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Nkw Zealand akd England, 1852 — 1854 1 

Nbw Zealand and Mklanksia, 1855 — 1859 ... 35 

Eoclbsiastical Organization 84 

Thb Maori War 156 

New Zealand and Lichpibld, 1860— -1867 . .211 

Lichfield and New Zealand, 1868—1870 . .246 




Lichfield, 1871—1877 


. 286 


Principles and Convictions . 

• • 

. 330 


Last Dats 

. 369 



■ ■ 

• • 

. 377 

Portrait op the Bishop [1877] 



Conspectus op Creeds To face p, 362 

Ladt Chapel of Lichfield Cathedral 

• • 

P. 386 




Thb ViBitation on which the bishop was engaged in the 
summer of 1851-2, did not come to an end, as was men- 
tioned in the last chapter, until March 29 of the latter 
year. It supplied many subjects of anxiety and of regret ; 
the people had accepted Christianity eagerly and sincerely, 
but an emotional system of religion without a strict system 
of teaching and discipline had left them without backbone, 
moral or intellectual, and a time of reaction had set in. 
The young men fell away from Christianity, or declined 
to accept it, and the great mortality of the young children 
gave but small hope of the future of the Maori race. The 
confirmees were mostly middle aged : the children were un- 
educated, and the young men were growing up indifferent 
to Christianity, and despising the restraints of heathenism 
which their fathers had acknowledged: the missionaries, 
burdened with the charge of enormous districts, had been 
unable to give to the young that moral and social train- 
ing which was necessary if Christianity was to be a power. 
Some of them gratefully acknowledged the bishop's efTorts, 
and succeeded in establishing boarding-schools in their 

2 . LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

missions, and the people everywhere ofifered tracts of 
land for schools, if only the bishop could officer and 
superintend them ; but, as he said^ he could not officer 
them, and yet he knew that time was being lost, while he 
could only, like Marius, sit down and weep at the sight of 
a ruined Carthage. 

While on this tour Mr. Abraham met the bishop at Mr. 
Ashwell's station, Taupiri, and found him literally in the 
midst of his work. 

''He was in church examining, and at six o'clock he 
confirmed 200 men and women. This was his forty-fourth 
confirmation this tour, and completed about the 3,000 
whom he examined almost one by one, and satisfied him- 
seK of their proficiency. Alas ! alas ! no young men or 
women. Out of the 3,000 only fifty perhaps were between 
sixteen and twenty-six. This is the result of no schools. 
The young people have utterly set aside Christianity and 
takeif up nothing instead, but doat upon the vices of the 
towns, and horses, and whale-fishing. Here, however, the 
bishop's eyes and heart were gladdened by a school Mr. 
AshweU is a deacon of C.M.S. He has fifty girls and 
twenty boys under his charge, and devotes himself to the 
work most vigorously." 

At another place on this Visitation the fruits of a good 
girls' school were apparent, and the case was the more 
interesting as the mistress was a Maori woman, the widow 
of a great chief. 

When her husband died she fled for refuge from heathen 
habits to the Mission Station to which she became so 
valuable: her father-in-law came to mourn at his son's 
funeral, and she observed him sidling off towards a slave 
with his hand on his tomahawk, and she only just saved 
the slave from being sacrificed as " InferiaB " to his son's 
" Manes." " This old man," wrote Mr. Abraham, " came to 
the bishop's recent confirmation, and seeing the bishop at 
the altar, and Mr. Maimsell at the reading desk, he, 
heathen as he was, walked up to the altar and assumed the 
vacant seat, saying, that the bishop was the great chief in 
church and he was next. Mr. Maunsell in vain tried to 

1852-1854.] D.V. AND D.G. 3 

induce him to move, when just before the confirmation 
service the bishop beckoned to the faithful Rota, and in a 
moment he and another lifted the altar bodily over the 
rails, and shut the gate, leaving the old chief alone terribly 
disconcerted, and a laughing-stock to the whole community* 
The bishop's character for readiness of resource and 
promptness of action rose 100 per cent, and no man dares 
give himself airs near him. There may be some who 
would think this rather an irreverent way of tr^ting the 
altar, but it would have been much more irreverent to have 
this old heathen giving himself airs there, and ejecting the 
priest from his place. The thing was done very quickly 
and quietly, and probably saved a general disturbance." 

It must not be thought that the labour of these 
Visitations was confined to the toil of travel by sea and 
land, and to occasionally coarse and insufficient fare : there 
was the ever-present strain to fulfil the programme, to be 
able to add to the engagements which had been assigned 
to each date with the condition added D.Y., the letters 
D.6., which were always inserted when the engagement had 
been kept. There was also the annoyance of living much 
in public, often in society that was barely congenial, and 
the lack of all opportunity, save on board ship, for study 
and privacy. On this Visitation there is an entry in the 
journal on Ash Wednesday. "Three hours quiet in the 
chapel between services," which shows how precious and 
exceptional the privacy was. 

Easter was kept at Auckland, and on Easter Monday the 
bishop wrote a letter which is in truth a striking Easter 
sermon to his son in England. 

Auckland, April 12th, 1852. 

My vert dear William, 

I can fancy you now enjoying your Easter holidays with 
one or other of the kind uncles and aunts, who are to you 
in the place of your parents ; and I know so well their 
love for you that I feel sure that they have not omitted to 
teach you all that your dear mother and I have been 
teaching Johnnie at this holy season. It is this thought 

VOL. n. B 

4 LIFE OF BISHOP 6ELWYN. [chap. i. 

ivhich makes us content to be absent from you in the body, 
though always present in the spirit ; and, with such foster- 
parents as those to whom we have consigned you, we are 
sm*e that no one will accuse us of acting like the ostrich, 
in leaving its egg in the sand, either to be hatched by the 
heat of the sun, or to be trampled under the foot of the 
passing beast. But though I feel the most perfect con- 
fidence in my dear brother William, who has so kindly 
undertaken this charge, that ha will teach you, as his own 
son, everything necessary to your soul's health, yet the 
sight of a father's handwriting, reminding you of my love 
towards you, will add force to the lessons which you are 
daily receiving, and to which I can add nothing new, 
except the peculiar efficacy of counsel given from' a dis- 
tance, and partaking therefore more of the nature of faith 
than of sight. It is at this season, when the great doctrine 
of Justification by Faith was first established by the 
Eesurrection of our Lord, that I love to think of my un- 
seen child as seeking for salvation by faith in an unseen 
Grod and Saviour. If I were with you, every day and 
every hour would bring with it some new anxiety; any 
sign of idleness ; any hasty word ; any want of reverence ; 
any departure from truth ; any disposition to vice ; would 
cause at least a passing doubt, whether you were growing 
in grace, and increasing in wisdom, as in stature. But now 
at the distance of half the globe, all is happiness, because 
every thought is Faith: Faith in the Father who has 
adopted you for His own child: Faith in the Saviour 
who has taken you into His arms and blessed you : Faith 
in the Holy Spirit by whom you were born again to 
newness of life : and in a lower range, Faith in your uncle, 
that he will be to you a spiritual father: and Faith in 
yourself that you will not undervalue or neglect these gifts 
of God and of man ; these blessings of heaven and of earth. 
You will soon enter upon a Itfe of peculiar trial — ^for a 
public school is a boy's first real acquaintance with the 
temptations of the world. If I were near you to watch 
the first effect of Eton upon your mind, what doubts and 
fears I should have, whenever I observed any sign of the 
effect of evil companions, weakening your own principles, 
and abating your love of (xod and of Christ But now I 
can resign you with confidence into the guidance of your 
heavenly Father ; trusting that He will not suffer you to be 


tempted above that which you will be able to bear. While 
you trust alone to His arm of strength you may sometimes 
without trespassing upon the Divine attributes, turn your 
thoughts to your parents and brother in New Zealand, and 
think that we are daily praying for you, that your faith 
may never fail ; but that we may be all united in seeking 
salvation by the one appointed means ; and thereby 
securing for us all a joyful meeting in the life to come 
through Him who as at this time rose from the dead for 
our justification. 

Your most loving father, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

The Easter Octave was barely over when, on April 20, 
the bishop was again afloat in the Border Maid, on another 
tour. On May 26, when the Border Maid reached Auck* 
land, the bishop was able to write in his diary, ** End of 
Confirmation tour on which every DV has been marked 
with a DG to the exact day. Xdpi^ r^ 0e^.'* 

There was, however, little rest for the bishop ; the ap- 
proaching cold of winter warned him that the delicate 
Melanesians must without delay be carried back to their 
native latitudes. He would gladly have been spared the 
voyage to and the sojourn in the relaxing air of the 
Tropics, but when the Trinity Sunday Ordination was over, 
no time was to be lost. One of the boys from Lifa, George 
Nelson Hector Apale, died on June 2, the bishop being 
** called out of chapel to commend to God the soul of our 
dear boy, the first-fruits of Achaia." Another Nengone 
boy, who had taught him much about his baptism, knelt by 
his side, while his cousin sat at his head, and exclaimed 
'*Alas, my brother!" and the dying lad dictated a letter 
to his heathen father, declaring his faith and happiness. 
Another lad, Cho by name, was ill, and delay was impolitic 
On the day after l^inity Sunday the bishop's log contains 
the following entry : — 

June 7th. — " Went on board to hasten preparations for 
sailing, Cho's illness urging me. Lighted fires on board to 
smoke for rats. Packed up books and cleared cabin." 

6 2 


And on June 8th there appears the following : — 

" Went on board Border Maid to open hatches and re- 
place books. Very few dead rats." 

On the point of sailing, a letter was written by the 
bishop to the Eev. Edward Coleridge, which is here given : — 

AucKLAin), June 16(A, 1852. 

My very dear Friend, 

On the eve of sailing on my fifth voyage to the Northern 
Islands, I write just one short line to deprecate your dis- 
pleasure at the long interval which must occur before you 
hear from me again. In judging of my punctuality as a 
correspondent, you must bear in mind, that my year is now 
parcelled out into large portions, during one of which I am 
removed far from the range of all post-offices. It is quite 
possible that a space of six months should now intervene 
between two of my letters ; a time I can assure you which 
passes over my head so rapidly, as scarcely to leave any 
distinct consciousness that any necessary duty has been so 
long postponed — so full of change of scene and of em- 
ployment is the work to which it has pleased God to call 
me. But of this you may be sure, that both mind and 
matter bring you continually to remembrance ; whether I 
travel by land or sea, or remain quietly at home, some evi- 
dence of your love is always before my eyes. This thought 
comes home to me now, when I am just signing the deed of 
sale of the Undine, and preparing to go on board the 
Border Maid — ^in both of which vessels you have so large 
a share — in the purchase of the one, and the equipment of 
the other. I part with a pang from the good little schooner, 
in which, without cost or parade, I could traverse the sea, 
protected by the God " Who tempers the wind to the 
shorn lamb," and enables the smallest vessel to ride in safety 
over the stormy waves. Nothing but the necessity of carry- 
ing larger numbers of scholars would have reconciled me 
to the larger vessel, with its greatly augmented pecuniary 
responsibility: but as it must be so, I must endeavour 

" Nave ferar magnft an pairfi, ferar nnna et idem.*' 

One dear boy out of our thirteen has been taken to his 
rest ; baptized on his death-bed by C. J. Abraham during 
my absence at the Bay of Islands, and blessed by me at 

1852- 1 854.] ANAITEUM. 

the moment of his departure. Another is now on board, 
dangerously ill, but with the hope that a few days' sail to 
the northward will restore him to health. Our cold winds 
in autumn always try the constitution of the island boys 
on their first visit : those who come for the second time 
appear to be acclimated. Even little Thol, whose life was 
despaired of in 1850, has spent his second term with us. 
without the least injury ; and is grown into an active and 
robust boy. Mr. Nihill will stay about two months on 
Mar6 with his pupils, and I hope, after further acquaintance 
with the people, wiU be able to present some of them to 
me for baptism. He now speaks their lajiguage fluently. 
Do not expect rapid progress from us amidst these scat- 
tered stones of the tower of Babel ; but pray for us, that 
our work may be blessed with fruit in the appointed time 
of harvest From your affectionate and grateful Friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

On June 19th the Border Maid sailed, and a favourable 
wind soon carried the shivering Melanesians into wanner 
regions. At Anaiteum, as usual the first landing-place, 
the bishop put on shore the Presbyterian teachers, Mr. and 
Mrs. Inglis, who, with a horse and very much baggage, had 
had a free passage in the Church-ship from Auckland ; the 
native lad whom Mr. Oeddie, another Presbyterian preacher, 
had asked the bishop to take with him to Auckland in the 
previous year, was also landed here. At Mare or Nengone 
the Rev. W. Nihill and his native assistant, Henry Tara* 
toa, were put on shore, together with some scholars. Mr. 
Nihill spent three months on this island with a view to 
preparing the way for the permanent settlement of English 
missionaries, and the ' bishop sailed northward, visiting 
amongst other of the Banks' islands, Santa Cruz, which had 
been one of the most dangerous spots in the Pacific. Here 
a favourite pupil was regretfully left on shore, the only 
clothed person among hundreds of naked heathens : 
" Still it was his home," wrote the bishop, " and God grant 
that in his simple way he may teach among his own people 
the true word of life." The Solomon Islands were after- 
wards thoroughly visited, and the bishop was received with 



cordiality at Malicolo, where in the previous year he had 
been in much peril 

The claims of these more distant islands and the short 
time that could be given to each of them satisfied the 
bishop that he was not equal to the due supervision of 
them while hampered by the care of Kew Zealand, wd on 
August 20 there is the following entry in his diary : — 

" The careful superintendence of this multitude of islands 
will require the services of a missionary bishop, able and 
willing to devote himself to this work." 

But some years elapsed before Mr. Patt^son was con- 
secrated Bishop of Melanesia. 

On September 25th !^^engone was again reached, and Mr. 
Nihill and his scholars came on board. These last were 
five in number ; among them was George Siapo, who had 
been a pupil of the bishop's for four years, having first 
attracted his notice when he went down to the bottom of 
one of the ooral pits in his own island to fetch water for 
the stranger. He had been among .the party on shore at 
Malicolo, in 1850, and had canied his water-barrel high 
above his head until he reached the boat ; he was now ac- 
companied by his affianced bride and her companion, and 
thus the pi'oblem, how to provide the Christians of Melanesia 
with Christian wives, which had often exercised the bishop's 
mind, seemed to be in a way of being solved. The wish 
of Siapo to have his wife as well educated as himself 
showed also a great advance in his own Christian character : 
he had been ill during his stay at Nengone, and had con- 
templated the probability of never returning to his home^ 
and this anticipation was indeed realised as he died at 
Aucklaud in January 1853. 

On October 2nd the Border Maid sailed round the north- 
em end of Lifu and took on board John Thol, an old 
favourite and companion of Siapo ; on October 21st she 
dropped anchor in, Eohimarama, the college harbour. An 
English visi4;or who saw the bishop land at Auckland, and 
conduct his twenty-five youths and twa young women, the 
representatives of almost as many languages, fix>m the ship 

1852-1854.] DUTY OF UNITY. 

to the college, declared that, saving in the weakness of 
bodily presence and the imperfection of speech, the bishop 
seemed to him more fully to realize the true conception of 
the Great Apostle of the Gentiles than he had ever thought 
possible. There was indeed another point of resemblance 
between the Apostle and the bishop, for since the day 
when St. Paul plied his needle and twine, few mission- 
aries hare more usefully exercised their skill in this re* 
spect than did the bishop, when out of a patchwork bed 
quilt he made with his own hands dresses for Wabisane and 
Wasatrutu, the Kengone girls, soon to be baptized by the 
names of Sarah and Caroline. 

On his return the bishop preached a sermon, in which he 
insisted on the enlai*ged responsibilities which the increased 
number of heathen pupils laid on all who were concerned 
with them. One of those who heard it thus wrote his own 
impressions :-^ 

Sunday, Oct. Zlst, 1852. 

The bishop preached from Zech. viii. 23, applying 
the prophecy, which was never literally fulfilled in the 
Jewish Church, to its spiritual fulfilment in the Christian ; 
and pointing out its literal fulfilment now before our 
eyes, when these heathen tribes, which people the sea, are 
ready to take hold of the skirts of the Christian, and say, 
*' We wiU go with you, for we know that God is with you." 
This feeling, more or less clearly shown, is the spring and 
motive which lures these heathen tribes within our reach. 
This he illustrated by the figure of the magnet, and in- 
stanced, with some detail, the several principles of Gospel 
truth, which had been witnessed to in their late voyage. 
The lessons which he drew were striking. He spoke of 
Unity : that we cast not the stumbling-block of our own 
unhappy divisions before those who have yet to receive the 
first principles of our common faith ; and he spoke of his 
own endeavour to act in this spirit in all his dealings with 
the London Mission, concerning their work in these seas ; 
his willingness to aid and befriend them in all temporal 
concerns ; his dedire that their work might be in parallel 
lines, not in opposition to each other, though it could not be 
in union. Then personally on each one of us, among whom 

10 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. t. 

these youths and children were brought for a season^ the 
heavy responsibility was laid of influencing them for good 
or evU. They came amongst us civilized men, from their 
native Isles, with minds and intellects often dim and un- 
used to exertion, but with every perceptive sense and faculty 
quickened to a degree of which we have no conception ; — 
the eye, accustomed to track the step of every living creature, 
the flight of every bird in the air, the gliding of the many- 
coloured fish within their coral caves ; the ear, awake in the 
dead of night to the slightest sound, which might warn 
them of the approach of an enemy. Youths trained in 
this constant exercise of these organs of sense, are quick 
to receive impressions through the senses. It may be but 
the motion of the hand, the glance of the eye, the expres- 
sion of a countenance, and you may teach them evil which, 
though heathens, they know not : — ^it may be a word, and 
yet its consequences may remain through eternity. This 
was worked out ; and then the conclusion, in the exhorta- 
tion to a consistent Christian life, as an example to others, 
and 8is our own only peace." 

The year 1852 " closed in sorrow," as the bishop entered 
in his diary on December 31. On the 14th of the same 
month John Thol had died, " My first Melanesian scholar, 
dear to me as one of my own children ; " the Border Maid^ 
which had proved ill found in gear and sails, had to be 
sold, and the proceeds the bishop felt bound to repay to 
the Australian dioceses which had purchased her ; the great 
rise in seamen's wages, consequent on the discoveiy of gold 
in Austraha, would not allow him to commission another 
ship even if he possessed one. In this month the bishop 
completed the formal resignation of a portion of his diocese 
which was constituted, but not until several years had 
elapsed, the diocese of Wellington. 

But amid all his anxieties the bishop had always been 
able amply to justify his plans, which cavillers both in 
England and at the antipodes had ridiculed. The time 
was now at hand when labour was to have its dignity ac- 
knowledged, and with something like triumph the Bishop 
thus told the stoiy to Mr, Coleridge : — 


Schooner ** Border Maid,'' at Anchor, 


St. Simon and St. Jude, 1852. 

My dear Friekd, 

Two days ago it was currently reported in Auckland, 
that " the bishop was going to the diggings ; " for we have 
now diggings of our own, in this harbour, out of which 
some small particles of gold have been washed, of the size 
of pins' heads, whether placed there on purpose by some 
Dousterswivel or not, remains to be proved. At all events 
enough has been found to induce the governor to come 
here in person ; and accordingly I have brought him in the 
Border Maid, to show my respect for Her Majesty and my 
personal regard for Colonel Wynyard. So while the official 
party have gone off to " the diggings," with mattocks, 
shovels, tin dishes, &c., to try for gold, I sit down quietly 
in my cabin to write to a friend whose zealous and un- 
wearied friendship has been to me a more productive 
mine than any which will be found in New Zealand. 
How little did people think, when they were laughing 
at our industrial system at St. John's, that we were 
training our scholars for the one business which would 
soon absorb aU professions within itself. When the col- 
lege met Sir Everard Home with a procession of forty 
spades (an honour as my father said which would have 
been more suitable to Sir Cloudesley Shovel), no one 
thought that the day was so near when every parent who 
then objected to his son being made to work, would be 
thankful for the strength of arm developed in the course 
of his college education. We shall soon be quite the 
fashion, for doctors, lawyers, merchants, and even clergy- 
men, are all digging for gold, and proving that everything 
\& gent^ which is well paid ; and that digging was only 
contemptible when it was done for eighteenpence a day. 
Upon the world's own showing we are now right in our 
plans, digging for a treasure hidden in a better field ; and 
finding gold where we least expected it, in the hearts of 
the wildest and most barbarous of men. Now we begin 
with thankfulness to see and to show what it was for 
which we dug and delved, when the rivers of milk which 
now flow from our college pastures are drunk by thirsty 
islanders from countries where even water is scarce. Aa 
for the substitute with which Providence has supplied 

12 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

them in the juice of the cocoa-nut, it is no more to be 
compared with real milk than the bread-fruit with a 
quartern loaf; a conclusion first drawn by Dr. Johnson, 
and since confirmed by all my Polynesian experience. As 
the master of a large household you will easUy understand 
how anjdous our present position would be, with twenty- 
four new mouths just added to our community, and with a 
large vessel to maintain, and with prices of all provisions 
rising, if we had not our own resources, independent of 
the public markets, and steadily increasing in amount by 
the certain process of bringing every expenditure as much 
as possible to bear upon the improvement of the collie 
estate. If our colony, like the others, should prove to be 
auriferous, we shall be in danger of being too wealthy, for 
the pressure of small means, and the uncertainty of my 
income has led to efforts such as poor men only are likely 
to make; and these will yield a tenfold return by the 
rapid increase of the value of property. I should look 
with fear upon this prospect, if I were not also able to 
look out upon forty degrees of latitude crowded with 
living souls,, among whom the distribution even of the 
amplest means will scarcely provide, that every one of 
them may take a little. So if it should please God to give 
us wealdb, I have little doubt of being able to act upon 
John Wesley's rule for taking out its sting, by giving it 

Your hint has not been lost upon me, in which you 
advised me to make it appear that I was not n^lecting 
my own diocesa My dear friend the bishop of Melbourne^, 
one of the least prejudiced and most candid men of hia* 
class, wrote to me still more plainly on the same subject 
I am well aware of the quarter from which these remarks 
proceed; but neither this nor any similar attempt at 
hindcance' or interference shall make me cease to esteem 
that body for their work's sake. Without any mention of 
names I have informed my tvH) metropolitans of Canter- 
bury and Sydney, that these imputations have come to 
my knowledge ; and have sent to them a table (of which 
you shall have a copy) containing a statement of the 
manner in which I have spent my time during the last ten 
years from the day of my landing in New Zealand The 
results are curious, and illustrative of the life of a colonial 

1852-1854.] DIVISION OF TIME. 13 

bishop, which can scarcely be uuderstood, and certainly 
not telty by any of the good questionists in England. One 
whole year I have spent at sea, between the English settle- 
ments, distant 1,000 miles at their extreme points, and 
requiring a voyage of 2,500 or 3,000 miles to visit them 
alL During the whole of this year of voyages I was lost 
to all the direct objects of my office ; but in that time my 
charge, journals, study of lai^uages. navigation, and the 
chief part of my correspondence has been accomplished ; 
all bearing upon that work for which alone I live, and to 
which such powers as God has given to me of body and 
mind have been devoted. It appears that the EngUsh and 
native duties have occupied nearly equal portions of time ; 
and the Northern missions only half as much as either of 
them ; but the coUegiate duties, as being the husbandry of 
my best garden plot, have absorbed as much time as the 
E^lish and naMve visitations put together. 

On January 1, 1853, the bishop left Auckland at 7.30, 
" with a heavy heart : " the entry in his diary goes on to 
record : '' Forded a. stream breast high with the flood tide ; 
took the wrong turn about four miles from Horowbenns ; 
found out our mistake and slept in a sheltered hollow on a 
dear stream. Wet night." The following day was Sunday, 
and the small party joined in worship, morning and even- 
ing, and the Bishop wrote in his jouxnid — " New Year : New 
Thoughts : New Heart : New Man." Until April 18 the 
labours of ibis visitation made principally on foot and 
partly in canoes, continued day by day. On the fourth 
Sunday in Lent he wrote a letter to his elder son at Eton, 
which may well be called extraordinary : — 

Wairabapa Yaluet, nzab Wellikgtos, 

MareMitk, 1868. 

Mt very dbab Child, 

I am spending my Sunday with a hospitable Scotch 
£unily, under whose- roof I have been detained three days 
by bad weather. It is not often that I have any spsure 
time on Sumlay, but as. I have just finished my morning 
services with two congregations of ten each, one Scotch, 
and the other Maori, I sit down to commune with you, my 

14 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. t. 

dear child, and to feel myself united still with you in the 
bond of the spirit. I am now about 500 miles distant 
fipm your dear mother, and thirty times that number of 
miles from you, yet in a moment the mind is with both, 
requiring no conductors like the electric telegraph, and 
quicker in its motion even than light. We can form some 
faint idea of spiritual agencies by comparing them with 
the discoveries of science, and then observing how far the 
most wonderful law of matter falls short of the simplest 
exercise of mind. The thoughts of time and distance are 
closely connected ; the caravan in the desert measures its 
journeys by days and hours according to the steady pace 
of the camel or ass: the earth's surface is measured in 
longitude either by degrees or hours, but the electric 
telegraph changes the usual course of our thoughts and 
daily experience by disconnecting distance from tima 
StiU we have the material wires to stand in the way of 
the pure conception of a spiritual agency, independent 
alike of distance and of time. The solar system carries 
us a step nearer, where we become acquainted with a force 
by which all the planets are bound to the sun, and one to 
another. The amount of this force can be calculated with 
the strictest accuracy, but the nature of the force itself is 
beyond our comprehension. We simply give the name of 
gravitation to a power which we cannot explain, and which 
is so entirely independent of matter as to act equally 
through a vacuum. But we are conscious of a power 
within ourselves far more wonderful and inexplicable than 
any of the forces by which the universe is governed, 
because they are all reducible to some fixed and, for the 
moat part, uniform law ; but the power of thought within 
us, with all the rapidity of light and of electricity, and 
with the same power of passing, like gravitationf from 
earth to heaven, has an infinite versatility, which defies all 
calculation. If my thoughts, for instance, were subject to 
any material law, they would gravitate towards each 
object in proportion to its importance. The greatest part 
would be directed towards God : the rest in due proportion 
to your dear mother, to the duties of my ofiBce, to my 
children, and to my friends. But this is contrary to 
experience. There is no such law constraining us to think 
of each object according to its real importance; but a 

1852-1854.] FAITH IN ABSENCE. 15 

wonderful admixture of moral and material agencies; 
visions of things invisible mingling with recollections of 
distant objects once seen but now removed from our sight ; 
and all these liable to be shut out by thoughts compara- 
tively worthless, relating to the visible concerns of daily 
life. When I sit down to write to you, it seems as if all 
these intervening thoughts and cares were removed ; and 
the warm current of parental love circulates as freely as 
if no distance separated us the one from the other. I 
could pour out all my heart to you in overflowing affection, 
and yet the heart would still seem full, as if certain that 
an equal measure of your love had been received into it. 
This is the effect of that intermediate and lower kind of 
faith, which results from the recollection of objects once 
seen, but now invisible ; such as the love of a parent for 
an absent child, or of a child for an absent parent The 
highest exercise of the same power is in the case of the 
pure objects of faith, in things wholly invisible ; to love 
an unseen God, and to feel that we are loved by Him, 
" Whom having not seen, we love ; in whom, though now 
we see Him not, yet believing, we rejoice with joy un- 
speakable and full of glory.*' — (1 Peter 1-8.) 

I often comfort myself with the hope that our separa- 
tion may be for the good of both ; that this spiritual power 
of parental influence, exercised from a distance, may be 
even more effectual than personal intercourse. Certainly 
it is more akin to that highest of all human influences, 
which our Bedeemer, as the Son of Man, exercises upon 
His Church, from which His bodily presence has been 
removed. What a power there is in the thought of the 
Cross and of Him who hangs upon it, of His bleeding 
temples, and of His pierced side; and above all, of the 
meek and forgiving countenance of Him, who in death is 
pra3dng for his murderers ; and yet this image is neither of 
Faith alone, nor of sight, but of both together ; a belief in 
a written narrative picturing upon the mind a living re- 
presentation of something in the highest degree mournful. 
Of this mixed character, but of course infinitely lower in 
d^ree, is the influence which, I hope, the recollection of a 
parent will exercise upon you. You can at will present to 
your mind some lively image of my life and actions ; 
sometimes enjoying .domestic happiness with your dear 


mother and brother, and Mr. Abraham and Caroline; 
happiness which you know would be marred in a moment 
by a single syllable of evil report of you ; or you may 
imagine me riding over the waves in a boisterous gale, and 
listening to the roar of wind and sea, while you are 
enjoying the rich swell of the organ in Ely cathedral ; or 
you may suppose me surrounded by a crowd of naked 
islanders, while you are gazing upon a procession of royal 
carriages, or the bright cuirasses of the household cavalry. 
Or in a lower range of subject, while you are eating ices at 
Layton's, or criticizing breakfasts at the Deanery, you may 
think of your father as enjoying a bowl of new milk at the 
cow-shed of some hospitable settler, or sharing a basket of 
potatoes with some Maori company. In all cases, as each 
contrast rises before the mind between lives so (Ussimilar 
as yours and mine, you will remember that the same 
thought, which sweetens every inconvenience of my life 
(for hardships there are none) consoled "me also for my 
separation from you, that it was right to be done, and that 
what is right, will come right, and will end in happiness, 
though it begin in sorrow. Every good report of you con- 
firms this ground of comfort " I have no greater joy than 
to hear that my child walks in truth." 
I remain, 

Your truly affectionate father, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

But when the toils of travelling were ended they were 
only exchanged for more engrossing occupations ; a high 
conception of ministerial duty, and an inadequate clerical 
staff> rendered leisure or even moderate work impossible, 
save on board ship. The following extract is taken from 
the bishop's diary, and must not be considered as in any 
respect an unparalleled day's work : — 

*' May 6, Sunday after Ascension. 

" 8 A,M., hospital ; litany and sermon ; ' I will pray the 
Father,' &c. 

''9.30, military service; litany; communion; sermon, 
Elijah and the three captains of fifty« 


''11, St. Paul's; full service and sermon, Isaiah, 
'They shall mount up with wings as eagles;' infant 

" 2 P.M., military hospital ; evening prayer and sermon, 
' I will send you another Comforter.' 

" 3, gaol ; evening prayer and exposition of second lesson, 
Bomans viii 

" 4, St. Matthew's ; eveniug prayer ; infant baptism and 
sermon, ' See that ye refuse not Him that speaketh.' 

" 6, St. Paul's ; evening service and sermon, ' Why stand 
ye gazing up into heaven ? ' " 

Trinity Sunday (May 22) was "a day to be much 
remembered with thankfulness." Bota Waitoa was or- 
dained deacon, the first of the Maori race to receive the 
gift of orders; he had been for ten years under the eyes of 
the bishop, and had been his travelling companion in most 
of his laborious journeys ; the occasion was made one of 
much solemnity; three archdeacons, three other priests, 
and three deacons were present. The bishop preached, 
part of his sermon being in English and part in Maori, the 
latter drawing bursts of acknowledgment from the natives 
present. Archdeacon Abraham wrote, four months later, 
an account of the events of this memorable day and of the 
causes which had led to them, in the following letter to a 
friend in England : — 

S^. 6^ 1858. 

It is 80 important an event in the history of this Church 
that it deserves a more distinct notice than a newspaper 
gives. Perhaps the bishop has himself written to you on 
tiie subject, as it is one that has been veiy near his heart 
all along, and the fulfilment of it (or rather the beginning 
of the end) was a subject of great comfort and hopefulness 
to him, and that too at a time when he particularly needed 
comfort, having sufiered a most severe blow to many of his 
fondest hopes in the temporary suspension of all proceed- 
ings at the college, owing to the misconduct of two whom 
he had trusted^ and who had most fiagrantiy betrayed their 

18 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. r. 

As all the Maoris were soon to leave us, the question 
forced itself upon the bishop's mind, what was to become 
of his faithful Sota? He had remained like a faithful 
Abdiel all along for nigh ten years, adopting every Christian 
and civilised habit, and thoroughly approving and conform- 
ing to our rules and ways. He was much respected by 
his countrymen, and had a knowledge of Scripture that far 
surpassed that of any of his people. We had been raising 
him step by step, putting him in charge of Maori boys and 
men, making him catechise in church, and accustoming 
him to such like teacher*s work. The question was, then, 
whether he should be sent home to his tribe (or his wife's 
tribe), as a catechist or as a clergyman. His wife is a very 
good woman, and has been educated in the native girls' 
school and in the bishop's house since her marriage. But 
still we were afraid that if he went back as only a 
catechist, he might sink down again to the low native 
habits, whereas, if he were a clergyman, his own people 
would take a pride and delight in making him the equal 
of the English clergyman, and instead of drawing him 
down would hold him up. 

Just while this was balancing, the governor and one or 
two of the Church Mission clergy, pressed on the bishop 
very much the importance of making a beginning just 
now, and mentioned Bota as the fittest person to begin 
with. There is a general stir amongst them for education ; 
the governor is arranging a plan for educating the whole 
people and providing them with a graduated scale of 
schools and colleges. If they could look on to the ministry 
as the apex, they would be still more earnest in improving 
themselves, and have a still further motive for steady and 
Christian conduct; as this appeal coincided with the\,*' 
bishop's own feelings and wishes, he came to the deter- 
mination of ordaining Bota Waitoa (Rota is the Maori 
pronunciation of Lot). He spent one or two months in 
special preparation of him for the ministry, and sent him 
to the missionary of this district (the Rev. G. A. Kissling) 
for further instruction, and during the examination week 
preceding the ordination, Rota was examined by Archdeacon 
W. Wniiams, Archdeacon Brown, and myself, and we all 
expressed the greatest satisfaction with the right feeling 
and sound sense he showed on the subject, as well as his 

[iL' 1862-1854.] ROTA WAITOA. 19 

Scriptural knowledge. The poor fellow was in floods of 
tears whenever one tested and probed him at all on the 
most vital points and sounded his motives ; he was so diffi- 
dent of himself, and yet so well knew where to find strength 
and support for his work. The point that specially seemed 
to satisfy the two archdeacons (who were so well acquainted 
' with native character) was his diffidence^ whereas the 
general trait in the character of natives is found to be 

Accordingly, on Trinity Sunday, the bishop ordained him 
deacon, and two English deacons priests at the same time, 
before a large congregation of English and natives, at St 
Paul's Church. The few words of special address to Eota 
from the bishop were some of the most touching I ever 
heard. It was quite in the vein of Paul to Timothy, with 
the paternal feeling of the same apostle to Philemon. Both 
were deeply affected. Eota officiated that same afternoon, 
both at the hospital to his sick countrymen, and at St. 
Barnabas, where I imderstood his manner and matter gave 
general satisfaction. He is gone to his wife's home, Te 
Kawakawa, on the east cape, and I hear excellent accounts 
of him from all sides. 

For the twelve years during which his life was prolonged, 
Bota Waitoa entirely justified the bishop's action ; but the 
step was taken with small encouragement from the majority 
of the older missionaries, who, having seen so much of the 
natives in their barbarism, were slow to believe the change 
with which their labours had had so much to do. 

The winter was now coming on, and sickness among the 
Melanesians warned the bishop that no time was to be 
lost in carrying them to their wanner islands; but the 
Border Maid had been sold, and at this time of special 
need the bishop found himself without a vessel of 
any kind. The Undine could have been chartered, but 
since the time when the Bishop was wont to '' treble-bank 
his little cabin with native scholars, ranged like the three 
ranks of Grecian rowers, some on the floor, some on the 
benches, and some in the berths," new navigation laws had 
been passed, which would forbid the crowding the bishop's 


20 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

party, which now amounted to thirty, in a ship of so small 
a tonnage. Nothing remained, therefore, but to go to 
Sydney, with small hope of finding there a better cUmate, 
but with a chance of meeting with a ship that would take 
him northward. On June 10 the bishop and Mrs. Selwyn, 
with the Melanesians, male and female, sailed in the Daniel 
Webster, and andved after a long and dangerous passage 
on the 29th. One of the lads, George Nabong, " the first 
fruits of Malicolo," died on the voyage, the bishop having 
baptized him the same day. The voyage, therefore, had 
been a time of trial, and on landing the bishop heard the 
news of the death, in England, of his friend Bishop 
Broughton of Sydney. 

There was great difficulty in finding a suitable vessel in 
which the voyage to the islands could be made, and for 
seven weeks the bishop and his party were the guests of the 
Church-folk at Sydney, who outdid their former liberality. 
On July 29 the barque Gratitude sailed for Anaiteum, 
Nengone, Lifu, and Malicolo, and landed the bishop at Auck- 
land on September 7. The Nengone girls had been landed 
on their native island, and had carried the news of the 
death of George Siapo. Two lads had died between Sydney 
and the islands : the survivors were now returned to their 
friends, and the parents of those who had died were com* 
forted. There had been, not without reason, some appre- 
hension lest the news of their children's death should lead 
to some act of violence by way of revenge, but in each 
case it was found that the parents believed that all care 
had been bestowed on them, and were reconciled to their 

The necessity of personal conference with the authorities 
of Church and state now convinced the bishop that his 
presence in England was absolutely demanded. He saw 
that no constitution would be granted to the Church unless 
he himself obtained it. Year after year he had convened 
meetings in all the principal places for the discussion of 
the question, and had patiently sat out weary conferences 


while the colonists were losing themselves in mazes of 
irrelevant talk, which he declined to interrupt, hoping, as 
he said, that '' they would feel their feet for themselves, 
and stand all the fiimer for it." The division of the diocese 
had become more necessary since the colony had for civil 
purposes been divided into six provinces. The pacification 
of the country and consequent dispersion of the colonists 
had increased the demands for clergymen and school- 
masters, and the native people had given several noble 
estates for the endowment of industrial schools, and always 
with the condition that the trust should be for the benefit 
of both races. The experience acquired in Melanesia had 
proved that he " could not continue for an indefinite period 
to conduct these extended duties with any advante^e to 
the Church,* and " therefore," he added, " it is my intention 
to oflTer my services for seven years, if it please God to 
prolong my life, as a pioneer to prepare the way for the 
establishment of a missionary bishopric among the islands 
of the Western Pacific ; and then, after resigning the charge 
into the hands of the new bishop, to concentrate all eSbrt 
and to spend the remainder of my days in the place where 
my heart is fixed." ^ 

In November, 1853, the bishop sailed in company with 
Sir G. Grey, the Governor, in the colonial brig Victoria to 
Norfolk Island and Nengone, landing Mr. and Mrs. Nihill 
and their baby on November 23 at the last-named island. 
The bishop wrote in his diary, " Mournful parting and 
blessing. Shall I see him again ? He is very pale and 
weak, but not dejected." On December 3 1, he returned to 
Auckland : a very busy fortnight followed, and an ordina^ 
tion was held on December 18, and a confirmation of 
seventy-five persons in the afternoon of the same day : 

^ The bishop was mored to this proposal by the legal difficulties which 
were at the time supposed to be in the way of consecrating a bishop for 
regions beyond the British dominions. It is hardly necessary to say that 
the plan was mnch modified. 

C 2 


22 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. t. 

the college was partially dismantled, and on December 
31, the bishop and Mrs. Selwyn sailed in the Commodore 
for England. 

" The end of another year of sorrow, to aov yeyiadi^,'* 
was written in his diary. There was yet another entry^ 
''Many kind and tender farewells. Beautiful day and 
sparkling breeze. Beceding town and college : twelve years 
have made it another home." And what had not those 
twelve years of imgrudging labour done for New Zealand? 
There was no part of the colony which had not been 
visited by the bishop and its necessities grasped and, so 
far as was possible, provided for. As he wrote on one 
occasion about this time, '' The dim and visionary idea of 
New Zealand, which I used to bi-ood over in 1841 before 
we left England, is changed by God's blessing to an 
accurate knowledge of every accessible part of the coast, 
and of almost every inhabited place in the interior." 

But for the unhappy conflicts which had set race against 
race, the unceasing eflforts of the bishop would have 
achieved greater visible results ; but even these apparent 
hindrances had called on him for a display of the highest 
courage, the courage which takes the weaker side when 
it knows it to be in the right, and which does not shrink 
from rebuking the powerful for misusing power. Such 
a testimony to righteousness and justice works often 
results which cannot be weighed in the scales of human 

To the bishop both races were equally his charge : for 
either he would have made any sacrifice with equal readi- 
ness ; in his own words his effort had been ** to raise the 
character of both races by humbling them ; " for the 
education of each, according to their several needs, he had 
grudged neither money nor labour. One representative of 
the Maori race he had been able to enrol in the list of his 
clergy. Had no legal hindrances withstood him, he would 
not have been after twelve years the sole bishop in New 
Zealand. In 1847 he had written to an eminent statesman 

1852-1854.] RESULTS. 23 

in England, '' if freedom be given to our Aosfcralian Synod 
[which did not meet nntil 1850] to consecrate bishops, we 
would soon found and endow sees in all places where they 
are wanted, and fill them with competent men. Of course 
at first the 'vectigal' would be 'parsimania* but in the 
next generation the lands procured by gift or legacy would 
yield a certain revenue." That he would have justified 
his words, the fact that so soon as the way was open, 
colleagues of unusual gifts and graces obeyed his sum- 
mons, and owned his powers of attraction, is a sufficient 

Amid the islands of the Western Petcific he had made 
seven voyages, and by his courage and faith in divine 
protection had disarmed the suspicions of barbarous 
people which had been only too justly excited by the 
rapacity of the representatives of Christian i^ations. He 
had se^n his labours developed from the apparently barren 
ventures of 1848 when in landing, not without peril, on 
strange islands, he limited hia efforts to the establishing of 
friendly feelings on the part of the natives, until in 1852 
more than fifty islands were visited in perfect safety, and 
twenty-five scholars were freely intrusted to the bishop in 
order that they might spend a summer under his roof. 

The story of aU these achievements had reached ears 
which are generally dull of hearing the tales of varied 
failure and success which are the records of all true work 
done for God : and it was not to be wondered at if on his 
arrival in England the bishop was cordially welcomed by 
all classes of persons as one who spoke that which he knew 
and testified that he had seen, and whose personal career 
had been in beautiful consistency with his principles. 

The voyage, commenced on December 31, 1853, did not 
end until May 5, 1854; the Commodore met with rough 
weather and put into the Falkland Islands, where the 
bishop landed, and was welcomed by the governor and the 
chaplain, the Bev. Charles BuU. 

When the Bishop was nearing the English coast he 

24 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

detailed in a letter to his staunchest of friends, the Sev. 
K Coleridge, what were the objects of his visit, and how 
rapidly he hoped to accomplish theuL 


May 2nd, 185i. 

My very dear Friend, 

The good Providence of God has brought us within 
120 miles of our native country, and we are still sailing 
on with a fair wind, which gives us hope of being in port 
before the end of the week. I therefore begin a letter for 
you, in case any opportunity should occur of sending it 
ashore by a pilot-boat in the Channel, that you may be 
among the first to hear of our arrival. We look forward 
now to seeing you again with hearts as full and feelings 
as fresh as if we had not been separated a week. A few 
more wrinkles or grey hairs here and there may betray a 
difference, but in other respects we shall meet, I am sure, 
in exactly the same state as if there had been no break 
in our intercourse. 

Richmond will of course be our first point and pivot 
of future operations. My dear old father's grey head will 
be the magnetic centre of our system. We do not pur- 
pose to make a long stay in England. I must, if possible, 
leave again in the beginning of November. A colonial work 
such as mine, with such mixed elements^ requires constant 
watching : it is all ups and downs ; and everything, imder 
God, depends upon catching men and circumstances at 
the favourable time. Volumes of writing and years of 
talking may be found at last to have been thrown away, 
unless the hand is always ready at a moment to drive a 
nail and fix the transient thought of some well-disposed 
man, who, for want of that, would at once carry off his 
benevolent intention to the gaping mouth of some dissent- 
ing community. Flattery will do something to fix our 
colonial quicksilver, as is well-known to all makers of 
looking-glasses, but those who do not wish to make use 
of that instrument must be content to hammer on. Do 
not then urge me to prolong my stay, but use your in- 
fluence to get my work speedUy done, and send me to my 
own element again. 

1852-1854.] WORK IN ENGLAND. 25 

The chief points are : — 

1. The subdivision of the diocese, and a speedy settle- 
ment of the Sees of Wellington and Lyttelton at least. 

2. The enactment of a free power in the Church of 
New Zealand to meet in Convocation of Clergy and Laity, 
and to manage its own affairs, within certain limits. 

3. A definite recognition of plan for the conduct of the 
Melanesian mission, with the hope of a Missionary Bishop 
to take the work ofT my hands at some future time. 

Minor matters : Suggestions relating to Norfolk Island 
and the Falklands. 

Pray use your influence with our friends, now in power, 
to give me quick despatch : as Colonial Bishops, being 
imconnected with the State, are not used to ante-chambers, 
and only wish to get work done with as little formality as 

One more private request I have to make : and that is 
that you will allow me to keep as much in the background 
as possible, working rather undergroimd, in offices, than 
high above in pulpits or on platforms. We have had a 
season of unexampled sorrow. I verily beUeve, a special 
visitation of Satan, and I should mock the sorrow of our 
penitents and of those who mourn with them, if I were 
to seem to return in triumph from a successful work. 

The bishop reached England just as our troops were 
embarking for the Crimea. The interest of the nation was 
much absorbed in the impending war ; but wherever the 
bishop went, and he went up and down the country, his 
sermons and speeches were eagerly listened to, startling 
as were some of his sayings. Everywhere he pleaded for 
unity: from the other side of the globe he had studied 
the controversies of the Mother Chutch, and he admitted 
that personal knowledge and observation proved to him 
that there was greater unanimity in things fundamental 
than he had been led to expect, and he urged his hearers 
day after day to cherish and increase every element of 
union and peace. 

Fresh from work among colonists and heathens, he was 
able from his own experience and observation to bring 

26 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. r. 

forward ample arguments for the unity of the human race, 
and to insist on the perfect equality in God's sight of aU the 
tribes of men : having given abundant proofs in his own 
career of what a bishop with no secular authority and with 
small stipend could effect, he could declare at the Mansion 
House, without being accused of empty and reckless decla- 
mation, that "if the Church of England had 500,000i a year 
to spend on missions she could not do better with half of that 
sum than spend it on 500 bishops with 500/. a year each." He 
urged that the first missionary to set foot on a new country 
ought to be a bishop, on the fundamental principle of every 
tree creat^ed having seed within itself, and equally of every 
bishop being able to create about him a native ministry 
adequate to do the whole work of the country. 

What could be said to refute the bishop thus fortified by 
experience, and who pointed to the fact that the seven 
churches of Asia, each with its own particular angel or 
bishop, were contained in a district not larger than York* 
shire ? When pleading for the modest income of 500Z. per 
annum as enough for the maintenance of a bishop he was 
again quoting his own practice. It has been already 
stated that the gross income of the see, 1,200/. per annum, 
he had thrown into the common fund of the diocese and 
had drawn only 500/. for himself. He had now resolved 
to give up the 600/. per annum which the Church 
Missionary Society had contributed towards his income, 
and to apply it to the support of new sees, and to draw 
only the other moiety which had come from public funds : 
but this offer had barely been accepted when he was 
informed that with the establishment of local government 
his stipend had been removed from the home estimates and 
had found no place in the colonial budget 

The bishop accepted the position with perfect equanimity, 
he congratulated himself on having refused the see of 
Sydney when it was vacant, as there would have been 
difiBiculty in filling up a see with no income, while for 
himself he said, '* twelve years* residence in New Zealand 

1852-1854.] LOSS OP INCOME. 27 

had made him acquainted with the best places for finding 
fem-Toots and the haunts of birds and fishes/' and he 
added, " I wish to state most clearly and distinctly and in 
all seriousness that it is my intention to go back to my 
diocese and to dig or beg, if need be, for my maintenance, 
for I am ashamed of neither." 

Everywhere he called on his hearers to give themselves 
or their sons, as the case might be, to the work of the 
Church. In Eton College chapel especially he dwelt on 
the possible future of many who listened to him, and on 
the opportunities of rendering high and noble services to 
the Church which were within their reach, if, " trained in 
this school of buoyant freedom and energetic idleness, they 
were to go forth as the Messengers of Salvation/' 

With even more earnestness did he plead that the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury should always have at hand a body 
of young clergymen, " ready to go anywhere and do any- 
thing " in the spirit in which, id that very year, thousands 
of the best bom of England*s youth were volunteering for 
duty in the Crimea. Preaching on St. Barnabas Day in 
Holy Trinity church, Windsor (the church which was built 
largely through his exertions), he said — 

" There must be fastings and prayers, and imposition of 
hands of the prophets and teachers, and a commission 
given by the Church. And there must be a willingness 
in every one that is called, when he hears the question, 
' Whom shall I send, and who will go for us ?' to answer 
at once, ' Here am I, send me.' This spirit of obedience 
to authority has already sent our fleets and armies to 
every part of the world. Eeligion lags behind, as if un- 
equsd, in the race. The Church condemns itself, while 
it applauds in some of its servants a course of duty which 
is no more than their reasonable service, and which ought 
to be the common duty of all its ministers. For want 
of this authority to call, and of this willingness to obey, 
though successors of Paul and Barnabas may be called 
and consecrated to the work of the Holy Ghost, and 
endued with power to ordain elders in every place, it rests 

28 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, i, 

vrith every Silas and every Mark to determine, each for 
himself, whether he will depart from them, or go with them 
to the work. All depends upon choice, instead of obedi- 
ence. And yet who can rightly choose in such a work as 
this? who can rightly estimate his own fitness for the 
work of Christ in untried duties, and among an unknown 
people ? Those elders of the Church who have seen and 
known every candidate for Holy Orders, may judge of the 
fitness of every one for each portion of the work. But 
without willingness in the young to obey, to what purpose 
will b© the discrimination of the elders ? Self-will cannot 
fail to bring on again such sharp contention as that which 
parted asunder one from the other those whom God had 
joined; and filled first with anger, and then, no doubt, 
with sorrow, even the Son of Consolation. 

" There is no comfort in the thought of the heathen 
world, but in the hope of the restoration to the Church of 
the spirit of obedience. What comfort, I would ask, 
would there have been to any one who had a son or 
brother in New Zealand, in the time of the war, if he 
had been told that it had been lefb to the free choice of 
every British soldier and sailor whether he would go out 
to his rescue ? And in what one respect, I would ask, 
are the men of our army and navy more bound to foreign 
service than the soldiers of the Cross?" 

But a few weeks after these words were uttered the 
invitation was given by the bishop to one who accepted it 
as a call, and from the date of that auspicious event the 
bishop felt that a great part of the burden of the Melan- 
esian work was taken from him. It was in August, 1854, 
that Mr. Patteson dedicated himself, and all that he had, to 
the work of the Church in the Pacific. In the same week 
in which this pledge of personal service was given, the 
bishop put forth his modest appeal for material aid in the 
following letter to his firm friend the Eev. E. Coleridge : — 

EzBTXB, Aufftut lith, 1854. 

My very dbak Friend, 

If I am always troubling you, I must plead as my 
excuse that you have taught me, by the long experience 
of your unwearied friendship, to apply to you for assistance 

1852-1854.] li£LANESUN FLANa 29 

in all the wants and difficulties of my diocese. And I 
appeal to you with the greater confidence, because I know 
that you are well acquainted with the general character of 
the new work which God has opened to us in the western 
islands of the Pacific Ocean. Much has been done for 
New Zealand, and now I am happy to say that the seed is 
bearing fruit, and that the English and native congrega- 
tions are both able and willing to do much for themselves. 
But Melanesia is a field entirely new ; comprising an un- 
known number of populous islands, known on the maps 
by the names of New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, 
Banks's Islands, Santa Cruz, the Solomon Islands, New 
Hanover, New Britain, New Ireland, &c., and extending 
as far as the great island of New Guinea. I speak of this 
as the boundary of our mission field, because I hope that 
the Bishopric of Borneo will soon stretch out its arms 
to the eastward, while we are pushing northward and west- 
ward, till the two branches of our work meet, by God's 
blessing, at their common centre in the island of New 

You are already aware that it has pleased God to enable 
me to make seven voyages through the southern part of 
Melanesia, from lO"" to 24"" of south latitude, and to visit 
about fifty islands, in about half of which we have held 
intercourse more or less with the native people, and pre- 
pared the way for future undertakings. From ten of these 
islands we have received scholars into our central school, 
to the number of forty, speaking ten different languages. 
It will not be, as in New Zealand, where the Testament 
printed in the native language at the extreme north was 
carried by native teachers a thousand miles to the furthest 
villages in the Southern Island, and was there read in places 
unvisited by an English missionary. We on the contrary 
must look forward to a long and persevering effort, before 
we can hope that much ground will be gained imder 
circumstances of such peculiar difficulty. 

The object of my present letter is to engage your co- 
operation in a plan for giving permanence to the work 
which has been thus begun. You wiU agree with me that 
it would be worse than useless to enter upon such an 
undertaking in a desultory manner. It has required seven 
voyages to give me even a small insight into the compli- 

30 LIFE OP BISHOP SEL^VYN. [chap. i. 

cated conditions of the problem which has to be worked 
out. No single life could be depended upon as sufficient 
to bring this plan to maturity, and unless due care be 
taken to supply a succession of agents well qualified and 
trained for duties of an unusual kind, it would be in 
danger at any moment of falling to the ground. At present 
the conduct of the work rests mainly upon the Bishop of 
Newcastle and myself, who were appointed Missionary 
Bishops by the Australasian Board at its meeting at 
Sydney, in 1850. 

If the organization of the New Zealand Church had 
been a little more advanced towards completion, I should 
gladly have availed myself of the consent already obtained 
to the appointment of the Venerable Archdeacon Abraham 
to succeed me in the see of Auckland, the archdeaconries 
of Wellington, Waiapu, and Tauranga being, as it is 
proposed, erected into bishoprics and placed under the 
episcopal care of the present archdeacons W. Williams, 
Brown and Hadfield. Knowing the difficulties which are 
thought to stand in the way of the creation of missionary 
bishoprics, I should then have gladly undertaken the 
charge of Melanesia as my own diocese, retaining only such 
an interest in New Zealand as might connect me still with 
the councils of its Church, and give me a central home 
and resting-place among my own countrymen. But I 
should not be able, for some considerable time, to clear up 
the present responsibilities attached to the see of New 
Zealand, such as the Trusts of the Church Estates, and 
the organization of our Church system. But if the 
difficulties now standing in the way of the appointment of 
missionary bishops to act in regions beyond the limit of 
Her Majesty's dominions should not be removed, I should 
be willing, at some future time, if it please God to pro- 
long my life and health, to resign New Zealand, and 
undertake the Bishopric of Melanesia, as it is clearly im- 
possible that the work of the Church of Christ should be 
permanently hindered by merely technical obstructions. 

My proposal to you therefore is this : to raise a fund 
of not less than five or more than ten thousand pounds, 
for the endowment of the Bishopric of Melanesia : the 
interest to be allowed to me so long as I discharge pro- 
visionally the duties of the office ; and the principal to be 

1852-1854.] MELANESTAN TRUST FUND. 31 

held in trust by the treasurers of the Colonial Bishoprics' 
Fund, or some other competent body of trustees, till the 
new bishopric shall have been fully established. 

I speak of the endowment of the bishopric alone ; 
because T hope that the ministerial work in Melanesia 
will be conducted almost entirely by native agency. You 
know my theory of missionary action, that we ought to 
send out a bishop first, with one or two such friends as 
Thomas Whytehead and Charles Abraham, to assist him 
during his life, and succeed him after his death, and that 
they, with the assistance of a few schoolmasters, should 
devote their efforts to the work of raising up a ministry 
from their own native disciples. Many of the difficulties 
which occur in a mixed system, inclucUng English as well 
as native ministers, would thus, I hope, be avoided, and 
the native church would be supported from the first by 
the contributions of the people. 

And now, my dear friend, I have only to desire your 
prayers, and those of the other kind friends, who will co- 
operate with you, that tMs great work may be guided and 
followed by the special grace of the Holy Spirit ; for it 
would be vain indeed to undertake a work like this, 
amidst the shattered fragments of many nations, bearing 
in the multiplicity of their languages the signs of the 
curse of Babel, without the most humble yet confident 
reliance upon the aid of that Spirit, which, on the day of 
Pentecost, began to be poured out upon all flesh. It is 
indeed a great and glorious work, appalling in its vastness, 
and yet sustained by the fulness of the promise, that the 
prayers of the Son of God will never fail till the Father 
has given to Him, " the heathen for his inheritance and 
the utmost parts of the earth for His possession." 

Believe me to be, 
Your most faithful and affectionate Friend, 

G. A, New Zealand. 

The appeal was more than successful : and 10,000Z. were 
raised for the See of Melanesia in the course of a few 
weeks. Among other tokens of sympathy, it was deter- 
mined to furnish the mission with a new vessel to be 
called the Southern Cross, 

On St. Peter's Day, the annual commemoration of St« 

82 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

Augustine's College at Canterbury claimed the bishop's 
presence ; and in a speech which was full of the words or 
the spirit of Holy Scripture, he set forth the duties of 
those who were csJled to the missionary life. To a society 
of young men, generally of humble origin/ pledged by their 
position to simplicity of life, if not to voluntary poverty, 
he uttered these comforting words : — 

''A prophet's office is not in the courts of kings, or 
in rich men's houses, where men wear soft clothing 
and fare sumptuously every day. John came neither 
eating bread nor drinking wine, yet Herod from the midst 
of his palace heard the fame of his preaching in the 
wilderness, and respected his character and listened to his 
reproof. His great prototype, Elijah the Tishbite, put on 
no courtly garb to wait upon Ahab, but bound his haiiy 
mantle about his loins with his leathern girdle, and went 
down to him to Samaria to preach to him of the judgments 
of God. His successor Elisha, called from the plough to 
receive the mantle of Elijah, assumed to himself no pride 
of office, but for ten years administered to his master's 
wants, till he saw him caught up into heaven, and received 
a double portion of his spirit. Amos was neither a pro- 
phet nor a prophet's son, but a herdsman and a gatherer of 
sycamore fruit : yet the Lord took him as he followed the 
flock : and the Lord said unto him, 60, prophesy to my 
people Israel. Zechariah speaks of the true prophet as 
one who disclaims all glory of his office ; and says, I am 
no prophet, I am an husbandman ; for men taught me to 
keep cattle from my youth : and yet to him the wounds of 
Christ were revealed, with which He was wounded in the 
house of his friends. God chose David his servant and 
took him from the sheepfolds, whUe he was following the 
ewes great with young, to feed Jacob His people and Israel 
His inheritance. The shepherds of Bethlehem were in 
the field keeping watch over their flocks by night, when 
they were guided by the light of heaven and called by the 
voice of angels to be the first preachers of the new-born 
Saviour. 'Hie shepherd's hut, the yoke of oxen, the fisher's 
coat, the tattered nets, and the leaky boats, the mission of 
the seventy without scrip or purse, Peter and John going 

1852-1854.] UNIVERSITY SERMONa 33 

up to the temple without silver or gold ; all these are the 
lessons which Scripture teaches its ; these are the signs 
and badges of that order out of which Christ Jesus chose 
and called His apostles, evangelists, and prophets. 

"We have this faith therefore in the prophet's office, 
that it needs no worldly aid to give it its effect : neither 
wealth, nor honour, nor talent, nor birth, nor station. It 
needs only the calling of God, and a willing heart to obey 
the calling. If you rest upon the real graces of the Chris- 
tian character, and the real powers of the Christian 
niinistry, without assuming any of those false and adven- 
titious aids which hinder rather than promote the progress 
of the gospel, you will not fail of the prophet's reward." 

The bishop was much engaged during his stay in 
England in facilitating the formation of a Church Constitu- 
tion in New Zealand, of which more wiU be said in its 
proper place ; it is sufficient here to record that he returned 
to New Zealand after a stay of less than a year in England, 
feeling that now the last obstacle was removed, and that 
self-government was within the reach of. the Colonial 

The University of Cambridge in the season of Advent 
heard those four famous sermons on the work of Christ 
in the world, which did for the cause of missions in 
Cambridge similar service to that which the Bampton 
Lectures of Archdeacon Grant had done for Oxford some 
ten years before. In active missionary work he thought 
the Church would find her true pacificator. In the 
crowded cities of India or China, in the plains of 
Africa, or among the unnumbered islands of the Pacific 
Ocean, he thought there might be found " outlets for the 
excited and sensitive spirits of the Church at home," in 
which men who were termed " rebels " in England might 
be free "to serve God and to win souls." Among the 
visible results of these sermons was the self-dedication of 
Charles Frederic Mackenzie to the work of missions, and 
there were many on whom the preacher's words made an 

34 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. i. 

indelible impression. One of his hearers desired to place 
his whole fortune at the bishop's disposal, but he refused 
to accept an offer made under impulse, however noble, and 
he bade the young man go and consider the cost of the 
sacrifice which he proposed to make, and this at a time 
when the offered sum would have made further pleadings 

And how many men, young and old, have gone again 
and again to those sermons for guidance and solace in 
their work, whether at home or abroad, whether among the 
heathen or the colonists of the British Empire, and have 
found what they sought, can never be known. Every- 
where the bishop urged to unity and charity, and on the 
subject which had distressed so many minds, and driven 
some noble spirits to despair of the Church of England, 
hampered by the civil power as she was and is, the bishop 
from the University pulpit declared that : — 

" Questions like those which now agitate men's minds 
must be tried by the balance of the sanctuary, or they 
must be left untried. The coarse and clumsy processes of 
human law cannot analyse the ethereal elements of the 
doctrines which link together the life that now is with 
that which is to come. To bring in aliens from other pro- 
fessions to judge on legal grounds alone of the meaning of 
words which can have no meaning at all but by their in- 
ward power and application to the heart, would be to deny 
to the Church, which will hereafter judge angels, the power 
to judge herself."^ 

So amid much speaking and preaching, superintending 
the building of the Southern Cross, and preparations for 
parting once more from fatherland and family, the year 
1854 closed on the bishop and his associates. 

^ "The work of Christ in the World." Four sermons preached before the 
University of Cambridge, 1854. By George Augustus Selwyn, D.D., Cam- 
bridge ; Macmillan & Co., 1855. 

1855-1859.] THE SOUTHERN CROSS. 35 



The sojourn in England, although it lasted much longer 
than the bishop either desired or intended, was of com- 
parativelj brief duration, and there was crowded into it 
a variety of business details which might well have been 
spread over a much louger period. In pulpits and on 
platforms, in hurried journeys throughout England, in 
interviews with Government officials, in preparing for re- 
suming the Melanesian work in conjunction with Mr. 
Patteson on a more enduriug plan and with larger and 
more definite objects in view, and in superintending the 
building and launching of the Southern Cross, on which 
the success of the mission largely depended, the bishop's 
time was fully occupied. He had landed in England on 
May 5, 1854, and he purposed to leave again as early in 
1855 as the SoiUhem Cross could be prepared for the 
voyage. On January 1 he registered her at the Custom 
House, " the first on the roll of the new year ; " on the 
5th the bishop slept on board, and on the Feast of the 
Epiphany the schooner was towed to Gravesend ; on the 
8th she " spread her sails for the first time," and on the 
10th she entered Southampton Water " leaky." 

The delays caused by this mishap were especially try- 
ing, not merely to the intending passengers, but to their 

VOL. n. D 

36 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

families and friends, from whom they were about to part ; 
but the bishop bore it with equanimity, and thus wrote 
to Mr. Patteson : — 

Lincoln's Inn, Jan, 17(^ 1855. 

My deae Coley, 

We are still troubled with a small leakage, the cause of 
which they have not yet discovered. It is not large in 
amount, but annoying to the men. Every other prepara- 
tion is in a fair way of being completed by the end of the 
week ; but this may cause an indefinite delay. Still, as 
I know how painful it is to be always taking leave, I 
think that your plan is a wise one of coming to South- 
ampton either Saturday or Monday. I always live on 
board when I am there, to conduct our evening prayers 
with the crew and to keep order, which in harbour is 
always a matter of diflSculty, though my present crew have 
given me less trouble than any which I have had before. 
The cold, I warn you, is pretty severe ; thermometer this 
morning about 40"* ; but I hop and hammer, and think of 
the Crimea, and ao get on very weU. In the large cabin 
they have a brazier, and are warmer ; but there is great 
confusion with all the stores turned out of their places to 
make way for the search after the leak. If you come you 
shall have a share of my cabin, as Sarah wiU not be on 
board till the last day or two. It makes me quite happy 
to think of the quiet and Christian manner in which your 
father and sisters give you up to the work to which I fully 
believe God has called you, and of your own calm con- 
templation of your first parting from them. My own 
dear father is in the same tranquU state of mind. 
Love to the Judge, 

Your affectionate friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

But the leak refused to be discovered, and the trial 
increased daily ; and yet the bishop could extract from it 
for himself and commend to others a lesson of patience. 

1855-1859.] DELAYS. 37 

Ely, March lOth, 1855. 

My deab Coley, 

I have not answered your letter of 28th February, 
having nothing to communicate, and not wishing to in- 
flict upon you my own indecision. By Hector's report 
of last night, the leakage, after the third repair, seemed to 
be undiminished in quantity. As the point now stands, 
it is probable that we shall take our passage in a merchant 
ship, and leave Messrs. Wigram to send out either the 
Southern Cross or some other vessel, at their own time and 
cost. It is a sad derangement of all our plans, but it 
cannot be helped ; and if it does no other good, it is useful 
as a lesson of patience. What I most regret is the sus- 
pense in which our good fathers are kept ; but to which 
I do not feel it right to add the anxiety of thinking of us 
as sailing in an unseaworthy vessel. 

All hopes of sailing early in 1855 were now at an end, 
and the imperfect way in which the SotUliem Cross had 
been buUt interposed many tedious delays and prevented 
any plans being formed: the bishop was always on the 
move, going frequently to Southampton to find that little 
or no progress had been made. In this enforced leisure, 
if leisure it might be called, he wrote the Preface of his 
Analysis of the Bible, of which mention has already been 
made. On February 5 the Southern Cross was relaunched ; 
but the delay that had occurred was so serious, that the 
bishop was compelled to take his passage in a larger ship 
which would make a more rapid voyage. On March 15 
there is the significant entry in his diary, " Packed up 
sorrowfully," and on the 22nd of the same month, " Took 
final leave of my dearest father. 'Heaven prosper all 
your undertakings ' repeated constantly." On March 29 
the Southern Cross left Southampton, and the Duke of 
Portland, with the bishop and Mr. Patteson on board, left 
Gravesend ; the vessels reached New Zealand, the former on 
July 19, the latter on July 5. The Instructions given to 
the captain of the Southern Cross are so characteristic of 


38 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. u. 

the " skipper bishop," as he was often called, that they 
must find a place in these pages. 

7, Old Square, Linoolk's Inv, 
March 21th, 185& 

The Bishop of New Zealand, at the request of 
Messrs. Wigram, sends the following advice to Captain 
Sustins: — 


1. Do not attempt to make much southing till 12'' or 
IS"* W. longitude, so as to be able to weather Cape Finis- 
terre if the wind should be S,W. 

2. Sight the Madeiras for rating the chronometers, but 
do not get entangled with the islands. 

3. Cross the line about 23*" W. longitude, about the 
same route as that pricked o£F on the bishop's general 

4. Bound the Cape of (Jood Hope about 40** S. latitude, 
and keep on that parallel. Make a point of sighting St. 
Paul's Island to get the time for the run through Bass's 

5. Do not attempt to near the straits at night or in 
thick weather. Make out, if possible, the light on Cape 
Otway, and from that shape a course for the Straits. The 
chief danger is the Crocodile Bock : you have a good chart 
on board. 

6. After clearing the Straits, steer for the Three Kings, 
off the N.W. Cape of New Zealand. From abreast the 
island Cape Maria Van Diemen may be seen. Bound the 
North Cape pretty close, and steer for Cape Brett ; thence 
to the Little Barrier Island. Then to Bangitoto, looking 
out for the flat rock off Kawau, and the rock ofT Tiritiri 
Matanghi Bun in between Bangitoto and the North 
Head, as by large chart on board. 

You have Charts — 

1. Gulf of Hauraki, 

2. Auckland Harbour. 

Betts is well acquainted with this coast. 

1856-1869.] ENGLAND LEFT AGAIN. 39 

P.S. — 1. The bishop's cabin must not be used, except 
for the barometer and chronometers ; but kept perfectly 

2. Chronometers to be wound up and compared by 
Betts eveiy morning at 8, and reported to the captain. 

The bishop prays that the blessing of God may be upon 
the master, mate, and crew of the Southern Cross, and 
bring them safe to the end of their voyage. To this end 
he ho})es they will meet together as often as possible on 
week-days and always on Sundays for reading the Bible 
and prayers. 

O. A. New Zealand. 

Possibly the trial of leaving England was more bitter 
now than it had been in 1841. True it is that the bishop 
was now returning to a work to which he was no stranger, 
and in which he was deeply interested ; and indeed on his 
arrival at Auckland he wrote in his diary, " Very thankful 
to be once more in JTew Zealand ; " but he was now parting 
for ever in this world from his father, who died in the 
following July, in his 81st year, and he was leaving behind 
him his two sons. 

To them he wrote, when the pang of separation was felt 
in all its acuteness and freshness, a letter which is inserted 
only after some misgiving whether it is not too sacred to 
be revealed to the general reader. 

"Duke of Portland," off North Forbland, 
11.40 ▲.X., March 90th, 

My dearest Boys, 

Mamma and I could not restrain our tears as we watched 
you waving to us almost till you landed : but we feel that 
the blessing of your Heavenly Father will watch over you, 
and to EQm and to your kind aunts and uncles we will- 
ingly resign you, though not without many a sorrowful 
thought, and secret longing either to take you with us or 
to stay in England with you. But it is better as it is, for 
we go away with the hope that you will come out to us, if 
God wUl, fall of all religious and useful knowledge, with 
minds much better prepared to do faithful service to God 

40 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

and your fellow-creatures than if you had spent your 
youth in the narrow range of colonied pursuits. While 
we and you are sorrowing for our separation, remember, 
my dear boys, and let the thought sink deep into your 
minds, that, next to the love of God and of our Blessed 
Saviour, the strongest motive to diligence and good con- 
duct must be the desire to give us the comfort and 
pleasure of hearing that you are increasing in wisdom 
and in stature, and in favour with God and man. 

God bless you both, for Jesus Christ's sake. 

Your very loving Father, 

G. A. New Zealakd. 

P.S. — ^The dogs are quite well and have had a run this 
morning. We anchored at the Nore last night sjid sailed 
at four this morning. This will be taken on shore by the 
pilot who will leave us in the Downs. 

On July 3 the bishop entered in his log, "At 2 a.m. 
came to Cape Brett, mistook it for Great Barrier ; tacked 
into the bay, and at daylight, finding •ur mistake, ran out 
again." As the vessel approached the entrance of the 
harbour of Auckland, the people on shore saw by the way 
in which the ship was handled that there was no novice 
at the helm, and it was on this occasion that a sailor said, 
"It was enough to make a man a Christian to see the 
bishop handle a vessel" An absence of eighteen months 
provided the bishop with many arrears of work, and he 
at once addressed himself to his duties with his accustomed 
vigour. Three days only had elapsed before he entered 
in his diary, "Began work at S. Stephen's School with 
Eev. Eota Waitoa and Levi Te Ahu." He found time 
to write the following letter to his elder son : no date 
is given, but it was evidently written very soon after 
his landing. 

St. Stxphen's School, Taurarua, 1855. 

My dear William, 

You will be glad to hear that we arrived here on Thurs- 
day, the 5th of July, after a very pleasant and rapid 
passage On the 3rd May we crossed the tropic of 

1855-1859.] VOYAGE. 41 

Capricorn, only thirty-one days from the Lizard. On the 
11th May passed close by Tristan d'Aconha, but the wind 
was too strong for us to attempt to land. On the 15th May 
we recrossed the meridian of Greenwich in 37° South, and 
thought often of your probable employments ; as our time 
was then again the same as yours. On the 21st May we 
passed the Cape of Good Hope in latitude 41** South, and 
while you were going up to Surly on the 4th June, we 
were passing Kerguelin or Desolation Island, a place 
more worthy of the name of Surly than any spot on the 
banks of the Thames. After this we went to 51<» South, 
and saw two icebergs ; on the 29th June to our great joy 
we sighted the North Uape of New Zealand, but did not 
reach Auckland till the 5th July, thanking God for a most 
pleasant and prosperous voyage. Dear mamma was not 
very well on board, but she is better now. Perhaps the 
parting from you and Johnnie fretted her, and you will, I 
am sure, remember what I said to you, and what your own 
feelings will often suggest, that the best and most effectual 
way of comforting both her and me, will be to let us hear 
good accounts of you both at home and at school. Put 
away childish things, my dear boy ; you have now sealed 
your Baptismal promise in Confirmation, and have received, 
I trust, a double measure of the Spirit of God ; you have 
partaken of the strengthening and refreshing food of the 
Lord's Supper ; here are three talents already granted to 
you ; and you are solemnly pledged to employ them to the 
glory of God and the good of yoilr fellow-creatures. Even 
neglect of these gifts is itself a sin, Kke that of the man 
who hid his talent in the ground. To leave undone the 
things which you ought to have done, is no less a sin than 
to do the things which you ought not. Our prayers are 
offered up continually for you from the opposite side of 
the world, that your Heavenly Father would more than 
supply to your heart the influences of the parents from 
whom you sj^ separated. May your prayers go up with 
ours, our morning prayers with your evening, and our 
evening with your morning prayers; and meet together 
through the mediation of our Lord and Saviour before the 

Your loving and hopeful Father, 

G. A. Nbw Zealand. 

42 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

A letter written about the same time by Archdeacon 
Abraham to the Bev. Ernest Hawkins gives a good and 
independent account of the position of matters on the 
bishop's return : — 

St. John's Colleob, Auckland, N.Z., 
JtUy2ith, 1855. 

My dear Hawkins, 

I don't suppose that the bishop in his hurry of business 
will have time to write to you and announce his arrival 
here, which I am thankful to say took place, after a very 
prosperous voyage of ninety-eight days, on the 6th of 
July. We were all taken by surprise, not having heard a 
word from England of his intention to come by the Duke 
of Portlarid. The first intimation that he was on board 
the English vessel was the fact that a strange vessel had 
threaded all the intricacies of the harbour, and rounded 
the North Head, before the gun fired for the pilot. There 
was not a breath of wind either, so that people began to 
say, " There must be some one on board that knows what 
he's about, and all the tides and currents of the harbour ; 
and who so likely as the bishop ? " Sure enough in half 
an hour more the Custom House officer came to say the 
bishop was on board, and that the Southern Cross was on 
her way following him. I confess that we were very 
thankful to think he had not come out in his own schooner, 
with all the wear and tear and watching cares that that 
would have entailed ; whereas in the Duke of Portland he 
had all the time for rest, and quiet thought; and Mrs. 
Selwyn had a quicker and easier passage. . . . The bishop 
looked dreadfully worn however on his arrival, and every 
one was painfully struck with his appearance ; but I soon 
divined the true cause, which was that he had been up for 
two or three nights, piloting the ship down the coast, 
through all the islets. He soon recovered his good looks, 
and certainly does seem all the better for English air, and 
the bracing of body and mind that the last year and a 
half have given him. 

We are most thankful to have such a valuable addition 
to our body as C. Patteson. He will be a great blessing 
to the Melanesian Mission, and specially to the bishop. 

1855-1859.] TARANAKI. 43 

The Sonthem Cross arrived on the 19th, having had an 
excellent passage, and is pronounced a good vessel by the 

captain and all hands 

The bishop is very busy at present preparing another 
native for ordination, Levi by name. He is a man of 
superior abilities to Bota, but not so well trained or taught. 
He belongs to a Taranaki (New Plymouth) tribe, and will 
be sent there after his ordination in September. And a 
most important work will it be, for at this moment the 
natives there are fighting, and the English may get in- 
volved, and 300 soldiers are going down there to-morrow ; 
but if the C.M.S. had sent a missionary there it might 
have been stopped. Probably the bishop will go with the 
soldiers to try and prevent further mischief Levi, one 
of their own people, is a chief, and will probably have 
great influence with them. 

The mention of Taranaki (or New Plymouth) introduces 
us to a place and to a subject which have very much to 
do with the subsequent life of the bishop. A dispute had 
arisen between two natives, Katatore and Arama Karaka, 
(= Adam Clarke), about land : the two parties had begun 
firing at each other within five miles of the town of New 
Plymouth, to the great alarm of the English settlers, who 
had asked that soldiers might be sent down to preserve 
the peace. The Governor on his part feared that the pre- 
sence of troops might be misunderstood by the natives, 
and, while determining to send a military force, he asked 
the bishop to go down and try to make peace, and at least 
to explain that the soldiers' duties would be limited to the 
protection of the English town, and would have no re- 
ference to the Maori quarrel. The bishop therefore, 
accompanied by Archdeacon Abraham and Eota Waitoa, 
representing the three orders of the ministry, started on foot 
through a country very difficult to travel over, and after a 
fortnight of hard work reached the Waitara, the scene and 
subject of the contest, on August 14 William King, a 
name which occupies a prominent place in the story of 

44 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

subsequent wars, had joined Katatore, because the enemy 
had come nearer to his land than was safe, but not from 
any cordial sympathy with Katatore's cause. When the 
bishop reached King's Pa, he found no war-camp nor any 
signs of hostility to the English, the whole tribe having 
gone out to tow off an English schooner which had got 
aground on the sand bar. 

On August 15 the conference began, and how it was 
conducted w£is thus recorded by Archdeacon Abraham : — 

" Next morning, before we were up and out of our Ixzgg 
(not beds), two natives put their heads in at the tent-door, 
and tena koe*d the bishop. One was a fine old gentleman, 
with a kindly face and no guile in it. The other younger, 
but perhaps sixty years of age, with a broad, open, hand- 
some face, somewhat bloated, perhaps, yet not at all un- 
pleasant. They came in, and sat talking for an hour, 
while we shaved and dressed and ate our breakfast with 
them. When they went away, I asked who they were, 
and the bishop said the first was an old chief of the tribe 
he had known long ago at Nelson, and the younger of the 
two was the notorious and much-abused William King, 
the man who first saved the Government under Sir George 
Grey in 1844, by driving old Bangihaeata out of the 
country ; and then took a decided line against the Gover- 
nor, who tried to prevent his coming up here to Taranaki, 
to settle in the inheritance of his forefathers, whence he 
had been driven by the Waikatos twenty-five years ago ; 
but was now allowed to return in peace to the unoccupied 
land, when Sir George Grey threatened to prevent his 
returning, by planting guns at his canoes. He still per- 
severed, and some of his people brandished their toma- 
hawks about the Governor's head ; and come they did, in 
spite of the threats and guns, and most determined are 
they to retain their lands, and prevent the English getting 
hold of any ; hinc illce laarymce. Hence all this disturbance 
we have come to try and settle. Rawiri and his party 
wanted to sell the disputed land to the English ; Katatore 
shot him down in cool blood, unarmed 

"We reached Katatore's Pa, and found one hundred 

1855-1859.] NABOTH'S VINEYARD. 45 

men or so within ; all were seated on the ground to hear 
what the bishop had to say. After a few minutes a man, 
dressed like a vHrnld-be flash criminal at Kewgate, came up 
to ua. It was Katatore; a little, cunning-looking, ill- 
favoured rascal as I ever saw, dressed in a black pdetot, 
moleskin trousers, boots, and a little hat on the top of an 
immense bush of hair. He then told us the story of the 
murder. When he came to it, the bishop said, * So, then, 
you killed an unarmed man in cold blood for the matter 
of land?' *Yes.' 'Then you repeated the act of Cain 
towards Abel, and in the sight of God and man you are 
a murderer.' 

"The man started up in great wrath, but the bishop 
calmly repeated it The man started on his feet and left 
the ring of people, muttering and growling; but his own 
people did not seem disposed to support him on that point, 
nor to question the bishop's judgment or right to express 
that judgment. The bold plainness of speech the bishop 
used towards the murderer, and the abuse that the news- 
paper writers have lavished on him for holding any inter- 
course at all with the murderer, &c. &c., seem together 
exactly to make up the duties required of a Chnstian 
minister in the Collect for St. John Baptist's Day : — that 
he should ' boldly rebuke vice, constantly speak the truth, 
and patiently suffer for the truth's sake.' It has been the 
bishop's practice for the last thirteen years, during which 
he has been so attacked by the same person in all the 
settlements, to ' answer him never a woi^ ' " 

Even so during the war it fell to the bishop's lot to 
officiate at St. Paul's church on the Sunday on which the 
stoiy of Naboth's vineyard was read as the first lesson. 
Several of the members and friends of the Ministry of the 
day, with whom the bishop happened to be in political 
antagonism in consequence of that unhappy war, were in 
the church. The bishop preached a written sermon on 
" Ahab," which certainly caused the ears of many of those 
who heard it to tingle, and which was the subject of much 
indignant comment afterwards. Several of the bishop's 
friends in consequence obtained the manuscript of the 

46 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

sermon, and studied it carefully, with the result that they 
were at a loss to know what portion of the sermon had 
excited such indignant conmients. The fact was that the 
fire and energy and deep feeling displayed by the preacher 
had given an apparent personality to the sermon^ which 
perhaps was not without its value. 

The bishop experienced the fortune which generally 
befalls peacemakers : because he would espouse the side of 
neither he became obnoxious to both. He held service in 
the Pa of one tribe, and was accosted by the other on the 
following day with the jeering counsel, "Go and have 
service with your bloodshedding children." Meanwhile 
the soldiers had come down by sea, 200 men of Her 
Majesty's 58th regiment, some sappers, three guns, 
and artillery to serve them: the natives were excited, 
and charged the bishop with deceiving them in saying that 
the soldiers would take no part in their quarrel : the bishop 
assured them of his frankness and openness with them, 
and just then a messenger arrived with letters from Colonel 
Wynyard to W. King, assuring him that he only wished 
to keep peace between the natives and the English. On 
August 31 things settled down after a speech of the 
bishop's, giving good advice to both sides. Archdeacon 
Abraham writes : — 

" It was very striking to see the men's delight when he 
wound up his speech with their old song : 

' Ka tangi te riroriro, 
Eei te ahi au tamariki ! ' 

the Maori equivalent for * Lady bird, lady bird, fly away 
home," &c. All the good advice and sober counsel given 
before seemed to tell but little ; but this quotation set the 
whole party on the alert, and it was repeated and bandied 
from one to another, well illustrating the well-known 
saying, ' Give me the writing of your ballads, and I don't 
care who makes the laws.' " 

During this visit the bishop was constantly holding 

1856-1869.] PASTORAL LETTER. 47 

services with natives and colonists, and persuading the 
latter to provide themselves with churches. At length 
the same journal records : 

" Sept. 3rd to 8th, — Waiting idly for the steamer. Our 
Church work beiug done, and the native quarrel having 
apparently subsided for the present, the bishop, who must 
always be doing something, carried all his party on to the 
road, which was very dangerous and full of great holes ; 
and having in vain tried to persuade the people to mend 
them, we all ' turned to,' and in a day and a half had made 
it passable : a broad hint to them in every sense ' to mend 
their ways.' The Church was fully represented in this 
way-wardenship, there being a bishop, a priest, and a 
deacon, and two lay Maoris and four lay boys. It caused 
much amusement to the passers-by, but I am afraid little 

On September 11 the bishop reached Auckland: he had 
been so misrepresented and reviled by local newspapers, 
which it would have been an indignity to notice, that, for 
the information of his own people and flock in New 
Plymouth, he wrote a Pastoral Letter, explaining his course 
and the view which he had taken of the native quarrel 
and the land disputes existing between the natives with 
one another and with the English. 

From this pastoral, written in a tone of judicial calm- 
ness, it is necessary to extract passages of considerable 
length, as they furnish the key to the bishop's conduct 
throughout the later wars, in which he was often at 
variance with the civil authorities, and was bitterly mis- 
represented by the press. 

Pastobal Letter of the Bishop of New Zealand to 
THE Members of the Church of England in the 
Settlement op New Plymouth. 

My Christian Brethren, 

It has not been my custom to address you on any merely 

secular or political subject, and my present letter will not, 

f I hope, appear to be any deviation from this general rule. 


48 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

But on the contrary, when I have reason to believe that 
some members of our Church have been offended by 
reports which they have heard of my opinions or my 
conduct, I feel it to be, I may say, a religious duty to place 
in your hands my own explanation ; because, while on the 
one hand I cannot consent to be altogether guided by 
public opinion, neither on the other hand would I wish to 
appear to disregard or to defy it. 

The subject of my present letter is the question which 
has so long disturbed the minds of the English and Native 
inhabitants of this district ; and in which two distinct 
elements are so mixed up as to seem at present incapable 
of separation, even in the minds of those who would other- 
wise be best able to judge of the merits of the case. It 
will be my object to draw a clear line of distinction 
between two things so widely different as a murder which 
aU Christian men will concur in condemning, and a land 
question, upon which much diversity of opinion may be 
expected to exist. 

I. — On the subject of the murder I have little to say, 
because it would seem to be quite unnecessary for a 
Christian bishop to spend many words in telling the 
members of his flock, that he disapproves of a crime, 
which he has already declared, in the presence of the 
murderer himself, to be a repetition of the sin of Cain.* 
But I must be guided entirely by my own conscience, as a 
minister of the Gospel, in the intercourse which I feel it to 
be my duty to hold with those by whom this or any other 
crime has been committed. I shall not deire to cast off any 
one to whom I believe that God still holds out the hope of 
forgiveness. There is no crime so heinous as to warrant a 
clergyman in contradicting the principle declared by our 
Lord and Master, " that He came not to call the righteous, 
but sinners to repentance." 

On this first point then you will clearly understand my 

^ The Taranahi Herald^ August 22nd, 1855, had printed :— ** Bishop 
Selwyn is again lending his hliffhtinff influence to New Zealand, has again 
taken the murderer by the hand, as he did the perpetrators of the Wairau 
massacre — a murderer who is without the excuse of those at Wairau : viz. 
that of being first fired upon. ... It is reserved for the Bishop of New 
Zealand to use his undoubted influence to shield notorious criminals from 
justice, when those criminals appeal to his sympathies through the 
medium of a dark skin." 

1855-1859.] PASTORAL LETTER. 49 

position ; that thongh I abhor the murder, yet I hold it to 
be my duty to visit and exhort the murderers ; as a humble 
follower of Him, whose title ever has been, and ever will 
be to the world's end, ** The Friend op Sinners." 

II. — Separating then the murder from the Land question 
with which it has become so unhappily confused, I come to 
the second part of my letter, on which, as I have already 
said, there is much room for difference of opinion. In a 
country where every member of the community is firee to 
hold his own views, and to express them in any constitu- 
tional way, I hope that you will see, that if we should 
unfortunately differ in opinion, you have no more reason to 
be offended with me than I with you« 

It has always been my lot to be accused of opposing the 
interests of my own countrymen in the settlements of the 
New Zealand Company, by supporting the claims of the 
native inhabitants. The root of all this appearance of 
opposition (for I deny that it was real) lay in the fact, that 
the Agents of the New Zealand Company, while they 
recognised, by partial acts of purchase, the right of the 
natives to the land, did not sufficiently investigate the 
titles, and therefore failed to extinguish them. The solu- 
tion of the question was made more difficult, by the large 
supply of double-barrelled guns which were given to the 
natives in pajrment for the land. A transaction which was 
supposed to give to two or three thousand Englishmen an 
absolute right to dispossess seven thousand armed New 
Zealanders was concluded within a space of time in which 
no honest conveyancer would undertake to draw a marriage 
settlement upon an encumbered estate. This was the 
wholesale mistake, which led to all the misfortunes and 
disappointments of the Company's settlers. If the pur- 
chases had been conducted with more deliberation, over 
small blocks of land, and with the consent of all the 
owners, there is reason to believe that the colonists would 
have remained undisturbed, as the purchases of private 
settlers have, almost in every instance, been sustained by 
the testimony of the native vendors. It is against aU 
experience to say that, either the New Zealanders are 
unwilling to sell land, or that, having sold it, they will not 
allow the purchaser to enter into possession. . . . When 
I find myseK accused of blighting the prospects of my 

60 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. it. 

countrymen, I think it sufficient to point to the province 
of Auckland, in which I nominally reside, where every 
merchant and almost every settler would be ready to 
admit, that the province owes its present wonderful pro- 
sperity to the peaceful union of the two races. One 
hundred and fifty coasting vessels bring native produce 
into the port of Auckland. Five large rivers, navigated 
by innumerable canoes, bring down from the heart of the 
country the flour ground in more than twenty native water- 
mills. Fifty thousand natives draw their supplies of 
clothing, tobacco, and hardware from its stores, paying a 
large share of the indirect taxation of the country, without 
so much as asking for a share in its representative institu- 
tions. I am sure that it has been the constant feeling in 
the province of Auckland, that while the New Zealanders 
thus confidingly leave to our race the entire control over 
the revenue accruing from their industry, so much the 
more must it be our bounden duty to legislate wisely 
and equitably for them. I am not aware that a single 
syllable has ever been said in that province about taking 
possession of land which the native owners were not dis- 
posed to sell. ... 

