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Full text of "Memoir of Joseph Leidy, M.D., LL.D."

MEMOIR 




JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D., LL. D. 



BY 



HENRY C. CHAPMAN, M. D., 

PROFESSOR OF INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE IN THE JEFFERSON MEDICAL COLLEGE. 



' FROM THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
OF PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 3 oTH, 1891. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
1891. 



MEMOIR 



OF 



JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D., LL. D. 



BY 



HENRY C. CHAPMAN, M. D., 

PROFESSOR OF INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE IN THE JEFFERSON MEDICAL COLLEGE. 



FROM THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
OF PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 3 oTH, 1891. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
1891. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



MEMOIR 

OF 

JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D., LL. D. 

BY 
HENRY C. CHAPMAN, M. D. 

" And this our life, exempt from public haunt, finds tongues in trees, books in 
the running brooks, sermons in stones and good in everything." 

It falls to the lot of but few, living in the midst of a great com- 
munity for nearly three score years and ten, to have never made an* 
enemy during that long period, but to have gained universal af- 
fection, esteem and respect. Yet such may in truth be said of the 
subject of this memoir. 

The ancestors of Dr. Joseph Leidy were of French-German ex- 
traction and came to this country as missionaries. Mr. Philip Leidy, 
his father, was born in Montgomery County, Penna., December 5, 
1791, and removed, when a young man, to Philadelphia, where he 
engaged in the trade of a hatter. He soon retired from business in 
which he had been unusually successful. 

He married Catherine Melick, a descendant of the well koown 
Melick family, the founders of the celebrated " Old Farm" in New 
Jersey. 

Joseph Leidy, the third of four children by this marriage, was 
born September 9th, 1823, in Philadelphia, at his father's house, No. 
312 N. 3rd. St., which is still standing. When but a year and a half 
old, he experienced in the death of his mother a loss that would be 
usually and justly regarded as irreparable. His father, however, in 
marrying shortly afterwards, Christiana, the sister of his first wife, 
gave to Joseph, a step-mother it is true, but one who never knew 
any difference between him and her own children. He loved her 
as a mother, for as he said upon one occasion, " I knew no other 
mother ; to her I owe every advancement in life." 

His early education was obtained at private schools. While 
still a child, he showed an appreciation of natural objects, taking par- 
ticular interest in minerals and plants. The boy, however, had 
early evinced such remarkable ability as a draughtsman that his 
father had taken him away from school when about sixteen years 
of age with the intention of educating him as an artist. 

At about this period, the youth passed much of his time in a 
wholesale drug-store near his home. Such good use did he make of 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

the opportunity there presented of learning the nature of drugs and 
the art of compounding medicines, that the proprietor recommended 
him as competent to take temporary charge of the retail drug-store 
of a customer. .The success attending his conduct of the business 
was such as to make him consider it seriously, as a means of live- 
lihood. The dissection of a few cats, dogs and chickens had, how- 
ever, in the mean time, developed an interest in the study of anat- 
omy and he had shown such an aptitude for dissection that Mrs. 
Leidy, proud of Joseph's talents and ever watchful of his interests, 
made up her mind that her son should become neither an artist 
nor an apothecary, but a physician. As Dr. Leidy said fifty years 
afterward in referring to the circumstances connected with his 
taking up the study of medicine as a profession : " My father 
intended I should be an artist, but my mother said that her children 
should learn the professions. She, being the stronger, carried the 
point." 

In the year 1842, at the age of nineteen, Joseph Leidy began 
the study of medicine at the Vtlniversity/ of Pennsylvania, his 
preceptors being Dr. Paul B. Goddard and Dr. James McClintock. 
He presented to the Faculty a thesis on " The Comparative 
Anatomy of the Eye of Verteb rated Animals" and having complied 
in other respects with what was in those days deemed essential as a 
pre-requisite to graduation, in 1844 he received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine. He at once began the practice of his profession, 
to which he devoted himself about two years. During that period, 
and even before, he had worked in the laboratory of the celebrated 
Dr. Robert Hare, and had assisted Dr. Goddard who was then 
Demonstrator of Anatomy at the University. Becoming impressed 
with the grave responsibilities incurred in the practice of medicine, 
of the demands on the time of the successful practitioner and the 
little leisure left to him for study, Dr. Leidy finally decided to 
give up the practice of medicine, with all hope of its emolument, and 
to devote his life entirely to study and teaching, trusting that event- 
ually, in the attainment of a Professorship, he would obtain at least 
the means of livelihood. 

Hand facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat res angusta domi. 
For some time, young Dr. Leidy experienced that struggle with 
hardships and obstacles, incidental to the lives of so many great men, 
which talent, when accompanied with hard and continuous work, alone 
overcomes. While a student, however, Dr. Leidy, by his skill in 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 5 

dissecting, had impressed Professor Hornor most favorably and he 
was, therefore, shortly after his graduation, appointed to the position 
of Prosector to the chair of Anatomy. 

