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SUmoir of tlgt ITife wxi tiftuapdt 



OF 



GEORGE AUGUSTUS SELWTN, D.D. 

BISHOP OP NEW ZEALAND, 1841—1869; 
BISHOP OF LICHFIELD, 1867—1878. 



VOL. I 



LONDON : 
t. CLAY, 80X8, AKD TATLOB, 
BRBAO BTRSR HILL. 



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^. 2'i^-^ /^^ 



W^tmm of il^t H^tle anb €pBtai^B,U 



OF 



GEORGE AUGUSTUS SELWYN, D.D. 

BISHOP OF NEW ZEALAND, 1841-1869; 
BISHOP OF LICHHELD, 1867-1878. 



BT THR 



REV. H. W. TUCKER, M.A., 

AVTBOR or "UHDBft HIS BAmnO," "MEMOIR OF BIfiBOP ISILD." KTC., ETC. 



WITH TWO PORTRAITS, LITHOGRAPHS, AND MAPS. 



"nCPLKBTl MBRITlff W)1.IF rTBAKQrR DOHTir." 



IN TWO rOLUMES.-'rOLUME /. 



WILLIAM WELLS GARDNER, 

2, PATERNOSTER BmU)lNGS. 
1879. 



[All Rights Reserved,] 



I * 




*' Oh I haye seen, nor hope perhaps in vain, 
Sre lifft go down, to see such sights again: 
A Veteran Warrior in the Christian field, 
Who never saw the Sword he could not wield; 
Grave without dulness, learned without pride, 
Exact, yet not precise, though meek, keen-eyed. 
» « « # * 

Who, when occasion justified its use, 
Had wit as bright as ready to produce: 
Could fetch from records of an earlier age, 
Or from Philosophy's enlightened page, 
His rich materials, and regale your ear 
With strains it was a privilege to hear: 
Tet above all, his luxury supreme 
And his chief glory was the Gospel Theme." 






• • • 






• * 






* ■ 



• • • * 



I 



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i 



* r^ 



TO HER, 



WHO FOR FORTY YEARS 



ENCOURAGED AKD SHARED HER HUSBAND'S LABOURS^ 



THESE VOLUMES, 



WRITTEN AT HER REQUEST, ARE RESPECTFULLY 



^jebitatib. 



viii PREFACE. 



the pages which reveal the sins and errors of Saints 
and Apostles are written by Him, " unto whom all hearts 
are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets 
are hid ; " it is not the duty of a biographer to assume 
the place of a judge: censure and panegyric are alike 
to be avoided by him. If therefore any one wishes 
to know what were the sins and infirmities of him 
whose career ia chronicled in these volumes, I have 
helped him in the search only so far that I suppress 
nothing : to '* draw his fraUties from their dread abode," 
I have considered to be no more my function than to 
insult his saintly memory by feeble words of praise. 
A long series of noble works, humbly commenced and 
patiently carried on for God's • glory, I have indeed 
chronicled; they do not exhaust the list; and such as 
they are I leave them to win their way to the hearts 
of my readers. The great task which, however im- 
perfectly, is now completed, was not sought by me; it 
was not undertaken willingly: there were others more 
qualified both by personal acquaintance and by literary 
ability — and to whom leisure is a less rare possession 
than it is to myself — ^who, as I had hoped and expected, 
would have given to the Church a Biography more 
worthy of the great subject than these pages can pre- 
tend to be : but to those whose wish in this matter 
commanded obedience it seemed otherwise, and when 
I was invited, and even urged, to accept a trust so 
onerous and so honourable, I had nothing to do but 
to comply. 

I wish it to be understood that these pages pretend 
to be nothing more than a compilation. My duty has 



PREFACE. ix 



been to study and carefully to analyse many hundreds 
of letters and documents which have been placed in my 
hands. I considered that I should discharge my task 
the better, just in proportion as I brought into greater 
prominence the very words and letters of my subject, 
and as illustrating these, the testimony of his friends 
and colleagues, and kept myself and my own opinions 
in the background. My aim therefore has been rather 
to arrange the materials at my disposal in due relation 
and proportion, than to write an original monologue. 

If I had desired to paint an ideal picture, or to 
adjust my materials so as to fulfil my own concep- 
tions, or to meet possibly my prejudices of the noble 
life which for many months has been my daily and 
nightly study, it would have been easy to have done 
so: but I can truly affirm that I have suppressed 
nothing, coloured nothing, distorted nothing. 

I have been freely entrusted with all papers and 
letters in the possession of the family of the late bishop 
which could assist me in my work : indeed I regard 
myself as little more than the amanuensis of those 
at whose request I have written these volumes; but it 
is right to add that I have been perfectly unfettered 
in my labours, and for the use made of the materials 
at my disposal I alone am responsible. 

I have to express my thanks and obligations to many 

persons who were connected with the late bishop by ties 

of friendship only : the amount of service rendered to me 

differs probably in each case, but to all alike I desire to 

offer an expression of gratitude for the ready help which I 

have received on all occasions, whether offered voluntarily 
VOL. I. b 



LONDOK : 
t. CI.4T, lOXS, AND TATU>B, 
BBBAD BTKBST HILL. 



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xu CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PAOIC 

New Zealand, 1847 220 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Melanesia and New Zealand, 1848 253 



CHAPTER IX. 
Melanesia and New Zealand, 1849 279 



CHAPTER X. 
New Zealand, Stdnet, and Melanesia, 1850-1851 . . 326 



Portrait of the Bishop, after Richhond*s Painting — 

Frantvtpiect. 

Facsimile of Letter with Pen-and-Ink Drawings, 
1848 Tofaeepage 254 

"Trial Maf'^ in Letter to Dr. Kbate . „ 299 

Map of Melanesia „ 304 



GEOEGE AUGUSTUS SELWYN, D.D. 



CHAPTEE L 

EABLY YEARS AND EDUCATION. 
[1809—1831.] 

The memories of the servants of God are not less the 
treasures of the Church than are the active services 
'which they were enabled to render on earth ; and if the 
present age is rich, beyond all its predecessors, in bio- 
graphies of those who have endured hardness in the 
mission field, and counted not their lives dear unto them> 
the fact miist be accepted as only another proof of the 
revival of spiritual life and zealous devotion, of which the 
Anglican Communion has been the favoured exponent 
during the past forty years. 

The accident that the great men, whose labours we 
reverence and whose memories we cherish, found the 
sphere^ in which their gifts were more prominently called 
forth^ amid the plains of India or the snows of Korth 
America, in the sparsely peopled wastes of Southern Africa, 
or in the blue waters of the far Pacific, only brings into 
greater prominence the fruits of the magnificent move- 
ment which having its origin in the Mother Church has 
made itself felt in the ends of the earth. Those noble 

VOL. I. B 



2 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

spirits who went out to distant lands, there to extend the 
frontiers of the Anglican Communion and to gather in the 
heathen to her fold, were the very men who had drunk 
most deeply of the spirit which has made the Church of 
England what she now is, and has revealed her almost 
incalculable capacities alike of growth and of influence : 
they were grudged as one by one they went forth from our 
strugghng Church, which seemed to need their gifts only 
too sorely ; but by that law of our spiritual life which pro- 
vides that no venture of faith is allowed to be without its 
reward, and that what seems to be loss shall prove to be 
certain gain, the exile of these chivalrous souls has had the 
most distinct and potent influence on the Church which 
they have left ; each act of self-sacrifice which has moved 
a man to sever himself from home and friends, and to 
bury himself in the wilderness, has raised, almost at a 
bound, the standard of ministerial obligation at home, and 
has inspired the whole heart of the Church which sent 
him forth. 

It has been no book-making instinct but a true appre- 
ciation of the value of high example and sacred memories 
which has given us the biographies of the great pioneers 
of the Church in these last days; which has shown us 
how the Poet Heber and the scholarly and statesman-like 
Cotton laboured and died at their posts in Hindostan; 
which has permitted us to study the varied gifta of the 
ascetic Stewart, Bishop of Quebec; of the far-seeing 
Strachan, Bishop of Toronto; of the patient Feild, the 
apostle to the fishermen of Newfoundland; of Robert 
Gray, the dauntless confessor of Southern Africa ; of John 
Armstrong, all too early, as we think, removed from his 
task of laying the foundations of the See of Grahams- 
town ; of Charles Frederic Mackenzie, the simple-hearted 
martyr, whose body rests beside the waters of the African 
stream ; of Addington Venables, who held on, in spite of 
bodily weakness and personal griefs, labouring while hia 
day lasted, for his poor negro flock in the Bahamas ; of 



1809-1831.] THE COLONIAL EPISCOPATE. 8 

Patteson, who poured out his life for the people for 
whom he had already given up family and friends and all 
that this world can offer. 

The Church which in the course of hardly more than 
one generation has sent forth sons such as these can be no 
barren Church : nor are these aU : others there have been, 
in no degree inferior in spiritual gifts or in the use 
which they have made of them^ whose labours have been 
none the less abundant, whose memories are only the less 
treasured because they have not found a chronicler. Such 
were Bishop Coleridge, the friend of Keble, the first Bishop 
of Barbados, and the first Warden of St. Augustine's 
College, Canterbury ; Bishop Broughton, the first Bishop 
of Australia, whom no distance wearied, no difficulty 
daunted, and whose far-reaching counsel, with an instinct 
that may without exaggeration be called prophetic, traced 
out the boundaries of Sees and Provinces which to ordinary 
minds seemed but the mere creatures of an idle fancy : 
Bishop Milman, whose great intellect compels our admii*a- 
tion hardly more than the patience with which he exer- 
cised his many gifts on a people who promised small 
results to his efforts; Bishop Fulford, the calm and 
thoughtful Metropolitan, foremost in the work of teaching 
the unestablished Churches of the Colonies to govern 
themselves, in full reliance on the Divine life that glowed 
within them. 

These memories point not only to the past : they are 
full of life and encouragement for the future. There must 
be a noble future for a Church whose store in Para- 
dise is already so rich; and it is not the least of the 
rewards accorded to those who have aided in the propaga- 
tion of the Faith in other lands, that amid the distractions 
and the controversies, the unfaithfulness and the timidity 
which harass us at home, we can look abroad, and in tbe 
Chui'ches to whose foundation our own self-denial has con- 
tributed, can discover, not indeed the "pomp and cir- 
cumstance*^ which counts for so much in the estimation 

B 2 



4 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. I. 

of the world, but the undoubted token of a living faith 
and of a vigorous apostolate. 

The subject of the present memoir was, in the conditions 
of his ministerial life, unlike any other ecclesiastic of our 
communion. A parallel case has indeed been discovered 
by those who are fond of tracing analogies in the person 
of the Eastern prelate Innocent, who in the year 1868 
was translated from the Bishopric of Kamschatka, where 
for many years he had been doing the work of an evan- 
gelist, to the See of Moscow ; but in the English Church it 
has only been given to one man to lay as a wise master- 
builder, the foundations of a Christian Church in the 
uttermost part of the earth, to unite in the bonds of the one 
Eaith two races as unlike to each other as it is possible to 
conceive, and after more than a quarter of a century of 
work in which he was the pioneer, guided by no precedents 
more recent than were furnished by the Apostles and the 
immediate successors of their missionary labours, to return 
to England and, succeeding to a diocese whose traditions 
stretch back into the past for a thousand years, to raise the 
dignity and the usefulness of a position thus venerable to 
a level never obtained before. 

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum, But more 
than this ; while personally the most humble of men, he 
became by no effort of his own the foremost personage in the 
whole Anglican Communion : he headed no party ; he uttered 
no shibboleths ; in spite of himself, by the mere force of his 
character and example he was the leading spirit in the 
Australasian Churches in whose development he had had 
so lai^ge a share : and in the Lambeth Conference of 1867, 
and in the Upper House of the Convocation of Canter- 
bury, he was listened to with an attention which no other 
prelate could command: while in the United States 
amid the people of another land, citizens of the great 
Republic and members with ourselves of the same Com* 
munion, he exercised an influence which no one person 
ever before wielded or possibly ever coveted. Each branch 



1809-1831.] PEDIGREE. 



of the Church looked to him for advice, in full confidence 
that the counsel given, whatever it might be, would 
be biassed not a hair's breadth by any secondary 
consideration. 

If it be asked what was the cause of this homage thus 
voluntarily accorded, it may be said in reply that sub- 
sidiary causes were many : no one could be insensible to 
the charm of that gracious presence, that bright incisive 
speech, that gentle manner, that playful wit: physical 
beauty and mental culture were his in highest measure, and 
these gifts will always make themselves felt ; but beyond 
all these it was the knowledge of the man's tnie nobility 
of character, the unselfishness which was so much a part 
of himself as to seem to be without effort, the obedience 
to rule and order which was ' the guiding principle of his 
life, and the assurance that nothing mean or sordid would 
ever be connected with aught that he said or did, that 
compelled the not unwilling homage which men paid 
to him. 

George Augustus Selwyn was bom at Hampstead in 
1809, the descendant of an ancient family whose mem- 
bers have made their mark in their several callings. Jasper 
Selwyn, admitted at Lincoln's Inn in the twenty-sixth year 
of Elizabeth, was twice elected Treasurer of the Inn, and 
his name and arms are in the west window of the chapel 
which was consecrated in 1623. Major-General Selwyn, 
the great-great-grandfather of the bishop, was Governor of 
Jamaica at the beginning of the last century : one of his 
three sons. Colonel John Selwyn, was aide-de-camp to 
Marlborough. The famous wit, George Selwyn the friend 
of Horace Walpole, was of the same family. 

The grandfather of the future Bishop of New Zealand 
and Lichfield was King's Counsel and Treasurer of Lin- 
coln's Inn. He had two sons : George, who died soon after 
taking a degree at Cambridge ; and William, the father of 
the subject of this biography. He was sent to Eton, 



LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 



and was one of the eleven whom the school sent forth 
to uphold its reputation in the cricket-field : in 1793 he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, and graduated in 
1797, as Senior Optime after having gained the first 
Chancellor's medal. The fellowships at St John's being 
limited to the natives of particular counties, he had 
migrated in his second year to Trinity. He resigned 
without a contest his claim to a Fellowship in favour of 
•others whose circumstances made the possession of that 
reward more necessary to them. He published in 1806 
" Selwyn's Nisi Prius^' with which his name was ever 
afterwards connected; in 1827 he was appointed King's 
Counsel, and in 1840 was Treasurer of Lincoln's Inn. 
Soon after the marriage of her present Majesty he was 
selected as "the Instructor of Prince Albert in the 
Constitution and Laws of his adopted country," and the 
tenth edition of his book on " Nisi Prius " was dedicated — 

"Alberto Principi, 

LeOUH ANGLIiE STUDIOSO." 

At the time of his death, in 1855, he was Senior 
Queen's CounseL 

If it be worth while to go back to early years there is no 
lack of testimony, that in the nursery the same disposition 
was apparent in George Augustus Selwyn which charac- 
terised his subsequent life, but, as may be expected, rough 
hewn and undisciplined " My brother," writes one of his 
sisters, " was a strong self-willed child, and my mother had 
to use Solomon's remedy. The nurse was injudicious and 
complained, but the result proved the wisdom of the 
parent." And side by side with this resolute will there 
was the unselfishness ''which made him energetic and 
ready to assist in any emergency which might arise in the 
nursery. If any case of distress was mentioned in his 
hearing, his pocket-money was at once devoted to its- relief. 
I trembled under his eye if I took a little more at table than 
he thought (in his self-denying goodness) to be necessary." 



1809-1831.] BOYHOOD. 



Further testimony is borne by his sisters to " the influence 
vhich he had over our home life — ^he was truly the family 
friend and counsellor, ever ready to help in all difficulties. 
I have known him spend many hours of the few brief 
holidays he allowed himself in endeavouring to amuse his 
suffering mother, who laboured for many years under a 
most painful depression of spirits. He was in fact the 
only person who could rouse her from the morbid state 
of feeling produced by her malady, and though with the 
zeal and devotion which characterized her through life 
she willingly gave him up to his Master's service, yet she 
never recovered the loss of his affectionate attentions, and 
I found her in a state of insensibility kneeling at her 
evening prayers beneath his picture, under which she died : 
she never spoke again, but lingered for a few hours and 
expired on the first anniversary of his consecration, 
October 17, 1842. All the bishop's earlier letters with 
interesting accounts of his voyage were addressed to her, 
but few reached their destination till after her death ; the 
news of this loss deeply affected him, and in one pathetic 
passage of a letter written just after receiving the intelli- 
gence he described himself as ' going heavily as one that 
moumeth for his mother.' " 

The same contempt for softness and luxury, it may 
be said the same indifference to comfort, which enabled 
him in later years to endure so much hardness on board 
ship, in camp and on Melanesian coral-reefs, charac- 
terized him when a boy. The story is still current 
in the family, that when he came home from Eton one 
Easter-tide he wished to invite a friend to stay with him, 
the friend being none other than Mr. Gladstone. His 
mother said it was impossible, that '' the spring cleaning 
was going on," and guests would be in the way. " George 
rushed up stairs and soon reappeared with a great mattress 
which he hurled down on the wet boards, saying, * There 
now, Where's the difficulty ? ' " 

When he was seven years old — ^in 1816, he was sent 



ft LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. t. 

to a famous preparatory school at Ealing, which was kept 
by a Dr. Nicholas, whose pupils rarely fell below three 
hundred in number, and who had included in their ranks 
the brothers J. H. and F. W. Newman. Here he acquired 
two accomplishments, of which at least one is not generally 
aflfected by high-spirited lads of seven. He was a great 
dancer, and taught his sisters the Mazurka during the holi- 
days, saying that " exercise was good : " he also acquired 
a knowledge, strange and incongruous as it seems, of the 
Racing Calendar ! Some of his companions were the sons 
of gentlemen who owned race-horses, and they took a 
precocious interest in their fathers' tastes. George Selwyn 
thus got to know the names and qualities of famous 
horses, and although he never at any time cared for the 
sport, he used many years later to astonish his friends 
by his familiarity with the names and pedigrees of great 
performers on the Turf. 

Childish precocity has no bearing on the character of 
maturer years, but these reminiscences, treasured by those 
who loved him well, are not out of place in a memoir 
such as the present aims at being : from the earliest years 
to its close there is an eminent consistency in the life 
which these pages record, and to suppress these stories 
would be to mar its unity. In the very letter from which 
they were extracted sisterly affection has written : — 

" There was nothing that was pious, noble, self-denying 
and generous, that my brother did not exhibit in his daily 
life, and as years drew on he was m,ore than ever constant in 
prayer, never ceasing in the service of his heavenly Master." 

In due course he was sent to Eton, where his career was 
marked by proficiency both in scholarship and in athletic 
sports; nor was his reputation wanting for even higher 
things : the late Bishop Trower, who acted as his commis- 
sary at Lichfield in the year 1868, when he paid a hurried 
and farewell visit to New Zealand, used to relate that George 
Selwyn efifectually put down the use of profane language 



1809-1831.] CAMBRIDGE. 9 

among the boys in his division of the school The Selwyna 
did much for Eton, as Eton had done much for them. There 
were four brothers at Eton and Cambridge. William, the 
eldest, was Sixth Wrangler, Senior Classic, Craven Scholar, 
and Chancellor's Medallist, and died Lady Margaret 
Professor of Divinity. The third, Thomas Kjmaston, died 
young, but carried the fame of a Newcastle Scholar with 
him to Cambridge, where a Fellowship at Trinity was 
awaiting him when he died : to him as to his eldest brother 
had fallen the distinctions of Craven Scholar and Chan- 
cellor's Medallist. The fourth, who died in 1869, was for 
many years one of the Members for the University and 
became Lord Justice.^ The future bishop graduated i^ 
1831.2 

^ The following touch bg sonnet, saggefited by the last hours of Lord 
Justice Selwyn, was written by Professor Selwyn, his eldest brother : — 

The Night of Sorrow, August 10-11, A. p. 1869. 

** strange dark night ! the weary watches through 
I moved between my brothers, to and fro ; 
One deeply slumbering, worn with toil and woe, 
And one who never sleeping, faintly drew 
His failing breath ; yet with firm heart and true 
Cqnfest his faith in Christ, the risen Life ; 
With smiles of comfort, cheering his sad wife, 
And blessing all ; our love no more oould do ; 
But we could feel a gracious Presence nigh 
Turning our night to day ; and with the spring 
Of ipom we gathered round the sapred bed 
And on the Bread of Life together fed ; 
The Bishop spake, ' Death, where is thy sting ? ' 
The Judge, * Grave, where is thy victory ? ' " 

' He was not a reading man at the University, and for mathematics he 
had an actual distaste. A brother undergraduate, who survives him, and 
whose name appears in the first class of each Tripos in 1 881, says that he 
positively hated the necessary preparation to secure a place, however low, 
in the Mathematical Tripos which would allow him to go in for the Clas- 
sical Tripos ; that he spoke of his degree as his jubilee, and used to score 
off on a diary which hung over his chimneypiece each day which marked the 
approach of the Examination. He came out with very little to spare, 
being low down among the Jimior Optimes ; when the class list, however, 
was read out, and he saw how low his position was, he went off with his 



10 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

His scholarship seems to have been unusually exact 
even for an Eton boy in the days of Keate ; and the follow- 
ing anecdote recorded in Mr. Maxwell Lyte's History of 
Eton College would testify as much to the boy's con- 
scientious determination to render his author exactly as 
to his keen perception of his words : — 

" He was translating to Dr. Keate Horace's account of 
the auctioneer at the barber's shop, proprios purgaviem 
leniter ungues — ' cleaning his own nails ' (Ep. I. vii. 51). 
Keate corrected him — * cleaning his nails. Go on.' Again 
and again the boy said ' his own nails.' Keate scolded 
him ; but he held out against the less emphatic ' his,' and 
argued the point thus : * If you please, sir, Horace lays the 
stress on the word proprios, because most of the dandies 
made the barbers pare their nails ; and when Philippus 
saw Mena paring his onm nails, vacud in umbrd — though 
nobody was engaging the barber's time — he thought him a 
man of some energy, and likely to become a good farmer.* 
Dr. Keate generously appreciated the criticism, and said, 
' Well, there's something in that. Lay the stress, then, on 
proprios: " (P. 367.) 

The four brothers boarded in the same house with Mr. 
Gladstone, and took their full share in all the activities, 
physical and intellectual, of the famous school. George 
and Mr. Gladstone, with others who subsequently attained 
high distinction in the world, were among the contributors 
to the £ton Miscellany. In the Mon College Chronicle of 
June, 1878, a contributor under the well-known initials 
« C. J. A." writes :— 

"The name of Selwyn has long been enrolled in the 
' Eton Lists,' and long held in honour. The eldest brother 
of the late Bishop was the best sculler of his day at Eton, 
and the best scholar of his day at Cambridge. George, the 

friend to tlie bathing-place, three miles distant. It was January, bat they 
bathed daily. For a long time he was silent. At last he said, " Well, 
I've had many a licking at Eton, but I never felt so beaten as I do now.*' 
In due course he went into the Classical Tripos and came out Second 
Classic. Few Wranglers have turned their mathematical attainments to 
such use as this '* Junior Optime " did his, as may be seen infra pp. 108, 
109, 114, 259, 266, 2S8. 



1809-1831.] UNSELFISHNESS. 11 

second brother, was one of the best oars iu ' the Boats ' at 
Eton. Charles Jasper, the youngest, was ' the Umpire of 
the Thames ' for many years. In the sporting newspapers 
the Bishop of Kew Zealand used to be spoken of with 
respect, but always as ' the brother of the Umpire of the 
Thames.' In the spring of 1869, when the two brothers 
attended the Queen's Levee together and Charles was pre- 
sented at Court on becoming Lord Justice, the Queen 
audibly said to one of the Princesses, ' He is a brother of 
the Bishop of Lichfield ; ' which George used afterwards 
humorously to quote against his brother as being more than 
a set-off for the language of the sporting newspapers. 
Thomas Xynaston, the third brother, figures in the ' List ' 
as the second Newcastle Scholar. He died young." 

Amid all the engrossing pleasures of Eton there appears 
the same unselfishness and the same spirit of " co-opera- 
tion" (a word so often used by him) in George Selwyn 
which was so much the ruling principle of his after-life. 
The following story, taken like the preceding from the 
Uton College Chronicle, illustrates what is meant : — 

'*i3ur boats in those days were clumsy and the oars 
clumsier. In Selwyn's * long-boat * there were seven oars 
not very good and one superlatively bad. The boys used 
to run " up town " as hard as they could to Bob ToUaday's, 
and seize upon one of the seven moderately bad ones, and 
the last-comer got the * punt-pole.' Of course he was 
sulky all the way up to Surly, and the other seven abused 
him for not pulling his own weight. Every one was out 
of temper. So George Selwyn determined always to come 
last The other fellows chaffed him, but he used to laugh, 
and at last characteristically said, * It's worth my while 
taking that bad oar. I used to have to pull the weight of 
the sulky fellow who had it ; now you are all in good 
humour. ' This story really illustrates his whole after-life, 
He always took ' the labouring oar ' in everything, and he 
'greased the rowlocks ' in eveiy work." 

The following letter from a contemporary who has since 
been known as a distinguished Cambridge Tutor shows 
that as at school, so in the intermediate and anomalous 



12 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

position, when no longer a schoolboy and not yet a Uni- 
versity man, he exercised the same influence for good 
among his elders : — 

"In July of the summer of 1827 a 'Eeading Party/ 
under the lead of Birkett, then a noted private tutor and 
fellow of St. John's (he might be called now, ' crammer '), 
assembled at Teignmouth, South Devon : who made up 
the number I really forget, and the rest signifies little : 
to all intents and purposes the party was William Selw3m, 
late Professor, and his brother George, then on his way 
to be Freshman, A. Paget and his brother George, now 
Begins Professor of Medicine, resident in Cambridge; 
and myself. The two Selwyns lodged in one house, and 
the Pagets with me in the adjoining one. If I remember 
right, we boarded together— cdl five at any rate dined in 
company and in general associated. The one chief bond 
of associated exertion was ' the boat,' a four-oar galley, 
in which we rowed usually after dinner, and by it made 
rather extensive explorations of the coast — one perhaps 
each week. The most notable one was that in which we 
visited Berry Pomeroy Castle, starting from our place 
about 4 A.M., coasting to Dartmouth — ^ascending the Dart 
to Totnes, — having a two or three mile walk to the 
Castle. At that place in a homely inn we dined, returned 
as we came as far as Dartmouth, where I think the weather 
changing, or wind having arisen, induced us to take the 
road back to Teignmouth. An amusing incident helped 
the recollection of the visit. The ' guide ' at the Castle 
was an old dame, who manifestly had the story by heart, 
and George Selwyn used the discovery mischievously by 
interrupting the flow of her story ; and she could only get 
through it by each time harking back to the beginning, 
unable to pick up the thread of her discourse. On the 
whole of this expedition we calculated on having done 
upwards of sixty miles within the twenty-four hours, 
reaching home about 2 or 3 A.]yf. 

" Our rowing, far and near, was done without guide or 
help. Once, if not oftener, we had to be very thankful 
for safety. One evening on our return from the customary 
exercise, coming to the mouth of the river Teign, we found 
a heavy sea on the bar ; we must needs get through, and 



1805.1831.] UNIVERSITY LIFE. 13 



went at it. The passage was very narrow and the swell 
high ; the boat, going high on the crest of one wave as it 
passed, swayed round, and but for a vigorous pull by the 
bow oar (Geoige Selwyn) would have been taken on broad- 
side by the next wave and capsized. 

"This association, besides afibrding much enjoyable 
intercourse and leading to much useful information during 
the three months' work, led to sustained companionship 
and friendship. His calm decision and quiet firmness in 
conduct, speech, and action was always to be observed and 
produced indirectly, if not directly, good effect and whole- 
some influence. I believe I owe to him some reformation 
in the tone and tenor of my conversation. Though of a dif- 
ferent and not neighbouring college, I used to see not a 
little of him ; and frequently sought him without finding, 
though at the cost of ascending five flights of steps ; for he 
occupied the topmost set in the south end of the ' new 
building ' of St. John's. In his preparation for college life 
he was the same as in it — steady and successful, active, 
agreeable and approved. 

" I was not happy enough ever to see the bishop agaii) 
after his first appointment, but my recollection of him is 
unimpaired in strength and satisfaction." 

The careers of the brothers were, as has been detailed 
above, as distinguished at Cambridge as they had been at 
Eton, and year after year from 1826 to 1834 the proud 
parents used to go up to Cambridge and partake in their 
sons' triumphs. 

Success on the river and in athletics generally was not 
purchased at the cost of defeat in the Senate House : when 
the challeoge sent by Oxford led to the first of the now 
long series of University races, George Selwyn was among 
those chosen to contend for the fame of Cambridge : it 
would have been impossible to pass him by. He 
seems to have formed a little society of athletes, who 
bathed every day, whatever the weather or state of the 
river, and who did many wonderful feats« In company 
with Bishop Tyrrell, with whom nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury later he shared some more perilous expeditions in the 



14 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 



Pacific, he walked to London on one occasion in thirteen 
hours without stopping. To the last he was a great advo- 
cate of out-door exercise, and in a characteristic letter 
which appeared in Dr. De Morgan's book on University 
Oarsmen he wrote in June 1872 : — 

"I was in the race of 1829. The great benefit of our 
rowing was that we were by rule, if not by inclination, 
habitually temperate ; and I suppose all medical men will 
agree that little danger can arise from strong exercise in 
youth if the body is always kept in a fit state. Active 
exercise, combined with strict diet and regular habits, had, 
I think, a most beneficial effect upon the constitution, and 
certainly enabled Bishop Tyrrell and myself on horseback 
and foot in Australia and New Zealand to make very long 
journeys without inconvenience. My advice to all young 
men is in two sentences — ' Be temperate in all things ' and 
' IncumbiU reniis.' " 

Towards the close of his undergraduate days he dis- 
covered on coming home at the end of term that his 
father was without a carriage and horses. On inquiring 
the reason he found that four sons at Eton and Cambridge 
were a heavy drain, and that necessary retrenchment had 
found expression in the discontinuance of the luxuries in 
question. He then declared that he would get his own 
living, and never burden his parents ; and his high posi* 
tion in the Tripos, followed at a later period by a Fellow- 
ship at St. John's, enabled him to put his resolution into 
practice. 

The intermediate time which occurs between taking the 
B.A. degree and commencing serious work was in the case 
orMr. Selwyn of brief duration, but while it lasted it was 
spent in foreign traveL Probably no one would blame a 
young man of twenty-two, fresh from the successful labours 
of the University, if he devoted some time to the recreation 
and teaching which are to be found in continental ram- 
blings. In after life the bishop looked on this as a perilous 
time : it had been probably no wasted time to him ; but 
there was no settled irpoalpeai^ and purpose of mind 



1809-1831.] FOREIGN TRAVEL. 15 

about it, and mere enjoyment without such an object he 
always deprecated, although no man more keenly enjoyed 
'' nature and human nature " than he did when he came 
upon them in the way of duty. 

How vivid was the remembrance of the temptations 
which this period had brought to himself was shown by 
the anxiety which he felt when his elder son arrived at a 
similar stage in his career. One who was often by his 
side and in his counsels in New Zealand writes : — 

" We were in a dinghey making for a large ship bound 
for England, in which he was thinking of sending his wife 
home to look after his elder son who was just going to 
take his B.A. degree. I was regretting that he did not 
wait two years and then go home himself with Mrs. Selwyn 
and bring his son back with them to New Zealand : ' No' 
he said ; ' I remember the wasted time 1 spent after 
leaving Cambridge, having no definite plan of life and 
fancying myself free to please myself ; so I wish the boy's 
mother or myself to be on the spot to direct his steps at 
that important epoch of life.' " 

To his younger son, soon after he commenced residence 
at Cambridge, he wrote words of counsel which have a 
wider range, and are capable of a more extended appli- 
cation : — 

"I remember my first going to Cambridge and how 
unpleasant it seemed after Eton ; but after a while the 
absence of the many distractions of Eton rather recom- 
mended the place as one where lost time might in some 
measure be made up. And yet, in spite of many resolu- 
tions, I lost much time there also. I see in every letter 
that you have the same disposition as my own, a ' strentui 
inertia/ active, but not pressing towards a point: never 
actually idle, and yet never really working to an end ; and 
yet Christian life in all its varieties is nothing but pressing 
towards a mark ; and that mark must be a distant one ; 
not a boat-race to-day, or a drill to-morrow, or a party 
the next day, but a fixed and steady sight of a distant 
prize, to be won only by long and steady perseverance in 
well doing.'* 



16 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [( hap. n. 



CHAPTER II. 

• . ETON. 

[1831—1841,] 

In May 1831, only four months after taking his degree, the 
continental ramblings came to an end, and more serious 
work began. Mr. Selwyn returned to Eton, which, in the 
words of Mr. Gladstone, " he loved with a love passing the 
love of Etonians," and acted as private tutor to the present 
Earl of Powis. He was one of many young graduates who 
held similar appointments : the mere fact of their being 
chosen for the work which they had to do proves them to 
have been men of more than common attainments ; some 
of them had attained higher distinction at the University 
than himself, and yet, while he never assumed the leader- 
ship in anything, aU his companions naturally regarded him 
as their leader, whether in study or in recreation ; and not 
tbe least notable sign of the honour in which he was held, 
and of the conviction, almost prophetic, that there was a 
career before him which would one day lend a value to 
the records of each period of his life, is aiBforded by the fact 
that his sayings and doings were chronicled by more than 
one of his contemporaries, and that these pages are in- 
debted to the carefully-preserved jottings of a friend who 
nearly half a century ago acted towards him the part of a 
Boswell. 

From these records, and from the testimonies of his 
friends who survive, it is clear that he was, as one describes 

C 



1831-1841.] LIFE AS A PKIVATE TUTOR. 17 



him, " the leading spirit of a happy circle." In all bodily 
exercises he v^dA facile princeps: he delighted in the river, 
and was in great request as the " Charon " of ladies : he 
was wont to take prodigious walks, finding his way across 
country by the help of a pocket compass ; and often when 
taking the daily constitutional he would run across a 
ploughed field "to improve his wind/' On one occasion 
being the subject of some friendly banter because he had 
not kept a good place in the hunting-field, he privately 
hired horses and literally rode steeplechases, making his 
way in a straight line across country to some church* or 
other given landmark, and allowing nothing to divert him ; 
and this skill, so painfully acquired, did him good service, 
when, as in New^ Zealand, he had to travel much on horse- 
back. It was to his perseverance in this respect that he 
owed the great kvSo^, which he acquired at Wellington, by 
riding a horse which a chief had lent to him. As he went 
along the beach he was hailed by every Maori, **Tcna 
konui ko " (" There you go, you and buck-jumper ! ") ; 
and on asking the reason of the unwonted salutation, he 
was told that he was riding the worst buck-jumper in the 
country. 

Another instance of his skill, valueless in itself, but 
which witnesses to his indomitable patience, was the way 
in which he broke a vicious horse called by the Maoris 
Bona, or the Man in the Moon. Tor two long hours he 
tried in vain to put the pack-saddle on his back. At last, 
covering the horse's eyes with his pocket-handkerchief and 
holding up one fore leg with one hand he put the pack- 
saddle on with the other. His patience in all things, small 
or great, was indomitable. When Sir George Grey brought 
some zebras into the country and vain attempts were made 
to ride them, a native chief asked if the Bishop had ever 
tried to break them in. On being told that it was im- 
possible to do so, he replied, " How so ? He has broken us 
in and tamed the Maori heart, why not the zebra ? " 
As a swimmer, too, he accomplished feats which had never 
VOL. I. c 



18 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

been performed before, and in all his pleasures there was a 
degree of earnestness and of order which made them 
serious matters. He was not content with taking a header 
over a bush, which to this day is known as " Selwyn's 
bush '' with a perfectly horizontal body (for his maxim was 
" fancy yourself a dart ") or with diving from Upper Hope 
to Middle Hope, but he was the President of a Society 
which was called "The Psychrolutic Club." The less 
ambitious members who bathed only under conditions that 
were agreeable, called themselves Philolutes, but those 
who had bathed five days in every week for a whole year 
were called " Psychrolutes," and were entitled to take the 
degree 4> % which was conferred on them by the President 
in the Thames. His enthusiastic love of the river led 
him to accommodate Shakespeare to say 

** Meu'u evil manners live in brassy their virtues we drink in water." 

To his care it is due that boating was no longer made a 
forbidden pastime to the Eton boys, and that at the same 
time that it was legitimatized it was robbed of its dangers- 
No rules are likely to restrain some himdreds of boys who 
live on the banks of a river from the pleasures of rowing. 
The interdicted amusement had been so commonly in- 
dulged in that the authorities could only connive at the 
irregularity, but the boys could not all swim and fatal ac- 
cidents were of frequent occurrence. The influence of Mr. 
Selwyn, supported by the drawing-master, Mj. W. Evans, 
obtained the establishment of the '' swimming system," 
by which no boy was allowed to boat until he had " passed " 
in swimming. Watermen were stationed in punts at the 
weir and the bathing-places who were ready with help in 
case of accident. These watermen were very much changed 
by coming under Mr. Selwyn's moral influence. He was 
conscious of his popularity with them, and he turned it, 
like his other gifts and opportunities, to the best account. 
But this time was every day more and more becoming 
the great seed-time of his ministerial equipment. One of 



1831-18 H.] THEOLOGICAL STUDIES. 19 

bis friends says of him that his whole school and college 
career had made him loved and respected, had been full of 
excellence, and everything that was cheerful and manly, 
but that a man with less moral courage would probably 
have been led to be idle ; there was no idleness, but much 
strenuous industry now ; another of his friends records 
that " he seemed to be always preparing himself for some 
unrevealed future of usefulness." The early bathe was fol- 
lowed by an hour's study of Hebrew with some of his 
fellow private tutors. He read Hebrew and Italian with a 
Jew named Bolafiey who resided in Eton, and he arranged 
with his friends "the Eton cycle," according to which 
they studied certain things in turn and for a fixed portion 
of each year. The comparative leisure before ordination 
was devoted to a most careful study and analysis of such 
works as Pearson, Hooker, Barrow, and Butler. The two 
first he knew almost by heart, and he made a rule of read- 
ing Hooker through during the annual Christmas vacation 
which he spent with his pupil. His mother had thoroughly 
imbued him with the language and the spirit of the Holy 
Scriptures, and the wonderful power which he had of ap- 
plying Scripture was noticeable in every sermon which he 
preached. About this time he wrote to one of his fellow- 
students : ** When I was at home before Easter I hit upon 
a most agreeable way of reading the Scriptures with my 
mother ; she took the English and I translated to her out 
of the Hebrew (without reading), and she corrected me, and 
supplied words when I did not know them. This plan is 
both quick and sociable, and pleased her by showing her 
the accuracy of the received version. At home, the great 
problem is to be co-operative without losing too much 
time. It is difficult, but I think it may be solved, at least 
where the rest of the family have any pursuits and feelings 
in common with your own. My sister is a Hebrew scholar, 
but she has grammaticized so exclusively that she can 
hardly read and knows very few words." 

In 1833, on Trinity Sunday, June 9, he was ordained 

c 2 



20 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

Deacon on his fellowship with letters dimissory from the 
Bishop of Ely to the Bishop of Carlisle (Percy), who held 
his ordination in St. George's, Hanover-square. Such was 
the fashion in which " things were done '* half a century 
ago. As a labour of love, he took the curacy of Boyeney, 
continuing his work as private tutor, and encouraging 
others to join him in theological studies. He took 
an active share in the work of Sunday-schools, and per- 
suaded his friends to form themselves into a staff of dis- 
trict visitors, and to teach a certain number of hours of 
each week in [the day-schools at Eton. He became secre- 
tary of the book club, and acted as auctioneer at the 
periodical sale of the books to the members ; his remarks 
on each book as he offered it showed that he had thoroughly 
studied it, and knew its strong and weak points. On Trinity 
Sunday, 1884, he was ordained priest, as in the previous 
year, by Bishop Percy, in St. George-s, Hanover-square. In 
the summer school-time of this year, his brother, Thomas 
Kynaston, died ; Mr. Charles. Selwyn, the youngest brother, 
was the only relative who was with him; they had come 
out of Wales and reached Chester, and there he had died. 
Letters had miscarried, and George, in going down to the 
funeral, passed on Hounslow Heath Mr. Charles Selwyn, 
who had just come from his brother's grave in Chester 
Cathedral. On the Sunday when he was lying dead, Mr. 
William Selwyn had preached a sermon written by George 
on the text " Thy brother shall rise again," and, in com- 
memoration of this circumstance, dvaar^aerai is carved at 
the bottom of the epitaph in Trinity College Chapel at 
Cambridge. 

It needed not this sorrow, which was a very heavy one, 
to draw out his sympathy with others, for it is recorded 
by one who stUl survives that " if there were any mis- 
understanding among friends, he would not rest imtil they 
were reconciled ; if pecxiniary diflSculty fell upon any one, 
he would make every endeavour to extricate him : if his 
friends were ill, he was theu' nurse and companion, if they 



1831-1841.] SYMPATHY IN SOKROW. 21 

lost relations, or fell under any great sorrow, he was with 
them at any hour to console and uphold theuL He was 
the friend, the adviser, the comforter, of all who would 
admit him to their confidence." {Ottardian newspaper, 
April 24, 1878.) And these words were not lightly written : 
they were but the record of what had been the writer's 
own experience. In 1835 he had lost a very near relative 
who was drowned at Maidenhead weir. The parents were 
far away and were unable to come to Eton, but Selwyn 
took all arrangements on himself, comforting the living and 
caring for the dead. How difi&cult it is to say all of com- 
fort and sympathy that we would wish to say at such times, 
every one has experienced who has made the effort ; but 
probably the cause of such inability has never been more 
truly detected and exposed than in the following extract 
from a letter which he wrote to the sorrowing family. 

"All our hearts require to be softened, and the most 
distressing evidence of their hardness is the imperfect 
sympathy which they display for the sorrow of others," 

When all was over and his mourning friend was ex- 
pressing to him his thanks he said ''Nollem accidisset 
tempus in quo scires quanto te faciam," and he added that 
he had always thought that Cicero had in this passage 
beautifully expressed what one ought to feel on such oc- 
casions. There was yet another act to be performed, which 
testified both to his kindness of heart and to his unsus- 
pected accomplishments. He went for several days to the 
spot, consecrated to the bereaved family by so many mourn- 
ful memories, and at length he produced an artistic water- 
colour drawing of the fatal scene ; until the occasion had 
called forth his powers, none of his friends knew that he 
was a painter ; but in truth he was a born artist, and to 
anticipate events somewhat, it may be added that his 
earlier letters from New Zealand and Melanesia were 
enriched with very clever pen-and-ink drawings which he 
made for the enjoyment of his father, after whose death he 



22 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

abstained from sketching, lest it should prove a snare to 
him and engross too mach of his time. 

At the Advent Ember-tide of 1835 the ordination of a 
friend led to the following letter, a remarkable commentary 
on ministerial duty, coming as it did from one who had 
only been himself a few months in Holy Orders. 

To THE Eev. C. B. Dalton. 

Powis Castle. Welshpool, 
Dec. 2ith, 1835. 

" Accept my most sincere and Christian congratulations 
on your admission into the ministry. It is the peculiar 
privilege of the young men of the present day to have 
their eyes opened to the real situation of the Church. It 
is the greatest folly to undertake the ministerial duties 
in the present time with the hope of temporal advantage. 
Of all professions, this will in future be the most laborious 
and the least lucrative. Yet stiU there are labourers 
enough ; and this is the great ground of hope that the 
destruction of the Establishment is not yet at hand. So 
long as the Universities continue to send out annually 
hundreds of men of sound principles and weU-directed 
zeal, of the best of whom at least one half enrol them- 
selves as defenders of that which we believe to be the 
true Faith, we need not fear what man can do to us. The 
real danger of the Church ivas from within ; but every 
year wiU reduce the number of those who endanger their 
own cause by their supineness. We ought to enter into 
a compact with one another to correct all those natural 
dispositions which stand in the way of the effective 
discharge of our duties ; to admonish, and suggest when- 
ever it may seem necessary, that so the mind of every 
one in our circle of acquaintance may be endued, not with 
its own simple strength, but with the aggregate steadfast- 
ness of many minds, all alike invigorated by the same 
power from above. We have peculiar advantages at Eton, 
as you justly observe. I have scarcely made a single 
acquaintance there from whom I bave not derived some 
advantage. And now that more of our number have 
taken Orders, I think that our system of miitual assistance 



1831-1841.] CO-OPERATION. 23 

may be made even more effective. You will understand 
by one instance, what I think may be extended to a 
general practice. Your communication made to me with 

C on a passage in my Sermon is a most appropriate 

illustration of this. Whenever a shadow of a doubt 
occurs as to the truth or propriety of any action, senti- 
ment, or mode of expression, let the objection be stated 
and freely discussed. It can always be done in a Christian 
spirit, if we establish one i>eremptory law (which can 
always be maintained by clergymen, as they are not subject 
to the absurd jurisdiction of the law of honour), viz., 
never to take ofiTence. I have witnessed the want of this, 

in my own parish of , which is convulsed by the 

discord of two rival curates. 

"We must endeavour to retain C in some way. 

I very much regret the failure of my attempt with L 

D . It would have been a great delight to me to 

have had him in the same house, instead of a stranger. 
I dread the return to long dinners, and wine-drinking, and 
sitting after dinner, which I have discontinued so long 

that I have lost all inclination to resume them. C *s 

habits would have been the same as my own ; but possibly 
I shall be obliged to conform in many points to the wishes 
of the new-comer. 

"I have certain misgivings about the Sunday-school, 

which are allayed solely by confidence in Gr . I fear 

that at present He is the sole stay of the institution ; 
which, in its infancy, must of course be in a precarious 
state. Your nursling (a Windsor Infants' School) I think 
is safe. When I was at home for a day on December 9, 
I visited the Infants' School, and was further confirmed 
in the favourable opinion which I had formed from seeing 
similar establishments. 

"The infusion of new associates into our Eton party 

will require some judgment P by all accounts will 

be a valuable coadjutor. Of the Cambridge man who is 

coming to Mrs. V 's I know nothing. If you and 

C will undertake to bring out P I will do 

my best to associate the Cantab. But I should particu- 
larly wish that no reference should at any time be made 
to me, as in any way the Coryphaeus of the party, because 
when circumstances prevent the influence of our actual 



24 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

head from being much felt, the only way to preserve 
unity is to discountenance the assumption of any nominal 
precedency. The origin of the dispute between our two 
curates was the old question, which should be the greater, 
and there was no resident vicar to silence the disputants. 
In the same way rnemy men quarrel with those who wish, 
not to lead^ but to co-operate with them, upon the same 
grounds as those gentlemen whom you told me of, who 

objected to be * tied to the chariot-wheels of Mr. W .' 

I believe that, as clergymen, we ought on the contrary to 
be willing to be tied like- furze-bushes to a donkey's tail, 
if we can thereby do any good by stimulating what is 
lazy and quickening what is slow. In many cases more 
good may be done by submitting to be led than by 
attempting to lead ; at least where good is the object of 

both parties. From report, I think Mr. may be 

rather a difficult man to manage ; but if he has all the 
agreeable qualities for which he is famed, we cannot well 
fail to agree. 

"Many thanks for the Oxford paper. I was much 
amused with the offended dignity of the Oxonian Press. 
In future, however, I shall know what Philological Pro- 
fessor means. I have proposed a plan for attaching 
the Hebrew Professorship at Eton to the Conductship, 

which I hope H will take into consideration, I see 

no other way of getting a respectable teacher of Hebrew 
resident in the place. Between the Conduct's stipend, 
and the Hebrew pupils, and the prospect of a living, the 
situation would be very good for a young man, and now 
there are Hebrew Scholarships at the Universities there 

would be no lack of Candidates when P goes. 

" Believe me, your sincere friend, 

*'G. A. Selwyn. 

"P.S. — Since I last wrote, I have thought that some 
parts of my letter must have been unintelligible to you ; 
as you were not at Eton when the miserable feuds were 
raging among the private tutors. It was that circumstance 
which first led me to think whether it was not possible 
that a body of men engaged in the same employment, 
should associate constantly without ill-will. You cannot 
conceive how I value the unity of the last two years after 



ia31-1841.] SYSTEM OF STUDY. 25 

the warfare of the preceding. We must try to preserve it, 
whenever our society receives accessions of force by new 
arrivals. Pray let me know what I can do for you at 
Eton* The books I shall send out as a matter of course. 
I have no fears of being detained beyond my day, as I 
intend to leave this place on Saturday next, to meet 

B , at D *s, at Middleton, 

" I look forward to the daily Hebrew meeting as a new 
and most useful plan for promoting religious intercourse. 
I propose that we should meet by weeks at each other's 
rooms. I have begun the Hebrew Scriptures with the 
New Year, and proceed at the rate of three chapters per 
diem, which, with the omission of Sundays, will, I hope, 
bring me to the end of Malachi before the conclusion of 
the year. This will not interfere with the other plan. I 
find that keeping a clerical calendar is a check to idleness, 
and strongly recommend you to enter all your services. 
You will have the satisfaction of beginning well. 

" The return to your morning calls will be most agree- 
able to me, for I have grown very lazy and o'^a/Ltan;? ; it 
is now almost 1 A.M. and I am seldom earlier in retiring. 
This of course involves a corresponding idleness in the 
morning. I am taking leave of my friends in this neigh- 
bourhood, as I have quite decided not to devote any more 
holidays to secular employments. Whether I shall stay 
at Eton after my present engagement ends, i.e. after next 
election, is still uncertain ; but I think that it will end in 
my remaining for a time upon a new basis of agreement." 

It was about this time that the town of Windsor was 
thrown into a fierce controversy on the subject of educa- 
tion, a subject less fruitful of strife then than now. Some 
Nonconformists presented a memorial to Lord J. Eussell, 
praying for help to the British and Foreign Schools on the 
ground that there were 800 children in the town whom the 
existing schools could not receive. Selwyn doubted the 
accuracy of these figures, and all the more so when he found 
that the statement which contained them had been drawn 
up by an agent from London, who sat in a room in an 
inn and was interviewed by all and sundry that chose 



2(5 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

to come to him with their allegations. Accordingly he 
incited his fellow private tutors to join with him in tiJdng 
a census of the whole town ; they divided the place into 
districts, and between them they visited every house and 
took down the numbers and names of the children and the 
schools which they attended, and they finished their labours 
by presenting a report of 80 instead of 800 children un- 
provided with, or unable to avail themselves of, existing 
schools. 

It is incorrect to say that their labours ended here, for 
the deficiency thus revealed led to an infant school — an in- 
stitution very rarely found forty years ago — ^being built in 
Windsor. Mr. Selwyn was foremost in the work of build- 
ing, as he was ati<firwards in the task of superintending and 
teaching in the schooL He visited newly-established 
infant schools in London during his vacation, and with 
characteristic thoroughness lost no opportunity of studying 
the results of other persons' experiments. 

He gave up the charge of Boveney and became the 
duly licensed curate of Windsor. The then vicar lived at 
Datchet, the living of which parish he held as well as that 
of Windsor. Mr. Selwyn was therefore practically in sole 
charge, for the vicar had full confidence in him and left 
everything in his hands. The parish was in a very un- 
satisfactory condition : a debt of 3,000Z. had been incurred 
by the churchwardens on pulling down an old and build- 
ing a new church : two years and a half had elapsed and 
neither principal nor interest had been paid : the creditor 
had obtained a mandamus from l^e Couit of Queen's 
Bench commanding the churchwardens to raise the neces- 
sary sum (3,300/.) by a rate on the inhabitants. A vestry 
meeting was summoned and assembled, with a certain de- 
gree of fitness, at the workhouse, for a rate of six shillings 
in the potmd would have pauperised the parish : after 
much recrimination it was proposed to raise a subscrip- 
tion, not to pay the debt but to indemnify and defend all 
who might be proceeded against for refusing to pay the 



1831-1841.] PAROCHIAL WORK. 



rate : one proposal pointed to that accustomed remedy 
for sloth and parsimony, a system of pew-rents, varying 
from 21. 2$. to 51. Bs. per seat per annum, which sanguine 
arithmeticians thought would bring in 500/. 

Mr. Selwyn asked permission to address the meeting, as 
one who took a great interest in the parish, though not a 
ratepayer. In calm and measured language he pointed 
out that the parish did owe 3,000/. to the lady who had 
generously lent that sum on the security of the rates, that 
the Queen's Bench was determined to enforce the payment, 
and that the only question was how the sum was to be 
raised. He showed that to resist the Queen's Bench would 
lead to suits in the Ecclesiastical Court and then to suits in 
the Court of Chancery, and that this indefinite legislation 
would not only cost vast sums of money but would destroy 
all good feeling in the parish for many years. He sug- 
gested therefore that a vigorous effort should be made to 
free the parish from the burden, and he would follow up 
that suggestion, in order to commend it to others, by 
promising cheerfully to perform his duties as curate for 
two years without receiving any remuneration. By thus 
relinquishing a stipend of 150/. per annum for two years 
he would be able to relieve the parish of a tithe of its 
obligation. 

The offer took the meeting wholly by surprise, but made 
as it was distinctly " as a peace-oflfering to the parish," it 
was irresistible, and within a month the sum of more than 
3,000/. was raised, the creditor giving up, under Mr. Sel- 
wyn's advice, her claim for interest, and thus practically 
making a donation equal to his own. 

Peace being thus restored to the parish the curate could 
carry out his schemes for its welfare with some better hope 
of success : he set on foot soup-kitchens, mothers'-meetings, 
and those numerous parochial organizations, now so com- 
mon, but then so rare ; he was not satisfied with the educa- 
tion that was given in the middle-class schools in Windsor, 
and he endeavoured to improve it by instituting public 



28 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [cHAr. ii. 

examinations and by giving prizes to the successful can- 
didates. "While the National Society was, in a tentative 
manner, providing inspection of the schools in certain 
dioceses, he had arranged a complete system of inspec- 
tion and of tabulating the results over a considerable area, 
of which Windsor was the centre. 

The collection made for wiping out the debt had left a 
surplus, and this was set aside as a nest-egg for a new 
church which would meet the wants of the growing popu- 
lation of Windsor, and serve ako as a church for the soldiers. 
Hitherto a chaplain had always been appointed to minister 
to the regiments both of cavalry and infantry quartered in 
Windsor. Prayers were said in the barrack-yard or in the 
riding-school, the men standing under arms. The nest- 
egg grew, and soon Mr. Selv^yn hoped that he saw his way 
to building the church : it was expected that the War De- 
partment and Horse Guards would contribute liberally : but 
Lord Hill was " a little afraid of religion among soldiers, 
because two majors had lately committed some acts of in- 
subordination in preaching, &c." Mr. Selwyn suggested that 
their " very exuberance of zeal might be attributed to the 
soldiers having so little that was doctrinal in their own 
religious services." He went to Mr. Macaulay, then Secre- 
tary-at-War, who thought 1,300Z. a sufficient contribution. 
He wanted, and hoped for 2,000/., because as the whole 
cost, including endowment, would be 6,000/., and the 
church at one of the three Sunday services would be given 
up to the soldiers, it was fair that they should contribute 
one-third. Among other objections Macaulay urged that 
perhaps the time might come when the Queen would not 
reside at Windsor, and when consequently so many troops 
would not be quartered there. Selwyn said he felt in- 
clined to suggest to him that this was not thought of when 
70,000/. was spent on the stables ! 

His popularity did not always serve him : who, indeed, 
that does bis duty, can be always and with all persons, 
popular f He used to tell a story of the churchwardens and 



1831-1841.] SUBORDINATION. 29 

himself being outvoted and outwitted by the Dissenters at 
a vestry meeting : they assembled at the proper vestry- 
room which would hold a dozen people ; a hundred crowded 
round, evidently bent on mischief; a loud voice proposed 
an adjournment to the schoolroom, which was at once 
filled: the same voice proposed an adjournment to the 
town-hall, which was filled : the churchwardens pro- 
posed their unpalatable scheme, countenanced and sup- 
ported by the presence at least of the curate, and they 
had to walk out of the town-hall and through the streets 
amidst roars of laughter and loud hisses^ being a minority 
of about five to 100. The story used to be -told by him 
many years afterwards, and the great point was that all 
along he did not agree with the policy of the church- 
wardens, but as curate he felt bound to be loyal to the 
vicar and to the authorities. " This," says one who was 
always in his confidence, " was his principle throughout 
his lifa He deeply regretted the passing of Public Worship 
Kegulation Act, but would not oppose the heads of the 
Church and State who were bent on bringing it in, and he , 
took his share of the unpopularity of the bishops in ^ 
general." 

It was a subject of comment and admiration when per- 
sons observed the relations of the vicar, Eev. Isaac Gosset, 
who put everything in Windsor into his hands, and the 
curate who kept himself carefully to the background. 
Windsor was rapidly taking the lead among the parishes 
of the neighbourhood and when any new organization was 
spoken of to the vicar in terms of praise he used to say, 
" It's all Selwyn's doing," and Selwyn on his part referred 
everything to the vicar. Never did man more thoroughly 
and conscientiously put into action (what he used after- 
wards as bishop to impress on deacons and curates) the 
promise of his ordination, reverently to obey [not only] 
the ordinary and other chief ministers of the church [but 
also] them to whom the charge and government over him 
was committed. 



30 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 



In 1838 the recent action of the Cathedral Commis- 
sioners called forth from Mr. Selwyn a powerful defence, 
not of cathedrals as they were, but of cathedrals as they 
would be, if the intentions of their founders, as revealed 
by their statutes, were carried out The pamphlet was 
not originally published, but was circulated privately 
among friends whose criticisms were freely invited. By 
some the suggestions were laughed at as visionary ; others 
accepted portions and proposed alterations and modi- 
fications ; these were carefully considered : in a letter 
to a friend who had taken exception to one expression, 
the author wrote: **Your objection has been confirmed 
by Manning, a friend of Gladstone's, and I must recon- 
sider the whole of that part.** Probably forty years ago 
those persons were not to be lightly blamed who thought 
the author's views Utopian: but on a small scale, with 
no endowments, with no past on which to build but with 
everything to be done by himself and under his own 
direction, the author was permitted in New Zealand to 
carry out in detail every portion of the scheme which 
he had elaborated for the fiiU utilization of the old and 
wealthy foundations, and subsequently at Lichfield he 
year by year adapted the resources of the chapter to the 
needs of his vast diocese, and succeeded in obtaining an 
amended set of statutes, feats of patience and zeal, in- 
credible to those who know the difficulty of moving by 
moral suasion a large body of men with separate in- 
terests, who have inherited traditions of a difierent 
state of things. To one friendly critic he wrote, **I do 
not consider any of my remarks very Utopian if only 
right principles could entirely get the better of private 
interests, which perhaps you will say is the most Utopian 
supposition of alL" 

When he contended against the diversion of cathedral 
revenues to parochial endowments, it was not for the sake 
of the revenue itself, for he wrote, '' No amount of income 
can dignify an inefficient minister," but he claimed the 



1831-1841.] CATHEDBAL REFORM. ' 31 



retention of temporal endowments in order to secure that 
" effectual organization which the clergy are more in need 
of than of money; for their character rests not on the 
possession of wealth but on the due performance of their 
duties." The cathedral was, in his opinion, " supplemen- 
tary to the parochial system, " a sort of * bank of supply ' 
upon which the great body of the clergy might draw for 
almost every kind of clerical assistance." 

When he observed " so strange an agreement in opinion 
between bishops of the Church of England and ministers 
of the British Government, and senators of different poli- 
tical parties, on the propriety of curtailing the revenues 
and privileges of the chapters," he could only account for 
such a phenomenon by the hypothesis that " they had all 
taken it for granted that the cathedral canon is a less useful 
minister of Christ than the parish priest/' and what was his 
remedy ? He wrote as follows : — " The only clear course 
of action open to the chapters, therefore, is to claim from 
the rulers both of Church and State the privilege of a 
more extended and diffusive usefulness, the power of de- 
veloping the capabilities of their holy office and of restoring 
their order to the efficient exercise of its legitimate func- 
tions." 

In the opinion of our author, "sl cycle of canonical 
visitation by ministers selected for their piety, learning, 
and eloquence, would meet those cases in which religion 
suffers relapses where the resident minister, either from 
age or other circumstances is inefficient in the discharge of 
his duty," and if the prebendaries " were always judiciously 
selected," he conceived that " no clergyman would consider 
such visits intrusive." He deprecated the fashion still pre- 
valent in some places by which the clergy of a given locality 
exchange pulpits according to a definite cycle, " for," he 
wrote, " a parochial minister is out of place everywhere 
except in his own church and parish : the effort of his exer- 
tions here depends mainly upon their continuity and upon 
the concentration of all his energies upon one definite 



32 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 



object : he departs from his character when he becomes a 
home missionary/* 

In the divinity schools of the cathedrals where, as in 
some cases divinity lecturers are endowed, students should, 
he thought, be trained for the ministry, and a class of 
deacons kept on probation, employed wherever needed and 
sent forth as curates when sufficiently trained. Of the 
students thus under education some might be taken from 
the humblest ranks of society. The resolution adopted by 
most of the English bishops at this time [1838], of ordain- 
ing no one who was not a member of an English university 
debarred from the ministry many deserving men who 
were unable to meet the expense of an a6ademical course, 
but the cathedral funds could supply scholarships by which 
the most promising members of this class might be main- 
tained at the university. " My fervent prayer," he wrote, 
'* is that the ministry of the Church may take root down- 
wards : that many a rustic mother may feel an honest 
pride in the profession of her son, and bless the Church 
which has adopted him into her service. But these must 
not be ' Jeroboam's ministers,' * the lowest of the people,' 
but men, who by their talents and virtues have proved 
themselves worthy of a higher station. If sufficient cau- 
tion be used in selecting ministers fix)m the great body of 
the people, the Church must be strengthened and cannot be 
degraded. It seems to be essential to the permanent effici- 
ency of all orders of men that they should be recruited from 
time to time by well-chosen reinforcements from the ranks 
below them. The cathedral institutions have the means 
of providing such a course of probation in youth, and such 
a system of encouragement to the deserving in after life 
as might be sufficient, under the blessing of God, to ensure 
the good conduct of their students at the universities ; 
and thus, without injury to the character or efficiency of 
the ministry, they might become the avenues by which the 
poorest man of merit might arrive at academical distinc- 
tion and pass on to the highest offices in the Church." 



1831-1841.] TRAINED TEACHERS. 33 

Forty years ago no normal school existed for the train- 
ing of schoolmasters : they learned the mechanical routine 
of the system by attending for a month or two at some 
central school which " made them drill-sergeants and 
nothing more." "The degenerate free-schools which are 
at present attached to some cathedrals, do not realize the 
intentions of their founder, who required the scholars to 
come already prepared with a knowledge of reading, writing 
and grammar." It was the evident design of the founder 
that they should be trained for higher service, and it was 
part of Mr. Selwyn's scheme that the more promising 
pupils of national schools should be received into the 
cathedral schools and there be trained to teach, and in 
cases of exceptional ability become chapter scholars at the 
university. 

Our author observed that a request had recently been 
made to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's to allow the 
cathedral to be open to the public, " as a means of purifying 
the taste and exciting the emulation of the people by the 
sight of the memorials which it contained of departed 
genius and virtue." But he claimed a higher destiny for 
our cathedrals than to become w^allas : with their doors 
always opened he conceived that they would offer all the 
day long those opportunities for private prayer which 
were then only to be enjoyed in "the solemn and still 
interval which occurs between the opening of the doors 
of the cathedral and the commencement of the service, 
when the minster has the privacy of a chamber without 
the adaptation to the purposes of every-day life, and 
becomes, as it were, a domestic oriel, invested with the 
dignity of its own sacred and awful character as the House 
of God." Besides purifying the taste and exciting the 
emulation, he wished to employ the cathedral in developing 
the spiritual energies of the nation : he hoped " that the 
enlightened judgment which values it as a monument of 
human genius will uphold it still more earnestly as a place 
of divine worship : that they who acknowledge its effect 

VOL. I. D 



34 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

upon the mind of men, will desire to extend its influence 
over their spirit, and that they who would teach the 
nation how Nelson did his duty to his country, will think 
it a far higher object to teach them to know what (jod 
demands of them as the Christian conquerors of so large a 
portion of the unconverted world." 

After running the gauntlet of private criticism from 
many friends at the Universities the pamphlet was pub- 
lished and dedicated to Mr. Gladstone, " who," the author 
said, " suggested the whole idea in a pamgraph of a letter 
to me." 

Having shown in something of detail how the various 
needs of a diocese might be met by the organization and 
ministiy of a chapter, Mr. Selwyn drew a sketch of a 
Cathedral Institution, " rather as an aid to reflection on the 
subject than as an exemplar of what such an institution 
ought to be." It is so complete a sketch, and is so striking 
an evidence of the author's power of organization, that it 
would be impossible to exclude it from these pages. 

" The Cathedral Church of was founded in the 

year 1539 by Henry VIII. for the diffusion of religious 
knowledge and works of piety of every kind throughout 

the diocese of to the Glory of Almighty God and 

the general welfare of his Mcjesty's subjects. The cathe- 
dral establishment consists of the bishop, the dean, the 
canons, the minor canons, the divinity lecturer, the upper 
and lower masters of the cathedral school, the probationary 
deacons, the theological scholars, the cathedral university 
scholars, the scholars of the cathedral school, the organist, 
the lav clerks, and other inferior officers. 

" The Bishop is the spiritual head of the whole cathedral 
establishment, the president of the cathedral council, and 
the visitor, empowered to require obedience to the cathedral 
statutes from every member of the body. 

The Dean and Canons are men selected for their learning 
and piety. They are all distinguished as eloquent inter- 
preters of the word of God, as powerful advocates of the 
cause of charity, and as active promoters of the spiritual 
welfare of mankind. They form the council of the bishop, 



183M841.] MODEL OF CATHEDRAL STATUTES. 35 

and act as his advisers in all questions of difficulty, as his 
examining chaplains, and as his supporters on all public 
occasions. They reside in their prebendal houses the 
greater part of the year, and hold no living with their 
cathedral preferment. 

** The Diocese is divided into as many districts as there 
are canons in the cathedral, and every canon is considered 
responsible to the bishop for the effectual diffusion of the 
word of God in his own district. For this purpose he 
arranges a cycle of visitation, including all the places in 
which the aid of a powerful and impressive preacher is 
most needed; and endeavours, by frequent visits, to 
awaken his hearers to a sense of the blessiugs of the 
Grospel, to refute errors of doctrine, and to explain and 
enforce such Christian ordinances as may be endangered 
by the spirit of the times. 

'* The Parochial Clergy are far from considering this as 
an intrusion, because the canon is in all other ways their 
friend and coadjutor. If they are in want of a school- 
room, or a chapel, they have only to apply to him ; and 
he is willing, both by preaching and by exerting his 
influence in the diocese, to forward their plan to the 
utmost of his power. 

** The Canons are also secretaries of the great societies 
of the Church, the S.P.G., the S.P.C.K., the Society for 
Building and Enlarging Churches and Chapels, the 
National Society for the Education of the Poor, &c. By 
their preaching, the principles and operations of those 
societies are effectueJly made known throudbout the 
diocese, and liberal contributions obtained. The effect 
of these frequent visits of the canons to the parish 
churches in the districts is seen in the improvement of 
the general tone of preaching throughout the diocese. 

" The Chapter meet once every fortnight as a Clergy Aid 
Society to inquire into the spiritual wants of the diocese. 
At this board all applications for clerical assistance and 
clerical employment are received. In some cases one of the 
probationary deacons is sent as a regular assistant to an 
aged minister in a populous parish ; another is sent to take 
the duty of a clergyman during a temporary illneas ; a third 
is appointed to officiate for an incumbent during a short and 
unavoidable absence. These are supported by the chapter 

D 2 



36 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWVTN. [chap, ii, 

or incumbent, according to circumstances. Many of the 
probationary deacons become curates in the diocese upon 
the recommendation of the chapter — sometimes, when the 
population of a parish has increased so much as to require 
an additional church, the influence of the chapter is 
exerted. to procure the sum requisite for the building, 
and a deacon is appointed to do the duty till a sufficient 
income has been raised for a regular incumbent. The 
lectures of the divinity lecturer are attended by as many 
of the probationary deacons as are not employed in other 
parts of the diocese, by the students in the missionary 
class, and by the theolo^cal students who have completed 
their univeraity education, but have not yet been ad^tted 
to orders. Many other students not on the foundation 
are admitted into the class of the professor on sufficient 
recommendation, and prepare themselves for orders under 
his direction. 

" A general examination is held annually by the dean 
and chapter, with the assistance of the divinity lecturer 
and the masters of the cathedral school. At this time 
the theological students are examined, and the best selected 
to be presented to the bishop for ordination. After this 
they become probationary deacons. At the same time 
the cathedral university scholars present their testimonials 
from the colleges in which they have graduated, and 
request to be re-admitted upon the cathedral foundation 
as theological students. The missionary scholars also 
present their certificates of having completed the required 
course. The scholars of the cathedral free school are 
also examined, and the most promising are chosen to fill 
the vacancies among the cathedral university scholars. 
A second class is selected for the service of foreign mis- 
sions. Those of inferior talent but of equally good general 
character are recommended by the examiners as qualified 
to be masters of parochial schools. Of the remainder, 
some are apprenticed by the chapter, others become lay 
clerks of the choir, and others obtain situations as parish 
clerks, on account of their skill in music. It very rarely 
happens that any scholar is expelled. The examination 
of candidates for admission into the cathedral school 
comes next in order. They are required to be poor and 
for the most part destitute of friends, and to come 



1831-1841.] CATHEDRAL PATRONAGE. 37 

prepared with a knowledge of reading and writing. The 
greater number of the candidates are sent up from the 
national schools of the diocese with testimonials from 
their cleTsnrman and schoolmaster. Some are the orphan 
chUdren of clei^men and other professional men. The 
best proficients in the knowledge and application of 
scripture are admitted into the trial class, but their 
election is not confirmed till the examination of the 
following year. 

" When a cathedral living is vacant, the dean and chapter 
meet to appoint a new incumbent. The named of the 
minor canons and of the probationary deacons (whether 
employed in curacies or resident at the cathedral) are 
read over, and the appointment is made with due con- 
sideration of the peculmr circumstances of the parish and 
of the merits of the candidates. If the living is given to 
a minor canon, one of the probationary deacons is elected 
at the same meeting to fill his place. Livings which are 
not accepted by any member of the cathedral body are 
given to the most deserving of the diocesan schoolmasters, 
who are admitted into holy orders by the bishop upon 
special recommendation of the clergy, and serve as cumtes 
of the vacant benefices during their year of deacon's orders. 

*' At all times of the year the dean and chapter devote 
themselves to the duties of hospitality. The cathedral 
library is open to all clergymen resident in the diocese. 
The parochial clergy look upon the canons as their 
advisers in all doubtful cases, and the probationary 
deacons, after they have passed into permanent employ- 
ment, return with delight from time to time to draw from 
them fresh stores of spiritual wisdom. 

"Among this variety of employments the daily service 
of the cathedral is not neglected. The value of that 
divine ordinance is never forgotten. God is glorified by 
the daily prayers of His ministers and people ; intercession 
is made for the sins of the nation and of all mankind ; 
the book of the revealed word of God is read day by 
day, the song of praise and thanksgiving continually 
ascends to Heaven as a morning and evening sacrifice. 

" The above sketch of cathedral institutions, acting, as it 
is presumed, in accordance with the intentions of the 



38 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

founder, may serve to show that there are important 
benefits which the chapters may confer on the parochial 
clergy, without any improper alienation of revenues or 
violation of statutes. The plan proposed by the commis- 
sioners has not yet passed into law ; and there is still 
hope that the cathedrals may be spared. If it should 
please God to inspire the rulers of our nation with a 
deeper sense of what is due to His j^lory and what is 
necessary for the spiritual welfare of His people, we may 
still hope to see the institutions of our ancestors restored 
to their ancient dignity, and fulfilling the intentions of 
their founders. We may still hope to see every cathedral 
acting as the spiritual heart of the diocese, diffusing its 
episcopal and pastoral influence into every parish, pro- 
moting all works of charity and piety, publishing the 
glad tidings of salvation by the mouth of its chosen 
ministers, distributing the scriptures into every cottage, 
building and enlarging the houses of God, propagating 
the gospel in foreign parts, and educating the children of 
the poor at home. The chapters may then become the 
foster-fathers of the friendless and orphan, the patrons of 
that order from which Jesus chose His disciples, the 
guardians of every humble soul in which Christ has 
quickened the seed of holiness and faith. And being 
thus in favour both with God and man^ the cathedral 
clergy may be encouraged to carry on their good and 
useful work, to minister to the increasing wants of the 
people, to supply the deficiencies of sick and aged clergy- 
men, to ensure regularity in the performance of divine 
service throughout the countiy, to furnish the parochial 
schools with a more enlightened class of instructors, and to 
fill every parish church with the melody of harmonious 
voices praising God. And as they may be the friends 
of the people generally, so also may they be the guides 
and counsellors of the parochial clergy, the connecting 
link between the hierarchy and the ministry, the spirituid 
hosts and patrons of the young and inexperienced deacon. 
And, finally, in their own proper and local priesthood 
they may be reverenced as the ministers of the eternal 
God, while they offer to Him their daily tribute of prayer 
and thanksgiving in the noblest temples that were ever 
consecrated to His worship and honour/* 



1831-1841.] CRITICISMS ON SCHEME. 39 



The action of the Cathedral Commissioners and of the 
Government had caused so much excitement that every 
contribution to the subject was certain to attract attention. 
Air. Selwyn's pamphlet distinctly challenged criticism, 
and it was promptly considei*ed by persons in high 
position. The author thus deals with the strictures of 
Bishop Blomfield, of London, in a letter to his brother, 
the Eev. W. Selwyn : — 

[Port-mark, Mardi, Uh^ 1888.] 

My dear William, 

I send you the address of Mr. Richard Cobbett, which 
will speak for itself in language which seems as if it had 
been curtatxis incequali tonsore, I believe him to be a 
respectable man and creditable tonsor. 

I have received from J. F. the strictures of the Bishop 
of London on my pamphet. The following are his remarks 
as stated by J. F. :— 

" 1. His lirst objection was that in your plan you would 
put prebendaries in the bishops' places, or rather make 
them quite independent of bishops. 

" 2. That it would be impossible to give them such large 
charges, and to keep them in at the same time. 

"3. That it would not do to put them to preach in 
parochial pulpits. 

"4, That it could not be their business to preach charity 
sermons consistently with giving the parochial minister 
leave to ask the aid of others. 

" 5. That it would be undesirable that such men as So 
and so and So and so, should be the only persons whom a 
clergyman might go to for such purposes. 

" 6. That the thing had been tried and failed ; that 
prebendaries would never consent to be prebendaries 
without other offices and emoluments." 

I confess that these seem to be mere objections of detail, 
founded upon a mistaken view of the object of my remarks. 
The main question seems to be, yes, or no, shall the cathe- 
drals be influential in the dioceses i My remarks were 
nothing more than a classification of such duties as pre- 
bendaries might perform consistently with their statutes. 
Does not No. 6 neutralize Nos. 1 and 2. Would No. 6 be 



40 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, lu 

the case if aDything approaching to Nos. 1 and 2 were to 
be the case ? 

3. The answer seems to be that they do so already, 
wherever they can be procured. Clergymen are too 
happy to catch a prebendary, which is not veiy easy, as 
they have livings of their own. 

4 and 6 object to an exclusive privilege which I never 
hinted at. I never said that prebendaries only should 
preach. 

Gladstone speaks very favourably, and has sent for 
some more copies in addition to those which I first sent. 
Eivington has had twenty-fiva Gladstone's names are: 
The Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Pusey, Manning, Sir E. Inglis, 
Lord Ashley, W, B. Baring, T. D. Acland, Viscount Mahon, 
Mathison. 

Meanwhile in the Houses of Parliament things were 
improving, owing, in some degree, probably to the tren- 
chant criticism of the opponents of the commissioners; 
and in the following letter Mr. Selwyn made known his 
strategy and his hopes : — 

To THE Eev. W. Selwyn. 

Eton, May 21st^ 1838. 

My dear William, 

The cause of cathedrals seems to be slowly gaining 
ground. The most important advantage gained is the 
abandonment of the principle of the Commissioners in the 
Church Leases Bill brought in lately by ministers. The 
Bishop of Lincoln says, p. 38 of his letter, that " this 
measure is directly at variance with the recommendation 
of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners." This is a good 
wedge to be driven home, because the Cathedral Bill will 
not pass the House of Lords on any other credit than the 
sanction of the episcopal members of the commission. 
Lord John Bussell has shown that he uses the com- 
mission only so far as he thinks it useful, and dispenses 
with its recommendations as soon as he pleases. This 
frees the clergy from all deference to the Episcopal Com- 
missioners, because it is clear that in the end the bill 
will be the bill of the Whig ministers, and not a measure 
of the Tory bishops. Many persons still cling to the bill 
for the bishops' sake, but this will open their eyes. 



1831-1841.] LEGISLATURE MORE FAVOURABLE. 41 

The next point in favonr of cathedrals is that the 
parochial clergy are beginning to petition. 

Manning, tiie author of a letter to the Bishop of 
Chichester against the principle of the commission, writes 
thus : — 

"We are petitioning the Queen and the two Houses of 
Parliament against the Cathedral Bill, and our petition 
will I hope receive the signatures of a large majority of the 
clergy beneficed or resident in the archdeaconry of 
Chichester, with the archdeacon at our bead. It is very 
short, taking the ground of the sacredness of bequests, and 
injustice of defeating the intention of founders, &c." 

Copleston, Fellow of Exeter College, and now of Exeter 
city, writes : — 

"You will be glad to hear that on the very day on 
which I received your letter, the day of our archdeacon's 
visitation, we signed two petitions to both Houses, one 
deprecating the adoption of the 4th Beport of the K C. 
as unjust in principle, and ultimately subversive of the 
main object of cathedral institutions. The other petition 
attacks the commission on the ground so nobly taken and 
maintained by Manning, as unchurch-like and unconstitu- 
tional in principle, a violation of the Bill of Bights. This 
example will, no doubt, be followed by other archdeaconries, 
for this county is by no means slack in such matters." 

Oxford University Convocation agreed to a most capital 
address on the 5th of May. I quote one sentence : — 
. " That the cathedral institutions are an integral branch 
of the establishment, tracing their origin to the first 
planting of Christianity among our Saxon ancestors, and 
many of them revived and re-established, with the most 
comprehensive views of the general well-being of the 
Church by the great authors of the Beformation." 

I have a copy, which I will reprint if I find that the 
petitions do not get on for want of models. I do not know 

how my little book has sold. P is rather slow, or 

B rather sulky, for no copies are to be had at the 

latter place. Perhaps he is angry that he did not publish 
after distributing privately. 

I have had a letter from your bishop in acknowledgment 
of my large-paper copy, in which he says : — " I hope that 
you will excuse me adding that it was upon the principles 



42 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYX. [chap. ii. 



laid down in the eighth chapter (ie. of the pamphlet) 
that I performed my residence for more than thirty years 
in Westminster Abbey, with only one mulct for absence, 
owing to illness, during that long period." 

That no stone might be left unturned, Mr. Selwyn drew 
up the following petition to the House of Lords : — 

"To THE Lords Spikitual and Temporal of Great 
Britain and Ireland in Paruamjbnt assembled. 

" The humble petition of the undersigned clergymen of 
the Church of England showeth : 

" That your petitioners have seen with very deep con- 
cern, that a Bill has passed the House of Commons, having 
for its object the suppression of many offices and dignities 
in the cathedral foundations of the Church of England. 

'' That, while tjiey abstain from expressing an opinion 
on the alienation of the revenues of the chapters, they 
deprecate in the most earnest manner the abolition of any 
office dedicated, by the piety of our forefathers, to the 
perpetual service of Almighty Grod. 

'* That your petitioners therefore pray your Lordships to 
respect the spiritual character of the cathedral dignities 
themselves, which they believe to be in itself a sufficient 
inducement to men of piety and learning to undertake 
the duties of those offices, even without any revenue or 
emolument whatever. 

" That the cathedral dignities, even without an endow- 
ment, would be highly valuable, as affording the means of 
giving to the examiuing chaplains, and other diocesan 
officers, that official connexion with their bishop which 
is required by the canons ecclesiastical, and recognised by 
the charter and statutes of many of the cathedral founda- 
tions. 

" That your petitioners thei*efore pray your Lordsliips to 
preserve the framework of our cathedral bodies in their 
present integrity ; and even if it should be finally deter- 
mined to alienate any portion of the chapter revenues, 
they would still entreat that their lordships the bishops 
may be empowered to appoint to the unendowed stalls, at 
their discretion, such clergymen as may be found willing to 
discharge the duties of those offices ireely and gratuitously, 



1831-1841.] SCRIPTURE READERS. 43 

r 

for the service of their respective dioceses, and for the 
spiritual welfare of the ChnrcL" 

It was while his mind was fully occupied with these 
practical matters that he wrote the following letter to 
one who had for long been his alter ego, but from whom 
he had by circumstances been separated for some years. 
No man had been more zealous than he in the work of 
district-visiting, and he had induced his fellow-tutors and 
some of the Eton masters to combine in this unwonted 
duty, but the scheme of hired lay missionaries and Scrips 
ture readers did not commend itself to his judgment, and 
he set forth his reasons very freely and fully : — 

Letter to the late Rev. John Frere. 

Eton, May lOlh, 1837. 

My dear John, 

I think that there are few things more pleasing than to 
find, on renewing an acquaintance with an old friend, that 
your mind and his have been steering the same course, 
and that the intercourse can be resumed upon the old 
basis of similar opinions and habits. Tou and I, I find, 
have come to the same conclusion about the Clerical Aid 
Society. The principle already is in existence, and doing 
as much good as can reasonably be expected of it, by 
means of district- visiting societies, &c. ; but it works 
much better as a voluntary than as a stipendiary system. 
As long as the service rendered to the minister is purely 
voluntary, numbers of tradesmen and others will be will- 
ing to devote their spare time to the Christian work of 
ameliorating the condition of their poorer neighbours. 
But is it likely that they will equally respect a function 
which is discharged by a person, perhaps inferior in station 
and acquirements to themselves, for the wages of a day 
labourer ? And can the services of one paid agent be an 
equivalent for the voluntary assistance of many who are 
willipg to work in the same way for the pure love of God ? 

But if the persons employed as assistants are in orders 
their services are then ^rformed as their bonnden duty 
rather than as their stipulated work. It cannot be said 



44 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

that the curate is paid for his duty by the 80/. which he 

receives ; and therefore the motive which urges him to an 

active discharge of the duties of his ministry must be a 

professional and not a pecuniary obligation. A clergy- 

( man dedicates himself to God, and is bound to work, as it 

■. may happen, for much, or little, or even for no worldly 

remuneration. He cannot measure the degree of exertion 

. required of him by the amount of his stipend. For this 

* reason I think that clerical agents will be certainly more 

efficient than lay agents, and probably not less cheap. 

But if a question arise, from what source is this addi- 
tional demand for ordained ministers to be supplied ? I 
answer, from that class from which Christ selected His 
apostles — ^from the poor. Let the Church take root down- 
wards. Let every peasant in the country have an interest 
in the Establishment in the person of a son, or brother, or 
cousin. • We have the best materials for the formation of 
a plebeian ministry that ever were possessed by any nation. 
We have a peasantry who have grown up under the 
fostering care of the Parochial Church system, and have 
been trained in religious principles by a sound and scrip- 
tural course of instruction. Our national schools are sending 
out from year to year supplies of talent improved to a 
certain point, but under the present system to be improved 
no further. Our national schoolmaster at Windsor sighs 
over the constant loss of his best and most promising 
boys, whom he sees passing off to places where the master 
discourages religion in the servant, lest he should become 
better than himself. The Clerical Aid Society may draw 
upon this bank to any amount, upon a very simple plan : 

1. A school to collect the ilUe of the national schools 
from fourteen years old and upwards. 

2. A committee to examine the above scholars at the 
age of eighteen, and determine from their proficiency 
whether they could be advantageously sent to the univer- 
sity as sizars, &c., with a view to future ordination. The 
inferior scholars might be immediately employed as 
schoolmasters in national or other schools. 

Normal schools upon the present plan are most ridicu- 
lous. A man of litde or no education goes for two months 
to a good national school, where he is occupied solely in 
teaching and patting boys through their manosuvres, and 



1831-1841.] SERMONS. 45 

then he is pronounced fit to he a schoolmaster. But he 
can never open their minds, because his own has not been 
opened. Then people complain, and with truth, of the 
cramped and irrational system of our national schools. 

It was pfiurt of Mr. Selwyn*s plan for securing the utmost 
eflBciency of the clergy that they should invite each other's 
friendly criticisms on their sayings and doings, with a view 
to mutual improvement ; and in days when sermons were 
too exclusively regarded as the test of clerical ability, it 
was natural that these should be among the first subjects 
of such criticisms. On one occasion Mr. Selwyn preached 
a sermon on Church Building, of which a friend asked 
permission to borrow the plan, and even to make extracts 
if it were not intended for publicatioD. The following 
reply not only gave the permission sought^ but also entered 
at some length into the general question of sermon writing 
and other matters :-" 

Letter to Rev. C. B. Dalton. 

Eton, March 5th, 1838. 

My dear Dalton, 

I can assure you that I have no present intention of 
publishing sermons, as I believe the world to be already 
overstocked with that commodity, and that every new 
publication which is not likely to achieve immortality, is 
only forming one of a tribe, which is thrusting our 
immortal ancestors into the comer. All therefore that 
I have which you think would in any way interest your 
audience, is entirely at your service, to adopt either the 
plan or the words, as you may think fit. When 1 have 
more sermons to write than I can well manage, I may 
claim my right of reciprocity. 

I congratulate you most heartily on the success of 
your Early Service; for I call any congregation above 
twenty very satisfactory, and I should not feel solitary 
with ten. I hope that you will never be reduced to the 
situation of Elijah. When I think of the danger of losing 
sermons, I always think of the dialogue between Barrow 
and a rich friend, when they were travelling together and 
expected to be robbed. Barrow showed some uneasiness 



46 LIFE OF BISHOP SKLWYN. [cuAr. ii. 

about losing his portmanteau, which was stufifed with 
sermons. His friend readily offered to guarantee the 
safety of his portmanteau, on condition that Barrow should 
be answerable for his pocket-book, which was full of bank- 
notes. I have therefore sent the sermon to share the fate 
of all other parcels. 

T like your text, but think that your divisions involve 
too much matter. Such texts as " Our life is hid with God " 
are sermons in themselves, and require a great length of 
explanation, which withdraws the mind from the principal 
subject. 1 think one rule good, and that is, never to quote 
a text in support of an argument which requires itself to 
be explained. The original argument is lost sight of in 
the parenthetical explanation. 

Your first sentence suggests one objection which I will 
call a parallelistic objection. " Immoral men, who seek 
excuse, and men of narrow enthusiasm, are apt to think 
that there is less religion in the world than there is." 

Parallelize this sentence with the text 

1. Elijah thought that there was less religion, &c. 

2. Immorai men think „ „ &c. &c. 

3. Men of narrow enthusiasm „ &c. &c. 
Ergo: either Elijah was an immoral man or the other 

kind, or the text does not lead out to appropriate con- 
clusions ; at least if my parallelistic objection be just. 
Try the contrary, as an illustration : — 

Elijah thought, &c. 

Holy men under similar circumstances think, &c. 

Holy men in solitude think, &c. 

Single good men in ungodly situations think, &c. 
Consequence. 

Elijah was inclined to despond. 

Some good men are, &c. &c. 
Contrast, 

All good men are not so inclined to despond. 

The seraph Abdiel faithful among the faithless. 

Abraham „ &c &a 

Noah „ &c. &c. 

There are other texts which are more appropriate to 
the reproof of loose Christians who plead in excuse the 
genend depravity. As Eccl. vii. 10. 

Again you say : 



1831-1841.] CUUBCU UNION. 47 



" True religion is naturally unobtrusive.*' This again 
implies that true religion though unobtrusive was still 
sufficiently abundant Was this the case ? God does not 
speak of the abundance of true religion in Israel, but says 
that there was more of it than Elijah thought. It seems 
to me a topic of encouragement to Elijah in his fancied 
loneliness, rather than an expression of satisfaction at the 
state of Israel. 

Besides : the unobtrusiveness of the 7,000 was owing 

to the state of the times rather than to a right principle. 

A Jew's religion was essentially public ; and could not be 

rightly performed in private except in great emergencies. 

Therefore the parallelism again fails. 

1. True religion is naturally unobtrusive, 

Ib the same manner as 

2. The 7,000 Jews were unobtrusive ; 

therefore 

3. True Judaism is unobtrusive, and therefore private. 

But 
the principle of unobtrusiveness is different in the two cases. 
I send you these remarks because I think that you 
like this sort of free communication ; and shall be very 
glad if you will retaliate in kind. * Fwngar vice cotis, &c.* 
Do not think that I pretend to have arrived at the power 
of writing according to my own ideas of how things ought 
to be written. The specimens of translation in Tytler's 
Essay on that subject are bitterly bad. So you will take 
me, as I wish to be taken, as a monitor rmUtuvi ipse 
monendacs. 

There would seem to have been complete reciprocity in 
the Mendlv criticism of each other's works, for in a letter 
only a week later in date than the above there occurs the 
following passage : — 

** I have not thanked you for your discovery of Stemhold 
and Hopkins in my sermon, which is a gross fault in 
style." 

In 1838 Mr. Selwyn was able to accomplish a scheme 
that had long been in his mind, and had been discussed by 
him whenever he could persuade his friends to criticise his 



48 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, il 



proposals. The scheme, which he called rerpdyddvov^ was 
a " Church Union " combining the work of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge, the Society for the 
Propagation of the Grospel, the National Society, and the 
Church Building Society. This plan he thought might be 
extended all over England ; and that the system of work- 
ing for all at once would be far preferable to the pre- 
sent plan, whereby some people took up one work and 
some another ; the Additional Curates' Fund he thought 
should be "strictly and solely diocesan." His scheme 
contemplated the " housing " of these four societies under 
one roof, and at the head of the whole group would be 
placed "a chaplain of the archbishop, or some influential 
clergyman suc& as Mr. Lonsdale, who would have been 
peculiarly qualified, if he had not King's College — as 
having been an archbishop's chaplain, as having a good 
income from his stall, and as being connected by his 
preachership at Lincoln's Inn with a large body of laymen.'* 
Over each of the four departments he would place as 
Secretary a prebendary or canon — ^the archbishop would 
be president — all the bishops would be members of the 
committee, which should be a general committee over the 
whole organization, with a special committee to each 
department : similar committees would be formed in each 
cathedral town with one of the canons for secretary, and 
archidiaconal and ruri-decansd branches in correspondence 
with the Diocesan Boards throughout the country. ** The 
canonries at St Paul's," he said, " would soon be worth 
40,000/. a year, and these if properly managed might 
conduct all the machinery of the four Church societies, 
one canon being placed over each, but he much feared 
that the Bishop of London designed to seize upon these 
funds and appropriate them to the endowment of his 
churches." 

On the principle of doing " what he could " in his own 
sphere, and of leaving others to follow the example, he 
succeeded in establishing the Windsor and Eton Church 



1831-1841.] SYMPATHY WITH MISSIONARY WORK. 4Q 



Union Society, which was inaugurated at a public meeting 
on November 5, 1838, the Bishop of Winchester having 
preached in the church of New Windsor on the Sunday 
previous. The object of the Union was one which was 
always present to the founder's mind, "Co-operation," 
the uniting of the clergy of a given locality in a general 
system of mutual help and support, and the " combining 
all orders of the clei-gy and the laity in the union and 
fellowship of the Church of Christ, that they may work 
together for the good of all men, in the fear of God." 
This was the germ of action which produced so great 
results in the other hemisphere. Co-operation and union, 
in labour and in the Faith, these were the things at which 
he always aimed, in the belief that only by these coidd 
he build up the church on a wide and enduring basis, and 
fill it with a spirit of self-help and self-reliance in things 
temporal 

Here and there is apparent in his earliest correspondence 
after his ordination a sense of the duty of sharing in 
missionary work : it was perhaps chiefly for the sake of 
the Church abroad that he established the Windsor Church 
Union, and everywhere in his plans for the development 
of Cathedral Institutions his range of thought included 
the edifying of the Church in distant lands. The follow- 
ing letter shows his satisfaction at having at length secured 
for Eton and the College an opportunity of taking part in 
these works of love and mercy : — 

Letter to Eev. C. B. Dalton. 

Eton, Nov. 21»^, 1888. 

My dear Dalton, 

You are probably aware that Eton has long laboured 
under the disadvantage of being a Peculiar, and has there- 
fore been exempted from all Queen's Letters, and other 
incentives to charity. The ice has been broken as far as 
regards the little chapel ; for the Provost sent for me a few 
days ago, and in the most civil and complimentary manner 
expressed his wish that I would procure a preacher for 

VOL. L E 



50 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [cHAr. ii. 

— 

the Church Union Society in that chapeL I of courae 
assented, and immediately turned over the selection to 

P , who is not a little pleased* Now for the College 

Chapel. I was too cautious to risk my credit by asking 
too much, and therefore I held my tongue on that subject ; 
but I had in my heart the great advantage which the 
boys would derive from occasionally hearing some account 
of the great missionary operations of the Church ; and be- 
ing thereby excited to the exercise of practical charity. 
"Will not Mr. Lonsdale feel this even more strongly than I 
do, and feeling it, make an offer to the Provost and Fellows 
to preach a sermon in aid of our quadruple alliance ? He 
is the very man ; and you the most convenient channel 
through which a hint to this effect can be conveyed to 
him ; as I must remain perdu, having already established 
in some quarters too great a resemblance to Zedekiah the 
son of Chenaanah, Mr. Lonsdale has, I hope, received 
some of our papers, from which he may learn the plan of 
the society. 