It is strange indeed, that your advisers in the local 
newspapers, who dwell so much upon the sixth command- 
ment, should forget altogether that the same law has also 
said. Thou shalt not Covet. They may disguise it to 
their own consciences, but it is my duty as a minister of 
thfe law and of the Gospel to lift up my voice against the 
publication of opinions, which would lead on to the sin of 
murder as the direct consequence of the sin of covetous- 
ness. I offer to my countrymen my best assistance and 
influence with the native people in all their just and lawful 
desires, but I have no fellowship with covetousness, be- 
cause Ahab found it to be but the first step to blood- 
guiltiness. Surely there is enough of blood already crying 
out of the ground against the Christian nations of Europe, 
— against Spain, and France, and England — to make us 
tremble for the issue of our own connexion with the New 
Zealanders. I can not remain silent, while opinions are 
being expressed and plans proposed which, if you prove 
to be the stronger, would destroy the New Zealanders, or 
if you be found the weaker, would destroy yourselves. 

1865-1859.] PASTORAL LETTER, 61 

My advice to the natives in all parts of New Zealand has 
always heen, to sell all the land which they are not able to 
occupy or cultivate. I had two reasons for this : first, to 
avoid continual jealousies between the races ; and secondly, 
to bring the native population within narrower limits, in 
order ^at religion, law, education, and civilisation might 
be brought to bear more effectually upon them. It is 
strange to me to find myself accused of joining in a " con- 
spiracy " to hinder the sale of land ; when, not my opinion 
only, but my practical advice in all parts of New Zealand, 
has been directly the contrary. All I ask for is an entire 
abstinence from all threats and a bond fide transaction with 
all classes of real owners after careful investigation of titles. 
... As for the charges against William King of treachery and 
duplicity, before such offensive charges are published, it 
would be well to remember the first principle of our English 
law, — that every man is held to be innocent, till he has been 
proved to be guilty. In this case, the same persons, upon 
mere suspicion, usurp the functions of accuser, jury, and 
judge. I have no hesitation in recording my own deliberate 
conviction that William King has no ill-will whatever 
against any of our countrymen, not even against those who 
have publicly expressed their desire to take away his land. 
Let those who complain of his duplicity cease to force him 
into a position of hostility by their suspicions and their 
threats. For it ought to be remembered, though such 
things are readily forgotten when the danger is passed, that 
William King and his party are the very men whom Mr. 
Hursthouse describes in p. 50, as " those who had assisted 
the Governor in quelling Bauparaha, and now longed to 
rejoin the head-quartera of their tribe, and return to their 
old homes on the banks of the Waitara.'' .... 

There are not many persons who have been able, as I 
have, to visit all the chief sections of the Ngatiawa tribe, 
scattered as they are over Port Nicholson, Waikanae, 
Nelson, Queen Charlotte's Sound, and the Chatham Islands. 
In aU these places there is the same desire (which I think 
no Taranaki settler can wonder at or condemn), to return 
to their old homes in this lovely and fertUe country. 
When I first visited New Plymouth, in October, 1842, 1 
was accompanied by nearly forty men of the tribe, who 
came avowedly to ascertain whether the state of the 

VOL. n. £ 

62 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ir. 

countiy would allow of their return. Every man of this 
party knew the exact spot which had belonged to his fore- 
fathers. The migration to the remote Chatham Island had 
neither caused Taranaki to be forgotten, nor the recollec- 
tion of their local claims to be lost. I ascertained in the 
Chatham Island to what part of this country they laid 
claim, and I have just passed through their settlements to 
the south of the White Cliffs, and found them re-es- 
tablished in their own homes. The head teacher of the 
tribe, and one of the first converts to Christianity among 
them, is about to be admitted to Holy Orders, which led 
me to ask, whether he had a claim to any land which might 
be available for his maintenance. I was immediately in- 
formed of the exact spot, and of the grounds of his title. 
From these and similar facts I draw the conclusion, that 
every member of the Ngatiawa tribe knows his own land 
in the Taranaki district, and desires to return to it. 

In many respects this return of the Ngatiawa may be 
beneficial to the settlement. First, by the vast impulse 
which will be given to the industry of the Province by 
men who in every one of their scattered locations, and 
especially in the Chatham Islands, under their late chief, 
William Pitt Pomare, have shown themselves the steady 
friends of the English people, and have made the most 
rapid progress in agriculture and trade. But still more 
beneficial to the Province will be the return of all the 
absentee proprietors, if it should have the effect, as I hope 
it may, of facilitating the sale of their surplus lands 

Np menaces of military interference are likely to have 
any effect upon men who from their childhood have been 
accustomed to regard it as a point of honour to shed their 
last drop of blood for the inheritance of their tribe. And 
yet these very men, and others of their race, have already 
sold 30,000 acres in this settlement for ten-pence an acre — 
a million of acres at Ahuriri for a penny three farthings ; 
— ^the whole of the first Auckland territory for about four- 
pence ; — and the whole Middle Island, south of Eaikoura, 
for a mite per acre. Nothing is more easy than to extin- 
guish the native title ; nothing will be more difficult than 
to extinguish a native war 

When I catne here, at considerable inconvenience to 
myself, to advocate these principles, and to recommend all 

1855-1859.] PASTORAL LETTER. 63 

those natives, who might be disposed to listen to my advice 
to promote good- will and concord with the English settlers 
by the willing surrender of their surplus lands, especially 
of those portions, the title to which is disputed among 
themselves ; and after having constantly and publicly 
spoken on the same subject on my route at Whaingaroa, 
Aotea, Kawliia, and elsewhere (in all of which places the 
same land question is under debate among the natives), I 
confess that I was astonished to find myself the object, not 
only of suspicion, but of open insult and attack, in the very 
settlement which I came to serve, and from those whose 
office ought to restrain them from party prejudice and 
personal invective. I never answer such attacks in the 
public newspapers, because I do not recognise any such 
tribunal ; nor do I enter into any controversy with men 
bearing the title of Ministers of religion ; because you will 
agree with me in thinking that nothing would be more dis- 
creditable to religion than such profane wranglings among 
men professing to {tdminister the Grospel of Peace 

I find myself charged with having shielded a murderer 
from justice. 

I have already told you that I have never spoken of the 
murder of Eawiri, but to condemn it in the strongest 
language, even in the presence of the murderer. 

Ton well know that I was in England when the murder 
took place, in August, 1854. One person, I know, from 
his letter to Katatore, did shield the murderer on the day 
of Eawiri's funeral, not indeed from justice, but from a 
tumultuary exercise of "Lynch Law,*' which might have 
set the whole country in a blaze ; and I am happy to be 
able to express my entire approval of that judicious exer- 
cise of missionary influence 

To sum up this letter, which has grown to its present 

. length by the repetition of attacks in the local newspaper, I 

beg you to accept this condensed statement of my opinions. 

1. I am quite ready to advise my native friends to sell 
their surplus lands, on the most reasonable terms, or even 
to give them to the Government for nothing : but this 
advice will be of no avail, until the question is entirely 
devoid of party feeling, and disconnected altogether from 
such irritating subjects as the murder of Eawiri. 

2. I desire to see each native land owner secured by a 

E 2 

64 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

Crown grant for his own individual property ; and regis- 
tered as a voter, on the same qualification as an Englishman. 

3. When the native land owners are thus registered and 
represented, with full recognition of equal rights and 
privileges, I will not be backward in explaining to them 
that they are liable to all taxes, penalties, and other public 
burdens, in common with all other classes of Her Majesty's 

4. But on the other hand, I shall resist, by aU lawful 
means, every attempt to carry out any other interpretation 
of the l^eaty of Waitangi than that in which it was ex- 
plained to the natives by Governor Hobson, and under- 
stood and accepted by them. 

5. I hold it to be an act unworthy of Englishmen to 
avail ourselves of any native custom, either of conquest or 
of slavery, to disfranchise any class of native proprietors ; 
especially when experience has proved, that, where no party 
questions are raised, the native title can be extinguished, 
and all classes of claimants satisfied, for a few half-pence 
per acre. 

6. Believing myself to be better able than most other 
persons to judge of the unprotected position of the out- 
lying settlers in the scattered and especially in the pastoral 
districts of New Zealand, I shall feel it to be my duty to 
remind the inhabitants of the towns, even at the loss of 
my own influence and popularity with them, that the 
principles which I advocate, and the line of conduct which 
I pursue, are not influenced by any ill-wiU towards them, 
or even by an indifierence to their interests ; but by a wide, 
I may say, a general knowledge of New Zealand, and of all 
classes of its inhabitants, and by the conviction that the 
lives and property of our fellow-settlers, scattered as they 
now are over at least 15,000 square miles of broken country, 
can only be preserved by the greatest forbearance, and the 
strictest justice in our dealings with the native people. 

May God so prosper all the Councils of the Colony, and 
so guide all private opinions, that ''peace and happiness, 
truth and justice, religion and piety, may be established 
among us, upon the best and surest foundation," that of 
the union of the two races ; in the terms of the Deed of 
Grant for the site of the College at Porirua, dictated by 
the native donors, "that they may grow up together as 


1855-1859.] ORDINATION OF A MAORI. 65 

one people, upon the same common principle of faith in 
Jesus Christ, and obedience to the Queen." 
I remain, my dear Eriends and Brethren, 

In evil report and good report, 
Your fSedthful and affectionate Friend and Pastor, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

On 23rd September of this year Levi Te Ahu was or- 
dained deacon, the second of the Maori race to be advanced 
to the dignity of the sacred ministry. Four days later 
the bishop sailed in the new Southern Cross on a long 
Visitation tour to the Chatham Islands and the Southern 
Settlements, not returning to Auckland until March 31st 
of the following year. On December 17th he received, on 
arriving at Wellington, a letter from Professor Selwyn 
containing the news of his father's decease on July 25th. 
In his diazy there appears the following entry against 
July 30th :— . 

'^My dear father buried at the church on Eusthall 
Common, at 11.15 am., 10.55 p.m. N.Z. time. ' ijpefia top 
rpviroBarov idrfKafies Iv xOovi icoiXa* * Faxit Deus ut sit 
corpori quies, animse felicitas et in die ultimo laeta resur- 
rectio.' William's letter of this date received 17 December, 

A letter from Archdeacon Abraham, written on April 
1st, 1856, bears testimony to the precision with which the 
bishop made and fulfilled his engagements in journeys 
where he was almost wholly dependent on himself for 
means of locomotion ; it also tells, what the bishop would 
never have told, the hardships and difficulties which befell 


St. John'h College, Auckland, 
April 1st, 1856. 

I went yesterday to meet the bishop with a horse twenty 
miles from here, according to appointment. To show his 
wonderful punctuality to appointments of this kind, he 
laid out his plans six months ago for a journey of 1,000 
miles, and fixed to be here on the 31st of March. Accord- 
ingly last week he sent a letter to say that he would be 
at a place twenty miles from here on that day at 1 o'clock 

66 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii> 

and 83 my watch pointed to the hour, I looked up and 
saw him emerge from a bush, looking well, wiry, and bushy. 
He had walked 550 miles and ridden 450 in the course of 
the last three months, having examined and confirmed 
1,500 peopla He was alone nearly all the way, and had 
great difficulty in getting the horses he did, so engaged 
are the people in their cultivations, &c., that they would 
not spare time to go with him. It is rather sad to think 
of the contrast between his first journey fourteen years ago 
with twenty-nine followers and this solitary one. How- 
ever, perhaps it shows a more settled state of things in the 
country ; and he was better pleased ¥dth their habits than 
he expected to be ; nor is the diminution of numbers so 
great. In one district he found almost exactly the same 
numbers as were there ten years ago. We had heard that 
drinking was very much on the increase, but he did not 
find it so. He gave an amusing account of the way in 
which he shamed them sometimes into giving him a horse 
to ride. He would go to a village smd ask for a horse and 
guide. " There were none," was the answer. He would 
point to a herd* of thirty or forty not far off, — no one knew 
to whom they belonged. He then would put down his pack 
and begin to throw out the most useless articles, and pack 
it up again, and begin to strap it on. **What are you 
about ? '* *' Lightening my burden for a walk." This 
touched some vxyman*8 heart, who would either herself 
fetch, or uige her husband to get a horse. One morning 
at dawn, as he was just starting on his lonely march, he 
found a woman standing with a horse ready for him. I 
don't know that they are more selfish than other peopla 
I suppose in England a bishop or clergyman might find it 
equally difficult to get any one to lend him a horse and go 
with him, unless he were well paid. They are becoming 
more civilized, and occupied in ordinary work. . . . The last 
month's journey was the worst, perhaps, as he was obliged 
to leave his blanket behind to lighten his shoulders, and 
had to sleep under his tent with nothing but a thin maude 
these cold autumnal nights. 

In this letter Archeacon Abraham touches on a prickly 
question which perplexes all missionaries to the heathen, 
viz. the baptism of polygamists. The custom of the 

1855-1859.] POLYGAMY. 67 

diocese of New Zealand evidently did not command the 
archdeacon's entire assent. Twenty years later Bishop 
Selwyn was consulted on the subject, a question having 
been sent home for solution from the West Coast of Africa^ 
and he wrote the following letter : — 

Thb Palack, Lichfield, Oct, 20tA, 1875. 

My dear Mb. , 

The subject of your letter is a vexed question. You 
will find it argued by Archbishop Whately with his usual 
confidence and force, on the side of the opinion expressed 
in your letter. 

In New Zealand our practice was to require a man to 
confine himself to one wife, with a view to baptism. 
Marriages in that country among the heathen were no- 
thing more than concubinage, often without consent of 
the woman. The men far exceeded the women in number ; 
so that the practice of polygamy by the privileged class 
of chiefs led to habitual sin in the lower orders, who could 
not obtain wives. 

I am not prepared to exalt our view of the question into 
a Divine Law, on the ground of the words of our Lord or 
St, Paul, but in New Zealand I have always felt it to be 
a rule of very high moral expediency. 

Difierent countries, I suppose, must be judged by their 
own special circumstances ; and therefore, dogmatical or 
logical conclusions by Archbishop Whately or others, on 
either side, may very often be wide of the mark. The 
science of da/cofieTpia taught us by our blessed Lord 
would favour some flexibility of practice in the early days 
of a mission, without compromise of the permanent prin- 
ciples of Gospel Truth. 

Yours veiy faithfully, 

G. A. Lichfield. 

While one brother had been roughing it on a New 
Zealand Visitation, another had been elected to the Lady 
Margaret Professorship of Divinity, a position which he 
filled until his death. The contest lay between Mr. W. 
Selwyn and Professor Harold Browne, the present Bishop 
of Winchester, and hence the allusion, in the bishop's 

68 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, il 

letter of congratulation, to the battle of Hastings, a 
humorous prelude to graver thoughts. 

St. John's College, N.Z., April 2nd, 1856. 

Mt dear Willum, 

Many thanks for the account of the battle of Hastings, 
which interested all our party, including Abraham and 
Patteson, very much. May the Divine blessing guide 
your pen and your tongue in the composition and delivery 
of your lectures, that the comments of the Margaret Pro- 
fessor may be a worthy setting of the pearl of great price. 

The University of Cambridge certainly appeared to be 
in a hopeful and teeming state. Professor Blunt, under 
God's blessing, has not laboured in vain. There appeared 
to be a practical earnestness and sound Church principle, 
such as I do not remember in former days. However the 
critics of my evening sermon may object to the expression 
** good old Church of England party," I am deeply con- 
vinced that it is the only standard which can "be the 
stability of our times or make our Church a praise upon 
earth," and I marvel that many who talk so much of the 
sacred deposit of the Beformation and of the truths sealed 
by the blood of the martyrs are so ready to compromise or 
fritter away the fundamental truths for which the Eeformers 
were ever ready to die. I have just read a letter from Mr. 
Wilson, vicar of Islington, to the Record, on the state of the 
Church- in Geneva, which ought to be a warning to those 
who reject what I meant by good old Church of England 
party — that is, a standard of doctrine and of worship, such 
as that which is contained in our Book of Common Prayer. 

Pray let me have full particulars of your course of 
lectures, and encourage William to copy for me anything 
which you think I should like to see. The idea of a con- 
ference between three professors, so generally united in 
feeling, as Jeremie, Browne, and yourself, charmed me. 
There is hope, indeed, if this be carried out, that the 
University will be the seed-plot of the Ministry, and that 
the preparation of candidates for Holy Orders will not be 
as it was in our days, the mere sitting out a reading of 
Pearson to which nobody attended. 

May God bless and direct you, and may our Lord loosen 
your tongue and open your hearers' ears. 

1855-1859.] riTCAIRNERS. 59 

The time had now come when the Melanesian Mission 
demanded more perfect organisation and more nninter- 
rapted care than had previously been possible. All who 
were concerned in it grudged the labour and time spent in 
the voyage to and from the islands in autumn and spring, 
to say nothing of the break in the course of instruction 
and the chilling of. any good impressions when the boys 
were sent back to live among their heathen Mends. The 
idea of finding a centre in a warmer latitude, and there 
establishing a school where the scholars could be kept 
through the whole year in a congenial climate, had long been 
present to the bishop's mind; in the end of 1853 he had 
gone with the then Governor, Sir George Grey, in H.M. 
colonial brig Victoria, and had inspected Norfolk Island, 
which appeared itself to both governor and bishop to be a 
most suitable centre. Sir George Grey had written to the 
Home Government recommending that some of the build- 
ings now no longer used as a prison, and a portion of the 
land, should be granted to the bishop, who had come to 
England thinking that a request so urged and supported, and 
withal so reasonable in itself, would not be unsuccessful. 
About this time, however, the descendants of the mutineers 
of the Bounty had outgrown the island of Pitcaim, and a 
number of well-meaning people in England had taken up 
their case with the enthusiasm which is always lavished 
on the heroes of a romantic story and of blemished escut- 
cheons, but which prosaic and honest folk have to go 
without. These people, with more of kindliness than wis- 
dom, who had applied for the removal of the Pitcairn 
community to Norfolk Island, were horrified at the idea 
of the interesting descendants of mutineers living on 
the same island with Mr. Patteson and his Melanesian 
scholars : the primitive and patriarchal system under 
which they had existed at Pitcairn seemed to be incom- 
patible with such neighbours: but the good philan- 
thropists did not take into account the fact that Norfolk 
Island, being "in the midst of the Australian colonies 


and in tlie track of the ships of all the great maritime 
nations/' could not be as Pitcaim had been in its isolated 
position, "a happy valley," into which the temptations 
which intercourse with the world brings in its train could 
not enter. 

The bishop, with far deeper knowledge of human nature, 
urged that in the face of such temptations, to which they 
were unaccustomed, they would need some more active 
salt to save them from corruption; that in the Mission 
Schools, and in doing sailor's and missionary's duties on 
board the Southern Cross, the young men of the community 
would lind a sphere of spiritual work and usefulness, in 
which some might even be trained for the sacred ministry; 
at the same time the Mission Station would contribute good 
service to the State, and furnish a body of interpreters, 
" which woidd save the captains of our men-of-war from 
the humiliating necessity of taking evidence in the gravest 
questions from the natives through the interpretation of 
white men living in the most dissolute manner, and wholly 
unworthy of credit." 

On May 27, 1856, the Southern Cross dropped her anchor 
off Norfolk Island. The bishop wrote in his log : " Took 
a boat and rowed in to the Wharf at the Cascades : saw no 
on6: walked into the store and took possession, giving three 
cheers for Sir Thomas Acland " (who had opposed the 
occupation of any part of the island by the bishop). " Met 
a man who told us that the Pitcairners had not come, and 
there were only twelve persons on the island. Eetumed 
on board." 

The next day the Sowthem Cross sailed for Sydney, in 
order that the bishop might appeal to Sir W. Denison, the 
Governor of New South Wales. Always friendly to the work 
of the Mission, he was, however, on this occasion obdu- 
rate, and bent on carrying out his instructions, which 
were to screen the Pitcaim conmiunity in their new home 
from all contact with the outer world. A fortnight was 
spent in this unprofitable work of trying to influence the 

1856-1859.] " TAKING THE NONSENSE OUT." 61 

Governor, but the only visible result of that sojourn of 
fourteen days in Sydney Harbour is the following letter, 
which the bishop wrote to his son in England : — 


JunB I2ih, 1850. 

Here we are, mamma and I, sitting quietly in our 
cabin, with a most beautiful sunny sky overhead, though 
it is now the middle of winter, in a pretty cove of this 
beautiful harbour ; and the first use which I make of the 
time of quiet is to write a letter to you .and Willy, to be 
ready for a ship which is soon to sail for England. We 
intend to stay here about a week or ten days, and then to 
sail for Norfolk Island to visit the Pitcaimers, whom we 
did not find there when we touched on our way from New 
Zealand ; and then to sail away for the Solomon Islands, 
to see our old scholar Didimang, and to bring away some 
new ones ; then to beat up against the trade- wind for a 
month or six weeks, calling at every island, fifty in num- 
ber, in the New Hebrides and New Caledonia groups. 
When we retm'n, if it please God, to Auckland, we will 
send you a full account of all our proceedings, that you 
may look out the places on the map, and follow us in your 
thoughts and your prayers. ... 

We have had excellent accounts of you both from many 
friends, which have given us great pleasure. We hope 
soon to hear of your being in the fourth form, and in Mr. 
Coleridge's house, where I hope you will not earn many 
lickings by impudence learned as " Cock " of Mr. Hawtrey's 
house. Try to be respectful and obedient to the master 
whose fag you are, and to all the upper boys ; for this 
is one of the great advantages of a public school, *' to 
take the nonsense out of a fellow," as one of our boys said 
of our college. We have been made quite happy by the 
last accounts, and have no doubt that we shall receive 
similar reports from your uncles and Mr. Coleridge. 

God bless you and guide you through the temptations 
of youth. 

Your own loving Father, 

G. A, New Zealand. 

62 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN [chap. ii. 

It was probably to relieve pent-up feelings rather than 
with any hope of persuading people who had already 
made up their minds, that the bishop wrote in the follow* 
ing terms to Sir John Patteson : — 

Taitbabva, AxroELAND, 2£areh2nd, 1857. * 

You know in what direction my wishes tend ; viz. that 
Coley, when he has come to suitable age, and has deve- 
loped, as I have no doubt he will, a fitness for this work, 
should be the first Island Bishop upon the foundation of 
which you and your brother Judge and Sir W. Farquhar 
are trustees, that Norfolk Island should be the see of the 
bishop, because the character of its population, the salu- 
brity of its climate, and its insular position, make it the 
fittest place for that purpose, though good folks in Eng- 
land seem to think the contrary. There the bishop ought 
to have his school of candidates for Holy Orders, who 
might always be married men with their wives, to guard 
against the idea, which seems to stand in our way in 
England, that the island scholars will demoralize the 
Pitcaimers. I am myself a member of the Pitcairn 
Island Committee, and would never on any account do 
anything to injure them ; but I cannot believe that their 
purity or morality will be preserved by their being shut 
up in a glass case, and debarred from a practical interest 
in such works as ours, while they are made the pets and 
playthings of all the officers of every man-of-war. As I 
have seen a young lady's copy-book filled with a complete 
list of all the officers of Her Majesty's ship Juno, and 
rings on her fingers presented by some of the same offi- 
cers, though I hope and believe that nothing has yet 
occurred to impair the simplicity of these island damsels, 
yet I can apprehend other dangers more imminent than the 
residence among them of your son and his black scholars. 
What the community will want is a high and practical 
tone of feeling and sense of duty, — something to energize 
a nature which partakes largely of tropical inertness — 
some higher stimulus than the wool and beef and arrow- 
root, with which their thoughts will speedily be absorbed. 
Your affectionate and grateful Friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

1855-1859.] NORFOLK ISLAND. 63 

On July 4 the bishop reached Norfolk Island again, to 
find the Pitcaimers in full force, and very cordial in their 
reception of the Episcopal party. Kone of the islanders 
had ever been confirmed, and Mrs. Selwyn was left there 
to assist in preparing the women and girls for that holy 
rite, while the bishop sailed on his eighth voyage to the 
islands, accompanied by Mr. Patteson, to whom every- 
thing was new. The Southern Islands, which the bishop 
had visited in his earlier trips, were left, and the whole 
attention was concentrated on the virgin' field offered by 
the more northern groups. In this voyage the bishop 
sailed further to the North than in any previous expedition: 
landings were effected on sixty islands, and thirty-three 
scholars were brought to New Zealand, the majority of 
them being natives of the Solomon group. 

After eight weeks' cruising the SoiUhem Cross returned 
to Norfolk Island on September 3rd, and the story of this 
third visit shall be told in the bishop's own woitls in the 
following letter to his sou ; — 

Auckland, Sept. I6ih, 1850. 

My veet dear boy. 

We have been delighted to receive from your imcle and 
aunt very good accounts of you, from which we conclude 
that you have prayed for Divine grace to enable you to 
fulfil the promises which you took upon yourself in your 
Confirmation, not only in the presence of your earthly 
parent, from whom, except for those few months, you 
have been so long separated, but much more in the pre- 
sence of that Heavenly Father who is about your path 
and about your bed. I have just returned from Norfolk 
Island, where I held on Sunday the 7th September one of 
the most remarkable confirmations, I should think, in the 
history of the Church. The whole adult population of 
the Pitcaim Islanders, except three who were too feeble to 
attend, presented themselves to me in nine classes to be 
examined and confirmed. Your dear mother had care- 
fully prepared all the women during two months that she 

64 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, iu 

resided on the island. The eldest of the candidates — a 
woman more than seventy years of age — was a daughter 
of John Adams, the last survivor of the mutineers of the 
Bounty, Almost all the candidates were connected in 
some degree of relationship with men who, if they had 
been captured, would have been hanged at the yardarm 
of a man-of-war, and who died violent deaths, the result 
of intoxication, jealousy, and every other evil passion. And 
yet the grace of God enabled John Adams to sow a seed 
in the hearts of the children among whom he was left 
alone in the year 1800, which bore this rich harvest in 
1856, when eighty-five of his children, grandchildren, sons- 
in-law, or daughters-in-law, or foster-children, whom he had 
adopted, were confirmed by me with the full conviction of 
my own feelings that in every respect which is outwardly 
discernible, in moral conduct, in attendance on public 
worship, in temperance, soberness, chastity, in respect for 
the Lord's Day, and in knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, 
the whole adult community was duly qualified for the 
holy Ordinance. And to make the scene more striking, 
the service was performed in the Convict Chapel, the very 
opposite of the place where you were confirmed^ among 
the signs of royalty, and honour, and chivalry, blended 
with the most beautiful architecture and the richest carv- 
ings. The chapel opened into the prison-yard, set round 
with every kind of cell for every class of criminal ; in 
every comer heaps of rusty fetters and cast-off garments, 
marked with the broad arrow and numbered on the back, 
as if the wearer were no longer worthy of a name ; and all 
these signs of misery and sin made more striking by the 
horrid silence of the solitary cells, or of the wards which 
the numbers showed to have been once crowded with 
20, 30, or even 100 prisoners. Close by this visible type 
of everything that is most hateful in sin and in its con* 
sequences might be heard the song of praise, in which 
every voice joined ; and on the 7th September eighty-five 
persons there knelt before the Lord's Table, to receive 
strength to fulfil their baptismal promise, by fighting man- 
fully under Christ's banner against sin, the world, and 
the devil. 

My dear boy, you have already applied to yourself the 

^ S. George's Chapel^ Windsor* 

1855-1859.] SANTA MARIA. 66 

moral of all this. If sach be the love of God and the 
power of Divine grace in training up the children of 
mutineers and drunkards, who but for that Grace might 
have been worse than the worst of those criminals who 
made Norfolk Island, as it was caUed by Judge Burton, a 
hell upon earth, surely God will expect even more fruit 
from the children of Christian parents, nurtured among 
many prayers of parents and sponsors, under the shadow 
of cathedrals, in the constant enjoyment of all the means 
of grace, with parental love yearning after them at a dis*. 
tance, and the kindest foster-parents watching over them 
at home, and with the ever-present Spirit of their Heavenly 
Father dwelling within their hearts. Tou are of an age to 
feel such thoughts as these, and to apply them to your own 
conduct ; so do not think, like the Eton *' Fellows," that 
your pater preaches too long sermons ; but let a few words 
from me from time to time at long intervals set you think- 
ing, and so become the seed of a thousand good resolutions 
and holy thoughts. 

The bishop was averse from writing detailed records of 
his voy^es, and little would have been known of them 
had not his friends demanded from him viva voce stories 
of his doings when he returned to his home. Thus a 
graphic and independent account of the doings of this 
eighth voyage to Melanesia was sent to a clergyman in 
England : — 

Oa. Uth, 1856. 

I will give you some anecdotes of the bishop's last trip 
to the north. Perhaps you have heard them before through 
Judge Patteson. 

They came to an island called Santa Maria, north of 
Mallicolo, and after reading Quiros' account of his land- 
ing there 250 years ago, they went into the same bay as 
he did. He states that he was kindly treated by the old 
folks, with whom he interchanged presents ; but he ob- 
served the young men moving off to a promontory 
at some little distance, round which his boat must pass. 
Accordingly, when he was rounding this pointy he was 
saluted by a volley of arrows. Just so, the bialiop was 

66 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. n. 

■ ■- ■ . . 

kindly received by the old people in the bay, and he 
observed the young folk moving off to the promontory ; 
and accordingly he kept his boat out of reach of arrow- 
shot, but was duly saluted with a volley in passing. And 
this has been going on apparently for 250 years without 
interruption. What a stereotype is this ! 

The bishop passed on two or three miles, landed at 
another village, and made presents to the people ; so he 
hopes to have secured for himself a favourable reception 
next year. 

Have you any notion of the way in which he conducts 
his missionary work ? Perhaps you fancy that, like S. 
Augustine landing at Eamsgate, he marches up chanting 
litanies in procession. If he did, he would probably be 
killed before he had gone 100 yards; for there is no 
Queen Bertha there to have prepared the men's minds 
and hearts for the Gospel. In due time, maybe, le will 
chant his Litany and Te Deum there. But on first in- 
vading the land or lagoon he has to make a favourable 
impression on the people's minds by presents, and by 
letting them see that he is not come to trade. This he 
does by leaving his boat ten or twenty yards from the 
reef, where some 100 people axe standing and shouting; 
he then plunges into the water, arranging no end of pre- 
sents on his back, which he has been showing to their 
astounded eyes out of the boat He probably has learnt 
from some stray canoe or a neighbouring island the name 
of the chief. He calls out his name ; he steps forward ; 
the bishop hands him a tomahawk, and holds out his hand 
for the chiefs bow and arrows. By this Glaucus and Dio- 
medes' process he wins golden opinions at all events. The 
old chief with innate chivalry sends the tomahawk to the 
rear, to show that he is safe and may place confidence in 
him. The bishop pats the children on the head, gives 
them fish-hooks and red tape ; for there is an enormous 
demand for red tape in these islands. Probably then the 
bishop has some '' tame elephant " with him — ^a black boy 
from some other island, — and he has clothed him, and 
taught him to read or the like ; and he brings forward 
this specimen and sample, and tries to make them under- 
stand he wants some of their boys to treat in like manner. 
The bishop gets. as many names written down as he can. 

1865-1859.] FRUITS OP SACRIFICE. 67 

and picks up as many words as he can ; establishes a 
friendly relation, and exchanges calico for yams perhaps, 
or cocoa-nuts, and after a while swims off to his boat 
Next year he will go and call out the names of his old 
friends ; get two or three on board ; induce them to take 
a trip with him while he goes to the neighbouring islands. 
So he learns their language enough to tell them what he 
has come for. He returns, and lands his guests, with full 
instructions to tell the people his objects ; and the third 
voyage he finds plenty ready to come off to New Zealand, 
or any other place where he fixes his head-quarters. 

Mr. Patteson too had found the work not merely con- 
genial, but engrossing and attractive, and had gladdened 
the bishop's heart by writing to him that it was so ; his 
letter drew forth the following reply : — 

Wellington, Nov, 2ith, 1856. 

My dear Coley, 

I am most thankful to receive your good account of the 
boys, and to fthd that you are experiencing what I always 
felt to be so remarkable a feature in this work, viz. the 
affection which grows up spontaneously towards these 
wild children of nature. To find such elements of good 
where we might have expected every evil passion to be 
dominant is a very great encouragement. We have been 
delighted to hear of the good old Judge entering with full 
flow of feeling into the proceedings of St. Barnabas' Day, 
as one who has now qualified himself for a full share in 
that holy fellowship, by having given a better contribu- 
tion than even Barnabas laid at the feet of the Apostles. 
Pray tell him from me when you write how thankful I 
am that he has thus found his consolation, and practically 
verified our Lord's promise, that those who give up sons 
for His sake shall receive them back again even in this 
life. As men said of St. Paul, your bodily presence was 
little compared with the power of your letters to place 
you before your father's mind, as engaged in the work to 
which he has dedicated you, a work tending to complete 
the number of God's elect, and so to bring about that 
re-union of parents and children over which death will 
have no dominion." 


68 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

The bishop-captain kept up the discipline of his ship 
with man-of-war's precision, and the foregoing letter goes 
from profound subjects to the domestic economy of the 
SaiUhern Cross, 

Our household on board has been going on well till last 

Saturday, when Mr. thought proper, after a whole 

da/s leave on shore, to keep himself and the two B 

away till 10.30 p.m., for which he and they have been 
"logged," according to the law. Soal and Fisher have 
been uniformly steady. 

In October of this busy year the bishop sailed again to 
the southward on Visitation, hoping to greet the new Bishop 
of Christchurch on his arrivaL It will be remembered 
that in 1851 the bishop had resigned this portion of his 
diocese, and had hoped that a bishop would have come out 
with the first detachment of settlers in the Canterbury 
colony ; but for five years that hope had been disappointed. 
On Christmas Eve the bishop wrote in his diary : — 

" Went on board at 8, took off the bishop and his whole 
family in our two boats: carried them to the Southern 
Cross; whole Harper family seated round our cabin, fourteen 
or fifteen happy faces. Went on shore, borrowed trucks, 
pulled baggage up bridle path ; three cheers on the top : 
packed on horses down the hill : met carts at the bottom." 

On the Christmas Day the new bishop was installed, 
and on the festival of S. Stephen Bishop Selwyn wrote : — 

" This day fifteen years I left England, and this morning 
I woke up with a thankful feeling that my load was at 
length lightened by the transfer to the Bishop of Christ- 
church of one-third of New Zealand." 

Thus ended a year of much work, and many blessings. 
On New Tear's Day the Southern Cross sailed again for 
Auckland, via the Chatham Islands, Wellington, and 

The .year 1857 was fraught with events of great import- 
ance ; the Melanesian voyage, in which the islanders were 

1856-1869.] GROWTH OF EPISCOPATE. 69 

carfied to their homes on the approach of winter, was made 
without the bishop taking any part in it. He was fully 
engaged with plans for a conference which was held in June 
at Taurarua for the purpose of agreeing on a Constitution for 
the Church of New Zealand. This conference was attended 
by representatives from all the other Settlements and by 
the missionaries of the Church Missionary Society. The 
whole question of Ecclesiastical Legislation will be dealt 
with in a separate chapter, and the event is only thus 
briefly chronicled here. The happy accomplishment of 
his hopes for the diocese of Christchurch had led him to 
look forward to a still larger extension of the Episcopate, 
and on these and other topics he wrote a letter of much 
interest to the Bev. Ernest Hawkins : — 

AucKLAio), Feb. 27th, 1867. 

The natural effect of the creation of the Bishopric of 
Christchurch has been to make our other provinces desirous 
of the same benefit I proposed at first that Wellington 
and Nelson should be united in one diocese ; but Ndson 
strongly objected to this, and I think with good reason, as 
the lion's share of the benefit would certainly remain with 
Wellington ; and it is very probable that Nelson would 
not have seen more of the new bishop than they do of me ; 
for I seldom fail of going there every year. Church meet- 
ings have been held in both places, and resolutions have 
been cordially adopted, and forwarded to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies and to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
with the sanction of the Governor of New Zealand. 

I therefore beg for the support and consent of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts to the proposed arrangements, which I am sure, 
under the Divine blessing, will have the effect of building 
up the Church of England in this country on a sure foun- 
dation of ecclesiastical polity. I deprecate any question 
about the necessity of this subdivision : on these simple 
grounds, that New Zealand is as large as Great Britain, and 
therefore that five, or even six bishops, will have no sine- 
cure, as the number of persons to l^ confirmed is not the 
labour, but the distance to be gone in search of them. My 
average is about one candidate for confirmation for every 

F 2 

70 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

mile of travelling. In aU other respects of organizing in- 
stitutions and giving a tone to a new society, it is absolutely 
necessary that a bishop should be early in the field, and 
have a field within the compass of his powers. 

Melanesia and Norfolk Island. — There has been and 
is great confusion about the Island portion of the diocese of 
New Zealand. 

In 1841, the diocese of New Zealand was formed by 
Letters Patent, separating it from Australia; and with 
geographical limits including Norfolk Island, and expressly 
giving to my charge all islands adjacent to New Zealand. 
Norfolk Island is 400 miles only from New Zealand, 800 
from Sydney, 1,000 from Van Diemen's Land. 

In 1842, when the convict establishments were trans- 
ferred from Sydney to Tasmania, an Act was passed annex- 
ing Norfolk Island to Tasmania, and on the supposition 
that it was still part of the diocese of Australia^ trans- 
ferring the ecclesiastical jurisdiction to the Bishop of 
Tasmania. To this I made no objection, as it seemed only 
reasonable that the Bishop of Tasmania should superintend 
all the convict chaplains, whether in Van Diemen's Land 
or Norfolk Island. 

But the convict system having ceased in Norfolk Island 
I can see no reason why the spiritual oversight should not 
revert to the Bishop of New Zealand (even though the 
civil government be retransferred to Sydney) till the 
island becomes the See of the Bishop of Melanesia, for 
which purpose it is admirably adapted. 

The simple and practical course seems to be : 

1. To repeal the Act 6 & 7 Victoria, c. 35. 

2. To pass a new Act, if necessary, placing Norfolk 
Island under the Governor of New South Wales. 

3. To leave the ecclesiastical oversight to revert to the 
Bishop of New Zealand, the insular character of whose 
diocese constrains him to maritime habits, and makes it 
easy for him to visit Norfolk Island. But Parliament 
need have nothing to do with this, as aU the Badicals have 
a great objection to legislating for the Colonial Church, and 
I, though no Eadical, in this point agree with them. The 
Act being repealed which annexed Norfolk Island to the 
diocese of Tasmania, my Letters Patent will then, I presume, 
again take effect. 

1855-1859.] MELANESIA. 71 

As to the Melanesian Bishopric, plans, I thank Ood, 
are fast ripening. 

We have nearly 10,000/. already paid up and invested 
for the endowment of the bishopric. 

Eev. J. C. Patteson has already visited with me twenty- 
seven islands, besides twenty-five more where we were 
not able to hold intercourse with the people. He has ac- 
quired the languages of New Zealand, the Solomon Islands 
and one of the Loyalty Islands, to a sufiBcient extent to 
teach and preach to the people; and is now constantly 
engaged with a school of native youths from St. Christoval, 
Gimdalcanar and Nengone, with whom we hope to return 
in June to their islands, and in the case of the two first- 
named islands to widen and improve our acquaintance with 
the people, besides pushing out into the unknown r^ons 
of New Ireland, New Britain, and New Hanover. The 
establishment of the new bishoprics in New Zealand will 
leave me much more time for missionary work, especially 
as the portion of the country which will still remain under 
my charge wiU be superintended, during my absence, by 
such trustworthy men as the two Archdeacons Williams, 
Archdeacon Abraham and Archdeacon Browne. It is surely 
for the interest of the Church that I should leave to such 
tried and experienced servants of Christ as much freedom 
as possible to administer the affairs of their own arch- 
deaconries. I should not have made these remarks if I 
had not heard something said about neglect of New Zea- 
land. On the contrary, when we are in a situation, as we 
hope to be in a few years, to claim the Bishopric of Norfolk 
Island with its train of 100 islands, chiefly ministered to 
by native pastors, but some by the children of Pitcaimers, 
then there will be nothing that will please me more than 
to shrink away from all the ground over which I have been 
unduly stretched, and to devote the rest of my days to the 
cultivation of a garden-plot in New Zealand. 

Church Trust Deed and System. — I have just seen 
a resolution of the S.P.G. allowing of grants of money for 
endowment to be made to dioceses where the bishop, 
clergy, and laity are legally incorporated : and Archdeacon 
Abraham seems to have received private information that 
the word legally was put into the resolution on purpose to 
restrict such grants to dioceses where Church Acts, such as 

72 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

those of Metboume and Canada, have been passed by the 
Colonial Legislatoie; bat that our Trust Deed, resting 
npon the general powers of an Act of onr Assembly, appli> 
cable to all religions bodies, bnt not specifying the Chnrch 
of England, wonld not come within tlie intention of your 
resolntion. If this should be the case, I wonld submit to 
the Society that there is no real difference between the 
plan proposed in New Zealand and those adopted in Mel- 
bourne or Canada. No CoUmial Legidaiure can establish a 
Church. AU it can do is to legalize a Sect. So £Eir is the 
Melbourne Act fiom being higher or safer ground than 
ours, that the petition from the members of the Church in 
Melbourne stated most clearly that they asked for nothing 
more than might be given to any other religious body ; 
but that the other bodies^ haying ready-made systems of 
their own, did not require the Colonial Legislature to create 
them for them ; but that the Church of England having 
no such system of its own, came to the Legislature to make 
one for her. We say, on the contrary, we have as good a 
system as any other denomination, and as good a right to 
carry it out ; and all we ask is, that as we have no Courts 
of our own, you will give us the use of your Court to en- 
force, if necessary, the covenants which we make among 
ourselves. Our Trust Deed wiU state what our system is, 
and an Act passed at the last session of our General 
Assembly incorporates all religious bodies, without speci- 
fying any by name except the Wesleyans and Bomanists, 
who had got into some cUfficulty with their property which 
required special legislation. It will, I think, be satisfactory 
to you to know that Sir John Patteson and our Chief 
Justice Martin have gone carefully into the Draft Trust 
Deed and the Act of the Greneral Assembly of New Zea- 
land, and these are Sir John Patteson's words in a letter 
dated London, 5th Dec. 1856 : — 

" Judge Martin and I have had two evenings' talk touch- 
ing New Zealand affairs. We looked over the drafts of 
the Trust Deed and the Bill which the Archdeacon sent 
me, and thought they would answer the intended purpose 
very well." 

We are aiming at the same ends as our brethren in 
Canada and Melbourne, viz. a strictly legal incorporation 
of the Church of England in this Colony ; but our proposed 

1855-1869.] VANDA LAVA. 73 

mode of operation differs in detail from theirs, for reasons 
which it would take me almost a volume to explain. But 
my chief desire is to avoid confusion between functions so 
entirely distinct, so far as concerns the Church, as those of 
the Imperial Parliament and the Colonial Legislature. 

The Conference over, the bishop carried back to their 
homes the Bishop of Christchnrch and the representatives 
of the southern portions of New Zealand, and then set out 
on July 22nd with Mr. Patteson on the most exhaustive 
inspection of the Melanesian Islands which he ever made. 
Norfolk Island was first visited, and Mrs. Selwyn was in* 
stalled in Government House, to the delight of the whole 
population ; four of the Pitcaimers joined the ship, which 
would now always have a full complement of hands on 
board when a boat's crew was taking the bishop ashore ; 
and thus equipped she visited in succession the Loyalty 
Islands, New Hebrides, Banks' Islands, Santa Craz group, 
and the Southern Islands of the Solomon group ; hardly 
an island was passed over. At the Loyalty Islands the 
bishop encouraged the native teachers of the London Mis- 
sionary Society, who had been for a loug time without cuiy 
supervision or support on the part of their superiors : and 
at the New Hebrides friendly communications were held 
with the Presbyterian teachers. Passing northward the 
bishop entered into a field that was occupied by no one but 
himself, and into waters in which his own charts were the 
only guides. 

There were strange, wild characters roaming about the 
seas in those days, outlaws, by choice or necessity, from 
civilized countries, Uose oniy kw was the law of Sight ; 
and the bishop had more than one characteristic interview 
with leaders among these. One of these, as he lay djing 
in a harbour of the New Hebrides, said — " Take my boy 
to Bishop Selwyn, and tell him to bring him up not to be 
80 big a scamp as his father." 

On this voyage the spacious harbour at Vanua Lava 
was discovered, and named Port Patteson after Sir John 

74 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

Patteson : here a Sunday was spent quietly, the natives of 1 

this and the neighbouring island of Mota dropping in ia 
their canoes, and looking on half amused, half awestricken. 
Little did the worshippers think that, among those nude 
and grotesque figures, with frizzled hair and boar-tusk on 
wrist, there was standing one who was destined to be the 
first Native priest of Melanesia, George Sarawia. 

At Lifu the native teachers welcomed the arrival of 
the Mission ship, and begged that a missionary might be 
sent to them : the bishop, unwilling to explain at length 
the difficulty of granting the request, could only prescribe 
patience ; but his old scholar John Gho, with his wife and 
two men, determined to go to New Zealand for another so- 
journ, and thus the Southern Cross returned to Norfolk 
Island and to New Zealand, with every available square 
foot of room well occupied by a motley group of 

A few 4ays were spent at Auckland, and the bishop, 
stranger always to rest and leisure, started on a Visitation to 
those portions of the Southern Island which were not under 
the care of Bishop Harper. He returned to Auckland early 
in 1858, which was in many respects a most eventful year. 
After a Visitation of the Chatham Islands and of Taranaki, 
which was not free from mutterings of war, the bishop 
returned to Auckland on April 8th, and a fortnight later 
sailed with Mr. Patteson on a very fruitful voyage to the 
islands, leaving Mrs. Selwyn for the third time on Norfolk 
Island. Visits were paid to Lifu and Nengone; and 
scholars were returned to their friends : at Mai on May 15th 
the bishop restored a lad named Petere to his friends in 
the presence of more than 100 of his own people. The 
boy spoke to his friends of what he had learned in New 
Zealand about God and our Lord, the Lord's Day, the duty 
of living in peace, &c., and then Mr. Patteson preached the 
first sermon ever heard on Mai The bishop entered in his 
journal on this eventful day, " Petere and Laure waiting 
upon us to the very last, and bringing mats and presents for 

1855-1859.] MR. PATTESON AT LIFU. 76 

all. Poor boys, with tears in their eyes, and up to their 
waists in water, they were the last to leave ns. I blessed 
them both and returned on board, full of thankfulness for 
this wonderful day." 

On June 14th the bishop left Mr. Patteson at lifu, where 
he had determined to keep school with his pupils during 
the winter instead of sending them back to their own 
island homes and the barbarism which reigned there. The 
island was not well suited for a Melanesian winter school : 
cocoa-nuts were abundant, but bananas, bread-fruit, and 
sugar-cane, to which the boys had been accustomed, were 
not to be had. Water too was scarce : but with Norfolk 
Island closed against him as a permanent settlement, Mr. 
Patteson had no great range of choice, although he after- 
wards kept his school at Mota. The climate too was cold, 
and subject to great variations of temperature. Here, 
however, Mr. Patteson spent sixteen weeks, until on 
September 30th, the bishop on board the SoufJiem Cross 
called for him and took him on a voyage to the northward, 
which ended only in November. 

The Sovthem Cross on this northward trip met with an 
accident which might have been more serious. It has been 
pleasantly recorded by one who was present, the Eev. B. T. 
Dudley, in the columns of the AucMand Church Gazette: — 

" On the day on which we passed up the lagoon, at New 
Caledonia, there was a peculiar sheen on the water, which 
rendered it very diflScult to see the bottom (usually in 
these lagoons the bottom can be seen with wonderful clear- 
ness, even to a depth of fifteen to twenty fathoms). The 
bishop, alternately with the captain, had been watching on 
the fore-yard as we sailed «dong throughout the whole 
morning, when suddenly, the peculiar grating sound which 
once heard cannot be easily forgotten reached our ears; 
there was an evident cessation of forward motion, followed 
shortly by a succession of severe bumps, and we soon 
found that the ship's ' forefoot ' was fast aground. What 
was to be done ? Captain Williams, who had been follow- 
ing us in the Mary Ann Watson, as soon as he came up to 

76 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

us pulled on board and undertook to carry the news of our 
mishap to Port de France, meanwhile suggesting to us to 
take to our boats ; the bishop, however, preferred to do his 
best to help himself before calling in other aid. Accord- 
ingly, under the directions of the captain, who certainly 
rose to this occasion, we all, from the bishop downwards, 
worked with a wiU, carrying anchors out into deeper water, 
heaving on the windlass, &c., and finally, about midnight, 
the tide having risen to the full, we had the satisfaction of 
feeUng the ship sUp ofiT the ledge on which she had rested 
into the deeper water alongside. Shortly after this one of 
the boats of H.M. 7m, which happened then to be lying 
in the harbour, came out to us, and we warped oiT into 
deeper water. In the morning we entered the harbour, 
being met by the steamer Styx putting forth to our rescue ; 
and found the ^French man-of-war Bayonnais and several 
transports in harbour besides the 7m, the whole making a 
lively scene. 

*" Now came the difficulty ; the vessel showed no signs of 
serious injury ; but how were we to know that her bottom, 
after all the bumping that had gone on (and very hard 
bumping too), was fit for the voyage to New Zealand ? there 
was no dock, no patent slip ; not even a ' hard ' on which 
to lay the vessel, and no divers were obtainable. 

" The bishop was equal to the occasion. He caused the 
ship to be heeled over as far as was safe ; and then, having 
stripped himself to his tweed trousers and jersey, in the 
presence of the captain of the Bayonnais and some of his 
officers, and amid their exclamations of admiration, made a 
succession of dives, during which he felt over the whole of 
the keel and forward part of the vessel, much to the detri- 
ment of his hands, which were cut to pieces with the 
jagged copper ; and ascertained the exact condition of her 
bottom, and the nature of the injuries sustained. No 
wonder that the next day, after dining on board the 
Frenchman, he w&s sent away with a salute ol eleven 
guns ! *' 

During the interval of the two voyages the bishop wrote 
a characteristic letter to his sister, who had imdertaken the 
charge of an important Training Institution at Sandwell 
near Birmingham. 

1866-1869.] 8ANDWELL. 77 

Auckland, Kawav Ialand, 
August 24tA, 1858 {St. Bariholomew*a Day\, 

Mt DEAtL Sister, 

I can imagine you to-day expounding the character of 
St. Bartholomew to your little congregation ; and teaching 
them to be like Nathanael, Israelites indeed without 
guOa May aU the orphans whom you are bringing up be 
guileless children of that Heavenly Father, who has given 
His blessed Son to wash them in His own blood, that they 
may walk in white raiment, and follow the Lamb whither- 
soever He goeth. 

My employment at the present time is of a different 
kind, though to the same end ; for I am living here in an 
old deserted cottage, once the dwelling of a Cornish miner 
(working in the copper-mine now abandoned), to super- 
intend the repairs of the Southern Cross, which was slightly 
damaged by six hours' bumping on a reef in New Caledonia. 
My dwelling is not equal to Sandwell ; but it is wonder- 
fully comfortable and quiet ; and I only regret that I did 
not bring down dear Sarah with me to share my hermitage. 
The fruit of this uninterrupted leisure is a letter to you, to 
assure you of our interest in your great work ; and of our 
firequent prayers that it may be abundantly blessed. The 
feature in it which pleases me most is its comprehensive- 
ness in providing for the wants of so many different classes 
of persons ; and yet all united together by a reciprocity of 
usefulness, like a ''body fitly joined together and com- 
pacted by that which every joint supplietL" It is an 
experiment which we have tried on a large scale, and with 
some measure of success, though the peculiar circumstances 
of a colony are very unfavourable to the growth of such 
institutions. Still we point to our scholars in every part 
of New Zealand and elsewhere, as proofs that industrious 
habits inculcated at school will not easily be lost. Through 
the same process of reciprocal industry at St. John's 
College have come forth the following results : — 

Clergymen, — Mr. Hutton, Mr. Fisher, Mr. S. Williams, 
Mr. H. F. Butt, Mr. F. Gould, Mr. A. G. Purchas, Mr. E. 
H. Heywood, Mr. 0. P. Davies, Mr. Eota Waitoa (New 
Zealander), Mr. T. L. Tudor. 

Laity. — Henry Taratoa, head teacher of Otaki native 

78 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

school ; Philemon Te Karari, head teacher of St. Stephen's 
native school ; Nelson Hector, chief oflScer in P. and O. 
Company's steamer ; G. and F. Howard, now managers of 
the College farm ; besides many more, who, taken under 
the charge of the College in the depressed period of the 
colony, and in a state of poverty, are now all doing well 
as clerks in banks or merchants' offices, surveyors, managers 
of saw-mills, &c. 

I can scarcely go to any part of the country where old 
scholars of the College do not at once come forward to 
offer me their assistance. All this is by way of encou- 
ragement to you, and to express my conviction that you 
have laid the right foundation in taking thought first for 
the poor. This was the ruling principle of all the ancient 
foundations which have been the stability of the English 
commonwealth. The gentleman and lady heresy is the 
young cuckoo against which you must guard, lest it drive 
your hedge-sparrows out of their own nest. You will 
have persons of what are called the higher class, who will 
wish to belong to your club, that they may get more 
than the value of their subscription. They will be glad 
enough to be waited upon by your orphan children, but 
they will teach them nothing in return. Eliminate all 
such elements as these, and cherish your hedge-sparrows, 
those who will take everything as it comes, and stay with 
you in winter as well as summer, without fancies or likes 
and dislikes. May you have the poor always with you, 
and always have the will and the power to do them good. 

Your very aflPectionate Brother, 

G. A- New Zealand, 

Events had happened in England during this year which 
gave to the bishop much cause for thankfulness. His firm 
friends. Archdeacon Abraham and the Rev. E. Hobhouse 
had been consecrated to the Sees of Wellington and Nelson 
respectively. New Zealand was no longer the wild \m- 
cultivated country over which he had travelled on foot, or 
around whose coasts he had sailed in his little craft: it 
was rapidly becoming peopled with English immigrants, 
the Maoris were proving their fitness for Holy Orders, 

1865-1859.] KOHIMABAMA. 79 

and the Church was firmly taking root. In seventeen 
years the bishop found himself one of four bishops who 
were shepherding the fiock in New Zealand ; in the islands 
of Melanesia Mr. Patteson was each year revealing the 
marvellous powers which pointed him out as the born 
leader of the crusade which Bishop Selwyn had originated. 
It was therefore with real thankfuhiess that the bishop 
was enabled to write in his diary on Slst December : — 

"A year of many blessings. Two prosperous voyages 
to the Islands; one prosperous voyage to the Southern 
Settlements; one third of the Visitation Tour by land 
accomplished ; the consecration of the Bishops of Wellington 
and Nelson." 

But the year which followed was hardly less fruitful in 
results : in 1859 the first General Synod was held, of which 
more will be written in another chapter: on the same 
occasion another See was founded, and Archdeacon Williams 
was consecrated Bishop of Waiapu. Mr. Patteson had 
made one voyage before Easter, the autumn having set in 
unusually early, and had returned all his boys to their 
homes, and in August he sailed again, accompanied by 
Bishop Selwyn, to whom this was the last occasion of 
visiting Melanesia. On their return Mr. Patteson, who 
had now earned and assumed the honour and the 
duties of leadership in the work of the mission, was 
enabled to move his scholars from St. John's College to a 
new position at Kohimarama, on the Waitamata Har- 
bour, where the head-quarters continued imtil in 1867 
they were transferred to Norfolk Island. The local 
work of St. John's College, which, as contrasted with the 
Melanesian work, had seemed to fade away, and with it 
many bright hopes, was in part revived at this time. The 
bishop's sermon at the re-opening, on the text, " Thou fool, 
that which thou sowest is not quickened except it die," 
was most characteristic, and fiiU of hope for the future. 
The Rev. S. Blackburne, who was selected as the head of 
St. John's, has kindly contributed his own impression of 

80 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

the bishop and of his work, both in New Zealand and in 
Lichfield : — 

*' It was an immense privilege to be brought into intimate 
intercourse with Bishop and Mrs. Selwyn, Bishop Patteson, 
and Sir W. Martin. Bishop Selwyn I always regard as the 
greatest man this age has produced. A king every inch of 
him, he would rule by a look, but stoop to perform the 
most menial office without the slightest loss of dignity. 

'* What I most admired in him was his keen sense of duty, 
and his grand simplicity of character. 

" I was attracted to New Zealand by hero-worship ; I had 
never seen the bishop, but in my Cambridge days I had 
heard much of him. 

" When Bishop Abraham, having been commissioned to 
appoint his successor at St. John's College, kindly offered 
the post to me, I told him that I looked forward with 
intense pleasure to working in the diocese of so great a 
man as Bishop Selwyn. He replied, * He is a great man, 
and woidd appear so to his valet, if he had one.' 

'' Soon after we had cast anchor in Auckland harbour the 
captain told me that the bishop was pulling off to the ship. 
As he came on board all were struck with his appearance, 
and showed great respect His first wish was to make 
acquaintance with the emigrants, and I introduced many to 
him. He spoke in such a kind and fatherly way to all. 

'' He had arranged a month beforehand to devote the day 
of our arrival to welcoming us, and settling us at the 

" One instance of simplicity he soon gave us. I was busy 
with boxes, &c., getting them ready for the boat, when the 
bishop came up and said, * Are these yours ? ' and he took 
a large box in each hand, and carried it to the gangway, 
much to our astonishment and that of the captain, crew, 
and passengers. But there was no loss of dignity. He 
looked grand when he was doing porter's work. There 
was one youth, whom I specially brought under his notice. 
He was an apprentice, who had met with a frightful ac- 
cident, and whom we had brought through (humanly 
speaking) by careful nursing. As he was recovering, I had 
many opportunities of talking to him, and I prepami him 
for confirmation, in the hope that there might be one in 

1856-1859.] FIRST IMPBESSIONa 81 

Auckland whilst the ship was in harbour. So I asked the 
bishop if he was going to hold a Confirmation soon. ' Oh/ 
said he, 'we manage those matters very simply here. 
Whenever a clergyman tells me that he has any candi- 
dates ready, I go to his parish and confirm ; and if there is 
a single one (as in the present case) I confirm at any 
service.' So the lad was presented at an evening service 
at St. Paul's, Auckland, and was much impressed with the 
service. I have kept up a correspondence with him from 
time to time. He has been wrecked frequently, and he 
has commanded several vessels, but he never forgets those 
days which to him were very happy, and he always refers 
to them with the simplicity of a child. 

"* To return to our welcome at the Collega The bishop 
having duly installed me, suggested that we should repair 
to the chapel, and return thanks for our safe voyage. So 
I mustered the many members of my family, including 
servants, and the bishop conducted a most touching service, 
selecting the most appropriate psalms and prayers; and 
when he gave the blessing he left the prayerniesk and 
put his hand on every one present, down to the little 
baby in arms. We lost the little one soon after, but we 
often think of the blessing that he received from the bishop 
at our first Service in the college chapeL 

" Bishop Selwyn had a love of work, and great power of 
endurance. I have heard of his taking eight services in 
one day. When 10,000 soldiers were Iwided in New 
Zealand with only one chaplain (and he a Boman 
Catholic), the bishop felt that it was his duty to provide 
for them: so he constituted himself chaplain, started a 
number of services, and held Bible Classes with the men. 
The soldiers were enthusiastic about him. He knew 
exactly how to adapt. his language to them. It was 
amusing to hear the officers speak of him. They not only 
admired him as a bishop, but they discovered in him great 
power for taking in the details of military life. They 
thought they saw in him the making of a first-rate soldier. 
They used to say that it was a shame that he was not a 
general. The naval men were equally enthusiastic about 
his seaman-like qualitieET. They all agreed that he would 
have made a first-rate admiral. He was, as a cricketer 
expresses it, ' good all round.' He would have taken the 

82 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ii. 

lead in any profession. Of his capacity for work I had a 
specimen in the camp. * 

" At a time when he was pressed with a good deal of 
parochial work which he had undertaken in Auckland, I 
offered to help him on Sundays, suggesting that my 
theological students might, as lay-readers, take my paro- 
• chial services in the college district, and set me free for 
duty in an Auckland church. He jumped at the offer, and 
employed me not in Auckland, but in the camp at Otahuhu, 
which was six miles from the college ; and T found myself 
in for five services every Sunday. The work was interesting, 
but a little trying to the physique of any but a Selwyn. 

" Those who have seen much of the bishop must have 
been struck with his wonderful acquaintance with Holy 
Scripture, and the aptness of the portions which he chose 
for special occasions. When we had a farewell service in . 
his private chapel, it seemed as if the passage that he read 
had been written for the very occasion, so apt was it ; it 
almost appeared to be delivered by him impromptu. A 
stranger whom I met in London remarked to me on this 
acquaintance with the Bible, which was evident when the 
bishop read a lesson. He had attended a service at Lichfield 
cathedral, and heard Bishop Selwyn read a lesson. But he 
said, * He did not read it, he spoke it ; he kn^w it off by 

"The simplicity of living which Bishop Selwyn had 
practised in New Zealand he brought with him to England. 
He disliked a fuss being made when he came to partake of 
hospitality, and had an especial aversion to being taken 
about in grand carriages. He came to stay with me at 

B , when 1 held the rectory there, I think it was for a 

Confirmation, and when he wrote to announce his coming 
he added, 'Don't send a carriage to meet me at the station ; 
send your donkey for my bag, and I will walk.* My good 
squiress had put her carriage and horses at my disposal,' 
but the bishop would not make use of them ; and when we 
went from my house to a neighbouring parish for the 
consecration of a churchyard, a distance of six miles, we 

" On his way to B , on his first visit to the parish, he 

overtook an old woman toiling with difficulty up the steep 
hill that leads to the village. He offered her his arm, and 

1856-1859.] WAITARA. 83 

pnlled her up the hardest part, and of course talked cheerily 
with her. She had no idea who he was, and told him she 

was going to B church, to hear the bishop preach. 

Great was her astonishment when she saw the bishop enter 
the church in his episcopal robes, and recognised her kind 
companion. She came from the neighbouring village, and 
was a Dissenter; but the effect of the bishop's geniality was 
her conversion to the Church, and she has been a staunch 
Churchwoman since." 

In this same year the first overt act was taken which led 
to the outbreak of the unfortunate war which raged for 
years, and led to the apostasy of a large proportion of the 
Maori race, and which may be said to be smouldering even 
at this moment, seeing that neither party has been the 
indisputable victor, neither has peace ever been made. 

But the story of the Waitara war, mixed up as it is with 
the story of the bishop's life, will have a separate 





This biography has now reached a point at which it will 
be necessary to ignore strictly chronological order, and to 
go back to the very early days of Bishop Selwyn's residence 
in New Zealand. In 1859 the first General Synod of the 
Anglican Communion in these islands was held, but the 
assembly was the result and the climax of the thought, 
and prayer, and patient labour of many years. 

It needed but the throwing out of swarms from the 
mother-country to prove how lamentably deficient is the 
Church of England in powers of self-government and of adap- 
tation to the varying necessities of a rapidly changing order 
of things. At home, with the support of endowments and 
the influence of State connection, these deficiencies are not 
so patent, although anything like unusual tension brings 
them into prominence ; but when the mother-Church, 
awaking from her slumbers and r^arding the daily exodus 
of her children to all parts of the world, followed them 
with the fulness of her organization, it was no longer 
possible to conceal how inadequate was the provision for 
the due administration of her discipline and the mainten- 
ance of her position, both in the colonies and among the 

At first' it is true this was not revealed in the full 
light of its necessity. In India, which was treated as 
a garrison, in Australia, which was regarded as a large 


convict station, in Canada and the West Indies, vhere the 
Church was an appendage of the State and maintained by 
subsidies in the shape either of lands or money voted fix)m 
the public treasury, the life of the Church and its inherent 
powers were suppressed in consideration of the material 
aids which the civil power secured to it. But there came 
a time when colonies outgrew the stage in which Imperial 
nursing was possible : for a time they had been ap- 
pendages to the Colonial Office and had been governed 
from Downing Street, but when the claim for local self- 
government in matters civil could no longer be resisted, 
the value of Letters Patent, on which the coercive juris- 
diction of. the Episcopate had depended, was discredited 
on the first occasion on which it was tested, and the 
Church was found to have fallen between the two systems, 
and to be given up to anarchy almost without power of 
extricating herself. 

The condition of a Church thus situated was well 
shown by a comparison with a colony similarly situated as 
regards its civil government, by one who had much to do 
with rescuing the Kew Zealand Church from the " anoma- 
lous position " which he ^ describes : — 

"Without law or organization there can be but little 
efficiency. If it were uncertain whether the Governor of 
a colony were clothed with any legal powers ; if there 
were no means of ascertaining what his powers really 
were ; or if, when known, there existed no tribunal for 
enforcing them; if it were uncertain, too, whether the 
laws of England, or which of them, extended to a colony ; 
if there were no local legislature with authority to make 
laws for its government ; no courts for the trial and 
punishment of offenders, the helpless condition of the 
colonial state may be readily imagined ; yet, until means 
are taken for establishing among its members some settled 
form of ecclesiastical government, such is, infact, the 
condition of the Colonial Church. Though their numbers 
far exceed those of every other religious communityin the 

^ Mr. Swainson, late Attorney (reneral of New Zealand. 

G 2 


.. — * 11 I - ■ ■ 

colony, the members of the Church of England in New Zea- 
land are practically the least powerful and efficient of them 
all when called upon to act in concert. A majority of the 
population of the colony are to be found among the mem- 
bers of the Church ; its clergy are numerically equal to 
the ministers of all the other religious denominations, and 
more than ordinary provision has been made for its epi- 
scopal supervision ; but the Church in New Zealand is 
still without law, without organisation, without discipline, 
and without unity, and for want of some system of or- 
ganization, by which its power may be directed to a com- 
mon object by a common will, its influence is destroyed. 
Of all religious denominations, too, the members of the 
Church of England are the most helpless when suddenly 
thrown upon their own resources in a new country. The 
lay members of other religious bodies have generally had 
some share at home in the management of their Churdh 
afifairs, and the necessity of their own personal exertions 
has not been forestalled by the providence of their an- 

" Carrying with them habits of self-reliance, knowing that 
there is no one to help them but themselves, and having 
no Act of Submission or other ecclesiastical statute to deter 
them, they immediately on landing in a new country set 
earnestly to work to organize a system of Church-govern- 
ment, suited to their new and altered circumstances ; and 
from the outset they become a united and efiPective body. 
The members of the Church of England, on the other 
hand, find themselves in an anomalous position : they 
neither carry with them the ecclesiastical laws of their 
parent Church, nor any authority to make new and more 
suitable laws for themselves ; and, until recently, it was 
believed that the clergy and laity could not, in the face of 
the Act of Submission, lawfully even meet together for 
the purpose of agreeing on regulations touching on ecclesi- 
astical affairs ; indeed, on questions of the most elemen- 
tary kind, and of immediate practical importance, they 
find themselves without either rule or guidance. By what 
means may the necessary funds be raised for the build- 
ing of churches and for the maintenance of the clergy ? 
In whom should Church property be vested, and by 
whom should it be administered ? Should the clergy be 


supported by independent incomes, or depend partly on 
the voluntaiy contribntions of their congregations ? And 
should their incomes be regulated by any general scale ? 
How and by whom should patronage be administered? 
By what tribunal are ecclesiastical offences to be tried, 
and how is Church discipline to be maintained ? On 
these and other like questions the members of the Church 
of England in a colony, not only find themselves without 
any law, but without any power of legislation. 

'' Having been members of an institution in the mother- 
country having its churches and its ministers maintained 
and supported by ancient endowments, they come to regard 
a well-endowed ecclesiastical establishment almost as a 
birthright, and are somewhat surprised, on transplanting 
themselves to a new country, that churches are not built, 
and that ministers are not supported without cost or trouble 
to themselves: and some time commonly elapses before 
they realize their true position and recognize the necessity 
for their own exertion. And even when the vis inertice 
has been overcome, having been unaccustomed at home to 
take any part in Church organization or in the manage- 
ment of ecclesiastical affairs, the laity find that they have 
no experience to aid them when called upon to take part 
in laying the foundation of the ecclesiastical institutions 
of their adopted country. 

"And no measures having been taken by the parent 
Church to provide her colonial branches with any system of 
local self-government, the bishops, clergy, and laity of the 
Church of England in a British colony, instead of being 
a body ' fitly joined together by that which every joint 
Bupplieth,' were a mere aggregation of disjointed members 
as powerless for many important purposes as an army 
without the Mutiny Act or the Articles of War." 

The bishop had carefully considered the condition of his 
diocese, and he sought counsel from one who, better than 
almost any other man, was qualified tp give it. He wrote 
to Mr. Justice Patteson : — 

" There are no men to whom many of us look with more 
confidence than to Judge Coleridge and yourself. It has 
become so habitual with me to take counsel from your 


order, first with Sir J. Bichardson, now with Mr. Martin, 
who is as a brother, that I.woxdd earnestly desire, if it be 
not premature, to send you a special retainer of love and 
gratitude, engaging you to undeitake the elaboration of 
the intricate question of the Constitution of the Colonial 
Church ; and if you would now and then communicate 
with Mr. Martin, C. J., and me on this subject, you would 
find two minds most ready to receive your practical 
counsels. The questions are simply three, but those of 
great magnitude : — 

1. What English laws we are bound by ? 

2. What colonial laws we have ? 

3. What further legislation we require ? " 

Bishop Selwyn was appointed Bishop of New Zealand 
under Letters Patent from the Crown, and he was invested 
thereby with autocratic power for the government of the 
Church. As an Australian bishop, similarly appointed 
six years later, the first Bishop of Melbourne, said, " The 
government of the Church of England in' this colony is 
a pure autocracy. While the colonial clergy justly com- 
plain of the insecurity of their tenure, men of high standing 
and ability in England, such as we especially require, are 
for the most part unwUKng to accept employment where 
they would be subject to the will of a single individual" 

But these prelates soon discovered, to use the words of 
Mr. Gladstone, that " in their very power lay their weak- 
ness," for purposes of government. Hence from Australia, 
New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa, there came 
petitions and demands for liberty to hold assemblies for 
ecclesiastical purposes, and to associate the laity with 
the clergy in the regulation of the affairs of the Church. 

The Bishop of New Zealand had hardly been two years 
in his diocese, when, in 1844, he held a Synod of the Clergy 
at the Waimate, of which adequate mention has already 
been made. I^ 1847 another clerical Synod was held, 
but in the interval since the former Synod the bishop had 
been in correspondence with the authorities both of Church 


and State, and was able now to produce a draft Constitution 
for the Church on the basis of consensual compact^ which 
was, as Mr. Gladstone pointed out, " the basis on which 
the Church of Christ rested from the first" To this Synod 
the bishop uttered those memorable words, some of which 
have ahready been quoted in these pages, but which will 
bear repetition : — 

*' I believe the monarchical idea of the Episcopate to be 
as foreign to the true mind of the Church as it is adverse 
to the Grospel doctrine of humility. The expressive Ma 
of our native language, I pray, may always be appended 
to my nama I woiQd rather resign my office than be 
reduced to act as a single isolated being. It remains then 
to define by some general principle the terms, of our co- 
operation. They are simply these ; that neither will I act 
without you, nor can you act without me.*' 

From that time the bishoi^, as well in New Zealand as in 
England, never slackened his efforts in the cause of Church 
organization ; he never pressed his own views, which the 
people he knew were not yet sufficiently educated in 
ecclesiastical matters to receive, but everywhere he sowed 
the seed, and left it to germinate. In the year 1850 he 
received the following thoughtful Appeal from the laity and 
clergy, which was signed by the Governor, Sir G. Grey, 
the Chief Justice, the Attorney-General, and many others: — 

"We, the undersigned members of the branch of the 
Church of England existing in the New Zealand islands, 
beg with great respect to offer the followiug remarks for 
your Lordship's consideration. 

" Upon reviewing our present position, we find that we 
form the most advanced and remote outpost of the Church 
of England. There have also devolved upon us, in com- 
mon with many of our countrymen, the important duties 
of aiding in the foundation of a great nation, and in the 
moulding of its institutions. At the same time there are 
in our immediate vicinity various heathen nations, and 
even in the midst of us are many native inhabitants of 
these islands who have not yet embraced the doctrines of 


Christianity. Moreover we, the European members of 
the Church of England, have been collected from many 
countries, and are settled in widely detached localities; 
and thus, although we are bound together by a common 
faith, and have common duties to perform, we are united 
by but few of the usual ties of long and familiar acquaint- 
ance, whilst there is no system of local organization which 
might tend to draw us together as members of the same 

" We therefore feel ourselves called, from circumstances 
and from our position, to vast responsibilities, and to the 
discharge of important duties, whilst we have many 
elements of weakness around and amongst us. From 
these causes it is our earnest conviction that a peculiar 
necessity exists for the speedy establishment of some 
system of Church-government amongst us, which by assign- 
ing to each order in the Church its appropriate duties, 
might call forth the energies of all, and thus enable the 
whole body of the Church most efi&ciently to perform its 

" Even with such a system our efforts might at first be 
feeble, from want of numbers and from our limited means, 
but yet we humbly trust that we should labour with such 
heart and earnestness as becomes those who desire to aid 
in planting here an efficient Church, which may, with 
God's blessing, promote His service, spread wide a know- 
ledge of the Gospel, and secure the welfare of those vast 
numbers of our brethren who must hereafter occupy 
these islands. 

" Actuated by these views and wishes, we beg to submit 
for your Lordship's consideration, and we trust for your 
approval, the outline of a plan of Church-government, 
resembling in many points that which we are informed 
has proved so beneficial to our brethren in America, and 
which we should all be satisfied to see adopted here. By 
providing for the assembling of a General Convention, the 
proposed plan affords also a -security for the ultimate 
establishment of that system of Church-government which 
may be found to be most in conformity with the wishes of 
the whole body of the branch of the Church of England 
existing in New Zealand. 

" We have felt the less hesitation in submitting these our 


views to your Lordship because we are aware that you 
have loDg been most anxious to see an efficient system of 
Church-govenmient established amongst us, and that this 
subject is one which has not only always occupied your 
own earnest attention, but which you have on various 
occasions commended to the serious consideration of the 
members of our Church." 

It is not necessary to cumber these pages with the 
scheme of a General Convention proposed by those who 
signed the foregoing address, inasmuch as many alterations 
were made before the scheme was finally adopted. Armed 
however with this assurance of the desires of his best laity, 
the bishop went to the episcopal meeting at Sydney, where 
the principle of such self-government was affirmed with 
the increased weight of so important a gathering. 

In the years 1852 and 1853, public meetings were held 
in all the settlements in New Zealand to consider a docu- 
ment entitled, "General Principles of a Ccmstitution for 
the Church in New Zealand," drawn up and circulated by 
the bishop. The amendments made at these meetings 
were embodied, with the original draft, in a tabular state- 
ment, with the signatures appended, in order that the 
amount of difference of opinion might be distinctly seen. 
The document, in this altered form, was again printed and 
circulated, and any member of the Church who had not 
already signed it was invited to attach his signature to 
that column of the tabular statement which contained the 
principles most in accordance with his own opinion. 

How trying were the surroundings and circumstances of 
some of these meetings,. at which the bishop patiently pre- 
sided, and how content he was to sow beside all waters in 
the trustful confidence that it would not be in vain, may 
be gathered from a letter written by one who shared in all 
his labours to the late Eev. Ernest Hawkins : — 

" There is no one principle that our bishop has kept more 
steadily in view, or more regularly put before the eyes and 


minds of the English settlers that are members of the 
Church of England, than the necessity of their learning to 
support themselves, and eventually of their relieving the 
parent Church of the burden — ^for it is a burden when that 
support is exacted beyond the due time, though you have 
always felt it to be a privilege to feed the infant Church in 
any colony, and to educate it for a vigorous avrdptccia. 

"The details then that I propose to give you of the 
difiTerent meetings held hereabouts for this purpose would 
be exceedingly commonplace, and will probably be found 
very uninteresting, and in noways differing fjx)m the 
15,000 parish- vestries that are being held every week in 
England. But they may be con$idered more important in 
this point of view, that they exhibit an infant Church in 
its first efforts at walking alone, or rather crawling and 
tumbling about, the moment it has left hold of its 
mother's hand. 

" Hitherto the difficulty has been to get people to come 
together for Church meetings. They seemed to have an 
intuitive forecast that they were going to be asked to give 
money, and they used to say, ' We are very well satisfied 
with things as they are, the services of the clergy and minis- 
trations of religion being provided by S.P.G., through the 
bishop in part, and by the bishop and his friends in part.' 
But an Englishman's love for vestry-meetings is too deeply 
ingrained into his nature to let him go on for ever ac- 
quiescing in a state of things which altogether shuts him out 
from parochial affairs, and the words of a farmer to me as 
1 came out of the first meeting that we held in this district 
expressed, in perhaps an exaggerated way, the feelings of 
the class : ' When I heard the church-bell ring this even- 
ing and summon me to the first vestry-meeting I had 
attended for twelve years, and for the first time in this 
country, 1 was quite overcome, and affected to tears.' 
Poor man ! he had heard the same church-bell ring night 
after night for evening prayers, and his feelings had been 
proof, but a vestry-meeting and its attractions were over- 
powering ! and really the meeting was most harmonious. 
Many rules and practices of the Church that had beenes- 
tablished from the first here in accordance with common 
sense (I mean with the rubrics or most of them), were 
formally accepted and approved, not as rubrics, but as 


practical and sensible, and what is still better, as Scriptural 
customs. I do not believe that the meeting quite knew 
how rubrical its spirit was — ^for there is no particular 
attachment to our Prayer-book in this district, which is 
peopled mostly by Scotch Presbyterians and Wesleyans, 
but who from having no other place of worship have 
frequented ours, and are 'kindly welcome/ You must not 
think us veiy lax and latitudinarian here because I say so, 
but the fact is that in a new country, where men go out 
into the bush and settle far away from their own means of 
grace, our bishop has always said to the Scotch and the 
Wesleyans, ' As long aa you have no minister or services 
of your own communion, you are free and welcome to 
come to ours.' In this spirit I have always acted, and 
have too good an opinion of the real charity and common 
sense of our Church brethren at home to fear any censure 
for a course that would not be right, or expedient, at home. 
In this same spirit the bishop has always acted in his 
Melanesian labours. He has helped a London Missionary, 
or a Scotch Presbyterian, when labouring alone in fields 
where the Church was doing nothing. He has held out the 
right-hand of fellowship to the simple-minded Samoan 
teachers whom he found scattered over the Isles of the 
Pacific. He has helped all except the fioman Catholics, 
and strange enough, that has been made a subject of 
charge against him by the London Mission. They say, 
* Why don't you leave our stations alone, as you do the 
Boman Catholic ? ' The interference with their stations 
consisted on one occasion in his taking a Scotch Presby- 
terian minister and forty tons of goods, gratuitously, from 
Auckland to Anaiteum. Of course I can see how some 
persons may say, * Ah, that's the fi-uit of your countenan- 
cing Dissent in any form ; it serves you right for meddling 
with them, and you might have expected ingratitude.' 
But ' we are not careful to answer them in this matter.' 

"The first meetings which the bishop called were in 
Auckland, and the two parishes of St. Paul's (the Kev. J. 
F. Lloyd), and St. Matthew's (the Rev. F. Thatcher), sent 
their Church Committees to attend. 

** The bishop expressed to the meeting veiy much what is 
so clearly enunciated by S.P.G. as the Society's principle 
of action in the answer made to the North American 


Missions, and given in the Report of 1850. It told upon 
them most pointedly when he explained the sources 
whence the Society's income is so much derived, viz. * the 
savings of the poor.' And the wealthy merchants and 
shopkeepers winced under the fact that they were being . 
supplied with the ordinances of religion to some extent 
by the weekly contributions of ragged schools. 

"The bishop laid before them his Endowment Plan, where- 
by he proposes to endow every minister to the amount of 
lioilf his income, by means of funds contributed partly from 
the parishioners and partly from any resources he may 
have to meet them with, of course, mainly relying on your 
kind and willing aid. 

" The great object of this "half endowment is to make the 
clergyman partially independent of his flock, and partially 
dependent— independent enough ' to speak the truth, and 
boldly rebuke vice,' without fear of man ; dependent enough 
to be made punctual and attentive to his duties, and not 
allowed to hunt three times a week, or spend a *May' 
month for religious or secular dissipations away from his 
post without leave. 

" The principle was accepted, and has since been acted 
upon, and the people have in real earnest set about collect- 
ing funds for the present maintenance and future endow- 
ment of their minister. One man certainly did get up 
and say broadly, that he objected to all endowments, and 
wished his clergyman to be * entirely dependent on him ; ' 
but either the shame of having so nakedly avowed such a 
demoralizing sentiment, or the tacit rebuke administered by 
his fellow-townsmen, has so far taken efiTect that he has 
quite withdrawn all objection and is among the most 
willing contributors and collectors. The great difficulty 
that the bishop has to get over is this : he wants to prevent 
large livings like Stanhope ever infesting our system, and 
he wants to keep every large town at much the same rate 
of endowment — every country village or hamlet at its pro- 
portionate rate. But the people want to get their endow- 
ment money invested in such a way that some day or 
other it may return cent, per cent, for their present invest- 
ment The bishop says, ' No, you shall always have the 
colonial rate of interest on it, and no more, and the rest 
shall go to establish the Church in other and poorer 


districts.' All this you will see duly set forth in his 
Pastoral Letter of thja current month. 

'* The next meeting he called was not so successful It 
was at a Pensioner's settlement, called Howick. After 
having stated his plans, and one or two persons having 
commented on them, up got what on board-ship would be 
called ' a sea-lawyer,' and asked if he might address the 
meeting. He was a pensioner, a sergeant, who was once 
of our communion, but had lately fallen away, and you 
will hear why, as the story goes on. His speech is a grand 
instance of the form the grammarians call 'bathos.' 
He began, ' My Lord, Gentlemen, nurtured as I have been 
in the British constitution, proud as I am of my Church 
and State, I want to know what has become of the 40/. we 
pensioners subscribed for a schoolroom five years ago?' 
The bishop had not come prepared for this ' mare's nest ' 
of course^ and he said he would send the account, if he or 
his clergy had anything to do with it Taking courage 
from this discovery that the bishop had not got this matter 
at his fingers' ends, up jumped another pensioner, and said 
that the sum was 120/. The bishop begged them to 
nominate two of their body to come to the college and 
inspect the accounts. This they of course were shrewd 
enough to refuse. And my friend the sergeant having 
said that ' this was the point that made him a Dissenter, 
and militated against the Church,' got up, and with all his 
colleagues left the room. Next day I inspected the books, 
and sent them a report, which showed that the school- 
house which the bishop had put up and the payments for 
master and books, &c., amounted to 50/. instead of 40/., 
and so left the school in debt to the bishop 10/. The 
accounts had all the names of the subscribers and the sums 
affixed to their names. Besides this I sent them the whole 
Howick account for Church matters, and brought them in 
debtors to the bishop's Church account 400/. 

" I mention these facts in detail to give you some notion 
of Colonial Church life in its less interesting and romantic 
features. " There are, you will observe, some hard, coarse, 
rough scenes to be gone through — such as would astonish 
an English bishop if he were to come across them. It is 
just as well that people at home should know that the 
trials of colonial bishops do not so much consist in the 


pleasant excitement of walking through the glorious forests 
and swimming the rivers of New Zealand, or the like, nor 
in the novelty and refreshment of missionary work among 
a simple or savage people, but in being brought into con- 
tact day by day with the rudest and coarsest spirits of un- 
restrained colonialism, which vaunts itself and prides itself 
most especially in saying and doing the most offensive 
things in the most oflTensive way. Our bishop has practi- 
cally exemplified an old saying we used to have at Eton, 
and I daresay belongs to all parts of our mother-country, 
* You must go on never minding.' 

" Besides these English meetings we had a Maori 'Korero,' 
and I am happjr to say that the natives of our neighbour- 
hood are coming round to much more sensible and hopeful 
plans in accordance with the bishop's and governor's 
wishes, and have given land for Church purposes. They 
propose to come and live in a more civilized way, and to 
adopt the good part of English habits, having hitherto 
learnt and adopted the bad habits they saw in the town. 
The old chief promised the bishop to abandon his heathen 
course, and to prepare for Christianity. His name is 
Kawau, and he is a most pleasant old gentleman." 

In 1854 the bishop had come to England authorized by 
his people " to take such steps as might be necessary for 
carrying into effect the wishes of his diocese." It had 
been suggested " that application should be made either 
for a Royal Charter or for an Act of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, to enable this branch of the English Church to 
frame laws for its own government." But, as has been 
already mentioned, the bishop found it impossible to carry 
out these instructions in the manner proposed. 

One result was, however, attained by the bishop : he 
learned the opinion of the highest legal authorities, that 
no Act of Parliament rendered illegal the holding of 
Diocesan Synods within the limits of a colonial See ; and 
at the same time the Governor-General of Canada was in- 
formed by the Secretary of State that Her Majesty's 
Government were by no means satisfied that any statutable 


aid was necessary for enabling the clergy and laity in that 
colony to meet by representative bodies for the purpose of 
making rules for Church affairs. 

All prospect alike of imperial legislation and of im- 
perial prohibition being at an end, the bishop invited " the 
members of the Church, who were willing to admimster its 
property, to associate themselves together on the basis of 
mutual compact, and to establish a representative Groveming 
Body to manage the property of the Church, to apportion 
its proceeds, to regulate the salaries to be paid to its 
ministers, and to make such regulations for the extension 
of the Church system and for the organization of its 
members as might be practicable, on the basis of property 
and on the principle of voluntary compact'' 

The course that had been adopted in Melbourne fur- 
nished an example to be shunned: in that colony the 
members of the Church derive their powers of synodical 
action entirely from the State ; and it was felt that what the 
legislature had given, the legislature might take away, and 
that the Synod established under the Melbourne Act held 
its existence at the will of a body with whom it might 
have no community of interest, sympathy, or feeling: 
that if any alteration should be i*equired in the Act, it 
must be sought from the Colonial legislature, who would 
criticise its proceedings in no friendly spirit; that the 
affairs of the Church, being regulated under civil authority, 
would at any time be liable to be made, both on the hust- 
ings and in the legislature, the subject of party and poli- 
tical debate. It was determined therefore to proceed on 
the principle of voluntary compact, and to apply to the 
Colonial Legislature only in the event of legal powers being 
found necessary to carry the system into effect. 