During the summer of 1845 Dr. Leidy was elected a member of 
the\Boston Society of Natural History, a compliment greatly appre- 
ciated, he being so young a man. A few weeks later, on the 
evening of July 29th., he was elected a member of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with which institution his 
name was inseparably connected until the day of his death. 
Through the opportunities for advancement liberally afforded by this 
society, he was enabled to accomplish the scientific work of his life. 
Shortly after becoming a member of the Academy, he was elected 
Librarian, which position he held for twelve months, and so efficiently 
were his duties performed that on the expiration of his term of 
office a vote of thanks was tendered him. Vacating the office of 
Librarian he was elected one of the Curators. At the annual meet- 
ing in 1847, he made his first report as Chairman of the Board of 
Curators, a position he held continuously until the time of his death, a 
period of forty-four years. During his years of membership, Dr. 
Leidy, until almost the close of his life, attended regularly the Tues- 
day evening meetings of the Academy, ^he Proceedings and Jour- 
nal giving ample evidence of the number, variety and value of his 
contributions to all branches of natural science during that long 
period. 

In the year 1846, he left the University for a time, having 
been elected Demonstrator of Anatomy in theTranklin Medical Col- 
lege. After one session at that institution he returned to the Uni- 
versity and was again associated with Dr. Hornor. At this time he 
also gave a private course of lectures on anatomy, which attracted 
considerable attention. 

During the spring of 1848O)r. Leidy accompanied Dr. Hornor to 
Europe, visiting England, France and Germany. On his return 
he began a course of lectures on histology and in the following 
spring lectured on physiology at the Medical Institute. Incessant 
application, however, threatened him with seriousillness, and although 
ambitious and full of enthusiasm he was obliged to give up, all work 
for some months. He was elected a member of the v American 
Philosophical Society in 1849. The late^r. George B. Wood 
having been elected to the chair of Practice of Medicine in the 
University, went abroad the same year for the purpose of making 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

a collection of models, specimens, drawings, etc., with which to 
illustrate his lectures and invited Dr. Leidy to accompany him, 
knowing that he would be of great assistance in selecting the 
collection required. This visit, as well as the previous one abroad, 
was of the greatest possible advantage to Dr. Leidy, as he was not 
only afforded the opportunity of seeing the great museums of 
Europe under most pleasant auspices, but also of making the acquain- 
tance and acquiring the friendship of such distinguished anatomists 
and physiologists as Owen, Majendie, Milne Edwards, Hyrtl, 
Johannes Miiller, and many others. 

On his return home, with health restored and spirits renewed, he 
took up again with enthusiasm his work as Prosector at the Uni- 
versity. During this year, 1851, he was elected a member of the 
College of Physicians, and in 1852 he was appointed to the position 
of Pathologist to St. Joseph's Hospital. 

The health of Professor Hornor having in the mean-time been 
much impaired, he was unable to continue his course of lectures dur- 
ing the winter of 1852. He requested the Board of Trustees to ap- 
point Dr. Leidy his substitute. So admirable were the lectures then 
delivered, and so satisfied were the students with Dr. Leidy as a 
teacher, that upon the death of Dr. Hornor, in.1853, the substitute, 
though then but thirty years of age, was elected rrofessor of Anatomy 
in the University. This position he held with the most distinguished 
success till his death, a period of nearly forty years. His lectures were 
lucid, graphic and practical, and were listened to by the students, by 
whom he was beloved and respected, with the most profound attention. 
No attempt at oratory was ever made, no rhetorical flourishes were 
ever indulged in, the instruction being of the simplest character, 
but of the highest scientific excellence. Many were the anecdotes 
and amusing stories told of the Professor by the students, but they 
always redounded to his fame, and usually illustrated his wonderful 
knowledge of the structure of the human body. It was universally 
conceded that he was the highest authority on the subject of human 
anatomy in this country, and it may be added was equalled by few 
abroad, surpassed by none. 

About this period the subject of paleontology attracted Dr. Leidy's 
especial attention, and, as we shall see when considering his scientific 
work in detail, much of his time was now devoted to its study. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 7 

In 1854 he became a member of the Publication Committee of the 
Academy, upon which he served continuously to the time of his 
death, being chairman of the same since 1867. 

The civil war breaking out, he was appointed Surgeon to 
the^Satterlee Military Hospital, his youngest brother, the late Dr. 
Philip Leidy, so beloved by his comrades, taking a most active part 
during four years as surgeon in the field. It was at the Satterlee 
Hospital that the opportunity was afforded of obtaining many of 
the beautiful preparations illustrative of his lectures on human 
anatomy and of making important post-mortem examinations, the 
reports of which were published in the ^"Medical and Surgical 
History of the War." 