Although not yet thirty years of age, Mr. Selwyn had 
formed definite opinions on many questions of Church 
polity, as well as on Cathedral Eeform, which have since 
been worked out, but which at that time were problems 
awaiting solution — ^and his opinions, which were sought 
even by his elders, have not been forgotten. On the 
question of the division of large parishes he thought the 
best way was not to divide a parish into two equal parts — 
but, if a new parish were to be formed, to draw oflf from 
the old one such a district as would really form a manage- 
able parish. Then the want of still more churches would 
remain apparent and more good would be done, because 
soToe part would be really well looked after. He said 
moreover, that Mr. Gladstone had put this to him very 
clearly. One of his friends writes : — 

" I spoke to Selwyn about the project of having a general 
Psalmody, and I told him that the Archbishop and the 
Bishop of London were warmly in favour of it. I asked 
him what he thought about getting it sanctioned by the 



1831-1841.] ENGAGEMENT. 51 

Queen in CounciL He thought it would certainly be 
desirable on the principle that 9t + l is more than n — . I 
suggested that some persons would rather not see it 
sanctioned by the State, if it were put out with authority 
by the Bishops. This sentiment he could not agree to ; for 
though — as Gladstone has suggested — ^the time may come 
when the Church must disunite itself, that time has not 
yet come." 

In November, 1838, he announced his engagement to 
the lady who in the following year became his wife. To 
a friend who reproached him for needless reticence he 
wrote: — 

" Most gladly would I have made known my happiness 
to you and to aU my friends, and small advantage did I 
see in concealment, but I was overruled. In vain I pleaded 
that the secret would be known at Charing Cross long 
before some of the friends of the parties would hear it (as 
it has turned out), but certainly there must be some peculiar 
attraction in the very idea of a secret, even when the 
reality of it is a thing impossibla" 

His future father-in-law, Sir J. Bichardson, a Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, had a country house called 
The Filberts, near Bray. It was a long distance from Eton, 
as the road led round by the way of Maidenhead bridge, 
but there was a ferry on the Berkshire side of the river 
which brought the two places much nearer to each other. 
On a certain night Mr. Selwyn was returning to Eton 
at an hour much later than those kept by the ferrymen ; 
there was no difficulty in his punting himself across; — 
but then — ^what of the owner of the punt in the morn- 
ing? what of the early passengers coming perhaps 
to their work, if the Windsor curate had appropriated 
the punt at the midnight hour ? Was there no way of 
combining late hours at the Filberts with the rights 
and comforts of the ferryman and his passengers ? It 
was part of his nature always to have unselfish thoughts 
for others : and the present difficulty was solved in a way 

E 2 



62 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. ' [chap. ii. 



that cost him less effort than would have been the case 
with most men. A modern Leander, he punted himself 
across, the river, and then, having undressed, ferried 
himself back, made the boat fast and swam back 
to his clothes : thus gratifying himself and causing no 
inconvenience to others. 

In view of his marriage he ofifered to seek for clerical 
duty in London, in order that his future wife might be near^ 
her father. Lady Eichardson having died between the 
betrothal and the marriage of her daughter: but it was 
with satisfaction that he wrote to a friend, " She declined 
the proposal, and is perfectly contented to live at Eton. 
Then as to inclination, I love Eton and I love my pupils, 
and I love Windsor as the place in which my clerical 
feelings have been most kept alive. In fact, I never was 
more contented with my present situation than I am now, 
because the only drawback, the want of domesticity, is 
now in a fair way of being removed. I confess to being 
a little tired of Living in tents." 

About this time he added to his other avocations the 
task of correcting for the press the Greek and Hebrew 
edition of Bagster's Polyglot Bible. 

By his marriage he vacated his Fellowship, but it will 
be noted that he had held it for six years and had not 
resided. A friend, himself a fellow of a College at the 
sister university, once consulted him as to the responsi- 
bilities of a non-resident fellow, and the following is a 
rdsumS of the conversation which elicited his own ex- 
perience, and which was committed to writing at the time 
when this counsel was given. 

"He had always looked on the matter in this light. 
When the Fellows of St. John's College are elected, they 
take an oath to reside, if necessary. When he was elected 
ho was told with many others that his residence was not 
necessary; but he always felt that if ever the master 
should require it, even vnthoid assigning a reason, he was 
bound to go into residence or to resign. I suggested that 



1831-1841.] DUTIES OF A FKLLOWSHIP. 53 



even this might not be fair, because, if after having en- 
joyed the benefits of the college so long you suddenly 
resigned as soon as called upon to do your duty, you 
forced the college to have recourse to some younger and 
less experienced fellows. He thought this argument not 
quite sound : there were always men of other colleges, if 
need so be, to take the Fellowship and Tutorship together. 
I asked him his opinion as to the pecuniary responsibility ; 
he said he had always looked upon his dividend as epfiaiov 
Ti — or (as he once expressed it to me at Eton — he * apponed 
it to lucre,' — ) had never felt at liberty to apply this to 
selfish purposes, had thought that one good way would have 
been to give a sum annually to the master to increase his 
fund for poor students. During all the time, however, 
that he had held his fellowship 201. out of 160/. per annum 
had been taken away for the new buildings at St John's ; 
he had also found vent for the money, of which he wished 
so to dispose, in privately supporting several deserving 
young men at St. John's College, so that he had never 
begun any systematic plan. He thought the dividend 
might be looked on as only a retaining fee paid by the 
college to the non-resident fellow for possible future 
services : he thought the idea of the fellowship being a 
reward for past services or industry absurd, as it was quite 
reward enough to a man for three years' industry (which 
has been undertaken for his own good and not that of the 
college) that he has gained the means of making his 
livelihood. The Senior Fellow told him on his election 
that he was that day presented with 60,000/." 

On June 25, 1839, Mr. Selwyn was married, his father 
laying aside for a time the cares of law and taking his son's 
duties as private tutor to his pupils, in order to allow him 
to go on a wedding tour. He would seem to have had his 
course shaped for him, and to be justified in looking 
forward to a career of competence and easy prosperity. 
Mr. Gladstone, in an appreciative letter to the editor of 
the Times, on April 17, 1878, has stated that in the case 
of Mr. Selwyn a distinguished and honourable future was 
assured to him in England, and that he had contemplated 



54 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 



nothing beyond it The testimony of one so eminent in 
himself, and so qualified to speak of the friend of his 
earliest years, should find a place in his Biography: — 

" Until almost the eve of his accepting the bishopric of 
New Zealand he had never thought of such a step. Every 
influence that could act upon a man appeared to mark him 
for preferment and prosperity in England. Connected as 
tutor with families of rank and influence, universally 
popular from his frank, manly, and engaging character, 
and scarcely less so from his extraordinary vigour as an 
athlete, he was attached to Eton, where he resided, with a 
love surpassing even the love of Etonians. In himself he 
formed a large part of the life of Eton, and Eton formed a 
large part of lus life. To him is due no small share of 
the beneficial movement in the direction of religious 
earnestness which marked the Eton of forty years back, 
and which was not, in my opinion, sensibly affected by 
any influence extraneous to the place itself. At a 
moment's notice, upon the call of duty, he tore up the 
singularly deep roots which his life had struck into the 
soil of England." 

But, pace tanti viri, there is more than hypothesis on 
the other side. There are those of his contemporaries, still 
living, who are of opinion that Selwyn was always prepar- 
ing himself for a probable future of which he had himself 
no clear conception. One thing, however, is certain, that 
he did not look forward with any eagerness to the lot of 
an easily placed well-beneficed English rector: the con- 
ditions of such a ministry would not satisfy his aspirations 
for active service nor exhaust his burning zeaL The great 
extension of the Colonial Episcopate had not commenced 
in 1839, neither had any foreshadowing of that remarkable 
movement been revealed to the Church : but the chivalrous 
spirit which dwelt in the breast of such men as Henry 
Martyn, in our own communion, and in Xavier, Schwartz, 
Ziegenbalg, and Carey, men of different creeds and hardly 
less varied gifts and powers, possessed in fullest measure 
the heart of Selwyn : he held, and made no secret of the 



1831-1841.] PROSPECTS. 6ft 

fact, that the soldiers of the Gross ought to consider them^ 
selves always at the command of their superiors, ready to 
go anywhere and to do anything. 

When a quarter of a century later (in 1854) he said in 
one of the four famous Advent sermons preached before 
the University of Cambridge, " offer yourselves to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury as twelve hundred young men 
have recently offered themselves to the Commander-in- 
chief" [for service in the Crimea] : in thus appealing to 
the zeal of his audience he was but inculcating what had 
been to himself a rigid rule of duty : only thus can we 
account for the testimony of his friends that ''he was 
always preparing himself for work in the future, of what- 
ever kind it might be ; " and it is certainly true that on 
his marriage he took a pledge from his wife that she 
would never oppose his going wherever he might be ordered 
on duty. Preferment came in his way, as was likely, 
more than once, but he was not keen to accept it : his 
thoughts were evidently directed to more distant scenes, 
and it is worthy of notice that in a letter written in 
August, 1839, some six weeks after his marriage, the 
purport of which was to offer congratulations to a Mend 
on the marriage of a member of his family, the following 
passage occurs, having no connection with any other part 
of the letter, and by its very abruptness showing how 
firmly the matter had taken possession of his thoughts : — 

" A good deal of interest is being exerted about a new 
colony in New Zealand, and strong wishes are expressed 
that the Church should be well established at first on a 
good footing, and not be left as in Australia to be built up 
after Bissent and Popery had taken deep root. Have you 
heard anything about it ? " 

But in the autumn of the same year he said to a friend 
with whom he was walking to the coach at Old Windsor, 
" Well, our days here are numbered ; " and then added that 
the Powis family had offered him a living to which he 



56 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

supposed he sliould not be obliged to go until Easter, 1841 
by which time he hoped " that the new Church at Windsor 
would be complete, and Cotton and Balston established as 
curates:" He added that "there was another living of 
greater value promised to him when it should become 
vacant, but he was indifferent about the whole matter." 
Even in January, 1841 (the year which witnessed his de- 
parture for New Zealand), he had contemplated a country 
benefice as his lot, for it is recorded that he ''came to 
Lincoln's Inn, on Sunday, January 24, 1841, and described 
his future vicarage as ' antique without being venerable, 
and ruinous without being picturesque ' : yet he did not 
despond about the place, for although told that the Squires 
were of the worst sort of ' Squire Westerns,' he replied, 
that however that might be Lord 'Povds and his brother 
were determined to get their estates and livings into 
good order, that it was a great privilege to act with 
such men, and that the very fact of the living being in 
a bad state ought to be encouragement to take it : that 
if he could hold it three or four years he might bring 
things a little into order and smooth the way for after 
comers." 

It has already been mentioned incidentally, that Mr. 
Selwyn was zealous in the cause of education, which had 
not then attracted a tithe of the thought and attention 
which have since been bestowed upon it. There was no 
regular system of inspection instituted, neither were the 
teachers trained for their work. It was at this time that 
the Government proposed a scheme of inspection, the 
results of which would regulate the amount of grant from 
the Imperial Treasury ; and when asked his opinion, Mr. 
Selwyn thought that the National Society was right in 
declining public money if made dependent on Government 
Inspection, inasmuch as being a Church Society they were 
bound to recognise no head but the Archbishop : at the 
same time he thought an individual might do so ; but his 
expectation was that the Government would abandon the 



1831-1841.] NATIONAL SOCIETY. 67 

scheme of inspection on the ground of expense. Con- 
currently with these plans the National Society established 
a Training Institution for Masters, and the office of 
Principal was pressed on Mr. Selwyn. It was a sphere 
of duty very congenial with his tastes, but he had for 
many years determined to take no office that was not 
strictly ecclesiastical, and under the immediate control of 
the Bishops. He said that " nothing was so near to his 
heart as the restoration of cathedrals to their statutable 
usefulness." In his letter to Mr. Gladstone on the func- 
tions of cathedrals, a very prominent place had been 
given to the training of schoolmasters ; he however 
declined the proposed office, unless he were appointed to it 
by the Archbishop ; he said he " would much rather be a 
prebendary at any cathedral, with little or no pay, and 
work out the system, than be at the head of the new estab- 
lishment while the system at head-quarters was as deficient 
as it was. In the provinces, especially at Exeter, the 
system was better, but the Bishop (of London), the Arch- 
bishop, and the Chapter of St. Paul's, ought to put them- 
selves at the head of the education of the country." 

His views on the position of affairs were expressed in 
the following letter. 

To THE Eev. C. B. Dalton. 

Eton Colleob, Windsor, 
August 25th, 1840. 

As to the Training School, I believe that I may consider 
the negotiation at an end. The Bishop of London offered 
me an honorary stall at St. Paul's ; but I felt obliged to 
adhere to my first resolution of not undertaking the office, 
except upon the distinct understanding with the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, that it 
is to be considered an ecclesiastical office, and a direct 
mode of carrying into effect one great object of the cathedral 
foundation. If I am not satisfied on this point, I feel 
that I do not sufficiently understand the line of duty 
required of me, to be able to give satisfaction ; and there- 



58 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

fore I would rather not undertake it. The Bishop of 
London added to my difficulty by saying in the House 
of Lords : " That he wished to record it as his solemn 
opinion that non-residentiary stalls were without value, 
except as honoraTif distinctions.*' What have I to do with 
an honorary distinction ? What distinctions are there in 
the Church, but differences of ministration ? Altogether, 
I do not see my way out of the present position of the 
National Society, with Diocesan Boards growing up around 
it, better constituted than itself, and with very little 
disposition on the part of the Archbishop to make the 
Society, what it ought to be, the Metropolitan Board of 
Education, conducted by a synod of bishops. So I sup- 
pose you will hear of my taking flight to Bishop's Castle in 
the course of another year or so. 

In a letter of a date later by a few days he wrote thus 
humorously : — 

" If you hear any strictures about the principalship, you 
may explain that I never agreed to take the office except 
as recognised by the competent authorities as a strictly 
ecclesiastical office : no personal distinction conferred upon 
myself individually would effect this object. As an 
Algebraist you will easily understand the following : — 

Let S = Selwyn. 
HC = Honorary Canonry. 
P = Principalship. 
Then P x HC = Ecclesiastical office, 
and S X (P X HC) = my proposal about the 

principalship. 
But 
S X HC = an individual Canon, 
and S X P = a Secular Person. 
.•.SxHC + SxP = S(HC + P) = Proposal of my 

friends : 
but S(HC + P) does not = S x (P x HC)." 

The principalship being declined, a country living seemed 
imminent : yet at this time (the autumn of 1840) he 
often talked about the Colonial Churches. It was not 



1831-1841 -] COLONIAL EPISCOPATE. 69 

until the spring of 1841 that Bishop Blomfidd brought 
the increase of the Episcopate abroad prominently before 
the Church. So great a step was not taken hurriedly i 
thoughtful men had sought and given counsel : they saw 
the yearly increasing tide of emigration to New South 
Wales, and the truer views of the Church's Divine Organi- 
zation which had been adopted had made men think with 
shame of the history of our colonization in America : they 
remembered how the dreary ecclesiastical history of the 
eighteenth centuiy was studded with piteous and impor- 
tunate appeals for the Episcopate from the Church in 
America, and that the spiritual gift which the civil power 
refused was obtained directly the States had achieved their 
political independence : they saw how the West Indian Sees 
had not been founded until a whole century after they had 
been promised : the Sees of Madras and Bombay had been, 
as it were but yesterday, established for the better super- 
vision of the chaplains, for of missionary work in India 
neither bishops nor chaplains were supposed to take heed. 
Was a better day about to dawnl Were wiser counsels 
to prevail ? Was it to go forth that Episcopacy and Pres- 
byterianism differed so little that while the former was a 
luxury and a dignity for home work, the maimed organiza- 
tion and mutilated rigiTne of the latter were sufficient for 
aU practical purposes abroad ? Mr. Selwyn was admitted 
into the counsels of those who were aiming at a better 
system. On one occasion he said that '' he had been talk- 
ing with the Dean of Chichester, and he thought that he, 
with the Bishop of London and a few others, were the 
only persons who had really enlarged views about the 
extension of the Church." 

Malta was one of the first places at which the promoters 
of the movement hoped to place a bishop, and the import- 
ance of the position was considered by Mr. Selwyn to be 
very great. **What would a Bishop of Malta have to 
do ? *' it was asked ; and he replied with warmth, " Whafc 
would he have to do ! What would he not have to do ? 



60 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

" Not only to care for our foreign congregations, a very wide 
*' field, but all Africa ! where a noble attempt might be 
? made to rekindle the fires of the early Churches — all the 
** places mentioned in the second chapter of the Acts of the 
"Apostles! Conceive," he said, "300 bishops in Egypt 
alone ! " " Especially he hoped that inferior men would 
not be put into Colonial Bishoprics : he could conceive no 
hopes nor fancies (however high they might be raised) 
which would imagine greater things than had really been 
done : we ought not to think of what could soon be done, 
or done in our time, but we should act on sound and com- 
prehensive principles, and be content that in ages to come 
the end should be attained." 

It is fair therefore to assume from what has been 
recorded, his indifference to the prospect of the placid 
labours of a country benefice, his ever consideriug himself 
at the command of his ecclesiastical superiors, and his 
sound views on the subject of Christian colonization or 
church extension, that without any sort of seeking the 
episcopate, there was a readiness to respond to the call if 
it should come and an instinctive anticipation that such a 
summons would come. 

The proposed Sees being, some entirely and others par- 
tially, supported by the offerings of private persons, and 
not, as in the cases of the most recent precedents of the 
bishops in the East and West Indies, maintained by 
public money, it seemed right that the selection of the 
new bishops, in other words, the "patronage," should not be 
vested in the Crown ; and this opinion has in recent times 
established itaelf by its inherent justice and fitness : but 
Mr. Selwyn did not care for the patronage, and his views 
on this point, and on the remedies which the Church has 
in her own hands if threatened with improper exercise of 
patronage, are set forth in the following letter to one who, 
as these pages show, was at this period a very frequent 
correspondent : — 



ia31-1841.] STATE PATRONAGE. 61 



Eton College, "Windsor, 
March 1st, 1841. 

My dear Dalton, 

• ■•••• 

I care very little about the patronage question. As a 
question of principle, I do not consider that the Govern- 
ment appoint a bishop, so long as they do not pretend to 
consecrate him. The consecrating bishops are ecclesiasti- 
cally, I think, the senders, as they will not be compelled 
to consecrate an unfit person. The state gives protection 
and support in return for the right of recommendation. 
As a question of expediency, while the state can recom- 
mend any one to be Archbishop of Canterbuiy, it seems un- 
important to question their recommendation of Bishops 
of New Zealand. If the appointment were in the hands 
of the Archbishop, it would be only a state recommenda- 
tion once removed. As to the question, who provides the 
funds for the endowment, that will pass away and be 
forgotten in twenty years. 

Most of the present bishoprics were endowed by private 
individuals, and yet the state recommends. Do not think 
me Erastian ; because the real reason why I care so little 
about the matter is because we must always have the 
remedy in our own hands. The State can never consecrate 
or ordain; therefore they can never vitally affect the 
Church. If the state show a disposition to appoint unfit 
men, the bishops must take care that no such men are 
ordained or consecrated. All that we can suffer, is cert;\in 
penalties of premunire, &c., which would be an easy 
exchange for martyrdom. Any persecution at home 
would have the effect of "sending out the disciples 
everywhere preaching the word." So that if the worst 
come to the worst, it will all tend to the propagation of 
the Gospel 

The Bishopric of Malta seems to be a question of 
names. There can be nothing to prevent having a Eoman- 
ist bishop with a Protestant one in the same country, but it 
would be well that they should be called by different 
names. The Bishop of Malta would not be a title de- 
scriptive of the duties required of our bishop, for these will 
range over the Mediterranean. 



62 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [ch. hi. 



CHAPTER III. 

CONSECRATED BISHOP OF NEW ZEALAND. 

[1841.] 

It was in April 1841 that the Colonial Bishoprics 
Council was formally established, and on the Whitsun- 
Tuesday of the same year the Archbishops and Bishops 
" declared it to be their duty to undertake the charge of 
the fund for the endowment of Bishoprics in the Colonies, 
and to become responsible for its application." They 
specified thirteen countries as being the cases in which the 
need of the Episcopate was most urgent, and the first in 
the order of urgency was New Zealand. It was the most 
recently a/;quired of all our colonial dependencies, but 
there were special circumstances connected with its 
history that separated it from aU others. Missionaries 
had been at work among the Maoris since 1814, when 
Dr. Samuel Marsden had first effected a landing on 
their shores with impunity : in 1839 a Company had 
been formed whose object it was to possess the soil of 
New Zealand and to sell it to English settlers : of this 
more will be said hereafter : side by side with this 
Company, whose objects were strictly commercial, if not 
speculative, there sprang up the Church Society for New 
Zealand, which aimed primarily at helping the settlers in 
that country, which was then no part of the British 
Empire, in building a church and establishing suitable 
schools in which the children of the natives and of the 



1841.] NEW ZEALAND—EARLY DAY& 63 

colonista would be brought together for the purpose of 
education. 

From these modest plans there was developed the 
larger scheme which aimed at providing '' such a Church 
establishment for New Zealand as shall be complete and 
sufficient for aU present purposes, and so to endow this 
establishment as to enable it to keep pace in its resources 
with the growing prosperity of the colony." The Church 
Society set forth that ''the appointment of a bishop or 
bishops for New Zealand was highly important, and that 
each bishop should be accompanied by three or more 
clergymen, who should fix their residence, together with 
their bishop, in one spot which may form, as it were, a 
centre of religion and education for that part of the 
country." The Church Society of New Zealand was in 
advance of its day : the committee had seized on the true 
secret of Church extension, the formation of well-chosen 
centres to whose consolidation all efforts are directed, rather 
than the planting of a large number of weak and isolated 
stations : it was owing probably to the manifesto of this 
committee that the claims of New Zealand were so fully 
acknowledged by the council. The question of income 
was a primary one. All the clergy in New Zealand had 
been maintained by the Church Missionary Society, until 
in 18410 it was declared to be a British Colony, and one 
or two colonial chaplains were appointed. In 1838 
Bishop Broughton had made an offer to the Church 
Missionary Society to visit their missions and to supply 
the things that were lacking in what for just a quarter of 
a century had been a Church Mission without Episcopacy. 
The committee of the society had grave doubts about the 
legality and validity of episcopal functions exercised 
beyond the limits of the empire and of the area assigned 
to the bishop by letters patent: but Bishop Broughton 
represented that while undoubtedly he had no legal juris- 
diction in New Zealand, his spiritual office might be 
exercised validly in a country which formed part of no 



64 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYX. [ciur. iif. 

diocese, and on these terms he visited New Zealand and 
the Society's missions : but had it been suflScient that he 
should do so, it was impossible that amid the daily increas- 
in^j demands of New South Wales he should ever a^ain 
find time to repeat so laborious a Visitation. The idea of 
having a resident bishop among them was distasteful to 
the majority of the Church missionary clergy, and 
was loudly condemned by the secretary at home; but 
ultimately a grant of 600/. per annum was voted by the 
society towards the bishop's income, and an equal sum 
was expected to be granted from public moneys. 

The nomination of the bishop was vested in the Crown, 
and the Colonial Office and Archbishop of Canterbury were 
in conference on the question of selection. The future 
bishop had now no expectation of being sent to New 
Zealand: it has been already stated, that while he held 
himself ready to go anywhere, there was no semblance of 
seeking the labours of the Episcopate for himself, and now 
New Zealand had been offered to his elder brother, the late 
Professor Selwyn, who seemed obviously marked out for 
the position, not only by his high gifts both intellectual 
and spiritual, but also by the active part which he had 
taken as a member of the Committee of the Church 
Society for New Zealand. George Selwyn's interest in 
the land in no degree waned because another and not him- 
self was to be sent to lay the foundation of the Church in 
that remote region ; in May, 1841, he wrote to a friend, 
" I have seen an extract from a letter from the Bishop of 
Australia about New Zealand which grieves me much 

with respect to the failure of Mr. : Port Nicholson 

left to a catechist, to stand against a Bomish bishop and 
six priests ! All that one can say to such things is that 
we must work, if not for love, at least for shame's sake." 

Other evidence is not wanting of the interest which he 
felt in the new venture of faith to which the Mother 
Church in the freshness of her new life was committing 
herself. At length his brother was obliged to decline the 



1841.] BISHOPRIC OFFERED. 65 

offer that had been made, and the quest for a suitable 
bishop was renewed. It was suggested to the Bishop 
of London that Mr. George Selwyn would go, if he were 
called upon to do so by the authorities of the Church. Mr. 
Ernest Hawkins, who shares with Bishop Blomfield for all 
time the credit of having initiated and directed the great 
movement which has now studded the world with our 
missionary dioceses, wished " to start immediately to Eton 
and sound him " ; but one who knew Mr. Selwyn better 
restrained him, and said that the proposal, if it were to be 
accepted, must come to him officially. So the Bishop made 
the formal offer, and received for answer the following 
letter. 

Eton Coi.leoe, May 27th^ 1841. 

Mr Lord, 

Whatever part in the work of the ministry the Church 
of England as represented by her Archbishops and Bishops 
may caU upon me to undertake, I trust I shall be willing 
to accept with all obedience and humility. The same 
reasons which would prevent me from seeking the office of 
a bishop, forbid me to decline an authoritative invitation 
to a post so full of responsibility, but at the same time of 
spiritual promise. 

Knowing to Whose ministry I am called, and upon Whose 
strength alone I can rest my hopes, I cannot suffer the 
thought of my youth and inexperience to have more than 
their due weight. I must trust that my Master's strength 
will be made perfect in my weakness, so that my youth 
may not be despised. 

It has never seemed to me to lie in the power of an in- 
dividual to choose the field of labour most suited to his 
own powers. Those who are the eyes of the Church and 
have seen him acting in the station in which God has 
placed him, are the best judges whether he ought *' to go up 
higher." Whether that advancement be at home or abroad 
is a consideration which, as regards the work to be done, 
must rest with those who best know what that work is, 
and how many and of what kind are the labourers, but 
which can in no way affect the purely spiritual question of 
the duty of a minister to his Church : wherever or what- 
ever that duty may be ; with whatever prospects or adjuncts 

VOL. I, V 



66 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

of emolument or dignity, or without any ; the only course 
seems to be to undertake it at the bidding of the proper 
authority, and to endeavour to execute it with all faith- 
fulness. There is no question about the spiritual duty 
itself ; the only question is, whether in the discharge of that 
duty we shall be obliged to be tent-makers or not. But all 
these and similar points may be left to be settled by the 
proper persons, having no bearing upon the real merits of 
the case. 

Allow me to offer my best thanks to your Lordship for 
your kind letter, and to place myself unreservedly in the 
hands of the Episcopal Council to dispose of my services 
as they may think best for the Church. 

I am, &c., &c., 

G. A, Selwyn. 

The bishop was impressed and delighted, but declined 
" hastily to take advantage of a spirit so noble." He sent 
Mr. Ernest Hawkins to Mr. Selwyn, and he reported that 
he was assured of his readiness to go. " Not only did he 
express no hesitation on his own part, but he said that he 
could answer for his wife, for thev had married with that 
understanding " ; at the same time he admitted to a friend 
that the death of Sir John Kichardson in that same year 
had facilitated his decision, for, said he, " How could I have 
taken away that old man's daughter ? " Meanwhile the 
Archbishop had sent to the Bishop of London a letter to Lord 
John Eussell (Colonial Secretary), which the bishop was to 
send or withhold, as he thought fit The letter was sent, 
but considerable delay occurred. There were not wanting 
those who would, if they only had the power, have de- 
prived the Church of the services of this greatest of mis- 
sionary bishops. A contemporary of Mr. Selwyn's, on 
whose memory all the events connected with that period 
are clearly impressed, writes : " With George Selwyn the 
feeling was * Here am I ; send me ! ' and probably no man in 
England could have been found equally qualified for that 
difficult post, but there were some among the ranks of those 
who called themselves Low Churchmen (some of whom are 



1841.] POSSIBLE OBJECTIONS. 67 

high in ofSce or position at the present time), and one who 
was then a member of the Government, of whom the 
bishop told me that he had urged as an objection to his 
appointment, that Mr. Selwyn was a Tractarian. Now it 
so happens, said the bishop-designate to myself, that I 
have never read any of the Tracts." ^ 

It would seem from the following letter that the un- 

^ The selection of George Selwyn was no surprise to those who knew 
him ; for to know him was to detect in him gifts of rare excellence and the 
promise of a future that was certain to attain distinction. The Obituary 
notice which appeared in the Times newspaper would have failed in the 
completeness of the sketch had it not mentioned as it did this promise of 
its early years : as it was, it was an admirable portrait, as the following 
extract will show : — 

" The foundations of society are perpetually renewed, and among those 
foundations it may be said that the most important part are the new types 
of characters from time to time presenting themselves. Long before 
George Augustus Selwyn was thought of for a bishopric, a certain bright- 
ness surrounded his name and seemed a hope of something to the hopeful. 
Old things had become worn out or worked very dry, and there was then 
more than ever the need of new springs for the fresh start this country was 
making in every direction. We were, or at least we believed ourselves, a 
nation of scholars, of gentlemen, of statesmen, of divines, and of good 
Christians, besides being very fair examples of the human species gener- 
ally, and we now found ourselves committed to the immense task of 
peopling, organising, and evangelising half the world. In this work that 
which relat^ to the spiritual improvement of our new fellow-subjects was 
of paramount obligation. But the men were wanting. True, there are 
not wanting men who would be moved from a study to a throne, who 
could write a Latin preface, rectify the text of a Greek chorus, or deliver an 
occasional Charge, and who, if the dispute were a question of words, would 
be sure to have the last of it. But these were not the men to deal with 
busy colonists, simple savages, roaming adventurers, or even with the vast 
masses of humanity cast in the early forms of Indian tradition. Nay, it 
had come over us, even at home, that something more was wanted to cope 
with our own difficulties. Among others, for he was not alone, though he 
was pre-eminent in the group, G^rge Selwyn was the Cliristian, yet the 
roan of the world ; the scholar, yet the athlete, first and foremost in all 
the tests of En^ish courage and skill, wise and witty as well, with a 
word, a look, and a deed for everybody ; holding his own yet denying to 
no one else that privilege. So many good men in this country have 
adorned society and built up their famOies without having the oppor- 
tunity, or even the wish, to do much more, that it would have been quite 
in accordance with the old ideas had George Selwyn just shone for a time 
and passed into the gloom. By a happy venture he was chosen to found 
a see at the Antipodes at the early age of thirty-four, and when the people 
he had to convert were still fresh, so to speak, from banquets on the flesh 
of their murdered fellow-men. As late as 1828 cannibalism was general 
in Kew Zealand, and in the year 1841 Georce Selwyn was consecrated 
bishop of the islands known under that name. 

F 2 



68 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

certainty of the moiety of the income expected from the 
Government waa expected to turn Mr. Selwyn from his 
purpose, and that the authorities would thus be spared the 
trouble of deciding as to his fitness ; but on hearing of the 
doubt he replied that he considered himself now pledged, 
and that he would go even if no income were forthcoming. 

Letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury to Rev. 

G. A. Selwyn. 

Lambeth, July \2t\ 1841. 

My dear Sir, 

I have this morning received a letter from Lord J. 
Russell (who is at present on a visit to Lord Minto in 
Scotland), of which the following is an extract. 

"The only remaining doubt I have is whether Mr. 
Selwyn will, upon a full consideration, undertake the 
Episcopal Office in New Zealand. I wish you would be 
so good as to inform him that I wish he would make in- 
quiries at the Colonial Office of Mr. Stephen, as to the 
probable condition of a New Zealand bishop, especially if 
Government should not obtain from the House of Commons 
a grant of 600/. a year. If he shall then be of opinion, 
and signify to me that lie is prepared to go, I will at once 
recommend him to the Queen, and have the Letters Patent 
prepared.'* 

It is, I think, very reasonable on Lord J. Russell's part, 
to wish that you should obtain full information in all 
respects before you undertake an office which may subject 
you at first to many hardships and privations. The 600/. 
a year I should hope will not be refused by the House of 
Commons ; but I agree with Lord John in desiring that you 
should clearly see your way before you undertake an office 
which has little else to make it desirable, than the prospect 
which it holds out of promoting the spiritual welfare of a 
colony, which in the course of time will probably be ex- 
ceedingly populous, by completing the Church Establish- 
ment, before dissent and indifference have made any pro- 
gress in the country. I have every reason to think that 
you have considered this matter well, and I am fully per- 
suaded that under the blessing of Divine Providence, your 



1841.] BISHOPRIC ACCBPTED. 69 

piety, moderation, and zeal, will be useful in the highest 
degree. At the same time, I could not in fairness press you 
to engage in a work, of which you might afterwards repent, 
however deeply I should regret the loss of your services to 
the Church. 

I am going early on Wednesday morning into Kent, on 
a round of Confirmations, which will keep me out nearly 
three weeks. But any letter directed to Saltwood, near 
Hythe, Kent, will reach me towards the end of this week. 
After you have seen Mr. Stephen you may possibly obtain 
further particulars from Archdeacon Hale, at the Charter 
House. 

I remain, my dear Sir, 

Your faithful and obedient servant, 

W. Cantuae. 

I have received a letter from the Bishop of Oxford 
speaking of you in the kindest and highest terms. 

Not only did the uncertainty of income fail to influence 
him, but he considered the letter as finally fixing his desti- 
nation (although no appointment was made for many weeks), 
and under that impression he communicated the fact to his 
father in commonplace fashion. 

Lettee to William Selwyn, Esq. 

Eton College, Windsor, 
JulylZth, 1841. 

My deae Fatheb, 

A letter from the Archbishop arrived this morning, 
fixing our destination for New Zealand, with the consent 
of her Majesty's Government. It has happened most 
fortunately that my mother has been here to receive the 
earliest intelligence. We hope that you will come down as 
soon as you can, as my mother will be so glad to have you 
with her on the present occasion, if you can be spared from 
Ni&i Prius. 

We hope to be at Eichmond during the holidays, or at 
least a portion of them. 

Many thanks for your kind letter. 

I remain, 
Your dutiful and affectionate son, 

G. A. Selwyn. 



70 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 



The Melbourne Administration had been going through 
troublous times at this period, in which the question of 
appointing a Colonial bishop might be expected to be laid 
aside amid the engrossing questions which involved its own 
continuance in power. On June 4, 1841, Sir Robert Peel 
had carried a vote of want of confidence by a majority of 
one, the numbers being 312 — 311; whereupon ministers 
dissolved Parliament, and appealed to the country. After 
the general election, a vote of want of confidence was car- 
ried in both Houses, in the Lords on August 24, in the 
Commons on August 29, whereupon the Ministry resigned, 
and the second Peel Administration was formed, and Lord 
Stanley became Colonial Secretary in the room of Lord 
John KusselL 

The change of Ministers did not have any effect in 
relieving the suspense of the future bishop and his 
friends : to the latter it was a period of great anxiety, 
but it was said at the time that Mr. Selwyn's frame of 
mind was exactly described by the words of Ps. cxii. 8 — 
"His heart is established and will not shrink." Mean- 
while anxiety was succeeded by something like indignation 
on the part of his friends, one of whom ventured to ask 
a member of the Government the cause of the delay. 
The answ^er shows how very little pains were taken by 
those in authority to sift reports and to ascertain facts, 
and on how very slight and rotten a thread hung 
the future career of the great bishop, and consequently 
the immediate destiny of many Melanesians and New 
Zealanders. 

The cabinet Minister whispered " that the real cause of 
the delay was a doubt that had been entertained both by 
the previous and by the present Government, whether Mr. 
Selwyn was fit for the position : he had been writing some 
very bigoted articles in the Quarterly Review about Soman 
Catholics, and especially about the Jesuits, and that Lord 
John Eussell had done quite right in not appointing a 
Fire-eater." The reply was immediately ready, that it was 



1841.] PREPARATION. 71 

Sewell, and not Selwyn, who had written the articles in 
question ; whereupon the Minister whistled and said, " Oh 
if that's the case, it is a veiy different thing/' and in a few 
days the consent of the Crown was given. Thus it is only 
reverent to believe that the Divine Head of the Church 
had guided the selection and overruled the shortsighted 
prejudices of those in high places, and had assigned to 
each brother the sphere in which he could most conduce 
to the glory of God: probably the elder brother would 
have rendered a smaller measure of service as a missionary 
bishop, and the younger would have been less distinguished 
as Margaret Professor of Divinity than he was as Bishop 
of Kew Zealand and of Lichfield. 

The time that elapsed between his nomination and his 
departure was fully occupied : there were hosts of questions 
which each day brought into prominence, and which de-> 
manded settlement; there were few precedents to guide 
him, and of those that existed the majority were untrust- 
worthy and unorthodox. The draft of his Letters Patent 
which were framed on those of the Bishop of Australia, 
shocked him by their apparent profanity : a statement of 
objections, drawn up after consultation with Doctors Hope 
and Badeley, was sent in to the authorities, but received 
no attention. The bishop-designate then sought an 
interview with the Crown lawyers, and succeeded in 
canying most of the points for which he chiefly cared, 
especially that his patent should not be revocable at the 
pleasure of the Sovereign, a hyper-Papal assumption of 
power which had been tolerated in all previous documents 
of the kind, and to this day is to be found in the few 
remaining cases in which bishops in Crown colonies, 
having no local legislatures, are still possessed of Letters 
Patent. Another point for which the bishop contended 
successfully was the appointment of archdeacons by his 
own act; these oflScers, whose duties once formed 
the subject of a laborious joke in the House of Lords, 
were, in the view of the Colonial Ofl&ce, ornamental 



72 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

dignitaries and their designations merely titles of honour: 
and as the Sovereign is the fountain of honour, the Letters 
Patent claimed for the Crown the sole right of distributing 
such honourable distinctions ; but in the mind of the 
bishop-designate, as the office of the Episcopate had been 
declared by Venerable Bede to be a " title not of office but 
of work," so the archdeacon's office, in his diocese at least, 
was deemed to be "no peacock's feather to distinguish 
one clergyman above another, but a partnership of help- 
fulness and work ; " and if these were the conditions of 
selection for such office the choice must be vested not in 
members of the Government who lived on the other side 
of the world, but in the bishop whom they were to aid, 
and who alone could judge of their competence for the 
position. 

Another expression still more offensive he was unable 
to get removed. He was anxious to get rid of the Erastian 
expression of the Queen *' giving him power to ordain," the 
profanity of which is only equalled by its absurdity : but 
the Crown lawyers were inexorable and the Letters Patent, 
which have since been declared to be utterly valueless, 
were issued with the offensive clause in the full force of 
its impotent assumption. Against this preposterous claim 
the Bishop could only protest, and this he did formally in 
a document which is probably among the archives of the 
Colonial Office. 

" I think it right, in expressing my readiness to accept 
the Patent as now framed, to state to your Lordship that, 
whatever meaning the words of it may be construed to 
bear, I conceive that those functions which are merely 
spiritual are conveyed to the bishop by the act of con- 
secration alone." 

But if the authorities of the Colonial Office were suc- 
cessful in claiming for the Crown the right to allow a 
bishop of the Christian Church to confer the charismata 
of the Holy Ghost in the ordination of priests and deacons. 



1841.] BLUNDER IN LETTERS PATENT. 73 



the geographical knowledge of the department was hap- 
pily deficient, and this ignorance led to the insertion in 
the said Letters Patent of a blunder which by a mere 
stroke of the pen invested the Bishop of New Zealand, by 
the same Eoyal authority, with the spiritual charge of 
68 degrees of latitude more than was intended to be 
assigned to him: but he took with amused gravity the 
clerical error which made his diocese to stretch from the 
50th degree of S. latitude to the 34th degree of northy 
instead of (as was intended), soiUh latitude ; and in com- 
pliance with the injunction of Archbishop Howley, launched 
in 1849 a small yacht of 21 tons on these unknown seas, 
and became the pioneer and apostle of Melanesia. 

He was now daily forming plans, the conception of 
which was made much more difficult by the complications 
which existed in New Zealand. The New Zealand Company 
made grants of land to the Church, but it was expected 
in return that the bishop should fix his head-quarters 
on the land thus given, or in the towns suggested by the 
donors, whose property would of course increase pro- 
portionately as ecclesiastical or civH centres were formed 
on it 

He was told that his '' popularity would be sacrificed 
if he did not make his home and build his cathedral " at 
a certain placa Of course until he had personally gone 
through the land he could not make his selection, and he 
determined '' to rent a house for his family and to pitch a 
tent near to it as soon as he landed, and the very next 
day to begin daily service, never, he hoped, to be inter- 
rupted. He meant then to go away and visit all the 
islands, and when his choice was made to move his tent 
thither and continue the services, and by its side bmld a 
wooden church, and outside of the wooden building to 
begin to build a chancel of stone in Norman style, and as 
soon as any part of the stone cathedral was finished the 
vooden work would be taken down." 

However numerous his plans, self found no place in 



74 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

them, either now or at any other time. One of his sisters 
writes — 

" He was wonderfully skilful in providing for his in- 
tended New Zealand life. I recollect sitting up half the 
night helping him to make a waterproof belt for his watch 
and pedometer. He meant to swim the rivers, pushing his 
clothes in front of him." 

On Sunday, October 17, he was consecrated in the 
chapel of Lambeth Palace by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury and the Bishops of London, Lincoln, and Barbados, 
the last-named prelate preaching the sermon. It was 
surely a great occasion, and it might have been so used as 
to have greatly impressed the whole Church, but the 
authorities of those days had not learned the value of 
opportunities. Mr. Selwyn wished that the service might 
be in the Abbev, and herein was in advance of his fellows. 
It is impossible now to go back to the seclusion and the 
dulness of the private Chapel at Lambeth, when we have 
witnessed the solemn and impressive ceremonial of the 
consecration service as it is to be seen, at present, onljj in 
S. PauFs Cathedral ; but in 1841 it was considered^ to be 
impossible to use the Abbey or S. Paul's, and of his 
numerous friends many were unable to gain admission : 
as it was, the chapel was crowded to a d^ee never re- 
membered on a similar occasion ; " and the ladies were not 
allowed to communicate, lest the service should be too 
long and fatiguing." 

Zeal and devotion are contagious, and it is not remark- 
able that many men of highest gifts, intellectual and 
spiritual, offered themselves to the leader of so great a 
work as lay before the first bishop of New Zealand. 
AmoDg those who were thus moved to volunteer wew one 
who felt bound, in justice to the work in which he was 
then engaged, while making the offer, to defer the fulfil- 
ment of his pledge until it could be done without injury 
to others. Among the reforms which were instituted at 



1841.] REV. C. J. ABRAHAM. 76 



Eton about this time, the foremost and most urgent was 
the improvement of the condition of the collegers; they 
were better housed and better fed; a proper staff of 
servants "abrogated much of the elaborate code of un- 
written law which fixed the relations of master and fag, 
and the boys were relieved from the crushiug weight of 
a traditiontd discipline, most hurtful to individual develop- 
ment.'*^ But these reforms would have been incomplete 
and futile but for the decision that a master should sleep 
under the same roof as the collegers and maintain 
discipline. To quote &om a work that may be considered 
an authentic history : ** In the ordinary course of things, 
an appointment of the kind, only worth about 200/. a year, 
might have been given to some young master little 
accustomed to deal with boys. Every one therefore 
doubly honoured the noble self-sacrifice of so experienced 
a teacher as Mr. Abraham in giving up an overflowing 
house to take the novel position of 'assistant-master in 
college.' To his personal influence we must in great 
measure ascribe the immense change in the moral tone 
of the King's scholars. Without intruding on any one, 
he walked about in the evening and made the boys his 
friends, and without the display of any peremptory 
authority, helped to modify materially the system of 
fagging." 

The immediate interests of his pupils and two years 
later the successful establishment of this reform, detained 
Mr. Abraham in England, while his own wish would 
have led him to accompany his friend; the two duties 
were weighed in the balance, and it was decided that 
each must stand in its order. The bishop fully recognised 
the prior claim of Eton, but the offer cheered his heart, and 
for the next nine years there ai*e frequent allusions in his 
lettei'S which show how, amid disappointments and sorrows, 
he leaned with confidence on the fulfilment of the promise 

^ Eton College f by H. C. Maxwell- Lyte. Macmillan, 1875. 
■ Ibid, p. 422. 



76 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

which had been made. And here it may be stated that in 
1850, when the work in Eton was completed, and the 
gratitude of the collegers took the visible form of a Font in 
the restored Collegiate Church, '* as a tribute of regard for 
Mr. C. J. Abraliam," the pledges given so long before were 
fulfilled, and for eighteen eventful years, as head of the 
College of St. John, as Archdeacon, and as Bishop of 
Wellington, a trusted counsellor and friend was ever at 
the command of the Bishop of New Zealand. 

This offer of service was made to the bishop two days 
after his consecration, and the following letter has an 
especial value and interest. It is impossible to read 
either letters or sermons of Bishop Selwyn without being 
impressed oy the depth of his spiritual character. The 
same impression was conveyed by his conversation ; but 
in common with all the truest saints, there was ever a 
reserve and a reticence which restrained him from speak- 
ing freely about himself: in this case out of the abundance 
of his heart he wrote to his friend, and the letter is a 
beautiful outpouring of his own devout soul, and shows 
in what spirit he was going to his great work. 



Letter to Eev. C. J. Abraham. 



Eton College, "Windsor, 
Oct. 20th, 1841. 

My dear Abraham, 

I am quite overwhelmed with joy at your letter, and 
have just risen from my knees after having poured forth 
my thankfulness to God for His special mercies to His 
Church. When I think of the position in which the 
course of His providence has placed me, us foremost in a 
mighty movement, at which " the multitude of the isles " 
will be glad; when I think of the fulfilment of the 
promise that the Word should go forth into the uttermost 
parts of the earth ; and read that fulfilment in the estab- 
lishment of my own branch of Christ's Universal Church; 



1841.] LETTER ON CONSECRATION. 77 



I tremble at the thought of my weakness, and though I 
know the sufficiency of Divine Grace, still I long for 
brethren of a like mind, to share with me the labours and 
the joys of the coming harvest. 

I Men talk of sacrifices as a loss. I thank God that the 

enlarged comprehension of His scheme of mercy, which 

; He has lately given me, has made me feel that no worldly 

advancement could compensate for the loss of one single 
moment of the peacefiU and thankful and yet humble 
state of mind which I have enjoyed since the scales of 
all earthly objects of desire fell from my eyes. It is 
because I feel that this is no less the path of happiness 
than of duty that I encourage you to cherish the feelings 

V in which your letter waa written ; to dwell upon them ; 

and in the end to act upon them ; not on the spur of the 
present occasion, but with the calm, deep, and deliberate 
devotion of a balanced judgment. Men think enthusiasm 
necessary to missionary enterprise. May we be enabled 
to show that the highest range of spiritual thought, the 
most entire and uncompromising obedience to the letter of 

. the Gospel, being no more than our bounden duty, is 

compatible with the most perfect evenness of mind, and 
with the most subdued and rational exercise of the 
understanding. 

Pray let me have an opportunity of talking more fully 
than I can write on this subject ; but as a guide to our 
conversation, 1 add a few leaders of thought. 

Being called to the Episcopate at an early age, I feel at 
liberty, in submission to Providence, to look forward to a 
long course of pastoral superintendence over the Church 
of New Zealand. In that course many great and impor- 
tant changes must occur, for which I must be prepared. 
After much discussion with Government, I have gained the 
full power of organizing my own diocese, without inter- 
ference on the part of the State. With regard to my own 
part of the organization, I have solemnly dedicated all 
that I am to the permanent establishment of the bishopric. 
Could I find a few men like yourself, who would silently 
work with me by the devotion of themselves, and their 
means, to the same cause, we should see year after year 
parish after parish, archdeaconry after archdeaconry, start 
into life, not with the mere appurtenances of temporal 



78 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. in. 

endowment, but with the provision of a liAong head to 
give life and spirit to the institution. The substance 
therefore of my proposition is this : 

" Will you be now one of the feeders of my Church, 
with the view of being in course of time one of its pastors ? 
Your continuance at Eton, which I believe to be at present 
deeply important to the interests of the school, will also 
enable you to carry out the plan of the temporal endow- 
ment of an archdeaconry, to which when you shall have 
given of your goods, you will be ready to say : 

" Memet super ipse dedissem** 

Believe me to be. 

My dear Abraham, 
Your affectionate and grateful friend, 

G. A. N. Zealand. 

On October 26, the bishop took his degree of D.D. at 
Cambridge, and the ceremony was one of unusual solemnity 
and interest. It is recorded that "when he knelt down 
before the Vice-Chancellor it was a noble sight. Dr. 
Turton, the Eegius Professor of Divinity, made an admir- 
able speech in Latin, alluding to Constantine, to the 
missionary labours of England, to the bishop's own zeal, 
to his high qualifications, and to the fine prospects before 
him." Here he was joined by his friend and chaplain, the 
Eev. T. Whytehead. October 31 was his last Sunday at 
Eton, and was an occasion of solemn and memorable 
interest to all concerned. Forty guests assembled at the 
house of his staunch friend, Mr. Edward Coleridge, drawn 
by ties of long-standing affection to bid the youthful 
prelate God-speed. If a man is known by his friends, 
the gathering on this day bore striking testimony to the 
character of the bishop. There were those who had 
attained the highest honours in their several callings, and 
others who have since realized the promises of their 
earlier years. Two judges, than whom the bench has had 
no nobler representatives, Coleridge and Patteson; the 



Ig41.] FAREWELL TO ETON. 79 



future Bishop of Oxford and Winchester, then recently 
appointed Archdeacon of Surrey (Samuel Wilberforce) ; the 
present Lord Coleridge and Mr. Justice Cotton, Mr. Glad- 
stone, Mr. Dumford, now Bishop of Chichester, and Mr. 
Chapman, who four years afterwards became the first 
Bishop of Colombo, were among the guests : the host, in 
proposing the bishop's health, said with much emotion 
that ''he had not a single good feeling which had not 
been deepened and improved by intercourse with George 
Selwyn." The parish church of Windsor, the scene for 
some years of his labours, was crowded all day. Arch- 
deacon Wilberforce preached in the morning on the Unity 
of the Church : there were nearly 300 communicants ; the 
bishop preached in the evening. His text was a favourite 
one, on which he often preached : " Thine heart shall fear 
and be enlarged, because the abundance of the sea shall 
be converted unto thee, the forces also of the Gentiles 
shall come unto thee ; " and when he spoke of going out to 
found a Church and then to die neglected and forgotten, 
the pent-up feeling of the people who loved him could not 
be restrained. In the afternoon " to revive old recollec- 
tions with Chapman," who preached, he said the prayers 
and baptized some children; in fact he hardly left the 
church for the whole day. On the Monday he again 
spoke at the meeting of the Windsor and Eton Church 
Union, which had been founded by himself, and was 
received with much affection. 

Much of what he said was written down at the time, 
and the "Notes" of his speech were published in the 
following form : — 

" I would willingly have brought this memorable year 
to a conclusion in my native land ; but it has otherwise 
seemed good to God. It will ever be memorable by 
reason of an act, which may, I trust, be one step toward 
the re-establishment of godly discipline in our Church — 
a recurrence to the system of pure and apostolic times. 
The act to which I refer is the meeting of many of our 



80 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

* I — — - — ■■ — ■■ ■ ■ ■_ ,,^ 

bishops for the purpose of sending to our colonies which 
have a civil governor, but no spiritual ruler, men imbued 
•with powers like our own. I looked upon this as the 
the first exercise of her lawful authority in a collective 
character ; and I asked myself, What is the duty of every 
priest ? There could be but one reply, — To obey. To test 
my own feelings, I put to myself what then seemed to 
me to be of all the most improbable case, that I should 
ever be called upon to go ; and the answer could be but 
this, — I am ready. In order to try myself further, I put 
this further question, — Are you ready to go wherever you 
are sent? A similar answer was given, — I am ready. 
Are you ready to go even into the centre of Africa, 
though it be morally certain that within a few years your 
bones will be bleaching together with those who have 
perished in those pestilential sands ? I was prepared to 
go even to Sierra Leone, to cancel, as far as my efforts 
might, one item of the debt of sin and woe which 
England's commercial prosperity had entailed upon the 
sons of Africa. I thought, that should I refuse to go, the 
bones of those who fell in Walcheren would rise up in 
judgment against me. Many of you know not where 
Walcheren is, but you must have heard of Chusan ; many 
of those whose bodies are still wasting on the isle of 
Chusan would rise up in judgment against me ; for there 
the British arms have been sullied by the most ignoble 
and humiliating warfare in which this country was ever 
engaged, and yet not a soldier refused to go, even into 
that warfare the principle of which he could not approve. 
And should any soldier of Christ refuse to go to support a 
cause to which he has been pledged by a far more solemn 
engagement? So when I heard that, not the shores of 
Africa, but that land of promise, New Zealand — a land 
literally flowing with milk and honey — was to be mine, 
there was no doubt, no hesitation, no fear ; enlargement of 
heart alone was mine, that, through my humble instru- 
mentality, the abundance of the isles might be converted 
unto God/' 



Oxford conferred on him the degree of D.D., honoris 
caiLsd, and his visit to that university enabled him to 



1841.] BISHOPRIC OF JERUSALEM. 81 



renew his acquaintance with his old schoolfellow, J. H. 
Newman. 

On November 7, he took part in the consecration of the 
Eev. M, S. Alexander as " Bishop of the United Church of 
England and Ireland in Jerusalem." The circumstance 
caused some surprise to his friends, and the mention 
of it in these pages may be a matter of regret to those 
who here learn it for the first time. It is due therefore 
to the memory of the bishop to record that '^ the request 
that he should assist at the consecration found him 
reluctant to accede to it, that he had grave doubts as 
to the propriety of the measures connected with the 
establishment of that See, but that he consented only 
on the understanding with the Archbishop, that by so 
doing he did not pledge himself to any approval of the 
measure beyond that of a bishop being sent to minister 
to English residents in Jerusalem, and to confer with 
the authorities of the Greek Church." These indeed 
were the functions which he had considered as specially 
justifying the erection of a bishopric of Malta (or Gib- 
raltar), in which he felt very warm interest He was 
startled, however, by the preacher, who dilated at great 
length " on the re-establishmeut of a bishop in the line 
of the Circumcision," and who also declared that the 
Greek Church was " idolatrous." 

The circumstance that the Archbishop asked the preacher 
to print the sermon much vexed Bishop Selwyn. He 
thought " the point about the Bishop of the Circumcision 
unsound and unscriptural ;" but as it was mere theory 
he did not feel it to be so important : but the charge of 
idolatry against the Greek Church he thought " very dan- 
gerous." After the consecration he sat next to the preacher 
at luncheon and talked over the whole matter, and he 
left hun having a hope that if the sermon were published, 
the accusation which had been made against the Greek 
Church would be omitted. It would seem that the bishop, 
whose life had for some years been, divided between 

VOL. I. G 



82 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, iit 

paxocliial work and theological study was now for the first 
time brought face to face with opinions and people of 
whom he had hitherto had no experience. Chevalier 
Bunsen was present at the luncheon, and in returning 
thanks for the health of the King of Prussia, among other 
extraordinary utterances, said : 

(1). " That as every other Church was represented in the 
East, so ought Protestants to be." (2). " That he hoped 
the time would soon come when all Protestant bodies 
would be united." 

There was no lingering on the bishop's part, when the 
needful preliminaries had been completed. He arranged 
to sail early in December, but, as commonly happens with 
sailing ships, delays occurred, and it was not until S. 
Stephen's Day that the ship left Plymouth Sound. The 
few intervening weeks were fully occupied, and in the 
many utterances of the bishop, whether in pulpit or on 
platform, in different parts of the country, there was evident 
to all the well-considered system on which he proposed to 
work, and the strict consistency between the theories 
which as a priest he had formed, and the action which as a 
bishop he proposed to take. His plans were clear as a well- 
drawn diagram : he went forth intending to apply ancient 
precedents to new circumstances ; he aimed at nothing origi- 
nal or novel, although no man was more ready or competent 
to adapt himself to altered circumstances, but he was con- 
tent with adapting already existing and proved materials. 
His theories were strictly speaking not theories, but prin- 
ciples, which had been tested and approved by holy men 
of old : his was a mind of unusual sagacity, but he was 
superior to the temptation {it it existed) to give the rein to 
his own originality and to think that it was in his power 
to improve on the examples of the great evangelists of the 
world. Thus he was always congratulating himself on 
the imique position which he occupied, ''a position such 
as was never granted to any English bishop before, with a 



1841.] SEBMON AT EXETER. 83 

power to mould the institutions of the Church from the 
b^puining according to true principles/' 

The cathedral as the centre of all life and organization 
was insisted on now, when the practical difficulties in the 
way confronted him daily, with as much earnestness as 
when from the quiet of Eton he published his memorable 
letter on the Duties of Cathedral Bodies. One of the last 
sermons which he preached was in the cathedral at Exeter 
on December 12, and by not a few who heard it has never 
been forgotten. The text " How shall we sing the Lord's 
song in a strange landT (Ps. cxxxviL 4), furnished the 
preacher with an opportunity of setting forth his own plans, 
and among them the cathedral centre occupied the chief 
place. These were his concluding words : 



"May we have both the spirit to preach the Gospel and 
the strength to arise and build the Temple of the Lord ! 
May we also have our cathedral church, in which we may 
sing the Lord's song with a voice of melody ! And may 
God grant that from that central reservoir we may pour 
forth streams of living water to feed the sheep whom God 
has given to our care. There may the young be taught 
and the servant of Christ be trained up for His ministry ; 
there may the books of the holy Fathers of the Church 
minister to the godly learning of every succeeding genera- 
tion ; there may the elders of the Church sit in council for 
the public good, and there may the ordinances of daily 
prayer and weekly communion shadow forth the unwearied 
service of the angels of God ; there, too, may the hungry 
be fed, and the naked clothed, and the sick healed ; and, 
above all, there may the poor have the Gospel preached to 
them." 

It must Ipe added in fairness that his highest anticipa- 
tions he never realised. He had never even in rudiment 
a cathedral church or body : up to the year 1854 St. John's 
College fulfilled some of the most important functions of a 
cathedral body, but not afterwards. 

a 2 



84 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

Archbishop Howley when taking leave of him at Lam- 
beth urged him to do what he could to extend the know- 
ledge of the Gospel to the scattered islands of the Pacific, 
and on this apostolic commission rather than on the clerical 
error in his Letters Patent already mentioned he based the 
obligation, the fulfilment of which led him first, and after- 
wards Bishop Patteaon, to the toils of the Melanesian 
mission. In addition to kindly words and deeds (for 
the good primate gave the departing bishop a large 
sum of money towards the purchase of a diocesan ship), 
the Archbishop addressed the following valedictory 
letter on behalf of himself and his suffragans, in which 
the duty of the New Zealand Church to the islands of 
the Pacific is stated in very cogent terms, terms which 
to a man of Bishop Selwyn's disposition, in which 
obedience was ever a ruling principle, were equivalent 
to a command. 

Lambeth, Nov, ZOth, 1841. 

My deab Lord, 

I have been requested by such of the bishops as 
attended the last meeting of the Committee appointed to 
manage the funds for the endowment of bishoprics in the 
colonies, to address a valedictory letter to your Lordship 
expressive of their personal respect, and of the deep in- 
terest they take in your high and holy mission. 

There is not, I am persuaded, a prelate of our united 
Church who would not have joined in this demonstration 
of good- will to yourself and to the great cause to which you 
have devoted your talents and energies, had it been in my 
power to call them together at this season. I could not 
indeed have suflfered you to depart without repeating the 
assurances of my friendly regard and esteem, and of my 
confidence in your ability, zeal, and discretion, which were 
grounded originally on the report of others, and which have 
since been confirmed and greatly increased by personal 
intercourse. 

I am better satisfied, however, to speak in behalf of 
my brothers as well as myself, as the testimony of many 
will naturally be more gratifying to your Lordship. 



1841.] VALEDICTORY LETTER OF ARCHBISHOP. 85 



The mission over which you preside is founded on the 
recognition of a principle which, unfortunately, has not 
always been acted on in the first establishment of our 
Colonies. Whilst towns have been built and wilds have 
been cultivated, whilst ample provision has been made for 
defence against enemies, and the administration of justice, 
no adequate care has in the first instance been taken for 
the religious and moral improvement of the settlers or 
natives. The Colonists have been abandoned to dissent 
or infidelity, the Aborigines in some cases consigned to 
almost total extinction. Your Lordship will have the great 
satisfaction of laying the foundation of civilized society in 
New Zealand, on the basis of an Apostolical Church and 
a pure religion. 

On your arrival you will be surrounded by a body of 
clergy prepared under your directions to minister to the 
spiritual wants of the settlers, and to impart the blessings 
of the Christian faith to the native tribes. 

As the population is multiplied, the number of ministers 
will be increased in proportion, and the incorporation of 
all classes within the pale of our Church may, with the 
blessing of God, be the happy result of their exertions. 
Nor can our views be confined within the limits at present 
assigned to the exercise of your spiritual authority. Your 
mission acquires an importance exceeding all calculation 
when your See is regarded as the central point of a system 
extending its influence in all directions, as a fountain 
diffusing the streams of salvation over the islands and coasts, 
of the Pacific : as a luminarj' to which nations enslaved 
and debased by barbarous and bloody superstitions will 
look for light. 

In these glorious prospects your Lordship will find sup- 
port and encouragement amidst the trials and difficulties 
of various kinds, which as you have not engaged without 
forethought in this arduous service, you are fully prepared 
to encounter. The consciousness of going forth in the 
name of the Lord as the messenger of mercy and peace 
will reconcile you to the sacrifices you have made in 
obedience to the call from on High. The prayers of your 
friends, the pious, the good, and the philanthropic, will be 
offered up for your safety and comfort, and for the complete 
success of your ministry ; and by none more sincerely and 



86 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

heartily than by myself, and by the prelates in whose names 
I write. 

Among the blessings which will lighten your labours 
there is one wliich I mention, not for the purpose of in- 
creasing your sense of its value, which you know from 
experience, but in order to gratify my own feelings in re- 
gard to the amiable daughter of the late excellent Judge 
Eichardson, and, as it appears to Mrs. Howley and myself, 
the inheritress of his estimable qualities. The influence of 
Mrs. Selwyn's kindness and piety will, I am persuaded, not 
only promote the comfort and happiness of her domestic 
circle, but will be extensively useful in bettering the con- 
dition and improving the morals of all who come within 
its sphere. 

I must now conclude with assuring you that you may 
at all times depend on my disposition to render you all the 
assistance in my power. I venture to say as much for the 
Bishops in general, and for the great Missionary Societies 
in connection with the Church. 

Looking forward to the pleasure of hearing from you as 
soon after your landing as you may find leisure to write, I 
most heartily commend your Lordship, your family, and all 
the clergy in your train, to the protection of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and to the guidance of His Holy Spirit. 
I remain, 

My dear Lord, 
Your affectionate Brother and Friend, 

W. Cantuar. 

The Tomatin, the ship in which the bishop and his party 
were to sail, was detained in the Channel by contrary winds 
for many days ; during this period of waiting the bishop 
"was the guest of the late Sir T. D. Acland, at Killerton, 
near Exeter. Day by day the bishop came to Exeter and 
worshipped in the cathedral, and on Saturday December 
18th he went to Pljrmouth, where the Tomatin arrived on the 
following morning. On Sunday the bishop preached twice 
in the Church of St. Andrew, and each morning during 
his enforced sojourn at Plymouth he went to the early 
service, accompanied by the clergy and the catechists who 
w^ere going out with him. Each day was declared to be 



M41.] PLYMOUTH. 87 

the day of sailing, and the continued suspense was most 
trying. One by one friends and relatives took leave and 
returned to their own duties, the approaching Christmas- 
tide makiug it absolutely necessary for the clergy to get 
home to their parishes. Canon Selwyn left on the 22ndy 
and to him on parting his brother gave a Bible, writing 
on the first page, "Eeady to depart on the morrow." 
His whole spiritual life was so nurtured in the Holy 
Scriptures that apposite texts were always at his com- 
mand without effort. Mrs. Selwyn's brother parted from 
her on the same day. The Eev. Edward Coleridge, who 
remained to the last, recorded many of the events of these 
anxious days in his diary, and by his permission they 
are here reproduced : 

" Vcccniber 22nd. — ^We spent a comfartable evening with 
them, Dr. Yonge and the Eton brethren coming in to en- 
large the circle round the tea-table. After dinner we drank 
Floreat JEtona, and in necessary connection with that toast 
Dr. Eeate's health. About nine o'clock Mr. Cole, whom 
we had been anxiously expecting, arrived from Andover. 
The whole party was then collected, and nothing now seemed 
likely to prevent their sailing on the morrow but the wind 
being unfavourable. We did not kneel down to prayers tDl 
eleven o'clock. The bishop used the greater part of the 
form of prayer to be used at sea, intermingling some collects 
from other parts of the Liturgy. 

"December 23rd. — This has been indeed a most deeply 
interesting day. Such a day as we can scarcely ever ex- 
pect to see again. At ten o'clock we were all with one 
accord in St. Andrew's church, the clergy to the number of 
forty, in their robes, and sitting together. Mr. Hatchard 
read the prayers : the Old Hundredth PsaJm was sung, the 
bishop and Whytehead officiated at the altar. The former 
preached a most affecting sermon on St. Matt. xxvi. 29. 
Some two hundi-ed persons received the sacrament. After 
the communion the bishop, accompanied by all the clergy 
present, went down the church to the vestibule, or 
ante-chapel, where a very proper address was read and 
presented to him by Nutcombe Oxenham. 



88 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 



The Address was in the following terms : 

" We, the undersigned Clergy, resident in the town and 
neighbourhood of Plymouth, crave for a few moments your 
attention. We crave it at this solemn time, when your 
Lordship has just concluded with your blessing this last 
service, as it seems, which you are likely to attend in an 
English Church before you leave the shores of your native 
land, and when within a few hours of embarking for that 
distant country in which it has pleased God to appoint you 
to superintend His Church. At such a time we feel, that if 
our hearts be Ml, our words should be few. We feel also 
that there are more private, yet hallowed considerations, 
deeply interesting to your own mind, in which, so far as we 
can bear sympathy, we shall best express it by silence. But 
when we think of the great object of your mission — when 
we remember the special character in which you go forth 
as an anointed Bishop in Christ's Holy Catholic Church, 
venturing to those coasts whereon the shadow of death has 
so long rested, and the light of the Gospel so recently 
and partially arisen, to plant the Church for the first time 
in her integrity, and be a mighty instrument (we trust) in 
the hand of the Most High, for advancing His glory, and 
promoting the salvation of souls through Jesus Christ; 
when we regard the many thousands, both of natives and 
colonists, among whom (if it please God) you will long 
labour as a Missionary Bishop, and the head, under Christ, 
of the Church in those parts, not only are our hearts filled 
with strong feelings, but we think we may not unfitly at- 
tempt briefly to express them. Sure are we that you agree 
with us in being thankful to God for that He has put it 
into the mind and will of the members of our Church to 
be increasingly zealous in fulfilling His command, that we 
should ' make disciples of all nations,' and that in His name 
His ministers should proclaim ' Peace to him that is afar off 
as well as to him that is nigh.' We humbly thank our 
God for this increase of zeal evinced in many ways ; and 
especially we will now refer to the wise and earnest efforts 
made for the multiplication of our Colonial Bishoprics. We 
rejoice that these efforts have been made, and for the success 
which has even already attended them. We rejoice that we 
have now the privilege of saluting with a Christian farewell 



1841.] ADDRESS FROM CLERGY OF PLYMOUTH. 89 

and of commending to the grace of God the first-fruit of 
these recent efforts — the first Bishop of onr Church in New 
Zealand. May God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and his Spirit, guard, guide, and keep you in all your ways. 
May He bless you and yours, and aU dear to you in your 
native, and in your future country. May He, above all, 
make you, as a Christian Shepherd and Bishop, a blessing 
to all those on whose eternal interests we are well con- 
vinced that you will watch as one that shall give account 
hereafter of his stewardship. And, finally, for we may not 
detain you with more words, whether it please God that 
we meet again on earth or not, may our prayers, one for 
another, meet ever at the throne of God, and before that 
throne may we at last stand together with our flocks, 
both joined in one blessed company for ever. God grant 
it, for His dear Son's sake." 

Mr. Coleridge's journal continues : 

*' The bishop was evidently much affected, but notwith- 
standing this he made a most pertinent, dignified, and affec- 
tionate reply. Everybody was much moved. It could not 
be otherwise, for there 'were passages in his reply enough 
to try any heart. All crowded round him and besought 
him to shake hands with them and to bless them indivi- 
dually, so that he was some time in making his way through 
them back to the vestry. Indeed it is quite delightful to 
see the moral influence he has gained in this place within 
so short a time, and how many hearts he has drawn towards 
him and his holy cause. Owing to some mistake Mrs. 
Selwyn did not hear the address presented and answered, 
but returned to her lodgings directly the service was over. 
The Eton brethren all walked home with the Bishop. At 
two precisely some of the party with baggage, &c. went to 
the Barbican and embarked in the Trinity House cutter 
with Captain Nelson, while the Bishop, with Abraham, 
Balston, and myself, walked to the foot of the Hoe and got 
aboard the barge of the Caledonia^ in which we rowed 
through a gallant sea to the Tomatin. I watched the last 
pebble on which the good man set his foot, and picked it up 
as one of the last reminiscences of his presence amongst us. 
After inspecting the ship we dined on board in a manner 
very satisfactory to every one but , who was obliged 



90 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. hi. 

— — — • * , -fii 

to bolt out of the cabin as soon as be had bolted his soup* 
Finding that the wind continued dead against their sailing 
that day, we put off again about four o'clock in the Trinity- 
House cutter and returned to shore. We then met at Dr. 
Yonge's, and round his fireside spent three pleasant hours, 
though our numbers gradually diminished by the departure 
one after another of G. Bichardson, Abraham, Balston, Dum- 
ford, and C. Marriott. Thence I accompanied our dear 
friends to their lodgings, and helped them to pack their 
remaining articles, and took down their last instructions on 
several points. We then knelt down once more together 
in prayer, and bade each other good night. 

" Friday, December 2Ath, — After breakfast I went to the 
Bishop's, and helped him to prepare for their final em- 
barkation. This done, he and I went to see poor Woof, 
the Welsh herdsman, who is lying ill at the ' Boot ' Inn, 
and cannot accompany them to New Zealand as he wishes. 
We then returned to the house, and put Sarah [Mrs. 
Selwyn], the nurse, and dear baby into a fly, with parcels 
innumerable ; we, the males of the party, walked to the 
Barbican, where we found Captain Nelson awaiting our 
arrival with boats and the cutter lying off. Sarah, baby, 
and nurse were hoisted up in the accommodation chair 
enveloped in flags. 

" After remaining some little time with my dear friends 
in their cabin, I returned to shore to fetch my wife, and 
at 3 we again went off in the agent's boat to the ship, to 
which we were soon followed by Dr. Yonge, who found 
dear Mrs. Selwyn so unwell that he urged her returning 
to shore and taking up her abode at his house with us till 
the wind should become favourable. So, the Bishop agree- 
ing with us that she would be better on shore than on 
board, we brought her off, and made her snug and com- 
fortable at my good cousin's, who prescribed for her and 
sent her early to bed. 

" Christmas Day, — ^The Bishop had his first service on 
board this morning. WTiile we were at dinner the Bishop 
arrived and gave us a very enthusiastic account of his first 
night on board, of the skill with which he had arranged 
the cabin, and of the great capabilities which he had dis- 
covered in the space allotted to them for their temporary 
residence. He stayed with us till nearly 8 o'clock, when 



1841.] DEPARTURE FROM PLYMOUTH. 91 

— * ^^-^^^^ ^ ^ ■ ^ — ■-■-T i_i _- 

I walked with him to' the Barbican, and saw him off to 
the ship. He is already beginning to get his fellow- 
voyagers into some degree of order, and is arranging their 
several studies, and setting each his most suitable lesson, 
so that I doubt not he w&l make the Tomatin one of the 
first training schools in the world. 

"Sunday, December 26th/ Feast of S. Stephen. — Our 
beloved friends are gone. While we were at breakfast 
at Dr. Yonge's the Bishop entered with a cheerful coun- 
tenance, having come from the ship to announce that the 
wind was favourable, and that she would sail immediately 
after Divine Service on board. Accordingly we soon col- 
lected those of the passengers who were on shore, and 
hastened to the Barbican, where we took boat and rowed 
to the ship. We were soon on board, where all was ready 
for sailing. In a few minutes we all assembled for Divine 
Service, and the Bishop, having given notice of the Holy 
Communion for the next Sunday, concluded, after the 
prayer for the Church Militant, with a Collect for a safe 
voyage and a blessing. We all remained on our knees 
some time after this in perfect silence, and in fervent 
prayer each for the other*s happiness, now that we were 
about to part for how long God alone knows. This done, 
we went into the cabin of our dear friends : the Bishop 
wrot« a few lines to his mother and a few words of affec- 
tion in my Bible,^ while they were weighing anchor. It 
was a dire moment of trial, but we all bore it better than 
I had expected. At half-past 12 we embraced each other 
fervently as those who did not expect to see each other 
again in thid world, and we tore ourselves away, as the 
ship was now on her way. Having bidden farewell to 
Mrs. Martin, to Cotton, Whytehead, the captain and 
others of the crew, we were lowered into the boat amid 
the prayers and good wishes of many on board, and in a 
moment the ship with her goodly freight was on her way. 
The Bishop, Whytehead, and others stood on the poop 
looking at and blessing us, the Bishop repeatedly waving 
lus hat around his honoured head. When about a hundred 
yards off I stood up in the boat and called to him in a 

* ^ With tho readiness which never failed him, the Bishop wrote in Mr. 
Coleridge's Bible, " When we had taken oar leave one of another, we took 
ship and they retnmed home again." — ^Acts xzi. 6, 



92 LIFE OF BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. 



loud voice, * God bless you ! God bless you ! FlorecU 
Ecdesial Floreat Etonat* After lauding we stood for 
some time on the Hoe looking at the TonuUin as she 
crowded her sails and glided away from us, becoming 
smaller and smaller, but no less an object of the most 
intense interest Surely no ship since that which carried 
S. Paul has ever gone to sea with a holier or more pre- 
cious freight — none to which every Christian and friend 
to humanity may more justly address the prayer of 
Horace ^ — 

* Navis, quae tibi creditum 
Debes Virgilium, finibus Atticis 
Reddas incolomem, precor.' 

to which I may add — 

' Et seryes animffi dimidium meee.' " ^ 

The good ship could hardly have gone out of sight when 
this true and warmhearted friend wrote the following brief 
letter to the late Professor Selwyn : — 

S. Stkpheh's Day, 2.30, 

My dear W. Selwyn, 

Precisely at half-past 12 on this auspicious day, and 
immediately after Divine Service on board, the Tomatin 
weighed anchor and sailed. She is now twenty miles down 
Channel, with a favourable breeze N.N.W. The Bishop, 
Sarah, and baby were all well and in good spirits. I have 
sent your mother the very last words he wrote, and I have 
preserved the pen with which he wrote them. God bless 
them and prosper them in their arduous but noble under- 
taking. 

Ever yours heartily, 

E. COLEBIDGE. 
1 Odes, Lib. 1, IIL vi. 



IV.] NEW ZEALAND. '. 98 



CHAPTER TV} 

NEW ZEALAND : ITS EARLY HISTORY AND COLONIZATION. 

The last chapter has left the Bishop and his party on 
board the TomcUin : it will serve to the better understand- 
ing of the difficulties of the work which lay before them, 
and the many vicissitudes which marked and too fre- 
quently hindered its progress, if some account is given of 
the early history of New Zealand, its aboriginal inhabitants, 
its early settlers, and the first efforts that were made to 
compass its evangelization. 

Discovered by the Dutch navigator Tasman in 1642, 
the soil of New Zealand was trodden by no European 
foot for more than 120 years. Tasman had been unable 
to effect a landing, and Cook in 1769, having sailed first 
round it and then through Cook's Straits, and thereby 
disproved the hypothesis that it was part of a great south- 
em continent, landed on several spots and made acquaint- 
ance with the natives. The New Zealanders or Maoris 
can trace back their genealogy for more than twenty 
generations, but for their origin we can only turn to the 
ethnologist and the student of languages. They are be- 
lieved to be the purest branch of that Polynesian race 
which had its cradle in the Hawaiian group : to this 
belief their language, their superstitions, and their tradi- 
tions all point. They all agree that they came from a 

^ For very mnch that is contained in thia chapter the author desires 
to acknowledge his obligation to Swainaon's iVeur ZtalaTuL 



94 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. ■■ [chap. 

country called " Hawaiki," which they describe as lying 
N.E. of New Zealand ; they further agree in the tradition 
that they were not driven off by stress of weather, but 
that, being harassed by wars and dissensions, they deter- 
mined to seek for a new and peaceful shore, and that they 
embcurked in several canoes specially fitted out for the 
unusual expedition. They also retain the terms of the 
valedictory address of the patriarch whom they left behind^ 
who impressed on them the duty of abandoning war and 
following peaceful occupations. 

The first immigrants are said to have landed on the 
Frith of the Thames, but proceeding up the Frith and 
leaving at many spots names which continue to this day 
to bear witness to their having visited them, they dragged 
their canoes across the narrow isthmus which separated 
the eastern from the western sea, and, sailing southward, 
they reached Kawhia, a smaU harbour midway between 
Manukau and Taranaki, and there they settled, throwing 
off swarms from time to time along the coasts. The chief 
of a tribe called the Tainui, who are to be found at 
Kawhia to this day, claims direct descent from these 
adventurous founders, and a rock shaped like a canoe is 
believed to be the petrified * Tainui' in which their 
fortunes were borne across the Pacific. 

The early colonization of these islands was so frag- 
mentary and irregular as hardly to deserve the name of 
colonization : it was rather an intercourse between the two 
races, destined in course of time to see much more of each 
other, and in which the white race was represented by 
some of its worst specimens. Whale ships frequented the 
northern parts in large numbers, and their dealings with 
the people too often were accompanied by deeds of ini* 
quity, which led to the massacres of innocent victims : 
the deeds which were considered the reckless and uncon- 
sidered acts of unreasoning savages were more frequently 
the carefuUy-calculated retaliation and repayment for 
wanton injuries of which they had been the victims: 



IV.] FIRST CX)LONIZATION. 95 



Tonaway sailors, escaped convicts, travelling tradei^s, and 
adventurous speculators who had left the neighbouring 
colony of New South Wales, these were the not very 
creditable representatives of what claimed to be the 
" superior race " with whom the New Zealanders became 
acquainted. 

The first genuine colonist, that is to say, the first im- 
migrant who came intending to effect a permanent settle- 
ment for himself and for his successors, was the Christian 
missionary, whose stretigth was in his very weakness, 
occupying a place by sufferance of the Chief and people 
who were his protectors and friends : herein New Zea- 
land differs widely from any other colony. Dr. Marsden, 
a Government Chaplain in New South Wales, had seen 
something of the Maoris who had come thither, and was 
possessed by a desire to visit New Zealand in the interests 
of the spread of the Gospel For years he was unable to 
realize his wish : at length in 1814 he made good his land- 
ing, and from that time New Zealand was never without 
a witness for the Truth. But these missionaries were only 
in one comer of the Northern Island, and were the fore- 
runners of a vast horde of less desirable visitors : in other 
parts lawless Englishmen vied with each other in their 
work of makiDg the natives more degraded than they 
found them. 

The necessity of some authorized system of government 
or colonization became apparent : a Besident was appointed 
to the Bay of Islands as some sort of check on the British 
settlers and sojourners who resorted there, but in a foreign 
country he had no sort of authority, and no means of en- 
forcing his authority if he possessed it All settlers whose 
occupations were legitimate petitioned the Crown for pro- 
tection; but before these complaints and representations 
reached England an Association had been formed, which, 
deeply impressed with the evils in question as well as 
with the importance of New Zealand as a field for coloni- 
zation, had formed a deliberate project of organizing a 



96 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. 

colony on a large scale and on sound principles. The 
'' New Zealand Association " consisted of two classes of 
persons — (1) heads of families and others who, attracted 
by a good climate and cheap land, determined to establish 
themselves in the proposed colony, and make it the Eng- 
land of the Pacific ; (2) public men, who, for the sake of 
public objects alone, were willing to form the executive 
body who should carry the measure into execution. 

The Government in 1837 expressed its willingness to give 
to the Association a Boyal Charter, incorporating it and 
committing to its members the settlement and government 
of the projected colony for a term of years, according to 
the precedent of chartered colonies in the 16th and 17th 
centuries ; but this oflFer was burdened by the condition 
that the Association should become a joint-stock trading 
company, and this the Association, having excluded 
from its object all idea of private profit, was unable to 
accept. The chairman. Sir F. Baring, M.P., brought into 
Parliament a bill "for the Provisional Government of 
British Settlements in the Islands of New Zealand." The 
bill proposed to appoint Commissioners under the Crown, 
who should treat with and purchase land from the natives 
and convert it into British territory, to be governed by 
British law ; making, however, exceptional laws in favour 
of the natives to protect them from their own ignorance, 
and to promote their moral and social improvement. It 
proposed also to exercise legal authority over all lawless 
British subjects in all parts of the islanda The Colonial 
Government was to afford an adequate provision for 
religious worship of all denominations, and a bishop, to be 
appointed by the Crown, was to reside in the islands. 

The Government opposed the bill, and it did not pass, 
but the subject received a great deal of attention and was 
brought prominently before the public by the debate which 
took place. The New Zealand Association was dissolved 
and a joint-stock company, calling itself The New Zealand 
Land Company, which fitted out expeditions and proceeded 



iv.] DISPUTED LAND TITLEa 97 



to possess itself of large tracts of land, was called into 
existence. Among the directors were several men of high 
character, whose motives were purely disinterested and 
patriotic ; there were others " in whose minds sound prin- 
ciples of colonization and colonial government were as 
nothing compared with pounds, shillings, and pence." i 
Before any lands had been purchased (and of the value of 
the title of these acres more will be said presently), they 
offered for sale in England the right of selection of the 
lands which they expected to acquire, and although the 
country was, at that time, synonymous with barbarism — 
and although the directors were officially warned that their 
proceedings could not be sanctioned by Government — 
they obtained purchasers in England to the amount of 
more than 100,000/. 

Without waiting to hear whether any and what lands 
and where situated had been purchased by their agent, the 
Company sent out several ships filled with emigrants, to be 
deposited wherever land had been procured for their settle- 
ment. Here was a seed-plot well and thickly sown with 
future dissensions and wars ; the whole of the land had 
owners ; the natives were perfectly accurate in their know- 
ledge of the boundaries of each property ; tracts which to 
the European appeared worthless were to the Maori of 
especial value ; moreover, the tenure of land was based 
on tribal not individual ownership. As soon as survey- 
ing parties began to cut boundary lines and purchasers 
took actual possession of their lands, natives from various 
parts of the country, who knew nothing of any sup- 
posed sale, came forward to assert their rights and to* 
oppose the occupation of their land. Neither was the 
Company's agent the first in the field ; old residents, ab- 
sentee Sydney speculators, land-jobbing adventurers, and 
some of the agents of the Church Missionary Society, 
who held more than 100,000 acres, had already procured 

^ Evidence of Mr. E. G. Wakefield before a Committee of the House 
of Bepresentatiyes. 

VOL. I. H 



98 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. 

Irom the natives sites tliat appeared most promising for 
pasturage, or for the settlements of the future ; meanwhile 
the unhappy Agent, daily expecting shiploads of emigrants 
from England, all of whom would claim at once to be put 
in possession of the land for which they had paid, bought 
land of natives who asserted themselves to be the sole 
owners, and was soon in a position to report that he had 
bought the harbour of Port Nicholson, a large tract of 
the surrounding country, and a considerable portion of the 
northern part of the Southern Island. 

But the agent of the Company knew nothing of the 
native law of real property, paid no attention to the ques- 
tion of the vendors' title, and learned only by painful 
•experience that " to complete a safe and satisfactory pur- 
<ihase of land from the natives of New Zealand is a work 
-of as much difficulty, requires as much time, careful inves- 
tigation and knowledge of native law and custom, as to 
complete the purchase of an English baronial estate." 

The Joint Stock Company had urged the Government 
to establish a colony and to assume supremtwjy, but for 
the selfish reason that their land would instantly rise in 
value manyfold if made part of the BritLsh empira The 
Church Slissionary Society, on the other hand, believing 
that the occupation of the country by Enghsh settlers 
would prove injurious to the morals of the natives, and 
would hinder the spread of the Gospel, resisted the idea of 
colonizing it. There could be no doubt that the example of 
the reckless adventurers who had found their way into 
the colony had been wholly bad, but the opposition was 
tin wise, both because the evils already existing were likely 
to be coimteracted by a system of colonization, conducted 
by responsible persons, and also because to expect to ex- 
clude a group of islands nearly 1,000 miles in length 
from [intercourse with the rest of the world, is Utopian 
and visionary ; the objections were strongly supported by 
evidence given before a Committee of the House of Lords 
in 1838. The French were contemplating the establish- 



IV.] TREATY OF WAITANQI. 99 

ment of a settlement in the islands at this period^ and this 
fietct, combined with the representations made to Govern- 
ment that two races were now living side by side, that the 
emigrants were likely soon to lapse into lawlessness, and 
that a war of races was imminent, forced upon Parliament 
the duty of colonizing New Zealand. 

Captain Hobson was sent by the Grown " to establish 
a settled form of civil government," and, while no chum of 
sovereignty was made, he was instructed to urge on the 
chiefs the impossibility of extending to them any effectual 
protection unless the Queen were acknowledged as the 
sovereign of their country. It was a hard task to persuade 
the warlike chiefs of a wadike race, to whom restraint 
had been unknown, to cede to the Grown of England all 
their rights and powers of sovereignty ; they long failed to 
see that in ceding the sovereignty they did not part with 
their property in the soil. Striking must have been the 
scene when, at the assembly of chiefs at Waitangi, Gaptain 
Hobson explained to them that '^ the shadow would go to 
the Queen and the substance would remain, and that they 
might rely implicitly on the good faith of Her Majesty's 
Government." 

Many of the chiefs, prompted by disaffected Europeans, 
opposed the cession of sovereignty with much skill and 
eloquence. The timely interference of a Northern chief 
turned the scale. " You must be our father," said Tamati 
Waka, to Gaptain Hobson; "you must not allow us to 
become slaves ; you must preserve our customs, and never 
permit our land to be wrested from us." Thus the ma- 
jority of the chiefs became parties to the treaty of Wai- 
tangi ; but many steadily refused, under the belief that if 
they signed the treaty their lands would be taken from 
them. They said they had heard of what the British 
Government had done in America, in New South Wales, 
and in other colonies. In some instances those who 
signed the treaty refused to accept any present, lest it 
might be construed as payment for their land. Before 

H 2 



8GG72k 



100 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. 



these negotiations were completed, Captain Hobson heard 
that the settlers at Port Nicholson had organized a system 
of government under the native chief ; and regarding this 
as treasonable, he proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over 
both islands in February, 1840, without waiting for the 
completion of the cession ; at first it was a dependency of 
New South Wales, but in November, 1840, it was erected 
into a separate independent colony. 

Captain Hobson had now among his first duties the 
selection of a site for the seat of government, and his 
decision earned for him the bitter hostility of the New 
Zealand Company and their settlers. They had planted 
their chief settlement at Wellington, but Captain Hobson, 
knowing that the main object of the establishment of 
British authority in the islands had been the protection 
and advancement of the natives, was influenced in his 
selection by the fact that nineteen-twentieths of the whole 
Maori population of New Zealand were settled in the 
Northern Island : the great majority of these were clus- 
tered in the northern portion of that island, attracted by 
a climate congenial to a race whose ancestors had come 
from a tropical home. Auckland therefore, with its great 
natural advantages, which made the epithet himaris as 
appropriate to it as to Corinth in the days of Horace, 
with water communication radiating in all directions, was 
chosen as the seat of (government, and all subsequent ex- 
perience has justified the choice : but the disappointment 
and hostility of the settlers were increasing, and Captain 
Hobson is declared to have been " driven into his grave by 
clamouring competitors." He died in September 1842, 
having lived to welcome the bishop to New Zealand, and 
to recognise his fitness for his position. He had said, 
"What can a bishop do in New Zealand, where there are 
no roads for his coach ? ** But when some six weeks after 
his landing he heard that he had come overland to Auck- 
land on foot, he said, ** Alt, that's a very different thing. 
He is the right man for the post." 



IV.] EELATIONS OP THE TWO RACES. 101 

There was one problem which the Government, the 
Bishop, and all friends of humanity had to solve : in New 
Zealand a great experiment was about to be tried on a 
large scale : it was no less than this, " whether a fragment 
of the great human family, long sunk in heathen dark- 
ness, could be raised from its state of social degradation, 
and maintained and preserved as a civilized people? 
whether it were possible to bring two distinct portions of 
the human race, in the opposite conditions of civilization 
and barbarism, into immediate contact, without the de- 
struction of the uncivilized race ? " The work of deterio- 
ration had already commenced : the heathen had become 
familiar with the vices which the professing Christians had 
introduced : but along with this deterioration the mission- 
ary had brought the salt of Christianity, and out of the 
mass had raised a considerable body of Christians whose 
consistent lives were a witness to the reality of their con- 
version. The ministers of the Crown had given a pledge 
that in New Zealand the natives should be defended from 
that process of extermination which in other lands had 
followed in the steps of the white man, and to the fulfil- 
ment of this pledge all right thinking men gave their 
energies. 

But their efforts were immediately thwarted by the 
results of the New Zealand Company's precipitate action 
in selling land which they had themselves never bought. 
The deluded settlers had no remedy : appeals to the Crown 
for protection were fruitless : the Queen had by the Treaty 
of Waitangi ** confirmed and guaranteed to the chiefs of 
New Zealand the exclusive and undisturbed possession of 
their lands." The New Zealand Company had not only not 
received so much as a tacit permission from the Crown- 
but they had been distinctly warned, before the sailing of 
their expedition, that their actions could not be recognised 
and that no pledge could be given that the titles of any 
lands purchased of the natives would be admitted by 
Her Majesty : in fact, the Company had boasted that they 



100 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. 



these negotiations were completed, Captain Hobson heaid 
that the settlers at Port Nicholson had organized a system 
of government under the native chief; and regarding this 
as ta^asonable, he proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over 
both islands in February, 1840, without waiting for the 
completion of the cession ; at first it was a dependency of 
New South Wales, but in November, 1840, it was erected 
into a separate independent colony. 

Captain Hobson had now among his first duties the 
selection of a site for the seat of government, and his 
decision earned for him the bitter hostility of the New 
Zealand Company and their settlers. They had planted 
their chief settlement at Wellington, but Captain Hobson, 
knowing that the main object of the establishment of 
British authority in the islands had been the protection 
and advancement of the natives, was influenced in his 
selection by the fact that nineteen-twentieths of the whole 
Maori population of New Zealand were settled in the 
Northern Island : the great majority of these were clus- 
tered in the northern portion of that island, attracted by 
a climate congenial to a race whose ancestors had come 
from a tropical home. Auckland therefore, with its great 
natural advantages, which made the epithet biniaris as 
appropriate to it as to Corinth in the days of Horace, 
with water communication radiating in all directions, was 
chosen as the seat of Government, and all subsequent ex- 
perience has justified the choice : but the disappointment 
and hostility of the settlers were increasing, and Captain 
Hobson is declared to have been " driven into his grave by 
clamouring competitors." He died in September 1842, 
having lived to welcome the bishop to New Zealand, and 
to recognise his fitness for his position. He had said, 
"What can a bishop do in New Zealand, where there are 
no roads for his coach ? *' But when some six weeks after 
his landing he heard that he had come overland to Auck* 
land on foot, he said, " Ah, that's a very different thing. 
He is the right man for the post." 



lY.] BELATIONS OP THETWO RACES. 101 

There was one problem which the Government, the 
Bishop, and all friends of humanity had to solve : in New 
Zealand a great experiment was about to be tried on a 
large scale : it was no less than this, ** whether a fragment 
of the great; human family, long sunk in heathen dark- 
ness, could be raised from its state of social degradation, 
and maintained and preserved as a civilized people ? 
whether it were possible to bring two distinct portions of 
the human race, in the opposite conditions of civilization 
and barbarism, into immediate contact, without the de- 
struction of the uncivilized race ? " The work of deterio- 
ration had already commenced : the heathen had become 
familiar with the vices which the professing Christians had 
introduced : but along with this deterioration the mission- 
ary had brought the salt of Christianity^ and out of the 
mass had raised a considerable body of Christians whose 
consistent lives were a witness to the reality of their con- 
version. The ministers of the Crown had given a pledge 
that in New Zealand the natives should be defended from 
that process of extermination which in other lands had 
followed in the steps of the white man, and to the fulfil- 
ment of this pledge all right thinking men gave their 
energies. 

But their eflForts were immediately thwarted by the 
results of the New Zealand Company's precipitate action 
in selling land which they had themselves never bought. 
The deluded settlers had no remedy : appeals to the Crown 
for protection were fruitless : the Queen had by the Treaty 
of Waitangi " confirmed and guaranteed to the chiefs of 
New Zealand the exclusive and undisturbed possession of 
their lands." The New Zealand Company had not only not 
received so much as a tacit permission from the Crown — 
but they had been distinctly warned, before the sailing of 
their expedition, that their actions could not be recognised 
and that no pledge could be given that the titles of any 
lands purchased of the natives would be admitted by 
Her Majesty : in fact, the Company had boasted that they 



100 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. 



these negotiations were completed^ Captain Hobson heard 
that the settlers at Port Nicholson had organized a system 
of government under the native chief; and regarding this 
as treasonable, he proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over 
both islands in February, 1840, without waiting for the 
completion of the cession ; at first it was a dependency of 
New South Wales, but in November, 1840, it was erected 
into a separate independent colony. 

Captain Hobson had now among his first duties the 
selection of a site for the seat of government, and his 
decision earned for him the bitter hostility of the New 
Zealand Company and their settlers. They had planted 
their chief settlement at Wellington, but Captain Hobson, 
knowing that the main object of the establishment of 
British authority in the islands had been the protection 
and advancement of the natives, was influenced in his 
selection by the fact that nineteen-twentieths of the whole 
Maori population of New Zealand were settled in the 
Northern Island : the great majority of these were clus- 
tered in the northern portion of that island, attracted by 
a climate congenial to a race whose ancestors had come 
from a tropical home. Auckland therefore, with its great 
natural advantages, which made the epithet bimarts as 
appropriate to it as to Corinth in the days of Horace, 
with water communication radiating in all directions, was 
chosen as the seat of Government, and all subsequent ex- 
perience has justified the choice : but the disappointment 
and hostility of the settlers were increasing, and Captain 
Hobson is declared to have been " driven into his grave by 
clamouring competitors." He died in September 1842, 
having lived to welcome the bishop to New Zealand, and 
to recognise his fitness for his position. He had said, 
"What can a bishop do in New Zealand, where there are 
no roads for his coach ? *' But when some six weeks after 
his landing he heard that he had come overland to Auck- 
land on foot, he said, " Ah, that's a very difierent thing. 
He is the right man for the post." 



