle in his Adulatory Difcourfe to Alexander the 
Great, tells him, that when Apollo was asked concerning the 
the worfhip of the gods, he anfwered : "O77 -m *o.vth<*. yrdv-n, 
7b<V dv^dnztt ^cajtt'cFy, y$> 7« 7ruTei* thj/h^ 7«< Svcricif, That 
all the Oracles enjoyned men to facrifice, according to their own country 
cuftoms. Thus Socrates mXenopbon : 'Oeysyip on c* Antpoh Znfa, 
orttv ti{ <wrov ft?r%?<y7tt, Ha>f av Tvti Sto/f yOLifynv ; ^Kelvirtit, 
Ni/uw 7n>hicdi. Tcu fee that the Delphian god, when my one ai^edhim, 
how he might worjhip the Gods with acceptation? anfwered, According to 
the Law of the City or Common-wealth. And Seneca profeffes, that 

in matters of Religion he confidered not: Q«* dm grata, fed 


qu£ legibws jujla : Not fo much what was aceef table to the gods, as 
what was warranted by the laws of the land. But I hardly forbear 
fmiling, when I read how the Delphic Devil was put to his 
Trumps about this Queftion: TuUy tells us, Lib. 2. de Legibws. 
" Cum Athenienfes ApollinemPythium confulerent,quas po- 
" tiflimum Religiones tcnerent :, Oraculum editum eft, eas 
"quae effenr in more Ma jorum. When the Athenians confuted A- 
folio, what forms of Religion chiefly they fhould embrace ? The grave 0- 
rack anfwersy Tbofe which bad the Authority of their Ancejlors cujlom and 
ufage. But here the Embajfadors croft him, and told his wor- 
fliip*, "Morem Majorum fsepe efle mutatum*, The Cujlom of 
their Ancejlors had been often changed. Alas, they had reform'd, 
and reform'd again and again, over and over, and could ar- 
rive at no fettlement for want of a Rule, and therefore they 
demand : " Quern morem potiflimum fequerentur e variis ? 
Which of all thofe various Cujioms and Rites they fhould obferve ? The . 
Devil, who is never wholly at a lofs for an anfvver, gave them 
this : Optimum! fray pick^ out the beji you can find', though 'never a 
barrel had better herrings. But to this Reafon I fay \ 

1. That he has now wholly given away the Churches Authority , 
which has made fuch a noife in thefe laftAges, and all her 
power in determining things indifferent is furrendet'd up- 
on difcretion. Its very fufpicious that they have no affii- 
rance of the confiftency of their Notions, when they know 
not where to fix this power of Inftituting, and imfofmg Ceremonies : 
one Age talk't of nothing but i&vm l^yAva^ ^ xji sa^/p, 
but we hear no more of that but privately among friends : 
another time the church was brought in to vouch for them, but 
it will not do there *, at laft one Thomas Eraflm taught us to 
throw them upon the civil Magijlrates -, Orotius has madeufe of 
the Notion, and for his fake we cry it up at home, but ano- 
ther Chapter will offer us farther occafion to difcourfe that 

2. That the Magijlrate underftands the civil policy beft, is wry 
true, but no warrant for the impofing of Ceremonies ', for, what is the 
civil Government prejudiced, if I worfhip God according to 
his own Rule ? or what propriety of the fubjefi deftroyed *, what 
prerogative of the Prince impaired', or what privilege of Parliament 
invaded by a Minijlers baptising according to Cbrijls naked Inftitution 9 
without the Crofs ? 

3* Its one of the greateft diflervices the Enquirer can do to 



Religion, to make it truckle to the Humours, and cufloms of the 
feople: p. 59. he tells us, the vulgar are altogether for extreams', 
and blames Calvin for Complying with the Humour of the vulgar. And 
yet now all oth' fudden the Magiftrate muft determine, be- 
eaufc he kjicws beft what fuits with the inclination of the Veo fie : though 
indeed one main end of the Chriftian Rehgion was to oppofe 
thofe radicated Cuftoms, and Idle Humours received by Tradition 
from their Fathers. 

I am now obliged to look a little backwards, and confider 
his attempts to prove , that God has not determined Cirmmftances : 
wherein if he had pleafe to underftood others, all this had 
been fpared, unlefs perhaps he underftood not himfelf. 

A long ftory he tells us of Temple and Synagogue worfhip. How 
punctual God was in his directions about the former, how more 
lax iu thofe about the latter. And his Reafbn is : Becaufe there 
was nothing fjmbolical, but natural Religion, which the Rotions they had of 
God, and the common fenfe of Mankind was fufiicient to guide tfrem in. 
Which difcourfe of his well improved, would give a notable 
{hake to the groundwork of this whole Chapter : for all the 
Religion oi Chriftians is either infiituted, or natural. If it be infti- 
tutedit depends wholly on the Will of God, to make it known 
to us, and to make it our duty : and therefore fo much of it 
as is of this nature, will plead the previledge of the Temple, 
Man has nothing to doe with it. If it be natural, then the no- 
tions we have of God and Common fenfe are fujficicnt to guide every particular 
church in it, nor mall they need any Diliatorihips to fupply the 
defeds. As chrijl has cleared up to us the Moral Law :, fo he has 
prefcribed us a Ceremonial Law : And as it would be a bold af- 
front to the Divine Majeft/ to pretend to add one commandment 
to the former, fo is it no lefs an ufurpation upon the Legiflative 
power of Chrift to luperadd one inflitution to the latter. He 
that may make three or fonr Human Sacraments, may with 
equal pretext make eleven or twelve human moral com- 

There is a command, Deut. 12. 32. What thing foevcr I command 
you obferve to do it, thou (hall not add thereto ', nor diminifhpom it. 
And under whatever difpenfations we are, under the reftraint 
of this prohibition. This is granted by all in the general, 
onely the Queftion is what Conftitution or Inftitution will a- 
mountto an Addition to Gods Commandment? To which I Anfwer, 

j. Kegitivdy: it can be no Addition to a Commandment, to 


determine of fuch Natural Circumftances, which arencceilary 
to the executing the particular duties commanded either by a 
Ceremonial or Moral precept. God has commanded me to 
relieve the widow and the Fatberlefs, with part of that which his 
bounty has gracioufly given me: he has not determined cu 
what day or what hour of the day ? or in what particular place, or 
to what perfons by Name I mall extend my charity and there- 
fore every Perfon to whom the Command is given ( and it is 
given to every man to whom God has given ability ) muft 
determine thefe, and other Circumftances, without which 
'tis impoffible that Law fbould enure, and take effeft. Thus 
has he commanded fome to Baptise with water , but he has not told 
us, whether that water mail be bi ought from a River or Spring ; 
and therefore he that is commanded to baptize, is thereby Com- 
manded to determine , and he is neceffitated to it , if he will 
difcharge his Duty : nor can fuch determinations be inter- 
preted any Addition to the Law , becaufe they are included in the 
Z^,unlefs we will fuppofe the Law Nugatory, and to be vaca- 
ted for every forward Caviller. 2. Affirmatively : whoever mail 
inftitute any ceremony, which is not ncceffarily required to 
the performance of any of Gods commands , fuch as is not 
comprehended in any general Law of Chrift, muft necefTarily 
be adjudged to have added another Law or infiitution to the Infti- 
tutions and Laws of Chrift. 

To illuftrate this , Ifhall ufe a very familiar Inftance } I 
will fuppofe aftanding General Ljw in a Nation, That no perfon 
( except the LegiJIatour ) Jhall add to the I aws of the Land. I will fup- 
pofe alfo a particular Law promulgated by the Legitlatour : That 
every fubjeCl jhall fweep his doer once a week^ with a Beefom : Now to 
fiveep my door with a Beefom of Birch , or Broom^ cannot pofiibly 
be any Addition to that Law, becaufe 'tis ?iecejfarily required to the 
putting of the Law in pra&ife, that I do it with the one, or the 
other , and therefore they are both comprehended virtually in the 
Law by way of disjunction^ that is, either with this, or that, or 
fome other. Again, to fweep my door on the third day of the 
week, and at the ninth hour of the day, can be no Addition 
to the Law, becaufe I am commanded to do it, upon fome day 
in the week^ and at fome Uur of the day, and the Law not having 
defined the precife day and hour, fuppofes it indifferent to the 
Lawgiver, which I chufe, but one or other Jrmji chufe, unlefs I will 
obftinately difobey the Law. 



But now, If 1 will not onely fweep my door, but over-Oflaci- 
ouflly will needs make aCrofs over it, this is an Addition to 
the Law, being neither comprehended under the Command 
of fweeping , nor neceffarily required to the reducing the 
Law into ad. 

Let us fuppofe yet further, that the Mayor of fome of our 
Enquirers Petty Corporations, with the advife of his Brethren, 
fhali put forth an Order or Edid, that Non-obftant the Law 
Ve non Addendo, every perfon within the Limits of that Bur- 
rough (hall be obliged to Crofs, as well as fweep his door, and 
that unlefshe willcrofsit, he fhall not fweep, and that every 
man fhali fubfcribe to this Order and Edid, and whofoever 
fhall contravene the fame, fhall be disfranchifed , This muft 
needs be interpreted an Addition to the Law with a witnefs :, 
Amoft exprefs and daring violation of it. 

But now to amend the matter, W£ will fuppofe the Mayor 
with his Brethren fhall folemnly declare, that though they 
do command Crofting as well as fweeping, yet they do not 
hereby intend , in any wife to make any Addition to that or any 
other Law , fuch an explanatory declaration would be of little 
Credit among the more Confederate fort of men, as being 
contrary to the fad. 

But Mr. Mayor will plead, that though he has added fome- 
thing for the greater folemnity, and decency of the Adion, 
yet he pretends not to make a Law for the Nation , his is 
onely ah order of the Court for his own Corporation , and 
therefore he ought not to be charg'd with adding a Law, to 
the Syfteme of the Laws *, But his worfhip is hugely out, for 
the General prohibition, caution'd him not onely againft Ad- 
ding a Law to the Law , but againft Adding any thing to the Law. 

The Reader has often deferved our Diftindion of natural and 
Moral Circumfiances, Now a Ratural Circumjlance is fuch a one, as ari- 
sing out of, or adhereing to a Ratural Atlion y adds no Goodnefs 
or Evil to the Adion : but a moral Circumjlance is fuch, as always 
renders the Adion either better , or worfe: Thus Baptifm is 
neither better nor worfe, more nor lefs pleafing to God, 
whether it be adminiftred at ten a clocks or eleven', but every fym- . 
lolical Ceremony muft either render the ordinance to which it is 
added, or with which it is ufed, more or lefs acceptable. 
Thus thefigneof the Crofs inftituted tofignify a perfons dedication 
to the Lord chrifi as his faithful Souldier 9 muft either add to, or 


detraft from the moral goodnefs of that Inftitution to which 
it is annex't, or with which it is ufed : for either it makes 
it better: As doing the fame thing with Baptifm, viz. dedica- 
ting aperfontothe ferviceof Chrift*, feeing a double tye, or 
obligation to any duty feems ftronger than a lingle one, or 
cl(b it will render it worfe, becaufe it does that fupeifinonfly y 
which Chrifts own Ceremony had before done fuffitiently -, and 
endeavours to perform that inefetluaUy, which the Iuftitution 
of Chrift had already efeftually performed : And becaufe it being 
a part of inftituted Worfhip, and yet wanting Divine Inftitu- 
tion :, nor having any track or footftepin the light of Nature, 
it ieems to over-do what was once well done. 

Now fince it mud either prejudice, or meliorate the Wor- 
fhip, it may be convenient to inquire, whether it may have 
a propitious and benign, or a malignant influence upon it I And Dif- 
fenters are inclined to think the latter. All the goodnefs of 
Inftituted Worfhip depends meerly upon the authority of 
the Legislator, either as he has inftituted it, orempowredo- 
thers to inftitute it, or promifed to accept it fro/n us, and 
blefsit to it: Now (fay thefeDiflenters) Chrift lias neither 
inftituted this dedicating Symbol, nor empowered others to 
inftitute it, nor promifed to accept it at our hands, nor en- 
tailed any blefting upon it, and therefore it muft needs ren- 
der the Worfhip lefs good, becaufe it felf (as ufed) is e- 
vil : and whether Chrift has inftituted it, or warranted others to 
do it, or annext any fuch frcmife to it, they are willing to joyn 
iffue with any of their Brethren, who will foberly manage the 

Some of them I have heard thus argue: All Worjhip not cm- 
mandedj is forbidden. 

But thefe Ceremonies are Woiftiip not commanded :, therefore 
they are forbidden. 

§ i. The major Propofition I thus prove, firft from the 
conceffion of the learned Dr. H. Hammond, a great and ftrenu- 
ous Patron of Ceremonies, who in his Treatife of Superjlition 
and Will-worjbip againft Mafter D. C. freely owns it, That all 
uncommanded Worjhip is forbidden. Secondly, I prove it by this 
Reafon. They who may inftitute new Worjhip, may deftroy the 
old Worfhip. For Cu]m eft inftituere^ejm eft deftituere *, the fame autho- 
rity that can make a Law, can repeal a Law : But no man can de- 
ftroy the old Worjhip* therefore none can inftitute new Worjhip. 


Laftly, I prove it from the Authority of God, who deftroy- 
ed Kadab and Abihu,Lev. 10. i. and renders this Reafon of it, 
becaufe they ofefd ftrange fire before the Lord, which he commanded 
them not : I know it anfwered by Mafter Hooker,and others,That 
the ftrange fire was not only not commanded, but forbidden: To 
which I reply, fuppofe that to be true - , yet God only infifts 
upon this, that it was not-commanded : It is pleaded further,that 
God was itrift, and punftual in his Commands to the Jewijh 
church, but he has indulged us a greater latitude under the 
Gofpel , but the Reply is eafie*, That our Liberty under the 
Gofpel, lies not in an exorbitant power to frame new Ceremo- 
nies, or new Worjhif, but in our difcharge from the fervitude of 
the old', not that we may create more , but that he has loaded us 
with fewer particulars of lnftituted Worjhif : It's then very evident, 
That all Worjhif not commanded is forbidden. 

§ 2. The minor I thus prove, vi%. That Symbolical Ceremonies 
are Worjhif not commanded', that which is a fart of Worjhif, is Wor- 
jhif, but the Ceremonies are a fart of Worjhif and not commanded, 
therefore they are Worjhif not commanded. None will fcruple to 
grant the major : The parts muft needs partake of the nature 
of the whole: Thtminorl thus evince, from the Enquirers Con- 
ceflion in his introduction *, where he reckons it amongft the glo- 
ries of the firft times of Reformation. That the Liturgy and 
Public^ Prayers were counted a frincifal fart of Gods Worjhif. That 
which is made a part of a principal part of Gods Worfhip, 
and yet uncommanded, is a part of Worfhip not-command- 
ed *, but fuch are the Ceremonies, therefore they are a part 
of Worfhip not-commanded. The former Proportion de- 
pends upon a known and received Maxim : Quod eft fars partis 
eji fars totiws : the fecond Propofition is our Enquirers own Affer- 
tion j The Liturgy is a frincifal fart of Worjhif, the Ceremonies 
are a part of trie Liturgy, therefore the Ceremonies are a 
part of a principal part of Worfhip *, and if the Enquirer ftick 
at any thing here, I will make him this fair offer*, let him un- 
dertake to prove the Ceremonies commanded, and I will un- 
dertake to prove them Worfhip. 

There are only fome excellencies in this Chapter, which 
like the Sprades lie difperfed up and down hisDifcourfe,whofe 
coherence not obliging them to any fixed refidency, I fhall 
for a conclufion, in this place confider them. 

( i. ; His firft great Affertion is, pag. 147. ThatChrift never 



went about the comfofure of Lam y either of Civil or Lcclefxaflical Policy. 
We mall not need to concern our felves about Chrifts civil 
Lam, feeing he profeflfes his Kingdom was not of this world: 'twas 
not a worldly Kingdom, adminift red according to the maxims of 
State j and myfieries of Policy which had "obtained here below } 
that it fhouldbe Spiritual: The Laws and Confutations, the 
Officers and Minifters thereof of Divine original, managed 
for Spiritual ends by Spiritual means *, the rewards fpiritual 
and eternal, the punifhments inflifted upon the difobedientall 
fpiritual, fo the Apoftle, 2 Cor. IO. 4. The weapons of our warfare 
are not carnal ', but mighty through God, v. 5. And having in readinefs 
to revenge all difobedience . It's true alfo, that when once we 
have tinftured our brains with falfe notions of Ecclefiaftkal 
Policy, whereof we find no footfteps in Scripture, we fhall 
be ready to affirm as much of thofe Laws, which he has 
prefcribed concerning the Adminiftration of his Spiritual 
Kingdom ', but this we think clear. 1. That Chrift has infti- 
tuted as many Laws, as fuch a Church as he eftablifhed mall 
need *, and perhaps he was not concerned to write Decre- 
tals, Extra vagants, GlofTes,- Canons, Bulls, to fit all the Go- 
vernments that the wit of man mould afterwards excogitate. 
2. He has by Himfelf and his Apoftles defcribed all the officer s> 
which he judged fufficient to conduft his Difciples in ways of 
holy obedience through the temptations of this world toe- 
ternal Life. 3. He has alfo inftituted as many Ordinances and Sa- 
craments as many ferve to guide and direft them as Chriftians, 
and let any one name one that is wanting to that end, if they 
be able. 4. From the nature of thofe Officers which he hath 
appointed, the fpecies, nature, kind , of his Ecclefiaftical 
Government is abundantly manifefted. 5. He has given ex- 
prefs charge that it be not fo with his Officers, as 'tis with the 
Kings of the Gentileswho exercife lordjhif over them,Luke 22.25* 6. Nor 
has he commiffioned any Governours to make any Laws di- 
re&ly for hisChurch,asa Church,binding theconfcience of his 
Difciples.7.The Sacraments which he has ordained,the exprefs 
Rules he has given for Paftors or Bifhops, with all other Of- 
ficers, are evidence fufficient that he has made fome Laws of 
Ecclefiaftical nature*, and that he has been defe&ive therein, 
becomes not Chriftians to afTert. 

( 2. ) The Affiles ( fays he, ibid. ) gave certain directions fuited 
to the conditions of the times and f laces, andfeofle r effectively ', bnt 

S never 

never com fo fed v a fianding Ritual for all aftertimes : which will he put 
beyond all difpute by this one Obfervation, that fever al things injlituted by 
the Afoflles in the primitive Churches, and given in- command in their 
f acred Writings, were intended fo the obliging only fo long at Qir cum/lan- 
ces Jhould Jiand as then they did, and no longer. Where we have two 
things that challenge Confederation. 

§ I. His Do&rine. That the Affiles gave certain directions 
fuited to the conditions of the times, f laces and perfons r effectively, but 
never compofed a fianding Ritual: To which I fay. I. If by a 
fianding Ritual he mean a Portuis, a Liturgy, aMafs-book, a 
Ceremonious Rubrick, the Rules of thePye, or the like, it's 
very true, and that which the Ronconformifts do gladly accept 
the confeffion of: but if by a fianding, Ritual he underftandfix- 
jed Laws, fuited to the condition of the church in all Ages,un- 
cler all the various difpenfations of Gods Providences, we de- 
ny it, andexpeft his Proof. 

j§ 2. His Evidence is this. Tbit one Obfervation will put it beyond 
#11 difpute. It's a happy Qbfervation,and deferves a Heca- 
tomb for its invention, that will filence all difpute in this 
matter : but what is it ? That fever al things inftituted by the Affiles 
m the primitive Churches^ and given in command in their f acred Wri- 
tings, their Efiftles were intended, and fo conflrued only to the obliging 
[o long as Circumflances jhould jland as they did,and no longer. To which 

1. That there were indeed feme temporary Ordinances, fuch as 
were to expire with the reafonand occafion of their Inftitqti- 
on :, but then there was alfo fufficient evidence that it was 
the W ill of God that they fhould expire and ceafe : fuch was 
that Command of AnncMng with Oyl, Jam. 5. 14. which was . 
fealed and attefted by an extraordinary concurrence of Gods 
power, witnefied to by miraculous effe&s. But God having 

• now broken that Seal, withdrawn tiie concurrence of his 
Power, we need no other evidence that it was onely proper 
for the firft planting of Chriftianity, and is now long ago out 
of date. 

2. His one Obfervation comes infinitely fhort of putting^ 
this queftion out of difpute with any wife man*, for what if 
fiver al Infliwions were temporary, wiH it follow that none were 
"perpetual ? What if fome were fuited only to thofe times, fhall we 
thence conclude there were not enow fuited to all after times? 
There were extraordinary ApoflUs 1 are there therefore np ordinary 

' ' K ••■■•■••• : j> a ji 9n 

faflors and Teachers? Ormufta Nation beat all this vaft charge 
to maintain human creatures*? what if fome Rites were momentany? 
Are there not Sacraments, in the right ufe whereof Chrift has 
promifed to be with his Minifters to the end of the world ? Such 
wherein we are to <hev forth the Lords death till he come. It's as 
eafie to fay all this of Baftifm and the Lords Suffer , that they 
were calculated only for the meridian of thofe days, ( and 
fome are not aihamed to fay it) as of any other Order or Con- 
futation of Chrift by his Apoftles, Vfhofe temporary nature is not 
expreffed, or evidently implyed in the temporary Reafon, upon 
which it was built. 

3. TheEpiftles of the Apoftle to the Corinthians as a Church, 
fhews what ought to be the Order and Government of every 
Church : .The ouafion of writing thofe Epiftles might be, and 
was peculiar to them, and fo was the occafwn of writing all the 
reft, but the defign is common to all. Nor ought any one to dare 
to diftinguifh betwixt temporary and perpetual hjlitutions, where 
the Scripture has not furnifht us with fufftcient ground for fuch 

4. As there never was a more pernicious and deftru£Hve 
defign managed by the Prince of darknefs, than the rejefiing 
the Scriptures at the only Rule of Faith, Worjhip, and all religious Obe- 
dience -j fo the Mediums whereby 'tis carried on, is the very 
fame with that of this Enquirer: There is an abfurd Generati- 
on amongft us in this Nation, to whom if you quote the A- 
poftles Authority in his Epiftle to the Corinthians, for the ftan- 
ding and perpetual ufe of the Lords Supper, will give you juft 
fuch another anfwer. What do ye thinks we live at Corinth, what is 
the Efijile to the Corinthians to us, who are Englifh men ? and fo 
it feems unconcern'd. 

Thus the Papifts juftifte their half Communion : Serenus 
Crefy, c. I2.p. 137. in Anfwer to Dr. Peine, his Primitive- Rule 
of Reformation :, we acknowledge ( fays he ) Our Saviour injlitu- 
ted this myfiery in both kinds. That the Apojlles received it in both kinds, 
that St. Paul [peaks at well of Drinking, i?c. But the general Tradition 
of the Church ( at leajl from his beginning ) will not permit us to yeeld, 
that the Receiving in both Kinds wot ejleem'd as necetfary to the efence of 
the Communion, or integrity of the participation of Chrifls Body and 

But let us fee whatfervice his feleci Inftances will do him 
to prove hisDo&rine. Of this nature (fays the Enauirer) if ere 

S 2 the 

the Feafts of Love, the Holy Kifs, the Order of Deacotmeffes. To which 
I return. 

i. The Feafts of Love, and the Holy kifs were not as all Infii- 
tutiom of the Apofiles. All that the Apoftle determined about 
them was, that fuppofing in their civil congrefles and con- 
verges they falute each other, they mould be fure to avoid all 
levity, ytntonnefs, all appearance of evil' for Religion teaches US 
not only to worship God, but to regulate our civil aftions infub- 
ordination to the great ends of Holinefs, ' the adorning of the Go- 
fpel, and thereby the glorifying of our God and Saviour ♦, 
I fay the fame concerning the Feafts of love. The Apoftle made 
it no Ordinance, either temporary or perpetual, but finding 
that fuch a civil Cuftom had obtained amongft them, introdu- 
ced, we charitably believe, for the maintaining of amity a- 
mongft them, and feeing it fadly to degenerate amongft the 
Corinthians. He cautions them againft gluttony, drunkennefs, 
all excefs and riot, to which fuch Feafts, through the power 
of corruption in fome, and the remainders of corruption in 
the beft, were obnoxious *, which is evident from 1C0r.11. 
2l. One is hungry, another drunken. The Apoftle Paul, lTim.2. 
8* commands*^/ men fray every where lifting up holy hands. Can 
any rational creature imagin, that he has thereby made it a 
duty, as oft as we pray to elevate our hands? That was none 
of his defign to that age, or the prefent : But under a ce- 
remonial phrafe he wraps up an Evangelical Duty. As if he had 
faid, Be fure you cleanfe your hearts, and if you do lift up your 
landsy let them be no umbrage for unholy Souls. 

2. Concerning Deaconnejfes, I can find no fuch Order or Con- 
ftitution of the Apoftles. It's true, they ufed in their travels 
and other occafions, the fervices and afliftances of Holy Wo- 
men, who cheerfully adminiftred to their neceflities , and 
are thence called fiawa), and faid <&**or£v. But how chil^ 
difh is it to conclude an order or inftitution from fo flippery a 
thing as an Etimology ? The Angels are called x«7«p^ vMtparm, 
mini firing Spirits, Heb. i. 14. will any from hence infer, that 
they read the Liturgy ? Magiftrates are ftiled hei\*fy>l 7* 3t*, 
and AidxatM $\v, Rem. 13. 4,6. Andyetit'sno part of their 
Office to read Divine Service. St. James was by fome Ecclefiafti- 
cal Writers dignified with the title of &<*%&<. Whence 
fome conclude he was a Liturgy maker. And thus our willing 
'■Enmrvr, to ferve a turn 3 muft needs have thofe good Women that 


did &taw»v, by all means to have been ordained to the office 
of She-Vedcons. 

Thefe words ^«7«p>fTy, and Aaxwiiv, as Bellarmine notes, fig. 
nifie no more in their general import than quolibet publico mu- 
nere fungi, to perform any publick fer vice for the common be- 
nefit, whether Sacred or Civil : But when they are applied to 
any religion work, or fervice, then by accident they -have a Jkred 
fignification ftampt upon them : and therefore the fame Cardinal 
from thofe words, Ads 13. 2. Kei%y*rm¥ 3 <wrW ttJ ju/eiV as 
they minijlred to the Lord: He found out a Mafs, compleatly rig- 
ged out foriervice : Others will difcover from thence a Litur- 
gy, though the duller fort of people can efpy no more 
than the Worfhip of God, which may very well confift without 
either. 1. In a word. The duties of faluting with an Holy 
Kifs *, the ordering of all our 'A)*-**/, or feafts of Love to 
Gods glory, the miniftring in our refpe&ive . places to the 
mcefities of the Saints, areasmuch in force as ever, unlefs Ho- 
linefs be grown out of fafhion, fo that this one obfervation 
will hardly put the Queftion beyond all difpute. Let him try a 

( 3. ) If it be true, as he fays, that the Cbri/lian Religion was 
to throw down all Inclofures, to unite the world under one Head, and 
make all Rations one People, and therefore muft be left with freedom as 
to circumfiantials : Then it feems they defign fome depopula- 
ting Incloiures, and to difunite the World again , who 
fet up fuch diftinguifhing Ceremonies , as divide thofe of 
the fame Nation, the fame Religion, both at home and 

( 4. ) J£is confidence, that it is evident, that it is unreafonable 
to expett, that every Ceremony made ufe of by Chrijiians, Jhould be found 
frefcribed in the Scripture, or proved thence, does not at all move 
me*, lam accuftomedto encounter feeble Proofs, feconded 
with gigantick confidences: I think its reafonable that they 
who pretend to imitate Chrift, fhould follow his example in 
this alfo, John 5. 36. I can of my [elf do nothing, as I hear, I judge t 
And that they who aft under his authority, mould produce 
his Commiflion, or at leaft not expeft fo ready a compliance 
with thofe Ceremonies, which they confefs not to be proved 
from Scripture. In the mean time from Circumjlances in the pre- 
tnifes, to Ceremonies in the conclufwn \ from fome Circumftances to 
aU^itom natural to moral, is a leap too great for any one to take 

S 3 that 

[2 7 8] 

that valued the breaking of his neck, more than the break- 
ing of his faft. 

His fine Story of Pacuvm is lamentably impertinent, for 
the Queftion there was, who fhould be the Senator , allowing, 
the Senate, approving the Order, but quarrelling the. Perfons: 
But Diflenters great Difpute is about the office, whether jure 
divino or no-? They queftion not whether Crop or -Cream fuit 
beft withBapjtifm, but whether any fuch Ceremonies ought 
to be ufedwithit, or added to it? They do not fet up- two 
or three new devices as candidates for preferment, but plead 
that all of that kind be removed. And if all the fcuffle were, 
which of them fhould be ufed, which repudiated, the Non- 
conforming would not bet a penny on either of their heads. 


A through Examination of that Principle, whereon the En- 
quirer lays too great jlrep : That God lays very little fir ep upn Cir- 
cumftantiah in Religion, 

'THE Hiftorianobferves of the Ligurians y a kind of Banditti, 
•* that skulk't here and there, and always plaid leaft in fight, 
that major erat aliquanto labor, invenire, quam vincere, they were 
an enemy harder to be found cut, than being once discovered, to be 
routed : upon which account this Enquirer may pafs for an An- 
tagonist more troublefome than formidable -, and yet therefore for* 
midable, becauie troublefome. 

He profeffeshimfelf as ready to lay down his life for the fre- 
fervation of Unity, as in tejiimony againjl flat Idolatry *, and next to, 
if not before tnem, heleems willing to dye a thoufand deaths, 
rather than ever fiate a Quejiim. 

God lays very little jlrep upn Circumjlantials : that may be true ! 
and Gods lays very great jlrep upon Circumjlantials : that may be as 
truealfo ! But when he lays very little, and when very great 
ftrefs upon them, let others blow the coal for him,he will fave 
his breath for better purpofes. 

The Queftion would receive a very quick difpatch, if we 
his poor Plebeian Readers were worthy to know what he intends 
by circumjlantials; but feeing we are none of his great Cronies 


1*79 1 

and Confidents that may be admitted into his Cabiriet-co'unfeis, 
we'muft be content with the Andabatarian Fencers, to cut it out 

If he were under any obligation to ufe fuch Mediums and 
inftances, as were proportionable tohisConclufion, we might: 
conje£ture that by cinumftantials he means fome Divine Infiiti- 
two: But feeing he has impofedupon himfelf no fuch fevere 
Difcipline, I know none has that power over him, as to com- 
pellhim to their Laws of Difcourfe and Difputation. 

God lays very little ftrefs upon Circumstantials undetermU 
tied by himfelf', but there Impofers lay the main ftrefs : and God 
lays very great ftrefs upon Circumftantialsfy himfelf once deter- 
wined, but there ( I thank you ) our Enquirer lays very little. 
And there is reafon enough* and to fpare, why God mould 
lay great weight upon the fmalleft matters Which he has com- 
manded, but not half enough, why men mould lay fuch a 
ftrefs upon their pleafures, as to venture the Churches Peace 
upon them, unlefs it could be made out, that they had Au- 
thority from God to do it warrantably, an Infallible Spirit to do it 
exatlly, and infinite Charity , to guide that Authority , without 
which, tointruftany Creature with fuch a power over Cir- 
cumftantials, were but to put a fword into its hand, that 
would kill fome, wound many, and at laft deftroy himfelf. 

It is indeed a noble defign which he purfues, W(. to beget in 
men better Hot ions of God i and better Meafures of Religion ', for hi- 
therto men have fancied God to be very rigid and fevere a- 
bout fmall fins, but our Enquirer will eafe the minds of men of 
their fcrupuiofities, and difcharge Confcience from any re- 
gard of the Authority of God in his pofitive Laws andlnftl- 
tutions. A work infinitely gratefully and eternally obliging 
this Profane and Atheiftical Generation, who had rather keep 
ten of their own, than one of Gods Ceremonies. 

And with fuch Sophiftry did the Arch-enemy prevail upon 
the lefs wary minds of our firft Parents *, Te jhalinot furelydiel 
the Command is meerly pofitive, no eternal reafon of evil in the 
thing ', and God lays little, very little ftrefs upon Circumftantialsj 
fecure but the main', Let there be no Scbifm between you, and ne- 
ver trouble your felves about thefe Inftitutions, which are 
but fecunddi intentions ', and heisfeconded notably by the £*- 
quirer,p. 16 1 . All Ceremonial Appendages, (and fuch were the Tre£s 

of Life and Knowledge in Paradue ', Circumcifion and the 

S 4 PafTeovcE, 

[ x8o ] W 

Paflfeover, under the Law j Baptifm and the Lords Supper, 
under the Gofpel ) are perfetlly fubordbiate, and ought to yield' to 
the defigns of Peace, Charity, and Edification. And yet thefe poor 
deluded ones found to their coft, that He who represented 
God as a Captious Deity (as the Enauirer with great ferioufhefs 
words it ) proved himfelf a Captious Devil; and that it had been 
more their Intereft to have credited Gods moil fever e thr earnings 
than Satans moft fugred promifes. 

But if it be true, That God laysfo very little ftrefs upon his 
own, we need not queftion but Men will lay at leaft as little up- 
on their Inftitutions*, If God be fo indifferent, and remifs, we 
hope we {hall not find them rigorous*, for feeing Magifirates 
are called Gods, fuch as bear fbme confiderable part of his 
Image , and borrow of his Authority , they will no doubt 
reprefent that God to us, truly as he is, A God of Mercy, grace, 
and pity, and not watch advantages again]} their Creatures: but fo 
long 06 the Main of fubjeftion is provided for , and the fuhjlance of their 
Inftitutions obferved, Alterations may be made in lejfer matters without 
their Offence, 

That the Servant is fometimes more fevere then the Mafter, 
we are taught from Oeha^ie's fin, and may .\ye never learn it 
from his Leproly. 2 Ring. 5. IQ^My Mafterkhh fpared Human 
this Syrian, but as the Lord liveth %ti3f~'run after him, and take fome- 
what of him. And there was another Servant in the parable, who 
laid a great ftrefs upon a few Denier s, when his Lord laid lefs 
upon many Talents; And would havepluckt out his fellow fer- 
vants throat for a firry Circumjlance, when he had the face to beg 
Indulgence in the fubftance. And we are fufftciently iefibn'd 
that it's better to addrefs the Lord himfelf then the Steward, ever 
fince the Syrophcenhian met with fuch churlifh treatment from 
the Difciples, and fo gracious- a Reception from our 5. Savi- 
eur: fuch are fome of our Church men, who lye bating at, 
and worrying of the Magiftrate night and day, to exaft the 
rigour of Conformity and the penal Statutes, as if all Religion 
were utterly loft, unlefs their circumftantials were preferved 
Sacred and inviolable , whatever become of Gods circumftan- 

The Title of this Chapter Modeftly afferts onely thus 
much, that God lays very little ftrefs upon Circumftantials : But the 
ontinued Tenor of his difcourfe labours to make it out, that 
he lays very little upon fome of his own precepts, the True and 



dear ftating therefore of CmumftantiaU in the Queftion, would 
be above half way towards its Anfwer. 

Under the Mofaical Law God commanded that they fnouid 
offer to him the H1CP : , juge Sacrifkium, or- the Daily Burnt- 
Offering : and in this cafe the colour oftheBeaft, ( provided ic 
was otnerwife rightly qualified ) was a meer tkrattrjivze. 
Such as God laid no ftrefs upon, and that Man had proved 
himfelf an Arditious , fuperftitious Bufy-body that fnouid 
curioufly adhere to any one Colour : but for the Heifer , 
whofeafhes were to make the water of fe •juration , there the colour 
was no Circuraftance, but made by Gods Command a (uh/hntUi 
fart of thefervice: to be Red, was as much as to be a Heifer i, 
for when circumftances have once pafs't the Royal Affent, 
and are ftampt with a Divine feal, they become fubftantials in 
inftituted Worfhip. 

The Queftion then ought to have been, whether God have 
any regard to his own pofitive Laws*, or whether he be Co 
indifferent about his own inftitutions, that he lays little ftrei* 
upon our obedience to them ? But this had been too broad 
Englifh, a little too uncivil for any that would carry foil 
correfpondence with the Scriptures: and therefore let it be 
mollified, and ftand as it doe^: Whether God lay very litue 
ftrefs upon Circumftantials in Religion ? , 

In deciding this Queftion, he had done very ingenioufly, 
and fairly to have told us from whence we are to take tki 
meafures of that ftrefs and weight , which God lays upon thefe 
things •, which becaufe it was not for his Intereft, yet may be 
much for the Readers, I fhall endeavour to clear up' thefe two 
things, firft, from whence we ought not - y and fecondly, frora 
whence we ought to fetch thefe meafures. 

[i.] From whence we ought not to take the meafures 
of the ftrefs which God lays on them? 

( i. ) Then we ought not to judge that God has little regard 
to any of his Commands, becaufe the matter of them abftratted 
from his Authority , is little 7 for wemoft not conceive that Chrift 
fets little by Baftifm, becaufe the Element is plain fair water : or 
little by that other Sacrament, becaufe the Materials thereof 
are common Bread, and Wine : nor to fet them off, muft we 
varnifh them with pompous Pageantry, as if any thing, were 
neceffary to Buoy up their repute, or beget an awful Re- 
verence to his Inftitutions, befides his Authority. Tor, i. 



Though the things in tbemfelves be fmall, yet bis Authority is 
great. As God appears great in creating little things, his 
power confpicuous in iraploying little inftruments to atchieve 
great effe&s, fo is .his Authority very glorious in enjoyning 
fmall obfervances: 2. Though tfte Things be fmall, yet God 
can blefs them to great purpofes. 2 King. 5. 11. Kaaman 
was in a great Huff, that the Prophet fhould prefcribe fo plain, 
and mean away for his Recovery: he expe&ed fome Ma- 
jeftick procedure in the Cure, that the Prophet fhould come 
cut, and /land, and call on the name of the Lord, andjtrify his hand 
ever the flace. This had been fomething like ! but to fend 
him away inglorioufly, with all that train, and bid him Go wafh 
in Jordan [even times, was not to be endured by a Perfon of his 
rank , and quality. Are not Abana , and Pharfar , the Rivers of 
Vamafcus better then the waters of Ifrael ? may I not wafh them, and be 
dean ? And he went away in a Rage ! But WC are to judge that to 
be beft , which belt reaches the End*, Healing Jordan, then 
inefettual Pharfar. 3 . If the things be fmall , then the grace, 
and mercy conveyed by them, may be had at cheaper rates *, 
And mall it be objected to Gods Ordinances, as their Reprocb, 
which is their real Glory ? Baftifmal water may be had a thou- 
fand times cheaper, then the Popes Holy- water, fliall that be it's 
crime, when 'tis athoufand times more ufeful? 