Upon the organization of the^ational Academy of Sciences in 
1863, he was elected one of the members. 

In 1864 Dr. Leidy married Anna, daughter of Mr. Kobert 
Harden. The union was a most happy one. Not being blessed with 
children, they some years later adopted Alwinia, daughter of the 
late Professor Franks of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. and 
Mrs. Leidy at once became so much attached to their little daughter, 
and she so devoted to her parents, that it seemed as if the love that 
had been so freely given to the son by his foster mother was now 
to be lavished by him upon his adapted daughter. 

In 1871 Dr. Leidy was electediProfessor of Natural History in 
Swarthmore College, a position for which he was eminently qualified, 
and which he filled to the entire satisfaction of the managers and 
friends of that institution. His simple, attractive way of imparting 
his vast knowledge of nature, fairly captivated the students and 
stimulated in them a love for natural science, one result of which was 
constant but unsuccessful attempts to find an object in nature un- 
known to their teacher. 

In the year 1875, accompanied by his wife, he went abroad 
for the third time and while renewing the friendships made on 
previous visits, he made many new friends among the leaders 
of thought in London, Berlin and Paris. t 

On the re-organization of th ^Zoological Society and the establish- 
ment of the Zoological Garden in 1876, Dr. Leidy was elected one 
of its Directors, holding the position till his death. Though not a 
regular attendant at the meetings of the Board, he took an active 
interest in the welfare of the Society, and was ever ready to give 
the benefit of his advice, when asked to do so. Indeed his last 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891 . 

official act, one week before his death, was his attendance at the 
meeting of the Board of Directors of the Zoological Society, May 
24th, in response to a request to be present. On that occasion he 
spoke in reference to certain matters of importance then under 
consideration. 

As a fitting recognition of the services rendered by Dr. Leidy to 
fthe Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, he was unani- 
mously elected its President in 1881. This position he held at the 
time of his death. 

/The Biological Department of the University of Pennsylvania 
Caving been established in the year 1884, he was made its Director 
and was also elected to the position of Professor of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy. The latter appointment was a most congenial one, 
as it afforded him the opportunity of delivering a systematic course 
of lectures on those subjects to the study of which he had devoted the 
best years of his life. As a further proof of the respect and esteem 
in which he was held by his townsmen, it should be mentioned that 
in the following year, 1885, he was elected President of the Wagner 
Free Institute 9f Science. 

In the yeaM886 Harvard University honored him by conferring 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Learning and Laws. 

Not often has a prophet been honored in his own country as 
was Dr. Leidy. That his services to science, however, were not 
over-estimated by his personal friends and admirers, is shown by 
the honors conferred upon him by the learned societies abroad, 
among which was membership in the following, not already referred 
to. The list is probably incomplete : 

Naturhistorischer Verein fiir das Grossherzogthum Hesse und 
Umgebung, 1848 ; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1849.; 
Societe de Biologic, Paris, 1851 ; Medical Society of Virginia, 1852 ; 
Linnean Society of Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, 1853 ; Societe 
Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscow, 1853 ; Logan Institute, 
, Virginia, 1853 ; Zeosophical Society of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1853 ; Philomatbian Society of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1854 ; Societe des Sciences, des Arts et des Lettres du Hain- 
ault, 1854 ; Dallas Historical Society, 1855 ; Iowa Lyceum, Des 
Moines, 1855 ; Natural History Society of Charleston, S. C., 1855 ; 
Academy of Sciences, St. Louis, Mo., 1856 ; K. Leopoldinisch- 
Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, 1857; Zoological 
Society of London, 1857 ; K. Baierische Akademie der Wissen- 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 9 

schaften, 1858 ; Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Associa- 
tion, 1859 ; Burlington County Lyceum of History and Natural 
Sciences, 1859 ; K. Bohmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 1860 ; 
R. Accademia economico-agraria dei Georgofili di Firenze, 1861 ; 
K. K. Zoologisch-botanischer Verein, Wien, 1861; Geological 
Society of London, 1861 ; Dublin Natural History Society, 1863 ; 
Minnesota Historical Society, 1863 ; Entomological Society of 
Pennsylvania, 1864 ; College of Physicians and Surgeons, Reading, 
1870 ; Anthropological Society of London, 1872 ; Linnean Society 
of London, 1872 ; Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences, 1873 ; 
Societe Nationale des Sciences Naturelles de Strasbourg, 1873 ; 
Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural, 1874; Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Liverpool, 1877 ; Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, 1884 ; Biological Society of Washington, 1884; New 
York Microscopical Society, 1884; K. Danske Videnskabernes 
Selskab, 1886 ; Essex Institute, 1887 ; Victoria Institute, or Philo- 
sophical Society of Great Britain. 