IV.] BELATIONS OP THE.TWO RACES. 101 

There was one problem which the Government, the 
Bishop, and all friends of humanity had to solve : in New 
Zealand a great experiment was about to be tried on a 
large scale : it was no less than this, *' whether a fragment 
of the great human family, long sunk in heathen dark- 
ness, could be raised from its state of social degradation, 
and maintained and preseiTed as a civilized people ? 
whether it were possible to bring two distinct portions of 
the human race, in the opposite conditions of civilization 
and barbarism, into immediate contact, without the de- 
struction of the uncivilized race ? " The work of deterio- 
ration had already commenced : the heathen had become 
familiar with the vices which the professing Christians had 
introduced : but along with this deterioration the mission- 
ary had brought the salt of Christianity, and out of the 
mass had raised a considerable body of Christians whose 
consistent lives were a witness to the reality of their con- 
version. The ministers of the Crown had given a pledge 
that in New Zealand the natives should be defended from 
that process of extermination which in other lands had 
followed in the steps of the white man, and to the fulfil- 
ment of this pledge all right thinking men gave their 
energies. 

But their efforts were immediately thwarted by the 
results of the New Zealand Company's precipitate action 
in selling land which they had themselves never bought. 
The deluded settlers had no remedy : appeals to the Crown 
for protection were fruitless : the Queen had by the Treaty 
of Waitangi ** confirmed and guaranteed to the chiefs of 
New Zealand the exclusive and undisturbed possession of 
their lands." The New Zealand Company had not only not 
received so much as a tacit permission from the Crown — 
but they had been distinctly warned, before the sailing of 
their expedition, that their actions could not be recognised 
and that no pledge could be given that the titles of any 
lands purchased of the natives would be admitted by 
Her Majesty : in fact, the Company had boasted that they 



100 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. 



these negotiations were completed^ Captain Hobson heard 
that the settlers at Port Nicholson had organized a system 
of government under the native chief; and regarding this 
as treasonable, he proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over 
both islands in February, 1840, without waiting for the 
completion of the cession ; at first it was a dependency of 
New South Wales, but in November, 1840, it was erected 
into a separate independent colony. 

Captain Hobson had now among his first duties the 
selection of a site for the seat of government, and his 
decision earned for him the bitter hostility of the New 
Zealand Company and their settlers. They had planted 
their chief settlement at Wellington, but Captain Hobson, 
knowing that the main object of the establishment of 
British authority in the islands had been the protection 
and advancement of the natives, was influenced in his 
selection by the fact that nineteen-twentieths of the whole 
Maori population of New Zealand were settled in the 
Northern Island : the great majority of these were clus- 
tered in the northern portion of that island, attracted by 
a climate congenial to a race whose ancestors had come 
from a tropical home. Auckland therefore, with its great 
natural advantages, which made the epithet himaris as 
appropriate to it as to Corinth in the days of Horace, 
with water communication radiating in all directions, was 
chosen as the seat of Government, and all subsequent ex- 
perience has justified the choice : but the disappointment 
and hostility of the settlers were increasing, and Captain 
Hobson is declared to have been " driven into his grave by 
clamouring competitors." He died in September 1842, 
having lived to welcome the bishop to New Zealand, and 
to recognise his fitness for his position. He had said, 
"What can a bishop do in New Zealand, where there are 
no roads for his coach ? *' But when some six weeks after 
his landing he heard that he had come overland to Auck- 
land on foot, he said, " Ah, that's a very diflTerent thing. 
He is the right man for the post." 



zy.] RELATIONS OF THE.TWO RACES. 101 

There was one problem which the Government, the 
Bishop, and all friends of humanity had to solve : in New 
.Zealand a great experiment was about to be tried on a 
large scale : it was no less than this, '' whether a fragment 
of the greafc human family, long sunk in heathen dark- 
ness, could be raised from its state of social degradation, 
and maintained and preseiTed as a civilized people? 
whether it were possible to bring two distinct portions of 
the human race, in the opposite conditions of civilization 
and barbarism, into immediate contact, without the de- 
struction of the uncivilized race ? " The work of deterio- 
ration had abready commenced : the heathen had become 
familiar with the vices which the professing Christians had 
introduced : but along with this deterioration the mission- 
ary had brought the salt of Christianity, and out of the 
mass had raised a considerable body of Christians whose 
consistent lives were a witness to the reality of their con- 
version. The ministers of the Crown had given a pledge 
that in New Zealand the natives should be defended from 
that process of extermination which in other lands had 
followed in the steps of the white man, and to the fulfil- 
ment of this pledge all right thinking men gave their 
energies. 

But their efforts were immediately thwarted by the 
results of the New Zealand Company's precipitate action 
in selling land which they had themselves never bought. 
The deluded settlers had no remedy : appeals to the Crown 
for protection were fruitless : the Queen had by the Treaty 
of Waitangi ** confirmed and guaranteed to the chiefs of 
New Zealand the exclusive and undisturbed possession of 
their lands." The New Zealand Company had not only not 
received so much as a tacit permission from the Crown — 
but they had been distinctly warned, before the sailing of 
their expedition, that their actions could not be recognised 
and that no pledge could be given that the titles of any 
lands purchased of the natives would be admitted by 
Her Majesty : in fact, the Company had boasted that they 



100 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. 

these negotiations were completed, Captain Hobson heard 
that the settlers at Port Nicholson had organized a system 
of government under the native chief ; and regarding this 
as treasonable, he proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over 
both islands in February, 1840, without waiting for the 
completion of the cession ; at first it was a dependency of 
New South Wales, but in November, 1840, it was erected 
into a separate independent colony. 

Captain Hobson had now among his first duties the 
selection of a site for the seat of government, and his 
decision earned for Vn'm the bitter hostility of the New 
Zealand Company and their settlers. They had planted 
their chief settlement at WelliDgton, but Captain Hobson, 
knowing that the main object of the establishment of 
British authority in the islands had been the protection 
and advancement of the natives, was influenced in his 
selection by the fact that nineteen-twentieths of the whole 
Maori population of New Zealand were settled in the 
Northern Island : the great majority of these were clus- 
tered in the northern portion of that island, attracted by 
a climate congenial to a race whose ancestors had come 
from a tropical home. Auckland therefore, with its great 
natural advantages, which made the epithet himaris as 
appropriate to it as to Corinth in the days of Horace, 
with water communication radiating in all directions, was 
chosen as the seat of Government, and all subsequent ex- 
perience has justified the choice : but the disappointment 
and hostility of the settlers were increasing, and Captain 
Hobson is declared to have been " driven into his grave by 
clamouring competitors." He died in September 1842, 
having lived to welcome the bishop to New Zealand, and 
to recognise his fitness for his position. He had said, 
•'What can a bishop do in New Zealand, where there are 
no roads for his coach ? '' But when some six weeks after 
his landing he heard that he had come overland to Auck- 
land on foot, he said, " Ah, that's a very diflTerent thing. 
He is the right man for the post." 



lY.] RELATIONS OP THETWO RACES. 101 

There was one problem which the Government, the 
Bishop, and all friends of humanity had to solve : in New 
Zealand a great experiment was about to be tried on a 
large scale : it was no less than this, " whether a fragment 
of the great human family, long sunk in heathen dark- 
ness, could be raised from its state of social degradation, 
and maintained and preserved as a civilized people ? 
whether it were possible to bring two distinct portions of 
the human race, in the opposite conditions of civilization 
and barbarism, into immediate contact, without the de- 
struction of the uncivilized race ? " The work of deterio- 
ration had already commenced : the heathen had become 
familiar with the vices which the professing Christians had 
introduced : but along with this deterioration the mission- 
ary had brought the salt of Christianity, and out of the 
mass had raised a considerable body of Christians whose 
consistent lives were a witness to the reality of their con- 
version. The ministers of the Crown had given a pledge 
that in New Zealand the natives should be defended from 
that process of extermination which in other lands had 
followed in the steps of the white man, and to the fulfil- 
ment of this pledge all right thinking men gave their 
energies. 

But their efiforts were immediately thwarted by the 
results of the New Zealand Company's precipitate action 
in selling land which they had themselves never bought. 
The deluded settlers had no remedy : appeals to the Crown 
for protection were fruitless : the Queen had by the Treaty 
of Waitangi " confirmed and guaranteed to the chiefs of 
New Zealand the exclusive and undisturbed possession of 
their lands." The New Zealand Company had not only not 
received so much as a tacit permission from the Crown — 
but they had been distinctly warned, before the sailing of 
their expedition, that their actions could not be recognised 
and that no pledge could be given that the titles of any 
lands purchased of the natives would be admitted by 
Her Majesty : in fact, the Company had boasted that they 



102 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. 

" colonized New Zealand in spite of the Government." It 
was impossible that any long time should elapse without the 
disputed land claims developing into quarrels, and, where 
one party were savages, into bloodshed : and in 1843 the 
dispute at Wairau led to a fierce engagement, in which 
the first party to fire was not the Maoris but the English- 
men who were also the first to run away in great disorder, 
although numerically superior. The defeat of the English 
on this occasion lowered the estimate which the Maoris 
had hitherto formed of their prowess : emboldened by their 
victory at the Wairau in 1843, they two years later did 
not hesitate to measure their strength in the open field 
against disciplined English troops. Xororareka was de- 
stroyed — ^the flag-staff cut down — ^the military block- 
house taken ; the soldiers, seamen, and civil population took 
refuge on board ship, and the whole of the humiliating and 
painful scene ''was enacted within range of the silent guns, 
and in the unmoved presence of a foreign ship of war." 
Martial law was proclaimed, but for two ye^rs, 1845—1847, 
peace was a stranger to the land. From time to time 
wars broke out, and culminated in the terrible war and 
accompanying apostasy of 1863, and the native difficulty, 
which was an euphemism for the land question, was at the 
root of all. These events will find their proper place in 
the following pages, but this brief mention of them here 
is essential to any sketch of the position which the Bishop 
of New Zealand and his clergy filled. The missionaries 
had been called on by Governor Hobson to use their influ- 
ence with the natives to persuade them to accept the 
Waitangi Treaty : they pledged their own credit that its 
terms would be scixipulously kept, and when it was found 
that the Government proposed to repudiate it and to take 
possession of all unoccupied land in the country, the mission- 
ary body were placed in a position of much embarassment, 
and their influence for good was compromised. The Maoris 
would have shed the last drop of their blood for the inheri- 
tance of their tribe; but they were quite willing to sell 



IV.] MAORI MYTHOLOGY. 103 

l£tige tracts of land for a price that was only nominal, and 
by such a recognition of their title peace might in all 
cases have been preserved. As the Bishop wrote in a 
Pastoral Letter in 1855, "Nothing is easier than to extin- 
goish the native title ; nothing will be more difficult than 
to extinguish the native war." 

Enough has been said to show that the Maoris, savages 
as they became on small provocations, and cannibals as 
they had been up to a recent date, were a race of great 
capacity. British officers declared them to be as soldiers 
equal to any people in the world : lawyers and statesmen 
who had to deal with their claims for land found that they 
argued their case with astuteness and eloquence ; and the 
missionaries after nine years of fruitless toil discovered 
that, when once they could get them under their influence, 
they showed religious susceptibilities of a remarkable kind. 
Their Pantheon is a large one. Everything is invested 
with supernatural power, and every circumstance of their 
lives is supposed to be directed by an ever active, ever 
present Divine agency. They have Gods of the day and 
of the night ; innate powers in earth and heaven, which 
separate the firmament from the land. Every tribe wor-- 
ships some one or more of its departed ancestors, whom 
it consults with much reverence as an oracle on matters of 
grave importance, and the 'Atua' has been supposed to 
answer in a mysterious sound, " half whisper, half whistle." 
The Tapu which prevails over the whole of the Pacific 
Ocean, and of which some traces are to be found even in 
Madagascar, was no childish arbitrary custom entailing 
needless restraint and inconvenience. The Spirit of their 
most honoured relative was to their belief the guardian of 
their family, and his Atua was thought to take an active 
interest in the ordinary affairs of their lives : the things 
which were under the Tapu were supposed to be things in 
which this Spirit or some portion of it had rested, and it 
was a reverent feeling which guarded against the sacrilege 
involved in touching it. A strange circumstance, and one 



104 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. iv. 

which had much to do both with their facile, though, at 
first tardy, reception of Christianity and their subsequent 
apostasy, was the fact that when the Missionaries first 
brought the Gospel to the Maoris they consulted their 
Atuas whether the white teacher's message was true, and 
in every case they received an afiSomative answer. 

It was while the Maoris were in the full zeal and ardour 
which is the characteristic of the neophyte, and before the 
seeds sown by the worst disposed of the settlers had 
begun to bear fruit, that Bishop Selwyn arrived in his 
diocesa As far as spiritual things were concerned his 
prospects were very bright: the clergy welcomed him 
cordially: even those who would rather have continued 
in the old way, with no bishop to coimsel or guide, were 
won by his personal charms when they came to look on 
him and to know him ; and the Maori people, who were 
the bishop's chief care and attraction, were eager to assi- 
inilate his teaching, and to receive the spiritual gifts which 
-were his to confer. The Bible and Prayer-book had been 
.translated into the vernacular, and many churches had 
4>een built. Humanly speaking, that the Church of New 
Zealand survived the terrible shocks which in subsequent 
years it was made to endure, was owing to the fact that, 
as Bishop Broughton had advised in 1838, the Church 
had been planted in the full integrity of its system, and 
a bishop had landed on the shore of New Zealand as soon 
as it became a colony, and so had anticipated the full 
force of the evils which follow in the train of immigration. 
The bishop fully realized the bright prospect before him at 
the first, and was ever 

'* Haunting a holy text, and still to that 
Hetaming as a bird returns at night." 

His favourite text was (Ps. xvi. v. 7), " The lot is fallen 
unto me in a fair ground : yea, I have a goodly heritage." 



1842-1843.] OCCUPATIONS ON BOARD SHIP. 105 



CHAPTEE V. 

SYDNEY AND NEW ZEALAND. 
[1842—1843.] 

The bishop's party on board the Tomatin consisted of his 
two chaplains — Mr. Cotton, a student of Christ Church, and 
Mr. Whytehead, Fellow of St. John's CoU^e, Cambridge ; 
Messrs. Cole, Dudley, and Eeay, missionary clergy ; three 
catechists, Messrs. Butt, Evans, and Nihill; and a school- 
master and mistress. Another clergyman, the Bev. B. Lucas 
Watson, was also on board, bound for Australia. A not un- 
important passenger was a Maori lad, by name Bupai, who 
had been brought to England and placed imder the care of 
a clergyman at Battersea, with a view to his being properly 
educated. Him the bishop eagerly sought out, and engaged 
his services as a living grammar and lexicon, just as years 
afterwards both Bishop Selwyn and Bishop Patteson were 
wont to use the Melanesian lads whom they brought from 
their native islands. It is commonly said that the leisure 
on board ship, to which busy people look forward as a 
time in which to overtake arrears of reading or writing, 
is not conducive to profitable work, and that it requires a 
really resolute wiU to accomplish much under these con- 
ditions. To the bishop and his party it was no idle time, 
neither were the results inconsiderable, — ^but what was 
done, and how the time was employed, and what were 
the mishaps of the voyage^ are best told in the bishop's 



106 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

own words in the two letters which he wrote to his 
mother, and sent, the one by a passing ship, the other on 
his arrival at Sydney. A third brief letter, earlier in point 
of time, was written on board a small brig, the JRetreiich, on 
January 11, 1842, in "Tropic of Cancer; long. 21*9 W." 
They had left the Tomatin in calm weather, without any 
intention of coming on board, and so had not brought with 
them their unfinished letters ; but as the vessel would part 
company when a breeze sprang up, he wrote a few lines to 
his mother, and intrusted the letter to the captain of the 
brig, which was bound to Sierra Leone, and thence to 
England. 
The following letters tell their own tale : — 

Ship "Tomatin," 

Lat 6 N., Long. 21 W. 

Jan. 18, 1842. 

My deabbst Motheb, 

The hurried note which I sent by the brig Retrench will, 
I hope, have reached you ; though as it was to go by way 
of Sierra Leone, it may have been delayed. "We have had 
a most delightful passage to this point of our voyage, with 
the wind continually fair since we left England ; and never 
too strong to produce any serious inconvenience to Sarah 
or myself. In the three days preceding last Sunday at 
noon we ran 600 geographical miles, or ten degrees of lati- 
tude ; and though we expected the wind to fail us in lat. 
10 N*., we are still going on at the rate of five geogra- 
phical miles an hour. The present state of the tempera- 
ture would not suit you, as the thermometer where I am 
sitting is 79° ; but, as the fresh breeze still continues, the 
heat is not very oppressive. 

I proceed now to give you an account of our proceed- 
ings. We set sail on the afternoon of Sunday, December 
26th, with a fair wind from the north and a most beautiful 
sky overhead, which made Plymouth Harbour look most 
lovely, and enabled us to go away with the most pleasing 
recollection of the last sight of our native country. 

Mr. and Mrs. Coleridge stayed with us till we were in 
full sail out of the harbour, and then took a most aflfec- 
tionate leave of us. We passed the Breakwater about 



1842-1843.] CHURCH AT SEA. 107 

one, and were off the Lizard Lighthouse at 10 p.m. This 
was our last glimpse of anything belonging to England, 
and I remained on deck watching it as it appeared from 
time to time when the ship rose upon the waves, till at 
last its reappearances became less and less frequent ; and 
even the tenth wave failed to bring us within sight of it, 
and we saw it no more. We are now watching the Pole- 
star with the same interest, as in two or three days it will 
sink beneath the horizon. But the constellations which 
we used to see low in the south, but which are now blazing 
over our heads, will still unite us together in thought by 
the '' bands of Orion, and the sweet influences of the 
Pleiades/' We have not yet had a favourable view of 
the Southern Cross, or of its neighbour the southern tri- 
angle, as they come to the meridian in the day time. 
Nothing of any particular note occurred during our first 
week, most of the party being unwell, not including Sarah 
and myself, who have not been disturbed. Little William 
was imcomfortable for one day, but soon recovered. 

Our first Sunday on board was most delightfuL I had 
given notice of the communion at the service on the 26th, 
which some thought rather premature, as we could not be 
sure of our weather ; but when the 2nd January came, we 
celebrated divine service on board in such a calm as fell 
upon the sea of Galilee, when Jesus said to its troubled 
waters. Peace, be stilL Our church was arranged thus : 
Our communion-table was spread with Mr. Mackamess's 
altar service-books and Mr. Few's communion plate, with 
a cloth given to me by one of my parishioners in Windsor. 
We had the full service with communion, and prayed for 
you all, as I doubt not we were remembered in your 
prayers. In the evening we had prayers in the dining- 
room, the darkness having prevented an evening service 
on deck, and as the ship hours of dinner are between one 
and five. 

I forgot to mention that we had service on the poop 
deck on the morning of the Circumcision, and in the same 
manner on the Epiphany. Last Sunday we began evening 
prayers on the poop deck at six, and hope to have full 
service next Sunday, as our days are now lengthened two 
hours. 

You would be much pleased with our church. I and my 



108 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

chaplain sit at the part of the ship which is used for our 
communion-table, which is covered with a red flag. The 
capstan, covered with another flag, is our pulpit and desk, 
and the seats are arranged round, covered with all the 
ship's signals. Sarah leads the hymns and psalms, which 
are well sung, as four of our gentlemen are practised 
singers, and several of the steerage passengers join in 
good tune. Dr. Blyth's Psalmody is our text-book. 

I have already given you a programme of our week- 
day employments. Soon after sailing I gave notice that 
I should open school on the first Monday in the new year, 
allowing a week for sickness and convalescence. Accord- 
ingly on Monday, January 3, we began regular habits : 
reading the daily prayers at eight in the morning, and the 
Psalms and Lessons, in the original languages, each at their 
appointed hour. Besides this, there is a New Zealand class, 
comprising nearly all the party, and a mathematical class 
for the study of navigation. The whole of the morning is 
thus occupied, leaving the evening to the discretion of the 
party, and for preparation for the next day. On Church 
festivals, when the f uU service is read, the Eton practice of 
a whole holiday is followed. The advantage of this regular 
plan is generally admitted, as, instead of the voyage being 
tedious, very few find the day long enough. My father 
will explain to you this description of our life — 

'* Excepto, quod non simul esses, caetera loetus.'' 

We have taken difierent departments for the study of 
the New Zealand language. Mr. Cotton and Mr. Reay 
are making a Concordance of the native Testament. I am 
compiling from the Rarotonga, Tahitian, and New Zea- 
land translations of the New Testament, a Comparative 
Grammar of those three dialects, which are all from the 
same root, and illustrate one another. I hope to be quite 
familisur with the three dialects by the end of the voyage, 
which will much facilitate the plan which I have con- 
ceived—and which may God give me grace to carry into 
eflfect — of extending the branches of the Church of New 
Zealand throughout the Southern Pacific. 

I am studying practical navigation under our captain 
(a most intelligent man) in order that I may be my own 
Master in my visitation voyages. It gives me great pleasure 



1842-1843.] LESSONS IN NAVIGATION. 109 

to find that I am quite at my ease at sea, which makes 
me look forward to the maritime character of my future 
life with more comfort and hope. My chronometer and 
sextant are in constant use. Last night I learned a new 
observation, viz., to find the angular distance between the 
moon and a fixed star. William gave me at Plymouth a 
log-book and chart, in which I keep the ship's reckoning, 
which is of great use in preventing those ill-defined ex- 
pectations of arriving at certain places before the time 
which make journeys seem tedious. I always know the 
ship's place exactly, and the probable time of her reaching 
any given point. 

Siurah has hitherto been much occupied in attending to 
her lady companions, who are now rapidly gaining ground. 
Mrs. Martin is on deck nearly all day, and Mrs. Dudley 
has just taken her place by her side, having been confined 
to her cabin for some days. 

Long. 20*' 32' W. ; lat. 5° 41' ; January 18th ; noon.— 
We are now in the midst of flying-fish, large shoals 
of which have been seen every day skimming the sur- 
face in all directions. Yesterday the sharks began to 
appear, and Eupai succeeded in catching a small one 
this morning. 

Lat. K 3° 12' ; long. 20^ 15' W. ; 3 p.m. ; thermometer 82^ 
— A brig has just come in sight, which we hope may con- 
vey this to you ; so I must close it up for the present to 
be re-opened if the ship should prove not to be homeward 
bound. 

As we cannot hope to hear from you for many months, 
it is a comfort to think that you may perhaps receive 
letters from us before the end of February. 

Sarah unites with me in kindest love, and with loving, 
dutiful, and affectionate remembrances to my father, and 
with kindest love to my brothers and sisters, and to all 
friends, who are happily too numerous to be mentioned by 
name, 

I remain, 
Your dutiful and truly affectionate son, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

Pray send our special love to aunts, EHza and your 
sisters, of whom one may be now at rest. All well. 



110 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 



Babque **Tomatin," at Sea, 
A.M. April 13, 
Long. 151-20, Lat 34*80, 
Ended 10 f.mI April, off Sydney, N. 

My deaeest Mother, 

You will see by looking at the map that at the time of 
this letter being begun we were approaching Sydney. We 
are now coasting along the sunny shore of Australia, 
within ten or fifteen miles of land, and with a fuU view 
of the scenery. With our telescopes we can discover the 
clearings of the settlers dotted along the coast; but for 
the most part the country appears to be covered with 
forests. Since the date of my last letter we have had 
no opportunity of sending letters to England, and have 
seen very few ships, and those outward bound like our- 
selves. By referring to my " log-book " I find that I sent 
letters to you by the brig Vixen on Friday, January 2l8t, 
which I hoped you would receive before the end of March 
at the latest. From that time our voyage has been most 
agreeable and prosperous, with one single exception, viz., 
the melancholy loss of two of the seamen, who were 
-drowned yesterday, as I wiU describe in order of time. 

Our passage through the tropics, contrary to my ex- 
pectation, was exceedingly pleasant ; the thermometer 
never rose above 83'' Fahrenheit in the shade ; and in 
general we were refreshed by the trade winds, which 
were carrying us along at the rate of eight or nine miles 
an hour. Even during a short calm which occurred on 
the line, we did not find the heat so oppressive as we 
expected ; our cabin, having two windows opening to the 
stem and one to the side, was always cool and airy, and 
the bath adjoining was a very great luxury. 

On January 26th we crossed the Une, and purchased an 
exemption from the customary shaving, by presenting Nep- 
tune with a bone shaving brush (like my father's) enclosing 
five sovereigns for the whole episcopal party. 

Our services on deck, which I described in my last, 
continued without interruption till the fourth Sunday 
in Lent, up to which day not a single Saint's Day or 
Sunday occurred on which we were prevented by weather 
from having at least one service on deck. I suppose 
I told you in my last that I had appointed one of our 



1842-1843. J EASTTER AT SEA. Ill 

clergjrmen, Mr. Cole, as chaplain to the steerage or forward 
passengers, seventeen in' number, and Mr. Beay and Mr, 
Dudley as chaplains to the crew. Mr. Cole performed 
divine service every day in the forward cabin during 
great part of the voyage, and Mr. Eeay and Dudley read 
prayers with the sailors at suitable opportunities. The 
steerage passengers attended our public services most 
regularly ; but the sailors, from various difficulties, were 
more remiss, which the late melancholy event has led 
me more than ever to regret. 

During Lent our usual services were extended to 
Wednesdays and Fridays, and continued without inter- 
ruption till we were in latitude 40" S., when, the weather 
being too cold for service on deck, we arranged the lower 
deck for service. 

But I wish you could have seen us on Easter Sunday. 
But first I must tell you of our Passion week. On Palm 
Sunday we were in lat. 40" S., long. 62° E. four hours 
before your time ; therefore, when you were at your early 
devotions at half-past six A3f., we were assembling every 
day to divine service. Having six clergymen on board 
besides myself, I appointed a sermon for every day in 
Passion week, on the subject of one of the events of the 
day. The six clergjonen took the six days, and I preached 
on Palm Sunday, the second sermon on Good Friday, and 
on Easter Sunday. I have requested the cleigymen to 
wte their sermons in a book in memory of our Passion 
week on the ocean. 

When Easter Day came we were in lat. 38° S,, long. 89° E., 
and a more lovely day could not be seen. Orders were 
therefore giv^n to prepare the quarterdeck for service. 
Mr. Few's communion plate was arranged on a large pro- 
jection covering the hatchway of the lower-deck. Mr. 
Mackamess's altar services^ and one of the many cloths 
which I have received for the use of the altar, gave 
the appearance of the Lord's table at church. But you 
may judge of our delight when nine of the forward pas- 
sengers, who had not before attended our communion, 
joined us on this occasion. I trust that we were with 
you in the spirit, as I doubt not those of your thoughts 
which were not in heaven were with us. In all we had 
thirty-four communicants. 



112 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

Our last service has been of a diflferent character. On 
Sunday last, April 10th, I gave notice that (God willing) 
a service of thanksgiving would be performed on the 
evening before the day on which it was probable that we 
should reach Sydney. 

We were then off Cape Otway, at the west entrance of 
Bass's Straits, but we made such a rapid passage through 
the straits that it very soon appeared probable that we 
should reach Sydney on Wednesday. At twelve on Tues- 
day, therefore, I gave notice that the service would be held 
that evening, and prepared a sermon for the occasion, of 
which the following was the beginning :— 

Psalm cvii. 30 — " He bringeth them unto the haven where 
they would he^ 

*' You will easily believe, brethren, that we have invited 
you to join us this evening in a solemn act of thanks- 
giving to Almighty God, with no common feelings of 
Christian joy, or of brotherly love one towards another. 
It might have been ordained by God that our intercourse 
should have been mingled with sorrow ; and it may still 
be so, for we can never forget that there is but a step be- 
tween us and death, and that the little space which now 
seems to separate us fix)m the haven where we would be, 
may be the spot chosen by God for some visitation of His 
heavy hand. We rejoice, therefore, with trembling, with 
hope subdued by a spirit of reverential submission to His 
will, prepared either to accept His mercies with thankful- 
ness, or to acquiesce in His judgments/' 

While I was concluding my sermon, about 5 P.M. on 
Tuesday, April 12th, the service being appointed for 6 P.M., 
I heard the cry, " Man overboard ! " and, rushing up on 
deck with my " life preservers " in hand, I caught sight of 
the man swimming a great distance astern, the ship being . 
then going at the rate of seven miles an hour. My first 
impulse was to go overboard after him, but I had read that 
the diflSculty was generally increased by this, and there- 
fore I waited to see the boat lowered, in hopes that the 
man would keep himself up tiQ he was relieved ; but, to 
my horror, I heard that he was intoxicated, and I then 
felt sure that he would spend all his strength in a few 
moments, and go down. And so it proved, for the boat 
came too. late. In the meantime the ship tacked and 



1842-1843.] LOSS OF LIFE. 113 

stood towards the boat, which came alongside, and was 
being secured, when a roll of the ship swamped her, and 
she sank with three sailors in her. As she passed the 
stem half sinking we called out to the men to cling to the 
boat, which we saw was rising again to the surface, when 
the weight of their bodies was lessened by their immersion 
in the water ; and for a time it appeared as if all the men 
had seized the boat or oars, and might wait in safety till 
another boat could be lowered to their assistance. But 
when we thought them safe we saw one of them sink, 
and he never rose agaiiL This was the most painful part 
of all ; for I had my life-preser\'ers filled (with air), and 
could, I have no doubt, have saved him if I had jumped 
in. But the whole scene was so new to me that I was 
paralysed, and knew not what to do for the best. The 
other two men could swim, one very well, the other a 
little. Both had parted from the boat, and were soon 
some way astern, but not out of sight. When I saw the 
man sink, I threw my life-preservers into the water for the 
two survivors, and, thank Qod, the weaker swimmer caught 
one of them, and supported himself upon it till the second 
boat came and took them in. 

While this heartrending scene was passing at sea the 
sun was setting gloriously behind the Australian Alps, in 
marked and most melancholy contrast with the gloom in 
the heart of every one on board. Our thanksgiving service 
was changed into a solemn service of death, of which the 
following is a plan : — 

Sentences : '' There is but a step between me and 
death;" "Man that is bom of a woman," &c., with the 
other sentences from the Burisd Service ; Confession ; Ab- 
solution ; Lord's Prayer ; Proper Psalms from the Burial 
Service ; First licsson, Jonah ii and iii. ; Psalm li. ; Second 
Lesson, Matt, xxiv., from verse 29; Psalm xlii; Creed; 
End of Commination Service, from " Lord have mercy upon 
lis ; " Thanksgiving of the two men saved ; First Thanks- 
giving from Prayers at Sea, slightly altered ; Thanksgiving 
of passengers for prosperous voyage ; Second Thanksgiving 
from the Prayers at Sea ; Prayer and blessing from th<j 
Visitation of the Sick. 

All the sailors who could be spared from deck attended * 
and all the passengers, cabin and steerage. The service 

VOL. I. 1 



114 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

was very solemn and mournful, and, I hope, not without 
its effect upon the crew. This is the only circumstance 
which has occurred to break the continued prosperity of 
our voyage. 

We arrived in sight of Sydney Lighthouse at sunset on 
Wednesday, April 13th, and were off the heads of the 
harbour by 9 p.m, ; the wind then sank, and we passed 
the night in a dead calm. At present — 10 A.M. April 14th 
— the land-wind is blowing gently, and we do not make 
much progress towards the shore ; but after noon we hope 
that the usual sea-breeze, which then sets in, will take us 
into port. 

I must now tell you about ourselves. .Sarah is very 
well, but rather weakened by want of rest, as she is not 
a good sleeper, and the noises overhead at night much 
disturb her. But her general health has been excellent, 
and I have every hope that she will in the end be much 
benefited by the voyage. 

Baby (now William, as being two years old) has not 
had a day's illness all the voyage* Lord Powis's cow has 
never failed to supply him with milk twice a day, except 
during a few days following her premature accouchement. 
And he has had fresh or preseiTed meat almost every day, 
so that his diet has been as good as it could have been on 
shore. 

I can now converse with Bupai fluently in New Zea- 
land, and catechise him always in his own language. His 
company has been of the greatest service to me, as it has 
guided my pronunciation, and given me a continual reason 
for talking. All the New Zealand party have made some 
progress. Among the young men, Mr. Evans is the best 
scholar. This will give us great weight with the natives, 
as they will not be a little pleased at the arrival of a whole 
party of English speaking their language. 

My navigation has also prospered, so that I can now find 
the ship's latitude and longitude, and shape her course. 
Our last lunar observation was most useful, as we de- 
tected an error of four minutes in the ship's chronometers, 
which made our place a degree behind our real position. 
This made the captain cautious on entering Bass Straits, 
where we found ourselves suddenly close to an island 
called Eodondo, near Wilson's Promontory, at two in the 



1842-1843.] SYDNEY. 115 

morning, where we should not have been (if the chrono- 
meter reckoning had been true) till past sunrise. The 
lunar observation had led to a good look-out being kept at 
night, and all that was necessary was to " lie to " till day- 
bi^ak, when we steered splendidly through the groups of 
islands in the straits, enjoying one of the most lovely morn- 
ings, and one of the most splendid sea- views that can be 
imagined. The same evening that we cleared the straits 
a furious south-west wind came on, which would have made 
our situation the previous night very dangerous. This was 
the only strong gale that we had through the whole voyage, 
and it only lasted a few hours. We are, therefore, full of 
thanldulness for a most delightful voyage, during which 
we have not been obliged to close the dead-lights of our 
cabin once, nor has a single drop of sea-water (except a 
little spray) ever come in through the windows. 

I have sent enclosed a little chart, from which Charles 
will be able to prick off our weekly course on your map 
of the world on Mercator's projection. Pray send on the 
draft to William, who gave me the chart on which I have 
kept the ship's course. 

The breeze has sprung up, and we are rapidly entering 
the harbour, where we may find a ship homeward-bound; 
therefore, I must now close, with my most affectionate 
love to all. 

God bless you, my dearest mother, and believe me ever 
Your dutiful and truly affectionate son, 

G. A. New Zealand. 



On April 14th, 1842, the TomcUin came to an anchor in 
the harbour of Sydney, and the Bishop of New Zealand 
had an opportunity of conferring with the experienced 
Bishop of Australia on many important matters connected 
with his own diocese. Never since New Holland had been 
discovered had two Christian bishops met on the shores of 
that vast continent, and the occasion was one full of in- 
terest to both prelates. Bishop Selwyn was always prone 
to seek the counsel of his elders, and the venerable Bishop 
Broughton rejoiced in the extension of his order in the 
southern hemisphere ; and was especially thankful to find 

I 2 



116 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

that the first Bishop of New Zealand was such as he was. 
He wrote on May 13th, 1842 :— 

*• On the 14th ultimo I enjoyed the gi*atification of wel- 
coming into my diocese the Bishop of New Zealand, with 
his family and attendant clergy. It is not in my power to 
express my feelings on this occasion, whether arising from 
respect and affection towards the eminent man with whom 
I have now formed for the first time a personal acquaint- 
ance, or from a remembrance of the important object which 
his mission appears destined to accomplish for the Church 
and for the islands of the south, which may be brought into 
it through the Divine blessing attending his exertions. 
From the intercourse which we have already held, I trust 
that both the Bishop of New Zealand and myself may 
derive advantages which will compensate for the delay 
which by touching here he may experience in reaching 
his ultimate destination." 

Ih igoing up Sydney harbour the TomcUin received 
some damage by " taking the ground," and as the needful 
repairs involved a delay irksome to the bishop, who longed 
to be at his work, he and his chaplain, and others of the 
party, took ship in a small brig, the Bristolian, on May 
19th, reaching Auckland on May 30th. 

His landing was characteristic, and no bad omen of his 
future career. His Chaplain, Mr. Cotton, used to relate 
how the bishop's first act was to -kneel down on the sand 
and give thanks to God. The wife of a missionary thus 
gave her impressions to a friend in England ; — 

I must tell you that our good bishop has arrived. . . . 
He took us all by surprise, , . . He had been becalmed 
off* the heads, and, with his chaplain and his native servant, 
took to the boat : the two latter rowed, his Lordship steered, 
and they reached this place soon after dark. . . , W. and 
H. were soon down at the beach, where they found the 
head of our New Zealand Church busily engaged in assist- 
ing to pull up the boat out of the surf. Such an entrSe 
bespoke him a man fit for a New Zealand life. We are all 
much delighted with Inm ; he seems so desirous of doing 
good to the natives, and so full of plans for the welfare of all. 



1842-1843.] FIRST IMPRESSIONS. 117 



To-day the Tomatin has arrived, bringing Mrs. Selwyn 
and the rest of his numerous party. . . . We admired 
liim before, but he has completely won our hearts to-day 
by his reception of his wife and family. 

As long as she lived, his mother was the most favoured 
recipient of the bishop's letters. I'o cheer her spirits, 
vrhich were always depressed, he wrote his brightest and 
most cheerful journals, and frequently illustrated them 
with pen and ink sketches of considerable artistic power. 
From the journal sent on this occasion are to be gathered 
the emotions with which, as he approached his diocese, he 
contemplated the work that lay before him. 

Friday, May 21th, — We made the " three kings " before 
midnight. Bright moonlight and fair wind Bemained on 
deck till midnight, full of thoughts suggested by the first 
sight of my diocese. God grant that I may never depart 
from the resolutions which I then formed, but by His 
grace be strengthened to devote myself more and more 
earnestly to the work to which He has called me. 

Saiv/rdayj May 28<A.— Saw North Cape at daybreak, 
and ran gently along all day, with Mount Camel and the 
high lands from North Cape to Cape Brett in sight. Sea 
perfectly smooth, and weather lovely. 

Sunday f May 29^A. — At daybreak, oflf the Bay of Islands. 
Ran along with smooth sea and favourable wind. Service 
on deck at 10.30. At noon, just at the conclusion of the 
service, we were off Bream Head, a noble cape, which we 
saw under every advantage of weather and sunshine, and 
which gave us the first impression of the beauty of New 
Zealand. All the rest of the day we glided quietly along 
close to the shore, tracing every headland and bay in the 
map, and enjoying such reflections as a scene of such deep in- 
terest, and seen under such highly favourable circumstances, 
could not fail to excite. On reaching the mouth of Auck- 
land harbour, the wind, wliich had before been fair for sail- 
ing to the south, changed enough to enable us to sail west 
of the harbour, where we cast anchor at midnight, under 
a bright moon, and every outward circumstance agreeing 
with our inward feelings of thankfulness and joy. 



118 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 



"So Thou bringest them unto the haven where they 
would be." 

Monday, May ZQth, — ^Rowed in my boat (N.B., which I 
bought at Sydney) to Mr. Chief Justice Martin's at sun- 
rise. Found him in bed, but slid my card under his door, 
which soon brought him out. You may easily conceive 
his pleasure at hearing of the safe arrival of his wife. 
We took him and the Attorney-General (Mr. Swainson) to 
breakfast on board, and afterwards escorted them to their 
house in the Governor's barge. After giving them my 
blessing, I left them to themselves, and went to Govern- 
ment House. 

Tuesday t May 31s^. — Went to stay with the Governor 
and Mrs. Hobson, whom I found most hospitable and 
agreeable. 

Simday, June 5th, — Preached at Auckland in the Court- 
house, at present used for a church. 

" If I take the wings of the morning and remain in the 
uttermost parts of the sea" &c. 

To the astonishment and delight both of the Maoris 
and the Missionaries the bishop said prayers and preached 
in Maori on this the first Sunday which he spent in his 
Diocese. 

Many plans had been carefully matured before leaving 
England, for mistakes trivial in themselves were, in a 
Colony and Church both in their infancy, liable to be 
fraught with serious consequences. Thus it was of set 
purpose that the bishop took the title of New Zealand, 
contrary to primitive and general custom; but in these 
islands, each of which had its rivtd settlements, to have 
taken a title from a particular city, and thereby made it 
an ecclesiastical centre, would have provoked jealousy in 
every other town, and have put hindrances in the way of the 
Gospel. On similar grounds the actual residence of the 
bishop was left an open question : he himself inclined to 
Auckland, which he said he should call Bishop's Auck- 
land; and this, ultimately, but not at first, became his 
Cathedra, Great pressure was put on him to settle at 
Wellington, where the largest number of English had 



1842-1843.] FINANCIAL AKKANOEMENTS. 119 

fixed their abode : the Agent of the New Zealand Church 
Society had secured considerable holdings of land in the 
neighbourhood, and he wrote that "great anxiety pre- 
vailed," and he "felt it his duty to inform the society 
that if, unfortunately, it should be determined that the 
bishop should fix his principal residence at Auckland, 
instead of being received with affectionate regard as our 
best friend, he will be coldly looked upon as instrumental 
to our injury, and a main prop of a rival settlement." The 
good man went on to express his opinion of " the great im- 
portance of rendering the bishop powerful in popidarity as 
well as in station and character ; " and to that end urged 
that he should " reside in the midst of his people," by 
which was meant the Company's colonists. 

The principle which guided the bishop was not personal 
popularity, but the good of the flock, composed as it was 
of natives and immigrants in the proportion of ten natives 
to one immigrant. 

f'inancial arrangements were also made on a very definite 
plan before the bishop left England. He looked forward 
to the Church in New Zealand becoming self-supporting 
at an early date, and it was for that condition of things 
that he took measures from the first. He was conscious 
of the evils of the system of endowments, which robbed the 
laity of the privilege of paying for their religion, and he 
was equally aware of the failure of the voluntary system, 
by which the clergy are often at the mercy of their con- 
gregations; he therefore aimed at combining the two systems, 
and at obtaining the advantages of both. He had unfolded 
his plans to the Sev. Ernest Hawkins in the following 
letter, very soon after his nomination to the See : — 

WaNLIP ReCTOEY, LbIC£8T£B, 

Aug. ZOih, 1841. 

My dear Hawkins, 

In a former conversation with you on the subject of 
the stipends of the Society's missionaries, 1 think that I 
mentioned to you the course which seemed to me to be 



120 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, v 

most desirable for the payment of the clergy ia New^ 
Zealand. I have long thought that the plan of annual 
salaries, whatever advantages it may possess in other 
quarters, does not apply to New Zealand, where there is 
comparatively no arrear of past neglect to be made up, 
and where we may hope to proceed deliberately in build- 
ing up the parochial system. Do you think that the 
Society, instead of giving annual salaries to my clergy, 
would enable me to endow annually one permanent bene- 
fice ? The sum of 1,000Z. laid out at interest in the colony- 
would produce at least 100/. per annum, which, with such 
additions as I might obtain from the settlers themselves, 
would form the basis of a lasting endowment. The same 
sum laid out in land in the new settlements would, in a 
few years, yield an ample income to a clergyman. Town 
land is now letting at Wellington on leases for fourteen 
years at 251. per quarter of an acre in the best situations. 
We have already two sections of land at Wellington, which 
will, I hope, endow two parishes at no very distant period. 
A thousand pounds spent at Nelson, and another next 
year at Auckland, would, I think, secure the permanent, 
establishment of the Church in both places, My object 
would be to keep all new clergymen with myself, working 
in my central institutions, till the growth of population 
required the creation of a new benefice, and I would then 
draft them off according to character and seniority I 
shoiild thus hope to know all my clergy intimately. What 
I most of all deprecate is the continuance of annual 
salaries, which leave a Church always in the same depen- 
dent state as at first, and lay upon the parent Society a 
continually increasing burden. If the Society would en- 
trust to me an annual grant for the purpose of endowment, 
I would husband it to the uttermost, and I think that 
under the peculiar circumstances of the colony their funds 
could not be more beneficially employed. I am not 
anxious to take out many clergymen at first, as the land 
is not yet ready for the formation of a central establish- 
ment ; and all my communications with Government have 
ended by my being referred to the Governor on the spot. 
Under these circumstances, if the Society would furnish 
me with some assistance for the passage-money of two 
clergymen and their wives, two schoolmasters and wives, 



1842-1843.] STATE AID REFUSED. 121 

to go with me in November, and send out to me annually 
one or two clergymen and schoolmasters, I shall be 
satisfied. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts acceded to the request of the bishop, who, 
eight years afterwards, was able to point out that it had 
thoroughly succeeded. He wrote [again to Mr. Hawkins] 
" I hope it is a satisfaction to j^ou to think that you have 
endowed in perpetuity three chaplaincies in New Zealand, 
even at English interest, at a price not exceeding sixteen 
years' purchase. If the Society could have spent all its 
income in the same way for a century and a half you would 
now have endowed for ever nearly 1,000 chaplaincies at 150/. 
]>er annum, and have altered the whole face of the Colonial 
Church. This, you will say, was one of Selwyn's crotchets, 
and I am content that you should so call it, so long as I 
enjoy the fiiiit of your departure in my favour from your 
old practice." The clergy were in no case dependent on 
local boards : they received their stipends from the Arch- 
deaconry Funds. If local subscriptions failed, no exten- 
sion of the Church coidd take place, and thus in time the 
spirit of local exertion was awakened. 

From the first the Bishop declined assistance from the 
State under the " Church Act," which was copied from the 
New South Wales Act, " which professes to give its assist- 
ance to the Church only as one of the many denominations 
of Christians, at the same time hampering the Churches so 
assisted with a Board of Trustees and other unecclesiastical 
machinery, which has already proved injurious to the 
Church in Sydney." He said he " preferred to maintain 
the Church's independence, and to commit her support to 
the free charities of the servants of God." 

In the early days of his residence in New Zealand, he 
wrote to the Eev. E. Coleridge : — 

" I have felt obliged to assume a position of entire inde- 
pendence : offering to buy whatever land might be required 
for ihe Church, rather than submit to restrictions of which 



122 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

I cannot approve. One good effect of this has already 
appeared in the appropriation of burial-grounds — ^that I 
have obtained two grounds to be consecrated for the burial 
of the dead according to the usage of the Church of 
England, and vested in myself as trustee, instead of being 
mixed up with a general 'Protestant Cemetery' for all 
denominations." 

And now the time had come when theories and plans 
were to be tested by daily work. On the first Sunday 
after landing, the bishop, as has been already mentioned, 
preached his ** thanksgiving sermon " in the Court-house 
of Auckland, the church of St. Paul being only half-bidlt.^ 
The sermon was remarkable as an ex[>ression of thank- 
fulness for a safe voyage, and also as showing the frame of 
mind in which the bishop commenced his work, the source 
of that supernatural strength which supported him, and 
the simple way in which he put aside what to others 
would have been great and serious difficulties. Having 
shown " how small is the change of our true life by the 
mere change of our dwelling-place," he said : — 

'' A great change has taken place in the circumstances 
of our natural life, but no change has taken place which 
need affect our spiritual being. We have left home, and 
friends, and all that was dear to us ; we have passed over 
many thousand miles of sea, and have come to a land 
where there is not so much as a tree resembling those of 
our native country. All visible things are new and strange, 
but the things that are unseen remain the same. Many 
bodily comforts are abridged, many worldly enjoyments are 
lost, many outward circumstances are changed, but the 
iQward and spiritual realities of our Christian life are still 

^ Before this church was conBecrated a discossion arose as to the aUot- 
ment of seats. A man who had given a large sum suggested that those 
who had given most should have priority of choice. To the surprise of 
all the bishop seemed to assent, but added, " How are we to find that 
out?" **No diflficulty," said the donor; "there's the subscription 
list." " Very true," said the bishop ; " but you know we have read of a 
poor widow who only gave two mites, and the highest authority tells us 
that she gave mora than they all." 



1842-1843.] THANKSGIVING SERMON. 123 

unaltered. The same Spirit guides, and teaches, and com- 
forts, and watches over us ; the same Saviour prays for us 
at the right hand of God, and is in the midst of us on 
earth, when we are met together in His name. The 
God and Father of us all numbers every hair of our heads, 
that not one of us may be lost. The same Church of 
Christ acknowledges us as her members, and stretches out 
her arms to receive and bless our children in baptism, to 
lay her hands upon the heads of our youth, to break and 
to bless the bread of the Eucharist, and to call all true 
believers to the Supper of the Lord ; and lastly, to lay our 
dead in the grave in peace and with the same sure and 
certain hope of a resurrection to eternal life. 

" If then there be a change in our present state, it is 
only in the things which we see and touch and taste and 
handle, and which perish in the handling. The things 
unseen by which we live in the spirit with God are like 
God Himself, Who cannot change. The love of the 
Father never faileth; the intercession of Christ never 
ceaseth: the Comfort of the Spirit abideth with us for 
ever: the ministry of the Church goes on in perpetual 
succession : the prayers of the Church come up, as the 
morning and evening sacrifice to God: the inward in- 
fluences of a true and lively faith still act upon every 
willing heart. In short — there is no Christian duty and 
no Christian comfort or principle or hope which is not 
essentially the same to us under our present circumstances, 
as when we were enjoying the more settled ordinances and 
visible forms of our Mother Church. The only difference 
is that ours is a Church built upon faith and hope: a 
Church, of which we see nothing but believe everything : 
a seed now hidden in the ground, but which, we trust in 
God, will grow up into a great tree." 

After this memorable Sunday the bishop and a mis*- 
sionary accompanied the Aborigines Protection Commis- 
sioner to the Thames District, their object being to inquire 
into a massacre that had recently been committed, and 
which had threatened to lead to serious consequences, the 
natives having assembled to the number of 1,000 to 
revenge the crime. 



124 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

On St. John the Baptist's Day the Tomatin reached the 
Bay of Islands, and there the divided party were re-united 
with one exception, the Eev. T. Whytehead being obliged 
to remain behind with friends in Sydney for a time. 
This was a disappointment to the bishop, and the early 
removal of his dear friend and chaplain was one of 
the chief sorrows of his episcopate : his delight at securing 
him had been great : " My stationary man ! one whom I 
can leave in charge in my absence," had been his descrip- 
tion of him : he had great influence with young men : 
and in New Zealand, whither slanderous reports had pre- 
ceded him, all were won over. It was a fair sight to see 
the old grey-haired catechist sit at hig feet as the younger 
prepared the elder for ordination, and to hear it said, **It 
was an angel unawares that we have received among us." 

The bishop had already chosen the Waimate as his head- 
quarters, where the Church Missionary Society possessed 
houses which could receive all the party, and abundantly 
the selection was justified so long as the circumstances of 
the diocese allowed of its continuanca In 1843, the 
Bishop wrote : — 

" Every day convinces me more and more that we are 
better placed here than in one of the English towns. Tlie 
general laxity of morals, and defect of Church principles, 
in the new settlements, would make them dangerous places 
for the education of the young, and render it almost im- 
possible to keep up that high tone of religious character 
and strictness of discipline which is required, both as a 
protest against the prevailing state of things, and as a 
training for our candidates for Holy Orders. At the 
Waimate, I am fettered by no usages, subject to no 
fashions, influenced by no expectations of other men ; 
I can take that course which seems to be the best, and 
pursue it with unobtrusive perseverance. When we have 
been strengthened in our entrenched camp (if it be God's 
will), we will sally forth." 

But the daily work of the entrenched camp had to be 
done by subordinates. A few days were given to settling 



1842-1843.] SICKNESS AND DEATH. 125 

in his party, in arranging a plan of work and study 
during his absence, and the bishop returned to Auckland 
to commence his fii*st visitation. A delay arose in conse- 
quence of the brig not being ready, and during these few 
days he was busy selecting sites for churches, parsonages, 
and cemeteries, and receiving visits from natives, to each 
of whom he gave a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in 
Maori which he had had printed in England. On July 28, 
realizing the truth of the text ''they that have wives 
[shall] be as though they had none,'' he was off on a long 
visitation by land and sea, on horseback, and more often 
on foot, to Wellington, Nelson, and the Southern Island, 
lioping to reach Auckland early in December, and to spend 
Christmas at home, having seen ''every settlement and 
every clergyman and catechist in the country." 

At WelUugton he had the task of nursing on his death- 
bed his friend and companion W. Evans, who had sailed 
with him from England, and on whose assistance he had 
rested hopefully. The Chief Justice, who joined him at 
AVellington, in October, was much struck by the effect of 
anxiety on the bishop, and wrote thus to his wife. 

WsLLiNOTON, Oa. lOlh, 1842. 

As our boat nesred the beach the bishop stood there 
to welcome us. It was very joyous to meet him, but I 
was struck by his pale, worn face. He was nursing the 
sick in the house where I lodged last year. The sick man 
was poor Evans, who had then been given over by the 
physicians; he was to all appearance sinking . . . 
The bishop was watching and tending as a mother or wife 
might watch and tend. It was a most affecting sight. He 
practised every little art that nourishment might be sup- 
plied to his patient ; he pounded chicken into fine powder, 
that it might pass in a liquid form into his ulcerated 
mouth. He made jellies, he listened to every sound, he 
sat up the whole night through by the bedside. In short, 
he did everything worthy of his noble nature. It went to 
my heart. ... A morning or two ago T strolled up 
one of those sunny hills that I might breathe the fresh 
air before going into court, and there, amidst the life and 



126 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 



beautjr of a spring morning, a boy was digging the grave 
of poor Evans. . . . The bishop and I have slept side by 
side, on two stretchers in a huge loft, ever since I came." 

On this journey the bishop spent the first anniversary 
of his consecration, and in the following letter to his 
mother, who at the time of its being written was removed 
from earthly cares, he describes what his feelings were : — 

Waikanae, Oct, 28rrf, 1842. 

You would be surprised with the comparative comfort 
which I enjoy in my encampments. My tent is strewn 
with dry fern or grass. My air-bed is laid upon it. My 
books, clothes, and other goods lie beside it ; and though 
the whole dimensions of my dwelling do not exceed eight 
feet by five, I have more room than I require, and am as 
comfortable as it is possible for a man to be when he is 
absent from those whom he loves most I spent Oct. 
17th, the anniversary of my consecration, in my tent on 
the sand hills, with no companion but three natives ; my 
party having gone on to Wanganui to fetch Mr. Mason's 
horse for me ; and while in that situation, I was led natu- 
rally to contrast my present position with the very different 
scenes at Lambeth and Fulham last year. I can assure 
you that the comparison brought with it no feelings of dis- 
content ; on the contrary, 1 spent the greater part of the 
day, after the usual services and readings with my natives, 
in thinking with gratitude over the many mercies and 
blessings which have been granted to me in the past year ; 
among which, the cheerfulness and comfort with which 
you bore our separation was not forgotten. Indeed in 
looking back upon the events of the year ; upon my happy 
parting from all my friends, my visit to the Bishop of 
Australia, my prosperous voyages, eight in number, my 
happiness in the reports of SaraVs health and contentment 
during our separation, my favourable reception in every 
town in my diocese, my growing friendship with the 
natives, who have now heard of me in every part of the 
country, and welcome me with their characteristic cordi- 
ality, all form an inexhaustible subject for thoughts of 
joy and thanksgiving, which sometimes fill the heart 
almost to overflowing. The loss of my faithful friend and 



1842-1843.] CHRISTIANITY OF NATIVES. 127 

companion, W. Evans, and the intelligence of the death of 
my brother-in-law, which I knew would deeply afflict 
Sarah, are the only interruptions to this continued course 
of happiness. . . . 

Waikanae is the station of the Kev. 0. Hadfield, who 
is a most valuable and zealous missionary. I enjoyed 
his society much during the time that he was able to 
accompany us on our way. We slept at his house, and 
the next day assembled the natives to service; more 
than 500 had come from various parts, so that the 
chapel and the space outside, the walls were quite 
full. I preached to them as wAl as I could, and gathered 
from their faces that they understood what I was saying. 
In fact, my progress through the country involves me in 
almost daily preaching and teaching. So that I hope soon 
to be fluent, if not correct. At Waikanae I saw the 
preparations for a new chapel on a large scale. The 
Eidge Piece was formed out of a single tree, and is 
76 feet in length, a present from the neighbouring 
settlement of Otaki, which till Mr. Hadfield's arrival 
was at war with the people of Waikanae, but has made 
peace, and presented them with this appropriate token of 
friendship. 

On Wednesday, Oct. 12, we walked ten miles to Otaki, 
another of Mr. Hadfield's stations, and slept in his house, 
where I left the greater part of my stores to be ready for 
my journey up the Manawatu river to Ahuriri, on the 
east coast. 

As has been already mentioned, the first anniversary of 
his consecration was the day on which his mother entered 
into her rest. It had been allowed to him specially to 
comfort and cheer her when, as was often the case, her 
morbid depression was proof against the sympathy of 
others, and his parting from her a short year previous had 
been a sore trial ; when, therefore, the news of her not 
unexpected decease came, many months after the event, he 
described himself as " going heavily, as one that moumeth 
for his mother." What his own feelings were may be in- 
ferred from a striking letter of condolence which he 
addressed to a friend under similar sorrow : — 



128 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v.. 

I have not intruded upon the privacy of your son*ow 
at an earlier period, because I felt that I could add nothing 
to the motives to resignation which you already have, both 
in yourself and in the various members of your united 
family. May it be still an united family, though one main 
link is broken ; for the Christian spirit of her who used to 
be the centre of domestic comfort, and the example of 
Christian conduct, will still pervade every member, and 
unite them more closely by its purely spiritual influence. 
In the lifetime even of the best of mothers, there may be 
some mingling of human frailties with the holy influence 
which God gave her power to exercise ; some trifling draw- 
backs to the full effect of her bright example ; but death 
removes the human hindrances and effectuates the opera- 
tion of parental counsel upon the heart of the child. It is 
then that every well-remembered word has the force of one 
of those laws which could not be altered by the Athenians 
because the Solon who made them was dead. If you have 
been more particularly blessed in the character and dispo- 
sition of the parent whom you have lost, there is no fear 
that the late event will cause any diminution of that 
blessing. The only character of which this can be said 
with truth, is that of the Christian parent There is no 
other attachment which does not sustain an irreparable 
breach by the hand of death. The father is bereaved of 
the support of his old age by the death of a child, the 
husband of the companion of his bosom by the death of a 
wife ; but the child is not deprived of that which constitutes 
the great value of the parental character — ite Christian 
exemplariness — ^by the death of the parent upon whose 
model, refined and purified by religion, his own disposition 
has been trained and matured. Death, which cuts short all 
other sympathies, exalts and ennobles the influence of a 
parent upon a child. 

Strange were the adventures in this long journey : at 
one time the bishop was cheered by the well-ordered 
mission of the Bev. 0. Hadfield (the present Bishop of 
Wellington), who was his ti-avelling companion for some 
days: at another he was received with all honour in a 
fortified Pa, at a place rendered notorious by a recent 



18421843.] POLYNESIAN COLLEGE. 129 



murder which was followed by an act of cannibalism, " the 
principal murderer being most assiduous in his attentions/' 
which took the form of shaking of hands and shouts of 
" Hseere mai : " a few miles further on he was the guest of 
a missionary at whose station was also staying the acting 
Governor, with a suite of secretaries and interpreters, who 
had come down to investigate the circumstances of the 
murder and to bring the offenders to justice ; the Chief 
Justice was the bishop's companion at this part of his 
visitation, and thus the heads of the State, the Law, the 
Army, and the Church, were at one and the same time the 
guests of the Mission, which afforded to all alike a place 
of safety in spite of the turbulent spirits that were abroad, 
no small testimony to the value of the missionary's labours. 
His wife commended herself much to the bishop in that 
she " pursued the even tenor of her 'domestic duties, not 
deviating from their usual mode of living, which was 
most suitable to the character of a mission station." 

At the close of this year the bishop received a com- 
munication fi*om his brother of Australia, whose mind, 
like his own, had conceived the idea of a centml College, 
at which the pupils should be gathered from all the islands 
of the Pacific, but with Mr. Whytehead sinking rapidly 
into his grave, where was the man to be found who could 
preside over such an institution while the bishop was 
absent on his extensive journeys? He wrote thus his 
views and feelings to Mrs. Selwyn : — 

*' I am about to answer the Bishop of Australia's letter. 
His proposal completely falls in with my wish to form a 
Polynesian College for the different branches of the Maori 
family scattered over the Pacific ; and therefore I shall 
write an answer in entu*e accordance with his views. But 
you know how much I have built upon my dear friend's 
(Mr. Whytehead's) assistance in all my plans for central 
institutions ; and if it please God to remove from me the 
human pillar of my whole edifice as He has abeady taken 
from me one who promised to be in his lower station a 
trustworthy foundation-stone, how little shall I have left 

VOL. L K 



130 LIFE OP BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. v. 

of support upon wliich I can really depeoj, and yet how 
fully ought I to continue to believe that this is God's 
work ; aud that He has ways yet in store, by which He 
will bring it to completion ? Perhaps I trusted too much 
to human instruments ; perhaps I was proud of being so 
attended, though indeed I know that I was often humbled 
by being meekly waited upon by one whose prayers I 
needed more than he could profit by my blessing. I 
seemed to be but a body to his mind ; and yet in such a 
combination of material power with spiritual meekness 
there seemed to be a purpose of God to supplement the 
weakness of the one by that in which the other was 
strong. God's will be dona Only may I duly profit 
by the deeply written lesson which this holy vision, for so 
it seems, has fixed upon my heart. Let me not be back* 
ward to render thankfully to God that which is so 
evidently His own. .... Believe me, I am cheerful still ; 
but it will be as the death of a brother to me, when he 
dies : and I cannot but dwell upon the prospect, as if a 
cloud were hanging over the once sunny landscape of my 
goodly heritage and my fair land. Still there is a light 
that shines in the darkness, though I cannot fully * com- 
prehend it.' " 

On December 30, the Chief Justice and the bishop 
separated: the former to spend New Year's Day under 
his own roof, but for the bishop it had long been evident 
that he must abandon the hope of reaching home for 
Christmas, or even for New Tear's Day. A visitation of the 
Waikato had to be made, and on January 1 he " reviewed 
with much thankfulness the various events of the past 
year, so full of new and important features." On January 
3, 1843, the bishop's diary contains the following charac- 
teristic entry, which has often been quoted but which must 
not on that account be excluded from these pages, which 
aim at being a memoir of what he said and did : — 

** My last pair of thick shoes being worn out, and my 
feet much blistered with walking the day before on the 
stumps, which I was obliged to tie to my insteps with 



1842-1843.] VISITATION ENDED. 131 

pieces of native flax, {phormium tenax,) I borrowed a horse 
from the native teacher, and started at four am. to go 
twelve miles to Mr. Hamlin's Mission-station at Manukau 
harbour, where I arrived at seven a.m. in time for his 
family breakfast. After breakfast, wind and tide being 
favourable, I saOed in Mr. Hamlin's boat ten miles across 
Manukau harbour; a noble sheet of water, but very 
dangerous from shoals and frequency of squaUs. A beauti- 
ful run of two hours brought us to Onehunga by noon. 
I landed there with my faithful Maori Sota (Lot), who 
had steadily accompanied me from Eapiti, carrying my 
bag and gown and cassock, the only Remaining article in 
my possession of the least value. The suit which I wore 
was kept sufBciently decent, by much care, to enable me 
to enter Auckland by daylight ; and my last remaining 
pair of shoes (thin ones) were strong enough for the light 
and sandy walk of six nules which remained from Manukau 
to Auckland. At two p.m. I reached the Judge's house> 
by a path, avoiding the town, and passing over land which 
I have bought for the site of the cathedral ; ^ a spot which, 
I hope, may hereafter be traversed by the feet of many 
tushops, better shod and far less ragged than myself. It 
is a noble site for a large building, overlooking the whole 

^ Mr. Swainson, in lus ezceUent worki\^#t^ Zealand and its CoUmizatum^ 
to which these pages are already under great obligations, has a good 
passage on this entry in the bishop's jonmal, and it is interesting, as on 
other grounds, so for the way in which the tables are tamed on Lord 
Kacanlay's mythical New Zeaknder, of whom we aie all weaiy* He 
writes (p. 219) :— 

''By the provident foresight of Bishop Selwyn this commanding 
position has been secured for the site of the Metropolitan Cathedral S 
New Z^and. And at some remote period in the far distant future, when 
the projected cathedral shaU have become a venerable pile, it will be a 
matter of no little interest to its then ministers (should the tradition be so> 
long preserved) to read how, in the dark or early ages of New Zealand, 
A.B. 1848, its founder, the iirst bishop, returning from a walking Yisita^ 
tion of more than a thousand miles, attended by a faithful companion of a 
then, it may be, extinct race, his shoes worn out and tied to his instep by 
a leaf of native flax, travel-worn but not weary, once more found himself 
on this favoured spot, arrested for a moment by the noble prospect pre- 
sented to his bodily eve, and cheered by the prophetic vision of a long 
line of successors, Bishops of New Zealand, traversing the same spot, 
better clad and less rui;ged than himself. Such a scene iUustrative of 
' The Hour and the ^lun ' in the hands of a true artist, would afford a 
fitting subject for a painting to adorn the walls of the future Chapter- 
house of St. .'' 

K 2 



132 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, v. 

town, and with a sea view stretcliing out over the numerous 
islands of the gulf of HaurakL" 

From Auckland the bishop hurried away on learning 
that his dear friend Mr. Whytehead had reached Waimate 
only to die, and that probably he had already entered into 
rest. Letters had partly prepared him, but when the blow 
came he wrote " it almost overpowered me, for we have 
walked together in God's spiritual house so long, that his 
death will be like the loss of another brother. When I 
recollected the last scene before I quitted Wellington, the 
interment of dear W. Evans, my journey seemed like the 
rebuilding of Jericho, to be begun and ended in the death 
of my children. Still I thank God that the clouded side 
of the pillar was not always before my mind, but from 
time to time the light would appear : and it seemed as 
though the death of those whom I loved and trusted most 
was another proof of the profusion of His bounty in 
giving such men to be buried under the foundations of my 
infant Church, for the generations that come after to 
remember and imitate." 

The voyage was occupied by reading Exodus with the 
Metori fellow-passengers ; and for the soothing of his own 
spirit the bishop read much of the volume of poems by 
his loved chaplain, then, as he had reason to think, beyond 
the veiL But on January 9, 1843, he reached the Waimate 
and Mr. Whytehead ^ was one of the first to greet him, 
*' his pale and spectral face telling its own story." Thus 
ended the first Visitation, having extended over more than 
six months in which 2,277 miles were traversed, 762 on 
foot, 86 on horseback, 249 in canoes or boats, and 1,180 
by ship. 

It had been part of the bishop's plan^to have at the 
head of the college at the Waimate his trusted and ac- 
complished friend, and for a little while he filled that 
office with such measure of strength as was given to him. 

1 Fide Dean Howaon'g dfwurir of Rev. T, B, Whytehead : Mission Life, 
vol. It. Uhknaum and yei JFeU-knoton, No. 1. 



1842-1843.] DEATH OF MB. WHYTEHEAD. 133 

In addition to affording the daily example of a saintly 
character, it was his privilege to introduce to the Maoris 
in their own tongue the evening hymn of Bishop Een. 
They liked it, and used to sing it under his window, 
calling it " the new hymn of the sick minister." He 
died on Sunday, March 19, 1843, and was buried at the 
east end of the churchyard in a spot which would be 
under the chancel window when the stone church should 
be built. His departui^ was a sore loss, but the bishop 
wrote, " to have lived with such men as those who are 
gone to their rest, and to have their graves to endear this 
country to me, and to live with them in the spirit in the 
midst of works to which they had devoted themselves, is 
a privilege which time cannot impair so long as faith do 
not fail" A quarter of a century passed away and the 
members of St. John's College at Cambridge erected a 
new chapel, and adorned the vaulted roof with a series of 
figures, illustrating the successive centuries of the Christian 
sera, and among the five who were selected as represen- 
tatives of the nineteenth century, all having been members 
of the college, was Thomas Whytehead, the others being 
Henry Martyn, William Wilberforce, William Wordsworth, . 
and James Wood. 

Immediately after the funeral of Mr. Whytehead, the 
bishop had to leave home for the extreme northern part of 
the island, where two parties of natives were engaged in a 
war that threatened to become general. This was a new 
experience, but even in their warfare there was a strange 
recognition on either side of Christianity which was 
strikingly at variance with their unchristian occupation^ 
The bishop wrote : — 

** I arrived on the Saturday, and immediately took up 
my position midway between the hostile camps, in a field 
of Indian com, which had been partially destroyed. 
From this neutral ground I opened my communications 
with the rival chiefs. On the next morning, Sunday, the 
whole valley was as quiet as in the time of perfect peace, 



134 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

the natives walking about unarmed among the cultivations, 
it being perfectly understood that neither party would 
fight on the Lord's day. Going early in the morning to 
one of the Pas, I foimd the chief reading prayers to his 
people. As he had just come to the end of the Litany, I 
waited till he concluded, and then read the Communion 
Service, and preached to them on part of the lesson of 
the day, — ' A new commandment I give unto you, that ye 
love one another/ I spoke my opinion openly, but without 
giving any offence; and the chief, after the service, 
received me in a most friendly manner." 

The college at the Waimate was declared by the bishop 
in 1843 to be in full working order, and from its students 
he looked forward to obtaining a regular supply of candi- 
dates for the ministry, a necessity made more apparent to 
him day by day as the prospect of obtaining suitable men 
from England dwindled away. With the college was con- 
nected a boarding-school, which for the convenience of 
parents living at a distance, and in a country where means 
of locomotion were deficient, did its work continuously 
from March 1 to November 1, and gave a long vacation 
of the four summer months. The college was entirely the 
bishop's own creation, *' founded," as he was wont to act, 
" on the best precedents of antiquity," and the following 
paper shows how completely he had worked out the whole 
idea in his own mind. [The title of the College and the 
list of Officers are omitted.] 

"St. Paul's Kule and Pbactice. 

" 1 These. 4. 11. That ye study to be quiet, and to do 
your own business, and to work with your own hands, as 
we commanded you. 

'* 2 Thess, 3. 8. Neither did we eat any man's bread for 
nought, but wrought with labour and travail night and day, 
that we might not be chargeable to any of you : not because 
we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample 
unto you to follow us. For even when we were with you, 
this we commanded you, that if any vxaM not worh 



1842-1843.] PRINCIPLES OP THE COLLEGE. 185 

9i^Atfr sh/mld he eat For we hear that tiiere are some 
which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but 
are bnsybodies. Now them that are sach we command 
and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christy that with quietness 
they work, and eat their own bread. 

'^ 1 Thess. 2. 9. Ye remember, brethren, our labour and 
travail : for labouring night and day, because we would 
not be chargeable unto any of you, we preached unto you 
the gospel of Chd. 

" 1 Car. 4. 11. Even unto this present hour we — ^labour, 
working with our own hands. 

^*Acis 20. 34. Yea, ye yourselves know, that these 
hands have ministered unto my necessities, and to them 
that were with me. I have showed you all things, how 
that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to 
remember the words of l£e Lord Jesus, how he said, It is 
more blessed to give than to receive. 

'' Acts 18. 3. Because he was of the same craft, he abode 
with them and wrought: for by their occupation they 
were tentmakers. 

'' General Pbinciples. 

''The general condition upon which all Students and 
Scholars are received into St. John's College, is, that they 
shall employ a definite portion of their time in some use- 
ful occupation in aid of the purposes of the Institution. 
The hours of study and of all other employments will be 
fixed by the Visitor and Tutors. No member of the body 
is at liberty to consider any portion of his time as his 
own ; except such intervals of relaxation as are allowed 
by the redes of the college. 

^ In reminding the members of St. John's College of the 
original condition upon which they were admitted, the 
Visitor feels it to be his duty to lay before them some of 
the reasons which now, more than ever, oblige him to 
require a strict and zealous fulfilment of this obligation. 

*' The foundation of St. John's College was designed — 1. 
As a place of religious and useful education for all classes 
of the community, and especially for Candidates for Holy 
Orders. — 2. As a temporary hostelry for yotmg settlers on 
their first airival in the country. — 3. As a refuge for the 



136 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN [chap. v. 

sick, the aged, and the poor. The expenses of those 
bretnches of the Institution which are now open already 
exceed the means available for their support: and a 
further extension will be necessary to complete the system. 
The state of the colony has made it necessary to receive 
a larger number of foundation scholars than was at first 
intended. The general desire of the Maori people for 
instruction will require an enlargement of the native 
schools for children and adults. The rapid increase of the 
half-caste population in places remote &om all the means 
of instruction must be provided for by a separate school 
for their benefit. The care of the sick of both races, and 
the relief of the poor, will throw a large and increasing 
chai'ge upon the funds of the college. 

" The only regular provision for the support of the 
Institution, is an annual grant of three hundred pounds 
for the maintenance of students, from the Society for the 
Propagation of the GospeL It is the intention of the 
Visitor and Tutor to devote the whole of their available 
income to the general purposes of the college ; but as the 
sources from which the greater portion of their funds is 
derived are in some measure precarious, and as this supply 
must cease with their lives, it is the bounden duty of every 
one to bear always in mind, thcU the only real mdowmcrU 
of St. John's College is the industry and self-denial of 
all its members, 

" Even if industry were not in itself honourable, the pur- 
poses of the institution would be enough to hallow every 
useful art, and manual labour, by which its resources might 
be augmented. No rule of life can be so suitable to the 
character of a Missionary College as that laid down by the 
great "^postle of the Gentiles, and recommended by his 
practice : 

" ' Let him labour, working with his own hands the 
thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that 
needeih.' " 

" It will therefore be sufficient to state once for all ; that 
any unwillingness in a theological student to foUow the 
rule and practice of St. Paul, will be considered as a proof 
of his unfitness for the ministry, and that incorrigible 
idleness or vicious habits in any student or scholar will 
lead to his dismissal from the college. 



1842-1843.] INDUSTRUL TRAINING. 137 



" Details of Industeial System. 

" The Industrial System is intended to provide in a great 
measure for the supply of food and clothmg to the schools 
and hospital ; for the improvement of the college domain ; 
for the management of the printing press ; and for the 
embellishment of churches with carved work of wood and 
stone. Some parts of the system are already in operation, 
and the remainder, it is hoped, will be gradually developed. 

" The Industrial Classes are divided under two heads of 
Active and Sedentary employments. Every student and 
scholar, when not hindered by any bodily infirmity, will be 
required to practice one active and one sedentary Trade. 
The classes for active employments will be arranged ac- 
cording to age and strength ; but in the sedentary some 
liberty of choice will be allowed. 

"The Classes for Active Employments are the following: — 

I. Gardeners. Lower School. 

Duties. Care of the Flower Gardens and Apiary, 
Weeding, Picking, Handsowing, Propagation 
of choice plants and seeds, &c. 

II. Foresters. Upper School. 

Duties. Care of the Woods, Plantations and 
Eoads, Clearing, Planting, Eoadmaking, Fenc- 
ing, Propagation of choice trees. Seasoning 
Timber, &c. 

III. Farmers. Adult School 

Duties. Agriculture in all its branches. Care 
of stock, &c. &c. 

lY. Sacrists. Theological Students. 

Duties. Care of the Churches, Chapels and 
Burial Grounds, Cleaning and beautifying the 
Churches and Chapels, Clearing, Fencing, 
Planting, Turfing, Draining the precincts of 
the Chapels and Burial Grounds. 

" The Classes for Sedentary Trades will be arranged in a 
similar manner. The Trades at present open for selection 
are. Carpenters, Turners, Printers, and Weavers. 

" The time allotted to manual industry will be divided 



138 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

between active and sedentary employments, according to 
the state of the weather, and other circumstances. 

''Every class will be placed under the direction of a 
Foreman, who is expected to study the best practical books, 
explaining the principles of the arts and employments 
practised in his class, and to be able to teach them to his 
scholars. After a certain probation every Foreman will 
be allowed a Deputy, whom he will be required to instruct 
in the practical duties of his office. When the Deputy is 
sufficiently instructed, the Foreman of the class will be 
allowed to devote a larger portion of his time to study, 
with a view to his admission into the class of Theological 
Students. 

" Conclusion. 

" In conclusion, the Visitor desires to impress upon the 
minds of all the Members of St. John's College, that it is 
the motive which sanctifies the %oork ; and to urge them, to 
carry into the most minute detail of their customary 
occupations the one living principle of Faith, without 
which no work of man can be good or acceptable in the 
sight of God; and to endeavour earnestly to discharge 
every duty of life, as part of a vast system, ordained by 
Christ himself, 'from whom/ St. Paul teaches us Hhe 
whole lody fiily joined together and compacted by that which 
every joiivt supplieth, according to the effectual working in the 
measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the 
edifying of itself in love' (Eph. 4. 16.)" 

The bishop in the midst of his pressing spiritual duties 
did not overlook the temporal concerns of his diocese. 
He was anxious as soon as possible to carry out the plans 
which he had formed when in England-— to throw the Church 
on her own resources, and to provide for moderate endow- 
ments, while still eliciting on the part of the people a 
spirit of self-help. There were large tracts of land the 
property of the Church which would not attain to any 
sensible value for some years, but which in time would 
begin to produce rental In every settlement which pos- 
sessed a local bank an Archdeaconry Church Fund was 
established, into which were paid private contributions and 



18424843.] FINANCIAL ABIIANGBMENT& 139 

all offertories^ surplice fees and Easter offerings ; and this 
fund which was managed by five trustees, was applicable in 
each archdeaconry to the building of churches, schools^ and 
parsonages, and to the payment of the stipends of the 
clergy, who were thus saved the feeling of being dependent 
on their flocks for their maintenance, while the laity were 
likewise taught that their fees and offerings were given 
not to the individual clergymen but to the Church. 
Every town clergyman was pledged to learn the native 
language, and to be ready to minister to the Aborigines, 
and the bishop found it necessary to establish the converse 
rule, that every missionary to the natives should also be 
ready to minister to the Europeans, which the Church 
Missionary Society's clergy had not reckoned among their 
obligations. Each deacon was responsible for the schools 
and public charities, and was required to attend in school 
from nine till twelve daily, and to take all the religious 
instruction. His own stipend, which was 1,200/. per annum, 
paid in equal proportions by the Government, and by the 
Church Missionary Society, the bishop threw into a com- 
mon Diocesan Fund : the scale on which he fixed the 
payment of the clergy was as follows : Deacons 100/. per 
annum, gradually rising, in the case of priests to 300/., 
archdeacons 400/., bishops 500/., house provided in each 
case if possible, but not guaranteed. When in 1852 the 
colony received an independent legislature, and all im- 
perial charges were thrown on colonial funds, the moiety 
hitherto paid to the Bishop by the Crown failed. The 
bishop still carried 600/. to the diocesan account until the 
consecration of Archdeacon Williams in 1859 to the wholly 
unendowed diocese of Waiapu. As a missionary Mr. 
Williams received 200/. per annum from the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, and the bishop urged him to throw this 
into the common fund, and that each should take 400/. ; 
by this plan he sacrificed another 200/. per annum of the 
income to which he was entitled. 
Experience gained at home had revealed only too plainly 



140 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

the perils of large and unequally distributed endowments ; 
in his own words he ''guarded against the possibility of a 
New Zealand Stanhope,"^ and the Bishop therefore, while 
asking for assistance in gathering these endowments which 
formed so essential a part of his scheme, was careful to 
publish the restrictions which he should impose, and the 
way in which patronage would be exercised. His language 
was perfectly intelligible and outspoken. 

" The evils to be guarded against in an Endowed Church, 
are these, 1. Abuse of Patronage. 2. Inequality of 
Endowment. 3. Removal from one benefice to another 
for the sake of pecuniary advantage. 

*' The endowment of the Church in New Zealand will 
therefore be conducted, as much as possible, on the follow- 
ing principles : 

1. That all deserving persons shall be duly promoted 
after stated periods of service. 

2. That aU. similarly situated persons shall receive the 
like emoluments. 

3. That an increase of income shall be secured to every 
Clergyman after stated periods of service, without the 
necessity of removal to another station. 

"^All contributions for endowment are therefore recom- 
mended to be made to the Archdeaconry Endowment 
Fund, the income of which will be divided among all the 
Clergy of the Archdeaconry upon the above principles. 
The Bishop's general Endowment Fund will be applied 
to regulate the inequalities of the Archdeaconry Funds. 

"Endowments restricted to particular places will be 
accepted subject to the condition, that the surplus income, 
beyond the proportion payable to the incumbent according 
to his standing, shall be added to the Endowment Fund 
of the Archdeaconry. 

" No endowments will be accepted, subject to the con- 
dition of Private Patronage. Vacancies will be filled up 
by the ordination of those deacons whom the Bishop shaU 
judge to be best qualified for the particular stations. As 
a general principle, the income of the clergy will depend 
on their length of service, — their location upon their 

^ A benefice in the Diocese of Durham. 



1842-1843.] THE WAIRAU MASSACRE. 141 

personal qualifications. Thus the Bishop will neither 
exercise the right of pecuniary patronage himself, nor 
allow that power to others." 

The year 1843 was memorable for the outbreak at the 
Wairau which has been alluded to in a previous chapter. 
It was an event which to the most sanguine spirit must have 
been appalling, threatening as it did to destroy the evan- 
gelistic work of nearly thirty years, and to embroil two 
races in internecine strife. The bishop wrote to a friend 
in England a long and dispassionate account of the terrible 
outbreak and its immediate cause. 

St. John's College, The Waimate, 
Bat of Islands, 
New Zealand, 
July, 1843. 

Last Monday, July 17, was the gloomiest day which I 
have spent in New Zealand. God grant that the evils 
which now seem to threaten this portion of my diocese 
may be averted. What has occurred at Nelson will, I 
trust, be a salutary, though an awful lesson to us alL I 
send you an account upon the general correctness of which 
you may depend : for fear that incorrect and distorted re- 
ports should reach you through the public newspapers. 
You are aware that great uncertainty has continued up to 
the present day with respect to the boundaries of the land 
purchased from the natives by the agents of the New 
Zealand Company. -The company seem to have had no other 
idea than that a purchase had been made by which the 
whole southern extremity of the Northern Island and the 
northern extremity of the Southern Island had been ceded 
to their agents. Of this arrangement I have every reason 
to believe that the natives had no comprehension; their 
own ideas of boundaries and territorial rights being re- 
markably definite, though complicated in many cases by 
the number of the joint proprietors. One native chief 
for instance may have the sole property in one portion of 
land, and a common right in another : if he were disposed 
to sell both he might speak of them both as his land, 
though the purchaser in the one case would be buying the 
whole fee-simple of the land, in the other, only the 



142 LIFE OF BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap, v. 



separate interest of a particular chief holding it in common 
with others. 

A second custom of the natives is, that in all sales 
an immediate payment is required, answering to our 
'^ deposits/' and a second on taking possession of the land, 
at which time the purchase is supposed to be completed. 

It is a remarkable fact, and one necessary to be 
known before a right judgment can be formed of the late 
fatal affray at Nelson, that hundreds of thousands of acres 
have been transferred by the natives to the English settlers 
in all parts of the country without the slightest dispute, 
where idl the points necessary to the completion of a sale 
according to the native usages have been duly attended 
to. The courts of the conmiissioners of land claims have 
been conducted without the slightest interruption, except 
in one case, where land had been sold by one chief, whidi 
was alleged to be the property of another. Where the 
title has been first ascertained, and all the formalities ol 
sale duly executed, hundreds of deeds have been passed 
through the commissioners' courts, not only without dis- 
pute, but with the fuU support of the evidence of the 
native proprietors, by whom the land was conveyed to the 
English purchasers. In the course of my journeys through 
the country, I have constantly been told the exact bound- 
aries, and the price (even to a blanket or an axe) of the land 
so alienated in the districts through which I have passed. 

I make these preliminary remarks, because the first 
impression of our friends in England on hearing of the 
slaughter at Nelson, will be that we are living among a 
nation of bloodthirsty savages ; and this feeling encour- 
aged, would give such a tone to all legislation with regard 
to our native people, as would soon give birth to a war 
with them, which, as in all former cases, would be nothing 
else than a war of extermination. 

It appears that early in the month of June, the sur- 
veyors employed by the Nelson Company were carrying 
on their operations in Cloudy Bay, upon land the sale of 
which was disputed. In so doing they met with the 
usual molestation from the natives, wherever a doubt 
exists as to the title of the claimant ; their marks and fiags 
were removed, and other petty interruptions were caused. 
At last, a small hut, belonging to the surveyors, built of 



1842-1843.] THE FIRST SHOT. 143 



materials collected on the spot, was burnt down, all the 

property contained in it having first been carefully taken 

out by the natives to be returned to the owner. Upon this 

the Company's principal Agent applied to the police 

magistrate for a warrant against Te fiauparaha and Ban* 

gihaeata, the two principal chiefs concerned in burning the 

hut. The magistrate granted the warrant, and having 

assembled a force amounting in all to forty-nine men, 

proceeded in the Victoria Government brig to Cloudy Bay. 

After landing, and going up a river about ten miles they 

found the two chiefs, whom they required to accompany 

them on board the hng. This being refused the agent of 

the company returned to his men, who were on the other 

side of a deep creek, to bring them forward to assist in the 

seizure. It appears that l£e disposition of the natives 

was at first cdtogether peaceable : that they proposed to 

leave the question of right to be settled by the Grovem- 

meat Commissioner, who has given great satisfaction to 

the natives, and I believe to all parties, by the impartiality 

of his inquiries ; the chiefs are said to have alleged that 

they had burnt nothing but what belonged to themselves, 

that the materials of the hut were the produce of the 

ground, which was still theirs ; that all the property found 

in it had been preserved, and would be restored ; but that 

they would not go as prisoners on board the Government 

vessel This not having satisfied the officers, the agent, 

as I have said, returned to lead his men across the creek, 

the only passage across which was by a canoe stretched 

from side to side. During the confusion of crossing the 

firing began (it is said accidentally), on the side of the 

English, and by the first discharge the wife of Eaugiaeta 

was killed. The old chiefs started up, crying out after the 

native manner : '' Hei kona te marama Hei kona te ra. 

Haere mai te po." "Farewell the light. Farewell the 

day. Come hither night," and immediately returned the 

fire. He English labourers of the party (most of whom 

had no previous knowledge of the errand on which they 

had come, only one, I believe, having been sworn in as 

a special constable), took to flight at the first discharge. 

The natives swimming across the creek pursued them in 

all directions. The agent with a view no doubt to save 

his men who were being killed, hoisted a flag of truce. 



144 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [cuap. v. 

and gave himself up to the chief. For a time it seemed 
as if their lives would be spared ; but at last Bangiaeta, 
the chief whose wife had been killed, demanded the lives 
of the English gentlemen, as payment for her death ; a 
demand, which according to native custom, could not 
be refused. They were all put to death! with sixteen 
others killed by the natives in pursuit — ^in all twenty- 
three persons ; twenty-six escaped, some to the brig and 
some into the woods, where they remained till the return 
of the vessel from Wellington. 

The attack upon the natives is generally considered to 
have been illegal throughout ; but it must be attributed 
altogether to a mistaken sense of duty on the part of the 
principal persons concerned in it. The police magistrate 
hajs always acted in behalf of the natives in the most 
friendly manner, and I believe that a more humane or 
judicious man than the Company's Agent did not exist, 
or one more desirous of promoting a good understanding 
between the two races. Unhappily they had little know- 
ledge of the native language or character, a defect which 
is the fruitful cause of daily misunderstandings. The 
settlers at Wellington and Nelson are forming themselves 
into a militia, and erecting batteries ; but I am fully con- 
vinced that these preparations are unnecessary, so long as 
strict justice, in a form intelligible to the native mind is 
visible throughout all the transactions of the English 
settlers. 

I may add as a striking contrast to the foregoing narra- 
tive, that the son of the principal chief engaged in the 
slaughter, Te Sauparaha, was engaged at the same time 
in another part of the same island, on a missionary 
journey of inquiry into the number and condition of the 
native inliabitants, undertaken at the request of Mr. 
Hadfield, the missionary at Kapiti. Te Bauparaha himself, 
though he has not been converted, still acknowledges 
Mr. Hadfield's pastoral authority over his people, by 
speaking of them to him as, taua, tamariki ! '* The 
children of us two." Bangihaeata, his companion in the late 
a£&ay, is one of the few natives of New Zealand to whom 
the name of savage can justly be applied. 

The effect of this disaster will be, I should fear, 
materially to retard the progress of the settlement for 



1842-1843.] COLLEGE SYSTEM. 145 

which I shall be very sorry, as the plans of the Nelson 
Company were formed with a regard to religion and edu- 
cation, which I still hope will not be without the fruit 
which was expected from it. The colony will I trust still 
prosper, though there has been a grievous blow to it in 
its infancy. Unhappily Mr. Eeay, the clergyman now 
stationed at Nelson, and who on former occasions had 
acted as mediator between the settlers and the natives, 
had gone to Auckland when the calamity occurred. 

The bishop during his stay at Otaki had kept school 
at which the chiefs Eauparaha and Eangihaeata at- 
tended his classes: the former protested against killing 
the prisoners taken at the Wairau, and wislied to go to 
Wellington to show that he harboured no unfriendly feel- 
ings towards the settlers, but he was afraid to go alone. 
The bishop allowed him to join his party, but when he 
got into the town he was so frightened that he begged to 
be allowed to sleep at the parsonage under the bishop's 
protection. Bangihaeata the bishop would never receive 
after the evil deed of which he believed him guilty, and 
he continued to be troublesome till Sir G. Grey made 
peace with him and gave him a gig. In order to use this 
luxury he caused roads to be made^ and thus was kept out 
of mischief. 

Before this unexpected and calamitous outbreak, and 
which, humanly speaking, was limited to the scene of its 
origin wholly by the influence of the Rev. 0. Hadfield 
with the natives, the bishop was working hopefully at 
the little College, and an amusing letter to his sister 
explains the manner of life which obtained under the roof 
of the Episcopal Palace. 

St. JoHK*8 Ck)LLEOE, Waimate, 
JvXy Uh, 1848. 

My DEiiK Fanny, 

Our httle college assumes a regular form, and already 
gives me promise of a supply of men duly qualified to 
serve God in the ministry of His Church. We have 
already nine students, three of whom I hope will be admitted 
to deacon's orders in September. 

VOL. I. L 



146 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 



I suppose that Sarah has given you an account of our 
mode of life, which will amuse you. Mrs. Watts is college 
cook, and bakes and cooks for the whole body, so that 
ladies as well as gentlemen are free to attend to reading 
and teaching. The college kitchen is regulated upon the 
plan of a kitchen at Cambridge, supplying regular " com- 
moDs" to every member; and providing "sizings" or 
extras to those who like to order. Each person's " com- 
mons," including tea, sugar, meat, bread, and potatoes, 
amounts to one shilling per diem, which is the uniform 
expense of every person in the establishment. We all 
dine together in hall, in all forty-two persons, thus : 

Upper Table. — ^Bishop, Mrs. Selwyn, Mr. and Mrs. Dudley, Mr. 

Cotton, and two visitors ... * ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Stadenfs Table. — Fonr married and three unmarried students ... 11 

Collegiate School Boys ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Native School Boys (Boarding School) 11 

Household — Five English, one Native 6 

42 



It is supposed that we equal Downing College, Cambridge, 
in the number of our married students, but as the Cam- 
bridge calendar takes no notice of ladies, I am not certain 
on this point. 

Many of our students are able to sing, so that we have 
the Psalms chanted morning and evening, but at present 
we have no organ. The efifect, however, of our nine or ten 
voices, with the ladies and schoolboys, is far from being 
inharmonious. 

At the end of seven years, if we may look forward to so 
distant a period, we hope to send William to England. I 
used to think of brtnging him, but the more I see of my 
diocese the less prospect I have of being able to be absent 
for a year within the next ten or fifteen years. If I could 
get some good archdeacons from England the case would be 
altered, but there seems to be a conspiracy of papas and 
mammas against New Zealand and me, four of my personal 
friends, if not five, being prevented by such interference 
from following the leading of their own hearts, and joining 
me. 

Sarah is in high favour with the natives, who love a 
cheerful eye, and friendly manner. Her name is " Matta 



1842-1843.] THE "GENTLEMAN HEBESY." 147 

Pihopa," Mother Bishop^ a title of respect with them 
though not conveying a similar idea when translated 
literally into English. They all say that her "atawai" 
(grace) is great, a praise which she has in common with 
Mrs. Martin, who with the aid of Mrs. Smith, wins golden 
opinions from the Maoris. Our native school on board the 
Tomatin has been of the greatest possible service to us all, 
though I regret to say that our schoolmaster, Rupai, my 
native boy, has fulfilled the predictions of Sir William 
Hooker and others, and returned to his native habits. 

We have also a little printing-press in constant opera- 
tion, printing native lessons, and skeleton sermons for the 
native teachers ; college regulations, bills, receipts ; in fact 
doing everything that we require for the routine of our 
businesa We have also in the press a translation of Arch- 
deacon Wilberforce's Agathas for the use of the natives. 
Mr. Nihill is syndic of the press with William Watts for 
his pressman, who is also time-keeper, and rings the bell 
(given to us by Mr. Wl^tehead's brother, out of the metal 
of the bells in York Minster), at stated times, ending by 
striking the hour. 

I have held two Ordinations, one at Wellington, at which 
Mr. Mason was admitted to priest's orders, in the presence 
of 400 natives, the other at the Waimate, when Mr. Davis, 
one of the senior catechists of the Church mission, was 
ordained deacon. I have also held six Confirmations, at 
which 700 natives and a few English have been confirmed. 

After the aristocratic recollections of Eton, it is amusing 
to compare our school at the Waimate : fustian jackets and 
corduroy trousers are the order of the day, which are so far 
from being a disadvantage that they facilitate the industrial 
plans of the school, the boys being employed in gardening, 
turning, carpenter's work, priuting, and the like. Many 
years must elapse before there will be room for a fine 
gentleman in this country, and therefore we endeavour, as 
much as possible, to keep out what some one has called the 
" gentleman heresy " from among us. ... . . 

You will gather from this letter that we are very happy 
and beginning to feel settled for life, with roots striking 
deeper and deeper into the soil of this loveable country, 
which from the similarity of its climate to England and 
the friendly character of its inhabitants, soon acquires that 

L 2 



148 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 



power and influence over the heart by which domestic 
feelings and sympathies are established. 