( 2. ) Nor are we to judge that God lays little ftrefs upon 
hisinftitutes, becaufe he does not immediatly avenge the con- 
tempt and negle£t of them upon the Violaters. And yet 
fuch is the unworthinefs of Reprieved finners, that they have 
formed one of their ftrongeft Arguments for the Continuance 
of Corruptions in Gads worfhip , becaufe he breaks not out 
upon them with prefent definitions. EccleT. 8. it. Becaufe 
fentence againji an evil work^ is not ffeedily executed, therefore tl/e heart 
of the Sons of men is fully fet in them to do evil: whereas, }• Such 
an Argument would equal conclude that God lays fiery little 
ftrefs upon Murder, Idolatry, Sacriledg nay fchifm it felf. 
2. God will find a time foon enough to reckon with all thofe 
who bolfter up themfelves in thefe preemptions, and take 
and unworthy occafion to be therefore Bad, becaufe God is 
fo Good: Ail the threatnings that are upon Record will cer- 
tainly find out, and lay hold on the Defpifers of his facred 
inftitutions : And who to Accommodate their Doftrines to the 
Genius of the age, and humour the People with a Religion 


[ *8 3 1 

agreeable to their Cuftoms, muft remember: Math. 5. 29.' 
Whcfoever Jhall breaks one of the leafi of Chrijls Commandmenti, andteatb 
men fo, jball be called leajl in the kingdom of heaven. 3. God has 
not left himfelf without a witnefs that he is a Jeahm God, in 
the matters of inftituted Worfhip , for though Radah and A- 
bibu might plead that it was a fmall matter, ameer trifle what 
fire they ufed, fo long as they kept clofe to the fubfiame of the 
Command; yet God let them know, that he that offers ftftmg* 
fire to the Lord, may be confumed with flrange fire from the Lord : 
and under the ftate of theGofpel, he has given fuch evidence 
of his Difpleafure herein, asmay juftly alarm as out of our 
fecurity. I Ccr. 1 1. 30. For thkcaufe many are veai and fia^ among 
yoit) and many fieep. 

(3.) We are not to conceive, that God lays my little fir ef$ 
upn hts Inftitutions, becaufe we fee a prophaneand contemptu- 
ous generation of men lay little weight on them, except it be a 
load of reproach and contumely *, for this were to meafurc 
God by the world, as thofe prophane wretches did, Pf.50.21. 
Thefe things hafl thou done^ and I keft.filence } and thou thoughtefl, that l 
was altogether fuch a one as thy felf. 

As we muft not think, that God appretiates whatever men 
fet a high value upon \ fo neither are we to judge, that 
he difefteems any thing, becaufe its grown out of faftu- 
on, and thereby expofedto contempt by the Atheiftical wits 
of mercenary Writers. Our Saviour has told us, Luke 16.15. 
That what is highly efleemed amongfl men, is abomination in the fight of 
God. And on the other fide, what is of high account in the 
fight of God, m&y be depredated by men. 

If any of Chrifts Inftitutions feem neceffary to be broken, 
it will be firft neceffary to decry them as poor, low, inconG- 
derable Circumftantials, and then to' fill the peoples heads 
with a noife and din, that Chrift lays little ftrefs on them,and 
in order hereto, to call them the Circumftantials, the Ac- 
cidentials, the Minutes, the Punailio's, and if need be, the 
petty- Johns of Religion, that Confcience may not kick at the 
contemning of them. 

(4. ) Now may we conclude that God lays little ftrefs on 
his pofitive Laws, becaufe he is ready upon unfeigned repen- 
tance to pardon the violation of them, for thus we might 
conclude alfo, that he laid little firefs upon murt :er and adul- 
tery, inthataffoonasPrfWhad faid, / have finned againfl the 

|>8 4 ] 

lord, the Prophet delivers him a fealed pardon, the Lord hath 

■ alfo put away thy fin, thou (halt not die, 2 Sam. 12. 13. 

( 5. ) Nor yet ought we to form fuch conclufions,that God 
lays little fire fi upon hispofitive Precepts, becaufe he lays a 
greater firefs upon moral p recepts in themfelves. As it would be 
an injury to conclude, that any Church lays little weight up- 
on the obfervation of the Lords day, becaufe, when one of his 
own inftituted Feftivals, is coincident with that day, the ordi- 
nary fervice thereof gives place to the proper fervice of that Fe- 
ftival, when all that can poflibly by the wit of man be infer- 
red thence is but this, that the Church may have a lef$ refpetl 
for the one, than the other : fo would it be injurious to con- 
clude, that God has very little refpetl to his own Inftitutions, 
becaufe he may lufpend their exercife pro hie tenunc, rather 
than the duties imperated by a moral precept •, Mint, Anife and 
Cumin, are inconfiderable things, compared with the mightier 
matters of the Law, Judgment, Mercy and Faith , and yet our Savi- 
our tells them, Mat. 2^, 23. Thefe ought ye to have done, and not to 
have left the other undone. 

( 6. ) As abfurd would it be to conclude, that God lays 
little firefs upon Pofitives, becaufe he difrefpe&S the performance of a 
Duty in hypocrifie, for at this rate we may conclude that he lays 
little upon preaching his Word, Tf. 50. 16. What hafi thou to do to 
declare my Statutes, or that thou Jhouldefi taj^e my Covenant in thy mouth, 
feeing thou hateft infiruclion ? And theConfcquence is as natural, 
that God regards not prayer, becaufe he hears not the peti- 
tion of him that regards iniquity in his heart, Pf. 66. 18. And that 
the prayer of him that turns away his ear from hearing *the Law, h an abo- 
mination, Prov. 28.9. 

( 7. ) Nor may we gather, that God makes little account 
of a pofitive precept, becaufe he fometimes fees reafon to in- 
dulge the omiflion of its practice for a feafon. What weight 
he laid upon Circumcifion is well known, that he threatned 
Excifion to the Male-child that was uncircumcifed at eight 
days old *, and yet for forty years in the wildernefs the aft of 
Circumcifing was fufpended : for the a&s of an affirmative 
moral precept may be forborn for fometime by our own pru- 
dence, and much more and longer by Divine warrant, and 
yet the Precept it felf all the while ftandfirmin Gods regard, 
and in full force, power, ftrength and vertuetous. 

(8J We are not to conclude that God lays little ftrefs up- 

on an Inftitution, becaufe he fometimes commands an A&, 
which, were it not for that particular mdfpecial Command, would 
by vertueof a general command, be a moft horrid impiety. Thus 
God laid a great ftrefsupon Killing, much greater upon a fa- 
thers kitting a child ; and yet greater upon offering human bloud 
in Sacrifice: and yet he commanded Abraham to facrifice his on- 
ly fon, and by his Command made that moft acceptable, and 
rewardable fervice, which otherwife had been moft abomi- 
nable to the Divine Majefty. To borrow, and not to pay a- 
gain, is one of the characters of a wicked perfon, pf. 37.21. 
And yet God by his fpecial Command authorifed the Israelites 
to borrow of the Egyptians jewels of fdver, and jewels of gold ', with 
no intent I am perfuaded, to repay them either ufe or principal. 
God is the Soveraign and Abfolute Legiflator, who may fuf- 
pend, refcind, alter his own Laws at pleafure, and yet he 
has laid fucha ftrefsupon the meaneft of them, that™ man 
may, nor any man, but the man of fin, dares prefume to difpenfe 
with them, much lefs to difpenfe againft them. 

(9.) Nor are we to think that God lays little ftrefsupon 
a Commandment, becaufe he little regards thofe Obfervan- 
cies, which Superftition, Folly, Tradition, Cuftom, have as- 
cribed to it, which were never comprehended in it : yet fuch 
is the procefsof our Enquirers Arguments *, he inftances in fime 
fuperftiiiows Addit anient to the Command, which God never requi- 
red, and thence concludes very learnedly, that God lays very 
little ftrefsupon the Command', let him therefore have leave to in- 
fer } God laid little weight upon the Obfervation of the Sabbath-day, 
becaufe the fuperftitious Jews were haltered with an errone- 
ous Opinion, that they were bound tamely to fit ftill, and 
offer their naked throats to their enemies naked fwords, upon that 
Day, which folly indeed God little regarded. 

L 2. ] Whence then ought we to take the mcafures of that 
ftrefs God lays upon his Inftitutions ? 

( 1.) The true meafure of that refpeft which God has for 
a Commandment, is to be taken by us, from the Authority of 
God : if the thing be fmall, yet we are to regard his Autho- 
rity in it, for this God regards : and therefore he has back ? t 
of old, both the pofitive and the moral precepts with this > 
lam the Lord-, and the greateft inftances of his Royal Praero* 
gative are given us in thofe Mandates, which have only his 
Sovereign pleafure to recommend them to our obfervance- 

(2.; The 


(.2. ) The meafure of that regard God has to an Inftituti- 
©B, is to be taken from the greatnefs of that glory which we give him 
in cur obedience. The great tryal of our fmcerity and fubjefti- 
on to God, lies in giving deference to his Will, as the Rule 
and Reafonof our Obedience j and then do we recognifehis 
Abfolute Power to difpofe of us when he will, whatever 
be the re afon of it: is the. reafon of our Comflyance. Thus Abra- 
ham gave God the greateft teftimony of inward honour, when 
he prepared himfelf to facrificehis only Son, upon his only 

(3.) We may take the meafure alfo of the weight of a 
Command from its defigned ufefulnefs to his great ends *, for 
feeing the imalleft, and feemingly weakeft of his Injundtions 
are attended with his Bleffing upon the holy and due ufe 
thereof, we are thence to inftruft our felves in the weight and 
worth of it. 

The Enquirer tells US from Maimonides, that there were fotne 
things in the Jewijh Law, that were primae intentionis, fuch as God re- 
quired for themfelves, as being intrinfetally good : others that were fe- 
eundae intentionis, only required for the fake of and in order to the 
former : Now his own judgment herein he acquaints us with, 
in the fe words. The fir jl kind that were ejfentially good, were abfo- 
iutely necefary, and could never be otherwife y fuch we call Moral du- 
ties *, the latter kind were of (0 indifferent a nature, as that they might 
not only not have been commanded, but alfo in fome cafes having been, 
commanded, they may not be a duty ', but either he, or his Mr. Mai- 
monides are quite out. For, 1. The Ails of affirmative moral 
Precepts may in fome cafes become no duties, the Command 
it felf abiding in its full force *, yet none will fay that God 
lays little ftrefs upon the ABs of affirmative moral Precepts : thus 
the a&s of affirmative pofitive. Precepts may become no Du- 
ty, yet none can fay, that God lays little ftrefs upon the ails 
of obedience to a pofitive Precept. 2. If this will prove that 
God lays little ftrefs upon. Positives, becaufe they are required 
only for the fafyof, and in order to the former : then it will evince, 
that God lays little ftrefs upon all the means which he has ap- 
pointed frr his great ends .* For the means, as they are /»e<*«s,are 
only valuable for the fake of, and in order to the end. 

( 4. ) What ftrefs God lays upon his pofitive Precepts, we 
may judge fromthofe feverities which God has threatned a- 
gainft, and fometimes executed upon the Violaters of them. 


It was for the violation of a Ceremonial Law, the Eating oftlx 
Tree of Knowledge, of good, and evil, that God eje&ed Adam out of 
Paradife: It was for the negleft of a Ceremonial affirmative 
Command, that the Lord fought to £/Z/Mofes, Exod. 4.24. And 
yet he had this to plead, that he was upon a Journey, and a- 
bout Gods Errand. It was matter of meer Inftitution, that 
was the Jfraelites fecurity againft thedeftroying Angel, Exod. 
12. w$, Thefprinkling the bloudof the Pafchal Lamb upon 
thelintle and pofts of the door. That many do efcape Gods 
vengeance at prefent, notwithftanding their not obeying what 
God has inftituted, and inftituting what God has not com- 
manded, will prove theadmirablenefs of Gods forbearance to- 
wards them, who turn his Grace into Lafeivioufnefs, and em- 
bolden themfelves to fin from his patience, but not in the leaft 
that he lays little ftrefs upon his own Precepts, whereof he 
will find atimetofatisfietheSons of Men, from whence, 

§ t. It follows,that he argues himfelf a pittifull Sophiftcr, 
who concludes the leaft Command may be broken, becaufe 
God turns not men to hell as oft as 'tis broken. 

§. 2. He proves himfelf a notorious Hypocrite, that 
from either Gods grace in waiting or pardoning, (hall encou- 
rage himfelf in finning, and flatter his Soul that he may curfe 
God and live, when the devil wasmoremodefttofuggeft, Curfe 
God and die. 

§ 3. Whoever fhall openly preach thisDoftrine, that God 
lap little Jlrefs upon the Circuwjlantials of Religion, has open'd a 
flood-gate to let in a deluge of prophanenefs upon the 
World : Command of God a [mall, in refpeft 
of the Authority of the Law-giver, which is the formal rea- 
son of our Obedience to that Law, fo no Command of God 
Will be great, but that Command paramount, de non-feparando : 
and then, if every Command that is lefs than another, may be 
faid to have little Jlrefs laid on if, feeing there is fuch a gra- 
dation in the weightinefs, this is in order to that, and that for 
another :, there will but few, perhaps but one, of which it 
may not be faid, God lays very little jlrefs on them, 

§ 4. Although the acls of fofitive Commands may give place to 
the atls of moral Precefts, when both cannot confift, yet whenever 
we can poffibly perform both, we can omit neither -without fin. 

§ 5. To forbear the praftice of an affirmative Precept, 
IvhenCircumftancesdonot confpire, is no violation of fuch 



a precept : though no evil may at any time be done, yet fome 
good may at form:- time be forborn. 

i 6. In all Laws of this fort there are feveral tafm refervati, 
cafes kept in Gods own hands, which cafes when they are put, 
the controventfon of that precept kV h^v, isno violation of 
it ><? Au'voidM • that is, fome things feemto interfere with the 
Jfiter cf the Law, which ate allowed in the equitable conjlruclion 
Of it •, thus God commanded the Jews to do no fervile workjn the 
Sabbath, and yet in cafe of affaults from enemies, they might 
lawfully fight, without violation of the Law, or frofhanation of the 

From what hath, been faid, the Reader may be furnifh'd 
with ananfwet to thofe little attempts of the Enquirer, endea- 
vouring to extort from us thefe two things *, nrft, that God 
laid very little Jlreft upon Circumftantials in the OldTeftement: fe- 
condly, that he layslefs weight upon them under the Mew. 

E-f, -j That God laid very little ftrefs upon Circumftantials 
under the Old Tefta ment, he proves *, 

§ I. By the inftance of the Jews, who have new generally recei- 
ved that Maxim, VerUulum vitx dijfohit Sabbatum, ( though they were 
a great while before they underjlood it, and foundly fmarted for their 
ignorance. ) To which I fhall need to fay no more than, i. This 
inftance was as aukwardly applied as can be imagined ; he 
would prove that things commanded may become no duty, and he 
inftances in that which never was commanded. He undertakes to 
prove, that God lays very little ftrefs upon a fofitiw Command, 
and he brings an imtance, that God lays very little ftrefs up- 
on their SuferjHtiens. 2. I would ferioufly enquire of this feri- 
,:-i: Lrujuirer, whether God did really allow them the liberty of 
felt prcfervation and defence upon that Day ? If he did,then 
k was their own fuperfiitiows ignorance, and foolifti fancy that 
debarrdthem the me of their Liberty *, if not, then, when- 
ever they defended themfelves they fumed-, for fin is the tranf- 
^■efon of a Law. And then let the Queftion be new model- 
led, whether God lay any ftrefs upon fin ? 3. If ever the Jews 
had fuch light into that Maxim, as to interpret it thus ^ the 
dinger of life difches the Sabbath, thatis, difanullstheComma?hi,thcir 
li^ht was grofs darknefs. And they ran from fuperftition to pro- 
th.menefs, the common reel of thofe, who to avoid one extream, 
fttfl nto the otfcfite. The true intent of the Maxim being no 
more than this,that Self-defence on the Sabbath feem'dtobea 


i>s 9 1 

violation of the Holyrejlof the Day, but really was none *, it 
being cafm refervatm, an Exception, not from the Law, but in 
the Law , thus Our Saviour, Mat.i2.$. Have you not read in the Law, 
that the Friejls in the temple prophane the Sabbath, and are blamelefs ? 
Now it cannot be, that a real prophmation of Gods Ordinance 
fhouldbe free from all blarney but the meaning is, that the 
Priefts by vertue of their Office, were obliged to do fuch atls 
cf bodily labour on that Day, which in their general nature were 
fervile porks;-, and as they had an abearance of prophanation in 
them, fo they had really been fo, had not the fpecial Command 
of Sacrificing on that Day, fecured them from the contract- 
ing of guilt by fuch bodily labour •, wherein there was no 
violation of any Obligation, but only Minor, to debilior obliga- . 
tio } cefit majori to fortiori *, and for this he is loaden down with 
Authorities in our Synopf, Critic, in Loc. Polluunt nonvere, fed im- 
froprie, to quoad fpeciem. So Maldondte. Viola fe dicuntur, quia ea 
fecerint, quje nifi cultmDei excufaret facer e non licytfet, opera nempe ge~ 
here fuo fervilia , cujufmodi funt Sacrificia rnatl are : So Mencchius, 
and Grotim fattens the interpretation 'with this Reafon •, Quia 
licet polluant yjp pnnv, contra legh tamen ^tcivoidi', nihil admittunt. 

§ 2. But his fullejl Injlance is out of Mailer Selden^ that in cafe 
of ficknefs a Jew might not only eat fuch meats as were othertfife forbid- 
den, but ( fay they ) for the recovery of 1m health, or avoidance of any 
great danger, he might breaks any precept, five only thofe three great 
ones againji Idolatry, Murther, and Incefl. T he Anfwer to which 
is very obvious. I. For the eating of meats for the. recovery cf 
healthy which otherwife were forbidden. That word Qotherwife] 
iuppofes them lawfull in this cafe, though not in other cafes. 

And is it not alearned Proof, that God lays little ftrefs up- 
on the violation of a Law, becaufe he lays little upon that which 
•IS none ? An exception in the Law, implies no violation of the Law. 
2. That they might breaks any other precept, except one of thofe three 
great ones* Mafter Selden fays, not only he fays, the Jews fay fo, 
who were very favourable Cafuifts fometimes for their own 
eafe and convenience : This was indeed a prophane glofs of the 
loofer Rabbins, but no ways warranted by the Law-giver-. It 
feems they might fwear foundiy to recover their health, for 
that might open their pipes, if they were Ajlmatkal , or com- 
mit adultery , ad purgandos renes, as thePopifh Glofs hathit : and 
I once heard a Catholick Do&or advifehis Patient in another 
cafe to be drunk, once a month, though fot fome it muft be once a 

T veekt 


week, or 'twill not do : or they might lye, or fieri, to procure 
a Sovereign Remedy , for thefe are none of the three great ones ; 
either Idolatry, Muitber, or hiceft : And by this Rule, if Scbifm 
would any way have contributed to' the avoydance of any great 
danger, they might have feparated without fin. 

But thefe inftances he confeffes come not home to his purpofe, 
which I agree to-, but withall tell him, they come as home as 
any of the reft, which now muft undergo the penance to hear. 

§ I. His firft Inftance, that comes home to hispurpofe, is in the 
Fajfover. And the fumme of his Reafonings from thence is 
thus much. This was a great Sacrament lnfiituted by God himfelf 
upon weighty Re afons, ( perhaps to awe mens childijh minds into a greater 
■ Reverence of the Deity ) Made a Statute for ever throughout their Gene- 
rations, and the Soul that obferved it not, was to he cut of from among 
his People, Exod. 1 2. 11. And the moji minute Circumft'ances are de- 
fined, among ft other , that they fiwuld eat it with Stafs in their handsj 
Shoos on their feet, Bid their loynsgirt. By which Expreffion is plainly 
intimated ( and accordingly tjyey under flood and prafiifed ) that theyjhould 
doe it in the pofture of Standing ; yet when they were come into the Land 
of Canaan, they eat it fitting, or lying, according to the ufual Cuftom 
of Feafting in thofe Countries. And this change continued till the times 
of our Saviour without any reproof from God : And our Saviour himfelf 
conforms to them herein, and % the fame pofture eats the Pa/over with 
his Vifciples : I (hall onely offer thefe few things in Anfwer. 
1. That there appears nothing in the Inftitutionof a Command 
to eat the Pafover ftanding; that which carries the greateft 
face of probability, is, that Gods enjoyned them to have their 
fiaves in their bands, and their fhooes on their feet, that they might be 
ready for a March, at God Signal, and word of Command : 
which they might have, and yet fit at the Paflbver, unlefs 
it be fuch an impoflible thnig to fit with our fhooes on; or that 
they could not hold their ftaves in their hands, as weU fitting, 
as ftanding. 2. That the Jews underftood, and praclifed accordingly is 
a precarious, groundlefs, and felf-contradi&ing fi&ion: .for 
what p ratlife of theirs could poflibly evidence that they underftood 
the words to en]oyn ftanding, when he confeffes, that when they 
were come into the Land of Canaan, they eat it fitting or lying ? un- 
lefs he dreams of fome fuch pradiie in the Wildemefs, when 
there was no Vafbver. 3. Suppofe a command for ftanding; yet 
it might be onely pro hac vice; whilft that pofture might befym- 
■bfilital of their hafty departure out of Egypt: And that fitting 


[xpi ] 

fhould ever after enure, when Providence fhould allot them 
more fettled Habitations •, A pofture more accommodate J to ex- 
press the fixed condition of the Church in the Promifed 
Land: 4. If God commanded them to eat the Paffbver Standing 
throughout their Generations, without any exception in the Canon 
of the Inftitution, without any diffenfaiion from the Inftitutor 
himfelf, then they did moft certainly tranfgrefs, were guilty 
of fin, continued in, lived in, dyed in fin, through all their 
Generations } for fvi is nothing elfe but a ir • ar.fgr ejfm of a Law :, 
and then our Bleffed Saviour himfelf had tranfgreffed his 
Fathers Law which he came to fulfil: And thus Bkfihemy 
muft be added to Folly, to make way for an Argument 
that may fecure the Imposition of Ceremonies. I mall there- 
fore conclude with more Reafon thus 5 Cftrift eat the Palf- 
over in atahle-gefture^ therefore God allowed it, rather then 
thus *, God forbad fitting, and yet Chrift finned not , though he 
eat it fitting. % 

From hence I will thus Argue with cur Enquirer 1 Either 
God commanded the Jews to /land at the eating of the PafTover 
in all Ages, or not : If he did fo command them, no arming 
will excufe them from fin , who eat it fitting .- if he did not 
fo command, then this inftance comes home to his purpofe , ju'x as 
his other did: for it can never prove, that God lays little 
ftrefs upon Commanded Circumftantials , becaufe he laid fo little 
upon uncommanded cues. 

Pofitives may be altered? changed, or abolifhed, by the 
Legiilator when, and how far he pleafes \ but this will ne- 
ver prove that he lays little ftrefs on them whilft they are 
not changed, not abolifhed : Nor will it prove that Man may 
chop and change, barter and truck one of Gods leaft Cir- 
cumftantials, becaufe the Law-giver himfelf may do it: He 
that may alter one, may for ought rknow,' alter them all, 
feeing they all bear the fame Image and Superfcription of 
Divine Authority - and he that has a commiinon to abolifh 
one, I am confident has as good a commimon to .abolifh ail 
the reft, which none pretend to but the Tope, George Fox, and 

this Enquirer. 

§ 2. His next inftance which comes home to bis furfofe, is iia 
David y who di/lrjbuted the Trie/Is into Orders for the convenience of 
their mini/lration : and befides that , he in/lituied Jnflrumental Muficl^ to 
be ufed in the norfnip of God, mthout any emmiflion from God that 

T 2 Appears : 


Apfearst But this inftance is further from home then any of 
me reft. For, i. That- one word of his [that Appears^ will 
deftroy his whole Argument: For it was not fimply nece£ 
fary , that it mould appear to us , at this diftance of time , and 
Dnder our prefent dif penfation, That every Prophet, or pious Re- 
forming Prime, had a commiffion in particular for every Altera- 
tion he then made in' or about Gods worfhip: for feeing 
ve knot? they had aflanding Prohibition upon Record, not to Add to, 
or take from Gods inftitutions: it is fuppofed that they were 
Armed with fuch a commiffion, and received particular in- 
ftrufl ions from the Divine will, though the wifdom of God 
faw it not good to exemplifie thofe commiflions and inftru&i- 
cns*, It was enough, that when God Authorized any fuch 
extraordinary Commiffioners to Regulate the concerns of 
his Service, they produced their fealed Letters Patents to 
that age and people who were concerned to obey them. 
2^ David diG not ordain Pnejls and Levites , he created no new 
Order or office, of his own head, and heart, all he did was this : 
feeing the whole Number of the Priefis muft attend upon the 
Sacerdotal^ as the whole Body of the Levites upon the Levitical 
fervice , and yet all could not at once engage therein, with- 
out confufion and diftra&ion, he cafts them into regular courfes, 
that in fucceflive Revolutions they might all fhare in the 
work and duty. 3. David was an eminent Prophet, who re- 
ceived directions from God in affairs of lefs moment, and 
as I cannot eafily believe it, that God would call him to an 
employment without fuffieient advice how to manage it, fo 
neither can Lconceive that, fo holy aPerfon would enter- 
prife any thing of this Nature, without fuch advice, when 
he might fo eafily have it from God : And that which 
fully ratifies me herein, and may do as much for another, 
that is not highly concern'd to quarrel plain Scripture, is 
this, That when David had order'd the Levites, 1 Ciiron. 33. 
4, 5, 6. And the Priefis, ch. 24. And the Singers, ch. 25. 
, And the porters } ch. 26. And the Captains and Princes of the Tribes, 
ch. 27. And was come at laft to give his Son Solomon par- 
ticular directions about the Temple , ch. 28. the Scripture 
tells us, ver. 12, 13. That David gave to Solomon his Son, 
the Pattern of the Porch, and'of the'houfes thereof, and the Pattern of 
all that he had by the Spirit', Alfo for the Courfes of the Priefts 
and Levites. and for all the work of the fervice of the houfe of the 

Lord : 

[2-93 3 

Lord: And ver. 19. All this ( faid David) the Lord made me urh 
derfland in writings by bis band upon me] even all the works of this 

And as P.,Whad fpecial direction from the Lord thus to 
distribute the Levites, Priefls y Singers, Forters, for the convem- 
ency of their Miniftration :, fo was he to make f articular aftli- 
cition to God, for the Determination of the molt minute Ci 
cumflances : One would think that if there muft be fo 
Divifions of Priefts, Levites, Porters and Singers, it had been 
amofl inconfiderable Circumjhnce, which of theie divifi( 
begin the round, or circular Combination, that they 
wink and chufe*, and yet David u fed even in this fun&tto, a 
great and folemn Ordinance of God, yi%. The Let, wherein 
the All-feeiflg and All- ruling God controuis the contingency 
of the voluble Creature, for when tbelotiscajl into the lap, the 
whole difpofing thereof is of the Lord, Frov. 16. 33 . So that the ve- 
ry Porters and Singers were chofen-as folemnly, andwitli 
refpe£t to Gods Deterrtiination,to the order of their Courfes, 
as Matthias was chofen to be an Apoftle, and prefe Bar- 

nabas by the decifionof the true. 

4. I will add, that it appears, that this Determinati r 
David was not made Jure Regio, but Prophetico & Bfrino. Be- 
caufewhen that holy Prince Jojkb fet about Reformation, he 
regulates the Friefls andLevites according to the order of Da 
vid, 2 Cbron. 35. He fet the Friefls in the Charges, —v. 3. And he faid 
unto the Levites, prepare your fehes by the Houfes cf your Fathers after 
your Courfes-- According to the writing of David, kjngcf ' Ijr ieU\\h\c\\ 
was that Writing no doubt, which he mentions, 1 Chron. 28. 
19. By which Cod made him underfland all thofe things : Now I 
would gladly learn what need this good and pious Prince had 
to have recourfe to Davids pattern, to Davids writing, had he 
been acquainted 'With our newDoclrine, that God lays very little 
flrefs uponCircumflantials in Religion, and might have determin'd 
that fmall matter JureRegio. 

And this is farther evident, in that Solomon , a Prince of 
great power and wifdom, yet was fo punctual and precife in 
this very thing, to order the Courfes of the Vriefls and Levites ac- 
cording to Davids Rubrick, 2 Chron. 8. 14. He appointed alp) ac- 
cording to the order cf David his father the courfes of the Vriejls ig 
their fervices *, and the 'Levites to their charges, to fraife and minifltr 
J,e fore the Lord) as the duty of the Day required, for fo had David the 

T 3 man 


man of God commanded, where we may obferve, firft, that 
what David commanded 'herein, was not m King, but as the 
Man of God j a Vrophet, or one commiff.oncdby God for that fervice. 
And,fecondl/, that David could not bind his Succefrs, by any 
determination of his own, meerly as a Prince, and therefore 
their obligation to follow that pattern, did arife from the 
Authority of God. 

5. Whereas our Earner has fearchtj it feems, but can find 
no commiffon for inftrumental Mufick^ I have fued out a Melius' in- 
quirendum, and he may read it exemplified, 2dww.29.25. He- 
Zekian fit theLevites in the houfe of the Lord, with Cymbals, and Pfal- 
teries, and with Harps, according to the commandment of David, 
and of Gad the Kings Seer, and Nathan the Vrophet *, for fo wo* the 
Commandment of the Lord by the Vrophets; whsre we have 
a Com million exprefs j 1. From whom, the Lord - by whom, 
the Prophets ' to whom, King David j about what, inftrumental 

6. And laitly, Suppofing David had ordered all thefe particu- 
lars of hiswK head, yet will it not follow, that God lays little 
ftrefs uponeitiier the omitting what he has commanded *, or the do- 
ing what he has prohibited, feeing he fuppofes, that the things 
ordered, were neither commanded nor prohibited : all that with mo- 
defty could be drawn from hence,would be no more than this 
little ' 'That ameer circumjlance undetermined by God, and yet 
necejary to be determined, to the executing what was determined y 
might be determined by a prophetical person : And even for 
this alfo he had an exprefs, and pundlual warranty from the 

§ 3. A third Inftance is from Sacrifices*, which ( fays he ) 
though God had with great folemnity inftituted as the means of propitia- 
ting brs Divine Ma jefty towards finfull men, and had with great Accu- 
racy prefer ibed the laws thereof, yet he puts a greats flight upon all of 
that nature, as a thing he regarded not, in comparifon of the fubftantial 
points of virtue and obedience. We have hence a great help to un- 
derstand a little of our Authors mind, about thofe circumftan- 
tials in -Religion, which he fays, God lays fo little ftrefs upon. And 
Sacrifices, the means of propitiating the Divine Majefty towards finfull 
man, are of that number : and Hence we may alio fatisfie our 
felves, why Jefm Cbrifthas no more ftrefs laid on him, in fome mens 
Divinity, for feeing He tithe means of propitiating the Divine Ma- 
efty towards finfull man, he may prove a, Circumftantial in Religion, 



and upon the matter an injfgnificant, or at beft but a Significant 
ceremony. But for his Anfwer I fhall fay thefe things. 

i. It is a falfhood very opprobrious to the. great Law-gi- 
ver of the Church, that he ever inflituted, and yet flighted what 
he had inflituted, whilftit continued in force. 'Tis true indeed, 
God always flighted hypocrites, who offer'd thofe Sacrifices, 
and they became vain oblations, as to any benefit they had 
from, or by them \ but his own Ordinance he never flighted, 
till Chrift the grand Propitiation had anfwered all their ends and 

2. God never flighted facrifices, in comparifon of virtue and obe- 
dience, for to offer facrifice s aright, was virtue and obedience ', but 
in oppojkion to fincerity, to virtue and obedience : juft as he Would 
have flighted the moft fplendid outward ails of vertue and obedience 
without the heart, which is the life and foul of all. To give alms, 
to pray, were, and are duties of moral virtue and obedience, 
and yet when thePharifees performed both to be feenof men, 
to hunt for popular applaufe, God not only flights but abo- 
minates them ' 7 not the ads. themfelves, but the perfons that per- 
form'd them *, not what they performed, the outward work, 
but that they kept back the heart : or if the tbinp yet not as 
commanded in fpecie, but as finfully done in individuo. Thus 
he that commanded all men to kjfs the Son, flighted, and abhor- 
red Judas hi* kifs, when made a cloak to hide his traiterous de- 
fign to deliver up his Lord andMafter. 

Sacrifices had a threefold ufe. i. A typical ufe, as leading 
to Chrift, and in this refpect God was fo far from flighting 
them, that he laid the greater ftrefs imaginable on them. 

2. A political ufe, to fetthe tranfgreflbr ot the Law right in 
the Court of Juftice, and to fatisfie for the temporal- punii]i- 
ment. 3. A moral ufe might be accidentally made of them 
too, they ferved well to reprefent fome moral virtue, or duty. 
And I will not deny that God might flight this fymbolical ufe 
of them. 1. Becaufe that ufe had no inflitution, and we never 
find ihat God had any efteem of Symbols that were not of his 
own appointment. 2. Becaufe no Ceremony or Symbol, could 
reprefent the moral duty, or virtue to that advantage, which 
the precept it felf, with tkofe encouragements and rewards 
propounded by God himfelf, were able to do. 

Yet he will prove from Scripture, that God flighted facrifice s, 
Pfal.50. 8. I will not reprove thee for thy Sacrifices *, V. 14. Offer to 

X 4 Ood 

pod the facrifce of righteoufnefs, as if he had faid, let me have the Ut- 
ter, and I /ball not much complain' for the' def eft of the former. This 
is his Glofs, this his Proof - 7 wherein I onely blame two 

( i.) The faljhoodof it: The words maybe interpreted as 
fpoken either by why of wcefion, or commination. i. By way 
of cone ejficn. 1 will not reprove the for thy facrifices, q. d. Quantum ad 
externa facrifcia fat'vs eftis occupati, fays a learned perfon. I have 
no caufe to rebuke you on that account, for you do your du- 
ty, you are very diligent in them • God flights not facr?fice,but 
he requires a better facrifce, that of Righteoufnefs. 2. By way 
of Commination. And there is no greater argument of Gods 
difpleafure, than when he threatens to leave a People with- 
out reproof for their negle£t of duty, thus, H0/4. 17. Ephra- 
im h joined to Idols, let him alone. Gods not reproving for omifion 
of a duty, or commijfiOn of [m, is a forry Reafon that God lays lit- 
tle Jlrefs either upon the duty, or the fin. Thus again, Acls 14. 
16. God-is. faid to have fufered all Rations to walk^in their own ways. 
Gods keeping filence at, and non- reproof of fin, when once it 
fhalf be interpreted an indulgence of fin, his future rebuke in 
thunder and lightning, fhall convince miftaken finners of the 
frilly of their comment upon the text of Gods forbearance. 
And t-his feems the true fenfe of the place we are upon. For 
v. 21'.' God ufes parallel language *, Thefe things ha/i thou done, and, 
1 kept filence, hut I will reprove thee. 

( 2.) I blame his glofs of Blafphemy •, he put words into Gods 
mouth which are the abhorrence of hisSoul. Let me have thefe 
latter, audi fhall not much complain for the defeel of the former. Strange 
Doftrinethis! What, God not complain for want of obedi- 
ence to his Commands? He told us in the beginning, that 
God was not a caption Deity, and now he would prove him one j 
he tells Us that God inflituted Sacrifices with great folemnit), as the 
means of propitiating bis Divine Majejly, and now he introduces 
God of another mind: let them ufe the means or not, for a- 
yerting his difpleafure, God will not much complain. 

§ 4. Another Inftance is that mentioned, Mat. 12. Where- 
upon the OCcafion of the Difciples rubbing the ears of com on the 
Sabbath-day :' and Chrift juftifying their fad from the example 
toi David, who cat the Jhew -head^in a cafe of extremity *, Chrift 
tells the fuperftitious Pharifees, lwill have mercy, and not facri- 
fce j but this will not do his work: For, I. The plucking of the 



ears of com, in a cafe of extremity, was not forbidden by the 
Law^ foGrotiwS) *? Neque negat Chriftus, opus efle famulam, 
" fed excircumftantiisoftendit, fa&um hoc Difcipulorum, le- 
u gis fententia non comprehendi \ eft ergo Queftio, t« pht?, 
u ^ r*i fietPQicii, ftatllS fcripti, & voluntatis *, Chrijl denies not that 
it was a fervile wo)\, but from the due confideration of circumfiances he 
f roves, that this fail of his Difcifles was not included in the meaning of 
the Law: So that the Quejlion is between the Letter, and the equi- 
table Conftruftion of the Law. 2. The fame Anfwer to the o- 
ther Inftance of Davids eating the Jhew-bread. " Annon legiftis ? 
" ft legiftis, hoc licitum eiTedidiciffetis:, fi non legiftis, pu~ 
" dent vos ignaviae veftrse. Have you not read? (fays Chrift) If 
you have read it, you mujl needs have learned that this fat! is lawfull : If 
you have not read it, you may be ajhamed of Jlothfulnefs. u David e- 
" jufque comites pari nece/Titate prefli, qua nunc premuntur 
" Difcipuli mei, fecerunt contra -n pnm, Legis de Panibus : 
" neque tamen feciffe cenfentur contra -riw fijiaitu. Sequitur 
" ergo nee Difcipulos meos quicquam hoc facto adverfus le- 
u gis fententiam committere, i. e. David and his companions, be- 
ing urged with the fame exigence wherewith my Difcifles are now urged, 
a fled againfl the letter of the law concerning the Shew bread; yet are they 
not to be thought to have tranfgrejfed the true intent, and meaning there- 
of; it follows therefore, that my Difcifles by their fail have not violated 
the intendment of the law. 3. That our Saviour tells them he will 
have mercy andnot facrifce, hasno difficulty in it, becaufe, I. ne- 
gatives are often put for Comparatives ; I will have mercy, and not 
facrifice, is no more than I will have mercy rather than facrifice, 
when I cannot have them both. There's no queftion, but if 
an aft of Mercy, and an aft of infiituted Worfhip, fhould ftand in com- 
petition, all circumftances concurring *, the aft of inftituted 
Worfhip ought to give place : we will fuppofe a Congrega- 
tion aflembled for the publick Worfhip of God, and at the 
fame time a fire breaks out, the Church is not only allowed, 
but obliged to omit the publick Worfhip at prefent, and to 
employ their endeavours towards the quenching of the fire: 
and he will render himfelf fomewhat more than ridiculous, 
that would infer from hence, that God lays little Jlrefs upon 
fublkk Worfhip; or that God .lays lefs jlrefs upon the Churches 
worfhipping him in publick, than upon the preferving of a 
houfe •, but only that the wori of mercy muft be now performed, 
or thefeafbnis loft forever: whereas the Worfhip of God 


may be reaffirmed. So that all the bufmefs is, That a circum- 

fiance of undetermined time is vf lefs might in Gods account, then an 
a3 of "Mercy, or Charity, i for. I. The Apoftle tells them, that 
Chrift fent him not to baptise, hut to preach the Gofiel ^ that is, not 
fomuch to baptize, as to preach :, which yet will never enforce, 
mat Chrift lays little ftrefs upon the Ordinance of Baptifm: 
our 3. Saviour, Liike<\. 26. acquaints hisDifciples, that he that 
bates not father and mother, cannot he hisVifciple ', and yet its true 
too, that lie that hates his father and mother, cannot he his Difciple : 
but by hating is meant only lefs loving *, He that loves not father 
and mother lefs than me, cannot he my Difciple. Now let the Rea- 
der judge, how abfurd it would found in his ears, to hear 
fuch Doctrine. That God lays very little ftrefs upon our filial 
tfeftion, and duty to parents ', a Doctrine worth its w T eight in 
gold to fuch a Jew, that would plead Cot ban againft Com- 
mandment, and evacuate the Precept of God , by his own 

And fometimes that duty which God lays the greater ftrefs 
upon, may give place pro hie, & nunc, to that which he lays 
lefs weight upon : a Father commands his Son to difcharge fuch 
a fervice, as he is addrefling himfelf to his duty, he finds his 
enemies ox or ax ready toperifh •, in this cafe, I conceive the 
Son ought to fufpend the execution of his Fathers command 
to five the life of a beaft : and yet the debt of Juftice which 
I owe my Father, is greater then the debt of charity which I 
owe an Enemy. And thus much of his Old Teftament in- 

[2. ] He proceeds now to thofe in the Kew, which muft 
prove, that God lays little ftrefs upon Circumftautials under theGo- 
fpel, which he will firft prove by this Argument. 