Of the many honors conferred upon Dr. Leidy by the societies of 
this country and abroad, none surprised him as much as the award- 
ing to him, by the Boston Society of Natural History, of the Walker 
prize of $500, which on this occasion was raised to $1000 as a special 
recognition of his services to science. He was also the recipient of 
a prize from the Royal Microscopical Society in 1879, and he was 
awarded the Lyell medal by the Geological Society of London in 
1884. The Academy of Sciences of Paris deemed him most worthy 
of the Cuvier medal in 1888. 

Dr. Leidy went abroad in the summer of 1889 for the fourth and 
last time, accompanied by his wife and daughter. Unfortunately his 
wife's serious illness while in London, marred considerably the 
pleasure of the visit. Nothing could have exceeded the attention 
and kindness of the medical gentlemen of London whom Dr. Leidy 
consulted under these trying circumstances. He declared on his re- 
turn that no more could have been done for his wife and himself had 
they been at home. 

There now remains for the memorialist but little to add to what 
has already been said. A long, pure and useful life was drawing to 
its close. During the past year it had become painfully apparent to 
those most attached to Dr. Leidy that the end was near. Though 
weary in mind and sick in body, the brave old man struggled on, 
proudly disdaining to ask assistance in doing what he regarded as 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

his duty. His death, which occurred April 30th, 1891, was precipi- 
tated by the severe strain experienced in the performance of his last 
official professional duties. No language can express the loss the 
members of the Academy felt that they had sustained in the death 
of their President. The regret was universal, sincere, heartfelt ; the 
one wish expressed being to pay every possible respect to the mem- 
ory of their distinguished associate. 

In endeavoring to portray the personal character of Dr. Leidy, 
the disposition to indulge in unrestricted eulogy becomes almost 
irresistible, for the author, like his other friends, found in him no 
faults, or if any, only such as were peculiar to a highly sensitive, 
emotional and amiable nature. 

That which invariably impressed all who came in personal con- 
tact with the great naturalist, was not so much his vast and extra- 
ordinary knowledge of nature, as the modest and simple way 
in which he described the rocks, plants and animals with which 
he was so familiar. His unaffected humility, simplicity and entire 
absence of self-assertion or conceit never failed to attract and charm 
those with whom he was thrown in contact. His whole nature was 
such as to inspire the utmost confidence, to make every one.instinct- 
ively feel that he was incapable of deceit or meanness of any kind. 
The sterling integrity of his character was as preeminently mani- 
fested in his daily as in his professional life. So charitable and 
kindly was his nature that strife of any sort was most repugnant 
to him. Indeed so much was this the case that in some instances 
he submitted to what his friends regarded as injustice or imposition 
rather than engage in contention or discussion. Though an inde- 
fatigable worker and one of the closest of students, Dr. Leidy 
was far from being a recluse. On the contrary, no one more 
thoroughly enjoyed in a moderate way, the society of his friends 
or contributed more to the success of a social entertainment. As 
a relaxation from his work he was at one time fond of attending the 
theatre, and he occasionally read a novel with the same end in view, 
although general literature had for him but little attraction. 

While the life of Dr. Leidy regarded from the ordinary standpoint 
was uneventful, it offers the rare instance of one steadfastly and unself- 
ishly devoted to the study of nature ; of a long and useful career 
unsullied by a stain and characterized as much by its sweetness, 
simplicity and goodness as by its great mental achievements. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 11 

Within the limits of this memoir the author can only indicate 
the salient features of Dr. Leidy's scientific work, the discoveries 
upon which were founded his great reputation at home and abroad, 
and upon which his future fame as America's most distinguished) 
biologist will probably rest. 

While he never regarded himself either as a mineralogist or a 
botanist, yet those actively engaged in the study of minerals or 
plants were always glad to avail themselves of his advice in the 
pursuit of their investigations ; indeed so true was this as regards 
precious stones, that jewellers of long experience never questioned\ 
his estimate of the value of the gems frequently submitted by them )' 
to his inspection. 

His familiarity with minerals in general was frequently shown 
at the weekly meetings of the Academy, when, as Curator, he 
called attention in an impromptu way to the additions presented 
during the meeting to the mineralogical cabinet. Among such 
verbal communications may be mentioned his remarks upon the 
minerals from Mount Mica, the tourmalines ; specimens of corundum 
from North Carolina ; the mineral springs of Wyoming and Utah ; 
the eroding and polishing of quartzite and jasper by the conjoint 
action of wind and sa^d ; ozocerites from the Carpathian Mountains ; 
topaz from Brazil and Siberia; precious opal; rocks from South 
Mountain ; the origin of citrine or yellow quartz, &c. 