On May 14, 1857, the first conference of the bishops 
(two in number, viz., Selwyn and Harper), clergy, and laity, 
was held at Taurarua. On June 5 they presented a Draft 
Beport, showing the grounds on which the Conference had 
been led to the conclusion that it was expedient to oi-ganize 


the members of the Chmrch of England for the purpose of 
self-government as a branch of such Church, and the 
reasons which had influenced the Conference in agreeing to 
the resolutions which had been passed with a view to that 

On June 13th, 1857, the Conference put forth with due 
solemnity the following 

« CONSTITUTION for associating together, as a Branch 
of the United Church of England and Ireland, the 
Members of the said Church in the Colony of New 
Zealand, agreed to at a General Conference of 
Bishops, Clergy, and Laity, assembled at Auckland 
on the thirteenth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord 1857. 

'^In \ht jSame of 6r®ID — ^men. Whereas it is 

desirable that the Members of the United Church of 
England and Ireland, in the Colony of New Zealand, 
should be associated together as a Branch of the said 
United Church, and that a Bepresentative Body should 
be constituted for the government of the same. And 
whereas, until due provision shall be made in that behalf 
by competent authority, it is desirable that the Members 
of the United Church of England and Ireland, should, 
so far as they lawfully may, associate themselves together 
by voluntary compact, as a Branch of the said United 
Church, for the ordering of the afiairs, the management 
of the Property, the promotion of the Discipline of the 
Members thereof, and for the inculcation and maintenance 
of sound Doctrine and true Eeligion throughout the Colony, 
to the glory of ALMIGHTY GOD, and the edification and 
increase of the Church of CHRIST: And whereas the 
Bishops, and certain of the Clergy and Laity representing 
a numerous body of the Members of the said United 
Church in the Colony of New Zealand, have met in 
Conference to determine the fundamental principles on 
which the Members of such Branch of the said Church 
shall be thus associated together, and for the purpose of 
deciding on the Constitution, and defining the powers and 


jurisdiction of the governing body of such Branch of the 
said Church, and of prescribing the terms and conditions 
on which the Property of such Branch of the said Church 
shall be held and administered : 

'' Now, therefore, the said Bishops, Clekgt, and Laitt, 
IN CONFERKNGE A8SSMBLED, (lo solemrUy declare and eetablieh 
as follows : — 


'' 1. This Branch of the United Church of England and 
Ireland in New Zealand doth hold and maintain the 
Doctrine and Sacraments of CUBIST as the LOBD hath 
commanded in His Holt Wobd, and as the United Church 
of England and Ireland hath received and explained the 
same in the Book of Common Prayer, in the Form and 
Manner of Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating of Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons, and in the Thirty-nine Articles of 
BeligioiL And the General Synod hereinafter constituted 
for the government of this Branch of the said Church 
shall also hold and maintain the said Doctrine and 
Sacraments of CHRIST, and shall have no power to 
make any alteration in the authorized version of the 
Holy Scriptures, or in the above-named Formularies of 
the Church. 

"2. Provided that nothing herein contained shall prevent 
the General Synod from accepting any alteration of the 
above-named Formularies, and version of the Bible, as 
may from time to time be adopted by the United Church 
of England and Ireland, with the consent of the Crown 
and of Convocation. 

^'3. Provided also that in case a Licence be granted 
by the Crown to this Branch of the Church of England 
to frame new and modify existing rules (not afTecting 
doctrine) with the view of meeting the peculiar circum- 
stances of this Colony and native people, it shall be 
lawful for this Branch of the said Church to avail itself 
of that liberty. 

''4. And Whereas opinions have been expressed by 
eminent legal authorities in England that the property of 
the Church in New Zealand might be placed in jeopardy, 
unless provision were made for the contingency of a 


86673 \ 


separation of New Zealand from the Mother Country, and 
for that of an alteration in the existing relations between 
Church and State ; it is hereby further declared that in 
the event of a separation of the Colony of New Zealand 
from the Mother Country, or of a separation of the Church 
from the State in England and Ireland, the General Synod 
shall have full power to make such alterations in the 
Articles, Services, and Ceremonies of this Branch of the 
United Church of England and Ireland in New Zealand 
as its altered circumstances may require, or to make such 
alterations as it may think fit in the authorized version of 
the Bible. 

'* And the said Bishops, Clergy, and Laity do Jkcrther 
declare and establish as follows : — 

** 5. There shall be a Sepresentative governing Body 
for the management of the affairs of the Church, to be 
called the General Synod of the Branch of the United 
Church of England and Ireland in the Colony of New 
Zealand, which shall consist of three distinct Orders, viz., 
the Bishops, the Clergy, and the Laity, the consent of 
all of which Orders shall be necessary to all acts binding 
upon the Synod, and upon all persons recognising its 

" 6. The above provisions shall be deemed Fundamental, 
and it shall not be within the power of the General Synod, 
or of any Diocesan Sjmod, to alter , revoke, add to, or diminish 
any of the same. 


'' 7. There shall be a Meeting of the General Synod at 
least once in every three years, at such time and place as 
shall from time to time be prescribed in that behalf by the 
said General Synod 

" 8. The first General Synod shall consist of the Bishops 
for the time being, and of such and so many Members, 
having such qualifications, and to be elected in such manner, 
and for such Districts, as may be prescribed in that behalf 
by the Conference now assembled. 

" 9. The General Synod shall from time to time determine 
at what periods there shall be a new election of the Members 
of the General Synod. 


" 10. Every act of the General Synod shall be assented 
to by a majority of the Members of each of the three 
Orders, present in person, at a duly constituted meeting. 

" 11. It shall be lawful for the General Synod to fix any 
standard of qualification, and to appoint any mode of 
registration, for the purpose of determining what persons 
are admissible to taJie part in the proceedings of any 
General or Diocesan Synod, or of any Archdeaconry or 
other Local Board, whether as Electors, Eepresentatives, or 
Deputies, or in any other manner whatsoever. 

'* 12. No person shall take any part in the proceedings 
of any General or Diocesan Synod, or of any Archdeaconry 
or other Local Board, whether as Elector, Bepresentative, 
or Delegate, or in any other manner whatsoever, who shall 
have been declared incompetent by any Tribunal acting 
under the authority of the General Synod, or who shall 
have declined, when required by the same authority, to sign 
a declaration of his adhesion and submission to the Pro- 
visions of these Presents. 

'* 13. The General Synod shall have full power to deter- 
mine how and by whom all Patronage shall be exercised, 
and ,in what manner and upon what conditions every 
Clergyman, Trustee, Catechist, Churchwarden, School- 
master, or other Office-bearer or Agent, whether Clerical 
or Lay, shall enter upon the use and occupation of any 
portion of the Church property held in Trust under the 
Provisions of these Presents, and in what manner, and 
upon what conditions, aU such Office-bearers, whether 
Clerical or Lay, shaU receive their respective appointments, 
and the General Synod shall have full power to fix the 
amount of all salaries, dues, fees, and other emoluments, 
payable to any person out of the proceeds of any property 
held by or in Trust for the Genend Synod, 

'* 14. All Clergymen, Trustees, Catechists, Churchwardens, 
Schoolmasters, or other Office-bearers or Agents, who shall 
be so appointed, or who shall receive any income or emolu- 
ment from or out of the said Trust property, and all Office- 
bearers who, whether receiving any emolument therefirom 
or not, shall have consented to hold their appointments 
under and in conformity with the Provisions of these 
Presents, shall be liable to be deposed, removed, or sus- 
pended from their respective appointments, by the General 

H 2 


Synod, if from any cause whatever the General Synod 
shall deem it expedient and proper to exercise such power ; 
and whenever any Clergyman, Trustee, Gatechist, Church- 
warden, Schoolmaster, or other Oiiice-bearer or Agent, 
whether Clerical or Lay, shall be deposed, removed, or sus- 
pended from his appointment, he shall ipsofoucto immediately 
cease to have or exercise any function or office under the 
Provisions of these Presents, and shall be absolutely de- 
prived of aU the rights, emoluments, stipend, or salary to 
which by virtue of his appointment he would have been 
entitled but for such deposition, removal, or suspension, 
and shall forthwith deliver up to the General Synod, or to 
Trustees appointed by them, all such Trust property and 
all such deeds, books, papers, money, and effects belonging 
and relating thereto, as may then be in his occupation, 
possession, or power. 

*^\b. The General Synod shall constitute a Tribunal in 
Kew Zealand for the purpose of deciding all questions of 
Doctrine and Discipline; and also, if it think fit, may 
constitute a Court of Appeal from the decision of such 

" 16. It shall be lawful for the General Synod to frame 
such Begulations as shall be found necessary from time to 
time for the management of the property held subject to 
the Provisions of these Presents, and for the government 
of all persons holding office under or receiving emolument 
from the Greneral Synod, and generally to make all such 
Begulations as shall be necessary for the order, good 
government, and efficiency of the said Branch of the 
United Church of England and Ireland. 

'' 17. It shaU be lawful for the General Synod to del^ate 
to any Synod, Board, or Commission, either specifically as 
the case may require, or under such general regulations as 
shall frx)m time to time be laid down by the General 
Synod, all or any of the powers conferred upon the General 
Synod by these Presents. 

" 18. It shall be lawful for the General Synod to alter, 
amend, or repeal all or any of the Provisions of these 
Presents, save and except the Provisions which have been 
hereinbefore declared to be Fvmdamental. 

" 19. The General Synod of this Branch of the United 
Church of England and Ireland may associate with itself 

111.] CONOTITUTION. 103 

any Missionary Dioceses which may be formed among the 
other Islands of the Pacific Ocean. 

" 20. For the purpose of carrying into effect the objects 
of these Presents, a governing Body or Diocesan Synod 
shall be formed in each Diocese, upon the same principle 
as the General Synod, consisting of the Bishop, Clergy, and 
Laity within such Diocese ; and such Diocesan Synod shall, 
as far as possible, be similar in form and in mode of action 
to the Greneral Synod. 

''21. Such Diocesan Synod may exercise within the 
limits of the Diocese all the powers of the General Synod 
not inconsistent with or repugnant to any Segulation of the 
General Synod 

"22. Anj Segulation assented to by all the Diocesan 
Synods, with a view to its acquiring the force of a Segu- 
lation of the General Synod, shall be taken and deemed 
to be, and shall have the force o^ a Segulation of the 
General Synod. 

''23. Provided always thai no such Emulation shall 
repeal or alter any of the Provisions of these Presents. 

" 24. The General Synod shall have power to make any 
Segulation controlling, altering, repealing, or superseding 
any Segulation which may have been made by any Diocesan 

" 25. Saving any rights of the Church and of the Crown, 
the nomination of a Bishop shall proceed from the Diocesan 
Synod, and, if sanctioned by the General Synod, shall be 
submitted by the General Synod to the authorities in 
Church and State in England for their favourable con- 

" 26. All property, real or personal, to be conveyed to 
the General Synod, or to Trustees on behalf of the General 
Synod, shall be held upon Trust, that such General Synod 
or Trustees shall and do stand seised and possesssed of 
and interested in the same, or otherwise shall and do 
convey, settle, assure or assign the same upon and for or 
according to such trusts, intents, and purposes, and under 
and subject to such powers, provisoes, declarations, and 
agreements, and in such manner and for such objects and 
purposes, whether Seligious, Missionary, Ecclesiastical, 
Collegiate, Scholastic, or Charitable, as the General Synod 
of this Branch of the United Church of England and 


Ireland in New Zealand shall from time to time direct or 
appoint in writing under the hand of any person authorized 
by the General Synod in that behalf, subject however to 
any special covenants and declarations of Trust imposed 
by any Founder, Donor, Testator, or other Benefactor, 
which shall have been assented to by the General Synod 
or by any Board or other person authorized by the General 
Synod in that behalf. 

" 27. The General Synod or any Board or Commission 
constituted by the General Sjmod in that behalf, shall, for 
the purposes of "the Beligious, Charitable, and Educa- 
tionsd Trusts Act, 1856," be deemed to be a body duly 
constituted to represent the Branch of the United Church 
of England and Irelajid referred to in these Presents. 

"28. Every Trustee in whom any property, real or 
personal, shall be vested either solely or jointly with any 
other persons or person for or on behalf of the General 
Synod, shall hold the same with the powers and subject 
to the limitations, restrictions, declarations, and provisoes 
contained in the several clauses of the Schedule hereunto 
annexed, and any Board or Commission appointed by the 
General Synod for that purpose shall possess and may 
exercise all or any of the powers vested in the General 
Synod as shall be by the General Synod in that behalf 

^ 29. The Doctrines which shall from time to time be 
taught or inculcated by the Bishops, Clergy, Catechists, 
Schoolmasters, and others, wholly or partially endowed 
or maintained by the proceeds of property held subject to 
the Provisions of these Presents, and the Doctrines which 
shall, from time to time, be taught or inculcated in any 
churches or chapels, whether cathedral, parochial^ colle- 
giate, or missionary, and in any coUeges, or schools, which 
shall be either wholly or partially built out of funds de- 
rived from the property held subject to the Provisions of 
these Presents, or upon sites held by Trustees appointed 
in the manner herein specified, shall not, nor shall any 
such Doctrines, be repugnant to the Doctrines of the 
United Church of England and Ireland as the same 
are explained and contained in the Thirty-nine Articles 
and in the Book of Common Prayer, and in the Form 
and Manner of Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating of 


Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ; and it shall be the duty 
of all Trustees, appointed pursuant to the Provisions of 
these Presents, to obey all instructions issued to them by 
or on behalf of the General Synod, for the purpose of 
guarding, as far as possible, against any Trust property, 
or proceeds therefrom, being so applied or disposed of as 
to promote the teaching or inculcation of any Doctrine 
repugnant to that of the United Church of England and 
Ireland as so explained. 

** 30. No Clergyman, Trustee, Catechist, Churchwarden, 
Schoolmaster, or other Office-bearer or Agent, shall be ad- 
mitted to any office under the Provisions of these Presents, 
or be entitled to receive any income, emolument, or benefit 
from or out of any property held under the same, unless 
and until he shall have signed a Declaration of his adhe- 
sion and submission to the Provisions of these Presents in 
the form following : — 

" I, A« B., do declare my submission to the authority of 
the General Synod of the Branch of the United Church 
of England and Ireland in New Zealand, established by a 
Constitution agreed to on the 13th day of June, 1857, and 
my consent to be bound by all the IVovisions of the said 
Constitution, and by all the Begulations which may from 
time to time be issued by the authority of the said General 
Synod ; and I hereby undertake in consideration of being 
appointed immediately 

to resign my appointment^ together with all the rights 
and emoluments appertaining thereto, whenever I shall 
be called on so to do by the Greneral Synod, or by any 
person or persons lawfully acting imder the authority of 
the General Synod in that behalf. 

" Given under my hand this day of 18 , 

in the presence of 

*' 31. Any doubt which shall arise in the interpretation 
of these Presents, or of the Constitution for the time being 
of this Branch of the said Church, shall be submitted for 
final decision to the General Synod, or to some Tribunal 
to be constituted by the General Synod in that behalf. 

" 32. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed or con- 
strued to take away, abridge, or prejudicially affect any 
right of any member of the United Church of England 
and Ireland, except so far as any such right may be 


affected by the recognition, on the part of such person, 
of the authority of the Greneral Synod, and by his sub- 
mission to these Presents." 


"1. The General Synod may from time to time, by 
writing under the hand of any person authorized by it 
in that behalf, appoint a Trustee or Trustees for the whole 
or any portion of the property held in Trust ; and may 
from time to time, as often as it shall think proper, by 
any such writing cancel and revoke every such appoint- 
ment, and may appoint another Trustee or other Trustees 
in the place of all or any one or more of the Trustees 
named in, or hereafter to be appointed by or on behalf of 
the General Synod. 

" 2. Any Trustees or Trustee may, by the direction of 
the General Synod, sell, and absolutely dispose of, either 
together or in parcels, and either by public sale or private 
contract, all or any part of the said Trust property in re- 
spect of which no Trust shall have been created incon- 
sistent with the exercise of this present power; or by 
the like direction may exchange the said property, or 
any part thereof, for any other freehold hereditaments 
situate in the Colony of New Zealand ; and give (out of 
any money in their hands applicable to such purpose) or 
receive any money by way of equality of exchange, and 
may execute all such conveyances as may be requisite for 
effectuating such sale or exchange. 

'' 3. Provided always that all money arising from such 
sale, or received by any Trustees or Trustee for equality 
of exchange as aforesaid, after payment of the costs and 
expenses payable by such Trustees or Tnistee in relation 
to such sale or exchange, shall be expended in the abso- 
lute purchase of other freehold lands or hereditaments in 
New Zealand, or in such other investment as the General 
Synod shall direct. 

''4. All property which shall be so purchased or re- 
ceived in exchange as aforesaid, shall be held by the 
Trustees or Trustee in whom it shall become vested upon 
such Trusts as the property so to be sold or given in ex- 
change was held subject to. 


** 5. Any Trustees or Trustee may from time to time, by 
any deed, lease any portion of the Trust property vested in 
them or him, in respect of which no direction or appoint- 
ment shall have been made by the General Synod, or no 
Trust created inconsistent with the exercise of this pre- 
sent power, to any person or persons, for any term not 
exceeding twenty-one years in possession and not in re- 
version, at such rent and subject to such covenants and 
provisoes as they the said Trustees or Trustee may deem 
reasonable, and may apply the rents of the property so 
leased to the purposes to which the annual income or pro- 
ceeds of the Trust property shall for the time being be 
properly applicable. 

" 6. The receipt in writing of any Trustees or Trustee 
or of any Agent duly authorized in that behalf, shall be 
a good and efTectual discharge for all money paid to them 
or him under or by virtue of these Presents, and shall ex- 
onerate the person or persons paying such money from all 
obligation of seeing to the application thereof, and from 
all liability on accoimt of the loss, misapplication, or non- 
application thereof, and it shall not be incumbent on any 
purchaser or other person to or with whom such sale, ex- 
change, or lease as aforesaid shall be made, to inquire as 
to the necessity for or propriety of such sale, exchange, or 
lease, or whether any direction for such sale, exchange, or 
lease shall have been given by the General Sjmod. 

'' 7. Every Trustee shall be chargeable for such money 
only as he shall actually have received, although he shaU 
have joined in any receipt for monev received by any co- 
Trustee, and shall not be answerable for the act of any 
co-Trustee^ or for any loss which may arise by reason of 
any Trust money being deposited in the hands of any 
banker or agent, or from the insufficiency or deficiency 
of any security upon which the Trust money, or any 
part thereof, may be invested, nor for any loss in the exe- 
cution of the Trust, unless the same shall happen through 
his own wilful neglect or default. 

*'The above Constitution for associating together as a 
Branch of the United Church of England and Ireland 
the Members of the said Church in the Colony of New 
Zealand was agreed to at a General Conference of Bishops, 
Clebgy, and Laitt, assembled* in St. Stephen's Chapel, 

108 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. 

Auckland, on the thirteenth day of June, in the year of 
our Lord, One thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven. 

'* In witness whereof we the said Bishops, Clergy, and 
Laity, have hereunto subscribed our hands. 
" G. A. New Zealand, R W. Stafford, 

H. J. C. Christchuroh, Frederick Whetaker, 
Henry Williams, Henry John Tancred, 

William Williams, Willlam Swainson, 

R B. Paul, T. M. Haultain, 

A. N. Brown, R K. Prendergast, 

OcTAVius Hadfield, Thomas Hirst." 

C. J. Abraham, 


James Wilson. 

From this document, which was under obligations to 
the American Church, all branches of the Anglican Com* 
munion, notably the Church in Ireland, have learned 
much. For the purpose of enabling the bishop legally to 
transfer to the Synodical trustees property which had been 
vested hitherto in himself as a corporation sole, it was 
necessary to obtain an Act of the Legislature. This became 
law in July 1858, and the Synod was so far recognised by 
the Colonial Legislature. 

It was determined that the General Synod of New 
Zealand should meet triennially, and its first session was 
held at Wellington on March 9, 1859. 

The Bishop's Address on this so important an occasion 
was a masterly production, and has a lasting interest. It 
records his own struggles, his loyalty to the Mother Church, 
which in no degree blinded him to its shortcomings, the 
results, not of inherent defects, but of accidental circum- 
stances, and his aspirations and plans for the Church of 
New Zealand. 

'' The present meeting, my dear brethren, is the fulfil- 
ment of hopes which have been cherished by many of us 
during a period of fifteen years. In the year 1844 the 
first Synod of the Diocese of New Zealand was held at the 
Waimate, but, in the uncertainty which prevailed on the 


subject of ChuTch-govemment in the Colonies, many high 
authorities in England censured our proceedings as ill^aL 
Being well aware that this opinion was unfounded, I was 
not deterred from convening a second Synod at St. John's 
College, Auckland, in the year 1847, at which I read a 
correspondence between the Archbishop of Canterbury 
and Mr. Gladstone, then Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, containing a proposal for a Church Constitution, 
in which the three Ciders of Bishops, Clergy, and Laity 
should be associated on the basis of voluntaiy compact. 

'' The Diocesan Synods of 1844 and 1847 were exclu- 
sively clerical, but, from the time of th^ meeting of the 
Synod of 1847, efforts b^an to be made, and have never 
since been intermitted, with a view to the admission of 
Lay Bepresentatives. The Conference of the six Bishops of 
the Province of Australasia, held at Sydney in the year 
1850, unanimously recommended a Constitution, in which 
the Laity should be associated with the Bishops and Clergy. 

"In order to remove from our proceedings even the 
suspicion of illegality, attempts were made to procure from 
the English L^slature a recognition of the right of the 
Colonial Bishops to convene Synods for the management 
of their own diocesan affairs. Three bills for this purpose 
were brought forward in successive Sessions of the British 
Parliament, but, one after the other, they all fell to the 
ground. In the meantime, a change of opinion took 
place among the legal authorities in England, and the 
question seized down upon its present basis, that, as the 
Colonial Churches must have laws for their own govern- 
ment, and as neither the Church nor the State at home 
can make laws for them, they must be left free to legislate 
for themselves. 

^Anotiier question then arose whether the Colonial 
L^islature ought not to be applied to, to give a Constitu- 
tion to our branch of the Church of England ; and this 
opinion was strengthened by the fact that the Synods in 
Canada and Melbourne seemed to have adopted this course. 
Comparisons began to be drawn between a voluntary 
Association such as we have formed, and a Church 
established by law. The full discussion of this subject 
would occupy too much of your time, but a few remarks 
will be enough to show that we have not acted unadvisedly 


in avoiding, as much as possible, all application to the 
Colonial L^islature. If we had accepted an Act, invest- 
ing us with power over all persons, so far as they are 
Ministers or Members of the Church of England, we must at 
once have come into collision with the Church Missionary 
Society, which still retains in its own hands full powers 
of government over one-half of the clergy of the Northern 
Island : we must have said at once to all those Lay Mem- 
bers who have not yet joined us, * You can be no longer 
Members of our Church, unless you accept our Constitu- 
tion and obey our laws.' To recognize the power of the 
Colonial Legisbture to enact a new definition of Church 
Membership would have been to assume the part to be 
equal to the whole, for how can one Colony of the British 
Empire settle the question, ' What is a Member of the 
Church of England ? ' The Constitution given to us in 
one Session of the General Assembly might be altered or 
repealed by another : questions of the deepest interest to 
ourselves, and which ought to be discussed only in the 
solemn Synods of the Church, such as the test of Com* 
munion, and the veto of one Order on tlie other two, might 
become the subjects of political agitation. In short we 
should incur all the liabilities of a Church established by 
law, while at the same time, in the eye of the Colonial 
Legislature, we should be only as one of many denomina- 
tions, all equal to one another. 

** These and many more reasons of a like kind induced 
the Conference which assembled at Auckland in 1857 to 
concur in founding our Church Constitution on the basis 
of mutual and voluntary compact And it is with the 
deepest thankfulness tfajit I acknowledge the wonderful 
Providence of Gk>d, which has already given to our first 
meeting so many of the essential characteristics of a 
Synod of the Church. Who would ever have thought 
that four Bishops would have met together here, and that 
one of our most solemn acts would be the Consecration of 
a fifth : or that the present body of Clergy would repre- 
sent sixty of their Order ? It is but five-and-forty years 
since the first Missionary landed in New Zealand, and but 
twenty since the Colony was formed. All this wonderful 
change has been accomplished within the lifetime of many 
who are here present. Surely ' this is the finger of God,' 


and this is the ground of our assurance that He is with us 
in OUT present work; and that He will eflTectually accom- 
plish what He has so wonderfully begun. 

'* There is but one doubt of any importance, which I 
have heard expressed on the subject of Church Constitu- 
tions, and that is, that we may be tempted to rely on mere 
external and material oiganization, instead of resting on 
the one foundation-stone of Jesus Christ, and seeking for 
the quickening influences of His Holy Spirit But is not 
this a danger inseparable from our mixed nature in its 
fallen state ? As the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and 
these are contrary the one to the other, so must eveiything 
that is outward and visible endanger the purity and vitality 
of that which is spiritual However precious may be the 
ointment, a dead fly might cause it to stink. The brazen 
serpent might be made into an idoL The sacrifice of the 
Paschal Lamb might become an empty form. The temple 
of the Lord might be made a den of thieves. The word of 
God may be the letter that killeth, instead of the Spirit 
that giveth life : the savour of death unto death, instead of 
the savour of life unto life. We may have the form of 
godliness while we deny the power thereof. The tables 
of stone may draw away our thoughts fix)m the Holy Law 
of God written on the tables of the heart. Prayer, Baptism, 
Confirmation, Communion, every ordinance that has a 
form of words or an outward sign, is liable to the same 
danger ; and even where no form of words is used, the 
lips may still draw near to God, while the heart is far from 
Him. If every Sacramental sign were removed, formaUty 
would still grow up from the dead heart within. 

"The danger, then, which is feared, of trusting to 
external organization, rather than to the inward life of 
the Spirit^ is not peculiar to our present work, but is the 
besetting danger attendant upon every religious ordinance, 
and common to the Church at large, and to all its Mem- 
bers. It would be vain, then, to seek for spiritual life by 
rejecting outward organization. By God's appointment, 
the spirit and the flesh are linked together, and man cannot 
put asunder what God hath joined. The Saviour of the 
world was not deterred from anointing the blind man's 
eyes with clay by any fear lest the virtue should be 
ascribed rather to the clay than to Himself. The miracle 


of the loaves was not less likely to be impressive because 
the multitude was arranged in order by fifties and hun- 
dreds, or because the fragments that remained were care- 
fully gathered up. The foolish Martha who had everything 
to think of and everything to do at the actual moment of 
her Lord's coming, was not more likely to be spiritually- 
minded than the provident Mary, who had trimmed her 
lamp and set her house in order, and done her share of the 
work beforehand, and was ready at a moment when He 
came, to sit at His feet. The Gospel, even when preached 
by the Apostles, was likely to be hindered, if occasion 
were given to the Grecians to murmur that their widows 
were neglected in the daily ministration. That some might 
be able to give themselves continually to prayer and to the 
Ministry of the Word, it was necessary that others should 
be appointed to serve tables. The whole consideration of 
the subject of spiritual gifts in the 14th Chapter of the 1st 
Epistle to the Corinthians is closed with the warning that 
God is not the author of confusion, but of peace : and 
that all things ought to be done decently and in order. A 
man's ability to rule his own house was to be taken as one 
sign of his fitness to take care of the Church of God. 

" No, my brethren, not one of us will ever think that 
out of the mere dry bones which we frame together we can 
constitute a living creature : but we aU believe that our 
Heavenly Father, of His own free love, and for the merits 
of His dear Son, and in answer to our prayers offered up 
in His name, will pour down his Holy Spirit upon our 
hearts, to unite this our body with Christ our head ; and 
all its members in the bond of peace ; that the whole 
body being fitly framed together and compacted by that 
which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual 
working in the measure of every part, may make increase 
unto the edifying of itself in love. We trust to that 
quickening Spirit to make us lively stones, built up as a 
spiritual house upon the foundation of the Apostles and 
Prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner-stone. 

"In order that our Church may grow into an Holy 
Temple in the Lord, it must be fitly framed, and we must 
be builded together. When the wall of Jerusalem was 
built, every one had his sword girded by his side, and so he 
builded : every one with one of his hands wrought in the 


work, and with the other held a weapon. But the temple 
was built of stone made ready before it was brought 
thither, so that there was neither hammer nor axe nor any 
tool of iron heard in the house while it was in building. 
So far from needing weapons, they did not need even a tool 
May our work be of the same kind. We can have no 
enemies from without ; we ought to have no enmities from 
within. We shall not have to cut and shape our stones to 
fit them into spaces narrowed up by private interests or 
vested rights of property : we may take them at once as 
they have been made ready for us in God's Holy Word : 
and build without r^ard to any other model than the 
example of our Blessed Lord and His Apostles. 

'' Do we then boast ourselves against our Mother 
Church in thus abandoning some parts of her present 
system ? On the contrary, we desire, as faithful children, 
to show, so far as God may give us grace, how glorious she 
might have been in the purity of her doctrines, and in the 
hoUness of her liturgy, if she had been released from 
those chains, from which the peculiar circumstances of the 
Colonial Church have set us free. The abuses of private 
patronage, the sale of spiritual oEGces, inequality of in- 
comes, the failure of all corrective discipline over the 
beneficed clergy, the heart-rending injustice of dilapida- 
tions, all springing from the same root of private property, 
these are no part of the Church of England, and they 
must have no place here. We should be guilty indeed, if, 
with our eyes open, and a free choice before us, we should 
engraft upon our new Branch of the Church of England 
the same abuses, against which the Preachers of St Paul's 
Cross and Whitehdl remonstrated in vain. 

•*Tou will forgive me if I detain you a little longer 
upon this point, because I should feel most acutely any 
imputation of disloyalty to our Mother Church. I wish 
you to feel with me, that our Constitution simply proposes 
to remove those abuses which have been encrusted upon 
her system, and which for many years back, even the 
State in England has been endeavouring to reform. It 
would be tedious to recite all the Acts of Parliament 
which have been passed to imdo the faulty work of 
former ages, and to bring the Church into that system 
with which we purpose to begin. The equalization of the 


incomes of Bishoprics, the suspension of Canonries for the 
better maintenance of the Parochial Ministry, the facili- 
ties afforded for the division of Parishes, these and other 
Acts of the same kind, all recognise the existence of evils, 
which the State in England labours after its own fashion 
to remedy, but which it is our duty to prevent We are 
bound to strive, and to pray, that our Church may be holy 
and without blemish. We must give good heed that the 
wheat which we sow in our new soil be free from tares. 

" I shall now lay before you as briefly as possible the 
various subjects which seem to require your attention ; 
and if in some instances I shall accompany the statement 
with practical advice, you will not, I am sure, suspect me 
of any wish to dictate to the Synod any peculiar system ; 
for I trust that we have met here in a spirit of counsel, and 
that we shall be ready to give up or modify our private 
opinions when we find that they are opposed to those of a 
majority of our brethren. 

*' It may at once be assumed, that frequent meetings of 
the General Synod ought not to be necessary : and with 
this view ample powers of delegation have been reserved 
to it by the Deed of Constitution. These powers will 
have to be used to bring into operation two classes of 
Trusts: the one representing the General Synod itself, 
and competent to discharge certain of its functions : the 
other invested with powers of local administration under 
the authority of the General Synod. 

"L — First Class, of Standing Trusts representing the 
General Synod : — 

** 1. The first of these will be a board for the determina- 
tion of questions of Beference brought up by appeal from 
any Diocesan Synod, or other subordinate adininistration. 

" 2. The second will be a Board of Appointment, to 
exercise the powers of the General Synod, in appointing 
new Trustees, and in confirming all elections to spiritusd 

" II. —The Second Class, of Trusts invested with powers 
of local administration under the authority of the General 
Synod : — 

" 1. The First and most important of this class of Trusts 
will be the Diocesan Synods : the Constitution of which 
will require careful consideration. 


^2. The Second will be the Archdeaconry or Rural 
Deaneiy Boards, which though now rendered of less im- 
portance by the subdivision of the country into several 
Dioceses, may still be found of use. 

" 3. The Third, the Parochial Trusts, including Church- 
wardens. Parochial Committees, &c. 

'' 4. llie Fourth, all Special Trusts, such as those now in 
operation for the support of Colleges, Native Schools, and 
for the management of Property held in Trust for special 

" In constituting these various Trusts, it will be neces- 
sary that you should select the Trustees and issue instruc- 
tions for their guidance. 

" In the selection of Trustees of the second class you 
vrill, I have no doubt, accept, in most cases, the recom- 
mendation of the local representatives. The right prin- 
ciple for our guidance seems to be contained in the words 
of the Twelve in Acts vi. 3, ' Brethren, look ye out among 
you . . . men of honest repoit . . . whom i^ may appoint 
over this business.' The General Synod will act wisely 
in appointing men who possess the confidence of their 
own neighbours. 

^ The same principle will apply to all spiritual offices. 
The Board of Appointment must not interfere needlessly 
with the Bishop and his Synod. But there are cases in 
which its powers will be brought into operation : as, for 
example, when the Diocesan Synod cannot agree with any 
congregation on the election of a miniBter, in which a 
reference ought to be made to the Board representing the 
Greneral Synod, whose appointment should be final But 
the highest duty of the Board of Appointment will be to 
take effectual care that no simoniacal contracts, or corrupt 
practices, be allowed to interfere with the simple rule of 
putting the right man in the right place. Their office will 
be like that of the prophets and teachers at Antioch, to 
separate the Ministers of Christ for the work to which 
they believe the Holy Ghost has called them. It cannot 
be consistent with the right discharge of this plain duty 
that money, upon any pretext or in any manner, should 
have any weight or influence in the appointment to a 
spiritual office. 

" I think that we shall aU agree in leaving the Diocesan 

VOL. II.* I 


Synods as much freedom of action as possible, subject, 
however, to a few general rules to secure uniformity of 
action among the various Dioceses in matters of primary 

" The first of these is in the appointment of Clergymen. 
This power might, I think, be well vested in a Diocesan 
Board, composed of the Bishop as Chairman, ex officio, 
and two Clei^men and two Laymen elected by the 
Diocesan Synod. It might be a standing instruction to the 
Board, upon the vacancy of any cure, to call for a Deputa- 
tion of the Parishioners, and to concur with them in 
making a new appointment, or, if the two parties should 
be unable to agree, then to refer the question to the Board 
of Appointment acting in behalf of the General Synod. 
If the new appointment should involve the removal of a 
clergyman from a Parish to which he is already engaged, 
then a Deputation also from that Parish should be invited 
to attend. It ought, I think, to be a valid groimd of 
objection on the part of any Parish to the removal of their 
Clergyman, that he is maintained by them at the full scale 
of income to which he is entitled. Parishes ought not to 
be allowed to compete with one another for popular 
Clergymen by holding out inducements of greater emolu- 
ment. All such practices are contrary to the nature of a 
spiritual office, and degrading to the clerical character. 

" The second duty of the Diocesan Synod, which I will 
mention, is to provide for the maintenance of the Clergy, 
and, on this point, a general uniformity of system is also 
desirable. A few fundamental principles have always 
been kept in view in the Diocese of New Zealand, and I 
would recommend them to your consideration, as already 
tested by many years' experience : 

''1. That the maintenance of the Clergy should be 
supplied partly from Endowment Funds, and partly by 
voluntary contributions. 

" 2. That the Incomes of the Clergy should be regulated 
by an equitable scale. 

*' 3. That a Clergyman maintained at the full scale of 
income be expected to give his undivided services to the 
work to which he is appointed. 

"4. That no Clergyman be considered as permanently 
located in any Parish, in which the Parishioners do not 


supply that portion of his income which depends upon 
Yoluntaiy contributions. 

** I believe that I may appeal to several of my brethren 
here present to confirm my statement^ that this system, 
after many difficulties, is now being carried out in several 
Parishes with great regularity. 

''The third duty of the Diocesan Synod will be to 
establish a Tribunal for the trial of all charges against 
Clergymen or other office-bearers of the Church. In 
the case of a Clergyman I would recommend that the 
Tribunal be composed of the Bishop, three Clergymen, and 
one Lay Assessor. In the case of a Lay Office-fiearer, the 
number of Clergy and Laity might be reversed. The forms 
of procedure for all such Diocesan Tribunals ought, I think, 
to be prescribed by the General Synod. The appeal from 
the Diocesan Tribimal to the Board representing the 
General Synod has already been spoken of. 

" The fourth duty of the Diocesan Synod will be to define 
Parishes. But the General Synod ought to lay down the 
principle upon which Parishes are to be first defined, and 
afterwards, if necessary, divided from time to time. The 
Parish should resemble the sheepfold, in having boundaries 
well marked and known for the time being, but easy to 
be removed. We must strictly guard against the intro- 
duction of a system in which, from a jealous respect for 
the rights of property^ fifty or even a hundred thousand 
souls have been left under the nominal charge of one 
clergyman. It will be easy now for the General Synod 
to lay down a rule, that whenever the members of the 
Church in any parish shall be found to exceed a certain 
number, it shall be the duty, of the Diocesan Sjmod to 
alter the boundaries ; and to divide the endowment fund 
of the old parish in due proportions between the two or 
more parishes which shall be formed out of it. This sub- 
division of parishes in the Archdeaconry of Waitemata 
has been so far carried out, that no clergyman has more 
than one thousand members of the Church under his 
charge. Many of these parishes have endowment funds, 
all administered by a common Trust, in which every 
parish has its own representative Trustee, and therefore 
readily admitting of a new appoitionment, if any parish 
should require to be divided. 

I 2 


** I come now to the subject of the Tenure of the landed 
Property of the Church. It is well known to all here 
present that I have been hitherto the sole Trustee of all 
the Church lands in the English settlements in New 
Zealand, with the exception of Canterbury and Otago. I 
undertook this heavy responsibility, and have borne the 
increasing burden for sixteen years, with the single object 
of excluding all vested rights and private interests, which 
would have stood in the way of the free action of the 
General Synod of the ChurcL I now lay upon the table the 
terrier of more than 14,000 acres of land, secured to the 
Church by about 100 Crown grants, and devoted for ever 
to the support of religion and Christian education ; and 
under the powers vested in me, by an Act of the last 
General Assembly, I say to this Synod, — Take these pro- 
perties, and use them as you please, within the limits of the 
Trusts, and may God guide you to a right use of His bounty. 

" The reconstitution of the Trusts which I now surren- 
der will require considerable care, and on this point I feel 
it to be my duty to offer some practical suggestions. 

*' The Transfer of the Trusts. — The first business of the 
Synod will be to elect persons to act as Trustees. The 
Secretary of the Synod must then ascertain whether those 
persons will be willing to accept the Trusts. I shall then 
have to execute conveyances to each set of Trustees of 
such portions of the Church property as will be held in 
Trust by them. The Trustees, on accepting the Trust, must 
sign a deed of submission to the authority of the General 
Synod. All the Trusts will be thus brought within the 
provisions of the Religious and Charitable Trusts Act of 
1856 ; and new Trustees can be appointed from time to 
time by the Board of Appointment holding authority 
under the General Synod. 

" The property of the Church may be classed under the 
following heads : — 

"1. Sites of Churches and Burial Grounds. — ^For the 
tenure of property of this class, I should advise that all 
the churches and burial grounds, within convenient limits, 
such as an Archdeaconry or Eural Deanery, should be 
held by one set of Trustees, responsible to the General 
and Diocesan Synods, but not under the authority of the 
Parochial Committees. 


" The advantages of this plan are manifold. The pro- 
perties so held in one Trust might mutually insure one 
another, by a small annual payment made by the Church- 
wardens of each parish ; the proceeds of all the burial 
grounds arising from fees and sales of vaults would main- 
tain a Curator to improve all the grounds. A building 
fund might be accumulated by a small payment from each 
parish; by which, at the end of a certain number of 
years, each parish might be assisted to rebuild its church. 
The care of the fabric of the churches being a part of the 
Archdeacon's duty, I think that he ought in all cases to be 
ex officio one of the Trustees to hold sites of churches and 
bunal grounds. 

" 2. Parsonage Houses and Glebea — Some confusion is 
apt to arise on the subject of Glebes. Glebe land may 
either mean land given for the actual use and occupation 
of the clergyman ; or, land to be let as an endowment for 
his maintenance. In respect of land actually vsed and 
occupied by the clergyman, with consent of the Dioeesan 
Synod, including the site of the parsonage house, it may 
be thought well that the clergyman should be his own 
Trustee, upon signing the usual deed of submission to the 
authority of the General Synod. He will thereby approxi- 
mate as closely as can be desired to the status of a 
beneficed clergyman in England, but with this difference, 
that he will not be able to avail himself of a freehold 
tenure to defy the authority of the Church. As a Trustee 
he will be subject to all the conditions of the Trust, one 
of which ought to be that he shall be bound to keep the 
parsonage in repair. Care ought to be taken that de- 
lapidations shall be repaired during the lifetime of the 
Incumbent, and not left to be paid for after his death. 

" 3. Glebes for endowment, on the contrary, ought, I 
think, to be held by the Trustees of the Endowment Fund. 
There can be no advantage in the Clergyman and his 
Parishioners being connected by the relations of landlord 
and tenant. He will generally get less than his due, and 
even that at the price of much ill-will. Besides, if the 
principle of a Diocesan Scale of Income be adopted by 
the Synod, Clergymen will not in all cases be entitled to 
receive the whole rent of the glebe. It will be seen at 
once, how this will facilitate the division of Parishes, and 


exchanges between Clergymen from one Fcuish to another. 
The cases in which such exchanges are desirable are when 
Clergymen are no longer equal to the chaige of populous 
and laborious parishes. In such cases no difficulty on the 
score of income ought to stand in the way of an exchange 
to a more suitable sphere of duty. 

" 4 Cathedral Property. — ^The valuable Estate known as 
the Cathedral Ground at Auckland will be surrendered 
to the General Synod, in Trust that the proceeds shall be 
applied to the permanent endowment of Bishoprics within 
the Islands of New Zealand ; to the building of Cathedral 
Churches, in which the members of the Church residing 
in the distant parts of the country shall have places 
allotted to them, when they come to the Cathedral City ; 
to assist in building and repairing Bishops' houses; in 
maintaining candidates for Holy Onlers ; in defraying the 
expenses of meetings of Synods, Begistration, Visitations 
of Bishops and Archdeacons, and in general to such uses 
as belong rather to the Diocesan than to the Parochial 
system. I would advise the Synod to constitute a separate 
Trust for this Property : and to take care, that if possible, 
the interests of all the New Zealand Dioceses shall be 
represented in it. 

"5. Collegiate Property. — I have carefully abstained 
from all attempts to incorporate Colleges under charters 
or statutes granted by the Colonial Legislature. It seems 
to be impossible in a new country to frame statutes to 
provide for every change of circumstances which may 
occur. For example, since the departure of the present 
Bishop of Wellington, St. John's College has remained 
without a Principal. I have used the discretion vested 
in me by the donors of the College Estates to apply part 
of the proceeds to the maintenance of Scholars in other 
Church Schools; and part to the improvement of the 
Estatea The buildings in like manner have not been 
useless, but have been occupied every summer by the 
scholars of the Melanesian Mission: and the College 
Chapel has been the place where the natives of many 
islands have offered up their first prayers in the House of 
Gk)d. I would recommend that the same latitude of dis* 
cretion be granted to the new Trustees of the College 
properties, to use them to the best advantage, according to 


circumstances, to promote sound learning and religious 
education, reporting to the General Synod, at its periodical 
meetings, the details of their system and of their accounts. 
Two such Trusts would be required. One for Trinity 
College, Porirua, and another for St. John's College, with 
its affiliated Grammar School at Auckland. 

" 6. Native Education. — It appears from the original 
letter of Sir George Grey, that he intended the present 
Boards of Education to come under the authority of the 
General Synod. The Native Education Act, passed in the 
last session of the General Assembly, makes no change in 
the government of the Native Schools, as at present 
carried on under the three religious bodies. At present, 
the system of Native Education in connexion with the 
Church of England is cumbered with this difficulty, that 
the Funds granted out of the revenue of the country 
have been administered by the two Boards of Education, 
but the Lands are vested in the Bishop alone; and yet the 
objects of both Trusts are the same ; for the lands were 
given expressly to make the schools [self-supporting, and 
so to supersede the grants of money. If the Synod were 
to re-appoint the present Boards of Education, and also 
vest in them the School Estates, which I now surrender, 
both branches of the work would be brought under the 
same government. The Auckland Board of Education 
would administer Estates at St. Stephen's, Eohanga, Tuku- 
poto, and Otawhao ; and the Southern Board at Te Ante, 
Whanganui, Papawai, and Kai-kokiri-kiri. The Native 
School Estate at Otald is devoted to the same purposes, 
but is held in trust by the Church Missionary Society. No 
Crown Grant has yet been issued for the School Estate at 
Wairengahika, near Turanga. 

" 7. There are also some pieces of Land held in Trust 
by me for the Melanesian Mission, which I purpose to 
retain till the Island Bishop shall have been constituted 
and the Bishop shall have associated himself with the 
Greneral Synod. You are probably aware that a sum of 
money sufficient in itself for the endowment of this 
Bishopric has already been invested in the English Funds, 

"The last subject, which it is my duty to submit to 
your careful consideration, is the constitution of the 
Oenenl Synod itself ; and I have placed it last, because 

122 LIFE OP BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. 

if you should be inclined to take the various subjects of 
discussion in the order in which I have arranged them in 
this opening address, this, which is in some respects 
the most important subject of all, will not be brought 
under consideration till all the Bishops and many other 
members now absent shall have assembled. 

** Many of you are well aware that it was not without 
anxious deliberation that the Conference resolved unani- 
mously to authorize this Synod to be convened, and drew 
up a deed of Constitution for that purpose. That Con- 
stitution will be found to contain nothing more than has 
been agreed to again and again at public meetings, held 
periodically, of the members of the Church in all the 
English settlements during the last ten years. With the 
exception of the two fundamental points of adhesion to 
the Doctrines of the Church of England, and the Constitu- 
tion of the General Synod with the Three orders of Bishops, 
Clergy, and Laity, every question of Church government 
is open to the consideration of tUe present meeting. 

" The first question affecting the Constitution of the 
Synod, which will naturaUy engage your attention, wiU be 
the Qualification of Electors. I would deprecate the use 
of the word Churph Membership, because, as a voluntary 
Society, we cannot confer rights of Church Membership 
upon those who join us, nor deny them to those who stand 
aloof The test which we ought to require is the declara- 
tion of a willingness to obey the Laws of the Synod, which 
the Elector through his Bepresentative will concur in 
making. And here the value of the three orders is appar- 
eint, for every member of the Church may rest assured 
that no law can be made to which a majority of his own 
order has not consented. 

" This limitation of the Electoral Franchise will require 
an Electoral Boll, with certain persons duly appointed to 
add to it from time to time the names of new Electors. 
It wiU be the duty of the Secretaiy of the General Synod 
to forward to these persons timely notice of all Elections, 
and to issue Voting Papers, if that should be the mode of 
Election which you adopt. In short, the Bepresentative 
system of the General Synod will require to be worked 
with the greatest care, through a known and registered 
body of Electors, increasing daily, as we may hope, in 


numbers, in proportion as information is difiPosed, and 
interest awakened, by the actual working of the General 
Synod. For, while I admit that the number of Electors 
who have voted for Bepresentatives to the present Synod 
is but small, yet I cannot agree with those who argue that 
therefore the time for Synodical action is not yet come. 
On the contrary, after grinding in the mill of public meet- 
ings for ten tedious years of hope deferred, I have come to 
the conclusion that nothing but the actual meeting of the 
Synod itself would ever have awakened a general interest 
among the great body of our professing members. The 
plain truth is this, that we have been so long accustomed 
to have everything done for us, that we are very slow at 
coming to the conclusion that, in our Colonial Church, we 
have everything to do for ourselves. 

" After fixing the qualification of Electors you will have 
to consider the Qualification for Lay Bepresentatives, and, 
in fixing this^ I do most earnestly hope that we shall not 
recede from the standard adopted by the Conference, of 
members in full communion with the Church of England. 
You will accept my assurance that this recommendation is 
made, in no exclusive spirit, but with the earnest prayer 
that the Spirit of God may so bless our united work, that 
through the means of grace conveyed to our brethren in 
these earthen vessels, and distributed throughout the 
length and breadth of the land, many devout communi- 
cants may. be yearly added to the Church, and so be pre- 
pared to join us in seeking for the spirit of counsel in 
communion with God and with Christ. 

" I would draw your attention further to the Qualifica- 
tion of Clergymen. You will have to consider whether 
any Clergymen should be members of the Synod ex officio, 
as, for example. Archdeacons acting ex officio as Trustees of 
Endowment Funds. You wiU have to cUstinguish between 
Clergymen regularly licensed, and holding Church ofBces ; 
and other Clergymen licensed generally to perform Divine 
Service, but holding offices not immediately connected 
with the Church : and other Clergymen again, who are 
neither licensed, nor hold any office, but live as ordinary 
settlers. It will be a question also for you to decide, 
whether Deacons shall be admitted to the same privileges 
as Presbyters. In whatever manner these questions may 


be settled, we shall require an official list of Clergy duly- 
qualified to take part in the proceedings of any Greneral or 
Diocesan Synod. My own idea of a distinction would be 
that every licensed Clergyman, whether Presbyter or 
Deacon, might claim to be entered upon the List by right, 
and that every unlicensed Clergyman of irreproachable 
life and character may be entered £f proposed and accepted 
at a meeting of any Diocesan Synod. 

" The Minor points, of the time and place of meeting of 
the General Synod, the manner in which it is to be con- 
vened ; the payment of the expenses of the Synod itself, 
and of the attendance of its members ; the best mode of 
authenticating its proceedings will not escape your notice, 
but they require no further remark. 

" But there is one subject more under this head of the 
Constitution of the General Synod, which I must not 
omit : and that is the consideration of the best mode of 
drawiDg our Native brethren into closer bonds of Christian 
fellowship with ourselves. I have already mentioned that 
an Endowment both in money and land has been pro- 
vided for the Melanesian Bishopric : and let us never rest 
satisfied till the Bishop of the Isles has taken hia seat 
among us. Already it has pleased God that our field of 
view should be extended over seventy or eighty islands ; 
and our work will not be done till twice that number of 
heathen Islands shall have received the message of salva- 
tion. To make this work our own, to identify it with the 
duty of our branch of the Church, to form systematic plans 
and to carry out regular efforts for its support, will be a 
part of our proceec&gs upon which I do not anticipate 
one dissentient voice. 

''But to come nearer home, upon the same line of 
thought I must draw your attention to the state of the 
Native Church of New Zealand. And first to one subject 
claiming our unmingled thankfulness, that I hope soon to 
receive a Commission to consecrate to the office of a Bishop 
one whose age and experience has often made me fedl 
ashamed that I should have been preferred before him, 
and to whom I have long wished to be allowed to make 
this reparation, by dividing with him the duties and 
responsibilities of my office. 

'' The great object for which the Missionary Diocese of 


Turanga (s=Waiapu) has been constituted is to widen the 
basis of Native Ordination. At present it is impossible 
not to feel some doubts of the future stability of the 
Native Church. My recent journey through the Mission 
Stations has left me in a balanced state between hope and 
fear. The thought of the populous districts of Whakatane, 
Opotiki, Waiapu, and Taranaki, cdl left without a resident 
Missionary, would be one of unmingled sorrow, if we did 
not see the fruits of the Divine Blessing upon the Mission 
now appearing, in the faithful men of the Native race 
who have already been ordained, or are now passing 
through their probation for the Ministry. We must feel 
that, when half the human race in Africa, India, and 
China is still unconverted, we cannot expect more men 
from England to take care of our 50,000 souls. But why 
shotdd we desire foreign com, when our own native fields 
are white already to the harvest ? Our lot has fallen in a 
fair ground, yea we have a goodly heritage. We are the 
tillers of a field which the Lord has blessed. 

"This is the bright gleam of hope which cheers the 
sadness of our Missionary joumeyings. It cannot be that 
all this work of grace should have been wrought in vain. 
If we pass through deserted hamlets, where the aged men 
and women who welcomed us in former years have passed 
away, leaving no child, the thought arises, that though they 
have passed from ecurth, yet not one of them is lost. If 
we see the signs of a decaying faith, and of a love that 
waxes cold, in the ruined chapel and its grass-grown path, 
we have but to look to the tombs around it, {or there lie 
those who have gone to their rest in Jesus, dying in the 
fervour of their first love, and infants cut off like flowers 
in the morning, with the fresh dew of baptismal grace upon 
their hearts ; there the first evangelists to their heathen 
oountrymen wait for their Lord's return to call them to 
enter into His joy. If we see the native youth departing 
from the example of their fathers, given to self-indtdgence, 
drunkenness and sloth ; we see, on the other hand, that 
through this furnace of temptation, as in our own schools 
and colleges in England, God's chosen servants are being 
trained and proved for the ministry of His Word. The very 
same cause which fills our hearts with fears for the many 
strengthens our confidence in the stability of the few. 


" But I cannot disguise my conviction that the time has 
come when a united action between the two branches of 
our Church is absolutely necessary. Our countrymen are 
spreading themselves over the greater part of the New 
Zealand Islands. Japhet is being enlarged to dwell in the 
tents of Shem. The constant traffic with the English 
towns brings the Native population more and more into 
contact with our own race. It will be found impossible 
to carry on a double government for the Colonial and 
Missionary Church. But the blending of the one into the 
other must be a gradual work, and ought to be begun im- 
mediately. The Euthanasia of the Mission cannot be a 
sudden death. 

" It is now more than six years (Feb. 23, 1853) since 
a large public meeting at this place concurred unanimously 
in the following Besolution : — 

" ' That this Meeting, gratefully acknowledging the vast 
benefits which, under Divine Providence, have been con- 
ferred upon the New Zealand Islands by the Church 
Missionary Society, authorize Archdeacon Hadfield to 
communicate with the Society in order to ascertain 
whether they would be willing to resign into the hands 
of the Clergy and Laity of the district of Wellington 
their pi'esent charge of the Native Settlements in that 
district; and upon what conditions they would assist in 
forming a fund for the permanent Endowment of Native 
Parishes and Schools.' 

" I would earnestly recommend to this Synod the adop- 
tion of a resolution of a similar kind, including the whole 
field of the Society's Mission in New Zealand. 

''My apology for the length of this address must be 
that I have endeavoured to condense, within the smallest 
compass, the deeply important subjects which it is my 
duty, as your President, to bring before you ; and I will 
now conclude by the expression of my earnest prayer that 
we may be so blessed with the spirit of counsel as to have 
a right judgment in all things." 

The discussions of this Synod were conducted with a 
spirit of forbearance and charity, which confuted the fore- 
bodings of those who had declared that the clergy and 
laity would meet only for the fomenting and increasing of 


dissensions, and the Synod terminated by an act, which the 
bishop gratefully thus described in a letter to his son : — 

" The Synod was closed most appropriately by the con- 
secration of Bishop Williams ; the four Bishops, of New 
Zealand, Christchurch, Wellington, and Nelson concurring 
in the act of consecration. It was a most delightful day, 
and one that I little expected to see when I first came to 
New Zealand. All seemed to be so thoroughly happy and 
satisfied with the appointment of the new bishops, as 
much as if each settlement had chosen its own bishop 
from personal knowledge ; and the act of the younger 
bishops in consecrating one so long and so much respected 
in New Zealand as Bishop Williams was felt to be most 
appropriate : lest we should seem to have come in to reap 
the harvest which another had sown. 

" After the Synod we returned to Auckland, from which 
centre I am now following up the remainder of my cycle 
paper, with only one Sunday more before I come to the 
end. For all these mercies, may God make me truly thank- 
ful, and may the same merciful Providence watch over my 
dear children." 

About the same time (April 13) the bishop wrote to a 
Mend in England : — 

"We had a delightful day on Sunday, April 3, when 
the four Bishops, of New Zealand, Christchurch, Welling- 
ton, and Nelson, consecrated the Bishop of Waiapu. We 
are most grateful to the Giver of all Good. 1 shall go 
back to Auckland light in heart, being now enabled to 
leave these rising provinces to the care of their own 
bishops. The time is approaching when I shall feel justi- 
fied in applying for permission to consecrate Mr. Patteson 
as Bishop for the Islands ; giving up, if required, the Bay of 
Islands for his See. In the meantime I hope to be enabled 
by God's blessing to prosecute the mission work with 
more vigour in consequence of the cutting oflF of the 
southern portions of New Zealand.'' 

This event was one that evidently drew forth pro- 
foundest gratitude from the bishop: his letters at this 


time seem to have abounded with thaiLkfalnes& Thus 
to another friend he wrote : — 

• •••■• 

" I wish that you could have been present to see our little 
church at the Antipodes, represented by its four Eton 
Bishops (for we must naturalize Harper),^ lighting a fifth 
candlestick to be a light to lighten our native Christians. 
The new bishop was already at his work in New Zealand 
while I was still a boy at Eton ; and though a veteran, who 
might have claimed some relaxation of his work, has just 
pulled down a comfortable house at his mission station to 
remove to a wild tract of uncultivated land, and there 
begin again the first work of settling, amidst all the per- 
turbations of a native school, for the purpose of training 
up the New Zealand youth to take their place in the new 
order of things. 

" At present I can hardly bring fully home to my mind 
the feeling of relief from the state of constant straining 
after unattainable results in which I have hitherto lived. 
The change is so sudden, that my present state of mind is 
one almost of collapse, and I am not so fully happy aud 
thankful as I ought to be ; but this will come when I 
have had time to adjust myself to my narrow orbit, especi- 
ally' if it should please Grod to enable me to win the per- 
sonal regard of my smaller flock, to know them as their 
shepherd, and to be known by them, instead of merely 
passing by and casting upon them the shadow of an 
apostolic office, but without its healing virtue." 

The Constitution adopted at this first meeting of the 
General Synod was brought into operation in the several 
dioceses in the course of the same year; that is to say, a 
Synod in each diocese was convened by its bishop, con- 
sisting of the bishop, all the licensed cleigy and lay repre- 
sentatives from each organized cure; and the powers 
entrusted to it, under the Constitution by the General 
Synod, were exercised in drawing up statutes for the 
election of synodsmen and of nominators, the formation of 
parishes, and for regulating generally the external affairs 
of the diocese. 

^ Rishop Harper had been a Private Tutor at Eton, but never an Eton boy. 


These Diocesan Synods have since met eveiy year, and 
have secured in each diocese the hearty co-operation of 
their respective clergy and laity; it is not easy to 
overrate the advantages which the Church has gained 
thereby^ alike as regards its government and its esta* 
blishment in the affections of the people ; and it may be 
afi&rmed with truth, that without some such synodical 
action, giving to the clergy and laity a voice in the regula- 
tion of matters ecclesiastical, no Colonial Church can 
take a permanent hold upon the community among whom 
it is placed. The Oeneral Synod, which is the presiding 
authority of the provincial Church, is held once in three 
years, and since its first meeting at Wellington in 1859 
has been assembled six times, viz., at Nelson 1862, 
Christchurch 1865, Auckland 1868, Dunedin 1871, Wel- 
lington 1874, and Nelson 1877. Its ofiEice is to aid in 
maintaining, in union with the Church of England, the 
doctrine, sacraments, and discipline of Christ, as that 
Church has received the same; to provide for unity of 
action on all essential matters, and the enforcement of 
discipline throughout the province ; and to combine and 
develop the energies and sympathies of the Church in 
the extension of her work and ordinances. No material 
alteration has been made in the Constitution since its first 
adoption, excepting in reference to the tenure of Church 
property. A large proportion of this, chiefly, however, in 
the North Island, had been obtained by gifts or purchased 
by Bishop Selwyn, and was vested in him ; and this he 
proposed to surrender to Trustees appointed by the General 
Synod, to be administered by them (if not under special 
Trusts), at the direction of the General Synod ; and he seems 
to have expected that other Trustees of Church property 
and bodies like Diocesan Synods, who might associate 
themselves with the General Synod, would likewise place 
their property under the control of the General Synod, and 
so that body, by the hold which it would have over Church 
property, would ensure obedience to its decisions and 


greater uniformity of actioo. This was objected to by the 
Churchmen of the Diocese of Christchurch, where the 
lands which had been set apart by the Canterbury Associa - 
tion for Church purposes had been vested in a body of 
trustees appointed under an Act of the Legislature. They 
asked to be recognised as entitled to unite themselves with 
the other Dioceses u:bder the Constitution and to take 
their part in the administration of the affairs of the 
Church, without transferring those lands, from the trustees 
in whom they were vested, to trustees appointed by the 
General Synod. The question was fully considered at the 
meeting of the General Synod held at Christchurch in 
1865, when it was agreed that each Diocesan Synod might 
hold property for Ecclesiastical purposes and appoint 
trustees of such property without prejudice to their alli- 
ance to the Church Constitution or to the authority of the 
General Synod. And to facilitate this, an Act, with the 
sanction of the Synod, was obtained from the Colonial 
Legislature, by which it was provided that each Diocesan 
Synod should possess, in respect of property held for 
Diocesan purposes and vested in trustees appointed by the 
Diocesan Synod, the same powers as were possessed by the 
General Synod in respect of property held in trust for that 
body. An useful Act had previously been passed by 
the New Zealand Legislature, enabling the General 
Synod, or indeed any body recognised as represen- 
tative of a religious denomination, to appoint trustees, and 
to fill up vacancies when such might occur, at a duly 
constituted meeting. 

Other Acts also empowered the Bishop of New Zealand 
to transfer property held by him to trustees appointed 
by the General Synod, and have enabled fdso any 
bishop in New Zealand who had become possessed of 
property in his corporate capacity, to transfer the same to 
trustees appointed by the Diocesan Synods. This has been 
the only serious deviation from the intentions of the founder 
of the Church Constitution of New Zealand — ^for such 


must Bishop Selwyn be esteemed, though, as he himself 
repeatedly stated, he only followed therein the precedents 
of the early Church, and was assisted in the draft of the 
Constitation by Sir J. Patteson and Sir J. T. Coleridge, and 
his friends and advisers Sir W. Martin and Mr. Swainson. 
And the steps taken to obtain this concession, involving, 
as it did, an important departure from the plan contem- 
plated by Bishop Selwyn, only served in the end to show 
what reliance was placed by a large body of objectors 
in his wisdom, his disinterestedness, and his devotion to 
the interests of the Church, and their earnest desire not 
to lose the invaluable benefits which he had secured to the 
Church by his sagacity and untiring exertions. 

In 1862, on the occasion of the General Synod being 
held at Nelson, the President could announce to the mem- 
bers assembled that the number of clergy in the Province 
had risen to nearly one hundred, among whom were one 
priest and nine deacons of the native race : that since 
1859 Diocesan Synods had assembled twice in the diocese 
of New Zealand, twice in the diocese of Christchurch, 
thrice in the diocese of Wellington, and four times in 
the diocese of Nelson; while in the essentially Maori 
diocese of Waiapu a Synod had been held, attended by 
two English clergjonen, three native clergymen, and nine- 
teen lay synodsmen of native race, and in which all the 
proceedings were conducted in the Maori language. 
A Bural Deanery Board had likewise been organized in 
Otago, in the hope of thus preparing the way for the Synod 
of a new diocese. 

In the previous year Bishop Patteson had been conse- 
crated, and now took his seat in the Synod, which aflBrmed 
" that it will be of the greatest advantage to the Church in 
New Zealand to have a definite field of missionaiy labour 
open to it." " But," said the bishop — 

"These manifold blessings have been tempered with 
much wholesome sorrow. At the very time when we were 
vou IT. K 


thanking God for the increase of the native pastorate, a 
war broke out between the two races, which at one time 
seemed to threaten to rend asunder the bonds by which, 
they had been united for twenty years under the influence 
of the same faith and in obedience to one sovereign. 

" After visiting most of the tribes who were engaged in 
the war^ I have reason to think that it has pleased God, in 
His mercy, to avert this fearful calamity. We may still 
cherish the hope that the two branches which have been 
grafted upon the same root of Christ will live and bear 
fruit together. May God grant that Japhet may not envy 
Shem, and that Shem may not vex Japhet. 

" In thus thanking God for these evidences of His mercy, 
we must not be understood to thank Him only for the 
material system of Church-government which He has 
enabled us to &ame. We have learned to-day, in the 
celebration of the highest ordinance of our holy religion, 
to thank God that we are ' very members incorporate in 
the mystical body of His Son, which is the blessed com- 
pany of all faithful people.' We thank Him for the spirit 
of love, of concord, of communion, which He has breathed 
into the many members of our united body. We thank 
Him for all the separate gifts of holiness and grace which 
He has given to us as ' members in particular ;' and also 
for uniting us together in one holy fellowship. We thank 
Him for the grace by which we have been made ' lively 
stones ' (1 Peter ii. 5) ; and also for that grace by which 
He has bxdlt us up to be ' a spiritual house.' It is of His 
mercy that we are not mere grains of sand, but are com- 
pacted into the substance of the Bock of Ages. 

'* The end and aim of this spiritual organization is work, 
greater, better, more effectual work. We are ' made mem- 
bers of this holy fellowship, that we may do all such good 
works as God has prepared for us to walk in.' All great 
works must be done by the agreement of many workmen, 
imder one master-builder. * Can two walk together except 
they be agreed ? ' All argument on this subject is unneces- 
sary in an age like the present. Every object in the world 
around us suggests the thought that single-handed work 
has passed away, a^ belonging to an age of barbarism. The 
spade has given way to the plough ; the scythe, the sickle, 
and the flail are being superseded by machines for mowing. 


reaping, and thrashing. The single arm is reinforced by 
combinations of wheels and levers to raise a weight far 
beyond its own unassisted strength ; and as man associates 
with himself the beasts of burden, and the mechanical 
powers to multiply his strength, so for the same purpose 
he unites himself with his fellow- men. The first thought 
of the projector of any great work is to form a company. 
The effect of this power of association, so strongly marked 
in our own race, has been to multiply sixfold, within our 
own lifetime, the rapidity of travelling by land ; to reduce 
to less than one-half the time of the post between England 
and this country ; to carry messages with the rapidity of 
lightning over thousands of miles : all these are the visible 
proofs of the power of united action under the guidance of 
practical wisdom. 

'' We also have our great work which God has given to 
us to do : 'to prepare the way of the Lord, to make straight 
in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley must 
be exalted, and every mountain and hill must be laid low ; 
and the crooked must be made straight, and the rough 
places plain.' (Isaiah xl. 4.) 

"This work cannot be done without union of manv 
hearts and hands, under the guidance of the wisdom which 
is from on high. Men of the greatest gifts and the most 
exalted piety have tried to reform mankind by their own 
spiritual energy and individual zeal; but their work too often 
died with themselves, because it was built upon no system 
to endure to future generations. Not so the great Master- 
builder, — He who ' hath measured the waters in the hollow 
of His hand, and meted out heaven with the span ; who 
taketh up the isles as a very little thing; and before whom 
all nations are as nothing/ — even He condescends to asso- 
ciate fallen men as fellow-workers with His blessed Son. 
It might have been enough that the Word of life should 
be preached once for all by the lips of Him, who spake as 
never man spake ; but it was the will of God that His ser- 
vants should ' go into all the world and preach the Gospel 
to every creature.' Nothing could be added to the perfect 
tion of Him who came to be the Saviour of the world ; all 
were to live and move and have their being in Him ; light 
and life were to be in Him alone ; Christ was to be all 
and in all; and yet there was to be no member of His 

K 2 


Church 80 poor and humble as not to have his allotted 
work in his Master's household. Hand and foot, and eye 
and ear, all were to have their appointed functions, as 
'members in particular/ and yet united as the body of 
Christ. There was to be no schism in the body, because 
it is the same God which worketh all in all. No abund- 
ance of spiritual gifts could dispense with the necessity of 
the ' more excellent way ' of charity. * Miracles, gifts of 
healing, diversities of tongues' (1 Cor. 12), were not more 
powerful evidences of the truth of the Gospel, than the fact 
that ^ the multitude of them that believed were of one heart 
and of one soul ' (Acts iv. 32). This more excellent way 
cannot be less necessary to us now that the miraculous 
gifts of the Holy Ghost have been withdrawn. "We need 
all the strength that unity can give ; all the graces that are 
promised to united prayer ; all the power which the ' mem- 
ber in particular ' derives from its incorporation with the 
body, and from its dependence upon the Head. 

" This is the principle of our synodical action. It is not, 
as some suppose, a vain attempt to supply by material or- 
ganization the defects of inward life ; but it is the result of 
a conviction, founded upon the records of the Apostolic 
Church, that the inward life must not be separated in 
practice from the external unity of the body of Christ 
The law of unity is the essence of its strength, its purity, 
and its holiness. The only faith that will remove moun- 
tains and make straight in the desert a highway for our 
God, is that faith which worketh by lova" 

In 1865 the General Synod was held at Christchurch, 
and some changes were made in the Constitution at the 
instance of the Diocesan Synod of Christchurch as men* 
tioned above. A more important step was taken, which was 
nothing less than an acceptance on the part of the Bishops 
of New Zealand of that amount of severance from the 
State which seemed to be deduced from discordant utt-er- 
ances of the Civil Courts in £ngland, and a petition that 
the severance might be made complete and unmistakeable 
by the removal of the last semblance of connexion repre- 
sented by the retention of discredited Letters Patent The 
petition of the Bishops was in the following teiins : — 



The Humble Petition of the uDdersigned Bishops of the 
Anglican Church in New Zealand sheweth : — 

1. That your Majesty's Petitioners were duly consecrated 
according to the Form and Manner of Making, Ordaining, 
and Consecrating of Bishops according to the Order of the 
United Church of England and Ireland, and humbly ex- 
press their conviction that aU the powers necessary for the 
due administration of the Office of a Bishop in this Colony 
were conveyed to them by the Ordinance of Consecration. 

2. That your Majesty's Petitioners accepted Letters 
Patent from the Crown the validity of which has now 
been denied by the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council in the following words : — 

" Although in a Crown Colony properly so called ♦ ♦ ♦ 
a bishopric may be constituted and Ecclesiastical Jurisdic- 
tion conferred by the sole authority of the Croum, yet the 
Letters Patent of the Crown toill not have any such effect or 
operation in a Colony or Settlement which is possessed of an 
independent Legislature'^ 

That the Letters Patent granted to your Majesty's Peti- 
tioners were issued after the Colony of New Zealand had 
become possessed of an independent Legislature. 

3. That your Majesty's Petitioners therefore humbly 
crave permission to surrender their Letters Patent and to 
be allowed to rely in future upon the powers inherent in 
their office for perpetuating tlie succession of their Order 
within the Colony of New Zealand and securing the due 
exercise of their Episcopal functions, in conformity with 
the Church Constitution hereinafter described. 

4. That your Majesty's Petitioners, in conjunction with 
Bepreseutatives of the Clergy and Laity from all the Dio- 
ceses in New Zealand, and with Bishop Patteson, have 
agreed upon a Constitution for associating together the 
Members of the United Church of England and Ireland in 
New Zealand by Voluntary Compact for the ordering the 
affairs, the management of the property, the promotion of 
the discipline of the Members thereof, and for the in- 
culcation and maintenance of sound Doctrine and true 
Beligion throughout the Colony. 

136 LIFE OF BISHOP 8BLWYN. [chap. 

5. That this Constitution has been recognised by an 
Act of the Colonial Legislature empowering the Bishop of 
New Zealand to convey to Trustees appointed by the 
General Synod, as established under the provisions of the 
said Constitution, numerous properties formerly held by 
him ; and that at the present time the residences of four 
Bishops and of many of the Clergy, Sites for Churches and 
Schools, Burial Grounds, Lands for the Endowment of 
Bishoprics, Parishes, Schools, Colleges, and of the Melane- 
sian Mission, are vested in Trustees appointed under the 
authority of the said General Synod ; and further, that 
regulations have been framed for the administration of the 
properties so held in Trust for the General Synod, and a 
Tribunal has been established for the decision of any doubts 
which may arise in the course of such administration, in 
agreement, as it is believed, with the decision of the Judi- 
cial Committee of the Privy Council in the Case of Eev. 
W. Long V, the Bishop of Capetown. 

6. That the General Sjmod at a meeting held at Christ- 
church in May 1865 framed rules for enforcing Discipline 
within their Body, and also established a Tribunal to deter- 
mine whether the rules so framed and assented to '* have 
been violated or not, and wliat shall be the consequences 
of such violation/' and that all the Bishops in New Zea- 
land together with Bishop Patteson assented to the Bules 
so framed, and to the establishment of the Tribunal afore- 
said, and are bound in common with all the Clergy and Lay 
officers of the Church in this Colony by all the Bules 
adopted by the General Synod. And further, that this 
Compact so entered into by all the Bishops in New Zealand 
before the receipt of the Judgment of the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council on Petition of the Bishop of 
Natal was afterwards found to be in agreement with the 
following words of that Judgment : — 

" The United Church of England and Ireland is not a 
part of the Gonsiiiution in any Colonial Settlement, nor can 
its authorities or those who hear office in it claim to he recog- 
nised hy the Law of the Colony othenvise than as the members 
of a voluntary association'* 

7. That this Constitution of the Church in New Zealand 
was framed after careful consideration of a Despatch of the 
Bight Honorable H. Labouchere to Governor-General Sir 


Edmund Head, Bart, and in accoidance with the following 
suggestion in that Despatch : — 

" / am avxire of the advarUaqes which might belong to a 
schema under which the binding force of such regtUcUione 
shwdd be simply voluntary. "^ 

8. That your Majesty's Petitioners have accepted and 
acquiesce in the decision of the Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council that the Church of England in this Colony 
'' is in the same situation with any other Beligious body, in 
no better hU in no worse position, and the members may adopt 
rules for enforcing Discipline vnthin their body which wiU be 
binding an those who expressly or by implication have assented 
to them" And they therefore humbly submit that the 
Judgment of Lord Lyndhurst in the Case of Dr. Warren 
points out the course of procedure in all questions which 
may arise between any of the members of the Anglican 
Church in New Zealand, whether Bishops, Clergy, or Laity, 
who have bound themselves by Voluntary Compact under 
the authority of the General Synod, viz. : — 

(1). That the question be tried and decided according 
to the Bules of the Synod as agreed to by the 
Bishops, Clergy, and Laity. 
(2). TfuU on Petition of either Party the Supreme 
Court of the Colony has authority to inquire into 
" the regularity of the proceedings and the autho- 
rity of the Tribunal, and on those grounds merely " 
to affirm or annul the decision. 
(3). iTuU ftom any such decision of the Supreme 
Court of the Colony an appeal would lie to the 
Privy CouncU upon the same grounds. 

And therefore that the Anglican Church in New Zealand is 

effectually guarded against the danger apprehended by the 

Lords of the Judicial Committee, viz. : — 

'^ That cases might occur in which there would be a denial 

of justice and no refmedyfor great public inconvenience and 


without having recourse to a direct appeal to the Crown in 

the case of any controversy such as that which is presented 

by the Petition of the Bishop of Natal. 

9. That the above recited principle of the civil equality 
of all Beligious Bodies has been affirmed by a Besolution 
passed by the House of Bepresentatives in New Zealand. 


10. That your Majesty's Petitioners humbly express 
their conviction that the right of appointment of Bishops 
in New Zealand is not part of the prerogative of the Crown, 
inasmuch as all the Bishoprics were founded by private 
efforts and endowed from private resources ; and further, 
that the assertion of any such claim may operate as a 
most serious discouragement to the Clergy edready in New 
Zealand, and tend to prevent other clergymen from coming 
out from England, by cutting them off from all hope of 
election to the highest office of the Church in this Colony. 

11. That your Majesty's Petitioners therefore humbly 
pray that all doubts may be removed as to their stcUiis both 
ecclesiastical and temporal, 

1. By the acceptance of the surrender of their Letters 
Patent now declared to be null and void : 

2. By declaring the Eoyal Mandate under which your 
Majesty's Petitioners were consecrated to be merely 
an authority given by the Crown for the Act of 
Consecration, and to have no further effect or legal 
consequence : 

3. By recognizing the inherent right of the Bishops in 
New Zealand to fill up vacancies in their own order 
by the Consecration of persons elected in conformity 
with the regulations of the General Synod, without 
Letters Patent, and without Boyal Mandate, in the 
same manner as they have already consecrated a 
Missionary Bishop for the Islands in the Western 
Pacific, after communication with your Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies and 
with the Attorney-General of New Zealand. 

And your Majesty's humble and loyal Petitioners as in 
duty bound will ever pray, &c. 

G. A. New Zealand, 
H. J. C. Christchurch, 
C. J. Wellington, 
Edmund Nelson, 
William Waupu. 

When the sixth General Synod was held at Auckland in 
1868, Bishop Selwyn was in the anomalous position of the 
occupant of two Sees divided by half the world from each 


other. It had been found impossible for him to re- 
sign New Zealand on his being enthroned at Lichfield, 
and he had made it a condition of accepting the latter that 
he should return for a time to New Zealand and arrange 
the multifarious concerns of his diocese and province before 
the final separation was made. 

To the last day of his life the bishop was always the 
eloquent advocate and convincing defender of synodal 
action. When he took his seat in the Lambeth Confer- 
ence of 1867, which he declared to be in his judgment the 
most important event that had befallen the Church of 
England since the Reformation, he was at once listened to 
as the one prelate who had had more practical experience 
of Synods, diocesan and provincial, than any other member 
of that august assembly. During his stay in England, 
little dreaming that any prospect was before him other 
than that which most he desired, of dying first Bishop of 
New Zealand, his intense love for the Mother Church 
led him everywhere to recommend the establishment of 
Diocesan Synods, "whose decisions will be humbly and 
dutifully submitted to some higher Synod of the whole 
Anglican Church " as the remedy for our ** unhappy divi- 
sions," and as the surest means of winning souls and main- 
taining them in the faith, when won. At the Church 
Congress held at Wolverhampton, in 1867, in the very 
diocese over which he was so soon to rule, or, as he would 
have preferred to say, which he was so soon to serve, he 
insisted on the necessity of Synods being fully established, 
and he thus gave his own experience : — 

** For eight years I have been in the habit annually of 
meeting in my own Diocesan Synod both clergy and laity, 
and every three years I meet also our General Synod, com- 
posed of all the Bishops of New Zealand, with the addi- 
tion of Bishop Patteson, and with the elected clergy and 
laity of all the dioceses ; and in no one of these Synods 
has there ever been anything which a Christian man could 
wish had never taken place. The bishops, clergy, and 


laity have niet in one chamber, have discussed all subjects 
that were necessary to the well-being of the Church, and 
have especially discussed the subject of Church Missions 
in connexion with the extension of the Gospel of Christ 
through all the neighbouring islands ; and in the whole of 
this work there has been the greatest harmony among the 
different orders of which those Synods are composed, 
leaving upon my mind the most earnest hope that the day 
will shortly come when every diocese shall have its own 
Synod, where the clergy and laity will be presided over by 
their own bishop." 

In perfect consistency with these convictions and experi- 
ences, the bishop immediately on his translation to Lich- 
field sought to confer on his new diocese the blessings 
which with so much patience and labour he had acquired 
for the diocese which he was leaving. This part of the 
subject will, however, be dealt with at a future period, and 
will fall in with the record of lus life at Lichfield, 

In February, 1868, he took his seat for the first time in 
the Convocation at Canterbury, and the present Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury has publicly stated, with cordial 
appreciation of his many gifts, that " the bishops received 
very great benefit from the electric force which attended 
his presence, and which was certainly something new 
amongst them at the time when he became a bishop at 

No one can read the chronicles of Convocation of the 
year 1868 without recognising how true and how well 
chosen are the words of the Primate, which have been just 
quoted. Bishop Selwyn found the Upper House dis- 
cussing with much erudition and patience, but with infi- 
nitely small result, the following resolution, proposed by 
the Bishop of London : — 

"That this House, viewing with anxious concern the 
increasing diversity of practice in regard to ritual obser- 
vances as causing additional disquietude and contention ; 


and perceiving with deep regret that the resolntions 
adopted by the Convocations of Canterbury and York 
have failed to secure unity, deems it expedient for the 
peace of the Church that the limits of ritual observance 
should not be left to the uncontrolled discretion of indivi- 
dual clergymen, and therefore ought to be defined by 
rightful authority." 

The debate was long and learned, but it is not disre- 
spectfol to say that it could possibly lead to nothing but 
an expression of opinion on the part of the assembled 
prelates. This was at once detected by the Bishop of 
Lichfield^ who said : — 

" I think it desirable when a new member comes into a 
body, that he should in some general way state the princi- 
ples on which he intends to act ; and my principle, as far 
as I can see at present, is not to attempt to exercise any 
power that we do not really possess. I have been occupied 
for some twenty-five years in constructing a system of 
Church-government, if possible, out of the very discordant 
elements supplied to my hands when I first went to New 
Zealand. My first object was to construct a governing 
body which should have the confidence of the commu- 
nity, and I so far succeeded that an appeal has been made 
on a recent occasion touching this question of ritual to the 

f[)veming body. When imputations were made in New 
ealand against Bishop Jenner, who was consecrated to 
the See of Dunedin, that he favoured ritualistic practices, 
the answer made was that he had signed a declaration of 
submission to the laws of the governing body, and that he 
was prepared to submit to them. 

" Here I apprehend there is no governing body at all : 
but the Church is in a state of anarchy and lawlessness. 
Here is a rubric which bears the name of law.^ That law 
is so ambiguous that it ceases to be law, and in respect of 
that rubric the Church is in a state of lawlessness, and in 
respect to that lawlessness in a state of anarchy. To the 
rubric itself I attach very little consequence, because 
having accepted cordially the whole of the Ftayer-book 

^ The oraaments Bnbiic, 


I believe that this rubric may be altered by Parliament 
to-morrow without affecting my conscience or the con- 
science of any clergyman. The words are * by the autho- 
rity of Parliament/ and not a word is said about the 
Church. If Parliament chooses to alter that particular 
rubric to-morrow, I am bound to abide by the decision of 
Parliament by the terms of the rubric itself. But on the 
general principle I deny that Parliament can alter the 
Prayer-book as it pleases, and that we should be boimd to 
submit to the alterations, and therefore I limit my remarks 
to this particular rubric. I find that the rubric is not 
understood. Nobody can tell us what it means, and yet 
we are told there is going to be a legal decision upon it. 
The Bishop of London regretted that in giving its decision 
the Court was so slow in its operation. As the matter is so 
very uncertain, how can you expect the Court to go on 
quickly? The question evidently cannot rest upon the 
rubric alone. Are we then in the meantime, while a 
Boyal Commission is examining into the meaning of the 
rubric, and into the way in which individual clergymen 
understand it, and while the question is still pending in 
the Ecclesiastical Courts, to sit in condemnation upon a 
certain number of clergymen, whose names are not men- 
tioned, and whose doctrines are not known, and to cast out 
from this Convocation a general condemnation for certain 
offences upon persons unknown, founded on the transgres- 
sion of a law which we all admit to be unintelligible? 
This is a very great difiSculty to me, coming as a young 
and new member of this Convocation. In explaining my 
reasons for disagreeing to this resolution, I say that in 
support of it certain charges are made against certain 
persons unknown, and I cajinot support it because it does 
aim at certain persons unknown. 

" .... I have had a conversation with one clergyman in 
London on the subject of ritualism, and he told me frankly, 
that if there was really an effective governing body, he for 
one would at once give in his adhesion to it. If they axe 
told that Convocation, knowing nothing whatever upon 
the subject, has passed resolutions which, say what 
you will, will be construed into a direct condemnation, 
they will feel that the body to which they look for guid- 
ance has practically abdicated its own authority, and that 


they are left in the same state of anarchy as before. I 
think we ought to pause before sending out such a resolu- 
tion as that. I look upon it that the differervces have arisen 
from the suspension of the legiskUive potoer of the Chti/rch, 
and if I had any hope whatever, which I have not, and 
therefore do not intend to try the experiment, of being 
able to induce this Convocation to accept certain resolutions 
which would touch the root of the matter, and deal with 
the constitutional defect, I might be tempted to submit a 
proposition to the House. Ca7i we deny that the legislative 
powers of the Church are in a state of suspense ? The 
natural result of this suspension is that in doubtful matters 
individual clergymen have acted on their own judgment. 
An appeal to the Courts of Law can be of little avail, if the 
law itself be doubtful. How is a decision to be arrived 
at ? Is there any law at all ? If there be, must it not be 
a law of so doubtful a character that any decision upon it 
must be unsatisfactory? If the law be unsatisfactory, 
then it follows that legislation must be necessary. I think 
all this does point to legislation, and I think it better to 
say so at once. Why, indeed, should we have any hesi- 
tation in expressing our opinion? And if we do desire 
legislation, then I think a very grave and solemn question 
arises, viz., whether it should come upon one point alone, 
or whether it should not rather enter into a multitude of 
other questions. The legislative power in this country 
has remained dormant almost since the date of the Eefor- 
mation, and there has been no power of making new laws 
as new cases occurred. The Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America, having legislative power, has 
removed this doubtful rubric from its Prayer-book. If 
the same power had existed here, and if the doubtful 
rubric had been removed from our Prayer-book, these 
questions would never have arisen. I feel that the appoint- 
ment of a Royal Commission is not the best way of acting ; 
that the appointment of a Eoyal Commission is, in effect, 
superseding to a certain extent the legitimate functions of 
the Church. It is because I believe that the ancient land- 
marks ought not to be removed, except with the same 
solemnity and by the same process as that with which 
they were originally laid down, — and it is because this 
matter is in danger of leading to a removal of the ancient 


landmarks by an incompetent authority, that I think it 
would be much better that we should not pass any reso- 
lution upon the subject at all, but that we should trust 
rather to the prevailing common sense and good feeling of 
the clergy themselves, when these things have run riot for 
a little while, not to allow them to run to such an excess 
as to inflict any permanent injuiy upon the Church." 

At a later period of the same debate, the Bishop of 
Lichfield again spoke in explanation, and among other 
things said :— 

"The difficulty lies not in the refractory spirit of the 
clergy, but in the ambiguity of the law. Legislation may 
be needed to make the law more clear. It is in the power 
of the Legislature to do that, but how the matter is to be 
decided on an appeal to a Court of Law I cannot see, other- 
wise than it might be decided by drawing lots. When we 
see that four most eminent lawyers on one side declare 
that vestments are illegal, and that four eminent lawyers 
on the other side declare that they are not, and when we 
see that the counsel for the prosecution does not think it 
expedient to introduce the question of vestments into his 
plea, one cannot fail to feel that a decision of a Court of 
Law would not settle the point What we want is that 
the legislative body of the Church, with the concurrence 
of the State, should clear up the laws, substituting for 
those which are obscure, clear and unmistakeable laws. 
Perhaps the expunging of this rubric would settle a great 
part of the question. I must say, however, that I differ 
from those who think that the question of vestments is 
the main cause of the secessions to the Church of Homa 
/ believe the real cavse why, in the face of all our advance- 
merU in knowledge, the Church ofRoTtie makes progress among 
ourselves, while all its errors are unretracted, is found in the 
divisions which exist among us; and the only way in which 
we can counteract this is by being united** 

In the same session of Convocation a Seport of a Com- 
mittee on Diocesan Synods appointed in the previous year 
was presented, and the balance of opinion was largely 


adverse to their being organized. The Primate in his im- 
partial summing up said, he should look with interest at 
the proceedings of the Bishop of Lichfield. "He seems 
resolved upon making the experiment, and no doubt he 
will be able to cany it out as successfully as any of us 
could hope to do ; but I do not think the time has come 
when, in my diocese at least, I can propose anything of 
the sort" 

Even to the judgment of Archbishop Longley, the 
experience during a quarter of a century of the advantages 
of synodal action went for nothing, and the effort to set in 
motion such an organization in an English diocese seemed 
to be qidxotic; and yet hardly more than ten years have 
elapsed, and the few dioceses which are still without an 
organization, which would almost have satisfied Bishop 
Selwyn if it did not quite attain to his ideal, are excep- 
tional cases, and appear to be rapidly moving towards 
conformity with the majority. 

The Upper House did not come to its decision without 
being fully in possession of the experience of the great 
pioneer in this movement. The Bishop of Lichfield had 
urged the assembled prelates to adopt the system which he 
had commended to them after long trial : for the name, 
whether Synod or Conference, he cared little. 