If this (fays he) wo* the cafe, and condithn of things under the Old 
Teftament, where God feemedfo juntlual in his Prefcriptions, fo rigor out 
}n his Animadverfwns, and where the danger of erring capitally from the 
defign of thofe Injlitutions, by the leaft deviation from the line ofDiv'me 
Revelations was fo great', then certainly in the tiew teftament, where the 
JPivine Wifdom hath exprefft far lefs concern for fuch little points *, may 
the minds of men be fecure from fuch fuperftitiom fears : wherein we 
muft fairly axamin, 1. the Antecedent, 2. the Confequence, 
3. the Reafon of the Confequence. 

( 1. ) The Ancecedent, that God laid little ftrefs upon Cir- 
cumftantials, that is, ( as his Inftances bear witnefs) had lit- 


tic regard for his pofitive Precepts under the Old Tefta- 
ment: Nowhowfalfe this is, inanyfenfe, which being true 
would fubferve this main riefign, I think is pretty well clear- 
ed by this time, but the. Enquirer like a good natured Man, 
fearing his Anfwerer mould be- fo filly as not difcover his 
weaknefs, has out of a prudent forecaft refuted all his own 
Inftances. For he tells us. I. That God feen?d to be puntlual in 
his prefcriptions', 2. Rigor -om in bis animadverfions. 3. That the dan- 
ger of erring ca fit ally was great. 4. implies, that the leaft deviati- 
on from the line of Revelation, was an error. Now if all this be 
to lay a little jhefs upon them, I defpair of ever knowing what 
'tis to lay a great : when Clergy- men are puntlual in their frefirfr 
ptions, telling us when we muft how, and when ftand, when 4^/, 
and when Jit, when look this way, when another , when 
fpeak, when hold our tongue *, when they are fo rigorous in 
their animadverfwns, that to flip, or trip, to ftumble, or grumble 
at Compliance, {hall be an Admonition thrice with a breath, and a 
dreadfull Excommunication at the end of all, when it (hall be 
criminal, if not capital to deviate from the line of Human Determina- 
tion', Diffenters are humbly bold to call this a laying very great 
flrefs upon Ceremonies. 

(2.) HisConfequenceis, then certainly in the H- T. the minds 
of men may be fecure from fupeiftitiom fears. O without peradven- 
ture, to fee how ftrangely we have been out all this while ! 
I thought verily the Queftion had been, whether God lays lit- 
tle ftrefsuponCircumftantials underthe Old Teftament and 
the New ? and w r e are now flamm'd off with this Conclufion, 
that we maybe fecure from fuperftitim fears, which is very true, 
whether Chrift had inftituted many Ceremonies or few, whether 
he had laid great, or little flrefs upon them j but all the policy 
of this lies in a crafty infinuation, which it's to be hoped the 
perfunctory Reader will fwallow down, That all fears about 
difpleafmg Chrift in the matter of inftituted Worfhjpj are but 
fuperftitim fears, 

(3.) The Reafon of his Confequence follows •, becaufe 
( forfooth ) in the K. T. the Divine Wifdom has expreft far lefs concern 
for fuch little points. But I expected to be informed where Chrift 
has expreft far lefs concern for thefe points *, I do not know 
how 'tis poflible to exprefs far lefs concern, than a very Iktle : But 
he that put words into the Fathers mouth fo lately, may make the 
Son alfo fpeak what he pleafes, and both of themto bear falfe 
witnefs againft themfel vcs. But 


But whereas this Argument proceeds thus*, If God laid To 
little under the O. T. upon Pofitives, how much lefs under 
the New? I mould inveft his Argument, If God was Co ri- 
gorous in his Animadverfions, fo punctual in his Prefcripti- 
Ons, when his Inftitutions were fo numerous, his Prefcripti- 
ons fo multiform, what will he be when he has prefcibed us fo 
few, and thofe fo eafie, and ufefuii to the Obferver ? If we can- 
not be punctual in the obfervation of a very few pofitives of fo 
plain fignification, how fhduld we have repined, had we been 
charged with a numerous retinue of Types, and carnal Rudi- 
ments? IfChrifts yoke be accounted heavy, howfhouldwc 
have funk under the Mofaical Paedagogy ? The fervants of 
Kaaman thus humbly expoftulated with their Lord, 2 Kin. 5. 
13. -My Father, if the Prof bet had commanded, thee fome great things 
wouWjl thou not have done it ? how much rather then, when he faith to 
thee, mjh, and be clean ? Suppofe Clirift had exacted of us, what 
Barchocheba exatledof hitDifciples, that every one in token of ab- 
folutefubjecUon mould cut off his little finger *, had it not 
been better to enter into life maimed) than having all our joints 
to kecaftinto hell for our difobedience •, how much more then, 
when he has enjoyned us only thefe few, which arc our fmgu- 
iar friviledge, as well as our unqueflionable duty ? our benefit, not 
our burthen \ and our helps, and not our hindrances in the way 
to everiafting felicity. The fewer are his inftitutes, the more 
punctual will he be in exacting Conformity to them j and 
therefore as the laft thing Chrift inftituted before his death, was 
the Ordinance of the Suffer, fo the lajl Command he gave before his 
Afcerfwn, wasthatof Baptising all Rations, charging them to obferve 
wkatfoever he had commanded them* 

If a tender and lovirfg Husband, at the point of death 
fhould recount to his beloved Spoufe, ail the former eviden- 
ces of endearing affections, and withall tell her he expected 
nothing in Jieu of fo great love, but that he might live in 
her memory, when he is dead and gone, by one only obfer- 
vation: furely the words of a dying Friend would live in the 
living Friend •, and if there had been ever any true conjugal 
affe&ion, it would opperate ftrongly to be punctual in that 
fingle obfervance : our B. Saviour, when he was juft ready to 
givchimfelf a price of Redemption for many, inftitutes his Supper 
with the greateft punclualnefs imaginable*, and being ready 
to die, commands all his faithfuU Followers —-Do this in remem- 

£30? 1 

brance of me. And is it not a hard cafe if his Church cannot 
afford to be tyed upprecifely in this one thing? We read,Luk. 
22 . 14. That Jefus fate down , and the twelve Apoftles with 
him, and v. 19. he took*, bread, and, gave thankj, and brake *7, and 
gave it to them, faying t«to troi&7*, Do this in remembrance of me ! 
Now it's a great Q^ieftion made by fome, what fhould be 
the Antecedent , to this* Relative [ t« -n ] and the Reverend 
B. Morton, a great Patron of Ceremonies, in his Treat ife of the 
Sacrament, cites fome Jefuits thus : [ Hoc facite : ] ad omes 
frxcedaneas Chrifti aftionesrefertUY. And as Chemnitius upon John 
5. 28. Mj» dajjjua^i t« n : Recle ( inquit ille ) t*te, ad Tot um 
Complex um eorum qua haftenus difta font refertur : fo fay I *, this Re- 
lative [t«7o] in the inftitution of that Sacrament, ad to- 
turn Complexum eorum quae hatlenus difta, & fa ft a font refertur. ~Do this, 
relates to the whole Complex of all thofe things which 
Chrift had done before. And if fo , then it includes fitting 
down : Or the application of our felves to the Table in a p- 
jiure pitted to a Feafl ; which agrees beft with the celebrated 
Rule of decency , feeing there's no Nation under heaven 
ihall kneel at their meals ', yes ( lays that Learned Bifhop ) 
but 1 will except Time, and tie pofture of fitting, and excepting 
thefe two Circumftantials t*7b wZ-n , is referred to all the 
reft. But then I would reply, 1. That there was no neceffity 
to except Time; Becaufe it neither was, norpoifibly could 
be included in the Command, Do this: for all men that have 
any Ambition to fpeak congruoufly agree it to be non-fenfe, 
to fay .* that Time can be done. It muft be fome aft ion here to 
which this t«td 77d/«tt, muft relate. 2. If he will needs ex- 
cept the action of fitting down, I ask, Quo warranto? why fhould 
cue Antecedent Aftion be excepted more then all the refi ? And if 
one 9 why are not all the reft foreprifed? The Papifts have 
excepted the whole cup from' the Laity : the # Reverend 
Bifhops have excepted fitting : and then why may not a third 
except breaking, a fourth, Blefjmg ? and then come the Quakers, 
and the Learned Orotius with a Kon femper communicandum per fym- 
bola ? and fhut out the whole inftitution : I confefs I never 
liked thefe exclufions , ever CmcQ I faw irft one parcel , and 
then another excluded, till at laft there was a clean Houfo : 
and thus by our Enquirers Maxime we have made a fine Sa- 
crament of it, under pretence that Chrift lays little firefs upon 
■Circumftantials under the Kew Teftament: Little ftrefs did I fay? 



Nay, Rone at all. For if God layed wry little ftrefs upon thcra 
under the old Teflament, and the Divine Wifdom has exprefs't 
far lefs concern for them under the Rew , I cannot guefs, what 
that fomething fhould be that is far lefs then a wry little y but a 
meer Nothing. 

We fhould now examine his inftances under the New 
Teftamenf, but plenty has made him fo poor, that he will 
give us but one -, But one indeed *, but that one is a great 
one, and may ftand for Many: When (fays he) the Apofile 
Taul had whemently declaimed againfi the -Receffity of Circumcifwn , and 
proclaimed the danger of it, as is obvious to any one that reads his 
Efijiles, yet the fame Paul Circumcifes Timothy, to the intent that there- 
by he might render himfelf, and his Nliniftry more acceptable to the Jem. 
This is his one, his onely, great Inftance out of the New 

And it was but Reafonable that a perfon fo polite, and 
terfe in his ftyle, fhould employ all the flowers of Elegancy 
to embellifh it , and therefore for it's greater ornament, he 
will now ufe a Figure, which fome by a hard Name call 

It has been hetherto taken for granted by all that I have 
met with, that the Apoftle Circumcifed Timothy fome good 
while before he wrote any one of his Epijlles, and fomewhat longer 
before he wrote thofe wherein he f reclaims the danger of cir- 
cumcifwn. The firft Epiftlethathe wrote- was that firft to the 
Thefalonians: And (not long after) the fecond to the fame Church: 
The Poftfcripts to both which, Date them/row Athens, where 
we find him Ads 17. But the Learned Dr. Lightfoot judges, 
and I think upon clear grounds , that they were penned a 
year after, and written from Corinth. But whether from Athens, 
or Corinth, both muft needs be written after the circumcifwn of 
Timothy, wjiich we find A£ls 16, 1. In his journey to Lyftra 
and Derbe: And the Learned EJlius is of the fame judge- 
ment with our own Learned D oft or : The Learned Whitaker 
alfo concurrs thus far with them. Qu. 6. contra Humanas Tra- 
dit : p« 415. 'Rovi Tejiamenti Canonem non fuiffe turn edit urn cum Paulus 
banc Epfiolam ad Thefalmicenfe s fcriberet, ( he fpeaks of the fecond 
Epiftle written the fame year with the former,) imp ne ullos quidem 
R. T. Ivor os tumfuijfe fcriftos affirmo , excepo.folo Matthaei Evan- 
geiio & (fi Irenaeo credimus) etiam Matthaei Evangelio An- 
tiquiores;W<? b& dux. If then theft two EpijUes were the .firft 


he wrote *, and they written from Athens, according to their 
poftfcripts, or from Comith, as indeed they were, It's certain 
that they, and therefore all the reft, muft be written fome 
time after the Circumcifon of Timothy, 

Here is then amoift defperate ftumble fomewhere or other} 
unlefs he can prove, ( and what can he not prove ) that 
St. Paul's Journey to Lyftra and Verbe was after his Journey 
to Athens and Corinth, which unlefs he (hows himfelfafcornto 
the Reader, he will not attempt. 

The inftance being fo impertinent, we need not much be 
concern'd about the winding up of his conclufion: yetbe- 
caufe fome may have a mind to be pleafant, let us have it. 

In- which carriage of his he has beyond all exception demonftrated to 
m that all Ceremonial Appendages are perfetlly fubordinate , and ought 
to yield to the defigns of Peace, Charity, and Edification , as the greater 
good: yes, this is Demonftration:, infallible Demonftration! 
Demonftration that puts the Controverfie beyond all excep- 
tion , and the poor Non-conformifts are fiderated with the 
violence of it. And yet to fpeak plain Englijh, here's nothing 
but pitiful trifling': For, i. This Irrefragable Demonftration 
is reared upon a rotten Foundation*, that Paul wrote his E- 
piftles firft , wherein he declaims againft Circumcifion , and 
then afterwards Circumcifes Timothy. 2. All that he has built 
upon that Foundation is as rotten. That all ceremonial Ap- 
pendages are perfetlly fubordinate, and ought to yield to Peace, Charity, 
and Edification ; let me obferve, 

§ I. If thefe Ceremonious Appendages he fo perfe&ly fubordi- 
nate to thofe great ends *, then how will it prove that God 
lays very little ftrefs on them ? Juft as if fome fuperacute 
Philofopher mould undertake to. prove, that becaufe eating 
and fleeping are perfetlly fubordinate to Health and Life, there- 
fore we ought to lay very little ftrefs on them. 

§ 2. If thefe Inftitutions of the Gofpel which he calls 
Ceremonies Appendages, fhould at any time crofs the great 
ends of Peace , Charity, and Edification , there's no doubt but 
that they ought to ftrike Sail, but he cannot prove that the 
meanefts of Chrifts Inftitutions are oppofae at any time to 
* juft Peace, that they weaken Cbriftian Charity, or hinder Edification: 
Nor can we fuppofe without the higheft derogation to the 
Divine wifdom, That any of Chrifts means for Edifiication 
fhould ever overthrow their defigned ends. Thsir fuMinatim 


to the end fhows their inferiority to the end ', but fince Chrift 
has allotted them their place, let no man dare to difturb 
their ftation. 

§ 3. If Divine Ceremonial Appendages ought to give place and 
yield to Peace, Charity and Edification ^ then we may pre- 
fume without prefumtion , that Humane Ceremonial Appendages 
fhall be compelled to fubmit, and conform themfelves to 
thofe great ends, and that none fhall ever lay fuch a ftrefs 
upon thefe as may endanger , much lefs deftroy thofe glo- 
rious intendments. But here we are difappointed ! God 
muft lay little ftrefs upon his, but they will lay incredible 
weight upon theirs. And as one faid yu&tju-xp*™ 7rvei ' '-■ Let 
Heaven and Earth be blended and jumbled together in an 
eternal chaos. It's a principle to be maintained to the Death, 
that no Ceremony ought to yield to the Recovery of Peace, 
the receiving of frozen Charity, and promoving Edification 

And now to (hut up all, and himfelf, and whole difcourfe 
out of doors, he recommends to us, Rom. 14. 17. The Kingdom 
$f God ( that isy the Gofpel ) is not meat and drinks that is, confifts not, 
cr lays little fir efs upon thofe nice and perplexing matter s y but in Rigbte- 
cufnefs, Peace and Joy : whence fome would be ready enough 
to infer that that Church which lays wry great ftrefs upon thefe 
nice and perplexing matters, is none of the Kingdom of God : And I 
fhall only defire him to add for a clofe that Apoftolical 
Golden Canon, V. 20. For meat deftroy not the ffork, of God: do 
not by unfedfonable ufing , much lefs by rigorous Impofmg things 
Indifferent, much lefs things doubt full, andleaft of all, things fmful 
in their ufe , deftroy Souls Created of God , Redeemed by 
Chrift, and capable of Eternal Happinefs *, where God has 
Commanded, let him be obeyed, not difputed, not cavilled 
out of his right *, and where God has laid little weight, 
let none make their little fingers an infupportable burden. 




Whether the Magiflrate hjlh a Authority to determine fuch Externals 
of Religion #> are the Matters of our Dilute ? 

TfAbulam Auditor lege, Letter audi! When the Eagle, perfected 
by the Beetle , could find no place of fafe Retreat , me 
prudently depofites her Eggs in Jkfiteri Royal Lap, but he 
rather than endure the perpetual vexation about a Birds 
Neft, (hakes them out of his Robe, and at once dauVd all 
the hopes of an Aiery of. Eagles : Our Ceremonies have 
fometimes fhelter'd themfelves under the pretence of De- 
cency , and yet uuder that fpecious Covert could not be 
fecurc, thence they fled for Refuge into the Abftrufe Re- 
ceptacles of Venerable Antiquity, and Longaeve cuftome* 
Yet from thofe Burroughs have they been hunted i the 
Churches Authority to judge of the Lawfulnefs, #nd to impofd 
what fhe fo adjudged Lawful amongft the numerous Tribe 
of Indirferencies was nextly pleaded, but upon more fevere* 
Re-fearches into the Records, no fuch Commiffion can be 
found. At laft therefore they have taken Sanctuary under 
Confiantine's Purple , and when Princes (hall be weary of pro- 
tecting them againft the purfuit of Scripture* they will 
fairly fhake them thence alfo, and leave them to fliift for 

That the Perfons, and Authority of Magiftrates are moft 
Sacred, the one, not to. be toucht with common and unclean 
hands :, the other, not to be profaned with Irreligious Breath* 
all Proteftants muft acknowledge: of which deep things* 
whilft we difcourfe, it will be feafonable to caution our 
felves from the Royal Prophet, Tfal. 131. Rot to exercife bar 
[elves in great Matters, or in things too high for «i* Where though" 
the Humble Lamb may fafely wade, the Caftle-bearing Ele- 
phant muft be forced to fwim. 

I look upon the extent of the Princes power to be as fair 
beyond my Reach as the Primum mobile, which though I cart 
neither touch, nor meafure,.yet may fay* there is a Beini 
beyond it: Thus were unpardonable boldnefs-te 
Determine its bounds, or fay, Thus far 'fall ii go, and m fiftiefi 

Y . J*| 

yet a truly loyal heart may conceive, and a modeft tongue ex- 
press, there vs a God above it. 

That the Magistrate is Cuflos utriufque TabuU, the great Fiduciary 
of Gods Lave , is not fo much a Confejion extorted from us by rack 
of Scripture, as our triumph that he is fo, rejoycingin it with 
thankfulnefs to the Almighty, who has made him a nurfing Fa- 
iher to his Church. 

To prsferve Worfhip of God in purity, and his Worfhip- 
pers in peace, is a flower of the Crown Imperial, whicha- 
dorns the Royal Diadem far more than all its own Diamonds 
and Rubies, and gives him a more orient luftre,that heferves 
the King j>f kings, and Lord of lords, than if hehadgrafped the u- 
niverfal Monarchy, and brought mankind to adore his foot- 

As no forreign power can juftly pretend to intermeddle with 
his Government at home,fono perfon of whatever Character at 
home, ought to own a dependance upon any forreign Poten- 
tate abroad. Let every Soul be fubjeft to the higher Powers *, upon 
which wordsfloly Bernard thus, Siomnisanima, ergote vejlra : Quit 
i)os except ab univerfalitate ? Qui tentat excipere, tentat decipere. If 
every foul, then yours alfo ( ye Ecclefiafticks, ) for who made you an 
exception from the general Rule ? the Pope that would exempt you 
from your Sovereigns Juriidiftion, does but expofe you to the 
indignation of God. 

Whatisthe-nepliu ultra, the moft extent of this power in 
civil and Religion concerns, for fuch pitifull Creatures as we 
are todetermin, were at once to difcover our folly, and be- 
tray our pride : and yet we may fay without offence, though 
Princes are called Gods, they fhine with 'borrowed beams from 
the Divine Majefty, thefulnefsof whole power is incommu- 
nicable : and propriety with Law in the former cafe and God 
with Confcience in the latter, will go as near to the fhoars r 
that fhall terminate this Ocean, as any two things that fhall 
meafure with them for exa&nefs. 

There are two forts of Perfons, that fancy they have laid 
an eternal obligation upon Princes, beyond all poflibility of 
requital : The firft are they who would entitle them to an ab- 
solute right to, and dominion over the poffeflions of their 
Subjects : The fecond , they would make them fovereign 
Lords of Confcience : Thus the great Hooker^ Ecclef. Polity^ 
p.26. In litigiovA and contt averted caufes } when they come by authority to 



be <&iermined, it is the aill of God that we *jhould do accordingly, though 
it feems ( yea, perhaps truly feems ) in our private judgment or opinion, 
it's utterly difallowed by the Law of God. And yet thefe men are 
truer friends to their own intereft than the Princes in thismat- 
ter*, for whilit they deck his Atchievements with Titulado's, 
impracticable, ufelefs and cumberfome Regsmties, they are 
fure to make provifion for themfelves, and wifely lick their 
own fingers : for thus it has ever been the cheap way of 
Church men to fell fhadows for fubftances •, ^s his Holinefs 
fells the ffcred of a lamb-skin to an Arch-Bimop for a thoufand 
pound fterling, and a consecrated Rofe for more than his whole 
Belvedere is worth. 

When the Enquirer then is fo zealous to become the Princes 
Champion in Spirituals, I hope he underftands on which fide Im 
bread is buttered, and will fpeak two good words for himfelf, 
whilft he fpeaks one for the Magiftrate *, and when he has a 
little reproach'd others, and magnified his own fincerity in 
this undertaking, he wipes his mouth decently, ftrokes his 
beard gravely, and reafons moft profoundly upon theie two 

£ I.] That the Magiftrate exceeds not his commiff.on> when he inter- 
fofesfor the Determination of the Circumftantialscf Religion. 

This Propofition thus loofely hung, may be owned or dif- 
owned according to every mans humour : Diflenters may fab- 
fcribe it, without the leaft prejudice to their Caufe, or re- 
fle&ion upon their Practice*, and they may deny it too when 
they have done, without fear of felf-contradidlion, or dag- 
ger of entrenching' upon the Magiftrates Authority. For, 
i. Whatmaftwe underftand by £ inter pofing.]] If I might 
freely deliver' my own private opinion : It's lawful!, nay expedi- 
ent, nay necejfary, that he ir.terpofe, or elfe I am afraid his poor 
Ditfenting Subje&s will be worried to death: But they who 
plead fo zealoufiy for his intertofmg, when t\\zt inter pcfition is not 
tempered to their good liking, make the vault of Heaven 
echo again with their clamours, that the diftreffed Church is 
quite undone. In a word. If Church-men will be determi- 
ning one thing after another,that we can fee no- end:,new Sub- 
scriptions, new Oaths, new Jefts, new Ceremonies, Super- 
conformity to the Canon above Law, and Practice above Ca- 
non, wiiat will become of the fimple-hearted Laicks, if a vi- 
. gilantand prudent Prince do not intenoR, and timoufiy de- 

V 2 umm 

[ 3 o8] 

*«-«/» upon their Determinations. 2. I now utterly difpah* of 
underftanding his meaning of circumftantials', a word that has 
run through as many fhapes as are in all Ovid's Met amor -fhofis', 
and amongft all the pleafant ftories in that ingenious Romance, 
I remember one that the Reader will not condemn for im- 

There was one E^iftchthon, whofe &*/«/*, and extream vo- 
racious flomach had no other fupply at laft, but from one daugh- 
ter. Now this Madamoifelle ( you muft know) hadafmgular 
faculty to transform her felf into any fhape fhe pleafed : once 
he fold her for a round fum, and me came trotting, or am- 
bling home again (for fhe had all her paces) in the fhape of a 
bonny filly:, another time he fold her, and received his mo- 
ney honeftly for her, and fhe came home in the fhape of a 
Milch- Cow. Such another ambiguous, verfatile Creature is 
this [_ Circumftantial. ] If we fhould fay, the Magiftrate 
has no power to determin Circumftantials, prefently he's oth' 
topoth' houfe : what an obftinate Generation are thofe Fa- 
naticks! What, will you not allow your Prince to appoint 
where you fhall affemble for your publick Worfhip of God ? 
Muft he have no concern in time and flace, in order to the fecu- 
ring of the Peace? Yes, yes Sir ! withall our hearts, and we 
fhall be heartily glad on't, humbly thankfull for it, and ho- 
neftly proud on't too -, and I would we could prevail with 
our Enquirer to be our Sollkitour, to procure us a Determina- 
tion of thofe Circumftantials : Well then ( fays he ) you a- 
gree the Magiftrate may determin Circumftantials, but fuch are 
the Ceremonies, and now you arc in a nooze, get out again how 
you can. 

3 Therefore he fhould have refolved plainly whether the 
MagiftratesCommifTion extends to the Determination of all, 
or only fome certain Circumftances *, and my Reafons are 
thefe. 1. If he have not a Commiftionto determin all, then 
the Queftion will recurr, whether it reaches thofe under debate ? for 
thus he argues, circumftantials may . be determined by the Ma- 
giftrate *, but Ceremonies are Circumftantials ', therefore Ceremonies 
may be determined by the Magi jlr ate : Now if the major in this Syllo- 

tifm be not univerfal, the Syllogifm is peccant in form *, if it 
e, then deprecating the difpleafure of thofe whom we tru- 
ly honour in the Lord, and for the Lord we humbly deny it. All 
Circumftantials may not be determinate by the Magiftrate -, 


for, 2. Chrift has already determined of fime circumjhntials 7 
and whoever makes it one, it's no queft ion with me, that no 
Power on earth can undetefmin, or other wife determin, what God 
has already fore-determined. 3. There are fome Circumfianti.xls 
which cannot profitably, and therefore not lawfully receive an u- 
niverfal, and uniform Determination. 4. Becaufe, if all unde- 
termined Circumftances may be determined in their ufe, the 
life of man may be made the moft wretcned, miferable, and 
undefirable thing in the world} and he had as good preach 
that other more eligible, and more edifying Doctrine, Ita, 4? 
dete liter am longam facito ! for where ihould the moft cautelous 
foot tread befides a mare? And fuchis the condition of Su- 
perfluous Papifts, whofe confeiences are perpetually per- 
•plexed with endlcl's fcrupulofities about thofe minutes 
which the Church has made fin, which elfe had been as inno- 
cent in offenfive things as a piece of powdred Beef and 

Now for the proof of this Doclrine, he tells us, It has been 
fo fully, and fubftantially done by the incomparable Hugo Grotius, and 
ly a late eminent Divine of this Church, that it y s enough to refr the Rea- 
der to them. Indeed he muft be an incomparable pcrion that can 
write Subjlantiah about Circumflanuih, but I coufefs I do not 
build much either upon the authority, or reafonings of the 
otherwife incomparable Hugo, ever fince I read his dangerous 
Diicourfe, lib. I. cap. 4. §. 13. de Jure B. & P. Si Rex habeat 
partem Imperii, partem alteram Vopulw, aut Senatm ', Regi in partem non 
fuam invclanti, vis jufia oppeni poterit', quia eatenm Imperium non ha- 
bet ; quod, locum habere fentio, etiam diCiumfi fit, Belli poteftatem pe- 
nes Regem fore: id enim de bello externo infettigendum eft', cum all-* 
oqui quifqm partem fummi Imperii habeat, non poffit non )m habere earn 
partem y tuendi, quodiibi fit, poteji etiam Rex, fuam Imperii partem, belli 
jure, amittere', that is, If a King hath one part of the fovereign 
power, and the People, or Senate the other part ', If the King jhall in- 
vade that part which is none of his own, jujl refinance may be made againfl 
him, becaufe fo far he hath no Authority at ad ', which. I judge to hold 
true, although it be faid, That the power of making war is in the 
King, for that mujl be under fivodcj c a fo? reign war', wbenas othei 'wife, 
whoever has a Jhare in the Sovereignty, cannot but have alfo Authority to 
defend tj)at Jhare ; which, when it fo falls out, the King may lofe by the 
right of war hvsownfoare oftheSovereignty.Here is dangerous Doclrin* 

enough to cure me of my ambition of ever being a Hugomt. 

Y 3. As 

As for that late eminent Divine of this Churchy who has fo con- 
vincingly aflerted this fewer, I cannot divine who it fhould be, 
unlefs perhaps that long winded Author , with whole Elucubrati- 
ons ibme are refclved to vex the Fanaticks, though they never read 
him themfdves. And therefore leaving thefe voluminous Au- 
thors to fcold it out with their own mouths, let us attend to 
the Enquirers more concife Reafbnings. 

( I. ) lt\ certain (fays he) that Nlagijlrateshad once fuch a few- 
er in the Circumftanti ah of Religion , and that in the Old teflament. It 
is certain indeed that they had a fewer, not only in the Cir- 
tumftantiah, but the SuhjhmiaU of Religion*, all the Queftion 
is, whether they lad fuch a fewer as ne pleads for •, and if 
they had it, then whetner they had it, jure Regio, or Profheti- 
co ? whether in their own Right as Kings^ or by Delegation in fome 
extraordinary cafe from God I 

§ i. The Prince might have,nay he had a power to ftir up, 
and quicken the lazy Priefts and Levitcs to their duty, and 
yet no power to create them a duty, He had power to punfh 
Church men, to reftrah the exorbitances of the Clergy, and 
for n ale-adminiftration to cafhiere them , nay, to order 
the High-prieft himfelf, if he proved factious, feditious or 
rebellious, and endeavoured any alteration of the theocracy, 
either in Church or State, but he had no pOW r er to make new Ad- 
minijlrations; He had a power toreftore the corrupted Worfhip 
to its primitive integrity, but he had no power to infiitute 
Worfhif , and therefore its more than ridiculous to argue from 
a fower, to fuch a fewer. 

§ 2. He pretended to prove, That the Magijlrate in determi- 
ning ihefe Circumjlantials, did not exceed his Commifficn, and his medi- 
um is from the ]evtitti Magijlrate. Now his proper, direft,and 
eafie way to have evinced that the Jewijh Magijlrate had this 
power, had been to have exemplified the Commijfion it [elf, and 
not itand trifling with matter of faff, to prove matter of right, 
efpecially feeingthattheCommiffionisw/w* record, and many 
cbubts inlaw will arife from the fail, as whether what was done 
was done jure ? and if jure, then quo jure ? Now for tiie Com- 
niiffion from him by whom Kings reign, it was ready drawn of old, 
o^iya blank left to infertthe name of that f articular ferfon, 
.Whom God immediatly or by fucceffion fhould chllfe, Deut. 17. 18, 
19, 20. It fh all be when he fitteth ufon the throne of the Kingdom, that 
hi fnaliwrite him aCcp of t\m Law in a Book^out of that which fc before 



theTriefls, and Levites'^ audit Jball be with him, andhefb.rfl read there- 
in all the dtyi-of his life *, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to 
keep athM words of this Law, and thofe Statutes to do them * 7 that his 
heart be mi lifted up '$f<ve his Brethren, that he turn net afide from the 
Commandment, to the 9tght hind or to the left : to the end be may prolong 
his days in the kingdom, he and his children in the midft of 1 frail: from 
whence 'tis evident,that though the Ifraelites were for fome 
time in their minority govern'd. by Judges, yet when their 
Nation fhould grow up to its greateit perfection, God would 
then beftow upon them the moft perfect form of Government, 
n)i%. Monarchy, and in the moft perfect manner continue it, 
vix* by Succeflion, not impeaching his own Prerogative to 
alter either the form or the time, but with a negative upon 
any, or all the People, fo it is as plain, that God tyesup his 
Prince to govern by the rTPFH njpCJ the Deuteronomy, a 
Copy of the Laws and Statutes moral and pofitive, without 
mming to the right hand or the left, in excefs, or defeel, man- 
gling, or mending of Gods Laws. Allowing to himfelf Ml 
a power to vary, but not add to tfcem favehy bis direction. 

§ 3. Tiiis great proof for the Magijlrates power over the Cir- 
cumfiantialscf Religion, is fetcht from the Magiftrates power in 
the Jewfi common-wealth ', he that is fo fevere upon the Non-con- 
formifts, that they are Judai^ers, if they argue but a fortiori 
from Mofes to chrifi, now takes his greateft proof from David 
to the chriflian King, and though it be fcandalous for them to 
reafon from thatTopickinDoctrinals, yet is (life and honou- 
rable for himfelf to reafon thence in Politicals, and Ceremonials^ 
his Inftances come now to be confidered. 

§ I . David (as I fmwed before ) altered fome things, and injlitu- 
ted others in the Temple worfmp. That's his Inftance : and David 
(•as I proved before) altered nothing, inftituted nothing, 
without facial direction from God, that's my Anfwer : which fpe- 
cial Warrant when it iliafl be produced for any Alterations of,or 
Additions to Chrifts Inftitutions under the Gofpel, they fhali'by 
me be moft cordially embraced. 

§ 2. He?ekjab (fays he) without a Scripture for it, brake the Bra- 
zen Serpent to pieces, though it was a fymbolical Ceremony of Gods ownln- 
Jiituticn, Oh, but if He^ekjah'hsid fet up one brazen ferpent as a fym- 
bolical Ceremony, without Gods Injlimion, it had been more 
to his purpofe, than if he had broken a kindred. Let him take 
thefe few things along with him, and then make the beft he 

V 4 can 

can of his Inftance. i. If Heykjab needed no Scripture war- 
rant to deftroy an old antiquated Inftitutivn of God, becaufe it 
had been, and ftill was abufed to idolatry, much more may a 
Ci.riftian Prince without further Scripture warrant aboliih 
fuch fmbolical Ceremonies, as being originally the meer inventions 
tf men, have been, and ftill are abufed to the mojl foul Idolatry, and 
groffeft Superftition that ever was in the world. 2. Let the 
Enquirer recollect himfelf a little. He undertook to prove that 
Princes have power to fet up Ceremonies, and his Inftance 
proves only thus much,tiiat they have power to pluck them down* 
3. He^ekjah needed no Scripture to empower him to deftroy 
the brazen Serpent, becaufe it was then no Inflitution of God : It 
vhad been once indeed a temporary appointment of God, but the 
ceafmg of the end was the determination of the ufe •, when its fa- 
ired 'relation ceafed, it Was of no more value in Gods account 
when He^eihh broke it, than fo much bra fs. ? Tis not true there- 
fore that Heyekiih broke in pieces the brazen ferpent, though it wot, 
but though it had been formerly an Inftitution of God. He did 
not make it, but declare it, QobtKehuJbtan, an old relique, made 
a new idol, and now ferved as it deferved. 4. I do not undcr- 
ftancl the brazen Serpent was ^Symbolical Ceremony, what 
grace, what duty did it fignifie ? A type it was,todirerfc their Faith 
to Chrift for that time, to expect the healing of their Souls 
from iiim, but the vifible Service was only to heal their bo- 
dies ftung with fiery ferpents, Job. 3. 14. As Mofes lifted up the 
ferpent in the wildermfs, even fo muft the Son cf Man be lifted up. 5. He- 
fekiab had Scriptures more than one, not only to enable, but 
command him to do it. He needed no new Authority, but new Wif- 
dom to apply an old general Command to a particular cafe. If the 
Enquirer could but (hew as much Scripture Warrant for the fct- 
tingup one Ceremony, as Ke^ek^uh had for deftroying a thmfandl- 
dots, he would think himfelf a jolly fellow. I might urge his 
authority from the fecond Commandment, where God declares 
himfelf ajeabom Gad in the matter of inftituted Worfhip, and 
how many following Generations might fmart for the preva- 
rication in that particular, he well knew: There might have 
been a drachm of the brazen Serpent, .as well as an ounce of the gol- 
'den calf, in their fubfequent calamities, ii he that was Cujhs 
ntriufme TakiU, and now had not his name for nothing-, had 
not "reftified'againft that abomination: But I (hall crave leave 
to remember him of the momt arable Hugo 7 who upon this fait 


of Hexekjab thus. T.gregium documentum Regibut, at Quamvvs bene itt- 
Jlituta, fed non neceffaria, ubi cmnTiisv wale ufurpantur, e confpetlu 
tollant, tie ponunt ofendiculum cacis ', A notable lejfon to all Kings, to re- 
move out of the tray fuchthmgs, however at fir ft well inftituted (yet not 
at prefent necefary ) when they are commonly abufed, that they become net 
a /tumbling block to the blind. Where we fee the incomparably 
quick-fighted Hugo could find a Scripture to juftifie Heyekiah y 
and yet it was very far fetcht, from Veut. 27. 18. Curfed be he 
that ma{eth the blind to wander out of the way. And yet he has a clea- 
rer vindication of He\ekj.ah''s fa& from Scripture *, where fpea- 
king of their burning hcence to the brazen Serpent, he thus ex- 
prelTes himfelf. Uuod inter ilia erat qux Dei film honor i refervata, 
extra tem\lum, ufurpari non licebat. Which (Incence) being in the 
number of thofe things,* which were peculiarly appropriated to the IVorJhip of 
God, might not be lawfully ufed out of the Temple, Exod. 30. 38. Who- 
feever Jhail make like unto it to fme'tl thereto, full even be cut' of from 
his people. But what need all thefe Circumlocutions, when God 
commanded his People, £W. 34.13. To dejlroy the Altars, br/a{. 
the Images, cut down the Groves of the Nations, for that he is a jea- 
lous God. Thatwiie and difcerning Prince could eafily fee the 
Command reacht all the inftruments and utenfils of Idolatry, 
efpecially thole found amongft his own People, his People in Co- 
venant, for whom thus to tranigrefs, was to provoke him to 
bis face. 