In this connection it may be stated that the valuable collection \ 
made by him' has been purchased by the Government, and will be 
preserved in the National Museum at Washington. As with the 
minerals, he would, as occasion offered, comment informally on\-^ 
an interesting plant. In this manner communications were made on ' 
Wolffia Columbiana, the smallest and simplest of all the true flower- 
ing plants, only comparatively recently known to occur in the United 
States, and on Chara and Vallisneria. The hairs of the Mullein 
being under discussion he described the intra-cellular circulation in 
plants. His intimate acquaintance with botany was also shown by\ 
the constant allusions made to the various kinds of plants noticed in 
the different parts of the country visited by him in search of minerals 
or fossils. The herbarium which he presented to the Biological De- 
partment of the University contains over 1500 species of plants, col- 
lected and determined by himself. 

Of the many contributions to natural history made by Dr. 
Leidy, his observations upon the lower forms of life deserve 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

especial notice, on account of their originality and value, and 
as illustrating his remarkable ability as a microscopist and skill as 
an anatomist and artist. For many years on different occasions, 
while investigating with the microscope the minute creatures found 
in the streams and ponds of the neighborhood, he, like others, 
had incidentally noticed the presence of various forms of minute 
animated beings consisting simply of protoplasm and called rj^zo- 
pojli on account of their continually protruding and retracting 
their bodies in a root-like or rhizome manner. They often form 
shells of great beauty and variety. Becoming especially interested 
in these low forms of life, he determined to lay aside all other work, 
and to devote himself entirely to the study of these minute beings. 
So studiously did he adhere to this resolution, that for several years 
he allowed nothing to interfere with this especial study. With the 
object of collecting material, he visited ponds, ditches and streams 
in this and other States, examining also the mould on stones and 
/ between the bricks of houses, and then patiently observed with 
the microscope, and delineated with a master hand, the protean 
amo3ba-like changes exhibited in the life history of these wonderful 
beings. 

The result of this incessant and arduous l^bor was the produc- 
tion of the magnificent monograph "Fresh Water Rhizoppds of 
JJ North America, " which appeared in 1879 as one of the Reports 
v of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. 

To those wishing to engage at some future time in similar re- 
searches it may not prove uninteresting to know that this great 
work was accomplished by means of a microscope that cost $50, 
provided with but two objectives of moderate magnifying power. 
In the sediment of a few drops of water squeezed from a piece of 
moss, thirty-eight different kinds of rhizopods, together with ex- 
amples of Micrasterias, Euastrum, Docidium, Closterium and other 
desmids, together with several species of diatoms, were revealed by 
this simple apparatus. 

Notwithstanding that Dr. Leidy invariably made use of very sim- 
ple instruments in his microscopical investigations, he rarely made 
mistakes, though the first to admit such when substantiated. In this 
connection, it may be appropriately mentioned, that his observation 
made in 1861, that the Gregarina, a minute unicellular entozoon, 
infesting the stomach of the cock-roach and other insects, was 
"provided with muscular fibres, was questioned by European micro- 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 13 

scopists, and indeed, was denied by the elder Van Beneden. Thirty \ 
years afterward, the observation was fully confirmed by the investi- \ 
gations of the younger Van Beneden, who admitted that he must - 
agree with Dr. Leidy, even at the expense of his father's accuracy. 
Among the simple forms of animal life, though more highly 
organized than the Rhizopods and Gregarinae, the sponges attracted 
Dr. Leidy's attention. Among the more interesting forms described 
by him, may be mentioned Pheronema Annae, so-named in honor of") 
his devoted wife. He was the first to correctly describe the position 
which that exquisite siliceous sponge, the Eaplectella of the PhiliA x 
pines, assumes in a state of nature and the manner in which it is/7 
anchored by its strands, a reversed position having been previously 
assigned to it by the greatest of English anatomists. The beautiful! 
hydroid, Eueoryne elegans, resembling a minute rose bush, was 
dredged up by Dr. Leidy, in the bay of Newport. This, together 
with sponges and other marine animals, supplied the material for 
his paper in the Journal of the Academy entitled : " Marine InA-jjf- 
vertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey.," ^" 



gracilis, a peculiarly interesting fresh water polyzoon was discovered 
by Dr. Leidy in the Schuylkill river just below the Fairmountdam. 
Its body wall is so translucent as to permit movements of the ali- 
mentary canal to be seen under the microscope. The mouth of the 
polyp-head or bell is surrounded with a circle of ciliated tentacula. 
It is described and beautifully illustrated in the Journal of the<- 
Academy. 