"Of the assembling together of bishop, clergy, and 
laity," he said, '' I have no more doubt of the necessity 
than I doubt whether bread and meat are good for food. 
I am convinced, from an experience on the subject of more 
than twenty years, that such meetings are absolutely 
necessary, and that there should be some voluntary and 
some supplementary action of the bishop, clergy, and laity 
on which they should be brought together. These meet- 
ings for convenience, though not of necessity, are called 
Diocesan Synods, for I do not think that name is tied to 
any particular meaning." 

Aft^r speaking of what he had already done daring the 
two months which had seen him Bishop of Lichfield, and 


of the resolutions which had been passed in all the Boral 
Deaneries of that diocese, he was beset by questions from 
his brother bishops, the majority of whom were doubtful 
of the policy, and even of the possibility of his plans : at 
length, with infinite good humour and patience, he sat 
down and invited his brethren to catechise him freely, and 
this was done and submitted to in a manner which was 
gratefuUy acknowledged by all the bishops who had listened 
to the informal and unusual proceeding. 

It is impossible to curtail materially the series of ques- 
tions and answers which were put and given, and it would 
be to deal inadequately with a great question to pass it 
over. The following extracts from the proceedings of the 
Upper House of the Convocation of Canterbury on 
February 20, 1868, are therefore given : — 

The Bishop of Oxford (Wilberforce). — Then in what 
way do you mean to give a binding effect to your decisions, 
and how far will they reach ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — I am endeavouring to put in 
a short form the substance of lengthened discussions at 
each of our Ruridecanal Synods, and the average amount 
of discussion would be about twenty-nine hours in all. 
These were meetings where I was face to face with my 
clergy, and in some instances with a number of the laity. 
What we meant by a binding force was this : when a ques- 
tion should be put to the vote, every person in the minority 
should be bound by the decision of the majority ; for 
practical questions relating to the well-being of the diocese 
and any administration of the funds must necessarily be 
settled by the decisions of the majority. I suppose it is 
the same way with the Ecclesiastical Commission. I 
suppose one Commissioner, although personally he does 
not agree with what is adopted by the rest, is bound by 
the decision of the majority. This question was a good 
deal discussed, and it was well understood that no person 
could permit a question to be put to the vote and then go 
away from the Synod and act without reference to it, but 
purely according to his own views. 



The Bishop op Oxford — Would it apply to such a case 
as this, for instance, taking a very simple case : whether 
the Clergy should attend at a consecration in surplices or 
in black gowns ? That is of no impoiiance in itself, but 
it is a simple question that may illustrate what I mesiL 
Could you make such a rule as this, for instance — that for 
that diocese it is desirable that the Clergy who attend the 
Bishop at a consecration shall appear before him in their 
habit as Clei^ymen, or, on the other hand, in their academic 
dress ? That is now a practical question, and if these 
things are to do good at all, it must be by enabling us 
to bring a number of scattered parties throughout the 
diocese into united action. These jextemal things are 
nothing in themselves, but they are valuable as indica- 
tion& I want to ask whether questions of this kind could 
be discussed in the Synod, and whether the minority would 
take the decision of the majority } 

The Bishop of Lichfield — In going through a number 
of subjects, it becomes necessary, as far as possible, to 
prevent the discussion of details ; and it was understood 
that when the Synod came to meet, it would be in the 
power of the majority to preclude all discussion on any 
subject they liked. If aU parties agreed to the introduc- 
tion of a subject, and it was afterwards put to the vote, 
the minority, I think, would be willing to be bound by the 
decision of the majority. Now, in my own installation to 
my bishopric in Lichfield, a very disagreeable thing took 
place. There was some doubt as to whether the Clergy 
who were present coidd wear surplices or not. Many of 
them came in surplices, and they were told to take them 
off. Some of them did take them off, and some did not 
Even the students of the Theological College attend the 
services there on certain occasions in surplices, and yet 
it was supposed to be inadmissible for the Clergy to 
wear them on that occasion. Now, that was very un* 
pleasant ; and if the question had been settled before by a 
simple rule, it would have been much better. Such ques- 
tions as this might be settled by the Synod. 

The Bishop op SAiiiSBUKY (Hamilton)— But that is a 
cathedral question, and not a clerical question. 

The Bishop of Ely (Browke) — Yes ; it was a question 
for the Dean and Chapter of the cathedral to deal witli« 

vol. II. L 


The Bishop of Lichfield — Certainly; but I pointed 
out this as being the kind of question which it would 
be well to have decided by a proper authority. AU we 
want is an authority to say, in such cases, shall the dress 
be black or white. 

The Bishop of Oxford — But the power of excluding 
anything would rest with the Bishop ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — It would rest with the 
majority of the Clergy, with the majority of the Laity, 
and with the Bishop. 

The Bishop of Oxford — Then, supposing the majority 
of the Clergy voted that it was right to wear surplices, 
and the minority voted tliat it was not. Could the minority 
escape afterwards from the decision of the Synod ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — I think in that case we 
should do very much what we did here yesterday — 
try by an adjustment to arrive at unanimity. 1 do not 
suppose we should ever risk the disruption of such a 
body for such a question. 

The Bishop of Bangor (Campbell) — Suppose the 
minority of those actually present did consider them- 
selves bound by the decision of the majority, still the 
Clergy who were not present except by representa- 
tion might not consider themselves so bound. Is not 
that so ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — ^Why, I should suppose 
these diflBiculties would be reasons for not introducing 
such questions at all. 

The Bishop of Oxford — But, after you have excluded 
questions of doctrine and reduced the operation of the 
Synod to practical subjects, if you exclude them too, how 
do you propose to find occupation for these busy spirits 
you have made ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — ^Without entering into any 
of those questions in New Zealand, we have had constant 
occupation. We have never lacked employment, and have 
never found ourselves in any disagreeable position. If 
there has ever been any disagreeable subject introduced, it 
has either been stopped or dropped. 

The Bishop of Oxford — But are the cases parallel ? 
You know both New Zealand and your own diocese of 
Lichfield ? 


The Bishop of Lichfield — I think mine is an aigament 
d fortioriy because when I went out to New Zealand I 
found the Cleiigy were under the English Church Mission, 
and that society has never in any way said to its Clergy- 
men, " You owe an allegiance to the Diocesan Synod and 
in proportion we relax our rules for you." At first at the 
meetings of the Synod the English Church missionaiy 
Clergymen were always in a noajority, and could have 
stopped any proceeding if they had chosen to do so. 

The Bishop of Oxfobd — But does it not throw a 
little light on their friendliness that they were in an 
assertive majority? 

The Bishop of Lighfield— I say the great supporters of 
Sy nodical action were those Clergymen owing an allegiance 
elsewhere to a society in England, and so much the more 
remarkable is it that the minority thoroughly consented to 
what was done. 

The Bishop of Bangor — Have the decisions of the 
Synod in New Zealand always been acquiesced in ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — We began by saying dis- 
tinctly, that no person who, from any reason whatever, 
with/eld his asU from Synodical^action should he 
afiected by any of our acts, and the effect has been that 
only one Clergyman out of 105 has withheld his voluntary 
adhesion from us. There were certain laymen who 
strongly objected to the formation of the Synod originally, 
and among them was the present Chief Justice, but now 
he is one of our strongest supporters and members. I 
may say that I find nothing whatever in the report before 
us to object to, unless the objection be raised on the 
theory that this is not a Diocesan Synod proper, and 
nobody pretends that it is. We do not know what a 
Diocesan Synod proper is. 

The Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol (Ellicott) — 
Yes, we do. We have had to look into that. 

The Bishop of Lichfield — ^But from what period of the 
Church's history do you take the Diocesan Synod ? 

The Bishop of Ely — ^From the sixth century to the 

The Bishop of Lichfield — But that is the very point. 
The report of thiity-two Commissioners after the Beforma- 
tion, called the Reformatio Legum, contemplated the 

l 2 


existence of a Diocesan Synod other than that which 
existed in the time you speak of. 

The Bishop of Ely — But that was not enforced. Since 
the Beformation the Diocesan Synod has been merged in 
the Bishop's Visitations. 

The Bishop of Lichfield — I find the general sense is 
to let the Bishop's Visitation meige in the Diocesan Synod. 
But I do not know how far I am legally competent to 
relieve them from that. 

The Bishop of Oxford — Can you state in any one or 
two details what you imagine the work will be for the 
Synod in the diocese of Lichfield? What would the 
Synod have to do ? You spoke of administering the funds 
of the diocese, but in my diocese there would be no funds 
to administer. What sort of subject could there be any 
wholesome decision given upon by such a body ? 

The Bishop of Salisbury — ^And what would form the 
difference between these Diocesan Synods and the Ruri- 
decanal Synods existing already ? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — In answer to the Bishop 
of Salisbury I must say that the difference would be this 
— that the Diocesan Synod would bring the Clergy into 
contact with the Bishop, which the Buridecanal Synod 
does not. I should not like to be bound to attend and 
hear all the proceedings in all the eight-and-forty Buri- 
decanal Synods in my diocese ; but, on the other hand, I 
do wish to have the cream of all those meetings collected 
together into one. In answer to the Bishop of Oxford I 
may give this as an instance of the sort of question which 
would be dealt with. I have received a numerously signed 
memorial representing the feeling of a large body of the 
Laity and of many of the Clergy in the neighbourhood of 
Wolverhampton in my diocese, and asking me to assist 
them in organizing a lay association. Now, I feel myself 
quite incompetent as a Bishop to control the influences 
which may be put into operation by such a system, for it 
is impossible that the Bishop can exercise any such 
authority over such an association as he is enabled to 
exercise over his own Clergy. You might have, as the 
result of such an association, a number of guinea sub- 
scribers laying down tlieir own laws, and controlling their 
own lay agents in a manner not only without the consent 


but even in opposition to the wishes of the Bishop. If I 
had a Diocesan Synod, the first, thing I would do would 
be to ask, "Are you willing to let this lay association 
be subject to the laws of the Diocesan Synod ? " and if 
they agreed, then I should be safe in acting with them. 
But if they would not agree, and I were to have no more 
authority over them than the laws imposed by these guinea 
subscribers, I would not have any connection with them. 
I know the evil of it; I know how completely these 
societies are, to a certain extent, undermining and super- 
seding the real work of the Church. But I would not 
consent to the establishment of a Diocesan Synod unless 
they gave me a veto in the proceedings. There has been 
considerable discussion on that point in my diocese, but I 
was determined nothing should induce me to meet the 
Synod unless they acknowledged that principle. Having 
that power, I can stop anything objectionable at any 
moment; and the Laity also have the same power, for 
if they think I am doing anything improper, they can 
stop it. In the same way the Clergy would have the 
same power, and thus I think we should be perfectly safe. 
I apprehend that such a Synod would not fail through 
lack of work — it would find plenty to do in absorbing into 
itself those irregular agencies which would otherwise be 
curvetting about outside the Church. That is only one 
case out of fifty that I might mention. 

The Bishop of Oxford — I do not see how to apply that 

The Bishop of Lichfield — Then I will mention another 
case. Applications are sometimes made to the Bishop by 
some of his Clergymen to consent to a sale of a portion of 
the glebe. A Clergyman may write to me and say that a 
coal-mine has been discovered, or there is good reason to 
beUeve one may be discovered, near to or underneath his 
glebe, and it would greatly benefit his living if I gave my 
consent that it may be sold. Now, I cannot sanction that 
on my own responsibility alone ; I cannot sell the property 
of the Church for some present good unless it is distinctly 
considered by a competent body that it is for the real 
good of the Church. These questions are coming before 
me every day, and other questions relating to the manage- 
ment of training schools, &c. 


The Bishop of Oxford — In my own diocese we have a 
very simple arrangement There is one common Board 
elected every year by ourselves, and our Archdeacon and 
Bural Deans are ex offi/sio members. Then there are sixteen 
Laymen and eight Clergymen from each archdeaconry, with 
the Bishop at their head. 

The BrsHOP of Lichfield — ^That is a Diocesan CounciL 

The Bishop of Oxford — But it is not a Synod- 

The Bishop of Lichfield — But I look upon a Synod 
chiefly as a means of arriving at a good executive for all 
these purposes of the Church, and which shall not simply 
derive its authority from the nomination of the Bishop. 
Such a Council as that which the Bishop of Oxford has 
already mentioned would answer the object I should 
desire that the Buridecanal Synod should have its own 
standing committee, with an appeal to the triennial meet- 
ing of the Diocesan SyHod, which Diocesan Synod should 
also have its own standing committee, to advise the Bishop 
in matters relating to the diocese. The only difiference 
between what akeady exists in the diocese of Oxford and 
what I propose is, that perhaps my proposal would have a 
larger basis of confidence, and in its operation such a body 
would be able to do everything necessary in practice from 
time to time for the well-being of the diocese. 

The Bishop of Oxford — ^Do you think the establish- 
ment of these Synods would lead to any other advantages? 

The Bishop of Lichfield — Certainly. I think it will 
lead to more unity, just as the very fact of the existence 
of the Buridecanal Synods has led to more unity in the 
Church, much more than was originally anticipated 

The Bishop of Oxford — I wish to retui*n my personal 
thanks to the Bishop of Lichfield for his great kindness in 
bearing the questioning to which we have subjected him. 
As to the important subject itself, I do not think that the 
plan he has shaped out will meet the desire of those who 
wish for the restoration of Diocesan Synods. But such 
discussions as these afford us opportunities of learning 
wisdom one from another, and diffusing our ideas amongst 
our brethren at large, for it is most important that we 
should sift these matters to the bottom. In my diocese 
it has been considered desirable to found a Diocesan 
Society, and many are of opinion that all differences 


wotdd disappear under the influence of such a Synod. 
My honoured friend Archdeacon Wordswortli, one of our 
Bural DeanSy considers this one thing terribly lacking in 
the organization of the diocese. My question to him is the 
same as that which I put to my right rev. brother — Given 
the Diocesan Synod, what is it to do ? I cannot see the 
use of calling large bodies into existence unless there is a 
definite work for them to discharge when called together. 
The result of my listening to the discussion to-day has not 
been to clear up the difficulty, and I remain in the same 
doubt as I was before. I have always felt, if I got my 
Diocesan Synod, what should I do with it ? That is the 
difficulty with me. I admit the great advantage of bring- 
ing together the Clergy and the Laity, and the Clergy and 
Laity and the Bishop, and my life has been spent in 
inventing opportunities for that purpose, and I am happy 
to say with no inconsiderable success. We meet Arch- 
deacons and Bural Deans annually. Our three days of 
prayer and discussion and consultation are invaluable ; 
and we follow that up by Ruridecanal Synods in every 
part of the diocese, where the Bural Dean states all that 
has been agreed to at the central meeting, and the informa- 
tion is thus spread throughout eveiy part of the diocese. 

The Bishop of London — ^Do you call them Synods or 
Chapters ? 

The Bishop of Oxfoed — ^Buridecanal Chapters. We 
have a gathering also of the school inspectors in the diocese 
for three days. By these various means a great body of 
the Clergy and Laity meet together every year. I find 
that in the Buridecanal Chapters the first condition of 
success has been that there shotdd never be a decision 
by vote. So that the minority may come with perfect 
confidence that they will have the opportunity of stating 
their own views and not becoming entangled by engage- 
ments, but they go back as free as they came, altogether 
unbound. That is the pinch of the whole question, and 
that is the reason I was so anxious to ascertain the 
opinions of my right rev. brother as to whether we 
could introduce that one principle. 

The Bishop of Lichfield — I believe that many charit- 
able Trusts would not require the intervention of Parlia- 
ment if they were subject to diocesan government. We 


leave them in the hands of five or six persons who 
have power to devolve Trusts to their heirs and assigns 
The governing body in such cases possessing public 
confidence acquires by the consent of all parties the 
mcmagement of a Trust. We are not troublQd by fram- 
ing statutes as traps far peryury, which is the case with 
respect to many statutes, but sJl our business in colleges 
or trusts is managed on the simple plan that every 
body of trustees is bound to make a report to a Synod 
at the triennial meeting, and that Synod issues new 
instructions to meet whatever difficulties may have arisen 
within the three preceding years. That system has given 
so much confidence to the public that I am not aware 
of any other being adopted. In a new country the 
persons making endowments and offering gifts come in 
in considerable numbers, and I have beea obliged to 
keep on hand a printed form of conveyance, reserving 
to the General Synod the right of laying down rules and 
regulations. The body of Trustees come and ask for in- 
struction every three years, and we try to keep ovi of law 
fees, which have eaten out the very vitals of many Trusts 
in England. There are certain subjects on which it is 
desirable to deliberate without coming to a vote ; and it is 
the business of the Synod to place in a schedule those 
subjects on which we should not deliberate, those on 
which we should deliberate, and those on which delibera- 
tion should be followed up by a vote. As soon as a 
governing body is established in a diocese, that body will 
accumulate about itself an almost incredible number of 
Trusts, because it is the most influential and confidential 
body that the Deaneries know. 

With his talent and passion for organization, and with his 
high estimation of its value, it was natural that the bishop 
should have considered the invitation to the Lambeth 
Conference in 1867 a call which he could not disregard, 
although he had up to that time turned a deaf ear to the 
earnest invitations of his relatives to visit England again : 
equally natural was it that he should have been so pro- 
minent an actor in that assemblage, that he should have 
been chosen permanent secretary, and that to his earnest 


representations was owing that second and still greater 
gathering of bishops in July, 1878, which he did not live 
to see. 

Nevertheless, the scene at Lambeth in July, 1878, which 
he was not spared to witness, and in which, had he lived, 
he would have been the most prominent personage, was a 
triumphant climax to the e£forts of Bishop Selwyn in the 
cause of imity which dated from his first Synod at the 
Waimate in 1844. 




Another chapter has to be writteu regardless of the chro- 
nological order of this biography, in which will be recorded 
not the successes but the hindrances of the Grospel. The 
story of the evangelization of New Zealand differs from 
the corresponding records of almost every other part of the 
world ; generally we have to chronicle the innate antipathy 
of the heathen mind to the reception of the Truth, the force 
of their ancestral traditions, the pride of their hereditary 
superstition. In New Zealand the Maori after the first few 
years assimilated Christian teaching with a readiness too 
much akin to precocity, but when in its principal features 
the progress of the Gospel seemed to be unimpeded, the 
inevitable difificulty connected with the acquisition of land 
almost from the first intruded the accustomed obstacles. 
The colonizing instinct of the Anglo-Saxon race, on which 
we are wont to boast ourselves, is too often but an euphe- 
mistic synonym for the " greed of land " which in so 
very many instances has led to the ultimate destruc- 
tion of the rightful owners, until we have accepted as 
a philosophical axiom the vague assertion, so grateful to 
our pride and ambition, that '' the inferior race is doomed 
to disappear in the presence of the superior." 

How sad had been the story, how discreditable the 
policy of our earlier colonization in the plantations of 
America, in New South Wales, and in Tasmania, was 


only too notorious, when the Government, in a fit of ap- 
parent compunction, determined that New Zealand should 
be a bright exception to the blunder of our former experi- 
ments in colonization. It was for this end indeed that 
New Zealand was added to our already ample Colonial 
Empire. British subjects had commenced to buy land on 
very doubtful title in these islands, and the Ministry knew 
too well that a crowd of speculating Britons eager to 
acquire land in a country where there was no settled form 
of government would lead at once to a war of races, if the 
Crown did not assume the sovereignty of the country to 
which its subjects, and those not the most orderly, had 
been attracted. The Ministry of the day pledged itself that 
nothing should be wanting which could save the natives of 
New Zealand &om that process of extermination under 
which uncivilized tribes had hitherto disappeared when 
brought &ce to face with civilization. It was determined 
to try for the first time the great experiment, whether the 
representatives of the superior race, when they found 
themselves in that border-land where they confront the 
vices both of barbarism and civilization and the virtues of 
neither, should be true to their higher destinies; and whether 
a fragment of the family of the first Adam, long sunk in 
degradation, could be engrafted into the family of the 
second Adam and maintained in social and political vigour. 
The Maori race had great and exceptional advantages ; 
they had been under the influence of Christian missionaries, 
whose integrity and benevolence are unquestioned, for 
more than thirty years before their country attracted 
immigrants. A fatal error, an error, it is true, only of 
judgment, but not the less fatal for our present considera- 
tion, had been committed. During all these years the 
Missionaries, in accordance with the principles that then 
prevailed, had aimed at making their converts Christians 
but not citizens; their moral nature had been changed, but 
on their social habits little or no impression had been 
attempted. If the missionaries had combined with the 


spiritual training, which was the one thing needful but not 
the only thing desirable, lessons in industry, in agriculture^ 
and in handicraft, the country would not have presented 
to speculating land agents and land companies the inviting 
prospect of an untitled and ownerless desert ; as it was, 
no sooner did English adventurers set their feet on the soil 
of New Zealand than every square yard of land became at 
once the fruitful seed-plot of litigation and feud. 

The treaty of Waitangi, which was signed on February 7, 
1840, was the embodiment of the wishes of the British 
Government, and it was made, as it only could have been 
made, by the co-operation of the English missionaries; these 
gentlemen had not been desirous of seeing what had been 
their mission fields converted into a British colony, and 
they lent their services and won over the minds of the 
Maori chiefs and obtained their signatures to the treaty, 
only on the distinct understanding that by the assumption 
of the sovereignty the Queen of England did not absorb 
or destroy the power of the Maori chiefs and tribes. 
Indeed the chiefs were told that by accepting the treaty 
their individual importance would be increased, as their 
title of chieftainship would be acknowledged, and the 
people, restrained from intertribal wars, as weU as from 
oppression of foreigners, would grow in wealth ; and being 
bound to submit their own disputes to arbitration, they 
would be no more insulted by white men. This treaty 
carefully reserved to the natives all their rights of property, 
of whatever kind. The tribal right as well as that of in- 
dividuals was rigidly maintained, and up to the year 1840 
it was an unheard-of thing that an individual member of 
a tribe should claim a right to alienate a portion of the 
land of his tribe. This fact is of great importance, as the 
disregard of it led at no distcmt date to a protracted war, 
the causes of which are not yet removed, and may at any 
period bring themselves again into prominence. 

To this treaty the whole missionary body considered 
themselves pledged in honour ; any infringement of its 


terzQS on thd part of the Grovernment would have at once 
oompromised their influence and their character for in- 
tegrity in the eyes of the natives. It was not long before 
the sense of the treaty was severely tested ; but it was 
subjected to a more severe strain when, in 1852, gold was 
said to have been discovered at Coromandel, not on Crown 
land, as had been the case in Australia, but on Icmd in the 
possession of the natives, most sensitive in regard to their 
territorial rights. Nothing but self-restraint on the part of 
aU concerned could prevent this discovery from proving an 
unmitigated curse. The Lieutenant-Governor went to the 
spot and summoned a meeting of the chiefs : the bishop and 
the Chief Justice, as has been already mentioned, joined 
him, and in the presence of these witnesses he offered the 
chiefs protection and assistance in keeping order among the 
motley and lawless population who might be expected to 
hover round the scene of so much hidden wealth. It was 
doubtless owing to the influence of the bishop and to the 
teaching of the missionaries that the old chief and spokes- 
man, Te Taniwha, said, " It is well ; these are the tokens of 
peace, the presence of the Governor, the Bishop, the Judge. 
The messengers of God, of Truth, stand here ; even the 
bone of that which is good. The arrangements are left to 
you, O Governor, Bishop, and Judge." 

Thus the difficulty was solved by integrity and self- 
restraint ; the result reaffirmed the fact that by the Treaty 
of Waitangi the Queen obtained the rights of sovereignty, 
while the Maoris retained the full rights of chieftainship ; 
that the Queen received the whole governorship, and the 
Maoris the full rights of British subjects. The peace was 
tolerably well kept between the two races during the first 
period of Sir G. Grey's governorship. He is a man with 
a peculiar sympathy with native character, and much in* 
terested in their history and language ; this he has proved 
in two quarters of the globe ; he also co-operated with the 
bishop and missionaries in all matters that related to the 
welfare of the Maoris, but in 1853 his term of office ended. 


and with his departure New Zealand became possessed of 
an independent and representative government. Sir Greorge 
Grey had been not merely the Grovemor, he had been the 
protector and friend of the natives ; now they found them- 
selves under a government in which they were not repre- 
sented, and bound by laws in the enacting of which they 
had no voice. As the present Lord Carlingford said in the 
House of Commons on April 11, 1861, '' A constitution 
has been conferred on the colony of New Zealand in 
forgetfulness of the large native tribes within the domi- 
nions to which it was intended to apply." Neither were 
the average pushing colonists the sort of men likely to 
work such a constitution with moderation; they were 
constantly holding meetings for the discussion of the 
problem, " How to govern the country." 

The veiy treaty of 1840, on which so much stress had 
been laid by the colonists, had never been fulfOled by the 
Government in regard to the matters guaranteed by it to 
the natives : the responsibilities of sovereignty had neverbeen 
observed. The Maoris were eager to learn of the white men, 
whom for their skill and prowess they held in high esteem ; 
but no adequate steps had been taken to educate them in the 
affairs of ordinary social life, or to fit them for the exercise of 
political rights, and the bishop had found little sympathy, 
even among the missionaries, still less among tiie colonists, 
with his efforts to train them in industrial pursiuts. 

A colonial ministry in a democratic legislature is not 
likely justly to govern a native race. Colonists who speak 
of &igland as homCy and who regard the colony only as a 
country which gives them a temporary resting-place in 
which to accumulate a fortune, will manage their govern- 
ment as an unscrupulous tenant manages a rack-rent 
farm. The present, not the future, is their care ; it is of 
more importance to exterminate the lawful owners of the 
soil than to attempt the problem of their civilization and 
amalgamation with the intruders ; and there is, sad that it 
should be so, ever present in the mind of the British 


colonist, and too often expressed in his speech, the contempt 
and abhorrence of men whose colour is different from our 
own. The Maoris, an aristocratic race, were most sensitive, 
and sorely was their patience tried. Sir George Grey and 
the bishop always showed them kindness and respect, which 
were retiuned in full measure ; but the rudeness of ignorant 
and coarse settlers had much to do with setting race 
against race. The bishop used to say that he was quite 
ashamed to travel with his native deacons, who in Auck- 
land were accustomed to sit at his own table and behave 
as gentlemen, because he could not take them with him 
into public rooms, where a drunken carter, with a white 
skin, would have been considered perfectly good society. 

In the bewilderment, then, that was caused by the 
establishment of constitutional government, by which 
they were removed frojn the immediate government of the 
Queen's representative, whose authority they perfectly un- 
derstood and respected, and placed under a minister of 
native affairs, and a parliament in whose constitution they 
had no share, the Maoris were driven to assert themselves, 
lest their position should be entirely overlooked. The 
governing power was felt for their purposes to be deficient : 
in many parts of the country there had never been a 
resident magistrate: there was no authority to put down 
with a high hand the dreaded purchase of rum, or to keep 
peaca A conference was held in June, 1857, at which 
Bishop Selwyn and the chief of the Wesleyan mission- 
aries were present, when, in spite of protests, Potatau, the 
chief of the Ngatiawa tribe, was elected King of New 
Zealand. It was distinctly proclaimed that this was not 
to interfere with the sovereignty of the Queen of England. 
** Let the Queen and the Pakehas occupy the coast and be 
a fence round^us," were the words of one of the chiefs who 
hoisted the Union Jack and the King's flag side by side on 
the same staff. The Governor was alarmed, and visited the 
districts that were supposed to be rebellious; but after 
parleys with the chiefs, who received him with honour, he 


returned to Auckland, believing that the so-called " King 
movement" boded no danger nor insecurity. 

It was nofe, however, the " King movement " that caused 
the disastrous war which entailed on the colony losses and 
miseries which cannot be estimated, and checked, and 
almost destroyed, the Christianity of the Maori race, 
although the war gave force and consistence to the '* King 
movement." The Maori king was rather an offshoot of the 
establishment of a colonial legislature which ignored the 
indigenous race : the root of the war is to be found in the 
well-founded mistrust in the native mind of the motives of 
the English colonists in the matter of their lands. These 
had always been in their heathen days the most fruitful 
source of wars between tribe and tribe : there was not a 
spot of land throughout the whole of the island of which 
the limits were not perfectly well defined, the ownership 
known, and the titles authentic. To the Englishman these 
lands seemed mere wastes of forest, swamp, or bush, that 
only after much labour would produce a crop: to the 
natives they were estates, held by a curious tenure, and 
which could only be alienated by the consent of all who 
were connected with them. 

The Maoris had never been unwilling to sell their 
lands : they had an instinct of political economy which 
taught them, that the presence among them of skilful 
farmers would do more for them than the ownership of 
barren swamps ; but they insisted on the extinction in all 
cases of the native title, no easy matter amid the intri- 
cacies of tribal uses and joint ownership. The immediate 
scene of the war was at Taranaki or New Plymouth, 
whither, as has been stated in a previous chapter, the 
bishop had gone in 1855 at the request of the Governor to 
keep peace. Taranaki had long been coveted ground. In 
1839 the agent of the New Zealand Company had, as he 
thought, bought it of the tribe who claimed to be its 
owners : in 1840 and 1842 the rights had to be purchased 
of other tribes, and the colonists began to settle on the 


soil for which they had paid: bnt the presence of the 
English encouraged many of the original owners, who had 
long before been driven away by force, or had been carried 
into slavery, to return to their holdings, of the sale of which 
they had no knowledge, and about which they had never 
been consulted. 

A Commissioner, who was sent down to investigate their 
claims, affirmed the validity of the sale, which was received 
with so much indignation that military assistance was sent 
for. The Governor went down in person, and refused to 
confirm the Commissioner's award : the land on which the 
English were settled was bought over again, and the rest 
was given up to the native claimants. Then came the 
intertribal disputes of 1855, of which mention has already 
been made. In 1859, the settlers still desiring the posses- 
sion of a block of land at the mouth of the Waitara 
River and the only approach to a harbour near their town, 
it was bought by the Government from a man called Te 
Teira, whose right to sell it was disallowed by his tribe. 
The offer to sell was made to the Governor in person. 
Wiremu Kingi who was present immediately said, ** Listen, 
Governor ; notwithstanding Teira's offer, I will not permit 
the sale of Waitara to the Pakeha: Waitara is in my 
hands; I will not give it up. Never! never! never! I 
have spoken." 

The subordinate official who investigated the title de- 
clared that Teira had a perfect right to sell, and the land 
was at once taken possession of by the English. [It may 
here be stated parenthetically, that the title was subse- 
quently found to be defective, and that in 1863 Sir G. 
Grey resigned the Waitara to its lawful owners.] Surveyors 
were sent upon it and were not violently resisted, but the 
old Maori women pulled up their poles and pegs as fast as 
they stuck them into the ground. 

In February, 1860, the Governor proclaimed martial law, 
and in the following month a military force, which had 
been sent from Australia, occupied the Waikato district. 

VOL. n. M 


- » . . ■ ■ 

The step was not taken without protests on the p^t of 
those who calmly considered the matter and were not 
biassed by the fact of possessing land, or of desiring to 
acquire more: it was pointed out that the seller was 
almost alone ; that he had taken British gold and expected 
to be supported by British bayonets, and that the great 
majority of his tribe, who were " unseduced by money, and 
unintimidated by power, were only defending the rights 
confirmed to them by the Queen/' 

Nevertheless the conviction remained in the minds of all 
impartial persons, that the would-be seller had not the 
whole right of sale, and that a thorough and impartial 
investigation would prove the fact. In the New Zealand 
Assembly the oldest and most respectable of the settlers, 
supported by the Bishop and Chief Justice, openly espoused 
the cause of Wiremu Kingi in forbidding the sale of his 
people's land. Some declared that the seizure of the 
coveted block of land was the result of a conspiracy 
among the settlers, and others, and these the more thought- 
ful, felt that a dispute about a question of title should have 
been referi'ed to some court of justice, and that it was 
monstrous that the offices of judge and claimant should be 
vested in one and the same person. "We think the 
Governor wrong," the bishop wrote to Sir John Patteson in 
July 1860, *' in making war upon a land question without 
submitting it first to some judicial inquiry : but he has 
suffered dearly for it, as the quarrel has cost the lives of 
many soldiers, and now absorbs the whole force, military 
and naval, of the Australasian colonies." 

The bishop, accompanied by the Maori deacon Joshua, 
went up the Waikato in May, 1860, in the hope of ar- 
ranging matters peaceably : he was invited to a large 
native gathering, where the King's flagstaff was erected, 
and he felt that he had no course open to him but to leave. 

In November of the same year the discovery near 
Waikato of the dead body of a Maori, supposed to have 
been murdered by an Englishman, caused great excitement ; 


and the bishop laboored with his might to prevent the 
oatbi*eak of hostilities which seemed imminent. What he 
did, and with what feelings, is best shown in two letters 
written on the same day. 

(I) To Sir John Pattbson. 

Ncv. Zrd, 1860. 

My dear Sir John, 

In the midst of some feelings of doubt which must 
arise, when a minister of the Gospel enters into any 
political contest, it is a great comfort to me to receive 
such a letter as yours, not so much because it is pleasant 
to find one's own opinion confirmed, as because I can now 
feel satisfied that I have not taken up my present position 
without just and necessary cause. Up to the time when the 
soldiers were sent to Taranaki I was in the most frieudly 
communication with the Governor and his ministers. 
Sir William Martin was his constant adviser on all matters 
relating to the social improvement of the natives, and had 
just compiled a small code of rules for the use of native 
magistrates at his request. We had not even the oppor- 
tunity of offering advice, for we heard nothing of the 
matter till the order was given for the troops to embark. 
The false step once taken, the Government seemed deter- 
mined to persist in carrying it through with a high hand, 
and for a time the voice of the colony seemed to be in 
their favour. But the change soon began to be apparent. 
We knew that Waikato needed but a little more provoca- 
tion to break out into war, because the affair at Taranaki 
was announced by Government, and looked upon by tlie 
natives, as the beginning of a new policy for the whole of 
New Zealand. It became necessary for us to enter into 
the strife, and I hope it was done temperately and respect- 
fully. The evil has now approached Auckland. I am 
now writing from the house of Major Speedy, forty miles 
from Auckland, whose family have just returned from a 
short exodus to the nearest water carriage, to be ready to 
fly from a party of Waikatos, said to be 400, but actually 
250. The exciting cause, superadded to the Taranaki war, 
was that the body of a native of the place was found in the 

M 2 


forest, apparently killed by a gun-shot wound. An English- 
man who had been shooting wild cattle was suspected of 
the murder, but no proof was found against him. We 
have just received news that the war party has gone 
quietly back after hearing the statement of the native 
chiefs who conducted the inquiry as assessors to the 
English coroner. The settlers have returned to their 
homes, and are busy unpacking their goods, and exhuming 
their buried property. One week's taste of the realities 
of war has been sufficient for them. Now is the time for 
the Government to make peace, when the whit« people 
have had just sufficient taste of war to cure our insular 
disposition to enjoy the excitement of war at the expense 
of others. 

(ii.) To William Selwyn, Esq. 

The Mauku, Aov. Zrd, 1860. 

My dear William, 

You will not know the place from which I am writing, but 
I hope you will see it and many of my customary haunts 
when you visit us, as we hope, next year. This is a small 
English settlement on one of the many creeks of the Manu- 
kau estuary, and about six miles from the Waikato. About 
a fortnight ago a native was found dead in the forest near 
this place, and his friends supposed him to have been 
murdered by a white man. An inquiry was held, but no 
proof coidd be foimd, and many believed that the death 
had been accidental But the excitement caused by the 
long continuance of the Taranaki war had so inflamed the 
minds of the island tribes, that a large party of armed men 
came down the Waikato in their canoes last Tuesday and 
threatened to seize the suspected person and deal with 
him according to their own law. At eight on Tuesday 
evening the news arrived in Auckland, and I mounted my 
trusty old chestnut, " Eona," or the " Man in the Moon," 
to go to meet the war party. At three in the morning I 
reached the furthest English village, Drury, about twenty- 
four miles from Auckland, and twelve from the Waikato 
Kiver, on which the supposed enemy was encsunped. The 
village and the large inn (Young's) was as still and peaceful 
as if nothing had happened. I rode into the yard, opened 




the stable, lighted the stable lantern, fed my horse, and 
walked up and down the stable for an hour before any 
one appeared ; and when, at 4 A.M., the master of the house 
appeared to call his men to carry messages to warn the 
settlers of their danger, I could not help congratulating 
him on the confidence which he felt in his Maori enemies, 
to sleep so soundly within twelve miles of 400 armed 
men with nothing but a forest road between him and them. 
He then gave me breakfast, and I rode on about six miles 
further to the edge of the wood, calling upon the settlers 
on the way, and advising them to assemble in one house 
and wait for further information. Then I left the 
horse, and walked through the wood, with mud up to my 
knees (for we have had a season like your last summer), 
till I came to Tuakau on the Waikato, where the "tava," 
fighting party, was expected to land. About twelve Arch- 
deacon MaunseU joined me, and at two the war party 
came, but we could see at once by the open and bright 
expression of their countenances that they did not mean 
any mischief. The afternoon was spent as usual in much 
talk upon the subject, and ended with evening service in a 
large house filled with about 200 men, with their muskets 
piled aroimd the central pillar& They were old friends 
whom I had seen at the great meeting at the junction of 
the Waikato and Waipu, where I had held many such 
services with them. Their villages lie between the rivers 
Waikato and Waiho (Thames), and their chief is William 
Thompson, the son of old Waharoa, a warrior of great 
name in former days. Their arms were well cleaned and 
kept, but not of the newest kind, being chiefly old muskets 
with flint-locks. We were glad to find that they were 
inclined to go back quietly. The tribes resident on the 
river refused to allow them to pass through their ground ; 
and thus, according to their own expression, shut the door 
against them. Archdeacon MaunseU and I of course 
gave them our advice to go back, and so furnished them 
with another excuse. ' 

Thursday, November 1. — Another service with my war- 
like friends, and a short address on the subject of the 
communion of saints, after which an old man, seeing 
me looking at them steadfastly, asked wliat I was thinking 
about ; to which I answered that I was thinking whether 


they were sealed in their hearts or on their foreheads only. 
He took the hint at once, and replied, " What can we do, 
if the Governor makes war upon us ? '' I then asked the 
chief why two of his canoes had broken ofT from the main 
body, and had gone on ahead instead of stopping at Tuakau. 
He said that he did not know, but that they themselves 
felt uneasy about it. I offered to go in search of them ; 
and he gave me a letter to order them to return, of which 
the following is a translation : — 

"O George and Whakapaukai, give heed, if you are 
overtaken by the bishop at Patumahoe come back both of 
you, come back peaceably all of you. Your work is done. 
The footsteps sound at Patumahoe (the place where the 
man died). The claim of the dead is satisfied, come back 
peaceably. We shall break up from hence (to return 

" ^°°"«^- By Ha^' } (^<^^^ °^ ^^ t^be.) 

He read this letter aloud to the tribe, and I hurried off 
to catch the truants, for Archdeacon Maunsell and I were 
not without fear that they were gone to attack the English- 
man whom they suspected of the murder. I had just 
come to the edge of the forest, and was looking forward 
with no great appetite to another dive through the deep 
mud, when one of my faithful native deacons, Pirimona T^ 
Karari, appeared with a horse (old Jack) who carried 
me to the place where I had left Bona. On my way I 
cheered the settlers with the prospect of a speedy return to 
their own homes ; but advised them to keep together on 
the outside of the forest for another night or two. 

Pirimona and I then rode together to Patumahoe, to 
inquire after George and Whakapaukai, two gentlemen of 
no good repute among their own people. On the way we 
met Mr. Purchas, who had heard of the favourable dis- 
position of the ''taua," and had come out to stop the 
Mauku settlers from flying in a boat over Manukau. As 
we reached the settlements, the little parties of men, 
women, and children began to appear on the various paths 
leading to their homes. Under the verandah of one of the 
empty houses stood the brother of the man supposed to be 
murdered. He was in fighting costume, with his double- 
barrelled gUD in his hands ; and said that he was there to 

IV.] PANIC. 169 

guard the house at the owner's request, which I found to 
be true. Thus the very man who had gone up the Waikato 
to summon the tribes to avenge his brother^s death, was the 
first to be employed by the settlers to guard the property 
which he had forced them to leave. At first I did not quite 
believe his story, but thought it possible that he might be 
waiting for George and Whakapaukai, so I took a guide 
from the native village, left the horse at a settler's house, 
and walked off with Pirimona to Purapura, a small village 
about six mUes off on the banks of the Waikato, expectii^ 
to find the crews of the missing canoes there, or to meet 
them on the way. It was well that we left the horses, for 
the night overtook us before we had cleared the wood ; 
and we should have had much trouble in getting them 
through in the dark. About 8 p.m. we reached the village, 
but found only an old man and a few women, who wel- 
comed us to a blazing fire, and made us a supper of 
" dough boys." The women told us all they knew about 
the causes of suspicion against the white man ; but knew 
nothing of the movements of the party of whom we were 
in search. So after prayers and a long talk we all lay 
down on the floor of ^e house and slept till daybreak. 

Friday y November 2. — Pirimona and I started at day- 
light to walk back to the English village, where we were 
hospitably entertained at breakfast in the first house we 
came to ; and had the pleasure of finding that the inmates 
had slept quietly with more confidence in our vigilance 
than we deserved, for Dogberry and Verges could not have 
slept better than we did. 

In the afternoon we rode five mUes, to the place where 
the suspected person was living, to inquire whether any 
strange natives had been seen about ; but none had been 
seen, and we began to hope that the stragglers had returned 
quietly to the main body. 

Saturday, November 3. — ^This morning a message arrived 
from Mr. Maunsell reporting that the " taua " bad re- 
turned, and all the settlers here are unpacking their goods 
and setting their houses in order with thankfulness of 
heart. Some are digging up their buried property ; and the 
native trustees are bringing back to the owners the move- 
ables which they had hidden in the woods. Friendly 
relations are immediately resumed between the two classes 


of inhabitants, and a stranger coming here to-day wonld 
not discover that there had been any alarm. Pirimona 
has gone to the native villa^ to renew his advice to the 
natives to give up carrying their arms ; and to-morrow he 
will, I hope, conduct Divine Service with them, while 
I assemble the English settlers to offer up their thanks- 
giving for the restoration of tranquillity ; and so ends the 
little history of the Patumahoe Taua. 

We are looking forward anxiously to your visit, if it 
please Ood, next year, and to the many conversations 
which we hope to have on the subject of your future 
calling. On that point I hope everything, but presume 
nothing, because I remember that at your age, though I 
had some desire for the ministerial office, I had not any 
fixed or devoted puipose of heart to undertake its duties, 
nor any steadfast resolution so to frame my life as to make 
every day a preparation for it. It pleased God that much 
of the restless energy which then found its vent in mere 
amusement, the running to and fro, as it seemed, without 
point or aim, was a training of which I have since felt 
the value, to enable me to do the work of an evangelist 
in seeking out the sheep of Christ that are scattered over 
a thousand hills. I wait, therefore, in patience, till it 
pleases God to make known to your heart the work which 
He has given you to do. But remember that every man 
has his work. There is no place in heaven for unprofitable 

Your most affectionate Father, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

Not until after bis decease was the full story of his 
courage and unselfishness made known: then an old 
settler at Mauku wrote in an Auckland newspaper : — 

" The stories of his self-sacrifice are in every household, 
and indeed during that grievous native war he seemed 
ubiquitous. No wife suddenly by its dire effects widowed 
but he was there. No mother bowed down in sorrow for 
the loss of her son, but his thrilling voice was pouring 
into her ear the words of consolation and blessed hope. 
No isolated household requiring a warning of the near 
approach and evil intentions of the stealthy foe but the 


bishop was the first to sound the tocsin, and personally 
assist the family to a secure place of refuge. Sure I am 
that the first European settlers of Mauku, humanly speak- 
ing, owed their lives to Bishop Selwyn's untiring watch- 
fulness and forethought Well I remember the early 
spring of I860, upon the occasion of a native being killed 
in the bush, when our lives were considered in such jeo- 
pardy, that the Governor ordered a vessel to be sent to 
the Mauku river to rescue us from imminent peril. His 
Excellency's message for us to go on board reached us 
during breakfast one morning, and was quickly followed 
by the stealthy step of a friendly Maori, who came to urge 
us to go away at once, for she had " made a thief of the 
korero of the Maori," and they had planned to kill us that 
night. We quickly turned the calves to the cows, opened 
the doors of the pigstyes, but silver was as dross to dear 
life, and we left the spoons on the breakfast-table, and 
hastened to the refuge so kindly sent for our relief On 
the Baven in the Mauku Creek were collected the whole 
of the white population — amounting to some sixty souls — 
and there we spent two days awaiting orders from head- 
quarters, when Mr. Purchas came to inform us that the 
bishop and Mr. MaunseU had gone and met Wiremu Kingi 
(William King) and the war-party at Tuakau, and in- 
fluenced them to abandon their hostile intentions towards 
us, and return to Waikato ; consequently we might dis- 
embark and safely return to our homes. You may be sure 
we speedily took advantage of this joyful intelligence, and 
I happened to be the first to reach Upper Mauku. The 
desolation those two days of abrupt absence had caused 
beggars description. Calves bleating for food, cows stand- 
ing by their unknown progeny nearly bursting with milk, 
pigs rooting up carrots, turnips, onions, strawberry-beds, 
&c. But all this was as nothing when I descried a well- 
known figure descending a hill near, and approaching the 
house. I ran to the gate, which I had scarcely reached 
when I saw the bishop, who had dismounted from his 
horse, and was taking from the saddle a small haversack. 
I accosted him : ' My lord, I suppose you know we have all 
just left the vessel and returned to our homes. ITave we 
done right ? * He replied, * Yes ; I know all about it. Will 
you let me leave my horse here until to-morrow, as I am 


going to Purapura ? * I said, * Certainly ; but you cannot 
proceed to-night; it is eight or nine miles, an obscure 
bush-track, and now past 4 o'clock. Come in, take some 
refreshment, and go in the morning/ His reply was, ^ No, 
thank you, I have bread in my kit, and must push on at 
once, but shall probably be back early in the morning.' 
And return he did at 6 A.M., drenched to the skin, having 
had to ford a creek. He took my hand, and said in his 
own kind and musical voice, ' I know you will forgive my 
not answering your question yesterday, but now I will 
make a clean breast and tell you all. You know Mr. 
MaunseU and I intercepted the Maoris at Tuakau, and 
after we had arranged with William King for their return 
we foimd a party of the most reckless of them had, while 
we were talking, taken a canoe and started off, intent on 
mischiet So I volunteered to go to Purapura, and get the 
chiefs there to prevent a war-party passing over their 
land, without which permission they could not proceed to 
Mauku. This the chiefs William Wesley and Adam Clark 
have promised to do, but I will remain here until all 
danger from these wild spirits is past.' And so he did ; 
guarding us with jealous care, never seeming to sleep 
soundly ; for upon any unusual noise in the night he was 
up and out in a moment. On the Sunday, Nov. 4, 1860, 
he conducted in our little schoolroom Divine Service, and 
preached a sermon never to be forgotten — inspiring trust 
and confidence in God. The Bishop of New Zealand and 
Lichfield visited Mauku for the last time on the 1st Octo- 
ber, 18G8, having on that day held a confirmation service 
at the church, and on the Mauku and Druiy Eoad, under 
a glorious full moon, in a voice trembling with emotion, 
we received the bishop's parting blessing, and bade adieu 
on earth to this great and good man." 

In the early part of 1861 whilst hostilities still con- 
tinued at Taranaki, the bishop, as before, did all that 
lay in his power to promote peace. After a personal 
interview with the Governor, he submitted a formal 
memorandum on the Taranaki question, in which he 
claimed that the rights of the New Zealanders as 
British subjects should be regarded as identical with those 


of the English ; that the rights of Maoris to the soil of New 
Zealand, where the title had not been extinguished, should 
be fully recognised ; that all native customs in connexion 
with proprietary right should be respected ; that all land dis- 
putes should be submitted to a competent and impartial tri- 
bunal ; and that the existing quarrel should be allowed to 
sink tacitly into an armistice until feelings on both sides 
should be sufficiently calm to allow of negotiations for peace. 
In May, 1861, the Governor addressed a formal procla- 
mation to the chiefs of Waikato, demanding that the Eling 
movement should be given up, and he at once prepared to 
invade the district in force, and with this view the troops 
were removed to Auckland. This was happily averted by 
his removal from the government. As in 1848 the bishop 
had been called by Mr. Hume in the House of Commons 
" a turbulent priest," so now in New Zealand he seemed 
likely to receive a repetition of the honour. His consci- 
entious advocacy of the rights of his fellow-citizens was 
denounced as a political interference, and he was told that 
no right to interfere between Her Majesty's Government 
and her native subjects could be allowed to any minister 
of religion. To this the bishop replied May 20th, 1861 : — 

" There is no ambiguity whatever in the ground which 
we take. When all other classes of Her Majesty's English 
subjects in New Zealand are expressing their opinions 
upon the native question, and supporting a policy which 
we believe to be unjust, we should be gmlty of betraying 
the native race, who resigned their independence upon 
our advice, if we did not claim for them all the rights and 
privileges of British subjects, as guaranteed to them by 
the Treaty of Waitangi As the earliest settlers in this 
country — as agents employed by Government in native 
affairs — as intimately acquainted with the language, ciis- 
toms, and feelings of the native race — and, above all, as 
ministers of religion having the highest possible interest 
at stake — we assert the privilege, which the law allows to 
every man, of laying our petitions before the Crown and 
the Legislature." 


A lull followed at this juncture, and in July of the 
same year the bishop and his most influential clergymen 
represented to the Goverument that the war had been 
wholly uncalled-for, that Taranaki had up to the time 
of the outbreak been, one of the most peaceful parts 
of the colony, and that a suitable Tribunal, before which 
disputes about land could be adjudicated, would remove 
all dissatisfaction from the native mind ; they also offered 
their personal services in inquiring into the causes of dis- 
satisfaction, and in influencing the Maoris to accept terms 
of peace. 

In September, 1861, Sir George Grey returned to New 
Zealand to resume, under very altered conditions, the 
governorship which he had laid down some eight years 
before. The Maoris knew him to be a man of resolution 
and power, but while they saw the troops still remaining 
at Auckland, to the great satisfaction of the trading classes 
of that city, they felt that peace was as remote as ever. 
Nevertheless, the Maoris welcomed their old protector, 
and sent him addresses and words of greeting. The Wai- 
kato people kept silence, and waited for the Governor to 
make the first sign ; idtimately he met the chiefs face to 
face, and in a manifesto of wonderful ability proclaimed 
a policy of justice to both races ; as for the Maori King, 
he thought him a mistake, and a foolish mistake ; but he 
should not fight him — ^he should " dig quietly round him 
until he fell," while there would soon be twenty kings, 
and wealthy ones too, for every chief who behaved loyally 
to the Governor would be a king. 

During this lull the Governor employed the military in 
cutting a grand road through the forest of Hunua, thereby 
making the Waikato country easy of approach and of 
attack. At the end of it he buUt a large fort, capable of 
holding 1,000 men, which was called Queen's Eedoubt, 
and overhanging the Waikato river he built another fort. 
While the Governor was thus steadily and firmly preparing 
for war, the bishop, as became his office, was labouring for 


peace under very great diflSculties. His unpopularity was 
at its height. There was on the part of the majority of 
the colonists a bitter resentment against his advocacy 
of native rights, and resistance to the subordination of 
those rights to the supposed interests of the colonists. 
He had no sympathy either with the contempt or with 
the fear of the Maoris which prevailed — now one, now 
the other — ^with those who knew little of them, and 
who were unacquainted with their language and feelings. 
In October he attended a great assembly of natives at 
the Waikato, and in the following month he went to 
Taranaki, and was, as he recorded in his journal, ''re- 
ceived with groans." 

Little more than the above laconic entry was recorded 
by the bishop himseK; but on his return to Auckland he 
was compelled to tell the story to his friends, who had 
received exaggerated and untrustworthy accounts of it, 
and one who heard it from his own lips thus related it 
to friends in England : — 

" I wish you could have seen his bright, noble look as he 
told this story. As soon as he landed the mob assembled 
on the beach, and while he waited for his carpet-bag, 
began, ' Three groans for Bishop Selwyn ; One groan more,' 
and so on. He had to post letters at the post-office, and 
while there these heroes followed him, and the mob grew 
and groaned anew. He thought it better to put down 
this nonsense; so he turned and said (they were all 
turning their backs) ' Now, it is more English-like to look 
me in the face, and tell me your grievances.' I give the 
substance, not the exact words. Several began to speak 
at once, but the rest stopped them with ' Fair play ; if the 
bishop will hear us one at a time.' Another began some 
coarse, violent expressions ; but he was snubbed down — 
' That's not the way to speak to the bishop ! * One query 
was, * Why didn't you teach the Maori English, then there 
would be no trouble ? ' Answer, ' I have been doing this 
ever since I came ; two of my scholars are here, and speak 
English freely ; one you know, Henri, is with Mr. Powis.* 


A voice called out, ' Yes, and he's the greatest rogue alive.' 
' Very well,' said the Bishop ; * then you see knowing 
English is not everything.' Then one called out, ' You're 
grasping all the land.' Bishop : ' I will make you a pre- 
sent of all the land I own.' ' I don't mean your own ; 
you don't seek land; you like power. I mean public 
Church land. You're reviving all the old abuses in Eng- 
land.' Bishop : * I thought the endowments in England 
offered means of education to even the lowest, who may 
become Lord Chancellors, bishops, and the like.' The 
mob applauded this. At last a stump orator got up, and 
spoke so long that everybody went away, and the Bishop 
was left master of the field. Some gentlemen then came up 
and said, ' Don't, my lord, think this a sample of Taranaki 
feeling towards you.' However, three provincial council- 
lors were very noisy among the mob. After this, one in 
every four began to touch his hat to this noble man. We 
hear from an officer who was there that the Bishop has 
won the hearts of all the military, specially the young 
men. He dined at mess, and they all gathered round 
him afterwards, listening to his views. He went all 
through the Ngatiruanui country, and was met with 
great cordiality. He was detained for a day among the 
Taranaki natives at first starting. They said he came to 
spy, and that no minister should go through their country. 
The bishop sat on his bundle, and said, * Oh ! but I can't 
listen to the voice of one man. That would be like 
Governor Browne. If all Ngatiruanui wish me not to 
come, I'll return.' * You had better take up your bundle 
and return,' said the old chief. But he sat sturdily. He 
made them all laugh, for he said, ' I'm very like wheat 
There's the Pakehas : they were the upper stone grinding 
me at Taranaki, and now you grind me hera' They were 
very hospitable and friendly, only he must not go on. 
In the evening came a deputation from Euanui, praying 
him to coma So he slipped off in the early dusk the 
next morning, and went all through the district, marvel- 
ling at the good sense and right feeling of these maligned 
people. Not a word of vindictiveness had they to utter 
against us or the troops. 

" He met a magistrate (a Maori) on his way to these 
people, with a large canvas bag ; in that was the book of 



English laws the late Governor had compiled in Maori, 
and the Chief Justice's smaller, but more practical book, 
and all the written results of their Courts (Eunangas) at 
Tauranga. He was sent to attend the coming Eunanga, 
and to discourse on the blessings of law. When our 
Primate got back to the village where his progress had 
been opposed the old chief apologised and said, * Now let 
us how d'ye do ; and henceforth all ministers may come 
and go as aforetime. You are the great billow that has 
crushed the canoe ; you are the great fish that has broken 
through the net ; ' and so they parted most amicably." 

The journey, made entirely alone and unarmed through 
the disafiTected country, was accompanied by very much 
personal risk, but no fear tempted the bishop to refrain 
from administering rebuke to his Maori children. 

About this time Benata, a friendly and very intelligent 
chief, wrote a lengthy letter to the British Commissioner, 
and followed it up by a famous speech, which was rapidly 
reported throughout the whole district, and was every- 
where quoted by his fellow-countrymen. He cleverly 
availed himself of the Governor's interdiction on the pos- 
session by the natives of guns and powder ; and with 
much dramatic power he said, " My custom with regard 
to my enemy is, if he have not a weapon, I give him 
one, that we may fight upon equal terms. Now, Gover- 
nor, are you not ashamed of my defenceless hands ? " The 
imputation of cowardice on the part of the English told, 
and was very popular. 

Within a few days of Eenata's oration an English 
carter and his boy had been murdered by Maoris near 
Omata, and while these two events were fresh in their 
minds the bishop travelled through their country. He 
was in a native house at night sitting round the fire with 
a large party who were asking him questions about the 
meaning and value of portents and of marvels which were 
supposed to have happened. They told the bishop many 
of their national myths, and he said, " You have told me 


many strange things, now I will tell you a ghost story ! 
They were at once attentive, and he thus began : '* There 
was once a man who dreamed a dream that he was sit- 
ting with a large party round a fire, when out of the fire 
there rose up the figure of a man who said, ' Oh, Grovemor, 
if I had an .enemy and he had no weapon, I would give 
him one before we fought. Oh, Governor, were you not 
ashamed of my defenceless hands ? ' and he stretched 
them out. The people all applauded the sentiment which 
was so just and true ; but the dream went further. 'After 
a time there rose up another figure slowly out of the fire, 
and looked on them : it was a white face, very pale, and 
blood was streaming down it : the figure was dressed like 
an English boy, and held a bullock whip. Slowly he too 
stretched out his arm and said to the Maoris, ' Were you 
not ashamed of my defenceless hands ' ? " 

The people asked the bishop to interpret the story, but 
they knew its meaning only too well, and by that mys- 
terious intercommunication more rapid than an organized 
postal service, which half-civilized tribes have among 
themselves, it spread far and wide, and was talked of in 
every native pah and round every camp fire. 

It was during this perilous walk that a fanatical prophet 
persuaded the people in a certain village not to receive 
the bishop into their houses, but to oflTer him a pigstye for his 
night's shelter. The bishop accepted the churlish accom- 
modation, set to work and cleaned out the pig-stye, turning 
out the pigs, and then cut some clean fern and littered it 
down for his bed. His conduct astonished the Maoris 
and made them say, " You cannot whaka-tviua that man," 
i.e, degrade him from the character of a gentleman.^ 

^ This incident prompted the Bishop's brother, Professor Selwyn, to 
write the following lines : — 

A Johnian Bishop in New Zealand wood, 
Finding no host to give him bed or food, 
Was kindly lodged by two of porcine breed, 
Who left tneir straw to rest his weary head. 


The Governor, although he was preparing for war, was 
hardly less anxious than the bishop that peace should be 
restored. At the close of 1861 he published a proclama- 
tion in Maori, which was widely circulated among the 
natives, and of which the conclusion and summary were 
in the following terms : — 

"This, then, is what the Governor intends to do, to 
assist the Maori in the good work of establishing law and 
order. These are the first things: — The Runangas, the 
Assessors, the Policemen, the Schools, the Doctors, the 
Civil Commissioners to assist the Maoris to govern them- 
selves, to make good laws, and to protect the weak against 
the strong. There will be many more things to be planned 
and to be decided ; but about such things the Eunangas 
and the Commissioners will consult. This work will be a 
work of time, like the growing of a large tree — at first 
there is the seed, then there is one trunk, then there are 
branches innumerable, and very many leaves : by and by, 
perhaps, there will be fruit also. But the growth of the 
tree is slow — the branches, the leaves, and fruit did not 
appear all at once, when the seed was put in the ground : 
and so will it be with the good laws of the liunanga. 
This is the seed which the Governor desires to sow : — the 
Bunangas, the Assessors, the Commissioners, and the rest. 
By and by, perhaps, this seed will grow into a very great 
tree, which will bear good fruit on all its branches. The 
Maoris, then, must assist in the planting of this tree, in 
the training of its branches, in cultivating the ground 

But hark ! returning at the dead of night, 

A friendly grunt is heard npon the right, 

And on the left a snout salutes bis cheelc, 

Which moved the chaplain in great wraih to speak : 

Ho ! friends and Maoris : this is infra dig. 

Our Bishop's cheek insulted by a pig. 

He must be killed and cooked. The Bishop smiled, 

And said, My friends, in judgment be more mild. 

These pigs have been my friends : have lodged me well. 

And of their kindness I shall often tell. 

And for the kiss you do not understand 'em ; 

It is the pig's admission ad eundeni} 

■~ ■ - ■ 1— -■ • -- - B-M- T- - ^K _ 

' Alluding to the ancient custom of Jrisstng the cheek of (ininent men who receivtd 
degrees Aoitorfj eauid, or who were admitted ad eundem 



about its roots ; and, as the tree grows, the children of the 
Maori, also, will grow to be a rich, wise, and prosperous 
people, like the English and those other nations which 
long ago began the work of making good laws and obey- 
ing them. This will be the work of peace, on which the 
blessing of Providence will rest, — ^which will make the 
storms to pass away from the sky, — and all things become 
light between the Maori and the Pakeha ; and the heart 
of the Queen will then be glad when she hears that the 
two races are living quietly together, as brothers, in the 
good and prosperous laiid of New Zealand/' 

After the so-called peace of 1361 had been concluded, 
the road to Whanganui continued to be stopped, and a 
board of tolls was put up demanding 51. from all settlers who 
should pass by that way, but 50/. from any minister of 
religion, whether native or English. The cause of this 
antipathy to the missionaries was the fact that they had 
always advised the people to accept what was so evidently 
the Will of tjod, and was clearly for their benefit, union with 
the English under the common government of the Queen : 
many therefore now believed, that all along their teachers 
had been doing the behests of the English and preparing 
the way for the subjugation of the natives. 

The greater part of 1862 was spent in that uncertedn 
condition of nominal peace which threatened at any 
moment to be interrupted by the war for which each 
party was in its separate fashion preparing. Sir George 
Grey was busy in making his roads, which would facilitate 
the mancBuvres of the British army, whenever their 
services should be called into requisition : the Maoris not 
only continued to nurse their grievances, but they had 
seized on a block of land at Tataraimaka as a material* 
guarantee for the restoration of the Waitara. 

In October, 1862, a great national meeting was held at 
the Ngatihaua village of Peria, to which invitations had 
been issued several months previously. Several of the 
Waikato chiefs had even invited the Governor to attend, 


and those who had not joined in the invitation had re- 
frained only because it was considered that the speakers 
would probably indulge in strong language, and would 
possibly say things which would affront the Grovemor and 
compromise their character as courteous hosts. The 
difference between the Governor and the Maoris, between 
what the one proposed and the other would accept, was 
in itself small, but it represented nothing less than the 
old question of nationality. If both parties withdrew 
from the Waitara, it would look like a conference of 
nations, and the English might take Tataraimaka and 
welcome: but to let the Governor remain in possession 
would seem to be the act of a conquered people. 

The bishop, having no fear of hard words, attended the 
Conference which was held at Matamata, the residence 
of the King-maker, Wiremu Tamahana, and he tried to 
repress this passion for nationality which overpowered all 
other considerations. The first encounter occurred on a 
Sunday. Wiremu Tamahana had preached to the assem- 
bled multitude on the words, "Behold, how good and 
joyful a thing it is, brethren, to dwell together in unity," 
and had illustrated the doctrine by relating the benefits 
produced by the union of the Maori tribes, once con- 
stantly at war, but now consolidated into one brotherhood 
under a Maori King. The bishop heard that the sermon 
had produced a great effect upon the audience, and asked 
leave to conduct service in the afternoon, when he 
preached a very different sermon on the same text. On 
the following day the bishop was allowed to address a 
Native assembly, and he thus availed himself of the 
opportunity : — 

" Here am I, a mediator for New Zealand. My work 
is mediation. I am not merely a Pakeha, or a Maori ; I 
am a half-casta I have eaten your food, I have slept in 
your houses ; I have talked with you, journeyed with you, 
prayed with you, partaken of the Holy Communion with 

N 2 


you. Therefore I say I am a half-caste. I cannot rid 
myself of my half-caste ; it is in my body, in my flesh, in 
my bones, in my sinews. Yes, we are all of us half- 
caste. Your dress is half-caste — a Maori mat and 
English clothes ; your strength is half-caste — ^your courage 
Maori, your weapons English guns. Your soldiers are 
half-caste — the man a Maori, the uniform and word of 
command English. Your ' mana ' (authority) is half- 
caste — a Maori office with an English name. Your faith 
is half-caste — ^the first preachers, your fathers in God, 
English, your own hearts the mother, to whom was born 
faitL Therefore I say, we are all half-castes ; therefore 
let us dwell together with one faith, one love, and one law. 
Yes, let them be one. I have not forgotten the motto of 
old Potatau [the Maori Bang], Faith, Love, and Law. He 
did not say to us Let there be many forms of faith, many 
forms of love, many forms of law, but Let there be one 
form of each. My feet stand upon that word of his. Do 
not suppose that I have come here uninvited. W. Thomp- 
son has invited me. The Council of Waikato has agreed 
that to-day I should be allowed to speak my mind to you. 
Well, then, carefully weigh these special thoughts : — 

** 1st. Let the law be one. 

" 2d. Let the Waitara question be decided by law. 

" 3d. Let Tataraimaka (near Taranaki) be occupied quietly 
by the English owners. 

" First. * Let the law be one.* You have heard what W. 
Thompson said about the Duke of Newcastle's despatch. 
I will explain that despatch to you. If you wish Matu- 
taera and his Council to make laws for you, make known 
your regulations to the Governor ; he will see them con- 
firmed in your province for all alike ; just as there is a 
Provincial Council at WelL'ngton, another at Auckland, 
another at Napier, and each with their own superintendent. 
They make their own laws for their harbours, their ix>ads, 
their sales, their lands, &c. ; then it remains for the 
Governor to confirm their laws. It is not a partial law, or 
a class law, but there is one law for alL Therefore I say 
to you, agree to this first thought of mine, * Let the law 
be one.' 

" Now for the second point, * Let the Waitara case be 
decided by law.' This is not my idea only — it is yours. 


W. Thompson ; it is yours, Ngatikahungunu — ^it was what 
we all said. At the end of the war at Taranaki, you, W. 
Thompson, said, ' As for Waitara, let the law look to it.' 
What law ? The Maori's law, or the English law ? No. 
The law of us aU together. Ngatikahungunu (Renata's 
tribe), this was your word, * If there is a question about 
a bushel of wheat, it is tried by law ; about a horse, it is 
tried ; about a pig, it is tried ; but about land, a great 
matter, it is not tried by law.' This was what we all said 
formerly, at least all of us English who took your part on 
that occasion. * The fault Governor Browne committed was, 
that he did not try the Waitara question by law.' This 
was my sickness, that it was not tried. This is my 
medicine, that it should be tried by law. Who shall try 
it ? Both of us together — ^your men that are skilled in 
Maori usage, our men that are skilled in English law. It 
was one man of yours who began the wrong, namely, Te 
Teira. It was one man of ours who continued the wrong. 
Governor Browne. Now all of us together, the whole 
body, will set right the wrong of one member. Agree to 
this second point of mine, ' Let the Waitara question be 
decided by law.* 

" Now for the third, ' Let Tataraimaka be occupied 
by its English owners.' This is no new word of mine, 
llist year William King said to Tamati Ngapora and me, 
* Soon it will be all clear.' I went to Taranaki on the 
faith of this. I was not believed. You have heard of my 
trouble there. It is over now ; Hori Ngatai and I have 
made friends. But the chief cause of my sorrow is for 
the widows and orphans who are living at the town, at 
New Plymouth, deprived of their lands. They have done 
no wrong. Let some of us go and restore them to their 
homes. You and I, W. Thompson, should do this, and 
*Let Tataraimaka be quietly occupied by the English 

" Here the Bishop turned to Matutaera, and raised his 
hat, and said, * Matutaera, head chief of Waikato, here am 
I, entreating you, by the name of our father Potatau, who 
died with feelings of love to men, agree to the principles 
by which we shall all live happily.' 

"The Bishop turns to W. Thompson. *My son, W. 


Thompson, here am I, begging you in the name of the 
dead at Taranaki, agree to these principles.' 

" The Bishop turns to the whole assembly. ' all ye 
tribes of New Zealand, sitting in council here, I beseech 
you, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom we 
all believe and hope, agree to the proposal by which we 
shall all live in peace and happiness.' " 

The bishop's arguments, so fearlessly and impartially 
urged, convinced several of the chiefs, but did not alter the 
general resolution of the meeting. Wiremu Tamahana 
called on his brother-chiefs to allow the Waitara title to 
be investigated, and demanded that Tataraimaka should be 
given up to the English : but he could not move the tribes, 
and he would not desert them, lest by so doing he should 
break up the Maori independence. Early in 1863 the 
Governor without any warning came down among the 
chiefs of the Waikato and was well received. They 
assured him the Maori King had not been set up in con- 
sequence of the Waitara business: that they had had 
the project in mind long ago, even in the days of Sir 
Geoige's former residence in the colony. The Governor 
on his side told them that he meant at once to seize 
Tataraimaka, and of this the Maoris admitted the justice. 
They implored him not to bring a steamer up the Waikato : 
small boats and canoes they did not mind, but a steamer 
could bring troops and great guns into their country ; but 
the Governor was firm in the matter, and told them that 
after he had towed their canoes against the stream he 
believed they would go to war with him if he took the 
steamer away. 

In March 1863 a Court-house built at the Waikato, but 
which was believed by the natives to be a masked stockade, 
was thrown into the river ; this probably hastened matters, 
and in the month of April Sir G. Grey took the field. 
Accompanied by the General in command, the Colonial 
Premier, the Minister for Kative Affairs, and a laige 


militaiy force, he went down to Taranaki by sea. Battalion 
after battalion was moved from Auckland, and at Taranaki 
and for a large district round, stockades and redoubts were 
built on the land of natives whom we had never con- 

When matters had gone thus far it was discovered that 
the native title to the Waitara was after all sound, and no- 
thing remained in honour but that the English should give 
it up. Unfortunately the proper order was reversed, and 
Tataraimaka was retaken by force before the Waitara was 
restored. This led at once to hostilities, and after numerous 
warnings had been given by the Maoris, and the delay of 
a whole month after Tataraimaka had been retaken, two 
officers and seven soldiers were shot down as they were 
marching along the seashore, and the Taranaki war broke 
out again in full force. " Now I must give up the Waitara," 
said the Governor, when he heard of the murder. " It would 
have been better," said the Duke of Newcastle, the Colonial 
Secretary, " if the reoccupation of the Tataraimaka block, 
and the abandonment of the Waitara, had been efiected at 
one and the aame time." " We can see clearly the error of 
our tribes in slaying the Pakehas," said the eloquent chief 
Senata, " but at the same time we cannot lose sight of the 
error of the Governor in not making known his decision 
about the Waitara at the proper time." 

One month after the murder had been committed, the 
British troops took a Maori position by storm, and H.M.S. 
Eclipse fired Armstrong shells at long range among the 
Maoris on the beach. The British lion being thus somewhat 
appeased, the bulk of the troops were withdrawn to Auck- 
land, and H.M. 57th regiment was stationed at Taranaki- 
The colonists having tasted revenge, desired to have more : 
hatred and panic divided the white inhabitants : it was 
believed that schemes were afloat for the destruction of 
the whole European population, and the abhorrence of the 
Maoris was so intense that they were not safe in the town. 

186 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. . [chap. 

An iron-plated steamer arrived from Sydney, and the 
General commenced his advance. 

" And here we are," wrote the Bishop of Wellington, " in 
the second act of the Waitara war. Messrs. D. and D. B., 
strong supporters of the war, investigated the Waitara 
case, and have advised the Governor to relinquish the land, 
finding that Te Teira had no right to it, and that he had 
deceived the Governor, and that Parris, the Commissioner, 
had suppressed or concealed from the Government many 
things. All of us, therefore, who took the strong and 
decided line we did, were fully justified in doing so. But 
the act of injustice so thoroughly disgusted the Maoris, 
and gave them such a thorough distrust of us, that we 
cannot put things into the statvs quo ante. And the late war 
demoralized them, and encouraged them to engage in 
another. And then that horrid outrage in May was com- 
mitted on the escoi't, and then the Government very 
foolishly published a proclamation confiscating the land on 
which the murder was committed, which land belongs to a 
loyal native teacher living at Waikanae near here, so that 
the whole attention of the Maoris has been diverted from 
the disgraceful murder to the unjust confiscation of a loyal 
Maori's land. And then the Governor invaded Waikato, 
whereupon many natives who disapproved of the murder 
have joined in resisting the aggressive movement" 

Ten thousand troops were now on the move, furnished 
with all appliances for taking the field, but not a single 
chaplain was with them. The bishop, regardless of con- 
sequences, did what he believed to be his immediate duty, 
sympathizing not at all with the object of the expedition, 
and knowing that his presence with the soldiers would be 
misconstrued by his Maori flock into an espousing of the 
cause of their enemies : but he could not allow 10,000 
men to go to battle with no one to care for their spiritual 
interests ; he therefore joined the army as chaplain, and at 
the same time protected the Native Teachers and their 
flocks. He lived in camp, pitching his own tent with a 


skill which provoked the envy of the soldiers, and which 
secured for him dry quarters while his comrades were 
soaked. Probably no part of his career was more noble and 
fearless than this : as it turned out, his action compromised 
him with both parties, but the fact that it did so is pro- 
bably a testimony to the righteousness of his proceedinga 

An officer who was present describes how, when the 
steamer was taking the first detachment of soldiers up the 
Waikato, he saw through his telescope the figure of a man 
on foot rapidly making his way to the mission station : 
after a while he came to a small tributary stream, and he 
was observed to be feeling for the bottom with a long 
stick, and when it proved too deep to be forded he was 
seen to strip, to tie his clothes in a bundle on his head, 
and to swim across. This was the Bishop of New Zealand 
hastening to prepare the native clergyman for the incursion 
of English soldiers, and to try to protect him, and his 
school, and his flock of sheep, which represented aU his 
worldly goods. It was a characteristic deed, and years 
afterwards, when people saw him sitting in the chair of 
S. Chad, beneath the figure of S. Christopher, with staff 
in hand wading through the water, and bearing the child 
Christ ojgL his shoulders, they were fain to see a fitness in 
the coincidence, and to believe that the saint of the early 
legend was at best but a prototype of the great missionary 
bishop of the nineteenth century. 

On July 13 the (Jeneral crossed the river in force, and 
the bishop wrote, ** The Eubicon is past, and war is declared 
against New Zealand." "With a heavy heart," he took 
up his quarters in the porch of the church at l^rury, " a 
most comfortable chamber, eight feet by eight, with a 
window!" His duties were not limited to those of a 
military chaplain, for he had to go long distances and warn 
the settlers, as massacres were now frequent, the Maoris 
lying in ambuscade, and shooting all who came within 
shot. Each action gave him much to do in the hospitals, 
and he records the high opinion which he had formed of 


the soldiers, the patient cheerfulness of the i^ounded^ the 
good feeling that existed between officers and men. The 
dates of the bishop's letters at this period are strangely in 
contrast with those of former years. " Queen's Redoubt/' 
" Sailor's Camp," " Head-quarters," &c., are very different 
from the peaceful cabin of the Undvne and the study at 
St John's College, but the work in the field was as fruitful 
and as noble as any. At one time the bishop is visiting a 
Maori deacon whom nothing would induce to desert his 
station : at another, as at Bangiriri, where a great battle 
was fought, he came upon the churchyard *' where a large 
party were at work on thirty newly-made graves; each 
soldier lay in his separate grave, regiment by regiment, 
company by company, comrades in life and in death not 
divided." At another time he is burying a dead Maori, 
whose body was found in the trenches : the English soldiers 
laid him in the grave, and the bishop gave an address, in 
which he reminded them that the Maori clergy had in 
several instances given Christian burial to our soldiers. 
'* If there must be war," he said, " our great effort ought to 
be at least to de-brutalize it; and the army, from the 
General downwards, have shown every willingness that it 
should be so." 

In the midst of these trying labours the bishop found 
time to write frequent letters, in which there is an uniform 
consistency of opinion as to the justice of the war. 

The two following letters to his sons in England are 
taken from among many written at this period : — 

August Zl$t^ 1863. 

My deajr William, 

Another month closes upon us still in a state of war, and 
likely I fear to remain, but still there does not seem to be 
so much heart in the war as might have been expected. I 
cannot think that the native people in general believe in 
the justice of their cause. At Waitara they were con- 
vinced that they were in the right; now they cannot justify 
the unprovoked attack at Taranaki, which yet their chief 


men refuse to disavow. If it were not for the deep-seated 
feeling of distrust, which of course grew immensely during 
the Waitara war, they would soon agree to terms. I am 
very glad that you went away just in time, not because of 
any danger which you may have escaped, for I wish neither 
my children nor myself to neglect any public duty from fear 
of danger ; but because I am just as glad that you should not 
be in arms against my Maori children, however rebellious 
they may be. Neither is the state of our young men 
bettered by the war, for they are all enrolled in the militia, 
and in danger of acquiring evil habits and a low tone of 
thought and speech. My duties are now chiefly with the 
soldiers, who are scattered over nearly twenty stations. 

Rakoiahva, o& Taipouri, 

(Head-qoarten Camp), 

Dtc, 4^ 1868. 

My vbry deab Wiluam and John, 

I must send you a joint letter, as it will relate to public 
affairs. You will have heard that I am acting as military 
chaplain with the army in Waikato, taking alternate 
fortnights of duty with Archdeacon Maunsell. When the 
war began in earnest it was necessary to have some one on 
the spot, as there were continual cases of wounded men to be 
vi:5ited, and dead to be buried. By a despatch from the 
War Office the General was authorized to appoint as 
chaplains any missionaries who had been driven from their 
stations. So I named Mr. Ashwell for Head-quarters camp, 
and Mr. Morgan for Drury. Archdeacon Maunsell was 
then at his own station, but he has since left it, and has 
joined the military work 

It is a strange thing to be moving up the Waikato with 
an army, after twenty years of annual visits of a peaceful 
kind. To see the hills crowned with English forts, and 
steamers smoking on the river, is a strange and to me a 
painful subject of reflection. Whether we could have done 
anything more to avert the war I doubt, for our influence as 
clergymen has waned ever since the Maori King was set up, 
and we refused to alter our prayers for the Queen. Evil 
counsels have prevailed, and the people are now reaping 
the fruit of the seed of discord which they have sown. 
In all the most serious engagements they have been de- 
feated with loss. They have been these : — 


Katikara, south of Taranaki, where they lost thirty or 
forty ; we very few. 

Koheroa, on the Waikato, where the Maori loss was 
about the same. 

Meremere, a strong position turned and evacuated without 
loss of either side. 

Bangiriri, a very strong position, most ingeniously de- 
fended with earthworks, against which four several assaults 
were made in vain, with a loss of forty killed and eighty 
wounded on our side. The garrison being entirely sur- 
rounded, surrendered at discretion the next day, in number 
about 180, including some of the leading men of Waikato. 
They are now on board the Curafoa man-of-war. .... The 
General complimented the prisoners upon their gallant 

So ended the battle for that day, and the General and 
staff lay down in the trench nearest to the keep, while the 
sappers were digging down the earthwork with a view to 
the renewal of the assault in the morning through the 
breach. The General's orderly climbed up on the parapet to 
fire down into the keep, and was ordered down several 
times by the aide-de-camp. In spite of this he went up 
again, and had just turned his head round to say, " They are 
all gone, there is no one there," when a ball passed through 
his head and he fell down dead almost at the General's feet. 
All night the Maoris kept up a fire, and then at break of 
day hoisted a white flag. The soldiers instantly rushed up 
and fraternized with the Maoris, giving them biscuit Not 
so the civilians at Otahuka, some of whom are said to 
have thrown stones at them as they passed along. 

The fact of his thus being encamped with the troops led, 
as has been already stated, not unnaturally, to his being 
much distrusted by the nativea The real history of this 
misconception was thus explained by an English officer in 
high command. One day after a hard fight between the 
English and natives in and around a swamp, our men had 
driven off the main body of the natives, and he (the 
Colonel) was returning to his quarters in the evening, 
inwardly thanking God that he had escaped without a 
scratch, when he met the bishop going towards the swamp. 


" What are you after, my lord ? " " Going to look for the 
-wounded." " Oh, but there are a good many natives in the 
swamp to look after them." " I don't know that," said the 
bishop, and tramped on towards the swamp. The officer 
could not let him go alone ; so he turned back, and ac- 
companied him to the scene of the late action. The bishop 
led the way among the toi-toi (pampas grass), and called 
out in Maori, " Any wounded man here ? " " Baug, bang," 
was the sharp reply from several guns. " All right," said 
the bishop, " and now let us go into the other part where 
the firing was hottest." Off they went, and again the 
bishop cried out, "Any wounded man here?" A weak 
thin voice replied, " Tenei ahau," (Tes, here am I). They 
made their way towards him ; picked him up, and carried 
him ofiT the field on a check shepherd's plaid that one of 
them had. They had several miles to go before they could 
reach the Eedoubt and get his wound attended to. As 
they were going, they feU in with two soldiers making for 
the camp, and got them to take turns occasionally in 
carrying the man, while the colonel and the bishop carried 
the men's rifles. Some natives saw the bishop carrying a 
rifle, and spread a report that he had fought against them. 
This poisoned their minds against him for two years or 
more. At last, on the occasion of a great meeting of natives, 
some speaker denounced the bishop as one of their foes, 
when up got the wounded Maori and told his people the 
true story ; and then all their bitterness and hostility turned 
to admiration and gratitude. 

It needed but time to reveal the whole integrity of the 
bishop's motives, but all that he did for both races during 
that disastrous period will probably never be known in this 
world. One who shared his labours has kindly contributed 
to this memoir the following testimony to their variety, 
and the unselfish care which prompted them : — 


RoTAL Dockyard, Sherbness, 
JvJy \2(h, 1878. 

As there was no array chaplain in the field in the 
beginning of the war, 1 with the consent of my com- 
manding officer put myself under the bishop's direction to 
supply services to the troops. He was taking me one day 
from the Queen's Redoubt to the Head-quarters, along a 
road through dense bush said to be infested with Maoris, 
and by which no officer was allowed to travel without an 
escort ; but he would not hamper himself with one. We 
came to a part of the road on the side of a steep hill, full 
of deep ruts. He told me to pull up and hold his horse. 
He dismounted and set to work to fill up the ruts, saying 
as he laboured that the waggons for provisioning the troops 
might get capsized. I was reminded of the good Samaritan, 
as this, like the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, had the 
title of " the bloody way." Further on we came to a place 
where a company of the 18th Royal Irish were stationed. 
They were not remarkable for sobriety, and as we were 
passing the stockade, the bishop saw a man lying drunk 
without anything on his head. He dismounted and 
dragged him a considerable distance, until he placed him 
under the shelter of a tree, remarking to me, ** those men 

do not know the danger of sun-stroke." 

S. W. Payne (Chaplain R.N.). 

In addition to the divided feelings with which the bishop 
was a daily witness of the terrible war, there was present 
the sad disappointment at the conduct of the natives, for 
whom it would seem that he had laboured in vain : but 
nothing appears to have exhausted his patience, nothing was 
in his eyes labour thrown away, if only it were done for 
God. As in the early days of his episcopate he had 
thankfully ministered to a race of whom he said, " it was 
evident that they were dying out," so now amid the 
apostasies and relapses of those on whom he had bestowed 
the labour of the best years of hig life, he had no greater 
desire than to shepherd the faithful few, and to be ready to 
receive the penitent if their hearts were touched, and they 


returned. In the midst of these sorrows he wrote to the 
Bishop of Adelaide : — 

** I have now one simple missionaiy idea before me — of 
watching over the remnant that is left. Our native work 
is a remnant in two senses : the remnant of a decaying 
people, and the remnant of a decaying faith. The works 
of which you hear are not the works of heathens : they 
are the works of baptized men, whose love has grown cold 
from causes common to all Churches of neophytes from 
Laodicsea downwards." 

And while he was thus grieving over one portion of his 
people, the other was regarding him with suspicion and 
animosity, as having unduly espoused the cause of their 
natural enemies the owners of the soiL Well did Bishop 
Patteson write about this time : " How often do I think 
with reference to him of a 'prophet is not without honour,' 
&c. Little the Auckland settlers know the man 'that 
standeth among them : ' but let them say what they may, 
even they respect and admire him so greatly that his 
name must ever be a power in the land." 

In the early days of 1864 the British troops dispersed 
the natives, who fled to their mountain fastnesses; the 
Waikato was held by our soldiers, and some forces were 
landed at Tauranga to carry out the new policy of confis- 
cation of native lands and property, in which by a blunder 
loyal and friendly owners suffered with those who had been 
carrying on the war against us. In the interval of active 
operations in the field the bishop wrote to his elder son, then 
contemplating admission to Holy Orders, a letter, which 
has its own value as giving his idea of what should be a 
curate's manner of life in a large town parish. Ultimately 
Mr. Selwyn was ordained to the curacy of Chaddesley 
Corbett near to Kidderminster, but with a small population, 
and altogether in strong contrast with that large and popu- 
lous town. But the bishop found in a less arduous sphere 
no excuse for an easy estimate of ministerial obligations. 


and the two letters are given as valuable pictures of 
ministerial duty whether in a large or a small parish : — 


Te Robi Waipa (Head- quarters Camp), 
Feb. ilh, 1864. 

My. ueab William, 

1 am again in the country through which I travelled with 
you, but under ver)'^ diflFerent circumstances. For want of 
other military chaplains I have attached myself to the army, 
believing that where the wounded and the dying are, there 
is the place for the minister of the GospeL Since Ban- 
giriri there has been little or no loss of life till Tuesday 
last, when Lieutenant Mitchel of the Esk was shot on the 
steamer Avon while coming up the Waipa. We fear that 
his wound is mortaL To-day the plot is thickening. We 
are within one and a half miles of a strong native position, 
Patarangi, and about two miles fix)m another, PikopUco ; and 
as I write a dropping fire is going on continually with 
small arms, and an occasional shot from the Armstrong 
guns, which are being brought intx) position about 1,000 
yards from the pa. The General has 3,000 men; the 
Natives are not supposed to have more than 1,200, but 
they have so strengthened their positions by earthworks 
that he is obliged to proceed cautiously and systematically. 
The popular idea of "rushing" seems to have been 
abandoned since BangirirL 

The scenes around me make me very thankful that you 
escaped just in time, to avoid being enrolled in the Auck- 
land militia. The worst part of the war is the frightful 
demoralization that is going on among our young men. 
Instead of this state of things, you will I hope before you 
receive this have been called to be a servant of the Prince 
of Peace; and may the same Holy Spirit, who I trust 
has called you to the work, confirm and guide you in it. 
Nothing can be more pleasing to me than your connexion 
with Mr. Claughton and Kidderminster. It brings back 
to mind the pleasure which I felt when George Herbert ^ 
entered the ministry under the same pastoral guidance 

1 XT 

Now Dean of Hereford. 


I feel sure that you will now learn what real work means, 
and wiU remember what I said to you about the employ- 
ment of time. In a parish like Kidderminster there will 
be no idea of duty from 10 to 1, and pleasure afterwards ; 
but every hour will have its allotted task, and it will be 
your meat and drink to do your Master's will, and to finish 
His work. If I live till the 21st February, I shall not fail 
to be with you in spirit, praying that you may be a good 
and faithful minister of our Lord Jesus Christ. 


Auckland, N.Z., May7lh, 1S64. 