§ 3. But his great Inftance is from HeykiaWs celebrating the 
Paffover .otherwiie then God had commanded, and in that one 
fail he finds feveral branches of his variation from the firit in- 

As, (i.) Hecaufedthe Pajfover to be kept by all Judah, and Jfrael 
en the fecend month, though it wot not according to tbe Vivine foftitution, 
but done by the advice of his Council upon pious and prudential confide- 
rations, 2 chron. 30. 5. Old Objedions muft be content with 

Q 1.] He^ekjah had fufficient warrant from the Word of 
God to celebrate the Paffover at that time, pro hac vice, the 
people being under thofe circumftames, Numb. 9. 10, If. If any 
nun of you Jhail be unclean by reafon of a dead body, or be in a journey 
a fur of, yet he fhaU keep the Pajfover unto the Lord. The fourteenth day 
of the fecond month at even Jhail they keep it. Thatwe may reach 
the full intendment of this Deuteronomy, or after Law, we 
fault carefully attend to the occafion of it. In v. 6. There were 



certain men that were defiled by a dead body, that they could not keep the 
Pafweron that day, the day of the Inftitutiorr, this was a cafe 
feeming inconfiderable, and fuch whereon our Enquirer would 
have laid very little ftrefs, made no bone of it, being a circum- 
fiantial, a nicety about the time i but the people being more con- 
fcientious, brought the cafe to Mofes ♦, and he found it fo 
weighty that it needed the refolutien of God himfelf, v. 8. Stand 
ftill, and I will hear what the Lord will command concerning you. Why, 
what needed that ? had he not all Singly power within himfelf ? 
had he not his Counsel of the feventy two ? might he not have firft 
determined it to be a circumflantial, and then have determined 
what he pleafed about a forry Circumfiance ? or was he fo mean- 
ly inftru&ed in the extent of his Royal Authority ? and how little 
firefs God laid upon thefe Circurnftantials ? well, neverthelefs he 
will confult the Lord far a Determination of the cafe :, where- 
upon God gives him that Command which we have already 
heard, v. 10, n. wherein I obferve. • i. That though that 
Queftion was* propounded only concerning that particular 
care, of a perfon unclean by a dead body, yet the gracious God, 
who well knew, that many other incident cafe* of the like nature 
would emerge out of the various providences which they 
would come under in after times, and th,atthey would ftill be 
at a lofs for refolution about their Duty therein. Anfwers 
alfo concerning him that was in a journey, or far from home , 
which Philo under ftands, T>e peregrinatione in Regionem a Judaea 
longe diffitam ; the very cafe of the ten tribes in He^ekiahs time. 2.That 
under thefe enumerated particulars, of being defiled by a dead 
body> OX in a journey, were comprehended all Other irregularities, 
which might render them uncanonically meet to obferve the Pafiover ; 
Jta ftatuit Philo, ( fays our Synopfis ) quia eadem efl ratio omnium. 
There's a parity of reafon, which readies all other cafes: This 
then was the caie of the ten Tribes, they were afar of, kept from 
the Worfhip of God by many prefling circumftances, for 
which God in this proviiionalP<?/Z-A7» had taken care : and for 
Judahy they were defiled, all things out of courfe, Worfhip de- 
cayed, the Temple polluted, Sacrifices neglected, and uni- 
verfal diforder, arid therefore under the cafe of defilement by a 
dead body, God makes prOvifionfor them alfo, for eadem eft ra- 
tio omnium: thus,V. 3. They could not keep it at that time, becaufe the 
Vrieflshadnot fantlified themfelves fulftcicntly, " Impedimentum 
*'iiic eratilli fnnile, nempejuftum, illi enimdies menfispri- 

Cc mi, ( quibus Phafe erat obfervandum ) Temploexpurgan- 
' c do confumpti funt : And both Proteftants, and Papifts, Ju- 
nius, Pifcator, Eflius, Lyra, Martyr vindicate He^ekialis proceed- 
ings from that general Law, Rum. 9. 

{_ 2. ] Whereas the Enquirer would infinuate, that the Ring 
did all this by the advice of bis ( privy) Council, he may know 
that there was another Council of more authority in the con- 
cerns of Religion, which being appointed by God himfelf, 
might more reafonably have been confulted*, once more I will 
hear Grotiut, de Jure Belli <b Pacts, lib. 1. cap. 3. §.20. " Haec 
"cumitafint, tamen aliquajadiciaRegibusadempta,arbitror 
" manfiffe penes Synedrium 70 virum, quod divino imperio, a 
" Mofe inftitutumad /fc/^fe tempora perpetua cooptatione du- 
"ravir, itaque & Mofes & P*«y/</judices, Deos vocant, & ju- 
<c dicia vocantur;W/'ci^ Dei, & judices dicebantur non humana, 
" fed Divina vice judicare *, imoaperte diitinguuntur res J)ei r 
u a rebut Regit \ 2 chron 19. 11. Ubi res Dei, monentibus doc- 
tC tiflimis Hebraeorum, judiciaex lege Dei exercenda, intelligi 
cc debeant ', Although thefe things be that, yet 1 conceive that fome judi- 
cial matters, excepted from the Kings cognisance, were under the juris- 
diclion of the Sanedrin, which being injlituted by Mofes, at the Com- 
mand of God, indured in a continual fuccejion, to the days of Herod I 
and therefore both Mofes and David call the Judges ( of that 
Council ) Gods', and their judgments are called the judgments of 
the Lord} and the Judges are [aid to judge not in mans name, but 
in Gods. And hence is it that the matters ofGod, and the matters 
of the King are apparently diftinguijhed, 2 Chron. 19. 11. Whet e by. 
the 'matters of God ( as the mojl learned of the Jews inform m ) 
we are to underjland the determining of Cafes out of Gods Law : And 
thus alfo the fame Grotim upon this place. Ad. v. 2. The King had 
taken counfel, and his Princes, and all the Congregation in Jerufalem \ 
id eft, inauit Grot, cuuetyaytif tAtytM* And the meaning is 
plainly this, than the Ring and his Princes, (or his Counfel^ 
lors) advifedwfth the Sanedrm, whether it were lawfull in\ 
this exigency, for both Judah, and Ifrael to keep the Paffover 
in the fecond month, by vertueof that Declaration of God, 
Hum. 9. And the Court did agree in the affirmative, Reminecon- 

[_ 3. ] But let us fuppofe the worft that can be imagined, 
that He\ekiah had variedfrom the Canon of the Inftitution, yet 
did he make a Cation that they fhould tranf^ref, it for ever ? 


Suppofe, that in a perplexed time he Kept it once on the fe- 
condmonetb, when necejfity, an old evil counfellor (when not di- 
rected by Gods Word ) ftood at his elbow, and had his ear -, 
yet did they not ever after obferve it on the fir ft month, if he 
Drought Judab to Jfrael at this time, Ifrael muft come up to Ju- 
dah at other times : Men may turn the ftream of Gods Inftitu- 
tions which way they will, but they will find their old chan- 
nel again in time : Truth was before Errour, and it will be 
after it *, and therefore both King and People, when the rea- 
fon of this feeming irregularity ceafed, ceafed their pra&ice \ 
but will this juftifie any to take any Ordinance, from its 
proper Hinges, and force it to turn for ever upon other 

This was indeed the great tranfgrefiion of Jeroboam, in Di- 
vine Worfhip, i Kin. 12. 32. Who ordained a Feajl in the eighth 
moneth, on the fifteenth day of the moneth, like unto the Feajl that Ps in 
Judah, --Even the month that he'devifed of \m own heart. 'Tistrue, 
he was a perfon obnoxious upon many other accounts, guil- 
ty of other fuperftitions and encroachments upon Gods Au- 
thority, and yet the Scripture takes fpecial notice, and fe- 
verely brands him for the altering of the months the eirfumftance 
of time, without better warrant than he had from his own heart, 
or the Regal Authority. 

[4. ~] I Still admitting that this w r as done befides the primi- 
tive Inftitution, or the warrant of that After- law, yet ftill the 
Prophets of the Lord were in Judah, with whom in extraordi- 
nary cafes, both King, Princes, People, and great Council might 
advife *, and muft we needs think, that fo prudent, fo pious a 
Prince w r ould run upon his own head, in a matter offuch con- 
cern, when he might fo eafily have received particular initru- 
£hons from Heaven ? 

C 5- 1 Suppofing ftill more than all this comes to, that his 
practice was befides the primitive pattern, not warranted by Rum. 9. 
that he had no lawfull diretlion from the Sanedrin, nor from any of 
the Lords Propyls, (which yet can never be difproved ) but 
that he made this alteration meerly Jure Regio ( which can 
never be proved) yet did he not [Gt up any one Myflical Ceremo- 
ny, appointed no other Worjhip, partofWotJIup, means of Worfbiy, 
only he determined of the time for that once ; which though it 
had been a preemption too high for the greateft Prince to 
attempt , ( as the cafe then Hood ) yet it came far Jhoht 



of appointing new Inflitutions , or Symbolical Ceremonies. 

(2. ) A feconci branch of his variation from the primitive 
Pattern, he gives us from v. 17. Where he appointed the Levitts to 
kill the Pa/over, which by Gods appointment was to have been performed 
by the people themfehes ; wherein he fuppofes, that by the Institu- 
tion, the people ought to kill the Pajjcver ; that He^ekinh, non cbjlante 
thatinftitution, appointed the Levites to do it •, that he did 
this without Divine diretlion, and yet was ferfetlly innocent in what 
he did. 

§ But, 1. Whether by Gods appointment the Pafibrf Lamb 
was to be (lain by the "People, or the Prieftj is a queftion that has 
been ventilated by no lmall Names : and though it feem moft 
probable, that the people were entrufted with that fervice, yet 
the grounds are too weak^', the train of Conferences too many and in- 
tricate, for a wife man to erecl a fuperftru&ure of that height, 
& weight upon it,that Princes may from thence difpenfe with Gods Law. 

They that hold that the Mailer of the Family was not com- 
manded to flay it inhisownperfon , do urge, Exod. 12. 27. It 
vs the facrifice of the Lords Pa/over. And if a Sacrifice, then to be 
performed by a Priejl, and whereas it is faid, ver. 6. That the 
whole Ajfembly of the Congregation of Ifrael Jhould kjUit, theyanfwer, 
Jugulent, id eft, jugulari curanto, nempe per Sacerdotes. That their 
killing was no more than their taking care that the Pn<?y?fhould 
kill it. 

As to my own private judgment, I conceive, that the Ma- 
tter of every Family was a Priejl within his own Temple, and did 
perform that Service according to the primitive lnftitutions j 
but that, ailoon as God had chofen out the Family of Aaron to 
minifter unto him in that holy Employment, all the powers that 
lay difperfed , and fcatter^d up and down particular families^ were 
thereby united, and devolved upon that family which God had called* 
And that this, notwithftanding the people in this, as well as 
other Sacrifices, had fome hand in the oblation of it. 

Abarbinel reckons up ten things in a Sacrifice ; five of which 
he affigns to the people. 1. To put their hands upon the 
head of the Sacrifice. 2. The killing it. 3. The taking of 
the skin. 4. The dividing it into parts. 5. The warning of 
the Entrails. The other five he allots to the Priefts. 1. To 
recieve the Blood in Bafins. 2. To fprinkle it. 3. To kindle 
the fire on the Altar. 4. To order the w T ood. 5. To take 
the parts of the flefh that w T ere facrificed, 

§ 2. whe* 


§ 2. Whether He^ekjah Commanded the Levites to kill the 
Pafifover againft the Rule of the Inftitution ? is yet ano- 
ther Queftion. For, t. It's the judgment of fome, that in 
HexekiaVs Tafover the Levites did not Perfonally kill the Lamb, 
but onely deliver it into the bands of the Vriefis to be killed. 
So Menochius : Exiflimo rem ita perattam efe, ut populus Immundus, 
Agnos Levitis darent } Levita ad Sacer dotes aferunt, qui eos immola- 
rent, 1 conceive, ( (ays he ) that the matter was thus tranfa&ed that 
the feofle being unclean, delivered the Lambs to the Levties, who band- 
ed them to the Priefts, and they flew, and facrificed them. 2 8 It feems 
more probable that the Levites did a&ualy flay the Paflb- 
ver, as alfo thofe other Sacrifices: Chap. 29.. v. 34. And 
it juftification hereof I affirm , that if it was befides the 
order of the firft inftitution, yet ti was agreable to the after 
Determination of God himfelf, and that whatever concern the 
Levites had therein, it was appointed them jure Divino, non 
Regio. And if fo *, then how will ti evince, that the Prince 
had this power over Gods inftitutions , becaufe God had 
fuch a power to alter, and change the firft inftitution ac- 
cording as he in wifdom faw good ? 

Now that whatever Change was made , was wholly by the 
Command of God, I think will be evident from thefe Scrip- 
tures, 2Chron. 3 5-3? 4? 5> 6. Arid (Jofiah) [aid unto the 

"Levites Serve now the Lord your God , and hvs People Ifrael, And 

prepare your [elves by the Houfe of your Fathers, after your Courfes, ac- 
cording to the writing of David King of Ifrael, and according to the 

writing of his Son Solomon- So kjtt the Pafover and Santlify your 

felves, and prepare your Brethren, that they may do according to the 
word of the Lord by the band of Mofes. Now hence it's evident, 
that the Levites in killing the Pafover a&ed according to the 
writings of David, and Solomon : which writings muft necelTarily 
be one and the fame, and both of them received from the 
Lord, 1 Chro.28. 19. Where David protefts : That the Lord made 
him under/land all this, in writing by his hand upon him : 2. It's plain 
alfo that good Jofiah aimed at this one thing in all he did, 
that all might be done according to the word of the Lord by Mo- 
fes, and then either the Levites muft be judged to have the 
fame power by the Command of Mofes , or elfe that no fubfequent 
Diftofition of affairs ctherwife by the Authority of God could 
be adjudged contrary to what he had Commanded by Mofes. 
3. It is plain alfo that Jofiah had no refpeft to HeiekjaPs 


pra&ife as the Reafon of his own, becaufe he quotes not 
the pra&ife of Re^ehiah, but the writings of David and Solomon^ 
fo falfe it is what the Enquirer fo confidently afferts, that 
He?el>iab preferred the L,evites to ajifi the Vriefis in filling the other 
Sacrifices, which never before they were admitted 10. 

And therefore I would be fatisfied, to what purpofe Jo- 
fab mould trouble himfelf, to conform to the patterns of 
Mofes, David, Solomon, in thefe Circumftantials, if by preroga- 
tive Royal He might 'difpenfe with, alter, repeal in whole, 
or in part any of Gods pofitive inftitutions. 

§ 3. Whatever irregularities there might be in thisPaflb- 
ver of Beiekiah, (and to be fure there were fome in fo 
great and inveterate a degeneracy) that holy Prince hum- 
bly deprecates the jufi difpleafure of God, and ftands not 
fawcily to juftifie himfelf, that it was in his Commiffon to alter 
Circumftantials in worfhip. V. 18. They did eat the Vajfover otherwise 
then was written. And He^ekjab frayed for them , v. 1 9, 20. faying y 
Lord God pardon every one that prepareth bit heart to feei^ the God of his 
Fathers, though he be not cleanfed according h the purification of the 
Sancluary, and the Lord hearkened to B.e\ekiab, and healed the "People. 
Whence it's undeniable, 1. Tlaat if we w r ould take the exaft 
meafure of the firefs which God lays upon an Ordinance, wc 
muft have no regard to thofe idle coined diftinctions inven- 
ted in cafe of utmoft extremity, as men in famine will live 
( poor fouls ) upon any thing, but to the word of inftitutioti. 
They did otherwife then was written. What Mofes his writing was, 
they know ', what Davids, what Solomons writings w r ere, wliere- 
by the Levites w r ere warranted to Kill, or ajfijl in killing the 
PafTover, they alfo knew, yet fomethings there were not 
warranted by any of thefe writings, for which there was 
no fcrip turn eft: and {_otherwi[e ] in an lnftitution , is [contrary"] 
to the lnftitution, and for thefe He^ekiah begs Pardon. 2. That 
though the People who had been long hardned under the 
degeneracy, made no bones of the matter, they might per- 
haps look upon all thefe as Circumftantials, upon which God laid 
little firefs, ( for in times of Corruption there are never want- 
ing fome ingenious Perfons, who will juftifie any thing) 
yet He^ekjah a Prince of an apprehenfive fpirit, and tender 
confeience, knowing well, that not to keep clofe to what was 
-written, in inftituted Worfhip, might draw down a Curfe, 
fooner then procure a bleffing , he earneftly cries to God 


[ 3 io] 

for the pardon of irregularities. He went as near the Ar- 
chetypes of the inftitution as the iniquities of the times * 
and a general prevarication would admit, and for the reft he 
is importunate with God that his jealoufie might not con- 
fume them. Wherein our Enquirer had he flood by would 
have fufheiently derided his fuperftitious folly and fear, that 
laid fo great a fire fs, where God laid very little, not under - 
ftanding the prerogative of his imperial Cro^ n, in difpen- 
fing with thefe Circumftantials. 3. Tlyt this irregularity 
was fo hainous in the eye of God, that fome wrath was al- 
ready broken out from the Lord upon the People, the 
Plague wot begun. And it was high time for a zealous Prince 
to interpofe, not to determine Circumftantials, but to Determine 
that wrath, which for thefe Regletled Circumftantials was kindled, 
which by prayer he attempts, the onely Incenfe by which, in 
his politick capacity, he could fiand between the living, and the 

And thus the Jews fay .* A?:tea quia commederunt cccifi funt , 
fed Regis precihm clades tefiivit \ They that firft eat of the Pafovet 
in their uncleanejfes, were cut of by the immediate hand of God, but by 
the inter -f option of Hezekiahs payers the plague flayed. 4. And WC 
may reafonably hence conclude*, that this Pious Prince, who 
was fo feniible of the feoples irregularity in one kind, would 
have been as apprehenfive of the Levites deficiency in another, 
had their fa£t contravened the inftitution : And as little 
Reafon to doubt , but that the jealoufie of God had fmoak- 
ed and flamed out againft the Levites, as well as the People, had 
they kj^d 9 as the Other, at the Paflfover otherwife then wfc written. 
And therefore Grotim, who magnifies this as an illujtrim inflame 
cf Royal Authority to relax a Divine Command in cafe of neceffity , yet 
dares not affirm that the King did all this upon his own 
Head, ( leaft whileft he advanced his power, he fhould draw 
his prudence into Queftion ) but, " Confulto (ut credibile 
eft) prius Synedrio; having ## advifed with the Sanedrin about 
the Legality of the fail : 

When therefore he this Queftion *, fmce the Magif 
trates had once fuch a power, how came they to lofe it? I confefs I 
cannot tell. I believe they have as much power as ever 
they enjoyed •, and this I am certain of, that never any re- 
ceived fuch a power from God, as would warrant him to 
alter any of Gods infti tut ions, to fet up a New Religion, a 



new Ofnccor Infiitution, without fpccial direction from Di- 
vine prefcription, or immediate Revelation. 

(2.) We come to hisfecond Argument, which is this : tU 
New Tejlamcnt is frequent in averting the power of Magiftrates, and re- 
quires all to be fubjeel to them, cf what quality or condition foever, Rorm 
1 3. I. Let every foul be fubjeel to the higher p overs* Thus far he has 
no enemy, at Jeaft he ought to have none. The practice of 
the primitive Chriftians, which commented admirably upon 
that Text of theApoftie, and other clear places, has put all 
this out of difpute, who were moft fevere in their Obedi- 
ence under the moft ievere perfections. ThusTertuUian m 
Apol.Cap.30. "Nos pro falute Imperatorum Deum invoca^ 

44 mus, Precantcs fumus pro omnibus Imperatoribus, vi- 

"tamillis prolixam, imperium fecurum, domum tutanij ex- 
"ercitus fortes, fenatum fidelem, populum probum, orbem 
''quietum, quascunque hominis, &Caei~arisvotafunt. We pray 
to God for the fafety of 'our Emperors, that God would give them a long life , 
a peaceable Goverment, that he would preferve the Royal Family, that he 
would vouchfafe them a faithfull Council, a loyal Feople, a quiet Iforld, 
valiant Armies , and whatfoever their own wijhes can defire* Thus 
Vionyfm, in his Apology for the Ciiriftians, in the Perfecution 
under Verm, " Nos unum Deum colimus, &veneramur, omni- 
"um fabricatorem, huic etiam fine intermiffione, pro eorum 
" regno ut firmum & habile maneatpreces adhibemus* We 
worjhip (fays he) and ado) e only one God, the Creator of all things, 
and to him we pur out our payers night and day, that the Government of 
our Emperors may abide firm and unfhaken. Tney tnat would 
plead Chrijliarm fum, I cannot conform, would as hncerely fay* 
ChrifticumfumJL&AXZ not refijl : There is then no queilion but that 
we are all upon pain of eternal damnation bound to obey 
the Civil Magiii rate, and all that are fern by him, in all civil things 
which are not demoitrably finfull, according to the Munici- 
pal Laws, but the queftion will meet us again though we avoid 
it *, how far their power extends in matters of Immediate Wef- 
Jfc/>,and things directly within the verge of Confcience, where* 
in pofiibly lean yield as far as another, though I would pror 
ceed upon better grounds than the Enquirer has laid down* 
which now I come to examin. . 

% I. The Rew'Teflament (lays he) no when excepts the cafe cf Re- 
ligion. Anfwer, 1. No where excepts it ? Ay, but where does the 
Kew OX Old exprefs and include U ? I was in hopes, tim according 

x ta 

to his promife, he would have proved, that the Magiftrate ex- 
teeds not hvs Commiffion in determining the things under debate, and 
he puts us off with this, they are not excepted out of his Com- 
miffion : he that afts by Commiffion, mufthave his powers autho- 
rized by his Commiffion. Suppofe, a Prince fhould iffue out 
a Commiffion to certain Delegates, to hear and determin all 
differences relating the Forreft, and they (hall intermeddle 
with Affairs that are out of the Purlieus, will it be thought 
enough to fay, thefe places are not excluded their Commiffi- 
on. 2. Nor do I except the cafe of Religion out of theMagi- 
Urates Commiffion, but only humbly enquire of the Enquirer^ 
how far the Commiffion extends in Religious matters ? To this he gives 
US an Anfwer, / mean fo far as Circumflantials, and thofe things which 
God himfelf bath not defined. But this will either deftroy all a- 
gain, or not mend the matter one jot : for, i. I no where 
find, that God has excepted Subftantials more than circumflanti- 
als out of his Commiffion : In what refpefr the one is included, the 
other is fo* 7 and in what refpeft the one is excluded, the o- 
ther is fo : that is, both are included, for his preformation, and 
both excluded, asto his alteration of, adding to, or fubtradt- 
ingfrom them. If a Commiffion be produced, that the Ma- 
giftrate fhall guide me in all acceptable, external, inftituted 
Worfhip, excepting the Subftantials thereof, I have enough ; 
for excepiio in non exceptis firmat regulam. The exception of Sub- 
ftantials would more ft rongly include the Circumflantials. And 
therefore I am afraid he will not produce a Commiffion that 
excepts Subftantids. Let it beSubftance or Circumjlance 9 let men 
invent what terms or name they pleafe. If in the outward 
exercife of Religion Chriftians fhall difturb the Peace, they 
fhall know and find, that the Magiftrate has a coercive power 
that will reach them all, and all their outward anions, for 
the affecurating that Peace, wherewith God has intrufted 
him. To give Alms is an aft, a fubftantial aft of Religion , yet 
if any Fbarifaical fpirit fhall found his trumpet to draw a con- 
couiie of people after him, and thus turn the trumpet of Religi- 
on into a trumpet of Rebellion ; if he fhall make Sacr amentum pieta- 
tiSy 'vinculum i?iiquitatis. He, and his k€i come within the Ma- 
giftrates Commiffion :, and yet it extends not to alter an Aft of 
Religion, but to fupprefs a defign of Faftion and Sedition. 

2. Sich an Exception as he fancies in the Magistrates Com- 
miffion, as it no where appears, fo would it be purely nuga- 

tory, did it appear, urilefs we had withall fome infallible 
xerwe**, to dilcriminate the Circumflantials from the Subflantials: 
otherwife, either he might encroach upon the Subflantials,im- 
der the notion of circumflantials, or a refra&ory People would 
be always crofling and thwarting his determinations, under pre- 
tence that the Subflantials were invaded, when he was only mo- 
delling and ordering the innocent circumflantials : And thus, as 
the Sea and Land are always eating into each others liberties, 
or, as in fome Nations, where Prerogative and Propriety 
are not equally balanced, the one is beating up the others 
quarters perpetually *, fo would there be an unappeafeable war 
between thefe Subflantids and Circumflantials, which like the 
Marches between two Kingdoms of no firm correfpondence^ 
would be ever fubje&to the longer and fharper iword : But 
Chrift hath not left thefe Concerns at fuch a loofe end. 

§ 2. He argues thus : If they ham not power in fuch matters of Re- 
ligion ai rpe fpeak. of, its manifefl they have no Magiflracy cr Leglflative 
power at all in Religion. I will deal freely with our Ennuirer , for 
ought I know to the contrary, they have this power, and far 
greater power in the matters of Religion whereof he [peak's, for I do 
not yet underftand wbat thofe matters of Religion are whereof U 
fpeak} : But toanfwer as well as I can conjecture at his inten- 
tions, i. I know not what a legiflative pterin Religion means 
in the hands of any but the Lordjefm chrifl. The Scripture has 
told us, Jam. 4. 12. That there vs one Law giver who ft able to five or 
to deflroy. He that can eternally five, upon obedience, or eter- 
nally damn upon difobedience^ may fecurely challenge a legiflative 
power over the Church. Its certain from hence, that Chrift 
is the only Lawgiver to his Church, in fome fenfe •, and in what, 
fenfe that mould be, but that he alone can impofe matters of 
immediate Worfhip upon the Confcience y I cannot tell. He that denies 
Chrift to be the only Legiflator at this day, may with equal rea- 
fon deny him to be the only Judge in the great Day : And it's not 
worth the while, for a few Ceremonies to lofe one of the Articles 
of our Creed: Hitherto a general Council has been thought to 
have the higheft vifible power on earth to make Laws for fee 
Churn, and yet the Church of England has determined, Ari.21 ; 
That they may err, and have fometimes erred, even in things \ertawingt$ 
God. And therefore it will be our fafeft and wifeft courle to 
leave the legiflative power in matters of Religion in the haiidS 
fcf Ghriffy where God entrufte'd it, and where we found 

% 2 H; 


it , who can neither deceive, nor be deceived. 

2. There may be a magiftratkal f otter about Religious mat* 
ters, where there is no legiflative power : the Magiftrate may 
have an executive power to do all that God has commanded him, and 
fee others do all that God has commanded them, and yet no legisla- 
tive power to alter, or add to the Inftitutions of Chrift : 
what a vaft field has every Supream Magiftrate, wherein 
he may place out all his Zeal, Power, and Authority, and 
yet never touch the Vhilaclery or fringe of the garment of Chrijl, 
cither by enlarging, or paring it away. His Power is very 
evident in the Moral Law, bottom'd upon eternal and immu- 
table reafons, and to build it upon fuch dubious and precari- 
ous Hypothefes, or to overcharge it with unfcriptural pow- 
ers, is but fecretly to undermine it, orcrufh it down with its 
own weight. 

(3.) His third Argument is this: Its generally acknowledged 
(^and accordingly pradifed) that Fathers and Governors of Families have 
authority in matters of Religion within their own Families, at leajlfo far 
as the caje in hand. Nay, pray forbear a little : That they have 
an Authority in matters of Religion, is indeed acknowledged, 
and I wifh it were more practifed •, ail I hsefitate at, is, whe- 
ther he has iuch a power as far as the cafe in hand: The cafe in 
band'iSj orfhouldbe, whether the Magiflrate has f over to determin 
fuch Externals of Religion, as he ( to blind the bufinefs ) 
thought meet to call Clmmfimtlah *, and fuch a power as Diflfen- 
ters acknowledge not, fo they praftifenot: It were very hard 
if aMafterof a Family fhould arrogate to himfelf fuch a pow- 
er, as to enjoyn his Wife, Children, Servants, Relations, 
Strangers, to have a Pugilof Salt laid upon their Tongues, 
in token that they Jhall not be ajhamed to have their fpeech feafoned 
with favoury difcourfe 7 without fubmiflion to which Crotchet, 
they fhall either not be admitted into the family, or if alrea- 
dy admitted, caft out of doors, or however not permitted to 
hear a Chapter read, or joyn in Prayer all their days : This 
would have been a little more to the cafe, of which our En- 
quirers Inftancescome exceeding fhort. 

Who doubt (faysle) hut the Fathr, or Head of a Family may pre- 
fcribe what Chapters Jhall he read, what Vrayers afed, what time pall be 
fet apart for Devotion, what pojhres, whether kneeling, ftanding, or being 
uncovered 1 who Jhall officiate in his Family ? with innumerable others of 
the like nature : and if they be but of the like nature,thQy will never 

do us any harm. Let's look'em over however. 1. what 


1. What Chapters may be read : Why truly, if the Qucftion be 
only which of the two or more, of equal authority, he may be as fit as 
another: but if the competition were between two, the one out 
of Scripture, the Other out of fome legendary Fabler, that has ftufft 
a Farce with Romanticks, I queftion much his power to de- 
termin, for Godhasatleaft determined thus far, that in all 
our Worfhip of him,we fpeak and read nothing but the Truth j 
and he that teaches his Family, ought to teach from, or accor- 
ding to the Oracles of God, 

2. What Prayers ufed. God will not accept a Female bom him 
that has a Male in his flock : as the Prince will not accept fucb a 
frefent, much lefs will the great God, who gives what he re- 
ceives, and therefore may juftly expert the beft. No mafter 
of a family has authority to offer Prayers to God lefs good, if 
God have furnifh'd him with better. 

3. What times jhali be fit apart for Devotion: The fetting apart 
of common time for Family- Worfhip, is a meer Circumftance, which 
neither renders the Worfhip more or lefs acceptable to God 
ae it is time. And it is disjunctively commanded by him, who 
has commanded mafters of families to continue in prayer, and 
watch in the fame with thanksgiving, Col. 4. 1,2. If God has 
commanded Worjhjp, he has alfo therewith commanded fome 
time, W' herein to Worfhip: a time muft therefore neceffari- 
ly be refolved on, but by his good favour this is not to the 
cafe in hand. And yet as large as the Mafters power may be in 
this matter, he muft have regard to the general Rules of the 
Gofpei : that all things be done for edification, to advance the fuc- 
cefs of the Duty. He may neither determin upon a Revolution 
too2;/r^e»?,norSupon a continuances /for/ ,to flubber and hud- 
dle over the Ordinance in formal hafte *, nor upon an unfeafonable 
bout -,when his over- worked, and over- watched Servants are rea- 
dy to drop afleep,when tiredNature is ready to overmafter the 
Souls gracious propenfities towards Gods Service. And where 
hefeems to have mojl power, he has far fhort of an Abfolute power. 

4. For pojlures, whether kneeling, Jianding, or being uncovered. I 
never lo much admired the difference between praedicamen- 
tal fitw, te habitus, as to move a quarrel, whether being uncove- 
red was a pojlure or no ? yet I think thefe things are not capable 
of muttiverfal, fixed, unalterable Law. If one of thefe pojlures fhall 
render any one in the Family uncapable of pursuing, and reaching the 
inds of an Ordinance y That Parent fhall fin againft God, who 

X 3 rigidly 

rigidly exa£ls the moft plaufible pofture or gefturc ^ and 

I fuppofe he has no CommKfion from God to fin againft him : if 
(landing fhall fo difeafe a weak child , that being in pain 
he cannot attend the prefent fervice *, If kneeling, fhall or- 
dinarily expofe another to drowzinefs*, If being uncovered, 
fliall prejudice health , and endanger life *, If any of thefc 
or any other, fhall diftraft the mind, make the duty a Bur- 
den, wear-out the Body •, Mafters of Families muft know, 
that their power is for edification , and not defiruftion, and God 
vill have Mercy , and not Sacrifice , whatfoever an imperious 
Matter will have. He that fhall teach that Magiftrates may 
difpenfe with the tircumfiantials of Gods mrfhif *, will fure ne- 
ver be fo hardy, as to teach, that Mafters of Families, and 
Magiftrates too, ought not to difpenfe with their own 

5. h what Habit : No Matter of a Family has power to enjoin 
any Religious Habits appropiated to divine fervice : In the ger 
iieral 'tistrue^habit isneceffary upon many accounts,for health, 
decency : But Religious Habits are not fo, not put into theXhar- 
ter of Domeftick Power, nor indeed capable of a Canon. 

6. Wbojball Officiate in a Family? The duty of Officiating in 
the Family , is primarily incumbent upon himfe/f *, 1 know 
no Reafon he mould claim the Authority , who waves the 
duty: If he will have the honour, let him difcharge the 
work of a Matter of a Family , nor may he Command his 
Child to pray that cannot pray, with that ufefulnefs to the 
edification to the whole : If any perfon whofe greater A- 
bilities may manage the Service more to the glory of God 
be prefent, his charitable prudence will inftruct him to pro- 
cure fuch afliftance as may beft promote the fpintual con* 
<£erns of thofe under his charge. 

To fhut up this point. The powers here afcribed to a 
Maiter of a Family are fuch as do not reach the cafe in hand; De- 
termination of Chapters, Prayers, Times, Poftures, Geftures, 
Perfons, which were not before determined by the divine 
power, will not make up one myftkal Ceremony, and the Ma- 
gistrate may have all this power, and yet nonefach as will 
reach the cafe in hand. That power which will ferve to make 
a primitive direclory y w\\\ not ferve to impofe a modern Liturgy *, All 
that can pofttbly be fcrewed out of thefe inftancesof Paternal 
A.iihohty is no more than this, that he may Determine between 
" " ; ' ' two, 

two or more Circumftances, one of which is Msjuntfi'vety neeejhry 
to the performance of a necefiry duty : but it will be lurd 
when he comes to try it, to infer a pow r er to impofe Myfti- 
cal Ceremonies, which are no ways neceffary to the per- 
formance of any duty, no not by Disjunction. 

I prefume I have faved my Bail, if I mould give no fur- 
ther anfwer, yet for his greater fatisfa£rion I mail trouble 
the Reader with thefe few Confidcrables. 

§ i. That the Governour of a Family, being upon the 
place, and having all prefent Circumftances within his pro- 
fpect, may more ufefuliy determine upon all determinable 
Circumftances, than a Magiftrate for a whole Nation, and 
the feveral Congregations therein, whofe Accidents are fo> 
various that they cannot poflibly come under any uniform 
Determination : fuppofe a ftrift Law w T ere made at Vdfis} 
that every particular Church in the Nation mould com- 
mence their publick fervice on the Lords day precifely at 
nine a clock, it is Mathematically certain, that fome would 
have done and got half through their dinner % before others 
w r ould be halfway in their Devotions •, They in the furthefir 
Eaftern Parts would have come to their Amen, before thofe 
on the Cakbrian Ocean would be at their Orenm , becaufe 
of the diverfities of Meridians, and Longitudes, and yet all 
would be but nine a clock. 

§ 2. That the confequence from the Power of a Mafter 
of a Family, to the Civil fowr, is not very clear I 
for the Mafter of a Family is fuppofed to have Minors in 
his Family, who cannot be fafely trufted with the Deter- 
mination of thofe Circumftances, which muft neceffarily 
be determined, but it would be a reproch to the Chriftian 
Religion, that all the Biihops, Paftors, and Churches in a Na- 
tion could not find wit enough to determine, what time 
of the day were moft expedient to Aflemble in. The pow- 
er of a Prince is far more Noble, then that of the Family 
Governour, and yet by Reafon of the imaptity, and unftnefs 
of the matter, the bulkinefs of the Aggregate; the lcffer power may 
poifibly Determine upon fome fmall Circumftances which the 
greater power is unfit to do : To be Captain of a Man of mr 
is more honourable than to command a SKuller •, and yet this 
latter will tack about more nimbly, then that cumberfome 
Argofie, becaufe the Vefifel is more Manageable* 

X4 §3- This 


§ 3. This uniformity which is fo much driven at in all thefe 
arguments , as the great Reafon of the Ncecflity of muver- 
fd Determination , is a name much bandied infpeculative dif- 
courfes, rather then a thing practicable*, if we may judge 
that notfecible, which never yet was attained. Let us look a 
little nearer home ! And firft we find no Pun£tual uniformity 
between the two Provinces : He that can fing Divine Service 
in the Province of York* may without new inftru&ion be ut- 
terly to feekin the Pfalmodie of Canterbury, look upon the 
fame Province, and compare the Varochial, with the Cathedral 
fervice, and there's lei's uniformity full. He that can fadge 
pretty well at a Country-Church, is quite loft in the uncouth 
ufeges of theMinfter : Look into the Parochials, and fome 
lave their Conformity, Supcrconformity, ftatute Ceremonies, 
and Canon Ceremonies, fo that you would hardly judge 
them to be half-fifters: take a ftep nearer, and look in the 
fiime Parifh- Church, uniformity js not to be found there *, 
there, the Minifter is not conformable to himfelf. At one pray- 
er he (lands, at another he kmlt, at one part of thepublick Ser- 
vice he is all white, and then that colour vs moft decent, by and 
by all Blacky, and then that is mojl decent', nor is there any uni- 
formity between the Minifter, and the people ; He, at the De~ 
kveryohhe confecrated Elements,/-™;/'/^ in a poiiure otjlanding^ 
and they in the All of Receiving, who fray not, yet confined to Ge- 
mculmon. Nor is there lefs discrepancy between the feveral \ arts 
Qfworjhip; for whereas the grand Plea for Ceremonies is acer-r 
U'mDecemy, which they conciliate to the fervice, and their ufe- 
fulnefs to ftir up the dull minds of men, yet only Baftifm is ador- 
ned with tfc f.gnoftfo Crcj% and the reft left naked of fo great an 
ornament, and yet the Apoftles Rule is, let all things be done de- 
cently, and we have as much need to have our dull minds quickr 
ned in the other Sacraments, and all other parts of worfhip. 

§ 4. Laftly, That power which belongs to the fupream Civil 
Magiftrate,** /«c/>. belongs to all and every tyre am Magi/irate ', but this 
power of inftituting,inipof]ng Ceremonies belongs not to every 
Supream Civil Magiftrate as fuch, that is, it belongs to none. 

The Reafon of the Major Proportion is taken from the Com- 
mon Axiome. Atjuatenm ad otnne valet confequentia'. The proof of 
the minor is this: That which belonged not to the Supream Civil 
Magiftrate for three hundred years afier Chrifts time , belongs 
not to all Civil Magift rates - 7 but this power of inftitu^ing, and 

11D poling 

impofing Ceremonies belonged not to the Civil Magiftrate. 
for 300 years after Chrifts time, therefore it belonged not 
to all. To enervate which Argument it muft either be de- 
nyed that the Roman Emperours during that Period were ft*- 
pream Civil Magiftrates, which Sr. Paul oppofes , charging 
the Churches to obey them •, or aflferted that they had a po- 
wer to determine of the Circumftantials of the Chriftian Re- 
ligion, and prefcribe what Ceremonies they faw in the Evan- 
gelical worfhip. 

£2. ] We now come to his fecond Thefts, lfthe Magiftrate may 
determine thcfe Matters, then not onely Chriftian charity, and humility, but 
common Prudence requires w, to prefume of the wifdom and reafcnablenefs of hit 
determinations , and much more to obey them. 