While investigations like those just referred to are of interest to 
the biologist, his researches in helminthology appeal also to the 
medical profession and the entire community on account 'both of 
their scientific and practical value. The discovery, by Leuckart,i 
of the cause, and therefore of the mode of prevention, of trichinosis -jL' 
in man, was entirely due, as that eminent authority himself says, to//\ 
the discovery by Dr. Leidy of Trichina spiralis in the pig. 

As far back as 1846, one morning while at breakfast, just as he 
was about to partake of a piece of pork, Dr. Leidy noticed that it 
contained minute peculiar specks, which after submitting to micro- 
scopic investigation, he recognized as being encysted Trichinae. 
The account of this observation, published in the Proceedings of the 
Academy, attracting the attention of Leuckart, it occurred to the dis- 
tinguished German helminthologist that trichinosis in man might be 
due to the eating of raw pork containing trichinae. This was after- 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

wards shown to be the case. Dr. Leidy's reputation as a helmin- 
thologist was world wide, and his numerous contributions to that 
subject are held in the highest esteem abroad, being continually re- 
ferred to in the standard works of Diesing, Leuckart, Cobbold and 
others. Throughout the United States he was regarded as the high- 
est authority on entozoa and parasites. Physicians from all parts 
of the country were constantly sending to him for determination, 
flukes, tape and thread worms, trichinae, ticks, etc., in the hope of 
securing suggestions from him as to the best means of preventing 
the recurrence of parasites in their patients. 

fHis " Observation on the Parasites of the Termites or White 
Ants" published in the eighth volume of the Journal of the Acad- 
emy, was directly in this line of investigation. His memoir entitled, 
"A Flora and Fauna within Living Animals," constituting part of 
the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge for 1853, had already 
established in the most striking manner, the fact that the alimentary 
canal of many animals such as beetles, cock-roaches and centipedes, 

\ are the natural homes of a most diversified animal and vegetable 
life. Indeed the mucous membrane of the intestines of certain 
beetles presents the appearance of a flower garden. The description 
of Enter obryus led Prof. Robin to the later discovery of the species 
in the Julus terrestris of Europe. 
j The work just referred to is not only a remarkable one as hav- 

' ing revealed to the naturalist a number of new forms of animal 
\ and vegetable life living parasitically within the bodies of higher 

\ animals as their hosts, but as containing the most profound reflections, 
the truth of which modern research has confirmed in every particular, 
' upon the origin and extinction of life upon the earth. In speaking 
of the origin of entozoa and entophy ta at page 9 of the paper under 
consideration, the author observes : " The study of the earth's crust 
teaches us that very many species of plants and animals became 
extinct at successive periods, while other races originated to occupy 
their places. This probably was the result, in many cases, of a 
change in exterior conditions incompatible with the life of certain 

species and favorable to the primitive production of others 

Living beings did not exist upon earth prior to their indispensable 
conditions of action, but wherever these have been brought into 

operation con comitantly, the former originated Of the life, 

present everywhere with its indispensable conditions, and coeval in 
its origin with them, what was the immediate cause ? It could not 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; 15 

have existed upon earth prior to its essential conditions ; and is it, 
therefore, the result of these? There appear to be but trifling steps 
from the oscillating particle of inorganic matter to a Bacterium; 
from this to a Vibrio, thence to a Monas, and so gradually up to the ; 
highest orders of life! The most ancient rocks containing remains 
of living beings, indicate the contemporaneous existence of the more 
complex as well as the simplest of organic forms; but, nevertheless, 
life may have been ushered upon earth, through oceans of the lowest 
types, long previously to the deposit of the oldest palaeozoic rocks as 
known to us!!" 

Although, unfortunately for science, he rarely indulged in 
such speculations, it may well be asked where in the whole range 
of biological literature can there be found a more concise and 
fitting statement of what is known as the theory of Natural Selection, 
Survival of the Fittest or, in a word, of Darwinism, than is expressed 
in the above quotation. Prophetic words indeed : the " Origin of 
Species" appeared five years later. 

As a further illustration of the wide range of his biological 
studies may be mentioned his knowledge of entomology. This was > * 
shown in a most happy manner some thirty years ago by his reply to 
the Councils of Philadelphia, in answer to their inquiries as to the 
best methods of protecting the shade trees of the city from the 
depredations of insects. Perfectly familiar with the structure, 
development and habits of the canker worm, the scale bug, the 
tufted caterpillar, the sack bearer, and the borer, the insects that 
are most destructive to our shade trees, he suggested various simple 
but effective methods by which the insects could be destroyed with/ 
least injury to the trees. 

One would not suppose that the subject of "basket worms" would 
be suggestive of poetical ideas, yet in speaking of the development 
of the insects, he observes that, from the pupa case " is produced 
the moth, the male of which awaits the night to leave his habitation 
in search of a mate. The female never leaves her silken dwelling, 
nor does she even throw aside her pupa garment : it is her nuptial 
dress and her shroud." 