In September 1843 the Bishop held an Ordination at 
which the three students of his little College men- 
tioned in the letter to his sister were made Deacons, and 
four days later in a little schooner of twenty tons he 
was off for Auckland, and thence for an extended 
Visitation, while the deacons were scattered, one going to 
Tauranga, one to Taranaki (New Plymouth), and one to 
Nelson. The establishment at the Waimate was closed 
for the long vacation. At the Kerikeri, in the Bay of 
Islands, in a stone house which had been a store of 
the Church Missionary Society whence the Missionaries 
had obtained their supplies, the Bishop was at home 
amid the delights of precious books. His diary has the 
following entries : — 

" October 5. — Wind still contrary. Cleared the Cathe- 
dral Library at the Kerikeri store, of all superfluous 
lumber. Dusted and arranged the theological parts on 
the shelves already there, and piled up all the general 
literature in one corner, to remain till new shelves can be 
made. Many hands made light work : Rev. H. Williams, 
Rev. R. Burrows, Rev. W. C. Cotton, myself, Mr. Nihill, 
and Mr. Fisher, all assisting and receiving payment for 
their work in Gospels of St. Matthew in the native 
language. 

" October 6. — Completed the arrangement of the library. 
Wind still contrary. 

" October 7. — A day of literary luxury. Sat looking upon 
the books, occasionally dipping into them. The very 
sight of so many venerable folios is most refreshing in 
this land, where everything is so new. The Eton books 
have a row to themselves." 

The wind would seem to have continued perverse, and 
two days later enabled the Bishop to write the following 
letter : — 



1842-1843.] LUXURY OP BOOKS. 149 



Cathedral Library, The Ksrikeri, 
Bay of Iblakds, 
New Zealand, 

October 9th, 1843. 

My dear Lord Powis, 

I have never been more forcibly reminded of Powis 
Castle than during the last four days, in which I have 
been detained at this place by contrary winds, and have 
occupied myself and my party in arranging the valuable 
library which was presented to me by numerous friends 
before my departure. The building in which they are 
placed, and in which I am now writing, is of massive 
stone, not equalling in thickness the walls of Powia 
Castle, but giving the same character of solidity, which 
accords well with the solid and venerable character of the 
contents of the library, including a complete set of the 
Fathers, and many ancient folios of Commentators, Coun- 
cils, and Annals of the Church. Truth, however, compels 
me to add that, on an upper shelf, high out of reach, my 
eye lights upon a smart set of Scott's novels, calf extra, for 
the special use of the ladies who from time to time may 
honour me with their company. It may be that in course 
of time, when St John's College increases in numbers, and 
easy chairs are multiplied (at present our stock here is one 
broken-backed chair and two planks laid upon bullock 

[ trunks) that this will be (as it is at the Cambridge Univer- 

sity Library) the most frequented and best-read portion of 
my library. Among the lower and more venerable shelves 
I see as I sit Septuaginta Aldi, 1518, once well known in 
the left-hand comer of the glass book-case in my room at 
Powis Castle ; Barrow's works, presented to me by Lady 
Powis on my marriage ; Leighton, from the same source, I 
do not see, as it is at the Waimate. On the top of a copy 
of Irenseus, with the largest margin that I ever saw, and 
lying down for want of shelves sufl&ciently lofty, are the 
Bible and Prayer-Book presented (as the title-page bears) 
to the Bishop of New Zealand, " with the best wishes of 
his ajBectionate pupils at Powis Castle." With these 
memorials before my eyes, I write to express my best 

i wishes to your lorcbhip and Lady Powis, and all " my 

; aflFectionate pupils at Powis Castle," with my prayers 

that every blessings temporal and eternal, may be upon 

1 you 



160 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, v 

The first term of six months at St. John's College has 
just closed, and the long yacation of five months has just 
begun, during which I propose to pay a second visit to the 
southern settlements, and to work my way along the 
eastern coast of the Middle Island towards the south, and 
then to cross over to Stewart's Island ; from thence to take 
ship to the Chatham Islands, and so, God willing, to return 
home to the Waimate about the middle of March. Mrs. 
Selwyn intends to spend the summer with her friend and 
feUow-voyager Mrs. Martin (the wife of the Chief Jus- 
tice) at Auckland. 

My last term ended with the ordination of three deacons, 
who had been a long time under preparation for Holy 
Orders. Here I have felt deeply the loss of my dear 
friend Mr. Whytehead ; in other respects I can scarcely 
think him lost, so much does his memory still seem to 
bless and hallow the place where we laid him in his grave. 
Lord Clive will share my sorrow, as he knows what a com- 
panion I have lost. . . • 

The late fatal affray at Nelson will, I fear, have given a 
bad impression of the natives of this country. This, as a 
general apprehension, is altogether unfounded. The assur* 
ance of safety given by the character of the people is so 
remarkable, that I question whether the thought of 
danger ever entered the minds of any one of our party, 
except when a "taua," or armed party, came to the 
Waimate to demand payment for some ducks which some 
of our young men had shot upon a " tapu," sacred water. 
Of course I refused to recognise their heathen customs, 
but finding that the "tapu" meant no more than our 
English word " preserve," I confessed that the young men 
had done wrong in poaching, and referred them to the 
text of Zacchaeus as my rule in such matters, viz. to restore 
fourfold. The authority of a text of Scripture being undis- 
puted even by the heathen part of the nation, I paid them 
twenty-four shillings, being four times the market price of 
the six ducks, with which they went away apparently 
satisfied. 

We have no fastenings to our windows, even on the 
ground-floor, and the door is rarely locked. In travelling 
I pitch my tent at whatever place I happen to reach at 
nightfall, and am always hospitably received. In the 



1842-1843.] THE KERIKERI. 161 

course of some hundreds of miles of travelling I have never 
lost anything. In the matter of land, about which the 
quarrel at Nelson arose, hundreds of thousands of acres of 
land have been regularly sold and conveyed to the Eng- 
lish in other parts of the island, written deeds being duly 
signed, and in no instance, that I am aware of, has a sale 
ever been disputed, when all the conditions have been 
duly fulfilled in the first instanca This is in fact a very 
wonderful people, and I grow more and more attached to 
them the longer I live among them. It will still, however, 
require much time and perseverance before they can be 
made a civilized nation. 

The enforced leisure at the Kerikeri produced another 
letter of about the same date, addressed to theBev. Edward 
Coleridge. 

Cathedral Library, The Kerikeri, 
Oct. 7th, 1843. 

My bear Friend, 

A windbound party is assembled here, at this place 
which is the Aulis of our Argonautic expeditions, waiting 
for a change of weather to allow of our sailing for 
Auckland. We arrived on Wednesday the 4th, and 
Sarah immediately went on board the Uni&n^ a small 
schooner now lying waiting for us about four miles down 
the river ; but she had scarely reached the vessel when 
the wind changed to the eastward, and sealed the outlet of 
the Bay of Islands against us. We therefore returned to 
the Mission Station occupied by Mr. Kemp; and were 
thankful to find ourselves in good quarters, when the wind 
increased to a violent gale ; which has continued without 
intermission to the present day. On the 5th and 6th we 
busied ourselves in clearing and arranging the cathedral 
library, and are now enjoying the fruits of our labour, 
sitting quietly reading and writing in the best and best- 
furnished roof in New Zealand. Mr. Cotton is on one 
side of the fire sitting on a box, Sarah on the other side, 
reading a large folio upon the original desk which I had 
in my study, and sitting upon the only chair of which the 
room at present can boast. Mrs. Burrows (wife of the 
clergyman of Kororarika) is sitting reading at my left 
hand on a seat composed of two long planks intended for 



152 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

additional shelves, resting upon three bullock-trunks, and 
covered with mauds. You will understand therefore that 
my eulogies of the furniture of the room apply to the 
books, which are now disposed on five kauri shelves reach- 
ing the whole length of the room, 27 feet ; the central 
shelf being occupied by a brilliant row, for which I am 
indebted to Eton alone: beginning with a long line of 
bright octavos reaching to the centre, where St. Augustine 
stands like a tower, between the light bindings of the 
Eton books and the deeper shades of W. E. Gladstone's 
goodly store of English divinity. Massive folios of Fathers 
and Commentators fill the lower compartments. The build- 
ing in which these treasures are contained deserves some 
description. It is a structure of solid stone with walls 
2 feet in thickness, nearly 40 feet long by 30 wide, and 
two stories in height. The library is on the first floor, 
27 feet by 19, with four windows, from one of which I 
look out upon the windings of the Kerikeri Eiver towards 
the Bay ; from another on the waterfall, which luUs us to 
sleep every night (and sometimes be it confessed in the 
day also) by its murmur : the third, as I sit, shows the 
Mission House, and the fourth is admitting the gleams of 
the setting sun, which give us hopes of a change of weather 
for to-morrow. When the Sunday's calm shall have rested 
upon the waters, we hope to sail on Monday for Auckland. 
Sarah hopes to stay with Mrs. Martin during my absence 
at the south, where the perfect quiet of an invalid's 
house, and the absence of all domestic cares of her own, 
will, I hope, recruit her strength, which has been much 
tried by the new and unsettled life which she has led for 
the last two years. Everything now, I thank God, tends 
to repose. In case the college should be too much for 
her, I have now secured her a most charming retreat in 
the cathedral library, and another room of equal size in the 
lower story ; where the quiet is as unbroken as the most 
nervous person could desire; and in this respect entirely 
different from the inevitable noise of wooden buildings. 
, Here also, I may retire in my old age (which will pro- 
bably be premature), and superintend my college at the 
Waimate without being subject to all its perturbations. 
But all these matters are in the hands of God ; and there 
I am content to leave them ; but the thought binds me 



1842-1848.] DIFFICULTIES OF TRAVEL. 153 



more to this country ; and that is the feeling which I wish ' 
to encourage. I now seem to know where I should most 
wish to be in my manhood, in my old age, and after my 
death. 

The charm of this library is that it is so utterly un- 
colonial. Its atmosphere is the true "Opic mus.*'^ Its 
walls are worthy of a college. My books carry me back to 
the first ages of the Church. It is true that when I step 
outside the door I stumble over a mass of utilitarian 
treasures. Bales of blankets, iron pots, barrels of all kinds, 
rusty rat-traps and saws, old chains, grindstones, &c., are 
the miscellaneous furniture of my ante-chambers ; but 
within everything that can most elevate and purify the 
mind is to be found. Leisure alone is at present wanting 
to us to use our treasures : but as the Church system is 
developed, and active archdeacons stationed at all the prin- 
cipal settlements, I hope to be able to give myself more 
to meditation and every other profitable exercise, that 
there may be some abundance in my own heart to flow 
forth for the benefit of my diocese. 

The voyage that was thus inauspiciously commenced 
was of unusual duration, lasting into the second quarter 
of the next year. There were also unusual difficulties of 
travelling in the Visitation on land, and some of the 
bishop's companions were not as proficient in the art of 
travel as himself. The rivera were in flood and fording 
was dangerous. Mr. Taylor, a missionary in the bishop's 
party, could not swim, and the bishop's air bed was in- 
flated and fixed in an impromptu framework of sticks, and 
towed across the river with Mr. Taylor enthroned upon it. 

December brought the bishop to the Wairau, and here 
he preached from Isaiah v. 30. — ^"If one look imto the 
land, behold sorrow," making special reference to the un- 
happy collision between whites and natives in the previous 
year. 

The festival of Christmas found him in the mission of 
Mr. Hadfield, at Waikanae, admiring the beautiful church 
built since his last visit, of which the ridge pole, hewn 

* " Etdivina Opici rodebant carmina Mures." — Juvenal iii. 207. 



164 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

from a single tree was the appropriate peace-offering of a 
people with whom the Waikanae people had long been at 
war. On the last day of the year (which fell on Sunday) 
the bishop preached to a full church and ministered to 
130 communicants. In the afternoon, accompanied by 
Mr. Hadfield, he rode to Otaki, where the first persons to 
meet him at the entrance of the Pa were Te Bauparaha 
and Rangihaeata, names only too well known in connection 
with the Wairau massacre. 

" Thus ended a year of mercies and blessings," is the 
entry in the bishop's diary on December 31, 1843. 



1844-1846.] RELIGIOUS DIVISIONa 155 



CHAPTEE VI. 

NEW ZEALAND. 
[1844-1846.] 

The first three months of 1844 were given to the com- 
pletion of the Visitation commenced at Michaelmas in the 
preceding year. The bishop reached Otago, the southern- 
most portion of the diocese, and on his journey down was 
confronted, in a region which he probably expected to find 
a spiritual desert, by religious dissensions. In a place 
where no English teacher had ever been seen the natives 
had been carefully warned by teachers of their own race 
against Hahi (Church), and had been prejudiced in favour 
of Weterl (Wesley). The miserable dissensions thus 
generated destroyed much of the bishop's satisfaction at 
this part of his Visitation, as his time was taken up " in 
answering tmprofitable questions." 

The voyage in the little Persemrance belonging to Tuha- 
waiki, a native chief, was made the most of : the little 
cabin, nine feet by five, was assigned to the bishop, re- 
serving only the right of way to the master and his wife 
when passing to their berth amidships; but the wind 
allowing the ship to sail near the dangerous coast, and the 
crew being perfectly familiar with every nook in which a 
vessel could lie, the bishop availed himself of the instruc- 
tion thus to be acquired and stored up against a future 
day, and spent his time between reading in the cabin and 



166 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



frequently emerging up the companion-ladder to take 
marks of the coast, and to write down places on the map. 
One of the bishop's companions was Taniihana, the son 
of Te Eauparaha, who had been mixed up in the Wairau 
outbreak : the son had formerly traversed as a Christian 
teacher the whole of the region which the father had over- 
run with a war party. 

While on board the little Perseverance the bishop wrote 
to Mr. Hadfield a letter which has special significance, as 
showing that he declined to recognise the mere presence 
of a Dissenting teacher in a given district as a proof that 
that district was under Christian instruction. This is the 
more important, inasmuch as the bishop's caution in re- 
fraining from occupying any islands in the Melanesian 
group where teachers had already settled themselves, and 
of which he was wont to say, "Nature has divided our 
mission field for us," has been often quoted as a precedent 
for abstaining from work in countries which some Sect had 
already claimed on the ground of a very partial occupation. 
The letter of the bishop shows that, with all his moderation 
and respect for the work of others who differed from him, 
he was very decided in saying, " We must hold our own." 



Schooner "Perseverance/' Chief Tuoawaiki, 
At Sea off Otakou, Feb, \Wit 1844. 

My dear Mr. Hadfield, 

As I may have little time to write to you from Akaroa, 
towards which place we are rapidly advancing with a fine 
southerly breeze, I begin to prepare a letter for my friend 
Tamihana to convey to you. You will have heard from 
Mr. Cole that I left Wellington on the 6th of January in 
the schooner Richmond. . . . Throughout this island 
controversy has preceded truth, and as usual darkened 
true knowledga The position of affairs is very singular. 
I cannot learn that Mr. Watkin [the Wesleyan teacher] 
or any of his teachers visited the principal native settle- 
ments, Te Wai-a-te Kuati, Ruapuke, and Earotonga, before 



1844-1846.] WESLEYAN CLAIM& 167 

your teacher's arrival. It is agreed by all these that their 
karakUi began in consequence of our teacher's visit. During 
three of the four years that Mr. Watkin has been at 
Waikouaiti, he had but one Testament; and his weak 
health prevented him from visiting, so that I do not find 
that he has been to any places but Otakou and Moerangi, 
besides his own settlement of WaikouaitL All at once, a 
few months ago, his committee seem to have recollected 
that there was such a person in the world, and sent him 
down a flood of 500 Testaments, after leaving him for three 
years with one only: and with these his teachers have 
contrived to withdraw from us one half or more of our 
congregations at Te Wai-a-te Buati, and Ruapuke. At 
Barotonga they are still united with us, under Te Mana- 
blea, a native baptized by you. This little village, the 
most distant point of my journey, is a bright spot in the 
midst of a good deal of misgiving, for I found there a 
chapel built; a united congregation of more than 100 
(when all assembled); a reading class of sixteen or 
eighteen, of whom I baptized two, who appeared to feel 
deeply. Mr. Watkin complains of your obtruding your 
teachers upon his district ; but 1 cannot ascertain that any 
attempt was made by him or his friends to make it their 
district till after our teachers had spent a whole year in 
teaching the people, and had been blessed with a con- 
siderable measure of success. I cannot recognise the mere 
fact of his residence at Waikouaiti as entitling him to the 
spiritual care of all the southern islands. Our interview 
was most friendly, and I stayed one day and a half in his 
house; but I told him that I could make no transfer of 
catechumens ; that we must hold our own. 

The half-caste population in the Straits cannot be less 
than 100; they are at a very critical age. Something 
vigorous must be done for them. Where the fathers and 
mothers had been living together for some years I 
married them and baptized their children : in all twenty- 
five couples married and sixty-one children baptized, I 
must have a visiting clergyman in the Straits as soon ajs 
possible, but where to find a man fit for the work I know 
not. His life must be amphibious ; and the animal mag- 
netism of his home capable of being overcome. Many of 
the old whalers and sealers are settling down into a more 



168 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



quiet life, and are to a man anxious that their children 
should not follow the course of life which they have led 
themselves. 

I have been much pleased with Tamihana. He is not 
very adroit in controversy, and sometimes a little over- 
bearing ; but he is a good-hearted and earnest youth, and 
I shall be happy to see him at the Waimate whenever you 
think it desirable to send hj,m. 

The controversy which confronted the bishop on this 
journey did not cease to distress him when he had left it 
behind him, and reflection did not suggest to him the 
usual resource of a timid and indiflerent compromise. 
Soon after his return to the Waimate he wrote to a friend 
in England : — 

" My first charge, if I ever find time to write it, will be 
an attempt to deduce a plan of operations, suitable to the 
peculiar case of New Zealand, from the records of the 
first three centuries of the Church. In my endeavours to 
avoid all party shibboleths I am much assisted by the 
natural effect of the native Church in enforcing simplicity 
of doctrine and regularity of discipline. I hope to make 
this a fulcrum for moving the chaotic mass of the English 
settlements, which are more like a fortuitous concourse of 
atoms than anything else, with the additional disadvantage 
that every atom has an opinion and voice of his own, and 
thinks himself a moimtam. So that my first problem is, 
how to give tenacity to a rope of sand." 

It was probably with the hope of gaining some of this 
tenacity that the bishop summoned in September of this 
year a S3mod of the Clergy of his diocese: three arch- 
deacons, four other priests, and two deacons assembled : it 
was the first experiment of the kind which the Anglican 
Communion had witnessed since Convocation was silenced 
in England. The avowed object of the gathering was " to 
frame rules for the better management of the mission and 
the general government of the Church," and the subjecta 
debated were limited to questions of Church discipline 
and Church extension : nothing would seem more simple 



1844-1846.] FIRST SYNOD. 159 

or natural than such a gathering ; nevertheless the news of 
its doings reached England with the utmost speed com- 
patible with a voyage of 12,000 miles, and some good 
people saw in it priestly assumption, and others discovered 
in it an infringement of the royal supremacy. But strange 
to say, nothing happened save that the precedent thus 
acquired led to a more formal synod being held in 1847, 
and ultimately to a synodal organization, provincial and 
diocesan, as perfect as can anywhere be produced. 

Unfortunately while the little synod attracted unfriendly 
criticism, its modest canons did not attract an equal 
measure of publicity : they were well worthy of careful 
and attentive study, dealing as they did in a practical way 
with problems which confront a missionary in a new 
country, and sometimes are to be met with even in England. 

In the case of infants being brought to baptism in places 
where sponsors could not be obtained, instead of the 
superfluous and unecclesiastical method of allowing the 
parents to become sponsors, it was decreed that the children 
should be baptized on the application of their parents, who 
also gave a written pledge to submit their children to the 
education of the Church. A separate registry was kept 
of aU children thus baptized, who were considered to be 
" imder the sponsorship of the Church." 

On the difficult question of admitting polygamists to 
the order of catechumens the Synod decreed that no 
bigamist or polygamist should be received, but that "a 
woman, being one of two or more wives of a heathen man, 
not having power over her own body, but subject to her 
husband, may be received and admitted to baptism with- 
out separation from her husband." No heathen was 
admissible to marriage according to the rites of the 
Church, neither was the baptism of heathens to be 
hastened with a view to their marriage, " but rather, inas- 
much as it is reasonable to believe that a lower degree of 
faith may be accepted as a qualification for marriage than 
that which is necessary for the due reception of baptism, 



160 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

that they be marriageable on their admission into the class 
of catechumens." 

In August 1844, in conjunction with the Chief Justice 
and Mr. Swainson, the Attorney-General of New Zealand, 
the bishop selected a site near to Auckland, accessible 
both by land and by water, to which he determined to 
remove St. John's College. At the Waimate it had passed 
through the experimental stage and had proved its utility ; 
and now it was to assume a more permanent position, and 
be located in stone buildings instead of lightly constructed 
wooden houses. While providing for the material con- 
dition of the college, the bishop looked forward eagerly to 
the day when his friend Mr. Abraham should fulfil his 
promise of joining lum and sb'^^'i^M taH ^'"'itu^l charge 
of the institution, and amid scenes and anxieties from 
which even colonial bishops may expect an immunity, but 
which were in fuU measure the lot of Bishop Selwyn, he 
wrote the following letter : — 

H.M.S. "Hazard," Cook's Straits, 
August 7th, 1844. 

My dear Friend, 

Among all the disappointments which I have ex- 
perienced in the failure, from various causes, of all the 
support which I expected from other friends, your stedfast 
adherence to your origined purpose has been the comfort 
and refreshment of my heart My hopes of co-operation 
are now limited to you alone ; but this alone is far more 
than I could have had any right or reason to expect. Still 
more does it give me pleasure to think, that the step which 
you have just taken, so far from seeming to stand in the 
way of my wishes, gives me the strongest hope of ulti- 
mately enjoying your assistance. For by your resignation 
of the most lucrative portion of your office, you have 
weaned yourself from that to which many cling too closely 
to be willing to devote their services to a poor bankrupt 
colony, to preach as one said " to savages and settlers." 
Rejoicing most heartily in the spirit which has led you to 
undertake the charge of the collegers, I pray that God*s 
blessing may be with you in that work till the time shall 



1844-1846.] DIOCESAN ORGANISATION. 161 

come \rhen you may see fit to transfer your services to the 
Church of New Zealand. 

In the meantime, I think that it may be well to put 
before you some definite idea of the position in which it 
would be the wish of my heart to see you placed. 

The Northern Island of New Zealand I purpose to 
divide into five Archdeaconries: viz. 1. The Waimate; 
2. Waitemata ; 3. Tauranga ; 4. Waiapu ; 5. Kapiti. 

The Archdeaconry of Waitemata will be the metro- 
politan district, in which St. John's College and my central 
schoob will, I hope, be situated. I had designed the 
ofi&ce of Archdeacon of this district for my dear friend, 
Mr. Whytehead, intending to place him in the position of 
Principal and Eesident Manager of my coUegiate insti- 
tution; from which my -duties of visit'^tion take me away 
more tvec^ 'enuy thiaii is gov. 1 for the young men and boys 
in statu pupillari. Still with Mr. Cotton's most friendly 
and zealous assistance we are able to hold on, and I think 
are in a fair way to gain the confidence of the public ; but 
if we should succeed in this we shall immediately want a 
much greater regularity of system in consequence of the 
increase of numbers. For the next few years we may do 
very well, but nothing would give me greater pleasure 
than to be able to look forward to your joining me at the 
critical time, to take Mr. Whytehead's otfice upon you, as 
Archdeacon of Waitemata and Principal of St. John's 
College. If you wiU allow me to look upon you in this 
character, I will endeavour in the interval to nurse endow- 
ments for scholarships and exhibitions, and to erect 
buildings, which shall enable you at once to feel that you 
are in a position of eflSciency, small it may be in its 
amount of usefulness, as compared with those in^itutions 
which you will have left, but not on that account the less 
full of hope and cheerful anticipation for the future. 

I rejoice in the prosperity to which Eton has been raised. 
The progress and increase of the schools camiot safely be 
attributed to anything else than to the gradual devation 
of the minds of the masters by the influence of religion. 
The privilege which some masters have enjoyed of occa- 
sionally sanctifying and searching their hearts by minis- 
terial duties seems to have been, under God, the means by 

VOL. I. M 



162 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [.:uap. vf. 



which this has been eflfected : in proof of which it may 
safely be alleged, that the pupils of those masters who 
have followed that course have been eminent for their own 
consistency of conduct, and apparent depth of religious 
principle. 

In concert with the Bishop of Australia the bishop was 
all this time steadily aiming at synodal action being 
established in Australasia, and the letter which follows 
shows how much he rested on it, and how lightly he 
thought of State alliance and support : — 

H.M.S. "Hazard," at Sea, Bay of Plenty, 

August Uih, 1844. 

My dear Brother, 

A disagreement between the natives and the settlers at 
Taranaki, which seemed at first to threaten serious con- 
sequences, has brought me away from home in the middle 
of my collie term, and I am now returning in company 
with the Governor, who has, I hope, appeased the com- 
motion. I avail myself as usual of the leisure of ship- 
board to write as many letters as I can; and though I 
have no papers on board with me, I am conscious of being 
in your debt. 

The case of Tahiti still presses upon my mind ; but I 
scarcely know how to act. In the present state of this 
country, I dare not be absent for so long a time as would 
be necessary for a run to the islands and back ; and I am 
doubtful about the expediency of writing a friendly letter 
to the missionaries, to invite any of their youths, and 
especially the queen's sons, to come to me for education. 
My native schools are now open; therefore I should be 
able to receive them ; but I fear that difference of religious 
persuasion would make the island missionaries more 
willing to send their youths to some of their own brethren 
in the neighbouring countries, than to me. If, however, 
any opening should occur, you will imderstand me to be 
as willing as ever, and perhaps better prepared than before, 
to act upon your suggestion. 

As I have now entered upon my third year in New 
Zealand, I am reminded of our engagement to meet, if 
possible at Sydney ; but as you are my senior, I wish I 



1844-1846.] CHURCH AND STATE. 163 

could say ecclesiastically my Metropolitan, I must await 
your suggestion as to the time ; premising that I cannot 
conveniently obey your summons earlier than June 1845. 
It seems that our Tasmanian brother is in some difficulty, 
which I do not fully understand, but which appears to 
arise from the dependence of his clergy upon the Colonial 
Government ; and that the difficulty is of such magnitude 
as to induce him to detach his archdeacon to negotiate at 
home. On such points as these, where the defects of the 
old system in any one of our dioceses are apparent, it may 
be weU to avail ourselves of the proposed meeting to agree 
upon some strong remonstrance, which may help to 
strengthen the hands of those friends who are working in 
England on our behalf. For myself, I have little to com- 
plain of, but am perfectly satisfied with the position in 
which the State has been pleased to place the Church and 
myself : knowing that the State here has nothing to give 
to the Church ; and being able to take care that it takes 
nothing away from us of that which is our own. But I 
wiU gladly unite in any remonstrance, which may be likely 
to help to free our good brother from the difficulties of 
which he complains. If you will collect from your own 
experience and his observation such important points as 
these, on which it is desirable for us to confer, we shall 
have data, upon which it may be possible to frame such a 
memorial or representation to influential friends at home 
as may help us to a better code of laws for the colonial 
churches. In all these matters, I place myself under your 
guidance. 

You will have received a little note from me announcing 
the birth of our second son, whom we have called John 
Sichardson after his excellent grandfather, some of whose 
good qualities we pray that he may inherit. Mother and 
babe I hope to find quite well on my return, God willing, 
before the end of this montL 

Captain Fitzroy is very friendly and co-operative; 
though we do not altogether agi*ee on Church matters. In 
compliance with his instructions, but without my con- 
currence, he applied to the Legislative Council for an 
increase of salary for me, and for the payment of my 
travelling expenses ; but was left in a minority of two, all 
the non-official and most of the official members voting 

M 2 



164 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

against him. This decides the question of my position as> 
regards the colony ; and I am glad of it, because now no 
one can say that I have separated the Church from the 
State. They have themselves cast us off ; avowing as a 
reason for their refusal, that all denominations were equal 
in the eye of the State. 

The prospectus of the Bishop's College has shown 
[p. 134] how highly he valued industrial training and 
now he found time for the humble, but not on that account 
insignificant task of introducing a knowledge of knitting 
and spinning among the Maoris : it grieved him to see 
-wool buried in the ground as a thing of no value, because 
the natives knew not how to transfer it from the backs of 
the sheep to their own, and he sought assistance in this 
matter from one who he knew would willingly help. 



To THE Countess of Powis. 

St. John's College, The Waimate^ 
Bay of Islands, New Zealand, 
April IStlt^ 1844. 

Your kind letter of the 14th June [1843] met me on the 
6th March, on which day I returned to Auckland from my 
southern tour to the Middle Island and Stewart's Island, 
where I have been making an inroad upon the whaling 
and sealing stations, not without necessity, as may be 
judged by the fact that I baptized seventy-one children 
in places hitherto unvisited by a clergyman. These were 
chiefly the children of English fathers by native mothers, 
a race which in the Southern Islands is rapidly replacing 
the native population, which is dying away. I have now 
a bird's-eye view in my mind of my whole diocese, and 
a beautiful mental map it is, if looked upon, as it may be, 
at the distance of fifty years, peopled with an orderly and 
godly race of settlers, residing in the hundreds and 
thousands of fertile valleys, watered by the clear and 
sparkling streams, which flow from the line wooded hiUs 
with which the neighbourhood of the coast is bounded. 



1844-1846.] WEAVING INTRODUCED. 165 

The interior alone presents features of desolation, in the 
vast tracts of volcanic ground thinly covered with a 
stunted vegetation. . . . 

Knowing your interest in such matters, T wish for 
advice, founded on your Scotch and Welsh experience, 
as to the mode of introducing the manufacture of coarse 
cloth into my native schools, with a view to enabling 
the natives to clothe themselves. If the Welsh are obliged 
to make their own clothes by hand-looms, though they are 
so close to Manchester, because they have no export to 
give in exchange for manufactured goods, it seems evident 
that we can never have our natives effectually clad for the 
same reason, except by domestic manufactures. They do 
not like homed cattle, from the difficulty of managing 
them ; but I think that they would be induced to keep 
sheep if they could see the intermediate processes by 
which the fleece is transferred from the back of the sheep 
to that of the man. If the Welsh peasantry have any 
simple machinery for their cottage manufactures which 
could be introduced into my induskial schools it would be 
most acceptable, either in^ model or full-size. A3 my 
children are all boarders they have plenty of time to 
devote to such employments^ and some of them already 
sew very nicely. They are certainly as tractable and 
docile as English children. Knitting-pins and worsted 
would be very useful. A very general desire for English 
clothing at present prevails, which may be turned to good 
account. My brother Charles will be happy to take care 
of anything which you may be able to procure to assist in 
Cambro-Britonizing my people. Wales supplies me with 
many arguments both to the natives and English. I tell 
the former that one large portion of the British nation still 
make their own clothes from their own flocks ; and to the 
latter I argue that if farming will maintain families in 
North Wales, where the crops are sometimes on the 
ground at Christmas, much more will it in New Zealand, 
where the harvest seldom if ever fails. 

Some of our settlers are in a great hurry to abolish the 
native language and substitute English ; to them I cite the 
example of Oswestry, an English town with Welsh service 
in the parish to this day. It is true that in Welshpool it 
was supposed to be so completely abolished that the refined 



166 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

ears of the congregation objected to a certain curate's 
Welsh accent, bat this is a rare case. 

If I should ever return to England, of 'which however I 
have no idea, I am afraid my speech will have such a 
Maori accent that I shall be ineidmissible to Mr. Olive's 
pulpit. Certain it is that whenever I attempt to speak 
French I inadvertently fall into native words, which 
caused great amusement when I dined on board the French 
corvette Le Bhin, now stationed at Akaroa. 

The political aspect of the colony had grown increasingly 
threatening through the whole of this anxious year, and to 
the bishop the anxiety thus caused was quite as great as it 
was to the civil authorities. But the whole story must 
be told, and cannot be told more truly or more graphically 
than in the bishop's own words. The account which 
follows, of two very anxious and disturbed years, is taken 
from the bishop's letter to the Bev. Ernest Hawkins. 

H.M. Colonial Brio "Victoria," 
Bay of Plknty, 
EasUr Bve, 1845. 

• • • • • • • 

I now proceed to the main subject of my letter, which 
is, the relations between the JEnglish settlers and the abori- 
ginal inhabitants of New Zealand. 

You may recollect, that in my former letter on the 
disaster at the Wairau, I expressed the opinion that we 
had nothing to fear from the native people, if they were 
treated with ordinary justice. Becent events make it 
necessary that I should state how far this opinion is now 
qualified or changed. In two principal respects the above 
assertion is too broad and general 

1. The state of anarchy among the natives themselves. 

2. The discontented and insubordinate temper of our own 
settlers. 

1. The authority of the native chiefs over their own 
tribes has been much weakened by many causes ; among 
which the following are perhaps the most weighty : — 

The pacification of the country leading to the dispersion 
of the people into detached hamlets, where the authority 
of the chief is feebly felt, if at all. 



i 



1844-1846.] CAUSES OF WAR. 167 

The establishment of the order of native teachers, 
whose influence in many cases is as great as that of the 
chie&. 

The abolition of many heathen usages, by which the 
respect for the chiefs was maintained. 

The emancipation of slaves reducing the power of the 
chief, vho was the great slaveholder in former times. 

The practical effect of this breaking-up of the old 
feudal system, before any other had been established to 
supply its place, has been to leave eachman, in a measure, 
free to do what seems good in his own eyes. Though I 
would still repeat my former opinion, that we have nolMng 
to fear from the native people in a mass, I am not prepared 
to say that there are not many individuals among them 
of whom we must be cautious, because they neither 
recognise our laws nor are under awe of any authority 
among themselves. 

2. The second general qualification of my former 
opinion is rendered necessary by the discontented and in- 
subordinate temper of our own settlers. 

This source of evil to the country I was inclined 
formerly to underrate : believing that the quickness and 
intelligence of the natives would enable them to see 
through the insidious statements which were made to- 
them, by designing persons, against the government, the 
missionaries, myself, and all persons who took an active 
part en their behalf. The one general imputation against 
aU of us was a concealed intention of dispossessing the 
natives of their land, and reducing them to slavery. In 
support of this, the acts of our countrymen in other 
lands were related to them; they were told how the 
coloured man had been used in New South Wales, in 
Van Diemen's Land, and in India : it was insinuated that 
a different policy was adopted in New Zealand, only 
because they were a strong and warlike people, with arms 
in their hands : that here the plan was, first to send 
missionaries to soften the fierceness of their disposition, 
and to suppress their habits of war : and then gradually 
to garrison the country with soldiers ; and so to proceed 
to enslave and exterminate the inhabitants. Against these 
reports we have all had to contend from the first, paying 
the penalty, by a just principle of retribution, for the acts 



168 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

of our coimtryinen in other lands. The treaty of Waitangi 
was asserted to be a document, in which the native chiefs 
were induced to sign away their rights and possessions : 
and the missionaries were constantly blamed for having 
assisted the governor in recommending it to them for 
adoption. We all on the contrary declared it to be a 
measure highly beneficial to the people ; by which they 
obtained the protection of the British Government, instead 
of becoming an object of contention to the great com- 
mercial nations of the world, and assured them in the 
most solemn manner, that no land would be taken from 
them which they were not willing to sell: and that all 
their other rights of person and property would be I'espected. 
To our great surprise and grief, all our assertions have been 
falsified, by the late Eeport of the House of Commons, by 
which all lands not actually occupied by the natives are 
decljo'ed to be vested in the Crown : and by a despatch of 
Lord Stanley, in which it seems to be proposed to tax 
their waste lands, and in default of payment to confiscate 
them to the Crown. The natives of New Zealand will 
not bear this uncertainty ; they can see the merits of a 
question as clearly as we can ; but if they detect us in a 
falsehood, or even in a change of purpose, the reason of 
which they cannot understand, our influence with them is 
lost. 

The British Government further came into this country 
with great professions of the good which it would do to 
the native people : much was said of native reserves and 
funds for the support of native institutions ; no part of 
which has ever been fulfilled. Native Protectors were 
appointed, who for some time were employed chiefly in 
conducting the purchases of land made by the Govern- 
ment; and since their exemption from this duty, in 
consequence of the loss of influence with the natives 
which it caused, they have done nothing more than meet 
the current difficulties of the day, without advancing the 
people in civilization or intelligence. The Government was 
consequently left without any moral witness in the eyes of 
the nativbs of its desire to promote their real interests, or 
to hasten their amalgamation with ourselves. The in- 
sinuations of our disaflTected settlers were left to work 
without any antidote to neutralize the poison. 



1844-1846.] JOHN HEKE ; KORORAREKA. 169 

Though there were many defects in the mission system, 
and though the acts of some of the missionaries had gone 
to favour the general imputation of a desire to dispossess 
the natives of their land, yet in the main, it had this 
advantage over the Government, that its principal object 
was the benefit of the aboriginal race; and that this 
desire was visibly attested by the chapels, schools, and 
mission-houses which were to be seen in all parts of the 
country. That the difiTerence was not unremarked by the- 
natives is evident from the . fact, that when Kororareka 
was destroyed by fire, house after house, the two chapels, 
and the two parsonage houses were studiously preserved. 

The first indication of disaffection to the British Govern- 
ment which I observed was in March 1843, from the 
same John Heke who has since made himself so con- 
spicuous in his opposition to our government. Being 
engaged in taking a census of the native population of 
the Waimate district, I went to his place, a village named 
Kaikohe, and asked the names of himself and several 
other chiefs with whom he was sitting ; upon which they 
all rose, and left me sitting by myself. I found on inquiry 
that they suspected me of an intention of sending their 
names to the Queen. For a long time my residence at the 
Waimate was supposed to have some connexion with the 
general scheme for taking forcible possession of the 
country. These suspicions were studiously favoured by 
travelling dealers, who abused their small knowledge of 
the native language to misrepresent the government and 
slander the missionaries 

About the middle of the year 1844, the flagstaff on the 
hill above Kororareka began to be talked of, as a sign of 
the assumption of New Zealand by the British Govern- 
ment. The decline of the prices of native produce, which 
had taken place since the removal of Governor Hobson to 
Auckland, was attributed to signals made on the staff to 
keep vessels of other nations from entering the port. The 
queen's flag flying upon it was considered a proof that the 
sovereignty of the native chiefs was at an end. Meetings 
began to be held, at which John Heke was the chief 
speaker, the subject of discussion being the cutting down 
of the flagstaff. In the month of August, 1844, Heke 
assembled a party of armed men, and proceeded to Koro- 



170 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



rareka, where he spent Saturday and part of Sunday in 
alarming the inhabitants, and early on Monday momin^ 
mounted the hill, and cut down the staff. I was at Paihia 
at the time, engaged in the native school, at the close of 
which the first words which I heard were " kua hinga te 
kara:" "the colour has fallen." I shuddered at the 
thought of this beginning of hostilities ; so full of presage 
of evil for the future. Heke then crossed to Paihia^ and 
with his party danced the war-dance in my face ; after 
which many violent speeches were made and they then 
returned to Kaikohe. 

The governor, on hearing of this, despatched a vessel 
to Sydney for troops, which returned to the Bay of Islands 
in three weeks with 200 men. The governor had gone in 
the meantime in the Hazard sloop of war to settle a 
disturbance with the natives at Taranaki; whither I 
travelled by land and met him, and we returned together, 
by sea to the Bay of Islands soon after the arrival of the 
troops. The whole force, naval and military, was collected 
at the Kerikeri ready to debark, and march into the 
interior ; but at the urgent request of the friendly natives, 
the Governor went to the Waimate, attended only by 
Colonel Hulme of the 9Gth Begiment, and Captain 
Bobertson of the Hazard sloop. We received his Ex- 
cellency with such collegiate hospitality as we could 
provide : and assisted at a great meeting, at which he 
explained to the natives clearly and fully the intentions 
of the British Government ; and assured them that he had 
no desire to take any violent means to vindicate the 
honour of the Crown ; but should demand ten guns to be 
given up as an acknowledgment for the insult. A general 
cry of ** Here they are ! " was immediately raised, and some 
of the principal chiefs of the place brought them and laid 
them at his feet The whole manner of the chiefs on the 
occasion was very pleasing and impressive. But Heke 
stood aloof and woiild not come to the meeting. The 
next day when the governor had gone he came to hear the 
particulars of the meeting ; and to ascertain the reasons 
of my leaving the Waimate, which I assured him had no 
connexion whatever with the disturbed state of the country, 
but that letters which I had received from England had 
determined me to remove to Auckland. Accordingly in 



1844-1846.] FIGHTING PARTIES. 171 

the middle of November we embarked on board the 
Vidoriay and sailed to Auckland, when Mr. Cotton 
settled at the college ground on the Tamati, and Mrs. 
Selwyn in a house hired for her near the town. In the 
beginning of December, I set out on my tour of confirma- 
tions through the districts of Manukau, Waikato, Waipa, 
Taupo, and Whanganui. 

At Whanganui I found a " Taua " or fighting party of 
170 natives, headed by Te Heuheu, the old chief of Taupo, 
who had come to avenge the manes of some relations, who 
had fedlen in battle at Te Ihupuka, a Pa about twenty 
miles to the northward of the Whanganui river. The Taua 
encamped at the English settlement, and alarmed the 
inhabitants so much that an express was sent to Wellington 
for assistance. Accordingly, on the day after my arrival 
the Hazard came from Wellington, with Major Richmond, 
the superintendent of the southern division, on board. 
Major Bichmond, Captain Bobertson, and Messrs. McLean 
and Forsaith, native protectors, went immediately to the 
party, and insisted upon their behaving properly to the 
settlers, upon pain of being considered the queen's enemies, 
and left to the discretion of Captain Sobertson and the 
force under his command. The threat was scarcely out of 
the superintendent's mouth before the Hazard was blown 
out to sea: and she did not return for a week. That 
night we watched with some anxiety in Mr. Taylor's house, 
on the opposite side of the river, where Major Eichmond 
and Captain Bobertson were lodged, in fear lest the Taua, 
resenting the threat which had been held out, should 
attack and plunder the English town, and then paddle in 
their canoes up the Whanganui river, which flows in a 
great chasm between wooded precipices, through a country 
covered with a dense forest, into which no English force 
could follow them without being cut off to a man. We 
had a party of 300 Christian natives assembled for con- 
firmation, who had been already much exasperated by 
seeing their cultivations plundered by the strangers, and 
were 'well inclined to protect us. It was arranged that in 
the event of an attack upon the English town they should 
be ready to row to an appointed place, where the in- 
habitants were to form a hollow square on the beach for 
the protection of the women and children, till they could 



172 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

be embarked on board the canoes, and ferried to the oppo- 
site shore. The night, however, passed away without any 
alarm ; and the threat, unsupported by any physical force, 
was sufficient to stop the petty pilferings which had been 
committed nightly before the arrival of the Hazard. The 
principal chiefs, especially Te Heuheu, exerted themselves 
to repress these irregularities among their followers. 

After a few days of negotiation, conducted chiefly by 
Mr, McLean, the protector, during which I had the more 
agreeable duty of examining and admitting to confirmation 
more than 300 native converts, it was agreed that the 
war party should go within sight of their enemies, fire 
off their guns, and dance their war-dance, in order to 
*' whakapata te aitua," ix, to let out the ill-omen (as a 
cenotaph would let out the "aitua," ayo^ ikavveiv, of 
leaving a relation unburied) ; and then to return peaceably 
to their own place. 

All these communications were conducted in the most 
friendly manner, with the single exception of one chief, 
who took occasion of offence at an allusion which I made 
to his ears being stopped, when he refused to listen to me, 
unless I would give him some tobacco. The ear and the 
whole of the head of a chief is considered sacred by the 
heathens ; and may not be trespassed upon even by word 
of mouth. Of course I tendered an apology, which was 
not accepted ; and his wife, a perfect virago, attacked me 
with genuine extract of the bush ('* expressa arbusto 
convicia "), to which my ears were as deaf as her husband^s 
sacred organ had been to me. 

The principal chief Te Heuheu claimed acquaintance 
with Mr. Taylor and me, as having received us hospitably 
at Taupo in the previous year ; a hint which we under- 
stood to mean that he wished for a present. We told him 
that we could give nothing till we knew his intentions, 
but that when we were sure that he would return quietly 
to his place, the gratitude for his kindness would be shown 
in some present to himself and his son : a promise which 
we afterwards performed by presenting him and his brother 
chiefs with four blankets, and as many trousers and shirts. 
This was construed by the English settlers into bribing 
the natives to go ; and so far resented by them, that some 
absented themselves from church the following Sunday in 



J 



1844-1846.] FRIENDLY OVERTURES. 173 

consequence of "the conduct of tlieir ministers." Their 
wish seemed to be to bring on an engagement between the 
Hazard's men and the natives, a disposition unhappily 
too common among the settlers ; but which they have 
now to unlearn. 

In the hope of making peace between the two parties, 
Major Bichmond and I walked to Te Ihupuku, where 
Mr. McLean, Mr. Bolland, and Mr. Skevington and Turton, 
Wesleyan missionaries, were engaged in communicating 
with the Taranaki natives on the same point. About 
midway we found a present of food and a letter addressed 
to Te Heuheu. The letter was friendly, but the food so 
scanty that it was considered by the Taua as an intentional 
insult ; as they were not willing to consider that a force 
of 1,000 men assembled at one point for several weeks 
must have exhausted the provisions of the neighbour- 
hood. As soon as Iwikau, the second in command to Te 
Heuheu, arrived at the spot and saw the present, he affected 
to fall into a violent passion, and acted to the life all the 
gestures of an infuriated savage ; declaring that it was an 
intentional insult, and that we were the authors of it. We 
of course said nothing, and in a few minutes he changed 
his tone, and conversed with us as usual in a friendly 
manner. An old priest then approached the pile of food, 
circling round it at first at a cautious distance, but ap- 
proaching nearer and nearer at each turn, and mumbling 
his prayers as he moved slowly along. When his " kara- 
kia" (charm) was completed, the suspected food was 
ordered to be burnt. 

The war party slept that night at Kai-Iwi, half-way 
between Whanganui and the Waitotara river, on which 
Te Ihupuku stands. Alajor Eichmond, Mr. Forsaith, 
and myself proceeded to the Pa, which we approached at 
simset, just as the chapel bell was ringing for evening 
prayers. The Pa was much changed in appearance since 
my last visit ; extensive fortifications having been added 
after the native fashion, formed of rows of upright stakes, 
crossed by longitudinal bars of wood : the whole bound 
firmly together with native flax and supplejack. We 
were welcomed with the greatest cordiality by the natives, 
and immediately invited to a general meeting, at which 
from 800 to 1,000 armed men of the Ngatiruanui and 



174 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [caxv. vi. 

Ngatimaru tribes were present. The principal cliief 
opened the proceedings by a recommendation little at- 
tended to in civilized assemblies, requesting the orators 
to make short speeches. Mr. Forsaith, the protector 
of aborigines, then gave an account of all that had 
taken place — of the arrival of the war party from Taupo, 
of the negotiations between us ; and of our desire to 
make peace between the hostile tribes ; and inquired 
whether they were willing that the war party should come 
to the opposite side of the river Waitotara, which flows 
at the foot of the hill on which the Pa is built, to agree 
upon the conditions. A general assent seemed to be given 
to this proposition; but on the following morning we 
were informed that a small body of the natives were 
intending to rush out upon their enemies and attack 
them, which must have brought on a general engagement, 
though the great majority were peaceably inclined. Major 
Richmond and I, therefore, returned to meet the Taupo 
party, to let them know that if they advanced to the Pa, 
we could not be answerable for the consequences. We 
met them on an open sand-hill about four miles from the 
place, all crouching in the manner of a native force waiting 
for the signal to attack. Mr. Forsaith made a short speech, 
explaining the reasons of our return : upon which the old 
chief Te Heuheu rose and said, *' I hoki rangatira mai 
koutou " (you have acted like gentlemen in coming back), 
and then called upon his men to do honour to the Pakeha. 
The whole body rose, fired a salute, and danced their war- 
dance ; and in a few minutes were in full retreat along the 
beach to Whanganui, and I thanked God, that all danger 
of bloodshed was at an end. The rapidity of the retreat 
made us suspect that some of the young men intended to 
plunder the English settlement ; the custom of all fighting 
parties on their return being to lay hands on everything 
that comes in their way. Major Richmond and I therefore 
walked as fast as we could after them, but without much 
probability of overtaking them. On coming up with 
Te Heuheu, who had stopped to rest on the road, we 
found that he agreed with us in our suspicion ; and the 
old chief accordingly despatched a special messenger to 
run on before to warn the English settlers of their return. 
On our way we fell in with my old acquaintance Ngawaka, 



1844-1846.] NELSON. 176 

whose sacred ear it had been my misfortune to offend, 
heavily dragging along his bulky person over the dead 
sandy beach; and looking as if he would have much 
preferred a seat in a canoe on the gentle Waipa (from the 
banks of which he came) to the honour and glory of a 
campaign in Tarauaki His voluble wife, who had amply 
retaliated upon my ears the injury done to her husband's, 
was walking painfully along by his side. To my surprise 
they both addressed me with smiling faces, and the lady 
held out her hand to me in token of reconciliation. When 
I asked the reason of this change of feeling towards me, 
she said, ** Because you have made them go back." So I 
found that the good scold was a lover of peace after all.' 

Finding eveiything qxdet at Whanganui after the 
return of the Taupo chiefs, I took leave of the friendly 
party of more than 300 natives, whom I had examined 
and confirmed, and embarked with Major Richmond on 
board H.M. sloop Hazard on 22nd January. 

The little settlement of Whanganui has now about 200 
inhabitants, but from its unprotected situation, I should 
fear that it could not be maintained in the event of any 
general collision with the natives. The church lands of 
I which so much has been said, and which were selected in 

' this district, are stiU in the' possession of the natives, with 

the exception however of the town allotments; on one 
of which the Church has been built. 

We arrived at Nelson on the 24th January, and found 
that an express had been sent to Wellington for assistance, 
in apprehension of an attack from the natives : some of 
whom had burnt the house of a settler and committed 
other depredations. The question was found to relate 
to a disputed boundary line between the native land and 
that sold to the settlers, and was speedily adjusted by 
Major Bichmond going to the ground and fixing the 
boundary according to the surveyor's plan which had 
been agreed upon by all parties. 

The chief improvement in Nelson since my last visit 
was a handsome brick school-house, built as usual, partly 
by subscription and partly by grant, under the direction of 
Mr. Eeay. Here I had the great pleasure of seeing eighty 
children assembled, including the scholars of the grammar 
school who are under the instruction of Eev. H. Butt, and 



176 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

^ 

whom I examined, and was well pleased with their progress. 
Nelson is the only place at which I have been able as yet to 
carry out the plan of education which will, I hope, in time 
be generally adopted : viz. the placing the whole education of 
the young under the charge of a deacon, with proper assist- 
ants under him for the mechanical routine of the schools. 
The religious instruction will be entirely in his hands. 
The subordinate departments will, I hope, be generally 
filled by candidates for deacon's orders, so that there will 
be, if possible, no distinct order of schoolmasters, and no 
one will have to look forward to continuing beyond a 
certain time in the more irksome duties of the school. 
The scriptural knowledge of the boys in the Nelson 
school gave me good hopes that this system may be the 
means of correcting that want of feeling and irreverence 
which is complained of in English national schools, and 
which seems to arise from the manner in which religious 
instruction is confounded with the most ordinary branches 
of school education. The points required to be attended 
to seem to be, feeling in the teacher, reverence in the tone 
in which the instruction is given, and separation of that 
from all the other studies of the schooL . This can scarcely 
be accomplished in any other way than by making the 
clergyman, not the mere occasional visitor and examiner, 

but the actual teacher of religion 

The Hazard being required to return immediately to 
Auckland to carry to the governor despatches which 
arrived by the Slains Castle, I bade farewell to my friends. 
Rev. Messrs. Reay and Butt, and sailed for Wellington, 
where I arrived on the 29th January. A large wooden 
chapel had been completed since my last visit, and was 
now in use. Here also, as at every settlement which I 
have visited, there were rumours of wars with the natives, 
arising out of the anarchy which I have described. The 
governor a few months ago completed, as he believed, the 
purchase of the valley of the Heritaonga or Hutt river 
from the chie& Te Bauparaha and Eangiaeta, and paid 
the purchase-money on condition that the land should be 
vacated at the end of February 1845. Within a month 
of the expiration of the term assigned for the occupation 
of the natives, a lawless body of stragglers, recognising the 
authority of no chief, settled themselves on the land. 



1844-1846.] WAIKANAB. 177 

defied the anthority of Major Bichmond, and brought in 
canoe loads of seed potatoes with the evident intention of 
retaining possession. The mouth of March was the time 
fixed for employing active measures to put the English 
settlers upon their land, and I determined accordingly to 
return to Wellington with the view of residing at the 
mission station at Waikanae, to prevent, if possible, the 
old chief Te Bauparaha and his people from taking any 
part in the expected affiray. My present voyage is the 
residt of this determination, to which I have been forced 
by the mortal illness of my dear friend Mr. Hadfield, who 
is now lying at Wellington (if indeed he be yet alive) 
" with but a step between him and death." It has pleased 
God, in this season of peculiar trial, to take from us some 
of the youngest and best beloved and most influential of 
our brethren; as if to try our faith in the wisdom and 
goodness of His providence^ and in Christ's assurance 
that, though we know not now what He doeth, we shall 
know hereafter. His station is the key to the tranquillity 
of this district, containing among its population some of 
the best and some of the worst of the native raca Among 
the former I may reckon Te Bauparaha's son Thompson and 
his cousin Martin, two young men of singular steadfast- 
ness of purpose. When the gospel was first preached 
among their people by some natives who had received 
instruction at the mission stations in the north, they 
readily received it, and determined to go to the Bay of 
Islands to ask for an English preacher to be stationed 
among them. The old chiefs objected to their plan, on the 
groimd of some hereditary feud with the northern tribes, 
some death as yet unexpiated, which might be visited upon 
the young men. EedUng in obtaining the consent of their 
relations, they embarked by night on board of a whale 
ship then anchored at Kapiti, and sailed to the Bay of 
Islands. About that time an order had been issued by 
the Church Missionary Society to concentrate the mission 
in the northern district, in consequence of the wars which 
stfll continued in the south, and the application of the 
young chiefs for some time was unsuccessful. At last 
the urgency and evident sincerity of their appeal decided 
Mr. Hadfield to offer himself as their minister ; and he 
went . accordingly, accompanied by Mr. H. Williams, to 
VOL. I. N 



178 LIFE OF. BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



form the new station at Waikanae, where his presence has 
since been acknowledged by all to have been the means, 
under Gk>d's blessing, of averting still more fatal con- 
sequences of the afiPray at the Wairau. 

To conclude the history of my friends Thomson and 
Martin. At the request of Mr. Hadfield they undertook 
a missionaiy voyage to the Middle Island and Foveaux 
Straits, voyaging in an open boat more than a thousand 
miles : sometimes remaining on the sea all night with a 
compass which had been given them, but the use of which 
they very imperfectly understood ; and returned after an 
absence of fourteen months, having catechized and preached 
at every native settlement in the Southern Island and in 
Foveaux Straits. On my visit to those places last year, I 
found that the natives uniformly ascribed their conversion 
to them. Thomson accompanied me on my journey to 
the south, and I have already remarked upon the pleasing 
contrast, that while the father was the terror of the settlers 
of Port Nicholson, the son was engaged with me in 
evangelizing the heathen. I mention these redeeming 
characters in the native people, because, though they do 
not strictly belong to my main subject, viz. their relation 
to ourselves, yet they may serve to counteract a growing 
feeling, too much resembling the wish of Nero, that the 
whole people had but one neck that he might cut it off at 
a blow. 

From Wellington I returned to Auckland in the Hazard, 
encountering off the East Gape a most fearful storm, in 
which seven of the ship's guns were obliged to be thrown 
■overboard. I am most thankful that my little schooner 
Flying Fish was still on the western coast, having been 
'detained to bring on a mail which had been left behind. 
It has happened to me, by God's gracious providence, that 
in the many voyages which I have been obliged to make 
I have never met with any tempestuous weather except in 
this case, where we had all the appliances of human skill 
and strength of material, to withstand the storm. On 
Sunday, February 9th, I returned thanks on board the 
Haaard, together with the officers and ship's company, on 
arriving in safety at Auckland 

During my stay at Auckland, I had a most pleasing 
proof of the confidence of the natives. My little schooner 



18444846.] HOSTILITIES RENEWED. 179 

Flying Fish arrived from Kapiti, bringing four scholars 
for the native school, the children of Christian parents at 
Otaki, one of Mr. Hadfield's stations. The eldest was 
abont twelve years of age. These little lads had sailed 
from Otaki to Nelson 80 miles, from Nelson to Welling- 
ton 140, from Wellington to Auckland 500, in all more 
than 700 miles, to come to oar school ; and I learned from 
them that several more were ready and wishing to come. 
In the midst of great discouragements and anxieties, these 
are the signs which comfort andf support us. 

On the 6th March, the news arrived at Auckland of a 
collision between the natives and the Hazard^s pinnace. 
The flagstafif had been replaced on the hill over Eororareka, 
and again cut down by John Heke. A new one was 
placed, and protected by a block-house of thick planks, 
guarded by a body of twenty soldiers. A second block- 
house half-way down between the flagstafif and the beach 
was also erected ; and two guns mounted in front of it. 
A large house on the beach belonging to Mr. Polack was 
stockaded as a place of refuge for the women and children, 
in the event of an attack upon the town. Another gun 
placed on a height above the church, commanded Matavai 
Say — ^a sheltered bay communicating with the town by 
a hollow valley a few hundred yards in length. 

Hostilities began on the 1st or 2nd of March, by an 
attack of a plundering party upon the house of a settler 
residing near the Eawakawa. The ScumrdHs pinnace, 
armed with a gun in the bow, pursued the party and drove 
them ashore, from whence a fire was opened upon the 
pinnace by parties concealed in the brushwood. The fire 
was returned, but without efifect, and the pinnace returned 
to the ship. 

For several days after this the natives were evidently 
gathering their forces round Kororareka, and desultory 
skirmishing began to take place without loss of life on 
either side. lieutenant Phillpotts of the Hazard, riding 
out to reconnoitre with Mr. Parrott, a midshipman of the 
ship, were surprised by a party of natives, who seized them 
and flourished their hatchets over their heads, and then 
allowed them to return. The report which reached Auck- 
land of the first shot having been fired, which we had 
always looked upon as the beginning of evils, made me 

K 2 



180 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

veiy uneasy for the safety of the* northern missions, and 
finding this feeling increase upon me» on the departure of the 
government brig with a reinforcement of soldiers, I safled 
in the Flying Fish on the 8th March, and arrived at the 
mouth of the Bay of Islands early on the morning of 
Sunday the 9th. Here I was becalmed the whole day, 
and occupied myself in morning and evening prayers witih 
my native crew, and with the one Englishman who manages 
the vessel. In the evening a light breeze sprang up, 
which carried us in at midnight to the anchorage at 
Kororareka amidst such a solemn stillness that every 
ripple upon the rocks was distinctly heard. A single 
light from the watch-tower on the hill alone gave sign of 
any hostile preparation. On approaching the Hazard, 
however, we found her anchored head and stem with her 
broadside to the beach, and all the small coasting vessels 
which usually lie close to the shore moored by themselves 
oflf the further end of the town. We had just anchored 
when one of the lieutenants of the Hazard came on board 
the Flying Fish, and informed me that they were in hourly 
expectation of an attack, that Heke had fixed that day, 
Monday, March 10th, for assaulting the fiagstafiP. That 
day, however, passed away without any alarm ; but the 
natives were understood to have received a considerable 

accession of force 

Before dayUght on the morning of the 11th, Captain 
Bobertson with the small-arm men of the Hazard and 
some of the marines, went forward to reconnoitre this 
vaUey, and met a large body of natives advancing to 
the attack. A sharp engagement immediately b^n, 
in which the natives were repulsed; but a portion of 
the body which had been lying in ambush near the 
church cut off Captain Bobertson &om the main body of 
his men ; and a native coming within a few paces of him 
fired a shot which shattered his thigh. At this time 
he was surrounded by the natives, but his men rallied and 
rescued him, and he was carried oflf to the ship. The 
sergeant of marines also fell, with four others. The gun 
on the height was found to be exposed to a continual fire 
from the brushwood, and was ordered to be abandoned. 
The brave seaman, who was ordered to spike it, dis- 
charged his duty amidst a constant fire of musketry, and 



1844-1846.] ENGLISH REPULSED. 181 



at last fell dead by the side of his gun. The repulse 
which the natives sustained at this point was so severe, 
that no serious attack was made from that quarter during 
the remainder of the engagement. 

A little before sunrise, while I was viewing the move- 
ments on shore with my telescope, my native crew called 
my attention to a party of natives mounting the hill to 
the flagstaff, and almost before I could direct my glass to 
the point, they said, " They have gained it" A few musket 
shots were fired, and a body of soldiers appeared retreating 
down the ridge leading to the middle block-house, into 
which they entered and disappeared. A loud voice called 
out ftom the height, " They have got possession of the flag- 
staff." The whole object of the native attack was gained 
in a moment. I have been informed that the officer in 
command had drawn off the men to some distance to 
strengthen the entrenchments ; and that the party which 
we had seen ascending the hill had taken them by sur- 
prise, and cut off their retreat to the block-house. They 
then killed the sentinels, and rushing into the house, 
killed a poor little half-caste girl who had hidden herself 
under some blankets, no doubt supposing her to be one of 
the soldiers. The keeper of the signals was severely 
wounded, and his wife and daughter taken prisoners and 
conducted to Heke, who sent them down with a flag of 
truce to our nearest post ; the party of natives who con- 
ducted them remaining within gun-shot of the fort, till 
they saw the woman and child safely lodged under shelter. 
At this time there seemed to be a disposition to treat, 
and a young man acquainted with the native language was 
sent up to hold communication with Heke, but he re- 
turned without accomplishing anything ; but a white flag 
still continued flying on the summit of the hill near the 
flagstaff. .... 

The order was then issued for all the force to retreat on 
board the Hazard, which W8is done without molestation 
from the enemy. About the same time the Matilda, whale 
ship, sailed into the harbour. Her commander. Captain 
Bliss, most promptly and humanely offered every assist- 
ance to the settlers, and received on board as many as 
could be accommodated. AU the other vessels received 
their share. The complement of the Flying Fish amounted 



182 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

to four mothers and ten children. One gallant kd^ of 
fourteen, to whom I offered an asylum with his mother 
and sisters, answered me, " Thank you, sir, but I should 
like to stay with my father." I could only say, " Grod 
bless you, my boy, I can say nothing against it ; " and away 
he went to rejoin his father in the hottest part of the fira 
Happily he escaped unhurt, and is now at St John's 
College. The Flying Fish with her infant freight then 
shifted her station, and came to an anchor off the mission 
^ttlement of Paihia. 

The firing having now ceased, Mr. Williams and I went 
on shore to recover and bury the bodies of the dead, 
fearing, lest the barbarous custom, now almost extinct, 
should have been revived by that portion of the native 
force, which was still in an unconverted and heathen state. 
We found the town in the possession of the natives, who 
were busily engaged in plundering the houses. Their 
behaviour to us and to Mr. Philip King of Tepuna, who 
accompanied us, was perfectly civil and inoffensive. "Several 
immediately guided us to the spots where the bodies were 
lying, where we found them with their clothes and ac- 
coutrements untouched, no indignity of any kind having 
been attempted. The corpses of those who fell near the 
church were laid as we found them, in the burial-ground 
at Kororareka, together with the burnt remains which we 
found in the ruins of the stockaded house. I buried six 
in one grave, just as the sun went down upon this day of 
sorrow. Mr. Williams collected five bodies on the flag- 
staff hill, including the corpse of the half-caste girl, 
which he carried in his boat to the Hazard, where another 
was added to the number during the night, by the death of 
one of those who were burned by the explosion 

The state of the town after the withdrawal of the troops 
was very characteristic. The natives carried on their 
work of plunder with perfect composure, neither quarrelling 
among themselves nor resenting any attempt on the part 
of the English to recover portions of their property. 
Several of the people of the town landed in the midst of 
them, and were allowed to carry off such things as were 
not particularly desired by the spoilers. With sorrow I 
observed that many of the natives were wheeling off casks 

^ Nelson Hector, now Captain of the P. & 0. S.S. Siam, 



1844-1846.] MODERATION OF NATIYSa 183 



of spirits ; bat they listened patiently to my remonstrances, 
and in one instance they allowed me to trum the cock and 
let the liquor run out upon the ground. Another assured 
me that he would drink very little of it On ascending 
the hill to the flagstaff, we found the staff lying upon the 
ground, having been chopped through near the bdttom. A 
few musket shots had buried themselves iu the walls of 
the block-house, but the building was otherwise uninjured. 
A large body of natives were resting in the valley below, 
and other large parties were filing off along the paths over 
the hills. Altogether there must nave been about 500 men 
on the ground. As far as I have been able to ascertain, 
they lost about thirty-four men killed : the number of 
the wounded I could not learn. By request of the post- 
master, I went to his house to ascertain whether he could 
8&f<3ly go on shore to recover his papers. The house was 
being plundered, but when I asked the natives in posses- 
sion to spare the written papers, one immediately answered, 
" I wiU save them." The private despatches of the polico^ 
magistrate were brought off by Mr. Williams. When we- 
left the beach a little after sunset, many of the inhabitants 
were engaged in removing their property ; and some of our 
countrymen, I fear, were taking part with the plunderers. . 
On Wednesday morning, March 12th, I crossed to 
Paihia, and interred the bodies of six of the slain in the 
burial-ground at that place ; Archdeacon Brown and Bev. 
Mr. Dudley attending me at the service. In the afternoon 
I procured ahorse, and rode to the Waimate. On the 
way one of those circumstances occurred which mark more 
than words can express the confidence with which the old> 
settlers Live among the natives of the country. I had gone 
about half-way to the Waimate when I met a settler from 
Hokianga riding quietly down to the bay, with one native 
on horseback behind him, to learn the particulars of the 
engagement. He had come thirty nules through the 
country from which Heke's forces were drawn, and was 
going to the scene of action ; and I afterwards met him 
returning by the same route, without the slightest appre- 
hension of danger. The truth is, that there is something 
in the native character which disarms peraonal fears in 
those who live among them, and are acquainted with their 
manners. All suspicion^ of treachery seems to be at 



184 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 

variance with the openness and publicity of all their pro* 
ceedings. Heke published beforehand his determination 
to attack Kororareka, the day on which it was to be done, 
and even the particulars of his plan for the assault 

As I reached the Waimate, the sky was lighted up with 
a lurid glare, which was soon disco/ered to L ca Jed by 
the flames arising from the town of Kororareka. From a 
hill near the Waimate, the whole outline of the town could 
be seen lighted up by the blaze of the burning houses. My 
approach to the station was greeted by a large body of 
Cluistian natives, with a louder and heartier shout of 
welcome (Haere mai !) than I had ever heard before. They 
invited me to a general meeting, at which all the principal 
persons expressed their determination to defend the mis- 
sionaries and their families to the last, and begged me 
earnestly not to think of removing them. Their feeling 
was responded to by Mr. and Mrs. Burrows, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Davis, the missionaries of the station, who had 
resolved to stand firm in the assurance that the same 
Power which had guarded the mission through thirty years 
of trial and anxiety would defend it to the end. The 
native school, which I left with only thirty children, had 
thriven in the midst of the troubled times, and had risen 
to seventy. No sooner was it heard that I was in the 
house, than a stream of little children flowed down from 
the bedrooms in the upper story, their black eyes and 
white teeth sparkling in the candlelight as they crowded 
about me with smiling faces to shake me by the hand. 
As some of the Christian natives remarked, *' Though the 
heavens were black around us, this was the bright spot of 
blue sky, which gave hopes that the storm would soon 
pass away." 

At two in the morning of Thursday, 13th March, I 
left the Waimate to be in time for the tide at a creek on 
the way to Paihia. A short time before sunrise, I reached 
the sunmiit of the last hill which overlooks the entrance 
of the Bay of Islands, and the town and anchorage of 
Kororareka. The whole surface of the bay was calm and 
glassy, reflecting the dark outline of the hills, and the 
bright straw-coloured light of the eastern sky above 
them. The Hazard and Matilda lay motionless. in middle 
channel between Paihia and Kororareka. In the bosom 



1844^1846.] THE BISHOP MI8UNDBR8TOOD. 186 

of tlie dark hills^ the smoke of the town " went up like 
the smoke of a furnace." All that had been devoted to 
mammon was gone : but heathen vengeance had spared the 
X>atrimony of God. The two chapels and the houses of 
the clergy remained undestroyed. 

A curious circumstance is related, with every evidence 
of truth. An inhabitant of Kororareka residing near the 
house of Bishop Pompallier, had concealed a store of 
specie in the panels of his house, amounting, it is said, 
to two thousand pounds. The natives engaged in destroy- 
ing the town, fearing that if they burned this house the 
flames would communicate to the bishop's, preferred pulling 
it down, and in so doing discovered the treasure. A good 
lesson for the rioters of Bristol 

Our chief subject of anxiety now is, the effect which 
this disaster will have upon the other tribes among whom 
the English settlements are placed. The Waikato race 
in the neighbourhood of Auckland have hastened to offer 
to the governor their renewed assurances of friendship and 
allegiance. We are not so sure of the Kgatiraukawa and 
Kgatiawa near Wellington, and Mr. Hadfield's mortal 
illness weakens our position in those parts to an incalcu- 
lable extent. Weighing these considerations I have felt 
my post of duty to be for the present at Wellington and 
Waikanae (Kapiti), and I therefore sailed on the 20th 
March in the Victoria brig, with Mrs. Selwyn and one of 
my children ; and we are now, I thank God, within sight 
of Cape Falliser, the last headland to be passed before we 
reach the heads of Port Nicholson. 

The progress of the Church was indeed uphill, when 
in a small colony race was thus arrayed against race: 
the bishop, while keeping the mission free from the 
contentions that raged, was obliged to take action : one in 
so prominent a position, could not be neutral, and Ins high 
sense of justice exposed him now to the suspicion of the 
natives, and now to the animosity of the colonists. The 
repulse of the white force at the Wairau in 1843 had 
given confidence to the natives, who saw that the English 
were no longer invincible ; and now in the north, in the 
oldest settlement in the colony, the power of the British 



186 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

had been defied. When the insurrection was approaching 
the climax, the bishop went, as was explained in the letter 
to Mr. Hawkins, to the scene of warfare, hoping to act as 
peace-maker, and on his way he wrote to the Sev. E. 
Coleridge a Sunday letter breathing the spirit of the errand 
on which he was bent. 

Episcopal Schooneb " Flying Fish," Off Papeka, Bat of Islands, 

9 P.M. Swnday, March 9th, 1845. 

Mt deab Feoend, 

In obedience to your request for frequent communi* 
cation, I send you a Dominical letter, which, like a Sabbath 
day's journey, must be short, especially as the day is far 
spent. But this same feeling, that my day is passed, re- 
minds me often that yours is but just beginning, and 
therefore I can always spend another with you in thought 
when my own is at an end. My present position favours 
such a reduplication, for I am sitting in my little cabin, in 
the schooner Flying Fish of seventeen tons burden ; with no 
other companions than my sailing master. Champion, late 
boatswain of the Government brig Victoria, and my crew of 
three New Zealanders. As you have taken me to task 
for omitting to write to you from a similar cabin on board 
Tuhawaiki's vessel in the Middle Island, I am resolved not 
to give you another opportunity ; but to". write to you a srnail 
letter from every little cabin in which I happen to saiL 

In answer to your noble offer of a schooner similar to 
that fi[iven to the Bishop of Newfoundland, I must tell 
you, that any thing above twenty tons is considered large 
in our harbours, the greater number of our coasting vessels 
being about that size ; and, if managed by steady men, 
they perform their voyages with great safety. The Flyi7ig 
Fi^, in coming from Otaki, where she had been lying 
useless for two years, performed the quickest passage that 
has ever been made from Wellington to Auckland. I 
must give you the history of my little yacht, which is likely 
from association to hold a high place in my affection. 
"When Mr. Hadfield (now perhaps of blessed memory) was 
stationed at Kapiti, four years ago, his missionary zeal led 
him to cross Cook's Straits in open boats, to minister to 
the inhabitants of the Middle Islands. The Committee, 
or rather Mr. H. "Williams, alarmed at the danger which 



1844-1846.] MEMOBIES OF FBIBNDa 187 

Mr. Hadfield was in the habit of incurring, had the 
Flying Fish built for him at the Bay of Islands, and sent 
her to Eapiti. As soon as she arrived, Mr. H. resolved to 
attempt a visit to the Middle and Stewart's Islands, which 
he had long wished to make, but had never been able to 
obtain the services of the missionary schooner, Columbine^ 
for the purpose ; as by the system of the C. M. S. the 
vessel was under the command of the Local Committee in 
whose district she happened to anchor ; but as Mr. Had- 
field lived on the other side of the islands, far away firom 
her usual beat, she never came under his authority at 
all The vessel was laid up in the river at Otaki, 

' where she has remained for two years useless ; Mr. Beay's 

residence at Nelson having superseded the necessity of 
Mr. Hadfield's visits to the Middle Island. She was 

I made over to me as some compensation for the large 

I expenses which I had incurred in repairing the buildings 

of the Waimate, on faith of an agreement with Mr. 
Kempthome, afterwards disallowed by the Home Com- 
mittee. You will easily understand why I value anything 
which serves to bring the memory of Mr. Hadfield to my 
mind, when I teU you that I left him at Wellington 

I smitten with an incurable disease, and scarcely dare to hope 

that I may see him again in this life. So true a Chris- 
tian, so influential a Missionary, and so valuable a Friend, 
like others whom I have lost before, can never be replaced. 
Their deaths must be in themselves the benefits, which 

I they were designed by God to bestow upon this country. 

I This is the history of the little vessel, in which I am now 

sitting, and associating you with Mr. Hadfield, Mr. Whyte- 
head, Willy Evans, and other dear friends with whom I can 
now live only in memory, but with whom I would rather 
live in this way, than enjoy all the fleshpots of Egypt in 
what is called " society " with most men. My store of 
distant friends has grown since I came to this country. 
It is now 20 minutes past 11, f.m. and you have just 

j gone to the duties of your day ; which will be of a dififerent 

character from those which I have enjoyed. I left my 
dear wife on the beach at Auckland, at 12 (noon) yesteiday, 
and at 8 this morning I was at Cape Brett: but the 
usual calm of the Lord's day, which we used to remark on 
board the Tomatin, came on, and instead of arriving as I 



188 LIFK OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 



expected in time to assist Mr. Dadley at Kororareka, I 
have held my Church on the deep, in my own little ship, 
just the length of the ten-oar in our time (45 feet), and 
with congregations just equalling the number of the ser- 
vices, four in all. Native and English, but unequally divided, 
three natives to one Englishman, and myself for the fifth. 
A slight breeze has just brought us within sight of Koro- 
rareka ; the chant of the native crew, one which you have 
often heard in Eton Chapel, and which they have learned 
from the native boys in our school, has lately ceased ; a 
cloudless sky overhead connects me with you "by the 
bands of Orion, and the sweet influence of the Pleiades/* 
now setting over the Waimate : a light breeze fills our 
sails^ without rippling the water ; the wake of the schooner 
gleams with phosphoric light, and the solemn stillness of 
the dark heights of Tapeka is unbroken by any noise ; 
though a camp of armed men is formed on the summit to 
guard the flagstaff, which has been twice cut down in re- 
sentment of the aggression supposed to be intended as the 
sequel of the treaty of Waitangi. Two vessels of war, 
the Hazard, and an American corvette, are at anchor, near 
which my little peaceable schooner will shortly drop its 
anchor. 

The position of the bishop during these stirring times 
was to the uninitiated anomalous, but there was nothing 
that was not most fully consistent with his ojQQce. In 
the midst of the carnage and passion which raged he 
he was ever aiming at peace, and exercising his office for the 
spiritual comfort of the wounded, using his influence to 
lessen the horrors of the strife. The AucMavd Times of 
March 18, 1845, had the following notice of his conduct : — 

"His lordship the Bishop of New Zealand was an 
active witness, and participator in this business ; and it is 
only due to him to record, that it is impossible for the rap- 
ture of praise to exceed that with which every tongue loads 
him. Fearless in the very midst of the contest, Dr. Selwyn 
sought to allay the heat of blood, and to arrest the fury of 
the fight; — ^he was also seen bearing the wounded from 
the field ; afterwards imwearied at the bedside of the 
dying : — ^much more than this — ^he was the nurse, and the 



1844-1846.] H.M.a HAZARD. 189 

snigeoD, and the servant of the sick, as well as their 
spiritual attendant.'' 

In the following week the same newspaper published 
the subjoined letter from the commanding officer of the 
Hazard, who himself fell some months later in an en- 
counter with the natives, which shows the impression 
which the bishop had made on the ship's company : — 

To THE Eight Eev. the Loed Bishop op New Zealand. 

H.M.S. "Hazabd," Auckland, 
March 19th, 1815. 

My Lord, 

Nothing but the number of ofl&cial reports that I have 
been compelled to write has delayed me in addressing 
your Lordship to express my personal feelings of gratitude, 
and also the thanks of the officers and ship's company 
of the Hazard, for your kindness and attention, not only 
to the sick and wounded, but also, generally, to all the 
unfortunate sufferers in the late melancholy encounter at 
the Bay of Islands. 

Although I feel that it would be impertinent in me to 
thank you for the Christian feeling which you evinced on 
that, as you do upon every, occasion, I cannot help assuring 
your Lordship that there is not a single man on board who 
does not appreciate your conduct. Both officers and men 
are unanimous in the expression of their feelings towards 
you. Go where you will, you will cany with you the 
good wishes of aU who saw you under the late trying 
circumstances. 

I have the honour to be. 
Tour Lordship's most obedient servant, 
George Phillpotts, 
Lieut, in Command, &c. &c. 

In this time of great emergency, when it was feared 
that the news of the native successes in the north would 
lead to a general uprising, especially in the Middle Island 
and around the scene of the first native victory, the bishop 
went to the endangered locality, where his presence was all 
the more necessary, inasmuch as Mr. Hadfield, whose in- 
fluence had prevented bloodshed in 1843, was now no longer 



190 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vr. 

available. Three letters written about this time tell 
the story dispassionately : it will be seen that the bishop 
claims for Christianity the credit of inducing the natives 
to carry on the struggle with due regard to the amenities 
of civilized nations. 

To W. Selwyn, Esq., Q.C. 

H.M. Colonial B&iq ''Victoria," 

Cloudt Bat, Cook's Straits, 

March 28M, 1845. 

Mt deabest Father, 

We — i,e. Sarah, William, and I — ^left Auckland on the 
20th March and reached Wellington on the 26th. We 
are now on our way to Mr. Hadfield's Mission Station at 
Waikanae, from the duties of which he has been removed 
by mortal illness, at a most critical time for the safety of 
the settlement of Wellington. My object in going to 
reside there for a few weeks is to watch the effect upon 
the minds of the natives of this district of the news which 
they will receive of the defeat of the English forces at 
Kororareka, and to endeavour to keep all who are reli- 
giously minded among them to the quiet discharge of 
their own duties and the avoidance of political excitement. 
We cannot yet calculate the effect which the destruction 
of Kororareka will have upon our position and pro- 
spects. At present all ministers of religion seem to be 
recognised as neutral persons and treated with the usiial 
consideration and respect, though oiur ministrations are of 
course less effectual, and our admonitions less heeded, in 
this troubled state of affairs. I intended to have written 
you a fall account of aU that has happened to relieve your 
mind from any vague anxieties on our accoimt, but our 
voyage has been so rapid that I have not had time to write 
more than one full report, which I have sent by this mail 
to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, to explain, 
as far as I could, the causes of disagreement between the 
natives and the Government. My hope is, that, by 
cautious and judicious management, the Church interest 
in this country may be kept clear of all political dissen- 
sions. On one point I think that I may speak decisively, 
that there is no evidence of any general or indiscriminate 
hatred of the natives towards the English settlers, or any 



1844-1846.] INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. 191 

disposition to bloodthirsty or savage acts of violence. 
The proceedings at Eororaieka were conducted with all 
the usages of European warfare. Two officers captured 
and sent back unhurt ; one woman taken and sent back 
with an escort, and under a flag of truce ; the bodies of 
the slain respected ; the inhabitants of the town allowed 
to land during the plunder and take away such portions of 
their property as they wished In the midst of much that 
was feai^, there was much also that proved the indirect 
effect of religion and civilization upon the minds of the 
natives. I may add the following: First, the wounded 
and the women and children allowed to embark without 
molestation ; then, after the explosion of the fortified house, 
the whole force suffered to retreat on board the ships 
without a shot being fired ; a single soldier, who was left 
behind after the abandonment of the town, allowed to be 
carried off by a boat from the ship ; guards placed to pro- 
tect the houses of the English clergyman and the French 
bishop; all these indications of character will, I hope, 
relieve your mind from a portion of the fears which you 
would naturally feel on our accoimt. There are many 
signs which give us great hopes for the future ; besides the 
never-fjEoling confidence, that all that is must be for the 
best. You will, I am sure, remember us in your daily 
prayers. 

I remaiQ, 

Your dutiful and affectionate Son, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

To Miss Selwtn, feom Mes. G; A. Selwyn. 

H.M. Colonial Bkig "Viotoma," 
Cook's Straits, 

March 2Wi, 1845. 

That date will a little surprise you, as I am not given to 
ix)am, and had no thought of it when I last wrote to you. 
But much has happened since then which has a little altered 
the complexion of our lives. George came home, as you 
know, somewhat unexpectedly in the Hazard from Wel- 
lington, arriving in Auckland the first week in February. 
He meant to stay a few weeks, and return to the south for 
three months to supply Mr. Hadfield's place during a 
critical period for the natives and the settlers, the former 



192 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

intending to return to the occupation of some disputed 
land near Wellington. Near Waikanae reside the two 
native chieflB, Te Bauparaha and Bangihaeata, who were 
at the head of affairs in the Wairau matter, therefore it is 
the key to the tranquillity of the southern district. Poor 
Mr. Hadfield is to all appearance lying on his deathbed at 
Wellington, and it is clearly impossible for any other 
clergyman to be detached for this service ; and now more 
especially, after what has happened in the north. But you 
must hear it all, chapter and verse. We had all this time 
uncomfortable accounts from the north, where things 
seemed lowering, and the missionaries much out of spirits. 
George became so anxious on their account that he deter- 
mined to go up and see them ; if he could not strengthen 
their hands, at least he might comfort their hearts, for the 
bond of union between him and his clergy grows and 
strengthens day by day. So he arranged with the Governor 
that the brig should call on her way to the south for him 
at the Bay of Islands, and set sail in the Flying Fish on 
Saturday morning, March 8, for Paihia. There, and in the 
neighbourhood, were five clergymen, including Archdeacon 
Brown, who had moved down to Paihia with his still 
afflicted son, who lies now in just the same state. Eota 
and I watched the little vessel shoot out of the harbour, 
little thinking to what a scene and to what dangers it was 
taking its precious freight. ... 

On Friday the 14th the brig returned from the bay ; a 
small coaster the day before had brought terrible tidings, 
and confused rumours of fighting and burnings were 
afloat. I did not believe them aU, but every one felt 
anxious, and when I saw the brig disembarking shoals of 
people, men, women, and children, I felt sure that some- 
thing more than usual had occurred. Presently came 
divers people from all parts to teU me of the conflict, and 
assure me that when the brig left the bishop was safe, 
also that he was intending to come down again. *' The 
flagstaff is down," " the English have been worsted," and 
" Kororareka is burnt," were the true part of all the evil 
tidings which poured in on this black day. It was also 
said that the captain of the Hazard had lost both his legs, 
and much besides of the horrid kind. I was in full pre- 
paration for the Dudley and Williams girls, who were 



J 



! 1841-1846.] PANIC. 193 

said to be coining with George in tlie Flying Fish, I 
watched the harbour till it was dark, and listened to every 
sound all the evening, till the south wind began to rise, which 
I knew would keep them out. One of our school servants 
(Mrs. Steele), who had been staying at the Waimate till we 
should summon her, came to see me. She had come 
down with her children in the brig from Kororareka, 
where she had been with the Dudleys, and so had come in 
for all the disturbance. Her haggard face frightened me, 
and really her narrative did not reassure me. I felt quite 
moved when she described her being with Mrs. Dudley on 
board the Hazard when they heard that the bishop was 
come, and how they clapped their hands for joy. Poor 
Mrs. Dudley had been exceedingly anxious about her 
husband. George arrived in the brig on Sunday, the 
clergy gathered on board on Monday morning, when he 
took the Dudleys to Paihia, and spent the day in con- 
ference with the party there. Tuesday was the day 
of the attack. George's letter will of course best de- 
scribe this, but it will not tell you, as others have all 
told me, how instrumental he was in saving the hves of 
the women and children in the stockade. He saw that 
nothing was being done in this matter, and having first 
brought off four women and nine children from a private 
^ house to the Flying Fish, he collected all the boats he 

I could, and brought off those assembled in this place, which 

(was also the powder magazine, and shortly after it blew 
up, killing and wounding the few stragglers who remained 
in and near it. 

Now you must return to Auckland, and fancy me expect- 
ing them all day. Food and clothing were all ready. I 
rejoiced in the prospect of sharing our large possessions 
with the needy. The evening tide did not bring them. 
At one o'clock I pricked up my ears at the sound of foot- 
steps, and not in vain, for presently in came dear George, 
and you may fancy how glad and thankful I felt to see 
him safe and sound. I was startled to hear that every 
man, woman, and child had left Kororareka, and were 
now in Auckland harbour, an American man-of-war 
who was in the Bay to watch our British prowess, and 
a large whaler, being quite full. Poor Captain Eobertson 
of the Hazard was dangerously wounded, and George^bid 

VOL. I. 



194 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

me prepare to receive him next day, but he did not 
come, as it was thought better for him to remain in his 
own ship at present. George preached on behalf of 
the houseless sufferers on the morrow, which was Palm 
Sunday. On Monday the poor things were to be landed 
Twelve children and several papas and mammas came to 
our house for the day, and out of the stores, with wliich 
by the liberality of friends at home we had been so well 
supplied, I rigged the children out nicely. The next day, 
having concocted a plan with Mrs. Tilly Eay, and offering 
to be receiver-general, I received contributions from all 
Auckland, adding out of our own stores, and arranging 
them, with Mrs. Dudley's aid, for the distribution the 
next day. 

Then we heard that the brig was going south, and 
after many pros and cons Qeorge settled to take me with 
him to Waikanae. I felt much pulled both ways, but 
indeed he has had so much to harass him of late, that 
I did feel that it was right I should go. The question 
of where there would be disturbance seemed equal. I 
left Johnny and nurse at Auckland, for though I might 
find disturbances I knew I should not find a cow at 
Waikanae. Well! this will not be amusing to you. 
Suffice it to say, that we came on board on Thursday even- 
ing the 20th, and sailed for Taranaki ; my maidens twcdn 
are with me, Bota also, who is in a state of ecstasy at 
going among his own people ; George, Willy, and I make 
up our party. The brig is very full, some going to 
Hobart Town because they are afraid to stay in New 
Zealand, and some to TaranakL Many people have left 
New Zealand, and many more would if they could. 
JBut though it will surely be that the country is un- 
settled for some time, and possibly many outbreaks may 
.occur which will make it very unpleasant, perhaps more, 
I cannot say I have yet felt personally afraid. Wait 
till you are tried, perhaps you will say, and say right too ; 
but unless the future is characterised by what did not 
appear at the Bay of Islands, savageness, personal violence, 
and the like, the mere loss of property, though unpleasing 
in a great degree, need not alarm us or make us run away. 
However, we are beyond the reach of such thoughts, for, 
of course, the same reasons which induce other people to 



J 



1844-1846.] EFFORTS FOR PEACE. 196 



depart ought only to strengthen ours to remain. We may 
more and more need your prayers, dear people, more and 
more, then, will you pray for us I am well assured. 

The captain was obliged to alter his course on Friday 
(Good Friday it was) and go south, so that I fear I shall 
miss that beauteous Taranaki and the Bollands. We have 
liad a most calm and beautiful passage, and anchored in 
Port Nicholson on the morning of the 26th. I was not 
disappointed in the beauty of the place, though it rained 
nearly without ceasing during the day and a half we were 
there. We spent one evening at Mr. Coles', and the next 
day in going about a very little, paying a long visit at 
Mrs. St. Hill's, where Mr. Hadfield is, dining with Dr. and 
jVIrs. Featherstone, and coming on board in the evening. 
We weighed anchor at four this morning, and have been 
beating against a foul wind till now, when we are nearly 
l)ecalmed off Cloudy Bay. I must not omit to say that 
Mr. Govett is with us. He is reading for orders, and 
George hopes to ordain him on Trinity Sunday, and 
leave him at Waikanae. I saw Mr. Hadfield yesterday 
for a short time. I am afraid he is dying ; to our erring 
judgment his loss seems incalculable, but I looked on 
the composed and holy expression of his face with awe 
and envy, thinking how happy was he whose short 
life had been spent in fulfilling Us ministiy in so emi- 
nent a degree, and in doing such active service. I did 
not stay long with him, for he was eager to see Greorge, and 
hear all his tale, and talk of his own beloved flock. He 
was very glad that we are going among them, and there I 
really expect to enjoy myself greatly, that is if I have any 
leisure from the incessant physickmg in which my days 
will surely be p£tssed. I amuse myself with thinking that 
while you are picturing me in scenes of woe and danger, 
I shall have been passing my time very tranquilly in 
making pills and spreading plaisters at Waikanae. But 
this sort of friendly offices binds the natives to you. The 
brig is going on to Hobart Town to fetch troops for the 
defence of Welliiigton, which I by no means say are not 
wanted now, but I hope we may be able to do a little at 
Waikanae towards keeping the peace of the district; 
George a good deal, for I cannot put my woman's minis- 
trations in the same balance as his. 

2 



196 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



To Miss Selwyn from Mrs. G. A. Selwyn. 

Waikanae, New Zealaio), 
April 2ith, 1845. 

I have a short time allowed me in which to write a few 
lines to Wellington. I do so upon the chance, though not 
with the hope, of there being a vessel or an opportunity 
for England, as the recent accounts from New Zealand will 
have excited some anxiety in your minds, and you will be 
anxious for further tidings of us. I wrote to you last in 
the brig, about the end of March, and left my letter with 
others in the care of the captain, to be sent on to England 
by way of Hobart Town. We landed at Waikanae, the 
point of destination, March 29fch, since which time, with 
the exception of a small party of whalers, who came to 
church at Otaki, we have not seen the face of any English 
person excepting our own party, and we certainly have 
felt much more at our ease living entirely among the 
natives than in the settlements, where people get frightened 
and frighten themselves by reports of their evil intentions. 
I do not pretend to judge of the real state of the case or to 
ofifer any opinion of 'the intentions of the Maoris, if they 
have any, for we do not see the evil-disposed people much. 
I can only say that all we have had to do with are most 
friendly and hospitable, and after a week's tour among 
them, I have returned with no alarming impressions about 
them. My intercourse with them is of a character so en- 
tirely apart from all the formidable ideas people have now 
the habit of entertaining about them, that I have to rouse 
myself to think of the fears with which they are in so 
many cases regarded. Teaching and doctoring are the 
staple we deal in; more of the latter than the former, 
and in physicking a community, for it is wholesale 
work, you cease from overpowering alarms. They are so 
comical and so willing to take anything you give, and to 
think it aU very good, and that they know nothing and you 
know everything ; this is the point of the matter, if you 
live among them you find them looking up to you and 
clinging to you at all points, and so the fear ceases. 

But this is of the nature of a prose, so I will t^ll you 
that Waikanae is in the sand hills near the shore opposite 



1844-1846.] BUSH LIFE. 197 

to Elapiti ; from here towards Wellington nine miles, and 
towards Manawatu twenty miles, the sands are mag- 
nificent, and on the other side, beyond the sand-hills 
and a little plain of tolerably good land, rises a most 
pretty range of lulls, for the most part wooded. Mr. 
Hadfield's horses are here. We brought our saddles, and 
I have greatly enjoyed some rides. How little did I ever 
tliink to be galloping with George along the shores of the 
Pacific Ocean I You cannot think how fine it is, and such 
a tonic. We went to Otaki a fortnight ago, spent a week 
there and saw a good deal of Te Bauparaha, the man con- 
cerned in the Wairau matter. He was very civil to us, 
and his son, William Thompson, is one of the best natives 
I have seen. Thence George took me a little bush expedi- 
tion up the Manawatu. I longed to go and see with my 
own eyes how so large a part of his life is spent. There 
was no walking for I rode to the banks of the river, and 
then went in a canoe two days' journey to such a beautiful 
pass between the hills on either side; but I slept four 
nights in a tent, and the other three in a little raupo hut. 
Yesterday we returned to Waikanae, and here I shall 
remain tUl the brig comes to take me to Auckland, but I 
hope she will not do so till the 19th May, when George 
will be ready to return also. 

Many more troops have arrived from Sydney, and some 
are expected from Hobart Town. 

Will you let folks know that we are alive and well and 
living quietly here ? By the last news from Auckland all 
was quiet there also. That is very old news. 

But if there were no indiscriminate hatred and blood- 
thirstiness on the part of the natives, the same could not 
be said of many of the colonists. On May 19, the bishop 
embarked on board the Victoria, nothing loth to be free 
from the quarrels that raged on shore, and in the 
leisure of his voyage he wrote to friends in England a 
letter which shows that amid the cares and anxieties 
which surrounded him like the atmosphere, his heart was 
large enough to care for and to sympathise with the 
troubles of the Mother Church. 



198 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vi, 

" We are now just outside Barrett's reef, at the mouth of 
Port Nicholson^ almost becalmed, and enjoying that repose 
of body and mind which is rarely to be foimd in such per- 
fection on shore. When I came down to write, the sea 
was covered with aquatic birds brooding on the smooth 
waters, and seeming to rejoice in the cessation of a cold 
southerly wind, which has been blowing for several days. 
If they had ears to hear, as some birds are said to have, 
and minds to understand, they would be as much rejoiced as 
we are to be out of the reach of the turmoil of Wellington. 
Hatred to the natives is now the keynote, not to harmo- 
nize with which is to be a traitor to one's country, and 
unworthy of respect. And yet all disinterested observers 
see that a friendly understanding with the native people 
must be the only means whereby, for many years to come, 
quiet possession of the interior of the country can be 
obtained. Two days ago I was denounced for having 
brought Te Bauperaha into the town, and harboured him 
at the parsonage. You will not be deeply affected by the 
report of my unpopularity. The real subject of grief is 
the injury which is done to religion by the un-Christian 
feelings and language which many permit and justify in 
themselves. In tiiis perversion of public feeling it becomes 
necessary to stand firm and let the flood sweep by ; as it 
must be followed by a reaction, at least if there be truth 
and religion in the world. And if my present unpopu- 
larity be unfavourable to my religious influence, I must 
remember that the minds of those who can entertain such 
un-Christian feelings cannot at present be susceptible of 
religious impressions. 