I lhall fay little, but perhaps frnile the more at the prettinefs 
of the confequent. ii's our duty to prefume of the reafonabJenefs, 
but much more to obey thofe Determinations *, that is, it's much more 
our duty to obey y than to be Rational. 

That we are to prefume very highly of the w 7 ifdom of our Su- 
periours Aing within their porper Sphaere, we readily admit: 
For when God calls them to a work,he will beftow competent 
wifdom for the difchargeof it : but yet I am not to prefume fo 
unmeafurably of any ones wifdom , as to refign up my Faith 
and Confcience, with the difpofal of Gods worlhip without 
more ado to it, If God had given him Authority to determine 
thefe matters, I mould not have been concern'd to Queftion 
his wifdom: Gods command had luperfeded my little fcru- 
ples, and though he had mifcarried in his prudential Decifion, 
Ifhouldhave received the praife of fubjedlion, but till fuch 
Authority do appear, Ifhall fet down on this fide fuch prefumtion, 
though fomewhat beyond difpair. 

If the Reader has any pity left, he may do charitably to be- 
ftow a little of it upon me, that muft be obliged to anfwer all 
the Sentences and Apothegms in Wits- commonwealth, and yet to this 
drudgery 1 {hall patiently fubmit till I am quite tyred, and 
then Reiign this Province. 

(i.) It's enough (fays he) to warrant and require our obedience, that 
the thing is the Command of our Superiour, and not beyond the Sphere of bifi 

That Religion is within the Magiftrates Sfhxre, I have freely 
owned; but not to all intents and purpofes *, not to fluckjtf 
what God has pUnted, not to plant what God has pluckt up. Sub- 


ftanttrils, and Circumftantials are all within his Sphere, but not 
to do what he pleafed withall. 

As all Per fins, with their Civil concerns are within the Magiflrates 
Sphere, their Lives, Liberties, and Eftates all come under h'vs cogni- 
sance, and yet there are fome great Lawyers, and Loyal Sub- 
jects, who think they are not within his Sphere to difpofe of them 
at pleafure •, fo are all the concerns of Religion within his 
Sphsere too, to preferve, not to deftroy *, to propagate, not to 
alter*, to encourage,not to innovate in the worihip of God .* for 
All fewer is for Edification , not Vefirutlion. 

Every Chriftian has Religion within his Sphsere, that is, he 
has a concern in it, but no concern over and above it ; Tota Reli- 
gio, but not To turn Religions, as Tot us Homo, yet not TotumHominis 
are within the reach of Magiftracy : He has a power to fecure 
Religion -, Religion is therefore within his Sfktre •, but he has none 
to make a new Religion, or a new fart of Religion, that therefore 
is out of his Sphstre, nor will it excufemetoGod, his word and 
my own confeience blindly to obey in every thing , fome 
whereof may be out of his Sphsere, becaufe he hasll power to 
command fome things which are within his Sphsere. 

The true ancient Proteftants of this Church with nolefszeal 
than fuccefs defended the Princes power and Supremacy againft 
all the claims of Rome, and yet never afcribed fuch a power to 
him asmight fhackle Confeience, & difpofe of Religion at plea- 
fure. I mall give the Reader a tafte from the learned Bifhop Bil- 
fin, who dedicates his book to Queen Elizabeth, and it came a- 
broad Cum Privilege. Dial. pag. 533, 534, 535, tec. TheDif- 
courfe is between a Papift , and a Proteftanu 

Philander. If the Qiieen eftablifh any Religion, you. are bound by your oath 
to obey it whatfoever it be. Theopilus. We muft not rebel, nor take 
Armes againft the Prince (as you affirm you may) but with 
reverence and humility ferve God before the Prince : Phil. Then 
is not the Prince fuprexm. Theo. Why fo? Phil. Tour felves are fuferiour, 
you will ferve whom you lift. Tfteo. As though to ferve God according 
to his will, whereto ferve whom we lift, and not whom all Prin- 
ces, and others ought to ferve. Phil. But you will be judges, when 
Ged is well ferved and when not : Theo. if you can excu fe us before 
God, when you miflead us, we will ferve whom you appoint us : 
otherwife if every man (hall anfwer for himfelf, good Reafon he 
be Mafter of his own Confeience in that which toucheth 
him fo near , and no man can excufe him for. Phil. This is to 



make every private man fupr earn Judge of Religion, Theo. The poor- 
eft wretch that is may be fupream govcrnour of his own heart : 
Princes rule thepublick and external a£lions of their Coun- 
tries, but nottheconfciencesof men.Phil. Would you Uve fuck 
tcnfnfwn fufered in the Church, that every man fhould fellow what he lift ? 
Theo. 1 would not have fach preemption and wickednefs 
brought into the Church, thatChirft, and his Word fhould be 
fubje&edto the wills, or voices of mortal men: For though 
the whole world fhould pronounce againft him, or it, God 
will be true, and all men fhall be lyars. Phil. Ko more would we. 
Theo. Why then reftrain you Truth to the Aflemblies, and 
Sentences of Popes, and Prelates, as though they muft be 
gently entreated, and fairly offer'd by Chrift, before he might 
attempt, or expert to recover his own. Phil.W 7 *? would hive things 
done orderly. Theo. Call you that Order, where Chrift fhall 
ftand without doors, till your Clergy fhall confent to bring 
him in ? Phil. God vs not the Author of confufion, but of peace. Theo. 
It's no confufion, for one family, yea, for one man to ferve 
God, though all the families, and men of the fame Realm 
Will not. Jo/hua faidtOthe people, // it feemevil to you to ferve 
the Lord, chufe you whom you will ferve, but I, and my Houfe will ferve 
the Lord. Elias was left alone, for any that he few willing to 
ferve Godin Jfrael, and yet abated not his zeal: Micheasmionc 
oppofed himfelf againft 400 Prophets, with what judicial 
Authority, can you tell? Amos neither fyzredjeroboam the King, 
nor Ama\uh the Prieft, and yet he was but a fimpie Herds- 
man, and not fo much as the fon of a Prophet. John Baptijk 
had no competent Jurifdidtion over the Scribes, and Phari- 
fees that fate in Mofes his chair, and yet he condemned them for 
a generation of Vipers. The Councils, where Peter, Stephen, Paul, 
were convened, accufed and punifht, lacked none of your 
Judicial formalities, and yet the Apoftle ftoutly both refill- 
ed, and condemned their deliberative and definitive fentences.Phil. 
7he ApoJUes Commifjion we know, but yours we know not, Theo. You 
cannot be ignorant of ours, if you know theirs *, fo long as 
we preach the fame Dodtrine that they did, we have the 
fame Power and Authority , which they had ', keep your 
competent Jurifdi&ions, judicial Cognitions, and legal De- 
nhonstoyour felf : The Son of God firft founded, and full ga- 
thered his Church by the mouths of his Preachers, not by tne 
fummonsofConfiftories: he that is fentto preach, may not 


hold his tongue, and tarry, till my Lord the Pope^ and lw Mitred 
Fathers can intend to meet, and lift to confent to the ruine (as 
they think) of their dignities and liberties. Phil. Deftift you 
Councils I Theo. By no means % fo long as they be Councils, 
that is, fober, and free Conferences of godly and learned 
Teachers *, but if they wax wanton againtt Chrift, and will 
nothave the truth received, untill they have confented, we 
reject them as confpiracies of the wicked, which no Chriftian 
ought to reverence— -But will you fuffer God to make Laws 
forhis Church ? Phil. What elfe ? Theo. And may not every 
private man embrace thofe Laws which God hath made, who- 
foever fay nay ? Phil. He mufi, Theo. What if fome Bifhops 
will not agree they mall? muft the Prince, and People ceafe 
to ferve God, till the Clergy be better minded. Pail. In nutters 
<f Faith the Vrince and Lay lords have no voices. Theo. in making Laws 
they had. Phil. True! hut laws for Religion they might not preftribe. 
Theo. No more might Biihops ! It's only Gods Office to ap- 
point how he will beferved, Phil. GodslFill muft he learned at the 
wraths of the Bijhofs. Theo. They much teach, leaving always 
the liberty to the Prince, and People, to examin their Doc- 
trine, and avoid their errour, and if they Teach not Truth, 
the Prince and People may expel them. 

I fhall now leave it to the determination of the impartial and 
unprejudiced Reader, whether he that was then the Proteftant, 
would not now be the Fanatic!^ •, and whether he that makes 
©ur £//£tfi/-<?r5 Objeftions, would not have paffed for a Catholic^ 
of the Roman Edition in thofe days ? 

(2.) Humility (fay she) requiring that we thinks meanly and mo- 
deftly of our own Reafons^ Charity that we judge favourably of another s y 
and Prudence that we thinks heft of the Magiftrates y all theft together 
make it our duty not onely to obey y but to do it with all chearfulnefs ima- 
ginable. Anfw. i. No humility teaches me in the matters 
of eternal Salvation, to put out my own eyes to fee with an- 
other* fpe&acles : my neighbours eyes may be clearer and 
Wronger than mine, yet mine are mine own *, he that has bet- 
ter eyes than I, has this happinefs, that he may direct himfelf 
better, but yet he would direct me mrfe, without the ufeof my 
own : a Chriftians own Reaf&n y informed from Gods Word, is the 
immediate guide of his fteps in all acceptable obedience to,and 
walking With God. Blind obedience in this cafe is no obedience. Hu> 

niility teaches me to think my felf a ww% and therefore may err \ 


but not a brute, which annot but err : it neither teaches me to re- 
vere any Creature k my God, nor to defpife my own inteRetluals&s 
if I were a beajl. 2. Though charity command me to judge fa- 
vourably of anothers/f iritual ejlate for the prefent, his eternal fiate 
for the future, yet it commands me not to negleft making^rovifi- 
on for my fon\ it commands me to love another^ myfeif, and 
therefore not above my felf; I cannot expeft another mould be 
true, if 1 prove falfe to my own foul. Its a blind charity, and only/* 
fir the Hofpital, that would make me of every mans Religion,of 
whom it teaches me to judge favourably, for, at this rate I rouitbe 
of twenty Religions, and perhaps, one half of them together 
by the ears with the other half: Charity will heal the evil eye, 
and make it good, but not put it out. 3. Charity teaches me to think 
beft of the Magiftrates Reaion in common Kingdoms, but better of 
Scripture Keafon in the territories of Confcience. And prudence will 
dictate to me, that God, who has placed him in his Political 
Orb, will provide an intelligence to move that Sphaere regu- 
larly, for, ^«*/«/>r4 nos, nihil ad nos but no prudence will teach me 
toefpoufea Religion becaufe 'tisiiis, but becaufe it approves 
it felf to the Tejt, andTouch flone oi all Religion, the Word of God. 

I could learn better Divinity from an hor.eft Heathen than 
this fluff*, P//»j< hath given us this Rule, Cantifmi cujufaue pr<e- 
ceptum, quod dubit awe fecem. And My, Quocirca bene praecipi- 
unt qui vetant quicquam agere, quod dubites aequum fit an ini- 
quum : They preach true Dottrine who warn you not to do any thing, 
whereof you doubt whether it be good or evil. And though fuch a 
prudence as he has defcribed, may contingently do me no 
great hurt at home, yet it will make me a Papift in Italy, a Muf- 
fulman at the Port, a Heathen in China, or rather every where juji 

( 3. ) Its a common mi flake to think Charity, and Companion, only 
due from Governours to their Inferiours in the frame and compofure of 
their Laws, for its due alfofrom Inferiours towards them, and thai they 
make a fair and candid cor.flrutlicn of their injuntlions. The duty 
is reciprocal without doubt, but with great difference we 
pittyand pray for our Superiours under their burthens of 
government, and expert onely pitty from them under our 
loads of fubje£rion-, and though we account fubjetlion nofer- 
vile yoke , yet 'tis a yoke •, as Bernard in another cafe, Dulce 
qnidem conjugiumefl jugum, fed tamenjugum; and yet a companio- 
nate tendernefs towards inferiors in thofe things wherein God 


has tyed up Confidence, is an abundant recompence for all 
that fubjeclion : we would willingly part with all that is pro- 
ferlyourovtiy to fecure chat which is properly Gods? and though 
Magiftrates are ftri&ly above our pitty and companion, yet we 
hope we are not below theirs , If they call for our pitty in a- 
ny cafe, 'tis to fee them tormented with the importunate fe- 
licitations of one part of their fubje£ts to deftroy the other : 
As it muft needs be an unfpeakable affliction to a Father to be 
harafifed by feme of his Children to abnegate and disinherit 
the reft. As 'tis a great injury to the Sun to endeavour to 
monopolize his Beams, to the Fountain, to impropriate its 
ftreams, when the one would mine indifferently, the other 
flow impartially towards all i fo is it a great trouble to a 
generous Prince to have his Favours intercepted, his Royal 
Grace under fequeftration, that he cannot equally influence 
the whole Body, of which ike Grace of Go*/ has made him Head. 

Nor do we dare to judge cur Superiors, but our [elves *, not 
their intentions, but our own attions \ which if we may not do, 
better it were to be diverted of all thefe cumberfom Reafens 
of ours, which therefore ferve to ixreafe our miferf, becaufe 
they teach us what it is to be happy. 

To make a candid interpretation of their Anions, we own 
our duty, and as we fuppofe they fxeer by the light of their 
own judgments, fo we hope tuey will indulge us to act by 
ours *, if wemifiake, we wrong our felves, if our miftakes 
fhould wrong them,we fubmit to correction : if they miftake, 
we muft wait under the inconveniences of the effects of that 
miftake, till the Father of Lights mall infpire other Coun- 
fels, only let us remember, that it is the Princes Glory to be 
Kexhominuiiiy ncn Angelorum. 

(4. ) The Scripture (fays he ) calls the Magiftrates Majlers cf re- 
fir ainty Judg. 18. 17. And its amongft their moft glorious Titles, 
the leaft of which (if any man be called little) we revere:, 
and it will be their immortal honour to refrain wicked men 
from doing evily if they cannot reftrain them from being evil : 
It was a flower in 'jobs Coronet, Ch.29. 17. 2. That he brake . 
the jaws of the wicksdy and pluckt the fpoil cut of his teeth ; Mafiers of 
refiraint they are, not to reftrain Religion, but Irreligion, and 
the infatiabie thirft of thofe which nothing will quench but 
the bloud of their Brethren, or that which was earned with 
the fweat of their faces.- 

(50 ** 

( 5.) Kor would it be a foolifh charity, or blind obedience to permit 
our [elves to the condutl of our Superiors in thofe little things we Jpea/^ 
of: To permit and refign up our felves to the conduct of o- 
thersin Religious matters abfolutely, \s, blind obedience, whe- 
ther a fiber Enquirer mil call them little or no? Though the 
things may be finally the blindnefs of our obedience may be as great, 
as if the things were greater ; blindnejs confifts not in the obje3 7 
but in the faculty, but, 1. The things we difcourfe of, (if 
we difcourfe ad idem) are not little, but the great things of the 
Gofpel •, Great I fay, if we confider the greatneis and dan- 
ger of thofe Principles which they proceed upon, or the great- 
nefs and dangeroufnefs of thofe confidences which they draw 
along with them *, a little fpark^ may kindle, if neglected, a 
great flame ; They fuppofe either that Chrift had not all power 
committed to him in heaven, and in earth, Of that he has given ita- 
way by fome dormant warrant, and clandeftine commifTion,or 
that he never exercifed his power to fettle the Regimen of his 
Church, or that his Edicts may be refcinded, and caffated by 
humane will. And they draw along with them a train of fa- 
tal Confequences, as that 'tis poflible the condition of Chrifts 
Church may be irremediably more fervile than ever was that 
of the Jewifh, if Religion mould fall into bad mens hands. 
But no fin is little to him, that knows what bloud it coft to 
expiate it, what firrow it cofts the true penitent to mourn for 
it, and what pains it coft the true Chnftian to refift it. 2. If 
the things befo little in the judgment ofimpofers,we hope we 
fhalltafte of their companion in indulging fuch little things', it 
ihall be no little praife we mould return to the great God, no 
little returns of duty and exemplary obedience wemould make 
to his Vicegerent, that mould permit us the indifferent ufe of 
indifferent things, and fuppofe themfo, yet the faith of vdtft* 
rent things vs no indifferent thing : But I oblerve, that when our 
Enquirer would have Diifenters punijbt for the neglect oithefi 
things, then they are not little ! then they become the great- 
eft, mightieft, moft important things in the world ; then Chur- 
ches, Government, Religion cannot fubfift without them, 
as accidents cannot fubGft without their fubftances, fo nei- 
ther fubftances exift without their accidents, but when he 
comes to drole us into complyance, then they are little tri- 
fles, minutes, pundlilioes, of Religion. 3. If to refign up 
our felves in matters of immediate Worfhip without a warrant 


from God, to any but God, be not blind obedience, 'tis becaufe 
we are blind, and cannot fee what blind obedience is: We 
freely commit our felves to the Political conduct in all things 
temporal *, a Minifterial conduft we own in our Paftors and 
Teachers*, a Sovereign conduit we would gladly refervefor 
Chrift. We would willingly go any whither but to Hell, do 
anything but fm, lofe any thing but the peace ofourConfciences y dX\& 
part with any thing,but what is mne of ours to difpofe of,rather than 
feem to tergiverfate from the commands of our Governors. 

And as we COnfels the Magijlrate /lands upon higher grounds than 
w, fo we mufl, and without difpleafing our Superiors may fay > 
that Chrift ftands upon higher ground than he, and when we fball 
come to ftand before his Tribunal, there to receive accord- 
ing to our works, we lhall all ftand upon even ground, as to 
any difference that external advantages in this prefent world 
fhall then make. 

( 6. ) We have reafon to perfuade our felves that we may as eafdy lie 
under -prejudices, as they, and that we way be as much tranfported with 
confiderations cf eafe and liberty, as they may probably be fufpecled to be 
with ambition. Anfw. It's the duty of all to watch againftthofe 
temptations, to which we lie moft open from without \ and 
to watch over thofe corruptions, to which we are moft ob- 
noxious from within *, we dare not think it piobable, that our 
Magijlrates are tranfported with ambition', and we profefs that we 
are not tranfported with any bafe luft, or pitifull confide- 
rations tofufpend a&ive Obedience, till we difcover fuch 
tranfport by its proper fruits. But if we muft ftill be repre- 
tented by our fometimes Brethren, but now Perfecutors, as 
mifguided by prejudices, we are forry for it, but cannot help 
it ; and muft place thefe fecret afperlions in the number of 
thofe burthens, which by frequent ufe grow familiar, and lefs 
pinching, and fuch, as feeing they are not to be avoided, 
wifdom dictates they ought to be contemned. And yet we 
fhall pray, that our Magiftrates, like the higheft Boughs of 
the goodlieft trees being moft fruitful! , may bow down 
themfelves with abundance of precious fruits, and drop fome 
of it into the laps of their dcipiled, but loyal fubjefts. 

( 7. ) There are no lefs different capacities of mind, than confiitutu 
ens of body, and as great difference in mens outward circumflances, as in 
either of the former : TheMagiftrate will certainly thence judge, 
that there ought to be as great a diver fity and latitude in 


hisimpofitions: He that has a larger fwallow, let him have a 
larger cann : Let the beft fto.mach have the largeft Trencher ; 
and fince one ftomach will bear what would opprefs another, 
why ihcutd one mans Confcience be compelled to digeft what a^ 
nothers can eafily put over.Either werauft^ffi/e whilft we think 
not thefttm thingsywhich is a fordid piece olmwortby Hypcvifie, and 
no credit to uniformity to congregate fuch Heterogenous ma- 
terials \ or elfe tormented, becauTe our Constitutions, Capa- 
cities, Confciences, Circumftances are not of onefize* which 
is not our fault, for we had not the mingling of our tempera- 
tures, nor the putting together of our frames y or elfe ( which 
we hope they who are wifer then us all will judge moft eligible) 
that every one retaining his different fentiments which impede 
not Chriftianity,or difturb thePeace,may be indulged in a prac- 
fife peaceably managed, fuitable to thofe innocent variations. 
And fince our Enquirer has quoted an old ftory, Khali oriely re- 
peat his words, and leave the Reader to his own thoughts fof 
the application: Thofe that would have the Laws fitted to their humour , 
without refpetl to other men, do but imitate the Barbarom Cuftcm of the Infa- 

■ " ftes, who is faid to have either Kackt all thofe Terfcns that fell 
into be bands, and fir etch" d them out to Im ownfi\e, if they were toofhcrt\ cr 
at 'hem of to his ownfroportiens, if they were too long. And really if any 
of tiie DirTentersbe of that Imperious and Tyrannical tem- 

1 know not why they fhould expe£t that Mercy they 
v I not (how, or institute thcmfelves in thofe priviledges , 
ot w.ich they would eject all others* 

ve heard that the Famous B. Andrews, Difputing with 
the great Cardinal peronne about thefe Matters, urged very 

ly, Thut Man ought not to add to Gods word, left he lofe hit fart in 
the Book^ of life. The Politick Cardinal asks, Why then do you rt- 
tin to: Crofs in Baptifm ? The Bilhop AnfvVered ; Becaufe Authority 
enjcjja it. An -J. for the fame Reafin ( reply ed the Cardinal ) wt 
retain all the reft of the Ceremonies: what Rcjoynder the Bifhop 
n;i;°, [ do not remember. v 

It's the great duty, and will be the unfpeakable comfort 
of all in Authority to preferve the whole Wormip of Chriil 
pure and undefiled, and all the Worlhippers of Chrift in 
peue and fecurity, and when they have done this, they* 
feem to me to have difcharged their Commiffion, and 
may fue out their Qkieim eft , and eafily receive , That huge y 
Well done good and faitbfull Servant, '7hcu baft been faithful in a few 

Y tki*& 


things, 1 will make the Ruler over many things, enter thou into the joy 
of thy Lord. As for them who fear a Prince will have no- 
thing to do, &nc$ Hecejfaries are already determined, unlawfull things 
prohibited, if he may not Determine the rejl : They are worfe 
feared than hurt, God has cut him out work enough in Im 
precept, and many times ( for the fins of a people ) cuts them 
out harder work by bis Providence, and he is little beholden 
to thofe Over- officious Monitors, who prompt him to grafp 
more employment, whilft any lyes upon his hands. The 
Chriftian Religion was perfect and abfolute at all points, 
as it came out of Chrift's hands, and if we make it no worfe 
when 'tis in ours, he will never complain, though we ne- 
ver make it better. 

Alcibiades brings in the Athenians Complaining to the Oracle 
of Jupiter Ammon, that their Enimies the Lacedemonians prevailed 
agahift them', and yet (fay they) we ofer many and cojily Sacrifices, 
when they prefent the Gods with few, cheap, or none. The Ora- 
cle Anfwers (and it might have become abetter mouth) That 
the cAtpwid., The plain fimple Service of the Lacedemonians was more 
acceptable to the Gods, then all the fplendid, pompom will-worjhip of tl)e 

As the great God is exceedingly jealous in this particular, 
fo has he not left himfelf without a witnefs in the Confciences 
of thofe who had no other Notices of Gods Nature but what 
came in by the light of Nature,or fome refracted beaaas of Re- 
velation conveyed to them by Tradition. The Pythagoreans 
taught this Dottrin, that the Gods were to be worjhipt, * uil : ^n- 
juict', accordingto their own good plea fur e : And it was one of theP/d- 
tonical Dilates , that all Divine worfoip mufi be 0sq?/a& , meafured by 
the Acceptation and appointment of God. 

The Conference which Kmna Pompilm, the great Roman Ritu- 
alift had, or pretended to have with theGocldefs JEgeria, in- 
ftrufls us, that he confided little in his Regal power, without a 
Divine Placaet to conciliate a due Reverence to thofe Ceremo- 
nies , which having in them no Moral goodnefs, depended 
wholly upon a pofitive inftitution, and that no Artifice will 
ever preferve a Religious Rite facrcd and intemerate which 
is not ftamped with a )m D'mnum. 

If indeed an Old fragment, a trivial Sentence, or fhred out 
of an Heathen Author, were to be the Canon of our Faith, or 
the Rubnck of our worfhip, ! could eafily comply with this 

' Enquirer 9 


Enquirer, who brings (and 'tis as fair a proof as any he brings) 
a faying of JEmiliut Paul™ to his Souldiers, Vos Gladios acuite ! Whet 
you your Swords-, and be ready to execute what Jhall be Commanded you, but 
leave the Management of Affair* to your General. If Chriftians do 
really owe that Subjeftion in Religious matters to Superi- 
ours, which private Souldiers owe their General in the Field, 
this Contr over fie is at an end, and with it all mjlituted Religion in the 
World, that deferves that excellent Name. It may eafily be 
applied : Provide your knees to bow, and backj to bear, mouths to [ay 
what Jhall be fat into them. Hands to fubfcribe what [hall be tendered to 
you, and leave the Truth of 'Princpiles, the Comyofure of a Worfnif, the 
guidance of Conjcience to wifer Heads. And he might have quo- 
ted us c*fars Commentaries to as much purpofe, where that 
great Commander, upon the reluctancy of his Souldiers to 
engage, fharply chides them, Quod aut quam in partem, aut quo 
Confilio ducerentur, fibi quxrendum aut ccgitandum futarent : Who durfl 
once furmife, or enquire, either whether, or upon what defign they are 
drawn out. And thus at laft w T e fhall be fped both of a Di- 
rectory for worfhip, and a Canon of Church Government ; and may with 
the Traditores of old deliver up cur Bibles for waft paper : un- 
lefs we had rather imitate the famous Legio fulminatrix, who 
knew how to whet their Swords againfl the Common Enemy at the 
Command of the Empercur, and yet to refufe a Religious Ce- 
remony, vouched by no ether than Humane Authority. 

His fine Sentence out of Cato is alfo hugely wide in this 
cafe Nulla lex fatis omnibws commoda , id modo quxritur , fi maiori 
Parti, & in fummum prodefl. Ho Law fits equally eafie ufon all mens 
Jhoulders, the onely consideration k, whether it fuit with the Generality^ 
and be ufeful in the main. 'Tis very true, Law-matters cannot 
apportion out their Civil Conftitutions to an Ounce or a Drachm : 
but one fcrufle of Confcience weighs heavier then a found of 
temporal Inconveniences. If it be true, becaufe in tie laying 
of an Impojl, Cujlom, or Excife, the Minor fart of the Civil Suffra- 
gans muft yield to the Major, that therefore a Religion too 
muft be chofen by the Poll, and God compelled to accept of 
that, or Nothing, which the Majority of Votes fhall allot him, 
Religion Jhall be fure in moft parts of the World to be out- 
voted by At he i fin } Truth run down by Err our, Holme fs prefer i- 
bed by Impiety: As Socrates in his time was a Fanatkk^, Atba- 
naftm in his an Heretic^ ■> and Chrijl himfelf amongft the high- 
trotting Scribes and Pharifees a Deceiver ; with fuch ma- 

Y 2 iimes 

[ 340 ] 

ximes as thefe has chhftianity been proftituted to will and flea- 
fare : Regi aut civitati Imperium babenti nihil injuftum quod utile : To 
a Prince or Common-wealth vefted with Soveraign Power, nothing can 
be unjuft , that is profitable. In fumma fortuna , id oequius, quod vali- 
dity j In the higheft ejiate, that is ever mofi juft, that bo* obtained 
the utper hand. And the Enquirer has approved himfelf a 
Perion qualified with Cameades his Excellencies, Qui fro falfo, 
non minm quam fro vero t vires eloquentix. potejl intendere ', One that 
for time of need can ftrain his Wit, to fet a fair glofs upon a foul 
matter, and with as little trouble can expofe a Truth, as impofe an 


Wherein Chriftian Liberty confifts ? The Enquirers Reafonings 
examined, and Diflenters vindicated from that Infinuation, 
that they pretend by their Chriftian Charter to be dif- 
charged from Obedience to Laws. 

I T is a Priviledge that has too much of Abfolute Sove- 
A raignty in it for the opponent, to impofe what ftate of the 
Queftion he pleafes upon the Refpondent: The Enquirer has 
therefore got the poor Non-confbrmifts upon a lure lock, 
If he can oblige them to maintain , That Chriftian liberty dif 
charges them from Obedience to Laws. 

There are indeed fome haws from whofe Obligation if 
Chriftian Liberty cannot difcharge us, it can do very little : 
And there are ether Laws , from which if Chriftian Liberty 
(hould pretend to give a difcharge, it would aflfume too 

To Difcharge from Obedience, is too Ambiguous a Term to be 
put into this Queftion. For, i. Chriftian Liberty in fome cafes 
does not difcharge us from Obedience , but frevent* the 'Obliga- 
tion : It does not diffolve the Bond , but prevents tiie Binding. 
2. Chriftian Liberty may difcharge from a Keceffty of obedience 
( in fome cafes) which is the formal Reafon of Subjection to a 
Law, and yet not difcharge from the hawfuhefs of doing that 
which is the Material fart of the Law : If a Law be made 
the Matter vs hereof is things purely indifferent in their Natures, 


and thefe things appropriated to the immedi-tc Service of Gody 
Chriftian liberty will not make it unlawfull to de thofe things Jaut\t 
will ftill maintain its ground, that its lawfnll not to do'them. 

Tne Province of this Liberty whereof we now treat,lies be- 
tween thofe things which are necejfary, and fmfull^ as it is fre- 
quently pleaded about the Magiftrates power*, fince things 
forbidden cannot lawfully be done, nor things commanded, 
lawfully omitted, ( in their proper feafons ) the Magiftrate 
muft either have a power in thefe middle concerns^* he can have 
nolegiflativepoweratall : The dime or fome fuch thingl 
would affirm here, whatever is finfull admits of no releafe, what- 
ever is a duty admits of no indulgence •, and therefore Chriflian H- 
berty muft have its appartment in thefe adiapborom things, or be 
quite fhutout of doors 

Now, feeing the Magiftrates power lies only in thofe things 
lv yjtoy K#kV«, fuch as ftand in a pofture of Neutrality, and 
fide in neither, with good nor evil *, and feeing alfo that Chri- 
ftian Liberty has for its fphcre indifferent things, thefe two 
powers muft needs ftrike fire, and their interefts perpetually 
clafli, unlefs fome expedient may be found out to reconcile 
their feeming enterfeering motions. 

Indifferent things may fill under a two-fold Confideration, 
either as they are applied to, or ufed in ordinary affairs of 
humane life :, or as they are appropriated to Divine Worfhip, 
and preferred to ferve in Religious Affairs : In the former re- 
fpeft they come unqueftionably under the Magiftrates cogni- 
zance, which our Bleffed Saviour has put beyond the dye of 
controverfie by his exemplary pra&ice, Mat. 17. 24. Where 
though he might- have pleaded a peculiar privilege, yet he ra- 
ther chofe to wave it, and recommend to us a Angular pattern 
of duefubjection^ in this cafe then Chriftian Liberty ought 
not to interpofe. In the other confideration Chriftian Liberty 
puts in a claim, and this alfo our Saviour has made indifputable 
by his Example, who though he would freely fubmit to a Tax 
of twenty pence, would not yield to their Ceremony of 
wajhing handsy though it was not wofYh a farthing, whenSuper- 
ftition had lifted it up above its place. 

And yet as facred things in their external exercife may 
come under the infpe&ioncf the Civil Powers, in order to 
the fecuring of publick Peace, which is direftlyintrufted with 
him by the God of Order and Peace •, fo many things in their 

Y 3 own 


own nature fecular, come under the jurifdiftion of Chrijlian Li- 
berty, when they fhall be advanced above their pedigree, and 
made either farts ofWcrfhjf, or conditions to the enjoyment of 
Communion therein. 

There are two forts of perfons, who as they are enemies 
to all Truth, fo they are but back-friends to chrijlian Liberty ; 
fome there are who have made it fuch an Idol, that they have 
facrificed things facred and civil to its Deity, and given it 
fuch a boundlefs dominion, as if like Quickfilver, it were 
neither to be contained, fuvsaut alienys terming. Againft thefe 
I fhall need to fay the lefs, becaufe every one has a (tone to 
throw at,a cudgel to bellow upon them : Others there are w 7 ho 
have adorned it with a Hogan Megan title, and yet have cuta- 
funder the finews of its authority, and with thefe it's a meer, 
name, which either with Echo evaporates into air, or with Har- 
eifu* diffolvesinto water. 

But that there is fuch a Charter our Enquirer grants : I fup- 
poJe he has found it amongft fome ancient Records, if it be not 
forfeited for want of Renewing, yet that it has fome confide- 
rable immunities and privileges, he thus demonftrates. 

1. From the gratitude we owe to him that furchafed it ; and 
therefore we may conclude, that Chriftians ftand feizecl of a 
good and indefeazable eftate therein, for it could hardly 
claim fo much gratitude to be Tenants at the will of man. 

2. From the pice it cofi him ', which was no lefs than the/w- 
aouA blood of a Redeemer ; and furely that which could not be 
purchafed with fiher and gold, mould never be fold for the 
higheft offer of things corruptible, 

3. From that ftri# injunction, Gal. 5.1. ?p Jtand fajl in the 
liberty wherewith Chrift hath made w> free, and not to he intangled again 
mththe yoke of bcndagei from whence the Apoftle inftrufts us, 
1. Thar no force can wreft this facred privilege out of our 
Jiands without our own confent \ 'tis our fin if our Charter 
be loft. 2. That we are prohibited tofubmit our necks to 
any Religion yoke* as well as that from whence theDifciples 
were exempted *, forasgfcodhave the back broken with an 
old burthen, as with a new one. 

This Chriftian Liberty being fo confiderable in the funhafe, 
mult be alfo of great ufefulnefs in the fr'afiice ; which that 
we may the better underhand and improve, I fhall modeftly 
give the Reader my thoughts in t^eeniuing Propofdons. 

( 1.) Chri^ 


( i. ) Chriftian Liberty confifts not in a meer liberty of -Judg- 
ment , becaufe •, i. This had been too mean a purchafe for the 
Blond of chrijl, to procure us that which never was , never 
could be denied to any Creature that had a judgment, For, 
2 . Tk Jews , when their moft fertile burthens , had ever a liberty to 
judge tne things impofed, to be indiferent in their own nature, an- 
tecedent to thepofitive Law of God. 3. Such a liberty the 
poor bird in the cage may celebrate, and fancy her felf a 
citizen of the woods, when {he's confined within the grates 
of her little cloyfter 5 fuch a one the prifoner may flatter him- 
felf with : and ir reminds me w r hat I obferved th'other day pai- 
ring in the ftreets, this gilded Infcription invited my eye, Pray 
remember the por Freemen, that are Pri [oner sin Ludgate : "Poor Free- 
men indeed ( thought I) who have only the freedom to tell 
how they have ferved an Apprentifhip with a Mafter,and now 
muft ferve a double, perhaps a perpetual one, with the Goal- 
er. 4. Nay, this would incrcafe the bondage,to be always har- 
ping upon our liberty in atlu f>rimo,znd yet never taftethe fiveet 
in all* femdo. 5. Tuis would render the Chriftian Church in 
a worfe plight than that of the Jews, who though they bore 
more load than we at home, who breath in a freer air, yet had 
this countervailing advantage, that God himfelf was the Imp- 
fer *, It is no fuch bargain to exchange a Divine for a Humane 
yoke, though fomewhat lighter*, and if it be fo, no thanks to 
thofe officious Gentlemen, who would gratific Magistrates 
with a power over all indifferent things, and therefore 'tis but 
contingently that ours is not much more infupportable. 

(2.) Chriftian Liberty confiftsin fomething fratlical, that which 
tends to, and chiefly lies in the ufing, Gal. 5. 13. Te have been 
called unto liberty, only ufe not your liberty for an cccafion to the flefi 1 
where the caution that we do not mij&ft it, ftrongly implies 
that it muft be ufed. And if it lay only in a freedom of judgment, 
the caution had run, ufe it net at all *, all external ufe had been*™ 
abufe of it. 

( 3. ) This liberty muft hold in utrampe fart em, that we may 
aft or not atl, ordetermin thk or that way, or it can be no liber- 
ty *, and this will be granted by all thofe, who deny the will to 
be free, unlefs it have a powerfull freedom towards both the 
Terms •, but as the felf-determination of the will to one fide 
prejudices not its liberty *, fo the determination of our chrijlU 
m liberty ( by our choice, guided by prudence and reafon ) is 

Y 4 no 


flo extinguifhment of its radical freedom. And as external 
compulsion, and foreign force put upon the will, would be a 
violation of its liberty, fo all force put upon this chrijiian Im 
berty, is an annihilation of it. 

( 4. ) He that has enjlated me in this great privilege, has 
alfo commanded me to refrain my felf hi the exercife of it : and 
that, (l) T>y<prudence, when the ufe of an indifferent thing 
would prejudice my neighbours Spiritual good, my own Sal- 
vation, or the Glory of God : in thefe cafes 1 muft not 
plead my chrijiian liberty to art, but exercife my Chrijiian liberty 
to forbear what would oppofe thofe commanding ends of all Re- 
ligion. Qui f admit quicquid licet , hac cito delabuntur ut faciant quod 
non licet ', He that mil always do all he may, Jball eafily fide into the 
doing of what he may not. The fame thing may be uiefully done 
at another. lCor.6. 12. All things are lawful! for me , but all things 
are not expedient. And, Omne quod non expedite in quantum non expe- 
dite nan licet ; Whatever may not be done with expediency, cannot be done 
lawfully. 2. God has commanded me to reftrain my felf in 
the exercife of my Chriitian Liberty by charity to .my weak 
Brother : Tolayaftumbling-block in tlie way of the weak, 
or blind, is a grofs abufe of my Chriftian liberty *, becaufe no 
ufe of an indifferent thing ought to weigh againit. my Neigh- 
bours Spiritual welfare ; and it argues a very light efteem of a 
Soul, when I am too proud to abridge my felf in a trifle, ra- 
ther than hazard his fedu&ion into fin , & cxpofing to the wrath 
of God ^ this Rule the Apoftle was under, iCor. 10.23. A'l 
things are lawfull for me , but all things edijie not ', and when they 
edifie not, Charity commands me to forbear them, in compaf- 
fion to my Brothers Soul. 