My very dear William, 

Before you receive this I hope that you will have been 
ordained, and will have settled down to your work with 
F. Marriott I should have preferred Kidderminster, 
because I fear that in a small parish you will be exposed 
to the temptation of doing half a day's work and consider- 
ing it a whole one. Accept my assurance that even a 
small parish is enough to occupy a clergyman's whole time, 
and to employ all his thoughts : and yet not enough to 
overtax his energies and make relaxation necessary. In a 
parish of moderate size the work may be thoroughly done, 
every parishioner regularly visited, whether in sickness or 
in health : every birth of a child followed up by a visit 
to the parents to arrange the time of baptism and the 
choice of sponsors : every projected marriage a reason for 
a special interest in the young people: confirmation classes 
not called together hurry-skurry when the bishop's notice 
comes, but carried on as a matter of course, a new class 
begun as soon as the last has been confirmed : the schools 
not merely visited but actually taught : truant children 
hunted up : absentees from church, young or old, mildly 
admonished : and above all such careful study of the "Word 
of Gh)d for its own sake as may make the composition 
and delivery of sermons a work of small diflBculty ; for 
out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh : 
frequent catechising (not questions at random, but upon 
a train of thought prepared before, and to one definite 
VOL. n. 


point), wiU give you freedom in composition and oral 
delivery, besides enabling you to suit your instruction to 
the capacity of your hearers or scholars, by knowledge of 
their actual want Then there will be a system of paro- 
chial charities, for all which I refer you to your aunt 
Letitia ; penny banks, coal clubs, clothing clubs, shoe 
clubs, &c., all of which are chiefly valuable for the access 
which they give a clergyman to the hearths at least, if not 
to the hearts, of his parishioners, it required men full of 
the Holy Ghost and of power even to serve tables. These 
manifold works will leave little spare time, morning, noon, 
or night ; and, however true it may be that half a loaf is 
better than no bread, I hope that you will give your parish- 
ioners the whole loaf. May the Holy Spirit guide and 
strengthen you in this blessed work. 

The reckless and indiscriminate confiscation of land of 
the so-called rebels gave fresh vitality to the Maoris* 
falling cause. In April, 1864, the war broke out again at 
Tauranga, and the British were repulsed with much 
slaughter at the Gate Pa on April 29th. In the same 
month the Paimarire or Hau-hau fanaticism sprung up as 
it were in a single night, and then the Maoris failed in 
successive battles, and being thus divided among them- 
selves, were conquered by the disciplined forces of the 
British army with comparative ease. In July, 1864, the 
Tauranga chiefs gave in their allegiance, and were punished 
for the defence which they had made in behalf of their 
ancestral territory by the confiscation of one-fourth of it. 

There was not — and there has never been — any formal 
termination of the war : the bishop's counsel, spurned 
when offered, has been adopted without acknowledgment, 
and the quarrel has been allowed to sink into an informal 
armistice. The Government claiming to assert that all 
Maoris were subjects of the Queen, could not in con- 
sistency make any treaty or terms with persons whom it 
pronounced to be insurgents and rebels : its policy was, 
suppression of the rebellion, punishment of the leaders, and 


then a general amnesty. But this was found to be difficult 
of execution ; there were isolated instances of submission, 
but the majority of the Waikatos withdrew to the tract 
outside of the confiscated block, and there they have 
remained unmolested to the present day, their territory 
being known as the King's Country and themselves refusing 
to acknowledge any allegiance to the English Crown. The 
strict isolation which they maintained at first has been of 
late considerably relaxed, and they come to the market at 
Alexandra just within the boundary to buy and sell : their 
countiy may become an Alsatia, and on this account it is 
very desirable that they should cease to live thus cut off 
firom the rest of the colony. 

After a while both parties were weary of the strife, and 
with the withdrawal of the Queen's troops quietness was 
restored to the land to this extent, that the fightings were 
almost limited to the Paimarire against the friendly natives : 
the former were the victims of one of the most horrible 
delusions that ever made captive the hearts of men. A 
Taranaki chief, named Horopapera Te Ua, had shown such 
symptoms of insanity that his people had bound him, first 
with cords and afterwards with chain and padlock ; from 
both of these he escaped, and declared that the angel 
Gabriel had released him. From a lunatic he came to be 
esteemed a prophet ; he foretold a great victory, which was 
supposed to have been realized when a small reconnoitring 
party of soldiers were cut off. He professed to have 
received revelations from the Angel Gabriel A worship 
was compiled for his followers, which was a mixture of 
Bomanism, Wesleyanism, and Church doctrines, associated 
with the fanaticism and licence of Mohammedanism. To 
propagate this creed by the sword became a virtue, and no 
restraints were put on the worst passions of our nature 
Under the influence of visions some of them reverted 
to cannibalism. Something of every creed they adopt-ed : 
they affected the name of "Universal;" called their 
doctrine ** Paimarire " (all-holy), and themselves " Hau- 


198 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWY?^. [chap. 

haus/* (or barkers) from their habit of repeating the sound 
" hau " accompanied by a deep breathing from the chest. 

The emissaries of this fanaticism were sent in two bands 
through the country with their routes duly prescribed to 
them by the authority of their founder. Their instructions 
were that they should travel peaceably, carrying with them 
human heads, which they were to deliver to a chief in 
Poverty Bay. Their object was not fighting, but to gain 
the adhesion of the tribes through whose territory they 
passed; at Whanganui one contingent was defeated in 
February, 1865, by the friendly natives under John 
Williams, a catechist of the Church Missionary Society, 
who died of his wounds, and was buried with military 
honours, the British ensign being his pall. After this 
defeat the fanatics set out with the determination to 
murder every missionary whom they met, and there was 
no time in which to warn those who were exposed to this 
new peril. 

On March 2nd the second contingent of these fanatics 
reached Opotiki, in Poverty Bay. They found the tribe 
already in great excitement, and they uttered a bitter 
lamentation, unlike anything ever heard before ; it was a 
mourning for the lands which they had lost, and it had an 
overpowering efiTect on the bystanders; it touched their 
amor patrice and infected those who had hitherto stood 
aloof. The few English who were present described the 
condition of the whole tribe as one of raving madness. 

Just at this moment a small schooner entered the harbour 
having on board two clergymen, Messrs. Volkner and Grace, 
who were at once seized upon : the former was the bearer 
of medicines and nourishing food for the sick stricken 
with the fever which had been epidemic in Poverty Bay ; 
the next morning, with the blasphemous cry that it was 
the will of God, he was murdered under circumstances 
exceptionally revolting, and Mr. Grace was taken prisoner. 

Immediately on hearing this appalling news the bishop 
went down to Poverty Bay in the hope of rescuing Mr. 

IV.] RESCUE. 199 

Grace, but it was a delicate and perilous work. On March 
16th, however, it was accomplished, and he wrote the 
following grateful letter to Mrs. Selwyn : — 

H.M.S. ** Eclipse," Opotiki, 
Thursday Evening^ March I6th, 1865. 

.... We have Mr, Grace safe on board, God be thanked ; 
we sailed on Friday, 10th. 

On Saturday at noon we reached Tauranga, saw the arch- 
deacon and Colonel Greer, but got no new information. 
Sailed on to Kawakawa, Hicks' Bay ; arrived just after 
morning service at 11. Eutene, Hon Tapore, and others 
came off, and repoi-ted that the party who had threatened 
Bishop Williams had gone by the inland route. Bota not 
there, but at Tauranga ; sailed on and anchored in Poverty 
Bay at daylight on Monday morning. Found the English 
settlers in great excitement, as the Paimarire party had 
just arrived. Hired horses on the spot. Captain Fremantle, 
Mr. Eice (native oflBcer), and I, reached the bishop about 
nine, greeted by a friendly party in arms of 300 or 400 
men, headed by Anara Matele. Went to the bishop's 
house, and found all well, and thankfully acknowledging 
the stedfastness of their people, who had gathered from all 
parts for their protection. Went out to a meeting, at 
which the bishop's army appeared in fighting costume, 
with more of Maori usage than I liked to see, as I would 
rather have seen the native clergymen with a hundred 
quiet men in brown coats than 400 native warriors in 
brown skins. However, the relief from anxiety was so 
instantaneous and complete, that I was not disposed to 
question the means. Eota, Eaniera Eawhia, Hare Taukae, 
and Tamihaua Huata were all there. The substance of the 
speeches was that they would not allow any of their Pake- 
has to be touched, but that they would not interfere to 
apprehend the murderers. I then asked them to write a 
letter and send a deputation to require the Opotiki people 
to give up Mr. Grace. This was immediately mixed up 
with a condition that Hori Tupaea should be given up. I 
said that I had nothing to do with his capture or his release^ 
but that I could assure them that he had returned to 
Tauranga. Some professed to doubt this. I begged them 


not to mix up the two questions, but failed in persuading 
them. In the evening we returned to the ship, an old 
chief having first warned me against sleeping on board, 
because he said the Paimarires would drag the ship ashore 
by their enchantments. On the Tuesday morning Leonard 
Williams came down with the letter and deputation of 
two ; one of them our old friend Ruitona Piwanga. The 
letter contained the same condition about Hori Tapaea; 
that we should go to Tauranga, and bring Hon, and return 
with him to Opotiki, and then Mr. Grace would be given 
up. This was not what we wished, as we felt that we 
might go to Tauranga and find that Colonel Greer had no 
instructions, and that he might refuse to act without the 
Governor, and that the Governor might not have returned, 
and that all this time poor Mrs. Grace would be in the 
same state of anxiety. On the side of the Government it 
would be of course unpleasant to have to consent to an 
exchange of prisoners. However, we had no choice, so we 
came away with our letter, and the same night anchored 
again in Kawakawa (Hicks' Bay). Here we expected to 
find a letter from Mr. Angus White, now at Waiapu, to 
whom Mr. Rice had written, but the messenger had not re- 
turned. Here was a new perplexity, so we waited another 
night in vain, in hopes of his return, as we felt a little 
anxious about Mr. White. At 4 A.M. we steamed out and 
passed the Ladybird anchored in Whare-kahika Bay (Hicks' 
West Bay) without seeing her ; she however saw us and 
steamed out after us, and we met and saw S. and H, 
Williams, with whom we took counsel, and agreed that 
they should go and see Mr. White at Waiapu, and then on 
to Tauranga, while we went to Opotiki. They could give 
us no information about Mr. Grace. Steamed on to Omaio, 
twenty miles from Opotiki, and went on shore among a 
friendly party, who told us that Mr. Grace was certainly at 
Opotiki ; that Jao, master of the schooner Eclipse, had 
been allowed to sail to Tauranga to fetch Hori Tapaea, and 
bring him back, upon which Mr. Grace would be released. 
I sent a note from this place by special messenger, to Mr. 
Grace, but it never reached him. Anchored for the night 
six miles from Opotiki, the weather, on this as all other 
nights in this cruise, being beautifully calm. At daylight 
this day (Thursday 16th), we anchored ofif Opotiki The 


masts of a schooner appeared in the river, which those on 
board pronounced to be the Eclipse, At 8 A.M. we landed 
our deputation with their letter, fully expecting to have to 
wait the whole day for an answer ; about nine, a boat, to our 
surprise, came out of the river with the two Levys and two 
other white men. Why Mr. Grace did not come with them 
did not clearly appear, as they said he was living with 
them in the same house, and no guard was kept over him. 
Either they were afraid to bring him, or he had given his 
word not to escape. Captain Fremantle was anxious to 
go in his boat ; but this I feared might endanger Mr. Grace's 
life, as horsemen were scampering to and fro along the 
beach, and it seemed impossible that Mr. Grace could now 
escape unobserved. Presently two Maoris appeared on the 
beach who were said to be friendly. Levy went in his 
boat, as he thought, to fetch them, but returned to our great 
delight with Mr. Grace. You may suppose how thankful 
I felt, and what a warm welcome he received from every 
one. His story I have not time to write, but you already 
know most of the material points. The boats of the ship 
went in immediately to tow out the schooner, and in an 
hour she was clear out, with all the white men on board 
except one, who was not to be found. God be thanked. 

After Mr. Grace's rescue the Hau-haus went down to 
Otaki and threatened the Church natives. Soman Catholic 
Maoris were considered to be friends of the King- party, as 
they paid allegiance to their bishops and to the Pope and 
not to the Queen. These men told Archdeacon Hadfield 
that if he would make his escape they would protect him ; 
but he replied that he should under no circumstances leave 
his post, that he was prepared to lay his bones at Otaki, 
whether after a violent or a natural death, but nothing 
would induce him to move; and his resolute courage 
brought the whole tribe to his feet. 

The bishop had gone down to Christchurch to attend 
the General Synod, where, as has been mentioned in the 
preceding chapter, matters of unusual importance were 
discussed. "Wherever a friend was in danger, there it had 
always been his impulse to place himself ; but things were 


now altered, and he might be doing harm rather than good. 
But it must have cost him much unhappiness to have 
written this letter : — 

WSLLIKOTON, JWM *lth^ 1865. 

My dear Abchdeacon, 

In former times, if I had heard that you were in any 
trouble, I should have set out at once to join you ; and I am 
ready to do so now if you think that I can be of any assist- 
ance. But I do not like to come without first communi- 
cating with you, as I am now so suspected and slandered 
by all the King nativea I am ready, however, at a 
moment's notice, at your bidding, and will put oflF my 
return to Auckland if I hear that you would like me 
to come. 

We have offered up our prayers for you this morning, 
and constantly think and speak of jrou. We have no 
great anxiety on your account, but our interest in you 
and yours is not measured by the reports of the day. 

May God strengthen and preserve you. 

Your affectionate Friend and Brother, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

One contribution the bishop made to the alleviation of 
the evils of which the colony was the victim — a contri- 
bution becoming his office. He ordered a prayer to be 
offered up in all the churches of New Zealand during the 
continuance of the plague, and it will be seen that the 
Form of Prayer which he drew up differs from others which 
some may remember as having been used in similar times 
of trouble, and which appeared to dictate to the All- Wise 
how and for how long He should allow the scourge of war 
to visit His people : — 

"0 Lord, whose never-failing Providence ordereth all 
things both in heaven and earth, we humbly beseech Thee 
to receive our prayer for the Governor of this land and for 
all who are in authority, that they may be so guided by 
Thee in all things, that the dominion of our Queen may 
be established in this land in justice and mercy, according 
to Thy Holy Will 



" We commend to Thee, merciful Father, all our brethren 
iieho are gone forth from amongst us to bear arms and to be 
exposed to the peril of death ; all who are thereby hindered 
from worshipping Thee in Thy house, that Thou wilt keep 
them from forgetfulness of Thee and of Thy holy law : all 
who are sick ; all who are wounded ; all who are drawing 
Digh unto death ; all who are bereaved. And we pray that 
Thy Spirit may so rule in all of us as to keep us from every 
unbecoming and unchristian temper ; from all cruel, and 
unmerciful, and vindictive thoughts. 

" And we beseech Thee, good Lord, to restrain the evil 
passions of men, and to deliver this land from the misery 
of strife and bloodshed, and to pour out upon all the people 
of the land the spirit of concord, and obedience, and peace. 
And this we pray through Him who is the Prince of Peace 
and Saviour of all men, our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen." 

It is hardly necessary to state that the conduct of the 
bishop during the war entirely won the hearts of both 
officers and men with whom he was encamped. He used to 
ride most Sunday mornings from the furthest Bedoubt, after 
holding a short service, and then onward from camp to 
camp, a distance often amounting to forty miles, holding 
seven or eight services in the day. There was rather a high 
ridge, along which the bishop had to ride between the two 
Bedoubts. For the space of two miles it was exposed to 
the fire from the Maoris in the bush below. The bishop 
rode at full canter. The officers used to watch him with 
their field-glasses. They would see a puff of smoke, and 
hear a '* pii^g/' look at the bishop galloping along, and 
say, " It*s all right ; they missed him ! " This occurred 
frequently. The bishop used to say he could count on his 
Jingers the risks of his life which he had ever run, but 
then he did not reckon these, because he knew the Maoris 
were poor shots, or their powder was so bad. 

At the end of the war his services were publicly 
recognised by the medal, given to all the military who had 
taken part in the war, being granted to him ; the officers 
and men to whom he had ministered, either on active 


sendee, or -when sick and wounded; and the friends of 
those whom he had nursed and tended to the last, sub- 
scribed and gave him money for the ornamentation of his 
private chapel. It was with that donation that he pro- 
cured the painted windows in the private chapel of the 
palace in Lichfield. All the subjects of those windows 
represent what may be called the Christian and specially 
chivalrous side of the soldier's life. All the lights bn the 
south side are filled with subjects taken from the Old 
Testament; all on the north from the New Testament. 
The west window has the arms of the See of New Zealand 
and those of the See of Lichfield, and a copy of the medal 
which Dean Champneys caused to be struck and given to 
his school children when he was rector of Whitechapel, and 
when they used to make their penny collections for the 
bishop's Maori schools. The medal showed the globe on 
Mercator's Projection, with a scroll reaching from England 
to New Zealand, bearing the legend, " One in Christ." At 
the east end of the chapel was a representation of the 
Centurion at the foot of the Cross. But the most remark- 
able and historical window is one on the south side, 
representing David pouring out the water which the 
three soldiers had fetched from the .well of Bethlehem 
at the risk of their lives (1 Chron. xi. 17 — 19). This 
was intended to record a like chivalrous act of a 
Maori chief in the course of the war near Tauranga 
on the east coast. 

The Maori general in question was named HenareTaratoa. 
He had been educated by the bishop at St. John's College, 
from about 1845 to 1853. He was a very clever, thought- 
ful youth, but excitable, and not altogether to be depended 
upon, so that the bishop would not lead him on to the 
ministry for fear he might fall away from the faith. Once 
when the bishop was telling a party of natives .^op's 
fable of the cat that was changed into a princess, and how 
the princess leapt out of bed when she saw a mouse, he 
suddenly turned to Henare, and said, " What's the mouse ? '* 


" Te viteDga Maori " (old native customs) was the reply. 
" What's the princess ? " said the bishop. " The Maori 
lieart/' said the conscience-touched youth. Henare sided 
with his countrymen in the war, hut held to the Gospel, as 
was shown by the action which the painted window 
records. He was commanding the native forces at the 
fight after the disaster that befell the English at the Gate 
Pa. The English charged their rifle-pits and drove them 
out ; the Maoris slowly retreated, facing the enemy, and 
were all bayoneted, showing a courage that won the 
admiration of the English. When Henare's body was 
searched, they found on him the '* orders of the day " for 
lighting. They began with a form of prayer, and ended 
with the words (in Maori), Eom. xii. 20, ** If thine enemy 
hunger, feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink." These 
were not idle words, for on the occasion of the panic that 
occurred amongst our troops, at the Gate Pa a few days 
before, several Eoglish oflBcers, naval and military, had got 
inside the Maori redoubt, and were left there, severely 
! wounded. One dying of his wounds was tended all night 

by Henare Taratoa. The dying man asked for water. 
There was none inside the Maori redoubt, nor nearer than 
I three miles on their side of the Gate Pa ; but there was 

water inside the English lines at the foot of the Gate Pa; 
and Henare Taratoa crept down amongst the fern within 
reach of the sentries, and filled a calabash with water, 
I which he successfully carried back to refresh the parched 

! lips of his enemy. The English oflBcers told this story, 

i which in itself is a sufficient answer to the taunt so often 

thrown at our missionaries, "What's the value of your 
supposed conversions to Christianity? Where are the 
fruits of the Gospel you have preached ? " 

Yes; it was not all darkness and failure: the bright 
side of the cloud was sometimes turned towards the great 
bishop, and in the uniform fidelity of the Maori clergy 
there was present comfort and hope for the future : never- 
theless there must have been much of sadness present 



when he wrote the following touching letter to his un- 
swerving friend, the Eev. Edward Coleridge : — 

New Plymouth, N.Z., Dec, 26^ 1865. 

My very dear Friend, 

My date recalls to memory Plymouth, Dec, 2&ih, 1841, 
and brings you vividly before me, laying the last stone on 
the beach, praying with us in the cabin of the Tomatin, 
and waving your last farewell to us from the boat. Twenty- 
four years have passed away, but the remembrance of that 
day remains as fresh as ever. So also does the " undying 
love" which then united us together, and which neither time 
nor distance can impair. But, oh ! how other things have 
changed ! how much of the buoyancy of hope has been 
sobered down by experience! when, instead of a nation 
of believers welcoming me as their father, I find here and 
there a few scattered sheep, the remnant of a flock which 
has forsaken the shepherd. Think of my hanging on to 
a grapnel oflf Mr. Volkner's Mission Station, not d^ing to 
land, in the very same manner as Coley ^ and I are accus- 
tomed to do at some heathen island visited for the first 
time. At this place I do not know how far it is right to 
go among my people, though in former times peace or war 
made no difference in their willingness to receive ma At 
present we are the special objects of their suspicion and 
ill-will. The part which I took in the Waikato campaign 
has destroyed my influence with many. You will ask, 
then, " Did I not foresee this ? " and if so, " Why did I 
go ? " I answer first that, though 10,000 men were sent 
from England, no military chaplain arrived at head-quarters 
till the advance had reached its farthest point in Waikato. 
I could not neglect the wounded and dying soldiers. Then 
there were many wounded Maoris brought in from time to 
time, to whom it was my duty to minister. Add to this, 
that two of our mission stations (those of Mr. Ashwell 
and Mr. Morgan) had been occupied by a native clergy- 
man and catechist, whom no threats could induce to leave 
their posts after the English missionaries were advised to 
retire. It was my duty to see they were not injured when 
* our troops advanced, and this made it necessary for me to 
be in the front, and thereby to expose myself to the impu- 

1 Rev. J. C. Patteson. 

iv.] RETROSPECT. 207 

tation of having led the troops. This has thrown me back 
in native estimation, more, I fear, than my remaining years 
of life will enable me to I'ecover. But what are my sor- 
rows compared to those of the Bishop of Waiapu, who 
had completed his quarter of a century at Poverty Bay, 
and after constant efifort and anxiety has just begun to 
rest upon a settled system, with a thriving college, seven 
native clergymen, a Diocesan Synod meeting annually, 
in which the proceedings were conducted entirely in the 
native language ; his son Leonard, as his archdeacon, most 
active and efficient ; and then all was broken up as iu a 
moment — ^not a portion of his work, as my Maori duties 
are, but the whole ; and now he has gone back to the Bay 
of Islands, whence he started, full of hope, a year or two 
before I left England. 

In the midst of these sorrows we have solid comfort in 
the sight of the stability of our native clergymen, who 
have never swerved from their duty, and never forgotten 
or broken the oath of allegiance to the Queen which they 
took at their ordination. This affords a strong ground for 
believing that if the Maoris in general had ever consented 
to become British subjects, they would have kept their 
promise; but to be forced into the position of British 
subjects without their consent, and subject to the new 
infliction of a Government in which they had no share, 
administered by men with interests and feelings opposite 
to their own, — this was too much to expect them to sub- 
mit to. The real cause of war in New Zealand has been 
the new constitution, and the cause of the greater bitter- 
ness of the strife has been the new element of confiscation 
introduced by the colonists against the will and express 
orders of the Home Government The argument in fa- 
vour of it is this : a Maori cares more for his land than 
for anything else ; therefore the punishment which he will 
feel most is the confiscation of land. There might be 
some force in this, if the Maori had committed some real 
crime, of which he was conscious ; but when he believes 
that the Englishman has only been waiting his time to do 
what he has now done, and that the land was doomed just 
as much if the owners were innocent as if they were guilty, 
then confiscation becomes in their eyes simple spoliation, 
and has none of the effect of punishment. Certainly 


nothing could look more like a determination to provoke 
a quarrel than the Waitara business ; where the natives 
had been allowed to kill one another for two years in 
civil war, on land questions, raised by our eagerness to 
buy upon disputed titles ; and then the sword which had 
been never drawn to vindicate the law was drawn to 
break it, and war made in the name of the Queen upon 
her own subjects on a question of civil contract on the 
very spot where murdera remained unpunished, and the 
chief murderer became the ally of the Queen's represen- 

The Hau-hau superstition is simply an expression of an 
utter loss of faith in everything that is English, clergy and 
all alike. The only wonder is that the whole people did 
not become Komanists, as the missionaries of that persua- 
sion are chiefly from France. The murder of Mr. Volkner 
was an exceptional case ; the act of one miscreant (Eere- 
opa), not one of his own people, working upon Mr. V.'s 
own flock, with that mysterious power which has been 
so often seen in times of public excitement. The wretch 
went over afterwards to Poverty Bay, and gained the same 
kind of influence over the disciples of Bishop Williams. 
That it was not a mere spirit of murder is proved by the 
fact that Mr. Grace, another missionary, was spared, and 
that a medical man, Mr. Agassiz, remained at Opotiki for 
months after the murder. There is no ofTence, of the sin 
of which a Maori has a clearer perception than of murder 
properly so called, and very few murders have been com- 
mitted by the race during the twenty-six years of the 
colony — none in the previous twenty-five years of the 
mission. In time of war and public excitement deeds 
are done of which the exact character can scarcely be 
defined, for the conscience even of an Englishman on such 
occasions is no safe or consistent guide. 

We have every reason to think that the worst is now 
past, and as the withdrawal of the troops will abate the 
appetite of the colonists, we shall probably settle down 
again upon the unsatisfactory basis of the questionable pos- 
session of one or two million acres of very indifferent land, 
acquired at the cost of 5^ per acre and many priceless lives ; 
and of the entire repudiation of the Queen's authority over 
the whole interior of the Northern Island. This is the 


result of seeking first " the other things," instead of the 
" one." It is not many years since the Queen's name was 
honoured throughout New Zealand, and no more accept- 
able hope could be held out to the Maoris " than that the 
two races might grow up to be one people, with one faith, 
and under one sovereign." All this time they sold their 
land faster than we could pay for it, at from ^d. to lOd. 
per acre, wishing nothing more than to have houses built, 
roads laid out, and Englishmen settled among them. " O 
earth, earth, earth ! " Such has been our cry. The Queen, 
Law, Seligion, have been thrust aside in the one thought 
of the acquisition of land. Native agents were called, 
and were, " Native Land-Purchase Commissioners." Thus 
neglected by us, the natives chose for their own chief 
magistrate the old friend of Governor Hobson, and the 
constant supporter of order and peace. He soon died, and 
we took the earliest opportunity of quarrelling with his 
son^ because he did not, or could not, coerce the island 
Chief Rewi, who has been the chief, if not the sole cause, 
of the renewal of the war. All the young Bang's land 
has been confiscated, but little or none of Bewi's. And 
the pleasant dream so full of bright hope has melted away, 
and the prospect of a few more years, if it be God's will, 
of plodding labour is all that remains to me, to build up 
again the tabernacle which is fallen down. 

I do not see my way to another visit to England. It is 
more congenial to my present feelings to sit among my 
own ruins, not moping, but tracing out the outlines of a 
new foundation, than to go through another course of 
public life in England. So much has been said or written 
of late about my order that I have begun to think that it 
will be well for us to be more sparing of our visits. We 
leave to the English clergy their own entire freedom to go 
every year to the Baths of Lucca or to Switzerland for 
their long vacation, and to spend their time there in 
entire idleness. If our enjoying eight or ten months of 
mixed pleasure and work once in thirteen years is a 
stambling-block to them, I will not give them cause of 
offence. If there has been anything wrong in this re- 
spect on the part of my brethren, as a senior member of 
the body I ought to set a better example. As I referred 

210 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. it. 

to this subject in a former letter, you wiU see that it has 
entered deeply into my mind. 

The proceedings in the matter of the Nelson Bishopric 
have been strictly regular. The Diocesan Synod del^ated 
their share in the nomination to the Bishop of London. 
The General Synod in like manner delegated their right of 
confirmation to the Archbishop of Canterbury. This binds 
the diocese and the province. We leave the n^otiations 
with the Crown in the hands of the Archbishop, but if he 
should fail to obtain authority to consecrate the bishop- 
designate, we should proceed to consecrate him in New 
Zealand, because after the late decisions of the Privy 
Council we see no hindrance to this way and no other 
way open to us. The petition of the Anglican Bishops in 
New Zealand will, I hope, lead to such an answer as will 
set the question at rest We are not aware of the exist- 
ence of any greater difficulty in our own case than in that 
of the Scottish Episcopal Church, or of the Episcopal 
Church in the United States. The State has cast off our 
tow-line, and we have made sail for ourselves. Don't say 
that we are rebels : it is the State that has repudiated the 
Church. 1 held on to the last strand till the Lord Atropos 
cut it. 

Your veiy affectionate and grateful Friend, 

G. A. New Zealand. 

1860-1867 J PROGRESS. 211 



After the digression of the two preceding chapters, it is 
necessary to resume the chronological order of the story 
-which was broken at the end of 1859. It was the prelude 
to a stormy period, of which much has been said in the 
last chapter. Of the troubles connected with political dis- 
turbances no further mention will be made ; additional 
trouble was present in the shipwreck of the SmUhem Cross, 
happily without loss of life, on the shores of New Zealand, 
on her return voyage after having left Mr. Patteson and 
his boys on the island of Mota, which subsequently became 
one of the first of the islands in the mid-Pacific to receive 
the Gospel. In all the disturbances, whether present or 
imminent, which visited the colony, the bishop could dis- 
cover hopeful tokens of real and substantial progress. The 
roll of Maori clergy was gradually being enlarged, and 
everywhere in the Northern Island the village schools, off- 
shoots of the larger missionary schools which were the 
direct fruit of the college at Auckland, were offering them- 
selves for bis inspection and commendation. These were 
especially gratifying to the bishop, inasmuch as he had 
persevered, in spite of sympathy withheld and opposition 
ofTered, in his determination to establish these boarding 
schools, to which he had been assured that no Maori 
would ever come. In one case the seed sown had withered 

VOL. II. p 

212 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

and perished, and yet now far and wide the blade had 
sprung up and the grain was being harvested. 

The year 1860 was also a time of preparation for the 
great event of 1861, the consecration of the Missionary 
Bishop for the western islands of the South Pacific 
Ocean. The relations of the Church towards the civil 
power were in an indefinite and hazy condition at this 
period ; the State had cut the Church adrift, and yet was 
unwilling to relax any semblance of the hold which it im- 
potently claimed to have on its freedom of action. It was 
a great year for true Church autonomy when in New Zea- 
land a bishop was consecrated for Melanesia, in Capetown 
a bishop was consecrated for Central AMca, and from the 
Mother Church a bishop was consecrated, under the ab- 
normal and eccentric " Jerusalem Bishopric Act," for the 
Sandwich Islands. This measure of freedom was not, how- 
ever, attained without much effort, and Bishop Selwyn, the 
last man in the world to undervalue constituted authorities, 
had step by step to contend with difficulties which rested 
on no legal basis, but which yet rendered his progress slow 
and difficult. 

How careful he was not to seem to infringe either the 
letter or the spirit of any law, and what pains he took to 
secure the sanction of all who were even remotely con- 
cerned in the matter, — these things are shown in a letter 
written to the late Professor Selw3m a few days after Mr. 
Patteson's consecration : — 

AiTOKLAVD, March 4thj 1861, 

.... On St. Matthias' Day, Sunday, February 24th, 
three Eton bishops had the great pleasure of consecrating 
a fourth Eton man to the office of Missionary Bishop among 
the western islands of the South Pacific. We have not 
yet heard of the consecration of Bishop Mackenzie ; but 
we hope that it may have been on the same day. The 
steps which we took were these — 

I wrote to the Duke of Newcastle to ofier to agree to 
any of the following plans : — 

(a) To give up a small piece of the north end of New 


1860-1867.] BISHOP PATTESON. 213 

Zealand, say fi*om the Bay of Islands northwards, as a See 
for the Island Bishop. 

(b) To procure the repeal of that portion of the Act of 
Parliament which annexes Norfolk Island to the See of 
Tasmania, and to make Norfolk Island the See of the 
bishop, as Labuan is for Borneo, Hongkong for China, and 
St. Helena ^ for South America. 

(c) To procure a kind of patent for the bishop, analogous 
to the authority of a British consul, i,e, a power over British 
subjects, being members of the Church of England, though 
residing in places out of Her Majesty's dominions. 

(d) To allow the New Zealand bishops to exercise the 
inherent powers of their office, as the bishops of a distinct 
province of the Church. 

This last the Duke of Newcastle accepted, with many 
cordial expressions of approbation; and only raised the 
doubt whether the consecration could take place within 
British territory. 

On this point I took the opinion of four Crown lawyers : 

Chief Jvstices, 

Present Arney, 

Late Martin; 


Present Whitaker, 

Late Swainson ; 

who all gave their opinion that they knew of no statute 
English or Colonial, which would make it illegal to hold 
the consecration in New Zealand. Having further appealed 
to the laity by a Si quia published in all the churches in 
and near Auckland, and having obtained the consent of 
all the New Zealand suCTragans, I no longer felt any scruple, 
but went on with the work, as I have described in the 
consecration sermon, " with a conscience void of offence." 
There will be some, I suppose, who will cavil, but their 
voices will scarcely be heard in the midst of the general 
approbation. The new bishop is generally beloved, and a 
beginning could not have been made in a new and unpre- 
cedented work with a person more likely to win for his 
work that kind of public favour which rests on personal 

^ This had been one of the reasons for establishing the See of St. 
Helena, bnt the idea was never carried into practice. 

p 2 

214 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

On February 16, 1861, the Metropolitan and two suf- 
fragans, the Bishops of Wellington and Nelson, publicly and 
solemnly notified their intention to consecrate Mr. Patte- 
son, and on the Feast of St. Matthias they fulfilled their 
pledge. The circumstances of that eventful day have found 
their appropriate record in the biography of him who, con- 
secrated at this time to the work to which he had years 
before been dedicated by the act of his father and by his 
own wiU, terminated his noble career at Nukapu in the 
Santa Cruz group on the vigU of St Matthew, 1871. Of 
Bishop Patteson and his work none but the most incidental 
mention has been made, and that of set purpose, in these 
pages. But it seems to be necessary to the completeness of 
this biography that the sermon preached on this occasion, 
one of the most striking perhaps ever preached by Bishop 
Selwyn, should here find an abiding record, and on this 
account it is here given : — 

Acts I. 24. 

And they prayed and said. Thou, Lord, which Jnunoeat the hearts of eUl 
msTiy show whether of these tioo Thtm hast chosen. 

If a reason be asked for the peculiar character of this 
congregation, it is given in the first words of the text, 


On other occasions the House of God is as free as the air 
of Heaven. The sojourner, the wayfaring man, the friend- 
less, the rich, the poor, the old, the young, the full Com- 
municant, and the proselyte of the gate, all may enter 
freely through its open doors, for the Church is the House 
of Prayer for all people, where every one may come, to 
cast down his own burden, and to pour out his soul beifore 
the Lord. 

But this is a season of special prayer, and of that most 
solemn act of prayer which is offered up in the Holy 
Communion. And therefore the invitation has gone forth 
far aud wide to all who have partaken of the blessed 
Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, to meet the 

1860-1867.] SERMON. 215 

Bishops and Pastors of our Church at the Lord's Table, 
and to pray with us and /or us. 

We ask for these special prayers in a season of sp^ial 
need, for the solemnity in which we are engaged is one of 
fearful responsibility. We have not come here in a spirit 
of boasting, but of fear and trembling. We have not met 
together to exalt ourselves above our brethren in Christ, 
because we ai*e Bishops or Presbyters or Communicants of 
the Church : for the day reminds all Pastors of the Church, 
of him of whom Christ said : " Have not I chosen you 
twelve and one of you is a Devil ? " and the place reminds 
us, that it was from that Holy Table that the first Com- 
municants rose up, one to betray his Lord, one to deny 
Him, all to forsake Him. 

Was not that a season of fear and trembling, when the 
eleven Apostles met in that upper room, in which they all 
abode after the Ascension, and continued with one accord 
in prayer and supplication? Prayer was their comfort 
even then, though the 'Holy Ghost was not yet given. 
We can well understand why they prayed. The Bride- 
groom had departed from them. They were a band of 
mourners. There was Mary the mother of Jesus weeping 
for her Son. And there was Mary Magdalene weeping 
for her Saviour: and Peter mourning for his denial of 
his Lord: and Thomas mourning for his faithlessness: 
all mourning for the brother who had fallen from his 
Bishopric and gone to his own place. 

A book was unrolled before them, in which were written 
lamentations and mournings and woe. The dark word of 
prophecy had been then fulfilled. The Shepherd had 
been smitten, and the sheep of the flock had been scat- 
tered abroad. One habitation was desolate, and no man 
to dwell therein. Each in his own degree had been 
offended because of Christ ; even that Apostle who said 
" Though all men shall be offended because of Thee, yet 
will I never be offended." Judas, Peter, all the Apostles, 
had stumbled at that stumbling stone : and all this had 
been foretold by prophecy as foreordained by God : and 
yet they could not excuse themselves by alleging God's 
foreknowledge. Their Lord had said, " It must needs be 
that offences come, but woe be to that man by whom the 
offence cometh." 

216 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

And now to this sorrow for the past was to be added 
fear for the future : for this word also of prophecy was to 
be fulfilled : " His Bishopric let another take." .Another 
Soldier of the Gross was to step at once into the place in 
which he had seen his comrade falL There was no special 
guidance of the Holy Ghost, as when Paid and Barnabas 
were separated for the work whereunto God had called 
them. All the past was full of bitter proofs of their 
own unfitness for their Master's service. They had not 
known their own hearts. They had fancied themselves 
ready to go up to Jerusalem, to di6 with Him : they pro- 
mised to go with Him to prison and to death ; yet they 
had denied and forsaken Him. They had not known 
their own deceitful hearts : how should they know the 
hearts of other men ? One source of comfort and of light 
had been opened to them by their Divine Master, and to 
that they resorted They prayed, and said, 

"Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, 
show whether of these two Thou hast chosen." 

They did not pray alone. The same Blessed Saviour 
who had borne their griefs and carried their sorrows, who 
had prayed for them in His Agony, while they were sleep- 
ing, would not forsake them in their act of prayer. He 
knew that Satan had desired to have them that he might 
sift them as wheat : and He prayed for them, that their 
strength might not fall. 

In the power of that intercession Peter stood up in the 
midst of the disciples; Peter foremost in the blessing, 
" Blessed art thou Simon Barjona," and foremost also in 
the offence, "Get thee behind me, Satan, thou art an 
offence unto me." Had he forgotten his own bitter tears 
for his threefold denial ; or his grief at his Lord's three- 
fold exhortation to him to feed His sheep ? Was his 
bearing that of the primate of the Apostolic brotherhood, 
proud of his own office, and confident in his own 
strength? If he had been righteous in his own eyes, 
he would have brought a railing accusation against his 
brother. But his words are not of condemnation, but of 
sorrow. He speaks of Judas not as a traitor, but as the 
guide of them that took Jesus. He does not deny that 
Judas was an Apostle, but puts it forward as a sorrowful 
fact, that he was numbered with them, and had obtained 

1860-1867.] SERMON. 217 

part of their ministiy. In fear and sorrow he recognised 
the fulfilment of prophecy in his brother's fall; in fear 
and hope he called upon his brethren to fulfil the same 
Word of God by appointing another to take part of that 
ministry and Apostleship from which Judas by trans- 
gression fell. 

I have endeavoured to explain the feelings with which 
the Apostles must have offered up those fervent prayers 
at the election of Matthias, as some guide to our own 
thoughts and feelings on the present occasion. 

We too must come to this work in a spirit of prayer, 
because it is to us a work even of greater fear. 

I speak first of the Consecrating Bishops. 

We are called upon to execute this office of the 
Apostles, in an age when the Bridegroom has been taken 
away, and when all outward gifts and guidances of the 
Spirit of God have been withdrawn. We are not like 
those Holy Men, who were with the Lord Jesus '* all the 
time that He went in and out among fliem. beginning 
from the baptism of John, unto the same day that he was 
taken up." We cannot choose from men who have enjoyed 
the like privileges as eye-witnesses and ministers of the 
word. We are inferior to them both in respect to the 
power to choose, and of the field of choice. Compared 
with them, we are but " blind leaders of the blind." 

And yet the office of the Apostles is laid upon us. 
They have long gone to their rest : but the commandment 
still remains in force, " Go ye into all the world and preach 
the Gospel to every creature." God neither gave immor- 
tality to the Apostles, nor a sudden spirit of conversion to 
the world. It is seen then to be the will of God, that the 
fulfilment of prophecy, and of our Blessed Lord's Com- 
mandment, should be a gradual work, to be carried on by 
successive generations of the Christian Ministry. 

Through a hundred steps of spiritual lineage that 
Apostolic Ministry has been brought down to us. At this 
distance from the source of blessing, we fear lest we be 
found wanting. We are called upon to exercise the office 
of Apostles, but without the special gifts and graces of the 
Apostolic age. What are we that we should have power 
to carry on the Lord's work in obedience to His command- 

218 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

When we look to the side of prophecy, the thought is 
no less fearfoL The whole volume of Holy Scripture 
seems to be imrolled before us with its warning of woe. 
"Woe be to me, if I preafch not the Gospel." Is the 
promise yet fulfilled, that in Abraham and Ms Seed shall 
all the nations of the earth be blessed ? Has Christ 
already received all the heathen for his inheritance and 
all the uttermost parts of the earth for His possession ? 
Is there no wilderness which has still to blossom as the 
rose ? No Islands that still wait for the Lord ? No king- 
doms that must become His ? Are all idols utterly 
abolished? Are there no Gentiles yet to come to His 
light ; no doves to come back to the windows of His ark ; 
no sons to come from far ; no daughters to be brought to 
be nursed at His side ? Has His Church been estab- 
lished in the top of the mountains as a city set upon 

The vastness of the scope of the prophetic visions at 
once humbles and enlarges the mind. " Thy heart shall 
fear and be enlarged " is God's promise through Isaiah. 
However little our work may be, it is part of that purpose 
of God which can never faU. We pray for our little one 
in fear and humility, and while we pray it becomes a 
thousand. It is but a drop in the Ocean, but that Ocean 
is the fulness of God. 

But when we thus recognise the work as of God alone, 
ordained by His determinate counsel and foreknowledge, 
a new cause of fear arises, and brings with it a new motive 
to prayer. In this work of God, belonging to all eternity, 
and to the Holy Catholic Church, are we influenced by 
any private feelings, or any personal regard ? The charge 
which St. Paul gives to Timothy in words of awful 
solemnity " to lay hands suddenly on no man " may well 
cause much searching of heart. ** I charge thee before 
God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that 
thou observe these things, without preferring one before 
another, doing nothing by partiality." Does our own 
partial love deceive us in this choice ? We were all trained 
in the same place of education ; united in the same circle 
of friends; in boyhood, in youth, in manhood, we have 
shared the same sorrows, and joys, and hopes, and fears. 
I received this my son in the Ministry of Christ Jesus 

1860-1867.] SERMON. 219 

from the hands of a father of whose old age he was 
the comfort : he sent him forth without a murmur, nay 
rather with joy and thankfulness, to these distant parts of 
the eartL He never asked even to see him again ; but 
gave him up without reserve to the Lord's work. Pray, 
dear brethren, for your Bishops, that our partial love may 
not deceive us in this choice, for we cannot so strive 
against natural affection as to be quite impartial 

And yet, as standing* in the " presence of God, and of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, and of the elect angels," we 
solemnly declare that we are not laying hands suddenly 
on this dear friend and brother : so far as we can search 
our own hearts, and judge of our own motives, we are 
doing nothing by partiality. In frequent conference and 
in solemn Communion we have spread the matter before 
the Lord ; and we have received at least this satisfaction, 
that no one single whisper of the voice of conscience 
within has warned us to forbear. We have risen from our 
prayers more and more resolved to go forward in the name 
of God, and in the full belief that this is indeed His work, 
and that this is His chosen servant. 

Here again was the need of prayer, that we were left to 
our own unassisted judgment. It is true that I had re- 
ceived Commission, now nearly twenty years ago, from the 
Primate of the English Church, to regard New Zealand as 
a fountain to diffuse the streams of salvation over the 
Coasts and Islands of the Pacific Ocean : an.d that supplies 
have been furnished by the Church at home with no 
sparing hand to enable me to begin the work. But in this 
special act of the Consecration of a Missionary Bishop 
the authorities in Church and State at home have 
advisedly left us to exercise our own inherent powers: 
with the kindest expressions of sympathy with our under- 
taking, but with no division of responsibility. And yet 
we do not stand alone in the work, for at this very time 
the Sister Church in the Cape Colony, with the active 
support of a former Governor of New Zealand, is sending 
out a Missionary Bishop to Central Africa. We too have 
received the same encouragement from the Officers of the 
Crown in New Zealand, their attestation of the fitness of 
the person whom we have chosen, their assurance of the 
lawfulness of our act. We have called upon the Laity in 

220 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

all our Churches to come forward, if they know of any 
just cause or impediment. The general consent of Church 
and State, of the Clergy and Laity, both here and at home, 
seems to justify our act I have not heard of one dis- 
sentient voice. We humbly trust, that we may go on 
with this our work, with a conscience void of offence, 
toward God, and toward men. 

Having asked your prayers for us the Consecrating 
Bishops, I now ask them for him who is to be consecrated ; 
and these are the reasons : — 

Because, like all others of his brethren, he will have 
care of many Churches : the stewardship of the Mysteries 
of Christ : the guardianship of the purity of His Word : 
the administration of godly discipline : the oversight of the 
flock, which the Son of God has purchased with His own 

But, especially, because he will go forth to sow beside 
many waters, to cultivate an imknown field, to range from 
island to island, himself unknown, and coming in the 
Name of an unknown God. He will have to laiid alone 
and unarmed among heathen tribes, where every man's 
hand is against his neighbour ; and bid them lay down 
their spears and arrows, and meet him as the messenger of 
peace. He will have to persuade them by the language of 
signs to give up their children to his care : and while he 
teaches them the simplest elements which are taught in 
our infant schools, to learn from them a new language for 
every new island. Surely then, dear brethren, we must 
pray earnestly that this our brother may have a large 
measure of the Apostolic gifts ; a power to acquire divers 
languages ; and also boldness with fervent zeal constantly 
to preach the Gospel to all the nations now to be com- 
mitted to his charge. Already sixty islands have come 
under his care, and at least one hundred others, stretching 
westward as far as New Guinea, are among the number 
of the islands which are waiting for the Lord. I can but 
indicate the outlines of this great work : your own minds 
fill up the details, by that lively faith which springs from 
a hearty acceptance of all the prophecies and of all the 
promises of the Bible. It may be, that your prayers will 
be more earnest for objects which you see as through a 
glass darkly; like those solemn prayers which faithful 

1860-Id67.] SERMON. - 221 

men offer up in the darkness of the night, to the God who 
seeth in secret 

One duty yet remains : to commend our dear brother to 
the work to which we believe God has called him. 

It was the privilege of the Apostles to elect Matthias 
out of the number of those " who had companied with 
them all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out 
among them, beginning from the baptism of John unto 
the same day that He was taken up/' Our privilege 
though different in degree may be the same in kind ; for 
faith supplies what is denied to sight. 

So may every step of thy life, dear brother, be in com- 
pany with the Lord Jesus. 

May the baptism of John be in thee, to fill thee with 
that godly sorrow which worketh repentance not to be 
repented of: a foretaste of that comfort which will be 
given to them that mourn, by the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost and of fire. 

May Christ be with thee, as a Light to lighten the Gen- 
tries ; may He work out in thee His spiritual miracles ; 
may He through thee give sight to the blind, to see the 
glories of the God invisible : and open the ears of the deaf 
to hear and receive the preaching of His Word : and loose 
the tongues of the dumb to sing His praise ; and raise to 
new life the dead in trespasses and sins. 

May Christ be with you when you go forth in His Name 
and for His sake " to those poor and needy people ; to 
those strangers destitute of help ; " to those mingled races 
who still show forth the curse of Babel, and wait for the 
coming of another Pentecost ; poor alike in all worldly 
and spiritual goods, naked to be clothed, prisoners to be 
loosed, lepers to be cleansed. To you is committed Christ's 
own Ministry, to seek for His sheep that are dispersed 
abroad ; to hold up the weak, to heal the sick, to bind up 
the broken, to bring again the outcasts, to seek the lost. 
Your ofiice is, in the widest sense, to preach the Gospel to 
the poor. 

May Christ be ever with you ; may you feel His pre- 
sence in the lonely wilderness, on the mountain top, on the 
troubled sea. May He go before you, with His fan in His 
hand, to purge His floor. He will not stay His hand till 
the idols are utterly abolished. 

222 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

May Christ be ever with thee^ to give thee utterance to 
open thy mouth boldly to make Imown the mystery of 
the Gospel. Dwelling in the midst of a people of unclean 
lips, you will feel Him present with you to touch thy lips 
with a live coal from His own altar, that many strangers 
of every race may hear in their own tongues the wonderful 
works of God. 

May Christ be ever with you : may you sorrow with 
Him in His agony and be crucified with hiin in His death, 
be buried with Him in His grave, rise with Him to newness 
of life, and ascend with Him in heart to the same place 
whither He has gone before, and feel that He ever liveth 
to make intercession for thee, " that thy strength fail not" 
— Amen, 

Of the rest of the bishop's residence in New Zealand little 
remains to be recorded ; it has already been dealt with in 
the two preceding chapters. His time was spent either 
in the fidd ministering to each of the hostile camps in- 
discriminately, whose soldiers were equally his children, 
or in building up the Church and providing for its admin- 
istration and government through the action of Provincial 
and Diocesan Synods. The system of these institutions 
provided for the apparent anomaly of Bishop Patteson 
residing for a great part of each year at Kohimarama^ 
close to Auckland, and in the diocese of another bishop, 
without any collision or Motion. Bishop Selwyn used to 
say that there need be no difficulties about territorial 
limits of dioceses if only there were Synods to regulate 
the action of the bishops, and that the advice of Lord 
Nelson to his captains to remember that they could 
never do wrong if they brought their ships alongside 
of the enemy's, might well be followed, mutatis mzUandiSy 
by the chiefs of the missionary forces arrayed against 

The course of legislation in England in connection with 
the South African Church concerned deeply every branch 
of our Communion, and was watched with much interest 
by the bishops in New Zealand. On his return from the 

1860-1867.] PETITION TO CROWN. 228 

General Synod at Christchurch, in 1865, the Metropolitan 
wrote to a correspondent in England that the threats of 
one of the dioceses "to secede from our Federal Union/' 
were amicably pacified "just before the Colenso Judg- 
ment came to teach us that we have nothing to hope as a 
Church unless we are united among ourselves. We are 
quite content to be without patents/' the letter went on 
to say, " but not content to have a spurious coin forced 
upon us as retaining fee for indefinite suit and service. 
To give nothing and to cl«dm everything cannot be the 
basis of a contract between the Grown and a Colonial 
Bishop. They gave me a salary and then took it away ; 
and Letters Patent which are declared to be null and void ; 
and yet the Privy Council tells me that I am a creature 
of the Crown, ' a wretched creature who must bend his 
body if Caesar carelessly do nod on him.' If it were 
really Caesar I should try to be content, but I have no 
disposition to accept Lord Westbury as the keeper of my 
conscience, nor would Her Majesty if she had any choice 
in the matter." 

A few weeks later, in August, 1865, he wrote to the 
same correspondent in England : — " I send a copy of a 
petition^ which the Bishops of New Zealand have forwarded 
through the Governor to the Queen. It is our answer to 
Lord Westbury, who, I think, wiU not soon see the end 
of the questions which he has provoked by the last 
decision of the Judicial Committee. Happily our Church 
system had been so guided, under God's blessing, by the 
coimsels of Sir W. Martin and Mr. Swainson that we 
have nothing to alter. The Privy Coimcil decisions affirm 
the legality of every step that we have taken, and require 
nothing to be altered, though much of course remains to 
be perfected and defined." 

In this year (1865) the bishop had good hopes of being 
able in process of time to provide for the establishment of 
a bishopric of Dunedin, thereby relieving the Bishop of 

* Inserted in Chapter III., p. 185. 

224 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

Christchiircli of that southern portion of the colony which 
Bishop Selwyn had insisted on including in the diocese of 
Christchurch as a condition of that See being founded. He 
wrote in this sense to Archbishop Longley, and added, that 
when things were in train he would ask his Grace to look 
out for the right man. By an unfortunate misapprehen- 
sion the good Archbishop anticipated the promised an- 
noimcement, and wrote back that he had selected the 
Eev. H. L. Jenner, whose consecration would shortly take 

The bishop felt himself thus placed in a position of yery 
great difficulty, and came to the conclusion that the only 
thing for him to do was to go to the Southern Island and 
'' make a raid on Dunedin itself/' and raise what funds 
he could towards the endowment of the Sea The pros- 
pect was not encouraging, for trade was depressed and 
money scarce. On his arrival at Dunedin he found no- 
thing had been done ; and at Christchurch he had been 
met by a series of resolutions throwing cold water on 
the scheme, " not fix)m any wish to oppose it, but from 
fear of having to pay." Seeing, therefore, no hope of a 
speedy accomplishment of the purpose which had brought 
him away from his own diocese, where his presence could 
ill be spared, he yet resolved, with very divided feelings, 
to spend a month in visiting the " Runholders," that 
it might not be said that the endowment had failed for 
want of effort on his part. 

The ride through the province of Otago gave to the 
bishop an opportunity of ministering to the diggers who 
in lai^e numbers had been attracted to the gold-fields. 
While thus engaged he wrote (March 11, 1866): — 

" . , , The change of climate and country is complete ; open 
hills without a tree and covered with yellow srass ; sheep 
runs without a visible sheep ; accommodation-houses every 
three or four miles ; tilted waggons going up and down 
between Dunedin and the Diggings; horsemen rushing along 
as if they had not a moment to lose ; horses feeding out of 

1860-1867.] GOLD DIGGERS. 225 

mangers made of saddng stretched between the shafts of 
the waggons, and eating as if they too had not a moment to 
lose. The traffic seems to go on Sundays and week-days 
alike, and a Scotchman, whom I invited in vain to church, 
admitted that all the lessons of the old country were for- 
gotten on this road. . . . Upon the whole, as the thing 
was to be done, I am not sorry to have had to go over this 
province. Part of my object is to visit as many diggers as 
I can, and to hold services wherever I find them disposed 
to attend. There was a large party of them on boa^ the 
Ph/xibe, returning from Hokitika, who assured me that it 
was a mistake to suppose that there were not many among 
them who cared for better things than digging gold. They 
have the character of being a manly and independent 
body of men, for the most part orderly and honest. . . . 
It is a comfort to think that this is the last work of bishop- 
making in which it will be necessary for me to engage ; 
and when this is done I may break^ my wand." 

The story of the See of Dunedin is a thorny subject, 
with which these pages need deal no further than concerns 
the action of the Metropolitan of New Zealand. If there 
were any precipitancy in the matter it did not rest with 
him ; the General Synod of 1865 had clearly contemplated 
the erection of a See of Dunedin with little delay, and had 
fixed on Dimedin as the meeting-place of the General 
Synod of 1868, " if there should by that time be a bishop 

In the General Synod of New Zealand, held in 1868, 
under the presidency of Bishop Selwyn, that Prelate thus 
liberated his own soul, when it was proposed " that the 
appointment of Bishop Jenner to the Bishopric of Dunedin 
be not confirmed." He said : — 

" The facts alleged in the report of the Committee are 
founded very much on evidence that would not be ad- 
mitted in a court of law. Three years ago Bishop Jenner 
signed a declaration, assenting to the provisions of our 
Church Constitution. He consented to be* bound by the 
regidations passed from time to time, or to be issued by 

226 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, v. 

the •General Synod. He has also undertaken to resign hia 
appointment, together with all rights and emoluments 
appertaining thereto, when the General Synod may call 
upon him to do so, or any one duly appointed to do so. 
That declaration was received in New Zealand, and en- 
tered upon the minutes of the Standing Commission of 
the General Synod, in June, 1866. There was an interval 
from that date until the consecration of Dr. Jenner in 
August, 1866, which gave time to interpose objections if 
any one had chosen; and, if any valid objections had 
been made, the Standing Commission would have con- 
sidered it to be its duty to recommend the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to stay his hand. The first proceedings b^an 
in April, 1867, nine months after the consecration. I look 
upon this suction of the Committee as amounting to an 
attempt to depose Bishop Jenner. Dr. Jenner was conse- 
crated with as much formality as I was myself consecrated. 
The Standing Commission is the proper tribunal to which 
this matter should be properly referred, as it has been 
specially appointed to deal with such questions, and con- 
sists for the most part of legal gentlemen ; and if any of 
the friends of Dr. Jenner thought it necessary, they will 
have a perfect right to appeal to its decision. The 
sufficiency or otherwise of the endowment fund seems to 
be the question on which the present Committee has come 
to a decision ; and if, therefore, at any time the endow- 
ment becomes adequate, it may be competent to enter as. 
a plaintiff on behalf of Dr. Jenner." 

After a long debate the General Synod requested Bishop 
Jenner to withdraw his claim to the See of Dunedin. 

Twice, on an appeal from the injured person, the English 
bishops (in 1872 and 1875) have decided that Bishop 
Jenner was the first Bishop of Dunedin, and that his claim 
to be so recognised cannot in justice be withheld. Bishop 
Selwyn was so personally concerned with the transaction 
that his judgment may be supposed to be biassed by those 
who did not know him; his opinion and his action are 
clearly laid down in an official letter which he wrote but 
a few days before Bishop Jenner resigned the See of 
Dunedin : — 

1860-1867.] MAORI ORDINATIONS. 227 

"I have always looked upon Bishop Jenner as the 
bishop in whose name and for whose benefit the fund was 
collected by me. I propose therefore to the donors that 
I should be allowed to pay to Bishop Jenner, on his re- 
signing his claim to the Bishopric of Dunedin, the interest 
which has accrued from the opening of the fimd to the 
time of the meeting of the General Synod of 1871. My 
own contribution of 100/., with interest, will be paid to 
Bishop Jenner, for whose use it was given." 

On his return from the south the bishop prepared for 
Ordination two more of his Maori children ; the uniform 
fidelity of the native clergy, who in no one instance ever 
yielded to the temptations which carried away so many of 
their brethren, was one of the greatest comforts of the 
bishop's life : the critical attitude of the people now when 
the war was abating, and a semblance of peace was 
restored, fully engaged his attention, and he had no mind 
to leave his diocese and seek rest and change in England : 
rather he wished to sit amid the ruins of the spiritual 
temple which he had been allowed to build, and, as he 
said, to trace out new foundations on which to build once 
more. But now there came to him a summons which he 
could not resist: to the entreaties of relations that he 
would revisit them he had turned a deaf ear, but the 
summons to attend the Lambeth Conference in September, 
1867, had for him the nature of a command which he 
prepared to obey. The estimation in which that august 
gathering was held by the Colonial and American Churcheti 
was in striking contrast with the contempt and indifference 
which it received at home. There were many instances 
in which the bishops were sent by their dioceses without 
charge to themselves, and after solemn services and 
prayers for God's blessing on their counsels. At Auck- 
land seventy communicants were crowded into the little 
chapel at Bishopscourt, flowing over, for lack of space, 
into the study, which adjoined it: there was a fear 


228 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

only too well grounded lest their weU-loved bishop 
should not be allowed to return to New Zealand. One 
whose privilege it was to be present on the occasion has 
written : 

" The bishop read Philippians i., and it seemed to me 
and to others also almost as if the chapter might have 
been written expressly for the occasion. I doubt if there 
was a single dry eye in the chapel ; and the bishop's voice 
at times was scarcely audible, for the sobs which were 
heard on every hand." 

In July, 1867, the bishop's face was again turned 
England- wards, and the voyage was spent in preparation 
for the great gathering which had led him across the 
globe. Writing at sea to his old friend Sir W. Martin, he 
thus explained his daily occupation : — 

S.S. ** Raubinb,*' at Ska, 800 miles fbom Panama, 

August 5th, 1867. 

... It would have been so pleasant to have you by my 
side at Lambeth. For lack of my walking encyclopaedia 
I have read diligently at Bingham, taking copious notes, 
and have now finished three volumes, besides Bose's 
sermons, and many pamphlets — such as Gladstone on the 
supremacy and the Bishop of London's charge. The more 
I read, the more wonderful it seems that any one should 
accuse us of going cwtray from the true principles of 
Church-government. The system of the African Church 
is almost exactly the same as that of New Zealand ; and 
> our political circumstances are not imlike theirs, as colonial 
bodies far removed from the centres of civil government. 
If I should unfortunately have to break a lance with the 
Bishop of London, I feel myself growing firmer in my 
saddle every day. 

The bishop on his arrival immediately devoted himself 
to preparation for the great event which had power to 

1860-1867.] ARRIVAL IN ENQLAND. 229 

attract him across the globe. He wrote to his old corre- 
spondent the Key. G B. Dalton as follows : — 

8^, 2nd, 1867. 

My DEiLB Friend, 

Thanks for your affectionate greeting. You may like to 
know our movements. On Monday 16Ui we intend to go to 
Kichmond to be ready for any preliminary meetings which 
may be held, to prepare the way for the Conference on 
the 24th. From our distant point of view we look upon 
this Conference as the most important opening for good 
which has ever been offered to our Anglican Church : but 
I have not yet seen any signs to lead me to believe that it 
is so considered here. I have invitations to meetings of 
all kinds, S.P.G. Anniversaries, &c., up to the very day of 
the meeting, and the clergymen who write to me do not 
seem to be aware that I came to England for one object, 
and that I am prepared to devote all my time and attention 
to that : and that therefore I must be free in mind and 
time to prepare for it beforehand, and, after the meeting is 
over, to work up its results. It is quite impossible for 
fifty or sixty bishops from all parts of the world to meet 
together with any hope of advantage without a well- 
arranged plan of operation. Synodical action is so familiar 
to me that I can neither share the fears of the Bishop 
of St David's, nor care for the sneers of the Dean of 

How he bore himself in that august gathering of his 
brethren has been recorded with hearty and genidne ap- 
preciation by one who shared in the deliberations of the 

From the address of the Bishop of Quebec to his Synod 
in the spring of 1878, extracts have already enriched these 
pages : yet another has to be made, and is here given, a 
valuable but by no means exaggerated picture of him who 
in three separate quarters of the globe had come under the 
observation of the writer : — 

'' In my mind at least, the first thought that arises is of 
him who in the last Conference at Lambeth was well-nigh 

Q 2 


230 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. v. 

the most conspicuous figure, certainly the most attractive 
spirit; and whose place will know him no more. The 
ways of God are not as our ways — and we know that 
He doeth all things well. But to our apprehension it 
would, without that remembrance, seem a thing to be 
deplored that he who was the great promoter of the 
present Conference, and whose commanding mind might 
have been expected to mould its character, should have 
been taken away just when the work was about to begin. 
No sons of the prophets came to tell us that the Lord 
would take away our master from our head. Let us hope, 
let us pray, that there may be one to take up the mantle 
faUen from him— one around whom the Church may 
gather, saying ' the spirit of Elijah doth rest upon Elisha.' 

" I knew tiie late Bishop of Lichfield under many varied 
circumstances of his varied life. I saw him, eleven years 
ago, come from his distant diocese to take, with universal 
acquiescence in the natural selection— or shall I not rather 
say the spiritual designation — his true place at the head 
of the colonial bishops then in England consulting in 
preparation for the first Lambeth Conference — to take his 
true place, and to preside in their deliberations, day after 
day, with a wisdom, grace, and tact peculiarly his own. 
And I saw him afterwards, when the Conference opened, 
foremost among the Church's foremost men, a living 
manifestation of one strengthened by 6od*8 grace to 
endure hardness, fitted and prepared for the work of his 
ministry by the spirit of power, and of love, and of a 
sound mind. 

"The gracious charm of his personality, and the en- 
nobling influence of the man, I was permitted also, here 
in Canada, to enjoy in my own house. I saw him too, as 
many of you saw him, and heard his wise and winning 
• words in our Provincial Synod. And again I saw and 
heard him at New York, when, in the grandest missionary 
meeting I ever witnessed, he held his magnificent audience 
under the spell of his burning thoughts. Not that he 
was eloquent with any of the tricks of rhetoric ; he 
was too sincere, too single-minded for that. Not that he 
was a great orator: rather he was a great man; great 
in feeling, great in intellect, great in will — great through- 
out. And the outflow of such a mind, whilst never 

1860-1867.] LAMBETH CONFERENCE OF 1867. 231 

lacking clearness or interest, does not always produce 
the brilliant effects of the practised orator : — not always, 
but when at its best it goes far beyond them. There 
comes at such times over the man, and passes to his hearers, 
a wave of feeling, like the breeze upon an ^olian harp, 
so exquisite in its delicacy, so deep in its pathos, so 
genuine and spontaneous, as to fascinate with a fascina- 
tion to which, in my experience at least, the calculated 
bursts of artificial eloquence never attain or approach. 

" Such was the man when he came among us mature in 
years, though ' his eye was not dim, nor his natural force 
abated.' But I knew him, too, in his manhood's prime, a 
combination of grace and strength in body and in mind, 
such as appeared to my young eyes the perfection of 
humanity. And now that they are older, those eyes have 
since fallen on no form that gave them the like assurance 
of a man." 

In the week preceding the Lambeth Conference of 1867 
there were constant services held in the Church of St. 
Lawrence Jewry, the forerunners of those many " Short 
services for men of business," with which we are now 
familiar, and which have revealed a hitherto unsuspected use 
to which the churches in th« heart of the City may be 
applied. On one of these occasions the Bishop of New 
Zealand preached to a congregation of unusual dimensions a 
sermon of equally unusual freshness and importance. There 
was a freshness in his words, wholly distinct from the origin- 
ality of the preacher, which gave to them a force that was 
all their own : he found the mother-Church distracted by 
divisions about ritual and doctrine, and much exercised at 
the attempt to coerce the independent Churches of South 
Africa into servile obedience to the contradictory utter- 
ances of an alien tribunal. Such a combination of 
circumstances gave to him just the occasion which he 
valued of insisting on unity and on conference as the 
antidote to controversy and the only security for peace. 
Preaching from Acts xix. 32 — " Sovm cried one thing, and 
same another : for the assembly was confused ; and the more 

232 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

part knew not wherefore they were come together*' — ^he 
sketched in terms that were rathlesslj but not extrava- 
gantly sarcastic, the value of popular judgment in all ages 
and showed that the heme of Ephesus and Jerusalem was 
the bane of England in 1867. He showed how in each 
University honoured names had been held up to scorn ; how 
in Exeter and in St. George's-in-the-East riot had pre- 
vailed by reason of religious acrimony ; and how in South 
Africa a house was divided against itself, because one 
man would not listen to the godly admonition of his 
brethren, and his followers supported him not because 
they agreed with his opinions, but because they regarded 
him to be the champion of the idol of free thought, 
before which they prostrated themselves. 

In the week that immediately followed on the gathering 
at Lambeth, the Church Congress was held at Wolver- 
hampton, and was made famous by the presence of the 
Metropolitans of South Africa and New Zealand. Their 
experiences had been widely diverse, but their counsel to 
the mother-Church was one and the same. Each called 
on the Church in all her branches to be true to her 
inherent Divinity : to trust not at all to external support, 
which at any time might be capriciously withdrawn, but 
to organize her own powers of government on the basis 
of mutual compact. The testimony of these two great 
bishops, in many respects differently constituted, was 
identical in regard to the value and the necessity of 
synodal action working upwards from Local to Provincial 
Synods : Each bishop claimed for the Colonial Churches 
perfect liberty and autonomy, as the only security against 
anarchy. The Bishop of Capetown said : — 

" If you do not want to encourage dissension and create 
and perpetuate divisions, you must leave the distant 
Churches of the empire to connect themselves with each 
other and with the mother-Church, as they will do, by 
spiritual ties — by rules, laws, constitutions, canons, call 


1860-1867.] BISHOP OF CAPETOWN. 233 

them what you will — enacted in Synods, with this only 
essential principle of universal obligation for the guidance 
of all, that the authority of the inferior Synod is, and 
must ever remain, subordinate to that of the higher. That 
the Diocesan is, as the canons enjoin, liable to be over- 
ruled by the Provincial ; the Provincial by the National, 
or — as hereafter our Synods may include more nations than 
one — the General ; the General by the (Ecumenical 
Only let this principle be generally recognised, let the 
union of the Churches of our communion throughout the 
world be based upon it, and we shall have adopted a 
system which has already stood the test of ages, which 
was the recognised system of the Church from primitive 
times to the great division between the East and West in 
the eleventh century, which ia a better bond of union 
than a thousand Acts of Parliament, which would, had it 
been adhered to, have preserved Christendom to this day 
in unity. The chief hindrance to the Church's sound and 
complete organization in the colonies, to its future unity, 
and to the due subordination of its several branches to the 
central authority of which I have spoken, appears to me 
to arise out of that clinging to statute law which the 
daughter-Churches have inherited from the mother-Church. 
All other religious communities in the colonies manage 
their affairs perfectly well without troubling the Legis- 
latures of their respective countries, and there seems to be 
no reason why the Churches of our communion should not 
do the same 

" Parliamentary legislation, except so far as it may be 
needed here in England to set us free from the evils which 
past legislation has entailed upon us, is wholly imnecessary. 
Sweep away altogether the torn and tattered shreds of 
parchment which you say ought never to have been issued 
— which speak to us of an alliance with the State which, 
for good or for evil, has for ever passed away ; which 
render us no help, but which cling around us and hinder 
and embarrass the freedom of our action ; empower us to 
secure our property for the purposes for which it was 
given ; and the whole of our Churches will ally themselves 
with you according to that due order and subordination 
which the canons enjoin, and will continue one with you 

234 LIFE OP BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. t. 

80 long as you and they continue in firm adherence to the 
Faith once delivered to the saints." 

The Bishop of New Zealand " drove home " the state- 
ments of his brother Metropolitan, and argued, from the 
proceedings of the present Conference, that the time must 
come when the mother-Church should have her duly 
constituted Synods, and her laity taking their full share 
in their management. Having told in much detail the 
work of Bishop Fatteson, as though he had himself 
never been concerned in it, he pleaded in powerful words 
for unity. 

Contemplating no other future for himself than an 
early return to his beloved diocese, he felt that he could 
without offence, and even with the authority of long ex- 
perience, dwell on the. value of unity as a factor in the 
success of missions abroad. He said, " I have one word 
to address to the mother-Church. It is this : The best 
assistance you can give to us in our missionary work is 
to be united among yourselves." And then he quoted a 
fact within his own experience which had furnished well 
a text when pleading for unity in his own Synod at the 
Antipodes : — 

" I went," he said, " to one of the most remarkable of 
the Kew Zealand chieftains, noted for his hospitality to 
strangers, and when I asked him why he refused to be a 
Christian, he stretched out three fingers, and, pointing to 
the centre joint, said, ' I have come to a spot from which I 
see three roads branching. This is the Church of England, 
this the Church of Eome, and this the Wesleyans. I am 
sitting down here doubting which to take.' And he sat 
there doubting at those cross-roads until he died in a 
wonderful manner. His village was bmlt on a cliff in 
which there were hot springs, and in which vast quantities 
of liquid mud were accumulated. One night there was a 
landslip, the village was overwhelmed, and that chieftain 
died in unbelief simply because of the divisions of 
Christian men. I therefore ask you of the dear Church 

1860-1867.] BISHOP LONSDALE. 236 

in England to give us this best of all assistance, and be 
united among yourselves. I may say, lastly, that I came 
to England mainly in the hope that this great Conference 
of Bishops, followed by this great Congress of Bishops, 
Clergy, and Laity, may demonstrate practically and visibly 
the unity of our Anglican Church. I can assure all of 
you that our hearts are burning with an intense devotion 
and eager love to our mother-country and mother-Church. 
(Turning to Lord Harrowby, the Bishop continued) : A 
friend says, * You have cut the painter.' No, we have not 
cut the painter; it has parted of itself, and we are 
occupied now in forging a better cable — ^Uke that invisible 
and immaterial bond by which the planets are anchored to 
the sun ; we are declaring one and all that we have not any 
wish to change or alter the Articles and formularies of 
our mother-Church. I have learned in that great Pacific 
Ocean, on which my islands lie like little gems, to pray 
for the grace of God to enable us to distil from the great 
ocean of the Catholic Church this essential salt of unity, 
and with that salt to season all our sacrifices, whether 
prayer, praise, or almsgiving, and whether at home or 
abroad, may that sacrifice be acceptable to God through 
the One Perfect All-sufl&cient Sacrifice offered once for 

The Wolverhampton Congress was the last appearance 
in public of good Bishop Lonsdale; and when his See 
became vacant, men of all classes and opinions pointed to 
the Bishop of New Zealand as his worthiest successor. 
How he ultimately was moved to give up the work to 
which for twenty-six years he had devoted all his thoughts, 
must be told in his own words. 

He foresaw that in accordance with his own principles 
of obedience he would have to yield, but when he had 
conquered his own feelings, and was prepared to make the 
sacrifice, he thought of his friends in New Zealand. To 
Sir W. Martin, before any decision had been arrived at, he 
wrote, in order to catch the mail which left England on 
December 2nd the following letter : — 

236 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

37, Eaton Square, Nov 29rt, 1867. 

My very dear Friend, 

I am in a great strait. On the 12th instant, I received 
a letter from the Earl of Derby, offering me the Bishopric 
of lichfield. Without taking advice, but after prayer for 
guidance, I decKned the offer by return of post^ and 
supposed that the matter would end there (See letters 1 
and 2). 

This morning, to my great sorrow, I received a letter 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury (Letter No. 3) which 
greatly disturbed my mind. I have always held the 
opinion that there must be in the Church an authority 
to send. By the authority of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury I was sent to New Zealand ; and I promised obedience 
to him in all things lawful and honest. My own desire to 
return to New Zealand is so strong, that I cannot altogether 
trust my own judgment on a question of conscience. If 
I were to go upon my own will, I could decide in a moment. 
On Sunday, I am to go to Windsor, and the Dean of 
Windsor (Wellesley) leads me to think that the Queen 
may speak to me on this subject. If this should be so, 
the principle of obedience will again come into operation. 
Much pressure is put upon me from other quarters, but I 
do not attach much importance to that. You will see 
how my mind is distracted, by my letter to the Archbishop 
(Letter No. 4). The time at which the Panama Mail 
leaves will, I fear, oblige me to leave you in suspense ; as 
my letter must be posted before the point can be settled. 
Aue ! aue ! aue ! 

How I wish that I could take counsel with you. I have 
no one here, except Barah, who can even feel the force of 
the argument from the New Zealand side. All they allege 
are arguments drawn from the English side. The point of 
obedience is the only one upon which I see any light I 
have told the Archbishop, as you will see (in 4), that in 
any case I must go back to New Zealand. Friends here 
tell me that there will be no difSculty about making up 
the Endowment Fund for the Bishopric of New Zealand. 
Tou may be sure that I shall not rest until everything is 
made as sure as I can for my dear old land, if I am obliged 
to leave it 

Pray show this to Archdeacon Lloyd and any others 

1860-1867.] OFFER OF LICHFIELD. 237 

whom you wish. We hear with joy that Mary is better. 
Love to her. 

I remain, in sorrow, your affectionate friend, 

G. A. Nbw Zealand. 


St. James's Square, Nov. 9t^, 18S7. 

My Lokd Bishop, 

Though I have not the honour of your personal ac- 
quaintance, yet no one can be ignorant of the invaluable 
services which you have for many years rendered to the 
Church and to religion in your distant diocese, and it has 
occurred to me as possible that you might not be unwil- 
ling to exchange your present sphere of duty for one less 
laborious, but not less important ; and I should therefore 
be glad to be informed, whether in the event of my being 
in a position to offer you the succession of the late Bishop 
of Lichfield, you would be disposed to entertain the 

Before making any actual offer, I should desire to have 
the honour of a personal and confidential communication 
with you on one or two points which I consider of import- 
ance. I am unable at present to name a day for seeing 
you, as I am confined to my bed by an attack of gout ; but 
should you look favourably upon my suggestion, I should 
be glad to see you without any unnecessary delay. 

I have the honour, &c. &c., 



Batb, «Vov. 12(%, 1867. 

My Lord, 

As your lordship's very kind letter was marked " con- 
fidential ** I have taken counsel with no one but with Qod, 
in prayer ; and I have been led to the conclusion that it is 
my duty to return to New Zealand. 

1. Because the native race to whose service I was first 
called requires all the efforts of the few friends that 
remain to them. 

2. Because the organization of the Church in New 
Zealand is still incomplete. 

238 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. v. 

3. Because I have still, so far as I can judge, health 
and strength for the peculiar duties which habit has made 
familiar to me. 

4. Because my bishopric is not endowed with more than 
80Z. per annum ; and I have no reason to expect that the 
Church Missionary Society will continue their annual 
grant of 400Z. to my successor. 

5. Because I have personal friends, such as Bishop 
Abraham, Bishop Patteson, Sir W. Martin, and others, to 
whom I am so deeply indebted for freewill assistance, that 
I feel bound to work with them as long as I can. 

6. B;ecause a report was spread in New Zealand that I 
did not intend to return, to which I answered that nothing 
but illness or death would prevent me. 

I state these reasons because I do not wish to seem un- 
mindful of your lordship's kindness. There is no one 
whom I should be so glad to succeed as Bishop Lonsdale, 
who by his genial kindness has laid a foundation among 
the clergy and laity in his diocese upon which it would be 
easy to build. I could work with all my heart in the 
" black country," if it were not that my heart is in New 
Zealand and Melanesia. 

I have the honour, &c., 

G. A. New Zeaiand. 


Addinoton Park, Nov, 2%th, 1867. 

Dear Bishop of New Zealand, 

1 have received two communications from the diocese 
of Lichfield this morning, from persons of high considei^- 
tion, representing the feeling both of clergy and laity, and 
I gather from them both that there is a most earnest and 
ardent desire throughout the length and breadth of the 
diocese that you would reconsider your last decision, and 
consent to be their bishop. I kfnow that at this moment 
no appointment has been made, and I have every reason 
to believe, that if you could be persuaded to allow Lord 
Derby to offer you the See, with the understanding that 
you would accept it, it would be yours. 

Now I earnestly hope that you may be led to consider 
this as a high call of duty, and that previous objections 
may be overcome. Of this I am deeply convinced, that 

1860-1867.] ARCHBISHOP LONGLEY. • 239 

yon will be rendering the most valuable and highly import- 
ant service to the Church of England in consenting to 
your translation. No advantage that can accrue to the 
Church in New Zealand by your remaining there will be 
comparable to the benefit you will thus confer on the Church 
at home. I do trust that your love for our common mother 
will move you to yield to these anxious wishes which now 
centre in yourself; and, if I might add an expression of 
personal feeling, I cannot assure you too decidedly of the 
deep gratification it would afford me to see you in the 
See of Lichfield, of the comfort and support which I should 
find in these anxious times in having you as one of my suffra- 
gans. I will add no more, than that it will be my fervent 
prayer this night, that it may please God to guide you to 
the wished-for decision, which I believe would so eminently 
conduce to the welfare of the Church of England 

C. T. Cantuar. 


My deab Lord Archbishop, 

I have been deeply touched by your most kind letter, 
and have prayed earnestly that I may be enabled " to per- 
ceive and know what things I ought to do." Twenty-six 
years ago your Grace's predecessor sent me to New Zea- 
land. I had no other reason for going than because I was 
sent. Upon this question of obedience I am still of the 
same mind. I am a man under authority. As a matter of 
promotion conferred by the civil power, I had no hesita- 
tion in refusing the Bishopric of Lichfield. My love for 
New Zealand made me hope that the offer would not be 
renewed. But I do not wish to give imdue weight even 
to that feeling, because the strength of my attachment 
may mislead me. I am commanded to preach at Windsor 
on Sunday (Dec. 1), and the Dean's letter leads me to 
think that the Queen may speak to me on the subject. 
As a soldier of the Church I shall probably feel bound to 
do whatever my commander-in-chief bids me. 

One thing is absolutely necessary. I must at all events 
go back to New Zealand, if only for a few weeks. Every- 
thing there was left at short notice, when I came away to 
attend the Conference. To save expense, I have avoided 
all officials, and therefore all the accounts and trusts with 

240 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

which I am connected would have to be rearranged and 
transferred. If it should be determined that I am to leave 
my own dear New Zealand, I could, I dare say, get the 
Bishop of Wellington to come over to confirm and ordain 
in the Lichfield diocese during my absence. &c., &c. 

6. A. New Zealand. 

The story was again told to Sir W. Martin a month 

Palacb, Lichfield, Dee, 20th, 1867. 

My deab Friend, 

I wonder whether my last letter was in time for the 
Panama MaiL If not, this will be the first announcement 
to you of the completion of the Lichfield matter. On the 
1st December I was sent for to preach in the private 
chapel, Windsor, and to dine at the Castle at six. The 
Queen sent for me into " The Closet," and expressed her 
wish that I should take the Bishopric of Lichfield, say- 
ing many kind things in a very gracious manner. I had 
previously determined that if the Queen confirmed the 
authority of the Archbishop, of whose letter I sent you 
a copy, it would be my duty to give way: and so I 
did, with as good a grace as I could : though I felt very 
sorrowful: and still feel so, when I think of you and 
our native clergymen, and our friends in Auckland, and 
Charles, and Coley. The Queen said that she knew that I 
was very sorry to leave New Zealand, and that she would 
write to Lord Derby to say that I accepted the bishopric 
on the condition that I should be free to return to New 
Zealand to take leave of my friends, after I had taken 
possession of Lichfield. The same evening I dined with 
Her Majesty and Princess Louise, a small party of eight, 
and very pleasant. After dinner in private the Queen 
talked very nicely and naturally of Prince Albert^ and I 
felt myself speaking pastorally to her; as to a friend 
needing comfort. She had before given me her book with 
her autograph, but not without taking counsel with the 
Dean of Windsor, whether it would be right to give it to 
me, considering that Prince Albert said in a certain letter 
to Baron Stockmar, that my father was deficient in 

And so by this marvellous course of events, after the 
bishopric had been refused three times — 1st, by me ; 2nd, 

1860-1867.] RECEPTION AT LICHFIELD. 241 

by Dr. Cookson ; 3rd, by Mr. Lightfoot — ^I am now writing 
to you in the old palace, built by Bishop Wood in 1687, 
and now inhabited for the first time by a Bishop of Lich- 
field, in a year designated by the same figures transposed. 
It seems as if the house had been under a ban ; for Bishop 
Wood never resided in the diocese, and was therefore 
suspended by Archbishop Sancroft, who further fined him 
the cost of this house for damage done to estates of the 
See through his neglect. To our colonial eyes it is palatial ; 
and public opinion unanimously supports us in declining 
to live at Eccleshall Castle, twenty-five miles from Lich- 
field. The country-house heresy is losing ground. 

On Friday last, Sarah and I came here, and were received 
most kindly by Canon Lonsdale, son of the bishop. The 
Dean is very friendly, and Archdeacon Moore, the canon in 
residence. So the prospects of a united Cathedral body 
are good, and justify the hopes which I formed thirty 
years ago as a juvenile writer on Cathedral Beform. There 
is also a theological college with thirty students. The 
diocese includes all StaflFordshire, all Derbyshire, and half 
Shropshire, three archdeaconries, forty-eight rural deaneries, 
661 parishes, and 1,200,000 souls. There is a work to 
begin upon at my time of life, but I did not seek it : and 
I trust only in Him whose strength is made perfect in 

I have already begun to act as Trpof evo? of the colonial 
and missionary churches by receiving here the Bishop 
of the Orange Eiver Free State, and in this respect at 
least I hope that I may be of use, as the friend and 
advocate of the work which I have been forced against 
my will to desert. 

I shall go to work immediately to raise an endowment 
fund for the bishopric. If Archdeacon Lloyd, or Arch- 
deacon Govett, or Archdeacon Leonard Williams should be 
elected, I will guarantee 600/. a year as long as I live : and 
a lady has promised to leave 5,000/. by will. Most of the 
furniture in the " palace " will be left as an heirloom to 
the See, with the library: excepting some few private 
books which have become mingled with the others. 
Hayter may have the carts and horses as a reward for 
faithful service, unless you have any use in hand for 
them on the Cathedral Estate. He may also have the use 

242 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ▼. 

of the cows subject to the duty of supplying you 'with 
as much milk as you want. 

We hope to leave England as originally proposed in 
June or July ; and therefore there will be time for the 
report of the Diocesan Synod nomination to reach me. 

Aue ! aue ! aue ! 

Your very affectionate 

And sorrowful Friend, 

G. A. New Zealaj^d. 

At the risk of apparent repetition the following letter to 
the Rev. W. Selwyn is also given. 

My very dear William, 

To my great sorrow, but to your joy, Lichfield has come 
round to me again. How could I suppose that the Queen 
and the Archbishop would take the trouble to lay their 
commands upon me ? It was easy to refuse it as a matter 
of patronage and promotion ; but a call fi*om the rulers of 
the Church is not lightly to be disregarded. And so I 
have succumbed ; and in the Queen's private room this 
eveniug it was settled so to be. And now, my dear son, 
pray for me more earnestly even than before. It is a great 
change of plan ; but I trust that it is the will of God. 

Your very affectionate Father, 

6. A. New Zbaland. 

^ The appointment waa in all respects a "popular" one. Churchmen 
of aU but the most narrow type welcomed tne Bishop of New Zealand 
to England, and others who cared little for the accession of spiritual force 
thus secured to the mother-Church, joined in the general admiration 
which his romantic career in Kew Zealand had excited. To this feeling 
we are probably indebted for the following lines : — 



A salro for Selwyn, the pious and plucky. 

The manly and muscular, tender and true, 
Let "Lichfield and Coventry" own itself lucky, 

If loss of her shepherd New Zealand must rue. 
On the bench of Colonial Bishops, or boat, he 

The labouring oar has still pulled like a man. 
In his "stroke for all mitres on sees now afloat, he 

Is a model to match, or surpass, if they can. 


It was not his habit to make much of acts of scilf- 
abnegation, and henceforward the bishop was wont to 
speak almost apologetically of his translation to Lichfield 
as though he were only as other men to whom an English 
Bishopric would have been a welcome change after a life 
of hardship and not unfrequent peril in New Zealand and 

He has toiled, he has tussled, with natare and savage, 

When which was the wilder 'twas hard to decide, 
Spite of Maori's musket, and hurricane's ravage, 

The tight Southern Cross has still braved time and tide. 
Where lawn-sleeves and silk apron had turned with a shiver. 

From the current that roarea 'twixt his business and him, 
If no boat could be come at, he breasted the river. 

And woe to his chaplain who craned at a swim ! 

What to him were the cannibal tastes that still lingered 

In the outlying nooks of his Maori fold. 
Where his flock oft have mused, as their Bibles they fingered, 

" How ^ood would our warm-hearted Bishop be cold 1 " 
What to him were short commons, wet jacket, hard-lyin^^ 

The savages' blood- feud, the elements' strife. 
Whose guara was the Cross, at his peak proudly flying. 

Whose fare was the bread and the water of life ? 

Long, long, the warm Maori hearts that so loved him 

May watch and may wait for his coming again. 
He has sowed the good seed there, his Master has moved him 

To his work among savages this side the main. 
In " the Black Country," darker than ever New Zealand, 
. 'Mid worse ills than heathenism's worst can combine. 
He must strive with the savages reared in our free land. 

To toil, drink, and die, round the forge and the mine ! 

Say if We'nsbury roughs, Tipton cads, Bilston bullies,- 

Waikato can match, Taranaki excel ? 
Find in New Zealand's clearings, or wild ferny gullies. 

Tales like those Dudlev jnt-heaps and nail-works could teU« 
A labour more brutal, a leisure more bestial. 

Minds raised by less knowledge of Grod or of man, 
More in manners that's savage and less that's celestial. 

Can New Zealand show than the Black Country can ? 

A fair field, my Lord Bishop — ^fair field and no favour — 

For your battle with savagery, suft'rinff and sin. 
To Mammon, their God, see where rises ue savour 

Of the holocausts offered his blessing to wixL 
Your well-practised courage, your hold o'er the heathen, 

Frorn^ not to, New Zealand for work ought to roam ; 
If i^ be dark, what must the Black Count^ be then, 

What's the savage o'er sea to the savage at home f 

PtTNCH; December 14^, 1867 

TOL. n. B 

244 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. v. 

Thus he said homorously at a missionaiy meeting held 
at Oxford — 

''It may be objected that I am no fit advocate of 
missionary work, seeing that I have forsaken it All I 
can say is, I have had nothing to do with the change, 
except to obey. Twenty-seven years ago I was told to go 
to Kew Zealand, and I went; I am now told to go to 
Lichfield, and I go.' 