Minute butterflies were always interesting to him, and the collec-i 
tion he made many years ago is still a very attractive feature ml 
the entomological collection of the Academy. 

Among his most important contributions to the anatomy ofj 
insects should be mentioned his account of the structure of the walk-, 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

ing-stick insect, Spectrum femoratum, communicated to the Academy 
in 1847, and his description of the mechanism by which the mem- 
branous wings of the locust are closed. The anatomy of the hem- 
ipter, Belostoma, then a rare insect, but lately quite commonly at- 
tracted by the electric light, was the subject of a communication 
appearing in the Journal of the Academy. The admirable figures 
in that paper, as well as those illustrating the internal anatomy of 
the neuropterous insect Corydalus cornulus in its three stages of 
existence are to this day made use of by such high authorities as 
Packard and others to illustrate their standard works on entomology. 

One of the most important of Dr. Leidy's observations upon the 
* /structure of articulate animals was his discovery in 1848 of eyes in 
barnacles, Balanus. It is especially interesting in this connection 
to note the fact that Darwin remarks in his monograph on the 
Cirripedia, p. 48, " owing to Professor Leidy's discovery of eyes in 
a Balanus, I was led to look for them in the Lepadidse." 

During the same year there appeared in the American Journal 
of the Medical Sciences his researches upon the comparative 
anatomy of the liver. This communication is based upon the study 
of the organ in numerous invertebrate and vertebrate animals and the 
view is advanced that its structure is essentially the same in all orders 
.of animals. According to our author's theory, the liver consists 
of more or less numerous membranous tubes or csecalined with 
cells whose office it is to elaborate the bile from the blood sup- 
plying the organ. As the bile so elaborated passes from the cells 
into the spaces between them, and as these intercellular spaces 
are continuous with the interior of the inter-lobular biliary duct, 
they must be regarded as the beginning thereof. The intimate 
structure of the liver does not differ then in any way from that of 
any other true gland, the simplest expression of which is a basement 
membrane separating a blood-vessel from a secreting cell. This view 
of the structure of the liver was accepted by but few of the anatom- 
ists of the day. It has, however, been shown by later study that the 
liver begins as a diverticulum of the intestine in which the relation 
of thejmsement membrane to the blood-vessels and secreting cells is 
the same as that indicated by Dr. Leidy. Further modern investiga- 
tion has shown that the liver contains more urea than any other gland 
in the body, thus confirming the opinion as to the biliary function of 
the tubes opening into the intestines of insects and which have been 



I 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 17 

usually regarded as renal by most anatomists on account of their } 
containing uric acid and sodium urate. 

In 1844, Dr. Leidy, then twenty-one years of age, was asked by 
Dr. Amos Binney, of Boston, to contribute an article on the special 
anatomy and physiology of the terrestrial gasteropoda of the United 
States for the proposed general work on that subject then in prepara- 
tion by the latter. Before the special anatomy was completed, the 
death of Dr. Binney, unfortunately, put a stop to further work in 
that direction. Nevertheless, the result of Dr. Leidy's investigations \ ./ 
were later published in Binney's work on the terrestrial gasteropoda/ ' 
of the United States, as edited by Gould. To appreciate the im- 
portance of this admirable monograph, beautifully illustrated from 
drawings by the author, it must be remembered that at the time 
of its appearance, the only systematic work on the anatomy of the \ X 
mollusca was Cuvier's classical treatise published in 1817. While/ 
it is true that there are some errors of interpretation in Dr. Leidy's )-~ 
paper, recognized later by the author, yet to this day it is in 
the hands of every specialist and is continually referred to in the 
standard works on the anatomy of the mollusca. In this connection 
it is an interesting fact that the first scientific communication of any 
kind, made by Dr. Leidy, at least as far as known to the writer, 
was a paper on the anatomy of Littorina angulifera submitted July 
16th, 1845 to the Boston Society of Natural History and published 
in the Journal of that Society, no doubt on account of Dr. Binney's 
interest in the author. 

The latter was not then a member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, but being elected a few days later, 
July 29th, he presented, on the 14th day of the following October, his 
first communication, "Notes taken on a Visit to White Pond, N. J.*' \ 
The extinct mollusca described in the paper may still be seen in the / 
Museum of the Academy. These specimens are interesting not only 
as constituting the subject of his first communication to our society, 
but as offering one of the few instances of descriptions of fossil m -JT>>, 
vertebrata to be met with in Dr. Leidy's numerous paleontologicalf 
works. It need not be added, however, that his knowledge of the 
extinct forms of invertebrate life was as extensive and exact as was 
his acquaintance with recent forms. 