( 5. ) Though Chriflian liberty may in fome cafes be retrained, 
yet can it not in any lawfully be refigned : He that lias com- 
manded me to moderate it by the rules of prudence and chanty, 
has yet commanded me to Jland fafi in it ; He that refigns his Li^ 
oerty in one cafe, by confequence gives it away in all ; for 
though hehas not actually refign'd it in every cafe, yet has 
lie virtually betray'd it, by yielding in one, for there is the 
iame reafon of all the reft *, as an owner may forgone ufe, and 
yetreferve the tight, which right will reduce the ufe too in 
feafon \ fo may a Chriftian wave his Liberty in the ufe, ftill fer- 
ying his right, that when opportunity fhail invite^ the ufe may 
artend and wait upon the ngk* 



The main violation of Chrijlian liberty lies in a fixed, fitted, ' 
ferpetual comfulfion to do what God has permitted me to omit, or 
in a like fixed, ftated prohibition to do what God has made W- 
fuR\ for indeed this is. that which mainly diftinguifhes be- 
tween the reftraint, and the infringement of this liberty ' 7 in the re- 
ftraint and moderation of my Liberty by frudence, charity, or what- 
ever other methods God has commanded, though I fufpend 
my ad for a time, yet when thofe circumftances which ren- 
der'd fuch fufpenfion a duty, go off from their places, I re- 
affumethc free exerciie of my Liberty: the Stream for a 
while damm'd up, finds its old free Channel, and Aides along 
in itsw T onted courfe*, but if a Law be made, that I mail never 
aft what I might lawfully do*, or that I fhall always act, or 
always in fuc^i a revolution, and at fuch ftated periods, it's 
then an apparent encroachment upon my Liberty: This the 
Apoftle notably teaches, i Cor. 6. 12. All things are lawfullfor me y 
hut J mil not be brought under the fower of any : ix, k£anaSr^ n>ucu x&ro- 
nv Q-. To be brought under the fover of a thing indiferent, or 
under the power of any ferfon in a thing indiferent, is that great 
violation of this Charter. For, 1. Suchrefignationof myfelf 
to be reftrained fixedly and ftatedly, is to fubferibe, engage, 
and make an implicit vow and oath againft all opportunities of 
ufing my Liberty for the Spiritual good of another, which 
Providence may offer me. Gods Providence by muftring to- 
gether all due circumftances, is the great Direftor when, and 
where to ufe, and employ my chriftian liberty : If then fuch con- 
curring circumftances mould command my forbearance of an 
aft, to prevent the fin of my brother *, if now I have fuffered my 
felt to be determined the other my, that I will conftantly aft, and 
never forbear ; I have tyed my hands behind me from pluck- 
ing him out of the fnare of y«,and perhaps the pt of hell. And this 
is an evil, the utmoft reach of whofe mifenievoufnefs I cannot 
poftibly forefee *, for God may poftibly place me in fuch a jun- 
fture of circumftances, that I might reaibnably hope, might 
winSoulstoChrift,andI have manacled my hands, and cannot 
aft, or hung a padlock on my own mouth, and cannot fpeak j 
or an advantage may be put into my hands to prevent the fin- 
fullfcandal of another by my forbearance, and I am not mei ju- 
ris, but muft aft. 2. By fuch predetermination of my felf in 
tilings indifferent, in fubmiflion to any man, I do as much as in 
me lies alter the nature of indiferent things. For things iinful can 


never be done } Duties ttiuft always be performed in due time and place, 
and indifferent things mould be indifferently uied, as prefent 
circumftances invite prudence and charity to determin *, but when 
once they are predetermined, I can no more do an indifferent 
thing, than if it had been fwfull; or no more omit an indifferent* 
atl, than if it had been necefjary. 3. By fuch a 'fixed predeter- 
mination of my liberty, Iafcribe more to man in his pofitive 
precepts, than to God in his affirmative moral precepts ', for the a£ls 
of fuch Commands may be fufpended pro hie, & nunc, when 
they obftruft fome great good, but inthiscafel muft aft u- 
niformly, withont refpecx to circumftances, let thoufands be 
offended, (tumbled, wounded in confcicnce, and prejudiced a- 
gainft Religion. And in fliort, by fuch refignation of my Liber- 
ty in its exercife, I have reduced my felf to that .imaginary li- 
berty of opinion jhax. dreaming freedom which the Lollards enjoyed 
in their Tower, and the poor Protectants in Bonnets Cole-hole. 

( 7. ) When Chriftian charity commands me to forbear the ufe 
of the thing, which otherwise is within the Charter of chhflian 
Liberty to ufe, and at the fame time the Chhflian Magiftrate fhall 
command me to pratllce very thing by a fixed Law *, I hum- 
bly conceive, that Chriflian charity ought to rejlrain my liberty not 
to ad, rather than the commands of the Magijlrate inforce me to all. 
i. Becaufe the reftraint which charity puts upon me, will 
foon determin and expire , but the Command of Magiftrate is 
ferpetual. 2. The reftraint which charity puts upon me is in- 
ternal, and fo agreeable to, and confiftent with the greauft 
freedom and liberty^ but the reflraint, , put upon me by the Ma- 
gijlrate , is external and compulfory , which comports not with 
my inward Liberty : for if he deals meerly by his mil and au- 
thority, that fuits not with my reafon, and therefore has in it 
the nature of force 5 but if the Magiftrate fhould deal by Ar- 
gument, then when a ftronger appears to act according to his 
precept than that drawn from the good of my Neighbour by 
Charity, chriftian Liberty may be free, and yet obey-, provided al- 
ways that that Argument be taken from the nature of the thing com- 
manded, and not from the naked commands. 3. The weak chriftian for 
whofefake charity commands me to forbear acting, is one that 
cannot prevent his own weaknefs, his ftumbling fcruples, 
andaptnefsto be wounded', but he that commands me to a£t, 
may prevent, recal, or fufpend his own Edict in that which 
in its own nature is indifferent. And God -lias commanded me 



not to offend ray weak Brother by the ufe of indifferent things, 
but he has no where commanded the Magiftrate to impole indif- 
ferent things, which become not fome way or other neceffa- 
r y. 4. It feems a moft horrid thing to inter pre t Scriptures at 
this rate, that I ftiould be commanded to walk^ charitably, till I 
am commanded to walk, uncharitably -, and forbidden to deftroy 
him for whom chrijl died, by my indifferent things, till lam in- 
joy?ied to dejlroy him. Hot to pound weak^ Confciences, till I am com- 
manded to pound them. Thus fhall moral precepts be avoyded by 
human pofitive Lavs, which cannot be fuperfeded by the Di- 
vine pofitive Laws. And if one may be thus enervated, the 
whole Decalogue had no firm ftation : And thou (halt not 
make to thy [elf a graven image, may be eluded by this, till we 
are commanded by Authority , and I am fomewhat confident 
the foundation laid by the Enquirer , will bear that fupr- 

It is therefore a moft opprobrious, and inviduous charge 
with which he begins this Difcourfe. All that we may have hitherto 
difcour fed about the power of the Magijlrate, fome thinks may be avoided 
by f leading the Magna Charta*/" Chriftian Liberty, for though it 
maybe pleaded againft fome power that may poffibly be affu- 
med, yet againft none, wherewith he ftands endowed by the 
Law of Nature or Scripture * 7 nor indeed againft any ufefull 
power for the attaining the great ends of Government, publick 
Peace, and Tranquillity. 

The Church of England in her avowed Do&rine afferts, that 
Chrift has ordained in his Church two Sacraments, generally necefary to 
Salvation , now we conceive, that having a right as chriftians, to 
all the Ordinances of Chrift , necejjliry to Salvation ', Chriftian Li- 
berty may plead the enjoyment of all thofe Ordinances, 
upon thole naked Terms Chrift lias offer'd them to Man- 
kind. This is our Magna- chart a *, and if any fhall en- 
cumber that Communion with new clogs, provifions, reftri- 
&ions and limitations, we plead our petition of Right, which if it 
be denied us, our chriftian liberty is io far violated. 

Nor do we deny the Magiftrate a power about our chriftian li- 
berty, If any fhall turn this liberty into licencioufnefs , he may 
reftrain them: nay, he may reftrain the Liberty it felf, where 
God has not pxengaged us to reftrain it ; and he will eminently 
employ his power for chrift, when he exerts it, to affert and. 
vindicate to all his loyal Subje&s the free ufe of that yreat 

Charter j 


charter; and if encroaching violence fhall make a forcibly en- 
try upon that privilege, whereof we are in quiet and peace- 
able polTeffKHr, we (hall complain of the force to him, who 
will remove it, and reinveft us in our Chriftian freehold , 
whereof chrift has made the purchafe with his own bloud. 

Two things there are which the Enquirer has luftiiy promi- 
fed us, and therefore we may confidently expeft from him : 
firft, that he will give us the true notion, andfecondly, x\\tdue 
extent of chrijlkn liberty *, and he has freed his name pretty well, 
for firit he has made it a meer notion^ and then laid an extent up- 
on it, that is, he has feized it into his own hands, upon pre- 
tence for the Magiftrates ufe. 

£i. j And firit for his true Motion, (for none cry {linking 
Mackerel) there are two things alfovery confiderable \ the 
liberality of bis Concerns, and the policy of bis Retractation^ 
He makes US fair Urge Deeds, but With a [met power of Revoca- 
tion fruftrates all *, fo that when we come to caftupour ac- 
counts, we muft fay, with that bewildred Clyent, in the Co- 
median, when he had advifed with his brace of Advocates *, 
Probe feciftvs, incertior fum multb quam dudum. 

( i.) For his Concefwns, they are truly noble and generous, 
and fuch as would heal us all. 

§ I. Conceffion, p. 88. Wben tbe Gofpel was fully publifhed, tben 
tbe aforefaid inclofure is laid of en, and all Rations invited into tbe So- 
ciety of tbe Church upon equal terms, neither Party being bound to tbofe 
vice laws of Mofes, nor to any other, but tbofe plain and reafonable ones 
contained in the Gofpel: This is certainly the great year of Jubilee! 
and will he notdeferveto be fhut out for ever, that fhall re- 
fufe fo free an invitation? Is he a reafonable creature that 
refufes the plain and reafonable terms of Communion, contained in 
the Gofpel? what a hideous monftcr would a Schifmatick be, 
did Churches keep to thefe Terms ? But his limitation retra&s 
all this again. 

• And fuch other ( not contradictory to them ) as public ^ wifdom, 

peace, and charity , pall diclate and recommend. Now you have 
it ! Thus the Crane moft curteoufly invited the Fox to dinner, 
but fitted him with fuch terms af communion , that un- 
lei's he could ftretch his neck as long as hers, he fhall have 
his belly full of nothing but hunger : Efurire licet, gujlare non 

It minds me of the ftory of Santl'm the King of Arngcr?* 



Brother, who marching againft the Saracens, diverted himfelf 
a while at Rome; the bountifull Pope, who is always prodigal 
of what cofts him nothing, caufes him to be proclaimed, 
SanB'm by the Grace cf God King of Egypt, &c. The noife of 
Trumpets calls him to the Belcony, and he asks what was the 
matter ? he was anfwered, that his Hol'mefs had prefented 
him with the entire Kingdom of Egypt *, prefently he com- 
mand* his own Trumpeters to go, and falute the Pope in re- 
quital. Caliph cf Baldajh : Thus has the Enquirer gratified us 
with an empty Conceffion, which by his retratf ation is £%*» 
"AcAy^v • I mall not need to obferveto the Reader the egre- 
gious folly of fuch Propofitions. We are not bound to the Lam 
of Mofes ( u e. as Terms of Communion ) nor any other , but 

fuch other That is, we had been free, but that we are in 

bondage. Negatives are infinite *, and under that one word 
T fuch others] we may be pefter'd with more than thofe nice 
Laws of Mofes. For, i . Who can tell what public/^ Wifdom may 
determin? the publick Wifdom of Italy, and Spain, has intro- 
duced fuch a lumber of thofe other Terms, asfcath eaten out al- 
moft all Religion, with the DivertifementsWf Judakal, Paga- 
nical, whimfical Constitutions : The publick Wifdom ofAbaf- 
fiahas introduced Circumcifum it felf, and no thanks to thefe 
Principles, or the Difcourfes of Eraftian Hovellijls, that the cafe 
is better with us. 

2. Peace and Charity requires no Other Terms then thofe plain 
•es hid down in theGofpel', Charity teaches US not to lay ftumbling 
blocks in the way of thofe that will come towards the Church -, 
Peace requires US to unite upon Chrifls cwn Terms ', but the name 
of Peace is often ufed to ddlroy the thing: fo Aufiin of old , 
Ecclefia nomine armamini <b contra Ecclefiam Vomicatk. Thus are 
we gogled to part with our Chrifiian Liberty for Peace, when 
as the parting With the Ceremonies would fecure both Peace, 
Charity, and Chrifiian Liberty. 3. It's very childifh to put the 
determination of theft other Terms of Communion upon the 
Trefviri, publicly Wifdom, Peace, and Charity. For what if they 
accord not in their votes about the Terms? what if perhaps 
public^ Wifdom fhould clafh with charity ? Charity mould fay, 
I will have no Terms of Communion , that may exclude 
perfons of homfi hearts, though weaker inteUefluals ', but public J^ 
Wifdom fhould contend for font ether intercalated conditi- 
ons, which may render Divine Institutions more auguft and 



folemn. 4. Nopublick Wifdom can poflibly determinupon 
thofe other Terms, in a way that (hall fecure the interefts of Cha- 
rity, nor in what cafes I am bound for her fake to reftrain my 
felf in the ufe of my chriftian Liberty. For the prudent admea- 
surement between my chriflian Liberty, and my Chanty to my 
Chrijlian Neighbour , depends upon the view of the particular 
circumftances of time, place, peribn, which cannot come 
under the profpeft of publick Wifdom : Suppofe a Command 
were given forth from publick Wifdom, that I mould at fuch 
a time, and in fuch a place, drive a Coach with violence down 
thehigh-way, and when I come to execute this command*, I 
find multitudes of little Children playing in that high- way, 
the circumftance of theft perfons was not forefeen by public^. Wif- 
dom; muft that therefore take place of my charity to dertroy 
the lives of thefe little ones, or my charity fubmit to public^ 
Wifdom, and fall pel-mel in amongft them ? Our Saviour has 
commanded us not to of end any of hk little ones, telling me that if 
I do, It were better that a miljlone were han£d about my neck^, and I 
cafi into the fea. Bublick Wifdom may perhaps command me to 
doiomething ncnfcnfull in it felf, but when I come to obey, 
I find evidently it muft fcandalize them •, liefer it to chanty, 
Peace, and Prudence to determin this cafe between them. 

§. 2. His fccond generous Conceflion is. There lies now no more 
bonds upon the confciences of Chriftians, than did upon the ancient Pa- 
triarchs, faving thofe improvements our Saviour hat made upon the law 
of tiature, and thofe few pofitive hiflitutions of his exprefly Jet down in 
the Gofpel. And what a bleifed day were it with the Chriftiau 
world if we might fee this made good ! This would fhut out 
of doors all thofe Janus Articles, penn'd by wife Reconciler j, to per- 
fuade the combating parties firit to make hands, and then to 
fall more furioudy to cudgels. This v\ ouid (hut out of doors 
all human Impofitions, forftalling our Communion with the 
Chriftian Church. 

But now mark the Retra&ation. And that men obeying thefe 

are at liberty to conform to whatfcever common Reafo?i, Equity and public^ 
Authority fhuU impofe. Had he not turn'd wrong at the hedge cor- 
ner, it fhould have followed thus. And that men obeying 

thefe, are at liberty to enjoy all the priviledges of the 
Goipel. But, t. Is not this a broad Contradi&ion, that 
there's no more bonds upon our Confciences, than upon the 
Patriarcbs 7 and yet we are bound to lubmit to thofe other Terms, 
1 impofed 


impofed by publicly Authority} That is, we are at liberty upon their 
Terms: And we may ferve God as cheap as they, but that we 
muft ferve him at dearer rates : Did Abraham receive the modes 
of worfhipping God from Gerar 9 ov the Terms of ferving God 
from Egypt: and yet thofe Kings where he fojourned were 
friendly, and extended their Royal bounty to him. 2. We 
are at Liberty to conform to what ft/ever common Reafon, Equity and pub' 
lick Authority flail impofe : At Liberty to conform ? but are we 
at Liberty not to conform, if common Keafon Oppofe public \ Deter- 
mination? it's an idle thing to put the determination of my 
Liberty upon Reafon, Equity and Authority, unlefs we were af- 
lured they (hould always agree, which yet in fome countries 
may not be till the fecular Games, or the Greek Calends. 3. This 
is in effect to fay, that if we obey what Chrift commands us, 
we are at Liberty to give away our Liberty in all the rejl: whereas our 
Liberty was given us, not to give it away at a clap, but to dif- 
penfe it inparcels^s weak chriftians have occailon to borrow of us. 

§3. He conceeds yet further , for Liberality grows upon 
his good Nature. Our Chnftian enfranchifement difc barges w. not 
o?iely from a neceffty of obferving the Law of Mofes y arid the Rites of 
Judaifm y but further , and efpecially fets us at Liberty to purfue our 
own Reafon. And can he pretend to be a Rational creature, 
that will not fubmit to it's Diclates? If ever Chrirtian Li- 
berty have icope enough, it mult be when it expatiates 
in the fields of our own Reafcn , I am confident , the moA 
ftreight- laced Preoifian cannot pretend he is pincht: Bat 

now the Limitation ! And to obey any Laws of men that 

flull not contradicl the exprefs Laws of Scriptnres. 

Ifuppofe there are very few or none in the would that 
form their Laws exprefly contrary to Scripture Laws, an ] yec they 
make fuch as may as ejfetluaUy fruftrate tr.e defign of Scriprure 
Laws, as if they had in terms point blank eontradnfte them : a 
rare Liberty this is ', and was the foundation of rha r Geitiemans 
humour, who profefs'dhe would Preach in a Fools coat, if the King 
flould command him. For I do not remember that -h, t contradicts 
any exprefs Law: amongft all the crafty devices ot the Devil to in- 
duce our Grand- mother Eve to eat of the tree of Knowledge ; and of all 
the weak excufes of Eve for eating of ti ee, I wonder : This 
was not thought on, that it was not contrary to any exxrefs Law of 
God. For,Gen. I . l6« God commanded the \TiZX\ faying, of every Tree of the 
Gar dm thou may 7 ft freely eat : But of the Tree of knowledge of good and evil 


thoujbaltnoteat: But it feems the Devil had not learnt the So 
phiftry to evade the precept, becaufe the exprefs Law was given 
to the man, and not to the woman : There are Confequential Laws 
which we have no liberty to contradict : That a Minifter contradict 
not, deftroy not the ends of his Minifiry *, a Chriftian the ends of his 
Chriftianity : And it had been impoflible that all Negatives 
(hould be exprefled, Tboujhalt notfiand upon thy head : Thou Jhalt not 
mar a Fools coat : Thou Jhalt not flay at Dice, or Cards, in the worflup 
of God : but thus he thinks he has made good provifion for a fate 
conformity to the ceremonies, becaufe it is not faid *, Thou Jhalt 
not ufe theCrofsinBaptifm', Thou fn alt not ufe Cream , Oyl, Spittle, Thou 
Jhall not conjure out the Devil. At which backdoor came in all the 
fuperftitious fopperies of Rome. And with this paflport we 
may travel all over the world, from Rome to the Port, from 
thence amongft the Tartars, and Chinefes, and conform to all, 
for perhaps wefhall not meet with one Conftitution that con- 
tradicts an exprefs Law of Scripture. 

4. Co?iceJfic?i,p.iqi. I have a power in utramque, and may do , or 
leave undone all thofe matters thit are not defined in Scripture. Tnis 
indeed make amends for all : for if it be part of my Liberty 
to leave undone what's not defined there, as well as to do what 
is not fo, I have no great Reafon to complain for want of 
Liberty •, but yet there is a reftrittion behind that recalls 
one half of this— According as publicly Laws and the ends of all So* 
ciety, Jhall require. Thus all along the Reader will obferve 
that he feems to Retreat from his Fort in the Concejfion , and 
when we are mounted he fprings his Mine , and blows us all 
up, with his Ketratlation. The fumme of this liberty then is 
thus much: we have a liberty in utramque, but you fhall be 
determined to one: you may do which you will, provided you 
do which another commands you , you may purfue your own Reafon, 
provide you do not Purfue it, but the public^ wifdcm •, you are 
not tyed up to any other injlitutions, fave onely thofe plain ones 
of the Gofpel, provided you be obliged to fuch other as Authority 
Commands. This is fuch an utramqne, that I have been ftudy- 
ing what fhould be the Suhjlantive to it , and I cannot ima- 
gine what, unlefs it be in utramque, cither a good benefice, or a 
comfortable importance: I (hall further offer thefe things. 

1. Chriftian Liberty may be reftrained by Vublic\ Authori- 
ty, and by private Reafon, but if pu! lic^ Authority reftrainit one way, 

and my private Reafon, would reftrain it another, and the publick 


13 K 1 

Authority frail carry it againft my own Reafon, not only 
Chriftian, but Humane Liberty is violated. 

2. The perpetual determining of my liberty to one part, 
that I may in no cafe -ad. the other way, whether it be by an compulfxry power, or by my own Superjiition, is a violation 
and deftruftion of my Chnftian Liberty. 

3. Authority, Peace, Charity prevailing with my Reafon, to de- 
termine one way, will not violate Chriftian Liberty, for when 
the great ends of Peace and charity fhall ceaie to be obtained 
by fuch determination, it's fuppoied alfo that Reafon will cafe, 
and Authority ought to ceafe, to continue fuch determination. 

4. If Peace and charity fhall ceafe to call for fuch a determina- 
tion ad unum 7 and thereupon my Reafon ctufe to put me upon fuch 
a determination, and yet Authority (hall continue its determina- 
tion \ my Chrijlian Liberty will warrant me to follow my own Reafoih 

That which was the intolerable burthen of the Jews, which 
they were notable to bear, our Enquirer tells, p. 186. was 
efpecialiy this : That the Law of Mofes enjoynd a great number of 
little Obfervances, which by their multitude were hard to be remem- 
bred, by their Nicety difficult to be obferved, and by their meer pejitive 
Nature, and having no ejfential goodnefs in themfelves, bad lefs power 
upon the Confcwices of Men, to awaken their care and diligence about 
them ', and becaufe it's hard for the mind of man to attend to many 
things at once , efpecialiy if alfo the things in which his care and obe- 
dience a required , be fuch as are not enabled in his Confcience , and 
when he cm fee no other Reafon of, or advantage by hvs obedience but 
meerly hvs obedience, therefore was Law called impoffible. ThiSj 
fay the DcfTenters, would be their cafe, mould they fub- 
mit to what the Enquirer pleads for, and therefore an in- 
fringement of their Chriftian Liberty* 

There is one Text of Scripture by which he will prove 
that his is the true Notion of Chriftian Liberty: The Apoftle 
(fays he) in fever al of bis EpijUes, but efitdally that to the Ro- 
mans , enjoyns the Chrifiians in their fcmples about eating of certain 
Meats, and in the Condutl of themfelves to conftdt Charity towards their 
weak^ Brethren , the peace of the Church , and their own Edification ; id 
which puipofe he advifes us to fee Rom. 14. and chxp. 15. Now 
if the Reader will be Ruled by me , we will venture for 
one quarter of an hour to look into thofe places, let the: 
danger be what it will, and I am confident we fhall not find one 
Chriftian Liberty determinable by any outward power : v~3* 

% • Thg 

The Apoftle lays down the only true way of maintaining Peace 
and Love amongft Chriftians under their various apprchenfions, 
and various practifes. Let not him that eateth, defiife him that eatetb 
not, and let not him that eateih not, judge him that eatetb. And to this 
Rule the Canons of 1640. did attend, Can. 8. We recommending 
(not commanding) to the fit-ion Confuieration of all good People, the 
doing Reverence and Oheif ante at their coming in, and going out cf the Chur- 
ches, Chancels, and Chaff eh, in the fraclife or omijion of which Kite they 
defire that the Rule of Charity, frefcrihed by the Afojlle, may he obferved. 
That they which ufe this Rite diffife not them which ufe it not, and that they 
who ufe it not, condemn not thofe that ufe it,' Which Rule was it ap- 
plied to all other matters of the like Nature, would undoubted- 
ly preferve what of Low it left , and recover that meafure of 
Chrijlian amity, which is lojl. Peace may be had under differing Motions 
about indefferent things, and peace may be had under differing prac- 
tices fuitableto thofe differing Notions, not by fcrewing up theweak^ 
to the latitude which the ftrong allows himfelf, nor by pulling 
down tbejlrotigto the narrow pra&ifes, wherein theveakjxt con- 
fined, but by the firong Chriftians not defpifmg the weak^ and*/><? 
weah^Chriflians not judging his more grown, and flronger Brother, 
v. 4. The Apoftle gives alleafon againft this uncharitable judg- 
ment : who art thou that Judgefl another mans Servant ? Every Chriftian 
as to b>s Confidence, is Alienifori, the Servant of God: And if he 
be fummon'd before a Forreign Tribunal , may plead , It is 
Coram non Judice. To his own Mafter he Jiandetb or falletb: v. 5. Let 
every man be fully jerfwaded in bit own mind: The things before may 
perhaps be indifferent in themfilves , but yet if we have not a 
full aflurance that they are fio,- we are bound to fufpend out 
aft. For, as our rejoycing muft he in our [elves, and not in another, 
fo muft our Satufatlicn: 'Tis not the clearnefs of a pra&ife 
in anothers mind that will warrant my afting, I muft be ful- 
ly fatisfied in my own mind, v. 13. The Apoftle lays down an 
excellent Rule for the prudent reftraint of our Chriftian Li- 
berty. Let in not therefore judge one another, but let every man judge 
this rather, that no man put a ftumbling-block^ or an occafwn to fall in his 
Brothers way. If my Chrijlian Liberty will warrant me to aft, 
yet Chrijlian Charity will teach me to moderate my felf in the ufe 
of that liberty, when fuch a6ting would occauon the fin of 
him that, is not fo perfwadedof the Lawfullnefs of my Faft, 
which is to be limited to things of this Nature whereof 
he treats, namely, things inidfferentj for if my Brother 


will be offended at what God has made ray duty^ there's 
no Remedy, but that he lay afide his unjujl cfince^ and not 
that I lay afide my necefary duty-, v. 15. The Apoftjc gives 
a Rcafon of his former Rule : If thy Brother be grieved with thy 
Meat , then wdkejl then not Charitably \ And much more if he 
be fcandalized , and drawn into fin : Is it not a moft unchri- 
ftian humour to infift fo peremptorily upon doing i becaufe 
in it felf Gurful^ when Charity countermands that doing, and 
therefore* 'tis unlawful in the ufe. DeJ}>cy not him with thy Meat 
for whom chrijl dyed : furely thou haft little value for a Soul 
Redeemed by the Blood of Chrift, if thou wilt for a for- 
ty indeferent thing hazard its eternal damnation : Our liberty to 
acl mutt ftand out of the way, when a Brothers Soul comes in 
place", v. 19 Let us follow the things that make for Peace, and the 
things may edifie one another. Here we have another Rule for 
the reftraint of our liberty in things indifferent : When 
the ufing my liberty would difturb the peace of the Church, 
I muft ccafe to a& : for the pong may forbear what he judges 
Lawful, and yet the weak, cannot do what he judges fnfuh And 
therefore ft> theftronghe fpeaks thus, v. 22. Haft thou Faith have 
it to thy felf before God: Art thou perfwaded fuch a thing is Law- 
ful, notwithstanding the many violent preemptions of others 
ofitsfinfulnefs, keep they judgment to thy felf-, trouble not 
the Church with thy Orations,let thy difputing Talent yield 
to the weak judgment of others. But to the weak he fpeaks 
thus, v. 23. Be that doubtelh vs damned if he eat ; becaufe he eatcth 
not of Faith , for whatfoever is not of Faith is fin. 

All this while here's not one fyllable of reftraining Chrifti- 

an Liberty by the Authority of another by outward force and vi- 
olence , all muft be determined by a Chnftians mk Prudence^ 
as moved by the edification of another s Chanty to his Soul , and the 
peace of the Community : not a Word to confult my cwnfeadar ad* 
vantage- and emolument', Not a letter that Confcience, Chriflian Li* 
berty, Private Wifdom, my own Keafon muft be impreffed to mi- 
litate under the command and conduct of the publicly wifdom, 
the fublici, Keafon , or the fublidt Confcience. 
That is therefore thejthing which he muft bring about by foftie 
links of Conferences, ibme trains ofdedutlions *, And he advances to- 
wards his conclufion, by winding ftairs* that we may be lead 
fenfimfinefenfu to the top of his matter* to the height of his deugn 
witnout taking notice of our afcent, and the whole contrivance 

Z 2 of 


cJf this Chap, lyes in the dexter out management of this one Eng'in, 
( I.) His firft Pojhdatum is this : That Chriflian liberty doth con- 
flfl in a freedom in utramque: ( pray do not miftake him ) that is, 
that antecedently to the Considerations of Prudence, Peace and Charity, ffs 
equally in the fewer of a Chriflian to do or not to do, any, or all thofe things that 
are not ex frefly forbidden by the holy Serif tures. Very good ! Then I 
will affume : But to love God with all my Heart, and Soul, and Strength, 
is one of thofe things which God hath not ex frefly forbidden in the 
Holy Serif tnre : therefore antecedently to the Confiderations of Vrudence 9 
Yeace and Charity, tfs in the fower of a Chriftian to love, or not to love 
God with all his heart, and that ChrijHan liberty confijls in this free- 
dom in utramque. 

I am not (o uncharitable as to think that the Enquirer owns this 
conclufwn, or that anyfrincifle ne holds will infer it: All I note it 
for is to evince to him, that he has worded his matters befides 
his own intention, and,that he intended really to have faid : 
That Antecedently to the Confiderations of Vrildence and Charity,\Cs equally 
in the fower of a Chriflian to do or not to do, any or all thofe things that are 
not exf re fly forbidden by, nor contraditl the exfrefs laws of the Scriftures, And 
taking the words according to the frefump ion of his meaning and not 
the letter, I lay, i. Here's fomething more than Truth. That 
Chriftian Liberty gives us a power to do what is not exprejly 
forbidden: many things are forbidden by confequence, which are 
not ex frefly forbidden. I pray iliew me an exfrefs frchibition to 
recognise the Vofes Supremacy *, To fubferibe the Trident in e Decrees* 
And if this be part of the Enquirers Chriftian Liberty, to 
do what is not exfrefly forbidden, I hope he will not find him- 
felf agrieved if we judge that he , and fome others of the 
fame Latitude , are not at fo irreconcileable a diftance from 
Rome, as they would be thought. 

2. As all is not Truth , fo neither is this the whole Truth : For 
chriflian liberty gives us a Power to do, or not do the things 
neither commanded, nor forbidden, not onely Antecedently to the 
confiderations of Prudence , Peace and Charity , but alio , Firft, 
Subfequently to thofe confiderations ; that is, as foon as ever 
thofe confiderations fhall ceafe j and , Secondly, Concomitantly with 
thofe confiderations-, that is, further they fhall reach: 
For though I fufpend my aft in charity to my weak 
Brother, yet am I impowred to Aft at the fame time out of 
the Cognizance of my weak Brother*, and as foon as 
thofe confiderations of Peaci and Charity fhall vanifh , no other 



confiderations feparate from them,ought to keep the reftraint 
on foot, but my liberty recovers its former luftre. 

3. There is much ambiguity in the Jumbling the confidera- 
tions of prudence, feace, and charity together:,for the confiderations 
of peace andcharity are- objeflive, fuch as I am to confider as the 
motives and inducements to reft rain my Liberty \ but the confide- 
ration of prudence is fubjetlive, that is, frudence is that vertue 
which is to make a judgment, when, and in what cafes, .thofe 
two, pace and charity, are confiderations fuffkient to inforce fuch 
a reftraint ; fo that, would we fpeak plain Englifh, the matter 
amounts to no more than this, that antecedently to my prudent 
confideration of the concerns of peace and charity, I may do, or 
not do, whatfoever is in it [elf indiferent -, which truth will 
be too feeble a foundation to ered't his intended fuperftruclure 

( 2. ) His fecond Toflulatum is this , That it is no infringment, 
hut an exercife of this liberty, aUudly to be determined to that fide, to- 
wards which prudence or charity Jhall incline ', though in the mean 
time the other fide be in general as Lmfull at- th:\t : It would ill be- 
come me to teach him how to word his own Conceptions , 
though I mould rather have chofen to have expreft my felf, 
not disjuntlively, [_ to that fide towards which prudence or charity 

Jhall incline ] but rather conjunctively, [_ prudence and charity ] or 
moft properly Q prudence at the invitation of charity ] for prudence 
inclines me neither one way nor other, further than as fhe is 
diredledby the confiderations of peace and charity, the good of 
my felf and neighbour, nor can the interefts of thefe two ever 
be divided. But I anfwer, 

I. That it is no infringement of Chriftian liberty, fbr prudence to 
determin upon mine own a£t •, as that / will not do an indiferent 
thing, when Peace, and the Spiritual good of my Brother pro- 
hibit me * 7 becaufe the Scripture, which contains the charter of 
chnflian liberty, has alfo directed my prudence, thus, and in 
thiscafe toreftrain it: but yet (which is the thing he drives 
at) to be determined to one fide by outward power, civil force, na- 
ked authority or will, when my own reafon can fee no prudence in 
fuch a determination, is an evident infringement of my li- 
berty : fo that to be deter mined to one fid* may be an infringement^ 
when I am determined by violence or menaces *, and yet to 
determin my felf upon the confiderations of Shanty and, 
may be none j for in the former cafe, I fee w reafon of my 

Z 3' ■ obedi- 

[358 3 

obedience, but my obedience', but in the latter I am determined 
by my own ektlion, upon rational grounds, becoming a rational 

2. Though a prudential determination not to aft, at the 
requeftor command of peace and charity, when otherwife I 
might haveafted, btno infringement of my radical Liberty, yet 
it IS a refiralni of my liberty, which the Enquirer calls, p. 208. A 
denying himfelf fome fart cf bit liberty, and therefore it feems im- 
properly called an exercife cf liberty ', 'tis indeed an exercife of 
wy prudence, an exercife cf my charity, but hardly an exercife of my 
liberty, further than as tie mil is the principle of luch reftraint 
and determination. 

3. Though Prudence may teach me not to aft, but to adhere 
to the tide ot chanty, yet prudence muft not take her meafures for 
not afting from fuch poor, low, felffb confiderations as the faving 
or gaining thofe outward advantages to my fell, which are 
the great idols of Prudence falfely fo called, which is no better 
than carnal policy, and Jinfull felffmefs; but from theintereft of 
Gods glory, the advancement of his Gofpel, and all this 
hnafde, for if Prudence mifiakes in her reckonings, an 
imaginary good end will not indemnifie , and flwe her 

( 3. ) Tkfetrro points thm gained (as the Enquirer fancies) 
spill give abundant foundation for a third to he inferred from them, viz. 
That whatfeewr is fo free to me, that I may do it, or not do it, accord- 
ing 06 J Jhall be inclined by the confiderations of brotherly ekirity and 
tomp.iffwn, mufiof neceffity bealfo, at free to me to obey the Magijhate, 
and ferve public^ peace, and order in. 

Let us but refolve this unwieldy Propofition into, its diftin£l 
branches, and we fhallneednomoretoexpofe its nakednefs. 
I. Whatfcever I may do at the command of Charity, I may do at the com- 
mand of Authority m order to publics-peace : Now to furnifh him 
. W r ith a minor, but I -may praclife the Ceremonies at the command of eki- 
rity, therefore I may pra&ife them at the command of autho- 
rity in order to publicly peace. And now for the proof of the minor 
we are as far to feek as ever. 

This thenistheQuintefienceof his Reafonings, theutmoit 
refort of all the wit and learning of this Chapter, which in 
other, and more ad vantagious words to his purpofe he gives 
us thus: Whatfcever I may do ni companion to -my Brothers infirmity y 
Jureiy that I may much more do in reverence to Cjd- Ordiname , tne 



Imfull Magifirate, which is the pint 1 have all this while drove at. 
But this Conclufion, hower he feems cock-fure of it , 
\v ill no ways follow from thofe premifes ; and the fallacy of it 
isfo thin, tnat its tranfparent to the weakeft eye. In the firft 
pflulatiim he allows a freedom to a6t, if? utramque, antecedently to 
the confiderations of pudence, pace and charity. In the fecond he 
afferts, that its no infringement of this Liberty, to be deter- 
mined to one fide by pudence or charity. In his third, that we 
may (and therefore may) a£t or not aft, according as we 
(hall be determined by Authority. I fhall fum up my Anfwer in 
thefe particulars, and conclude. 

§ I. Though the law fall Magiftrate be Gods Ordinance , yet it 
remains a queftion undecided, whether he be Ocds Ordinance fo 
far, and for that end, to determin of things indifferent, antece- 
dently to the determination of Gods providence, by gathe- 
ring together all due circumftances, which ought to deter- 
min the natural indifferency of the things aforefaid : Many 
things are true fecundum quid, which are not fo fimfliater. But 
if he mall judge it a prize worth all his labour to impole upon us 
with fo broad Sophifm,muchgood may his own dream do him. 
§ 2. Though the larffull Magi/irate be Gods Ordinance, yet its a 
greater Queftion ftill whether he may determin my Liberty/?? 
ntramque, to the one fide, when Charity would determin it to 
the other ? that is, whether he has power to command me to ail, 
when Charity pohibits me to aft, or make it my duty to moie y 
when charity commands me to ftmd jlill. 

It's true, the concerns of a true and defirable pace and charity 
are infeparable *, nothing can advance the defrgn of the for- 
me:, but what does really fubferve the intere/t. of the lattery 
forfo has the Apoftleconjoyn'd them, Rom. 14. 19. Let w> fol- 
low after the things that make for pace, and things n herewith we may 
edifie one another. 

Whatsoever advances the edification of my Brother* ad- 
vances alfo Peace, uniefs imprudent men have made the terms 
of Peace fo defperate, that 'tis not attainable, without the 
rume of Charity, which the Enquirer confeffes an efcntial fan of 
our Religion : but yet 'tis poifible, that the command of a Ma- 
giftrate may oppofe the concerns of Charity, in which cafe, 
I think without offence I may fay, he is none of Gods Ordi- 
nance to that end and purpofe, nor has God given me any li- 
berty to obey in that cafe : and as fuch a Command would be a 

% 4 direct 

direct invafion of my Chriftian Liberty, fo obedience toluch 
a Command would be a plain betraying of it : If therefore 
tiie freedom to act in utram^ue be determined to the one fide* 
by Charity, I have no freedom (under that pofiture ofcir- 
cumftances ) to fabmit to a determination to the other fide at 
Ure command of Authority. 

§ 3. As the lavpfull Magiflrate is Gods Ordinance, fo is it an ex- 
frefs ordinance of the fame God, not toufc my Liberty in iridic 
fferent things,when by fuch ufe my Brother is made weakly or ftum- 
hied or ofended, Rom. 14.21. And it is a hard way of concluding, 
That what one Ordinance of God countermands, that I may do at 
the command of another. God has often fuperfeded general com- 
mands by facial ones, but I find not that lie has inftituted any 
general Ordinance to fufpend the duties of a [fecial command* 
He that fays, If thy brother be offended, eat not, has given no 
power to any to fay, Though thy brother be of ended, ygt eat: And 
jf our own Prudence upon the view of all circumftances mail 
determm , notwithftanding a command to at! by the Magi- 
strate, yet cannot this be interpreted irreverence to Gods ordi- 
nance the lav full Magnate, unlefs we will fuppofe, that by (hew- 
ing obedience to the m, we muft be irreverent to the other of 
Gods Ordinances. 