Bat none save his immediate friends knew how great 
was the pang which this obedience cost him. On the 
evening of the day of his enthronement at Lichfield, 
surrounded in his library by brothers and sisters, sons and 
grandchildren, and nephews and nieces, he said, with that 
ready gift of quoting aptly which never forsook him — 

" Socii ! neqne enim ignari smnos ante maloram, 
passi graviora ! dabit Deas his quoque finem. 

Per Tarios casus per tot discrimina reniin 
Tendimns in Lichfield, sedes ubi fata quietas 

He threw into the words a spirit and a meaning which 
the heathen author knew nothing of; but sedes quietas 
he never found while life lasted and called him to work. 
It may truly be said, that the trial of leaving family and 
country in 1841 was less severe than the pain which it 
cost him to leave his adopted country for which he had 
done so much ; but throughout the whole of his career no 
thought of self ever foimd a resting-place in his mind, and 
henceforward after a brief visit paid to New Zealand, his 
whole heart was given to Lichfield and the mother-Church, 
and for the sake of that mother-Church he laboured un- 
ceasingly to link all her daughter-Churches to the Parent 
by the immaterial but enduring bonds of Spiritual union. 
One only consideration had made him pause before yield- 
ing that implicit obedience to civil and spiritual authorities 
that he conceived to be their due : it was, as has already 

1860-1867.] LICHFIELD. 246 

been mentioned in his letters to Sir W. Martin, that in 
leaving New Zealand he was leaving a See almost without 
endowment. A near relative, who was anxious that he 
should remain in England, offered to provide by will for 
ever for the maintenance of the future Bishops of Auck- 
land, and he gratefully accepted it, in these words : — 

*' Your kind offer has been a great relief to my mind, 
because I have no difficulty in making up the income of 
the bishop as long as I live ; but the difficulty was to make 
provision for the future." 

And so the great Primate of New Zealand became a 
SuSragan of Canterbury ; and if any persons yet remain 
who repeat the words of regret in which many once in- 
dulged on insufficient information, that he should have been 
moved from the Church which he had founded to a position 
which others could equally well have filled : if any are 
still found to utter the platitude that a man who is facile 
princep8 in one position does not rise above mediocrity 
when moved to another : if it be still held by some per- 
sons that a man who could rough-hew the institutions of 
a nascent Church and a future Empire, and stamp on both 
the impress of an original mind, was not likely to do more 
than keep at its existing level of usefulness a position 
venerable with the traditions of centuries, then it can only 
be asserted on the testimony of those who had the best 
opportunities of judging, that in each year of his Lichfield 
Episcopate the sense of ministerial obligations and the 
strength of religious life among the laity have risen with 
a regularity which can only be compared to the rising of 
a tide which has known no ebb. 

To Lichfield and works connected with it the rest of 
these pages will be devoted. 

R 2 

246 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 



On January 9, 1868, the bishop was enthroned at Lichfield. 
Not a day had been lost in providing promptly for the 
efficient administration of his new diocese. For more than 
a year he was the occupant of two Sees, 15,000 miles 
apart, and he humorously claimed for the anomalous 
arrangement the precedent of Lichfield having been at one 
time yoked with Coventry, and contended that the mar- 
riage with New Zealand was a gratifying and suggestive 
proof of the extension of the Anglican Church. 

No man knew better than he did both the privilege 
and the difficulty of succeeding to Bishop Lonsdale. Never 
was bishop more fatherly in all his actions than was that 
scholarly and humble-minded Prelate, whose last public 
utterance, at the Church Congress held at Wolverhampton 
a few days before his decease, was — ^in strict consistency 
with his life and practice — an earnest exhortation to 
brotherly love. "The school of Faith," he said, "is 
a high school, but the school of Love is higher. Many 
here have no need to be learners in this world, but we have 
all of us need to be continually learning in the other." 
It was well that his successor was also a man of tenderest 
mould and unfailing sympathy. 

One alteration Bishop Selwyn determined from the first 
to make, though it cost him the pain of breaking the tra- 

1868-1870.] LICHFIELD PALACE. 247 

ditions of more than a thousand years. This has been 
mentioned in his letter to Sir W. Martin announcing his 
intention to abandon Eccleshall Castle, and to reside in 
the Palace. 

To this house he added two wings, one of which con- 
tained a lofty hall, which was the trysting-place of all 
diocesan workers of whatever grade or kind, and was con« 
stantly in request for public meetings and for the exer- 
cise of hospitality on a scale truly Episcopal. The western 
wing contained a large business room or ofiGice, where his 
Secretary sat day by day, and some cubicles, almost like 
cabins, in which candidates for orders and clergymen who 
came on business were temporarily lodged. At the N.W. 
angle he added the Chapel, full of fragrant memories of New 
Zealand, the Pastoral StafiT given to him in 1841 being in 
its place in his stall, and the windows on either side 
recalling past scenes or memories of his Antipodean Epis- 
copate. The Chapel was in easy communication with the 
Library, a spacious room in which to work, and in which 
signs of work were abundantly visible : and not only of 
work, but of method, without which the work would never 
have been accomplished. 

Who that has ever seen it could forget those rows of 
lockers all round the room, eloquent of the sea-going 
habits of the designer, and their orderly contents, hundreds 
and probably thousands of large envelopes, each neatly 
labelled with the names of the Parish, the School, the 
Hospital, or the public question with which its contents 
dealt, and of these too a brief precis was written on the 
outside. When people wondered how the bishop remem- 
bered everything about the parish or the question with 
which they were themselves concerned, they did not know 
how carefully and methodically everything relating to it 
was preserved, and how rapidly he could make himself 
master of the whole business. 

The way in which the bishop threw himself into his 
work justified the remark of the Archbishop of Canterbury 

248 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

after his decease, that "an electric force attended his 
presence \vhereyer he went" It was impossible to 
continue the work on the scale and in the spirit with 
which it was commenced, and this was all too soon made 
manifest : bnt everywhere it made a great impression ; and 
a Staffordshire paper at this time contained an account 
of Five Days Work in the PaUeries, more remarkable for its 
appreciation of the bishop than for its own literary merits. 
As a contribution of contemporary testimony, however, it 
finds a place here : — 

" On Saturday, Bishop Selwyn began his five days' work 
amongst us by preaching a stirring sermon in Stoke church 
on the resurrection of t£e body, and then consecrating the 
new piece of land appended to the churchyard ; this was 
over at a quarter-past ona At half-past two he conse- 
crated similarly at Fenton. At half-past four he preached 
and consecrated at Stoke Workhouse, where a touching 
procession of the inmates foUowed him round their new 
' last resting-place.' Three sermons and three consecrations 
is pretty good work for one day. On Sunday, work began 
with a sermon in Skelton church, where many of the local 
magnates were assembled, and jointly contributed, we are 
informed, barely 221, to the Infirmary. In the afternoon, 
a characteristic sermon on ' Peter stood by the fire and 
warmed himself" followed at Edensor, for the warming 
apparatus, a novelty unknown in the churches of New 
Zealand. In the evening, the bald, staring architecture of 
the large church at Stoke was made expressive, if not 
actually beautiful, by a dense mass of between 1,500 and 
2,000 worshippers, whom the bishop addressed on behalf 
of the Infirmary building, and where 50/. was received for 
that object. Three sermons form the work of the second 
day. On Monday a hearty address of half an hour, with- 
out book or note, delivered from the altar-steps at Stoke on 
the work of the ministry, together with the administration 
of Holy Communion, was a two hours' introduction to the 
laborious work of attention and patience required for 
presiding at a meeting of clergymen and laymen to discuss 
the question of the division of populous dioceses, and the 
creation of Diocesan Synods. Monday's labours were 

1868-1870.] WORK IN THE POTTERIES. 249 

crowned by a telling sermon at Sneyd Church, on ' My 
soul is even as a weaned child/ where Christ, weaned 
from the glories of His Father's heavenly house, and 
weaned from the comforts and the desires of earth, forms 
the model for men to imitate in their weanedness from sin 
and self, which model finds its nearest earthly exemplifica- 
tion in those little children which such schools as those at 
Sneyd are intended to rear for God. A collection of 28/. 
followed this appeal. Thus ended the third day. On 
Tuesday the bells of Newcastle told by their firing that 
something unusual was occurring, and a stately procession 
of mayor and corporation, maces and gowns, which 
welcomed at the Town Hall and conducted the bishop in 
municipsd state to the Old Church, betokened to the ancient 
and loysd burghers what that unususd interest was. Here 
the bishop again preached, and proved incisively to the 
conscience that the law of love, which Christianity proclaims, 
transcends in its binding force any precepts written down 
only in itxyrds in the Holy Book, and, as at Sneyd the 
night before, insisted on his people's preparing for the 
reception of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper on Easter 
Day. Then he administered the sacrament to some 200 
communicants, A lunch (speedily concluded) followed at 
the Castle ; and by three o'clock he was, with exemplary 
patience, studious attention and pleasant repartee, busied 
in hearing and removing any objections that were raised to 
giving the living Church a living and speaking voice as to 
her wants and intentions through the mouthpiece of her 
Diocesan Synods. This over by 5.80, there followed at 
seven, in the Town Hall, a missionary meeting, attended 
by all classes, in which his simple, manly tale, of how he 
owned the natives of Australasia for brother men of one 
blood with us, and how, for the love of Christ, he worked 
among them for six-and-twenty years, won from the 
humbler class of burghers, standing in crowds at the lower 
end of their hall, such expressions of assent as ' That's a 
a good 'un ! ' Thus ended the fourth day. On Wednesday 
the colliery village of Talke, of sad name, witnessed .a 
thrilling scene. A little iron church erected by the bene- 
volence of resident ladies, was that day opened for worship. 
Holding only a little over a hundred, broad cloth and silk 
dresses soon appropriated the chief seats, if not the whole 

260 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYK. [chap. vi. 

edifice; and while the hymn before the sermon was in 
singing, the bishop was seen to leave the tiny chancel, and 
force his way through the crowded gangway towards the 
door. People's hearts begem to beat ; the last four days' 
work is telling on him ; he is going out from the crowded 
building for a little air. Nothing of the sort The good 
missionary took his stand at the western porch, and turned 
to the 200 colliers standing in the yard, whom the build- 
ing's scanty proportions woiQd not contain, and addressed 
them in the simplest and most touching tones and words, 
reminding them that like their own soil, their life in this 
world is undermined by sin and death, and that there is 
none other name under heaven given among men by whom 
we must be saved, but only the name of Jesus Christ 
The bishop's head was uncovered ; the rough men and lads 
kept their hats on ; but their faces were all turned towards 
him and their eyes fixed upon him ; and (as he expressed 
the fervent hope and prayer) perhaps the ear might cany 
to the heart of many of tiiem the Word of life ! On the 
afternoon of the fifth day the bishop left for Ham, where 
on Thursday he preached twice, administered Holy 
Communion, and met the clergy and laity of Alstonfield 
deaneiy in consultation on the subject of Synods. Let 
us hope that the bright visit with which he has greeted 
this neighbom'hood for these five days may leave behind it 
a trail of light in the hearts of many men, now that he 
has disappeared for a while from our immediate horizon." 

His first care was to establish in his new diocese that 
consultative machinery which he had learned to value so 
highly in his old. For this the way had been partially 
prepared : in 1866 Bkhop Lonsdale's attention had been 
called to the matter of Diocesan Synods, which was at that 
time being discussed in the newspapers: fifteen years 
before Bishop PhOlpotts, in spite of obloquy, had held a 
Synod at Exeter to re-aCBrm the Prayer-Book doctrine 
of regeneration, and the diocese of Ely had quite re- 
cently been feeling its way towards synodical meetings. 
He was not favourably disposed to making the attempt, 
but with the fairness which characterised him he in- 


vited the rural deans of Staffordshire assembled at 
Eccleshall to discuss it. The opinion was almost unani- 
mous in favour of some form of synodal action ; the rural 
deans of the archdeaconries of Salop and Derby met suc- 
cessively at Eccleshall, and were asked to bring the whole 
subject before the clergy of their several deaneries. The 
result was that Bishop Lonsdale determined to hold a 
Synod of his diocese, to which he invited the clergy, the 
churchwardens, and two laymen from each parish, one 
nominated by the incumbent, the other by the people* 

This Synod was never held, but the fact of its having 
been determined on encouraged his successor at once to 
carry out the plans that had been adopted but not executed* 
In six months time he would leave for his farewell visit to 
New Zealand, and before doing so he determined that, if 
labour on his part could effect it, the machinery of such 
oi^anization should be in full working order. He attended 
meetings in forty-four Kural Deaneries and in each Arch- 
deaconry, in which he had to repeat the patient waiting 
which had been a condition of his ultimate success in New 
Zealand: the same suspicions and party watchwords 
assailed him now : dark designs of making, the Episcopate 
autocratic were imputed to him, and his protestations that 
he was actually laying aside much power and was holding 
his hands to be fettered, had with mcmy persons no weight. 
It has taken some years, and will probably require a good 
many more, to educate stolid and suspicious Englishmen in 
the truth that synodal action has for its object the subor- 
dination of the caprice of individual wills, whether of the 
episcopate, the priesthood, or the laity, to the matured and 
deliberate judgment of the majority of each order, and that 
autocracy is thus made unattainable to all alike. *' What 
are the uses of Synods ? " was a question frequently asked, as 
though with the conviction that it was unanswerable : but 
the bishop meekly replied, " Everything that for want of 
Synods has been left undona Half of our population to 
be won back to the Church of their fathers : fifty colonial 

252 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

dioceses looking to us for help ; two-thirds of the whole 
human race still waiting for Christ : to carry out to the full 
the work of Christian education: to subdivide our enor- 
mous parishes: to build churches, and schools, and par- 
sonages : to call forth the energies of our faithful laity : to 
choose out the fittest men— even from the humblest ranks 
— ^to serve God in the sacred ministry of His Church. It 
is true that much has been done, and I thank Gk)d for it. 
But I say, let us think nothing done tUl nought remains. 
It is the fault of all voluntary societies to sound the 
trumpet to tell the world how much they have done. It is 
the characteristic of the work of the Church to be ever 
conscious of its own defects. It is like Cowper's distinc- 
tion between knowledge and wisdom. Societies are proud 
that they have done so much ; the Church is humble that 
it has done no more. The limitation of each society to its 
own specific work is very diflTerent from the comprehensive 
charity of the Church, which watches over the whole com- 
munity. The partial view with which each subscriber 
devotes himself to some object in which he is peculiarly 
interested falls far short of that far-seeing wisdom with 
which the Church, as in days of old, ought to make distri- 
bution to every man according as he has need. Societies 
come too late into the field to remedy evils that have 
become full-grown. The wisdom of the Church is seen in 
prevention rather than in cure, and in providing remedies 
before the disease has come to its height. 

** We form our present system, then, in no antagonism to 
existing societies, but under the conviction that the action 
of the whole mind of the Church is needed to conduct, 
under Divine guidance, the whole work which God has 
given us to do. We desire to have representatives coming 
to us from the most populous and the most remote parts of 
the diocese — ^rich men to set us an example of giving, and 
poor men to tell us of the wants and feelings of the poor ; 
and working men to tell us how the work of Christ may 
best be carried on in mines and factories ; and patrons of 

1868-1870.] SYNOD OR CONFERENCE. 253 

livings, clerical and lay, to join in seeking out the most 
deserving cnrates, and in putting the right man in the 
right place. We want members of both houses of Parlia- 
ment to keep U8 to rulea of order, and to assist us in cany- 
ing up our petitions ; and members of Convocation to learn 
the mind of the cleigy and laity, that they may propose 
such reasonable alterations of the laws affecting the Church 
— (such as dilapidations, church building, and the like) — 
as Parliament will not hesitate to accept and enact. And 
we desire also the presence of our Cathedral cleigy to 
unite with us in bringing out the dormant powers of that 
central heart to which I have felt myself drawn as if by 
some instinctive conviction that the life's blood can be made 
to flow from thence into the extremities of the diocese. 
That daily intercession has not been offered up in vain. 
The part will become more powerful than the whole. Our 
Cathedral, stripped of half its revenues, will derive new 
power and spirit from the pruning-knife of the Ecclesias- 
tical Commission. And above aU, we desire that subordi- 
nation of the individual will to the spirit of counsel which 
cannot be produced by gathering together men of like 
minds, for then self-wiU is strengthened and made more 
seK-confident by the blind assent which is given to narrow 
prejudices and plausible fallacies. We must have men of 
all professions and of all classes, and of all shades of 
opinion, that every want may be fuUy known, and every 
opinion fairly weighed, and that the decision may be '' that 
which pleases the whole multitude' " 

Here truly was an ample programme, based on a system 
the most comprehensive and unconventional that could be 
devised. The opposition continued, accompanied sometimes 
by warmth of language which it is not necessary to record 
in these pages : when the principle triumphed, the objec* 
tion was then taken to the title of the proposed meetings : 
the people who detected popery and ecclesiastical tyranny 
in the word of Greek origin, saw nothing to complain or 
be afraid of in the Latin derivative : Synod was dangerous 

254 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 

and Conference harmless. The bishop was amused at this 
distinction, and at the close of the Stafford Archidiaconal 
Conference said, " We are now approaching the great qiies- 
tion of the day, whether our meetings are to be Synods or 
not My own opinion I can state very briefly : it is that I 
shall be perfectly willing to assist at such meetings, let 
them be called what they may. On personal grounds I 
feel with the poet Moore : 

^ The choice what heart can doubt 
Of tents with love or thrones without " 

I would rather be in a conference with Lord Harrowby ^ 
than in a Synod without him." On June 17 the Diocesan 
Conference was held in the city of Lichfield, and was 
attended by the representatives, clerical and lay, of every 
rural deanery in the diocese. After Holy Communion had 
been celebrated in the Cathedral, the meeting for business 
was held in the Guildhall ; the clergy in academicals sat on 
the left-hand of the bishop^ the laity on his right, and 
between the two the members of the standing committee, 
lay and clerical It was a difficult but at the same time 
a triumphant hour for the bishop. A bare six months ago 
and he had thought of nothing less than the Chair of S. 
Chad, and now he was presiding over a Synod, the first of 
the kind to be held in England, although other dioceses had 
been feeling their way towards such a consummation for 
some years. It was worthy of himself, while thanking 
God for the result of six months' deliberations, in which 
" differences of opinion had only served to prove that it is 
possible to differ widely in opinion and yet continue 
friends," to speak of the "good and hopeful work on 
which the colophon was that day put," as but the 
continuation of the work commenced by his predecessor. 
He could point to the results of the meetings which had 
been held as largely in favour of synodal action, and 
in every instance the discussions had been conducted 
with perfect good feeling and courtesy on both sides. 

' Who had strongly opposed the use of the word Synod. 

1868-1870.] DIOCESAN CONFERENCE. 255 

Each of the three counties, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, 
and Shropshire, which were connected with the diocese, 
had presented counter-memorials, and some anonjrmous 
papers of an unfriendly character had been &eely circu- 
lated ; but the latter had demanded no explanation nor 
answer, and the former had signatures neither numerous 
nor influential enough to arrest action. From Staffordshire 
the most influential memorial had been presented, but this 
was only signed by 220 persons, of whom one-third were 
resident in one, and that not a very important, town. The 
feeling therefore in favour of the Conference was as una- 
nimous as can be expected in these days, when to oppose 
any change is the policy most grateful to the indifferent 
and the irreligious, and especicdly when such opposition 
is made on the plea of conscience and Protestantism. 
These figures and facts were mentioned by the bishop in 
his opening address ; and he added, ** I wish it to be under- 
stood that if I had met with even a large minority, I 
would not have pressed this measure in the face of their 
decided opposition. I had no desire to disturb the peace 
of the diocese, and I am thankful to be able to say that it 
has not been disturbed." The labour of attending so 
many Conferences, in addition to the usual work of the 
diocese, had been very great, but the bishop declared that 
it had been to him a work of much enjoyment, as it made 
him acquainted both with clergy and laity in a more 
effectual and speedy manner than any other mode of 
visitation which he could have adopted : and he added 
with characteristic frankness and metaphor, ''From this 
general expression of pleasure and satisfaction I do not by 
any means except those who have opposed me ; for hearty, 
honest, and outspoken opposition brings with it a pleasure 
peculiar to itself. It is wearisome to sail always with a 
fair wind. A brisk breeze, even if it be contrary, is often 
the seaman's delight" 

It was on the occasion of the successful inauguration of 
the Diocesan Conference that the bishop painted in fullest 

256 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [ohap. vi. 

detail the sketch of Diocesan Oiganization which bad 
been his ideal. In addition to all that has been ah^eady 
qnoted he pointed to other great works looming in the 
distance. " We shall want/' he said, ** a Diocesan Fond, 
not restricted to special objects, but available, under the 
direction of the Diocesan Council, for church works and 
needs of every kind, the fund not to be Mttered away 
in small grants here and there, but devoted annually 
to great diocesan works tending to give strength and 
stability to our system." Foremost among these obji^ts 
he considered the support at the Theological CoU^ of 
the picked members of the corps of lay-agents: but 
there were costlier and more abiding projects behind : 
the imattached advowsons, the happy hunting-ground of 
the clerical agent and the dealer in simony, he wished 
to purchase for the diocese, in order to bestow them on 
" its own servants, drawn from its own people, educated 
in its own college, proved in its own ministry, and 
found faithful." For these same priests, when their 
strength failed and they could no more be again what 
once they had been, he wished to be able to provide 
"retiring pensions and quiet homes under the shadow 
of the cathedral," and when their laborious days were 
ended, what he had contemplated for himself, while in 
the heyday of his strength, " a cloister grave." 

This was an ideal scheme, but nothing great is ever 
accomplished by the man who has not a high ideal : and 
George Herbert's words were never forgotten by the 
bishop, ''that it is good to shoot at the moon even 
though you only hit a tree." 

Thus the great master-builder secured for his own 
diocese at least a perfect example of that synodal action 
which he regarded as essential to the vigorous life of the 
Church as she is, the best protector agaiust disestablish- 
ment, and the only true means of making her indifferent 
to the shock if it should come. The man who is content 
with the present condition of our Church in regard to 

1868.1870.] DISESTABLISHMENT. 267 

legislation and internal government must be strangely 
constituted^ for he must acquiesce in a system in which 
(1) bishops are irresponsible autocrats, in regard to the 
unbeneficed clergy, and powerless with regard to the 
beneficed clergy, save through the agency of an uncon- 
stitutional and abnormal exercise of the civil power ; (2) 
the priesthood is unrepresented in the sacred Synods save 
through the qualifications of legal freeholds, which, un- 
known to any other Church in Christendom, enable their 
holders to perform their minimum of routine duty without 
chance of reproof or interference ; (3) a laity, without any 
shadow of representation as churchmen ; for the layman 
who is content with the House of Commons as the legisla- 
ture of the Church must be densely ignorant and unob- 
servant. It is the lack of proper ecclesiastical organization 
in which each order bears its part that estranges bishops 
from clergy, and clergy from laity, which tempts the laity 
to apathy and indifference, or to joining hands with the 
civil power in its encroachments on the province of the 
Holy Spirit, and leads all alike to trust unduly in endow- 
ments and privileges which a single session of parliament 
may sweep away. It was no triumph of what is called 
"tact" that gave Bishop Selwyn the power which he 
wielded over men, whether in Melanesia or MelarUhracia, 
as he called the black country ; he always credited people 
with possessing a high moral and spiritual tone, and thus 
he elicited the very spirit whose existence he assumed. So 
genuine was his belief in the virtue of our Lord's incarna- 
tion that he may be said to have possessed in the truest 
sense " the enthusiasm of humanity.'' 

It had been among the many objections urged against 
the bishop's proposal that he was indifferent to the union 
of Church and State, that he even wished to abolish it, 
and that Diocesan Synods were either in contempt of such 
union or preparations for the state of things that would 
soon be brought about by their impending separation. He 
was not blind to the evils of both conditions, and probably 

268 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

had thought out the subject in all its bearings far moie 
thoroughly than any of lus critics : he had written thirty 
years before in his work on Cathedral Institutions : " The 
great question now is whether the principle of our Estab- 
lished Church or of the voluntary system shall prevail : 
and this is a question which must be decided by eneigy 
and not by learning ; because ordinary men will only 
inquire which of the two systems is the more efficient. 
The strength of an Established Church lies in organization : 
the power of the Voluntary System on the facility with 
which it adapts itself to every moral change in the feelings 
and circumstances of men. The one has more consistency, 
the other more flexibility, and in both systems its defects 
are the exact converse of the chief advantages." Estab- 
lished the Church of New Zealand had never been, but 
the bishop had been endowed and disendowed, and was 
indifferent to either state of things. He had often con- 
gratulated himself on " the free air " of a Colonial Church 
unconnected with the State, and able to adapt itself to the 
emergency of the hour, and had remonstrated against the 
action of the civil power which for years had hindered 
the establishment of Synods and the subdivision of his 
diocese, on the assumption of a power which it was un- 
able to justify : in New Zealand he had endeavoured 
successfully, on the one hand to provide moderate but 
yearly increasing endowments, and on the other hand to 
secure the operation of the best principles of the voluntary 
system : and now that his lot was cast in England he 
cared not a straw for the material dignity and wealth of an 
ancient See, and r^etted with some bitterness that he 
could not do with the income of the See of Lichfield as he 
had done with the smaller income of New Zealand — divide 
it and his See with his four or five brethren : but he was 
no advocate for so great a change as was involved in the 
separation of Church and State. His policy may be 
described in his words as uttered in Convocation, " I have 
learned in whatsoever state I am therewith to be content" 


1808 1870.] RETURN TO NEW ZEALAND, 259 

He would have accepted the spirit of S. Paul's words, 
" Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was 
called. Art thou called, being in a free Church, care not 
for it ; but if thou art called in a Church which is allied 
with the civil power, use it rather." He would certainly 
not have attempted or desired to reconstruct in a new 
country the intricate relations, the result of so many 
centuries of union, which complicate both the dvil and 
ecclesiastical elements of English society now, neither 
would he rudely cut the knot, and so turn loose on the 
world and on the Church a multitude of problems well 
nigh insoluble. These views he had an opportunity of ex* 
plaining in public at a time when the disestablishment 
of the Irish Church was imminent, and was discussed 
both in the House of Lords and in Convocation, and in 
July, 1868, he started on the painful errand of severing 
the link that held him still to the diocese which he had 
served so well tuid so long. 

He gave notice of his expected arrival in a letter dated 
from Lichfield on June 1, 1868, to his old friend Sir W. 
Martin, the ex-Chief Justice of New Zealand : — 

Mt veby dea^, dear Friend, 

One month after you receive this^ if it please God, we 
may again meet in the old haunta '' qui complexus et 
gaudia quanta" Nothing in England has yet come up to 
Taurarua and its associations. And yet the pressure of 
new work with new interest has begun to take its efifect in 
making one feel at home. A careful visit through forty-six 
rural deaneries, with synodical meetings, has opened up 
to me a vast field of thought and, I hope, of action. The 
Synodical Organization may now be said to be complete 
on a basis very similar to New Zealand, substituting arch* 

deaconries for dioceses Archidiaconal Synods have 

been held at Shrewsbury and Stafford : all very pleasant 
and friendly: some party spirit in Derbyshire — strange 
statements in the Record of which you will hear, some 
positively, others by inference, untrue. They did not 
prevent the result as follows. Deaneries fieivourable, 43 ; 
deanery opposed, 1 ; deaneries equally divided, 4 ; total 

VOL. n. B 

260 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 

48. Bishop Trower will be my locu^m tenens, with Mr. 
Thatcher for his secretary. 

The visit to New Zealand was necessarily brief, and the 
voyage was fraught with perils more imminent than any that 
had befallen the bishop in all his previous wanderings. At 
Aspinwall, the plank on which he had walked when re- 
embarking snapped in two ; he reached Wellington, 
in safety, but the steamer in which he proceeded to 
Auckland was wrecked. In October the Greneral Synod of 
the Province was held at Auckland, and sat from the Sth 
to the 17th instant. Six bishops were present and a full 
attendance of representatives, both clerical and lay. 
Bishop Patteson came from the distant Norfolk Island to 
look for the last time on the friend and leader at whose 
invitation he had left everything behind him. The Metro- 
politan in a long address dwelt on the importance of the 
Lambeth Conference, and showed how futile it was to 
look to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as 
a possible bond of union to connect the Colonial Church 
with the Mother Church : that it would require an Act of 
Parliament to give to all clergymen, as such, the status of 
beneficed incumbents before that Judicial Committee could 
serve as a bond of union : that in England 5,000 curates, 
and abroad all the missionary clergy, together with chap- 
lains in the army and navy, in gaols and workhouses, were 
all governed by special bye-laws or voluntary agreements, 
" with no other right of appeal to the Privy Council than 
that which may issue from any action for breach of agree- 
ment tried in any one of the lower courts of law." . . " I 
respect the feeling," he went on to say, " which makes 
many good men venerate, almost to idolatry, our English 
system . . . but I earnestly entreat you, as one who has 
seen the work of the Church on both sides of the world, 
hold fast to your voluntary compact : make it as perfect 
as you can : seek for communion with all the branches of 
our Anglican Church now scattered over the world : aim at 
one common standard of faith and ritual in all essential 



1868-1870.] FAREWELL TO NEW ZEALAND. 261 

points : treasure up the memory of all the blessings and 
privileges which we have inherited from our Holy Mother, 
that it may be seen that by none is she more honoured 
and beloved than by the most distant of her children," 

One promise he gave, which was abundantly ful- 
filled, '' that to maintain that intimate union between the 
mother-Church and her colonial branches should be one of 
the chief objects of his life." On approaching struggles 
in England and threats of disendowment he ''looked 
without fear, because we have learned by long experience 
that the Church of England lives and prospers, not by 
endowment or by connection with the State, but by the 
scriptural purity of her doctrine, and the Sacramental 
fulness of her Liturgy." After the election of the Bishop 
of Christ Church as *' Primate " an address, signed by all 
the members of the Synod, and which is believed to have 
been written out of a full heart by Bishop Patteson, was 
presented to Bishop Selwyn and, both for its own sake as 
well as being a retrospect of a noble Episcopate for more 
than a quarter of a century, is here given : — 

" We, the Bishops, clergy, and laity of the branch of the 
United Church of ligland and Ireland in General Synod 
assembled, most respectfully and affectionately address 
your Lordship upon your resignation of the ofiBce of Pre- 
sident of this Synod. 

" When your Lordship came into this country, more than 
twenty-six years ago, you began your work as the first and 
only Bishop of New Zealand by giving a more united and 
permanent character to the successful efforts of the early 
missionaries. You end it now as the primate of an 
ecclesiastical province by providing for the permanent 
maintenance of your Melanesian Mission, the offshoot of 
the New Zealand Church. 

" This General Synod is itself a result and witness of 
your unwearied efforts for the organization of the native 
and colonial Church of New Zealand, and of your mis- 
sionary labour among the islands of the West Pacific 
Ocean. The native of New Zealand, the English colonist, 
and the Melanesian islander are all represented here. 

s 2 

262 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. \i. 

" With respect to the native Church, a Maori diocese 
has been constituted, and Maori Synods have been held ; 
seventeen native clergymen have ministered, or do minister 
faithfully and loyally in different parts of the country ; 
churches and schools have been biult, endowments have 
been provided, clergymen and catechists have been main- 
tained ; and collections have been made for the heathen 
islanders of Melanesia by our Maori brethren. 

" The Colonial Church in this country has been organiased 
by you upon a system of Synodical action and voluntary 
compact, which secures to every Churchman who accepted 
it the enjoyment of true Christian liberty and the exercise 
of all Christian privileges. 

'* Lastly, it is to you, in the good providence of God, 
that the Melanesian Mission owes its existence, and such 
measure of success as it has pleased God hitherto to grant 
to it. Your faith and courage first carried the Gi^spel 
into those wild islands, and your wise forethought devised 
a method of carrying on the work, which experience has 
already shown to be well adapted to the peculiar circum- 
stances of that Mission. 

** And now we think, my Lord, how twenty-seven years 
have passed to-day since you received the episcopal office 
— ^years marked by extraordinary events in the history of our 
country and Church — an episcopate marked in an extra- 
ordinary degree by your work of faith, juid labour of love, 
and patience of hope. 

*' We humbly believe that, by your wide and varied 
experience of many forms of human life, by bringing you 
into contact with men in every stage of barbarism and 
civilization, or on lonely journeys in the solitude of New 
Zealand forests, and on the waves of the West Pacific, 
God*s Holy Spirit has been training you for an even greater 
work than any that you have hitherto accomplished — ^for 
which all that has been done may be but the preparation 
— ^the crowning work, it may be, of your life to which He 
has now called you. It seems as if you had been sent 
first to warn the most distant members here, and were 
called now to quicken the very heart of our dear mother 
Church at home, so that the lifeblood may circulate with 
fresh vigour throughout the body. 

" We know full well that you never cease to pray and 

1868-1870.] THE BISHOPS REPLY. 263 

labour for us, aud you Heed no assurance from us that we 
will ever remember and pray for you. How can we ever 
forget you ? Every spot in New Zealand is identified with 
you. Each hill and valley, each river and bay and head- 
land, is full of memories of you ; the busy town, the lonely 
settler's hut, the countless islands of the sea, all speak to 
us of you. Whether your days be few or many, we, as 
long as we live, will ever hold you deep in our inmost 
hearts. All will pray for you and yours ; the clergy, to 
whom you have indeed been a father in God, the old tried 
friends with whom you have taken counsel, the younger 
men of both races whom you have trained, the poor whom 
you have relieved, the mourners whom you have com- 
forted, the sick to whom you have ministered, the prisoners 
whom you have visited, all think of you now, and will 
think of you always with true and deep affection, will 
offer for you always their fervent prayers. 

" We humbly pray God, who has given you the wisdom to 
conceive and the power to execute your great designs, that 
your high and noble example may be ever affectionately 
remembered and dutifully followed by us all, that the mind 
and spirit of its first Bishop may be stamped for all genera- 
tions upon the Church of New Zealand, and that the multi- 
tude of the isles may learn, in years to come, the name of 
their first great missionary, and rise up and call him blessed." 

The bishop's reply completes the history of the Austral- 
asian Churches from their foundation. 

"I may say, in those words of Wordsworth, Praises, 
my friend, ' have often left me mourning.' It is the most 
difficult and most painful of all things to one placed in 
my position to reply to such kind expressions as are 
contained in the address : but in this case the pain is no 
doubt much mingled with pleasure. Suffice it to say that 
I have sought for support and comfort from many whose 
services are not so conspicuous as, though they deserve 
equal praise with my own if not more. I can say, as 
has been said on a very different occasion, ' Give God the 
praise ; we know that this man was a sinner.' All the 
prosperity of the Church in New Zealand is the work of 
God. The finger of God has been manifested in all that 
has taken place in New Zealand from the time Mr. Samuel 

204 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

Marsden landed here in 1814 until now. It is the 
comforting prophecy fulfilled that the little one shall 
become a thousand. It is a comfort that what one man 
has begun should become in little more than half a 
century what the Church of New Zealand now is. 
When I look around, and look at our New Zealand 
Church, and think of the time when I came to Sydney 
and found Bishop Broughton there, with a small numb^ 
of clergymen around him, and reflect that now that little 
band has extended into all the provinces of New South 
Wales, with its immense variety of dioceses, Tasmania^ 
Western Australia, South Australia, and these provinces 
of New Zealand, with all its satellites in Melanesia — I 
feel that the power and influence of God's Holy Spirit 
is being manifested upon earth, and that it has pleased 
Almighty God to enable us to see His power with our 
own eyes, so that we need not walk by faith alone, but 
by sight. Surely it is a great encouragement to all of 
us to recognise in everything the power of God working 
through human instruments, and bringing about in His 
own good time such vast results. If some of the pillars 
that have been erected seem to have fallen into decay ; 
if some part of the native missionary work — that work in 
which so many of you were interested before I came 
here — if at this present moment that seems to have fedlen 
into decay, may we not hope that, by God's providence, 
and in the inscrutable development of His will, this deep 
dejection will last only for a time, that the tabernacle 
which has fallen down may be built up again, and that 
the native people may return again to Chnstiauity ? 
Our native clergymen need not return, because they have 
not swerved : it may be said of each of them, like Mil- 
ton's seraph Abdiel, 'Among the faithless, faithful only he.' 
Though they be few in number, they have been ever faith- 
ful to that faith which they have espoused, and still the 
native Church is full of vitality and hope. In all these 
things we can trace the special blessing of Almighty God, 
and the signs of steadfastness in the native pastors lead 
us to hope that the time is not far distant when the 
native Church will be restored again to even a better 
state than ever. That Church I leave to you, as I have 
said before as a special legacy. I hope you will not 

1868-1870.] ADDRESS OF MAORIS. 266 

let the increase of European population so absorb your 
attention as to cause you to neglect that remnant, which, 
however poor it may be, is still a remnant in the great 
congregation of Christ. It is impossible for me to 
follow this too kind address through all its details, for 
that would involve the history of half a life. I will 
conclude now by most earnestly, most affectionately thank- 
ing you for this beautiful address, praying for you, as 
I am sure you will all pray for me, that all of you, 
in whatever station of life it has pleased God to call you, 
may fulfil your duty and perform your work with the 
full guidance and blessing of the Holy Spirit, in bright 
and unclouded faith in our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
letting no vanity, no ambition, no eccentricity, no private 
feelings of interest lead you into anything that will 
not tend to the good of the Church and the gloiy of 

Most touching of all was the address of the Maori 
people, for whom he had done so much, whose cause he 
had espoused at the cost of his influence and popularity 
with his fellow countrymen, and of whose recovery he 
never despaired, even though a large number of them had 

The natives of the Waimate and the Bay of Islands, 
among whom had been for some years the place which 
he had called his home, were unable to come to Auckland, 
and had hoped that their old friend would have come to 
them, and seen once more the spot where he had first 
pitched his tent ; but time forbade, and they sent by their 
own clergyman, the Eev. Matiu Taupaki, an address in 
Maori, of which the following is a literal translation : — 

" Sire, the Bishop ! salutations to you and to mother 
(Mra Selwyn) ! We, the people of the places to which 
you first came, still retain our affection for you both. Our 
not seeing you occasions us grief, because there will 
be no seeing you again. We rejoiced at hearing that you 
were coming to see us ; great was the joy of the heart ; 
and now, hearing that it cannot be, we are again in grief. 

266 LIFE OP BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap, vl 

" Sire, great is our affection for you both, who are now 
being lost among ns. But how can it be helped, in con- 
sequence of the word of our great one, the Queen ? 

" Sire, our thought with regard to you is that you are 
like the poor man's lamb taken away by the rich man. 
This is our parting wish for you both : Go, Sire, and may 
Grod preserve you both ! May He also provide a man to 
take your place of equal powers with yourself I Oo, Sire, 
we shall no more see each other in the body, but we shall 
see one another in our thoughts. However, we are led and 
protected and sanctified by the same Spirit. Such is the 
nature of this short life to sunder our bodies ; but in a 
little while, when we shall meet in the assembly of the 
saints, we shall see each other face to face, one fold under 
one shepherd. This is our lament for you in few words : 
' Love to our friend, who has disappeared abruptly from 

the ranks ! 
Is he a small man that he was so beloved ? 
He has not his equal among the many. 
The food he dispensed is longed for by me.' 

The general Maori address was in hardly less touching 
or characteristic terms : — 

" To Bishop Selwyn, greeting, — Ours is a word of fare- 
well to you from us, your Maori people, who reside in this 
island. You leave here these two peoples, the Maoris and 
the Europeans. Though you leave us here, God will 
protect both peoples, and Queen Victoria and the Governor 
will also protect them, so that the grace of Providence may 
rest on them both. O father, greetings I Go to your own 
country; go, the grace of God accompany you. Go, on 
the face of the deep waters. Father, tsike hence with you 
the commandments of God, leaving the peoples here 
bewildered. Who can tell that after your departure things 
will be as well with us as during your stay in this island ? 
Our love for you and our remembrance of you will never 
cease. For you will be separated from us in your bodily 
presence, and your countenance will be hidden fix)m our 
eyes. Enough ! This concludes our words of farewell to 
you. From your children I " 

1868-1870.] RETURN TO ENGLAND. 267 

And now the wrench had to be made : on October 20th, 
the day of parting came : a general holiday was kept at 
Auckland ; S. Paul's Church was crowded on the occasion 
of the farewell service, and the streets and wharfs were 
thronged with thousands who were looking their last on 
the great Bishop of New Zealand. Hardly less enthu- 
siastic was the reception at Sydney, where twenty-eight 
years before he had been welcomed by Bishop Broughton, 
and here, as always, he pleaded for peace and unity, and 
insisted on it that as the troubles of the Church increased, 
so did the necessity of seeking for counsel in synodical 
meetings to unite her members more cordially one with 

There were some who thought the bishop superior to, or 
proof against, the softer emotions of humanity. It is well 
that such opinions should be confronted by the following 
letter written to his lay alter ego, Sir William Martin, after 
tiiey had parted, as it seemed, for ever : — 

«* Sydney. Nov, 2nd, 1868. 

" My very dear Friend, 

" After our sorrowful parting on the 20th (sorrowful, yet 
full of C/Omfort) we were carried along rapidly so as to 
take our last look at New Zealand, twenty-four hours after 
the time of our leaving you. At 6.45 p.m. on the 2l8t 
Cape Maria Van Diemen melted away into the twilight 
mist. Another look at the * Three Kings ' was the close 
of all ; and then the thought came upon me with great 
bitterness that I should never see the dear old land again. 
But the mind has now settled down upon its new bearings, 
and the magnet of English interests and work begins to 
draw me on." 

In the last days of 1868 the bishop again reached Eng- 
land, accompanied by the Bishop of Wellington ; his New 
Zealand See was not filled up, and he was commissioned 
by the Synod to elect his own successor. The Eev. W. G. 
Cowie, Rector of S. Mary's, Stafford, was subsequently conse- 
crated Bishop of Auckland, the endowment having been 


raised by the enei'gy of his predecessor, who for some time 
continued to be, as he said, " ' TEv^ue des deux mondes,! 
another proof of that lust of power of which I have been 

On the Feast of the Circumcision the bishop addressed 
a pastoral letter to the Clergy of the Diocese of Lichfield, 
in which his plan of work was sketched out. He found 
that nothing had stood still during his absence, and that 
no arrears awaited him: that ordinations, consecrations, 
and confirmations, had all been provided for by Bishop 
Trower. The bishop was now single-handed, with no hope 
of obtaining episcopal help save by the division of the 
diocese, on which his heart was set, and in view of which 
all the details of the Archidiaconal Conferences had been 
arranged, yet he determined to hold Annual Confirmations 
for every part of the diocese, assigning to Staffordshire the 
months of February, March, April, and May ; to Derby- 
shire, June, July, and August ; and to Shropshire, Septem- 
ber and October. He was released from his attendance in 
the House of Lords as Junior Prelate, and the Diocesan 
Organization now completed left him free to devote him- 
self to the spiritual duties of his ofiBce. In his first 
pastoral letter he thus made known his intentions, and 
the light in which he esteemed the grace of confirmation, 
and the kind and method of preparation which he desired 
his clergy to observe, 

"I venture to hope, in submission to Him, without 
Whom we can do nothing, that I shall be able to admin- 
ister the rite of Confirmation annually in all the larger 
parishes ; and in each of the smaller parishes once in tioo 
or three years, by a cycle so arranged that the Confirmation 
may be held in each parish in turn. There will thus be 
an Annual Confirmation for every laige parish, and for 
every group of two or three smaller parishes. The Kural 
Deanery Chapters wiD kindly assist me in arranging this 
cycle in such a manner as may best suit the convenience 
of the clergy and of the candidates. Three, or at the 
most, four small Parishes may be included in each group. 

1868-1870.] CONFIRMATION. 269 

I hope it may thus be found possible to induce the Parents 
and Sponsors of the Children to attend as witnesses of their 
Confirmation, and to meet the Bishop afterwards at the 
Holy Communion. 

" Upon this plan no formal notice will be necessary to 
call upon you to begin to collect your candidates. Every 
Confirmation will be the means of inviting the young per- 
sons next in. succession to present themselves as candidates 
for the Confirmation for the ensuing year. The impulse will 
not be lost, nor will the dead weight have to be heaved 
afresh by a new eflTort. The only notice required will be 
of the precise day of the Confirmation. The bishop's in- 
tention to hold a ConiGirmation, and the clergyman's con* 
tinual work in preparing his candidates, will be assumed 
as a matter of course." 

It was to continuous preparation for Confirmation, ex- 
hortation to which should be no more needed by the 
clergy than exhortation to visit the sick or to administer 
the Sacrament, and to the influence of the newly- con- 
firmed on the younger children next in succession, that 
he looked as the most effectual means of retaining young 
persons, after Confirmation, in the exercise of religious 
duties. Every clergyman, he thought, should have his an- 
nual class of catechumens, as every vine had its annual 
vintage, and every cornfield its annual harvest ; the work 
of Bible-teaching should never cease, but advance in 
love and earnestness, and in more personal application 
to the heart as the day draws nearer '' when the Great 
Teacher of all things and Guide of all truth shall be 
invoked to pour down on the child His manifold gifts of 

A remarkable letter has been preserved, which shows 
still more plainly the bishop's view of the pastoral respon- 
sibility, and of the limits of the episcopal duty. A young 
woman who had been confirmed by him had fallen into 
open sin, and her case was known to the whole parish ; 
the incumbent made it known to the bishop before his 
next visit, and suggested that he should refer to it as a 

270 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

warning to those about to be confirmed. The bishop 
wrote: — 

"Yonr letter saddened my heart this morning, and 
brought home more than ever the need of the Comforter, 
to strengthen our frail children, and to encourage ns to 
persevere under such discouragements. There is, T think, 
a necessity for caution in a bishop seeming to know too 
much of the arcana of a parish. It might lower the parish 
priest in the estimation of his people, and impair their 
confidence in him. The bishop could never do the pas- 
toral work in a diocese like this for want of time and 
strength to deal with cases individually ; he might supplant 
the parish priest without replacing him. Then as to my- 
self : if I did not go on with my work in faith and hope I 
should soon fail ; if I were to think that a large number 
of promises made in confirmation would be broken, how 
difScult it would be to keep up one's own tone of love 
and zeal I I would rather Qot know too much of details, 
but yet I shall be very glad to confer with you on the 
subject and see whether anything can be done." 

His manner of administering confirmation was very 
striking and unusual ; it is needless to say that the cate- 
chumens received the laying on of hands not by com- 
panies, but individually; when the nun^bers allowed he 
called each person by his or her Christian name, which 
had been his custom in New Zealand ; the particular cir- 
cumstances of each individual were made known to him, 
and those who had received lay baptism and had not been 
received into the Church were dealt with separately, and 
the reason for so doing explained. During the ten years 
of his Lichfield Episcopate he confirmed thus Singly and 
carefully, by the aid of his coadjutors, just 100,000 souls ; 
and his last public ministration, performed in much physical 
pain and weakness, was the confirmation of "those dear boys" 
at Shrewsbury. He determined also himself to institute, 
whenever practicable, every new incumbent coram eeclesia, 
and compiled a special office to be used on such occasions- 

The constant intercourse which the Bishop thus had 


with the clergy and laity of his diocese not only made 
him acquainted with every part of it, but also let in a 
flood of light on the remotest corners^ and in a certain 
sense made each man his brother's keeper. This was felt 
at once by those to whom an Episcopate thus careful and 
vigorous was distasteful, and was expressed in an exag- 
gerated way by an old clergyman, who said : " When I was 
a young man it was thought sufficient for every one to do 
his own duty ; but now every one is expected to do the 
duty of everybody else." 

In May 1869 the bishop preached on the occasion of 
the consecration of the new chapel of S. John's College, 
Cambridge, a society that beyond almost any other has 
sent forth men qualified to serve God both in Church and 
State ; its roll of members is unusually rich in the names 
of famous missionaries ; on these the preacher dwelt with 
pride and thankfulness, and then he added : 

" And can we forget to-day that brother who went forth 
from this college to preach the gospel to the simple tribes 
of Southern AMca and ends, alas ! in denying the faith he 
went to preach? We know that he has sinned a great 
sin ; we trust that he has not sinned the sin unto death. 
let us remember him to-day as we kneel at the holy altar ! " 

But work thus exacting threatened soon to do what 
New Zealand and Melanesia had been unable to do. 
When it is remembered what bodily, mental, and 
spiritual trials the bishop had gone through in New 
Zealand for twenty-seven years, and then how he had 
worked in, the diocese of Lichfield during the first half of 
1868, and then how he had crossed the world, had been 
shipwrecked, had wound up the affairs of his New 
Zealand See, and returned to England on December 31, 
1868 ; and further how he had worked during the first six 
months of 1869, how the illness and death of his brother> 
the Lord Justice, had told upon him, it will be no matter 
of surprise that on August 8, while preaching to a crowded 
congregation at Hayfield he felt his heart almost give up 
work ; at midnight he thought himself to be dying. As he 

272 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ti. 

said, " the boiler was not large enough for the engine." 
The next three months were full of great anxiety. The 
Bishop of Wellington had taken his confirmation work 
in June in order to allow him to be in London at 
his brother's bedside, and in August, the same assist- 
ance was given in Shropshire, and in the following 
month the Ordination was held by Bishop Abraham un- 
der a commission in Lichfield Cathedral In addition to 
diocesan work and domestic sorrow the Bishop had taken 
an active share in the consultations and debates about the 
proposed disestablishment of the Irish Church. To Sir 
William Martin he had thus described his proposals : 

*' I advise, Cassandra-like : — 

** 1. A declaration of adhesion to the Formularies of the 
English Church. 

'* 2. A surrender into a common fund of the value of all 
life interests, which at 3^ per cent will yield half the 
present revenue. 

" 3. A proportionate reduction upon all benefices above 
£150 per annum, including bishoprics. 

" 4. A redistribution of parishes as lives drop, reducing 
the present number of clergymen from 2,000 to 1,500 or 
even 1,000, which last would give an average of 700 popu- 
lation to each clergyman ; 1,000 x 700 -» 700,000 Church 
members in Ireland. 

5. An appeal to the laity to make good the deficiency 
until the reduction of numbers shall have restored the 
balance, 2,000 clergymen at half salaries = 1,000 ditto at 
full salary. There is no doubt the Irish Church may be 
made far more efficient than before ; but two rocks are 
ahead, self-interest and party spirit Some are for claim- 
ing their incomes in full; some are for running a tilt 
against 'the objectionable passages in the prayer-book.' 
The Bishop of Wellington and I held up New Zealand, but 
people in England do not like ' a little child to lead thenu' 
Thus pleasing nobody, I shall probably have no part in 
rebuilding the Irish Church, though I feel as if I had 
served an apprenticeship to qualify me to act as a master- 
builder. But the habits of thought are so different, the 
predominance of ' meum and tuvm,* is so strong that my 
' nostrums ' will not be accepted." 


The Bishop returned to Lichfield in October 1869, and 
he thankfully recorded the services of a trusty grey horse 
and an equally trusty coachman who had taken him in 
safety over North Derbyshire and up every hill out of 
Whitby in his "baker's cart," as he called the sort of 
exaggerated " cobourg " which took him with the same horse 
and coachman about the diocese, and was perpetually going 
to or from the station at Lichfield to welcome the coming 
or speed the parting guest. But though restored to health, 
the Bishop was not what he had been before his illness ; 
he was weak in body and depressed in spirits by the fear 
that he would have to abandon all his plans for annual 
confirmations, for public institution of incumbents, and for 
the working of ruridecanal and archidiaconal conferences, 
and he resolved to resign his See rather than sacrifice the 
efficient administration of it. At that time the Bishop of 
Wellington again visited him ; he had shaped his life since 
1841 with a view to help the work of his friend, and he 
now offered to share the labours of Lichfield, as eighteen 
years before he had shared in the work of the undivided 
See of New Zealand. The offer was eagerly embraced, and 
so it came about that the Diocese of Lichfield, which needs 
subdivision more urgently than ever did New Zealand, has 
for long benefited by the services of Bishop Abraham. 

Before the close of this year (1869) the bishop had 
cited the General Chapter of the Cathedral Church to meet 
in the chapter-house: the canons, both residentiary and 
non-residentiary, attended " to consider the reports of the 
Cathedral Commissioners, 1854-5, and to point out any 
matters suggested thereby which might be beneficially 
applied to increase the general efficiency throughout the 
diocese of the cathedral body." 

Here was an attempt to embody in his own cathedral 
and in its system all the functions which thirty years befoi-e 
the bishop had claimed for cathedral establishments ; he 
was especially fortunate in his cathedral, as he possessed an 
authority almost unique among the cathedrals of England, 

274 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vl 

" with the assent and consent of the dean and chapter to 
repeal, abridge, alter, ratify, and confirm existing statutes 
and constitutions, and also, when it shall be necessary, to 
ordain and establish other wholesome and necessary 
statutes, constitutions, and decrees, for the good of the 
said Church." 

At this chapter the members admitted the responsi- 
bility of exerting themselves to the utmost, both in their 
individual and corporate capacity, to bring the message of 
the gospel and the teaching of the Church to the masses of 
men within the diocese, and pledged themselves to devote 
their energies to the work in any way which might seem 
practicable and conducive to good. How truly the cathe- 
dral became the centre of spiritual life to the whole diocese 
will appear in the foUowing pages : it should be stated her^ 
that the statutes were subjected to very careful revision and 
translation for some years, and on December 20, 1875, 
were ratified and confirmed by the bishop with the assent 
of the Chapter, and now present a body of intelligible and 
practicable regulations. 

This was a great triumph and source of thankfulness, 
and on December 31 the bishop wrote to a correspondent 
at the antipodes : 

" Our chapter meeting at the close was most happy and 
harmonious : I had asked all the Prebendaries to stay over 
the night, and this secured us a second day on which before 
twelve o'clock we closed our proceedings with earnestness 
and solemnity, and with much thankfulness of heart A few 
words (all that were necessary) were spoken, to withdraw 
all ill-considered expressions. On December 21, when the 
whole document had been printed, we met pro farmd to 
sign and seal, and so came to pass the etUfiariasia of the 
old campodtion, and of all of the unintelligible stuff which 
has been sworn to for ' four or five centuries.' " 

Lichfield had under the rule of Bishop Lonsdale been 
among the first dioceses to establish Theological Colleges ; 


the lead had indeed been taken by dioceses, as Chichester, 
and Bath and Wells, whose necessities were the least urgent, 
and the theological seminaries, which in these cities owed 
so much to the care and learning of Canon Swainson and 
Canon Pinder respectively, must have the credit of con- 
sideiing the welfare of the whole Church rather than of 
the comparatively small dioceses in which they were 
founded. Cuddesdon had made a step in advance in 1854 
when it opened its doors to students and provided for them 
all the advantages of common life to which its graduate 
members had been accustomed at the universities, and 
which to non-graduates formed no insignificant portion of 
the education offered to them. Lichfield had founded its 
theological college in 1856, and opened it in 1867, rather 
on the model of Wells and Chichester than Cuddesdon, in 
that its local habitation was limited to a hired house for the 
Principal's use, while the students found lodgings for 
themselves; it differed however from its predecessors in 
that, while it primarily offered to graduates the means of 
pursuing theological study and an opportunity of devo- 
tional and spiritual preparation for the priesthood, it 
avowedly regarded the spiritual necessities of the diocese 
as of first importance, and aimed at the training not only 
of graduates but also of non-graduates, a class of persons 
whom the needs of the diocese could not but welcome, 
and ''about whom the question was not whether they 
should be admitted to Holy Orders, but whether they should 
pass through a regular course of training and preparation 
previously to their offering themselves to the bishop for 
examination/' Of this class thirty-five students had passed 
through the college during the first ten years of its exist- 
ence, of whom thirty-one had been ordained to curacies in 
the diocese of Lichfield. 

This was a scheme entirely congenial with Bishop 
Selwyn's mind, and he threw himself into the work of the 
college and extended to it unfailing sympathy. In 1870 
he set forth in a pastoral letter to the clergy and laity the 


276 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vi 

necessities of the diocese, the most uigent of which, after 
the experience of more than two years and of nine oidina- 
tionsyhe declared to be an extension and improyement of the 
means of clerical education. The rapid increase of the mining 
andmannfacturingpopulation — ^the divisionof parishes— the I 
multiplication of benefices — the grants for the maintenance 
of additional curates supplied by the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners and by the societies established for that purpose 
— ^had led to a demand for ministrations which the uni- 
versities alone were quite unable to meet The Bishop was 
entirely consistent with himself : thirty years before he had 
expressed his earnest hope that the Church would take root 
downwards, and ' that many a rustic mother would feel an 
honest pride in the profession of her son and bless tlie Church 
which had adopted him into her service.'' In New Zealand 
he had groaned under the burden of inefficient and half- 
trained assistants, whose education had been only that of 
fifth-rate grammar-schools, and he was not likely to adopt 
the popular fallacy which, under the phrase " having the 
root of the matter in him," substitutes a flaccid pietism for 
the due cultivation of the highest gifts of God to man. 
Speaking at Wolverhampton he said, " My brethren of the 
clergy know well the difficulty of obtaining curates. The 
customary mode of advertising in the church newspapers 
may be said to have failed entirely in our populous parishes. 
Sometimes the advertisements remain for a long time un- 
answered, and very frequently they are answered by men 
who seek the curacy only as a title for Holy Orders with 
no intention of remaining in the parish longer than the 
stipulated tima Thus the work of our more important 
parishes is marred by a constant change and rapid succes- 
sion of inexperienced curates. Thus an artificial demand 
is created for the ordination of many more clergymen than 
the diocese really requires. Upon this I am sometimes 
asked to lower the standard of clerical education and to 
abridge the period of probation. It may easily be seen 
that this would not supply the want It would only 

1868-1870.] SUPPLY OF CLERGY. 277 

produce an equally rapid succession of inexperienced men. 
Eaw recruits and imtrained levies are the first to shrink 
from the hardships of real warfara So will the untrained 
curate shrink from the daily and hourly work of our town 
parishes. I need not say how the population of our towns 
is advancing, if not in real education, at least in acuteness 
and knowledge of the world. Can I consent to place over 
them an untrained curate with scanty knowledge and no 
experience ? We must go to the root of these things. We 
must train our own men, clergy and laity alike must help. 
We must put aside all party feeling. Souls are lost, not 
saved, by parties in the Church. We have our own theo- 
logical college now numbering fifty students. We are en- 
larging the college house to receive as many of them as we 
can under domestic rule. We send them out under licence 
to help the parochial clergy in district-visiting and school- 
room services. We teach them the Bible and the Prayer- 
book, and how to read, use, and understand them. We 
desire to make them Anglican Churchmen, neither more nor 
less, for we are assured that in no branch of the Church is 
there more of truth and less of error than in our own. 
We say tliis not in boasting, but in thankfulness." 

His object was to utilize the services of men of humble 
origin and to equip them by the best training available. 
The one defect in the existing college was the absence of a 
house in which the unmarried students could lodge and 
have the full benefit of the collegiate system ; this was 
remedied in 1870 by rental, and in 1873 by the purchase 
(the money being raised in part by the diocese) of an ex- 
cellent and substantial house which provided accommo- 
dation for the principal and his family, for the vice-prin- 
cipal, and for twenty-five students, as well as a lecture- 
room and library; the next requirement was a fund to 
supply free exhibitions to men who promised to be useful 
clergymen, but who were unable to contribute to the cost 
of their training. There was something almost appalling 
in its sadness in the bisliop's pastoral of 1870, when he 

T 2 


278 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ti. 

said " I still receive ui^ent applications to accept as can- 
didates for Holy Orders men who have neither obtained a 
nniyersity degree nor a testimoninm from a theological 
collie. The plea is always the same : That they have not 
the means of maintaining themselves at collie. It is im- 
possible for me to receive sach candidates without lower- 
ing the whole standard of the examinations. And yet, in 
rejecting them, I may exclude many from the ministiy 
who are more worthy than some of those whom I admit. 
It seems therefore to be most desirable that the collegiate 
house, for the present at least, should be used for the re- 
ception of foundation students to be selected after careful 
examination and upon special testimonials from clergymen 
under whom they have worked ; and, in order that poverty 
may be no bar to their admission, that their whole expenses 
should be provided for." 

Out of this grew the famous "Probationer System," 
which is believed to have had no counterpart in any English 
diocese, but which has worked sufficiently well to justify 
its introduction everywhere. At the Stafford Archidiaconal 
Conference, held in Ifovember, 1870, the bishop was re- 
quested to form a Board of Examiners for the purpose of 
testing from time to time the qualifications and attain* 
ments of young men recommend^ by the parochial clergy 
as probable candidates for Holy Orders. These examina- 
tions were held twice a year immediately after the Lent 
and September ordinations, and it was intimated that the 
course of probation and examination would probably ex- 
tend over two years, and that a man thus tested would 
probably obtain the college testimonial in less than the 
ordinary period of two years. 

It may be supposed that the special snare of young men 
whose social position is benefited by their becoming 
cleigymen, although their pecuniary position is equally 
sure to be injured by the fact, is a spirit of self-assertion ; 
the doubtfulness of one's position is ever apt to reveal itself 
in over-assertion of imnginary privileges : it is therefore 

1868-1870.] PERSONAL EXPERIENCEa 279 

necessary that men so circumstanced should in one sense 
be " kept down " while in all other respects they should be 
assisted to rise. As in New Zealaud, so at Lichfield, the 
bishop found in self-help and mutual service the means of 
humbling and elevating such men: and it is no mean 
triumph of the power and success of the college system 
that a clergyman who experienced all the trials of a pro- 
bationer, lay-helper, and coU^e exhibitioner has, out of 
very love and gratitude to the bishop, contributed, at the 
request of one who was almost unknown to him, the 
following account of his own career, 

" I very gladly send you some account of my remem- 
brances of my late dear bishop. I came into the diocese 
in 1872 as lay-deacon of a scattered country parish, and 
I was one of the earliest ' probationers.' 

"The probationer system is peculiar to the Diocese of 
Lichfield, and was started by Bishop Selwyn. Under it 
men may go up to Lichfield for examination twice in two 
years, during which they may either give themselves up 
entirely to lay-deacon's work, or may continue in their 
trade or profession, at the same time doing what work they 
can under the guidance of some parish priest. Another 
year before ordination has to be spent at Lichfield Theolo- 
gical College. 

'' I can never be sufficiently thankful for my two lay- 
deacon years. I gained information in them respecting 
pastoral work which has since been simply invaluable. 
We always saw the bishop when we went up to the Palace 
for examination, and were invited to luncheon, when he 
generally delighted to tell you stories about his New 
Zealand life. He was always kind, but thoroughly business- 
like on these occasions — perhaps just a trifle sharp. He 
had a special objection to being asked by any candidate to 
grant him a private interview, and the reason he once told 
us was that soon after he came to Lichfield he had seen 
several young men privately who had so misconstrued his 
words that in self-defence he was obliged to be more carefuL 

" During the early part of my time in the college house 
I had the misfortune to fall foul of the Principal, and the 
matter was reported to the bishop. In the next term I 

280 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, tl 

had occasion to ask for the tise of the large room at the 
palace which the bishop had previously given me, I 
received a note fit)m him in which he said that ' there 
could only be one objection to my having the room, and 
that was that he feared that I, like so many other yoong 
men, was apt to think more highly of myself than I ought 
to think.* My request was then granted, and in the 
kindest way the bishop pointed out to me the beauty of 
the grace of humility, and begged me to cultivate it 
Some time after I gave a lecture in the laige room for a 
charitable work in the diocese. On the following day I 
dined at the palace, and after dinner the bishop came 
across the drawing-room to see how I had succeeded. He 
then told me he had quite intended to be present himself, 
but was obliged to keep an engagement which could not 
be put off. He then went on to say that he always told 
people who were hindered by the rain from going to church 
when there was a collection, to send their offering, and 
that he must practise as he preached, upon which he gave 
me thirty shillings for himself and Mrs. Selwyn. He was 
always in his place at early college matins, which were said 
in the palace chapeL The chapel was at that time im- 
perfectly wanned, and I have often shiveied under two 
great coats and a gown. The bishop seldom if ever put 
on an overcoat, and we used to wonder at his powers of 
endurance. He was very quick to mark men's absence, 
and used to speak to them about it very severely. ' Mr. 
G/ he said to one man, " I have not seen you at chapel 
lately.' * No, my lord, I have had a bad cold.' ' I think, 
Mr. G. your cold must have been bad since the b^inning 
of this term.' 

" He often visited the college house and brought over 
many of his visitors. My room was in the new buildings, 
and had been formerly a harness-room. The bishop one 
day brought in one of his rural deans and mention^ the 
fact, adding, ' But I think we have the collar on the right 
horse now.' 

" I have been told that once before my time, the bishop 
came over to the college in the morning and joined the 
men in mowing the lawn. Presently the luncheon bell 
rang and he said he would go to the palace and get some 
lunch* and come back and help to finish the work, but long 


1868-1870.] METHOD OF TEACHING. 281 

before the men were ready the bishop was hard at work 
again with his coat off. 

'' Before the advent ordination, when I was ordained, the 
bishop required all the college men who were candidates 
to go to him for instruction ; we were joined by several 
others. He generally kept us in the library for about 
three hours, giving us four days a week, and this he con- 
tinued during the six weeks before the examination. He 
did not however * cram ' us for this ; we often wished he 
would. He took such subjects as Sin, Justification, Con- 
fession and Absolution, Conversion, &c. His method was 
this. We generally found written upon a black-board a 
number of texts and references to the Prayer-book and 
Articles. We were supplied with paper, and told first to 
copy exactly what was written on the board, and then to 
digest it, looking out all the texts in the Greek Testament. 
While we were so occupied, the bishop opened his letters. 
He then took us in hand, going carefully and methodically 
through the subject, making us in turn read the verses and 
answer his questions, illustrating his remarks now and 
then by a reference to some book on his shelves, sticking 
like a leech to some unfortunate man who was idle or 
stupid, stopping perhaps to mend the fire, and then resum- 
ing the lesson, using the fire-shovel as a pointer, and 
teaching with the greatest energy and clearness. I look 
back upon these instructions with very great pleasure, the 
time was spent most usefully, and at the same time 

{>leasantly, for the bishop himself was often the first to 
ead off the laughter when one of our number had per- 
petrated some ' bull.' He was most particular in requiring 
our attendance. One man had been stopping at a country 
house in the neighbourhood, and had managed to come 
into the library when the lesson was half over. The 
bishop inquired the reason of his late appearance, and was 
told that the roads were in such a slippery condition that 
the horses could not be taken out earlier. ' If it had been 
a football match,' replied the bishop sternly, 'I expect 
you would have managed it.' At the same time he would, 
if possible, allow nothing to interrupt him when giving his 
instructions. Many a time did his secretary bring in 
the cards of clergymen who wished to see him, and the 
almost invariable reply was, " Ask Mr. so-and-so to stay 

282 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vi. 

to lunch, I shall be glad to see him afterwards ; " and on 
one occasion Sir Percival Hey wood had called to see the 
bishop. He left the room for a minute, and then returned 
with Sir Percival, and introduced him to " his young men," 
and then left him and resumed his work. What struck 
one most at this time was the great method of his lessons, 
and his wonderful knowledge of the Bible and Church 
formularies, and he frequently told us that his object in 
spending so much time with us was that when we got 
into our parishes we might ^'know our way about our 
Bibles and Prayer Books." Certainly if we did not it was 
through no fault of his. I hope we all appreciated his kind- 
ness in adding this to his ali^eady too abundant labours. In 
addition to the positive information which we gained, 
there was this great advantage, that we could no longer 
regard him as a stranger. We felt as we went forth to our 
work that we knew our bishop, and that he knew us. 

" The Ember Week was a memorable tima All the candi- 
dates fed at the palcoce. The day b^gan with matins in 
the cathedral, and euded with evensong in the palace 
chapel. Addresses were given each evening by chosen 
preachers — the bishop himself always giving the closing 
address on the Saturday evening. I was so fortunate 
as to hear him on several of these occasions, and can 
testify to the remarkable earnestness and power of his 
eloquence at such times. No other address ever equalled 
his. We knew our fate on Friday morning, and the Friday 
and Saturday were spent in quasi-retreat On the morning 
of Saturday, the bishop gave us a lecture on the oaths, 
using the blackboard, as was his custom, and in the after- 
noon we took the oaths in the library. Of the Ordination 
itself I need not speak, except to mention how solemnly 
the bishop performed his portion of the service. At the 
close we walked in procession to the palace, opening out 
when we reached the door for the bishop to pass between us. 
He then stood at the door, and as each one entered he re- 
ceived us with a warm shake of the hand and " God bless 

you, Mr. ." The evening was spent pleasantly in the 

drawing-room. The bishop was truly our Father in God — 
not, indeed, fond or demonstrative, but true, strong, and lov- 
ing. I may mention several instances of his kindness to my- 
self. I was curate of a district in a large awkward colliery 

1868-1870.] FATHERLY COUNSELS. 283 

parish, in which a pennanent church was urgently needed. 
My vicar had given me carte blanche to do what I could ii> 
the matter, and the first thing was to consult the bishop. 
This T did when I went to Lichfield for my priest's orders. 
He appointed an interview for the afternoon after the ordi- 
nation, and then, tired as he must have been-^for the num- 
ber of ordinands had been large — ^he went most carefully 
into the subject, questioning me closely as to the condition 
of the parish, and finally promising to do all he could to 
smooth the difficulties, and giving me, as I knelt before 
him, his blessing for this special work. I can only say 
that so earnest was his manner, one could almost feel the 
blessing come, and I cannot tell you how valuable I felt it 
to be in the great difficulties which the project had after- 
wards to encounter. He called me back as I was leaving 
the room, and bid me remember that "Home was not built 
in a day/' and that whatever was worth doing was certain 
to be laborious, but that I must be of good cheer. The 
church is now nearly finished. Twice I had occasion to 
consult the bishop about leaving the curacy to which I 
was ordained. The first time he sent me the following 
letter, which I reckon amongst my great treasures : — 

« 'The Palace, Liohfield, June 7th, 1876. 

" ' My dear Mr. 

"'I have read and considered the correspondence herewith 
returned, and have been led, I trust, by the guidance for 
which we pray especially at this holy season, to the follow- 
ing judgment : 1. That you are placed in a position of g^eat 
usefulness at , in the midst of great spiritual destitu- 
tion. 2. That the work, by God's blessing, has begun to 
prosper in your hands. 3. That aU such plans as are now 
in progress are entered upon with the morally implied con- 
dition, that you will not leave them to fall away and 
come to nothing, for a mere preference for some other field 
of duty of a similar kind. A call to a fixed position as a 
beneficed clergyman is, I think, very different from a change 
of one curacy for another. My fatherly advice to you is, 
not to add one more to the number of curates who 
* never continue in one stay.* 

" A year and a half later on I was in great doubt as to 
what course I should pursue. My best friends one and all 

284 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. yi. 

advisiog me to seek another sphere of work. I would 
however, ' do nothing without the bishop/ who promised 
to see me when he visited the parish shortly for a Confir- 
mation. When the Confirmation was over — ^the second he 
had held that day — ^he sent for me and asked me to walk 
with him, shaking hands with some of the choirmen and 
kissing the sexton's little children as he left the church- 
yard. He kept me with him for about an hour, and 
listened far more patiently than I had even wished to all 
my grievances, reproving me where I seemed to be in the 
wrong, and comforting me where he thought I needed 
comfort. I happened to make use of the expression ' my 
views.' He turned sharply round upon me and begged me 
not to make use of it any more — ^he had been so thoroughly 
sickened of it in his earlier life, when he was thrown much 
into contact with good people who called themselves Evan- 
gelicals. But when I explained to him what I did belieye, 
he was pleased to say it was perfectly scriptural and sanc- 
tioned by the Church. He entered most kindly into all I 
had to say, reminding me of St Augustine's words, that 
' the greatest trial is the absence of a trial,' and telling me 
that the best way to get rid of suspicion is to live it down. 
I said that I was quite aware that if I left the parish just 
then there would be a lapse in the work. * Yes,' he re- 
plied, ' and these lapses are fatal things.' He finally bid 
me do my best to stay on, adding, that if at the end of six 
months' time I still found myself uncomfortable, I might 
write and tell him. And when I said that I did not Uke 
to trouble him so often, he replied that he did not mind the 
trouble ; and then with his blessing he bid me good-bye. 
It is now more than a year and a half since then, and I 
am just leaving my curacy for a benefice — ^most thankful 
for the bishop's advice and that I have been able to follow 
it. I must bring this too long letter to a close, and will 
only add that when he was removed from us I felt, in com- 
mon with many of my brethren, that a dear father was gone, 
and that a void had been made in life which we could 
never expect to be filled again. But we felt also that in 
his example he had left us a splendid legacy." 

The bishop had also contemplated the endowment, un- 
der the provisions of 3 & 4 Victoria c. 113, of the two 

1868-1870.] JRESTORED CANONUIES. 285 

suspended Canonries in the Chapter of the Cathedml^ in 
order that one might be held by the Principal of the 
College and the other by a Bishop-Coadjutor. The Eev. 
Canon Latham recognised the importance of the bishop's 
suggestion in a very practical manner^ for under an Act 
recently passed by Parliament he resigned the Stall which 
he had held in the Cathedral, and the bishop immediately 
conferred it on the Principal of the College, the Rev. G. 
H. Curteis. The necessary consent to the revival of the 
suspended Canonries was never obtained, and there are at 
the present time only four Canons Besidentiary connected 
with the Cathedral 

286 LIFE OP BISHOP SEL\VYN. [chap, vil 



In 1871 the bishop determined to accept the invitation of 
the American Church to be present at the Triennial Con* 
vention held at Baltimore ; it was no holiday trip, how- 
ever pleasant the incidents of the double voyage or of the 
sojourn among our fellow-Churchmen in the New World ; 
but it was part of the work to which he had pledged him- 
self when he accepted the See of Lichfield, that he would 
do all that was possible to him to promote intercom- 
munion and living sympathy between all the branches of 
the Anglican Church. He was obviously of all men the 
one best able to grapple with the task ; none had such 
varied experiences among the colonists and the heathen, 
none had so successfully planted a young Church and 
supplied it with the powers of self-government as he, and 
of the prelates of the mother-Church no more true repre- 
sentative could have been sent forth. He had also long 
ago entertained feelings of warm admiration for the 
American Church. At the time of his appointment in 
1841 the late Bishop Doane of New Jersey, who was then 
staying in England, and was commanding the attention of 
all Churchmen by his preaching and his counsels, had 
written words of greeting to him. Letters passed occa- 
sionally during the early years of Bishop Selwyn's resi- 
dence in New Zealand, and on May 23rd^ 1845, he had 
written the following acknowledgment of some gifts sent 

187M877.] INTERCOMMUNION. 287 

to him from the American Church by the hands of the 
revered Bishop of New Jersey : — 

May 22rd, 1845. 

My dbak Friend and Brother, 

.... I rejoice, yea with trembling, if this infant 
Church can already be the means of awakening some 
Christian hearts, even in your distant diocese, to a feeling 
of the imrevoked commandment, laying upon all Christian 
men the continual obligation to ''preach the Gospel to 
every creatura" This is one of the greatest comforts we 
derive from the thought of the circle of light with which 
our confederate Churches have now girdled the globe. 
We may hope that no point of Christian duty can hereafter 
be lost or hidden ; that when it is forgotten for a time in 
one portion of the Church Catholic, there will still be a 
living flame on some other altar from which the extin- 
guished torch may be re-kindled, that dioceses, as well as 
individuals, may thus provoke one another to good works, 
and check and rebuke the growth of heresy and error. 
The free communion of Christian boldness of all the 
branches of the Church may have all and more than all 
the effect of the General Councils of old in purifying and 
invigorating her discipline, and so, by the blessing of the 
Holy Spirit, bringing on the day when she will be presented 
to God a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle or 
any such thing. 

You cannot confer on us a greater benefit than by com- 
municating freely all your own experiences, derived from 
the comparatively free estate of your Episcopacy, its 
powers and functions : its effects on the people : its posi* 
tion with regard to all subordinate institutions of the 
Church : in all which parts it is easy to see that the 
English Episcopate has suffered much by its alliance with 
the State. Here we are at present in a situation very 
much resembliug your own: with few or no outward 
hindrances to prevent the full canonical character of the 
office being developed with all its living energy and opera- 
tions upon the hearts of men. 

It was altogether an occasion of unusual interest, and 
full of unprecedented opportunities of usefulness; the 

288 LIFE OF. BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vii, 

American prelates, who had attended the Lambeth Con- 
ference of four years previously had returned with 
warmer feelings towards the mother-Church than they 
had ever entertained before; they had sat on the equal 
seats of the common Episcopate, and had been made to 
feel that their presence in England in response to the 
Piimate's invitation had been cordially appreciated ; and 
now the first English bishop to visit America was the 
one around whose name a halo of romance had for 
years been cast, whose fresh counsels and fearless policy 
had won the hearts of his brethren. as they heard him 
speak at Lambeth. It was also the year of Jubilee of 
the Missionary Society of the American Church, out of 
which had grown the Board of Missions, and it was 
thankworthy that such an epoch should be marked by 
the presence of one of the greatest of living missionaries. 
Thus it came to pass that the bishop found no rest, but 
worked as hard in America as he would have done in his 
own diocese. 

On 8th October he preached the sermon on the occasion 
of the consecration of Bishop Howe, the Assistant-Bishop 
of South Carolina. The text was Ephesians L 22 — 23, 
The Churchy which is His body, the fvZness of Him that 
JUleth all in alL It would seem that in America as in 
England there are those whose religion takes the form of 
objecting to the faith and practice of their brethren, and 
to those the bishop directed the following passage : — 

"Nothing is more right or laudable than jealousy for 
the purity of religion or for the glory of God. But it 
must be a discriminating jealousy, lest while it burns up 
the tares it burns up with them the wheat also. The 
faithful watch-dog does not bark at the children of the 
house, or at the master's familiar friend. The faithful 
sentinel knows how to distinguish between friend and foe. 
When Christ overturned the scats of those who sold doves, 
He did not condemn His mother for offering up in the 
same temple a pair of young pigeons. 

1871-1877.] WEAK BRETHREN. 289 

" If any one is ready to take offence at the cross in the 
ground-plan or on the spires of our churches, he must find 
fault with the firmament itself, for there also is the sign of 
the Cross ; and many there are and ever will be in that 
Southern hemisphere where I have long lived, who with- 
out a single thought of worshipping that starry cross, or 
putting it in the place of Christ, will rejoice to see it 
shining there, in the midst of the darkness of the starless 
Southern pole, as an emblem of the true light that shone 
in the midst of darkness from the Cross on Calvary, a 
light to lighten every man that cometh into the world. 

" No ; we will no more be ashamed of the Church of 
Christ than we will be ashamed of Christ Himsel£ If 
there be times when the Church has been darkened by 
superstition, if those times be not even now past, is it not 
the same with Christ Himself ? Can we be silent of the 
name of Christ because some men deny His Godhead? 
So neither will we shrink from setting the Church upon a 
hill, because scribes and Pharisees trusted in themselves 
that they were righteous. So neither will we suppress 
the Word of God, because some men wrest it to their own 
destruction. So neither will we give up our Form of 
Common Prayer, because some may use it only as a form. 
So neither will we doubt the necessity of Sacraments, 
because some are so ignorant as to trust to the outward 
act We look not to that which is below, but to that 
which is above : not to the comiption of that which is 
good, but the fulness of the Divine love from which the 
good proceeds. K we are told to bring our children to 
Baptism, or to come ourselves to the Lord's Supper, we 
must not plead that we have seen baptized children grow 
up into ungodly men, or that we have known communi- 
cants who have lived unholy lives. 

" The Word of God, the Sacraments ordained by Christ 
Himself, every ordinance of prayer and praise, the ministry 
of the Church — all may suffer corruption, all may be per- 
verted to evil ; the spirit of religion may be lost sight of 
in the form ; the outward sign may usurp the place of the 
thing signified ; visible things may withdraw the mind 
from the thought of the God eternal, immortal, and in- 
visible ; the Lord's Day may be made a day of rioting ; 
all holy things may seem to fall into decay, as man 

290 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

himself, the image of God, fell : but to neglect God's gifts 
because of man's abuse of them ; to set aside Gbd's com- 
mandments because of man's disobedience; to doubt 
God's promises because of man's rejection of them, — this 
is not the way to attain to pure and spiritual religion 
of the heart. We must wait for God in the way of Hia 

During the session of the Convention the Jubilee 
Meeting of the Board of Missions was held. Bishop 
Stevens of Pennsylvania, now well known to so many 
English Churchmen by reason of the prominent part 
which he took in the Lambeth Conference of 1878, pre- 
sided, and could without boasting thank God for what the 
Church of America had been allowed to accomplish. The 
great continent in the ever-opening Western regions had 
offered a field as full of opportunities of doing and suffer- 
ing for Christ, as any, however remote, part of the globe, 
and nobly has the American Church, with her full freedom 
to increase her Episcopate, discharged her duty. To China 
and Japan she has sent her fully organized Missions, with 
the Bishop at the head, and to Africa she has made the 
noblest atonement for the wrongs of her sons by sending 
to its deadliest coasts the Messenger of the Gospel. 

It was not without significance that the presiding Bishop 
of a Church which had done such great things should thus, 
with 8U1 entire absence of exaggeration or hyperbole, intro- 
duce and speak of his guest, the Bishop of Lichfield : — 

"We have to-night with us, beloved, one who, thirty 
years ago this very month, was consecrated as a Missionary 
Bishop to go forth, far, far south, beyond where you can 
see these stars, beyond the equator, and beneath that 
glorious Southern Cross that glitters in the southern sky. 
He was sent there. The cross was in the sky ; but, oh ! 
the hearts of the men that lived beneath that cross were 
benighted They knew not of Him who hung upon the 
Cross. They knew not of the love that gave itself upon 
that Cross for their souls. And he went forth in his youth 

1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDRESS. 291 

as the standard-bearer to hold up the Cross over the land 
beneath, as God had held it over the southern pole. He 
went there, and he laboured there, and his labours, by the 
favour of God, have been so blessed that one diocese of his 
has grown into seven dioceses, with their bishops and their 
clergy ; and that land which he found in a state of semi- 
barbarism, just, as it were, coming out of the benighted 
state of intense heathenism, he has left nominally a Chris- 
tian land. And may we not say that he has won for him- 
self a crown ? And as over that Southern Cross, as it 
hangs in the southern sky, there is also the Southern 
Crown, so to him who has borne the Cross aloft in those 
far-off regions, may we not say there remaineth the crown 
of righteousness which the Lord, the Sighteous Judge, 
shall give him at that day for his missionary work ? " 

The address which Bishop Selwyn delivered on this occa- 
sion was one of the most masterly even of his many great 
efforts It unfortunately was not published in England, 
and consequently was little known in this country ; it was 
no record of his own doings and experiences, but an ex- 
haustive treatise on the principles of missionary work ; and 
incidentally it dealt with both the objections of opponents 
and the apologies of timid friends. It is not possible to 
omit so important an expression of views so deliberately 
formed and modified by the experience of a life-time, and 
which must have an abiding interest so long as Missionary 
work continues to be carried on in the world. After some 
preliipinary remarks, the Bishop of Lichfield said — 

" As you heard a most comprehensive sermon last night 
on the subject of Missions, I shall not enter much into 
the purely spiritual part of the question ; but I must lay 
down just these few plain principles, and if there be any 
one here who differs from me in any one of them, I should 
like to have a few minutes' private conversation with him ; 
but I rather believe there is no one who will not accept 
these five or six leading principles : 

** First, that the commandment of our Lord is to His 

VOL. XL u 

292 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, vii, 

Church to go into all the world, and to preach the Grospel 
to every creature. 

" Secondly, that that commandment is binding upon us 
all, not to be left to voluntary efforts, not to be optional 
with ourselves whether we discharge it or not, but that 
this must be laid upon every member of every living 
branch of the Church of Christ as his bouuden duty to 
discharge in his own part and in his own person, both by 
his alms and by his prayers, if not by his personal effort, 
that share of this great work which Grod has given him 
to do. 

*' And then, I think, none of us will dispute this great 
fact also, that the God of Missions is no respecter of persona, 
but that in every nation ' he that feareth God and believeth 
in Him is accepted by Him/ Then, I think, we shall 
further agree, also, in this great principle, that ' God has 
made of one blood all nations that dweU upon the face of 
the whole earth.' And then, further, I hope we shall agree 
also in this, that all the nations of the whole earth, though 
they may differ in essential respects on all other points, 
though there be differences of intellectual power, dif- 
ferences of culture, differences of civilization, yet all have 
at least that measure of capacity to receive the grace of 
God which is necessary for their receiving the benefits and 
the blessings of the Christian covenant. 

'* And then, dear brethren, I must also claim your belief 
in this great principle, that Jesus Christ shed His blood 
and di^ for all alike ; and then, further, for this, that, 
through our Blessed Saviour, and in fulfilment of His 
promise, and in answer to His prayers, the Holy Ghost 
is poured out upon all flesh ; and then the last principle 
with which I desire your agreement is this : that at the 
last day, that God, who is no respecter of persons, but who 
cares for all alike, will ' gather together HLs elect from the 
four winds of Heaven, a great multitude which no man 
can number, of all peoples, and all nations, and aU kin- 
dreds, and all tongues, to stand before His Throne, and 
before the Lamb.' 

" There is our foundation. No other can be laid. No 
one single stone, I believe, of that foundation can be re- 
moved. Now, then, let me trace these principles into 
their actual operation. With all this clear statement of 

1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDRESa 293 

the Gospel, of which I have given this imperfect outline, 
is it not strange that we should hear on many sides dis- 
trust, coldness, suspicion — everything, in fact, the most 
opposite to that full current of willing faith and that 
readiness of hearty love with which we should expect that 
all Christian persons would receive this great spiritual 
obligation of taking their part in the work of Christian 
Missions ? Ever since I have been in any degree con- 
nected with Missions, I have endeavoured, as far as I 
could, to analyse all these questions, to find out what it 
can be which, in the face of all Scripture, in the face of 
all our repeated statements of belief, in the face of what 
every one will admit to be his duty if he is questioned 
upon it, shall nevertheless produce this restdt, that there is 
a coldness, and that there is a deadness, and that there is a 
backwardness, in the cause of Christian Missions. If you 
will have patience with me, I will endeavour to trace out 
some of these hindrances, one by one. And the first comes 
under the head of time. 

" We are growing more and more impatient every day. 
When it pleases God to multiply our facilities of locomo- 
tion, when men run around to and fro upon the earth, send 
their messages across the earth with the rapidity of light- 
ning, call imto their aid fire and water — the most opposite 
elements, and even (as was said of your great statesmen 
in old times), bring down the lightning firom Heaven to do 
their errands, we come into such an impatient state that 
we cannot even allow God to carry out His own work in 
His own time, we must have it at once ; we number as it 
were a few years within which we wiU try our finite ex- 
periments, we fix a sort of limit to our hopes, that if in 
ten years or if in twelve years we can see some visible 
result, then we are to have faith in the work of Missions, 
then we are to take courage and go on I Dear brethren, 
have we yet to learn that all results must be left in the 
hands of God ? If the world by God's providence, by 
His determinate counsel and foreknowledge, waited four 
thousand years for its Saviour ; if the first great Mission- 
ary, the patriarch Abraham, was content to receive the 
promises, and to embrace them, and to see them afar off, 
and yet was content with that one single spot of earth, 
that grave of Machpelah, as his only inheritance in the 

u 2 

294 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

Promised Land, and his own one son Isaac as the only 
representative of that great multitude, countless as the 
stars of Heaven and as the sands upon the sea-shore, 
which were to be made his children by adoption and grace ; 
oh, then, dear brethren, let us dismiss this. We have 
nothing whatever to do with time ; we are the servants of 
that God with whom * one day is as a thousand years and 
a thousand years as one day.' Let us be content to work 
on, to do all that we can in our little lives of threescore 
years and ten, and be content to lie down and say that, so 
far as visible results and tangible success are concerned, 
we have nothing whatever to boast of, but that we have 
sown in God's name the seed which, after its appointed 
period of latency, in God's own appointed time, shall 
spring up and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, and some 
sixtyfold, and some an hundredfold. 