" What we shall find at Auckland, I know not; but we 
shall probably retire as soon as possible from the town 
(where drilling is the order of the day, the Church loop- 
holed and trenched) to the coU^e ground, to which no 
alarms have yet found their way, though it would be pre- 
sumptuous to hope that we shall enjoy a perpetual immunity 
from the disasters of our fellow-settlers. May God give us 
grace to sympathize with their troubles, and strength to 
bear our own. 

" On Trinity Sunday, May 18th, I had the happiness of 
admitting to deacon's orders Mi'. Henry Govett, son of the 
vicar of Staines, to replace so far as he can ''my Southern 



1844-1846.] '* UNSATISFIED MEMBERS.'' 199 

Whytehead," the Rev. Octavius Hadfield, lapon whom it 
has pleased God to lay His hand, at the very time when 
the faithless wonld say it was most expedient he should 
Uve. He is still alive ; and mnch wisdom and comfort I 
have been allowed to draw forth from the ebbing well 
which will soon be spent, to flow again in fulness with 
living water at Grod's appointed time. It has been my lot 
to lose my best and holiest friends in the midst of the 
greatest distraction of outward circumstances ; so that 
their deaths have not been to me so personally and in- 
wardly profitable as I felt such intercourse at such a time 
ought to be. Mr. Whytehead died when all our college 
and domestic plans were in confusion and discord ; and 
now Mr. Hadfield's room and death-bed are contrasted 
still more strongly with the fears and evil-speaMng of the 
world without. It needs a mind of more tried and 
matured temper than mine to adjust itself or to be un- 
affected by the course of these alternations of moral 
temperature ; but perhaps it may please God to enable 
these trials to work in me their own remedy, that ' I may 
give Him thanks for the operation of His hands.' At 
present the thought will occur, that ' if the righteous be 
taken away, there must be evil to come.' .... 

*' If any of our unsatisfied members long for more self- 
denial than the Church affords, why do they not follow the 
example of Xavier, and try whether true self-denial be not 
as well practised in a missionary life as in a monastery or 
a hermitage ? I have at command a riU of water, a shady 
wood, a rocky cave, and roots of fern, for every one of 
these would-be anchorites who desires to walk in the 
steps of St. Winifred or St. Dunstan. While they are dis- 
satisfied with the Church of England for lack of self- 
denial, and yet do not throw themselves into the dark 
wastes of our manufacturing towns, or upon the millions of 
the unconverted heathen (where they may practise without 
observation and without reproof all the austerities which 
may best express their sense of bearing the daily cross), 
there must be something akin to the * sad countenance of 
the hypocrite ' in the lamentations which they utter from 
their quiet collegiate retreats over the defects of the 
Church of England as it now is. God forbid that I 
should impute anything of the kind to Dr. Pusey or 



200 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vi 

Mr. Newman ; but some of their young followers are open 
to the suspicion. 

" My chief feeling with regard to our Anglo-Catholic 
Church is that as I have never yet attained to the full and 
beneficial use of her measure of good, I dare not fix my 
eyes upon any higher standard of devotional excellency, 
as attainable at least by me. When I look upon the 
immense dormant powers of our Church, which for secular 
reasons are inoperative, its Convocation, its Synod of bishops, 
its Cathedral system, its Diocesan organization, all of which 
powers are at real work in the Church of Eome, and might 
be brought into use with us, I cannot doubt that it is our 
duty to develop all the energies of our own Church before 
we pronounce upon her insufficiency. My desire is, in 
this country, so far as God may give me light and strength, 
to try what the actual system of the Church of England 
can do, when disencxmibered of its earthly load of seats in 
Parliament, Erastian compromises, corruption of patronage, 
confusion of orders, synodless bishops, and an unorganized 
clergy. None of these things are inherent in our system, 
and therefore are not to be imputed as faults." 

One testimony to the bishop's doings at this period yet 
remains to be quoted, and it comes from another Con- 
tinent. The Bishop of Quebec at the assembling of his 
Diocesan Synod in 1878, shortly after the bishop's 
decease, with a full heart and in glowing words thus gave 
his own recollections of what he had himself seen thirty- 
five years ago in New Zealand, and the impressions which 
had been made on his own mind : — 

" During his first year in New Zealand, Bishop Selwyn 
occupied one of the Church missionary houses at Waimate, 
in the northern part of the Northern Island. My avoca- 
tions took me, then little more than a boy, into the 
neighbourhood. And, as I approached the first cultivated 
spot I had seen in the country, my ears were greeted with 
loud yells, and the firing of guns. Heke, the chief who 
afterwards burnt the town of Kororareka, was, with a 
hundred and fifty armed men, at that moment, on account 
of some infraction of native customs by one of the new 
comers, making an unsuccessful attempt to intimidate the 



1844-1846.] BISHOP OF QUEBEC. 201 

bishop, who in the calm dignity of undisturbed self- 
possession gave smiles for his threats, and reason for his 
passion ; until the savage, like a wUd beast that had missed 
its spring, slunk away crestfallen; and the bishop rose 
proportionately in the native opinion. 

**At Waimate, in the common dining-hall, where the 
whole communion forming the Episcopal household, con- 
sisting of the bishop himself in his academic robes, his 
chaplains, the students in their gowns, a missionary out of 
health, with all the ladies of the party, and the servants 
at another table, dined together, I was, with a young man 
of my own age, my companion, a welcomed guest for a 
month. And during the two years that followed I fell 
in with the missionary bishop in different parts of the 
country, * in joumeyings often.' 

" One such appearance lives with especial vividness in 
my memory. A disturbance had broken out in the neigh- 
bourhood of Auckland, then the capital of the province ; 
and, fearing that this would lead to a conflict between the 
whites and the Maoris, suddenly, with that energy and 
celerity which made him almost ubiquitous, he appeared 
upon the scene. We were assembling for morning prayer 
on the Sunday, when a coasting schooner dropped her 
anchor in the harbour ; and, without waiting for the land- 
ing of his baggage, the bishop stepped as it were from the 
ship to the Church. I can see him now, as he stood by 
the altar in the plain black gown which was the only 
robe he had time to procure. I can hear the tones of his 
voice, as he poured out his fervent expostulation, pleading 
for justice, and demanding equal rights for all. Every 
argument, every figure, every illustration of that sermon, 
except one — they have all passed long ago out of my 
mind ; but the sermon has been one of the most powerful, 
and abiding influences upon my life. 

''Passing swiftly through the outworks of the special 
occasion, the preacher at once took possession of liis 
•hearers' conscience ; and from that commanding eminence 
controlled his audience. And the oft-repeated refrain with 
which he closed each several demonstration of the cen- 
soriousness, and the haughtiness, mixed up so often with 
our judgment of others, and with our maintenance of our 
own rights, sank so deep, and imprinted itself so indelibly 



202 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vn 

in my mind, that I have never since been able to con- 
demn the conduct of any man without hearing in the 
still small voice of conscience those words, ' And Nathan 
said to David, Thou art the man ; ' nor often without a 
clear picture of that Church in New Zealand on that 
bright Sunday morning rising before my mind's eye, and 
the ambaasador of Christ standing there, clothed with all 
the authority and power of his mission, and speaking in 
his Master's name the message home to my soul 

" I have been led on to recount these recollections by 
personal feeling — a feeling indeed which I have made no 
efifort to check, because I thought that, though more in- 
teresting to me, they would not be xminteresting to you ; 
for in truth he of whom I have been speaking belongs to 
us all. All felt, when the tidings of his death came, 
that a prince and a great man had fallen in Israel. His 
memory is our common inheritance. God grant that 
some portion of his spirit may rest upon us ; and that in 
largeness of heart, in forgetfulness of self, in devotedness 
of life, we may be imitators of him, as he of Christ." 

In the midst of these distractions and anxieties, his own 
countrymen possessed by bitter hostility towards him, and 
the natives threatening at any time to apostatize from 
Christianity and to break out into open war, it is easy to 
understand how the bishop longed for reinforcements, and 
especially for the refreshment of one mind in harmony 
with hig own. Naturally he wistfully looked to the fulfil- 
ment of the promise which Mr. Abraham had given that 
he would join him, but he would not hurry his tieparture 
from England until he could leave without injustice to 
other claims, neither would he receive him at any time 
under the delusions of a rose-coloured expectation, and 
therefore he wrote the following letter : — 

H.M. Colonial Brio "Victoria," at Ska, 
Off the Three Kings, North Cape, New Zealand, 

November 6^, 1845. 

My very deab Friend, 

Being now at the first point from which I first saw the 
shore of New Zealand on the 20th May, 1842, with hopes 



1844-1846.] "A COMMONPLACE LIFE." 203 

brighter, it is true, than I can now indulge in, yet not so 
full of real practical love of the country as those witfi 
which I now re^rd it, I cannot choose a more fitting place 
for beginning a letter to thank you for your cheering and 
stedfast letters of January 11 and May 6, 1845, which, 
received shortly before my annual journey, have sent me 
again on my way rejoicing. When I tell you how I long 
for the time when you will look (God willing) from ship- 
board upon these northern pillars of my diocese, before you 
turn southward to gladden our hearts by your arrival at 
Auckland, I would not have you suppose that I wish to 
cut short one day, which you have dedicated to other duties, 
but I must assure you again and again, and more earnestly 
as the time draws near, that the day of your coming is the 
bright spot in the prospect of my future life, upon which 
my mind's eye fixes itself with increasing pleasure, as 
troubles thicken around me, and friend after friend is 
taken away. 

Your letter of January last has reKeved my mind of a 
fear which I sometimes felt, lest you should think too 
highly of our state, and be disappointed. Tour words are, 
" I can picture to myself a hard common-place life." My 
dear friend, keep to that idea. I should be deceiving you 
if I were to lead you to think, that we have achieved any 
of those great realities which are so bright and prominent 
in the true Bride of Christ ; I am but a vedxapo^, with 
some zeal, I hope, for God's house ; but still only such as to 
enable me to do something to sweep the outer court, and 
even that work sometimes perturbs and distracts me so 
much, that I doubt whether I shall ever enter into the 
Holy of Holies, after the first crowd of secular incum- 
brances is removed. To feel the presence of the living 
God upon His own mercy-seat ; to see the true shewbread 
upon the eternal altar ; to enter into the Holiest of all with 
the blood of the atonement, is more than I can presume to 
say that I have attained, and almost more than I can dare 
to hope for. And because I feel that this inward life and 
power of holiness is stiU so faint, I fear to delude you by 
a false light, burning only at the outer gate, and to tempt 
you to unite yourself with our unformed and infant Church 
in the hope of spiritual aid, which neither she nor I are 
able to impart. Let me warn you, that we are still rather 



204 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vi; 



in a negative than in a positive state, rather avoiding what 
is evil, than attaining to that which is good. A very little 
negation of evil unhappily may pass for positive good, 
where corruptions of long standing in our Mother Church 
lower men's standard of judgment, and make them praise 
and wonder at mere " reasonable service." My main hope 
is (and this is aU that I can dare to hold out to you), that 
in our unincumbered and uncompromising Church we may 
breathe a freer air ; and have more singleness of heart, and 
therefore more inward light, to seek for the things " which 
belong unto our peace." But do not come to us as if we 
had attained anything, but pray that we may be enabled, 
from our present state of fightings without and fears with- 
in, from this turmoil of much serving, which has more in 
it of Martha than of Mary, more of practice than of devo- 
tion, to press forward together to the higher crown, to the 
better part, to the state of rest and contemplation, first at 
the feet and then in the bosom of Christ. 

I have already expressed my feelings to Coleridge on 
this subject, in a letter in which I likened myself to a 
Cardinal Deacon in the conclave of Rome. Mine is a 
Deacon Bishopric, and I am content that it should be so, 
except so far as it distracts my mind from contemplation 
of its own state, and of the purer glories of the spiritual 
Church and the unseen world. To move my diocese in any 
perceptible degree, I must multiply my own single force 
through] a multitude of wheels and powers ; alone I am 
powerless. Before me lies an inert mass, which I am 
utterly unable to heave ; and there is no engine ready by 
which I can supply the defects of my own weakness. Some 
of the wheels have to be made, some newly fitted to work 
into others, and when all is ready, an impulse has to be 
given sufficient to disturb the vis inertice of the complicated 
machine, after which there is hope, that even a smaller 
force than mine may keep it in motion. In constructing 
this, I am bewildered by the multitude of details, -and 
sometimes doubt whether I am right in complicating the 
episcopate with all the machinery of the subordinate 
ministries ; and yet I feel that without that pervading in- 
fluence, the whole system will be powerless, not being 
"compacted by that which every joint supplieth, nor 
" holding to the head," And then if this bewilderment of 



1844-1846.] " A DEACON BISHOPRIC." 205 

minute cares cause me to lay hold less firmly upon the 
great Head, which is above all, the crowd which hangs upon 
me loosens my grasp upon the Rock, and all fall together. 
This is what I am bound most solemnly to warn you, not 
to look to me for strength to bear you up, but rather to 
come to me prepared to be an Aaron to stay up my feeble 
hands when the very causes which most require earnest- 
ness in prayer make me more unable to pray as I ought. 
These are not idle cautions, but the real feelings of my 
heart, known only to my dear wife, and now disclosed to 
yourself, lest I should deceive you into trusting to me for 
support and counsel, who need the like reinforcement from 
you. 

I am now on my way to another Visitation, in the course 
of which I have just visited the Waimate, and found it in 
a state even more mournful than when I first saw it. Then 
it only showed the first symptoms of decay ; now almost 
everything, except the church and our own house, was in 
utter disorder ; every window broken, all the rooms filled 
with the filth of the soldiers, the fences destroyed : but 
what I missed most was the cheerful faces and bright dark 
eyes of the seventy little native children, who greeted me 
with a hearty welcome on the day after the battle of 
Kororareka. This unhappy place seems doomed to have 
all its hopes of good blighted as fast as they spring up. 

Believe me, yours ever affectionately, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

The year 1846 was a year of hard and peaceful work, 
although the colony was not free from wars and rumours 
of wars : the waters of strife which had for so long raged 
were not likely to be calmed in a few months ; indeed the 
elements of past collisions were still at work and threaten- 
ing to lead at any time to fresh outbreaks ; but the bishop 
took no active part in the colonial feuds. The work of 
transplanting the college from Waimate to a site five 
miles from Auckland, rendered necessary by the refusal 
of the Church Missionary Society to grant a lease of the 
ground and buildings, was happily accomplished, and the 
gifts of friends in England had provided the bishop with 
" solid stone buildings with noble sea views:" here a " happy 



206 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 

party of fifty of all ranks, bishop, archdeacon, priests, 
students and boys," was housed in comfort. A hospital, 
native schools, servants' houses, and a temporary chapel, 
followed in due course and absorbed the munificent gift, 
which had been sent from the Mother Church. The 
disaster at Kororareka had driven fifteen boys to the 
college, whose ever-open doors welcomed them as students. 
Fencing and cultivating the college estate, added to the 
cost of removal, had " well nigh drained the church 
account," but, wrote the bishop, with that humour which 
rarely forsook him, ''when our swamps are in the same 
condition, we shall have ' bread enough and to spare/ " 

What were the hopes and plans of the bishop with 
regard to the college, and with how great patience he 
awaited their development, are revealed in a playful letter 
written about this time, during the leisure of a voyage, to a 
friend in England : — 

H.M.S. "Hazard," at Sea off Kapiti. 
Haviag introduced you to the greater part of New 
Zealand in my continuous journals to my family and other 
friends, I have now determined to confine myself for the 
future to select morsels of information, lest you should 
have too much of New Zealand, and wish us again sub- 
merged, as we were before the God Maui fixed his fishhook 
upon the mountain Buapehu, and dragged up my diocese 
from the bottom of the sea, an exploit which you, as an 
experienced angler, will know how to appreciate. My See 
may therefore be considered to be established $vi signo 
jmcatoris. This letter was intended to have been written 
at Taupo, the central point of my Northern Island, and to 
have come to you, like the Pythoness, 

in which'case it would probably have been as unintelligible 
as her predictions, as I had scarcely spoken a word of 
English for a fortnight, 

"£t quod tentabam dicere 'Maori ' fuit." 

Since that time I have had. some intercourse with my 
countrymen, and have resumed the use of my own language. 



1844-1846.] " SEEDLINGS." 207 



The old chief Te Pairata received me very hospitably, 
and told me that he altogether disapproved of the war ex- 
pedition ; that he was desirous of living as a Christian, and 
giving up the practices of the unbelievers. He has several 
sons, one of whom I selected for the central school My 
dear friend, can you conceive a more interesting employ- 
ment than hunting in this wild country for hopeful plants 
to stock my nursery at Auckland. One of my main em- 
ployments during this journey has been to collect the 
children of the native settlements, and examine them ; and 
where I found any one who especially pleased me, to invite 
his father to bring him up to my school In no case have 
I met with a refusal. So completely has the old objection 
vanished, with which I was always met when I proposed 
the system of boarding schools, that the natives could not 
be induced to part with their children. I have now 
seventeen from the Waimate, three from Taupo, three or 
four from Eapiti, and I have no doubt that I can have as 
many as we can afford to maintain collected from all pai'ts 
of the island. My Eton experience I hope will be of use 
to me in this search, for nothing used to interest me more 
than to form opinions of the character of boys from their 
physiognomy, and then watch their progress through the 
school, and at the university. I think that I have heard 
you say, as a dahlia fancier, that Brown, of Slough, is in 
the habit of growing thousands of seedlings in the hope of 
raising one rare and valuable flower ; and so I feel that we 
must gather all the seedlings of our native people, and 
train them carefully, in the hope of rearing some few who 
may hereafter be admitted to the ministry. That they have 
intellectual powers of a high order I have no doubt ; what 
they want is an entire correction of habits. 

Connected with the whole group of collegiate institu- 
tions there were now not fewer than 130 persons, English 
and Maori ; all alike, according to age and ability, laboured 
at the cultivation of the college estate, and no task was 
considered menial Here was the practical carrying out, 
with very scanty material resources, the entire scheme 
which the bishop had often sketched and insisted on as 
the true ideal of collegiate life which should be aimed 



208 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

at by ancient foundations at home. He hoped to have 
seven deacons, who should have " Sunday duties in 
chapels in the surrounding district, which will soon be 
OLKovfiivrj Kara xd/ia^ sufficiently to keep them all in 
employment," and the whole scheme he thought could be 
accomplished ' by prudence and industry.' 

Two-thirds of all produce of land and increase of stock 
on the estate of S. John's College were appropriated in 
equal proportions to the several institutions — ^to the Hos- 
pital, to the Visitor for Household and Hospitality, to the 
Teaching Staff, the Lay Associates, the Native Adult 
School, the Foundation Scholars at the English School, the 
Native Boys' School, the Native Girls' School, the Half- 
caste School, and the English Primary SchooL The whole 
organization was started from the first, necessarily to a 
large extent in outline, waiting for means and time to 
fill up the deficiencies ; but this was done advisedly, the 
bishop being guided by the analogy of regiments of Militia, 
whose staff was kept at head-quarters ready at all times 
for service, even when the regiment was .disembodied. 

The Hospital, as it was .the most, ambitious, so probably 
it was, next to the Theological College, the most useful of 
all the institutions thus grouped together at Auckland, 
and the provision which was made for its management 
shows how far the bishop was in advance of his contem* 
poraries. The Crimean War had not then revealed the 
latent talent of Miss Nightingale, and raised the vocation 
of a nurse to the level of a Christian ministry and of a 
high accomplishment. There were few hospitals in England 
that were not content with the services of hireling nurses 
when Bishop Selwyn appealed to a higher motive than 
wages, and having organized a Brotherhood and Sisterhood 
of St. John's Hospital, framed the following Eulcs for the 
Brethren and Sisters of the Hospital of St. John. 

" 1. The object of this Association is to provide for the 
religious instruction, medical care, and general super- 
intendence of the Patients in the Hospital, without the 



1844-1846.] COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN. 209 



expenses usually incurred in the salaries of Chaplains* 
Surgeons^ Nurses, and other attendants. 

" 2. The general principles upon which this Community 
is founded are contained in the following passages of Scrip- 
ture, or may be deduced from them : — 

" Matt. XXV. 40 — ' Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch 
as ye have done it unto one of the least of these 
my brethren, ye have done it unto me.* 
** Matt. xxiL 39 — * Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 

thyself 
" Luke X. 37 — ' Go, and do thou likewise.' 
" John xiiL 14 — ' If I then, your Lord and Master 
have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash 
one another's feet.' 
" Matt. V. 46 — ' If ye love them which love you, what 
reward have ye? do not even the publicans the 
same?' 
" Galatians v. 6 — ' Faith, which worketh by Love.' 
'* James ii. 17 — ' Faith, if it hath not works, is dead, 

being alone.' 
" 1 John iii. 18 — ' Let us not love in word, neither in 

tongue, but in deed and in truth.' 
" Luke xvii. 10 — * When ye shall have done all these 
things which are commanded you, say. We. are un- 
profitable servants ; we have done that which it 
was our duty to do.' 
" 3. The Brethren and Sisters of the Hospital of St. 
John are a Community who desire to be enabled, by 
Divine Grace, to carry the above Scriptural principles 
into effect; and who pledge themselves to minister, so 
far as their health will allow them, to all the wants of 
the sick of all classes, without respect of persons or 
reservation of service, in the hope of excluding all hire- 
ling assistance from a work which ought, if possible, to 
be entirely a labour of love. 

" 4. The Brethren and Sisters of St. John are prohibited 
from receiving payment for any services performed in the 
Hospital, but will be entitled to expect for themselves and 
their families, in cases of sickness, the active sympathy 
and aid of the other members of the Community, and the 
free use of such medical advice, and other comforts, as the 
College can supply. 

VOL. I. p 



210 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vi. 



'* 5. Candidates for admission into the Community must 
be presented to the Bishop, and in his presence pledge them- 
selves to follow out (so far as their health and strength wiU 
allow them) the course of duties which may be assigned to 
them. 

" 6. The duties of the Community are arranged accord- 
ing to day and night courses, to secure, as far as possible, 
the constant presence of one superintendent of each sex, 
to administer food and medicine at the hours which may 
be appointed by the House Surgeon. 

" 7. Those members who reside at a distance from the 
College will be exempt from the duty of personal attend- 
ance, and will be considered to discharge their duties 
sufl&ciently by regular contributions of meat, poultry, eggs, 
milk, butter, and other necessaries, or by assistance in 
needlework, washing, and the like. 

"8. A tithe of the share of produce and increase, ac- 
cruing to the College, will be regularly set apart for the 
maintenance of the Hospital ; and the greater part, if not 
the whole, of the proceeds of the weekly Offertory at St. 
Thomas's Church. But, as these sources of supply are not 
likely to be sufficient, the contributions of all friends and 
neighbours wiU be most thankfully received, and espe- 
cially the stated supplies of those who have been enrolled 
as Brethren of St. John. 

" 9. It is a fundamental principle that all Patients, of 
whatever race, station, or religious persuasion, shall re- 
ceive the same kind and brotherly treatment, without 
distinction of persons. 

"^ 10. The usual regulations will be enforced against the 
admission of Patients afflicted with contagious or infec- 
tious disorders; the present Hospital not being on a 
sufficient scale to admit of separate classification." 

As has been already stated, this year was one of quiet 
and hard work in and around Auckland. Amid all the 
discouragement caused by disturbances in the south, the 
bishop had the comfort of knowing that Mr. Hadfield, 
whose life had been prolonged, as it were, by a miracle, 
was again able to make his influence to be felt in the 
interests of peace. 



1844-1846.] VISITATION BY SEA. 211 

The instances which every day revealed of the good 
services of the missionaries in keeping up a loyal feeling 
among the native allies were valued as highly by the com- 
manding officers as by the bishop, although probably on 
different grounds. The bishop saw the necessity of sending 
more clergymen into the districts in which disaffection 
was threatened^ but just as his need was greatest, his 
supplies failed : two trusted missionaries were invalided : 
others who had been promised from England "passed 
away into other employments/' and nothing was left but 
to look to his own students, whose education was of course 
a work of time. While thus unable to provide for the 
outlying stations the bishop as usual did " what he could." 

The Syndicate met at Auckland and finally revised a 
new version of the Liturgy before sending it to England 
to be printed. 

The month of October found the bishop again at sea, 
spending the comparative leisure of the Flying Fish in 
letter-writing to the great advantage of these pages. 

To THE Countess op Powis. 

Schooner "Fltino Fish," at Ska, 

My dear Lady Powis, October i*<, i846. 

This being the first year that I have felt myself settled 
at home, I have begun to look over aU my arrears of 
gratitude for letters and other proofs of kindness received 
^m my kind friends in England during nearly five years. 
You may think that this is an odd beginning to a letter 
dated from the sea, but the Flying Fish forms a part of my 
idea of home, being the little vessel of seventeen tons burden 
in which I make periodical cruises round my home dis- 
trict, including a half circle of about fifty miles radius. 
At present I am on my way to the Thcunes River, fifty 
miles from Auckland, to see one of our missionaries, who 
is said to have returned in very bad health from a journey 
into the interior, and for the double purpose of bringing 
bim to Auckland if necessary, and of taking the Chief 
Justice and Mrs. Martin across the water on an excursion 
to the Lakes. With such pleasant companions, and per- 
fectly still water, with the prospect of a long day of calm 

p 2 



212 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

before me, I naturally feel disposed to multiply the enjoy- 
ments of my present position, by adding to the charms of 
Kew Zealand air and scenery the recollection of scenes 
and persons most dear to me in England. It is, perhaps, 
singular that every increase of happiness in this country 
seems to make me cherish more wannly than ever the re- 
collection of home friendship, and yet without su^esting 
a single wish to return. Both Mrs. Selwyn and I look 
forward to nothing with greater satisfaction than to be 
allowed to remain here with some measure of health and 
strength to the end of our lives. But this is no hindrance 
to the growth of a fuller sympathy with those whom we 
have left, a feeling which seems to gain strength from the 
very causes which, in other ways, separate us so com- 
pletely. If you could see the pleasure with which I am 
arranging on the deck of the schooner all the letters which 
I have received from you since we reached this country, 
you would, I think, feel convinced that I have a very 
grateful sense of your kindness in writing, and be en- 
couraged to persevere. . . . 

I am happy to report that the loom, spinning-wheel, 
knitting-pins, yarns, cards, &c., have arrived safely, though 
I feared that they had been lost in the Tyne ; and we are 
now building a proper place for putting up our machinery. 
We have in our establishment one Dame Bruce, related, I 
know not in what degree of aflSnity, to the hero of Scottish 
history, belonging to that class of Scotch peasantry who, 
as she tells me, are in the habit of making their own 
" trousseau " instead of buying it, a practice most desirable 
for the undowered maidens of New Zealand, who otherwise 
could only procure their wedding garments by an unsenti- 
mental traffic in potatoes and pigs. Two or three of our 
missionaries also know how to weave, and with their 
assistance before we left the Waimate we had begun our 
manufactory by putting together the fragments of an old 
loom sent out by the Church Missionary Society. This 
and its apparatus we left at the Mission Station for the 
use of the native schools, which were continued there till 
they were broken up by the war. We have now fifty 
scholars, men, women, and children, in our native college, 
out of whom we may organize, without much difficulty, a 
little body of spinners and weavers. 



1844-1846.] WELSH BISHOPRICa 213 

The same voyage allowed leisure for the production of 
a letter to the late Earl of Powis, on matters of far more 
widely spread interest than teaching Maoris to spin and 
to knit The opinions of our brethren at the antipodes on 
our doings at home are often very valuable : they see 
things through a clearer medium than is compatible with 
the strifes and self-interest which so often hamper deci- 
sions and cripple action on the spot. To the late Earl of 
Powis was granted the high distinction of contending 
successfully against a threatened suppression of some of 
our all too few bishoprics at home. The bishop's call to 
throw ourselves, when the State deserts us, upon the in- 
herent Spiritual Power of the Church herself, is a lesson 
which English people need to learn, whether the State de- 
serts them or not ; and the bishop's letter, written more 
than thirty years ago, is as full of importance and of 
instruction for the present generation as for the last. 

To THE LATE EaBL OF POWIS. 

ScHOONXB "Flyino Fish," Off Waihiki. 
* October 2nd, 1840. 

My dear Lord Powis, 

During the leisure of a short cruise, with light contrary 
winds, the most favourable time of all for writing 
letters, I find, as usual, much reason to fear that I 
have omitted to express my thanks for many acts of 
kindness received from you. Two letters I think 
that I have acknowledged — those of June 4, 1843, and 
August 20, 1844— containing much interesting detail 
of my pupils. I will not use your word " late " pupils if 
they will consent to be still under my tutelage, in respect 
of any benefit they may receive from my counsel or my 
prayers. In this respect we shall ever, I trust, stand to 
one another in the same relation as before. I have already 
written on the Welsh Bishoprics' question, on which I 
have to thank you for your exceUent speech and the other 
papers which accompanied it. When I said in a former 
letter that I wished I were again at your side to help you 
in the contest (a species of " gunning " in which I might 
do more execution than among your lordship's pheasants 



214 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

and hares) I did not think that after so promising a begin- 
ning you would still require so much assistance. If the 
State deserts you, can we not move the Church, especially 
as the Bishop of London has given way, and come at least 
to a neutral position ? I ventured, rather presumptuously 
perhaps, as the youngest sufi&agan of my metropolitan, and 
therefore by the custom of courts-martial privileged to 
speak first, and as the most distant of His Grace's children, 
and therefore the farthest removed &om all personal 
interest in the matter, to write to the Archbishop of 
Canterbuiy such an expression of dissent as I conceive 
every English bishop ought to have an opportunity of 
avowing publicly if the Convocation of the Church were 
duly established. At the same time I wrote to the Bishops 
of London and Lincoln in the forlorn hope that a voice 
from the antipodes might have some effect in righting 
the opinions of some of those Fathers of the Church who 
have combined with the laity to turn the Church upside 
down. 

The last resource now seems to be to assert the spiritual 
existence of the sees, their indestructibility by any power 
of the 3tate ; to draw a clear distinction between the tem- 
poralities of the bishoprics which the State can handle, 
whether rightfully or not, and their divine and perpetual 
chaiacter, which L as impalpable to the grosser touch of 
the civil ruler as the soul of man is exempt from the 
power of the gaoler who may confine his body, or the 
hangman who may put an end to its hfe. Let the State 
be, if it pleases, the gaoler or the hangman of the body of 
the Church; let it suspend or alienate its revenues at 
pleasure, provided always that the soul of the Church, 
its living principle, its scripless and purseless spirit, its 
divine origin, its holy and inward energy, be not con- 
founded with such beggarly elements, as seats in the 
House of Lords, and thousands a year, and parks and 
palaces, things which statesmen love '' to touch, and taste, 
and handle ; but which perish in the using." The want 
of this distinction caused the destruction of ten bishoprics 
in Ireland. If the same distinction had not been drawn, 
,the greater part of the canonries would have been de- 
stroyed with the confiscation of their revenues, instead of 
being hefd as now by preachers of the first eminence in 



1844-1846.] " THE PATRIMONY OF THE CHURCH.^ 215 

1 , - ■- ■ 

the diocese, whose periodical cycles of preaching in the 
Cathedral Chtirch will impart as much life and energy to 
the central heart, by their experimental eloquence and 
unbought service, as the canons of the old school deadened 
and destroyed, by the worn-out prose and heartless dulness 
of their hireling ministrations. 

Even in the peerage this principle is true. Can any one 
say that the Earldom of Powis or the Dukedom of North- 
umberland is not a distinct thing from the possession of 
Walcot or Alnwick ? There may be finer houses and larger 
domains in the possession of a cotton lord or an ironmaster, 
but the name and hereditary dignity of an ancient house, 
the yearly increasing sum of old prescriptions and time- 
honoured recollections, has a distinct and independent exist- 
ence of its own, secured by its own incorporeal nature, the 
safest of all entails, from the danger of being squandered by 
some spendthrift minor, or seized by some unprincipled 
administration. Much more safe is the hereditary patri- 
mony of the Church; not its revenues, derived perhaps 
from the fears of some profligate baron on his death-bed ; 
not its seats in the House of Lords, forced upon the 
bishops at a time when the State, with an illiterate aris- 
tocracy, needed them more than they needed the State ; 
these may be taken away as they were given, by the will 
of man ; but the true essence of the Church, which man 
can neither give nor take away, that patrimony and 
perpetual inheritance which it possessed, even when its 
Founder had not where to lay His head, when His disci- 
ples had but a few tattered nets and leaky boats, and had 
left even them, and when they went out without scrip or 
purse, and yet lacked nothing. 

My object in the above remarks is to prepare you to 
receive a petition from the Colonial bishops of this region^ 
praying that no see may be destroyed, but reserved, tiriih^ 
out endaurments or worldly honours, for those who, after 
spending their strength in struggling under the burden of 
the Episcopal duties in dioceses as large as all England, 
may wish to die with thd vestments of &eir order on their 
backs, instead of returning to that verpr questionable posi^ 
tion at present occupied by a Colonial bishop after hii 
retirement. For myself I can safely say that no sense of 
imbecility or entire incompetence to the duties of my 



216 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

present office would be so painful as the thought of 
returning to England to cease to be practically a bishop. 
If I cannot continue to walk over my diocese, I would 
rather crawl over it on all fours than retire into private 
life, and suffer the functions of my office to be cut short 
at once by my own act of resignation. If the Church of 
^England has more sees than it requires can it not spare us 
a resting-place in one of those easy chairs, which may be 
looked upon as sinecures at home, but which we should 
value as places of repose for broken constitutions and im« 
paired powers, amidst associations commending themselves 
to all our holiest sympathies, and with a range of duties 
which we might still be able to discharge ? Why should y 
not the Church of England allow St Asaph or Gloucester /^/v-f-ii 
to be the Chelsea or the Greenwich for its Colonial vete- /' 

rans ? All that we shall ask for is the preservation of the 
sees. We neither know nor care anything about the value 
of seats in the House of Lords, or the necessity of £5,000 
a year, points which seemed to be insisted upon in the 
debates as essential to a bishopric. If so, there were cer- 
tainly no bishops before the time of Constantine, and so 
the apostolicity of our Church is at an end ; and there are as 
certainly no Colonial bishops, and so also its Catholicity is 
lost ; and without these two notes what will become of its 
pretensions to be a true Church ? 

I am writing what will be held to be treason in some 
quarters, but I am sure that I love the Church of England, 
and desire to serve it faithfully till the day of my death ; but 
I cannot bear to see these peerages and revenues stand in 
the way of its spiritual advancement, like iron crowns to 
sear and blind its ethereal sight, and beds of steel to rack 
and cramp and distort its members. Why will not a liberal 
administration, which professes to give boons to all reli- 
gious bodies without any '' conditions to impair the grace 
or favour of the gift," allow the Church of England to have 
as many bishoprics as it requires ? Nothing so much strikes 
me at this distance as the inconsistency of the legislation of 
late years in respect of principle. In England I suppose this 
is concealed by some expediency which we do not see at 
this distance. What strikes us is the glaring absurdity of 
building up new bishoprics by destroying others : a course 
which reminds me of the walks of St. John's College in 



i 



1844-1846.] WELSH BISHOPRICS. 217 

spring, where every rook seemed to be doing nothing but 
plundering his neighbour's nest. 

I remain, 

My dear Lord Powis, 
Yours very gratefully and sincerely, 

O. A. Nkw Zealand. 

The same topic formed, with a project for Church Legis- 
lation in the Colonies, the subject of an important letter 
to the Bishop of Sydney which Bishop Broughton said, 
''ought to be placed in the hands of Bishop Selwyn's 
biographer." 

St. John's Colleos, Bishop's Auckland, 
New Zeaijlnd, August lith, 184tf. 

By the last mail I have received an important letter 
from W. Gladstone, an extract from which I have sent in 
the inclosed letter to our Tasmanian brother, in case he 
should be still with you. The subject is one which I 
hoped to discuss in our Triangular Synod, if we had been 
permitted to meet. He asks : — 

" The principal thing I have to say at the present 
moment is this : write to me fully all you think and feel 
concerning the wants of the Church imder you. I do not 
mean as to money, but as to organization ; as to good laws, 
as to the inward means of strength for the performance of 
her work ; as to giving her a substantive aspect in the face 
of the State and the public, though a friendly one. My 
own thoughts turn to the question whether our Churches 
in the colonies do not want something in the nature of an 
organization beginning from below, from each congregation 
and its members. Whether it is not now a great problem 
to consider if any and what more definite functions should 
be given to the laity in Church affairs. Their representa- 
tion through the Parliament becomes, it is manifest, daily 
less and less adequate." 

What would I not give for an opportunity of flying 
over to Sydney and working out a fuU answer under your 
advice ; but the state of Wellington is quite as much a 
subject of anxiety to me as the north ever was, and there- 
fore I must hope to receive your communication by letter.' 

As you mention the Sees of Bangor and St. Asaph, I 



218 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

am emboldened to submit to you a plan of attack upon the 
Church Commission similar to one by which the Canonries 
were saved, though with the loss of their endowments. 
When it seemed quite clear that the pevenues must go, 
we made a stand for the offices; and the point was carried, 
I suppose, because the present race of legislators ca.nnot 
see that the office is in fact everything, and the endow- 
ment'merely an accident of the office. The bishops are now 
using the disendowed canonries to bring the best preachers 
and ablest men into immediate connexion with their cathe- 
dral. Now, what I should like to do in aid of Lord Powis 
is this. The point is despaired of by all. But a Church 
is never really stronger than when its life is despaired of; 
as Isaac was never more fully the child of promise than 
when he lay bound upon the altar. It seems to be the 
time now to assert the pure spirituality of the office ; to 
claim that as the inalienable property of the Church ; to 
yield to, without acquiescing in, the power of the State to 
confiscate revenues ; but to deny the power of the L^isla- 
ture to remove from its place a candlestick, which is older 
than the British Constitution itself. If you agree with me, 
let us prefer it as a claim, that we have the penniless 
bishoprics, whether in Ireland or Wales, as places of re- 
tirement for ourselves, where we may exercise episcopal 
functions within a range more suited to our impaired 
powers of body and advanced age. Let us state boldly, 
even impudently, " Oportet me g)iaviter esse impiidentem,^* 
that we care little for revenues, less still for seats in the 
House of Lords ; but that which we do care for is the holy 
and spiritual character of our office, which we desire to be 
allowed to exercise with such powers as Ood may permit 
us to retain to our lives' end. How can we discharge our 
present duties when once the body has lost its energy ? 
and why are we to be obliged to vacate our duties, which no 
English bishop is allowed to resign, when at least thirteen 
bishoprics of the Church of Christ are vacant, the duties 
of which are so limited that unthinking men have looked 
upon them as sinecures ? Let them give us chairs to ait 
and die in, and cathedral crypts for our burying-place, 
that we may feel that we have a home within our Mother 
Church in death, if not in life. 

Do think of this, for the Bishop of Lincoln tells me 



1844-1846.] NEW AUSTRALIAN SEES. 219 

that when the Com Laws are gone, he believes that tithes 
will be given up as a boon to the landed interest. It is 
time, then, to put forward the imperishable spirituality of 
the Church in all its offices, as a bright reality, dimmed 
and tarnished by secular rust, but still the same as when 
it first received the promise that the gates of hell should 
not prevail against it. 

Whatever we do, I accept and subscribe to your de- 
claration : that is done in the fuU persuasion, *' that there 
is a Catholic Church, and that its spirit is embodied in 
our Anglican branch." 

While politicians, and even Churchmen, were trying to 
lessen the number of English sees, the increase of the 
Episcopate was steadily prosecuted abroad. At this 
time it was proposed to subdivide the See of Australia ; 
and the following year saw the Sees of Melbourne, Ade- 
laide, and I^ewcastle established within the original limits of 
Bishop Broughton's Diocese. This cheered the Bishop of 
Kew Zealand, who had already seen the necessity of sub- 
dividing his own diocese, small as it was in comparison 
with Australia. He wrote : " From my heart I rejoice to 
hear of the subdivision of one at least of these unwieldy 
dioceses. Some time or other I suppose my turn will come 
to be relieved ; in the meanwhile I am content to go on 
with such measure of grace and strength as God may allow 
me, but with an increasing sense of my own inefficiency. 
I have given up housekeeping at Auckland, and have 
brought all my income to bear on the College, and there- 
fore I hope our financial prospects may now begin to be 
brighter. Our land also begins to yield something, upon 
which must depend, in great measure, the future mainte- 
nance of our institutions. However, as I have quite made 
up my mind to go to the plough myself rather than give 
them up, you may draw upon my special fund for 100/. 

for Mr. ^'s passage, with no other fear than that of 

making me an unworthy foUower of Cincinnatua." 



220 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 



CHAPTER VII. 

[1847.] 

With wars stDl breaking 'out at intervals in the south, 
and with an epidemic running its course at Auckland, 
the year 1847, which was destined to be a period of 
great activity, and to witness the initiation of several im- 
portant steps, did not begin auspiciously. The hospital, 
which had been so important a part of the group of 
collegiate iastitutions, became the centre of a pestilence. 
A woman, the wife of a labourer in the neighbourhood, 
who was extremely ill, but not known to be suffering from 
any infectious disorder, was admitted by the Bishop with 
his usual kindness, and the result was that an epidemic 
ran through the whole college and attacked his own 
children. 

The time had come when the bishop had to contemplate 
that great trial of married missionary life, the parting from 
his elder son ; and he was anxious, if it might be, that he 
should go to England under the care of Mr. Hadfield, to 
whom he wrote, on this and other subjects, the following 
letter : — 

College Schooner "UNDims," 
Off Bream Head, March 25^, 1847. 

My deae and vaxued Feiend, 

First I must express my thankfulness for the abatement 
of your sufferings, which I hear has taken place; and 
though it is not said to give hopes of ultimate recovery, 
yet it cheers me with the prospect of another interview 



1844-1846.] 8ICKNESS. 221 

with you, if it should please God to prolong our lives till 
November. You are said to have now resolved to go to 
England : if this be the case, may I beg you to let me 
confide my dear little boy to your care, Mr, Cotton is 
likely to go at the beginning of spring, in September 
or October, and Mr. and Mrs. Bambridge, so that you 
would have store of kind friends and nurses, including 
our excellent friend Bota Waitoa, who would be charmed 
with the idea of going with you. Pray let me know your 
thoughts on this subject, as the time approaches. 

The state of the Wellington district has never for a day 
been absent from my thoughts ; but a grievous lack of 
instruments standi in the way of any improvement in 
English and native education. I can barely get my own 
school system into order at the college, by throwing the 
chief part of my time and attention into that work. The 
young men do not know how to teach, and the natives find 
out that they are careless and lukewarm in their work. 
The result of a year's work in the native schools is far 
from what I wished, because, unfortunately, some of my 
coadjutors are so little aware of their own defects that 
they think that I work in their schools instead of, rather 
than in addition to them, and so relax their own efforts, 
already insufiicient. There is a grand opening now for 
founding a college for the southern division, probably at 
Porirua, but where to find a staff I know not. In a few 
years I hope to have a supply of young men fairly qualified 
for such employments, but the crop has not yet ripened . . . 

My plan for the next summer, God willing, is to spend a 
considerable time at Wellington and Otaki, and then to 
visit Nelson, Akaroa, Otakou, the Chatham Islands, and 
Foveaux Straits. If the ship in which I hope that you 
and my little boy will sail together should not sail before 
that time, I should hope to bring him with me, to enjoy 
the last of his society, and then to consign him to the 
great current of human life, not in an ark of bulrushes, 
but in the ark of Christ's Church, in full trust on the mercy 
of an ever-watchful Providenca 

Meanwhile the child, for whose guardianship the bishop 
had been preparing, was hovering between life and death 
with tjrphus fever running its course. At this anxious time 



222 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 



the bishop left home one Sunday morning for Auckland, 
with little hope of finding his children alive on his return. 
The first lesson in the morning service was 1 Kings xvii., 
and he preached, with that felicitous choice of subjects and 
of treatment in which he had no rival, on the words " thou 
man of God ! art thou come unto me to call my sin to 
remembrance, and to slay my son ? " When he came back 
to the college he found the crisis was over, and that his 
children had rallied. In the midst of these distractions 
the bishop was preparing for future plans and voyages, 
as well as supplying by his own personal efforts the 
deficiencies in the teaching staff of the college. These 
circumstances come to light in two letters written about 
this time. 

(i.) To Rev. O. Hadfield. 

St. John's Collrge, 
Apnl 29th, 1847. 

My very deab Friend, 

When I last wrote to you about our dear little boy 
William, I did not think that I should so soon be watching 
by his bedside, with my mind wavering between hope and 
fear, and endeavouring to grasp the promises of eternity 
as a substitute for both. We have been visited by an 
epidemic fever, similar to that which you may remember 
carried off William Evans and two other of my feUow- 
passengers in October, 1842. Hitherto it has been fatal 
only in one instance ; that of a native man, who came to 
us in a very advanced state of disease, so much so that 
we could not reject him, as his own friends deserted him 
because of the loathsomeness of his complaint. But we 
have had sixteen or seventeen cases altogether, including 
both our children, the elder of whom is still in a precarious 
state. I am sure that we shall have your prayers for 
patience under our sufferings, and a happy issue out of all 
our afflictions. 

In the midst of this untoward state, a number of new 
boys arrived from tha south, &c. Perhaps you will have 
the kindness to tell Mr. St. Hill, for the satisfaction of 
the parents, that' they will all be stationed a mile from the 



i 



1847.] "ULTRA-EPISCOPAL" DUTIES. 223 



college, and that intercourse between the two places will 
be properly restricted till all our patients are well or 
removed. 

I hope to hold a second meeting of the Diocesan Synod 
in September, at which the two main subjects of conside- 
ration are to be — 

The Canons of the former Synod, considered with the 
aid of all remarks and objections made by any of the 
clergy who did not attend the former meeting. Perhaps 
you may feel able to send me your remarks for this 
purpose. 

Secondly, the consideration of a general Church Consti- 
tution for the diocese, to be first considered by the clergy 
in sjmod, and then presented for consideration to the lay 
members of the Church ; the whole to be finally approved 
by the Archbishop. The chief points of this subject I 
hope to embody in a paper of inquiries to be placed in 
every clergyman's hands before the time of meeting. 

On this subject also I request such remarks as. you 
may be able to gather from the surface of your mind, 
without efifort or burden to yourself. 

(ii.) To A Fkiend in England. 

St. John's College, New Zealand, 
MayZrd, 1847. 

I can assure you that since I returned from my last 
long journey I have been so occupied with the petty 
details of schools, buildings, students, and scholars, that I 
have scarcely ever felt clear in mind to undertake any- 
thing requiring consecutive thought. Between ourselves, 
I have undertaken this work of a college with a very 
inefficient body of coadjutors ; and every day some one or 
other of its numerous branches shows signs of weakness 
and premature decay, by reason of the neglect or incom- 
petence of the person in charge ; and I am so well aware 
that it would have been better to have attempted nothing, 
than to allow it to fail, that I am kept in a continual state 
of imeasiness, unable to be satisfied that any part is in a 
safe or permanent state. This obliges me to throw my 
personal attention into the details of every branch of the 
institution to an extent which would both surprise and 
amuse you, if you could see how ultra-episcopal my duties 



224 LIFE OF BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap, vii 

are as the overseer of everybody and everything, and the 
referee on all subjects, however minute. This state of 
things will not last for ever, for I must in time bring the 
young men to a greater feeling of responsibility for their 
own duties. But the bane of all colonial work is sloven- 
liness ; and my own body are deeply infected with it It is 
not easy to teach them that what is worth doing is worth 
doing welL I do not mean to say that I could not have 
written to you under these circumstances ; but I could not 
have written as freely and heartily as I could wish, because 
my mind for the time being is a mixture of theology, Latin 
grammar, Euclid, algebra, geography, medicine, husbandry, 
gardening, &c., &c., as if an old encyclopaedia had fallen 
in pieces and its leaves flown in Sibylline confusion 
about my head. Some improvement had been made, 
when it pleased God to visit us with an epidemic fever, 
with which more than thirty of our body have been 
attacked, which has added materially to my anxiety and 
work. 

Amid the burthens of sorrow and anxiety the bishop with 
his wonted unselfishness wrote to his most helpful friend 
in England,^ deprecating a monopoly of his beneficence, and 
disclaiming any personal regard for himself as a claim for 
aid in the works to which he was pledged. 

St. Johk's College^ New Zealand, 
April 27th, 1847. 

My very DEA.R Friend, 

If you have reason to complain of a dearth of letters 
from me during the past year, pray remember that I have 
this year been chiefly on land, and that the well-known 
effect of salt water in quickening my faculties has there- 
fore been wanting. The sea is my telegraph to you ; it 
was on that element that we exchanged our last loving 
words of parting ; and it is that which keeps up such 
epistolary intercourse as we now have. No wonder, then, 
that when I am dancing over the dark blue sea, with 
neither schools, nor visitors, nor business to interrupt me, 
I should visit you on the wings of the sea-breeze with a 
more full and flowing companionship of affection. Your 
letters also, no doubt from the pressure of the care of all 

* Rev. E. Coleridge. 



1847.] '' SORROW AND SICKNESS." 225 

the colonial Churches, have been less frequent ; but if there 
were none, I should never doubt the continuance of your 
love, but feel that in the Catholic expansion of the widest 
charity, I and every other object of your regard will 
receive in fact a larger individual share. The more you 
enlarge your central boiler, and heat it sevenfold, the more 
shall we, in common with every other part of the system, 
feel its effects upon our distant wheels. Not that I value 
private love less, but that I value Catholic love more, 
because, among other reasons, it is more catching and 
transferable : it is a mantle which you can bequeath to 
any one who neither knows nor cares for George Selwyn, 
but will gladly work in your train in behalf of the Bishop 
of New Zealand. In the same manner I trust that we 
shall acknowledge your untiring zeal and affection, if not 
by such fulness of personal expression as it deserves, yet 
perhaps more surely and effectually by building up the 
"works which your assistance enables us to found; and 
burying your image and name, where God alone can read 
it, deep under the rising walls of a goodly superstructure. 
It will please you, I am sure, to know that your efforts in 
our cause are among the strongest of the eartJily arguments 
which continually utge me to persevere. 

I write from a place of sorrow and sickness, where 
our nightly vigils are kept by the sick beds of our dear 
children and scholars. Fifteen among us are now ill of 
an epidemic fever, including our dear little boys. William 
has been and may be still very near to death ; but God is 
merciful, and it may be, He will not visit the sins of the 
father upon the chUd. Who knoweth whether God may 
not be gracious, that the child may live. Our resolution 
of sending him to England has prepared the heart for any 
separation, and why not resign him to his heavenly Father 
as willingly as we resolved to send him to receive his 
grandfather's blessing. We intended to place him in Mr. 
Cotton's hands to conduct him to Englaiid : may we not 
trust that he will be safer with Thomas Whytehead in the 
world of blessed spirits t Still I cling carnally to the hope 
that you will see him in England, and that my heart will 
be gladdened in this distant land by hearing rbv 7ral&a 
apuevSeov elyai. 

In all public matters we are in a state of perfect repose ; 

VOL. I. Q 



226 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

and the friendly intercourse which we used to have with 
the Fitzroys has begun to grow with the present Governor 
and his wife. We have this advantage among others of 
our entire separation from the State, that we are almost 
sure to be friends with the Governor. We are not bound 
to be always opposing him in Council, and therefore we 
seldom meet except upon some friendly ground. 

Believe me, ever your truly affectionate and grateful 
friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

This letter, written on land, was quickly followed by 
another written at sea, to the same correspondent. 

College Schooner. '* CJndine," 
Maxwell's Harbotjr, Island of Waiheke, 
fFhU^Monday, 1847. 

My dear Friend and Proxen, 

• ••••• 

At this still hour, with no sound but the roaring of the 
wind above the hills which shelter us, and the rippling of 
the gentle swell which fritters itself away into the " sinus 
reductos " of our anchorage, I feel much of that influence 
which you describe in your letter from St. Leonard's, of 
the soothing power of the sea in connecting our thoughts 
with distant friends. Perhaps the noble bay, in which 
the Undine is lying, may claim some superiority in this 
respect over an English watering-place, for nature is here 
exempt, at present at least, from all the parade of fashion ; 
and nothing but a native village and a few sawyers' houses 
interfere with the simple beauty of the place. Here, then, 
let me pour out my whole heart in thankfulness to my 
heavenly Father who, while He seemed to send me to the 
abodes of savage life, and the wildness and loneliness of 
these thinly-peopled islands, gave me in return the most 
cheering sense of intercourse, unbroken by time or distance, 
with many of the best-beloved and most faithful of friends. 
. The winds which sweep so rapidly over my head would 
convict me of ingratitude, if my thoughts, which are 
quicker even than the storm, did not fly away to be at 
peace with God and with you. 

My companions (now asleep) are Mr. Bambridge, who 
avails himself of a cruise for a change of scene and air, 



1847.] REV. C. MARRIOTT. 227 

and that dear boy. Nelson Hector,^ whom I have mentioned 
in my Kororareka letter, and ii?hom Sarah and I look upon 
as our adopted son. 

In the leisure of the same voyage another letter, giving 
a graphic account of an episcopate of smallest matters was 
written to the late Sev. Charles Marriott ; he had been 
among the friends who followed the Bishop to Plymouth 
when he sailed, and had said at the time that " nothing 
but a firm conviction that he was where God had placed 
him would enable him to resist the temptation of throwing 
in his lot with the bishop and his companions." 

College Schoonek "Undine," 
Off Waiheke, June 7th, 1847. 

My dear Friend, 

I believe it is the tendency of all correspondence to 
grow slack, in spite of every good intention and even effort 
to the contrary. For my own part I seem to be always 
writing, and yet I am always in arrear. But you will 
have the goodness to remember that a year in college in 
New Zealand is very different from a year at Oriel, where 
your whole routine of system and all your collegiate 
arrangements have been settled for some generations back; 
and where your venerable buildings prove that the present 
body have had very little trouble in constructing them. 
With us it is veiy different. Everything in the way of 
system, from the cleaning of a knife upwards, passes in 
some form or other through my mind ; and in the progress 
of our buildings I am practically conversant with every 
detail, and almost know by sight the stones and timbers 
which are to be used. In anticipation of this state of 
things I appointeii you, with your consent, to be my 
deputy-thinker : the tenure of which office seems to imply 
that you will write more letters to me than you will receive 
ficom me, unless indeed you should be so greedy of pay- 
ment as to take letters without thought, expressed out of 
the dry residuum of my brains, in satisfaction for your 
own thoughtful and valuable suggestions. The night before 
last I read over the whole of your letters in the quiet of 
my cabin till past midnight; a practice which I have 

1 See page 182. 

Q 2 



228 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

lately adopted during my short circuit voyages with the 
letters of my most valued correspondents, in order that 
I may gather the full amount of the gratitude which I 
owe them, and be somewhat filled with their spirit before 
I begin to write to them. 

To yourself I feel that I owe the greatest of all benefits, 
a mind continually engaged in thought and in prayer with 
special reference to us; and though we are unable, from 
the multiplicity of petty cares, to profit fully by your 
meditations in carrying out the plans which you suggest, 
yet the other benefit of prayer is one of which we cannot 
be deprived. It is a comfort to a working college, like 
ours, to know that there are some cells in- the English 
universities which have not yet been invaded by the 
demon of whist or science, but still maintain their primitive 
character of self-denial, retirement, and prayer. 

When I spoke of science, I did not mean to exclude 
from my thanks the astronomical magic lantern and micro- 
scope which you sent for the use of our schools, and which 
have been exhibited to their great satisfaction. I meant 
that false science, which was the bane of Cambridge when 
second-rate men spent all their time in hearing or telling 
some new discovery ; while the true knowledge of the real 
interests of mankind were so little regarded that men like 
Whytehead, even with a strong feeling of the duty of 
residing in college, were forced from it by lack of sympathy 
with the pursuits and habits of the body 

Your suggestions on Penitential Discipline came at a 
time when the subject was much upon my thoughts. The 
number of young men of good family and education who 
have been thrown away in this country is quite frightful 
They are sent out by their fathers to settle, because they 
showed no disposition to settle at home ; as if a mind 
could be formed amidst savage life and the unformed 
elements of society, which had refused to submit itself to 
the established customs of a civilized country, and the 
ordinances of the Church in which it has been brought up 
from infancy. The end is, that these young men are found 
in the lowest state of life ; in personal appearance fit to be 
studies for a painter in a picture of the prodigal son ; and 
so lost in mind as scarcely to have the will, much less the 
energy, to reform. One of them is now at the little 



1847.] " PRODIGAL SONS." 229 

village formerly occupied by the college, about a mile 
from the present building. He has opened his heart very 
freely to me, and disclosed the despair which was driving 
him on to self-murder. He is lawfully married to a Maori 
woman, with whom he had cohabited; and his earnest 
desire now is, that they may both be received to the 
Holy Communion, as a bond of union one with another, 
and as the stay of his soul against the terrors which 
encompassed him by day and night The little rush 
house, which I have lent him, he speaks of as an asylum 
from the temptations and restlessness of the town. The 
simple and gentle manners of his Maori wife add much 
to the interest which I feel in his case. She seems so 
much attached to him, and devoted to her children, in 
the midst of their troubles. 

I fear that this letter will not be much inducement to 
you to continue your benefactions, unless you are one of 
the few who grow more benevolent upon insufficient 
returns of gratitude, in remembrance of Him who gave 
most and received nothing in return." 

This seems to have been a time prolific of letters. Among 
the English news was the grateful intelligence that the 
attack on the Welsh Sees had failed ; and the Bishop sent 
cordial congratulations bo his old friend and patron, with 
whose efforts he had so thoroughly sympathised. 

To THE Countess of Powis. 

St. Joun's Colieoe, New Zealand, 
April 30^ 1847. 

My dear Lady Powis, 

. . . We have heard by the last mail that Lord 
Powis has at last succeeded in saving the Welsh sees : on 
which my heart most thankfully acknowledges the mercy 
of God in raising up from amongst the laity defenders of 
the ancient bishoprics, which some of my own order would 
have destroyed. The effect of Lord Powis's endeavours 
seems to have gone far beyond the point immediately con- 
tended for, and to have drawn forth even from Whig 
statesmen an acknowledgment that more bishoprics are 
necessary in the present state of the country with its 



230 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 



multiplied population. These signs of improvement are 
most cheering to me in my most remote corner of the 
world ; and encourage me to pace over a few more thou- 
sand miles of wood and mountain and swamp, in the hope 
that when I am old and crippled, the tide of opinion will 
have risen high enough in England to convince all rea- 
sonable men that our colonial dioceses are as absurd in 
theory as they are contrary to the practice of the primi- 
tive Church. I shall not be satisfied until all my present 
archdeaconries are constituted and endowed as distinct 
sees. 

Little William is still very seriously ill, but he is 
reported to be rather better to-day. If it should please 
God to restore him, he may be too much enfeebled to bear 
a sea voyage this year, and therefore we shall probably 
detain him till October 1848. But I speak blindly of the 
future, not knowing whether the hand of death may not 
be even now upon him. The state of my diocese is mare 
hopeful than I could have expected, and I think with good 
sense at home and practical knowledge of this people and 
country, this colony may still realize the hopes which were 
foimed at its foundation. We have been cursed by a more 
than usual share of speculative talk ending in nothing; 
more philanthropy has been written about New Zealsmd 
and less practised than about any other country in the 
world. If people will now talk less and do more, we may 
still have the happiness of adding another noble people to 
the family of civilized man. . . . 

As he had written some months before, so now, on May 
22, the bishop wrote again to Mr. Abraham, in reference 
to his joining him. The prospect seems always to have 
been present to the bishop's mind as the one thing which 
most cheered him, and at the same time there was also 
present the fear lest the reality of the work should lead 
to the disappointment of exaggerated expectations. 

CoLLEOB Schooner "Undike," 
Kawau Copper Minx, May 22nd, 1847. 

My very dear Friend, 

Last night, during a perfect calm, I refreshed myself 
by reading all the letters which I have received from you 



1 847.] AN ORDERLY COMMUNITY. 2B1 

» - ■ ■ !■■ 11 ■ ■ m^—^^ [■■i.w ■ ■ ■■■- —i-^-- M^ ^, ■^. ■! I I I ^a- ■ II ^^■^^—^ 

since I left England, in number, seventeen. In a state of 
no leas perfect repose, at anchor in smooth water, within 
a furlong of the oopper-mine, ofi the island of Kawau, 
with my thoughts still full of the joy and thankfulness 
which your letters always cause, I sit down in my now 
spacious cabin to commune with you. This community 
adds piuch to the pleasure of my thoughts, for instead <^ 
a reckless and godless band of drunkcuxis, the great body 
of the labouring people are sober, and well-disposed to 
religion. On my first visit, though their rush huts were 
streaming with water over the mud floors, nearly forty 
children assembled to school in as neat attire as could be 
seen in any village in England. The congregation at 
divine service was nearly one hundred, all apparently 
attentive and devout. As you may suppose, it is a mixed 
community of all religious persuasions, and sometimes a 
Wesleyan preaches, and sometimes a local preacher, and 
sometimes myself. But I make a rule to ask no questions, 
and assume all to be Churchmen till they declsire their 
unwillingness to listen to me, which is never the case. To- 
morrow (Whitsun-Day) I hope to hold two services with 
them, and superintend, or rather assist at, the distribution 
pf prizes to the school children. 

The growth of these distant communities, and the evi- 
dent good effect of a regular system of visiting them, 
makes me naturally more anxious about the coUeire, which 
must be deprived of my saperintendeace the Z^ these 
settlements multiply. For this reason, among a thousand 
others, I look forward to the '^ end of the half century " 
with eager longings, more intense perhaps than I am right 
in feeling after so many warnings from God that I should 
not set my affections upon any human friend, so as to 
murmur if he be not granted to me. But who can for- 
bear to hope for such aid as your letters stedfastly promise, 
(more and more stedfastly, I see with delight, as the time 
draws nearer,) when I feel the feebleness of my own 
powers to follow out the openings for good which, in spite 
of all adversiiries, are still to be seen on every side. 

Perhaps I never felt so much stricken as of late, when 
the time that I had reckoned upon for the consolidation of 
the College System h^s been absorbed almost entirely in 
the cares attendant upon an epidemic fever, which h^ 



232 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chaf. vii. 

affected thirty of our body iathe last three months, in- 
cluding four strangers whom we received into the hospital 
from places where they would probably have died for want 
of assistance. 

Now that the excitement ia over I feel unusually de» 
pressed, partly by the prospect of another long visitation 
tour in which the college will not have either Mr. 
Cotton's or my superintendence ; partly the dispersion of 
my last year's schools, with much less advunce than I 
had hoped to see ; and partly my own besetting sense of 
a dilemma at present inextricable, that I cannot cope with 
my work without a more spiritual mind; and t^at my 
spiritual growth is checked by this ceaseless intercourse 
with petty thoughts and cares. I do not wonder that 
there is no diaconal system in England, for it seems to 
be a task of almost hopeless difficulty to persuade young 
men that for a time they may do God more service by 
leaving their elders free to pray and to preach, than by 
rushing into the higher duties of the ministry which they 
liave not proved, and making presbyters and bishops to be 
the hewers of wood and drawers of water. 

What I have to contend VTith is a constant habit of 
deputing to incompetent persons duties which I leave in 
the charge of the deacons. Our native population of 
course encourages this, as they are most willing to be 
employed, but have no order or method in anything that 
they do, except under superintendence; and this superin- 
tendeuce I find it so difficult to enforce. I have scarcely 
a person in the place who has any eye for minute and 
careful arrangement, without which no barbarous people, 
I am sure, can ever be thoroughly Christianised. Through- 
out the whole mission the delusion has prevailed more or 
less, that the Gospel will give habits as well as teach prin- 
ciples. On the contrary, my conviction is, that habits 
uncorrected will be the thorns which will choke the good 
seed and make it unfruitful. What for instance is in reality 
gained by a man, even a native teacher, who is consistent 
in his own religious practice, but, as is commonly the case, 
takes no thought whatever for the improvement of his wife 
or children. How rarely we find in the poorer classes in 
England that religious principle is strongly developed 
• without producing orderly habits. . But to get that per- 



847.] DISCOURAGEMENT. 233 

sonal and parental care bestowed upon the native children 
which may qualify them to be hereafter Christian parents 
in every sense, is the difficulty which almost weighs me 
to the ground, and makes every approaching journey more 
and more -the subject of anxious consideration ; because 
while my body is wandering, my heart must be with my 
seedlings at home. If my nuisery-garden prosper, and 
send forth its harvest of ministers and teachers like a field 
which the Lord has blessed, then my heart and my work 
may grow lighter together; if not, my diocese and its 
increasing wants wiU crush my failing powers of mind and 
body to the ground. 

But as the time draws near, bear in mind more and 
more the caution I gave you in a former letter : to expect 
nothing from us, but to bring with you as large a stock of 
ispiritual treasure as you can. Come to help rather than 
to be helped. I cannot answer for myself what may be 
the effect of the next three years upon an over-detailed 
mind. You may find me jaded in mind with the unceas- 
ing serving of tables, and from the lack of any companion 
with whom I ctm take " sweet counsel " on equal terms, 
or some (Gamaliel at whose feet I might sit I have long 
resolved to pine at nothing, however secular or distracting, 
during the first seven years, or what I consider my epis- 
copal diaconate. But the thought which now most presses 
upon my mind is, that I do not see, as I draw nearer to 
the time when I feel that I ought to resign such matters 
to younger hands, that there are any young men who will 
undertake them with the same interest. But Qod, who 
has begun the work, will, I doubt not, bring it to the end 
ordained : whether it be for my personal good, by the 
failure of plans conceived, it may be, in pride rather than 
in faith, or for the general good of the diocese by their 
success. 

With very kind remembrances to your father, whom, as 
you request, I remember in my prayers (would they were 
better), 

I remain. 

Your very affectionate Friend, 
G. A. New Zeal^d. 



234 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN, [chap. vir. 

It was after all bumble work, wbicb derived its glory- 
only from tbe object which prompted it, and the spirit 
in which it was done, that tied the Bishop to the coU^e^ 
and the divers duties which each day presented. The 
epidemic having ceased, and war being at a distance he 
could write cheerfully the following account of his pupils : 

Jun^ 29(A, 1847. 

My dearest Father, 

• • • • • • 

The seat of war being now changed to the South, we 
are profoundly quiet here. It will be some time, I fear, 
before the Temple of Janus will be finally closed in New 
Zealand, and still longer before the fruit of peace will be 
seen in an Augustan age of literature. 

We are, as usual, busy upon the first elements of gram- 
mar and the rule of three — ^laying the foundation for future 
Persons and Newtons in generations to come. I do not 
think even your love, which led you to undertake the 
charge of the Herberts during our honeymoon, would 
reconcile you to the charge of my present pupils. 

**Bo9ot4ni in crasao jurores aere oatos." 

On September 19th of this year the bishop held an 
ordination of four deacons, three of whom had been trained 
in the college and were a welcome addition to the clerical 
staff, and of one priest; and in the following week he 
held his second Synod, and delivered his primary Charge. 
This was a very remarkable document, full of learning and 
sound doctrine, and absolutely overflowing with sound 
common sense when dealing with the condition and needs 
of his diocese. 

He thus anticipated the criticisms of a friend in England 
to whom he sent a copy : — 

" I daresay it will please nobody, as I have supposed 
myself writing from a New Zealand forest, exempted, by 
the non-conducting media of lai^e kauri-trees, from the 
necessity of avowing myself to belong to any party or 
school, but speaking as a sort of wild man of the woods, 



1847.] SECOND SYNOD. 235 

who has his own way of thinking, and knows very little 
ahout the thoughts of others. You will not too minutely 
criticise either style, printing, or binding ; as the whole 
professes to be homespun, 'expressa arbusto,* or Extract 
of Bush, without professional assistance. If it is not 
thought worthy of England, you may console yourself 
that a very small fire will consume the whole number of 
copies, as the whole impression is only 200.'' 

The Charge is far too lengthy to be given in full in 
these pages; but copious extracts are necessary both in 
justice to the document itself and in consideration of the 
valuable counsel which it gives to all who study it, and 
these will be given under the heads of the difiTerent sub- 
jecbs dealt with. 

(1.) On the Nature and Authority of a Synod. 

"Our present meeting may be looked upon as one of 
a long series, beginning at the Council of Jerusalem, 
in which it has been attempted, with very various success, 
to discover the will of God by the assembling together 
of the ministers of Christ for social prayer and mutual 
counsel. 

" We cannot ascribe a necessary or absolute infallibility 
to any such meetings, even when convened by the highest 
authority, and attended by representatives from all Chris- 
tian Churches ; neither on the other hand can we deny, 
that even an humble meeting like our own, composed of 
the clergy of one of the youngest branches of the Church 
of Christ, may hope for a share in that peculiar blessing 
which is promised to those who shall agree together to ask 
anything in their Master's name. The whole history of 
Synodical meetings of the clergy is full both of encourage- 
ment and of warning. The cases of failure are so nume- 
rous, that many not only question whether a Divine 
blessing be granted to their deliberations, but also reject 
them on the mere human ground of inexpediency. Others 
again, who look to the glorious stand in defence of Catholic 
truth which was made by the first General Councils, can 
scarcely recognise any other form of Church-government 



236 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vil 

as likely to be eflfectuaL Even in our own Church, the 
treasure which we enjoy in her Articles and Liturgy may 
well make many thoughtful men lament the fallen autho- 
rity of her Convocation 

" I need not disguise from you my belief that the cause 
which has led to the almost entire suspension of the 
synodical action of the Church has been the forgetfulness 
of the spiritual character of such an assembly of the 
clergy. Convocations and Synods have been made the 
battle-field on which questions relating to the prerogative 
of Kings, the authority of Bishops, and the rights of the 
Clergy, have been fiercely disputed. They seem to have 
followed the State in the form and manner of their delibe- 
rations ; to have sheltered themselves under its power ; 
to have ayailed themselves of the secular arm to enforce 
their spiritual censures; and so, by close alliance with 
worldly systems, to have lost their own inherent strength, 
and to have become unable to wield the sword of the 
Spirit It is not surprising that in bodies so constituted, 
the earnest endeavour to attain to a closer likeness to 
Christ should have been postponed to the old question, 
' which should be the greatest.' The heavenly nature of 
our Lord's kingdom, and His spiritual dominion over all 
the Churches of the earth, could not fail to be neglected 
amidst questions of dignity and prerogative between the 
rulers of the Church and the State. 

" If I did not believe that our position in this country, 
both as regards the simplicity and primitive character of 
our Church establishment, and its entire freedom from all 
political connexion, gives us good reason to hope that we 
may be enabled to avoid the evils into which other Synods 
have fallen, I should have shrunk from the course which 
I now propose to you, and fallen back upon the practice, 
sanctioned by custom, if not approved by reason, of a 
formal Charge ex ccUhedrd, upon the authority of the 
Bishop alone. I might then have found, as has often 
been the case, that some would have assented ex animo, 
some without assenting would have obeyed conscientiously, 
some would have denied that their promise of canonical 
obedience applied to the points of which they disapproved. 
At the best there would have been much to check co-ope- 
ration and engender distrust" 



1847.] CONTROVERSY. 237 



(2.) On thb Missionary Obligations of the New 

Zealand Church. 

"Though it is far from my wish to reap the fruit of 
other men's labours against their will, or to invade the 
territory which they have won, yet I live in hope that we 
may be permitted to frame an uniform system of education 
for the youth of all Polynesia ; that from New Zealand, 
as from a Missionary centre, the strictest knowledge, and 
the most confirmed faith, may be carried back by our 
students to their distant homes. We cannot consider our 
work accomplished till every dialect in the South Seas has 
its representative members in our Missionary College. 

"God has already so abundantly blessed the work of 
His servants, that not an island remains to the eastward of 
New Zealand to which the Gospel has not been preached. 
But there is still a dark expanse, over which the banner 
of Christ has not yet been advanced. If any motive 
could justify the wish to live the full period of the patri- 
archial age, it would be to see Borneo, Celebes, New 
Guinea, and all the islands on our north, converted to the 
faith. It may be presumptuous to wish, yet it cannot be 
wrong to think of such things; for it seems to be an 
indisputable fact, that however inadequate a Church may 
be to its own internal wants, it must on no account suspend 
its Missionary duties ; that this is in fact the circulation 
of its life's blood, which would lose its vital power if it 
never flowed forth to the extremities, but curdled at the 
heart. We may hope that a statement of the highest aims, 
and most comprehensive definition of duty, will be a means 
of raising the whole tone of our minds ; that we shall 
feel thereby the full weight of the unfulfilled purposes of 
our ministry ; and be humbled, even in the midst of our 
success, by liiinking how far greater is the work which 
still remains than that which has been done.' 



» 



(3.) On Controversy. 

" Of controversy in general I would say, that it is the 
bane of the Gospel among a heathen peopla When we 
preach to them of one God of perfect truth and wisdom ; 
and one Mediator between God and man ; and one Spirit 



dS8 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [cha*. vti, 

1 ^ , ^ 

pervadiDg all things, and sanctifying all the people of 
God ; they can understand far more easily the mysterious 
doctrine of the Trinity, how all the works and Persons of 
that heavenly Being agree in one, than how that Being 
can be the one, only, true God, and yet His doctrine and 
His worship not be one also. I can never forget the 
pointed illustration of the old chief of Taupo, when I 
asked him why he still refused to believe. ' Show me the 
way,* said he. 'I have come to the cross road. Three 
ways branch out before me. Each teacher says his own 
way is the best. I am sitting down and doubting which 
guide I shall follow.' He remained in doubt; till a land- 
slip burst from the mountain under which he lived, and 
rushing down at midnight, overwhelmed him with all his 
house. In another place I have found a fierce dispute on 
the subject of the Beformation ; the one side alleging the 
fires of Queen Mary's reign; the other retorting similar 
acts of Edward and Elizabeth. I do not scruple to avow 
my opinion, that such subjects are not merely injurious to 
the influence of the Church, but are even a hindrance to 
faith in the Christian religion itself. To commit a living 
body to the flames, an act which a New Zealander would 
scarcely have done, in his wildest paroxysm of savage 
fury, or in the indulgence of the most devilish revenge^ 
cannot be reconciled with the history of a merciful 
Saviour, and the doctrines of a Gospel of Peace. That 
such deeds should have been done in the name of Christ, 
after the Gospel had been preached on earth fifteen hun- 
dred years, must be to him a doubt, admitting of no 
solution, but sapping the very foundations of his faith. 

" The simple course seems to be to teach truth, rather 
by what it is, than by what it is not. Let us give our 
converts the true standard, and they will apply it them- 
selves to the discovery and contradiction of error. Above 
all, let us teach them the right use of the Holy Scriptures, 
by prayer, by class reading, by catechising, by comparison 
of parallel passages, by analysis of doctrines, by careful 
definition of worfs, and every other method by which 
they may be able to refute error, and give a reason for the 
faith that is in them. All this may be done with no other 
weapon than the Word of God itself; and there is no 
other which a simple people can wield. 



J 



1W7.[ OXFORD MOVEMENT. 239 

"Much of what has been said itpplies also to our rela- 
tions with our own countrymen. We cannot expect 
unanimity ; let us at least seek peace. Much has beeit 
written upon unity, but as yet little has been done 
towards an union of all religious bodies in one. This at 
least seems to be clear, that such a union, however highly 
desirable, must not be effected by a compromise of truth. 
When all shall have thoroughly examined the grounds of 
their own belief, and rejected such errors as they may find, 
then it is certain that all must come to unity of doctrine, 
because all will have been conformed to the same unalterable 
standard of Truth. To fuse together all religious persua- 
sions in their present state, while they are still mixed 
with alloy, would be to make the process of refinement 
still more difficult than before. Let each purify itself to 
the uttermost, and then the day of union will not be far 
distant. In the meantime, let Christian unity be the 
subject of our prayers, as it was of our Lord's, and with 
especial reference to our peculiar ministry for the conver- 
sion of the Heathen. It follows from what has been said, 
that in the present state of the Christian world we should 
seek peace rather than union with other religious bodies." 

(4.) On the Oxfobd Movement of 1833. 

" We are colled upon to join the ranks of unreasoning 
men, who, while they are tolerating and uniting with 
every other form of error, are pouring out their unmea- 
sured invective against one. We dare not so abuse our 
sacred office, as to lend ourselves to cursing, when we have 
deceived commandment to bless. May God of His infinite 
mercy bless even our bitterest enemies, every class of 
Christians, who, with the misguided 2eal of Saul, persecute 
our Church, and think that they do God service : may He 
have mercy upon the Church of Rome, reform all her 
errors, pardon all her subtleties, and abate all her false 
assumptions ; and so restore to all Christendom that unity 
of heart and purpose, in which tiie wounds of religion 
were healed in the first ages, by the Catholic Councils of 
the Church. And in a more private, and therefore on a 
lower ground, on which I might have been silent, if I 
bad not been called upon to speak, lest silence should be 



240 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

construed into agreement with error, or fear of rebuking 
it ; here also, when we are expected to censure, we find it 
rather in our hearts to bless — ^to bless those servants of 
Qod, who, when much of our apostolical discipline had 
been decayed and lost, devoted all the energies of their 
mind, and all the intensity of their prayers, to building up 
again the walls which seemed to be tottering to their fall 
— ^those three men, mighty in the Scriptures, who, when 
they foimd us hemmed in with enemies, and thirsting 
for Catholic unity, went forth to draw water for us from 
the well of primitive antiquity ; but one was taken captive 
by the foreign armies which had usurped the welL May 
we not respect the motive, commend the effort, and bless 
the men, even while we reject the gift ? 

" You are entitled to receive this statement of my feel- 
ings, that you may know how far I sympathise with the 
religious movement of which Oxford was the centre, and 
at what point I stop. I am not called upon to censure 
men whose private character I revere, while I differ widely 
from the conclusion to which some of them have been ledL 
While it seemed that the one object of aU their endea- 
vours was to develop in all its fulness the actual system 
of the Anglican Church, neither adding aught to it, nor 
taking away aught from it : but purifying its corruptions, 
calling forth its latent energies, encouraging its priesthood 
to higher aims, and to a more holy and self-denying life ; 
exhorting us to fast^ and watch, and pray, more frequently 
and more earnestly; to be more abundant in our alms- 
giving, more diffusive in our charity ; and to that end to 
retrench our expenditure, and to look upon ourselves as 
the stewards of God — in one word, while they seemed to 
teach us to do in our own system and ritual what the 
apostles did in their days, and what our own Church still 
prescribes ; I felt that I could not disobey their calling, 
because it was not theirs, but the voice of my Holy 
Mother whom I had sworn to obey, and the example of 
the apostles which it was my heart's desire to follow. But 
when a change came upon the spirit of their teaching, and 
it seemed as if our own Church were not good enough to 
retain their allegiance ; when, instead of the unity for 
which we had prayed, we seemed to be on the verge of 
a frightful schism ; then indeed I shrunk back, as if a 



1847.] SPIHITUAL DISCIPLINE. 241 

voice had spoken within me : Kot one step further ; for I 
love my Church in which I was bom to God, and by His 
help I will love her unto the end." 

(5.) On the QnAJJI3C^TI01fS OB a PfiEACHER. 

" He who, in the exercise of his cure of souls, s.tores up his 
mind, and softens his heart, with the confessions .of .con- 
trite sinners ; and watches the slow and painful processes 
of moral cure, by which a depraved Ufe is gradually 
reformed; or hears the solemn thoughts of dying men^ 
and the remorse of a consci^ce ill at ease ; and feels in 
every case for his beloved parishioner as if he were his 
brother or his Mend : that preacher will never lack argu- 
ment for his sermons ; and the word preached by him wiU 
have such success that it will never be spoken in vain. 
We, who have tasted these joys of the parochial ministry, 
and from it have been called to the Episcopate, can tell frojQ 
our own experience how much we have lost in ceasing to 
be the bosom friends of the sufferinjg poor and the dying 
penitent It is well for us, if we caji find compensi^tion 
for the loss, in imparting to those upon whom we lay our 
hands, the same source of ministerial comfort." 

(6.) On the Offjoe of Arotdbaoons. 

'' K this be said to be a system which exalts j;he Arch- 
deacon above other presbyters, I pray, in the name of our 
crucified Master, that we may never here discuss the ques- 
tion, 'Which shall be the greatest?' It is to be hoped 
that the title of a * Dignitary ' of the Church will never be 
heard in New Zealand. No earthly dignity, either in 
Church or State, can equal the moral grandeur of the 
leathern girdle and the raiment of camels' hair, or 
the going forth without purse or scrip, and yet lacking 
nothing." 

(7.) On the Exekcisb of Spiritual Discipline. 

" I find that the native mind has run wild upon the 
love of power, and the eagerness to wield the censures of 
the Church. A native teacher will often do in his own 
village what J should have recourse to with fear and 

VOL. L R 



242 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vir. 

trembling, and only in extreme cases, in the English 
towns. It is a matter of history, that nothing is more 
fatal to the exercise of real discipline, than the assumption 
of unwarranted authority. The excessive rigour of native 
judgments, the public and unscriptural mode of trial of the 
offender, the alienee of all desire to bring back and recon- 
cile those who have been excommunicated, are evils which 
lie at the root of the whole Native Teacher System, and 
threaten to overthrow it before a supply of clergymen can 
be trained up to undertake their work. No better course 
can be adopted, than to follow strictly the rule of our 
Lord in S. Matt, xviii. 15 — 17, beginning first with jprit;a^ 
admonition; then with the addition of two or three 
witnesses ; and lastly by an appeal to the authority of the 
Church. It ought to be impressed upon the Native Teachers 
that they have only authority to admonish and report to 
their minister, but no authority whatever to excommunicate 
the offender. By holding a public trial, and exposing 
a weak brother to the shame of having his offence dis- 
cussed before all the men, women, and even the children 
of the place, we shall harden his heart against every 
thought of penitence, and defeat the main object of 
Church discipline, which is not punishment, but repentance 
and reconciliatioa 

" You will see the difficulty in which I am placed by 
the excessive and arbitrary rigour of discipline in the 
Native Church, and by the total absence of it in the 
English settlements. We cannot allow this state of things 
to continue without exposing alike our laws and our law- 
lessness to the contempt of bR thinking men. A moderate 
exercise of penitential correction, uniformly acted upon in 
all cases without distinction of persons, would be a bless- 
ing to the country, and fulfil the wish which we express 
on Ash Wednesday, that the godly discipline of the primi- 
tive Church may be restored. I am well aware that there 
is no function of my office more difficult of administration 
than this ; and that I shall incur the suspicions of many 
in attempting to exercise it But it is impossible to doubt 
that a law is right which is enjoined in Scripture, and that 
a course is practicable which is actually practised by all 
other Christian communities but our own. The strict 
communions and the prompt expulsion of notorious evil 



1847.] CAUSE OF FAILURE OF DISCIPLINE. 243 

livers are the boast of all the dissenting bodies, and the 
point of all others npon which they regard their system 
as superior to that of the Church. Not that we can be 
said to recognise no penitential system of discipline, bat 
that we seldom put it into operation. And thus we are 
censured for every ungodly sinner who continues among 
us unreproved ; and for every notorious profligate whose 
remains we consign to the earth with the same words of 
* sure and certain hope of a joyful resurrection.' And 
worse than all, it is not we alone that suffer, for it may be 
good for us to be reviled, but our erring brethren, for 
whom Christ died, may be lost for ever by our timidity, 
for lack of that solemn and even awful warning which the 
Church prescribes, but which we dare not pronounce. 

" If we seek the cause of all failure of Church discipline 
among ourselves, while it remains in force among other 
religious communities, we shall find, I thipk, that our 
Church departed from her vantage-ground when she sought 
the aid of the secular arm to enforce her censures. It was 
not the mourning of the mother over the child whom she 
repels from her bosom ; it was not the Churcji of the 
apostles holding the keys, and one day using them to 
exclude the sinner, and the next day to readmit the peni- 
tent : but it was the merging of her own spiritual autho- 
rity in worldly ordinances ; and, * as if unworthy to judge 
the smallest matters,' vacating the power which she had 
received to judge angels and the world (1 Cor. vi 2, 3). 
In the train of this false alliance with the civil power 
came the vain and fatal attempts to constrain men to 
uniformity, not by force of reason, or by her own purity of 
doctrine, but by the terrors of the law : till men ' started 
aside like a broken bow,' and the power which had been 
abused to coerce conscience, became useless for its own 
proper work of reforming sin 

" The last solemn warning, when all others have failed, 
is the sentence of excommunication. And if we cannot be 
safe in withholding the lower and less striking warning, 
how can we dare, in extreme cases, to keep back that 
which is the most solemn and impressive of all ? To allow 
a man to go down without repentance to his grave, while 
any means remained untried for his conversion, would be 
worse than the act of a physician, who, having tried many 

B 2 



244 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vil 



of the usual remedies in vain, suffered the sick man to die 
without trying the effect of the strongest of all. What a 
false charity is this, to shrink f]x>m giving pain, while 
time is still allowed for repentance ; and so to leave the 
pain to be felt first in all its agony^ when repentance will 
be unavailing ? • . . . 

** In no otiier way can we come to peace of conscience 
in the discbarge of our ministry, than by fulfilling the law 
of the Church relating to discipline. Neither can a clergy- 
man discharge his full duty to a sinner while he withholds 
from him any of the appointed warnings of the Gospel; 
jior can he avoid the obUgation to use the Burial Office* 
without alteration or omission, unless the final warning 
shall have been given in the most solemn form of excom- 
munication. It remains then only to state, what seems to 
be the practical course to which we are bound to adhere. 
In few words : if any parishioner, after repeated warnings, 
continues to live in such a state, that his Clergyman could 
not with a safe conscience use the Burial Service over his 
grave, he must be presented formally to the Bishop, to be 
^y him again and again admonished and exhoiiied to 
cepent. As a last resource, and with fear and searching 
of heart, I would pronounce the sentence of excommuni- 
cation, which would release you from the obligation of 
violating your own consciences by giving Christian burial 
to one who persisted in an unchristian course of life. 
This burden falls upon me, and not upon you, and, with 
Ood's help, I will not shrink from it. God forbid that 
•you should incur the hatred of your people, or raise up 
angry passions over the graves of the dead ; let it be 
known to be your plain duty, from which you caimot 
swerve ; founded on a law which you cannot alter ; com- 
mended to your conscience by reasons drawii from the 
word of God itself ; and directed in its special application 
by an authority to which you have promised obedience." 

(8.) On Divobcd, anp the Mabriage of Unbaptized 

Pebson^ 

" On the subject of divorce, I am thankful to be able to 
state at once that I have no power or jurisdiction whatever 
in such matters. I believe that the difficulty of obtainiDg 



1847.] DIVORCE AND RE-MARRIAGE. 445 



a divorce is one great security against the occurrence of 
the only cause for which it could be claimed, in accordance 
with the precept of the Gospel. Most certainly I will 
never consent to assist in introducing into this country 
any system by which the offending parties, if they are 
rich enough to incur the expense of the process, can obtain 
legal sanction for their unlawful desir&s, and bring in 
a second breach of the law of Christ as a direct conse- 
quence of the first Though I am^ in doubt upon the 
general question, upon this point it is my duty to speak 
clearly and decisively, that in the event of any power 
being created in the Colony by which divorces can be pro- 
nounced, you have my full authority to refuse to re-marry 
those who have been divorced, and I will take upon myself 
the consequences of your refusal. We must obey the law 
of Christ at all hazards, whatever may be the ordinances 
of men. .... 

" A doubt seems to have occurred, whether unbaptized 
persons could be married with the rites of the Church. 
In the case of unbelievers I think that we ought not to 
use the Christian ordinances; but where persons have 
already professed their belief, and are only hindered from 
baptism by the prescribed course of probation, I see no 
reason to think that they may not rightly receive the 
marriage benediction. As a practical observation,, founded 
upon the state of the native people, I should very much 
prefer that marriage should be allowed first, to be followed 
by baptism in its own convenient season, than that baptism 
should be unduly hurried as a qualification for marriage. 
There is a doubt in either case which may be expressed in 
the form of a dilemma. We hesitate to marry persons 
because they are not baptized ; and we hesitate to baptize 
them because they are living in sin. No doubt the clear 
course would be to postpone marriage and enforce separa- 
tion till both persons had been duly examined and bap- 
tized : but we must remember that we are legislating for 
a Church of proselytes, and that there is a rule of the 
Gospel which teaches us not to put new wine into old 
bottles. The doubt is of a temporary nature, and in the 
next generation, we may hope, will be entirely removed 
by the administration of infant baptism.'' 



246 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vu. 



(9.) On the Nature and Limits of Episcopal 

Authority. 

" You have heard already the definition of the Venerable 
Bede, that the Episcopate is a title, not of honour, but of 
work ; and in that spirit I trust to be enabled to exercise 
my office. I do not consider myself exempt from any 
duty which can fall upon any Priest or Deacon in the 
Diocese, except so far as my own purely Episcopal duties 
shall absorb my time, and demand a priority of attention. 
* Only on the throne will I be greater' than you. It is 
not so much that I have vacated any other order to which 
I was formerly ordained, but that I have been consecrated 
to another office, the duties of which are added to those 
for which I was responsible before. 

" Upon this principle it follows at once, that I am placed 
here to act, not so much over you, as with you. For one 
point in which I seem to be placed over you, that is, in 
the power of coercion and government, there are many in 
which I am associated with you in the discharge of the 
duties of the same Divine Ministry. And even in the 
power of coercion, which I seem to exercise, it is not so 
much in my own person that I so act, as in the spirit of 
the whole Clergy, or rather of the Church Catholic, the 
execution of whose decrees is vested in me. / believe the 
monarchical idea of the Episcopate to be as foreign to the 
true mind of the Churchy as it is adverse to the Gospel doctrine 
of humility. Let it never be thought that I alone am 
interested in the good government of our Church ; and 
that you are merely subjects to obey. Whatever interest 
I have in the work, you have also. If an offending 
brother is to be brought under the censure of the Church, 
what am I but the organ of the general sense of the 
Clergy, which demands that the unclean thing shall be 
put away, as a scandal to their order ? I might consult 
my own ease by conniving at disorder; but you would 
reap the bitter fruit in the decay of your influence, and in 
the growing indifference, if not contempt, of your people. 
You must recognise therefore a joint interest in the office 
of the Bishop, looking upon him not as a tyrant to compel 
you to do what you would not; but as your own agent 



1847.] PATRONAGE. 247 

and instrument to carry into effect ivhat you know to be 
right, and wish to do^ but which you could not accomplish 
of yourselves. 

" It was in days of persecution and of danger, when 
the crown of martyrdom was at hand, that Cyprian said 
to his presbyters, * I will do nothing in your absence ; ' 
and in proportion as we feel the difficulties and sorrows of 
our work, the loss of our dear brethren in the ministry, 
the falling away of our native converts, and the growth of 
evil ; so much the more are we drawn together into one 
cause, resolved to allow no questions of dignity, no private 
interests, to rend asunder our social system and divide 
our house against itself. We have difficulties enough to 
overcome, without adding to them the only one which is 
insuperable, that of disunion among ourselves. The ex- 
pression ma of our native language, I pray may always be 
affixed to my name. I would rather resign my office, than 
be reduced to act as a single and isolated being. In such 
a position, my true character, I conceive, would be entirely 
lost. 

<' It remains then to define, by some general principles^ 
the terms of our co-operation. They are simply these : 
that neither will I act without you, nor can you act 
without me. The source of all diocesan action is in the 
Bishop ; and therefore it behoves him so much the more 
to take care that he act with a mind informed and rein- 
forced by conference with his Clergy. He cannot delegate 
his power of action to any, for it is inherent in himself ; 
but he may guard himaeK from arbitrary and iU-considered 
acts, by giving to his council a salutary power of control. 
In works of which the effect must depend upon moral 
influence and willingness of heart, it is better not to act at 
all, than to act against the declared opinion of those who 
are conjointly interested in the plan, and mainly respon- 
sible for the execution of it." 

(10.) On Patronage. 

'* The present state of the Church of England is a proof 
of the enormous evils which have sprung from the abuse 
of patronage, the perversion of ecclesiastical offices, and 
the worldlmess of mind induced by the unequal distribution 



248 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

of the leventtes of the Church. These we are not bound 
to imitate, but to cast them off, as evils which the Fathers 
of the Beformation recognised as blots upon their system, 
forced upon them by the State as the price of its support. 
The spiritual system of doctrine and discipline fixed by 
the Beformation is that to which we owe our unqualified 
allegiance, as agreeing with Scripture and with the practice 
of the Prhnitive Church." 

The main business of the Synod was the revision of 
the Canons of the Synod of 1844, against which only one 
protest had been received, and the formation of a plan of 
Church-government as the basis of a body of law for the 
diocese, which had been suggested to the bishop and the 
Archbishop of Canterbury by Mr. Gladstone, while holding 
the office of Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

The week which witnessed the assembling of the Dio- 
cesan Synod found the bishop engaged in another work 
from which many a man would have shrunk. Long before 
Kew Zealand had become a colony, before even the 
question arose whether France or England should colonize 
it, some of the missionaries had acquired by purchase 
large tracts of land, which for the most part were still 
uncultivated. The time had now come when the value of 
land was increased, and the Government fixed a limit to 
the numbei' of acres which any one person could hold : 
this ordinance could not be retrospective in its action, 
but the fact that the missionaries did in some cases possess 
large holdings aroused the jealousies of the colonists and 
the prejudices of the natives. The Government was pre- 
pared to offer them liberal terms if they would give up their 
lands, but they could not be compelled to do so. Sir George 
Grey therefore asked the bishop to use his influence. The 
bishop did not shrink from the task, and in a weighty letter 
implored them, ^ for the sake of a few waste and worthless 
acres,not to alienate the confidence of those who offered most 
zealous friendship and assistanca" While admitting that 
in the acquisition of so much land they had been actuated 



1847.] ARCHDEACON WILLIAMS. 249 

by an earnest desire for the welfare of their children, the 
bishop added, *' I have trusted that the time would come 
when your children would learn, as some have done already, 
to renounce the barren pride of ownership for the moral 
husbandry of Christ's kingdom, in the harvest-field of 
souls. For yourselves, I have only further to express my 
conviction that when the first sting shaU have passed away 
of alleged misconduct, and of imputation which you be- 
lieve to be unjust, you will be the first to acknowledge that 
there is a Christian meekness and an active zeal, by which 
the Christian nussionary may inherit the earth, though he 
have no other possession in it than a grave." 