§ 4. Chriftian Liberty is committed to every Cluiftian to 
keep for the ufe and behoof of his weak^ Brother, and not to refign at the 
p;eerf lea fare of another : pubiick Peace and Charity ihall not 
need to weigh againft one another, for their interefts fweet- 
lymeet together, kifs each other, chriftian liberty has intitled 
me to a right in things indifferent *, Prudence will direct me how 
to ufe it for my own Spiritual benefit ; Charity will oblige me 
to manage it for the advantage of my . weak Brother, and the 
Command of God juftifie me if I refign it not up to meer will 
and pleafure,or any thing that fhal come in competition with it, 

§ 5. The Magiflrate himfelf is Gods Ordinance, the great 
Officer and Minilter of Jefus Chrift, to fecure and preferve 
the great, cfaner of Chrijlian Liberty , facred and inviolate, a- 
gainitallthe encroachments of thofe, v\ho woald commit a 
rape upon a privilege>in it felf fo mn.ocent,to others foufeful, 
and in the price paid fox it fo invaluably dear and precious. 

Thefumof which is thusmuch, that though Charity and 
Peace are always agreed when to ufe, when to reftrain my 
liberty, yet if any power without reference, rathe concerns 



of thefe (hall endeavour to reftrain my liberty,by commanding 
mc to do what Reafon and Prudence fhall inform me, are re- 
pugnant to thole ends*, fuch command is a plain infringment 
of my liberty, and my obedience a plain abufe of my liber- 
ty, unlcfs we can imagin, that its an exercife of my chiflian 
Liberty i to ad: againft the great ends of Chriftianity, or an 
exercife of my freedom, to run againft the dictates of my 
Judgment and Confcience. 

To conclude therefore, if this be that great thing, he 
has all this fbik drove at, I muft tell him, he drives at too furious 
a rate for me to keep pace with him \ but thus would Phaeton 
drive, though he fet the world on fire *, fuch was Jehu's career, 
though he thought himfelf more than God ; and fo have I fecn 
your hair-brain ? d Drivers refolve to nhiftU cut their wbiflle , 
though the cart turn over. 


Of a Tender Confcience, what it is, and its Privileges ? 

TT was a malicious artifice of Julian the Apoftate, to erect the 
•* images of the Heathen gods in the Forum near his own fta- 
tue, reducing hereby the Chriftians to this Dilemma, either to 
feem to worfhip the Images, whilft they reverenced his Sta- 
tue, or contemn their Sovereign, by refufing to bow before 
the Images*, into the fame {freights would the Mates of Ce- 
remonies bring us *, that either our Loyalty muft argue us into 
a Conformity to their intentions \ or Ron- conformity mail be an 
interpretative contempt of Authority: Thus has it ever been a 
fuccefsfull Policy to twift their own Concerns with thole of 
Majefty and Royalty, that they may not be feparated. And 
when they have laid up their little knacks amongft the facred 
KHUi-\ia,m his Majefties Jewel houfe,to touch one Ceremony, 
istofteal the Crown. 

Confcience has ever hitherto maintained a good repute a- 
mongftthe more civiliz'd part of mankind, and he been ad- 
judged a perfon unmeet for converfe, that mould once profii- 
tute and debauch it *, It will therefore be expedient at leaft,nrft 
to reprefent it as an ufurper, and then to execute it as a irajtU. 

I pittied that innocent perfon, who being faft afleep, and 
dreaming no harm, an affaflinate puts into his hand the blouciy 


knife wherewith he had committed an execrable murther*, 
upon which violent prefumption being apprehended, heisar- 
raign'd, condemn'd, executed. 

Thus the Jews found no better way to deliver our B. Saviour 
over to the fecular Powers,than to mifreprefent him as an ene- 
foy to the Temple and ctfar, Church and State \ and when they 
had arrayed him in a Mock-robe, put a Reed-fcepter in his 
hand, and a Crown of Thomson his head, lead him out with 
triumph to be crucified. 

The Enquirer being very fenfible, that this Conftience has been 
an old enemy to the dear concerns of Ceremony, tells us 
feelingly, That unlefs we can pull down this ufurper, we mujl look^for no 
Magiftracy \ and except we di [cover the weaknefs and abfurdity of this 
Tretenfwn, all endeavours of reftoring Uniformity in the Church, will be 
kiain and ufelefs, 

. The mafter- piece of Jezebels policy was,to make Haboth moxc 
than he defired to be, that he might be really lefs than he de- 
ferred to be. I Kin. 21. 9. Proclaim a fifl, and fet Haboth on high 
among the people :, and fet two men, fons of Belial to bear falfe witnefs 
againft him, faying. Thou didfl blafpbeme God and the King, then carry 
him out, and jhne him that he may dy\ 

. ThisConfcience (fays he) js thought to have not only a privi- 
lege, but a kind of prerogative, to carry with it an exemption from all 
humane Laws, but efpecially Ecclefiaflical :, it pretends to be Gods peculiar, 
end exempt from any inferior Cognisances nay, it looks lik§ a Vitlatori- 
A)i Authority, and feems to be Lcgibus foluta. This ( they would make 
sw believe) can limit the Magijlrate, null Laws, forbid Execution, and 
which is more, change the very mture of things, and make that good and 
<holy y which wo* wicked and rebellious before: This can canoni\e any Opbu- 
W, legitimate any Atlion, warrant any extravagancy in the perfon that 
fwns it j whatfoever he thinks, can be no Herefie, and whatfoever he does 
can be no fin. 

In which charge he hath fprinkled here and there a word 
of Truth, for he that would be believed in a great faljlwody 
jnuftbe fure to interfperfe fomt little verities. Confcicnceis a 
moft abfoluie Monarch indeed, if it has all thefe prerogatives, 
of hisownConfcience, to bear falfe witnefs againft his neigh- 
bour*, and if we call things by their proper names, by un- 
worthy, fcandalous infmuations, finifter reflexions, and falfe 
accufations againft Diflenters, to provoke the Magiftrate to 
prefcribe them as Out-laws. But I anfwer* 

§ i.- The 

§. i. The higheft immunities I ever meet with, afcribed 
to Confcience are in Bifhop Sawder fn, a moft zealous ftickler 
for Ceremonies, Serm. on Rom. 14.23. There cannot (-fays he) 
be imagined, i higher contempt of God, than for 'a man to defpife the power 
of Us own Confcience, which it the highe)} under heaven, ai he big God$ 
mcjl mnxdiate Deputy for the ordering his life and ways ', Bt*riH a- 
*7rzcit it Gw)ti4vj>s €>ib$.Could the Heathen fay* Confcience vs a God to 
all man, which is fomewhat a higher note than the Enquirer 
makes the Diffenters fing ', that it pretends to be Gcds peculiar ; 
and vs exempt from any inferior cogni\ance. 

§ 2. It's a moft injurious charge, if applied to Non-con- 
formifts, that Confcience can alter the nature of things, make that good 
which wot wicked and rebellion before, & c. All they fay in this par- 
ticular is with Ames. Thef. de Confc. 18. "Tanto vis eft Confci- 
"entise, ut aftionem lua natura mediam, efficiat bonam vel 
" malanr, &fua natura bonam, reddatmalam, quamvis illam 
"quaifua natura mala eft, non poilit convertere in bonam. 
So great it the power of Confcience, that it can make an indifferent to 
become either good or evil ( <u'u(, to the perfon) and an aft. ion, in 
its own nature good, to become evil \ although it cannot make that which 
w in its own nature evil, to become good. Which powers are clear- 
ly afcribed to Confcience by the Apcftle. 1. The power to 
make an indifferent, or good afiicn in it felf, to become evil to 
him that judgetb it to be evil, and vet will venture upon it, Row. 
14. 14. To him that ejhemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it v> un- 
clean. 2. Its power to make an indifferent thing good, ufing 
it to Gods Glory, with all other due circumftances, is clear 
alfo from Tit. 1. 15. Vnto the pure all things are pure. But that 
it can alter tl>e nature ot tr.ings, that it can make an action evil in. 
it felf to become good, that it can null Laws, are fuch powers, 
as no Cafuifts have ever attributed to it, but thofe whofe 
Confciences. carry an exemption from any neceflity of fpeaking 
truth, when 'tis in order to the advancement of their Caufc. 
But it is too common for men to charge others with the 
wickednefs of their own thoughts and hearts, and what was 
once their own old Crime, to make other mzx\s new aaufations. 

§ 2. As to the power of Confcience to excufe error from He- 
xefte;, we fay, that there maybe a material Herefie, which is 
not formally fo ^ what a man judges to be a real Truth, though 
poffibly it may be a dangerous errour^ yetuniefs there was pra- 
ya, difpofitio, as the caufe of that errour, or fomething of cb- 



flinacy of the will in adhering to it *, Brouy and Heterodoxy it is, 
but Herefie it cannot be •, that is, it will not denominate the 
ferfcna Heretkkj. Thus the learned and judicious Mr.ffe/«, /ft re- 
fie Han aft of the will,not of the reafion, and is indeed a- lye, not a mi flake % 
for elfe how could that faying of Auftin be true. Errare poifum, Hae- 
reticus eflfe nolo, Imaypofibly miftake, hut am refohed never to be 
an Heretic^ that is, by a tenacious and obftinate .abetting any 
miftake after Conviftion. 

There are three things, which we are obliged to wait up- 
on our Enquirer in. i. Whilft he entertains us with his Difcourfe 
what Confidence vs. 2. What a tender Confidence is ? 3. What privi- 
leges or exemptions it may claim to. 

C 1 . 3 What Confidence is? now ( fays he ) if men loved plain En- 
gliih, and to undejfland what they fay, it is plainly this, and no more ', 
a mans own mind, or underftanding, under the diftinft confederation of 
refiefting upon himfielf, hvs own atlions and duty. He may call this 
flain Englifa if he pleales, define and defcribe his own Confidence 
how he will, but we poor people are edified much what as 
With the Rhemift$?araficeve,Atymes and?araclett,\\A\0 feeing there 
was no remedy but they muft tranflate, were refolvcd that 
few mould be the wifer for the Tranfiatim. 

There arefome things that look odly in this Defcription. 

§ I. It feems very improper to affign the mind or underftanding 
for the genua of Conscience. For Confidence is not i\ faculty 7 but 
an aft fieatedin a faculty 7 or the exercife of the faculty of the 
underftanding, putting the will upon operation : Thus that 
fore-mentioned Bifhop, ibid. The mil of man (which is the foun- 
tain whence all our aftions immediately flow ) fhould conform it fielfi to 
the judgment of the praftick^ underftanding, a* to its immediate rule, 
and yield it fielf to be guided by it. And indeed the office 01 
Confidence, is not onely to judge what is good or evil, according 
to thofe notices it has of God from the light of Nature and 
Scripture, nor only to take cognizance whether the will has 
obey'd thofe dictates of the praftick underftanding, but to 
be a monitor and counfiellor, nay a commander to the will to aft ac- 
cording to its difcoveries of good or evil, this is good, there- 
fore I charge thee to do it 7 and this is evil, therefore I com- 
mand thee to avoid it. 

§ 2. It feems very defeftive, in that he tells us of the mind 
refiefting tyon aftions, and yet mentions not with reference to. 
vbofie aiithority it is fo pragmatical, as. to meddle with thofe acti- 


ons *, whereas all that Confidence dilates as a wmftUor ; all that 

Confidence determins as a Judge, is in the name 'of the Supream and 
Sovereign Jehovah. Jam.<\.\2* There's one Law-giver who is able to fiave, 
and to dejlroy, and who art thou that judge]} another ? Rem. 1 4. 4. Who 
art theuthat judgeft another mans fierv ant? to bis own m after be flandetb 

§ 3. His Dcfcription feems very lame, in that he makes the 
whole employment of Confcience to be reflections whereas 'tis 
in its commiffion to ditlate before the fatt, as well as to refleCi up- 
en the fail. It teaches what we ought to do, as well as enquires 
and examins whether we have done well or no ? and fuch a fai- 
lure will expofe us to great miftakes in this cafe *, as that we 
are not bound to examin the lawfulnefs of our work before 
we aft, but torufh headlong upon the precipices of dubious 
and fufpecled things , and examin them afterwards at lea- 
fure. Whereas the Apoftle condemns the Gentiles, efpeci- 
ally that they knew before fuch and fuch things to be evil, 
and worthy of death, and yet not only did thofi things, but took 
pleafurein thofie that did them, Rom. I. 32. 

Of fuch a Confcience as this he will certainly make a pro- 
portionable improvement} For Scarcely (fays he) any man thai 
fiays his Confidence is incontrollable, will fay, his own Opinion or Reafion is 
the ultimate rule of )m atlions. Truly I believe ib, nor any 
man neither that fays his Confcience is controllable, except he be 
out of his fenfes ; for I would fain be informed what an ulti- 
mate rule fignifies with him that pretends to fipeakjplain Enghfh, 
to them that underftand nothing elfe ? I have heard of a Sub- 
ordinate and ultimate end '. And I have heard alfo of a near, and a re- 
mote rule, but an ultimate rule, like thatmonfter which was like 
a horfie, and yet not a horfie, is lik$finfie, but in truth very non-fienfie. 

All that we affirm of Confcience, as 'tis a Rule, is no more 
but this ', That it is the next and immediate guide and diretlor of cur 
aclicns ', and that the mind of God, however notified to us, is 
the next and immediate governour or director of Confcience', that 
as nothing can poffibly intervene between the command of 
Confidence, and the will and executive power in man ', fo nothing 
can pofibly interpofe between the Authority of God and the 
Confidence ', and both thefe are exprefly owned by the above- 
mentioned learned perfon, Dr. 5. 1 . That God is the immedi- 
ate Controller of Confcience by his Word and Will revealed 
to US, Confidence (fays he) hOodsmoJl immediate deputy, for the or- 


tiering the life, andwuys of men. 2. That Confcience is the imme- 
diate rule of our anions :, the will of man ( fays he ) fhould conform 
it [elf to the judgment of the p-atlick^ under ftanding, at to its proper, and 
immediate Rule. 

And fuch were once the notions of that great Man, when 
he is profefledly pleading the caufe of Conformity, which had 
never been waved, but that wife men are aware, the caufe not 
to be tenable, if Confcience be not made a piece of non-fenfe,\whote 
nature and office are therefore incorfxderable, becaufe unintelligible. 

Butfome wife men or other it feems have formed a parcel 
of Objections (orelfe he has formed them to their hands) 
which he will anfwer, and then fuppofehimfelf victorious. 

I. Objection. Allowing Confcience to be nothing but the mind of 
man, yet even fo its fubjeel to no human Laws ', forafmuch a* no man can 
force me to thinks cthervife then I do, nor compel me to be of bis Opinion, 
in the inward fenfe of my mind, my mind therefore or confcience is only 
cbnoxim to God. 

To which he replies. [_T\\tAnfwer to this iseafie, for fmce my 
in'md it not infallible, I may and muft have fomething to guide my mind, 
and that is it which we call Law. ] 

!♦) whichl rejeyn. That this is an eafte y but not zfatxfatlory 
anfwer. For, 1 . The remedy is not proportionable to the difeafe \ 
forifthereafonwiiy my mind muft have fomething elfe to guide 
it, be, becaufe /Ae wfadxk not infallible ; the fame Reafon will 
inform us to have recourfetoa better guide than that which 
he calls Law, because human laws are not infallible: It will mend 
the matter but forrily to take me off from one fallible guide, 
and fend me to another. 2. Since the mind of man is thus 
fallible, and there is a neceffitythat it [wo. fomething elfe to guide 
it in its determinations. God has provided an infallible directory in 
his Word, in all things concerning his immediate Worihip, 
and that is it which we call the Law of God. 

3. But if thewrW of man bi f Alible in its Directions, as well 
as human Laws, it's fafer to be guided by that which God has 
made my next diretlor though fallible, than by that which be- 
ing alfo fallible j he has not made fo. God has conrtituted Con- 
fcience the next and immediate ccunfellour to my will, the next and 
immediate de\uty under bimfilf, and therefore to err with hu* 
man Canon, agamft rhe voice of Confcience, is to defpifeand con- 
temn the Authority of God) in who fe name it (peaks', whereas 
to err with my Confcience^ human Decree, is but a part 


of that frailty, to which all imperfeft creatures are obnoxi- 
ous. 4 Nor is it univerfaliy true what he fays, that the Z-t» 
( of man) morally obliges (to follow its Directions) thatk, it 
will be my fin if I do ?wt' 7 for if my fin if I do obey in fome cafes, as 
well my fin if I do not in other. •, at leaft the Apoftles w r ere of 
this opinion, Aft. 4. ,19. Whether it be right in the fight of God to 
hearken to you more than God, judge ye. Whatever inconveniences 
therefore mall arife from an abfolute refignation either to the 
lavs of men, or to our own minds direcled by natural light we have 
the infallible Word of God, which is a light to our feet, and a 
lamp to our paths, for the guidance of our particular anions. 

2. Obje£t. But we are hound to obey the dittates of our mind or 
con fcience , before any Law or Command of any human Authority, if they hap- 
pen to interfere. 

He replies, Jt *j true in things notorioufly and plainly evil. ' But 

where thcfe (the Law of God or Reafon) are filent, there the Law 
of the Magiflrate is the immediate Rule of my Ccnfcience, and then to con- 
traditl that, h to affront the pnblickjlribunal with a private Confflo- 
ry, &c. 

To which trejibi, §. 1. That he has given away his whole 
caufeby thiswe Conceal. That a higher Law of God or Rez- 
fon may make a -nullity in the Law of the Magiflrate \ for if Reafon 
in any cafe may make fucha nullity,it muft either be the pubbek. 
or the private Reafon, if the former, then it amounts to no more 
than this goodly maxim, that the the Magiflrates Reafon may make 
a nullity in his law ', but if it be the latter, tnat private Reafon may 
make fuch a nullity, then Confcience guided and directed by 
that Reafon, cannot tranfgrefs the Law, becaufe Reafon has it*. 
ready difanulled zY,as to that particular Perfon : And if it belaid* 
that it's only in things nvtorioufly evil, that Reafon has this fo- 
vereignty to make a nullity in the Law 7 - ? it's eafiiv anfwered, 
that whatever my Reafon judges evil, is notorioufly evil as to 
me, fori have noway to make out the notority of the evil of a 
thing, but my Reafon informing it felf from Gods Word. 

§ 2. W 7 e are bound to obey the Di&ates of our own Con- 
fciences, innota&ing againft them in thole things which only 
appear notorioufly evil-, and God himfelf has tyed up Confci- 
ence from taking one ftep under thole apprchenfions, Rom. 
14. 14. To him that efleemeih any thing unclean, to him it is unclean. 
And the Reafons are very evident. 1. Becaufe, Bonum oritur 
ex integrity malum e qudjbet defetlu, The want of that fingle 



CircuiTlftance of the fatkfacli n of my 'Judgment that it is Law- 
ful makes the a&ion fin. 2. He that has a prepared mind to ail 
contrary to what he takes to be the Law of God, would acl ac- 
cordingly , if it really were the Law of God. As he that dares to ftt ike 
a private Perfon, whom he takes for a Magi (Irate, would no 
doubt have ftruck him though he had been a Magiftrate : Every 
man takes the voice of Conlcience to be the voice of God, and 
he that will difobey that Diftate which he fuppofes the voice 
of God, will difobey that dictate which really proves to be 
his voice. 

3. The goodnefsor evil of an a£Hon, is much eftiraatedfyffo 
will of the Doer. He that judges an atlion evil, and yet will do it *, 
God fees that though the thing wa* not evil , yet he had an evil 
will. The Aft ion was not materially evil, bur it was fo interpreta- 
tive. I muft once more quote the (lime Learned perfon : if a Man 
(fays he) be fully perfwaded in bis Confiience, that a thing k unlawful, 
which yet in truth is -not fo, the thing by him fo judged unlawful cannot be 
done without fin. Even an Erroneous Confidence bindeth thus far, that a 
Man cannot go againjl it and be guiltlefs ', becaufe his pratlifi fhould then run 
crofs to his judgment , and fo the thing could not he done in faith : for 
if his reafon judge the thing to be evil , and yet he will do it , 
it argueth manifeftly, that he hath a will to do evill , and fo be- 
cometh a Tranfgrejfour of Gods General Law , which bindeth all men to 
Efchew all evil. 

§ 3. Nor is this to afront the public^ tribunal with a private 
Confijlory, nor fit up my own opinon againjl Gods infiitutiont for it's 
Gods own inftitutionj Rom. 14. 5. Let every man be fully per - 
[waded in his own mind. 

3. Obje&ion. But if after all my Confideration of the Reafon of 
publicly Laws, 1 cannot fatvsfie my fi If of the Lawfulnefs of the thing 
Commanded , 7 mufl then Govern my felf by my Confidence , and not 
by the Law. 

He replies. If the nnlawfulnefs of the thing commanded is not as 
plain, and vifible, as the Command of God for obeying Authority^ my 
opinion, or Confiience , will be no to me' Becaufe I for fake a 
Certain Rule, to follow an uncertain. 

To which I Rejoin-. That he has made a very unequal compa- 
rifin: viz. Between the tmlawfulnefs of the particular thing , and 
the general command of obeying : whereas the comparifon ought 
to. have been between', either Gods General command not to acl 
againjl my Confiience ; and Lis General command to obey Authority *, 


[3^3 . 

Or cifc between the unlawfdnefs of that particular aSion, am 
Gods command to obey in that particular : It IS piain in the Gene- 
ral, that I ought to obey Authority. And it's as plain in the Gene- 
ral, that I ought not to fin againft the dilate of my Conscience. It 
may>be doubtful 3 and not fo plain, that this particular action is 
finful ; but then it's doubtful, and no more plain, that in this 
cafe 'cis my duty to obey, compare the General Law of obey- 
ing the Laws, with the genera) Law of 'not finning againfi my Con- 
fiiene , and its much more plain, vifible, or what he pleads, 
that I ought not to fin againft my Conference, than that I oughc. 
to obey the Laws of Humane appointment % for that I ought to 
obey the latter admits of many exceptions, but that I ought pot to 
aclt againft the former admits of none. And if Confcience may 
deceive roe in a particular inftauce \ fo alfb may the Law deceive 
me in the particular command; 

This will more evidently appear, if we take the Ranverfe of the 
cafe, thus : If the Latvfullncfs of the thing commanded by the Law, 
h not as plain and vifibld as the Command of God not to acl againfi 
Confcience, no Command of the Magiftrate will excufe me, becaufe 
I for fake a certain Rule, to follow an uncertain. 

God commands me to Obey Authority, the fame God com- 
mands me net to fin againft my Light* In fbme cafes I am not ' 
hound to Obey Authority ; -but 'in, no cafe ami allow d to ail agairfl 
my Light : It's very clear that the Magiftrate has a power to com- 
rnand, but not fo clear that he has a power to determine things in- 
different, and make the fe determinations the conditions of my en- 
joying the means of Salvation: But it's very certain, chat Con- 
fcientia erronea ligat, licet nonobli gat, An erroneous Confcience 
though it oblige me not toad againft what God has made a Du- 
ty •, yet it binds me up from ever acting againft its Convictions j 
And therefore it's fafeft to adhere to the clearer fide, and not to 
acl: againft the Decifion of Confcience, incompliance wi:h a Com- 
mand which it's uncertain whether it oblige or no. 

And in a word, if this way of our Enquirer s'Rezfcmng be fblid ; . 
Then it will not excufe a Proteftant from fin, who refufes to 
bow before an Image when the Magiftrate commands if, Becaufe 
i.i's plain in thegeneral, that we ought to obey Authority, bur not 
•ft plzm rhar it t s~ iinful to bow before an Image, if things dilutable 
be lefs plain than indifputable. 

4- G' ; '' • B'Jt if after till endeavours offatisfringmyfelf 

.A a to> 


to Ob ey the Humane Law, yet the thing commanded by the Magiftrai* 
(however innocent in itfelf) feems to be ds plainly unlawfully as Q- 
bedience is plainly a duty ? What now ? 

He replies, ' this cafe is pityable, and will make fbmeabate- 
' merit of the fin of Difbbedience , but it doth not totally exctife 
c it, much iefs make it a nullity in the Law. 

To which I Rejoyn. That he has now made a very noddy of 
his Objedlor. That can fuppofe the thing commanded innocent 
in it felf and yet to feem to him as plainly unlawful as Obedience is 
a Duty : But to the thing, i. He has put the thing very un- 
faithfully. For we fuppofe the things controverted , though 
Lawful in their abjiracled natures , (arid what actions are not 
fo ? ) yet to be really unlawful in their ufe 9 upon a juft ba Hancing 
of all Circumftances : For we conceive many things Lawful out of 
Wojjhip , which in Worfhip are notfo: Many things Lawful 
when u led without offence, which are otherwile when they give 
offence to the weak:- Many things Lawful when Confcience is fatis- 
■fied, which are notfo under its real difathfaBiom \ many things 
Lawful to be ufed 7 under the power of which it isfwful to be brought : 
2. We fay not that Confcience makes a nullity in the Law, but 
that under prefent Circumftances it will not fuffer us to adt. : 
But if we had ft, we might, perhaps, have drunk in the Delufion 
from his own words fo lately quoted-. ' Some higher Law of 
'God , or Pteafbn, by which my Confcience is guided, hath in 
' that cafe made a nul ity in the Law of the Magiftrate. 3. His 
Reafon . Becaufe///2 is a Tranfgreffion of the Law. Applyed to the 
Law of God is true j but when applyed to the Law of Man, is not 
of univerfai Truth: For neither h the tranfgreffion of a Hu- 
mane Law always a fin : ' Nor at any time is it the formal Reafon 
of fin, but becaufe fiich tranfgreiljon of the Humane Law tranf- 
gieiles fome particular Law cf God, or at leaft that General 
Law", to obey where we ought ro do. 

C 2. His fecond Enquiry is, .What is a tender Confcience ? And 
here ihar nothing Sacred might efcapethe petulancy of Privi- 
.leaded Drollery, he is in aRaprureof facetiouinels, and makes 
fmefport wkhpoor Tender Confcience. 

When Jofialx, that great Pattern of all Royal Virtues, 
r^e great inftance of ripe Grace in green years, had heard 
th£ Book of the "Law read, with thofe dreadful comminations 
rhtiiKlred out agsinft prevarication in that Holy Law, and 


[37i ] 

had duly confidered how his People had incurred the menaces 
by violating the precepts thereof, he rent his cloaths, and voent 
to Enquire of the Lord : Who gives him this Anfwer : ' Becai-fe 
1 thy Heart was Tender, and thou haft humbled thy fdf, I a!fo 
' have heard thee, faith the Lord, 2 Kings 22. 19. 

Wifdom it felf hath taught us: That c the man ishapy that 
' feareth always •, but he that hardens himfelf, fhall ml into 

* mi/chief, Prov. 28. 14. They that know the World is thick 
fown with mares, and rhcfe fhares baited with fuitable Tem- 
rations, will fee Reafon to walk very cauteloufly towards ihc 
World; and to maintain a Godly Jcaloufie over themfelves , 
left they be furprized with the deceitfulnefs of fin : But there 
are a daring fort of Jolly Adventurers, that fear no Colours; 
that will come up to the mouth of a C3non, that neither regard 
Gods threatnings, or warnings, the Devils ftraragems, or the 
Ambufcadoes of the fiefh, but being Fool-hardy, make amOck 
of, fin, and all precifenefs about it j who think it a piece of Gal- 
lantry to dance on the brink of that precipice, that hangs over 
the bottomlefs pit, and can find no fitter eflays of their Valour 
and Skill, than how to come within a hairs- breadth of Hell, 
and yet not tumble in. And thefe are the Men that jail into mif- 

This tenderncfs of heart being of fo great price in the fight 
of God, we muft expect it will not efcape long the fevere lafhes 
of virulent fpirits ; but it will be difficult to perfecute a thing 
fo innocent before it be exposed, and therefore they advifc 
themfelves from Amnons Example, who fir ft defiled, and then 
reviled his Sifter Tamar. 

'A Tender Confcience (faith this Companionate Enquirer )\$ 
'nothing but either an ignorant or uninftrucled mind, or 3 

* fickly, melancholy , and fuperftitious understanding. Which 
he might more confcifely have defctibed without this vaft ex- 
pence of words. A tender Confcienced Perfon is one that bath a 
foft place iiis Head: or had he but fyoke in plainEngliJJj, as 
he did in the definition of Confcience. He is a moft profound Cox~ 

They who Preach this Doctrine to the World, might with the 
fame labour, ana alm.oft equal honefty Preach God out of the 
tVorli: For whoe/er would dethrone God from the heart, 
Hiicoveft but an im :otenr Ambition to pluck him down from his 

A i v? 2 Throne 

i 17* 1 

Throne in Heaven : But when they have run through all theflf 
vain methods to excufs his Soveraignty , God will maintain to 
himfelf an Authority in the Confcience. 

Nay this will deftroy the Magiflrates Power alfo in a while ,. 
for whole fake the Contrivance is pretended ; for when Subje&s 
are onceinftru&cd fo far to debauch Confcience, that though we 
judge an A&ion fmful, yet we may do it, it will lead to this ea- 
£e inference, that though we judge the Magiftrates Commands 
i awful yet we may difobey them : for as we fay, when men 
have got a hole in their hearts, one concern will drop through 
after another without regret. 

When the Italians would call any one Fooi with an Emphafis, 
they fay, He is aChriflianl Hence forwards when the Devil 
tomes his modefter Servants from Cowardifc in finning ,he has 
a nick -name for them, thefe are your men of tender ConfciencesX 
And that which has been a Holy Engine of Gods wifiom to fecure 
from fin, fhall now become the Devils Machine to flefh raw Nos 
vices in it. 

That a tender Confcience is a good Confcience , has been hither- 
to prefumed by all our Divines ; and 1 never met with a Col- 
lect in the Liturgy of any Church that taught us to pray, from' 
the great Vlague of a tender Confcience , Good Lord deliver us ; 
which yet if if be fo great a Judgment, we may prefume they 
would have done. But the Enquirer is of another judgment, and 
perhaps may profelite us with his Reafbns. 

i. Reafon. ' Tenderncfs cannot be taken in the fame Latitude 

* with a good Confcience, every good man has fuch a tender nefs 
' as to be afraid of fin, and to decline the occafions of it : If 
this Argument has any ftrengthinit, itmuft be becaufe every 
good man is a Fool. But why I pray cannot a good , and a ten- 
der Confcience meet in every good man ! Oh the Reafbn is 
this, ' It would be roo arrogant and prefumptuous for thofe 

* that plead the tendernefs of their Conferences to fuppofc them- 

* felves the oniy men that make Confcience of what they do. 
But if a tender Confcience be a good Confcience, it will be ne- 
vertheless good, becaufe fbrne unjuftly prerend to \i 9 or others 
tinjuftfy revile ir. Diffenrers do not luppofe themfelvcs the on- 
ly men that make a Confcience of what they do; It fuffic s 
tfiem to enjoy the peace of their own without caring to judge 
ether mens Confcieiiees,' 

2. Reafon ' 

5, Reafbn : 'Beca-ufe (p/f ^ ) Then the contrary to itmuft 
'be a brawny Confcience. Well ! what hurt is there in that ; 
Soft and hard; tender and callous ', fenfMe and brawny, have been 
oppofed before this Difpute began: A heart offtone isoppofed to 
a heart of flejlo-, and would it notbe a way of Reafoning well 
becominga Rhetorician, to argue, aheartofflejh cannot pofilbly 
be a good heart, the contrary to it then Will be a flony heart . 
The whole Argument ftands thus : Ifa tender Confcience be a 
good Conference, then the contrary to itmuft be a brawny or 
hard Confcience; now afTume. But a brawny or hard Consci- 
ence cannot be contrary to a tender Confcience , ergo. cjfe. He 
that has nothing elfe to do with his time, luhimabu/eitinan- 
fwering fuch Syllogifms. 

Ay / ' but ( fays he ) this would be too contumelious to rc- 
'proach all men but themfelves with: very admirable/ As if 
the notions of words, or things were to be taken from mens rafii 
applications of them to themfelves or others. A tender Con* 
f'cience would be a good Confcience , though the Enquirer had the 
confidence to Monopolize all Tendernefs tobimfelf: And a braw- 
ny Confcience will be an- evil one, though he (hould be fo contu- 
melious zs to afperfe all others buthimfelf with it. 

This way of arguing is a fhooc that will fit any mansfcor, ferve 
any mans occafions , as well as the owners. 

ATender Confcience cannot bean ignorant mind, for it Would 
be too prefamptuous and arrogant for thofe that reproach it to 
account themfelves the only wife men on earth : And then the 
contrary to itmuft be 2X\enlightncdmind\ and it would be too 
contumelious to reproach all the World for Fools but their own 
precious lelves. 

Ufeis the grand Mafter of words; He that will (peak aso- 
t.hers (peak, muft cither underftand as they do, or be content to 
be m'fJnderftood : A tender Confidence amongftusof the Pony* 
lace, is Confcience under that Office of warning us of the danper 
offin ; it Advifes us to take the fafcr fide in things dubious, and 
rather avoid the fmoal^ for fear of the fire, than with Eripe dticfe? 
rufh into the fmoak^ and find our ruinc. 

But the beft of our Entertainment is yet behind : for he will 
now read a very Learned LeElure to this Tender Confcience ': 
which in my weak judgment is m^mirouily abnrd, feeing he. 
fbppofes his Auditors to be all Foolr,\ A cn of Ignorant tpinds, or fjck- m 

A a 3 7* 

[ 374 ] 

lj underflandings : The bufmefs lyes here, how a tendr Confer- 
ence muft be qualified, th,at it may enjoy its P rive ledges } . 

§. i. ■ He rhac pleads for companion upon the account of his 
1 weaknefs ( that is bis tenderness ) muft be fo ingenious as to fub- 
* mir himfelf ro inftruction .- And if the Enquirer mult be the ln~ 
ftru&or, He deferves to wear a Fools Coat for his pains, fori 
would gladly Jearn that as ihe firfi Lecture -, what is the nice and 
critical difference between** Tender and a Companionate Enqui* 
rer ? 

There are two points they fay of Wifciom, the firft , that 
we are able to advife our [elves .: the fecond, that being confei- 
ocs of our own inability, we be willing to fubmit to the advice 
of others wifer than our /elves : But this tender Confcience 
being fuch a widgeon, it cannot be expected he fhould be guilty 
of fuchan Ingenuity. 

§. 2. * He that pretends to tendernefs of Confcience, muft 
'make good his claim by being uniformly Confciencious. The 
plain meaning whereof is this : That he who pretends to be 
a Fool , muft equally maintain the Humour* and carry on the 
Allegory of folly ail the days of his life \ othermfe ( as he wife- 
ly observes ) it will be but Pkarifaifm I 

To prove which deep point, he inftances in David ; c whofe 
5 Heart fmote him when he cut cfT the Skirt of Sauls Garment, 
1 bur it would never have been called Tendernefs of Confcience 
? in David, if at another time he fhould have attempted the life 
^oiSaul. And what he lays is very true, if we take Tendernefs 
of in its true and proper acceptation; but nothing 
trove Ridiculous, nay , more dangerous , fhould we according to 
his New Notion, take a tender Confcience for a rveal^ under- 

1 ask, Di 1 Davids heart finite him when he cut oft Saute 
Garment ? Yes / IUir was it cut of Tendernefs of ' Qonfcience that 
it foiotehini \ why yes / The£;;^/Vfr has juft now told you fc>, 
are you de^i 7 ? Ay I But is a Tender 'Confcience nothing but an igno- 
rant or umnfirucied mind, a/kJ^ly melancholy, or fuperfiitionS under- 
jl ending ? why fhould you be fo importunate : it can be nothing 
elfe: The Enquirer has defined it fo in plain Englijh. Why then 
this is in plain Enghjh the Doctrine under which his Auditors 
muft be prepared tor rheir Priviledges, That David being a Ten- 
der bea.ti.d,\hlliS f a Tender headed Pel Ion , though the 'Tender* 


[ 375 ] 
nefs that is, the flendernefs of his crazed intellectuals, coming un* 
der the difiinci confutation of Reflecting upon his own action, hi * 
melancholy and fuperftitious qualm, rebuked himfeif for cutting off 
the Skin of Sauls Garment. 

But by his good favouF this is too ft vere a Cenfure of that Ho- 
Iv AcSt of David, whole Tender Conscience ( after fome £ jrpri- 
zal ) being recovered, and awakened, feverly fchocled hmi 
thathedurft make Co neer an approach to the Deftroying,by the 
touching of the Lords Anointed. But fuch glories he might find in 
ibme old pair ofBandaleerS. Prifc<cveftigia fraudis. 

Thus the Jews out of Ignorance Crucified Chrift, Acts, 3. 1 j. 
But when Confceince was well informed, and fprinkled with 
that Blood which they had oncefhed ; when Grace had applied 
that to their Hearts, which they rafhly imprecated upon their 
Heads, they were pricked in their Conferences, andcryedout, 
Men and Br ether en, what /hall we do ? It was Ignorance that lead 
to that Murder, but a Conference made tender, and reflecting 
upon their own act, which earned them to Repent^of, and turn 
from their fin. The Rule indeed isamoft excellent one in it 
felf, though wickedly applied in this particular; He that claims 
the Priviledges of a tender Confcience, mufi make good his claim by 
being uniformly Confciencious. For he that isTender of eating a 
black-pudding, and yet not tender of the Blood of the Saints : 
He that'fcruples the Omiflionof a ceremony, though his weak 
Brcthcrperifh by it, yet never fcruples to bear falfe wirnefs, 
nor to murder .the Reputation of another ; he that is render of 
the ceremonial Law of Man, and yet makes noe bones of the Mo- 
ral Law of God, muft not be allowed to plead this Priviledge: 
Though any one may be allowed the Priviledge of our Authors 
tender Confcience, which is only this : That if he holds any Land 
in Capire, hefhajl be beggd for a F00K 

§. 3. • He that is truly Tender, if he cannot do all that is 
'commanded, yet will he do all he can. He that cannot bow 
f at the Name of Jefus,yet perhaps can (land up at the Creed.But 
whar now if this inftance of his tender nefs be impertinent? I quefti- 
cn whether bowing at the Name of f ejus be commanded! However 
DifTenters are excufed by this Reafbn from conforming to what 
they can, unlefsit be matter of their Ambition to be admitted in 
the Cliedge of all Fools. 