" The next great hindrance to tiiis practical faith in the 
work of Missions which I will bring before you is the 
imputation, which you hear on all sides, of failure. Let 
us go to Holy Scripture for that. Was St Paul satisfied 
with the results of his works in any of the Churches 
which he planted ? Did he not live to see much decay ? 
Was it not necessary for him to administer severe rebuke ? 
Still more, did not that Apostle, who by our Lord's will 
exceeded by twenty years the prophetic limit of the utmost 
span of human life, who lived to the age of one hundred 
years, live only to see that some of the Churches planted 
by himself had fallen into decay, that their candlesticks 
were about to be removed, and yet that the light which 
was quenched in one part of the Church of Christ would 
assuredly be rekindled in another ? 

'* No, brethren, there is no such thing as failure in the 
works of God. God permits our works to seem to fail, to 
try our patience, to prove our faith, to encourage us to 
prayer, to make us more earnest in His work, lest if He 
were to grant us too large a measure of success, we shotdd, 
as in the days of our temporal prosperity, forget the God 
who gives us our wealth, and attribute it to the efforts of 
our own hands — accept the gift, but forget the Giver. 
No ; then let no failures, real or apparent — real, I think, 
there cannot be; apparent, there ever will be — ^let no 
failures ever enter into our minds ; let us simply do God's 

1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDKESS. 295 

work in Gk)d's name, with prayer for God's blessing, and 
be assured of this, that in good time we shall reap if we 
faint not 

" But now, theu, to speak of failures on a lower ground. 
Have we a right to speak of failures after such miserable, 
such impotent, such parsimonious attempts as we make to 
evangelise the world ? If I send a man to lift with his 
single hand a weight of three or four tons^ lying on the 
ground, and he comes back to me and says that he cannot 
lift it, shall I say that that man has failed? No, dear 
brethren ; neither would I say that Missions have failed, 
when we send out one poor helpless man to preach the 
Gospel to a million of idolaters — when we place in the 
midst of the great Empire of China, which, as you have 
heard, contains three hundred millions of heathens and 
idolaters, one or two Missionaries, unassisted save by the 
grace of God ; forgotten even, perhaps, by many of those 
who sent them out ; deriving a' precarious subsistence from 
alms, not always given with perfect readiness, and with- 
drawn often on the slightest pretext. No, dear brethren ; 
if we wish to evangelize the world, if we wish really to test 
this question of success and failure, let us send out to the . 
heathen such embassies as we send out in our civil capa- 
cities to all foreign States ; let us take care that the majesty 
of the Church of Christ is represented by the dignity of 
the ambassadors of Christ ; let all men see that we are in 
earnest ; that we are not expecting them to believe that 
one poor, simple, unassisted man represents the great 
dignity and majesty of a whole branch of the Church of 
Christ to the three hundred millions of idolaters in China. 
Let the means be, in some degree at least, commensurate 
to the work, before v\-e turn round upon Missions and say 
that they have failed. 

** Now another subject, and one of equal importance, and 
that is the alleged difference of capacity. I have already 
touched upon that ; but you know, dear friends, what a 
false philosophy there is abroad, which is absolutely con- 
tradicting what we find so often in the Word of God, 
whether in those exact words or in similar words, that 
* God is no respecter of persons.' I grant that there may 
be some excuse, when even an inspired Apostle, after the 
day of Pentecost, after the Holy Ghost had been poured 

296 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

upon him from on high, required a vision thrice repeated^ 
to convince him that Qod is no respecter of persons. It 
may well be matter of excuse — ^and God will excuse those 
who pray to be forgiven — ^if some of us have not yet fully 
comprehended this great Divine truth, that all mankind 
are endued by the Spirit of God, in God's own time, with 
a sufficient measure of capacity to receive everything that 
is necessary for the salvation of their souls ; that there is 
no one single human being on the face of God's earth who 
is shut out from the promises of the Gospel by any 
difference of intellectual or of moral capacity. And yet 
how frequently is it all^;ed : ' It is no use to do anything 
for these people; look at them; are they not the very 
lowest type of humanity ? ' Dear brethren, I have seen 
myself what men call the lowest types of humanity. I 
have seen the Australasian Blacks ; I have seen those poor 
benighted men in Erromango who have twice killed the 
Missionaries of the Gospel who landed on their shores, 
first John Williams, and then Mr. Gordon ; and I am sure 
that those men, I know that those men have the same 
capacity, in all necessary respects, for the reception of 
Divine truth that any one of us is gifted with by God 
among those who are present here to-night I have been 
present with some of them on occasions of which I need 
not speak at length, when one of this despised race was 
sentenced to death, and I attended him at his execution. 
I must say that, with the imperfect knowledge of our 
language, with all the difficulty of communication with 
that man that I had, he left upon my mind, at the 
moment that his irons were being struck off, the impres- 
sion that he died with just so much of simple faith 
as was accepted by Jesus Christ from the penitent on 
the cross. 

*' I then pass from that subject, that difierence of capacity, 
begging you all to shut out from your minds that 
poisonous philosophy which draws distinctions between 
man and man, which God has never drawn, and which 
will be reversed in Heaven when the whole multitude of 
God's elect shall come to stand before His throne. 

" Now, then, for another point, and that is one perhaps 
of which you have heard something here — the different 
habits of some of the races to whom God commands us 


1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDRESS. 2d7 

to minister. The favourite phrase is, the wandering 
habits, the unsettled habits, the changeable habits, of this 
or that race of people. In Australia there were the 
Australian Blacks wandering from place to place, and they 
were supposed to be therefore shut out from all hope of 
conversion. Here you have your Bed Indians, the wild 
men of the woods, men of whom poets speak, as ' wild in 
woods the noble savage ran.' All that was poetry; but 
you hear them spoken of as men who, because they are 
hunting tribes, because for their bare subsistence they 
move from place to place, are therefore incorrigible ; that 
it is unnecessary to make the attempt ; it is sure to fail 
I see here one of your own six Missionary Bishops, — ^he is 
behind me here — the Bishop of Minnesota. I have con- 
versed to-day with one of his clergy. He tells me that 
there are forty-five hundred of those Indians in Dakota 
who are now giving up under the influence of Christianity 
those very wandering habits which were supposed to be 
fatal to the hope that they would ever receive it He 
tells me that they are now settling upon farms ; that they 
build houses resembling our own; that they have given 
up their life in wigwams, their communist life ; that they 
are settling down in the domestic walks of a life like our 
own ; that they fill their churches on the Lord's Day ; that 
they bring their children to be baptized ; that their youths 
come to our schools ; that they are in fact acquiring day 
by day, and with far greater rapidity than even their best 
friends would have expected, the usages both of Christiamty 
and of civilized life. 

" Now, dear friends, why is that ? Because Missionaries 
have been found who, instead of expecting wild men to 
conform to our habits, have made our habits conformable 
to theirs, who have followed them up from place to place 
and won their confidence, who have lived the same rough 
life that they have lived, and gained their hearts by 
showing a real sympathy for them in their benighted 
state. But we propose an impossible problem which 
perhaps I may illustrate from ancient history. The fable, 
you know, is that the beginning of civilization came from 
that great musician whose name was Orpheus; that he 
went out with his harp into the woods, and played such 
captivating strains that the wild men of the woods 

298 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, ml 

followed him, and built cities in order that they might 
ever remain within the sound of that music which so 
touched their hearts. But we say No ; we tell these wild 
men of the woods : ' Come into our cities, give up your 
wandering lives, and then we will play music to you;' 
so that the music is to be the end and not the means ; that 
the Gospel is to be preached to them when they have first 
accepted that total change of manners which nothing but 
the Gospel can produce. 

" Let us then dismiss that subject. Let us believe — and 
I hope we shall all agree — that there is no one single 
nation on the face of (jod's earth, the habits of whose 
people are of such a kind that they cannot come within 
that universal promise that all mankind shall, in God's 
time, be subdued to the obedience of faitL 

" Now, then, another and a very solemn point, and it is 
what you have all heard — I believe that what I say to- 
night is simply what all of you have heard by way of 
objection, though perhaps the answer has not occurred to 
you all; — I have heard it again and again: 'They are 
dying out ; ' just as if the poet Tennyson were to say : 

" A year is dyins in the night ; 
Ring out, wild bells, and let him die." 

" Is that Christianity ? is that the Gospel — absolutely 
to take comfort to ourselves, to shut up our hearts, to close 
our pockets, because we say : ' Here is a race which is 
dying out, and therefore we have no duty to discharge ' ? 
Dear brethren, I could bring that home to you by a very 
simple illustration. If any one of you, parents, had a 
child that was dying, and you were to go to your clergy- 
man to beg him to go down to offer a prayer for t^at 
child, would you take it as a sutficient answer if that 
clergyman were to say : ' The child is certain to die ; 
what is the use of coming down to pray for it * ? Would 
you not, in the fulness of your hearts, in the agony of 
your parental love, use words like those of the nobleman 
to our blessed Lord : " Sir, come down ere my child die ' ? 
So, deal' brethren, if those races of the earth be, in God's 
providence, appointed to pass away, — not, remember, be- 
cause of any Divine purpose, but in consequence of the 
sins, the vices, which follow in the train of civilization (for 

— -^ 

1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDRESS. 299 

these are the causes of death, which is claimed as a 
mysterious dispensation of God^ that the coloured races 
shotdd melt away before the advance of civilization) ; and 
if there be other races of the earth which are by God's 
providence appointed to pass away, as the natives of 
Newfoundlatnd have passed away, as the last native of 
Yan Diemen's Land has passed away ; so much the more 
think of those that remain. Give your alms and lift up 
your prayers for the remnant that is left. And as for 
those that have passed from this earth, not one of them is 
dead ; they are all alive ; they will all stand with us before 
the judgment-seat of Christ Whether their blood will be 
upon our heads, is one of those secret things which belong 
unto the Lord our God. 

" Once more ; I have but a few more thoughts to bring 
before you, and those, perhaps, of a more practical kind. 
Another great argument is the want of means. We have 
before us the scope of our work. We have heard of how 
much has been done. Let us think now what remains 
undone. There are, perhaps, of all denominations of 
Christians, about three hundred millions on the earth. 
The common estimate of those that remain in heathendom 
is twice that number. Think nothing done, then, while 
aught remains. Think nothing done till the whole is 
completed ; till the whole earth shall be filled with the 
knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. And 
then we hear: 'Where are the means?' Dear friends, 
we never knew any branch of our good English family 
that ever lacked means to do any work whatsoever, how- 
ever great, which it determined to do. I know that for 
the purpose of war in that little petty war in New Zealand, 
provoked against the native races, we spent over 7,000,000/. 
sterling. I know that for the redemption from captivity 
(most justly, it is true, and most worthily of the object) 
of forty souls that were taken captive in Abyssinia, the 
British Government thought it not too much to spend 
more than 5,000,000/. sterling. I know how these vast 
works of commercial enterprise, all these great railways, 
all these great engineering feats, of which we boast, are 
always supported with abundance of means commensurate 
with the end to be obtained. I have no fear, then, what- 
ever, that if your hearts be willing you can find the 

300 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. \il 

meaDS. The means are abundant ; the only question is. 
Are you prepared to give them ? There is no compulsion 
save that constraining love of Christ of which we have 
heard. There is no man's taxation, but there is that 
written law of God that we should give to Him as freely 
as we have received ; there is that inexhaustible bank upon 
which we all may draw, the very essence of our Chnst- 
ianity, the very fulfilment of our Foundei^s command, that 
we should deny ourselves in order that we may take up 
our cross to follow Him ; and will not any one of you here 
present say that he or she could not, out of their daily 
personal expenditures, save at least one-quarter, for the 
service of God, of that which they now spend upon them- 
selves ? And put all that together and then tell me — 
even if China were to open all its doors to receive our 
Missionaries, even if Dr. Livingstone would come back 
from the heart of Africa and tell us that there also a great 
and effectual door was opened for the Bedeemer's march 
over the earth, if the whole world were to say to us. as 
if with one voice : * Come over and help us ' — whether, 
if you only deny yourselves, the means will ever be 

" Next, as to the men. There is another cry — ^and this 
is the last with which I shall trouble you — ' Where are 
the men ? ' Dear friends, when our blessed Lord said that 
' greater works than these shall ye do, because ye believe 
in Me,' He left a little band. That band of one hundred 
and twenty that gathered in that upper chamber, that 
little band of five hundred that saw Him in Galilee before 
His Ascension, that was the sum total of the men to 
whom Christ gave this vast commandment, this steward- 
ship of the souls of all mankind. How was it fulfilled ? 
The Spirit who came down from Heaven so endued them 
with power from on high, that while, in the infant state of 
the Church, men required signs to induce them to believe, 
'God*s Spirit working with the Apostles confirmed the 
word with signs following.' When these extraordinary 
gifts of the Spirit were removed, then came the Divine 
promise in the ordinary course of the fulfilment of the 
words of Christ, that He would be with His Church always, 
even unto the end of the world ; that as to Jonadab, the 
son of Bechab, because of his obedience to his father's 

1871-1877.] BISHOP SELWYN'S ADDRESS. 301 

will, the promise was given that he should never lack a 
man to stand before God for ever — so to those who 
accepted to the full the burden of the Cross, and went 
forth to bear that Cross in the power of the Holy Spirit 
to all the nations of the then known world, the promise 
was given that they should never lack men who, in their 
place when they should be taken to their rest, should 
stand before God and do the work of Christ for ever. 
That, too, is a plenary promise. That is a promise which 
knows no exception. It was in that spirit and in that 
faith and in that power that St Paul commissioned 
Timothy to deliver the Gospel which he had received from 
him, to faithful men who should be able to teach others 
also—five generations of the Christian Church comprised in 
two short verses of the Epistle to Timothy. It was in that 
strength and in that spirit that St. Paul directed Titus to 
go to Crete and to ordain him elders in every city. And 
who were those Cretans ? Alway liars, evil beasts, slow 
bellies ; and yet those liars were to be the preachers of 
Gospel truth ; those evil beasts were to lie down with the 
Lamb of God ; out of those slow bellies were to flow forth 
rivers of living water. 

''Never tell me, then, that there is a race upon the 
earth, out of which, by God's providence and by the gift 
of His Holy Spirit, thei'e cannot be raised faithful Minis- 
ters, able to serve God in the holy offices of His Church. 
You have them here. All that has been said about the 
Bed Indian and his wandering habits has never daunted the 
faith or daunted the courage of your Missionary Bishops 
who have gone forth among those races, there to gather 
men to serve God in the holy Ministry of His Church. It 
has been the same in Africa. It has risen there even to a 
higher grade. A poor boy, taken out of a slave-ship hold, 
trained in the schools of the Church Missionary Society at 
Sierra Leone and sent to England, there to be trained for 
the Ministry of the Church, has since returned to England 
to receive consecration as a Bishop of the Church, and 
gone back again to the heart of Africa, there to preach to 
his countrymen the unsearchable riches of Christ. 

" The same is seen every whera India has its band of 
native Pastors. Ceylon has its like company of Preachers. 
New Zealand, out of a race never exceeding in number 

302 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

(men, women, and children) one hundred thousand souls, 
has yielded to Bishop Williams and myself seventeen or- 
dained Missionaries, not one of whom — in the midst of 
troubles of war, in the midst of the relapse of many to 
heathenism — has ever swerved, either from his allegiance 
to the British crown, or from his fiedth in the Lord Jesus. 

" I say, then, dear brethren, that there is no lack of 
men. God is able out of these stones to raise up children 
unto Abraham. Only let us go forth to our work with a 
living faith — a wide, a world-wide faith — a faith resting 
upon a hope which enters into that which is behind the 
veil. Let us go forth in the name of the Lord of Hosts 
to bear the banner of the Cross — that banner which, you 
have heard, has been already planted in the most distant 
part of God's earth, in the Island of New Zealand. Toa 
in the intermediate space, you with your nine millions of 
square miles, you with your vast population increasing 
every decade by so many millions of souls — ^to you belongs 
the stewardship of undertaking the charge of the larger 
nations of the earth. You may have the blessed privil^e 
of being the means under God's hand of carrying to tbe 
three hundred millions of idolaters in China, and the one 
hundred and seventy millions of idolaters in India, and to 
the untold multitudes, like the sands upon the sea-shore 
in number, who throng the vast plains of Central Africa, 
the knowledge of the gloiy of God in the face of Jesus 

The American Church determined that an event so 
unique should not pass away without its special comme- 
moration: it was out of the question to make to the 
bishop any personal oflfering, and with exquisite taste, our 
brethren, whom our greatest statesman has since described 
in words too felicitous ever to be forgotten, as " our kin 
beyond seas," determined to make an ofifering to the 
Mother Church which, kept among the treasures and 
muniments and traditions of Lambeth, should be for all 
time a memorial of the love which they bore to their 
Mother Church. It took the form of a magnificent Alms 

187M877.] AMERICA'S OFFERING. 303 

Dish.^ With the same good taste which had prompted the 
gift, the offering was made in St Paul's Cathedral, on the 

^ The following description of the alms bason is given by an American 
paper : — 

"In the centre is the hemisphere, showing the Atlantic Ocean, with 
the Old World on the east of it and the New World on the west. A scroll 
on the ocean beiuPB the inscription, which expresses the spirit of the sift : 
' Orhis veteri nomu, oceideru orientif Filia Mtxtru* At the South Pole is 
the date, 1871, of the Bishop's visit. In the upper part of the hemisphere 
is a circular chased medallion, which covers nearly the whole of Great 
Britain, and bears a ship typical of the Church, having the Cross at its 
prow, the Labarnm on its sail, the Pastoral Staff of the Apostolic Episco- 
pate at its mainmast, upheld by two ropes on either side for the other two 
orders of Priests and Deacons ; and *S.S.' on the rudder, for the 'Sacred 
Scriptures.' This ship is leaving England, and is headed towards the New 
Wond, indicating that our Church received its existence from the Catholic 
Church tiirough the Church of England. 

"Outside of this hemisphere is a band about an inch wide, with the 
names of the six undisputed General Councils of the ancient Church, 
separated from one another bv six hemispheres of lapis laziUi, As the 
word ' Catholic ' signifies 'all the world over,' so this band runs all around 
the globe. 

" From this band, on the outside, spring twelve oak leaves, and between 
them are twelve twigs, each bearing three acorns with burnished kernels. 
This use of the English oak sets forth the English Church growing out- 
wards, and carrying her Catholicity with her wnerever she goes, in every 
direction. The twelve is the number of Apostolic fulness and perfection, 
and the three is reference to the doctrine of the Trinity. From behind the 
oak leaves and acorns spring alternate maple leaves and palmetto leaves, 
the former symbolizing the North, and the latter the South, — thus repre- 
senting the nistorical truth that both narts of our American Church are 
the outgrowth of the Church of Englana. 

"The rim bears the inscription, 'It is more blessed to give than to 
receive.' It be^pns and ends at a jewelled cross, composed of five amethysts, 
four topazes, eight pearls, and eight small garnets, all clustered within a 
circle, the cross itself thus forming a crown of glory. The words are 
divided by large stones, more than an inch in diameter. As they refer not 
to the faith, but to gifts, which are of infinite variety, no two are alike. 
They are all (with one exception) American stones, the one exception being 
a species of praiae from Ii ew Zealand, which was found in a lapidary's 
shop in Philadelphia. As Bishop Selwyn has done more than any other 
one man to oiganize the system of the Colonial Episcopate, the piece of 
that New Zealand stone was secured, to be placed ^rs^ in the series. 

" Outside the inscription is a very bold cable moulding, the finish of 
which shows that it is a threefold cord, not easily broken. This means 
the three Orders of the Apostolic ministry ; one strand being burnished 
bright to represent the Episcopate, the next under it having tioelve cross 
thn*ads representing the Priesthood, and the next below that having seven 
longitudinal threads, signifying the Diaconate, the original number of the 
deacons being seven. Outside this cable moulding, again, is a margin of 
leaves all growing outward, showing a vigorous outward growth of the 
Church all the world over. 

" On the under side of the rim is a plain Latin inscription, more speci- 

304 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, yii, 

occasion of the Anniversary Service, on July 3, 1872, of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, to which 
Society the American Church always declares that, under 
God, it owes its existence. Bishop Mcllwaine of Ohio 
and the Bishop of Lichfield, hand-in-hand, each holding it 
by one hand, and on bended knee, presented the offering 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The good taste which had marked the whole proceedings 
on the part of our American brethren was now to be 
equalled by ourselves, and it was under such influence 
that Bishop Selwyn on the following day, the &mous 4th 
of July, the anniversary of the day on which the great 
American nation achieved that political freedom which im- 
mediately secured for it the ecclesiastical independence for 
which it had long struggled in vain, telegraphed to Bishop 
Potter, of New York — '* July 4 : Alms-bason presented 
in St. Paul's Cathedral Independence is not dis-union." 
Truly did Bishop Potter observe, when pubUshing the 
message for the information of the Church — "It was a 
kindly and graceful impulse on their part to give such 
dignity to the reception of our offering of love, and to 
send us such a message on such a day. I am sure it 
will be warmly appreciated by all the members of our 
communion on this side of the water." 

Another English prelate, only less esteemed (if it be so 
by our American brethren, because he has never visited 
their shores, the learned Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Christopher 
Wordsworth), set forth in graceful verse the thanks of the 

fically detailing the circmnstances of the occasion which called forth this 
gift from the American to the English Chnrch. It runs thns : — 

'"A Ecclesise Anglicanse matri, per manus Apostolicas reyerendissimi 
Georgii Angusti Selwyn, Dei gratis Episcopi Lichlieldensis, pacis et hene- 
Yolentin intemuncii, ejosdemque anctoris, hoc pietatis t^timonium filii 
Aniericani dederunt^l^' 

" On the case there is a circular silver plate ; in the centre is a shield, 
bearing the Union Jack and the American arms quartered upon a Cross 
(shaded miles), and with a dove for a crest, whose rays of light and heat 
fill the circle. This means that the true unity of England and America is 
a spiritual unity in maintaining the doctrines of the Cross of Christ." 

1871-1877.] BISHOP WORDSWORTH. 306 

Mother Church for the pious offering. It will he seen that 
the description given in the note has been adopted in these 
scholarly lines : — 

" Quod cane mittia, cariflsima Filia, Matai 

AccipimuB sancts pignus amicitise. 
Dat dextram yeteri novus Orbis ; Nata Parenti ; 

Miscet et Occidaum Sol Oriente jabar. 
Pontna AtlantlaGo quamns interflnat sBsta, 

Littora yelivolis consociantur aauis ; 
Ecce I RatU Christi mediam transiabitar aeqaor, 

Alba feront Labanim carbaaa ; prora Cracem. 

Funis Apostolico fultum gestamine malum 

Ordinibus binia junctua utrinque tenet ; 
Nayem per acopulos Oracula Sancta gubernant ; 

Sic tutam aiucat per maris arya yiani ; 
Anffliacoe linquit portua ferturquo Carina 

AmericsB placido auscipienda ainu. 

Aspice I qua medium lancis complectitur orbem 

Myatica cselatia clara corona notia 1 
Nomina aenarum Synodorum pristina cemo. 

Que fixam pladtia ezplicuere fidera. 
Germinat hsec circum quercu diadema Britannft ; 

Donaque fert Triho nrona duodena I>eo ; 
Multicolore nitent diyerate lumine gemmae, 

Undique sic radians lucet Amore Fidea. 
Crux zonam gemmata aperitque et claudit ; Amoiia 

Nam Crux principium eat, Crux quoque finia erit. 

Fratemia yeluti triplex amplexibua orbia, 

Cuncta Ministerium cingit Apostolicum : 
Deuiqne ut extemo diffnasB in margine frondes, 

Sic Chriati yitia tendit in omne solum. 

Ergo Te Oenitrix, carisaima Nata, aalutat, 

Et pia de grato pcctore yota refert : 
Pacis m »temo constringat foedere corda 

Cordibus Angliacia Americana Deua ! 
Una fidea, unus Christus, noa Spiritus unus, 

Unua et Ipae Sno jungat amore Patek ! 
Sic, ubi tranaierint moitalia aecula. Caeli 

Koa una accipiat non peritura Domua I " 

In the Advent of this year [1871] there came on the 
whole Church of England the shock of the news of the 
murder of Bishop Patteson. Persons who had scoffed at 
Missions before now began to think that there must be 
something in them to attract men of high gifts and bright 
prospects to arduous toil and danger, and death. The 
enmity of the Press against all self-sacrifice, and especially 

306 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [(>hap. vii. 

against this particular form of it^ had of late reached its 
height. Missions seemed to be the butt toward which 
every anonymous scribe, dipping his pen in venom, might 
direct his depreciating sneer, and the people loved to have 
it so. Even in the House of Lords missionaries had been 
described by a duke as of necessity either impostors or 
fanatics. From the date of the martyrdom of John 
Coleridge Fatteson a distinctly marked change is visible 
in the public estimate of the work to which he had given 
his life. Public opinion has changed, although no formal 
confession of past error has been made ; and the nameless 
folk, who claim to educate it, here, as always, have followed 
it They do not season their wares now with the ever 
facile scofT at Missions because there is no general demand 
for literature of that kind. Such a life and such a death 
taught to many men a lesson which they would have 
learned in no other way ; it threw us back on first prin- 
ciples, and the next Advent found the Church setting apart 
the first of those now annual days of Intercession for 
Missions which have secured for them something like an 
adequate position in the scale of Christian duties. 

To the Bishop of Lichfield the news was as though it 
had told him of the death of his own son ; he seemed to all 
to have suddenly become ten years older ; it was not for the 
personal loss of one so dear ; for this he could thank Grod> 
as he did, with voice trembling with emotion, when in the 
prayer for the Church militant he added after the words 
" for all Thy servants departed this life in Thy faith and 
fear," " especially for John Coleridge Patteson " : but there 
was the loss, apparently irreparable to the Mission, for 
who could fill the vacant place, who supply the Mezzo- 
fanti-like gifts of him who had been removed ? 

Lichfield was rapidly becoming the centre of missionary 
activity, and the point to which labourei-s in foreign fields 
looked with the knowledge that there was one there who 
could give them advice such as no other living man could 
give, for no other man had had the like experience. When 


the diocese of Barbados found itself, not only without a 
bishop, but with no means of securing a successor to Bishop 
Parry, the Island of Trinidad, not disheartened by the 
disestablishment which had come upon it, but spurred by 
that circumstance to look no more to the fickle support of 
the State but to help itself, turned to the diocese and 
Bishop of Lichfield for help, and the Vicar of Tamworth 
was selected, and by the consent of the Archbishop was 
consecrated in the cathedral of his own diocese. It was 
a great and probably unprecedented event : London and 
Canterbury were now no longer the only places where mis- 
sionary bishops received their mission, and in the Diocesan 
Calendars each year the connection of Lichfield with 
those bishops who had been at any time beneficed within 
its limits was recorded, viz., the Bishops of Sierra Leone, 
Auckland, Trinidad, Dunedin, and Argyll. 

It was partly the attraction of the man himself, partly 
the fact of his having visited the American Churches in 
1871, that led the Canadian Bishops to entrust to the Bishop 
of Lichfield their memorial to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury praying his grace, (1) " to undertake an office, by 
whatever name it may be called, equivalent to that of 
Patriarch in the ancient Church ; (2) to convene a General 
Conference of the Bishops of the Anglican Communion to 
carry on the work begun by the Lambeth Conference in 
1867." The memorial was presented to the Upper House 
of the Southern Convocation, 1873, and afforded the Bishop 
of Lichfield an occasion for delivering a remarkable speech, 
iresh and unconventional, but aiming at nothing save the 
adaptation of ancient piinciples to new circumstemces. 
After some introductory remarks he said : — 

" Your grace is well aware that the whole foundation 
upon which our Colonial Church for a time seemed to rest 
has been taken away from her — I mean the Letters Patent 
issued by the Crown, which gave a sort of jurisdiction to 
the colonial bishops. The number of colonial bishops in 
the meantime has greatly increased from a very small 


308 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

number ; I think there vere only nine when I was first 
consecrated a colonial bishop, and there are now some 
fifty-two or fifty-three. These bishops are, with very few 
exceptions indeed, absolutely without any means of ascer- 
taining by what laws or principles they are governed, 
unless by their own voluntary compact, as in Adelaide, 
Capetown, lately in Sydney, and in New Zealand, where 
they have formed a compact by which they have laid 
down rules and regulations for their own government. 
That course has received of late the full acquiescence and 
approval of her Msgesty's Government. The Privy Councdl 
has decided that the well-known case of " Warren v. the 
Wesleyan Society" rules all the decisions of the Privy 
Council in cases affecting the colonial bishops. And 
their decision is expressed in the simple words that the 
Church in the colonies is in the same position, neither 
better nor worse, than any other religious denomination ; 
that it has the power of framing regulations for its own 
conduct, and of determining what shall be the penalty for 
a bresich of those regulations. That principle was laid 
down by Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst in the case of " War- 
ren V, the Wesleyan Society," and has now been declared 
by a judicial decision of the Privy Council to be applicable 
to all the colonial churches. Then comes the great diffi- 
culty, which, of course, presses on the minds of all^those 
who love the Church of England, and desire to see her 
unity maintained — namely, how shall all these various 
bodies, constantly occupied year after year in making laws 
for their own government, be in any degree restrained 
from dropping away from the centre. What, in point of 
fact, is to be the centripetal force by which the centrifugal 
force is to be restrained? I have seen the Church iu 
Canada, in the United States, in New Zealand, and in 
Australia^ and among all these branches of the Church, 
comprising the dioceses of seventy or eighty bishops, there 
is at the present moment, eminently in the Episcopal 
Church of the United States, an earnest desire to be 
united in brotherhood with the Church of England. There 
is in all cases an earnest desire to recognise the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury as the head of this great confedera- 
tion of the Anglican communion. Your grace is well 
aware that so long as Letters Patent remained in force 

1871-1877.] SPEECH IN CONVOCATION. 309 

there was in moat of those Letters Patent, and probably 
in all, a provision that the bishop, when consecrated, 
should take an oath of allegiance to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and should be subject to the general super- 
vision of the Archbishop. That very small hold which 
the See of Canterbury had over the various * Colonial 
Churches has now been almost entirely removed by the 
abolition of Letters Patent. Not a word is said about it 
in the mandates, and by far the greater proportion of the 
bishops now consecrated are consecrated in the colonies 
themselves. Canada seldom sends to us to consecrate a 
bishop, and there is a general desire among the clergy of the 
colonies that the consecration should be carried out among 
themselves. In New Zealand three or four consecrations 
have already taken place, and it rests entirely upon the 
feeling of the people there whether any oath of allegiance 
or canonical obedience to the Archbishop of Canterbury shall 
be taken or not Even if there be an oath, there is no defi- 
nition of what the canonical obedience is to be. Canonical 
obedience in the case of the clergy has been construed to 
mean obedience to such edicts as the bishops can enforce 
by law. If the principle of canonical obedience as regards 
the obligation of the clergy to the bishops be such, then I 
think it also follows that the obedience of the bishops to 
the Metropolitan or the Archbishop is liable to the same 
interpretation — ^that is, that it is an obedience to such 
edicts as the Archbishop can enforce by law. I come, 
then, to the fact that, to my knowledge, there is no exist- 
ing law by which a bishop in any colony in the British 
Empire can in any way be compelled to obey the admoni- 
tions and commands of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Feeling that it is desirable that all these questions should 
be settled ; that with our Colonial Episcopate extending its 
operations and adding to them every year ; that the in- 
crease of the Colonial Episcopate has been almost two 
every year since my consecration, — ^it does seem vital to 
the interest of the Colonial Church, and, above all, to the 
continued unity between ourselves and the branches of 
the Church of England, that we should come to some under- 
standing upon the subject. I may add as a circumstance 
very strongly in favour of what I am bringing before you, 
that the Irish Church is at the present moment wihtout 


310 LIFE OP BISHOP SBLWYN. [chap. vii. 

any recognised connection with the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and is in danger of suffering from that centrifugal 
force to which I have adverted just now. It does, then, 
seem to me, with all these desirable objects before us, that we 
are bound to endeavour, for the good of all the Churches 
of the Anglican communion, to lay down a broad and deep 
foundation on ii^hich all these Churches shall be built up. 
How, then, is it to be done without some comprehensive 
consideration of the whole question ? What is the best mode 
in which all the Churches of the Anglican communion 
shall be confederated together ? is the serious question we 
have to consider. The first thing, I think, is that we 
should have a head, and that the Colonial Churches must 
be united to that head, not by law, but by voluntary com- 
pact. Of course, it is quite impossible that there should 
be any law that would touch the Churches of the United 
States. It is nearly equally impossible that we should 
have a law that will touch the Churches in the Colonies 
which have a free constitution of their own. It reduces 
itself, then, to this : there is at the present time an earnest 
desire on the part of all branches of the Anglican com* 
munion to recognise His Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury by voluntary compact. He is the head of this con- 
federation, and of this great body of 150 bishops : he may 
construct a system by the advice of the members of these 
various Churches which will * regulate aU these points, 
which are at the present moment without any regulation at 
alL That relates chiefly to the question whether it might 
not be desimble, after the subject has been thoroughly 
considered by a joint committee of both houses, to dmw 
up some document which may be circulated .among all 
branches of the Anglican communion, so as to take the 
sense of all the different Churches upon this point — 
whether it is not advisable in some way. or other, and 
under whatever name may be thought best, to accept the 
Archbishop of Canterbury as the head of this great Chiis- 
tian association ? The question then arises, what shall 
be the authority or the nature of the constituent assembly 
by which this shall be recognised ? The Canadian me^ 
morial, I think, supplies an answer to that question : the 
Canadian bishops, under the late Bishop of Montreal, and 
at the instance of the Bishop of Ontario, were the first to 

1871-1877.] SPEECH IN CONVOCATION. 311 

move Archbishop Longley to convene the Lambeth Con- 
ference. Looking to the beneficial effects which followed 
that meeting of the bishops of Anglican Christendom, it 
is a matter for consideration whether it may not be desir- 
able to invite his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury to 
convene another meeting of that body, at which all these 
great questions might be discussed, and I hope much more 
fully than at the Lambeth Conference. My second pro* 
posal therefore is, that, in accordance with the petition 
of the bishops of the Anglican province of Canada, his 
Grace the Archbishop be requested to convene a General 
Council of the Bishops of the Anglican communion to 
carry on the work begun by the Lambeth Conference in 
1867. What follows in these resolutions is of the nature 
of detail. It seems to be expedient that the proposed 
General Council should be held in the year 1875. That is, 
because it so happens that the various meetings of the 
Anglican communion in the provinces of Canada and the 
United States happen to fall in 1874 If our propositions 
be accepted and sent out to them, this will give them full 
opportunity of considering the question in all its bearings. 
The materials of full inquiry are supplied by the Reports 
of the Committees laid on the table at the adjourned 
meeting of the Lambeth Conference. The adjourned 
meeting was limited to one day, and it is quite evident 
that there was no time to consider those reports in the 
proper manner. The result was, that the reports were 
simply received and read, and there they remained — ^the 
most valuable documents that could be possibly put forth 
in the interests of Colonial Christendom — without any 
practical lesult. My fourth proposition therefore is — 
' That the reports presented at the adjourned session of 
the Lambeth Conference be taken into consideration by the 
proposed General Conference of the Anglican Communion.' 
** Before I leave the subject I hope to be able to impress 
on my brethren the vast importance of this subject. There 
is perhaps no person who ought to speak so feelingly on the 
subject as myself. We are sitting here comparatively at 
easa We have laws which, however imperfect, serve us 
lor a guide ; but the Colonial Churches look to us to supply 
them, not with a complete system, for in some respects 
their system is as complete as our own, but with a system 

312 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

that would prevent them from diverging widely from the 
Mother Church. This is what the Colonial Church and 
the American Church desire. The same feeling of affection 
exists now in the American Church as in bygone years. 
When forty-seven bishops met in Baltimore the year before 
last there was but one feeling of thankfulness for the bene- 
fits they received from the formularies of the Church. 
Many regretted that in those early times they had 
departed more than they would now wish from these 
formularies. Many of them would gladly come back to 
the adoption of the English Prayer-book. The senior 
presiding bishop in the United States — Bishop Smith, the 
Bishop of Kentucky — stated to me as distinctly as pos- 
sible, that it was his earnest desire his Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury should, whether under the name of 
Patriarch or otherwise, convene a Decennial Council of 
all the Bishops of the American Church, and that the 
deliberations of that Council should be limited chiefly to 
questions of doctrine. From this you wiU see that this 
aged man believed that, if we could meet together, a great 
link of union would be formed between the United States 
and the Church of England, by which we could solemnly 
declare the Prayer-book to be the property of all the 
Church, and that we would not allow one particle to be 
altered without the consent of the whole Anglican com- 
munion. All the branches of our Church earnestly desire 
that some means should be devised by which they may 
all be more closely united in an organized system of 
fraternal love with the Church of England. It is for us 
to give them that opportunity. How are they to obtain 
that bond of union for themselves ? No one single branch 
of the Church could come to us and say — * Accept us in 
some closer union with yourselves.' It must be done in 
some way similar to that which was begun by Archbishop 
Longley, by calling together all the Bishops of the Anglican 
Church, and if that be done, then I think we shall see that 
the Church will expand itself in all parts of the world. I 
hope that tliis matter wUl receive the attention which I 
am quite certain that it deserves. I will only add one 
further testimony — the testimony of Bishop Barker, the 
Metropolitan of Sydney, who long clung to the idea, and 
was supported by the judgment of the Master of the 

1871-1877.] SPEECH IN CONVOCATION. 315 

Bolls, that the Church of the Colonies still had some legal 
connection with the Church of the mother country. When 
he came to England last year that opinion was entirely 
dispelled. To show his earnest desire for union with the 
Church of England, he went to all the members of the 
Judicial Committee of Privy Council to invite them sepa- 
rately to form a voluntary spiritual tribunal of appeal on 
questions of doctrine, for the express purpose of restrain- 
ing the Church in his own province from those divisions 
on the English standard of doctrine, which he believed 
would tend to separation. From all parts of the Anglican 
Church we have the same testimony, and I may give a 
strong illustration from one of those small dioceses which 
have not yet been formed into provinces. The legislature 
of the island of Barbados have voted an income of 1,000/. 
a-year to the Bishop of Barbados, but in the Act by which 
this income is allotted to the bishop there is this pro- 
vision, that if by an address of the two Houses of the 
Legislature of Barbados the bishop shall be found guilty 
of any breach of discipline or error of doctrine, it shall be 
competent for the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time 
being to try the bishop, and, on suflQcient cause being 
shown, to depose him from his office. The Barbadian 
legislature pledges itself in that event to deprive him of 
his position and his income. It may be right, if the 
Bishop of Barbados should oifend, that he should be tried 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury ; but it is also right that 
the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time being should 
have a form of procedure applicable to such cases. There 
ought to be laid down, by a conference of all the bishops 
of the Anglican communion, a form of procedure for the 
trial of a bishop. I give this instance of the Barbadian 
Legislature as coming from one of the smallest unattached 
dioceses which has not yet been formed into a province. 

" I have now gone through all these various dioceses, and 
I hope have shown that in all there is an earnest desire that 
the Archbishop of Canterbury should be the recognised 
head of this confederation, and that he should have, for the 
purpose of providing a system to meet all the wants of 
those provinces, a Council with defined legislative functions. 
I beg, in conclusion, to move these resolutios." 

314 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, ml 

Of Missionary work, whether at home or abroad, the 
bishop determined to bring the claims before his people 
both forcibly and systematically. The Cathedral was to 
be made the centre of this, as of all other diocesan works. 
Of the triennial cycle of diocesan gatherings held each 
summer in the cathedral one was the Chorcd, the second 
the Home, and the third the Foreign Missionary FestivaL 

In the working of Missions to the careless and the 
heathen at home, he recognised the necessity of a special 
agency, although, as a principle, he was strongly of opinion 
that a parish priest should never transfer to others his 
pastoral charge. But he admitted the wisdom of oi^ganizing 
a system '' under which all those persons to whom Grod 
has given the power of moving the hearts of other men — 
a power given only to a few — should so entirely possess 
the confidence of the diocese and the clergy, that they 
should be able acceptably, at stated times, to preach a 
course of sermons, to be followed up by practical oral 
instruction, which should have the effect of teaching the 
whole mass of darkness and ignorance which lies around." 
In fact, he desired to substitute for the present custom, by 
which a parochial clergyman calls to his aid some brother 
who has become known as a striking '' Mission preacher,** 
a system " under which they might have diocesan preachers 
acting under the bishop, whose office it should be to go 
to the dark places of the diocese where ignorance was 
most deep, there to exercise those vivifying influences in 
stirring up feelings for good which they had known to be 
30 beneficial in many places. If this were done, he believed 
that they could find men who were not party men, but 
who simply desired to win souls for Christ, and whose 
exhortations might be followed by teaching of a more 
special character, for they all agreed that the preaching of 
the Gospel in public, by whatever name, must be followed 
up by some kind of oral communication with the people 
whose hearts had been touched." 

There had been established within the diocese of lich- 

1871-1877.] BROTHEKHOODa 315 

field a community of clergymen whose aim it was to devote 
themselves to evangelistic work among the ignorant masses 
of the Black Country. Such an organization was not quite 
the kind of machinery which the bishop had designed, 
but, as he frequently said, he had learned " to be content 
with the second best scheme when he could not obtain the 
first?' He had been asked to recognise in some way this 
community and its work, and in the most practical way he 
proposed to its founder an alliance, more or less intimate, 
with the Diocesan Missionary body. The correspondcDce 
lasted over several years, and is here given in a summary 
form : — 

The Palace, Lichfield, Dee, 16th, 1869. 

My dear Mr. 

A meeting of the " long Chapter " Bishop, Dean, Canons, 
and Prebendaries, is convened for the 30th inst, to con- 
sider whether the Cathedral may not be made as of old, 
the centre of evangelical influence and light to the dark 
places in the diocese. One of the questions to be brought 
before us, is whether provision can be made whereby a 
body of fit men can be maintained independently of paro- 
chial cures, as conductors of special missions, having their 
centre and if possible their home at the Cathedral city ? 

Strange to say, on one and the same day, I had a visit 
from Mr. Body, a letter &om Mr. Luke lUvington, and a 
printed letter of Mr. Kyle to the Becord, advocating the 
establishment " of an order of evangelists," to be under the 
directions of the bishop and his council. My mind was 
naturally recalled to my conversation with you. 1 write 
now to express my hope that you and your friends may 
have some definite proposal to lay before our meeting on 
the 30th. 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. A. Lichfield. 

To the same correspondent he wrote at a later date, in 
the following terms : 

You know already how gladly I shall welcome the assist- 
ance of such a brotherhood as yours ; and endeavour to 

316 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vu. 

incorporate it with the diocesan system, upon the recogni- 
tion of obedience to the diocesan authority. I wish your 
body to be so entirely clear of all doubt and suspicion, as 
to be accepted by every parochial clergyman. This may be 
best brought about, by the submission to such a rule as 
will convince all, that you desire nothing more than to 
carry out the principles of the Church of England, and to 
carry her teaching to the hearts of the multitudes of people 
who throng this diocese. 

On another occasion he wrote to acknowledge a scheme 
for the brotherhood, which offered to the bishop the posi- 
tion of visitor : — 

I have read with great care and interest your plan for an 
order or brotherhood of preachers. My earnest desire and 
endeavour will be to assist and guide you as much as 
passible, as a " helper of your joy," rather than as " having 
dominion over your faith." Some time must elapse before 
you could have any such legal status as would call for the 
action of a legal " visitor." I would rather act at first as 
a friendly referee in a pastoral rather than an ofBcial 

If you were to be the head, I should have very little fear 
of disagreement. But my nature is always to hope rather 
than to fear, and thereupon I look forward to working with 
you in the unity of the Spirit 

After conference and correspondence extending over 
nearly a year, a declaration was submitted to the bishop, 
which was approved, but it was further suggested that it 
would be well to define more precisely the principle of 
obedience, that "(1) Obedience should be to a common 
rule approved by the bishop of the diocese. (2) That doubts 
arising from the application of that rule should be referred 
to the bishop. (3) That the external works of the brother- 
hood should be carried on with his sanction and approval." 
This was assented to, and on S. Barnabas Day, 1874, the 
bishop wrote to the Superior : 


Your letter this momiDg was a sight for S. Barnabas, a 
real comfort, to learn that you have returned safe and well, 
for which I heartily thank God. 

I have just been thinking to whom I should address a 
letter to invite one of your community to give us a short 
address at the Garden Meeting at the Home Mission Festival 
on Tuesday, the 20th, ou the subject of Parochial Missions. 
If you are strong enough to give us ten minutes, of course 
I would rather have you than any other member of the 
body. We shall be glad to see some others of the brother- 
hood to testify by their presence to the unity of the diocesan 

At a later date when the bishop had expressed a wish for 
a change in the title-page of a little book which the 
Superior had compiled, and his wish had been at once 
assented to, the bishop wrote : 

Your letter has filled me with joy and thankfulness ; our 
Church will prove itself to be truly catholic when the 
primitive spirit of obedience is thus added to all other 
Christian graces. 

A few months before his death the bishop formally ac- 
cepted the office of visitor, and transacted business for the 
Society in that capacity. He was accustomed to receive 
the profession of the brethren, and, according to his own 
wish, his sanction was necessaiy for the retirement of any 
member ; he was anxious that a dispensing power should 
be secured outside the Society, and that it should be in the 
bishop. Both in public and in private kindly sympathy 
was frequently expressed and always was given, whether 
by letters or in conversation, when the visitor's advice 
was sought. 

Among his schemes for the home mission work of his 
diocese were the clergy house in Lichfield Close, and the 
Barge Mission. Surely it was no mean part of the home 
mission work which provided for the deficiencies of aged 
and disabled incumbents by sending to them help from an 

318 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

associated body of diocesan curates, domiciled under one 
roof in the close. This ' Bamah ' was but an adoption of 
the plan commenced at the Waimate, whereby the diocesan 
deacons were available for services in the adjacent villages, 
but plans cannot be carried into execution in England with 
the rapidity that is possible in a young Church. The 
house was not obtained until 1877, and much care and 
forethought were bestowed on its adaptation and furnish- 
ing ; but at the date of the bishop's death no suitable agents 
had been found, and the fund of 60002. which had been 
the offering of a friend to the bishop has passed to his suc- 
cessor, under trust to apply the interest according to his 
discretion for the relief of incumbents under temporary 
disability. The house which the bishop had designed for 
this purpose will now be the home of his widow. 

The Barge Mission was another scheme which the 
bishop's death left incomplete : the canal population being 
always nomadic and amphibious, if not aquatic, had fallen 
through the meshes of the parochial system and were 
living in squalor and heathenism. For these it was 
evident that special machinery must be provided. In 1877 
the bishop appointed a Barge Mission chaplain who 
endeavoured to collect the bargemen for worship at their 
landing-places : every spare Sunday the bishop gave up 
to this work, so congenial with his spirit : but he saw 
that to really influence the canal population a canal float- 
ing church must be provided, and he built a diocesan 
barge which should move about freely, and in which he 
determined himself to navigate the grimy waters of the 
Midland canals with the same cheerful devotion which 
had carried him over the laughing waves of the South 
Pacific. He intended that the barge should accommodate 
a congregation of forty or fifty, " and if" he said to the 
members of the Diocesan Conference '* we should be so 
happy as to gather together a larger number, we have the 
highest authority for assembling the people on the bank 
and teaching them from the ship." But when the barge 

1871-1877.] SECOND VISIT TO AMERICA. 319 

was built it was found that conditions which had never 
affected the Undine^ now opposed a troublesome barrier : 
there was not sufficient sea-room: in other words, the 
bridges were not of an uniform gauge, and through some 
of them the barge could not pass, and alterations had 
to be made which involved much cost, skill, and superin- 
tendence, and when the great calamity came in April 
1878, the barge was not in working order. 

It was not likely that Foreign Missions would hold a 
second place in the sympathy and love of so great a 
missionary. He found that about two-thirds of the 
parishes in his diocese did nothing for missionary work 
abroad, and he declared that " if a clergyman would only 
preach a sermon which produced twopence or threepence, 
this would show that he had the matter at heart ; but if 
the whole subject was to be left entirely out of sight in 
our churches — never preached about from the pulpit nor 
urged upon the people — they could hardly call themselves 
a living branch of the Church of God." 

There was no lack of example wherewith to support the 
bishop's exhortations, for in the end of 1873 his younger 
son, who had been, in the interests of parochial peace, 
placed at S. George's, Wolverhampton, offered himself for 
work in Melanesia, and in the early spring of the following 
year left England with his father's blessing for the work 
of which he is now the head. 

In 1874 the bishop again visited America, and ac- 
companied by several of his clergy, attended the General 
Convention of the Church of the United States which 
was held in New York. On this occasion he saw more of 
the Canadian Church than he had been able to do in 1871. 
He seemed to recognise the greater necessity of cement- 
ing our union with distant churches in proportion as we 
were rent asunder by party cries at home, and at the 
Lichfield Conference he uttered these weighty words : — 

" The Church of England has its own special mission. 
The duty of the Anglican Church is to approach as nearly 

320 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [ohap. vii. 

as possible to the standard of the Primitive Church, hold- 
ing fast all Catholic doctrine and all essential points of 
Christian worship, but claiming and exercising the power 
to ordain rites and ceremonies as a particular and national 
Church. Let us have a standard of our own — an AngUcaa 
standard — admitting as much flexibility and variety as the 
Church itself may direct for the good of the souls of 
her people, — Cathedrals, parishes rich and poor, in town 
and country, missions at home and abroad, special services 
for every especial need, each (like the various sections of a 
mighty army) having its distinctive uniform and its own 
drill, but all alike * under authority.' I go this autumn to 
the Synod of Canada and to the Convention of Bishops 
in the United States. What message shall I take to 
them ? Shall I tell them that as a united diocese we greet 
them in the name of the Lord, who would have all men to 
be one ? Shall I tell them we are all — men in authority 
and men under authority, — Bishop, Clergy, Laity, subject 
one to another in the unity of the Spirit and the bond 
of peace, and that we pray for them (as we pray for our- 
selves) that that outpouring of the Holy Ghost which, 
like the oil upon the waves, calmed down the troubled 
sea of human passions in the Apostolic Church, may unite 
us all in one holy bond of truth and peace, of faith and 
charity ? " 

Landing at S. John's, Newfoundland, the party were 
disappointed to find that Bishop Feild had started for the 
Labrador ; thence they went to Halifax and Montreal; at the 
latter city they attended the Provincial Synod of Canada. 
The bishop spoke of himself as the representative of 
Church Missions, anxious to see the Synod in session, and 
to extend to them the right hand of fellowship, and so 
far as lay in his power to preserve the unity of the 
English Church. Westward still the bishop and his party 
went, staying at Toronto, London, Ottawa, where the 
Governor-General being away from the city requested the 
Bishop of Ontario to occupy Grovemment House and act 
the part of host to the Bishop of Lichfield, on to Minnesota, 
where that apostolic man Bishop Whipple entertained 

1871-1877.] BISHOP OF FREDEBICTON. 321 

a kindred soul and introduced his English brother to all 
his missionary institutions ; on again to Nebraska, where a 
journey of 1,500 miles toward the setting sun was com- 
pleted. Hurrying eastward again they reached Fredericton 
in order to accept Bishop Medley's invitation before the 
assembling of the General Convention on October 7. 
Here they saw the most complete Cathedral Church which 
they had met with in America: one of the bishop's 
companions wrote, " I never saw the English Church both 
in its externals and in its ritual more pleasantly trans- 
planted to a foreign home," and the Bishop of Fredericton 
has kindly given his reminiscences of the pleasant meeting 
in the following words : — 

" Our dear Bishop Selwyn, in October, 1874, travelled 
seven days and nights without intermission, to fulfil a 
promise that he would pay us a visit in Fredericton. 

"Notwithstanding the fatigue of so long a journey, 
he preached twice in the cathedral, to the great delight of 
all who heard him, and gave us a most interesting account 
of the life and labours of Bishop Patteson. He also 
addressed the scholars of our Sunday School in the after- 
noon, and so impressed them, that of their own accord 
some of them said, *We must contribute to educate a 
Melanesian boy in Norfolk Island/ This they have done 
for three years. Our first poor little fellow died, and we 
now subscribe to a second. The bishop left us on another 
long journey to New York the following day ; and as long 
as life is spared, we shall never forget his visit" 

The sermon on the opening day of the General Conven- 
tion, was preached by the Bishop of Lichfield, the text being 
Isaiah Ixvi 8, 10, 12, The Bishops of Elingston, 
Montreal, and Quebec were also present. At the close 
of the Convention, the great missionary meeting of the 
American Church was held, and the Bishop of Lichfield's 
address was, as in 1871, the chief point of interest. He 
had now seen something of the work of the American 

322 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vir. 

Church among the heathen^ and he uiged the " good com- 
fortable rectors/' the most eloquent men in the city of New 
York, to put themselves in the forefront of the battle in 
the far West ; and then, lest this should seem to be mere 
badinage, he added : — 

" Of course, dear friends, I would not dare to say these 
things if I was not ready to put myself at the head, or 
at idl events, to go in company with you ; but old as I 
am, and partially unfit for the work, there is nothing I 
should like better, if I were not charged with a diocese 
of a million or more of souls, than to go out with a good, 
earnest deputation of good Rectors of New York and all 
the cities in Northern America, and have a thorough good 
raid, without arms, without ammunition, without rations, 
and without anything else but the simple preaching of the 
Gospel, taking care, of course, to learn the language 
beforehand, because it is that which keeps us back bom 
many of these Indians. Just as I could hardly find a 
single man who had crossed the Atlantic from England, 
though so many cross it from this side, so I hardly ever 
meet a man that does not talk about the difficulty of 
learning languages. The difficulty is in setting about it 
Do you suppose Bishop Patteson acquired a knowledge of 
twenty languages, so as to be able to converse in ail of 
them, without some effort ? You may talk about natural 
gifts and the facilities for acquiring languages ; but the 
real natural gift is to have in your heart a determination 
that you will do what is necessary to be done, that you 
will learn what is necessary to be learned, that you will 
give up everything that is necessary to be given up, and 
that you wDl go forth. Talk not of a missionary's self- 
denial. It is the very thing that men are doing for 
evil purposes. All those men who are supposed to be 
necessary to coerce the Indians, all those generals and 
soldiers who are now following up the Indians with fire 
and sword, are submitting to privations and incurring risks 
greater a great deal than any which missionaries are 
likely to have to undertake." 

The bishop took the opportunity of meeting objectors, 
if objectors there were, to the scheme of organic union 

1871-1877.] STEWARDSHIP OP SOULa 323 

between the mother and daughter Churches, and showed 
that it was an union only for aggressive purposes and for 
economy of power in such aggression. This principle 
was recognised in the Lambeth Conference of 1878, which 
declared against duplicate organization of the Churches in 
the same place or Mission. The Bishop said : — 

"You have heard, perhaps, that in the General Convention 
there has been a talk about what was meant by proposing 
that the Church in the United States should be organically 
united with the Church in England. What I meant by it 
is this ; that we should have a larger front to go forth into 
the realms of Satan — a larger power to make aggression 
upon heathenism; that we should do it as an united 
Church ; that there should be no distinction between a 
clergyman in the United States and a clergyman in 
England. I do not want to interfere, and the Archbishop 
of Canterbury does not want to interfere, with your canons 
or your rules of order. You may alter them again and 
again as much as you like. But what I say is, let us be 
united in heart upon this one point — that here is a great 
nation, thirty millions in England, fifty millions in the 
United States, all of them spesJcing the same language, all 
of them reading the same Bible, all the subjects of the 
same promises, all looking forward to the same account 
which we must give before the Judgment-seat of Christ 
This great stewardship, then, of the whole world is at tliis 
present moment, I believe, committed to our Anglo-Saxon 
raca If it be not committed to us, I ask to whom is it 
committed? Has the stewardship of souls, as a duty 
binding upon mankind, ceased to exist? Spain had it 
once. Spain neglected it. Spain has lost it. France had 
it once. Portugal had it once. There is no nation now 
that can be put in comparison for one single moment as a 
real effective missionary power upon the earth to our own 
English-speaking race. 

" You have heard about the increase of population here. 
Now, it is perfectly appalling to think of what the popu- 
lation of this country may becoma If you set to work 
and calculate the seven millions of square miles that there 
are in the territory of the United States, you will find that 
by the time the territory of the United States shall have 


324 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vii. 

been as thickly peopled as the territory of England, it will 
contain more than the whole present number of the human 
race ; that is, that if it please God to move the heart of 
this great nation to a sense of its true, its highest respon- 
sibility, there may be within a given time the whole 
number of the human race actually professing Christianity 
within the limits of the United States, and able upon equal 
terms, man for man, to do battle with the other remaining 
unconverted portion of the human race scattered over 
India and China and Africa, and all these other smaller 
countries which yet remain in heathen darkness. Now is 
not that an adequate object for a nation like this ? Is not 
that a reason why England should be united with her 
daughter-countiy in America ? Is not that a reason why 
the Church in America should be united as with one heart 
and with one soul, with the Church in England ? Is not 
that a reason why bishops should go forth sometimes 
like Bishop Mackenzie from England to die in Africa; 
sometimes like Bishop Auer from America to die in Africa; 
sometimes like Bishoj) Patteson to die in Melanesia, and 
by their deaths to serve Christ as effectually as by their 
lives, by setting forth an example of Christian self-denial, 
of duties performed at the hazard of life? All these 
qualities of a Christian missionary stir up the hearts of all 
real believers in Christ as effectually as the deeds of heroism 
that are done in war by our soldiers and sailors stir up the 
hearts of our young men to go and do likewise." 

The presiding bishop said : " The only unpleasant part 
of this meeting is that this is the last time on his present 
visit that we shall see the face of our beloved brother of 
Lichfield. To-morrow he leaves for his home. May God 
bless him and take him in safety to his home with a sweet 
recollection that he has not laboured in vain!" The 
benediction was given by Bishop Selwyn, and. the crowded 
room was slowly emptied, all seeming to be unwilling to 

Tlie warm hearts of American Churchmen were not 
content to allow the visit of the bishop to go without a 
substantial record, and as the visit of 1871 was com- 

1871-1877.] CONSECRATION OF REV. J. R. SELWYN. 326 

memorated by the alms-dish, so now they provided a 
capital sum of £200 for the foundation of a ^'Potter- 
Selwyn Prize," in Lichfield Theological College. 

The cordiality of this meeting had been increased by 
the appropriate action of the Bishop of Chichester sending 
a telegram from the Brighton Church Congress, whose 
sitting synchronised with that of the Conventfon, inviting 
the American bishops to attend the Congress of 1875, 
which would be held at Stoke-upon-Trent, and which 
under the presidency of Bishop Selwyn was held for " four 
days without a word of bitterness or strife." In 1878 the 
bishop and the dean and chapter had invited all the bishops 
who came to England to rest awhile at Lichfield and wor- 
ship with them under the roof of S. Chad, but those who 
visited that ancient city went as pilgrims to the grave of 
the honoured dead rather than as guests of his survivors. 

In 1877 a service, such as no cathedral ever before 
witnessed, was held in Lichfield. The General Synod of 
New Zealand had elected the Bev. John Bichardson 
Selwyn to succeed to Bishop Patteson's vacant chair. 
The consecration took place at Nelson, 8,000 miles in a 
direct line beneath ourfeet, on February 18 ; and at 11 o'clock 
P.M., the hour which accorded with that fixed for the con- 
secration at the Antipodes, a simultaneous service was 
held at Lichfield. The thoughts suggested both contrast 
and unity. While to the brilliantly-lighted cathedral the 
congregation had come through the bitter cold of a winter's 
night, into the simple church at Nelson, in which the service 
was held, the floods of noonday sunshine were pouring, and 
all around the ripened com was waving in the fresh sea 
breeze ; but the prayers that came from hearts separated 
by half the globe met before the Throne, and the glorious 
chant that went up from Lichfield Cathedral and the 
prayers ofiered in many English homes that night were 
joined with the intercessions of the far-away congregations 
of New Zealand. 

The bishop himself conducted the service at Lichfield 

Y 2 

326 UFE OP BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap, vil 

and gave from the lectern an address which will never be 
forgotten by those who heard it. 

"Such an occasion," he said, "is better suited for deep 
feeling than for much speaking. We know that the great 
Intercessor is always praying for the Church, ' Give Me 
the heathen for Mine inheritance, and the utmost parts of 
the earth for My possession ; ' and that His prayer is ever 
receiving its fulfilment. So far, indeed, has our own 
Church been blessed, that it may be said with perfect 
truth to be now offering up all round the globe a ceaseless 
and continuous sacrifice of praise in the words of the 
English Prayer-book — day telling day and night passing on 
the happy service, as the world roUs round. Thus are our 
thoughts widened and emancipated from insular prejudice 
and insular prida And now, while humbly thanking God 
for His servant lately departed this life, Bishop Patteson, 
let us also pray devoutly that the work of that good man 
may never perish, and that he may never lack a worthy 
. successor. Your coming here to-night shows me that you 
aie all prepared to offer up your prayers for my own dear 
son, known personally to many of you, and a clergyman 
ordained in your own diocesa May he be given boldness 
and prudence. May he be saved from the perils of pre- 
sumption; lest, as a novice, he be too much puffed up. 
Changed from his earlier destination by the advice of 
Bishop Patteson, may he be blessed in carrying on the 
same work, to which he seems to be called. And as we 
have already sent forth from this diocese Bishop Rawle to 
the West Indies, so let us now send forth our own dear 
son, to take the Gospel, not to a numerous, but to a widely 
scattered race, in whom the curse of Babel seems to have 
reached its utmost climax. These are the isles that wait 
for Christ ; and assuredly they will not wait in vain." 

The Nicene Creed was then sung; and after a short 
space for silent prayer, a litany, and another hymn, the 
congregation were dismissed by the bishop with his 

In May of the same year the bishop rteceived a signal 
mark of royal favour; the Order of S. Michael and S. George 

1871-1877.] ORDER OF Sa MICHAEL AND GEORGE. 327 

was reorganized, and the office of prelate and chancellor, 
which had last been held by the ArchbiBhop of Corfu, was 
conferred on him. As the order is limited to persons who 
have served in the colonies, it was obviously impossible to 
have conferred the office on any other person ; but it is to be 
hoped that the action of the Crown in the case of Bishop 
Selwyn will not form a precedent by which the decoration 
of the order shall be added to the rewards of bishops who 
have resigned their sees ; as there are no duties attached, 
the honour might well be bestowed on successive prelates 
in recognition of long service, not abandoned, in the colony 
to which the Church had sent them. The terms in which 
on this occasion the offer was made and was accepted were 
alike honourable to both parties. 

Ck)LOHiAL Ofvicb, May 17/%, 1877. 

Mt deab Lord, 

The order of S. Michael and S. George — appropriated 
as you are aware to Colonial services and claims — is about 
to receive an enlargement and in some respects a reorgan- 
ization. The offices of Chancellor and Prelate to the Order 
are to be revived, and I am now commanded by the Queen 
to say that Her Majesty has been pleased to confer the 
office of Prelate upon you. I hope that the appointment, 
which will involve none but purely honorary duties, will 
be as agreeable to you as it is pleasant to me to be the 
medium of communication. It is the recognition of long 
and great services rendered to the Church in the Colonies, 
and will I feel sure be very welcome to those who have 
known and respected you as much as 

Yours very truly, 


Palace, Lichfield, May 20^A, 1877. 

My dear Lord, 

May I request your Lordship to present to Her Majesty 
my most humble and dutiful thanks for the honour con- 
ferred upon me in the appointment to the office of Prelate 
to the order of S. Michael and S. George. My own 
period of Colonial service has come to an end ; but I am 
thankful to have a son, who, by God's help, may carry on 

328 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. vu. 

the same work of uniting the Colonies of Australia and 
New Zealand with the native races of the Western 
Pacific, in faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and in alle- 
giance to the British Crown. Allow me also to thank 
you most heartily for the personal kindness of your com- 

I remain, with many thanks, 

Yours very faithfully, 

6. A. Lichfield. 

The fourth Diocesan Conference which was held at 
Lichfield in September 1877, possessed an interest at the 
time and for its own sake, which subsequent events have 
intensified. With a feeling almost prophetic the bishop 
dwelt on the many changes, caused chiefly by death, which 
had happened in the diocese ; and these changes not only 
warned each member to "work the works of Him that 
sent " him and to " set his house in order," but also pointed 
to the need of fixed principles on which work should be 
securely built up. " As short-lived men who know that 
we must soon die, we learn the value of institutions which 
may last for ever." He insisted with more than his ordi- 
nary vigour on the subdivision of dioceses as the first 
means of remedying evils and promoting efficiency in the 
Church : he declared it to be ' most unreasonable ' that Lich- 
field should contain a population of 1,356,000, and the 
neighbouring diocese of Hereford should have only 
237,000 : Church activity, subdivision of parishes, multi- 
plication of churches, the ecclesiastical commissioners and 
Church societies giving grants for the maintenance of 
additional curates, only gave prominence to the question, 
' Where are the men V "I say at once," the Bishop added, 
'' we shall never have a supply of men adequate to the 
present demands of the Church, unless we so divide our 
dioceses as to enable our bishops to take a large and 
personal share in the education of their clergy. It may 
safely be predicted that aU these differences, real or sup- 
posed, between the bishops and their clergy, will cease to 

1871-1877.] SUPPLY OP CLEBGY. 829 

exist when the young men are trained up under the eyes 
of their spiritual fathers, as Saul at the feet of GamaUeL 
As in parishes, so in dioceses, the work is apt to become 
formal and unreal when the numbers of the flock are in 
excess of the pastoral power. And surely this is the case 
when thirty-five deacons and as many priests have to be 
ordained annually, not to supply the needs but merely to 
stop the gaps in the present diocese of Lichfield. So also 
of confirmations. If all were ours 25,000 might be con- 
firmed annually. As it is, at least 15,000 ought to be 
confirmed. Nine thousand are confirmed. If it were not 
for the help of my dear friends the coadjutor bishops, even 
the lowest number would be too great for a work like 
confirmation, which requires to be done with the fervour 
and freshness of pastoral love." 

For the supply of a clergy, in numbers adequate to the 
demand, he saw a source ''plain as the progress of the 
rivulet, which issuing from the little spring in the moun* 
tain side, is guided into the reservoir from whence the 
water is distributed from house to house ;'' he looked to the 
Sunday schools, the pupil teachers, the bible classes and 
the confirmation classes. If the clergy would only 
''encourage the more promising of the young men who 
attended their ministrations, would welcome them in their 
homes, watch over their habits, form their characters, and 
assist them in their studies," the probationer system and 
the theological college would take up their work and do all 
that was necessary to send them forth well furnished and 
equipped for the work of the ministry. 

330 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. 



Thb time has come when it will be necessary to abandon 
the chronological order in which the leading events of 
the bishop's life have hitherto been marshalled, and to look 
at the principles which underlay the whole of that many- 
sided activity in the service of Gk)d. The reader will ask. 
What were his convictions as a Churchman and as a Citi- 
zen, what were his opinions and his politics ? What was 
the secret of the homage that men voluntarily paid to the 
opinions of Bishop Selwyn, or of the honour in which he 
was held wherever the Anglican Communion has extended 
itself?. He uttered no shibboleths, he led no party, pro- 
bably he satisfied no party ; his grasp of the Divine in- 
herent life of the Catholic Church and, as growing out of 
this, the true doctrines of the Priesthood, of the power 
of the Keys and of Apostolical Succession, of the grace 
of Sacraments, led some persons to stamp him, in common 
with all who thus held the truth according to the pro- 
portion of the faith, as a High Churchman ; but no man 
ever more truly earned the title of Evangelical or more 
thoroughly clung to the great and simple doctrines of 
the Gospel, to the prochunation of which among the 
heathen he gave the best years of his life: he had 
gathered all the advantages of the great Oxford move- 
ment, whose services to the Church under the good pro- 
vidence of God none but fanatics will refuse to recognise ; 
but he did not allow personal admiration of great men to 


make him a merely passive foUower. His correspond- 
ence^ as given in these pages, has shown how consistently 
he declared his love to his own true Mother, in spite of 
her many shortcomings, and how clearly he detected the 
grievous errors of her great antagonist. The remedy for 
those morbid souls who could not endure imperfection in 
the Anglican Communion was, in his judgment, to be 
found not in acceptance of the far more serious short- 
comings of Bome, but in work in the Mission Field. He 
did not bid them join himself in his work (which he said 
had no hardships), but in the crowded cities of India or 
China, in the plains of Africa, and among the unnumbered 
islands of the Pacific, he thought there might be found 
outlets for the excited and sensitive spirits of the Church 
at home, often more sinned against than sinning, and in 
which " men who were caUed rebels in England might be 
free to serve God and to win soub." To what noble uses, 
if only his challenge had been accepted^ might he not have 
applied the Spiritual powers of some of those men whom 
morbid discontent, quickened by lack of sympathy, drove 
into an acceptance of all the modem dogmas of Home ? 
A remarkable letter has been preserved, in which he 
poured forth his regret at the secession of one who at the 
time possessed more real moral influence than he has 
ever exercised in the Church of his adoption. 

To THE Rev. Edwaed Coleeidge. 

'* BoKDEB Maid," 

At akohob off Wooloohooloo Point, 

Stdnxy, Sept. 2^nd, 1857. 

My deab, veey deae Feiend, 

For such friends are indeed valuable, when we cannot 
tell from day to day who will desert us next. Now it is 
that we feel the value of the few of our staunch friends, 
who we know will never desert us, while others, in whom 
we trusted, are swelling the force of our opponents. I 
am led into this train of thought by reading over Manning's 
last letter to me, in which is the following passage :-t- 


"Through our dear friend Coleridge I have followed 
the course of your labours, and seem feaniliar with your 
works and aims. Need I say with what true sympathy, 
and with what gratitude for your testimony that the 
Church of England can live, and spread abroad from its 
own Spiritual centre " ? 

How little could I expect that the writer of this sen- 
tence in 1848 would so soon desert us I When the whole 
world was open to him, unencumbered with family, if he 
felt dissatisfied with the Church in England, he might 
have been the Xavier of the present age, and I could have 
ceded to him at once one of the two signs of the terres- 
trial zodiac which have been assigned to my nominal 
charge. Among these fertile islands, crowded with living 
souls, and altogether untouched, we mighty with such a 
leader as 'Manning, under God's blessing, have built up 
such a mission work as the Church has not yet seen. But 
these are vain speculations now that the step is taken, 
and such men are not Hkely to return. All that we can 
now hope for is that it may be found by experience, that 
in the memory of their past character and in their written 
works they have left behind them a better treasure than 
any which they can carry with them to the Church of 

Of the catholicity of his own Conamunion he never had 
the shadow of a doubt : her deficiencies, which are acci- 
dental and not organic, he thought would be remedied by 
reverting to the primitive method of seeking the mind of 
the Spirit in councils of the whole body. Of the corrup- 
tions of Bome he was neither ignorant nor tolerant ; in 
the last Diocesan Conference over which he presided, he 
said, " If there be any here, clergyman or layman, who 
cannot find it in their heart to thank God for the Beforma- 
tion, I will not undertake to argue with them. It seems 
to me as clear as noonday that we have accepted the prin- 
ciples of the Beformation, and I desire nothing more than 
to be enabled, by God's blessing, to carry out those princi- 
ples to the highest point of Spiritual life and eneigy, and 
to the greatest perfection of practical administration. To 

vui.] THE JUS CTPRIUM. 333 

attain the first we most live by the rale of the Bible ; 
to attain the second we must seek for the 'Spirit 
of Counsel' to guide our deliberations/' The doctrines 
wliich divided less learned men and less humble souls 
into rival camps were discerned by him as being in har- 
mony, and were seen by him to meet behind the veil, and 
to kiss each other beneath the shadow of God's throne : 
traths which to shallow uninstructed minds appeared to 
be antagonistic, were in his eyes so nicely measured out 
as to produce a perfect equilibrium, like the physical forces 
which guide the planets in their orbits. 

Persons who were shaken in their allegiance to the 
Church of England, and who yet desired to take no rash 
step, were often led by confidence in his learning, his 
sympathy, and his firmness, to make known their doubts 
to the bishop. The results were by no means uniform : 
some were retained, others were lost, but even those who 
left the Church of their Baptism remember and still ex- 
press their sense of his kindness and patience. And yet 
in spite of his patience he had a ready and sharp way of 
brushing away untenable and overstrained statements. 
A clergyman in the diocese of Lichfield, doubtful of his 
own position, and tempted to join the Boman Church, 
formally discussed the points of difference with one who 
was well qualified to guide him ; nothing was to be done 
hastily ; and it was agreed that the first four (Ecumenical 
Councils should be thoroughly studied, and everything 
noted down which would seem to favour or to oppose the 
Boman claims. The Coimcil of Ephesus presented the 
chief points of importance : the Jvs Cyprium, established 
by the final canon of that Council, it was agreed, greatly 
strengthened the Anglican claim to ecclesiastical auto- 
nomy : but when the two Mends came to read in Labb^'s 
Original Becords the history of the Synod, it appeared that 
the Synod returned thanks at its close to ** y€& IlavXco 
KvplWff}, Kal KeXtariy^p if>v\a/c^ t^9 irlarew^** The 
waverer saw that the Synod called Pope Celestine "the 

334 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYl^. [chap. 

Guardian of the Faith/' and, elate at his discoveiy^ went 
to the bishop to talk the matter over with him. Too 
honest to suppress what had happened, he left the Palace 
only to confess to his friend, that after having with great 
elation pointed out to the bishop that the great Council of 
Ephesus had called a Pope "^vXaf rrj^ irUrr^w^*' the 
bishop had entirely disconcerted him by sajdng, ** I am 
surprised at your thinking much of that, for it is exactly 
what the Pope in the sixteenth century called our Eighth 

On another occasion the bishop wrote to one, who after- 
wards joined the Church of Home : — 

" My deab Mr. 

" I am very sorry to hear that your difficxdty continues 
to increase. 

"If I were in your position I should feel no greater 
difBculty than that of leaving my own 'field which the 
Lord has blessed,' to fly to another field of which I know 
nothing. The true wisdom in these times of over-excited 
sensibility is to strive to learn * in whatsoever state we are, 
therewith to be content.' I can see many faults in the 
Church of England; but if I were to see none in the 
Church of Borne I should think myself blind indeed 
And of the Church of my parents I can say with all my 
heart, * With all thy faults 1 love thee stia' " 

In disputes in matters of ritual he was always toleraut, 
and increasingly so in later years. It was a subject of 
regret to many of his friends that, for reasons already 
given, he did not from his place in Parliament oppose the 
Public Worship Regulation Act. That ill-starred attempt 
at popular legislation was passed in panic and avowedly 
for party purposes; it would be very diflBcult to point 
to any so flagrant a breach of the constitution during 
the two preceding centuries : and by this time probably 
its warmest advocates are disappointed at their abortive 

viil] obedience to LAW. 336 

efiTorts. But if Bishop Selwyn offered no active oppo- 
sition to the disastrous Bill in Parliament, in his diocese 
the Act has proved to be a dead letter. He not only 
discouraged litigation, but he weighed the moral value of 
the characters and the antecedents of the complainants 
who came to him with their gi-ievances, and he declined 
to abandon faithful priests and attached congregations to 
the persecutions of puppet parishioners, who were the mere 
tools of partisan organizations. In 1869, after the delivery 
of the judgment by Lord Cairns, a vicar in the diocese 
wrote to the bishop that he had long been in the habit of 
using altar lights, and did not feel in conscience bound to 
change his pmctice, but only to inform the bishop of the 

This elicited the following letter : — 

"I am very much obliged to you for your letter of 
yesterday, so moderate in tone if not convincing in 

" Bead Socrates' address to the Laws before his death, 
in Plato, summed up by the French Mayor at the time of 
the Revolution: — ^'Les lois, mSme injustes, sont toujours 
les lois.' 

" I cannot agree with your reasoning. 

'' 1. Because the law of the Church in this case is also 
the law of the land: see. Bubric, at the end of Calendar, 
' by authority of Parliament^ 

" Whether lights on the altar be part of the law of the 
Church in England is not for you or me to decide, but 
for the Court appointed for that purpose by the same 
authority of Parltamejit. 

" 2. Whether any future Court will decide in the oppo- 
site way neither you nor I can know, but God only ; but 
for tlie present, the point, as now decided, is the Law. 

" You may think Sir R. Phillimore a better judge than 
Lord Cairns, &c. ; others may think the contrary ; but the 
law fixes the course of appeal from Sir R P. to Lord 
Cairns : and you cannot make the stream run back again. 
In this case private opinions are of no value, especially as 


tbey contradict one another. But the law remains the 
same, and takes effect. 

" 4. Though you are doubtless a priest in the Church 
Catliolic, yet your right to minister is by virtue of a law 
of the Church of England. If you were to light candles 
on the High Peak I suppose nobody would question your 

right; but your right to minister in Church to 

the exclusion of other priests is a right given to you by 
the law of England, and that law has defined, and the law- 
making power may define from time to time, in what 
manner you may minister. 

" 5. If that law-making power should enact anything 
which fairly involves the question whether we ought not 
to obey God rather than man, then the only course open 

is to retire from to the High Peak, or some other 

place where the Law puts no such constraint upon the 

'' 6. But I cannot think that candles, or vestments, or 
incense are matters which touch the conscience, because 
nothing can be necessary to salvation which is not con- 
tained in Holy Scripture. Scruples of conscience I think 
are wrong which go beyond the point of such necessary 

The vicar was not convinced, and told the bishop that if 
he, as his bishop, required him to give up the practice of 
lighting altar candles, he would obey, but that he could 
not in conscience recognise the authority of the Oivil 
Court. The bishop made no such request, and indeed 
never referred to the subject again. His views on the 
peculiar position of a beneficed priest were frequently 
given on the occasion of his instituting new incumbents. 
On one such occasion he said in the course of his sermon : 

" The legal and ecclesiastical aspect of institution is the 
appointment of a clergyman to the cure of souls in the 
parish to the exclusion of every other clergyman of the 
Church, and who alone will have authority over the parish 
as implied by his institution. This implies on his part 
obedience to certain laws, by means of which his conduct 


in the ministry of the Church is to be governed. If this 
were a private building, maintained by private individuals, 
it would be for those individuals to determine what sort of 
agreement, what kind of rules, should be enacted by them 
for the governance of the services of the Church. The 
rides which govern the services of this Church are such as 
have been enacted many years ago by the joint consent of 
the Church and the State, and the institution is guarded 
by the authority of both. The Prayer-book, which the 
minister is required to use, and none other, was jointly, 
again, the production of Church and State. The Book of 
Common Prayer was first prepared by the authority of the 
Convocation of the Church, which was afterwards ratified by 
the State. It would then be in vain to say that any clergy- 
man could accept that pulpit, and be in a position to carry 
out any other service than that prescribed by the Book of 
Common Prayer. In order that this may be apparent to 
him and all people, your new rector will have to make a 
declaration in which he will solemnly give his assent to 
the Thirty-nine Articles, to the Book of Common Prayer, 
and of the Ordering of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, and 
will promise to use the form of the administration of the 
Sacraments prescribed by the Book of Common Prayer, and 
none other. This is the security of the congregation 
against any kind of innovation, for, by the declaration, the 
minister is bound to conduct the services of the parish 
according to the laws of the Church, agreed upon by the 
conjoint act of the State and the Church. 

" As the Preface to the Prayer-book sets forth, no form 
of words can be so used as to render it impossible for any 
difference to arise, but in such cases where doubts arise 
they are to be laid before the Bishop, and if the Bishop 
has any doubt he may send it for solution to the Arch- 
bishop. Because, then, there must be occasions on which 
differences of opinion and disputes may arise, you will hear 
the clergyman, who ^'ill now be instituted, take the oath 
of canonical obedience to the Bishop of Lichfield and his 
successors in all things lawful and honest, and another 
oath of fidelity to Queen Victoria and her successors.'' 

But if he thus claimed observance of the laws even 
oi the civil courts, it must not be supposed that he did so 


on any other ground than that they were the laws : he depre- 
cated as heartily as any could the appeal to " aliens from 
other professions to judge on legal grounds alone of the 
meaning of words which can have no meaning but by 
their inward power and application to the heart, all the 
questions which had been driven into courts of law 
might," he thought, " have been settled without any such 
appeal, if one party had been more conciliatory and the 
other more tolerant Even now," he said in 1877, " it is 
not too late ; I still cling to the hope that the contending 
parties in the Church will submit themselves to their 
bishops. What I claim is that with which even inspired 
apostles were content; that dissensions and disputations 
should cease, and that the bishops, clergy, and laity, 
assembled with one accord under the guidance of the Holy 
Ghost, should consider what is needful for the peace of the 
Church, and send up to Parliament and to Convocation 
our humble petition that we may not be left to seek the 
solution of our doubts in courts of law, but that in the 
spirit and very letter of the Preface to the Book of 
Common Prayer, such changes may be made, according 
to the exigencies of the times, as may make our Rubric 
clear and our line of duty so plain, that there shall be no 
longer room for litigation nor necessity for penal laws. 
Choose you this day whom you will serve; whether 
the letter of an antiquated law or the voice of the living 

The one town in the diocese in which differences on the 
subject of ritual and kindred Church matters raged most 
furiously was probably Wolverhampton. In 1871 the 
local branch of the Church Association made a vague 
representation to the bishop against all who differed 
from themselves, and added an expression of disappoint- 
ment at the fact that the bishops did not apply them- 
selves more heartily to the task of exterminating all 
High Churchmen, and the document ended with the usual 
threat, that if they did not do the bidding of the Church 


Association " the existence of the Establishment would be 

The bishop replied in a lengthy address conspicuous 
for patience, tenderness, and firmness. The complainants 
were not complimented on their Protestantism or condoled 
with on the wickedness of the clergy ; the bishop was no 
worshipper of majorities, and cared nothing for violent but 
indistinct utterances. He declared that, after three years 
intimate acquaintance with his diocese, he did not belieye 
that there was a single clergyman within its limits who 
was fairly and justly liable to the imputation of pro- 
moting Somish doctrine and teaching ; he was not aware 
that the practice of confession, of which the memorialists 
complained, had in any case gone beyond the limits recom- 
mended in the Prayer-book; and he added of his own 
knowledge, that some books of devotion containing prayers 
and forms tending rather to controversy than to edification, 
which had been introduced, had been immediately with- 
drawn from use at his request To those who had 
expressed their conviction of the bishop's determination 
to enforce respect for the law, he said — " If I am to under- 
stand by these words that I am expected to assume the 
office of a public prosecutor of the clergy for breaches of 
the ceremonial law of the Church, I must say at once that 
I do not so understand the duties of my office. I may be 
caUed upon to act as a judge, and I must then inquire into 
all complaints with the strictest impartiality. I am not 
at liberty to regard some breaches of the law as of graver 
importance and to pass by others as trivial. The Lords 
of the Judicial Committee are clear on this point (Martin 
V, Mackonochie, 23rd December, 1868) : — 

" * The bishop could have no jurisdiction to modify or 
dispense with the rubrical provisions.' 

" Again : * Their lordships are of opinion that it is not 
open to a minister of the Church, or even to their lord- 
ships, in advising her Majesty, as the highest ecclesiastical 
tribunal of appeal, to draw a distinction in acts which ave 

VOL. II. z 


a departure from or violation of the rubric, between those 
which are important and those which appear to be triviaL 
The object of a statute of uniformity is, as its preamble 
expresses, to produce 'an universal agreement in the public 
worship of Almighty God/ au object which would be 
wholly frustrated if each minister on his view of the rela- 
tive importance of the details of the service were to be at 
liberty to omit, to add to, or to alter any of those details. 
The rule upon this subject has been already laid down by 
the Judicial Committee in ' Westerton v. Liddell/ and 
their lordships are disposed entirely to agree to it. 

" ' In the performance of the services, rites, and cere- 
monies ordered by the Prayer-book, the directions con- 
tained in it must be strictly observed: no omission and 
no addition can be permitted.' 

** If, therefore, I am called upon as a judge to enforce 
the law, I must require compliance with the rule of the 
Prayer-book in eveiy particuliu*, e.g,, — 

'< Daily service in the churches, when there is no reason- 
able hindrance. Public catechizing. The use of the 
surplice in all public ministrations. One or more of the 
offertory sentences. The offering of the bread and wine 
before the prayer for the Church Militant The prayer 
for the Church Militant The whole exhortation to be 
read the week before the Holy Communion. The longer 
as well as the shorter exhortation to be read in the com- 
munion offica Consecration at the north side of the 
communion table. The delivery of the bread and cup to 
each person with the appointed words. Notice of saints' 
days and other holidays. The administration of baptism 
after the second lesson. The use of the form for the 
Solemnization of Matrimony at full length. The use of 
the service for the Visitation of the Sick. 

" This list of customary deviations from the rale of the 
Prayer-book will be enough to prove how very difficult 
and painful would be the duty of the bishop if he were 
called upon to enforce obedience to the law." 

The malcontents were not satisfied, and a Wolver- 
hampton clergyman retoi-ted on the bishop that he bad 
more power than he chose to admit; he might issue 
inhibitions against the clergy of whom their brethren 





complained; if this failed he might put them in the 
^* Eccclesiastical Courts, "a crucible that few men would 

like to undergo ; " but the bishop smilingly replied, " I 
am not the man to do it, because I am for conciliation." 
He then urged that the clergy should all meet together 
in a friendly and forbearing spirit, discuss the points of 
difference, praying earnestly and sincerely for the divine 
guidance to help them to come to a right solution, and he 
had confidence that in the end they would be able to 
arrive at one common basis of agreement. 

But this was the last thing which the complainants 
were willing to do ; the persecuting instinct, one of the 
most facile snares which the tempter puts in the way of 
religious people, was strong within them, and they were 
bent on gaining a triumph over their opponents. Both 
parties found that the bishop, with all his tenderness and 
yearnings after peace, w£is eminently "strong," and that 
intimidation would be an useless weapon against him ; the 
doubts which are expressed in the following letter to the 
Vicar of St. Andrews, Wolverhampton, are eminently 
those of a man who feared no one, but was only anxious 
to discharge his own conscience ; his sense of the duty 
of obeying the law, as the law, howsoever made, has 
already been explained ; but he was not prepared to en- 
force the law all round, as he thought, even if it were 
possible, the result would not be worth the cost ; at the 
same time he had scruples as to giving curates by his 
licence a legal position in which they would not observe 
the law ; but while he contemplated the withholding from 
them this legal position, he never thought of starving 
souls by inhibiting them from performing their office for 
the good of their people. 

BifiBOP's Court, Islx of Man, 
Atigust 2Brd, 1876. 

My DEA.R Mr. Bodington, 

I am much obliged to you for your testimony to Mr. 

's work, and I may say, once for all, that I have 

great confidence in your judgment. 

z 2 


I may add, that on any point on which I am dear in 
mind, I am willing to bear any amount of obloquy. 

BemoDstrances therefore of the Church Association, or 
of any other unauthorized persons, will have no weight 
with me. 

But I will not disguise from you the feeling which 
grows upon me of a conscientious difificulty, affecting no 
one party in the Church in particular, in relation to 
licences, oaths, subscriptions, presentations, institutions, 
and all other legal acts by which or through which the 
bishop appoints or sanctions the appointment of curates 
and incimibeuts. 

All these are purely legal matters, resulting from the law 
of the land, and all questions arising out of them must be 
decided by the law of the land. In many cases, as in the 
Gorham question, the legal claim is mixed up with a 
question of doctrina The exact limit and boundary 
between spiritual and temporal things it is as impossible 
to define, as the dividing limits of body and soul in the 
living man. 