Before this year ends another letter is sent to the Bev» 
E. Coleridge by the hands of the Eev. W. Cotton, who re- 
turned to England after six years' service in New Zealand. 
It shows the fertility of the bishop's mind. While planning 
the extension and subdivision of his own diocese he had 
had very clear conceptions of the need of the Mother 
Church : and now the consolidation of the New Zealand 
Church and its augmented staff seemed to him but a 
stepping-stone to the regions beyond, whose evangelization 
had never been absent from his thoughts, although duties 
more imperative in their nature had hitherto prevented his 
doing more than think of it. 

St. John's Colleos, Kew Zealand, 
Dee. 7th, 1847. 

. . • Herewith I commend to your good ofiKces Leonard 
Williams, the eldest son of the Archdeacon of Waiapu, 
who will not, I think, disgrace his excellent father or 
St. John's College. Only one thing I stipulate, that you 
do not steal him from us, but send him back replenished 
with every good and holy knowledge to foUow in his 
father^s steps. 

On the subject of the said Archdeacon of Waiapu I 
have somewhat confidential to say. He is an episcopally- 
minded man, and it would give me great pleasure to divide 
my diocese with him. Yea, let him take all, as I cannot 
pretend to equal his piety or maturity of wisdom. The 



260 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

Bishop of Australia is of the same mind. He said of him : 
" He is the man that I should like to have with me when 
I am dying." Now, experience has proved to me that a 
collegiate bishopric in a simple country like this may be 
maintained with credit, and dignity, for the sum stated in 
the Church almanac for "bishops," viz. 5001, a year. 
The archdeacon's present income is about 300/. a year, and 
I should be very glad to begin by transferring 200/. of the 
Church Missionary payment to the Colonial Bishoprics' 

Fund in augmentation of his income 

You have gladdened our hearts by the report of the 
steadfastness of our dear friends at Oxford. let us not 
desert our Holy Mother at the very time when she shows 
signs of returning vitality! The experience of a new 
colony convinces me that the Church of England system 
fully worked — 

1. Under an able and pious head ; 

2. With sufficient clergy of one mind ; 

3. With no pecuniary bias ; 

4. With no State interference ; 

5. With free power of expansion ; 

a. In its own field, 

6. Over the heathen world ; 

6. With a " sacramentum " of obedience ; 

" Here am I, send me ; " 
" I go, sir ; " 
as well understood as in the army and navy ; 

7. With a definition of the duties of 

Bishops, 

Archdeacons, Eural Deans, 

Priests, 

Deacons, Schoolmasters, 

Clergymen's wives ; 

8. With an exclusion of all interference of relations, as 

in the miUtary and naval service : 
That, these postulates granted, the Church of England 
would speedily become a praise upon the whole earth. I 
omit all esoteric points of discipline, ministerial confession, 
&c., as I believe them even now to be in the power of any 
clergyman who acquires an influence over his people. . . . 
Our ordination in September was worthy of England. 
Thirteen clergymen partook of the Holy Communion. Our 



1847.] FIRST VOYAGE TO MELANESIA. 251 

native and English schools chanted the Glorias and sang 
the Veni Creator. The church was filled as I have not 
seen a charch filled since I took leave of my dear friends 
at Windsor. 

Our College Chapel has heen opened and consecrated; 
and now we feel what it is to have again a heart, for you 
may assure all your pupils who go to the daily service, 
that a few years in a colony would convince them of the 
value of the blessings which are despised in England. 
Let them persevere in their work of intercession ; and in 
their prayers remember New Zealand. Tell them from me 
that a college without a daily service ia like a body without 
breath or circulation of blood. Our consecration was not 
without its fruit ; several of our college boys then com- 
municated for the first time. The Windsor plate emerged 
again, having slumbered since our last communion at the 
Waimate. Pray tell Sharman and the Windsor co-opera- 
tives, and dear old Mr. Meyricke, that we thought of them 
on that day 

You will perhaps be surprised to hear that I am likely 
to sail soon for the Navigator Islands in Her Majesty's 
ship Dido, The hero of my JEneid wiU be no less a 
personage than Mr. Pritchard of oecumenical reputation. 
It seems that the good man has had some quarrel with the 
natives about a horse, and has written for a man-of-war to 
wreak his wrongs. Such a proceeding on the part of a 
man of such missionary note in former times, though now 
only a trading Consul, seems likely to have the effect of 
esti^nging thi natives from the London Mission, to which 
he belonged, and throwing them upon the Papists, who are 
on the watch in all parts of these seas. To obviate this, 
and in remembrance of the Archbishop's valedictory letter, 
in which I am solemnly urged to watch the spread of the 
Gospel over the Pacific Ocean, I think of accepting the 
offer of Captain Maxwell of a place in his cabin, and shall 
probably sail in a week for the Samoan or Navigator group. 
My endeavour will be to bring back some promising boys 
to associate with our native scholars, as a beginning of the 
Polynesian branch of St. John's College, which is deeply 
impressed upon my mind as a thing essentially necessary. 
There is a floating body of rogues and vagabonds who 
wander from island to island successively as British justice 



262 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

overtakes one place after another ; setting up their grog- 
shops just outside the pale of civilization, and there 
poisoning the work of the missionaiy and breaking his 
heart. Such was Kororareka before the country was 
colonized ; at least so I have heard it described. If it 
please Qod that I cany this into effect, I will not fail to 
send you a choice letter on the Samoans and their illus- 
trious Consul 

Sarah has just remarked that Mr. Cotton's visit will 
have a good effect in setting before you our real state ; as 
opposed to the rose-coloured idea. . . . We are in a very 
matter-of-fact state ; making slow progress, but prepared 
to be thankful so long as we make any progress at all . . . 



1848.] H.M.S. LIDO. 263 



CHAPTER VIIL 



[1848.] 



Seven years had been spent in active labour before the 
bishop could feel that New Zealand was suitably cared for 
in spiritual things, and that he was at liberty to extend 
the sphere of his ministrations. From Kaitaia at the 
North to Stewart's Island at the South, over a length 
of 1,000 miles, he had discovered by personal observa- 
tion that there was not a village in which the Scriptures 
were unknown. Out of a native population of 100,000 
more than one-half had embraced Christianity, and the 
remainder had ready access to the means of grace when- 
ever they would accept them. This indeed had been known 
for some time, but the fatal affray at the Wairau, the burning 
of Kororareka, and the subsequent wars at the Waimate^ 
at Whanganui, and at Porirua had kept every one at their 
posts, from the governor to the private soldier, and irom, 
the bishop to his youngest catechist. Just as peace was 
restored in New Zealand a fatal affray between the crews 
of two English vessels and the natives of Botuma and 
Oranville Islands called for the intervention of the Govern- 
ment. At the request of Sir George Grey, H.M.S. Dido 
went to inquire into the circumstances of the affray ; and 
her commander. Captain Maxwell, by allowing the bishop 
to act as chaplain and instructor while the chaplain of the 



254 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

ship spent a few weeks on shore at Auckland to recruit 
his health, gave him the opportunity so long desired, but 
which could not earlier have been embraced, even had it 
been offered, of acquiring some practical knowledge of 
the vast and almost unexplored field of Melanesia, and of 
observing the method pursued by those missionaries who 
had commenced to explore it 

These were many in number, and represented only too 
adequately the divisions of Christendom. A Boman 
Catholic Bishop had resided for some time in New Caledonia, 
and another bishop of the same communion had lost his 
life on the island of Ysabel in the Solomon group. John 
Williams, of the Congregationalist body, had lost his life 
at Erromango in the New Hebrides, and not a few of the 
native teachers had died what might be called martyr - 
deaths in Futuna, Fat^, and the Isle of Pines. In the 
New Hebrides and in the Loyalty group native teachers 
of the Congregationalists were working, and the Wesleyans 
had also sent emissaries of their denomination to several of 
the islands. 

On Dec. 23, 1847, the bishop thus found himself on 
board H.M.S. Dido, and on the Feast of the Epiphany, 
1848, while the ship was lying at anchor at Tonga Tabu, 
he wrote a letter, of which a facsimile is here reproduced, 
as an example of the letters which he used to write for 
the solace of his father ; so long as the exercise of his 
great artistic talent would give pleasure to his father 
he did not grudge the time which was necessary, but 
when death had removed those to whom his drawings 
gave pleasure he never indulged in what was to him 
the great delight of sketching ; as he said the beauty of 
the scenery in the midst of which he constantly lived 
and travelled, would be a snare to him. The letter which 
is here given is only a specimen of very many of the 
same style. 



i 



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V-. ■ * 



f- , • 



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1848.] SHIBBOLETHS. 256 

The bishop's chief object on this voyage was to study 
the method of existing Missions^ and his attitude towards 
the dissenters who had there anticipated the Church in 
her duty is a matter of interest. He felt himself precluded 
from joining in their public services, but was glad, while 
the guest of the missionaries, to unite with them in their 
family worship. 

" Nature," he said, " has marked out for each missionary 
body its field of duty. The clusters of islands grouped to- 
gether like constellations in the heavens seem formed to 
become new branches of the Church of Christ, and each a 
Church complete in itself. It is of little consequence 
whether these babes in Christ have been nourished by their 
own true Mother, or by other faithful nurses, provided that 
they are fed by the sincere milk of the word. The time 
must come, I think, when they will be no longer under tutors 
or guardians, for this present government by English Socie- 
ties is admitted to be preparatory to the introduction of 
self-government into the native Churches, and then I shall 
be free to communicate with every branch of the great Poly- 
nesian family, as with bodies in no respect liable to the im- 
putation of schism or dissent." 

But while the bishop thus refrained from puzzling 
heathens by the claims of contending creeds, others were 
not so moderate. At Pangopango, on the small island 
of Tutuila, the bishop landed on January 19 with Captain 
Maxwell, and he wrote : — 

" In this sequestered spot, schism presented itself in the 
most singular form. Some years ago the Wesleyan Mission 
sent two of its body to the Navigator Islands, with a large 
body of native teachers, who stand in the same relation to 
the missionary, as the y^tXoi and To^orat to the oirXtrai of 
the Greek armies. By agreement between the Wesleyan 
and London Missionary Societies, the English missionaries 
were withdi-awn, but the light-armed force owing no alle- 
giance to Bishopsgate Street, holds its ground by orders of 
the king of Tonga, who is the nursing father of the 
Wesleyan interest in the Friendly Islands. The consequence 
is that one-half of a small village adheres to Mr. Murray 



256 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

and the other half to the Tonga teacher, and separate 
chapels, sendees, and systems attest the power of Satan, 
even in this peaceful island, in dividing the house of 
Christ against itself. The Tonga teacher, much as he 
wished to hear the news from Tonga and Yovau, would not 
come with us to the house of the rival teacher, where we 
were going to dine. This is one instance out of many ; and 
it will surely strike every thoughtful Christian, that I, who 
have been charged with bigotry and intolerance for advo- 
cating unity and opposing dissent, should have had the evils 
of schism again and again brought under my notice by 
memba» of the (English Independent body and of the 
Scotch secession." 

This was avowedly a voyage of observation, cmd the 
bishop's eye was keen to discern every, even the minutest 
circumstance which could help him in the great under- 
taking on which he hoped to enter. He explored, more 
or less thoroughly, the Friendly, J^avigator, .and New 
Hebrides groups. When at the Isle of Pines he met with 
.unsuspected good fortune : the island bore an evil name, 
and Captain Maxwell demurred to allowing the bishop to 
land. The bishop was bent on entering the lagoon : in vain 
the ofdcers dissuaded him : .he borrowed .a small boat and 
sculled himself inside ; and no sooner had he entered the 
narrow passage than just round the comer in a sequestered 
nook he saw an English trading schooner, with one white 
man on deck, smoking a pipe aiid quite at his ease. He- 
said to him, " Why, how is this ? This is one of the worst 
islemds of the Pacific : here is a man-of-war afraid to enter, 
and yet you seem to be here in perfect contentment ? " The 
owner of the schooner, Captain Paddon, was on shore, 
traf&cking with the natives for sandal-wood which he 
carried to China for use in their Joss-houses ; but he came 
on board soon and explained to the bishop the reason of 
his lying in safety in the harbour. He said, " By kindness 
and fair dealing I have traded with these people for many 
years. They have cut many thousand feet of sandal-wood 
for me, and brought it on board my schooner, I nevep 



_J 



1848.1 CAPTAIN PADDON. 257 



cheated them, I never treated them badly — ^we thoroughly 
understand each other." 

Here then was a valuable secret acquired, and the bishop 
was always wont to speak of Captain Paddon as " My 
Tutor." In subsequent years he never went to those 
islands without first finding out where Captain Paddon 
was, and what islands were really dangerous at that time, 
and what crimes and offences had recently been perpe- 
trated in those seas. Captain Paddon on his side had a 
great affection for the bishop, and called one of his 
schooners the Bishop ; and thus in turn got access readily 
to those islands on which the bishop had effected a landing 
but which were new to him. The name of *' Bishop " got 
so popular in these latitudes, that when Captain Denham 
of H.M.S. Herald, on a voyage of exploration, landed on one 
of the islands and began setting up his theodolites, and 
the natives menaced him and his party, on his observing 
to the mate that one of the natives had a terrible wound 
apparently inflicted by a Jtsh-hook, the man mistook the 
word for " Bishop," and the people at once were friendly. 

But even thus early the infamous conduct of imprin- 
cipled English traders was sowing those seeds of ill-will 
and of righteous retaliation, the full harvest of which was 
reaped in 1870, when Bishop Patteson was massacred at 
Kukapu. The Bishop recorded the following incident : — 

" When we rounded the western point, and came under 
the shelter of the island, an English pilot came off to us 
in a canoe ; and the captain took him on shore with us in 
the ship's boat. On our way he produced a register of 
the ships which had touched at the island, with the objects 
for which they came. Among the last arrivals was the 
following entry :— 

" This was the transaction, into which Captain Maxwell 
was instructed to inquire ; and it cannot be better described 
than in the words of the pilot of Botuma. The business 
of the vessels was to trade for cannibals ; and, when they 

VOL. L s 



258 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vni. 

could not be obtained by fair means, to take them by force. 
The following was the result of the inquiry, taken by 
Captain Maxwell on the island, and confirmed by a separate 
examination of two New Zealanders whom I conversed 
with while he was engaged in his own conference with the 
natives of the place. 

•* It appeared that Messrs. Boyd of Sydney had engaged 
the above vessels to sail to several islands in the Pacific 
to procure natives to be brought to Australia to serve as 
shepherds and herdsmen ; that they sailed first to Uea, one 
of the Loyalty group near New Caledonia, and induced a 
young chief to embark with thirty of his men, as the 
captains of the vessels allege with a written engage- 
ment to serve a term of years at fixed wages : but as two 
of the [Jea men whom we saw at Botuma, again and again 
declared, with no agreement at all, but only for the 
purpose of seeing the country (kal hanua). When the 
natives of Uea were taken on board, the vessels sailed to 
Botuma in hopes of completing their cargo ; but fail- 
ing in obtaining men there they went on to the line, to the 
Kingsmill or Gilbert Archipelago, and there procured more 
men, but on what inducement I do not know. On their 
return from the Kingsmill they stopped a second time at 
Eotuma ; and there the Uea men, having been then two 
months on board, and having sailed several thousand miles, 
and being then further from Sydney than when they set out, 
jumped overboard and swam to the shore. The captain 
of one of the vessels went on shore with his boats to 
demand the surrender of the men. Konas, the chief of 
Motusa> met him at the landing-place, and told him that 
the men were not with him, but with Tilotolas, a greater 
cliief than himself, at the other end of the island. The 
captain upon this attempted to seize Konas as an hostage, 
and when the natives resisted, he ordered his crew to fire ; 
and an affray ensued, in which one native was killed, and 
two Englishmen killed or wounded. The boat's crew was 
obliged to retire, leaving the captain's double-barrelled gun 
in the hands of the natives, by whom it was given up to 
Captain Maxwell. Tilotolas, whom we saw the next day, 
when he was asked whether the afiray had caused much 
exasperation among his people, coolly answered : " No, we 
considered it settled ; as we believed that we killed two for 



1848.] A DAY AT SEA. 259 

oner The greater part of the Uea men were taken back to 
their country by an American ship, but seven remained 
at Sotuma, two of whom were examined by Captain 
Maxwell." 

On March 4, 1848, the bishop was able to write 
in his log: "Anchored in Waitemata at 10 p.m. ©e^i) 
Xapif." He had seen for himself the islands among 
which it was afterwards his privilege to carry the Divine 
message, and had learned many things which would aid 
him in his task. On the 24th of the same month, after 
a few busy days at the college, he set sail in the little 
Undine, of which much will be recorded in these pages 
before she becomes unseaworthy and is supplanted by 
a larger vessel This cruise lasted until July 4, and 
during the leisure thus secured the bishop wrote many 
letters: among them was one of congratulation to the 
late Dean Peacock, who had recently married his younger 
sister. It wiU be seen, as the writer apologetically says, 
that the congratulations were reserved until the end, but the 
letter Js not less interesting to the reader on that account. 

To THE LATE DeAN OF ElT, THE VeKY EeVEREND 

Geobge Peacock. 

"Undine" Schooner, at Sea, 
March 28/^ 1848. 

My dear Brother, 

My congratulations to you will not be the less appro- 
priate, because my day, which has begun by taking a lunar 
observation, and teaching some of my college associates the 
elements of navigation, will now be devoted to communi- 
cation with one whose name alone is enough to reproach 
me with my own lack of mathematical knowledge. If you 
should look upon me as an unworthy brother, I must plead 
in extenuation, that, though I neglected mathematics at 
Cambridge, and navigated the Cam, without thought of 
sun or star, I am now becoming of necessity a Falinurus 
in my latter days ; and endeavour to follow the example 
of him, who 

"inter media lequora semper 
Stellanun cseliqne plagiB auperisqne yacayit." 

s 2 



260 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, via 

This motto Charles Selwyn wrote in the case of my 
sextant before I left England, in correct anticipation 
of the course of my episcopal life in New Zealand. 
My own vivid recollections of Ely, (a place to which 
I was so much attached, that I once walked from Cam- 
bridge to the morning service, and back again to hall), 
enable me to picture to myself your happiness in living 
in constant sight of that glorious gateway in the Deanery 
garden, and under the shadow of the waDs of the 
cathedral, and enjoying your daily services with one, who 
has been trained up to value all the ordinances of our 
Church, and is able to drink in the soul of sacred harmony 
in your choir. And I have looked so much into the 
charter and statutes of Ely, in former times, that I can 
fully rejoice in your having now another mind associated 
with you to enter into the spirit of all your improvements, 
not only the beautiful restoration of your fabric, but the 
moral energy of your cathedral action, and the develop- 
ment of the expansive good for which your body is 
designed. Instead of a disjoined prebendal ministry, 
and a few forlorn ''empty housekeepers," and all the 
other anomalies of a Chapter so well, yet so painfully 
sketched by Pugin, you will have hearts that will rise 
upon the inspiration of the place, till they fill out that 
outline which Cranmer drew, and are strengthened to extend 
themselves beyond it 

While you are in the midst of these time-honoured asso- 
ciations, I am in the midst of everything new ; even the 
steep and barren hills are of recent formation : the inhabit- 
ants tracing their descent to a migration dating only a 
few generations back : our colony, only six years old, and 
yet administered during its brief life, by six Secretaries of 
State at home, and four Governors here, all succeeding one 
another with such rapidity, that their doiogs and undoings, 
like the +'s and — 's in an involved equation, have left but 
a miserable value of x after alL And now the newest of 
all new things, the pleistocene of New Zealand, is its new 
Constitution, to work out which I hope they will appoint 
Sir John Herschel as governor, for no one less intimately 
versed in the systems of double and treble stars can 
unravel a form of government, in which one governor-in- 
cliief, two governors, and two lieutenant-governors, are to 



1848.] CATHEDRAL DUTIEa 261 

reign in New Zealand, not fixed, but like Shakespeare's 
moon, whirling one about another ''with wondrous 
motion," till the whole country will be scribbled over with 
their courses, ''centric and eccentric, cycle in epicycle, 
orb in orb." 

Still you must not suppose that I envy you your 
cathedral repose ; and the luxurious interchange of elevat- 
ing thoughts with kindred minds, which the neighbourhood 
of the university affords : still less your domestic happi- 
ness ; for in that, on my return fix)m every long journey, I 
feel myself blessed beyond all other men : nor even your 
opportunities of holy meditation and prayer in places 
where the mind feels at once that it is holy ground : all 
these I cannot envy you, because I am convinced that you 
have all these things, not for your own good only, but 
also as stewards for us who have them not Tour vener- 
able cathedrals, if rightly used and reverently kept, will 
send forth, even to us, a prescriptive power, which will 
dignify even our boarded chapels with a known relation- 
ship to the noblest of all the temples of God on earth. 
Your daily intercession will bring down blessings upon 
us, who in the wild forests, and the restless seas, and in 
the care of all the churches, find scarcely leisure so much 
as to pray. Your daily advances in science will enable 
you to simplify the elements of knowledge down to the 
level of the understanding of our colonial youth. The 
shadow of your cathedral will nurture plants, which here- 
after will bear removal to the ruder climate of the New 
Zealand Church. Your excellence in music will enable 
you to send us teachers trained up in the true spirit of 
cathedral music. 

It has long been a cherished thought with me, that the 
time would come, when every English cathedral would 
take under its especial patronage and protection one of 
the colonial dioceses, thus affiliated especially to itself. 
Without the sacrifice of Catholic unity, this would unite 
all parts of the Anglican Church with that peculiar and 
esoteric love which would secure the greatest warmth of 
personal feeling with the fullest development of the whole 
of her system. As in private feeling bound, I claim Ely 
as my foster-parent. Her late dean was my pation and 
friend, to whom I am mainly indebted for my present 



262 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

position in life. Her present dean, I am now thankful to be 
able to call my brother. My brother William and I have 
fought side by side in defence of Ely, at a time when it 
was thought almost folly to say a word in defence of 
cathedrals. Above all, though I did not receive Holy 
Orders from a Bishop of Ely, yet it was through his letters 
dimissory that I was ordained both Deacon and Priest. 

You see that I have already gone beyond your expecta- 
tions in my claim of relationship with you : but Fanny 
must make my peace, if I am unreasonable. You have 
already oflfered one brotherly oflBce nearest to my heart : to 
share in the guardianship of our dear boy : and I presume 
upon this to ask you to be a father to my diocesan children ; 
to act with William in training up students for our college, 
and stamping them with your approval : (for we have had 
many failures for want of this) : to send us out all that is 
most good and useful in elementary education: among 
other things, anything a year in advance which can give 
our Church Almanac a more • useful character : Church 
music : architectural plans : in &hort, the whole apparatus 
of diocesan improvement ; of which you may take it for 
granted, that we lack everything. Above all give us the 
benefit of your public intercession, with special application ; 
and of your private prayers, now no longer single, but 
blended with those which for many years have never 
ceased to be offered up on our behalf. 

When you have done all this for me, the time may 
come when I may ask another favour of your bishop 
and his chapter. When we contended for the Honorary 
Canonries (as they were miscalled), I did not think that 
I should turn my eyes to those offices as a resting-place 
for weary and crippled colonial bishops, when necessity, 
not will, should oblige them to retire from their work. 
I could crawl up your pulpit-stairs long after I had lost 
my strength to breast a New Zealand hill, or plunge 
through a swamp, or dance over the waves, as now, in the 
lively little Undine, A definite and recognised con- 
nexion with a cathedral during old age, and a cloister 
grave, would be the only change that I should desire from 
my present life, and that only when I am worn out. 

You win think that I am a strange person, to write a letter 
of congratulation, and to postpone so long the main subject 



1848.] NAVIGATION. 263 



But such events are parts of the one mystery of the 
" union betwixt Christ and his Church," or if not, they 
are no proper subjects of congratulation. And because I 
feel that your marriage with my sister has been contracted 
in this spirit, I have looked upon it rather in its outer 
range of Catholic love, than in its more private character 
of domestic affection. And yet I know that this will not 
be wanting ; for I know my sister's depth and warmth of 
feeling; and her letters already show how much of her 
fulness of affection has been transferred to you, yet with- 
out being taken from us. We are sure that she will love 
us all the more for having her whole heart and aU its 
powers called forth into action. Above all the growth of 
piety, which must follow a marriage so contracted, will 
ensure us a full compensation for the more undivided love 
which we have enjoyed hitherto. Most heartily then do I 
congratulate you, and pray that every blessing may attend 
you till your symbolical marriage has its completion in the 
communion of saints. 

Your affectionate brother, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

As you are now my mathematical tutor, I send you the 
results of my " day's work." 



1. Forencx)!!, March 80. 
Cross bearings. Cape Maria . 
March 30, 8h. Three Kings . 
Longitude by cross bearings 
Latitude by n a • • 

Longitude by chronometer at 8 A-M. 
N.B. — Boiling sea and altitudes uncertain. 



E. and by N. 
N. W. by W. 

172.28 W. 
34.26 S. 

172.38 



2. Noon. 
Latitude by Obsn. Meridn. Alt. . . . 84.26.30. 

N.B. — A northerly current had more than neutralized a light 
wind with which we sailed to the south. No ground gained 
between 8 and 12 ; North Cape stiU open on Cape Maria. 

8. Longitude by Lunar distance, taken at 9 ▲.u. Day, h. m, s. 

Time by Lunar 29 9 53 39 

„ Chronometer 29 9 55 32 

4. Cross bearings at 3 p.m. 

Great King N.W. by N. 

Cape Maria ....... E.N.E. 

By cross bearings Long 172.19.0 

„ „ Lat 34.310 

Afternoon sights for time — 
Longitude by observation at 3 p.h. 171.15.30 



264 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 



The discrepancies in the above will show the degree of 
dependence on observations in a small vessel of twenty- 
tons in a rolling swell" 

It will be remembered that the statutes of Ely Cathedral 
had been quoted by the bishop when he addressed his 
printed letter on Cathedrals to Mr. Gladstone in 1838, and 
he seems ever to have been much attracted to that magni- 
ficent cathedral Five months later, in a letter to his 
father, he wrote his congratulations on his prospect of 
often worshipping within its walls :— 

" I can picture to myself, from intimate knowledge of 
Ely, your joy and comfort in passing many hours in 
prayer and praise within the * beautiful gates ' of that 
temple, in which your sons and daughters are so often 
gathered together. I have visited Ely in almost all ways : 
I have walked and skated and rowed, and driven and rode 
thither : flying and swimming are the only known modes 
of locomotion of which I have not availed myself to enjoy 
the architectural beauties of Ely Cathedral, at a time when 
I was unworthy of its daily prayers and unmoved by its 
songs of praise. If I were ever to return to England, what 
a blessing it would be to meet you all in that House of 
God, where, with matured feelings and thoughts full of 
immortality, * the father to the children ' and the children 
to the father, might ' make known His truth/ " 

This voyage, to the leisure of which the foregoing letters 
owed their existence, was the first made in the Undine — 
the little craft destined to carry her precious freight on 
errands of mercy over thousands of miles of water ; though 
not concerned with unknown seas and strange races, it was 
fraught with more danger and tended to more immediately 
useful ends than the cruise made in the Dido. It reached 
to the southern part of New Zealand, which is now in 
the Diocese of Dunedin, and included a visitation of the 
Chatham Islands. The bishop visited Eororareka, the scene 
of the Heke risiQg, and found the cha{)el, which had been 



1849.] SERVICES OF MISSIONARIE& 265 

spared, still standing, and the obnoxious flagstaff not re- 
placed. Wars and rumours of native disturbances were 
flying about like scattered fragments of cloud when the 
storm itself had ceased, but the bishop thought he dis- 
covered a far better and healthier feeling between the 
two races than at any previous time. At first an injudi- 
cious mixture of philanthropy and curiosity had petted 
and pauperized the natives, and when it was found that 
to civilize a race was a work of time and patience, curiosity 
was satisfied and philanthropy disheartened, and contempt 
and insult took their place, until the natives were wont to 
say that, except by the Government ofBcials and by the 
missionaries, and a few others, they were treated like pigs 
and slaves. It was largely owing to the missionaries that 
peace had been preserved, and the power which they had 
exercised had not made them popular with those who 
wanted war. The bishop used to say long afterwards 
that he well remembered how he used to be greeted by his 
fellow-countrymen with ** Here comes the bishop, to prevent 
us fighting with the natives." 

" That I have counselled peace," he wrote, " is no more 
than saying that I am a minister of the Gospel ; and this 
I freely confess to have done, at a time when a general 
gathering of the tribes could have destroyed the colony, 
and when it needed no more than that we should be silent 
to agitate the native people from one end of New Zealand 
to the other. Often has the question been asked of us, 
* What is the Queen going to do ? Does she wish to take 
away our lands ? ' and we have steadily — and in places 
unvisited by Governors or officers of Government — avouched 
the good faith of England, and recited the authoritative 
declarations of successive Secretaries of State, affirming 
again and again the validity of the Treaty of Waitangi. 
If we had held our peace, without a word spoken, we 
should have confirmed all the worst suspicions of the 
native people. We spoke the truth, and the result has 
been peace ; for those who have rebelled are not one in 
thirty of the whole male population ; and upon this ground 



266 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

we fearlessly assert, that only those who gainsay that 
truth and tamper with the faith of treaties^ will be the 
future agitators of New Zealand." 

At Otaki, " a green spot in the midst of a crop which 
seemed to be withering away because it had no root or 
deepness of earth," the bishop saw much to cheer him ; 
and from thence the good people, many of whom had 
been in his native school and college of St. John's, Auck- 
land, accompanied him in a search over their land for the 
best site for a college, which was fixed at Porirua, near the 
main road to Wellington, some ten miles distant. At 
Wellington the bishop found Mr. Hadfield still alive, but 
" with the symptoms of his disease showing no improve- 
ment. But," he wrote, " it was a great blessing to hear that 
I might again enjoy the benefit of his counsel, and listen 
to the wisdom of a Christian death-bed. For four years 
his whole life has been nothing more than comnientatio 
mortis" From Wellington, the course lay to the Chatham 
Islands, and, after attending the Governor's levee on the 
Queen's birthday, a ceremony which he had never wit- 
nessed since his landing in New Zealand, the bishop em- 
barked on board the Undine, and ran rapidly out of Port 
Nicholson. For the first time the Undine had to go out 
of sight of land, and it was necessary to rely on his pocket 
chronometer, and strict reckoning by log and observation 
was kept. The bishop was his own sailing-master, and 
this is the entry in his log : — 

" On Saturday evening, May 27, we had run down our dis- 
tance; and the wind being strong, and the weather thick and 
stormy, we shortened sail and lay-to for the night. The 
next morning the Sisters, or Itutahi rocks, to the north of 
the great Chatham Island, appeared in sight, and the shore 
of the large island was dimly seen through the haze. At 
this time the sea was very high and the wind boisterous ; 
and, not daring to run for the harbour, we stood out to 
sea and again lay-to. In the afternoon a great American 
whaler passed us, running to the north-west, and con- 



1848.] OTAGO. 267 



descended to show us her colours, though we must have 
looked like a mere fishing-boat in the heavy sea which was 
then running. Towards evening the gale abated, and we 
enjoyed our afternoon prayers, with the Thanksgiving from 
the Prayers to be used at Sea. We all felt very thankful 
that we had kept a good reckoning, for if we had not 
lain-to when we did, we should have been close upon the 
Sisters in the middle of the night." 

The longest stretch of open sea had yet to be crossed, 
and the season was late ; but the bishop was anxious to 
reach Otago ; although the colony was avowedly Presby- 
terian, he wished to be of service to new settlers by giving 
them particulars of local information and to explain to 
them the relations of the white to the native race, and to 
encourage feelings of confidence and esteem. The Undine 
ran before a gale, and on the fifth day glimpses of sun 
through the thick mist enabled observations to be taken, 
and on the next day the bishop found the value of his 
sketches and notes made on board the little Perseverance 
in 1844, for he recognised the places at once, and had no 
difficulty in making the harbour. 

H.M.S. Fly vfBA in these waters, having on board a 
Government agent with instructions to buy all the land 
in the Middle Island not included in former purchases. 
The tribe which had assembled to receive the purchase- 
money had not dispersed, and the bishop was able to 
converse with them, and he found them perfectly satisfied 
with 2,000/., for which they had given plains, mountains, 
rivers, &c., as far as Foveaux Straits, trusting to the good 
faith of the Government to make suitable reserves for their 
use. The Bishop wrote : — 

" This is a curious commentary upon the opinions first 
expressed by the Committee of the House of Commons in 
1845, and since avowed by Earl Grey; and will tend to 
put an end to all further discussion on the rights of the 
New Zealanders, when it is seen that lands which would 
have cost millions to take and to keep by force, are quietly 



268 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

ceded for less than a farthing an acre. But it is a great 
point, after all that has been said, that the right of the 
native owners, even to unoccupied lands, has been thus 
recognised over so wide a surfece." 

On July 4 the eventful voyage terminated, "and the 
good little Undine worked up to her anchorage, after a 
voyage of fourteen weeks, with sails, ropes, and spars un- 
injured, having sailed 3,000 miles, and visited thirteen 
places ; thus fulfilling the wish with which the good Arch- 
bishop, now gone to his rest, accompanied a donation of 
50Z. towards her purchase, — * that the new vessel for the 
Bishop of New Zealand might prove as weidTJviof: as the 
Flying Fish* By the good providence of God we were so 
blessed, that no illness occurred either among the pas- 
sengers or the crew during the whole voyage. My party 
of native boys, eleven in number, collected from Otaki, 
Croixille's Harbour, Waikanae, and the Chatham Islands, 
arrived at the college full of health and good spirits, after 
sailing from 1,500 to 2,000 miles from their homes." 

While the remote parts of the diocese were thus re- 
ceiving the bishop's personal care, the institutions at 
Auckland, which he described es " my residence, if resi- 
dence it can be called where I am seldom able to be 
stationary for more than a few months at a time," were in 
thorough working order. The native villages near to the 
college supplied the residents with friends and neighbours 
in whom they took increasing interest, and from whom 
they would have been loth to be separated ; it seemed 
likely that the tribe would scarcely outlive the present 
generation, for the death-rate was high and the number of 
children miserably small ; yet it was a comfort, the bishop 
said, " to be able to minister even to a dying people, and 
to be able to certify that they have passed away by the 
will of God." A large number of pensioners being placed 
by the Government in villages roimd Auckland, supplied 
a considerable English population who also demanded the 
bishop's care. 



1848.] INDUSTRIAL TRAIOTNG. 269 

Following, as was his wont, the examples of ancient 
times, and endeavouring to realize the obligations of 
cathedrals, the bishop established seven Chapelries at dis- 
tances varying from half a mile to five miles from the 
college, which were served by the deacons. The college, 
library and school, printing-house, and native school, each 
had its place. No difficulty was found in obtaining as 
many native lads as could be received ; neither did any 
difficulty hinder the work of civilizing them except an 
inadequate supply of suitable English teachers. 

" We are apt to forget," the bishop wrote, " the laborious 
processes by which we acquired in early life the routine 
duties of cleanliness, order, method, and punctuality ; and 
we often expect to find ready made in a native people, the 
qualities which we ourselves have learned with difficulty, 
and which our own countrymen rapidly lose in the un- 
settled and irresponsible slovenliness of colonial life. We 
want a large supply of Oberlins and Felix NeflFs, who, 
having no sense of their own dignity, will think nothing 
below it ; and who will go into the lowest and darkest 
corner of the native character, to see where the difficulty 
lies which keeps them back from being assimilated to our- 
selves. They have received the Gospel freely, and with 
an unquestioning faith : but the unfavourable tendency of 
native habits is every day dragging back many into the 
state of sin from which they seemed to have escaped. 
There is scarcely anything so small as not to affect the 
permanence of Christianity in this country. We require 
men who will number every hair of a native's head, as part 
of the work of Him who made and redeemed the world." 

The printing-house [work in which and in the hospital 
ranked next in dignity to the work of the clergy,] the 
farm, the bam, and the carpenter's shop, all were intended 
to catch the earliest dispositions to industry which the 
scholars might evince. The variety was necessary, for 
systematic industry in some one line was an essential of 
.all native training. The system was not understood even 



270 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

- - - - - — — — 

in New Zealand, and in New South Wales it was ridiculed ; 
but the bishop was right notwithstanding. His self-defence 
was ample. He said : — 

" It is not likely that men like Mr. Cotton and myself, 
brought up at the most aristocratic school in England, in 
the midst of amusement, luxury, and idleness, should have 
theorized a system which reduced us to a style and habits 
of life altogether diflferent from those to which we have been 
accustomed ; but the complicated problem of the founda- 
tion of the Church in New Zealand seemed to find no 
other solution than that to which we have been led by 
the guidance, first of Scripture, and then of Church 
history and of practical observation. We found a native 
people, whose bane was desultory work interrupted by 
totjJ idleness. With them the belief was fast gaining 
ground, that work was incompatible with the character of 
a gentleman. To waste their occasional earnings, the 
price of their lands, on useless horses or cast-off dress 
coats, seemed to be the sum of their political economy. 
To appear in full dress at the morning service, and then 
to relapse into the more congenial deshabille of a blanket, 
was the form in which their respect was shown to the 
Sunday. Their houses still continued to be the herding- 
place of men, women, and children ; where the young at 
one time heard sacred words, which lost their reverence, 
and even their meaning, from constant repetition; and, 
at another, were fed with all the ribaldry and scandal 
of the district, by the most minute and circumstantial 
details of other men's sins, which were publicly discussed 
in the common dwelling-houses. The faith of hundreds 
and thousands I believe to be sincere ; but it is held in 
conjunction with habits dangerous to the stability of the 
adults, and destructive to the religion of the children. 
At the Waimate it was evident, at a glance, that the 
middle-aged men attended our churches and schools, but 
that the ypuths were in training for the service of Heke 
and Hawiti 

" Nor were there wanting indications, which seemed to 
show that the rising generations of the English would 
sink to the same level of indolence and vice with the 
native youth. The presence of a race presumed to be 



1848.] " A TURBULENT PRIEST." 271 

inferior to our own, will naturally lead our English boys 
to the same false pride and assumption of superiority 
which the free native is taught by his own authority over 
his slaves. We are in danger of having honest labour 
made disreputable, by the class of servUe natives who 
cluster round the towns, too often in a progressive state 
of demoralization. This, then, was the difficult problem : 
To raise the character of both races, by humbling them ; 
to hinder, so far as positive institutions may avail, the 
growth of that shabby, mean, and worthless race of upstart 
gentlemen, who are ashamed to dig but not to beg, whose 
need never excites them to industry, and whose pride 
never teaches them self-respect Such a class is a nuisance 
at home, but it would be intolerable in a new country." 

While the bishop was thus caring for the most remote 
settlers in his diocese and for the heathen scattered amid 
the islands of the Pacific, he was winning notoriety, if not 
fame, at home. Lord Grey, who had succeeded Lord 
Stanley as Colonial Secretary, had been induced, under 
circumstances which it is not necessary for the purposes 
of this memoir to record, to send out a Despatch to which 
allusion has already been made respecting the lands pos- 
sessed by the natives. Against this document the bishop 
and the missionaries, as well as the Chief Justice, felt 
bound to protest, and the action of the bishop on this 
occasion won for him the honour of being described by Mr. 
Hume in his place in Parliament as " a turbulent priest." 

How much the bishop was disturbed by Mr. Hume's 
wrath, or by the censures of Lord Grey, and how far he 
w£ts deserving of either, may be gathered from the letter 
which at this time he addressed to the Eev. E. Coleridge : — 

St. John's College, Auckland, 
Sept. ith, 1848. 

My vebt dear Friend, 

I think that our correspondence of late has not been 
so brisk as usual, but you know my feeling on this point, 
that I should be very sorry to suppose for a moment 



272 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vni. 

that stich love as yours, and such gratitude as mine, needs 
the continual expression of some outward sign or form of 
words. The power of corresponding must depend upon 
leisure, health, and opportunity ; and when I think that 
it is a long time since I received a letter from you, I 
always attribute your silence to the pressure of those 
benevolent designs which are eveiy day increasing upon 
you. The fact that I am now the eighth on a list of 
twenty-one colonial bishops is enough to convince me that 
I should have my share, if you were to bestow upon me 
only one letter in the year. I know that you will not 
withhold from me your prayers, and that is enough. 

It has become our turn to think anxiously of you, with 
aU Europe shaken to its foundations, while we are enjoying 
the most profound repose from everything but the winds 
of our mild winter. The famine, the influenza, and now 
the civil commotions, especially in Ireland, have made us 
think much of you ; and we now wait for every mail with 
increased anxiety. But God is with you, as He has been 
with us, and will bring us through greater troubles even 
than these. 

When I tell you that we are in a state of repose, you 
will conclude that none of those evil consequences which 
were anticipated from the turbulence of " agitating bishops " 
have come to pass. If, on the contrary. Lord Qre/s prin- 
ciple had been avowed by the Governor as the rule of his 
policy, the safety of the English settlements could not 
have been guaranteed for a day. It has not escaped my 
notice that some of my best friends have looked with a 
doubtful eye upon my conduct in the matter of the Protest. 
My brother William notices the matter thus : " I am not in 
a position to judge of the merits of the question ; " and 
this is all that I have ever heard from my own family. 
Now I can assure you, that so far from that Protest being 
the result of any sudden excitement, it was written after 
repeated conferences with the Governor and in constant 
communication with the Chief Justice, and it was ulti- 
mately sent to his Excellency, after consent previously 
obtained ; and after an assurance that he himself would 
be equally unable to hold any office under a Government 
which should direct him to carry those principles into 
eflfect. The only difference between Governor Grey on 



1848.] REPLY TO LOBD GREY. 273 

the one hsaid, and Mr. Martin and myself on the other, has 
been this, that the Governor thought that the Instructions 
were only a satisfaction to Lord Grey's theoretical opinions, 
to which he was pledged, and that he neither would nor 
could carry them into pr£|ptice in New Zealand ; we, on 
the contrary, afiOrmed that the abstract injustice of the 
principle was in itself an evil to be protested against ; and 
that in its practical consequences upon future measures 
of Government, not only in New Zealand, but in any 
other lands in these seas which may hereafter be colonized, 
it was most dangerous to suffer such a principle to gain 
validity by tacit consent. We looked in vain in the 
English newspapers for any condemnation of a doctine 
which we believe to be so essentially false, and so danger- 
ous to New Zealand in particular. If the matter had 
been well taken up in England, nos homunculi would not 
have been indignant. 

I have writen an answer to Lord Grey's reprimand, 
which I hope you will think temperate and respectful 
The chief point which I have thought it necessary to 
mention is the letter which the Governor sent with the 
Protest ; or rather the two letters between which it stands 
in the Blue Book, placed apparently like two tame ele- 
phants to keep the "turbulent" savage in order. 

The tone of those letters certainly tended to make the 
Protest appear frivolous and unnecessary; and therefore 
I have been obliged to make one or two struggles to get 
out of the mud into which I seemed to be let down. 
You will not suppose that we have ever been in any 
other position than that of uninterrupted friendship, and 
our wives are as loving as sisters. But between governors 
with their short tenure of office, and bishops with their 
rustication for life, there will naturaUy be the same differ- 
ence as between the guinguennes olece and the sylvestria 
coTna; the one may be smooth and courtly, the other must 
contract, in spite of all efforts to the contrary, some of 
the nature of the BusL I have sent a copy of my answer 
to Gladstone, from whom you will be able to procure it, if 
there should be any interest alive on the subject when 
my letter reaches England. We consider the danger at 
an end for the present, as our good friends in the House 
have spoken out so decisively. 

VOL. I. T 



274 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viir. 

This letter was soon followed by another to the same 
correspondent, which shows still more clearly what was 
the bishop's standpoint, and on how true and just founda- 
tions his action was based. 

St. John's Collbor, New Zealand, 
Od. 7th, 1848. 

My dear Friend, 

I send a short letter by the Indian now about to sail, 
lest you should think that I omit opportunities of writing 
to tell you of our welfisure, and to acknowledge the un- 
wearied kindness of which every mail and every ship 
brings new proof. "We have received a box of books by 
the Acheron or Havannah, I cannot say which, as neither 
ship has yet arrived in New Zealand. The box was for- 
warded from Sydney. For this and for your exertions in 
the matter of the " Protest/' and the correspondence with 
Mr. Hornby, accept my warmest thanks 

There is now a new subject of discussion, viz., the pam- 
phlet printed at the College press, and not denied to be 
the work of Chief Justice Martin. The turn for a repri- 
mand has now come round to him ; because five copies of 
the book have been given by me without the judge's know- 
ledge or consent, to the following persons : Major Eich- 
mond, Mr. Justice Chapman, Mr. Hadfield, Eev. G. A. 
Eissling, and, at Mr. Martin's desire, hearing of the above* 
issue, to Gk)vemor Grey. A few copies were sent to 
England to our friends ; the rest are safe in brown paper 
in my study. 

The circumstances are these : — 

1. Alarm began the first year of our arrival in New 
Zealand, by hearing the talk of settlers and the suspicions 
of natives. 

2. Alarm grew to a practical evil when the Report of 
the House of Commons of July 8th, 1844 came out to 
New Zealand, in which the principle of spoliation is 
avowed ; and by the countor-resolutions of Mr. Cardwell, I 
infer that it was advised to carry out that principle if 
necessary by an armed force, though this may not be dis- 
tinctly avowed in the Eeport. The publication of this 
report in New Zealand was followed immediately, in 
March, 1845, by the destruction of Kororareka. Lord 



1848.] A NEW ZEALAND CERBERUS. 275 

Howick, Secretary for the Colonies, and Mr. Hawes, 
Under-Secretary, were members of the Committee which 
presented the Beport. 

3. Exactly three years after the Eeport of the House of 
Commons, viz., in July, 1847, we were greatly alarmed by 
an authoritative avowal by the Colonial office, of the same 
principles as those put forth in the above Eeport, to which 
Lord Grey and Mr. Hawes were parties. 

4. With Mr. Martin's concurrence I waited upon his 
Excellency, Governor Grey, to offer our joint assistance, 
as persons acquainted with the native language and cha- 
racter, in. support of any declaration which he might be 
pleased to make on the injustice and inexpedience of 
the principle in question. The Governor agreed with us 
on the principle, but was satisfied with the belief that 
Lord Grey had not instructed him to carry it into 
execution. 

5. We felt that the wrong was done in the assertion of 
the principle, and that we should be parties to the wrong if 
we sufiered the assertion to pass without remark. The 
Governor having declined to call upon us to avow our 
opinions, we were obliged to express our own opinions 
independently of him. 

Lord Grey has forwarded to me a very complimentary- 
message through the Governor, for which I am much 
obliged to his lordship, and value his good opinion, as 
that of a son of an honourable house, who has not im- 
paired in his own person his ancestral character. But I 
would rather that he cut me in pieces than induced me by^ 
any personal compliments to resign the New Zealanders 
to the tender mercies of men who avow the right to take 
the land of the New Zealanders, and who would not 
scruple to use force for that purpose. There is a Cerberus 
in New Zealand which cannot be sopped by any other 
cake than one composed of English and native rights in 
equal proportions. 

The Dido we hear has been ordered to England, and I 
have thoughts of availing myself of Captain Maxwell's 
kindness to entrust our dear little William to his charge. 
My acquaintance with the chaplain, Mr. Browne, and the 
other officers of the ship, with whom I am on friendly 
terms, all favour the plan. I shall hope to hear of your 

T 2 



276 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 



favourable report, to make me stalk with long strides in 
joy of heart over my wastes of fern. 

Pray give my love to Mary and yonr children, and all 
the co-operatives. I have not much time to write by this 
ship, but will endeavour to send more letters by the Dido. 
No one knows with what a multiplicity of A B C matters 
my mind is continually filled, to the great injury of 
regularity in correspondence. With scarcely a person who 
knows the details of his own business, and with incessant 
complaints of parents of the inefficiency of our schools, 
and now with the additional charge of four pensioners' 
villages thrown upon our collegiate body, and aU with a 
straitened finance (&om the high prices caused by Govern- 
ment expenditure), which makes me look upon every 
blade of grass with a scrutinizing eye, my excellent friends, 
to whom I am so deeply indebted, and among the rest the 
S.P.G.F.P. must excuse me if my heart is not so lightsome 
or my pen so free as they may desire. 

God bless you, and prosper all your works for His glory. 
Tour affectionate and grateful friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

The prospects of Melanesia were now becoming more 
defined : at the end of this year, in which so much import- 
ant work had been done, the bishop was enabled to point 
cheerfully to what had been done, and to clearly marked 
opportunities for fresh ventures among the heathen. He 
wrote a friend in England : — 

My visit to the Isle of Pines, though of a few hours* 
duration, has left upon my mind the deep conviction, that 
an effort made there would not be in vain ; and tliat the 
spiritual conquest of that little island would open the 
way to New Caledonia and its adjacent islands of the 
Loyalty group. This is the point upon which the mission- 
ary energies of the New Zealand Church ought to be be- 
stowed, as a sign of its own vitality, in giving to others freely 
what it has freely received. The most frightful crimes of 
rapine and massacre are now being committed by the very 
people who received Captain Cook, seventy years ago, with 
a friendly disposition beyond that even of the people of the 
" Friendly Islands. " The change must be attributed to 



1848.] PARTINGS. 277 

the fact that we have followed up our first knowledge of 
New Caledonia with the most sordid and unscrupulous 
schemes of avarice, instead of sending out men with the 
heart of Cook, and with the powers and graces of the 
ministerial calling. You will not be surprised if you hear 
of my visiting those islands again, for something must be 
done, and I am waiting only for some door to be opened 
by which God may show His willingness that the work 
should be begun. If only I had competent men to help 
me, I feel as if I might be strengthened to search out the 
choicest youth among all the neighbouring islands, and 
bring them into our college; and with this centre once 
formed, the work of grace might spread to all ** the regions 
beyond." 

The habits formed in these vast dioceses tend to set 
aside all thoughts of time and distance. The young men 
of the college, before my last voyage in the Dido, begged 
me to accept their assurance, that if I should discover any 
opening where their services might be more required than 
in New Zealand, they held tiiemselves in readiness to 
answer to the call. 

In October, the bishop was again aiOioat in the Undw^, 
and from Mahurangi he wrote to the Eev. Ernest Hawkins 
on many matters. He was about to part with his eldest 
son, for whom he desired no brighter lot than that of a 
missionary in Melanesia. 

Oct. 26^A, 1848. 

I am closing this letter on board the Undine, now lying 
in the little harbour of Mahurangi, and waiting for a 
storm to pass away, that we may go to spend the Sunday 
at the copper mine (already mentioned) on the Island of 
Kawau. Captain MaxweU, of H.M.S. Dido, is with me on 
board, and will be the bearer, I hope, of this letter, and 
the protector of our eldest boy, William, whom I commend 
to the prayers and counsel of aU who love his father. I 
know that he will never lack friends to encourage him in 
every holy disposition, or to reprove him when he goes 
astray ; and iq this confidence, and, above all, in reliance 
on his Heavenly Father, I consign him to God, to the 
Church of England, and to my friends. If our lives should 



278 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. yiit. 

be spared, I can fonn no better wish for him, than that he 
should be approved by your Socieiy, and sent out as a 
missionaiy to this diocese. By that time, it may have 
pleased God to widen our field of labour, vast though it 
be already, and to multiply the labourers in a like 
proportion. 

The pious desire has been fulfilled, if not literally, yet 
substantiaUy : little did the Bishop think in 1848 that ere 
his own services on earth were completed he would have 
given his younger son to the widened field of labour in 
the Pacific as the second Bishop of Melanesia. 



1349.] POBIRUA. 279 



CHAPTEE IX. 

[1849.] 

The month of January is in New Zealand the busiest 
time of harvest ; and in the bishop's diary for 1849 there 
are sundry records of harvest work, and of interruptions 
to the ingathering of the crops caused by weather. The 
college being largely dependent on the produce of its lands, 
as well as boasting itseK of its self-contained system by 
which servants were abolished and all contributed their 
labour to the common stock, it was obvious that teachers 
and students would now be engaged in clearing the fields. 
But this accomplished, on the Feast of the Purification the 
Undine was again put in commission, and her head was 
turned southward. Before embarking on this Visitation 
the bishop learned with thankfulness that Mr. Hadfield, 
after four years of suffering, was recovering, and he had 
reason to hope that he would again be equal to missionary 
work. For the headship of Trinity College about to be 
established at Porirua, no one so competent could be 
found, and the bishop sought to secure his services in 
the following letter : — 

To Eev. 0. Hadfield. 

St. John's College, J<m, 27th, 1849. 

My deak Friend, 

I desire to thank God most fervently for the report 
which Dr. Fitzgerald makes of the prospect of your 
restoration to health. In the midst of sorrows which 
have crowded upon my mind from the illness of Mr. 



280 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

Cotton, Mr. Dudley, and Mr. Stock, and the deaths of Mr. 
BoUand and Mr. Beay, this mercy has given me the 
greatest consolation. Still it would be too much to expect 
that you should be able to resume the active habits of a 
missionary for which your strength was never adequate ; 
but I think that I know your mind sufficiently to feel 
assured that you will dedicate your returning health to 
such employment as is nearest to the missionary work. 
I would point to the Porirua College as a post in which 
your influence would be brought to bear on all those in 
whom you are most interested, without much bodily 
fatigue. 

If you will consent to find head and heart for the 
new college, I will do my best to provide you with arms 
and legs. 

The report of your returning health further encourages 
me to fulfil the long-cherished wish of appointing you to 
the Archdeaconry of Kapiti, which has been kept vacant 
in the hope, however faint, that you might be able to fill 
the office. I inclose the letter of appointment, which I 
beg you to accept for my sake, and much more for the 
good of the Church. You have already acted as my com- 
missaiy and adviser on all occasions, and this will only 
give a formal and legal sanction to the duties which you 
have already discharged. 

Your excellent host and hostess must be truly rejoiced 
at the sight of your returning health and strength. I hope 
to share in your happiness, God willing, in about two 
months, if my present voyage to the south be brought to 
a safe conclusion. 

Withsincerethankfulnessfor your improvement in health, 

I remain. 
My dear Mr. Hadfield, 
Your affectionate Friend and Brother, 

G. A. N. Zealand. 

I commend to your advice and instruction, Eev. T. B. 
Hutton, appointed to act as Resident Deacon and Inspector 
of Schools at Wellington. Pray tell him all that you 
have written and said to me on the subject of schools. 

The Chatham Islands, Wellington and Nelson, were 
again visited between February 2 and April 21, and later 



1849.] UNPOPULARITY. 281 



in the year the bishop contemplated an independent 
voyage in the Undine^ and not as in the previons year in 
ILM.S. Dido, to the Melanesian groups. The colonists 
disliked the idea of the bishop spending so much time at 
sea and at a distance from his diocese proper : although 
Bishop Selwyn had no opportunity of benefiting the 
trade of the place which he made his home by dispensing 
a large income, there was the same jealous contention for 
the honour of a bishop resident among them which has 
been found in towns in England, covetous of the dis- 
tinction of being raised to the dignity of a city by giving 
a title to newly-founded Sees. There was also lingering 
still in the colonial mind the memory of the reproof 
which the bishop had fearlessly administered, when he 
saw the greed of land embroiling the whole country : and 
so the popularity, which he never coveted, did not fall to 
his share, and people did not hesitate freely to criticize his 
doings, whatever they were. The kindlier folks thought 
he was ' fond of yachting,' and accepted the condition of 
things, little knowing the discomforts of a 17-ton schooner 
with a dozen or so of native lads crowding the cabin, and 
with a crew of only four hands, neither considering the 
perils of navigation in unknown waters and among people 
reputed to be savage and bloodthirsty, and with not a 
single defensive weapon of any kind on board. 

During these first ten years of his epidcopafaB he was 
most unpopular in Wellington, though later on there was 
no place where he was more highly esteemed. Landing 
late in the evening in a little 'dinghey, he heard two men 
on the beach talking about his schooner, and one of them 
asked, " What's that schooner that has come in this even- 
ing ? " to which the other replied, " Oh, that old fool the 
bishop's.** Just then the dinghey grounded on the shore, 
and, rubbing his hands and chuckling, he jumped out of 
the boat saying, " Yes, and here's the old fool himself." 

On another occasion of his putting in to Wellington 
harbour, he was amused to learn that a Dissenter had 



282 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYX. [chap. lt. 



recently exhumed and reprinted an old tract which had 
had a run in England, whose title was " Why I am a Dis- 
senter/' One of the reasons given was " Because Bishops 
have 10,000/. a year, and go about in carriages, whereas 
the Apostles went on foot, and had neither silver nor gold." 
The time of publication was ill-chosen : for side by side 
with the little Undine, the John Wesley, on her duty 
of carrying the Wesleyan Superintendent round his 
much smaller circuit, dropped her anchor, a well-found 
schooner of 200 tons. The retort was tempting and 
obvious, if not ad rem ; and a zealous Churchman published 
a leaflet with the title " Why I am not a Dissenter" — ^the 
chief reason assigned being " Because the Wesleyan Super- 
intendent sails in a schooner of 200 tons, while the Bishop 
of New Zealand goes much longer voyages in a yacht of 
20 tons.*' 

From Auckland several letters were written. For the 
new institution at Porirua he sought to obtain from his 
brother-in-law the Dean of Ely the sympathy and sup- 
port which it seems to be the duty of ancient Foundations 
to extend to struggling efforts in a new world : this was a 
case of unusual claims, the college-lands being the oflfering 
of natives for the benefit of both races. 

St. John's Colleob, July^2th, 1849. 

May I solicit your good offices in favour of a new in- 
stitution, which we are beginning to found, called Trinity 
College, Porirua: to be the centre of education for the 
southern division of this island ? 

My native scholars, formerly at this college, have made 
over 600 acres of their own land, with consent of the other 
owners, for the purpose, as they express it, " of a College 
for the native and English youth, that they may be united 
together as one people, in the new principle of faith in 
Christ and obedience to the Queen." 

The reason for the name of Trinity College is because 
our family were equally divided between Trinity and 
St. John's, e,g. : — 



1849.] NEW ZEALAND ALMANAC. 283 



W. Selwyii, Esq. 



-/""X. 



Trinity. 

I 
T. K. Selwyn. 



St. John's. 

I 
"VV. Selwyn, jun. 

C. J. Selwyn. G. A. Selwyn. 



O. PeU. 
C. Richardson. 
"W. Richardson. 

The addition of your name and of my wife's two brothers 
gives a preponderating claim to Trinity, of which I hope 
all brothers and brothers-in-law will show their sense by 
their vigorous exertions to place Trinity before St. John's, 
though second, as at Cambridge, in order of time. 

I will send you further particulars when the plans are 
more matured ; but the Secretary of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, Mr. Hawkins, has all the 
details of the proposal, and would be happy to receive the 
assistance of all who would be willing to take an interest 
in the plan. 

Sarah and I hope to go to Porirua to spend the sununer, 
and to break ground. In about a fortnight I hope to sail 
for New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines ; and to bring 
back with me some swarthy youths for education at our 
Polynesian College. Perhaps I may be able to send you 
some contributions to your ethnographical stock; for I 
find that your learned men are stiU indebted to Cook's 
scanty vocabulary of the New Caledonia language. 

We are in want of such mathematical books as are 
sujfficient for a common degree at Cambridge. We do not 
aspire higher at present. Perhaps you coidd tell me which 
are the best and simplest ttoW books now in use, and 
direct them to be sent out in sets of twenty. 

I send a copy of our Almanac, in hopes of eliciting 
from you some scraps of European science by means of 
which we may shine in borrowed plumes **pavone ex 
Pythagoreo." 

The calculation of eclipses frightens me by the terribly 
long formula in the Nautical Almanac. I have not yet 
attained to accuracy in the rising and setting of the moon ; 
the error I suppose lying in some misapplication of the 
horizontal parallax. If Fanny would use her scissors 
in extracting the most useful statistical and other informa- 



284 LIFE OF BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. ix. 

tion^ at much less length than the British Almanac, but 
in the same style, and send them out pasted in a paper 
book, it 'would tend much to invest our Annual with a 
value not its own. By this organ I convey a knowledge 
of the Church system into all parts of the diocese, and 
therefore I am most anxious that it should be generally 
useful and popular. 

I have found it most useful to have recognised irpo^evou 
for different parts of the works in this country, to 
represent me in England, in that behalf. If you would 
allow me to consider you as an honorary irpo^evo^ or agent 
of Trinity College, Porirua^ as a centre and nucleus of 
information and interest on that subject, it would very 
much tend to promote the success of the undertaking. 
We do not intend to go on fast, but to make some 
progress if possible every year/* 

Friends both in New Zealand and in England were 
doubtful about the wisdom or the possibility of the work 
which the bishop was proposing for himself in Melanesia. 
It W81S essentially a work of unwearying patience. Tear after 
year he contemplated no immediate result of his landing, 
unarmed and alone, on the shores of these islands, generally 
among menacing crowds of savages and cannibals, beyond 
the establishing a good understanding, the obtaining' a 
recognition of himself and his ship as being distinct 
from other captains and vessels, and the acquisition of 
some of the multitude of dialects which were spoken. It 
is courage of the highest type which thus patiently 
grapples with a work whose details must be small, slow 
in development, and leading, even supposing the maximum 
of success to be attained, only to the loan of a few lads 
* born and bred amid the defilements and cruelties of 
heathenism, on whom the influence of Christianity and 
civilization is to be brought to bear. The bishop had 
clearly arranged his plans, and was quite satisfied that 
only in this way could the work be done. He had faith 
enough to foresee a vision of groups of boys entrusted to 
his care at St John's and Porirua, and these returning to 



1849.] ANAITEUIL 285 



their homes as in some sort Missionaries, and again and 
again coming to the college for further training ; some of 
these he foresaw would be sent back with the grace of 
Orders and the gifts of the Priesthood, to impress, with a 
force which no European could hope to possess, the 
consciences and hearts of their heathen brethren, and to 
build up the Church of Christ in their islands. It was 
an entirely original as well as a noble conception, and 
subsequent events have amply proved its wisdom. 

On August 1st the Undine left her moorings for Anai- 
teum, a run of 1,000 miles being made in ten days, spite 
of heavy weather and cross winds. In the episcopal log 
on August 11th, is this entry — " 1,000 miles in 10 days. 
To Him, whom the winds and the sea obey, be praise 
and glory for ever and ever. Amen." Here, as had been 
arranged, he met H.M.S. Havannah, whose captain (Ers- 
kine), in common with all who sailed with him, had a 
warm respect for the bishop. The obligation was not 
wholly on one side. The man-of-war was beholden to 
the tender (for the bishop spoke of Captain Erskine as 
his " commanding officer," and of the Undine as the tender 
to the Savannah), not merely for performing the duties 
of a pilot, and also to the character and courage of its 
" Bishop-Skipper " for free and safe intercourse with the 
people. In his first voyage among the Melanesian groups 
he had absolutely no charts, and subsequently, until his 
own drawings bece^me available, he had only some very 
ancient Eussian and Spanish charts. 

From Anaiteum he addressed a letter of remonstrance 
to a friend in England, who had expressed both anxiety 
for his safety and doubt as to the wisdom of devoting 
to the Melanesian work the amount of time without 
which failure was certain : the letter showed how care- 
fully and patiently his plans had been laid, and how 
anxious he was that they should not be misunderstood or 
misrepresented. 



286 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

College Schooner "Undine,** at Akchob, 
Anaitkuh, New Hebrides, 

Lat. 20 S.; Lod^. 170 £., 
Augiui I2th, 1849. 

My dkae Fbiend, 

The first fruits of the new chronometer are justly due 
to you, to whom I am indebted for this, and for a large 
portion also of the Undine, May God enable me to make 
the only return which you desire by using them to His 
glory, and for the extension of His kingdom. In this peace- 
ful harbour, unknown to the civilized world, at least to the 
hydrographers, I can commune with you in heart and in 
perfect rest, during a portion of the Lord's day, which I am 
now enjoying after a voyage of a thousand miles. . . . 

In such a place, and under such circumstances, love 
would be bom, if it did not exist; and existing, grows 
apace with that tropical luxuriance which is produced by 
warmth of the heart. There is something of truth, as 
weU as of poetry in the idea of Viigil, that the hearts of 
the Carthaginians are not deadened by the being too far 
removed from the chariot of the sun. But while I thus 
recognise the effect of tropical heat upon warmth and 
kindliness of affection, I must acknowledge the greatness 
of that inward heat, independent of place and circum- 
stances, which can produce in Lat 51*30 N. such fruits of 
genuine friendship as I experience continually from you. 

You will accept it I hope as an evidence of this gush of 
gratitude towards you which has come upon me to-day, 
that I tax your unwearied friendship for new efforts. 
There are not many persons whom I could ask to do 
anything more after all that you have done. But at the 
same time that j^ou have supplied my present wants, you 
have always stimulated me to further demands ; and that 
by the most powerful of all arguments, that it does good 
to the Church at home to have its diffusive duties so 
brought before its view. Here then is the substance of 
this day's meditations, conceived, I hope, in no pre- 
sumptuous spirit, nor without prayer, but with the fuUest 
confidence that they are all within the scope of our 
Christian obligation, and that therefore means and strength 
will be supplied for the work which it is our duty to 
undertake. 

It has been the concurrent feeb'ng of many wise and 



1849.] ACQUISITION OF LANGUAGES. 287 



pious men, and even of Gibbon, that New Zealand would 
become the Britain of the Southern hemisphere. Setting 
aside all other points of similarity involved in the pre- 
diction, I fix my thoughts steadUy upon one, and pray for 
God's grace to make my diocese the great missionary 
centre of the Southern Ocean. The thought upon which I 
commented so feebly at Windsor on November 4, 1841, has 
grown irresistibly upon me, "the abundance of the sea 
shall be converted unto thee " ; it seems as if God had 
marked out " my path upon the mountain wave, my home 
upon the deep." Few men are so entirely at their ease at 
sea, or so able to use every moment of time, perhaps more 
effectually because with less distraction than on shore. 
The effect of this is, that in a voyage of reasonable 
duration I can master the elements of a new language 
sufficiently to enter at once into communications, more or 
less, with the native people, and thus to secure a further 
progress every day by the removal of the first difficulty. 
Here then is the first step. I feel myself called upon by 
these natural advantages to carry the Gospel into every 
island which has not received it, and which, within wide 
limits, may be considered as affiliated in faith and hope to 
the New Zealand Church. 

But do not suppose that I wish to devote myself to the 
life of a sea-bird, dropping here and there a seed, which 
the nearest land-bird may forthwith devour ; but I look 
(still in faith and submission) to those *' twins of learning," 
Trinity and St. John's, as the central reservoirs into which 
all my phicds will be poured &om the wells and springs of 
many nations. There I should hope to spend such 
portions of my time as I can allot to collegiate residence, 
in the midst of my scholars of " many tongues," who are 
all being conformed to the "one tongue of immortals." 
Here then is my second point. I need men of a right 
stamp to conduct the central organization of a system, 
which will require an entire devotion, in a spirit of the 
most single-minded love, of every faculty of body and 
mind, to duties apparently of the humblest kind, to the 
most petty and wearisome details of domestic life, and to 
the simplest rudiments of teaching ; but all sanctified by the 
object in view, which is to take wild and naked savages 
from among every untamed and lawless people, and to 



288 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

teach them to sit at the feet of Christ, " clothed and in their 
right mind." Eeligion, civilization, and sound learning ; 
all, in short, that is needful for a man, seems to be meant 
by those three changes — ^the feet of Chiist ; the clothing ; 
and the right mind. 

I almost checked myself, while I was writing the above 
words, with something like a fear that you would think 
me visionary, and that I should lose your confidence by 
proposing too much. But I assure you I am not mad, but 
speak forth the words of truth and soberness. " Hedsonahle 
service" are words which have haunted me for years past. 
All that I have proposed is being done by emissaries of 
the world ; except, of course, that part in which the world 
feels no interest, and can take no share. While I 
have been sleeping in my bed in New Zealand, these 
islands, the Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, 
New Ireland, New Britain, New Guinea, the Loyalty 
Islands, the Kingsmills, &c. &c., have been riddled throogh 
and through by the whale fishers and traders of the South 
Sea. That odious black slug, the beche-la-mer, has been 
draped out of its hole in every coral reef, to make black 
broth for Chinese mandarins, by the unconquerable daring 
of English traders, while I, like a worse black slug as I 
am, have left the world all its field of mischief to itself. 
The same daring men have robbed every one of these 
islands of its sandal-wood, to furnish incense for the 
idolatrous worship of the Chinese temples, before I have 
taught a single islander to ofifer up his sacrifice of prayer 
to the true and only Grod. Even a mere Sydney speculator 
could induce nearly a hundred men from some of the 
wildest islands in the Pacific to sail in his ships to Sydney 
to keep his flocks and herds, before I, to whom the 
Chief Shepherd has given commandment to seek out His 
sheep that are scattered over a thousand isles, have sought 
out or found so much as one of those which have strayed 
and are lost. Is this then enthusiasm, or is it " reasonable 
service ? " 

Nor is this without regard to New Zealand itself. May 
we not hope that as England has doubtless felt the reflex 
effect of its missionary efforts, so the decaying fire of 
missionary spirit may be rekindled in New Zealand, by 
its awakened interest in the island missions. I left the 



1849.] .REASONABLE SERVICE. 289 

Governor and Chief Justice and 8ome of oar senior 
Missionaries organizing a plan for this very parposa The 
voyage of the Undine gave a point and impulse to their 
feelings. If it should please God to open a door for some 
good beginning during this present voyage, I do not doubt 
that I shall find libeial hearts and hands in New Zealand 
to assist in the commencement of the work. But I look 
to you for aid in the main design ; not only, I mean, as 
regards the means, but also for helping others to under- 
stand, who are sometimes more ready to question than to 
assist. 

"What is the bishop about?" "Setting up another 
collie before he has established the first ? " ** Off again to 
the islands, when he is ao much wanted at home." " I 
fear he has too many irons in the fire." These are some of 
the remarks which I am prepared to expect, but which I 
write now to depiecate. Not that I suspect you of any 
such ideas, but I wish you to be clearly informed that you 
may assist in stretching the minds of others. 

All these things are parts of a connected work which I 
do not, of course, expect to live to complete, but which, I 
have no doubt, a succession of faithful bishops of New 
Zealand would be enabled by God's blessing to accomplish. 
Am I to presume upon a succession of sluggards, or lay 
out plans so poor and miserable as to involve the seeds of 
failure in their own original insufficiency ? If a man finds 
but one talent given to him, we are taught to expect that 
he will think it useless and bury it in the ground. If G^d 
should enable me before my death to lay out the ground 
plan of a great design, and to leave it in a hopeful and 
progressive, thongh incomplete state, I should die in 
faith that succeeding bishops would not refuse to add each 
his course of stone to the rising edifice, in which, as in 
our cathedrals, all individual pride of foundership would 
be lost, and buried in the venerable line of spiritual 
architects. 

You see then what I shall require. In the course of two 
or three years, if this work grows upon me, a larger vessel 
will be needed ; not for comfort or safety, for the dear little 
Undine, under God's protection, has borne me safely over 
so many raging waves that it would be ungrateful to 
discard her for any personal consideration. But I could 

VOL. I. u 



890 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, jx.- 

not with any prudence or propriety crowd her with mj 
scholars in these hot climates, as I do in the south, where 
for weeks together I have had a mess of sixteen in a space 
not 80 large as an Eton boy's smallest single room. But 
this is the very point and key of the whole system, the 
constant interchfmge of scholars between the college and 
their own homes. If I were to keep them away altogether, 
not only would the parents (very properly) send to take 
them away ; but even while they remained at school, the 
great benefit to the parents, and the great impulse to the 
system, which is afforded by the sight of the progressive 
improvement of the youths, would be entirely lost. Again, 
to transplant scholars from the college too soon, would be 
to lose the best fruit of their training ; for we gain little 
if we do not succeed in rearing native teachers and 
ministers, but scarcely any would stay from early youth to 
such an age as would qualify them for any responsible 
situations, without ever returning to their parents. We 
have youths who have been with us six years, in which 
time tiiey have gone home frequently for the holidays and 
have returned agdin. To carry out a system of frequent 
intercourse with their own countrymen, which would be 
necessary and beneficial in every respect, would require a 
vessel of considerable size ; that is, from 100 to 150 tons ; 
whereas the little Undine is only 21, new measurement. 
But this is a matter of no immediate importance, as at 
present there are not funds for the current expenses of such 
a vessel, though the first cost might perhaps be supplied. 
At present I wish you to bear in mind, and to communicate 
with R Palmer, Gladstone, and others, that, if it please 
God to prolong my present health and strength, I am 
prepared, if means be supplied, to imdertake the personal 
inspection and supervision of the whole of Melanesia — 
that is, of all islands lying between the meridian of the 
East Cape of New Zealand or nearly 180 degrees, to 
the meridian of Cape York and the Eastern Coast of 
Australia ; and I am convinced that I could do this, not 
only without injury, but with the greatest possible benefit 
to my own work in New Zealand. 

Ton will observe, that I have said nothing about men, 
except the organizing staff for the two collies ; one reason 



1849.] MISSIONARY QUALIFICATIONa 291 

is, that these Northern Islands are very unhealthy, and it 
is likely that a great and unprofitahle waste of human life 
would be caused by relying upon an English ministry. A 
native agency is the great thing needed ; and the reason of 
my e^ctreme caution in applying lor men of peculiar quali- 
fications is my belief that there is not one man in a 
thousand of generally good and pious clergymen, who has 
or can have the least idea of what would be required of 
him in the conduct of a native teachers' college. This I 
suppose to be the reason of the failures, or at least of the 
limited success, of such institutions as have been already 
formed in other heathen countries. I gather from the 
Visitation Jaartuxl of our dear brother of Colombo, that 
his experience in this respect coincides with mine. 

Here ends my day's meditation, and as I have just con- 
sulted your chronometer, which ticks loudly in front of me, 
and find that by Greenwich time it is just eleven, that is , 
by local time, twenty minutes past ten, it is time for me to 
prepare for bed by remembenng yon, and all jours, and 
your works, in my evening prayer, which I trust, wOl go 
up to heaven with those, which you are now just offering 
up in the morning service of the Church. ... 

A'wgwO, Vlih, 1849. 

Stni at Anaiteum ; and not sorry to be in harbour, as the 
Ti^eather has been very thick and rainy, and therefore not 
favourable for encountering the reefs of New Caledonia. 
The time, however, is not lost, as this little place is the 
centre of information on all matters relating to the sandal- 
wood trade, which extends over all the neighbouring islands. 
By information which I have received since I have been 
here, I am led to hope that an opening into New Caledonia 
may be made at a place called Jengen, on the east coast, 
and about midway between Capes Colnet and Coronation. 
The French Mission formerly occupied a station at Balade, 
where Cook anchored in 1774; when he found the people 
to excel all other islanders whom he had seen in honesty 
and friendliness of disposition. To our shame be it con- 
fessed, that three-quarters of a century, during which they 
have been left to receive and inflict every kind of outrage, 
have so entirely altered their original character for the 
worse> that there are many places where I should not think 

u 2 



£92 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

of risking the schooner or myself. But I assume it as 
an axiom, that where a trader will go for gain, there 
the missionary ought to go for the merchandise of souls. 
The issue of the undertaking I IdtLve to Him who pro- 
vides, far better than we ourselves, for the course of the 
future. 

I have spent much time with the Protestant missionaries 
who have been placed here since my visit in the Dido; 
one of whom, a Presbyterian from Nova Scotia, I had seen 
before in the Navigator's Islands ; the other, Mr. Powell, is 
connected with the London Mission. You are probably 
aware of the rule which I make in visiting missions con- 
nected with other bodies of Christians. I abstain from 
taking any part in their public services, but I endeavour 
to give them eveiy encouragement and advice which my 
acquaintance with tite mission work enables me to suggest 
With the Wesleyan Missions I can go no further, as the 
popeiy of their system, in spreading the name of Wesley, 
and the authority of the Conference over their whole 
mission field, precludes all hope of communion, till the 
main body in England shall have changed its present 
opinion on the advantage of separation from the Church, 
which their founder loved and venerated to the day of his 
death. But the London Mission leaves the field open for 
the development of native churches, unconnected, as such, 
with any particular body in England, and to which they 
do not profess to prescribe any particular fonn of govern- 
ment I therefore live in hope, that the time will come, 
when the work of the English missionaries, under God's 
blessing, will have raised up a native ministry in every 
group of islands, and that these ministers, meeting in 
conference or convocation, will adopt such a form of Church 
government as would at once enable the native and Eng- 
lish Church of New Zealand to communicate with them. 
My visits then, if I should be allowed to see that day, 
would be that of a helper to their faith, and a partner of 
their joy. On the contrary, to inflict upon these simple 
islanders all the technical distinctions of English dissent, 
would be indeed to contradict that spirit of unity which 
is our only warrant for the hope of success in the mission 
field. 

The only incidents which have occurred to break the 



1849.] NUMEROUS DIALECia 293 

quiet of my sojourn here have been the capture of a small 
ivhale, and the excitement of the whole native population 
in cutting up the flesh, which fell to their share after the 
blubber had been removed. This enabled me to see an 
animated picture of the native character; which is still in 
as primitive a state, in respect of appearance and manners, 
as when Captain Cook first discovered these islands in this 
very month of August, 1774. The distribution of the 
whole naturally led to a native feast, of which the follow* 
ing is an idea. 

In the foreground is a pile of taro, behind it a supply of 
sugar-cane, and in the comer near the house a heap of 
cocoa-nuts arranged as regularly as the cannon-balls in 
Woolwich arsenal. The feast had not begun while I 
stayed, but the preparations were made. The wide- 
spreading tree with the twisted steins is a banian-tree, of 
which there is generally one in all places in the South 
Seas where public meetiogs are held. 

You may conceive with what interest I shall look upon 
the progress of the Gospel in these islands, where at present 
there is not so much as one single believer. In New 
Zealand the work had been carried on thirty years before 
I came into the country, and all the other stations which I 
have seen have been of, at least, ten or twelve years' stand- 
ing. But from this point, to the north, south, and west, 
all is dark; and it will therefore be most delightful to 
watch the Sun of Bighteousness rising from the east, and 
lighting up in succession every island to the westward, till 
the whole of this marvellous labyrinth, into which God 
has scattered the sons of Shem, be evangelized by the 
enlargement of Japhet One sure ground of hope is the 
verification which we find here of the Scripture narrative, 
confirming of course also the truth of the promises of 
Scripture. Nothing but a special interposition of the 
Divine power could have produced such a confusion of 
tongues as we find here. In islands not larger than the 
Isle of Wight we find dialects so distinct, that the in* 
habitants of the various districts hold no communication 
one with another. Here have I been for a fortnight, 
working away, as I supposed, at the language of New 
Caledonia, by aid of a little translation of portions of 
Scripture made by a native teacher sent by the London 



294 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

Mission from Barotonga, and just when I have begun to 
see my way, and to be able to communicate a little with 
an Isle of Pines boy whom I found here, I learn that this 
is only a dialect used in the southern extremity of the 
island, and not understood in the part which I wish to 
attack first. This however will be no discouragement, as 
it would be very hard if so many learned men can devote 
so much of their time to ethnography, and to learning 
languages, which are useful to them only for general com- 
parison and research, and yet that those to whom the 
commandment is given to preach the Gospel to every 
creature should shrink from the same work, as if the 
promise were of no value that Christ will be with us 
always, and that His Spirit will give us a mouth and 
wisdom, which all our adversaries shall not be able to 
gainsay nor resist. But we shall need a Propaganda with 
regular professors, having the double duty of teaching new 
missionaries the languages of the stations for which they 
are designed, and of training the young natives who come 
to the college for instruction. What should you think of 
an Eton at the Antipodes, in which a different language 
was spoken at every master's house ? 

I have now closed up my letter, but I shaD not seal it 
till the John WUliams arrives, as we may sail some days 
in company ; and thus I shall be able to fill up my journal 
to the last day of her final departure. 

It was with a full consciousness of the perils which lay 
before him that the bishop had entered on this voyage : 
it was not his wont to talk about them, but he had made 
all provision both in regard to his private affairs and 
diocesan funds for the very possible contingency of his 
not retubing. 

One who loved him well and shared to the full the 
mingled feelings of hope and fear with which his friends 
saw him sail forth on these unknown perils, thus described 
the scene of his departure : — 

" We have just parted with our bishop, and seen him 
go off on his lonely mission voyage. Our feelings have 
been strangely varied. We rejoice to see him enter on 



849.] PERILS. 296 

such a work, and are thankful for these opening pros- 
pects ; and yet saddening thoughts and human fears will 
mingle with high hopes : fears of perils by sea and of 
perik by the heathen — ^yea, even to that bitterest thought 
that we may see his face no more. 

''All was ready at 6 p.m., but there was no breeze; so 
the boat was ordered back till the early morning tide, and 
we drew round the fire, thankful for a reprieva The 
bishop read out of a large old-fashioned volume the 
account of Captain Cook's first visit to New Caledonia 
and the Isle of Pines. It was about the same time of 
year seventy years ago^ so he got some account of the 
prevalent winds as Cook's ship ran from New Caledonia 
to New Zealand. We lingered till past midnight, unwill-* 
ing to part^ and then knelt down to receive his blessing. 

" Some at home and here may talk of risks, and that 
the bishop has enough to do in his immediate diocese, 
and that it is better to build up what is planted, and the 
like. But it seems like a great instinct in our bishop's 
mind that he must dig foundations and hew stones, and 
heave them up single-handed ; and they that come after 
him will do the polishing and ornamenting, and look with 
satisfaction on the symmetrical buildings of which he in 
care and sorrow laid the first stones. Not that he is 
unfitted for the fine work. Few better able than he to 
construct and build up. But then everybody likes the 
nice work. Nobody likes the rough beginnings which 
bring no present results and small glorification. How wo 
have waited for the St. Bernards to join our Stephen of 
Citeaux. Perhaps it is not to be that we shall have men 
like-minded. Perhaps the very thing needful for Am is 
to go with care on lus lonely path sowing precious seed. 
But the harvest wiU come, and at the Besurrection morn- 
ing he will have abundant joy. 

** We would fain see him go in a larger vessel. But he 
is anxious about incurring any extra expense. A few 
tons difference brings more cost, sails, cordage, hands, &c. 
He has no fear, and has run so many voyages in his Uttle 
schooner that it is difficult to say much. He and his wife 
are scrupulously careful in all their own expenses while 
so large-hearted and handed in everything for the public 
good" 



296 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

. The record of the cruise ^hich Captain Erskine pub- 
lished in 1853^ is full of admiring and independent 
testimony to the bishop's courage. The commander of a 
ship of war is liable to no antecedent suspicions of ultm* 
missionary tendencies, and it will be seen that the moral 
courage of the bishop prompted him to do things from 
which a naval officer shrunk and would have risked only 
at the call of duty ; but then the bishop was always ** on 
duty." Two or three extracts from Captain Erskine's 
pages must be given : — 

*' It must be admitted that the enterprise undertaken by 
the bishop, who would not permit an arm of any descrip- 
tion on board his vessel, was one of no little risk ; and 
when informed by him that he had permitted many of the 
Erromangans^ whose hostility to white men is notorious, to 
come on board in Dillon's Bay, I was ready to allow that 
it required the perfect presence of mind and dignified 
bearing of Bishop Selwyn, which seemed never to fail in 
impressing these savages with a feeling of his superiority, 
to render such an act one of safety and prudence. 

*' Sunday, September 2nd, — A canoe with several men 
ventured on board the Undine in the morning, but did not 
as yet dare approach the large ship. The bishop preached 
on board the Havannah to a very attentive congregation, 
and after service I took him in one of our cutters to 
the shore, to open a communication with the people, 
several of whom were seen on a rocky eminence over- 
looking a small cove. They seemed to be pleased at our 
landing, but were evidently in a great fright, and it was 
not without much coaxing that three of them were 
persuaded to enter the boat A red worsted comforter 
given to him who appeared the boldest of the party 
excited their cupidity, but did not allay their fears, as they 
repeatedly asked if they might return when they pleased, 
and were more than once on the point of jumping over- 
board to swim back to the shore, as we rowed ofif to the 
ship. The principal personage of the three, who were all 
young men, sat in the stem-sheets, laughing and trembling 

, ^ A Cruise among the Islands of the WesUm Pacific in H,M,S, '^Havai^ 
nah," by John Elphinstone Erskine, Capt R.N. London: John Mnrray, 
1858. ' 



1849.] LETTER TO DR. KEATB. 297 

* ' — i^ii m i_ ■ ^^^ 

by turns, now and then patting the bishop or myself on 
the back and calling ns '' Alihi Asori " (great chiefs), which 
he explained was also his own rank, one of his comrades 
being merely an ^ Alihi," and the third no chief at all. 
Arrived alongside, their fears returned, and they would 
not venture on board, until the bishop, to overcome their 
hesitation, stepped* into a canoe containing three or four 
other men, which had followed our boat, when they 
cautiously mounted the side." 

The object of the voyage was satisfactorily attained, for 
the bishop was able to take away with him to New Zea* 
land five lads from the islands of New Caledonia, lifu 
and Mare, and the two ships parted company, Captain 
Erskine recording — 

'' At 5 P.M. we weighed, and ran oiit of the roads, ad- 
miring, as we passed and waved our adieu to the Undine, 
the commanding figure of the truly gallant Bishop of New 
Zealand as, steering his own little vessel, he stood sur- 
rounded by the black heads of his disciples." 

The compulsoiy leisure while lying at anchor at Anai« 
teum produced a humorous letter from the bishop to 
his old master. Dr. Eeate. The facsimile of the bishop's 
" Design Map '* will not be without interest for old Etonians ; 
and it will be observed that the bishop anticipated a 
modern poet in giving to Eton boys the title of " young 
bsu'barians," 

•** Undine," at Anchob, Anaitkvm, 
Kxw HsBRiDEfl, S. Lat. 20.10 ; Long. 170 £. August 19(^, 1849, 

Mt dear Db. Keate, 

You will not perhaps consider it as a compliment that 
I am reminded by the wild and untrained barbarians^ 
among whom I am now cruising, to fulfil an intention, 
which I have long had in my mind, of writing a letter 
to you, to whom in gratitude and justice I owe so many. 
But such is literally the fact, that Anaiteum, strangely 
enough, connected itself in my mind with Eton ; and 
these lawless natives with the recollection of the state 
in Wiiich I and many others were before our *' general 



298 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN, [chap. ix. 



conduct " was reformed, sometimes by judicious forbear- 
ance, and sometimes by well-deserved castigation. I have 
often thought how much the office of a missionary needs 
these qualities, which enable the head-master of a public 
school to coerce the troubled waves of that " boy sea " 
which is so essentially barbarian in all its impulses and 
appetites. Without that patience and forbearance which 
I experienced from you when I was among the most im- 
pudent savages of your division, I might now have been 
one of those wandering and restless spirits, whom I meet 
at every place, cast off by some early impatience of con- 
trol into a life of effort without pui'pose, spent in continual 
and random motion, like that rolling stone which prover- 
bially gathers no moss. From the experience of my own 
youth, I gather, I hope, many useful lessons for my pecu- 
liar ministry, where nothing would ever be done if we 
did not look beyond the outside appearance, and discern 
the signs of latent good beneath the most unpromising 
surface. 

I do not know whether I have clearly explained the 
connexion of idea between Anaiteum and yourself; but 
on the simpler and more obvious ground of the power of 
learning to tame the savage mind ^^Ingenwis didicisse, Jkc" 
one of the Roman Catholic priests at this place gave 
me an amusing example. Some years ago they had a 
mission on the northern end of New Caledonici, from 
which they were driven ; but they still have with them 
a native boy from that country, who, as the priest in- 
formed me with evident satisfaction, had learned Latin. 
As I was not requested to examine him, I cannot speak 
of the amount of his knowledge ; but the effect of the 
lUercB hvmaniores, or other causes, had certainly reformed 
the savage, and converted him into a very orderly and 
pleasing youth. I hope to carry back with me to St. 
John's a decade of Melanesian youths; but I fear that 
I must postpone the administration of the Latin remedy 
till the English doctors at the college can write their 
prescriptions in a more Ciceronian style. At present we 
are at the Shakspearian standard of smaU Latin and less 
Greek, and any attempt to raise the standard at present 
would, I fear, only raise the value of Smart's Horace, and 
Dawson's Lexicon. Abraham has a noble field before him, 



I i&fe J^'""" 



m 



1849]. ''REMOVE TRIALS." 299 

as Eomulus bad, to build up a college (in all its literary 
character) from the very foundation. He will find, how- 
ever, some appetite awakened by the tantalizing effect of 
a name without a reality. WhUe we have been striving 
ou from year to year, with a much larger body than our 
funds could maintain, and for that reason doing many 
things for ourselves, which are usually procured by hired 
labour, parents have asked what use it is for their sons to 
be taught to dig and to plough, and now ask for more 
Latin and Greek, of which, if it had been offered to them 
at first, they would have been the first to question the 
utility. Circumstances seem to make it likely that this 
will become a learned colony by the negation of learning 
in the first instanca The time seems to be approaching 
when the growing appetite may safely be gratified, and 
I hold in my hands the sluice-gates of " As in Prcesenti,'* 
to irrigate the thirsty land as soon as the paedometer has 
risen to its proper leveL 

Another recollection of Eton is supplied by the charts, 
which I am obliged to make for my own use, of these 
seas, at present but little known to hydrographers. As 
a recollection of Eemove Trials, and of one of the many 
pieces of impudence for which I now beg forgiveness, I 
now send in my new "trial map," with a "device" as 
old as 1822 ; but not done as most of the best devices 
were in later days by " the Miss Keates." 

I am now waiting for the Eavannah frigate, as Captain 
Erskine consented to meet me here on the 25th of August, 
to accomplish which I started on the 1st of August, and 
enjoyed such an unexpected rapidity of voyage that I 
have now been here ten days (23rd), and it is still two 
days from the day appointed for meeting. The little 
Undine ran the cQstfmce of 1,000 miles in exactly ten 
days, out of which nearly two were spent in that state 
which is called professionally "lying-to," when the wind 
is contrary, or the sea too high to allow of our nmning 
before it. The genius of the Anglo-Saxon race in !N'ew 
Zealand is more Ukely to be shown in « spinning yarns," 
in nautical phrase, th^ in that which Sydney Si^th con- 
siders its peculiar province, the manufacture of calico ; for 
every inhabitant of our sea-girt islands becomes a mariner 
more or less by force of necessity. I trust that this may 



300 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chai\ ix. 

lead, as it has in England, to a diffusive energy of com- 
mercial enterprise, and especially of that commerce which 
has for its object the gain of souls and the extension of 
the dominion of the GospeL 

I must congratulate you and Mrs. Keate on the appoint- 
ment of my friend John to the living of Hartley, a concen- 
tration of family int^est and feeling which I have learned 
to value by the severing of all such visible and outward 
bonds of union in my own life and ministry. But as every 
man is generally led by Providence into the work for which 
he is naturally fitted, or is taught some measure of fitness 
by the practical exercise of his duties, I have no doubt 
that John will be happy, neither more nor less, in his little 
parish of Hartley, than his predecessor, the Bishop of 
Sydney, and I shall be in a field of duty which can be 
measured only by degrees of latitude and longitude. John 
will, I am sure, accept my warmest congratulations and 
best wishes for that blessing upon his ministry which is 
equally needed in the smallest or the largest work. 

With my most affectionate regards to Mrs. Keate, Anna, 
Margaret, and Louie, and Miss Brown, and to any other^ 
whether Coleridge or Ikimford, who may be with you, 

I remain, my dear Doctor Eeate, 
Your affectionate and grateful friend and scholar, 

G. A. New Zealand, 

On the homeward voyage the following letter, showing 
the difficulties of the work and the bishop's plans, was 
written :— 

To William Selwyn, Esq. 

** Undinb ^ Schooner, off New Caledonia, 

S. Lat. 20.58.; Long. 166.18 B. < 

Sq)L 16th, 1849. 

My dear Father, 

As you are a great traveller yourself within the limits 
of your home circuit of Brighton, Tunbridge Wells, Mel- 
bourne, Ely, and Cambridge, I generally dedicate to you 
the narrative of my wanderings, which, in the present 
instance, will be embodied in the form of a new number 
of the lUvstraUd Melanman News} the chief pait of my 
present voyage having brought me into communication 

^ This letter contained many pen and ink sketches. 



18 to.] VARIETY OF DIALECTS. 301 



\^ith the posterity of Ham, with some small admixture of 
the blood of Shem. The darker skin, the wooUy hair, and 
the projecting mouth, have been predominant in all the 
islands which I have visited. But a distinction still more 
remarkable is seen in the amazing multiplicity of lan« 
guages, as if the curse upon the builders of Babel had 
fallen with tenfold weight upon the race of Ham, and 
had involved them in a ''confusion worse confounded" 
than that which feU upon the rest of the human race. 
Among the Asiatic or Malay race, which has spread itself 
over the islands to the eastward, the differences of lan- 
guage amount to no more than dialects of the same 
languages ; so that a person well acquainted with one 
may readily acquire any of the others. Even small de-* 
tached islands retain a greater similarity one to another 
than is found in the larger groups. With natives of Baro^ 
tonga I converse almost as freely as with New Zealanders; 
and an islander from a small and nameless spot on the 
equator, who was picked up at sea adrift in his canoe, 
was delighted to he^r from me a dialect so much nearer 
to his own than that of the Samoan (Navigator) islanders, 
among whom he was living. 

On the contrary, eveiy island in the New Hebrides and 
New Caledonia groups has at least one language of its 
own ; and sometimes in the same small island the dia- 
lects are sulB&ciently different to preclude aU intercourse 
between the tribes. In Tanna there are at least three 
dialects which would require a separate study. In New 
Caledonia there will probably be found to be a still 
greater diversity. Each of the Ix)yalty Islands, Ilea, Lifu, 
and Mare, has its own speech. The same confusion is 
found among the Australian tribes, and has retarded, I 
fear I may say prevented, the introduction of Christianity, 

But you must not suppose that these fragments of the 
one primeval language have become so shattered and cor- 
rupted as to show no sign of systematic organization. On 
the contrary, the language of the little island of Anaijom, 
which is spoken by no more than 1,500 people, is so com- 
plicated in its structure that the natives of other islands 
who come to reside there are said to be unable to master 
it ; but that an Anaijom man (as is usually the case) can 
acquire readily the language of any other country. 