To do all we fan to no purpofe, is fmali encouragement to ths 
., attempt ; we are denied Communion with tiie C liurcb m aS Ordi- 

A a 4 nfnees 

n anceS . "Dnlefs we come up to all the Terms of CommunioiL 
'Now face ir's our apparent tlury to live in the practice of aU 
Chrifts Inftitutions, If we cannot enjoy them in one place upon 
Chrifts Terms , his Command, and tendernefs to our own 
Souls obiige us to leek out, where we may enjoy them better 

§. 4. 'He that cannot perform all that the Laws require of 
* him, may forbear judging them that do, the man of a Tender 
'Confcience finds it enough to judge his own actions. This is a 
moft excellent Rule ; and Diffenters dciire no more liberty- 
Let them but judge of their own actions, and they leave all o- 
rhers to fland, or fall to their ovon Mafters. And it ieems hard, if 
they may not be indulged this Priviledge, fince the fillieft Crea- 
' ture that ever was is prefu tried to have fb much wit, as to come 
out ofafhowre of Rain, rather than to be wet to the skjn. 

§. 5. The truly tender Conscience (that is, the Fool all this while) 
tvillfeelypart with money,r)ay,of all the Men in the World there's fo free as he,for a Fool and his money are foon parted. Wei 1 
But if be cannot conform to the Laws, he can pay the Penalty. I 
promJfe you that's a great Qucftion, whether he can or no. 
Where nothing is to be had, '■ the KJng mufl lofe his Right. Bu t if this 
be the grand qualification of a tender Con ft ience to be made a b?g- 
&er t I wonder what his Priviledge can be, unlefs it be to fucceed 
vldClaufe, the King of Beggars. 

For his farisfae1non,it the Penalty be moderate, fuch as I can 
pay wirhoutruin to my felfand Family, though I be notfatisfied 
in the juftice of it, yet" herein I may Lawfully depart from my 
own Righr, and fnall efteem it a great mercy if my coynmay 
compound for my Confcjence. 

( 3, ) Readers, you have heard the qualifications of a Tender 
Conjiknce, be bur now Mafters of fo much Patience as ro fir out 
the Priviledge s; and that lad Scene will make you ample fans- 

( 1 .)' Every private Chriftian is bound in charity and companion 

* toward* fuch a Man, 'to deny himfelfof fome part of his liberty 

* to gain hum ; that is, \n rhof ~ things that are marrer of no Law * 
where you have firft a Bit, and then a k*wckj or the fair Con* 
ceiTion, and the wary revocation. 

§ 1. The ConccjfioQy ' Every private Chriftian is bound in I 
Charity tofuch a Alan, to part with fome of his liberty ro gain J 

4 him: J 

E?77l •• 

j?im : wherein there are feveral things tp be ad vifel upon. j a 
The Subject of the Proportion. Every private Per fan. 2. The 
Nature of theObliganon. Bound in charity and compajjion. 3. 
The Matter of the duty , to deny himfelfoffome part oj his liberty. 
4. I he end to gain him. In few or none of which particulars 
can I arrive at any clear fatisfaCtion. 

(1.) Every private Ferfon. And are not all publicly Per fens 
bound by the Law of God to walkcharitablyl not to deflroy Souls? 
Idoibr we forget that God is here the Legiilatour, with whom 
is no refpeci of Perfons. Chanty is the fulfilling of the Aioral 
Law: And if any Perfon befo publick as not to be obliged by 
it, we muft leave thofe Commands 3 Thou fl?alt donoMurther\ 
Thou Jhaltnot commit Adultery to cxercife the fmall fry } znd ham- 
per the vulgar. 

The Apoitle Paul was a Publicity erfon, and one as well qua- 
lified to difcern, and impole things indifferent, as any that 
feave made the faireft pretences that way, and yet he profess 
with more than ordinary fervency. 1 Cor. 8- 13. i That he 
* would eat no flefh whileft the world ftands, left he fliould 
t make his Brother to oflend. And who (hall venture to make 
that the matter of an Ecclefiaflical Canon, which theApoftle 
durft not venture to pradtiie ? They that aflume a greater 
Authority \ had need give grearer proof of greater Charity 9 
And yet grearer was the importance cf Flefo to the health and 
life of Paul, than a ceremony can pofiibiy be to the peace 0} the 
Church, For, I. Flefh is Disjunctively neceflary to the health, 
and life of Man, that is, ei [her flcih or fome other foo*; but 
neither this, nor that, humane ceremony is neceflary, eirher to 
the glory of God, the peace of the Church , or Decency, and 
order in the worfhip. The Church has ferved God decently, 
lived peaceably, and glorified God eminently without them, and 
in his time may do fo again. 2. F/^j was a thing perfectly 
indifferent in itfelf, and owned fb by all that were well in- 
ftructed ia their Manumiflion from the Mofaical fervirude-, but 
the mere we are faithfully intruded in the Doctrine of Chrifti- 
an Liberty, the more we are farisfied, that we arc at -liberty from 
ail other ceremonies of meniaswe'l as from thofe that were 
once of Divine Infrirution. 

(2) Bound in companion and y Charity. I am not well farisfied 
that a Debt ef nicer compajjion, or free Charity is all wepweoux 


. • L378] 

Brother in this cafe,Bowever; wc owe our God a Debt ofJuJlice\ 
its he that fays, Deflroy not him with thy meat for whom ChriJi dy- 
ed. Rom. 14 15, And that there is no com pari fon between 
the Law that enjoyns Ceremonies^ and that Law that commands 
us not to offend our Brother, I thus prove : i: The Lawrhat/pr- 
bidsfcandal, is Negative; but the Law that commands Cere- 
monies, is but affirmative. 'Now Gods own affirmative precepts 
may have their outward afis fufpended in fbme cafes for fbmetime, 
but Negatives admit of no relaxation ; He thar fays thoujhalt not 
doy fays, thoujhalt never do •, unlets difpenfed with by a power 
equal to his thar gave the Prohibition. 2. The command of 
not fcandalizjng is purely morale the heart, and life of the fixth 
comm-ndment •, for he that fays thou Jh all not kill, primarily 
intends I tfiall not defiroy the Soul: but the command of cere- 
rnoniesjs bmpofitive\ And pofuives ought to give place to Morals. 
If there beany Truth in that Do&rine of the Enquirers : That 
God lays little ftrefs upon circumjlantials : that his own pojitive 
Laws give place to the Moral Law : much more ought Mans Ct re- 
monial Law give place to Gods Moral Law : Thou Jhall not kiil 
?. The command of not giving offence, becaufe Moral, is 
rherefore perpetual-hut the command of ceremonies is Tempora- 
ry , and -may be moraentanv, for the Church of England, 34. 
Art. AHerts a power in every National Church,??^ only to ordain, 
but to change , and abolifh ceremonies. 4. The command of 
not fcandalizing the weak^, not deflroying the fouls is in Materia 
Necejf<ifi<a, the thing if felf is good in ic feif, and for it felf, though 
no pofitive command had interpofed in the cafe; butceremo- 
nies have no other goodncfs, but what is breath'd in them by 
the breath of Man, which if it were meafured by the good erTecl, 
would be found very little. 5 . The Command not to offend, is 
unquefti on ably obligatory , but that Command for Ceremonies is at 
beft quefcionable whether it be fo much as lawful. 6. The Com- • 
mand to avoide offence, has a dire& and natural tendency to be- 
get and preferve Amity and Unity amongft Chriftians •, bur 
the Command of Ceremonies apparently has occafion'd Divifi- 
ons between Prpteftants , and Papifts, between Proteftants 
rhemfelve?, between rhofe of the fame Nations, and all Hu- 
mane Terms of Church-communion neceilarily produce the 
fame btrter fruit* 7. The power of ordering the fmailchVmar- 
ter in the Church, mud conform to the Sovereign end of edifi- 

[ 37 p] 

cation. 2 Cor. 13. id. The Power which the Lord hath given 
me for edification , a?id not deftruclion ; But no power may 
fufpend my ducy of pleafing my Brother ro his edification. 8. 
Suppofing the worft : That it's only a debt of Charity which my 
Brother may challenge of me, not tofcandalize him ; and a Debt 
of Juftice to Obey the Magiftrare in thisca/e, yet the Minims of 
ftfpice ough to vail to the Magnalia ot Charity : As the Command 
ef a Father, in lower inftances, ought toyeeldtothe preferva* 
rion of my Neighbours life. 

($') Some would except againft the matter of his conceflion: 
(to deny himfelf in fome part of his Liberty ) what a" fmall fome 
that may be none knows": perhaps thereis no part of his Liberty, 
which that duty may not Command. 

(4) I except Jaftly againft his propounded end: to plea fe and 
gain him ; as not adequate *o that which the Command has in its 

To Scandalise, or give Offence, may be taken either in a pri- 
mary fence, and fb it denqtes a culpable giving occafion to a Bro- 
ther to fin, or in a lower or iecundary fencf, for the angering , 
and difpleafing of a Brother. This diftinctfon well observed 
would unravel much confufion, which pefters our difcourfes. 

1. If we compare the difpleafing of a private perfon, with that 
of a publicly the latter is more finful, and much more dangerous, 
For the wrath of a iQng is like the roaring of a Lion. 

2. To occafion culpably a publicl^perfon to fin, is more hein- 
ous, than to occafion the fin of a private Per fos, becauie the fins 
of thofe in eminent places have fuch a fatal influence upon the 
peoples pollution, and the procurement of God? difpleafure. 

3. But if we compare a fcandal in the primary fence, with one- 
in the fecondary, then ifsnomeafuringcaft, whether it be more 
eligible to difpleafe the one, or deftroy the other: Nor can 
there be fin in difpleafing one, when I cannot orherwife pleafc, 
but " by deftroying the other : for though my own folly may 
poflibly fo enfhare me ; yet God never purs me under fuch Cir- 
cumftanccs, that I (hall be necefficared to fin. 

§. 2. You have heard his fair concejfiori, now take his Limi- 
tation along with you : ' That is ( fayt he .) in rhofb thing? tharare 
' matters of no Law, but \ef: free, <r«iundererminare, there the 
' Rule of the Apoftie rakes place, Rom. 1 $ . t, 2. We that are 
•ftrong, ou^hc to bear the infirmities of the weak and nor to 

c pleafe 

[ 3«o ] 

*|>1eafeour felves: And, let everyone of uspleafe his Neigh- 
bour, for his good to edification, dud we will add. Kom. 14. 13. 
'Let no man pur a tumbling block, or an occafion to fall in 

* his Brothers way, v. 15. Deftroy not him with thy meat for 
1 whom Chrift dyed. v. 19. Let us follow after the things 
'which make tor peace, and things wherewith one may edify 

* another, v. 20 For meat Deftroy not the work ofGod. 

This is the lad retreat of thefe Gentlemen: hither they re- 
tire as to their Triarif , and ftrong referves. You ought to bear 
the infirmities of the weak^ to edify him heavenwards , not to 
murder hisjoul, till a Law be made to the contrary •, you are bound 
in Charity, and compajfton tofuchaone, till you receive further 
Orders, and then you mud be favags and barbarous : But his 
Reafon s follow. 

1. Reafon : because we may not d$ evil that good may comet 
The finews of which Reafon lye in afuppofition ; that to omit 
a Ceremony, is an evil thing, compared with the faving of a Soul. 
This General Rule may be applyed that other way: we muft 
not do evil that gmd may come, and therefore may not draw a 
poor Brother into ffh, that fome good may come by it ; and the ra- 
rher, if we confider what good comes by it. As the faving my 
felf a pecuniary mulct '-, or Recognizing the Magiftrates power to 
command; which may be done? and is to in many ways, where- 
inthe fcandal of another is not concern'd ; and if I fhould tranf- 
rrefs a Ceremony, or fo, for the faving of a foul, we may Law- 
fully prefume upon the general will of the. Legillator, that no 
pojitive Command of his foould be fo rigoroufly infifted on, when, 
it w T ould deftroy a greater good. 

' 2 . Reafon : We mufl not breaks the Laws of God or man out of 
an humour of complaifance to a Brother: Anf: Todifcharge a 
weinhrv duty, to avoid the fanda'izahgqf a Brother, toW/^ 
charitably-, which the Enquirer p. 137. ( when he had occa- 
sion ro magnifie charity ) tells us is an effential part of Religion : 
ought not to be put off with a fruthy Droll, as if it were nothing 
but" the humcur of Complaifance. 

• The Apoftle whofe'head underftood the fpecularinn , and 
whofc heart entertained the love of this Do&rine much better 
than himfelf, has taught us other things : That toy?/? againft the 
Bretberen, is to fin againft Chrift, 1 Cor. .8. 12 'Tis to deftroy 
ve nl: our meats ( indifferent things) bim for whom Chrifi 'dyed. 

' Rom. 


Rom. 14. 13. And if thefe be matters of humour, aodrW-^ 
pbiftnce, and we fhould venture a ceremony for them, it would 
be but to ftake one complement againft another. 

3. Reafon : 'In thofe times (fays he) the Magi (Irate being 
1 Pagan, took no care of the Church, nor had palled any Laws 
c concerning the management of the Chriftian Religion : And 
1 fo Chriftians had a great deal of fcope, and room for murual 
* condefcenfion. But the cafe is quite otherwife when there's a 
' Law in being, &c . 

Really, the Pagan Magiftrate was very much ovcrfeen, un- 
lefs pei haps he knew nothing lefs or more of his Authority over 
things indifferent •, and then the ApoftJes "rnuft needs be to blame, 
who never inform'd him of that power over the Church, where- 
with Chrift had entrufted him ! And above all St. Paul was ut- 
telry unexcufab'e, having fo inviting an opportunity to do ir in : 
Being fo long at Rome, having fnends inCcefars Houfhold, and 
this m Qtunqiiennio Neronis,when the Lyon was treatable and ap- 
proachable ; befiries this muft have obliged him to entertain bet- 
ter thoughts of Chriftians, and Chriftianity, and engaged him to 
protect, and defend it, when it lay fo entirely at his devoir' 
The Enquirer mftrueled us, p. 144 'that luch a Society as a 
'Church, could never be cenferved without fome Rites or other, 
' nor any publick Worfhip be performed, if all ceremonies, and 
c circumftances fuch as of time, place, perfon, and the like, be 
■ kfz indefinite and undetermined. He has told us fince, thar. 
the power, of Determining and Defining thefe things, lye's inour 
Governours who under ft and the Civil Policy, p. 151. And now he 
tells us, thar in thofe (primitive) times the Magiflrate had pajfed 
rio Laws concernivg the manage of the Chriftian Religion :• fo that 
it was impofiible that either Church Government Ihould be Law- 
fully adminiftred, or publicly Worjhip duely performed- becaufe 
theApoftles were negligent in informing the Emperour of his 
power, or he ctreleis in performing his auty. 

I wonder thatamongft all the Apocryphal Eptiftfes of Chrift ro 
AgobaruS) or Paul to Seneca, we meet with none of the Apeitles 
to Nero. 

' That whereas their Lord and Mafter had left them in great 
' hafte and either through the hurry cf buiinefs had forgotten* 
' orlittlenefs of the things had neglected to fettle hrs Churches/ 
f nor hsd p:flcd anv Laws concerning the manage of Reli^iojv 

^ for 

e for want of which politick conftitutions they were in a Jamen- 
e rable confufion, the worfhip of God lying at fixes, and fevens , 
'the Government of the Church meer Anarchy, none had powei 
c to command, none were obliged to obey, every one did that 
' which was right in his own eyes-, none had power toimpofe, 
' or compel the reft to fubmit to fuch Terms of communion as 
'were neceffary, befides thofe few and plain ones appointed by 

* Chrift himfelfi and forafmuchas'they were altogether by the 
'ears about indifferent things, and they had no Rules in their 

* Law books to determine thefe intricate matters. 

'They do therefore humbly befeech his Imperial Majefty, 
' that he wouldReview ahdRevife their Religion.and add (Lch o- 
' ther myftical cer emonies,fignificant of Gof pel grace,w herewith 
' his well known iery could not but be intimately acquaintecijand 
'that he would take fpeedy, and effectual care with thefe vexatious 
' Tender f who fcrupled eating of meats, becaufeonce 
'prohibited by theLaw ofMofes,and ftraitiy charge,and command: 
' that none mould grarify them in their weaknefs ; and take fuch 
' other, and further order about their Religion, as he in his 
' Royal wifdom, from time to time, and at all times hereafcer 
'mould judge meet^, and expedient. 

And his Petitioners Jhall humbly Pray , &c«. 

But to fatisfy that Aifertion, I mail offer further thefe particu- 

i. It cannot appear that the Roman Emperourshad any fuch 
commiffion as isfuppofed to make that no du ¥ y , which God had 
madetf duty t To make it no fin to give offence , which otherwise had 
been a fin :, nor to add New Terms of communion, or to ihut, 
out of the Church thofe whom the fundamental Laws of Chrifi: 
would receive. 

2. This principle of his reflects moft fcandalouily upon the; 
greateft Temporal Mercy which God ever vouchsafed his 
Churches*, I mean the ChriftianMagiftrate : for it implies, that 
rhe conditions of Chriftians was much more eafy under the Pa- 
gaf? 9 then under the Cbrifiian Mag'ftrate. 'Then {fays he). 
1 the Chriftians had a great deal of fcope, and room for mutual 

* condefcenfion : bur now they are crowded up by reftri&ions. 
Then the Worfliip of God was not cloggd with needlefs cere- 
monies, but now it's incumbred with New Terms of communi- 
on. I might then have releived a weak Confcience, But the 



cafe is quite otherwife ( fays he ; no:v there" $ a Law in being. 
Then I might have ufcd my liberty in indifferent things, and on- 
ly be restrained by Prudence, and Charity, but npw I am debarrd 
of it, by the mil of Authority : This 1 fay is a fcandalous refiedH- 
on : For God has promifed Chriftian Princes as Nurjlng Fa- 
thers to the Gofpel Church, to fecure and protccl them, and the 
Enquirer makes them Step- Fathers, tempting us to think, fhac 
we have got no fuch bargain by the change. 

3. It's clear that the Apoftles had as much power to crder 
thcmeer circumftances of AVorfhip, and Church government, 
as was needful to their exercife, and actual performance, or eife 
all their determinations were finful. 

(2) The next priviledge of this tender conference is : f That 
' "it becomes the Magiftrate (o far toconfider the fatisfa;frion of 
' peoples minds, ( as well as the fafety, and peace of h ; s Dcmi- 
*nions)as not to make thofe things the matter of his Laws, 
'which heforefees mens weaknefs will make them boggle ar. 
This is his Concejfion : wherein he needed not have been foTimor- 
ous. For when the Magiftrare is fettling the civil peace of his 
Dominions, he needs not concern himfeif, whether the people 
will skew, or no. But as if he had been affraid, he had conceded 
too far, he wifely limits the conceflion, As, unlefs there be weighty 
Reafons on the other hand to counterbalance that conjideralxon ; And 
theymuftbe weighty Reafons indeed, that will counterbalance 
the Edification and Salvation of wea^ yet fincere , Chnftians ; 
that will counterbalance the peace, and fafety of his Dominions % 
indifferent things will hardly wei°h againft thefe: But what 
are thofe ponderous things that will make the fcales even againft 
thefe ? why. 1. Such things, which ( though fbme fcruple ; are 
necejfaryto Government: yes, by all means; when things, recef 
fary to Government are put in the baliance, With rife peace and 
fafety of bis Dominions, they ought ro turn the beam : but this is' 
freely granted, that if mens fcruples would overturn Govern- 
ment, they muft fcrup'e on, at their own peril ? But now \tfe arc 
ready to joyn iffue wiih him upon this point • That the thfrrgs 
fcrupled are neither neeejfary, or any ways advantageous to Hie 
Being, well being, or Glorious being of this, or any Government 1 
The Roman Empire was in its greateft Glory, at his highefll pifchj 
when the Apoftles baptized without the Jlgn of thetiofc *Hi 1 
preacht without the Holy Garment : the Chriftian Re>igion ; nake& 


and plain as ChriSt left it, had nor che leaft evi 1, or malignant fa 
iluence upon the peace of that Empire; Though it was the Policy 
of its enemies then,to clap all the Commotions that arofe upon o- 
ther accounts, upon the back ofrhe Chriftian Doctrine; It was 
the popular cry : ■ Thefe are the men that have turned the world 
" uf>Side down. And when the judgments of God broke out up- 
on them for their .persecutions, till to clamour: Tollite Impiosi 
Chriftianos ad Leeds'. Away with fuch Fellows ,'t is not fit they live 
a day \ Nay its evident that many Nations have prospered both 
jn war and peace by Land and Sea, who never knew thecere- 
monies and none the better for them; 2. Such, things which' 
'are grateful to the greater or more considerable part of the 
•Subjects : Tbofe are jirh things which counterbalance tender 
* Conferences, and the peace and Safety of his Dominions, T 
fufpect the Enquirer to be a raw Statefman as well as a crude 
Cafuift: What would he have a Prince deflroy one half. of his 
Subjects to gratifie the other half ? The Apoftle has offered a 
rati maJ expedient, that the one may be gratified , and yet the 
other not deftroyed. Romans 14. 3. f Lex not him that eateth.^ 
' defpife him thateareth not: And Jet him that eateth not, judge. 
•him that eateth. They to whom Ceremonies are fb grateful 
fawce , may have their fill of them, and muft they needs com- 
pel fqueamijh ftemachs to feed on the fame Difh ? The grateful- 
nefs of Ceremonies to fo me mens fancies is no fblid KeaSbn,; 
why a confiderable though not the more confiderable part, Should be 
undone, -tempted to Sin, deprived of Communion in what they 
have a clear right by the Constitutions of the Gofpel. 

Nor are the meafures of confide rabkefs to be taken from out-, 
ward advantages that-fucha one is Rich, a Dignitary, a Canon, 
a Prebend, a Dean, an Arch Deacon , Chancellor, Bifh*. 
op or Arch-Eifhop , for he that i c mofl inconfiderable in thefe. 
r'efpcct-> , is too tonfulcrahk to berttitf£(t either in his temporal, 
or Spiritual concerns for a Ceremony. 

And when all is done, it's a question whether the Ceremonies 
are fo grateful to the greater-arid more confiderable part ? many Scar* 
nedand pic; us Ministers, jmany fincere and fober Christians make 
a rubbing fhi ft to get them down, accounting them toller able," 
though not eligible ; to thefe they ar e not grateful ; but as a bur* 
den of which they cannot fairly di Charge themfelves, may 


C 53 S 3 - 

be gtateful \ and leave but them at liberty, and it will fbon be vi&bk* 
that the matters of our differences are not grateful either to the 
greater, or more cOnfiderable part of the Nation. 

(33 h becomes the Magijbate (fays he) who governs Men, not 'Beaflsi, 
to afford means of injiruftion, and competent time for ihofe injhuttiont to ttijji 
flace: I am glad however, to hear that Sufyefls are not £eajh, but 
Men : the rather, becaufe he told us juft before* That it is the duty of a 
good Magijirate to dnve a* the Cattle can gd. But for anfwcn, 
1. If there muft be time afforded for inftruftions to take place, Then 
fuch competent time mnft be allowed *to every generation , for New 
days will produce the fame doubts. It was a true obferva'tion of 
a learned Perfon « that leave Englifh Men to their EtigUfh Bibles, and 
there will a. new offspring arife in every Age that will have the fame 
apprehenfions About thefe matters , that Nonconformifts now have-. 
a. The time of thefe tiftru&ions, that it may be competent to work 
upon our minds , * will be a confiderable circumftance. i have 
read of one who being asked what God was > Defircd a days time to 
confider of that important queftion : and when that was expired* 
he defired two, then four, frill doubling his time, as he had doubled 
his diligence in his. ftudy of the Point, I am verily perfwaded 
the more impartially, and feduloufly any one (hall examine the 
matters in- Controverfie , the more Reafon he will find to crave 
more time for his fatisfaclion 3 and if he arrives not at a Plerophory 
that the things are jmful, he (ball never be able to reach a full 
ajfurance that they are Lawful: But yet time to consider will be 
acceptable ; As he that undertook to make an Jjfe freak, in time j 
thought himfelf pretty fecure, notwithstanding the impifibility of 
his undertaking ; becaufe he might dye, the AJJe dye, or his Enemies 
dye in the interval. 3. The means of inftruftion are to be consi- 
dered, that apt mediums be ufed for jconviStion, for if Scripture* 
and plain Deductions from thence , if Reafon, and the pra&ife of 
the Apoftolical Churches are not produced for our fatisfaclion, a 
few fcraps, aud fhreds, old ends, and fragments, out of Livie, Ta- 
cities, and Cato, will never do it. 4. And the perfons who are to 
inftrud: us, are no lefs material. They muft be equal and unby- 
aiTcd perfons, who are not engaged by Preferments, Dignities and 
great Revenues to uphold an Intereft ; It mull not be fuch whofe 
Wit andRhetorick make a flutter in the air without Reafon, that 
will probably convince Gainfayers, ani therefore we humbly b*g 
that he may be inftru&ed from the Word of God, ths pra&ife of 

Bb the 

C j36 3 

the \ ureft and prim o Primitive times, and the inftru&ion managed 
from the Writings of the firft Reformers of the Church of England. 
Till his inftruftion be given, We hope, and pray that (as he ex- 
press it) there may. be a fufpenfwn of J\igorous execution.'] 

What now if after aU this the people will not be inftrufted ? (And vhat 
if after all this, and a great deal more to as little purpofe, hey 
have no Reafon to alter their judgment) Why then there's n way 
but one with our Enquirer.— I fee no Obligation upon the 
either to forbear to mi^e, or execute fuch Laws m he app, i 
the good of lis Government. No more do 1 neither : only hope that 
he will not apprehend poenal Statutes made upon tUe acco, 
"Ceremonies with their execution (or rigorous execution), will be 
for the glory of God, the peace of the Church, or the good of 
his Government, though that was our Authors injtnuation : And thus 
we have the ihort and the long of the companionate Enauirtr. 

I muft for a conclufion entreat the Reader tb Recoiled himfelf, 
and remember whereabouts hi* lejfbn is. Jn Part a. ch. i. He had 
mentioned three ways fit the cure of Qburch-Divifxons . The firft 
Toleration, the fecond Comprehenflon , but thefe were either impracti- 
cable, or l{emedies worfe than the Difeafe, it feems fomething or other 
was amifsin them that turned his ftomach at them. At laft he fixed 
upon a third method, and that was this of hftrutlion: Under which 
courfe of Phyiick we have been difriplined all this while: ftrange 
Chimerical inconveniencies we have heard to be in Reparation. 
How very little firefs God lays upon his own pofitive inftitutions : 
what an imaginary Name Chriftian Liberty is 5 what a filly Ridicu- 
lous thing a tender Conscience is - y what a tranfeendent Power Chriit 
has entrufted the Magiftrate with, to majce what Terms of Chriftian 
Communion he pleafes, if not exprejly prohibited in Gods Word. 
In thefe things we have been indoctrinated without reafonable 
proof, and we are, or have Reafon to be as far from fatisfa&ionas 
\ve were, andfomewhat further: Well then, have amongft you my 

Matters! 1 can fee no Obligation Well! It's no great matter 

whether you can or no I If Princes faw with your Itlerical eyes, 
that can fee nothing but Ceremony 5 If they (hould handle Diflfenters 
with your rough Efaus hands, lined with the down of Procufpine > 
did they hear with your ears which chime to the Mufick of the Ca- 
thedral, I perceive it would go very hard with thefe poor wretches. 

Many Clergy-men meafure the Wifdom, Grace, Mercy, Tendernefs, 
and Bounty of Princes to their Subjefts, by their own narrow* an4 in- 

c ?3 7 : 

capable hearts 5 Thus when one told Alexander,, that his bounty was 
too large to beftow upon a Subject 5 He anfwer'd,Tell not me what's 
meet for him to receive, but what's fit for Alexander to give. Princes 
are called Gods, and they then moft eminently anfwer their Names, 
when they imitate him who commands the Sun impartially to (bed 
abroad his beams upon the habitable world, not taking the propor- 
tions of his Goodnefs to his Creatures, from the malice and envy of 
fome, or the little merits of others. 

The Story of Augujhi defar is as remarkable as common. Vedim 
Tollio had once invited this Emperour to a Treat '■> whilft they were in 
the Gallery, comes in a poor Slave, with Death in his face, and Hofe 
in his hatte, caft himfelf at the Emperours feet, and humbly begs, he 
might fufter a lefs cruel Death than his Patron Po&io had doomed him 
to. Augujlm was furprized, and upon enquiry in the matter, under- 
ftands that this Boy had accidentally broken fome of his Matters 
Chryftal GU/fes, wherein he greatly delighted, for which fad his fu~ 
rious Matter had inhumanely condemned him to be thrown into a 
Pond, there to be devoured by the Canibal Lampreys : And this was the 
Reafonof his fo confident Application, to the grace of Soveraiga 
Majetty. Auguft™ tranfported with the novelty of fo Barbarous pu- 
nifhment, commanded the reft of the GlafTes to be broken, and the 
Fiih-pond to be filled up 5 That there might either be no occaiion for 
fuchpafllon, or not the mean; to execute it. 

Let therefore the Enquirer know, who with his fmooth Fralatical 
Charity has given up Diflenters to the Ifods and Axes, that they will 
honour and obey the King, under all thofe penalties which it fhall 
pleafe his Wifdom to inflicl: •, And if they cannot be fo ferviceable in 
well-doing, will indeavour to fufter for well-doing, wi h a heart fo 
fubmittive, and a converfation fo inoffcnfive, that fhall make their 
enemies more repine at the Glory of their fufferings, than the Eye- 
fore of their indulgence. 

Nor yet dare they defpair of the Clemency of their Soveraign, who 
having fuffered hard things in his own facred perfon, has learnt to 
pity them who do fuffer. But if this Qomyiffionite Enquiry be all the i«- 
ftruviion they muft exped: for their fatiffattjon, the Nonconfonrufts 
may have Reafon to fay, they are ill fed, and rwrfe taughu 

Zbi CHAP. 

' ■ ' ' " ■ " 4 



Wherein the Enquirers infimtated Detractions are refelled, 
fome little Amices difcovered. Calvin vindicated, and the 
whole concluded, 

T\Etr$tiion differs from Contumely, juft as Theft from jobbery by the 
XJ Highway. 

The Slanderer is but a Pickpocket , the Heviler a /W<fer *, the one 
can dexteroufly do the feat,and carry ofFhis prize with a caft of clean- 
ly conveyance, But the foulmouth'd J{ailer attacques the repute of the 
innocent Fi & Amis, and pleads his commijfton to plunder. 

The Serious inquirer, in fome of his former Chapters,has with down- 
bright Obloquy aflaulted the credit of Diflenters, but in this he proceeds 
p more dif:r"eetly, undermining their Reputations by oblique injinuttioxs 
Vtn&indirett fuggeftions : whereby he has gained this lingular advan- 
tage, that whilft he lays before the Malicious fuffkient matter to feed, 
and furntfh their malice, yet lyes clofe under the covert of thisex- 
cufe, that he affirms nothing pofitively, at once taking from the 
Aggrieved party all potfibility of jufl defence, and fheltring hi mfelf un- 
der the Politick plea of not being Dogmatical. 

The defign of all which (as of his whole elaborate difcourfe) he 
could not more fully inftruft us in, than in thofe few words of his, 
pag. 2ii. It wm an effectual courfeHzaian took: Efth- 3- 8 * TO ^ & e de " 
jigning to ruine the whole Churcb of the Jews, firfl undermines tb& %epu~ 
, tation of their Profejfwn^ delates thfir Religion as not fit for the Protection 
of the Prince^ and that it did contain Laws contrary to all people, and that 
they would not obey the iQngs Laws. So folemn and facred is that pia- 
Ctife, to love the Treafon, and hate the Traytor, to immediate the Policy, and 
yet decry the Politician, But fure our Enquirer is quite out in one thing; 
for though Hamatfs Policy was fubtile, yet it proved not efeBual, un- 
lefs he account a pair of Gallows fuch great fuccejs : and therefore I 
hope the Enquirer will accept it as a fpecimen of my charity, if I pray 
that he may never take an effeftual courfe - y Examples indeed are nume- 
rous, and obvious, which prove that wicked counfels have moft per- 
aicioufly recoiled upon their Authors, An4 ^halerU (in this one thing 


C 389 ] 

mo/t;uft) taught ^eriUus thefweetnefs of his own "Brazen *Bu 3 by gi- 
ving the Artificer the firft handsale of his ingenious contrivance. 

Nee lex ej} jufiior ulla, 

Quam nectrjinifices arte perire fua. ■ 

Setl* 1. Now his fivft infwuation is, that the N. C. fiand out only 
upon a point of Honour. 

I cannot fee (fays he) wbatjbould be able to perpetuate our diAradions 9 
unlefi it be a point of Honour, that feme men thinks thewfelves obliged™ 
perfevere, becaufe they have begun : which fly Method of Detra&un, as it 
mzyfafelr be contemned by the innocent, fo as eafily retorted by the con- 
fident j for others perhaps cannot fee what fbould be»ahle to perpetuate 
their perfections, unlefs it be a point of Honour, that fome men thin!? tl.em* 
felves obliged to perfevere in their rigorous impojitions, becaufe they have 
begun, andhadraiher juftifieanerrour, than have it thought they have been 
in one fo long. It's a moft unrighteous procedure to charge zW man 
with bafe and unworthy deiigns, further than pregnant overtures will 
juftifle fuch a charge, and yet A B. whitgift has given the worfeloo 
great occafion for fuch a ;ealou(?e, that it was a point of tionotlr that 
obftrucled a Reformation, when his greit argument, to defeat the Pi- 
ous intentions of the Parliament, was, that it would tend to the flanJer of 
the Church, as having hitherto maintained an errour. Nay I have read in 
the Grand Debate Sect. 6, That the Reverend Prelates authorized to 
reform the Liturgy, infill upon this as oneRcafon of their non-con de- 
fcenfion to more alterations : Th .t it would be a virtual Concejfion, that 
the Liturgy mas an intolerable burden to tender consciences. 

Rut a few considerations would rout a Legion of iuch ungrounded 

As, 1. That the applaufe of inconjiderable Perfons muft needs be_ ve- 
ry inconfiderable, and that credit fmaU, which is gained amongit thofe 
who are of foiaU credit in the world. And ». that the Temptation lyes 
vifibly on the other fide. He that would drive a gainful Trade for Cre* 
dit and Honour, muft fettle his Factory where Tu:h commodities are 
native and ftaple : He may gape for Dignities and Honour till he is 
Chap-fallen, whofe confeience fliall caft his lot airmail the Diflenters ; 
and when he has Angled all day, may come home with a Diverb, / 
have fijhtfair, and caught a Frog. And 3* Sure no wife man would pur- 
chafe honourable fears, with mortal wounds ; nor incur the difpleafure of 
Armed Power, only to wear the Cognizance of fooliflh valour in Black. 
and Blew* 'Tis aflender alleviation of thofe loads of reproach which 
they feel, be&ks cho& greater feverkies which they may fear,te- wear 

gb 1 AFea-Mr 

a Tea her in their Caps, and the aiery plume of popular applaufe. Nay. 4. let 
this Gentleman mafce itfiis own cafe, and learn to judg more mode- 
rately.- Suppofe it were enacted by Law j That to praftife the Ceremo- 
nies fliould be pimifht with fufpention ab officio CT beneficio, would he 
upon a point of Honour efpoufe their quarrel? or would the waxen 
wings of Fame fupport his courage under thofe penalties ? Why then 
fhould ht judg that corruption to lodg in the breaft of another, which 
he woujd not harbour in his own ? 

And yet I muft needs fay, that the good name, and moderate j^epute 
oc every Chriftian, much more of every MiwfiM oi tke Gofpel, ought to 
be of that value tq him, as not to proihtute it to ei^ery tkree-balj'-peny 
Temptation, not to tender it cheap by Levity and Inconflancy, when 
no more cogent Reafons are ofter'd for an alteration, than meer will 
4>rl pleafme , nor has any one thing more dtbafed the honour of Chri- 
stianity, nor weakned the fucceft of the Miniliry, than that fome of 
thofe who wear thofe glorious Liveries, have either iiillied them in 
the dirt,, or turned them wrong fide outwards, wheeling about like Wea- ' 
ther-cocks, with the fmalleft breath of flattering preferments, or how- 
ever, with the more violent gulls of threatned perfecutions. 

A good man is rnejtyav'^-, one of a cubical figure, that falls upon 
his Bafts of Confidence, which way foever the Frovidence of God (hall 
throw him -, though fome mens practice would make us believe, that 
the plain Englijh of that hard word is, to fall on hit legs like a Cat : 
Which an old hyperbolical proverb telis us, will wriggle her felf into 
lief true perpendicular, though fhot out of a Cannons mouth. 
*' $iich perfons, Iconfefs, do not want their fpecious arguments, to 
rroVw thcrntelves conjlant, under the greateft demonftrations of incon- 
fiancy, For (fay they) we have fettled our ultimate end, and fixed our 
nam defign 3 which is to afiecurate our Revenues, our Eafe, our 
Splendour ; and if the Terms of enjoying them vary, yet we never 
vary from the ecliptick line of Preferments . ; let contingencies ap- 
phr in multiform fhapes, we can prefs all Accidents into the fer- 
vice of our unum necejfarium. Such was that Quadrangular Doctor, 
i jealous Proteftant in Edward 61k days, a Papift in Queen Maries, 
. arid upon the advancement of Queen Elizabeth faced about, and 
i ea'd the Service in Englifh : come let us fing a new Song ! Thus 
let the exteriour face of Religion receive more foapes than Proteus s 
yet 'he abides conftant to his principles, and refolves to continue 

-" Yet that we may not prove fturdy Oaks, but flexible Willows, the 
*$$&& has two. weighty things to fay to us, (1) That 

[401 3 
( i.) That it's no teal dijbonour, but a manly generofoy, and a Chrifti n^ 
virtue to change our minds upon mature deliberation, and the evi of 
better %eafon. Very Orthodox ! I hope then he will allow it to be a 
manly generofity, and a Chrijlian virtue to keep our Kinds unchanged, to 
aflerc our own convictions, till thefe evidences of bmer Keafm ihilf 
appear which may change them, and that it would bea ebildtjh pu 
nimity to change our practif e,ti\\ belter fieafon (hail oblige us to change 
our minds: But I am fearful, though upon mature ddibcraiw we fix 
our minds according to the dictates of the belt Reafon we can get, 
yet (hall we not avoid trouble till we conform them to the piblici Ke *~ 
fon. But (fays he) the very temper which our Saviour rehires oj his Dis- 
ciples, and which is the great preparatory difpofuion to the entertainment of 
Chriftiinity, efpecklly conftjis in a fimplicity of mind, and an irJifferency 
to comply with whatsoever Jball heft recommend it [elf to ourfac*ti?s. 
Well! DifTenters fay they have already complied with that which bos 
beft recommended it [elf to their faculties, fhall they be fecured from 
vexation upon fuch compliance ? They refolve never to be Xoncon- 
formifts to their own faculties ! Still I doubt that they who have in- 
vented a Public^ mfdom, a Publick. I^jfort, a Public^ onfeience, will 
fet their wits on work once more to contrive a Public^ Faculty where- 
in thofe Public!* Powers miy refide, for it's but congruous that the 
Publick. Treafure fhould be depofited in a fuhtic\ Treafury. 

I am all this while at a lofs where our Saviour has required this