When therefore any curate or incumbent, whether on one 
side or the other of Church parties, claims the right of 
breaking the law, and I know that he is breaking the law 
and intends to break it and justifies his disobedience by the 
plea of conscieuce, that he objects to the Athanasian Creed, 
or that he believes the Eastward position essential to the 
Sacrament ; am I free in conscience to license or institute 
him ; and thereby to put him into a legal position, from 
which he may defy the law. 

The insurrection of the low church clergy against Mr. 
Elliott's proposal to keep the law, and the explicit state- 
ments of the conscientious duty of disobedience contained 
in recent publications of the Church Union, seem to place 
all bishops in an exceedingly painful position, as if they 
were to be the only persons who, in an age of excited and 
even morbid conscience, are to have no conscience at all 

I have a letter from Mr. , which clears the subject 

of much of its difficulty, to the following effect : — 

" 1 have come to see that it is my duty, either to obey the 
law, when called upon to do so by lawful authority, or to 
resign my preferment." 

This is very different from the current talk "of breaking 

vui.] CONSCIENCE. 343 

■ ■ ■ -■ ■ ■■ ■■ ■■■■■, I I ■■» 

the law and taking the consequences," a spurious kind of 
martyrdom which can expect no crown. 

If these feelings should gather strength, and be aggra- 
vated by new and additional instances of that kind of 
double dealing which uses the law for one purpose and 
rejects it at pleasure for other purposes, I should feel that 
I have no remedy left, but to leave all appointments about 
which I have any doubt to lapse to the Archbishop and to 
decline to license curates for the performance of unlawful 
acts. It is not therefore necessary in the latter case, that 
I should refuse them permission to oihciate, because my 
stumbling block is the administration of oaths, and the 
conferring upon them l^al powers, while I know them to 
be breaking the law. It is time that the clergy should 
know, that we have not parted with our consciences in 
being made bishops. 

'Every parish priest knows what this kind of conscience 
means, and shows it in the vigorous manner in which he 
exacts from his curates obedience to his own rules of 
practice, and outward conformity at least with his own 

When the time comes Mr. *s claims will receive all 

due consideration. 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. A. Lichfield. 

At the time when this letter was being written a 
prosecution had been commenced against the clergyman to 
whom it was addressed. Aa the bishop was patron of his 
benefice, the representation was in compliance with the 
act forwarded to the archbishop of the province; months 
elapsed during which the bishop and the vicar of S. 
Andrew's had no communication ; the prosecution shared 
the usual fate of its fellows under this unhappy law, and 
broke down on legal grounds, after which the bishop wrot© 
the following letter : 

The Palace, Lichfield, March lat, 1877. 

My dear Mr. Bodington, 

I gladly and even thankfully avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity to resume unreserved pastoral intercourse with you. 


but I am only just returned (7.45 p.m.) from London, and 
I must leave for Stoke at 8 a.m. to-morrow morning. I 
hope however that it will not be much more diflScult for 
you to come to Stoke than to Lichfield. 

We were all very much relieved by the failure of the 
prosecution, with which however I had nothing to do, as it 
was the Registrar's business to send on the representotion, 
and not mine. I was absent in the Isle of Man, and re- 
turned on the 14th September, when I suppose I found 
that it had not been sent on, and ordered it to be sent im- 
mediately, as it was received by the Archbishop on the 
15th September. Why it stayed so long in his office I do 
not know. 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. A. IlCHnELD. 

The aggrieved prosecutors were not disheartened by 
their failure, and fresh proceedings were commenced; 
public feeling had in some instances been outraged by the 
first experience of the Public Worship Act, and generally 
it was felt that imprisonment for life on account of 
conscientious scruples was rather an anachronism in the 
latter half of the liberal nineteenth century ; nevertheless 
the vicar of Hatcham was in Horsemonger Lane Gaol, 
with no reasonable hope of ever being released, and it 
seemed probable that Mr. Bodington would be the next, 
but only one of many who would find themselves in 
similar plight. It was suggested by persons of high con- 
sideration that, the first prosecution having failed, the 
bishop could arrest further proceedings, but the bishop 
thought otherwise, and his reasons he thus stated : 

The Palacjb, Lichfield, Marck 12tA, 1877. 

Mt dear Mr. Bodington, 

I have carefully read Mr. 's letter, with which I do 

not agree. I do not believe myself to be master of the 
situation. The bishops voted in a body for the reservation 
of their own discretion without appeal to the Archbishop. 
Both Archbishops voted for the appeal When the law has 
clearly transferred my discretion to the Archbishop, because 


I am patron of the living, it would not become me to inter- 
fere with the discretion of the Ai*chbishop given to him by 
a law, which in other cases would have given it to me. It 
is the only part of the act for which I am responsible ; as 
I gave no other vote. So far only am I responsible for the 
P. W. R act I can therefore conceive the law saying to 
me, how can you who voted to prevent the discretion of 
the bishop from being transferred to the Archbishop, now 
endeavour to deprive the Archbishop of his discretion and 
transfer it to the bishop. The principle is an old one that 
the bishop should not act in the case of livings of which 
he is patron. It was carried out, I think, in the case of 
Archdeacon Denison. 

I shall of course gladly welcome any opportunity which 
the Archbishop may give me of expressing my opinion on 
the case, whether on the subject matters or on the persons 
concerned. In the meantime the public during this in- 
terval in which I am free to speak will know my mind 
sufficiently from a correspondence which Mr. Andrew 
promises to publish, in which my opinions will be found 
expressed with no less clearness than his own, and will 
probably please neither the Church Union nor the Church 

" Inter Qtrumque legas." 

I remain, 

In all pastoral regard, 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. A. Lichfield. 
Eev. C. Bodington. 

The primate, as is well known, earned the gratitude of 
the Church by preventing further litigation ; Mr. Bodington 
had declared himself to be willing to follow the admoni- 
tions of his bishop, and equally determined not to recognise 
a new civil jurisdiction ; the following letter shows what 
was the bishop's action when consulted by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

Ths Palace, Lichfield, March 16th, 1877. 

My dear Mr. Bodington, 

The Archbishop has sent me your letter to him, and I 
have answered it to the effect : 


1. That I believe you and your oongregation to be 
thoroughly attached to the Church of England. 

2. That the services are such as have been adopted since 
the churches were built. 

3. That you have abstained from using vestments at my 
desire, though solicited by your congregation. 

4. That so far as I know the only points on which you 
feel strongly are : 

1. The Eastward position. 

2. Lights at the Holy Communion. 

3. The mixed chalice. 

T should advise you to let the Archbishop know, as 
stated in your letter, that you offered to give a " plain " 
celebration as often as might be required. 

May God's Spirit be with you on the 21st. Think most 
of the mind of Christ and of the peace of His Church. 

Yours most truly, 

G. A. LiCHFlEIJ). 

Rev. C. Bodington. 

Another prosecution was commenced in October, 1877, 
and the Archbishop, before taking any steps in the matter^ 
requested Mr. Bodington to meet His Grace at Lambeth. 
At the interview, which took place on November 7, the 
primate expressed his desire Uiat the matter should be 
settled by the bishop of the diocese. Mr. Bodington 
therefore at once saw the Bishop of Lichfield, and the next 
day the following letter was written to him as the result 
of the interview. 

* The Palacb, Lichfield, Nov. SM, 1877. 

My dear Mb. Bodington, 

1. My own desire is, that in all the churches in my 
diocese, the rubrics, as interpreted by the Court of Appeal, 
or as plain in themselves, should be strictly observed. 

2. But I find that in many churches the plea of custom 
is alleged to justify a deviation from the strict letter of the 
law, and these deviations are often cherished by the congre- 
gations almost as a right. 

3. Where any such claim of custom is alleged, I think 
that great caution should be used in enforcing prompt 


obedience upon an unwilling congregation, by legal pro- 

4 But I am clearly of opinion, that even a minority of 
parishioners has a right to demand that the services of the 
Church should be performed for their benefit in their own 
parish church in a strictly legal manner, at certain con- 
venient times, at which they may be able to attend, without 
seeing or hearing anything to offend their conscientious 
scruples, and at which they may be assured that no ordi- 
nance of the Church will be omitted, which they have a 
lawful right to demand. 

5. Without professing to assert any right or power to 
authorize you to continue to perform any rites which have 
been declared to be unlawful, I so far respect the feelings of 
a large majority of your congr^ation, as to refrain from 
urging you to bring all your services into exact and im- 
mediate agreement with the law. 

6. But 1 do hereby require you to offer to those 
parishioners who desire the ordinances of the Church to 
be performed in a strictly lawful manner, such convenient 
opportunities as may satisfy their just and reasonable 

7. The principles upon which this letter is based, apply 
to all churches in which any addition or omission is custo- 
mary in the performance of the services, rites, and cere- 
monies, ordered by the Prayer Book 

I remain. 

My dear Mr. Bodington, 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. A. Lichfield. 
The Reverend C. Bodington. 

The bishop's decision as given in this letter was at once 
accepted by Mr. Bodington, who forwarded the letter itself 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, together with a state- 
ment that he had undertaken to abide by the terms of the 
bishop's letter. To those who knew how implacable was 
the spirit which prompted these prosecutions, it seemed 
doubtful whether the troubles were at an end ; the bishop 
was one of those who doubted, and he wrote on 
November 16 : 

348 LIFE OF BISHOP 8ELWYN. [chap. 

The Palace, Lichfield, Nov. 16^, 1877. 

My deak Mr. Bodington, 

I fear that we are not yet out of tlic wood. 

The Archbishop has referred the question to me on the 
ground of the Preface to the Prayer Book. 

But the Preface to the Prayer Book refers to things 

But nothing is doubtful which has been decided by a 
court of competent jurisdiction. 

Tour practices, lights, mixed chalice, and eastward 
position have been so decided. 

Therefore the opponents will say there is nothing doubt- 
ful to be referred to the bishop. 

What then does the Archbishop refer to me ? A dis- 
cretion to decide whether the case shall proceed or not ? 

No, the law has taken away that discretion from the 
bishop when he is patron of the living, and has given it to 
the Archbishop. 

How then can the Archbishop give back to the bishop 
what the law has taken from him ? 

If we had consistent and charitable opponents they 
would say : 

'' The bishop is contending for the rights of congregations 
resting not upon law but upon custom ; just as the evan- 
gelical clergy defend clear transgressions of the law. on the 
plea of custom." 

But you have not consistent or charitable opponents : 
they will say : " All that Mr. Bodington does is popish, for 
which no custom can be pleaded as a defence ; all that we 
do, in omitting the Athanasian Creed, &c., is in the exercise 
of our conscientious convictions, sanctioned by custom." 

If prosecutions were carried out either against the 
omissions of the Low Church or the additions of the High 
Church, both would be condemned, but the Church would 
become too hot for any one to live in. 

We come then to the recognition of custom, side by side 
with law, and candid men will claim the benefit of it for 
both parties. 

The Low Church party will probably continue to claim 
it for themselves and deny the benefit of it to their High 


Church brethren. Therefore I conclude they will not accept 
my decision and theie will be no peace. 

Yours most truly, 

G. A. LiCHnELD. 
Eev. C. Bodington. 

But the Archbishop stayed the proceedings, and attempts 
at renewing the persecutions since the bishop's death have 
been arrested by the present bishop following the lines 
laid down by his predecessor. 

In addition to the usual troubles which arise where party 
feeling runs high within the Church, Wolverhampton was 
disturbed by the establishment of a Greek Church, in 
which an Englishman who had acted as an oiganist in 
Staffordshire officiated, having obtained ordination from 
the Greek Church. The bishop, being applied to for direc- 
tion, wrote, *' I cannot look upon Mr. in any other 

light than as a schismatic. He had no members of his 
adopted Church in Wolverhampton. The Greek Church 
had no footing and was not wanted there; a formal 
protest has been made to the authorities of the Greek 
Church against his appointment. He has not applied to 
me for recognition. My advice therefore to my clei*gy is 
not to take part with him in any of his public acts." 

During his New Zealand career Bishop Selwyn had 
always had the advantage of the advice of eminent 
lawyers, who were also devout Churchmen; he came 
himself of a legal stock, and was likely from hereditary 
association as well as from his orderly instincts and method 
of thought to pay great respect to legal decisions. The 
late Sir John Patteson and Sir John Taylor Coleridge were 
consulted by him at every step in his provision for the 
synodal action of the diocese, and for the trusteeship of 
its property ; he had also continually by his side his firm 
friend Sir W. Martin, the Chief Justice of New Zealand, 
who, after he had resigned the toils of official life, took 
part in the education of young men in S. Stephen's 
Native Maori School at Auckland ; but it is stated by one 

350 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWfN. [chap. 

who was ever in his counsels that in later years he had lost 
all faith in lawyers and legal decisions on matters affecting 
the Ghurclu It was not merely that he saw how impos- 
sible it was to endure judgments of the same court which 
destroyed each other, or to believe that they were based 
on strict principles of law, but he felt that the harsh, 
unyielding action of the law tended to widen differences, 
while the difficulty of enforcing its judgments brought the 
law itself into contempt. On this account probably he 
appointed Bishop Hobhouse, in 1874, to the office of 
Chancellor, which had been held by the Bev. Thomas 
Law. On the occasion of the solemn institution in the 
cathedral, the bishop said that his reason for appointing 
an ecclesiastic rather than a lawyer was that in all 
differences that might arise between the clergy and their 
people he much preferred exercising the Christian prin> 
ciple of conciliation and arbitration, rather than an appeal 
to litigation. He then went on to say, '* As I have known 
Bishop Hobhouse for many years, and have seen his 
power of conciliation and peacemaking among his brethren, 
I believe he may be very serviceable in carrying out a 
system of prevention which is always better than cure. 
At the same time, I know him to be well acquainted with 
ecclesiastical law and precedents." After this, Bishop Hob- 
house knelt down and the Bishop of Lichfield said, *' The 
Lord Ood, the righteous Judge of all the earth, who is no 
respecter of persons, give thee a right judgment in all 
things, through Jesus Clirist our Lord ! Amen." 

Bishop Hobhouse was obliged by ill health to resign his 
office after holding it only a few months, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Hon. Bobert Charles Herbert, who had been 
one of the bishop's pupils thirty-five years before. 

When the judgment known as the Purchas Judgment 
was given, on which at one time so much stress was laid, 
but which has since been grudgingly neutralised by the 
same tribunal which pronounced it, the bishop at once 
declared his unwillingness to proceed against any of his 


clergy who did not accept it ; he expressed at the same 
time his hope that the temper of Churchmen would 
incline to moderation and charity, and he deprecated 
dragging their differences into courts, whose very com- 
position prevented many good men from being bound in 
conscience by their decisions ; he thought that the legisla- 
ture should define the law instead of allowing judges by 
their decisions to make the law. For himself he was quite 
prepared to consecrate facing Eastwai'd, and in so doing he 
should not obscure the view of the congregation ; he did 
not agree with the outcry of Eomanist tendencies against 
many good and holy men, who, from motives of greater 
reverence and desire to conform to the rubric, had long 
consecrated in this position, but he advised that conscience 
should not be allowed to run riot so as to outweigh things 
of fundamental importance. As to the black gown he 
agreed with the Archbishop of York in thinking that 
** ministration " included preaching, and that the surplice 
was the only legal vestment ; but if the afternoon sermon 
tolerated the gown, it could only be said that it was itself 
a deviation from the rubric, and superseded the far more 
useful catechizing; the difference between the two being 
that *' catechizing meant long texts and short sermons, and 
preaching meant short texts and long sermons." 

The laity are not prone to delate their clergy to the 
authorities for neglecting their duty ; the people who fly 
to the law-courts in the name of religion are generally 
quite content with a careless and apathetic ministry ; thus 
it is that the clergy who fall short either in practice or in 
faith of the standard of the Church can generally reckon on 
doing so undisturbed. On one occasion, however, an 
aggrieved parishioner reported to his bishop that his vicar 
did not say the Creed of S. Athanasius at the times 
prescribed by the Prayer-book: to the clergyman thus 
complained of the bishop wrote the following letter : — 


The Palace, Lichfield, July 12th, 1873. 

My dear , 

I have received a protest from objecting to the 

omission of the Creed of S. Athanasius on Trinity Sunday. 
With his letter is an extract of one from you, in which 
are the following words : — 

" Our own bishop neither in public nor private haa 
urged the. matter on his clergy." 

Now that the Synod of the Province of Canterbury has 
declared the sense in which the Church directs that creed 
to be understood, I hope that you will have no further 
scruple in using the creed, as you have promised to use it, 
and in accepting it, as you have already accepted it^ as a 
document which can be proved by certain warrant of 
Holy Scripture. 

My own wish is a very small point in the matter, but I 
do most earnestly hope that you will use the creed at the 
appointed seasons. 

I send a conspectus of the creeds, drawn up to 
show, that the words objected to in the Creed of S. 
Athanasius appertain to, and are implied in, all the 

1. That a definite faith is necessary. 

2. That the maintenance of that faith to the end is a 
condition of salvation. 

I remain. 

Yours very faithfully, 

6. A. Lichfield. 

The " Conspectus of the Creeds " here mentioned was 
drawn up by the bishop and circulated widely in the 
diocese at the time when the Athanasian Creed was being 
assailed on all sides, and when a theory of future 
punishment, which it is hard to distinguish from Univer- 
saUsm, was being preached in certain pulpits, and com- 
mended by the Secular Press, to the great delight of 
Unitarian congregations, both in England and in America. 
It is believed that many persons will be glad to have a 
document so comprehensive and yet so simple, and under 
that impression it is here given. 


lfe>. ^ 

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It is only where faith is thus firmly rooted and intelli- 
gently built up, that spiritual work of the highest and 
most abiding kind is done. In Lichfield the bishop every 
now and then would put aside his distinctly episcopal 
work, and refresh his spirit with that pastoral work, the 
loss of which he often spoke of as one of the trials of his 
position. Lichfield readers will possibly recognise the 
locale of the following tale of work of this kind, which 
the bishop once undertook. 

A certain parish had 12,000 souls. The living was 
sequestrated, not so much through the fault as the misfor- 
tune of the vicar, who was a complete invalid. His creditors 
allowed him 150/. per annum to live upon. How could 
he keep a curate ? He did not keep one, and he was so 
ill that he could not stay at home. The charge of this 
huge parish was altogether neglected, so far as the Church 
w*as concerned, except that a brother clergyman from a 
parish four or five miles, off went occasionally to give one 
service on Sunday. When Lent came, his time was 
required for his own 12,000 people. Then it was that the 
bishop, seeing the destitute state of the parish, and ** having 
compassion," like his Divine master, ** on the multitude," 
relinquished almost every other duty, and came and devoted 
himself entirely to these sheep in the wilderness. He 
visited the sick, cared for the dying, buried the dead, taught 
the children, ministered in the Church, and had the satis* 
faction of seeing seventy communicants on Easter Day. 
The good work did not stop there — a wealthy London 
parish offered to maintain a mission there ; the bishop got 
a district cut off from this neglected mass, and found an 
admirable curate, who set to work steadily and in earnest. 

The people of the Black Country responded to this call — 
they fell in with the schemes and works brought before 
them. The wealthy Londoners paid most of the curate's 
salary ; the poorer members of that London parish formed 
themselves into a guild, and paid the rest. The Church- 
people of both parishes worked for the building of a 


church. The church is built The bishop was to have 
consecrated it on Easter Tuesday, 1878. IHs aliter visum^ 
He was at rest on the 11th April, and was buried in Holy 
Week. This, and this alone, broke the dramatic unity and 
perfection of the whole history. 

No one valued more highly the privilege of leisure for 
meditation and worship : this is mentioned many times 
in his letters from New Zealand, where the pressure 
of daily duties engrossed his time until, as he said, 
"We have hardly time for prayer:" he had reckoned 
such opportunities among the highest privileges of the 
members of cathedral chapters : but he always insisted 
on the combination of directly spiritual work and dealing 
with souls with intellectual pursuits and the service of 
the sanctuary. This was insisted on with unusual force 
in a letter to a very young clergyman, who had consulted 
the bishop about joining a brotherhood, and was dissuaded 
from doing so until he had acquired more experience. 

The Pala.ce; Lichfikld, iVov. 26^ 1876. 

My dear Mr. . 

I rejoice at your change of plan. Mr. is one of 

the best of men, and his work is a good and holy work. 
But such works are not good for all alike ; and I ttunk are 
especially doubtful in their probable effect upon young 
and inexperienced men. Pastoral work, like outdoor 
exercise, is good for all. The experimental knowledge of 
the heart cannot I think be learned from books or from 
meditation ; nor even from the Word of God, unless the 
commentary be sought by self-examination, tested and cor- 
rected by close acquaintance with the hearts and feelings 
of other men. The death-bed and the school, the end and the 
beginning of life, are the seasons most full of instruction, for 
the simple reason because the mind in both states is least 
under disguise. Middle age is the season of self-deception. I 
think that I have found a hospital the best school of human 
nature. The more diversified the range of characters, so 
much the more complete is the lesson. I am very glad 
therefore that you are going to a place where you will be 


plunged in the full tide of human life. You wiU be a 
better member of a brotherhood ten years hence; if it 
please God to call you to that ofl&ce. 

In his dealings with Christians of other bodies and 
communions he was entirely consistent, and like most 
persons who regulate their conduct on well-defined 
principles, he pleased neither extreme. His learning as 
well as his convictions forbad his doubting both the unten- 
able and the unsafe position of Protestant Dissenters : it 
was to save weak and unstable and ill-instructed Church- 
folk from being drawn into Dissent that he ventured, while 
an Eton tutor, on the then rare experiment of evening 
services at Windsor: the dissenting teacher, a man of 
mark beyond the limits of his own body, had already 
gained an influence over Church-people whom the Church 
had neglected, and was not well pleased at finding his 
supply of proselytes arrested: but forty years later he 
stood among the crowd around the grave in Lichfield Close 
offering no mean tribute to the memory of him who on 
conscientious grounds had opposed him. In New Zealand 
it was the bishop's fate to discover in his earlier journeys 
that the Wesleyans had in many parts of the Southern 
Island carefully instructed their simple people in the 
differences that existed among Christians, rather than in 
Christianity itself: but he did not on that account dream 
of withdrawing from any part of the diocese which had 
been entrusted to him: his object was to minimise the 
difference and so to aim at union. Among the islands of 
the Pacific the case was different ; here were 200 islands 
spread over many degrees of latitude, and having hardly 
anything in common, except their unhealthiness, which 
caused the English-speaking teachers on the few islands 
that had been so occupied to expedite the perfecting of a 
system of a native ministry. With these teachers, chiefly 
Presbyterians and Congregationalists, from Scotland, from 
England, or from America, and representing the divisions 



into which Presbyterianism has been split, he was on 
friendly terms ; he lent them all moral support ; he gave 
their missionaries free passages in his Church ship, and 
so far from attempting to proselytize, he never lost an 
opportunity of exalting them and their influence in the 
eyes of their people. Had all these islands been compacted 
into a continent where divers forms of Christianity were 
making their influence felt, consistency would have im- 
pelled him to another line of action : as it was, he looked 
forward to the time when the indigenous Christian con- 
gregations, on whom no imputation of schism could lie, 
would seek to be united to the Catholic Church, and then 
he would have no difficulty in receiving them. So in 
England, while no man was less disposed to ignore 
fundamental diflerences, no man was less willing to 
magnify small things. On a certain occasion he was 
asked by a clergyman in his diocese whether he would 
receive for Confirmation two persons who desired to be 
confirmed but who were unwilling to sever their con- 
nection with the Wesleyans, and he replied: — ^"If the 
couple are willing to abide by John Wesley's rule of 
coming to church to receive the Holy Communion 
and bringing their children to church to be baptized, I 
am willing to receive them to Confirmation on your certi- 
ficate, and shall no more question their attendance to hear 
any Wesleyan preacher than if he were one of our own 
lay readers." The Roman Catholics he treated with the 
same respect which he accorded to others, who let him 
alone to do his work in peace ; and he honoured the work 
which they did while he regretted the many openings of 
which he had had the first opportunity of availing him- 
self but faUed for lack of help. During the Waikato 
war he thankfully acknowledged the courtesy of the 
Roman Catholic chaplain who lent him the use of his 
chapel for Divine Service, having previously removed every- 
thing that could offend any sensitive Protestant who 
might be found among the soldiers. His fairness in deal- 

viil] toleration WITHOUT COMPROMISE. 367 

ing with Eomanists was the more creditable, inasmuch as 
he was constantly accused of sympathising too much with 
them, and was made the victim of the " No Popery " cry 
which is the ever ready resource of the weak and the 
malignant. The Bomanists for their part knew better, and 
their native converts were led to believe that the English 
Church was but a part of the system which kept the 
country in subjection. At a remote spot in the heart of 
the colony, he was once asked by some Roman Catholic 
natives, whether he was not obliged to have troops to pro- 
tect him and his property at Auckland ? For some time 
he was puzzled to find any basis, however improbable, on 
which so wild a story could rest ; at last he found that it 
referred to the fact that an old pensioner sergeant from 
one of the pensioner villages founded by the Government, 
used to come to St. John's College to drill the English and 
Maori boys; so he said, "Tell your good priest that I 
don't keep soldiers at Auckland to protect me, but ask 
him whether the Pope is not obliged to keep French 
soldiers at Eome to protect him?" With all his toler- 
ance and courtesy there was no sort of compromise, 
nothing from which the most ignorant could infer that 
differences of creed were of no account. Rather, his 
acts of kindness and sympathy, interpreted by the rule 
which he laid down of never joining in the religious ser- 
vice of other bodies, even on the most remote island, 
tended to mark more clearly the importance of the difiTer- 
ence which separated but did not estrange. It may 
truly be said that had the Home Episcopate during the 
last hundred years possessed more of the Selwyn spirit of 
wisdom, meekness, and firmness, Wesley's work would 
probably not have been lost to us, and Rome would now be 
poorer than she is, and the Anglican Communion would 
have retained aud utilised those two reforming movements 
which, starting from opposite standpoints, set forth the 
necessity of personal sanctity, and protested against world- 
liness and apathy, 

A A 2 

^ I 


With his strong convictions fortified by learning and 
conscience he ever insisted on the value of religious educa- 
tion. The schools at Eton and Windsor, in which he took 
so warm an interest, were but the prelude to his patient 
labours for Christian training at tlie Antipodes and in Lich- 
field. Beyond caring for the state of parochial schools 
throughout his diocese, he gave unswerving support to the 
schools at Denstone; herein he was following in the 
steps of Bishop Lonsdale, who replied to some per- 
sons who suspected romaniziog doctrines in the founder's 
intentions, " This is the Church's doctrine : you may dis- 
approve of it if you wlQ, but as Churchmen you have 
no right to complain of those who follow it." On the open- 
ing of the school in 1873 he preached the sermon in the 
temporary chapel, formally instituted the provost, and 
publicly expressed his confidence in the future of the 
school, as the " home of sound learning and religious edu- 
cation." The remedy for board schools he found in the 
clergyman himself being the daily teacher of religion. In 
a well- worked parish of moderate size there ought, he con- 
sidered^ to be no diflBculty : " the clergyman sooner or later 
would have everything his own way, for Dissent has no 
root save in the indolence or the dissensions of the Church. 
Board schools would be innocuous where the majority of 
the people were attached to the Church and to their parish 
priest : candidates for Confirmation would not be wanting 
where the clergyman himself taught in both Sunday and 
daily school, and the bishop's notice would be a mere 
almanac and not a charge to the clergy." 

The increase of the Home Episcopate, and especially the 
division of his own See, found a very ardent advocate in 
the Bishop of Lichfield. His arguments were so copious 
that they seemed to be inexhaustible, and he never re- 
peated them. In 1873 he made a speech, which only he 
could have made, in Convocation, on the report of the 
Committee of the Upper House on this question. He 
said : — 


" I remember that about thirty years ago an opinion was 
started and accepted by many that there ought to be no 
more bishops until they were provided with seats in the 
House of Lords, and 4,000/. or 5,000Z. a year. There are 
two bishops now present who would not have been present 
if that opinion had been allowed to prevail. I mean the 
Bishops of Bangor and St. Asaph. It was proposed, to 
the eternal disgrace of the Church, that one of these bish- 
oprics should be aboUshed, in order to found a bishopric 
in the rich city of Manchester, and I believe that, had it 
not been for the exertions of the late Earl of Powis, that 
scheme would have been carried out. Much of what we 
have heard has turned on the question whether it is neces- 
sary that a bishop should have a seat in the House of 
Ijords and 4,000/. or SfiOOl, a year. The Bishop of London 
has said that it is not expedient that there should be 
different classes of bishops. Before the disestablishment of 
the Irish Church there were four classes of bishops. The 
Irish bishops had seats by rotation. We have one bishop, 
who is not in the House of Lords, waiting for succession. 
We have a Bishop of Sodor and Man, who never had a seat in 
that assembly. Then there are the English bishops, like our- 
selves, who have seats in the House of Lords. Thus there 
were four classes of bishops carrying on their work with 
out any feeling in the public mind of any difference in their 
status — whether they were in the House of Lords or out of 
it. During the fifty years that Bishop Wilson was Bishop 
of Sodor and Man, I would ask if any one felt less 
respect for him because he was not a member of the House 
of Lords ? As a member of the House of Lords, I cer- 
tainly do not wish to be turned out of it ; but I do not 
see why there should not be nineteen or twenty bishops 
waiting for succession, as there is one at the present time. 
With regard to the question of income, that has been said 
to be a matter of great moment. Many bishops have 
spoken of their own experience, and I may speak of mine. 
I began with an income of 1,200/. a year. After thirteen 
years it was reduced to 600/. After eighteen years it was 
reduced to 400/. At the end of twenty-six years it was 
raised to 4,500/. But amidst all these changes I never 
found the slightest difference in position, in influence, or 
in my means of exercising hospitality. I carried out in 


my diocese abroad as much hospitality as I have been able 
to carry out in the diocese of Lichfield The only diflfer- 
ence was in the style of entertainment : — 

* bene erat non piscibns urbe petitis 
Sed polio atque hoedo.' 

" With regard to the extension of the Episcopate I may 
speak with some authority, having taken part in multiply- 
ing bishops in New Zealand from one to seven. This large 
extension was at one time considered quite chimerical. 
And when the proposal was first made to the Duke of 
Newcastle, he asked where was the money to come from. 
I said to him — ' I hope you will not interfere to prevent 
the multiplication of bishops, because many things are not 
necessary in New Zealand which are necessary in England. 
Give us authority to consecrate as many bishops as we 
can,' His Grace said — * Do as you will, you are the best 
judges/ Now what do we desire to do ? There are four 
points which ought to be kept clearly before our minds. 
The first is — What is the work to be done ? The second 
is — How many men are required to do it ? The third is — 
What funds are available for the maintenance of those 
bishops ? And then — What portion of that fund will be 
available for the maintenance of each bishop? Now, is 
not that exactly the principle on which the Ecclesiastical 
Commission was founded and has been carried out ? . . . 
The income of the Bishopric of Lichfield is made up out 
of the bishoprics of Durham, Winchester, and others ; and 
the Bishop of Bochester is receiving part of the funds 
taken from other bishoprics. Unless we are able to assume 
that the present number of men are able to do the work 
they are expected to do, the same principle should be 
extended. If we find it necessary that the number should 
be increased, if we find that the work is greater than the 
,men can do, there must be a further subdivision of income, 
in order that a sufficient number of men may be maintained 
to do the work in a satisfactory manner. Something ha^s 
been said about the necessity of a certain income being 
essential to the position and influence of a bishop. Now, 
I deny that altogether. Every man in England is rated 
according to his means, and every one is expected to do 
what his neighbours do. If a diocese was divided or 


reduced, as the Bishop of Ely said, there would be fewer 
parishes to contribute to, and public opinion as to the 
income of the bishop would be much changed. Now, let 
us say at once that we are as a body insufficient for the 
work to which we are appointed — that we need not a 
small, but a large extension of our numbers — that we are 
adopting expedients which are good, but not sufficient for the 
purpose — ^that we are providing suffragan bishops, coadjutor 
bishops, and other aids ; but unless our numbers are supple- 
mented, we cannot effectively fulfil the work required of us. 
To what purpose are the surplus revenues of the cathedrals 
now being applied ? To the subdivision of large parishes. 
And why? Because the clergyman in such parishes is 
unequal for the work intrusted to him. We have carried 
out a scheme for the benefit of parishes, but not of dioceses. 
And how can we resist the conclusion that it is necessary 
to do for dioceses what is necessary for our parishes — to 
make the work a real work ? Now, what is the character 
of the work of our bishops ? Half a century ago some 
thought that the bishops had no work whatever. When 
the proposal was first made that there should be a Bishop 
of Capetown, it was asked — Why appoint a bishop ? Will 
not an archdeacon do ? The public mind was not at that 
time sufficiently informed as to the spiritual duties with 
which the bishops are charged. In the case of my own 
diocese, an aged member of the Church at Wolverhampton 
told me that he was one of three thousand who were con- 
firmed in one day, after an interval of seven years since 
the last Confirmation. Now, under such circumstances, 
was it likely that the public mind should be well informed 
as to the nature of the Episcopal office ? We have lost 
ground. We ought to be multiplied, so as to be able to 
become acquainted with every parish, and to spend a day 
or two every year in each parish. Until that is the 
case, we shaU never have the Episcopal office presented to 
the public mind as it ought to be. With respect to the 
multiplication of confirmations, a good deal has been said 
about the decrease in the number of candidates. An 
increase of from 15 to 20 per cent, has taken place in my 
own diocese. Now, why are the laity so ignorant on this 
subject ? Because they seldom see a confirmation. This 
ignorance will soon be removed if confirmations are held 


annually in every parish. Now, with respect to another 
point — Ordination ; there is a general complaint now, and 
it was stated at the Leeds Congress, that examinations for 
holy orders are more hurried than they ought to ba I 
think the bishops should have more time for examination 
and communicating personally with the candidates; and 
for that purpose there must not be too many candidates at 
each ordination. My diocese contains a population of 
1,300,000 persons, and it is impossible that the work can 
be properly done by less than three — certainly not less 
than two — persons. Then, again, the institution of new 
incumbents to the cure of souls by the bishop in person is 
a most important element of good. If we multiply our 
bishops — provided their work touches the souls and con- 
sciences of men — no question will be raised as to their 
incomes or their social position. The people will say — 
this is a man who has done good to our souls, and we will 
follow his instructions. "Whatever may be said to the 
contrary, I firmly hold to the principle that we must put 
the work to be done first, and let a voice go forth from 
Convocation to the whole of England that, whatever sacri- 
fice may be required, the English bishops are ready in 
God's name and for the sake of the Church to make it" 

At a later date he said at the Shropshire Conference : 

" We have a great variety of associations, many of them 
excellent in themselves, and aiming at the highest objects ; 
so we have artillery and engineers, cavalry and infantry ; 
but we must have a commander-in-chief. Our general 
staff has been starved. I do not wish to magnify my 
office ; at all events it is no personal aggrandisement, for 
a bishop is lowered rather than exalted by the multiplica- 
tion of his order. I wish to be reduced one-half by being 
one of twice the present number of bishops. The exigency 
of the work requires it, and everything ought to give way 
to that. No bishopric, as a rule, ought to contain more 
than 500 parishes or more than 500,000 souls. That 
number of population ought, if there were no dissent, to 
yield annually 6,000 candidates for confirmation. The 
supply of that number of parishes would require thirty 
ordinations and thirty institutions annually. The bishop 


ought to be able to visit each parish once in three years, 
and to give a whole day to each for confirmation and in- 
spection of the schools. To know his clergy and to be 
known of them is as much the duty of a bishop as it is 
the duty of a pastor to know his sheep and to be known 
of them." 

In the following year the bishop uttered his laments at 
the needless hindrances in the way of dividing his see. 
At the Derby Archidiaconal Conference, he said : 

"The surplus revenues of the bishopric and cathedral 
estates, brought into a common fund and supplemented by 
large gifts from private benefactors, have supplied an endow 
ment to the vast number of new parishes which have been 
formed during the last thirty-five years. It is marvellous 
that out of this common fund, to which the richer bishop- 
rics contribute annually a large sum, not one penny is 
allowed to be spent on the division of dioceses. The over- 
worked parish priest may have his parish divided and the 
new districts endowed ; but the overworked bishop is to 
have no relief unless the laity come forward to provide 
the endowment. In the case of Truro this has been done, 
and the Bishop of Exeter will now be relieved of Cornwall; 
but St Albans still hangs on hand, though the Bishop of 
Winchester has given up his London house for the endow- 
ment of the new see. When I shall obtain the division 
of the diocese of Lichfield it is impossible to guess. The 
hindrance of property and money as usual stands in the 
way. A new bishop must have not less than 3,000/. a 
year, towards which I must not contribute more than 300/. 
a year.^ It is all in vain that we can point to colonial 
bishops, happy, useful, respected, upon less than a third 
of that income, with needs tenfold greater than can befall 
a Church by law established. It must not be. Bishops 
must be of a certain type, their income must be fixed by 
statute ; those who are below the scale must be raised up 
to it ; those who are above that scale must be pared down 
to it; the surplus must go to multiplying parishes; but 

^ Because 4,2007. is the minimum income of the bishops of the old sees. 


for a new bishopric we must wait until 100,000/. can be 
raised. Thus the lower object is placed above the higher. 
' Episcopus/ says Bede, is ' nomen operis ; ' but we have 
made it a name of ' income and state.' '' 

It was with a due sense of the paramount importance 
of dividing his See that he did, for him, a very unusual 
thing, and refused to subscribe towards the extension of 
the Denstone Schools. His sufficient reasons he set forth 
in the following letter : — 

The Palace, Lichfield, Nov. 17«&, 1877. 

My deab Mb, Meynell, 

On the 27th September, 1877, at the Diocesan Con- 
ference I asked the diocese for 50,000Z., to meet another 
sum of 50,000^., to be raised by the diocese of Lincoln. 
The sum of 100,000/. to yield 3,000/. per annum, the 
income required by Government, has to be supplied before 
the Bishopric of Southwell can be created. 

To this day I have not received one shilling. 

You have announced publicly, that 50,000Z. (the same 
sum exactly as my requisition) is needed for EUesmere 
Lower Middle School. 

Towards this amount you have already received 10,000/. 
from twenty-eight donors of from 1,000/. to 100/. 

It is not for me to estimate the comparative importance 
of the two objects : any more than to make a comparison 
between Ardingly School and a Colonial Bishopric. But 
the plain result of the whole matter is this : that as I am 
as much determined to have my new bishopric as Canon 
Woodard is to have his schools ; and as there is much 
more pubUc sympathy with the schools than with the 
bishopric, I must save up all the money that I can to 
meet the heavy tax which is laid upon us as the price of 
the new bishopric. If I had been allowed to do what we 
did in New Zealand, viz., readjust and divide our incomes, 
as often as new bishops were required, I would gladly 
have given a large contribution to Ellesmere out of my 
remaining moiety : because when once released from the 
"pomp and circumstance" of an English bishopric, I 
could have lived down to my own needs, instead of up to 
other people's notions. If the financial prospects should 

viih] POLITICS. 366 

brighten and the Bishopric of Southwell be speedily estab- 
lished, I may live to contribute to your last and most 
difficult 10,000/. 

Yours most truly, 
G. A. Lichfield. 


Probably no greater trial vexed the bishop in his 
English Episcopate than the dull and obstinate obstruction 
which legislation put in the way of his plans for the good 
of the Church ; it was likely that he should feel them more 
keenly than those who had never experienced the freer 
life of a Church that was self-contained and self-govern- 
ing. And this leads naturally to the question, what were 
his politics as a citizen ? As in course of years he had lost 
aU faith in lawyers, so he had abandoned all hopes of any 
politician caring for the interests, spiritual or temporal, of 
the Church, where such care imperilled the success or the 
power of his party. And as in Church matters no section 
or school claimed him as their leader or representative, so 
in secular politics he ranked under the standard of neither 
party. If to tolerate no sort of abuse, however ancient, 
or respectable, or fortified by prescription — if to make 
every institution to work up to the full limit of its 
capacity, and to expect from every man an amount of 
service limited only by his powers — if to insist that per- 
sonal interest and individual feeling are to be sacrificed 
without hesitation to the real welfare of the Church or 
the community — ^if to hold these convictions and to act 
up to them at whatever cost is revolutionary or radical, 
then assuredly during his whole career George Augustus 
Selwyn deserved to be called revolutionary and radical 
If, on the other hand, to revere ancient precedents, and 
carefully to follow and preserve whatever of good and 
useful they possessed — to have studied the works of great 
men of bygone ages, and so to have assimilated their 
precepts as to find in them principles of guidance amid 
all the novel combinations and emergencies of later times — 
to be suspicious of the boastings of the empiricism which 


despises antiquity — ^to be always loyal, obedient to 
authority, without thought of self, — ^if these are the criteria 
of reactionary conservatism, then, indeed, throughout his 
whole life he was a reactionary conservative. 

Free of both parties, he was a Beformer where abuses 
demanded to be rectified, and a Conservative where attacks 
were made, either wantonly or unjustly, on institutions 
that were fulfilling their mission. The disestablishment 
of the Church in Ireland he called spoliation, but he 
never attempted to defend or to palliate the abuses which 
bi-ou^^ht on that Church the changes which have befallen 
it While standing on the ancient ways he never stood 

In nothing was the bishop more sensitive than in regard 
to the exercise of patronage ; his opinion was sought for 
under peculiar circumstances. A clergyman in another 
diocese, for whom a living was being held under bonds of 
refidgnation, was struck by a pamphlet written by the 
Bishop of Lincoln in which such bonds were strongly con- 
demned : looking forward to being beneficed in Lichfield 
diocese the clergyman sought the advice of his future 
bishop, and received it in the following terms: — 

" There are very few points, if any, on which I differ 
from the Bishop of Lincoln, and on the subject of bonds 
of resignation I entirely agree with him. His distinction 
is a very clear and sound one, that they are lawful in the 
eye of the law, but not justified upon any sound principle. 
I would never advise a patron to execute such a bond, 
nor the son, in whose favour it was made, to take benefit 
of it." 

This was an instance of his reforming instinct; his 
action in regard to the Burials Bill was an illustration of 
his strong conservatism* It was no new question to him ; 
he had provided against any such claim in New Zealand ; 
but the claim was made partly because Dissenters neglected 
to fence their cemeteries which had been given to them, 

vin.] BURIALS BILL. 367 


and partly because they disliked to be marked as Dis- 
senters ; and when the same question confronted the 
bishop in England his mind was quite clear. He said 
only a few months before his deaths " I have no concessions 
to ofiFer, no compromises to accept. I hold that our burial- 
grounds belong to the National Church, to be governed by 
its laws ; not to the nation, to be dealt with as they please. 
If Parliament wish to take them, they must take them by 
force ; and then, as dutiful and loyal citizens, we submit." 
In February, 1878, he was chosen to present to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury the declaration signed by 15,000 
clergymen and by more than 30,000 laymen of position 
and education against the proposal which the Earl of 
Harrowby had made in Parliament. On presenting this 
address the Bishop said : — 

" In administering for ten years a diocese with a popu- 
lation of 1,300,000 souls, I have never met with a single 
grievance in connection with this burial question. The 
grievance now alleged as so important for furnishing a 
claim to break the ancient laws of the Church of England 
has never come within my knowledge. I have made many 
inquiries on the subject among the clergy, and have never 
yet found a single clergyman who coidd tell me that, in 
the course of his ministry, he has met with such a grievance 
as that which has been put forward as a justification for 
this alteration in the Burial Laws. On the other hand, 
the grievance proposed to be inflicted on the clergy is so 
great, that I, for my part, should concur with the whole 
body of my clergy in offering the utmost possible opposi- 
tion to the Bill in all. its stages." 

In the same spirit the bishop advocated measures for 
"Church Defence," an inconvenient phrase which is 
generally limited to the exclusive defence of temporalities. 
He would have sacrificed everything external for the sake 
of the smallest particle of the deposit of truth ; but while 
he had surrounded himself with no state or dignity save 
the moral grandeur of a holy life and a great example, and 

368 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. viii. 

led the simplest of lives, he was desirous of counteracting 
the groundless statements which were assiduously circu* 
lated in newspapers, to the misleading of ignomnt people, 
as to the claims, the history, and the constitution of the 
Church ; and this he thought would best be done by news- 
papers and other publications written in the interests of 
truth. He was not enamoured of the scheme of controversial 
lecturers, and hated discussions by which nobody was con- 
vinced ; and he held that the attacks of the Secidarists and 
of the Liberation Society would be best met by a Church 
united for action by previous counsels and deliberation. 

At the root of all his greatness there was the pro- 
foundest humility and sense of personal unworthiness. To 
a young clergyman who revealed to him his own burdens 
the bishop wrote, " Your letter is an epitome of my own 
past life.. Continual self-reproach for (I) neglect of 
opportunities, (2) want of self-control ; but what is worse 
than all is the constant presence of these thoughts with- 
out adequate correction of the defects. They have been 
with me a continual thorn in the flesh, and messengers of 
Satan. There is no other thought in which I can find 
comfort than in the hope that these buffetings have 
tended to subdue another enemy, self-complacence and 
pride, and to teach me to rely only on the grace of God as 
made perfect in weakness; I have never sought for any 
ofl&ce nor work ; all that I have ever held have been offered 
or thrust upon me ; once in the work, its duties have to 
be done; the very sense of unworthiness stirring and 
driving the laggard spirit; not as urging one to do his 
best ; for the very point of our compunction is that we do 
not do our best, but pra)nLDg God to accept whatever we 
can do for the sake of the perfect obedience of His 
dear Son. I commend to you the same thoughts of 
comfort which have sustained me under the same diffi- 
culties, and pray that God may make your burden lighter, 
and enable you to bear it better." 

1878.] FAILING HEALTH. 369 



A SPLENDID physique and almost unabated vigour of mind 
justified a hope that services so invaluable would be con- 
tinued to the Church at large and to the diocese of 
Lichfield especially, far beyond the span of years allotted 
to man. The bishop did not lool^ lilce a man who had 
nearly completed his seventh decade, and when the end 
came it came with brief warning. In the beginning of 
1878 there was no lessening of labour, nor any wish to 
lessen it. Anxiety for the eflBLciency of the great central 
institutions on which the well-being of the diocese de- 
pended, led to the appointment of a particular Sunday in 
January for a simultaneous Offertory in all the churches of 
the diocese in behalf of the General Diocesan Fund, which 
assisted the Theological College, Diocesan Inspection, the 
Poor Benefice Fund, the Clergy Widow and Orphan Fund, 
and the Clergy Pension Fund. The usual arrangements 
for Confirmation had been made, and had partially been 
carried out; the prisoners in the County Gktol had re- 
ceived a special visit from the bishop, and had been 
ministered to by him with no common interest or earn- 
estness. Other Confirmations were approaching, when it 
became necessary that the bishop should consult a London 
physician. On Shrove Tuesday he returned to Lichfield, 
and the same evening, soon after his arrival, went with 
his accustomed Icindness to see a friend who was ill. His 
appearance caused great anxiety ; his face was flushed, 

370 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap, ix 

and the left side seemed to be drawn down, as though hy 
paralysis; two days later he was again hard at work 
writing, as his manner was, on large sheets of letter 
paper, carefully folded, his review of the case of S. 
Andrew's, Wolverhampton, which had been remitted to 
him from the Archbishop. To a friend who called on 
him he talked a little on the subject, and said 
inter alia that ''Mr. Elliot, of Bournemouth, had ad- 
mitted that the Low Church party did not act up to 
the fiubrics, and that he must tolerate both parties in 
slight and inofiensive deviations. De minimis n^m curat 

Ember week followed, and three out of the four examin- 
ing chaplains were away ; an unusual amoimt of labour 
therefore fell on the bishop, although the number of can- 
didates was below the average. It was an ominous sign 
that he, always so careful and punctual, and doubly so in 
all matters relating to his ordinations, had forgotten that 
he would have to address the candidates on the Wednes- 
day evening on the Gospel of the week. He devoted, 
however, a longer time than generally was possible to 
personal intercourse with each candidate. He was much 
pleased with them, and his hopeful spirit rose with the 
prospect of good, earnest, sensible men coming forward 
for holy orders. 

On the eve of the Ordination Day he addressed the 
candidates with great earnestness and spiritual force on 
the Prayer of Humble Access in the Communion Ser- 
vice, especially on the words, "that we may evermore 
dwell in Him, and He in us," and the passage from 
St. John vi. 56. There were present those who had 
listened to his words on similar occasions both in New 
Zealand and in England, and they remarked that although 
they had heard greater intellectual efforts, they had never 
witnessed so wonderful a manifestation of spiritual power. 
They sang Mr. Whytehead's Ordination Hymn, which 
pleased him much, for he had recently been reading 


the memoir of his first chaplaiQ, written by the Dean of 

After the Ordination Sunday there were increased signs 
of weakness and of illness, and he was urged to rest and 
to give up the Shropshire Confirmations ; but he said that 
fresh air and change of scene would do him good, and 
especially he wished to " go and confirm those dear boys 
at Shrewsbury." * 

^ It is the custom at Shrewsbury School that wheneyer a judge or a 
bishop visits it the head boy asks for a holiday in a Latin letter. Bishop 
Selwyn was wont to answer the boy's request in a Latin epigram. When 
the Public School Commissioners removed the bishop (= pontiff or bridge- 
maker) from the office of visitor, nothing remained but to get the boys a 
holiday from time to time. The first epigram which he wrote after his 
deposition was as follows : 

** Viro Roverendo 

Henrico G. Moss, A.M. 
Epus Lichf. S.P.D., 
Jam rude donatus. 

" Die mihi, Pontificis ne munere fimgar inani, 

Quo teneam flumen ponte, Sabrina, tuum — 
Anglia nempe sues jactant et Cambria pontes, 

Tertius immisso plaustra vapore vehit — 
Quem nunc sedificem (proh ! fatum triste) videtur 

Solus ' Asellorum pons ' superesse mihi — 
Nil habeo quod agam, nisi dispensare Papaver, 

Cessandi dominus desidisecj^ue pater — 
Nil mihi Musarum cultus, nil cura Minervse, 

Te solam seditnus, lenta vacuna, colo— 
^ Lene, ^bemantOm corpus, medicamen adimple 

Officio functum confice Pontificem." 

In 1878 the Bishop wrote the following jeu d* esprit to the Head Master, 
the Rev. H. G. Moss :— 

" Dum sub monte Salem poscebat £tona salino, 
' Mos pro lege ' f uit norma latrodnii : 

Sic ubi pontificem Salopes lucrantur alumni, 
' Mos pro lege ' sales desipnisse probat. 

Annuit irridens pastor, moremque &tetur, 
%yiM modo accedat 99^tpo¥, esse ratum.*' 


372 LIFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

His coadjutors helped him as affection prompted ; but 
he got through the Shrewsbury Confirmation with much 
pain, and in the vestry he said, " I believe I have come 
to the end of my tether." His friends had observed that 
his address to the newly-confirmed was affectionate and 
fatherly, even more than was customary, and they asked 
him how, amid so much weakness and pain, he could 
speak with such vigour; he replied, "I held on by my 
hands and feet." The next day he returned to Lichfield, 
and devoted himself to the duty of resting as diligently 
as all his life he had given himself to work. " Qvod vult 
valde vult " was always true of him. He took interest in 
all that went on, was pleased with a hymn on Ordination 
Vows, which had been sent to him in manuscript, and his 
old sailor's sympathies were much stirred by the loss of 
H.M.S. Eurydice, His sufferings and weakness increased, 
and on Saturday, April 6th, when Bishop Abraham came 
to see him early in the morning he said, " I have passed 
through the fire since I saw yon, but I pray that I may be 
perfected through suffering like the Captain of our Salva- 
tion." In his wanderings he had said, " I am getting 
idle ; who is seeing to that work ? " His life for fifty 
years had been incessant toil and self-discipline, but his 
humility was as great as his energy, his ideal of duty 
loftier than he could attain to. It was proposed to him 
that he should receive the Holy Communion, and for three 
quarters of an hour he gave fixed attention, and spoke 
generally of faith in Christ, and to each person present he 
said some appropriate words; to his elder son he com- 
mitted " the care of the orphans," ^ and when he had blessed 
him he added, " The blessing of his father shall be npon 
the crown of the head of him who is separate from his 
brethren." By a wonderful effort of a devout will he 
joined in the Gloria in Excelsis, and gave the Benediction. 

On Tuesday, April 9, Bishop Abraham, who was going 
to administer Confirmation at a distant spot, visited his 

^ The children of Lord Justice Selwyn. 

1878.] LAST HOURa 373 

friend before six o'clock in the morning. The curtains 
in his bedroom were still drawn, and th^light of day was 
streaming into the room through the openings. Psalm cxxx. 
had just been read, and when the words " My soul fleeth 
to Thee before the morning watch " were uttered, he added 
in tones almost startling from their distinctness, '* I say 
before the morning watcL" All were struck with the 
strong feeling of thankfulness to God which he felt for 
the sufferings through which he had been carried. The 
words in the Visitation Service, " to be made like unto 
Christ," in suffering were very precious to him. Amid 
the wanderings caused by bodily weakness, his thoughts 
were with the distant islands for whom he had done so 
much, and to whose evangelisation, when his own active 
labours had ended, he had given his son. At one time he 
would exclaim, with kindling eye, " A light to lighten the 
Gentiles ; " at another he would murmur, " They will all 
come back," as indeed the larger portion of those Maoris 
who apostatised have already returned; and then in 
the soft Maori language, which for a quarter of a century 
was familiar to him as his mother tongue, he would say, 
" It is all light." On Thursday, April 11, the end came. 
He had been unconscious for hours, but gave signs of 
pleasure at hearing Bonar's hymn, " A few more years 
shall roll," which had been sung at the consecration of the 
burial-ground at the workhouse at Stoke, and had much 
affected the old pauper inmates. About noon, surrounded 
by those who loved him well, who had shared his counsels 
and his labours on either side of the globe, the Com- 
mendatory prayer having been said by Bishop Abraham, 
he entered into his rest. A few moments there were of deep 
silence, and then, as was fitting, all stood up and recited 
the Apostles' Creed, never more thoroughly realising the 
mystery, or more thankfully professing faith in "the 
resurrection of the body and the life everlasting." 

On the following Tuesday the body of the great bishop 
was laid, according to his own expressed desire, in a grave 

B fi 2 

374 LIFE OP BISHOP SELWYN. [chap. ix. 

dug out of the rock, on which the cathedral of St. Chad 
is built, and by, the side of the grave of his old friend 
Dean Champneys. The pressing duties of Passiontide 
did not prevent 600 clergymen from paying the last 
tribute of aflFection, and following him in orderly pro- 
cession to his tomb : there were gathered on that occa- 
sion men who had held the foremost positions in the 
State and in the Church : there were also crowds of 
humbler folk who had been made to feel day by day 
that the bishop had always looked on poverty as having 
a special claim on him. 

Bishops came from America and from all the colonies of 
the British Empire to attend the Lambeth Conference: 
they had been invited by the bishop and the dean and 
chapter to visit Lichfield, and worship in their " holy and 
beautiful house/' and many a bishop had looked forward 
to the counsel that would be taken at Lichfield before the 
formal work of the Conference should begin; but some, 
before they left their own homes, had heard the sorrowful 
tidings, others learned it at ports where they stopped on 
their voyage, and all alike felt that the great attraction 
which was drawing them from their widely distant homes 
to meet at Lambeth had lost much of its power : they 
went, many of them, to Lichfield to stand by the grave 
of the friend whose guests they had hoped to be, and 
as in the past pilgrims have gone to Bemerton through 
love of George Herbert, to Frome through reverence for 
Bishop Ken, to Hursley as the home of the revered Author 
of the Christian Tear, to Aberdeen as the scene of Seabuiy's 
consecration, to Westminster and to Lambeth as the sources 
whence the leaders of the hosts of the Lord have received 
mission to compass the strongholds of heathenism, or to 
build up young churches on new soils, so for many years 
to come from Australia, from New Zealand, from America, 
will travellers find their way to Lichfield out of reverence 
for the memory of the wise master-buUder who founded 
the Church of New Zealand, and laboured hard to bind 


together all tbe Churches of our Communion in the bonds 
of the Spirit. Other feet have already trodden down the 
green turf which was placed around the bishop's tomb : 
the colliery folk whom he loved so well, and who in their 
rough fashion understood and valued his care for them 
who remembered his conduct on the occasion of the dire 
PelsaU Colliery Accident, when he stood between the living 
and the dead and in tender words comforted the mourners 
and bade the survivors learn the lessons which the calamity 
taught, crowded into Lichfield at the usual Whitsuntide 
holiday, and they too paid their tribute at the bishop's 
grave. The circumstance was commemorated in graceful 
verses which the author kindly allows to appear here. 

G. A. s. 


Tuesday in Whitsun Week, Lichfield, 1878. 

'* TJie feet shall tread it dovm, even the feet of the poor and the steps of the 


" In Lichfield's holiest burial-place. 

Just where the earliest sunbeams fall, 
A new-made grave is decked with flowers 
Beneath the old Cathedral wall 

" Why is the turf around that grave 
Trampled with marks of many feet ? 
And where the grass was greenest, now 
All black and miry as the street ? 

" It is the Whitsun holiday, 

The town is filled with working men. 
And all the livelong yesterday 

They came and gazed, and came again. 


" Poor of the flock he loved so well. 

Well may ye crowd — ye sons of toil ! 
There lies no truer working man 
In any grave on English soil. 

" The hand that held the pastoral staff, 
That traced the Cross on infant's brow. 
Had hewn the oak, had furled the sail. 
Had reaped the corn, and held the plough. 

" The voice that soothed with tender words 
The mourner and the little child, 
In stem brief accents of command 
Was heard above the tempest wild. 

" His life was work ; and when the springs 
Of mortal strength began to fail. 
And Keason's clear defining light 
Was shrinking in behind the veil, 

" The friend who watched beside his bed. 
With ear intent to hear if aught 
Yet faltered on the dying lips, 

One mournful utterance faintly caught 

" In low words murmured heavily — 

* Who's seeing to that work V he said ; 
Is there no answer to that cry 
Saviour of the faithful dead ! 

" Thy workers die — but for their work, 
Can that too die ? ^ faithless word ! 
The Besurrection and the Life 

Of all true work art Thou, Lord ! " 

^ **God buries His workers, but carries on the work." — John Wesley. 




This biography will fail in symmetry unless some few 
pages are devoted to an attempt to sketch the various gifts 
and virtues, the elements of that personality which has been 
the subject of these volumes. The very thought of this 
necessity reveals the great difficulty of the task. In one 
respect, indeed, the task is easy. Bishop Selwyn's career 
was singulariy simple, using the epithet in its literal 
sense: he was a stranger to all double dealing, and his 
mind and conscience recoiled from diplomacy and finesse ; 
he had the courage of his opinions and was feariess and 
outspoken, and yet (of how few public men could the same 
thing be said ?) so gentle was he in the use of language that 
among the many hundreds of letters and documents which 
have formed the texture of this biography, and which 
have at times dealt with subjects on which men have felt 
so acutely that chief friends have been divided, not a 
single paragraph has been suppressed, either because its 
appearance would convict the writer of a self-seeking 
policy, or would give pain to one living soul. Nothing 
appears in any of these documents, nothing has been 
suggested by any who may have personally been opposed 
to his action, which has at all impugned the uniform 
nobility of his life and the healthy vigorous manliness 
(virtus) which characterized his every action. " Qiialis db 
incepto " might with truth be written on his tomb. Every- 
thing that is generally associated with true heroism — con- 
tempt of softness and comfort — indifference to applause or 


censure— chivalrous defence of the oppressed and the 
weak — ^hatred of aught that is mean and sordid — resolute 
devotion to duty — obedience to discipline so implicit as to 
. seem to be without eflFort — unquestioning recognition of 
the claims of duty in the smallest things as well as in the 
greatest — all these are at once apparent, and examples 
illustrative of them all are ready to hand ; in this sense, 
therefore, it is not difficult to draw a picture of what he 
was. It is when we proceed to show how under this 
simple and uniformly consistent life a character existed 
not only many-sided but almost myriad-sided, that the 
difficulty begins ; and yet it must be evident to those 
who have studied the aU imperfect portraiture which these 
pages have given, that while he had the fervid zeal of S. 
Paul, he had the tenderness which made S. Barnabas the 
Son of Consolation, while he had the stern asceticism of S. 
John the Baptist he had imbibed the spirit of the Beloved 
Disciple, while he grieved over the necessity of serving 
tables in the spirit of Martha, he loved to meditate on 
divine mysteries at the feet of his Lord in the spirit of 
Mary, while he was indiflferent to money as ever was 
Devotee, who had burdened his conscience with vows of 
poverty, he was careful almost to parsimony in the ex- 
penditure of the charities, and shrewd and thrifty in 
building up the endowments of the Church; though a 
born leader of men, attracting by the force of his beautiful 
character men of highest gifts and graces, he was humble 
and obedient, and regarded himself ever at the unconditional 
disposal of his superiors ; with much of combativeness in 
high spirit and resolute will, he contended never for party 
ends or opinions, but always for the truth, and even then 
the very existence of controversy gave him pain. 

It was surely a wonderful combination that together 
with the zeal that inspired a life with impetuous unceasing 
efiTort, leading to the forsaking of all the world holds dear, 
there should have been found a patience and humble 
labouring at merely rudimentary details of which there 


was little hope of seeing any matured result. Yet was not 
the early preparation for an unknown and unconjectured 
future, a sort of daily acted, '* Lord, what wilt Thou have 
me to do ? '' a remarkable example of patient waiting on 
God's will in the firm resolution to obey whatever call 
might come ? The most sanguine view of the Melanesian 
venture must have been limited, so far as the first agents 
were concerned, to the establishing of friendly relations 
with the heathen and to the acquisition of some of their 
many strange tongues, in order that future bishops and 
missionaries might enter into his labours ; nothing could 
have been more irksome to an elegant scholar than to 
drive day after day elementary subjects into the unre- 
ceptive brains of colonial-born lads ; it was all foundation 
work, but he did it as in God's sight. Still more unwearied 
and watchful was his patience, the fruit of his zeal, in 
the more immediately spiritual work of dealing with souls. 
However often his efi'orts were repulsed he never relaxed. 
One example must be quoted, and it is as good as a 

While coasting along the Northern Island, of New Zea- 
land the bishop was once a fellow-passenger with a 
Deist who had with execrable taste shocked his fellow- 
passengers by reviling Christianity. The steamer reached 
the harbour at ten o'clock on a very dark night and 
dropped her anchor some two miles from shore. The pilot 
came off to fetch the mails, and the bishop agreed to go 
ashore in his boat. The Deist asked to be allowed to go 
too. Midway between the steamer and the shore a breeze 
sprang up; the boat was drifted out of its course and 
struck on a shoal ; with some difficulty it was shoved off, 
and five minutes afterwards it struck on a rock and was in 
great peril. The bishop seized on the opportunity to 
grapple with the man's soul, and asked him, ''how he 
could venture to meet his Judge, trusting in his own 
merits and to the uncovenanted mercies of God who had 
revealed the one way of Salvation in that Name which 


he had been all the day blaspheming ? " The poor man 
could only say, " I believe Pythagoras had some theory of 
repentance," and then the bishop pointed out that an 
unknown theory was a broken reed to which to trust, 
whereas Christians knew in Whom they believed : but 
the man said it was too late then to change. 

He was hard and exacting, it was often said, and not 
untruly ; he never praised men for doing their duty, and 
to none was he harder than, to none was he so hard as, he 
was to himself. Brought up in the most aristocratic and 
luxurious school, he ever trained himself to endure hard- 
ness as a condition of useful service for God ; the raiment 
of camel's hair and the leathern girdle seemed to him 
more appropriate to the calling of the evangelist of 
the nineteenth century, than purple and fine linen and 
sumptuous fare. If al any time he exacted from others 
more than they could perform, his very strictness was but 
the result of his humility ; he never realized the fact that 
he could do more, physically and intellectually, than other 
men ; so lowly was his opinion of himself, that he thought 
all men could do as he did, and was content with no 
smaller measure of service ; the indifference which made 
him feel at home on board ship, in Maori huts, in his own 
tent on a New Zealand Hill, or on his later journeys in 
the Black Country, and amid his ministrations among the 
Canal population, had become to him a second nature, and 
he had no opinion of men who thought twice about putting 
up with such discomforts : for any men who shrank from 
disagreeable duty he had neither pity nor sympathy ; in like 
manner he lashed out impetuously against aught that was 
wrong, or mean, or cowardly : instances of this could be 
produced in legions ; but it must be added that he often 
regretted warm and hasty words into which a godly 
jealousy for the right had tempted him. To one who 
had neglected duty he said after reproving him sharply, 
" I seem, sir, to have two duties to perform, first to take 
you down and then to take myself down." 


In contrast and yet in combination with his heroic 
Pauline boldness, which was indignant at the sight of sin 
and meanness, there was the tenderest compassion and sym- 
pathy with the weak and the erring. It was not merely the 
loving, amiable disposition which had made him when 
under his father's roof the family friend and peacemaker, 
and which afterwards at Eton led a friend to writ-e, *' If 
there were any misunderstanding among friends, he would 
not rest till they were reconciled ; if pecuniary difficulty 
fell upon any one, he would make every endeavour to 
extricate him ; if his friends were ill, he was their nurse 
and companion; if they lost relations or fell under any 
great sorrow, he was with them at any hour to console and 
uphold ; he was the friend, the adviser, the comforter of all 
who would admit him to their confidence ; '' this amiability 
and expressive power of sympathy did indeed make him 
the very best nurse trained or imtrained that sick man 
ever had, led him to spend hours and hours beyond what 
his spiritual duties demanded in the military hospitals, 
induced him to be present with soldiers and Maoris when 
they were sufiferiug the horrors of amputation at the hands 
of the surgeons ; but it was a far deeper principle than 
mere amiability, it was the sense of his own need of 
mercy and forgiveness that made him tender even to 
weakness in dealing with sinners. In New Zealand he 
was often pained by the severity of the discipline which 
the native teachers in their new-born intemperate zeal 
were wont to exercise when left to their own discre- 
tion. On one occasion a Maori woman met him with teai's, 
having been expelled from her village for an act of sin. 
" Her tears and cries," he wrote, " in this wild and dis- 
tant country touched my heart with the thought of the 
universal prevalence of sin, and of its invariable fruit of 
sorrow. The native teachers are often offended with me 
for what they consider a mistaken lenity ; but I cannot do 
otherwise than follow the example of our Lord, and leave 
the issue in His hands." 


Still more difficult was it to induce him to exercise dis- 
cipline on peccant clergymen ; he shrank from bringing them 
to punishment and to deprivation, and always hoped that 
even the greatest offenders would amend. So his strength 
and his patience, his severity towards himself and his 
gentleness towards others, seem not to be contradictions 
or inconsistencies, but to justify the application to him of 
Carlyle's words, " Unsubduable granite, piercing far and wide 
into the heavens like an Alpine mountain ; yet with clefts in 
it, and fountains, and green, beautiful valleys with flowers." 

Finding himself at the head of a variety of missionary 
machinery and organization that had accumulated without 
system during twenty-five years, the early years of his 
residence in New Zealand were well described by him as 
his deacon episcopate : during these years he had to attend 
to an infinity of small details as well as to conceive and 
undertake " enterprises of great pith and moment" There 
were occasions when both the strain threatened to be too 
great for his physical strength, and when he feared that 
his spiritual life would be crushed out by an overwhelming 
burden of material cares; great things and small, high 
conceptions and menial tasks, all added their weight to the 
burthen : from providing a system of government for the 
Church, and endowing Episcopal sees and so founding new 
Churches each with their hopes of future expansion, to 
redeeming barren acres and making them into smiling 
cornfields, or to teaching Papuan savages the first de- 
cencies of civilized existence, these and all the intermediate 
duties and functions weighed him down. And yet amid 
these exaggerations of a Martha's service his spiritual life 
was kept bright and vigorous, his care not being limited 
to the things of the particular Church which he niled, 
but his prayers and sympathies being given in the interests 
of the Mother Church, his spirit rejoicing in her reform- 
ing spirit and renewed life, and going forth with those who 
were her champions and defenders. To considerations of 
money he was so indifferent that poverty seemed unable 

X.] POVERTY. 383 

to afifect him ; he voluntarily gave up more than half of 
his original income in New Zealand, and when that moiety 
was taken away he still reduced the remaining portion, 
and had all been taken from him he would have remained 
at his post, had he followed apostolic example and worked 
for his daily bread. So limited were his resources that at 
one period he was obliged to make a visitation tour of 
some months' duration quite unattended, carrying his own 
clothes on his back ; but he made no complaint, and the 
fact would never have been recorded had not others made it 
known ; he never owned an acre of land in New Zealand, yet 
so keen was his artistic delight in beautiful scenery that he 
may be said, while " having nothing " to " have yet possessed 
all things " ; he answered to Wordsworth's description of 

** The ^^ood priest, who faithful through all hours 
To his high charge, and truly serving God, 
Has yet a heart and hand for trees and flowers." 

At Lichfield he surrounded himself with no worldly state, 
and when in London his " town-house " was a set of rooms 
sufficient for all purposes of health and comfort, but for 
nothing more, at the Lollard's Tower. In each condition of 
income, w^hether 400/. as in New Zealand, or 4,500/. as at 
Lichfield, there was the same measure of hospitality ever 
extended towards all, and especially to the poor. John 
Wesley's motto, " Save all you can and give all you save," 
was often quoted by him, and he did not think that charity 
began until after a tithe had been paid to God. " What- 
ever your income," he wrote once to his son, " remember 
that only nine-tenths of it are at your disposal." Preach- 
ing in 1854, on behalf of the Tithe Redemption Trust, the 
bishop said : — 

" We shall not touch men's consciences by going out at 
once into the field to search for some tenth sheaf of corn, 
or some tenth lamb, which is exacted for the use of some 
lay impropriator; but by carefully scrutinizing all our 
items of expenditure, most of them the growth of ages 


later than the establishment of tithe ; every exotic fruit, 
exquisite fish, and pampered fowl ; every costly flower and 
precious jewel, and goodly appirel ; every servant and 
hoi'se and carriage; every piece of plate and gorgeous 
furniture ; every treasure of painting or of sculpture, even 
every rare book ; and, above all, by looking closely into 
those sources of revenue which are of modern years, the 
rents of palaces standing where scarcely a cow fed a few 
years ago ; money locked in the funds, and yielding 
annually its untithed interest; of all and every one of 
these items of expenditure, or of these sources of income, 
it is our bounden duty to ask the question — Has it paid 
tribute to whom tribute is due ? Has it paid its Redemp- 
tion Tithe in thankful acknowledgment of the mercy of 
that Saviour who bought us with the price of His own 
body and blood ? I am a stranger here, and I speak there- 
fore with less confidence ; but my impression is, that the 
tithe of which I now apeak has not been paid. The proof 
seems to be this, that misery, and want, and spiritual 
destitution has gone on increasing, while the nation was 
every year advancing in wealth and luxury. . . . 

" What is the cure for socialism ? Surely it is the 
return to the true spirit of the apostolic age, of which 
socialism is a godless counterfeit. It is to take care that 
no child, no widow, no orphan, no emigrant, no heathen 
shall be neglected in the daily distribution of all things 
needful, both for soul and body. What this may cost, 
after so many years of neglect, it is as impossible to tell 
as it is to calculate what portion of our income may be 
required for the purposes of the righteous war in which 
we are now engaged. All that we can call our own is 
what,neither our God nor our country demands. Yea, let 
Him take all, who gave all ; not only all these earthly 
things, but his own Son, the brightness of His own glory, 
and the express image of His person." 

And with all this lavish expenditure for God there was 
careful, even painful and rigid economy in the smallest 
things, and this as a matter of conscience. He provided 
for the insurance of Church property and the lives of the 
clergy with the skill of a practical actuary, and carefully 
nursed every endowment however small. It was a diflS- 

X.] HUMILITY. 386 

cult thing to teach the young men at .the Waimate that a 
daily unnecessary consumption of even a little flour would 
just settle the question whether one more Pagan lad could 
be admitted and so be trained as a Christian, and in a 
wider sphere it was not less difficult to make settlers 
understand the sanctity of gifts of charity and the duty 
of utilizing and husbanding them to the utmost. 

It was no unimportant trait in his character that a man 
who had drawn to a participation in his labours a Whyte- 
head and a Patteson, as well as others, of whom as being 
yet with us no mention can be made, should have ever 
been humble in spirit, prone to consult others, to put off 
even the accustomed authority of his position, to strengthen 
himself by conference and counsel, and to hold himself at 
the orders of his recognized superiors. He seemed more 
than other men ever to " unite with self-forgetting tender- 
ness of heart an earth-despising dignity of soul.'* Eeady 
always to act on the combative instincts which were 
within him whenever wrong and injustice raised their 
heads, he was a lover of peace. His mind was receptive 
rather than controversial, ready to accept and believe rather 
than to entertain the speculative doubts which to a keen 
intellect are not without their attractions and temptations. 
The romance which surrounded much of his work at 
the Antipodes led to a general impression that his physical 
courage was very great ; that it might be said of him, as 
Nelson said of himself, that he " never saw fear." But 
this is an error ; he was naturally nervous, more for the 
sake of others than himself, and herein he differed from 
Bishop Patteson, who was a stranger to fear, and in his early 
days in Melanesia had often to be called back when he was 
going into danger. It was moral courage that overmastered 
his natural fear, and it was moral courage that made him 
on all occasions what he was ; the undaunted champion of 
what was right and true, who feared nothing so much as 
the reproof of his own conscience. 

Commanding intellect and humble faith, unswerving 

386 UFE OF BISHOP SELWYN. (chap. x. 

obedieace and inexhaustible charity, tender heart and 
dauntless courage — these surely were combined in Gieorge 
Ai^uatus Selwyn, and make his memory and example 
a precious inheritance for all time. 

" Lift up yonr hwirta, ye Mourners ! for the might 

Of the whole world's good irUha with him goes : 

Blesalngi uid Praycn in noblar ratinne 

Than acentred King or luiielled Conquaror know*. 

Follow tliis wondrous Potentsto." 

|n fate. 




Apalb, Qeorge NelBon Hector, 5 
Abraham, Rev. C. J. (Biahop of "We!- 

liogton), 6, 42, 43, 65, 78, 273, 372 
ADaiteum, 7 

Acland, Sir T. D., the late, 60 
Adams, John, 64 
Anarchy in Choich, 141, 143, 144 
Athanaaian Greed, 361, 352 
Aahwell, Rev. B., 2. 169 
Adelaide, Bishop of, 193 
America, visits of Bishop Selwyn to, 

286 et »eq^ 319 et seq. 
Alms Dish, American, 302 et teg. 

Bishop Wordsworth's lines on, 
Anglican Church, Mission of the, 320 
Artistic sense, Bishop Selwyn's, 883 
Augustine's, S., Oollege, 80 
Ahu Levi Te, 40, 43, 53 

Barkabas, S. Day, 68 

Bayonnais, French man-of-war, 76 

Bladcbume, Bev. S., 79 

Barbados, 307 

Barge Mission, 317 

Bertha, Queen, 66 

Bible, Axialysis of, 37 

Bingham's Antiquities, 228 

Brighton CShurch Congress, 325 

Border Maid, 5, 8, 10, 331 

Browne, Professor Harold (Bishop of 

Winchester), 57, 147 
Broughton, Bishop, 267 
Body, Bev. O., 315 
Brotherhoods, 316, 354 
Bodington, Rev. C, 341, 343 et seq. 
Bonds of Bedgnation, 366 

Bonar's, Dr., hymn, 373 
Bull, Rev. C, 22 
Blunt, Professor, 58 ^ 
Burials Bill, 366 et seq, 

Cahbbidob, sermons at, in 1854, 33 

Chatham Islands, 52 

Caledonia, New, 75 

Carlingford, Lord, 160 

Champneys, Dean, 204, 375 

Capetown, Bishop of, 232 

Chapel at licbiield, 247 

Chapter, Lichfield, 273, 284, 315 

Canada, Church in, 320 

Cairns, Earl, 835 

deigy, supply of, 276 et teq., 328 

Celestine, Pope, 333 

Creeds, conspectus of the, to face p. 

Christchurch, Bishop of, 68, 261 

Chichester College, 276 
Bishop of, 325 

Confirmation, 2, 81 

Coleridse, Rev. E., 6, 28, 61, 206, 881 

Commodore barque, 22 . 

Cross, Southern. 35, 60, 68, 76, 211 

Constitution of New Zealand Church, 
69, 97 et sea. 

Cho, John, 74 

College, fruits of, 77 

Colendge, Sir J. T., 87, 131. 849 

Convocation, speeches of Bishop 
Selwyn in, 141, 307, 358 
Questionings in, 146 ^ seq, 

Cookson, Dr., 241 

Conference, Synod or, 253 

Conferences, Lichfield (see Synods, 

Cowie, Rev. W. O. (Bishop of Auck- 
land), 267, 807 



Confirmations in Lichfleld 268 et seq., 

Oourage, Bishop Selwyn's, 385 
Church and State, 210, 257, 253 
Cuddesdon College, 275 
Curteis, Rev. G. H., 285 
Church defence, 367 

D.V. and D.G., 3 

Dalton, Bev. C. B., 229 

Denison, Sir W., 60 

*" Defenceless hands," 178 

Departure for England (1867), 22b 

Derby, Barl of, 236 et seq. 

Denstone School, 358 

Deist, appeal to a, 379 

Dissenters, relations with, 7, 9, 73, 
93, 855, 356 

Divisions, evil of, 234 

Discipline, Bishop Selwyn's unwilling- 
ness to exercise, 381 

Dunedin, 223 et seq., 307 


E^roLAiTD, visit to, in 1854, 22 

Object of, 25 

Left, 35, 37 
Eccleshall Castle, 241 
Smber-weeks, 282, 370 
Edenaor, 248 
Exeter Synod, 250 

Surplice Riots, 232 
EUesmere Schools, 364 
Eclipse, HJtf ^., 185 
Episcopate, extension of, 358, 363 
EUot, Rev. P. F„ 370 
Eton, sermon at, 27 
Enthronement of Bishop at Lichfield, 

244, 247 
Education, religious, 358 
Eurydice, H.M.S., 372 
Ely Synod, 250 

Fables, .Ssop's, 204 
Falkland Islands, 26 
Farquhar, Sir W., 62 
FeUd, Bishop, 320 < 
Fredericton, 321 
Fund, Diocesan, 256, 369 


Gatb Pa, the, 196 
Grace, Rev. Mr^ 198, 208 

Gratitude, barque, 20 

Gladstone, Right Hon. W. K, 88, 89, 

Geddie, Mr., 7 
George's-in-the-East, S., 232 
Grey, Sir George, 21, 89, 159, 174 
Greek Church at Wolverhampton, 

Gold, discovery of, 11 
Gloucester and Bristol, Bishop of, 

GoYott, Archdeacon, 241 

" Hastdcos, Battle of," 58 
Hawkins, Rev. K, 42, 69, 91 
Hamilton, Bishop, 147, 150 
Hau-hauism, 197 
Harrowby, Earl of, 235, 254 
Halifax, 320 
Hebrides, New, 73 
Hector Nelson, 78 
Herbert, George, 256 
Herbert, Hon. R. C, 350 
Home, Sir Bverard, 11 
Hobhbuse, Bishop, 78, 350 
Howe, Bishop, 288 
Hume, Joseph, M.P., 173 

Ihkulnd, Church in, 108, 272 
Intercession, Days of, 306 
Inglis, Mr. and Mrs., 7 
Jris, H.M.S., 76 

Industrial training, triumph of, 11 

JsREMiB, Professor, 58 

Jerusalem Bishopric Act, 212 

Jenner, Bishop, 225 et seq. 

Jewry, S. Lawrence, services at, 231 
et seq. 

* Joshua,* Maori deacon, 164 

John's, S., College, Cambridge, chapel 
consecrated, 271 , . . 

Justification by faith, the teaching of 
Easter, 4 

Juno, H.M.S., 62 . ^ 

Judicial Committee of Pnvy Coun- 
cil, 34, 260, 339 , ^ ^ 

Jubilee of American Board of auB- 
sions, 288, 190 

*Jus CJfpriwn^ 333 



Katatorx, 43, 53 
X«^">.lra Adama, 43—45 
Kawau, 77 

Kerguelin's Island, 41 
King, W., 46, 51, 164, 172 
King New Zealand, 161 et seq, 
Kidderminster, 194 
Kingston, Bishop of, 321 
Kohimarania, 8, 79, 222 

Ladybirdf Ladyhird, ko^ 46 
Lambeth Conference (1867), 139,227, 

(1878), 155, 290, 323 
Lifu, 8, 74, 75 
Lichfield, 139, 237 et seq., 244 

Palace Chapel, 204 
Lightfoot, Dr., 241 
Lights on the Altar, 335 
Litigation, 338 
Lloyd, Rev. J. F., 93, 241 
Longley, Archbishop, 145, 224, 239 
London, Bishop of (Dr. Tait), 152, 

Lonsdale, Bishop, 235, 246, 251, 358 
Lollard's Tower, 383 


Maori, declension of race, 1 

Malicolo, 7, 65 

Mackenzie, Bishop, 33 

Maria Santa, 65 

Mai, 70 

Martin, Sir W., 88, 131, 228, 235, 245, 

Maimsell, Archdeacon, 2, 168, 169, 189 
Mauku, 170 
Maori Church, farewell addresses of, 

265 et seq. 
Manning, Archdeacon, 331 
Martin v. Machonochie, 339 
Melanesia, plans for the Mission to, 
Endowment of, 30, 31 
Melbourne, Bishop of (Perry), 12, 88 
* Mediator * speech, 181 
Melanthraeia, 257 
Meum and T»um, 272 
Medley, Bishop, 321 
Missionary Bishops, 212 
Missionary work, Trinciples of, 291 tt 

Minnesota, Bishop of, 297, 320 

Missions, Home, 814 

Foreign, 319 
Michael and George, SB., Order of, 

Mota, 74, 211 

Monarchical idea of Episcopate, 89 
Montreal, 320 


Nabong, George, 20 
Native ordination, 17 
Native ministry, 301 ei seq. 
NahoiKs Vineyard, 45 
Nengone, 8, 21 
Newcastle, Duke of, 185, 212 
Nelson Bishopric, 210 
New Zealand, deiMrture for, in 1855 
in 1868, 259 
New Jersey, Bishop of, 287 
Newf oundLwd, 320 
Nebraska, 321 
NihiU, Bev. W., 7, 8 
Norfolk Island, 21, 59—61, 63, 70, 74 

Or^|anic Union, 323 
Obiections to Synodal action, 255 
Obligations, pastoral, 195 
Ordination of natives, 227 
Ordinations at Lichfield, 284; 370 
Opotiki, 198, 199 

Paui., S., 9 

Patteson, Rev. J. C. (afterwards 

Bishop), 8, 28, 36,37.42,59, 67, 71, 

75, 79, 131, 193, 212, 214, 261, 305, 

322, 385 
Patteson, Sir J., 62, 65, 72, 87, 131, 
Port, 74 
Pastoral letter to Church-people at 

Taranaki, 47 et seq. 
Pitcaim Island, 59, 60, 63 
Patent Letters, 88 

Petition to resign, 135 
Payne, Rev. S. W., 192 
Patriarchate of Canterbury, 307 
Parish, a neglected, 353 
Peria, 180 
Petition of New Zealand Bishops to 

the Crown, 223 



Pennsylvania, Bishop of, 290 

Peak, High, the, 336 

PelsaU CSoUiery, 375 

Privy Council, action of, 34, 200 

Pirimona, 169, 170 

* Pig-stye ' hospitaUty, 178 

YeneB on, 178 
Pinder, Canon, 276 
PhUlimore, Sir B. J., 835 
Philpottfl, Bishop, 250 
Portland, Duke of, 37, 42 
Plymouth, New (ste Taxanaki) 
Polygamy, 67 
Potatau Chief, 161 
Poverty Bay, 198 
Potteries, five days' woifc in the, 248 

• Probationer Sjfstem,* 278 et seq, 
Potte^Selwyn* Prize, 325 
Politics, Bishop Selwyn's, 366 
Puhlic Worship Regulation Act, 334, 

Punch, lines in, 242 

QuBXN, H.M. the, 240 
Queen's Redouht, 174, 188 
Quebec, Bishop of, 229, 321 

Rawiri, murder of, 53 

Rawle, Bishop, 307 

* Ramah ' at Lichfield, 318 

Reformation, principles of the, 332 

Renata, 177 

Regiment, H.M. 67th, 185 

Rewi, Chief, 209 

Ryle, Rev. J. C, 315 

Richardson, Sir J., 88 

Ritualism, 142, 338 

Rivington, Rev. L., 315 

Rota Waitoa {see Waitoa) 

Rome, Church of, 332, 334,357 


Sattta Crttz, 7 
Siapo, 8 

Sailing Orders, 38 
Swainson, Mr., 85 et seq., 131 
Swainson, Canon, 275 
Stanley, Dean, 229 
Sancrof t. Archbishop, 241 
Selwyn, W., Q.C., 37, 39, 55 

Rev. Professor, 57 

Lord Justice, 271 
Selwyn, Rev. "W., jun., 166, 193 

Consecration of Rev. J. R., 325 

Shrewsbury School, 371 

Sydney, 61, 267 

S. Stephen's Day, 1865, 206 

School, 349 
Sermon on consecration of Bishop 

Patteson, 214 et seq. 
Stevens, Bishop, 290 
Sierra Leone, 307 
Schools for Maoris, 2 
Schoolmistress, native, 2 
Solomon Islands, 7 
Shovel, Sirdoudesley, 11 
Southern Cross (see Cross, Southern) 
** Synod or Conference," 253 
Synod, Farewell of New Zealand, 261 
Synodal Action, 84, 139, 140, 228 
Synods, General, 108 et sea,, 138, 201, 

Diocectan, 129, 250 et seq,, 254, 

Stockmar, Baron, 240 
Stoke-on-Trent Church Congress, 325 
Surly, 41 
Stjfx, steamer, 76 


Taraxakt, 43, 47, 162, 165, 172, 183 

Tasmania, 70, 175 

Taratoa, Henry, 77, 204 

Thatcher, Rev. F., 93, 260 

Taniwha Te, 169 

Tataraimaka, 181 ^ seq. 

Tamahana Wiremu, 181 

Tauranga, 193 

Talke, 249 

Taupaki. Rev. M., 267 

Teira Te, 163, 186 

Theological College at Lichfield, 274 

Tenderness, Bishop Selwyn's, 378 

Thirlwall, Bishop, 229 

Trinidad, 357 

Tithes, 383, 384 

Thol, John, 7, 8, 10 

Thompson, W., 167, 183 

Trower, Bishop, 260 

Toronto, 320 


Ua Horopapbra Ta, 195 
Uses of Synods, 251 

Victoria, brig, 21, 69 
Yanua Lava, 73 



Vestry meetings, 03 et seq. 
Volkner, Bev. Mr., 198, 206, 20S 

Waitoa Rota, 2, 17, 40, 43 
Waiapu, Bishop of, 79, 127 
Waitara, 83, 163 et seq., 181 
AVar, Maori, 156 et seq. 
Tnyet during, 203 
Waitangi Treaty, 158, 173 
WMkato, 163, 164, 173, 175 
Wbanganui, 180 

Warren v. Wesleyan Society, 308 
AVynyard, Col., 11, 46 
WebUer, Daniel, 20 

Wellington, Bishop of, 186, 267, 271 
Westbmy, Lord, 223 
Wells CoUege, 275 
Westerton v. Liddell, 340 
Whytehead, Rev. T., 370, 385 
Windsor, Holy Trinity Church, 27 
Wilherforce, Bishop, 146 et seq. 
Williams, .Axchdeaoon W. L., 241 
Whipple, Bishop, 320 
Wolverhampton Church Congress, 

139, 232 et seq., 246 
Wood, Bishop, 241 
Wordsworth, Bishop of linooln, 305, 

Wolverhampton, S. George, 319 
Ritualism at, ^8, 341, 370