302 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 



In common with the Asiatic islanders, the black races 
have that delicate use of the exclusive and inclusive pro- 
noun, which is so powerful in some modes of speech ; as 
in the noble speech of Abijah (2 Chron. xiiL 11) : "We 
keep the charge of the Lord our God; but ye have 
forsaken Him." How confused is our " We," or the Greek 
i7/it649, or Latin Nos (which might include the persons to 
whom Abijah was speaking), compared with the emphatic 

Polynesian " matou" ( _ i, i. ^ 

or the Melanesian (Anaijom) " aijeama;' f ^®' ^^^ ^^^ J'^"' 
as opposed to the "tatou" and '^akaijea" which would 
include the persons addressed. 

But the Melanesian dialects have a distinction unknown 
to the eastern Polynesians in a separate pronoun, which 
we call a triplial, or trial, for the special use of the num- 
ber Three. The Greek is as much behind the languages 
of Tanna and Anaijom in lacking the Trial, as we are 
inferior to the Greek by the defect of the Dual. The 
force and clearness with which an Anaijom man would 
translate the witches' song — '' When shall tue three {etmai- 
taij) meet again" — ^would far exceed the languages of 
Europe. Even the teaching of the doctrine of the 
Trinity is aided by this refinement of language in a 
people supposed to be so barbarous. 

This preface on the languages of the Western Islands is 
not intended simply as a general heading to usher in a 
long disquisition, like one of Cicero's Proasmidy for I have 
neither knowledge nor inclination for such a work \ but it 
is necessary in order to explain to you the reasons which 
will make this voyage entirely barren, at least for the 
present, of all spiritual fruit, viz., that I am unable to 
communicate with the people in their own languages ; and 
therefore that I shall have no conversions or baptisms to 
report But in the same manner as travellers penetrate 
into a dark cave, and, when they find that daylight fails 
them, send for torches to enlighten the gloom, which, when 
kindled, are reflected by a thousand mirrors from the spars 
and stalactites on all sides, the crystals which had never 
seen the light before, now proving their fitness to receive 
and to diffuse it ; so, after once groping in the dark among 
these heathen islands, I hope to be enabled, by God's bless- 
ing, to return again with some willing and faithful men, 



1849.] DANGERS OF THE VOYAGE. 303 

who will devote themselves to this work of making their 
Master's light shine in the darkness ; with the fullest con- 
fidence that in this, as in all other cases, it will not he 
long before it will be caught and reflected by the native 
youths, who have always been found the most willing 
instruments in imparting to others the blessing which 
they have received. 

The voyage of H.M.S. ffavannah round many of the 
islands in the Pacific, which began in June last, seemed 
to be a favourable opportunity for visiting many places, 
wliich are scarcely safe for a small vessel unprovided with 
arms, and engaged in a mission of peace. The death of 
Mr. Williams, at Erromango, in the New Hebrides, and of a 
French bishop at Ysabel, in the Solomon group, besides the 
almost numberless repoits of affrays with trading vessels, 
were quite enough to point out the danger of going 
alone ; and, even if I had felt myself worthy of the crown 
of martyrdom, it would have been sufficient to know that 
it was never granted by the Primitive Church to those 
who needlessly exposed themselves to death. The ex- 
ample of the great Apostolic Missionary teaches us to find 
some basket by which to escape down the wall, or some 
friendly soldier to guard our retreat by night, till the time 
come when we are now, by God's appointment, " ready to 
be oflFered,'* and when " the time of our departure is at 
hand.'* But no one can go through these seas without 
finding with humiliation how the martyrs of the Cross fall 
short, both in number and in energy, of the martyrs of 
the world. Almost every place which I have visited has 
Its record of English lives sacrificed to the love of gain ; 
and of that kind of gain so dear to our enterprising race, 
which is acquired by exposure to danger. The efibrts of 
the sandal-wood traders for their own worldly ends have 
shown the spirit, if not the wisdom, " of the children of 
this world," and reduce all the works of the children of 
light to their own true and humble level of " reasonable 
service." In conformity with this general principle of 
avoiding all unnecessary risk, I availed myself of the 
kindness of Captain Erskine to appoint a time for meet"* 
ing at Anaiteum, the southernmost of the New Hebrides, 
where he intended to arrive from the Navigator and Fiji 
Islands on or about the 25th August. 



304 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

Accordingly, on the 1st August, the Undine put to sea, 
attended, as I know is the case always, by the prayers 
and good wishes of many Christian friends at Auckland 
(among whom at this time was Archdeacon Brown, of 
Tauranga) who felt and expressed the deepest interest in 
this attempt to make our Colonial Church in New Zea- 
land a new centre of missionary b'ght to the neighbouring 
islands, which still lie in darkness. Being aware of the 
great multiplicity of dialects, and having only two months 
to bestow upon the voyage, I limited my hopes to the two 
objects of obtaining a general knowledge of the principal 
islands and their chiefs, and of bringing back with me 
some native youths for education at St. John's. This, I 
hoped, would be the first beginning of the Polynesian 
College spoken of in my Charge, to which, if it be Ood's 
will, *' the isles '* will send " their sons from far unto the 
name of the Lord, and to the Holy One of Israel.'* 

On October 1st the cruise ended ; the bishop and his 
party landed at Auckland at midnight, and in the clear light 
of a fiill moon walked out to the college. His arrival was 
hardly expected ; but doors had been left unbolted, and 
he came into his own house rubbing his hands, and arousing 
Mrs. Selwyn by exclaiming, " IVe got theml" It was 
a triumph for which to be thankful ; the five wild little 
islanders were the forerunners of the indigenous clergy of 
Melanesia. One of the lads, Thol, from Lifu, the youngest 
of the party, was very ill during his sojourn at St. John's* 
and was nursed by the bishop and Mrs. Selwyn as though 
he were their own child. Writing to her son in England 
Mrs. Selwyn thus describes him and his doings : — 

St. John's Collxge^ N^ov. 6th, 1849. 

'^I think that I have not written to you since papa 
came back from his cruise in the Undine, He went to 
New Caledonia, to the New Hebrides, and to the Loyalty 
Isles, and brought back five natives from some of those 
islands to teach them here, that they may go back and teach 
their own countrymen ; to make a beginning towards teach- 
ing them to be Christians ; at present they know nothing 



A 



1849.] FIRST MELANESIAN SCHOLARS. 305 

about religion and the things that you have been taught 
from your youth. But we do not get on very fast, for in 
all these little islands a different language is spoken. The 
youngest of the party, too, a boy named Thol, from the 
island of lifu, has been very ill lately, so that schooling 
has been changed into nursing. He lies in the library, 
and we all take care of him, and wonder to see one who 
has been so little taught behave so well. On the table 
lies a list of Lifu words, which we learn from him, and 
with these and the little English he has picked up we can 
converse a little. He made me laugh to-day by suddenly 
asking me if nurse would * fight him ' if he had a cocoa- 
nut He meant, of course, if she would be angry. . . . 

" He wants to have a laige ship, and take a great many 
of us to Lifu ; but especially is Johnny to go ; and there, 
he says, his mother will carry Johnny on her back, and 
give him ' too much sugar-cane.' The other islanders 
look strange enough, because of their dark skins and 
yellow hair. Their names are Siapo, Uliete, and Ea- 
teingo ; and there is also a boy named Thallup, from the 
Isle of Pines. They all appear to be very happy, only they 
would like it better if they could get sea-water to drink/' 

The story of this voyage, so full of interest and of prac- 
tical results, is told in two letters addressed by the bishop 
to his father, and written, the first when on a Diocesan 
Visitation by sea in December, 1849, and the last on the 
return voyage to Melanesia, when the boys were restored 
to their homes and their native latitudes before the cold 
of the New Zealand winter could reach them. 

To William Selwyn, Esq. 

•* Undine " Schooner, at Sea, 
Frith of the Thames, 

My dear Father, ^ec, 6th, i849. 

My last Melanesian news ended at the island of 
Futuna. My stay at this island did not exceed one 
day, in which time I could not do more than make a 
preliminary acquaintance with the inhabitants, which may 
be improved hereafter. A young lad of pleasing demeanour 
who wished to go with us to school was detained by his 
friends 

vol. l X 



306 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, ix. 

At Tanna, we had scarcely anchored when our decks 
were crowded by a party of thirty or forty natives^ who 
behaved with perfect honesty, though they are reputed 
to be great thieves. We had taken care not to put 
temptation in their way by leaving any movable articles 
on the deck. In the harbour were two sandal-wood traders, 
the Rover*s Bride and the Phantom, which seemed to enjoy 
a laiger amount of popularity, as trading vessels, than I 
could expect to obtain without the use of tobacco, which 
I never carry with me. It seems to be unjust to take the 
food, for which the natives have laboured, and to pay 
them in a slow poison, which will gradually unfit them 
for labour. There are three native teachers in this island, 
who soon came on board, when they heard that the 
Undine was a Mission vessel. They are natives of Baro- 
tonga, the dialect of which island so closely resembles 
that of New Zealand that I could converse freely with 
them. They could not report any large number of con- 
verts, nor is it likely that men of their class will ever 
make much impression upon heathen minds ; but they 
are of great use in preparing the way for English mis- 
sionaries, and in acting as interpreters for them on their 
first arrival This has now become the uniform practice 
of the London Mission, and it has some advantages ; but 
in many respects I cannot approve of it. My chief objec- 
tion is that it 13 lowering the whole character of the mission 
work to confide to a subordinate agency the preliminary 
operations of a mission, which, by the nature of the case, 
involve greater danger and require more self-deniaL If 
there be danger of life to the early missionary, this is 
surely the post of duty which the servant and soldier of 
the Cross, who is best acquainted with his Master's will, 
would claim for himself. If there be no danger, then the 
chief argument for native agency falls to the ground. 
There are places where the Gospel can be preached only 
by natives, from the pestilential character of the climate ; 
but this is not the case in the New Hebrides, at least 
in the southern islands of the group. In every other 
case it seems to be foreign to the high and self-denying 
principle of Christian love to expose a fellow-creature to 
danger, because his life is held to be of less value than 
that of his English brother. Who can tell whether Mr. 



1849.] TANNA. 307 

Williams did not really serve God more eflfectually by his 
death than by any act of his laborious and enterprising 
life! May not the awakened interest in England, and 
the active zeal of surviving missionaries, be traced in some 
measure to the example of those who *' jeopardised their 
lives unto the death/' like the martyrs of old time, whose 
loss was requited tenfold to the Church by the still more 
numerous band of confessors who followed in their steps ? 

You will not suppose that I wish to speak unfavourably 
of the work of the London Mission, for I am happy to be 
able to say that, after considerable observation, I have 
received a very favourable opinion of the success of their 
work and of the character of their missionaries. I am 
bound to acknowledge with gratitude the good feeling and 
cordiality with which the Navigator Islands Mission at 
once resigned the Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia, as 
the natural appendages of the New Zealand Church, and 
placed their native teachers in those islands in con- 
nexion with me. The same rule does not apply to the 
New Hebrides, where the Society hopes to be able to station 
English missionaries. Tanna was formerly occupied by 
Messrs. Turner and Nesbitt, both of the London Mission, 
but they were driven away by the intestine wars among 
the tribes. 

In the afternoon I went on shore with the master of the 
Phantom to a sandal- wood station of a Mr. Bichards, which 
seemed to prove that the time had come when the mission 
work might be resumed without molestation. The car- 
penter of the station had been left alone in charge of the 
house and property, and during that time was attacked by 
a severe fever, from which he was convinced that he could 
not have recovered if he had not been constantly waited 
upon and fed by the natives. 

The Tannese are not very prepossessing in their appear- 
ance. Like our own forefathers, their great delight is to 
case themselves in a complete suit of parti-coloured paint 
The most acceptable presents seem to be a little vermilion 
to smear over their faces, a red binding to tie round their 
heads, and a few blue beads to hang round their necks. In 
selling their gigantic yams they are more cautious, and often 
demand an axe as the price of the largest, which are some 

times six feet in length and sixty pounds in weight 

X 2 



308 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

An opportunity was offered by the sailing of the Phanr- 
torn cutter for obtaining a knowledge of the neighbouring 
island of Erromango, so well, but painfully, known by the 
death of Mr. Williams. The master of the Pkantom, by 
name Oliver, kindly undertook to show me the best 
anchorages on the shore of the island, for harbours there 
are none. We sailed out in company on Thursday, August 
30th, though very unwilling to leave this pretty harbour 
after so short a stay. But the object of my present voyage 
being rather to obtain preliminary knowledge of the whole 
field of operations than to attempt anything, I was obliged 
to be content to pass rapidly on, in hope that the experi- 
ence thus obtained may, by God's blessing, be turned to 
good account hereafter. .... 

You would have been amused to see the Undine racing 
with the Fhantom before a sparkling tradewind, the 
Sydney racing cutter having rather the advantage till we 
set all sail, and took the lead. My motto I think must be, 

" Nave ferar magnft an parv^ ferar anas et idem.'* 

For on one day it is my lot to keep company with sandal- 
wood traders, and on the next with her Majesty's men of 
war. As sources of local information the sandal-wooders 
are most useful companions, and I must say of them, as I 
have before said of many of the whale-fishers, that I have 
received much kindness and civility from them. In the 
history of the sandal-wood trade there have been many 
things done disgraceful to the civilized man and revolting 
to humanity, but these enormities are not by any means 
chargeable upon the traders as a class. I have reason to 
think Mr. Paddon, of Anaiteum, and Bichards, of Tanna, 
conduct their trade in an humane and equitable manner. 
I hear an equally good account of other traders, with 
whom I have had no personal intercourse. It is not my 
desire or my office to hold up any man to public execra- 
tion, otherwise the names of certain miscreants, who have 
disgraced their country and belied their religion by their 
evil deeds among these islands, would meet with the ex- 
posure which they have deserved. But I have learned to 
leave vengeance to Him to whom it belongs ; and to His 
justice and to the remorse of their own conscience I con- 
sign them. 



1849.] SYSTEM OF REPRISALS. 809 



The island of which I am now writing (Irumanga or 
Erromango) is one of those which has suffered most, and 
has retaliated most vindictively. In outward appearance the 
people bear the character of the negro race, with little or no 
admixture of the Asiatic or Polynesian feature. I am 
unable to say how far their language would confirm this, 
as I have only a small collection of their words. But it is 
certainly most remarkable to see even on this small island 
the visible traces of the curse which has so long desolated 
Africa. They are supposed to be the enemies of every 
trader, and have proved themselves to be the murderers 
even of the missionary. Not that I would impute to them 
any knowledge of the character in which Mr. Williams 
landed on their shoi^s, but would rather believe that he 
was sacrificed to an indiscriminate thirst for vengeance, 
provoked by wanton and barbarous aggression. The shores 
of this island are remarkably favourable for that dastardly 
practice, followed by the French at Tahiti, of sailing round 
the coast at a safe distance, and firing into the dwellings 
of the inhabitants. They have no canoes, and have not 
even the poor chance of revenge by surprising a vessel in 
a calm. Their huts, perched on the wooded sides of steep 
acclivities, or nestled under the cocoa-nut trees, on the 
small margin of coral banks, which in some places look 
almost the towing path of a navigable river, present too 
fair a mark to be missed even by the clumsy gunner and 
the rusty swivel of sandal-wood traders. The deep water 
close to the rooks and the steady trade wind (experto 
crede) enable the small vessels to run along within a 
cable's length of the shore. Can it be wondered at that the 
most rancorous hatred should have grown up, in such a 
situation as this, between two bodies of combatants, who 
can never decide their quarrel by fair and open war, because 
the one cannot board and the other dares not to land. 
The first sight of Mr. Williams and his party on the 
beach of Dillon's Bay was enough to awaken the thirst for 
blood, by placing, perhaps for the first time, the power of 
revenge within their reach. 

But I cannot agree with' those who think that Mr. 
Williams was too rash. It is the duty of a missionary to 
go to the extreme point of boldness short of an exposure 
to known and certain danger. In these islands something 



310 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

must be risked if anything is to be done. It is quite 
uncertain from visit to visit in what temper the natives 
may be found. If any violence or loss of life should have 
occurred in the interval between the missionary's visits, 
his blood may be required, as much as that of any other 
white man ; for it is only by the refinement of justice and 
by the power of true religion that man is taught to visit a 
crime upon the individual offender, rather than to exact 
the penalty from his whole race. In New Zealand it is 
only of late years that an aggression by any Englishman 
would not have been considered a sufficient reason for re- 
prisals upon any of our countrymen. If the opportunity of 
satisfaction should happen to have been afforded, it is 
probable that the next visitor would be better treated ; the 
debt of blood being considered to have been paid. In a 
former letter I think that I told you how quietly the chief 
of Botuma (Granville Island) spoke of an afiray with the 
captain of an English vessel, which he said was an affair 
quite settled, because one native only was killed, but two 
Englishmen. In a book recently published by a Mr. 
Coulter, surgeon of a whale ship, a sudden and unpro- 
voked attack by the natives of Drummond Island upon 
a vessel commanded by a captain who had often traded 
with them before on the most friendly terms, is attributed 
to the fact that since his last visit one of their towns had 
been burnt and many lives destroyed by a ship, the name 
of which he could not ascertain. If the date of his voyage 
had not been given, I should have concluded that the 
unknown ship was the Vincennea, commanded by Com- 
modore Wilkes, who vainly thought, in common with many 
other captains, that an indiscriminate massacre of the 
innocent with the guilty is the course by which these 
islanders wiU be taught to fear the power and to respect 
the laws of civilized nations. Experience seems to prove 
that such ** demonstrations " of "physical power," more 
properly called "brute force," are as fruitless as Don 
Quixote's interference in behalf of the boy who had been 
whipped, which only led to his receiving a second and a 
more severe flogging as soon as the knight-errant was gone. 
Unless the civilized nations mean to garrison every island 
in the Pacific, they must trust more to the effect of moral 
influence and good example to preserve the lives of their 



1849.] INTERCOURSE WITH NATIVES. 311 



subjects, than to the exploits of naval knights-errant, 
who, in default of regular war, are ambitious of signalizing 
their courage by actions worthy only of the buccaneers. 
It was long supposed that a broadside from the Alligator 
man-of-war, on the west coast of Taranaki, had frightened 
all New Zealand into submission ; when now it has been 
found that two thousand soldiers and five ships of war 
had been barely enough, even with justice on our side, 
and therefore with the alliance also of a large majority of 
the native people. 

** Undinb," at Sba, April nth, 1860. 
Lat. S. 24 ; Long. £. 171. 

My dearest Father, 

In consequence of various delays, the last letter of my 
Melanesian news has been postponed till I am again at sea, 
and far advanced on another cruise to the same islands. 
This letter then, like the " Homeric Hours," will be able 
to hold converse with its successors as it passes over the 
threshold upon which they are entering. For the sake of 
distinctness I shall make no further mention of my present 
voyage, lest you should become as much confused by the 
dates of my whereabouts as you were formerly by the 
alibis of the rogues who appeared before you as Hecorder 
of Portsmouth ; but I shall revert at once to the date at 
which my last letter ended 

On Wednesday, September 12, we sailed at daybreak, 
gliding along the still water of the lagoon with only a 
faint breath of wind. Two native canoes lay about a mile 
from us, slowly crossing to the reef for the purpose, pro- 
bably, of fishing. As they were of small size, and with 
few men on board, it seemed to be a favourable opportunity 
for opening a communication with the people. Our little 
boat has the excellent quality of never causing any alarm ; 
while the man-of-war's boats, on the contrary, often send 
the canoes paddling off as fast as they can to the shore. 
My two New Zealand boys, James and Sydney, rowed me 
to the nearest canoe, and, after all that I had heard of the 
savage and treacherous character of the New Caledonians, 
I was delighted to find on my first interview that all 
Captain Cook's report of their friendliness of disposition 
was fully confirmed After the usual parley of signs, we 
exchanged tokens of amity with the three men in the 



312 LIFE OF WSHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

canoe, — I presenting them with fish-hooks, which they re- 
quited with shells. I then invited one of them to visit 
the vessels, upon which he stepped most readily into the 
boat, and left his canoe to pursue its own course to the 
reef. It ib impossible to believe that men who trust them- 
selves so confidingly with strangers are in their own nature 
treacherous or cruel The character of a people ought to 
be judged by the unpremeditated acts of single individuals 
rather than by those of large bodies. In the absence of 
any means of oral communication, the individual character 
remains almost unknown. If a murder is committed, it 
is said to be committed by " the natives " ; if a war breaks 
out, " the natives " are said to be in rebellion ; and by the 
force of this habitual error of language the whole native 
race is condemned for the acts of a few, till the domineering 
Anglo-Saxon unconsciously follows Nero in wishing that 
the whole native race had but one neck that he might 
cut it ofif at one blow. Surely it is a matter worthy of 
the gravest consideration when we find that even a great 
and generous nation like our own, priding itself upon its 
strict adherence to justice, and accustomed to hold as 
sacred and inviolable every right, however insignificant, of 
every citizen, however worthless, loses practically a large 
portion of its own most darling principle when it comes 
in contact with uncivilized tribes. . . . All the great and 
gallant nations of the world, who possess naval power, 
have crimes to answer for. which wiU be impartiaUy 
adjudicated hereafter, in cases in which, in defiance of 
their own laws and their own principles, they have burned 
whole viUages and massacred hundreds of "men, women, 
and children for the untried and unproved oflTence of 
** some person or persons unknown." The captain of a 
man-of-war is made judge, jury, and executioner. Some 
interested witness, perhaps an escaped convict, the only 
pei'son who can be found acquainted with the native 
language, is the sole evidence. This is called " summary 
justice," which is in fact a violation of all justice ; and 
*' salutary terror," which, so far from cowing the native 
tribes, makes them more terrible to all sea-faring men, 
and even to the great bullies themselves. This same 
process is going on in every part of the Southern Pa- 
cific, and if it be not arrested by wise measures will 



1849.] REMEDIAL MEASURES. 313 

lead everywhere to the same results^ of bloody retaliation 
and endless strife ; and all because the civilized nations, 
in their intercourse with these islanders, have gone back 
five centuries in their code of international laws, and 
descended into the grade of feudal chieftains, or border 
marauders, or, still lower, into the usages of the very 
savages whom they condemn. Instead of the grave and 
impartial administration of British justice, or the solemn 
declaration of war by the British nation against an offending 
people, we see trading consuls invested with a power of 
life and death, not against tried and convicted offenders 
only, but against native tribes in general, and naval officers 
wielding the prerogative of her Majesty to declare war, and 
to burn and massacre in the name of Her who, while she 
holds the sword of justice, is also the fountain of mercy. 

Great as is the evil and danger of the present state of 
things, the remedy is not so difficult as might be supposed. 
The prolonged presence in these seas of a really enlight- 
ened naval officer, one of those who believe that 

" It is excellent to have a giant's Btrength, 
But tyrannous to use it Uke a giant ; *' 

a man like Captain Sotheby, or Captain Maxwell, or 
Captain Erskine, or Sir Everard Home, who will enter 
into the spirit of the work, and carry it out, in spite of 
the attractions of Sydney society, where officers dance at 
balls, and imbibe, in that congenial region, antipathies 
against aU coloured races — such an officer permanently 
stationed in these seas, and constantly visiting all the 
islands, would live himself in a perpetual summer, and, 
wherever he went, would be like Shakspeare's sun, " to 
make glorious summer out of the winter of discontent." 
While the hurricanes are sweeping from Tahiti to New 
Caledonia he would enjoy the perfection of weather in 
New Zealand. In Apnl, when our south-western gales 
begin to cool themselves from the icebeigs which have 
floated northward into Mr. Enderby's antarctic principality, 
he will fly, as we are now doing (April 16) before them 
into the steady breezes of the eastern trades, which just 
now, like unhappy France, are the more anxious to 
be settled, because of the hurricanes by which they 
have lately been disturbed. A kn&wii ship and a hiuAvn 



314 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [cHAr. ix. 

commander would bring out every friendly native from every 
little nook in the coral reef in which his canoe is secured ; 
many would take short voyages to and fro, and speedily 
acquire the English language; the young ofiBcers taking 
each a language in charge, and, encouraged by the hope 
(as in New Zealand) of some appointment as interpreters, 
would master the island dialects ; and the days of Captain 
Cook would return again, when ships visited foreign coun- 
tries to do good to the people, and not merely to while 
away the commission, to collect shells, or to practise with 
ball cartridge upon the native villages. England enjoys 
at present the best reputation of all the naval powers ; and 
it is for her to take the lead in making this ocean as pacific 
in its moral character as it is already in its climate and in 
its name. 

My narrative has been becalmed so long at the entrance 
of the lagoon of Jengen, that I must take advantage of a 
light breeze now springing up to pursue my course. I lost 
no time in taking my New Caledonian friend on board the 
Havannah, where he was soon happy in the midst of end- 
less objects of curiosity, and liberal largesses of tobacco. 
In this respect, the Undine must always be content to be 
less attractive than her consort, whose very name is redo- 
lent of cigars 

In the morning of September 22, I breakfasted with 
Captain Erskine, the Boman Catholic Bishop of Amatha 
bemg also of the party. He is the first of his order whom 
I have ever met in society, and we had much friendly 
conversation. I state this at once lest I should seem to 
suppress it, for fear of the old charge against me of a 
tendency to Home, which is as reasonable and as charitable 
as if one were to accuse me of Judaizing because I once 
bought pencils of a Jew in Piccadilly. I hope that the 
Record and the other discord-makers in the Church of 
England have by this time learned either more charity or 
more sense, than to reckon among the enemies of the 
Church some of her warmest friends and most obedient 
children. .... 

Our south-west wind was now fair for New Zealand, and 
so much were we favoured that on Sunday, the 30th Septem- 
ber, the ninth day after leaving the Isle of Pines, we were 
off Cape Brett, in the Bay of Islands, before sunset ; and 



1849.] RETURN VOAYGE. 315 

on the following day, October 1, we anchored at Auckland, 
exactly two months from the day of sailing, having com- 
pleted a course of 3,000 miles, 2,000 of which, viz., the 
passages out and home, had been accomplished in less 
than twenty days. I could not but thank God for a voyage 
in which the wind had always been fair and the weather 
tempered to the powers of our vessel. 

The walk from the town of Auckland to the college was 
most amusing, from the frequent exclamations of surprise 
raised by my native companions at every new object which 
they saw. The number of houses in the town, the herds of 
oxen and horses, which, after colonial fashion, were reposing 
in the middle of the road ; the breadth of the road itself, 
and a variety of similar subjects of remark, kept them in 
a state of constant excitement till we reached home. And 
so ended my Melanesian voyage, with new and multiplied 
occasions of thankfulness both for things abroad and for 
things at home. 

May nth, 1850. 

P.S. — Jengen, New Caledonia, Lat. 20. 40, East Coast. 
— ^As I am thus far advanced upon my second Melanesian 
voyage, having followed nearly the same course as in the 
former, I may confine myself to a simple mention of dates 
and places, without dragging you after me again to the 
places already described. 

The object of my present voyage has been to carry back 
my native scholars to their own homes, lest the damp and 
cold of our New Zealand winter should take effect upou 
them, and so cause an unfavourable impression, which 
might impede our future operations. Our little lifu boy 
Thol was nearly lost in the early spring by an inflamma- 
tory attack upon the lungs. All five are now perfectly 
well, and flourishing in the congenial warmth of their 
own climate. The first of them, I^allup, will remain here, 
and has already begun to prepare himself for assimilation 
to his own people by distributing his clothing among his 
relations. This is to be expected ; and to attempt to keep 
him clothed by supplying him with more would be only 
to follow the error of those benevelent persons who give 
clothes to the ragged without inquiry, thereby ofiering a 
high premium for the encouragement of raggedness. 

We find that even this first experiment, small and 



316 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

imperfect as it has been, has opened to us a way for futura 
usefulness in this missionary field. We no longer visit 
these islands as strangers, but we have our own scholars 
as friends and interpreters to explain our objects. The 
report seems to be favourable, as we have now several 
applications &om the New Caledonian youths for leave 
to go to New Zealand. At present I have no intention of 
taking any, as the winter is coming on, and they would 
find the change to our climate very uncomfortable. But 
if it should please God to prolong my life, I hope to return, 
and with increased means of information to select care- 
fully the next class of scholars and take them with me to 
New Zealand 

From this place our course, Ood willing, will be to 
Lifu, Loyalty Islands (Chabool), to restore Thol to his 
friends ; thence to Mare, Loyalty Islands (Britannia), to 
take back three scholars, Siapo, Uliete, and Kateingo ; 
and lastly to the Isle of Pines, and possibly to Norfolk 
Island ; and so to New Zealand, where the object now 
nearest and brightest in prospect is the meeting with Mr. 
and Mrs. Abraham. But it may be God's will that I may 
be disappointed in this, which seems almost too great a 
blessing to be granted to me. 

I believe that I have made sufficiently clear, in the course 
of these letters, the plan which I purpose, in the hope 
of the Divine blessing, to follow for the conversion of the 
Melanesian tribes ; which is, in few words, to select a few 
promising youths from all the islands, to prove and test 
them, first by observation of their habits on board a floating 
school, then to take them for further training to New 
Zealand ; and, lastly, when they are sufficiently advanced, 
to send them back as teachers to their own people, if 
possible with some English missionary, to give effect and 
regularity to their work. In the meantime, all the ordinary 
losses by sickness, violence, and theft, which occur fre- 
quently where missionaries are stationed at once on 
unknown ground, will be avoided by the migratory mission 
station, which will never be in the power of the evil, but 
will always be within reach of the weU-disposed. What 
the issue of this attempt may be, God only knows, and 
time alone can disclose. I am sure that I may rely upon 
your co-operation, especially in that form of aid, which 



1849.] REV. C. J. ABKAHAM. 317 



can never fail, in the earnest prayers which you will oflfer 
up in the quiet of your own retirement for us who live 
continually in the hurry of new works, and the babble of 
new tongues, and are least free in mind to pray, when 
most we need Chose blessings which prayer alone is able 
to procure. 

Another letter, written at the end of 1849 to the Bev. 
E. Coleridge, shows how the college was justifying itself 
until it threatened to overflow its bounds, and to over- 
strain the powers of its teachers. 

St. John's College, Auckland, 
Dec 21^, 1849. 

My veky deab Fkiend, 

I cannot keep numbers down. As the English scholars 
fall off, from the dislike of the parents for our mixed 
system, the native youths flow in, with evident apprecia- 
tion of a system which was designed primarily for them, 
and now the great Polynesian fountain begins to pour in 
its supplies, so that if it were only now possible to organize 
an effective teacherhood, by God's blessing, we might at 
once begin a work at which you hearts would rejoice. 

I returned in safety, by the grace of God, on the 1st of 
October, bringing with me five native youths : one from 
New Caledonia, three from Mare, and one from Lifu. I 
could have filled the Undine with youths from most of 
these islands if I had had more time, but a day or tv^o at 
each was too short a time for explanation with the parents. 
Many nice boys were lost by my being unable to wait till 
they had seen their friends. 

1 have sent to my father some account of my voyage, 
which you will probably see ; but I had such rapid runs 
from place to place that I did not complete my journal on 
board, and at home I have no leisure for writing. If it 
were not for my floating study you would get no letters 
from me at all. 

My heart beats with joy at the prospect of Abraham 
coming. what a blessing it will be to a mind not only 
beginning to be over-wrought but beginning to be conscious 
of it. I have now a practised man of business, who will 
act as Begistrar, and relieve me of the accounts. Abraham 



318 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. it. 

will sustain part of the spiritual and intellectual strain 
which falls upon the head of such an institution as this. 
I have other young men who are becoming useful in the 
domestic department. Mr. Parris, our farm superintendent, 
is both a Christian man and a most able and willing bailiff. 
Champion, my navarch, is beginning his sixth year of faith- 
ful service. We have an excellent master carpenter, one 
Hunter, who is organizing successfully a class of native 
apprentices. The last batch of pensioners has yielded us 
a veteran, who unites the offices of weaver and drill-ser- 
geant. All promises well, but to keep all these wheels in 
gear is a heavy strain upon one whose mind revolves in an 
orbit from New Guinea to the Auckland Islands. Yet the 
two works are one ; for I cannot dare to bring home islanders 
from the South Seas without a thriving and comprehensive 
college to receive them. Mr. Lloyd will perhaps help me 
with the Polynesian branch of the college. But where to 
find a governing head and first-lieutenant for the whole 
I know not ; that I may be where I ought to be, in every 
island in the Pacific, and in every village in New Zealand, 
and, at home, in the chapel and the lecture-room. . . . 

I must be a tyrant, and to be a good-natured tyrant is the 
great difficulty. If I were once to loose the rein by which 
self-seeking is restrained, the college in its present form 
would come to an end. The explosive element in all 
countries having a mixed population is the disposition of 
the one to domineer over the other. We are succeeding at 
last, I hope, in amalgamating the two races on an equality of 
privileges and position; but it is up-hill work ; it seemed 
so natural to every English boy and man to have a Maori 
for his fag. I think that by God's blessing we shall 
succeed at last, and if we do, it will be a glorious measure 
of success ; for our college will be a propaganda of twenty 
or thirty languages, sending out missionaries and native 
teachers to places whose names are not in the charts, and 
the language of whose people is unknown even to Hawtrey 
and Latham. Pray for us and for the work ; and if it fall 
in your way to interest some rich friend in the enlarge- 
ment of the college vessel, rest assured that the Salaminia 
or the Paralus shall not rot in my Piraeus, if health and 
strength be prolonged to ma 

I hope to meet the Australian brotherhood in Synod at 



1849.] VERBAL ANALYSIS OF THE BIBLE. 319 



Sydney in April or May, 1850, eight years after my first 
landing there; yet the time seems "but a few days" for the 
love that I bear to New Zealand and to the work to which 
God has called me. If I could but feel that I was so growing 
in grace as to increase in fitness for the work as the work 
itself increases, I could then bound over the sea, and over 
every New Zealand forest and mountain, with the lightest 
of hearts and the most buoyant of hopes. But if the work 
should increase faster than the supply of inward strength 
to bear it, and if help should be withheld in the form in 
which it would be most welcome, by the subdivision of the 
diocese, it is not any bodily decay which I fear so much 
as that over-much serving may make my mind careful and 
troubled about many things, and unable, even in old age, 
to sit in contemplation at the feet of Christ. 

The mention which has been made of the patience, which 
was the first condition of the working of the Melanesian 
Mission, would be incomplete without a notice of a most 
laborious task which the bishop undertook in the inter- 
ests of this work. This was nothing less than a " Verbal 
Analysis of the Bible,*' and it is a characteristic circum- 
stance that the idea was first suggested to him by Captain 
Marryat*s international code of signals. On board the 
Undine the bishop had had the representatives of races 
speaking di£ferent languages, and it was necessary with the 
least possible delay to provide them with some means of 
communication. At first this was attained by that policy 
of " masterly inactivity," which is generally the synonym 
for impotence. The bishop was, in fact, impotent, and 
watched with some curiosity the process by which the 
natives of many islands established for themselves a 
conventional currency of words, which indeed consisted 
of scraps of many languages aided by impromptu signs. 

In New Zealand he made all the clergymen whom he 
ordained learn Maori ; and he declared that if the mission- 
aries had contented themselves with English, the num- 
ber of their converts would have been insignificant : but 
in Melanesia, where the languages were even more in 



320 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. ix. 

number than the islands, the case was different, and here he 
made English the common language of all. But the larger 
portion of the population of every island was not likely 
to learn English, and for these some further provision had 
to be made. 

The bishop saw that by Captain Marryat's international 
code of signals, ships were enabled to communicate by 
symbol ; and thus he conceived the idea of attaching to 
each woi-d in the Bible its numerical symbol. By these a 
missionary would be able to make himself understood by 
people with whose language he was utterly unacquainted. 
The conjunction of Captain Marryat with Cicero is a 
strange one ; but the Tusculan Questions in which (book iv. 
chap, vii.) is suggested the plan of bringing together into 
one view all words having the same general meaning, also 
laid the bishop under obligations. It was found that all 
the words in the Bible could be classified under about 250 
heads, and under these, by following the root of thought 
rather than the root of language, the delicate lights and 
shades of each idiomatic expression were brought out 
The simplest languages are often the richest in these deli- 
cate distinctions. Not only have the Latin words video, 
tueor, gpecto, and their Greek equivalents 6pad>, fiKiirm and 
Oedofiai^, their exact equivalents in Maori, but where in 
English we speak indiscriminately, for example, of breaking 
a bone, the skin, or a sinew, in the New Zealand language 
a bone, is broken by one word, the skin is burst by another, 
and the sinew parts by a third. Limited observation had led 
the bishop to expect to find the same variety of expression 
in the Melanesian tongues ; on nearing one of the Loyalty 
islands he ordered a native to go alofb and look out for 
land ; but the native word which he used was that which 
signified ground. The lad inmiediately said, pointing 
downwards, 'Aground here, land out there," and thus the 
distinction was pointed out and recorded. 

The work is an abiding testimony to the industry of the 
bishop, and to his ability in doing what is so rarely done 



1849.] METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 321 



satisfactorily, viz., the cutting " a royal road to learning. " 
He intended his Analysis to be of use not merely among the 
heathen of Melanesia, but in the schools of New Zealand. 
In a young colony, where the demand for labour is abun* 
dant, he saw that the English system of education, con^ 
tinning for fourteen or fifteen years, was doomed to failure, 
and that the question was "how to impart in one or two years 
a clear and comprehensive knowledge of all subjects really 
important to be known." The only solution was, that 
the English system must be reversed, and that principles 
must be taught^ not by going in a long course of reading 
through a variety of books, but as collected in one point of 
view and illustrated by every light that can be thrown 
upon them. 

Each page in the Analysis was capable of being used by 
all the children of a school, from the oldest to the youngest, 
as well as by Divinity students, and would at the same 
time furnish heads for a catechetical instruction which an 
intelligent teacher could easily work out. Thus imi- 
formity of religious teaching was to a great degree secured 
throughout the diocese to pupils of ell ages and conditions 
The work was so original, and is such a monument of 
ungrudging labour, that it is well worthy of further illus- 
tration. To take therefore the word bread and its sub^ 
divisions jnUse and herbs; to this the symbol 50 was 
given, and on page 50 of the Analysis the word Bread 
is given as the lesson for the Tuesday in the fourth week 
after the Epiphany, in the following table : — 



VOL. I. 



322 



LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. 



[chap. IX. 



Epipbant. Foubth Wbbk. Tuxsdat. 




Bread, 








PCLSB. 1 


60. 




Herbs 


• 


1 


Old Tsstambht. 




New Testament. 




1 




B^trenee. 


Ekolibh. 


RiffBTtnct, 






Bxod. 39. 2. 


Ploub. 








s 




Levlt 14 10. 


Fine floar. 










8 




Levit 14. 10. 


Deal of flonr. 








4 




1 Kings, 17, 12. 


Meal. 










6 




Num. 6. 16. 


Barley meal. 










6 




OeD. 1& 6. 


Knbad. 










7 




Exod. 12. 84. 


Kneading trongh. 








1 


8 




Ezod. 12, 89 


Dough. 

















LVAVRN, ...... 


Matt. 18. 88. 








10 






Old leaven . . . 


ICor. 6. 7. 






1 


11 




Ezod. 12. 15. 


Leavened. 










13 






Leaven, v. . . . 


GaL 6. 9. 








13 




Ezod. 12. 89. 


Unleavened. 










14 






Lump' 


I Cor. 6. 6. 








16 






New lump . 


1 Cor. 6. 7. 








16 




Ezod. 16. 23. 


Bakk. 










17 




Hosea 7. 6. 


Baker. 










18 




Qea. 40. 17. 


Bakemeats. 










19 




Hosea 7. 4. 


Ovens. 










20 




Psalm 104. 16. 


Bread. 










21 




Levit 26. 26. 


Staff of bread. 










2-2 






Bhewbread . . . 


Hebr. 0. 2. 








23 






Loaf 


Mark 8. 14. 








24 




Levit 23. 17. 


Wave loaves. 










26 




1 Kings 17. 12. 


Cake. 










26 




Bxod. 29. 23. 


Wafer. 










27 




1 Kings 14. 3. 


Cracknels. 










28 




Esek. 27. 17. 


Pan nag. 










29 






Crumb . . . . 


Lnke 16. 21. 








80 






Morsel . . . , 


Hebr. 12. 16. 








31 




Josh. 9. 5. 


Mouldy. 










82 




Rzod. 16. 16. 


Manna 


John 6. 81. 








83 




Psalm 106. 40. 


Bread tnm heaven. 


. 








84 




Psalm 78. 26. 


Angel's food. 










35 




Dent. 8. 8. 


HONBT. 










36 






Honeycomb . . . 


Luke 24. 42. 








87 




Dan. 1. 12. 


PUWB. 










88 




2 8am. 17.28. 


Beans. 










89 




Gen. 26. 34. 


Lentiles. 










40 




Gen. 26. 29. 


Pottage. 










41 




Jonah 4. 6, 


GouftD. 










42 




2 Kings 4. 89. 


Wildgoitrd. 










43 




Isaiah 1. 8, 


Cucumber. 










44 




Nnm. 11. 6. 


Melon. 










46 




Prov. 15. 17. 


Herbs. 










46 




Nnm. 11. 6. 


Onion. 










47 




Num. 11. 6. 


Leek. 










48 




Nnm. 11. 6. 


Garlick. 










49 






Mini 


Matt. 28. 23. 








50 






Rue 


Luke 11. 42. 








61 






Anise . . 


Matt. 2a 28. 








62 






Cummin .... 


Matt 28. 28. 








68 




Cant 4. 14. 


Saffron. 










64 




Ezod. 16. 81. 


Coriander. 










66 




Job 80. 4. 


Mallows. 










66 




Gen. 80. 14. 


Mandnkes. 










67 




Gen. 87. 36. 


Bahn. 










68 
















69 
















60 

















1849.] CATECHETICAL LECTURE. 323 



It was intended that the missionary when seated among 
his scholars, learnin<2[ their language while teaching them 
" the tongue of immortals," should elicit from them the 
different meanings of the several words in column 4. The 
native "scholiasts " soon entered into it, and the missionary 
would write down their " scholia " in the blank column, 
2 or 6, and with this be prepared to translate with 
idiomatic accuracy the words which occur in the sacred 
writings, and of which they are the equivalents. 

From a MS. catechetical lecture in the bishop's own 
writing, which has been preserved and is printed verbatim, 
the reader will be able to see how carefully he worked out 
his own idea from the specimen page of synonyms and 
references given on the other side. 

Lessons on Food, Page 50. 
i. making bread. 

Question on the manner of making bread : From what 
grain, how made into flour or meaL Explain the uses made 
of fine flour by the priests under the Jewish law, the mea- 
sures used by them. Befer to passages describing the offer- 
ings of flour, &c., also to the widow's handful of meal and its 
sufficing her for so long by the power of God given to 
EUsha. Question on the likeness between that miracle 
and our Lord's multiplying the loaves and fishes. Lesson 
to be drawn from these miracles ; all food the gift of God, 
therefore thanks must be given to Him whenever we 
partake of food. 

Explain the process of making bread, the need of leaven 
to make it fit for food, the reason of the Israelites carrying 
away the dough before it was leavened, the process of 
baking, the story of the baker in Genesis, the meaning of 
bakemeo^, the reason why the word bread is used to 
signify any kind of food and even our whole support ; refer 
to the expressions staff and stay of bread. Illustrate all 
the foregoing questions by passages from Scripture. 

Explain the wave loaf and its meaning, as a thank 
offering and a sign that the bread is God's gifb.) 

T 2 



I 



324 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 



VARIOUS KINDS OF BBEAD. 

From 25 — 30. Explain the several forms of bread here 
mentioued, the name given to minute fragments, the lesson 
so frequently given and enforced by our Lord's own 
example, never to waste even the crumbs of food. 

32 — 34. Question on the giving of the manna; why 
called bread from heaven and angels' food, though coming 
direct from heaven, yet the manna was no more the gift 
of God than the bread we eat ; both are bread from heaven, 
the one did not want man's own labour, the other does, 
yet as man^s labour must make the wheat grow, is it not 
truly said that man doth not live by bread alone, but by 
every word that proceedeth from God's mouth ? Mention 
persons who have lived many days without food, or with 
a very small portion, in proof of the truth of this saying : 
Moses, Elisha, and our Lord when He became man. 

OTHER KINDS OF VEGETilBLE FOOD. 

35 — 57. other kinds of food are here mentioned, pas- 
sages of Scripture to be found where they are mentioned. 
Persons who lived on some of these kinds of food and never 
on bread, yet were nourished and strengthened by them. 
Daniel and his companions, John the Baptist, Jacob's 
pottage of lentiles, Jonah's gourd, and his discontented 
complaints at its losa Poisonous food how and when made 
harmless ; the various herbs of which the Pharisees paid 
tithes. 

Spiritual Application of the Lesson on Food. 

The soul needs food as much as tho body to strengthen 
and nourish it As the body becomes weak and sickly if 
deprived of daily food, so does the soul if without the 
bread of life. Our Lord is the bread of life, unless by 
fcdth we feed on Him in our souls we cannot have eternal 
life. Explain that as food must be regularly and often 
taken for the health of the body, so must our prayers for 
the grace of Christ and for the strengthening power of His 
body and blood, be constant and earnest The health of the 



1849.] CATECHETICAL LECTURE. 525 

body cannot be preserved beyond the time allotted for our 
lives, but the soul may be nourished unto eternal life. 
Which then should be our chiefest care? Refer to our 
Lord's own words, John vi., on labouring for the meat that 
perisheth ; and again to Matt vi., 25 — 33. The want of 
food for the body cannot and does not injure the health of 
the soul, as is shown in the story of the rich man and 
Lazarus ; the beggar, though suffering from hunger and 
disease, was yet a partaker of everlasting life, the rich man, 
who fared sumptuously every day, was eternally miserable. 
See Matt, xvi., 26. 

Explain the words " daily bread " in the Lord's prayer, 
and refer to our Church Catechism, which teaches us that by 
those words are meant *' all things needful for our souls and 
bodies." As we are taught that we must labour for the 
food we eat since the curse passed upon Adam, " In the 
sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread,*' as God gives 
nothing without means, and ordains that we must work 
together with Him — not idly expecting Him to supply our 
wants without our own exertions, so we must labour for 
the bread from heaven, strive, pray, watch, seek for it, in all 
the appointed means of grace, in reading God's Word, in 
worshipping Him, and above all, in partaking of the Lord's 
Supper. Give examples of persons who like David es- 
teemed the Word of God more than their necessary food, 
who risked the loss of earthly wealth and plentiful living 
rather than disobey God or put their souls in danger. Also 
other examples, or with waitings from the history of 
persons, who, like Esau, for one morsel of meat sold their 
birthright, forfeited their hopes of heaven, for some worldly 
gain or enjoyment. Eefer to all the passages in which our 
Lord is spoken of as noui^ishing our souls. Show how this 
can only take place when we are joined to Him ; as food 
cannot do us good if we only look at it, so neither can we 
be nourished by our Lord's grace unless we be joined to 
Him as mouths to a head, branches to a vine, &c. 



326 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



CHAPTER X. 

[1850-1861.] 

Winter had nearly set in, when, on June 4th, the Undine 
returned to Auckland, having carried back to their native 
islands the five boys who had spent the summer in the 
College. On the homeward voyage, full of the sense of 
the needs of the work, and looking in aU directions for 
helpers, the bishop wrote to a friend at Eton, uiging him to 
do, as he himself did later, dedicate a son to the life of a 
Missionary : — 

"Unbinb" Sobooksb, at Ska, 
Long. 170 E.; Lat. 27 a 

My dear Friend, 

I am writing to you in the midst of a majestic thunder- 
storm, on the bosom of the wide Pacific, and about half- 
way from New Caledonia, which I have left, and New 
Ziand. towhich I am returning. The Uttle Undine is 
alone on this wide waste of water ; yet not alone ; for here 
we see the wonders of God without distraction from the 
works of man. Your letter of 12th September, 1849, is 
lying before me, and though you are not a very good cor- 
respondent, I have taken it up first out of a heap of forty 
other letters — a compliment which, I hope, will make you 
mend your manners for the future. Accept my hearty 
congratulations on your attainment of the " Jus trium libe- 
rorum ; " but please to remember, that as you are only a 
junior assistant, and therefore a " Proletarius," you are 
bound to hold at least one of your boys liable to military 
or naval service, at the command of the Bishop of New 
Zealand, or any other amphibious power invested with the 
right of conscription. It is not enough thatyou should 



1850-1851.] MISSIONARY DIGNITY. 327 



buy inferior substitutes by pecuniary contributions; you 
have learned and taught Greek Grammar long enough to 
know that summary of missionary duty, the more forcible, 
in some respects, as coining from a mere heathen orator, 

irpoOvfiiav Sei/eriov eia^ipovra^ i^iopra^. 

Dedicate your very best boy to the mission work ; and, 
without forcing his inclination, lead him steadily to look 
upon a wild hill in New Caledonia as a more noble post 
than a Fellowship at Eton, or even the Provostship of 
Kings. For such it is. What man in his sober senses, 
and with his Demosthenes before him, to say nothing of 
the Bible, would sit down in the prime of life with the 
deliberate purpose of spending a quarter of a century, like 

, in collecting butterflies. And yet there 

are butterflies too in New Caledonia, glorious butterflies, 
which flew across my path as I climbed up a lovely water- 
fall at Weine, on the east coast of that Island, radiant 
with the deepest blue, and as large as dragon-flies. Did I 
catch one ? Not I ; I would not catch, much less impale 
upon a pin, that type of the Immortality of the Soul, es- 
pecially in a country where man is stiU in the grub, and 
waiting to be adorned, like those bright insects, with wings 
of silver and feathers like gold. When will the day of 
bursting come to all these human chrysalides in these dark 
islands ? May one of your sons be there to see a whole 
pagan nation spring up out of the groimd, and mount up 
on the wings of the converted souL I have no better wish 
for him or for you, than that he may be a zealous evangelist, 
and that you, when you are dazed and flattened by your 
work, may be lightened and leavened by the report of 
God's blessing upon his labours. Do not suppose that 
I undervalue your present duties, but understand me to 
mean only that waiSajcy/ia and iraiSoiroita are both vain, 
unless they send forth more labourers into Christ's harvest 
field. 

Your affectionate Friend, 
G. A, New Zealand. 

His experiences on this voyage with mingled humour 
and pathos the bishop recounted in a letter to his frequent 
correspondent, the Eev. E. Coleridge : — 



328 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



Jbnoen, New Caledonia, 
Lat. 20.40. East Coast 
May 17th, 1850. 

My very DEA.R Feiend, 

When I am put out of my present stewardship by Joseph 
Hume, or any other potentate, I shall hope to have the offer 
of the Mastership of the Bemove at Eton, that blissful 
region which enjoys a monopoly of the little knowledge of 
geography, which the school possesses. My stock is daily 
increasing, as you will find to your cost by the list of out- 
landish names, unknown to Arrowsmith and to Wylde, 
which stand at the head of my letters. You will wish me 
back again at one of those modern examples of " fanum 
putre Vacunae," Boveney Chapel or Dorney Church, as a 
relief from the annoyance of a correspondent, who carries 
you beyond the limits of all existing Gazetteers. Well, 
then, my dear friend, comfort your heart with the thought, 
no matter where I am, that I am still the same friend, who 
lived next door to you in Keate's Lane, where we were 
wont oapl^€fi€v a\X?}Xoi<rt, as you went to and fro about 
vour work, and as I looked out of the window for the lack of 
work. Be sure that " my heart untravelled still returns to 
you ; *' and that no foreign travel, imconnected with duty, 
would ever compensate me for the removal from Eton. I 
would rather be at the Weir than at Niagara ; in Poet's 
Walk rather than at Helicon; and in your "lane of 
Hems ! ! " rather than on the Bridge of Sighs. But when 
travel comes with a duty for its motive, how enjoyable it 
then is. If I could have wafted you during the last week 
to the calm, sunny, blue waters of these reef lagoons, with 
the bright green and tree-bespangled hills of New Cale- 
donia towering over the topmasts of my consort, H.M.S. 
Fly, how truly and sympathetically we should have enjoyed 
the combination of everything that is highest in interest, 
or brighest in colouring, or most graceful in form, or most 
majestic in size. But this may not be, till modern science 
shall have attained to the utmost limit of locomotive 
power, by enabling the electric telegraph to carry passen- 
gers as well as messages. Surely New Ccdedonia is a 
lovely country. Such waterfalls as I saw yesterday, such 
rocky piles and minarets of dark grey stone as I am now 
surrounded by; such a river as I have rowed into this 
afternoon, with tufted groves of cocoa-nuts sheltering the 



1860-1851.] " PROPAGANDA BEGUN." 329 

neatest bee-hive houses, and hanging gardens of yams and 
taro on the heights ; and dingles of dark wood, which tell 
where the hidden watercourse has fed the trees during the 
scorching heat ; and bright green mountains towering over 
all, and running up into the deep blue sky, as if to teach 
us how prodi^ nature is of her charms, to waste them 
thus upon eyes which cannot discern beauty, and hearts 
which cannot admire it. 

But believe me that it is not true that '' only man is 
vile." This race of men are not vile ; but, as Cook found 
them, the most friendly people in the world. How could 
they be vile, for whom Christ paid the price of His blood ? 
How can they be vile to us, who have been taught by God 
^ot to call any man common or unclean ? I quarrel with 
the current phrases of the "poor heathen," and the 
"perishing savages," et id genus omne. Far poorer and 
more ready to perish may be those men of Christian 
countries who have received so much, and can account for 
so little. Poorest of all may we be ourselves^ who, as 
stewards and ministers of the Grace of God, are found so 
unfaithful in our stewardship. To go among the heathen 
as an equal and a brother is far more profitable than to 
risk that subtle kind of self-righteousness, which creeps 
into the mission work, akin to the thanking God that we 
are not as other men are. Who can say, that the heathen 
are more guilty because they have not the Gospel, than 
we who have received that Gospel, and of whom its fruits 
will be required ? 

I am now far advanced in my second round of in- 
spection, for it is nothing more at present, of this Mela- 
nesian field. I am waiting for the opening of the door 
which is now just creaking on its hinges. I wrote to you 
an explanatory letter from Anaiteum in August last ; ^ and 
I need only now add, that a second course of observation 
over the same field has confirmed the impressions under 
which that letter was written : and that I have now no 
reasonable doubt of the gradual success of a steady, per- 
severing, and faithful effort to evangelize the "mingled 
peoples " who have flowed forth among these islands from 
every story and every window of BabeL Our Propaganda 
is already begun, and it is time that it should be ; for on 

' P. 286. 



830 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, i- 

the little deck of the Undine, I have had at the same 
moment the representatives of ten languages or dialects. 
Here they are to send you again, "pertusum terebrare 
salinum," to bore yourself by poring into Arrowsmith for 
salt which you will not find — 

1. English. 

2. New Zealand. 

3. Samoan, Navigators'. 

4. Barotonga. 

6. l5u} ^y^^^y ^^""^^ 

7. New Caledonia — one out of many. 

8. Anaiteum. 1 

9. Tanna. > New Hebrides. 
10. Futuna. J 

Was not that an ethnographical feast to be all collected 
in a cabin 12 feet by 8? 

** Five and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie, 
And when the pie was opened the birds b^n to sing," 

a literal fact for eight of the above languages, exactly 
twenty-five •* black birds " in all, with ten white ones, were 
baked, boiled, and stewed in the Uhdins for two days 
between Tanna and Anaiteum in bad weather; and J 
promise you, that when the pie was opened the birds did 
begin to sing ; and I the &ro'^ of the party at le&st as 
heartily as the rest. The occasion was the restoration to 
their country of fifteen Anaiteum men, who had been 
taken to Tanna, and the removal of the families of some 
native missionaries from Samoa and Barotonga, whom we 
found ill at Tanna. However, I have never yet felt any- 
thing equal to the cabin of the Victorine, a French egg-boat, 
in which I once crossed from Cherbourg to Southampton, 
and with this assumed datum of discomfort, everything that 
I now meet with stands higher in the scale. You w2l say 
that this is poor comfort, but try it before you reject my 
panacea for every evil of life. 

Tour truly affectionate 

6. A. New Zealand. 

Two months later the long hoped-for presence of Mr. 
Abraham was an accomplished fact It seemed almost 



1850-1851.] BEV. C. J. ABRAHAM ARRIVES. 38 

too good to be true ; and in the fulness of his heart the 
Bishop wrote words of greeting out of a full heart on 
Mr. Abraham's arrival in Auckland Harbour : — 

St. John's College, Auckland, 
JtUy 2Ath, 1850. 

My very DEAR Friknd, — 

And now dearer than ever — welcome to hearts large 
enough to hold you, and to houses small enough to pinch 
you, that between the largeness of heart-room, and the 
narrowness of house-room, you may enjoy that happy 
mean of comfort and discomfort, which represents most 
truly our state of trial on earth. Lose not one moment in 
coming to us, either by land or water. Captain Bough 
will point out to you the best way of proceeding, either by 
crossing at once to the College Creek, or by going to the 
Chief Justice at Taurarua, from which the College Force, 
avSp€<: T ^iffeoi re koX etkliroZe^ eXixe^ fiov^, will fetch 
you and your baggage, as soon as we hear of your arrival. 
Your truly affectionate and ever 

Grateful Friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

With Mr. Abraham at the head of the College, and 
subsequently acting as Archdeacon of the district of 
Waitemata, the bishop felt more free to devote a larger 
measure of care to the remote parts of the diocese. First 
impressions of a place have always the charm and fresh- 
ness of novelty, even though experience may clothe them 
with more sober colours ; but in the estimate and judg- 
ments formed of such a man as Bishop Selwyn, seen, after 
a separation of many years, day by day in the midst of 
the institutions which his own genius had created and 
moulded, the first impressions of devoted friends, whom 
personal afiTection had led to throw in their lot with him 
and with his work have no common interest. 

These "first impressions" are graphically given by a 
lady in the following letter: her husband contributed 
his impressions some three weeks later in the second letter 
that is here printed : — 



332 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



St. John's Collegb, Auckland, New Zealand, I 

Thur9day, August 29^ 1850. 

My dear 

You will hear from my sisters of our safe arrival here 
on the 6th of this month, and something of our first 
impressions ; and 1 dare say if you like it, you will see 
the daily details of our life at the coUege during the last 
three weeks, so I am not going to repeat these things now ; 
but to give you, as far as I can, the result of our first view 
of all around us, while it is fresh and lively, and to trace, 
as far as I can, the likeness of the reality to the picture 
and imagination which we have so long had before the 
mind's eye, and so often talked of with you. I used to 
think that when we were here 

" Althouffh 'tta fair, 
Twill be EDower Yarrow ; *' 

but it is, I think, both within and without, strangely like 
one's fancy and conception of what it would be ; so much 
so that our first evening with the Martins at Taurarua was 
so true to one's fancy of such evenings, that I was con- 
tinually asking myself whether it was not all a vision of 
fancy, instead of a real scene before one's bodily eye and 
ear. And so also when we accompanied the Bishop and 
Sarah home next day. Everything was. so like one's 
imagination of it, that I became quite bewildered at first 
Now we have settled down quite into a " homy " feeling 
and habit as to the reality of our existence here and all 
around us, which will soon absorb all former ideals of the 
place, and the community, and the work ; and even now I 
wish I could hear your questions, in order that I might 
know on what points to enb'ghten you. First, however, as 
to the Master mind, the great founder, the humble lowly 
worker of all. Is he still what he was when he left us ? 
— What we have believed him to be all these years while 
the world was between us ? — What do we find him ? — All 
that he was ; all that we believed ; all that you can under- 
stand better than any (me can describe. You can feel, too, 
the glow of heart, the deep joy it is to feel this, day by 
day pressed home to one's conviction, and unveiled before 
one's eyes in all the soberness of truth and reality. To 
find, as my husband says, " that it was not any mere fancy. 



1850-1851.] FIRST IMPRESSIONS. 333 

any imaginary greatness and goodness, with which memory 
and friendship had invested him in absence, but that he is 
in his simple, unvarnished reality, more than all he had 
thought and trusted to and reverenced for these nine years 
past. You can think how happy it is whenever we are 
alone together, to hear him sum up all he told me of 
their converse, with such thoughts as these, and with the 
thankful expression of his sense of the blessedness of our 
own lot in being thus made members of a ' Holy House ; ' 
and of the way in which Bishop Andrewes' words came 
home to one now with an individual appropriation of the 
thought, as well as an intercessory petition for others in 
our own land, which we have been wont to associate with 
the expression, especially in this day's (Thursday's) prayer. 
As Charles says, the singleness of purpose, the entire de- 
votion of himself and all he is, and all he has — the entire 
renunciation of self and aU belonging to him in compari- 
son with the duty and the object of the present moment, 
is so shown forth in his daily life^ so transparently open to 
aU who have eyes to see and hearts to receive the witness 
of such an example, that one must be dead and dull in- 
deed not to feel continually the all-pervading power of 
such a life. And great, indeed, must be the responsibility 
of living thus in the light, as the lesson of our first Sun- 
day here seemed to teach in the warning of Gehazi's sin, 
— that a man might live in a prophet's house and serve 
him, who is a servant of God, and yet have a worldly 
heart and spirit. 

Gradually, however, as we hear more and more, and see 
the real state of things here, how much what is planted 
must need time to grow, and how he is obliged to wait and 
lay by> as it were, for the periods of renewed action ; and 
still more, as one feels that he is the one man to pioneer 
the way and lay foundations, as all this comes to one — 
my husband owns that he *' cannot gainsay or resist the 
wisdom with which he speaks," though he is thankful to 
find the judge quite joins with him in his feeling that a 
drag-chain rather than a spur is needed on his favourite 
Melanesian Mission ; and is disposed to watch his widening 
schemes in that direction with a zealous regard for this 
country, which (as he agrees with Charles) must after all 
be the real battle-field in behalf of the coloured race, and 



334 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

also with anxiety for the personal health and safety of the 
bishop himself, which they all feel is certainly risked in 
each one of these voyages. It is some satisfaction to find 
that the chief and most influential means which he looks 
to for the accomplishment of the object, is the education 
of youths from these islands at this college, and not to the 
planting of mission stations in the islands themselves. 
The great varieties of language amongst them is a bar to 
this, and points rather, as he thinks, to the need of gather- 
ing them together £rom all parts, and teaching them 
English, and so making our tongue the missionary lan- 
guage, as the Boman was in former days; a conclusion, 
as you will see, very different from that which he upholds 
so strenuously for this country, where the speech is one, 
the needs of mastering the language, in order to reach the 
people in this generation ; while he would do his best to 
teach English to the rest. I do not wonder at the hold 
these islands have upon him, after hearing his stories of 
his intercourse amongst them, and especiaJly about the 
boys he had here last summer, and whom he hopes to 
fetch again when the climate makes it safe. One little 
fellow from Lifu especially, who was like a child in this 
house to him and Sarah, and a brother to Johnnie, and 
whom they nursed so tenderly in his sickness, the bishop 
earnestly hopes may return again. You wUl hear more 
about this little Thol ; and if a letter reaches Willy from 
his father, as I trust it will — ^in which he tells him of his 
parting with the little fellow when he took him home last 
April — how they went apart into the copse wood, and how 
Thol knelt down and said the Lord's Prayer, and a little 
prayer for> Johnnie ; and how he begged him to come back 
again and fetch him. Johnnie talks about his little com- 
panion still, and how he used to say that Johnnie should 
go home with him, and his mother would carry him about 
on her back and give him sugar-cane. 

• . « • • « 

You should hear his stories of the quiet way in which 
he walks through any mention of State interference and 
ecclesiastical law, apart from Church authority. They 
would amuse you greatly ; such as his refusal at Welling- 
ton to marry an English gentleman to a Jewess (the civil 
form, or the Jewish, being open to him), or to open the 



1860-1851.] ENCROACHMENT OF CIVIL POWER 335 

burial-gromid of the Church of England to all denomina- 
tions (the only reason why they desired it being to save 
the expense of fencing the ground allotted to themselves). 
How quietly in both instances, when the legal penalties 
attached to the refusal were alluded to, he replied by a 
common-sense protest against the introduction into a new 
country of the burthens and precedents of the old (es- 
pecially in regard to the Church which had no State aid 
here, but which would flourish, he doubted not, under 
persecution), which were found to work ill even there; 
while he expressed his readiness to submit to the sentence 
of the law, playfully remarking, " that after weeks in his 
tiny schooner at sea, the prison-rooms would be spacious, 
and the prison fare luxurious, and the leisure of a few 
weeks to write letters and do business, rather a boon than 
otherwise." Tou can fancy how this sort of appeal turns 
off and disarms objection, and how he walks through oppo- 
sition of this kjiid, like a giant rejoicing to run his 

course 

If he can ever find time to put on paper all his thoughts 
and plans for the college and its foundation in a system, I 
think there would spring out of it his earnest view of the 
duty of the Church as to education : that the clergy must 
take it into their own hands by doing the work. ** Deacon 
schoolmasters all over England would make speeches and 
agitation at Willis's Booms needless," he says ; and I be- 
lieve if anything brought hini back to England, that is the 
crusade which he would preach and lead ; that, and an Epis- 
copate of " 5001. a year bishops/' given to hospitality, and 
not *' clothing flunkeys in purple." These are the two 
points on wliich all our conversation on home afGiirs ends. 
These, with the restoration of Cathedral Institutions to 
their true objects, are the burden of his song ; and I be- 
lieve he thinks, if the Church will not arise and work out 
this reformation in herself, that the scourge will chastise 
her into a better mind. 

St. John's College, Auckland, 
Sept. l^th, 1850. 

My dear Dr. Hawtrey, 

If I have deferred writing to you among my letters to 
Eton friends, it was because I thought you would be most 
interested in hearing of the bishop, and Mrs. Selwyn, and 



336 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

of my college life — not that I have forgotten you or yours, 
and all your kind interest in us. Indeed, Eton and its 
people are bound up in my " bundle of life," in a way that 
I hope will never admit of loosening. To tell you the 
truth, there is nothing that pains me more in my brief 
acquaintance with the people in Sydney and here, generally 
speaking, than their utter lack of sympathy or interest in 
England and English life. The bishop, and Judge Martin, 
and my colleague, Mr. Lloyd, are the only men that have 
a heart large enough to contain much beyond the local 
interests of the colony. I should add, however, the 
Governor, who is really a laige-hearted, large-minded man 
— a thorough gentleman, whom it is a positive pleasure to 
meet and know. He weus an old Sandhurst cadet and 
student, and consequently we have many points of rapport^ 
and besides is a literaiy man, and takes delight in many 
studies which I could wish I were more versed in, but can 
only profess interest about Your handsome present of 
French Mathematics has delighted him exceedingly. 

The bishop and myself are the only persons in the 
colony almost that possess libraries ; and the taste for such 
things has to be created, as at present a mere utilitarian 
idea of education prevails. Perhaps, for the purposes of 
the settlers here and the clergy, a practical education is the 
best suited, and I must confess that I quite quail before the 
attainments of some of my scholars, who will make most 
valuable missionaries among natives, and round a '' sea- 
girt isle." Only conceive what a thoroughly avrdpict]^ 
man will be formed out of a boy who, at the age of 19 
knows more Divinity than most of the boys at Eton in 
the Sixth Form, who is thoroughly acquainted with French 
and Maori ; and as there are some of the former people 
here as settlers, this is an utilitarian acquirement, as well 
as a literary one. He is a good musician, and able to 
teach the natives singiug — a good mathematician, and able 
to sail the Uridine from hence to the New Hebrides and 
back— taking sights and managing the rigging, &c. He is 
gentle withal and humble, and the only thing I desiderate 
in him is a little life, and somewhat of the quickness of an 
Eton boy. That is the most trying part of my school 
duties. After the alertness of an Eton boy's mind, it 
requires some patience to see the sluggishness of the 



1850-1851.] CONDITION OF CONVERTa 337 

( • 

, i 

colonial movement. Of course none of them are scholars 

^ in our sense of the word ; they devote too little time to 

^ mere scholarship, having to pay for their support by bodily 

^ work (for none of their parents can or will pay for them), 

\ . so that two hours a day, four times a week, is all a boy 

^ ■■ gets of school. He is either printing, or farming, or 

f weaving, or digging, or making shoes, &c., the rest of his 

' time. Altogether, it is a strange life we lead here. I am 

, sure I never realized it before I came, and I suppose I 

thought about it as much as most people at Eton ; but I 

will try and put you in possession of our principle and 

i practice ; and when I say owr, I mean the bishop's, — for 

only his vast head and noble heart could conceive and 

execute so complicated a plan. 

The first generation of converts to Christianity is passing 
off rapidly from this scene, and the middle-aged folk now 
are very nominal Christians indeed. They have abandoned 
cannibalism certainly, and the horrors of frequent war, 
thank God; but their moral and religious state ia very 
questionable. The old chief, close by us, is a heathen, for 
example, and he and many of his people point to the bad 
lives of the Christian people as their stumbling-block — 
just as people at home point to the bad lives of the com- 
municants as a reason for their not becoming so them- 
selves. The fact is, that they are not educated ; they are 
instructed a little, but all their habits are heathenish. The 
bishop was told by the missionaries, that it was impossible 
and visionary to attempt to break through these habits. 
His faith was too great to allow him to leave it unattempted, 
and his perseverance too strong to be easily deterred or 
bafiSed. He established the college, to which he draws as 
many as he can afford, which is only fifty — for the funds 
from England have failed this last year or two by l,000i. 
He first has a native school for children (it stands about 
100 yards from this ; his house, and the chapel is between 
us). There are twenty or twenty- five of these little brown 
mice, living in a wooden Swiss-like cottage, with a master 
(a candidate for Holy Orders) and an assistant — one of the 
scholars, nineteen or twenty years of age — to look after 
them. They learn English, arithmetic, singing, writing, and 
Scripture — dig in the garden, and keep the kitchen-garden 
in order — ^make and mend their own clothes, which are not 
VOL. I. z 



338 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



extensive, a suit of Nottingham drill, i,e. a pair of trousera 
and a little smock-frock, and a shirt. They are guiltless 
of shoes and stockings. When they are 13 or 14 years 
of age, they are drafted oflF into the labour departments 
(to which about twenty-five more belong, and live in 
different houses, under the superintendence of students), 
and become either bakers or cooks, weavers or shoemakers, 
carpenters or farmers, &c., attending school half the day, 
and working the other half at their trade or occupation. 

We are fortunate enough to have a good kind of people 
about us in the college establishment, to superintend these 
departments. We have, for instance, living close by, op- 
posite the college, an old pensioner, who was a weaver ; 
then the farmer is an exceUent man, who failed rather on 
his own account, and is glad to conduct our farm, which 
he does admirably. It is to the interest of every one of 
these departments to make the members work, as the firm 
receives two-thirds of the profits, after all the expenses are 
paid, the other third going to the collie general account 

At 7 o'clock A.M. we all meet at chapel, and the service 
is partly chanted; the natives know enough English to 
chant the Te Deum, Jubilate, &c. You know how deeply 
I felt the need of such a commencement of every day at 
Eton, and yet how inexpedient I felt it to have all the 
school compulsorily in our whole service, without the relief 
of music. The bishop authorises here a curtailed ser- 
vice, and, as Ordinary, suits it to our wants and circum- 
stances. At half-past 7 they all breakfast in haU — from 
9 to 10, religious instruction — from 10 to 2, different 
classes, either for study or work. I have the scholars and 
candidates for Holy Orders, in the Bishop's absence. At 
2, hall — we all dine together. There is an upper table for 
the clergy and ladies : the different departments dine 
together, presided over by their foreman, at different 
tables — plain, good, wholesome fare. From 4 to 6, school, 
or work — at 6, tea in hall — 7, chapel. The evening is 
their own for reading, &c. I found that they had not been 
in the habit of preparing their lessons for school, but learnt 
them in school. I have introduced the goodly Eton prac- 
tice ; and so get an extra subject done, and less idleness 
and gossip in the evenings. 

Oi course, in the above account, fanners and carpenters 



1850-1851.] SYDNEY. 339 

cannot break off their work for school ; so they have two 
whole days devoted to school — the rest to work. 

The attachment of the natives to the bishop is wonder- 
ful: they fully appreciate his caxe for them. Some ill- 
conditioned English people were trying to poison their 
minds the other day, about his having so much land here, 
while he forbad the clergy to purchase land for themselves. 
They saw the fallacy in a moment One lad cried out, 
" Ah ! but the Pihopa does not buy the land for Willy and 
Johnny, but for * tatou katoa ' (us all) ; while the other 
Pakehas buy for their Willies and Johnnies." 

Apropos of Willy and Johnny, you will all be delighted 
to hear that Mrs. Selwyn has a little girl, born on the 6th 
of this month — both mother and child are doing well It 
was a great comfort to us that she was born before the 
bishop left us for Sydney, on the 7th, to attend the Synod 
of Bishops 

I have been very little away from the college, and 
hardly know any of the people at Auckland. .... 

The bishop will now be able to move about his diocese, 
or visit the Northern Isles with more confidence and 
comfort. He is certainly more aged than I at first fancied, 

but Mrs. Selwyn looks much the same I must not 

omit to tell you and my Eton friends, that we have 
bought 300 acres of land round the college, with some of 
the Scholarship Endowment, you all so kindly founded — 
and it takes in a fresh-water lake, with the auspicious 
name of Waiata Bua, *' the two Psalms." Oentem faciemtti 
viramqus Unam animis. 

Believe me ever. 
Your attached and grateful Friend, 

C. J. Abbahah. 

In September the bishop went to Sydney to take part 
in the Synod of the Bishops of Australasia, who, six in 
number, took counsel together concerning the condition of 
their dioceses ; it was the first foreshadowing of that Pro- 
vincial Organization which in Canada and in Southern 
Africa^ as well as in New Zealand, has since been wisely 
consolidated, and has done so much for the peace as well 
as for the progress of the Church. In Australia itself, 

z 2 



840 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

which witnessed the first essay at such organization, the 
advance has not been either assured or rapid. A variety 
of causes may be assigned ; but foremost among them is an 
inadequate conception of the spiritual character of the 
Church, which has been fostered by an admiration of Letters 
Patent and State connexion, which lingers and helplessly 
yecons for such perilous possessions, even long after they 
have been finally withdrawn. What the bishop thought 
of the prospects of the Synod and its importance, and how 
largely it was indebted to him for its existence and for 
its results, may be gathered from a passage in a letter 
written on bourd the Undine on August 31st, and by a 
study of the official Beport of the proceedings : — 

'' I am just on the point of setting out on a most in- 
teresting errand, to meet the Bishops of the Australian 
Province at Sydney on the 1st October. We have many 
important subjects to consider, among others the formation 
of a ' Board of Missions * for the dark and almost un> 
known Archipelago, into the skirts of which T have thrice 
penetrated, and the third time with some clear hope of 
success, by the introduction from the five scholars whom I 
carried back in May last to the Loyalty Islands and New 
Caledonia. I hope to interest the sister Churches in the 
same work, of which I am willing, if required, to take the 
active part, if they will supply me with the funds. Very 
soon there will be nothing in me but will 'sufiTer a sea 
changa' May my sacrifice be salted with salt, and with 
fire. Pray for me, from your equally missionary position, 
as one amongst thousands who scarcely know God." 

On his voyage to Australia the bishop's thoughts were 
not wholly absorbed by the coming Synod: they were 
largely given to his diocese, and in the interests of his 
nascent College at Porirua he thus wrote to his brother-in- 
law, Dr. Peacock : — 



1850-1861.] PORIRUA COLLEGE. 341 



To THE Very Eev. the Dean of Ely. 

"Moa" Brio, at Sea, 

Lat. 84. S.; Long. 164. E. 

Sept. 13^, 1850. 

My dear Brother, 

Tour ready acceptance of the office of irpo^evo^ for one 
of my " twins of learning," scarcely yet bom, emboldens 
me to write to you again and communicate some further 
particulars of the plan of Trinity College, Porirua. And 
first I must remove an objection raised chiefly by members 
of my own family, that I am attempting too much. 

To this I answer that those who assigned to me all 
New Zealand as my diocese must bear the blame of this, 
for I cannot see any part of my diocese destitute of the 
means of obtaining ^ sound learning and religious educa- 
tion " without making an effort to supply the defect 

There is little or no communication between Auckland 
and Wellington: each town therefore requires its own 
distinct institutions. 

I have devoted much money, time, and effort to the 
establishment of St. John's College ; and I am now able 
to leave it with comfort and satisfcu^tion in the hands 
of two trustworthy presbyters, Eev. J. F. Lloyd and Eev 
G. J. Abraham. Under these circumstances I consider 
myself bound to do as much as I can, during the next 
few years, for the southern settlements. 

Experience has proved that collegiate institutions must 
be set on foot very early in the outset of a colony, or the 
difficulty, as at Sydney, will be found almost insuperable. 

We have abundant experience of the willingness of 
friends in England and in New Zealand to assist in 
founding such institutions, as we have already at St. 
John's an estate of 1,000 acres, buildings to the value of 
5,000t, and stock of various kinds, by which our expenses 
are already much reduced. The name of Trinity College, 
Porirua, was no sooner announced, than Mr. Harrington, 
secretary to the New Zealand Company, gave 300 guineas 
towards the endowment fund. 

But the immediate cause of the early establishment (if 
early it can be called) of Porirua College, was the good- 
will and zeal of my native scholars of the Ngatiraukawa 



S42 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

tribe, who, having spent twelve months at St John's, even 
while we were still in the roughest state, were so satisfied 
of the goodness of our irUerUioTiSy that they voluntarily 
gave 500 acres of land, in the place which of all others I 
should have chosen, as the site of a college for ''the 
English and native youth, to be brought up together in 
the new principles of obedience to the Queen^ and faith 
in our Lord Jesus Christ." 

This latter clause is a literal translation of the words of 
the native grant, dictated by the donors themselves. 

Bight or wrong then I have been led into this under- 
taking, without any seeking of my own ; and now in the 
words of Bishop Bull — 

" IN I AM, AND ON I MUST." 

The most emphatic monosyllables that ever were written ; 
and most applicable to the state of a Bishop of New 
Zealand. 

The first part of the plan has already gone to England 
for the consideration of the trustees of the Wellington 
Endowment Fund, and contains a proposal for investing 
4,000Z., on the security of the college lands and buildings. 

The college must take its distinctive character from the 
definition contained in the grant of the land. It must be 
for the benefit of the English and native raca This in« 
volves the necessity of an industrial foundation ; for it 
seems to be generally agreed, that the native race are not 
yet ripe for a system, in which their whole time would be 
devoted to study alone. 

By an industrial foundation, I mean, an organized 
system of useful arts, printing, weaving, carpentering, 
farming, &c., to which select youths of both races may be 
bound in the usual manner, but with the understanding 
that a definite portion of their time shall be left free for 
instruction. We find at St. John's thttt a boy of eighteen 
can maintain himself at college a$ a printer by working 
five hours a day ; and we expect them to bestow five hours 
more upon their own improvement in learning. 

This is the point from which we begin ; and is in fact 
the servitor system as adapted to the wants of a new 
colony, and especially to one in which there are two 
distinct races. The rule of industry is binding, in some 



1850-1861.] SYSTEM OF COLLEGE. 343 

form or other, upon all members of the foundation, but is 
regulated in its application by due regard to the physical 
and mental quedities of the scholars. 

We have not yet arrived at the second stage of develop- 
ment, but we are looking forward to the addition of an 
order of "oppidans," or " commoners," who may live in 
private houses under their own tutors, and enjoy the full 
benefit of the All-Souls' statute, being allowed to be " bene 
vestiti and mediocrUer docti." We shall probably not 
admit them into the college hall, but allow them, as at 
Eton, to dine with their own tutors, in such luxurious 
manner as the parents may be willing to pay for ; but 
without the power to make our college fare contemptible 
by the side of their better-furnished tables. These 
separate houses will in fact be smaller colleges, where 
the tutors will cater for the public taste, with as much 
freedom as may be compatible with the general statutes of 
the whole collegiate body. At Eton there are three 
grades — 

Master's House, 
Dames' Houses, 
College : 

all conducted on different scales of expense. 

All the students will be united in one general system of 
academical instruction, and public examination. You 
must not think that I am resting these plans upon pure 
theory, for my own short experience has supplied the 
following facts in favour of the industrial system a^ a 
preparation for Holy Orders. 

I have ordained — 

2 Country Settlers, 
2 Farmers, 
1 Printer, 
1 Weaver, 
1 Spinner, 

besides three medical men. I am not therefore inventing 
a new plan, but only endeavouring to give full effect to a 
course of events which I found already in progress. The 
only difference between us and the old universities in 
his respect will be, that we shall at once place all our 



844 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

poor scholars in some working department instead of 
giving them exhibitions in money or commons before 
their ability or industry has been sufficiently proved. All 
trades alike, and all the oppidan or commoner students, 
will have equal access to the college examinations, and 
through them to the Theological Studentships. 

You may accept my assurance that, if you will kindly 
interest yourself and your Trinity friends in this plan, you 
will never find me exceed in any respect the amount 
which may be available in England I say this in self- 
defence, as I have lost my character with Letitia and 
Fanny, who look upon me as an inveterate spendthrift 
As I have the opposite character in the colony, I can strike 
a mean between the two extremes of my character, as 
contrasted at the antipodes. The truth is, that with five 
large settlements all craving for everything, I have never 
been able hitherto to prevent the local trustees from 
spending more than their allowance. But I have now 
taken effectual means to prevent this excess for the 
future. 

The scholarships at St. John's College are now ten in 
number, endowed with sums of from 500/. to 700/. each. 
This in itself may be taken as a proof that it is better to 
begin early. Five years produce but little eflfect in our 
slow operations ; but to have laid such a foundation is no 
inconsiderable help for the future. .... 

I am now on my way to meet the Bishops of the 
Australian Province in Synod on the Ist October. After 
that, God willing, I must visit Mr. Enderby in his 
antarctic principality, and return by Stewart's Island, 
Otokou, Akaroa, Port Cooper, Wellington, and Nelson. 

A grand campaign in New Caledonia is in store, God 
willing, for next winter. 

I remain, 

Your affectionate brother, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

On the same voyage he wrote another letter full of 
interest to the Bev. £. Coleridge. 



1850-1861.] WASTE OF lOWBR. 345 



''Undine" Schooner, at Sea, 
S^, 2ndt 1850. 

Mt deab and inexhaustible Friend, 

If ever letter from you was precious to me, you may be 
sure it was the one whicli Abraham brought to me in 
person, to enhance a pleasure which in itself scarcely 
admitted of increase 

Though your letter was chiefly on matters of business, 
yet friendship in you is so practical, that even details of 
money mattefs evince the fulness of your affection. By 
spending every shilling that I could get, and cutting down 
everything like an expense to the lowest point, I have just 
been able to receive Abraham and Lloyd into an institu- 
tion, which has enough in it, I hope, to show, in working- 
model, its spirit and principle, though still far short, of 
course, of its possible development, the extent of which 
is incalculable. With what joy and thankfulness I have 
seen those two good men, my rose and shamrock, twine 
themselves together in conference, and vie with one an- 
other which should do most to root up the thistles, moral 
and material, which have grown up in my path ! They 
seem to feel them more than I do, for I am so accustomed 
to them, I suppose, that 

' ' Similes habent labra lactacas,*' 

as Cato, dira^ yeXaaa^, said when he saw an ass eating 
thistles ; and &om familiarity with such food, I have 
ceased in some degree to feel the prickles. But I am 
conscious sometimes, that a mind upon which physical 
difficulties make little impression, has been worn by con- 
tinual conflict with minds incapable of even understanding 
the principle of the work in which they are engaged. If 
England wishes to waste men in her colonial bishoprics, 
let her continue to send them out without a staff of 
competent assistants; and then feed them with the dis- 
ciples of fifth-rate grammar and middle schools, in which 
class of men, the lowest order of attainment is usually 
found in combination with the highest standard of as- 
sumption. My imprisoned sorrow, of which I have rarely 
complained before, breaks out thus in thankfulness, now 
that its day is past, and the comfort has come. 

And now, my dear friend, as you will have received my 



846 



LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. 



[chap. !• 



letter from Anaijom, think what you can do, as for our 
Board of Missions, for the benefit of all the " News'' 



N. 



Vtyr South Wales. 
New ZeaUnd. 
New Hftbridea. 
New Caledonia. 
New Britain. 
New Hanover. 
New Ireland. 
New Guinea. 



W. 



*'The7 Shan come from 

the east, and from the 

. west ; from the north, wntd 

'^* from tiie south ; and shall 

sit down in the kingdom 

of God." 



8. 



I hope to bring the subject before the Australasian Synod; 
and draw resources if possible from all the dioceses. . • • 

If you could have seen the joy and greeting when we took 
the lads back in the second voyage from which I returned 
(God be thanked) on the 8th of June last ! It was evident 
at once that I was &ee of the islands, and could walk 
where I pleased, or row about in the little two-oared boat 
of the UhdzTie, with that intuitive feeling of security, 
which is never felt, I believe, without good reason ; and 
which is the greatest comfort to a cautious old married 
man like myself. It would take a whole volume to tell 
you how the mind comes to repose entire confidence in 
some *' savages," and to feel no such confidence in others ; 
and in the meantime, for want of better information, I 
must leave you to the lucubrations of Sobertson, who 
moralized about savage nature, sitting in an easy-chair at 
Glasgow or Edinburgh, with about as much truth as might 
be expected under the circumstances. 

You will be amused to hear of my growing friendliness 
with the London Mission. Think of Stoughton ^ and me 
as reconciled at length. Not that I take part in their 
religious system, but I cannot deny to their agents the 
acknowledgment of faithful service, nor withhold from 
them the right baud of friendship. But I am most drawn 
to them by their native teachers, men, who even in the 
infancy of their Faith, have left home and friends, to live 
amongst men of another speech, and in the lowest depths 
of barbarism, as the pioneers of the Gospel to prepare a 

^ Mr. Stoughton was minister of the Independent congregation at Wind- 
sor when Mr. Selwyn wna curate of the parish church. 



1850-1851.] HELP TO THE TANNESR. 347 

way by which the English missionary may enter and take 
possession. Forty martyrs, men, women, and children, from 
Samoa and Earotonga, have lost their lives by disease and 
violence, in the New Hebrides, and in the New Caledonian 
group ; every one of whom was as worthy of the name as 
the martyr of Erromango, or the French bishop who died 
at Ysabel. My feelings are so strong and so full of afiTection 
towards these faithful men, with whom the aflBnity of the 
New Zealand tongue enables me to communicate freely, 
that I lose no opportunity of showing them kindness. In 
the last voyage, an unusual opportunity was afforded me. 
While we were lying at Anaiteum waiting for H.M.S. 
Fly, the chiefs of the island came to me with an earnest 
request that I would go to the neighbouring island of 
Tanna to fetch some of their people, who had gone over 
in a trading vessel and had not returned. They had 
begun to be imeasy about them, and any report of the 
death of one of them would, by native custom, have led to 
the strangling of his wife. They offered many jAgs as 
payment for the service. I told them that I valued their 
missionary (Mr. Greddie from Nova Scotia) more than their 
pigs ; and that his word would probably prevaiL Mr. 
Geddie made the application and volunteered to go with 
me in person. We had a pleasant night voyage down the 
trade wind, guided by the light of the blazing volcano of 
Tanna, and at dawn of day ran into the now familiar 
harbour of Port Eesolution. Here my breakfast-party 
was that feast of " tongues," which T have described to 
Dr. Hawtrey, as the chief ethnographer at Eton. We soon 
found our Anaiteum friends, who had been long waiting 
for an opportunity to return and crowded on board. 

But a new need of our assistance had occurred, which 
we had not foreseen. Two of the native teachers, whom 
I had seen in the last voyage, had died, and another was 
in a critical state of sickness with fever and ague. The 
poor survivor's face brightened up with thankfulness, when 
he eame on board with Mr. Oeddie to be removed to 
Anaiteum. His wife and child and the widow of one of 
the deceased teachers, with fifteen Anaiteums formed the 
addition to our party, with whom we were to beat bcwk, as 
well as we could, against the tradewind to Anaiteum. 
Our party was distributed thus : — 



-^ I 



348 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. x. 

Cabin. 

Bishop and three scholars of St. John^s College . 4 

Mr. Geddie 1 

Two women and one child 3 

Sick teacher I 

9 
Hold. 

One New Zealander 1 

Five New Caledonians 5 

Fifteen Anaiteums 15 

30 
Forecastle. 
Four seamen 4 

Total 34 

I fear tihat we transgressed such navigation laws as 
are left, by carrying more passengers than we are 
allowed for our size; but there was no help for it It 
cost us forty- eight hours of hard beating to get back 
to Anaiteum where we found the Fly at anchor. 

Mr. Geddie was dubbed a chief of the first rank^ and 
invited to live and die (that is be naturalized) on the 
island. I received neither thanks nor pigs; though I 
have no doubt they felt the one and would have given 
the other 

All our short voyages (such as the one from which 
I am now returning round the Frith of the Thames, to 
assist a new missionary, Mr. Lanfear, in conducting his 
adult baptisms) are performed without any extra cost, 
as our own scholars form the crew under the direction 
of Champion, whom I impose upon them, with rather 
more necessity than appeared to us in the case of the 
cads who presided formerly, uniting ^'otivm cvm digni- 
tote" over the lower boats. My present party is — 

Starboard Watch. 
The Bishop. 

N. Hector, Appleyard Scholar. 
£. Hammond, Associate Printer. 



1850-1851.] H.M.S. SAVANNA ff. 349 



Port Watch. 

Champion. 

J. Wilson, Maria Blackett Scholar. 

S. Taiwhanga, Maori Carpenter. 

Steward. 
Simeon Mataku, Maori Scholar. 

Ton would enjoy thoroughly this quiet sailing, with a 
pleasant anchorage at some native village every night, 
and a willing congregation and docile catechumens at 
all times. Now and then we get a good blow to make 
a variety, as we did last Tuesday, when we lost a boat, 
which was towing astern, in a sudden squalL But the 
balance is decidedly in favour of enjoyment, in this, as 
in all other parts of the New Zealand ministries. I am 
the more free to enjoy these blessings, as I did not 
seek them. 

It was impossible to make another voyage to the islands 
this year ; Captain Erskine, however, in H.M.S. Havannak, 
penetrated as far north as the Solomon Islands, and brought 
back to the Bishop's College four boys, one &om the 
Solomon Islands, two from Erromango, and one from Fate. 

The Synod met on October 1, and sat for a month. 
They published a report of their proceedings, of which 
Mr. Keble said that it would be " one of the most re- 
markable documents of our times.'' It was a period of 
much tension. The Mother Church had but recently 
suflfered the grievous wrong done to her by the " Grorham 
Judgment," and men's minds were much unsettled: in 
the colonies the validity of Letters Patent had come under 
such suspicion that no bishop liked to put them to the 
test : free constitutions were being given to our colonies, 
under which no religious body had the pre-eminence, and 
each had to trust to its own strength, — the Sects to the 
wealth and personal influence and weight of the individuals 
that composed them, the Church to her divine and inherent 
strength. 



360 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. t. 

The bishops were in fact driven to act on the advice 
which Mr. Gladstone had given in the preceding year to 
all Colonial Churches, that in view of the rapid removal 
of the seeming support of the civil power they should 
" organize themselves on that basis of voluntary consensual 
compact which was the basis on which the Church of 
Christ rested fix)m the first" 

Before the bishop left New Zealand to attend the 
Synod in Australia he had received — without surprise 
but with entire sympathy — an address signed by the 
Governor, the Chief Justice, the Attorney-General, and 
all the most thoughtful of the laity, praying that the 
Church might be constituted in some way that would 
secure to her the power to manage her own affaire, 
and that in any such constitution the laity might have 
their full weight. The matter will be dealt with in sub- 
sequent pages, when the history of the Synodal action of 
New Zealand is traced : it is mentioned here as an event 
that must find its proper place chronologically. 

Doubts as to the limits of the Queen's supremacy 
led the assembled bishops to refrain from exercising the 
powers of an ecclesiastical Synod on the present occasion, 
but they af&rmed the necessity of provincial and diocesan 
Synods, of the subdivision of dioceses and the election of 
bishops without interference on the part of the secular 
power, of the laity being represented in each Synod, and 
consulting and deciding with the clergy on all questions 
affecting the temporalities of the Church. They dis- 
claimed all wish to exercise the arbitrary power possessed 
by bishops to suspend and revoke at their discretion the 
licences of clergymen, and affirmed that in aU cases of 
ecclesiastical offences bishops should be tried by the 
Bishops of the Province, and priests or deacons by the 
Synod of the Diocese : neither did they fall into the 
vulgar error, so dominant in England, which assumes 
that only the clergy are liable to spiritual discipline, for 
they provided for spiritual admonition^ and, this failing, 



1850-1861.] BOARD OF MISSIONS FORMED. 851 

for the exclusion from Holy Communion, and, in the 
last resort, for the excommunication of persons living in 
notorious sin. 

The bishops put forth, for the comfort of the faithful, 
a declaration of the Catholic doctrine of Baptismal Be- 
generation, which was signed by five of their body, the 
sixth, the Bishop of Melbourne, stating his views in a 
separate paper. They declined to appear to countenance 
the education given by general or local boards, believing 
that the religious instruction given in the schools under 
their superintendence was " defective, erroneous, or indefi- 
nite," and they constituted an Australasian Board of 
Missions charged — (1) with the conversion and civilization 
of the Australian Blacks ; and (2) with the conversion and 
civilization of the Heathen races in all the islands of the 
Western Pacific. 

It was understood that this latter work would be 
undertaken jointly by the Australian and New Zealand 
Churches; and in 1851 a Branch of the Australasian 
Board of Missions was formed at Auckland. Of the 
former there were five dioceses, while in New Zea- 
land Bishop Selwyn was the sole representative of the 
episcopate. The Bishop of Newcastle, who had been 
Bishop Selwyn's comrade in the Lady Margaret boat at 
Cambridge, undertook to share with him the first voyage, 
which was made in 186 1, but after that time the whole 
work of the mission was left to Bishop Selwyn, until Mr. 
Patteson joined him in 1855. The Australasian dioceses 
contributed money from time to time, and on this occasion 
they furnished a ship of nearly 100 tons, the Border Maid, 
the Undine being too small for the number of students 
who, it was hoped, would now be gathered from the islands. 

The Synod ended, the bishop returned to Auckland in 
the brig Emma} and thence sailed southward ; and on 

^ The commander of the ^mma made the following entry in his log : — 
"One good to me of the Bishop being a bit of a sailor was exhibited 
dnring service on Sunday ; he noticed that we should do better on the 
other tack, and could see that 1 was impatient to go about, so before 



362 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

January 3, 1851, there is the following entry in his log : — 
'* Anchored in Port Cooper,^ 6^ p.m. x^P^^ ^^ ®^^ 5 " *^^ 
on the following day, " Went on shore at 8 ; breakfast with 
Mr. Godley. Synod with four clergymen. Pleasant and 
useful conference. Much spirit of unanimity and concord 
in the body. At 1 walked to the new road to visit the road 
parties of natives, and to invite them to service. Visited 
settlers from house to house. Contented and pleased with 
the country." 

The Chatham Islands were included in this visita- 
tion, and on April 18 (Good Friday) the Undine dropped 
her anchor at Auckland, never again to carry the noble 
freight of the great missionary bishop and his spiritual 
children. 

In this year the perilous responsibility of free civil legis- 
lation came almost within the possession of New Zealand ; 
to no colony had the privilege been extended at so early 
a period of its existence. In 1842 the local legislature 
of New Zealand had passed a measure, based on the prin- 
ciples of representative self-government, for the local 
government of the various settlements, but the enactment 
was disallowed by the Crown ; and for the first ten years 
of its existence the colony was treated as one undivided 
community, and a Legislative Council, consisting of the 
nominees of the Crown, was the sole law-making power, 
with no element of popular representation. In 1846 Lord 
Grey had attempted to frame a constitution for New 25ea- 
land, which was no sooner submitted to the local authorities 
than it was pronounced a failure, and was with much moral 
courage withdrawn by its author. In 1852 a representative 
constitution was given to New Zealand, which for the 

beginning the Comrannion Service he looked at me in a way I quite 
understood, so I gave the order, ' Boat ship, my ladS; and when sne's 
round, come aft again.' So we put her on the other tack, trimmed sails, 
and mustered a^iin on quarter-deck, and knelt down to prayers again. 
Few bishops would have so understood the necessity for this manoeuvre, 
and with most preachers I should have hesitated to move till the service 
ended, by which time we might have lost some miles of ground.'' 
* Now Lyttelton Harbour. 



i 



1850-1851.] DOMESTIC SORROW. 353 



purposes of civil government was divided into six 

provincjes. 

While in the mother country the civil government of 

New Zealand was being secured, events were happening 

in the Mother Church which made themselves felt to the 

remotest limit of her frontiers: the utterance known as the 

Gorham judgment, had led some of the most sound, if 

not the most calm-judging, sons of the Church to despair 

of her catholicity. The letters written on the broad 

seas are a better record of the bishop's views on passing 

events than formal extracts from his diary; and the 

following, brief though it be, has a special interest; 

it deals with things that happened on either side of 

the world, and shows the entire devotion of the bishop 

to the work whose claims seemed each year to be growing 

in urgency : — 

*'Undinb" Schookbb, at Sba, 
AprU 16th, 1851. 

My dear Lady Powis, 

... I am just returning from a voyage of 4,000 
miles to Stewart's Island, Otakou, Canterbury, Chatham 
Islands, Wellington, Nelson and New Plymouth, and am 
now within 100 miles of home, after an absence of four 
months. Our house, like yours, has been one of sorrow, for 
our dear little daughter, bom in September 1850, has been 
taken from us. I had only known her for twelve days, 
and those full of business, so that I can scarcely call her 
features to mind; and ''when I shall meet her in the 
courts of heaven, I shall not know her." We had hoped 
that she would have been the companion of her mother, 
and comfort her for the separation from her sons ; but her 
lot is cast in a better state by Him in whom is the whole 
disposal : and we can rejoice in thinking of her as one of 
the spotless Innocents who follow the Lamb whitherso- 
ever He goeth. The loss is less to me than to her mother : 
for I cannot and must not look to children as a source 
of personal and domestic enjoyment : but may hope to 
rejoice, if it be God's will, in reports of their well doing 
under the care of the other parents and friends with whom 
they are so abundantly supplied. 

VOL. I. A A 



354 LIFE OF BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. x. 

How much I should like to see you all once more ! but 
the work increases upon me. INew Caledonia and the 
Islands are opening and the good people of Sydney with 
the greatest kindness have bought me a larger vessel to 
supersede the dear little Undine which has now carried 
me 24,000 miles, a space equal to the whole circumference 
of the globe. If it were not for these calls of duty, I 
think that I should have been tempted to visit England at 
the end of my ten years of service, to seek for comfort and 
refreshment from the fountain head : for there is but one 
real privation in colonial life, the being cut off from inter- 
course with so much that is great and good and holy in the 
mother country. Perhaps even in this respect I have 
less to complain of than others of my order, as I have 
the society of friends, whose cultivated minds and high 
tone of principle supply as much moral and intellectual 
converse as I have any right to expect. . . . 

Lord Powis, I do not doubt, is much disturbed by the 
present prospects of the Church in England. Every letter 
and every newspaper brings new cause of anxiety and 
sorrow. May we all remain stedfast in allegiance and 
love to our own Holy Mother ; and if we are ever forced 
to change our present position, at least let us never seek 
for refuge in the most corrupt Church and the most corrupt 
State upon earth. Better ten Privy Councils to adjudicate 
upon doctrine than that . monstrous coalition of triple 
crowns and cardinal hats and French bayonets, which is 
now the state of Bome. We are not without our share of 
the characteristic trial of the day, the attempt of the 
State to coerce conscience ; but my little vessel rides quietly 
over the waves with New Caledonia and the dark Islands 
of the Pacific under my lea I will never leave the 
Church of England, happen what may, but I may be 
forced to serve her and her Lord in some other portion 
of this field: a little more, and Lord Grey would have 
made me a Missionary Bishop with " my path upon the 
mountain wave, my hon^e upon the deep." But I pray God 
that we may do nothing rashly : but dwell rather upon our 
many groimds of thankfulness than upon the few causes 
of discontent. ... ^ 



1850-1851.] CANTERBURY PILGRIMS. S55 

There was some hope (destined, however, to be rudely 
disappointed,) that the bishop would shortly be relieved of 
a portion of his episcopal cares. The Canterbury settle* 
ment had been formed under circumstances of nnusual 
promise, and it was probable that a Bishop of Lyttelton 
would take charge of the Southern Island ; to this end he 
formally resigned the charge of that portion of his diocese 
in 1851, He made a poiat of meeting, the ships which 
brought out the first detachments of "the Canterbury 
pilgrims," and here is a letter describing their condition 
and his own disappointment : — 

"Fndinb" Schooner, at Anchor, Lyttelton, 

alias Port Cooper. 

Mt DEAR Friend, 

Here I am among the Canterbury pilgrims ; and a very 
good set of colonists they are, as far as I can judge. But 
a great mistake has been made in sending out too many at 
once, and in allowing any consideration to prevent their 
instant occupation of land. They are not allowed, I find, 
to choose till two months after their arrival, by which 
time the prime of the summer will have passed away, and 
many will have become demoralized by idleness and desul- 
tory habits forced upon them, rather than chosen by them- 
selves. These are all the old mistakes, which I hoped you 
would have avoided after so much experience and so many 
warnings. I repeat again and again the same advice : send 
out your parochial staff ready organized — clergyman, land- 
owners, labourers, not turned adrift upon an interminiable 
plain : far less cooped up in a Dutch oven at Lyttelton ; 
but to go at once to a parish known and chosen by them- 
selves, and to a church and school already built ; so that 
not one single day's delay may occur in resuming those 
good habits in their new country which they have learned 
in England, and continued under their own chaplain on 
board their ship. 

I find neither church, nor school, nor parsonage in ex- 
istence. Money enough has been spent, but all in civil 
engineering. Last Sunday I administered the Holy Com- 
munion in a crowded loft over a store. I do not care for 
these things if they are unavoidable ; but where it has 

A A 2 



366 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



been part of the whole plan from the first to put religion 
in its right place, I do object to spacious and costly offices, 
long lines of wharves, roads, piers, &c., and not one six- 
pence of expenditure in any form for the glory of Gtod, or 
for the contort of the clergy. Mr. Godley is doing all 
that he can to remedy the defect ; and I shall of course 
make the best of the matter. 

I have written to you on the subject of the bishopric. 

The sunplest course would be for Dr. to go to Sydney 

to be consecrated. After the resolution passed at our meet- 
ing at Sydney, I cannot advise his returning to England 
for that purpose. The more Catholic course will be to 
obtain consecration within his own province. 

There are many very excellent people, to all appearance, 
with whom I have made acquaintance, and I hope to see 
more of them on my return from the Auckland Islands, 
to which I am now sailing, to see the " Antartic Prince of 
Whales," ^ who is now almost alone in his glory ; but still 
with a sufficient number of English and New Zealanders 
to require a visit. I wish also to take the opportunity of 
seeing my numerous god-children in Stewart s Island and 
Foveaux Straits, before I resign them to the charge of the 
new bishop. 

It is sufficient to state here that until the consecration 
of Bishop Harper, in 1856, Bishop Selwyn continued to 
be the sole bishop in New Zealand. 

Nothing now hindered the commencement of the Mela- 
nesian voyage, as the joint undertaking of the Australian 
and New Zealand Churches, but the arrival of the Bordei^ 
Maid, with the Bishop of Newcastle. To this prelate the 
whole undertaking was one of novelty, but the more ex- 
perienced bishop wrote : — 

" This time I shall not have an escort, which will oblige 
me to be a little more cautious ; but the larger vessel will 
afford greater protection, as the Undine is so low on the 
water that it would be impossible to keep out boarders. 
You must not expect speedy results in this work, for even 

I * Mr, Endcrby 



1850-1861.] BISHOP OF NEWCASTLE. 357 

the soft Tahitians stood a siege of sbrteen years, and the 
New Zealanders the same time, before they yielded to the 
Gospel. Among these ' mingled peoples ' we must expect 
even slower progress : but I am full of hope that they 
also will at last be numbered among the heathen for whom 
the prayers of Christ have been heard and granted." 

Thus he girded himself for the work, expecting no im- 
mediate results, content with patiently doing a humble 
and perilous work of sowing seed if haply the harvest 
might be gathered by another hand. Sixteen years of 
resultless work was what he anticipated, and for this 
barren toil he was prepared. 

On the afternoon of Whitsun-Day, June 8, the Border 
Maid was seen in the offing, and just before the " Unity 
Service," a gathering held on Sunday evenings of all the 
clergy and lay teachers who had been dispersed for their 
widely scattered duties during the day, the Bishop of 
Newcastle landed. 

On Mr. Abraham's leaving Eton the previous year, it 
had been determined that St. Barnabas' Day should 
annually be observed by the friends and supporters of the 
New Zealand Church as a day of special intercession for 
the work and those employed in it. Here in New Zealand 
the first anniversary seemed to be specially auspicious^ 
Not only was the originator of the plan present in person^ 
but also the Bishop of Newcastle, who was taking a part 
in the Melanesian enterprise. It was a happy gathering. 
On the previous evening there had been much grave talk 
on the patience and hope needful to carry on any real 
foundation work, whether in temporal or spiritual matters ; 
and Bishop Selwyn said that *' Hope was at the bottom of 
the box," and that he considered that the present genera- 
tion was indebted most to Mr. Pettigrew, who had brought 
the mummy peas to England, and had grown them, thereby 
revealing a vital power in that which had been buried 
wrapped round a mummy for 3,000 years. " After such 



358 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



proof of * latency/ who need despair ? The seed we sow 
here may be hid for thousands of years, but still, remem- 
bering latent vitality and Mr. Pettigrew, he should never 
despair." 

On St. Barnabas Day there was a full service in the 
church, and a large number of communicants. One who 
was present (hus recorded the subsequent proceedings : — 



*' After dinner the Bishop placed his brother of New- 
castle in his chair (John Frere's oaken chair in Hall), and 
the clergy presented to him an address of welcome. The 
bishop acknowledged it very nicely, and alluded to his 
friendship with G. A. N. Z. Then our bishop spoke of the 
joy of meeting on this day, when the love and friendship 
of apostles are commemorated with two fellow-collegiajis 
at St John's, the Judge and Bishop TyrrelL He touched 
very nicely on the witness which such feelings gave of the 
brotherhood of such societies, and expressed his hope ' that 
this seedling from their own St. John's, would grow up in 
strength of love and purity.' Then he alluded to the day, 
only six years ago, when he and the judge stood on the 
same spot, then only a wild heath, and Mr. Whytehead's 
legacy of 6001. was all that he had with which to begin 
the work ; and now, when he looked around and saw this 
College of St. John, supporting itself in great measure by 
its own labour, and the recognized centre of the Missions 
of the Pacific, ready to receive students of divers nations 
and languages, he could not but feel encouraged to go 
onwards." 



Not until July 17 was the Border Maid in condition to 
undertake her voyage, which came to an end on September 
20, on which day, at simrise, the bishop landed his brother 
at Newcastle, and at sunset greeted Bishop Broughton at 
Sydney. It was a very eventful voyage, more full of 
peril and of substantial results than any that had gone 
before. Instead of making copious extracts from the logs 
and journals kept on board ship, it seems preferable to give 
a connected and not veiy condensed account of it. Here, 



1850-1851.] RESUME OF VOYAGE. 35^ 

then, is a rimmS, written by one who was enthusiastic in 
her sense of the courageous devotion which inspired the 
undertaking, and fall of sympathy with all who were 
concerned in it :— 

St. John's College, N.Z., 
Nov. 7th, 1851. 

It was early in the morning of the 7th of October that 
we heard that the Border Mmd had anchored off Kohima- 
rama in the night, and the bishop was on shore and gone 
to Taurarua, where Mrs. Selwyn and Johnnie were then 
staying. 

After morning service in chapel, a party were seen 
coming up from the vessel, and soon a long file of black 
boys became visible, and tlurteen were counted as they 
came nearer. 

Mr. Abraham went to meet them, and soon returned 
with the joyful news that two of our old friends, who had 
gone away with the bishop in July, Tom and Meste, had 
returned ; and also three of the set he had here the year 
before — little Thol, the sick boy from lifu, grown into a 
big, fat boy; Siapo, the chiefs son from Mar^, and 
another. 

Many of our Maori boys had gone to meet them, and 
there were many greetings and much shaking of hands 
between old friends, and with the strangers. Thol was at 
home directly in this house, and came to see nurse, and 
inquired for Johnnie ; and Tom and Meste wanted to come 
in and see Mrs. Selwyn and me. 

When Tom was asked about Bob, his little brother, he 
said, "Bob no come;" but he brought up another little 
boy from Erromango, whom he introduced as "all the 
same. Bob ! " and seemed very proud of ; and in fact little 
Umao is a ditto of oux last pet, little Bob, in many ways, 
with his merry face and white teeth. 

Then we learnt something of the story of the voyage 
from Mr. Nihill and Nelson Hector, and, by dint of pump- 
ing, from the bishop afterwards. I will give you the 
sketch of it as well as I can. 

I described to you the hold, fitted up as a schoolroom 
by day, when the hammocks were taken down, and left in 
a good airy place. Here they kept school regularly all the 



360 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



voyage — the bishop, Mr. Nihill, and Nelson being the 
teachers ; the hours of school and work alternating a» 
they do here. 

Anait«um was their first point, and there the bishop 
found Mr. Geddie still persevering in his work, though 
with reduced means and impaired health; with a slowly in- 
creasing Christian population around him, and a promising 
set of scholars, one of whom the bishop has brought to the 
college at his request, to learn printing. Captam Paddon 
was also there, going on with his sandal- wood trade on the 
conciliatory and pacific plan which he finds answers so 
much better than the contrary ; in witness whereof the 
guns which he brought with him in the first instance, lie 
rusting in the sand. And there also is the iron house, the 
only remains of the Soman Catholic Mission in the island, 
which the bishop visited on first landing there in 1848, 
filled with a laige body of clergy, and all means and appli- 
ances for defence against the natives, and for their conver- 
sion; but which he found deserted in 1851 — ^the whole 
body gone, like the shifting-scene in a phantetsmagoria — 
no one knows why. 

Futuna was the next place they reached, and both the 
bishops went on shore there. The people were friendly, 
and they returned with two nice-looking boys, whom the 
Bishop of Newcastle selected for their amiable counte- 
nances and gentle manners ; but nevertheless an instance 
occurred with them which showed how independent the 
cruelty of their national customs is of individual charac- 
ter. Irai, the younger of the two was very ill on board, 
and Sadua, the elder, his relation, or brother, as he calls 
himself, wanted to throw him overboard, because he said 
he was unhappy himself and made others unhappy ; his 
life was " no good." 

Tauna was their next point, and here they found the 
little Erromango boy, Umao, taking care of a sick Eng- 
lishman who had been put ashore by his companions — 
covered with wounds — in such a dreadful state that they 
feared contagion in the ship. He seems to have been 
kindly treated at Erromango, and to have been brought to 
Tanna for the hot baths, this little boy still accompanying 
him, and tending him most carefully, though the man was 
always scoldiug, and often striking him. The bishop 



1860-1851.] ERBOMANGO. 361 

ofifered to take the man to Sydney, and the little boy 
came with him, and then was the bishop's '^ earning " to 
bring him home. They say little Bob's delight was great 
when Umao came on board — ^he was of his tribe — in a 
state of nature, but in five minutes Bob had dressed him, 
and they went running about together hand in hand, all 
over the vessel. 

But this did not last long, for when they came to £rro- 
mango, Tom and Bob were to be landed there. The 
bishop was very careful about landing here, knowing the 
feeling there was against the island, in consequence of 
Williams's death here. He used to say to Tom that they 
would fight him if he went to Erromango ; but Tom was 
always earnest in his denial, and his assurance '' No fight ; 
no fight" 

The land they first made was Dillon's Bay, the scene of 
Williams's massacre. Tom did not know the place, and 
said the people spoke another language ; so they went on 
to his own shore, and some of his own people came out to 
the vessel ; but stiJl, Mr. Nihil! says, they were very 
doubtful whether they had come to the right place, they 
took so little notice of Tom, though they knew him, and he 
seemed so bewildered; he went on speaking to them in 
English, '* How you do ? " ** Very good me come home." 
They were very dirty, too, and ill-favoured, as Meste 
thought, when he went down and told Mr. Nihill, " Plenty 
yam Salems on deck ; much dirty." 

At last the bishop took the boys on shore, and sent 
for the chief to give. Tom up in due form. He was 
long coming, and they saw no women about, which made 
him cautious. He did not land until the chiefs came 
down, and then he sent them off to the ship while he 
accompanied Tom and Bob to their home, two miles inland. 
Tom was very happy then, and ran off to find yams and cook 
them. His house was an arbour of large dimensions, having 
about 30 feet depth from the front. The bishop remained 
outside with his companions, and partook of their food. 
He knelt down with Tom and Bob and said prayers with 
them, and then bade them tell their friends what they 



362 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



were doing, and what it meant. But though not oJETensivc 
in their manners, they were not attractive in any way, 
and took more notice of Bob's cat than anything else. 
Tom and Bob came down to the beach when he left them, 
and cried when he parted from them ; Tom saying, how- 
ever, several times, " Me say no fight ! " as if appealing to 
the veracity of his statements. 

The stories he tells of the fighting that prevails between 
the different tribes in the island are very unfavourable to 
obtaining a hearing even, still less for any religious im- 
pressions. 

They next went to Mard (Nengone is the native name), 
and found the Saraoan teachers still there, and with in- 
creasing congregations and schools; and to the bishop's 
great joy he found that Siapo had been stedfast, and had 
kept close to them and improved in reading and writing, 
and in all ways. 

He was on shore here for two days, and much pleased 
with the progress made. A large native chapel is built, 
and well filled with Christian worshippers. He joined 
in the services — ^preached in Samoan — and visited the 
schools ; and earnestly wished he could leave some perma- 
nent minister, in answer to their urgent entreaties, as he 
thinks this island now ready for the formation of a mission 
station. As it was, he could only bring away five of the 
youths for training here this year ; two of them being old 
friends. Another young chief desired to come very much, 
but his father would not let him, and he sat by the Bishop 
crying bitterly ; he has his name down, however, and says 
he shall call for him next time. 

The Isle of Pines is now entirely taken possession of by 
the R C. Mission, and they did not land there. 

At lifu he was immediately greeted as " Kame Thol." 
" Thol's father " and Thol was sent for, being inland. He 
came directly, quite prepared to return to school, and 
bringing a relation with him, whom he begged might come 
too. The first night he said the Lord's Prayer in English, 
and several other things which the bishop had taught Him 
From what they could learn, there were no Christians on 
the island. 

They reached Malicolo on the 25th of August, and were 
well received, though the natives did not even know the 



1860-1861.] MALICOLO. 363 

words " missionary " and " tobacco," which seem to be the 
first English words known in these seas. The bishop and 
his party walked about the island and made special 
acquaintance with a very pleasing elderly man and his 
son, a very fine, intelligent youth, whom the bishop much 
wished to bring away. They found a well of good water 
on a hill near the shore, and next morning the bishop 
returned with a party to replenish their water casks. He 
had two boats, some of the sailors, two English and some 
Maori boys, and Siapo. One English lad and one sailor 
stayed in the boat, and the bishop went up the hill with 
the rest to the spring. His quick eye, however, saw that 
all was not as he left it the preceding evening. Strangers 
were there, and there seemed a questioning and disputing 
among them and the friendly natives, who still seemed as 
friendly as ever. One of the strangers followed them 
making faces, when the bishop turned and fixed his eye 
upon him and motioned him to begone: he slunk back, 
but still followed. He was always most particular in 
keeping his party together on shore; and this day an 
Italian sailor who was always making short cuts, was 
nearly separated from them, but was called back in time. 
They had fiUed their casks, and were walking down the 
hill again, when the bishop saw a man above them throw 
something which fell near them, and immediately a yell 
was heard from below. He desired his party not to run, 
nor to show any fear, but to walk on with their water casks 
as if regardless of all around them. 

The accounts vary as to the number of the natives 
gathered together : the Maori youth says there were very 
many — ^the English lad agrees with him. The bishop 
thinks there might be 200 in all, and only a few of them 
were evil disposed. Certain it is there were quite enough 
to have surrounded and murdered him and his little band 
had that been their intent. As it was they did no violence, 
for though they threw stones and let arr(»7s fly, none of 
them hit ; and they are too sure marksmen to miss their 
aim if taken. 

When they came within sight of the boats, they saw that 
one had pushed off towards the vessel, while the other 
was surrounded with natives, who were brandishing their 
clubs about Nelson Hector, and making all sorts of bragging 



364 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

and threatening gestures; in short, as the bishop said, 
"hectoring Hector," while he sat* unmoved, a worthy 
disciple of the bishop, only quietly resisting their attempts 
to talce the oars from him. 

The bishop and his train of water-bearers made their 
way steadily onward to the water's edge. He said, *' Go 
on," and they walked on into the water, lifting their casks 
higher and higher as they advanced, till, seeing Siapo 
marching on with his, lifting it above his head, and tlie 
waves dashing into it, he called on him to empty it, as the 
water was spoiled ; but even then he was very unwilling 
to lighten his burden. As they approached the boat the 
natives around it made off, and in a few minutes more 
they were on their way to the Border Maid, with only one 
cask missing. One of the sailors had let it fall, and it 
rolled down the hill, and the bishop would not let him go 
back for it. 

As they went, they could plainly see the two parties on 
shore, the friendly natives and the adverse ones disputing 
still ; and after they reached the vessel, they saw a party 
of their friends bringing the missing cask after them. 
They had no sooner received these on board than they 
were followed by the mischief-makers, but they kept them 
from entering the vessel 

I have given you the details of this adventure, because 
it seems to illustrate several points in the nature of the 
difficulties of this enterprise, and the peculiar fitness of 
the bishop to cope with them. His quick-sighted reading 
of countenance, and apprehension of gestures ; his habits 
of order and forethought, besides his calmness and courage, 
humanly speaking, contribute to his safety, and enable 
him to walk unscathed where others would be in danger. 
If you read the accoimt of Williams's death, you will see 
that he and his party acted in every respect differently 
from the bishop in this similar adventure at Malicolo: 
they separated one from another ; they ran when alarmed ; 
they threw stones and fired when attacked. 

I think some of his friends at home think him rash : 
they would not if they heard the details. Though he is 
bold and fearless, his thought for every one, and prepara- 
tion for every contingency, and his judicious selection of 
persons for different trusts, is wonderfuL For instance, no 



1850-1851.] LYDIA. 365 

one perhaps but Nelson Hector would have kept his post 
with the boat as he did. By dint of great pumping we 
drew from him the story : how he and the sailor waited 
till he saw the natives coming down with menacing ges- 
tures. He then ordered the sailor to put off towards the 
vessel, to be free to come back to the bishop's aid if his 
boat should be taken : he stayed himself where he was 
placed. They came up, got into his boat, felt him all over, 
and bullied and threatened him in all ways ; and he pas- 
sively suffered them to do anything but take the oars. 
Sometimes he thought they were going to dash the club at 
Iiis head, but more often that it was bravado ; and so he 
kept them in play till the bishop returned ; and no doubt 
their safety was in a great measure owing to his nerve not 
failing them. 

After this island they tried to proceed towards Lydia, 
but the weather and the state of the rigging was against 
it, and reluctantly they turned homewards ; dropped the 
Bishop of Newcastle at Newcastle; touched at Sydney, 
and reached home on the 7th of October. 

I must not omit, however, that they called for Tom at 
Bunkhill, on Erromango, though they did not land again : 
they went near shore in a boat, and he soon appeared. 
Meste called to him and told him his story ; " Me go back 
college — you come college." So Tom swam off ; his 
clothes, he said, " sit down at home ; " and he wanted to 
fetch them and Uttle Bob ; but being afraid they might lose 
him too, they did not let him go, but Meste dressed him 
in some of his gear. So poor little Bob is left Tom 
assured us that he and Bob said their prayer together 
every night, and other people laughed, he said. He is just 
as amiable and happy as he was, but is not bright in 
learning. Meste gets on well, and can read English in the 
first reading-book, and write pretty well ; but he is often 
sad about not getting home, and sometimes says he will 
not come agaia His moral sense of truth and honesty is 
very keen ; but he is very anxious to get a bottle of poison 
from the sujgery, to poison his enemies when he goes 
home ; and, on Hector's expressing horror at the idea, he 
said, " Why ? They no wWte men ! " 

The Mar4 boys are the most advanced ; they can read 
their own language, and have more idea of the distinctive 



366 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

doctrines of ChTistlaiiity. Siapo is thougl^tby his teachers 
to be really anxious for religions instruction, and to be a 
Christian. To read the Bible seems his great object in 
coming here. He is very national, and will not allow any- 
thing to be better here than in his own coimtry. To learn 
and go back is one great object with him ; and another, to 
have an English clergyman on the island. He teUs Hector 
they are tired of the Samoan teachers ; they can do no 
more than they have done. The wild note of savage life 
appears much more in them (the boys from Mar^) than in 
Meste. One of them hit an English boy by laccident — 
throwing a spear — ^and they all set off and hid themselves, 
and were not found till next day: it was the custom, 
Siapo said, and they could not make him ashamed of it. 
They take to wearing clothes, after a little trouble, very 
readily, and learn to make them ; but they resist the 
cutting of their hair stoutly. However, the bishop carried 
his point, and the shearing of the three Mar^ boys filled a 
tub, he said. The first taming process, he says, is to put 
on a shirt, or blue Jersey ; then to cut their hair, beginning 
with the least boy, and so on ; every one who is shorn being 
in his turn on the side of shearing — ^like the old story of 
the fox. 

The danger to which the bishop was exposed at Malicolo 

was thus described by the Bishop of iN'ewcastle iu a letter 

to a friend in England : — 

Morpeth, N. S. Wales, 
Sept. 2^d, 1851. 

The main danger to which we have been exposed has 
arisen from the character of the natives of the islands, and 
their deep-rooted desire of revenge for previous injury. 
They are very treacherous, or rather, I would say, when 
they have, from any cause, decided to attack and kill they 
effect their object by pretending to and showing in their 
manner the greatest cordiality and goodwill, untU the 
moment of attack. The captain of a sandal-wood trader, 
whom we met at the first island which we visited, told me 
that on visiting one of the islands to which we were going, 
some years ago, he had so numerous a orew that he thought 
himself quite secure, and that the natives would not dtare 
to attack them. He therefore allowed as many as liked 



1850-1851.] ATTACK AT MALIOOLO. 3G7 

to come on the deck ; many came and appeared in great 
good humour, most pleased and friendly: when in one 
moment, without the slightest warning, seventeen of his 
crew were laid dead on the ship's deck. Their revenge, 
or retaliation, is with them a principle or point of honour, 
and as they can di*aw no distinction between one white 
man and another, however difiFerent they may be in calling 
or even in country, when they have received any injury 
from a ship or boat, they will always retaliate, if they can, 
upon the next white men who come to their island, and it 
is of course quite impossible to know what ship or boat 
may have visited an island some few days or weeks before 
you visit it, or how they may have treated the natives. 

The greatest danger to which we were exposed arose 
from the evil design and attempt of the natives in Sand- 
wich Harbour, at the Island of Malicolo. Only one ship 
is known to have visited this harbour before the Fly man- 
of-war, and the natives did not know one word of English 
or of the language of the other islands. Numbers collected 
on the shore as we entered the harbour about noon, and as 
we wanted to replenish our water, we at once communicated 
with them — went in our boat close to the shore, persuaded 
two to swim to us, took them as guides to the place where 
fresh water could be obtained, gave them some little pre- 
sents, and dismissed them. The place shown by them as the 
best for obtaining water proved so inconvenient that the 
Bishop of New Zealand and myself rowed in the evening all 
along the shores of the harbour to find, if possible, a more 
convenient stream or pool. We found one more accessible 
and returned after an absence of two hours to the ship. 
Whenever we left the ship, we always gave directions to 
the chief mate to allow a few of the natives to come on 
board, at a time, if they came in their canoes, and wished 
to see the ship, and seemed quiet and friendly. On our 
return, the mate told us that they had allowed one or two 
small parties to come on board, but that afterwards so 
many came and some looked so questionable, armed with 
their clubs and spears, that he had thought it prudent to 
refuse permission to them to come on deck. The Bishop 
of New Zealand still thought it important to procure some 
water, and we arranged that we should not both go in the 
boats, as we had usually done, but that he should go in the 



368 LIFE OP BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. x. 

boats to the place we had selected as the best for obtaining 
water (which was retired, and near the settlement of a 
nice old man, with whom we had made friends the pre- 
vious evening) while I remained in charge of the ship. 
At dawn the boats went with casks to fetch the water, and 
I was left in the ship with the mate and one sailor, and 
two or three of the native boys from the other islands. 
The natives had probably observed, the evening before, 
how many sailors were in the ship, and perhaps had been 
annoyed that they had not all been allowed to come on 
board — ^when therefore they saw the boats go away with 
so many hands in them, they would know how few must 
be left in the ship and feel assured that if some ten or 
twelve of them could get on board, under pretence of 
merely seeing the ship, they could watch their oppoi-tunitj'', 
overpower the few in charge, take possession of the ship, 
and then have also the whole party in the boats at their 
mercy. Within an hour after the boats had left the ship, 
two or three canoes came oflF to the ship, filled with huge 
men, most of them were armed with their clubs, and bows, 
and spears. In the first canoe the chief man was such a 
ferocious looking ruffian, with a formidable club, that I at 
once determined he should not come on board. When, 
therefore, the canoe came close to the ship, and they asked 
by signs whether they might come on board, I refused to 
allow them, but made them understand by pointing to the 
sun, and tracing its course in the heavens, that they might 
come on board about noon, when it was over our heads. 
By this time I knew the boats would be returned : and 
then if we only admitted a few on board at a time, making 
them leave their arms in their canoes, there would probably 
be no great risk. They seemed much disappointed, and in 
order to keep them in good humour, I talked to them, 
asked their names for different things and wrote down the 
words in a book. I then got them to tell me their names, 
and in order to carry on this amusement and pass the time, 
I pointed to an old man in the canoe and made signs that 
he might come and sit on the side of the bulwarks, and 
tell me the names of things which I wanted to Imow. 
The old man came and seated himself beside me, and as I 
wrote down the first word he gave me, I saw him looking 
most anxiously all over the ship : and as I wrote down the 



1860-1851.] DANGER. 369 

second word, I detected him making signs to the ferocious 
chief, with a look which seemed to say distinctly, " It's all 
right, only one or two left in the ship : let ns get quietly on 
deck and the ship is ours and the wMte men in our power." 
I immediately sent the old man back to the canoe, and 
made them understand that no one could come on deck 
till the sun was over our heads. Five or six other canoes 
had by this time come off to the ship, and there must 
have been at least fifty of these huge men in them, many 
armed, and some five or six looking as if they could do 
anything. For more than two hours they kept close to 
the ship, asking again and again to come on deck, which I 
again and again refused. Every now and then, one more 
forward than the rest would take hold of the ship and 
plant his foot on a slight projection, so that one good 
spring would bring him on deck. No sooner had he 
planted his foot and looked up, than he saw me just over 
him, directing him veiy calmly but decidedly to get back 
into his canoa All this time the native boys from the 
other islands, who were on board, were in the greatest 
terror. One came to me with a countenance of livid pale- 
ness and said, " Those, — very bad men, — ^they want kill you 
and me, — they no come on ship, you no let them come." 
Another, the biggest of the boys, a stout strong fellow, 
came to me with a countenance so ludicrous from the 
excess of terror depicted on it, that 1 could not help 
laughing. Well 1 after two hours, the men in the canoes 
consulted together, evidently came to the conclusion that 
it was no use to try any longer, and began to move off. 
My work was then done, and the chief mate came up to 
me and said, " I am rejoiced, my lord, that those fellows 
are gone : we have been in great danger : if your calm 
firmness had not disconcerted them, and three or four had 
once got on the deck, the ship would not have been now 
in our possession." 

Next came the most anxious hour that I have ever 
passed in my whole life. When the canoes had moved off 
a little way, they stopped, and every eye was directed 
towards the two boats of the ship, which were lying off 
the shore, where the water was being fetched from a pool 
about a quarter of a mile inland, up a rocky wooded bank. 
The men in the canoes consulted together, then changed 

VOL. I. B B 



370 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. x. 

their places, fiUing the two largest canoes with those who 
were evidently the greatest fighters, and these two canoes 
paddled towards the boats. While I was called upon to 
act and protect the ship, I was perfectly calm, and though 
I was conscious of the danger of my position, felt no fear. 
Now I was full of alarm. As the two canoes went slowly 
towards the boats, I could see other natives running along 
the shore in the same direction. With the telescope, I 
could see one man in each of the boats and about one 
hundred natives on the shora The danger was, lest the 
two canoes should reach the boats and overpower the two 
men before the Bishop of New Zealand came down with 
his body of men from the water pool — ^in which case the 
natives would be in possession of the boats — deprive the 
bishop and his party of all means of reaching the ship, 
and destroy them at their leisure. The canoes neared the 
boats, I called to the mate and asked, " Can we render any 
assistance ? " '' None, my lord." I pointed to a third small 
boat still on the ship: " That would sink if put into the 
water, and we have only one oar to it." I paced the deck 
a few seconds, and then asked again, " If anything should 
happen on shore, and the natives taste blood there, have 
we any means of self-defence in the ship ? " The answer 
was " Ncney This information did not disconcert me : I 
felt it a duty to inquire whether anything could be done ; 
and if anything could have been suggested, should at once 
have set about it. But the thought that something fatal 
might happen on shore brought with it a sickening feeling 
of reckless disregard as to what might happen to myselfl 
I therefore paced the deck and rendered the only aid I 
could render — that of fervent prayer to Almighty God, 
asking in our Saviour's Name that He would guard and 
protect and restore to us in safety my dear friend and his 
companions. I saw soon the canoes reach the boats: I 
saw two of the natives in one of the boats : I heard a 
noise and the shout from shore — ^I could not trust my eyes, 
when I thought I saw the boats move from the shore, 
rowed by our own men — I gave the telescope to the mate 
and eagerly asked whether he could see the men in the 
boats and the bishop with them. He looked and answered 
"Yes — ^they are all there — ^and his lordship steers the first 
boat" You can imagine my thankfulness . . • ." 



1850-1851.] GRIEF OF PAHTINGa 371 



The Border Maid returned to Auckland on Oct. 7. The 
voyage had been as usual made available for meeting the 
demsoids of correspondents to whom, it will be noticed, 
the Bishop makes no mention of the perils to which he 
had been exposed on the voyage. Among those thus 
remembered was the Coubtess of Powis, to whom the 
Bishop wrote. 

To THE COUNTBSS OF POWIS. 

ficHOONBB, <* Border Maid/' 
Sept, nth, 1851. 

My dear Lady Powis, 

As I am now approaching Sydney, on my return from 
a Missionary voyage to the islands with the Bishop of 
JNTewcastle, I am encouraged by the hope of a speedy mail 
to prepare a letter to you, in acknowledgment of one 
received shortly before I left home, dated 30th July, 1850. 
I fear that the box, which I should value so much, con- 
taining the engraving of my late dear friend and patron, 
has been mislaid. I have never yet seen it, and my only 
hope now is that, as we live in one small house with Mr. 
and Mrs. Abraham and several of our native scholars all 
crowded together, the box, as it sometimes happens, may 
have been laid under others during my absence, and so 
have remained unseen and unopened. In fact, since 
.5th September, 1850, 1 have scarcely been two months at 
home.' It will give me a melancholy pleasure to see the 
ID^eness of my kind friend hanging in my study by the 
side of my excellent father-in-law. Sir John Eichardson. 
I often say that in my present state of separation, probably 
for life, from aU my relations and friends, I have an ad- 
vantage over those who remain in England, for when the 
course of actual conversation is once interrupted, the 
greater part of the " bittei'ness of death is past," and the 
mind, divested of the hope of farther intercourse on earth 
looks forward the more easily to a reunion at the last day, 
and to an eternal communion in heaven. 

In September last, two days before my departure for 
Sydney, it pleased God to bless us with a little daughter, 
whom I found on my return, blooming with all the health 

B B 2 



372 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

and cheerfulness in which children born in New Zealand 
rival their English relations. For about ten days I was 
allowed to love this new treasure, and looked forward to 
the comfort that she would be to my dear wife when her 
second son should have followed his brother to England. 
I then went away again on my summer voyage of 
four months and had reached Wellington on my 
return home when I learned that our dear little Margaret 
had been cut off after a day's illness. It has been a 
grievous blow to my dear Sarah, as the child was about 
six months old, and at that age, as you do not require to 
be told, had twined her little cords of love about her 
mother's heart. To me these losses had not so much of 
grief as of a softening and humbling chastisement, teach- 
ing me to pray that in the midst of cares and works, all 
tending to roughen, if not harden, the surface of the heart, 
the spirit of my little babe may be given to me that I 
may be converted and become like her. 

In the midst of the sorrow comes also abundant con- 
solation. You may have heard, I dare say, of the kindness 
of the people of Sydney and Newcastle in subscribing 
1,200;. for a new vessel for me. We have just made our 
fii*st voyage in the Border Maid a name which will gratify 
your national feeling, especially as the vessel was built at 
Aberdeen. She is a schooner of nearly one hundred tons, 
that is full four times the size of the IThdine. A singular 
providence has reunited me with my old college friend. 
Bishop Tyrrell, who was No. 7 in the St. John's boat when 
I was captain. We were in the same year at St. John's 
and constantly together. He succeeded me in my college 
rooms in the new court, which were afterwards occupied 
by Lord Powis, and after him, I think, by Eobert Olive. 

Our voyage of three months has been most pleasant 
though not so expeditious as others in the Undine. We 
are bringing back with us, as usual, a party of native 
scholars, thirteen in number, from six different islands and 
speaking six different languages. Among the rest is my 
dear little boy Thol from Lifu, who was with us last year 
and returned in such a doubtful state of health that I 
scarcely expected to find him alive. He is again in good 
health, and most happy to return with me to keep his 
second term at the college. 



1850-1851.] S.P.a JUBILEE. 373 



In this same year the Church kept the third Jubilee of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts. It was hoped that in every part of the world 
prayers and thanksgivings would be offered by those who 
had at heart the extension of the kingdom : Days of Inter- 
cession have within the last few years made us reaUse how 
truly the Anglican Communion has girdled the world, but 
in 1851 the idea had not been so prominently presented 
to Church people : probably no more appropriate greeting, 
whether in regard to the place where it was written or to 
the circumstances and suiToundings of the writer, reached 
the Society than the following letter from the Bishop of 
New Zealand. 

Schooner ''Border Maid," at Sea, 
Sept. I7ih, 1851. 

My dear Mb. Hawkins, 

I think that I cannot acknowledge the Society's Jubilee 
letter from a more appropriate place than the bosom of 
the wide sea, over which, in its length and breadth, it has 
pleased God that the work of His Church should be ex- 
tended. The vessel on board of which I write will also 
attest the blessing granted to the Society's labours, for it 
is the gift of the dioceses of Sydney and Newcastle, where 
the good seed has been sown and nurtured, under Divine 
protection, mainly by your efforts. It has pleased God in 
a remarkable manner to verify the words which I wrote in 
an early letter — that those who thought that our venerable 
Society was doing little for the conversion of the heathen, 
might well consider whether there could be any surer way 
of spreading the gospel to the uttermost parts of the 
earth than by building up the colonial churches as 
Missionary centres. The movement at Sydney last year, 
of which I am now enjoying the finits in company with 
my dear brother of Newcastle, is a signal proof of the 
diffusion and fructifying character of your work. Tour 
contributions to Australia and New Zealand have awakened 
a zeal and established a precedent, by which the gospel 
has now been carried over a range of 4000 miles, to islands 
of which even the names are almost unknown in London. 
We have with us in the mission vessel thirteen youths 



374 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

from six diflFerent islands, besides two of our own New 
Zealanders, who are going with ns to St John's (now 
recognised as the central Missionary College) for such 
instruction as we hope will qualify them, in due time, to 
return as teachers to their own countrymen. Our little 
flock is as follows : — 5. Nengone or Mar£. 2. Lifu — Loyalty 
Idands. 2. Futuna. 2. Erromango. 1. Anaiteum — New 
Hebrides. 1. Solomon Islands. 2. Kew Zealanders. 15 
speaking 7 languages. This is the choicest offering which 
I can make on the occasion of your jubilee ; for there is 
no treasure dearer to my own heart than tiiese youths ; 
not for themselves only, but for the inchoate and potential 
good which faith and hope represent as now concentrated 
in them, and to be propagated by them hereafter. Silver 
and gold we have none, for what we have we receive from 
you and your kindred Society (would that it were still 
more united) ; but we offer to you these treasures of our 
mission field, as proofs that your efforts have not been 
unblessed, and that your prayers do not return to you toid. 
Tou may af&rm, with perfect truth, that in our college — 
mainly promoted and encouraged by your support — you 
are educating the children of &e most distant races of the 
earth. There is no inhabited spot so near to the actual 
antipodes of Greenwich, as the Chatham Islands, from 
which we have six youths, now under education at th« 
college. And it is mainly owing to the efforts of the 
society, under Gk)d's blessing, that I have been enabled, 
during the last nine months, to visit, with ease and 
comfort^ inhabited countries stretching over thirty^three 
degrees of latitude, or one eleventh part of the citcum- 
ferenee of the globe. The range of our native scholars is 
over thirty-four degrees of ktitude, from &e Solomon 
Islands ist W S. lat.^ to the Chatham Islands in 44 S. 
These distances may serve as a lively type of the length 
and breadtk of the love of Christ ; for surely it is not the 
work of the Church itself, much less of societies or indi- 
viduals, but His free love and His all-sufiQcient sacrifice, 
which is bringing these things to pass. How gladly then 
shall we join in your special prayers and thanksgivings : 
ascribing all glory to Him, to Whom it is due ; and counting 
all past successes only as proofs of His presence with His 
Church always, even to the ends of the earth. 



1860-1851] JUSTIFICATION OF PLANS. 375 

On my retiun to Auckland I shall hope to find your 
second letter (promised in the circular of 7 Nov.), with 
instructions as to the mode in which it is wished that the 
Jubilee should be observed. 

Trusting to the blessing of the Almighty that your year 
of Jubilee will be one in which many slaves of Satan will 
be set free, 

I remain, 
Your grateful and faithful friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

The complaints, some more heavy than others, which 
the colonists had made of the bishop defrauding them- 
selves of this measure of his services while he was 
"yachting" among the Solomon and other groups were 
now repeated, losing nothing of virulence by distance, in 
England The bishop sent his justification together with 
remarks on divers topics in a letter to his constant friend, 
the Eev. E. Coleridga 

St. John's College, Auckland, 
Oct. 8^, 1851. 

Mt deab and inexhaustiblb Friend, 

On my return yesterday from the " News," the mass of 
matter which they suggest must be my excuse for at once 
proceeding to business, when I would much rather linger 
within the playground of affection. 

1. Ship mcmey, — ^I fear that I have been guilty of the 
offence of Charles I. — of levying this tax without sufficient 
authority — misled unintentionally by your letter . . . 

It is a great satisfaction to me to find from you that I 
may appropriate the ship fund to any purpose connected 
with the mission, because I shall now feel able to carry 
out some other plans necessarily resulting from the use of 
the vessel, but not actually naval . . . 

Lest you should be afraid of being reduced to a mere 
** dealer in marine stores," I will do my best to supply 
you with matters of higher interest ** ad salutem animarum 
pertinentibus." 

2. Tcmching my Diocese, — ^Tou say that questions have been 
raised about my neglecting my own diocese. Pray inform 
all complainants that my diocese extends from the Auck- 



376 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 



:t 





land Islands to the Carolines ; i, e. from 50 south latitude, 

to 34 north latitude ; upwards of 
80 degrees of latitude by 20 of 
longitude : and that having a dio* 
cese so like a rolling pin, I must 
needs be a "rolling stone;" though 

I am well aware that such stones. 

Equator. I /^ whether heaved by Sisyphus, or 

borne by torrents, "gather no 
moss/' But it is not for me to 
question the wisdom of an ap- 
pointment, of which it is my 
simple duty to endeavour, so far 
as God may give me grace^ to discharge the duties. At 
present, as I have not visited much more than 30 of the 
given 80 degrees of latitude, it seems to be premature to 
accuse me of extending majores nido pennas. 

If it should be said that the definition of the Colony of 
New Zealand, which has been copied into all the Patents 
and Public Documents of New Zealand, by which it is made 
to extend to 34° Twrth latitude, is a clerical error, — I rest 
upon a surer ground in the parting charge of the dear 
archbishop now gone to his rest, who, with the bishops 
forming the Board for Colonial Bishoprics, consigned to 
me, in 1841, the oversight over the progress of religion in 
" the Coasts and Islands of the Pacific " — a charge which 
neither his successor, nor any other Church authority has 
revoked ; and which it is therefore my duty to attempt at 
least to fulfil. For seven years, during the troubles of New 
Zealand, I neglected altogether this part of my diocese, and 
now bitterly rue the consequences of this delay ; as fields 
then untrodden by the foot of missionary, are now overrun 
with Papists and others ; and I have to retreat rejected and 
baffled from places which were freely open to me on my 
first voyage in the Dido. Considering that, within the last 
twelve months, I have visited every English settlement in 
New Zealand (except Whanganui) of 150 inhabitants, from 
Stewart's Island to the Bay of Islands, including the 
Chatham Islands, distant 400 miles from the main, two 
visits to Lyttelton, two to Wellington ; and that the larger 
settlements have been visited every year, upon the average 
at least once, since I arrived, instead of the triennial obli- 



1850-1851.] OBJECTIONS OF FRIENDS. 377 

gation imposed by the Canons ; and that I have visited ou 
foot tivice every mission station ; and am now preparing at 
the end of my ninth year to visit them a third time, in the 
course of a walk of about 1000 miles, but unhappily not 
one which can be done, in Captain Barclay's style, in 1000 
hours — considering, I say, aU these things, I think that 
objectors had much better hold their tongues, and not 
"compel" me to seem to "boast," when I would much 
rather dwell in silence upon my own infinite shortcomings. 

3. Touching your confidential "kernel" of esoteric 
advice, I shall not forget your caution ; but you hold, and 
have often expressed an opinion, that the Colonial Church 
must re-act upon the Mother ; and to say the truth, the 
agony of parting with such men as Manning, caused, as it 
seems, by the delay of our Church in asserting her own 
principles and carrying them into practice, does make one 
almost desperate, and in bitterness of heart one may often 
steep too much nasturtium, if not gall even, in friendly 
correspondence. But believe me that I have always felt 
that I have much greater aid, both in men and money, 
than I could possibly have expected ; that I am deeply 
grateful for these blessings ; and that if I ever speak of 
" enterprizes of great pith and moment turned aside by the 
interference of relations," it is only because I am convinced 
that the Church can never secure the respect or confidence 
of her most thoughtful sons so long as such things are 
done . . . 

I cannot for very shame go to Scripture to rebuke such 
interference with a clergyman's sense of duty, but having 
seen our soldiers and sailors in their wearisome and profitless 
warfare in this country, I feel disposed to make a low bow 
to every military and naval man because they do so 
cheerfully for the Horse Guards and the Admiralty what 
elvdrepc^ yaXoo) re will not allow clergymen to do for the 
Church, and so being ashamed, as I say, to go to Scripture, 
I fall back upon Euripides, Phomissce, 1000 : — 

KoitK fls dy^yKJiif iai/jL6¥wy d^i7/i^rai, k.t.X. 

and then I confess that a little Bpifii> iiho^ 'rrpoTxhrret 
through the nostrils, when I think of the whole Pacific, or 
rather the whole world overrun by the disciplined forces 
of the Jesuits, who have practically restricted the Catholic 



378 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

duty of obedience to the followers of Loyola^ as the virtue 
of temperance was once confined to the house of Eechab. 
But you must tell me when I do more harm than good by 
this sputtering, and in all cases acquit me of censoriousnesa 
or malevolence. I only wish to see our Church acting, I 
would not say as other churches act, but as every oiganised 
body must act with a view to success. Give us the dis- 
cipline of the Church of Some, and its principles of obe- 
dience, and we shall hear no more of " Papal aggression." 
What is the answer to the plain questions. Why are Papal 
countries aggressive in nothing but religion ? and Protestant 
countries aggressive in eveiything but in religion ? Even 
Thucydides will supply an answer, where he shows why 
the aggressive policy of the Athenians always failed by 
the turbulent and unorganised character of its democracy. 

Do not suppose that we vaunt our own perfections in 
speaking plainly. Our own Colonial churches, witness the 
'* domestic comfort " declaration of the clergy of Adelaide 
and Tasmania — the Land Question in New Zealand — ^will 
all wither and die with the parent stock unless we can aU 
agree to uphold and act upon higher principles than the 
secular system which fills the four volumes of Bum's 
Ecclesiastical Law, the root of the €k)rham Question and of 
all evil — the fact that a clergyman has a legal status beyond 
the control of his own order and of the Church ; by which, 
whether bishop or priest, he ceases to be a soldier of a 
marching regiment, and becomes one of the Household 
Brigade, which could not bear to serve in Canada. 

4 And lastly, I invoke your aid for pressing the point 
of the Wellington Bishopric, which would do more to 
enable me to grow ''moss" than anything else that you 
could do for me. Wellington and Auckland have nearly 
equal claims ; if anything, WeUington has the priority. 
Press the point with aU the vis Cokridgiana. 

On All Saints' Day, 1851, confirmation was administered 
in the college chapel to some of the native students, and 
others were baptized. The candidates, " clothed in white 
robes, represented people speaking ten languages, gathered 
from one-fifth part of the earth's circumference^ from east 
to west, and one-tenth part firom north to soutL" Such 
was the entry which the bishop wrote in his diaiy. Ten 



1860-1861.] RESUME OF TEN YEARS. 379 

days later he was again on board the Border Mend and off 
on a visitation to the Chatham Islands and the southern 
portions of New Zealand, from which he did not return to 
Auckland until March 29, 1852. 

Ten years have now passed since the see of New 
Zealand was founded : it is by looking back over such a 
period that we can estimate the full results of labour and 
not by a continuous record of daily doings ; such a rimmi 
has kindly been supplied by one who, unconnected with 
the Mission, was no unconcerned onlooker during the 
whole of the period. 

"The first ten years of the bishop's life and work in 
New Zealand can be but imperfectly undei'stood unless 
some account is given by those who were eye-witnesses of 
the struggles he underwent in the founding and carrying 
on of St. John's College. 

"At the Waimate, indeed, as soon as he had returned 
from his long visitation through the country in January, 

1843, he began to organise his collegiate system. But 
though he encountered many difiiculties, and though the 
removal of his chaplain, Mr. Whytehead, by death, was 
like the loss of his right hand, the work there was com- 
paratively easy. In the old Mission Station he found 
houses enough for all his staff, and he soon turned deso- 
late-looking and ruinous sheds and outhouses into infant 
and native boys' schools, hospital, printing-office, &c. 

" There was already on this ground a house for English 
' boys and their master, and a room in it large enough to be 
used as a college hall. There was a good deal of pasture 
land, which only needed care to be made profitable ; and 
within three minutes' walk there was the old mission 
chapel, in which daily prayers and Sunday services could 
be held. When we visited our dear friends, in October, 

1844, we were surprised and delighted with the progress 
made. There were fifty native boys, from three to fifteen 
boardere, imder the charge of one of the C.M.S. mis- 
sionary's sons, and a native girls' school, under the care 
of Mrs. Dudley. The bishop had found in a loft a num- 
ber of spinning wheels, sent out years before by the 
Society, and had had them put in order; and here the 



380 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

little brown-faced maidens sat and spun every afternoon, 
and sang merrily over their work. The whole place was 
a scene of busy, cheerful life. 

" Far different was the state of things when the bishop 
shortly after had to leave the north just as every eflfort of 
his was beginning to prosper. The immediate cause of the 
removal was the unwillingness of the C.M.S. Committee 
in England to grant a lease of the land and buildings to 
the bishop ; but the war which broke out four months later 
would probably have compelled him to leave the Waimate. 

" Some months previously the Bishop, the Chief Justice, 
and the Attorney-General had chosen a site for the future 
college on high ground, about five miles from Auckland by 
land and three by water, and running down to a navigable 
creek. 

" The Tamaki land was considered very good, and some 
settlers were already on farms in the neighbourhood. But 
there was hardly a tree and not one house on the estate, 
and the gi*eater part of the land turned out to be stiff and 
clayey, and very difficult to work. The party of students 
and Maori and English boy s^ were put into tents and into a 
large bam beside the creek tiU better accommodation could 
be provided. As soon as they were settled, under the care 
of Eev. W. C. Cotton, the bishop's chaplain, the bishop 
had to start off again on a long visitation tour, and on his 
return, in March, 1845, when he was hoping to give his 
whole time for a while to the oversight of the college 
buildings, the war in the north broke out, and he had to 
go up to the Bay and to the Waimate, and on his return 
thence to sail with wife and child to the south, and to re- 
main in charge of the Mission Station at Otaki for three 
months. Mr. Hadfield*s dangerous illness and the need of 
some one who could speak Maori, and who could mediate 
with authority between the English and natives, rendered 
this necessary. He was back again in July, superintending, 
planting, encouraging, going with parties of the boys, native 
and English, to neighbouring islands in the little Flying 
Fish to buy timber, always taking the heaviest share of 
the work, whatever it was, and selecting the roughest ac- 
commodation for himself. Difficulties and cares were press- 
ing heavily on him. His trusted friend, Mr. Hadfield, was 
lying, as was supposed, in his last illness at Wellington. 



1850-1861.] RESUME OF TEN YEARS. 381 

Mr. Mason, of the C.M.S., had been frowned the year be- 
fore, when swimming a stream near Wanganui, so that in 
all that large and disturbed district he had only one clergy- 
man, Eev. R Taylor, in charge, and one deacon, whom he 
had trained and ordained in the winter. And during his 
few months* stay in Auckland he and his wife were ten- 
derly nursing Mrs. Dudley, who died in their house on 
September 19th, 1845. He had hoped to place her and 
her husband about that time on a station thirty miles 
from Auckland, and to see her in charge of a large native 
girl's school, for which work she was eminently fitted. But 
this was not all. The destruction of Kprorareka brought 
many destitute families to Auckland, who had young sons 
growing up, with no means of paying for their education. 
Several of these made earnest application to Mr. Cotton 
in the bishop's absence to receive their boys, and the chap- 
lain, knowing his master's large hearty agreed. So on the 
bishop's return he found eight or nine lads, who must be 
taught and boarded and lodged as foundation scholars. 
Some men would have refused the responsibility, for he 
had no regular provision for the support of the institution, 
save a grant of 300/. for the maintenance of students from 
the S.P.G. For the rest he was dependent on the sym- 
pathy and support of friends in England and on his and 
his chaplain's private means. The colony was in a state 
of great depression ; labour scarce ; wages high. But the 
very difficulties seemed to brace him to the conflict. The 
Pauline Sules were drawn up and printed, and the strug- 
gles began. Looking back now at those years of toil, I 
can but wonder at his fjEiith and patience. 

" By May, 1846, on the bishop's return after five months' 
weary travel through every part of his diocese, he and his 
family removed to St. John's College, and the work fairly 
began. It looked bare and bleak enough. A grey scoria 
building, which formed two houses, with eight rooms in 
each. In one of these the bishop lived ; in the other was 
the English boys' school. The native party was still at 
Purewa, and on the opposite side of the road were three 
cottages for the college servants. The meals were taken 
in a scoria kitchen, and cooked in an outhouse. By the 
end of the year a little hospital was built, and things be- 
gan to look more bright. Then comes the time of the 



382 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

ferer, which attacked from twenty to thirfy of the coU^^ 
party, and stopped all work for two months, save the 
constant nursing of the sick, which the hishop took share 
in night and day. His own party were just recovering 
when the sad news arrived of the death of Bev. Mr. 
BoUand, of fever, at New Plymouth. It was needful for 
the bishop to go off at once to the south to make arrange- 
ments for supplying his place. This could only be done 
by removing Mi*. Govett from Otaki to succeed his friend 
and to send down Mr. Samuel Williams, the son of old Arch- 
deacon Williams, to take his place among the native people. 
This was a great loss to the college, as Mr. Williams, who 
had been bom in the country, was invaluable a^ mastcar of 
the native school ; for he had not only idiomatic know- 
ledge of the Maori language, but acquaintance with tb^ 
ways of thinking of the people, and an affectionate in- 
terest in them, and besides, was a man of business. At 
the end of 1847 Mr. Cotton also had to fulfil his promise 
to his father and family of returning for a while to Eng* 
land ; and so the machines had to be worked by young 
and often inefficient hands during the bishop's long ab- 
sences. Many anxious thoughts about the college work 
and workers weighed him down in his long lonely voyages 
and land journeys. And no sooner did he arrive home, after 
months of separation from his family, than he plunged into 
work at St. John's, teaching, auditing accounts, <^, as if 
he had no other claims on his time. And amid many 
discouragements the work grew. By the end of 1847 the 
beautiful chapel was consecrated, and daily service begun ; 
and the hospital was open again for only uninfectious 
cases; and primary native and English schools, all at 
work. About that time the college servants-^ook» butler, 
and butcher, all for various reasons — determined to leave ; 
one man and his wife to return to Tasmania ; anothw to 
go on a farm ; and after much thought and counsel with 
his friends the bishop decided to have the woik done by 
the college party, instead of paying exorbitant wages tp 
persons who had no interest in the success of his under- 
taking. He had seen young officers on board Her Ma- 
jesty's ships standing daily by while the rations wece 
served out, and keeping strict account of everything, and 
he tried to infuse a like sense of responsibility into the 



1850-1851.] RESUME OF TEN YEAB8. 383 

minds of his young men that they should do the * serving 
of tables ' faithfully and cheerfully. Unhappily this was 
a very unpopular step, and met with little sympathy and 
approval within or outside the college, though it was only 
asking the students to do for Christ's sake what eveiy 
settler in the bush had to do for his own. It was then 
that he preached a grand sermon at the Tamaki, which his 
friends used to call ' the sublimation of Camifex.' 

'^ I well remember listening to a talk of his to a student 
one morning on the consequences of faithfulness or unfaith- 
fulness in the discharge of his duties as house steward. 
How it seemed probably a small thing to him to entrust 
some Maori boy with the keys to give out flour or rice, 
and yet a little waste each day might in a few months 
amount to a sum of money which would have enabled the 
bishop to bring scnne native child to be taught and trained. 
Perhaps the young man at the time only received the talk 
as a ' lecture/ but judging by his faithfulness in an ofBce 
of trust in after years, the seed bore fruit. The bishop was 
delighted to get hold of a little book of directions, printed 
by Colonel Gold, of the 65th Eegiment, for the use of 
his men. After an appeal to the elder men, the drummer- 
boys were exhorted to step smartly forward for the honour 
of the 65th. With one of his happy playful turns, he used 
to call this book the Golden Eules. 

** How his eyes used to kindle and his whole face light 
up with a smile as he read this, for this was the spirit 
which he desired to infuse into all his workers. And they 
did respond in a way ; but most of them were young and 
inexperienced, and the coUege system was little under- 
■ stood, even by older men, whose sons were reaping the 
benefit of the bishop's self-denying exertions in the cause 
of education. The notion of EnglJjsh and natives working 
side by side on equal terms and with common privileges 
was unpopular, and so was the industrial system, though 
it alone enabled the larger number of youths of both races 
to get a sound education. 

" For it must be remembered that during all these first 
years, from 1842 to 1851 or '52, there were no English 
schools in any of the settlements save day schools, for 
the poor settlers' sons learned early enough to saddle and 
ride a horse^ and to drive a bidlock-waggon, but were 



384 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

liable to grow up in the ordinary sense uneducated. Nor 
were the catechists of the C.M.S. able to provide a liberal 
education for their many sons. Most of these were 
brought up at St. John's. It was not till 1848 that Mr. 
Maunsell, stirred by the sight of the college work, began 
a native boarding school at Waikato Heads. This was 
followed up by similar schools up the Waikato, and in the 
south, which were aided by government grants. 

" There was, too, afloat a latent dread of Puseyism, and 
if that subsided, then all that was new was the ' bishop's 
way.' That some did, however, from the first appreciate 
the bishop's work may be seen by the endowments given 
to the college : (1) by a lawyer in Auckland ; (2) by a 
C.M.S. clergyman, in memory of his only son, who had 
been at St. John's College, Waimate, and tenderly nursed 
in his last illness by the bishop and Mrs. Selwyn ; (3) by 
a gentleman in Auckland, in memory of his wife. 

" The arrival of a large body of military settlers in the 
provinces at the end of 1847 and in 1848 increased the 
college work greatly. The government imported several 
bodies of pensioners, with their families, from England, 
and planted them in four villages within six to eight miles 
of St. John's College, without making provision in the way 
of chaplains, or a salary for such. A good number of the 
men were Eoman Catholics, but the others had to be 
looked after. A wooden church for Howick was all pre- 
pared by the College Corporation at St. John's, and the 
college carts took the framework over, and at the bishop's 
expense the building was put up ; and before the end of 
1848 he had pretty little wooden churches open for the 
use of the pensioners at Panmuir, three miles ; Otahnhu, 
five, and Onehunga, six mUes from the college ; and all 
served every Sunday by deacons resident at St. John's. 
In all weathers the bishop and his young clergy went a-foot 
through mud and mire to their different posts, he always 
taking the hardest part of the work and the largest num- 
ber of services. One by one they dropped in between 
seven and eight in the evening, and after High tea, the 
whole party used to gather into the chapel for what was 
always called the Unity Service. 

" It was a happy ending to a day certainly not of rest. 
After 1848 we were used to see dark-faced Melanesian 



1850-1851.] BESUME OF TEN YEARS. 386 

youths among the crowded ranks of English and Maori 
boys of all ages. The bishop's letters have shown how, 
on his visit to the Chatham Islands and to the whaling 
stations, his heart was sad when he saw boys and girls 
growing np nominally Christian, but in entire ignorance, 
and so lapsing into heathen ways ; and how he longed to 
crowd his little vessel to overflowing with these stray 
lambs. He was very happy and hopeful when a native 
girls' school was built and opened on ground near to 
Auckland, given in part by the government. 

" This institution was under the care of the Rev. G. A. 
Eissling, of the C.M.S., and liis wife ; and his face would 
beam with satisfaction at the prospect of suitable wives 
being trained there for his native teachers. Several mar- 
riages did take place, the old tribal feeling being overcome 
after some difficulty ; the faithful Bota Waitoa, who had 
risen step by step from being a bare-footed lad in a 
blanket, with a pack on his back, up to a well-dressed 
house-steward and a schoolmaster^ to the diaconate, and 
after some years to the priesthood, chose an excellent help- 
mate from St. Stephen's. The weddings were always held 
at the college, and the young couples generally settled 
down there in the bishop's house, which had wonderful 
powers of expansion. 

"Then came the * Anntis Mirdbiiis/ as our dear friend 
used to call 1850, when Mr. Lloyd and Mr. Abraham 
came out to work at the college. Mr. Uoyd learned Maori 
readily, and won the boys' hearts. The college worked on 
under difficulties, but successfully, until 1853, when it 
was necessary to disperse the school for a time : before 
it coiild be reassembled, the clergyman at S. Paul's, Auck- 
land, died, and Mr. Iloyd took his place. The native 
side of the work was never resumed at S. John's, for indus- 
trial schools on the same principles were now at work in 
several parts of the islands where boys could be fed and 
taught at half the expensa 

"It was grand and thankworthy to walk through the 
fields which he had sown, amid trees which he had planted, 
towards a church which he had buUt, and filled with scholars 
whom he had reared, whose mouths he had fed, whose 
bodies he had clothed, whose minds he had taught, that 
they might do the same for others after them„ by th^ 

VOL. I. 



386 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

labour of his own head and hands, and all thiongh a vast 
amount of opposition and lack of sympathy." 

Yet 'another letter, which falls within the limits of this 

year, serves as a mirror in which to reflect the bishop's 

labours and manner of life. It was written to a fidend 

in England by a competent witness : — 

St. Johk's College, Attoklaitd, New Zsalakd, 

Augvst nth, 1851. 

" I may suppose you to be pretty well acquainted with 
the locality of the college from the bishop's letters which 
have been published. When new comers arrive at Anck> 
land and ask for the bishop's palace, I own it is veiy 
amusing to watch their feu^es as I point to a dingy scoria 
building, with four windows in front, and the same at the 
back, at which may be seen, however, some right cheerful- 
looking Maori faces, and sundry English figures ; for this 
small house of eight rooms is cran^FuU of married men 
and women, and boys of several ages. I say it is very 
amusing to watch the faces of the persons inquiring — ^and 
I can pretty well tell now the animus of the visitor by 
his expression of countenance on seeing the palace. One 
man's eye brightens up as he says : ' Well, this is more 
like the exterior appendages of an apostolic bishop;' 
another says (but not to me): 'It is a beggarly hole;' 
and so oil But it is a curious fact that the people who 
in England railed at bishops for their luxurious mode of 
living are here rather offended at ours for his utter dis- 
regard of personal comfort and show, though he is as 
saiffn^ and particular as any one about the church's orna- 
ments, or, indeed, his own house, such as it is. I mean 
that he combines simplicity and neatness, and shows as 
much taste in the order and arrangements of his humble 
and straitened cabin or study as any captain of a man-of- 
war, or member of the Roxburgh Club. 

" Would you like to spend a day with us while the bishop 
is here ? (which is seldom enough) ; well, then, you would 
come to morning service at seven, and see issuing from 
three different buildings lines of mixed EngUsh and Maori 
lads streaming to the pretty little wooden chapeL There 
are settlers in our neighbourhood 4;hat say they like to 



1860-1851.] METHOD OF TEACHING. 387 

come to our chapel, 'for it is more like England than 
anything in the country.' In fact, it is almost the only 
ecclesiastical-looking building, I believe, in the country, 
and Mr. Waile's painted glass at the east end ^ves it a 
'home look' of antiquity and sacred association very 
different from the generaUty of buildings here. 

" The bishop reads the service half in Maori, half in Eng- 
lish ; an English scholar reads the First Lesson ; a Maori 
scholar reads the Second Lesson. At nine o'clock school 
b^ns. The bishop only takes Scripture classes, and has 
them in chapeL First comes a class of Maori lads and 
men, -who are separated into the baptized and the con- 
firmed ; one set usually come one day ; the other another 
day. The teaching is very graphic and lively. The 
Maori mind cannot take in anything abstract ; everything 
is taught by illustration. 

'' I don't know that I can better describe his mode of 
teaching the young, or of warning the elder, than by 
telling you of a visit I paid with him to the chief in the 
nei^^hood, who wif not become a Christian because 
he has two wives, and he must give up one. ' Are you 
not thinking of becoming one of us?' says the bishop. 
'Yes, perhaps,' said the chief. There the conversation 
dropped ; but I saw the bishop hold up two fingers, and 
then bend down one. The chief nodded assent. At the 
time I did not understand it, and I said to the bishop 
afterwards, 'What was that symbolical commimication 
you held with him, which he seemed to take in so 
readily?' and then he told me that the chief had two 
wives and must put down one. 

"I have learnt the character of many of the boys by 
watching the questions he puts to them. I heard him 
single out one boy in rather a marked way (when read- 
ing of Samuel) to ask him what sort of men Sli^s sons 
were. The boy hung down his head and gave no answer. 
The others looked htuxl at him. I found he was the rather 
unworthy son of a worthy father. 

" The great value of his teaching, however, is his wonder- 
ful perception of the capacity of the pupil, and his thought- 
building, if I may so call it. He lays the foundation of 
his teaching so admirably. It is like building stone upon 
stone. You never see a huge dome or cupola of iron on a 

c 2 



388 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

weak woodeu framework. The point lie wants to instil 
does not come out till the end of the lesson, and perhaps 
the actual thing to be brought out does not occupy five 
minutes of the lesson — all the rest of the hour he has 
been gradually building up to that point. The Maoris 
delight in it. 'It is so lAghtW^B,' they say — so clear, 
that is. 

" After an hour or so with these natives, you would see 
some of the Melanesians come in. They have only been 
with us a few months, and yet they have managed to pick 
up words and ideas that make us very hopeful of being 
able to make them native teachers for their own people 
some day. . . • 

" It was rather trying to one's nerves, however gratifying 
to one's mind, to hear the following illustration or expla* 
nation come out. The bishop was trying to teach them 
that bad words and lying were wrong. He could not make 
out whether or no he had made himself clear, when the 
biggest boy left no doubt on our minds by retailing 
some words which they had learned on board ship: — 
'Does God love boys,* said the bishop, 'who do some- 
thing, and. say they have not done it ? ' ' No ; gamnum 
no good,' was the quaint reply. And indeed their keen 
moral sense in matters of truth and honesty is very ex- 
emplary, T use the word advisedly. They are positively 
an example to both English and Maori boys in matters 
of this kind. 

" When these have spent an hour with the bishop, in 
come some English scholars, of twenty or thereabouts, 
and with them the principle of teaching is the same, 
though the matter is higher. Words and passages in the 
Qreek Testament, teaching and illustrating the Love of 
God, or the Power of God, Redemption, Sanctification, 
&c. These are most carefully analysed, and the prin- 
ciples of language worked out at the same time that a 
vast deal of collateral instruction is given by catechising. 
I mean the bishop always works on the Socratic plan of 
extracting the knowledge of the pupil, and making him 
teach himself. He does not play at 'perch-fishmg in 
Virginia Water,' as (Jeorge the 4th did ; that is to say, 
he does not put in the perch one minute, and pull it 
out the next; but he stocks his fish-pond, and lets it 



1850-1851.] ROUTINE OF DAY'S WOBK. 889 

reproduce, and then goes a-fishing ; or he gives them the 
flour and expects a loaf of bread. 

" Another hour or two is occupied with the highest class 
— the candidates for Holy Orders — and a lik^ process 
carried on. 

" The bishop is specially a man whose knowledge is self-, 
wrought and applied. * Cave hominem unius libri* is fully 
exemplified in him. He knows the Bible thoroughly, and 
the only other book he seems to know well is Pearson on 
the Creed. With these two he seems to master every 
subject. 

"But let us go on with our day. A dinner in hall at 
two o'clock is of the simplest, yet most substantial kind, 
and is attended by the whole college. The bishop by this 
means is able to offer chance hospitality without pressing 
hard on his limited resources. 

" If business permits, after dinner we may start off round 
the college to see the working departments. There is not 
one of these which he is not well able to superintend. If 
he had not been a good bishop he might have made a 
capital farmer, or a good carpenter, or a weaver, or a 
printer,— all of these works are going on with our Eng- 
lish and native lads, and I need hardly say that he still 
more understands seamanship and navigation. He is, in 
fact, a first-rate officer. I was asking a common sailor the 
other day about the different vessels that leave this port, 
and their captains, and who he had sailed with ; and then 
I said, ' Who would you prefer sailing under out of this 
port ? ' He immediately said, ' Well, I had as leave go 
with the bishop as any man,* evidently looking at him 
merely on the sailor side of his character. 

" It was a glorious sight the day the new mission ship 
(the Border Maid) first left her moorings near the college. 
All the boys were on board, and Champion, her captain, 
was piloting her up to Auckland, the bishop at the helm. 
' Luff, my lord/ ' Luff' it is.* With him it is no playing 
at seamanship, but downwright hard work. He knows 
where every store is, and every rope ; he keeps his 
watches regularly, indeed, much more regularly than any 
captain of a ship, who never keeps watch on deck except 
in bad weather. He takes the sights, teaches the oldest 
sailor and the youngest boy. Every person and every- 



390 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWTN. [chap, x, 

thing comes under his eye and care. And then his 
sermons on board ship, imder the open eye of heaven, 
are so grand and sublime. Only £Euicy how this told the 
other day. There was a man-of-war in harbour which 
had been to the Northern Islands in his company last 
year, and he went on Sunday before he went off the 
other day, and held divine service on board. He took 
with him our four Melanesian boys, and the Gospel for 
the day was the 14th chapter of St Luke (2nd Sunday 
after Trinity). Tou could see by the rapt attention of 
the sailors how they took in eveiy word he said about 
those that were picked up in by-lanes of the city. Doubt- 
less their thoughts flew to Botherhithe and Wapping ; and 
he contrasted the advantages of their orderly and disci- 
plined life on board ship with their careless life on shore ; 
and then he spoke of the hedges and highways of the 
ocean, and pointed to the black boys who had come to 
us originally from on board a man-of-war; and he told 
them how good a training for the Christian life we had 
found the order of a ship had been to these boys ; how the 
regular habits on board this vessel had prepared the minds 
of these boys for subjection to a higher discipline and 
training for immortality. 

'' The sailors seemed to be thankful to know that they 
had in their way, by example, been of service in the good 
cause. They were so extremely fond of these black boys, 
and when they were sick or sorry, they used to take such 
care of them. 

'* I have never seen the bishop's mode of dealing with 
the Melanesians in their own islands, but I fancy the way 
he wins their hearts at first is by his innate humour, com- 
bined with thorough fearlessness, and above all, of course, 
a constraining love of souls for whom Christ died. They 
seem to know instinctively, like dogs and children, that 
he loves them, and means their good. At one savage place 
he was eyed suspiciously at first ; but he brought forward 
one of his own little boys he was bringing back to one of 
the islands, and pointing to the lantern jaws of a little 
native of the island, and then pulling out the fat cheeks 
of our little fellow, he made them understand that he 
would do the same for any of their children they would 
let him take. When they saw him poking his fingers 



1860-1851.] GOLD SEEKING. 391 

into ihe hollows of one's cheeks, and pulling out the fat 
of the other, they danced and shouted with joy at the fun, 
and would have let him carry ofiT dozens. 

*' I will give one specimen of his sermon to the Maoris, 
and one to our English fellow-countiymen on the CaU- 
fomian money-mania, and end my tale. The Maoris are, 
I am sorry to say, falling back, many of them, to heathenish 
practices. This was very much the case in one tribe ; so the 
bishop preached on Saul, and without pointing or explain- 
ing the application to them, it was very striking to see 
how they caught it all, and fitted the cap. The warrior 
Saul brought into immediate contact with Divine truth, 
admired for his prowess in arms, having Samuel for his 
guide and adviser, rebelling against him and God, gradu- 
ally leaving the service of the true God, betaking Mmself 
to sorceries and witches. It was just what they are and 
do; and they saw its application exactly. Parable and 
history supply all his religious teaching, and fables and 
proverbs cdl his moral. 

" What a description is this of the soul which is cut off 
from Christ ! A ship driven from its anchor, by which it 
held to the rock, tossed by the raging waves, and unable 
to bear up into the wind, with devils howling for joy amid 
the storm, ' Let her drive I ' It is a true account of all who 
have lost their hold of Christ. ' Let her drive ! ' To them 
neither sun nor stars appear ; no small tempest lies upon 
them. ' Who will deny that the manifold changes of the 
world were never more manifest than at the present time. 
All human powers alike are proved to be imstable as water. 
A torrent of unruly wills is sweeping away everything 
before it, and when it has done its work of destruction 
it is itseUT overwhelmed by the next wave that follows it. 
And in the midst of this wild and frenzied fever of the 
world, as if in mockery of human madness, Satan opens 
out his last remaining lure. When all the kingdoms of 
the world and the glory of them have been seen to be 
worthless, he points to the rivers which flow with golden 
sands. Kow in the last ages of the world he reveds his 
hidden treasures as fuel for the fire he has himself kindled 
upon earth. Lest nations should be too poor to war, he 
first inflames their passions, and then supplies them with 
the means. And then he who has roused the storm looks 



392 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. x. 

on with his own cry of joy at the sight of the vessel 
hastening to destruction. ' Let' her drive ! ' he seems to 
say with bitter scorn ; ' gold is no longer needed for the 
thrones and the crowns of kings ; cast it into the midst 
for the multitude to quarrel for.' 

^ You may weU imagine the feelings called forth by this 
stirring appeal I hope many' have been warned against 
going to California and Bathurst for gold. Some that did 
go write back to their friends> and remember this sermon 
now it is too late. 

" But apart from its intrinsic worth, I thought it w£is so 
characteristic of our bishop's nautical tastes and habits." 



END OF VOLUME I. 



1 



INDEX TO VOLUME I. 



INDEX. 



Abbahaic, Rev. C* J. (afterwards 

Bishop of Wellington), 75, 76, 161. 

202, 230, 316, 317, 331, 336, 341, 

871,385 
Acland, Sir T. D., the late, 86 
Asaph, S.,See of, 216 
Analteum, 285, 286, 291, 297, 298, 

347, 874 
Anaijom, 301, 346 

Langoages of , 302 
Analysis, verbal, of Bible, 319 et seq. 
Albort, Prince, 6 

Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, 81 
Adelaide, See of, 219 
AUigator, H.M.S., 311 
All Souls' Statute, 343 
Armstrong, Bishop, 2 
Arnold, Dr., 83 
Atuas Maori, 104 
Auckland, 118 
7%Res, 188 
Islands, 318 
" Annus Mirabnis " ( 1850), 385 



B 



Brat Fbrst, 52 

Baring, Sir F., 96 

Balade, French mission at, 291 

Babd,301 

Baptism, declaration of Australasian 

bishops on, 351 
Barnabas Day, S., 857 
Barclay, Captain, 377 
Berry Fomeroy, 12 
Bede Yen., 72 
Beche-la^mer, 288 
Bernard, S., 295 
British and Foreign Schools, 25 
Bishop's Castle, 58 



Broughton, Bishop, 3, 63, 104, 162, 

217, 250, 358 
Bolaffey, Mr., 19 
Boyeney, 26 
BlomfUad, Bishop, 65 
Brown, Archdeacon, 188, 804 
Board of Missions (Australian), 340, 

351 
Border Maid, the, 352, 871 
Bunsen, Chevalier, 82 
Butt,Rev.H, 175 
Butterflies (in New Caledonia), 827 
Bull, Bishop, 842 



C 



Cathkdbal ComCUSIONBBS, 30 

System, 81 

€^)en for private prayer, 83 

Beform, 34->.38, 40—42, 50, 335 
Chapman, Bishop, 79 
Caledonia, H.M.S., 89 
Chatham Islands, 221 
Caledonia, New, 311, 327 
Canterbury Pilgrims^ 855 
Clerical Aid Sociel^, 43 
Cerberus in New 2iealand, 275 
Circumcision, bishop in line of, 81 
Cicero's Prosemia, 302 
Cotton, Bishop, 2 
Coleridge, Bishop, 3 
Copleston, Bev. R. E., 41 
Co-operation, 49 

Colonial Bishoprics' Council, 59, 62 
Consecration of Bishop Selwyn, 74 
Coleridge, Sir J. T. Right Hon., 78 

Bev. Edward, 87, 121, 186, 204, 
224 

Lord, 79 
Cotton, Mr. Justice, 79 

Rev. W., 105, 380 
Cole, Rev., 105 



396 



INDEX. 



College at Waimate, 146, 160, 234, 

269 
Chlumbine schooner, 187 
Oontroyersy, 237 
Colombo, Bishop of (Dr. Chapman), 

291 
Courage and rashness, 310 
Cook, Captain, 311 
Church Missionary Society, 97 
Church and State, 164 
Church Constitution, 228 



D^LTOir, Eev. C. B., 22, 45, 49, 67, 61 

De Morgan, Dr., 14 

Degree of Rev. G. A. Selwyn, 10, 78, 

80 
'* Deacon Episcopate," 203 
Design map, to face p. 299 
Disciplme, Spiritual, 241 
Divorce and re-mamage, 244 
Dido, H.Mil., 251, 264, 275, 281, 292 
Dissenters, relations towards, 292, 887, 

346,347 
Dillon's Bay, 309 
Dumford, Rev. B., 79 
Dudley, Bev. H., 105, 183 
Dunstan, S., 199 
Dunedin,264 



B 



Etaks, William, 125, 222 
Bzeter, sermon at, 83 
Episcopal authority, limits of, 246 
Ersldne, Captain, 296, 297 299,313 
Eton Miscetlany, 10 

College Chronicley 10 

Boats, 11, 18 

Sermons, 49 

At Antipodes, 343 
Endowments, 120, 140 
Enromango, 303, 309, 374 
Ely Cathedral, 260 



Fbild, Bishra, 3 
Frere, Rev. .f., 43 
Few, Mr., Ill 
Free churches, 122 
Fitzroy, Captain, 163 
Fitzfferald, Dr., 279 
Food, lesson on, 323 
Fulford, Bishop, 3 
Flying Fish, 187, 193 
Fly, H.M.S., 267, 328, 347 
Futuna, 305, 374 



O 



Gbat, Bishop, 2 

Gladstone, Eight Hon. W. B., 7, 53, 

152,217,273,290,350 
Granville Island, 253 
Grey, Sir G., 17, 275, 336 
Greek church, 81 
Grey, Earl, 267, 271, 352 
Geddie, Mr., 347 
Gosset, Bev. I., 29 
Govett, Bev. H., 195, 198, 382 
Gorham case, 341 
Godley, Mr. 356 
Golden Rules of H.M. 65fch Beeiment, 

383 
Gold, Colonel, 383 
Gold, sermon on discovery of, 391 
Guinea, New, 318 



Hawkins, Bev. Ernest, 65 66, 119 

166, 186, 277 
Hatchaid, Bev. J., 87 
Hadfleld, Archdeacon, 127, 128, 145, 

153, 187, 189, 266, 279, 380 
Hahi (= Church), 155 
Hazard, H.M.S., 170, 171, 175, 178 

189,256 
Hawes, Mr., M.P., 275 
Havannah, UMJA, 285, 299, 303, 349 
Hawtrey, Bev. Dr., 335 
Harrington, Mr., 341 
Harper, Bishop of Christchurch, 356 
Heber, Bishop,' 2 
Heke, John, 168, 169, 179, 200 
Heuheu Te, 172—174 
Hector, Captain, 182, 227, 349, 359. 

364 
Herald, H.M.S.. 257 
Howley, Archbishop, 68. 69, 84 
Hobson, Captain, 99, 100, 102, 169 
Hospital at College, 208 

Brethren and sisters of, 208 
Home, Sir E., B.N., 313 
Hume, Joseph, 271, 828 
Hutton, Rev. T. B., 280 



iKTEBCBSSioir, days of, 373 
Innocent, Bishop, 4 
Industrial training, 270, 342 



Jkroboah's MnnsTBBS, 32 
Jerusalem, Bishop of, 81 



INDEX. 



897 



Jengen, 291, 814, 315 

Jesuits, obedience of, 878 

John's, S., Ck)lle|^, Cambridge, 52, 

208 
Jns trium liberomm, 327 
Jubilee of S.P.a., 873 



Kawau Minb, 280, 277 ^ 

Kapiti, Archdeaconry of, 280 

Kateingo, 805, 816 

Keate, Dr., 10, 297 

Ken, Bishop, 133 

Kerikeri,148 

Keble, Bev. J., 349 

Knittmg taught to Maories, 165, 212 

Kissling, Bev. G. B., 885 

Kororareka, 102, 169, 179, 181, 184, 

188, 190, 192, 205 
Konas, 258 



liAin) D LTFicuLTiM , 141, it iiq., 166, 

248, 265, 272, 339 
Language, idioms of, 820 
Lanfear, Mr., 348 
Laity in Synod, 350 
Lat^icy,358 
Lessons on food, 323 
Liston the comedian, 15 
Lifu, 301, 304, 374 
Lonsdale, Bev. J., 48, 50 
London Missionary Society, 255 
Loyalty Islands, 304 
Lloyd, Bey. J. F., 836, 841 
Lyte IfiazweU, Mr., 10 
Lyttelton, proposed Bishop of, 855 
Lydia,865 



M 



Macauult, Bight Hon. T. B., 28 
Manning, Archdeacon, 80, 877 
Marriage of Bishop Selwyn, 53 
Malta, Bishopric of, 59, 61 
liarsden. Dr., 62, 95 
Maori mythology, 103 
Mackamess', Mr , gifts, 107, 111 
Martin, Chief Justice, 125, 160, 273 

354 
Marriage of converts, 157 
McLean, Mr., 172 
Maui God, 206 
Maxwell's Harbour, 226 
Marriott, Bev. C, 227 
Maxwell, Captain, 254, 256—268, 277, 

SIS 



Bfiare,307 

Ifairyat's, Captain, code of signals, 

319 
Bfalicolo, 862, 367, et Beq. 
Mackenzie, ^riiop, 2 
Melbourne administration, 70 

See of, 219 

Bishop of, 351 
Melanesia, 276, 284 

Dialects of, 302 

Map of, to face p. 804 
Meste, 869 
Milman, Bishop, 3 
Jfoa brig, 341 



N 



"Sltiojxal Socixtt, 56 
Kgatiraukawa, 185 
Ngatiawa, 185 
Kengone (or Mare), 862, 874 
Newman, J. H., 8, 81, 200 

F. W., 8 
Newfoundland, Bishop of, 186 
Newcastle, See of, 219 

Bishop of, 351, 856, 858, 866 et 
seq., 871 
Nesbifet, Mr., 307 
Nihill,Mr.,147,359,861 
Non-interference, 156 
Northumberland, Dukedom of, 215 
Nursing (Bishop Selwyn), 126 



Otwat, Cape, 112 

Otago, 155 

Organization, Church, 339 

Oxenham, Bev. N., 87 

Oswestry, 165 

Obedience of Jesuits, 878 

Ordination of Bev. G. A. Selwyn, 20 

Candidates for, 32 
Oriel College, 228 
Oliver, Captain, 308 
Oxford movement, 239 
Opposition at Wellington, 281 



Pattssok, Bishop, 3, 84 
Psalmody, aufhorued, 50 
Paul's, S., homoorary stall at, 57 
Patronage, 61 
Patent, letters, 71, 849 

EiTors in, 73, 84 
Patteson, Sir J., 78 
Pauline rules, 134 



398 



IND£X. 



( 



Purata Te, 207 
PatiroDAge^ 247 
Piuigopaiifo, 255 
Paddomi^ptatn, 256, 257, 308 
Palmer, Sir B., 290 
FhoHiom, Tessel, 906— S08 
" Palace," Bishop's, 886 
Patrimonj of the Church, 215 
Peel, Sir R., 70 
Pew syBtem, 122 
Feneveranee, schooner, 155, 186 
Pnachers' qaalificatioiui,241 
Peacock, Dean, 259, 283 
Pettigrew, Mr., 858 
Philolutes, 18 

Philpotts, lieutenant, 179, 189 
Printing honse, 269 
Pines, &le of, 288 
Privy Ck>uncil judgments, 354 
Powis, Earl of, 16, 149, 218 

Counteis of, 164, 211, 229, 853, 
371 
Polynesian College, 129, 817 
Polygamy, 159 
Ponruar258, 279, 282, 284, 285, 340, 

341 
" Poor heathen," 329 
Psychrolutes, 18 

Public Worship Bcffulation Act, 29 
Plymouth clergy, address of, 88 
Pusey, Dr., 199^ 
Purseless, scripless spirit of Church, 

215 



Q 

QuBBBC, Bishop of, 200 



Battpabata Tb, 145, 176, 196, 198 
Baugiaeta Te, 145, 176 
Barotonga, mission at, 294, 301 
Bashness and oourage, 810 
Beay, Bev., 105 
Betrench, brig, 106 
** BemoTC trials,** 299 
Sieord newspaper, 314 
Begiment, 66th, H M., 383 
Bidiardson, Sir J., 51, 06y 371 

Lady, 52 

C.,283 

W.,283 
Ehin Lty French corvette, 166 
Bichards, Mr., 307, 308 
Bona, or 2Can in the Moon, 17 
Bota Waitoa, 131, 221 
Bobertton, Captaii^ 193 
Botama,258 



Boman missions, 298, 314, 360 

Bottr't Bride, 306 

BobertBcn, Mr., 346 

Bome, Church of, 354 

" BoUmg-Pin ". Diocese, 376 

BuBsell, Lord John, 66, 70 

Bupai,105 

Buapaho,206 



S 



Strachak, Bishop, 2 
Stanley, Lord, 70, 168 
Swainson, Mr., 131, 160 
Stanhopes, New Zealand, 140 
Siaifu CaUUy 176 
Samoan teachers, 301 
Seamanship, 297, 352, 889 
Stewart, Bishop, 2 
Selwyn, Jasper, 5 

MajorOeneral, 5 

Colonel John, 5 

Qeorge, 5 

William, Q.C., 2, 5, 69, 283, 305 

Bev. Professor, 9, 64, 87, 283 

T. K., 9, 20, 283 

Miss, 145 

Lord Justice, 9, 11, 283 

William, Jun., 222 
Sermons, criticisms of, 46 

Advent, 55 
Self-support, 138 
Stephen of Citeauz, 295 
Separation, bitterness of, 371 
Stipend of bishop of New Zealand, 

139 
SU^, 805, 316, 359, 863 
Societies. Church, union of, 48 
Sponsorship of the Church, 159 
Sotheby, Captam, B.N., 813 
Schoolmasters, deacon, 335 
Stonghton, Dr., 346 
Sydney, 115 
Synod of 1844, 168 
Syndicate for translation, 211 
Synod, diocesan, 223, 284 et seq., 248 
Sydney, synod at, 339, 340, 349 ef m?. 
Supremacy, Boyal, 360 
Summary of ten years, 1841 — 1850, 
379, et seg. 



TRAiNDfo Ikstitutiok, principalship 

of, 57 
Ta8man,93 
Tamati Waka, 99 
T^pn,103 
Thames district, 123 



INDEX. 



399 



Tannaki, 148, 311 

Taua, 150, 170 

Tun&hana, W., 156, 158 

TannA, SOI, 306, 307, 360 

Thallup, 305, 315 

Teigmnonth, 12 

Teaching, method of, 387 

limes newapaper, 67 

Triplialfl, 302 

Trover, Biahop, 8 

Tomatin, 82, 92, 115, 116, 187 

Thompaon (Baupanha'a aon), 177, 

197 
Tonga Tabu, 254 

Fac-simile letter from, to face p. 
254 
Thol, John, 304, 315, 359, 362 
Tamaki,8dO 
Tyrrell, Biahop, 13, 14, 351, 356, 358, 

372 
Turton, Profeaaor, 78 
Turner, Mr., 387 



U 



TJicAO, 360, 361 
" Unaatiafled membera," 199 
Uea,301 

Union, Windsor and Eton church, 48, 
79 
Speech addreaaed to, 80 
Undine, 220, 230, 259, 266, 268, 279, 

281, 285, 290, 304, 305, 311, 326, 

352 
Uliete, 305, 316 
" Unity Service,'* 357 



W 



WAXsnxLD, Colonel, 98 
Waitangi, treaty of, 99, 101, 102 
Waiiaii, 102, 141, 153, 185 
WataoD, Bev. B. L., 106 
Walee, N. S., Church Act, 121 
Waimate, 124, 132, 134, 158, 201, 285 
Waikato, 130 
Waiapu, 249 
Weteri (Wealey), 155 
Weaving taught Ifaoria, 164, 212 
Welah biahoprica, 213, 230 
Wealeyan miaeiona, 265 
Wesley, John, ahip, 282 
Windsor achoda, 25 

Church diapute, 26 

New church, 28 
Winchester, Biahop of (Sunmer), 49 
WUberforce, Biahop, 79, 147 
Williama, Archdeacon (afterwarda 
Biahop of Waiapu), 139 

Bev. H., 178, 186 

John, 254 

Bev. Leonard, 249 
WaiiaiM, John, ahip, 294, 307, 309 
Whdfred, S., 199 
Wilkes, Captain, 310 
Whytdiead, Bev. T., 78, 87, 105, 124, 
132, 199, 379 



Xatibr, S. Francia, 199 



Y8ABEL,303 



TBrABLBS, Biahop, 2 
Fiurm, brig, 110 
Victcria, brig, 197 
Vincetmes, ahip, 310 
rictorins, e^boat. 380 
Voyaging, naka of, 294 



ZEAJJJfD, New, Co., 62, 96, 101, 341 
Church Society for, 62, 63 
History of, 98, et seq. 
Aaaodation, 96 
Landing in, 116, 117 
Constitution for, 352 



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