When he began his biological studies, the waters of every ditch, \ 
stream, and pond in the vicinity of the city, teemed with various / 
kinds of invertebrate life, unfortunately since destroyed by sewage/ 



OP THR 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

I and coal oil. Many of these were new to science and constituted, 
I as we have seen, the subject of most of his researches upon the 
' anatomy of the invertebrates. The opportunities afforded at that 
time for investigating the anatomy of vertebrates, other than the most 
/ common forms, were very limited, depending, as the Zoological 

f i Garden had not been established, upon the chance of a travelling 
^menagerie losing a specimen by death while exhibiting in the city. 
His contributions to our knowledge of the anatomy of recent ver- 
tebrates were, therefore, few in number. Among these may be 
mentioned his communication in the Proceedings of the Academy, 
illustrated with figures, on certain peculiar bodies resembling the 
\ Pacinian corpuscles of man, found along the course of the intercostal 
\jaerves in the boa constrictor. The anatomy of the abdominal viscera 
of the three-toed sloth, the subject of another communication to the 
Academy, is interesting as containing a description and figure of the 
embryo sloth with membranes. 

In 1852 there appeared in the Journal of the Academy his im- 
portant memoir " Description of the Osteological Characters of a 
New Gen us of Hippopotamus. " By a comparison of the skulls in the 
Museum of the Academy, the author proves that the animal from 
Liberia not only differs from that of the Nile, as had been previously 
supposed by Dr. Morton, but that it belongs to a different genus, 
which he named at first Chverodes, but afterward Chceropsis, the 
former name having been already adopted for an insect. It is an 
interesting fact that while his opinion of the generic distinction of 
Chceropsis from Hippopotamus was not accepted by the zoologists of 
that day and is questioned by many even now, its correctness has 
been fully established by the recent researches of one of the highest 
authorities, Prof. Alphonse Milne Edwards. 

Dr. Leidy's contributions to the general or histological anatomy of 

vertebrates were but few in number. Mention should be made, how- 

/ever, of his communications to the Academy and to the American 

/ Journal of Medical Sciences, on the development of the Purk- 
injean corpuscles of bone, the structure of the intercellular sub- 
stance of articular cartilage, and the disposition of the sheath of 
muscular fasciculi. Dr. Leidy, in the paper first mentioned, showed 
that the bone cells, or Purkinjean corpuscles, are derived from the 
pre-existing cartilage cells, the canaliculi being prolongations or pro- 
trusions of the cell wall. As regards the structure of the intercellular 
substance of articular cartilage, basing his observations on the fact 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 19 

that the latter fractures in a direction perpendicular to its surface, 
he showed that it consists of extremely fine, transparent filaments, 
upon the existence of which depends the disposition of the cells 
in rows. He also demonstrated that the filaments of fibrous tissue 
forming the sheath of muscular fasciculi are disposed diagonally 
around the latter, becoming straight at their rounded extremities. 
He pointed out the advantage, functionally, of such arrangement, by 
which the muscular power is conveyed to the parts to be moved with- 
out entailing any loss. 

As an illustration of the extent and variety of his researches in 
histology, it may be mentioned that about this period he translated] 
from the German, Gluge's Atlas of Pathological Histology, a standard I 
work at that time. 

Dr. Leidy's studies of the structure of the human body were fully 
set forth in his admirable treatise upon human anatomy, so that he 
but rarely published any special communications upon that subject. 
His researches, however, upon the development of the intermaxillary 
bone in man, the structure and development of the temporal bone, 
the nature and relations of the crico-thyroid membrane and adjacent 
muscles of the larynx are well worthy of consideration. To Goethe, 
great alike as philosopher, poet and naturalist, science is indebted for 
the discovery of the intermaxillary bone in man. Its recognition, 
however, at the time Dr. Leidy began his study, had been confined 
to abnormal conditions due to an arrest of development, as in hare-lip, 
its exact limits and the period of life in which it occurs as a distinct 
piece not having been accurately determined. He made it the sub- 
ject of a special investigation. The result of his study, based upi 
the examination of a number of human embryos, was embodied in his 
observations on the existence of the intermaxillary bone, in which 
not only was its development accurately described, but it was shown 
that the same law governed the formation of the upper maxillary/ 
bones in man as in all other vertebrates. 

It would hardly be supposed at the present day, considering all 
that has been published on the development and structure of the 
temporal bone, that anything of importance would have been left 
unsaid. As recently, however, as 1883, Dr. Leidy communicated to] 
" Science" the results of his study of that portion of the skull. He 
prefaced his description with characteristic modesty by observing 
that he laid no claim to having made any discoveries. Neverthelessx 
his views as to the development and relations of the auditory plate, 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

the scute, the antrum and attic, based upon beautiful preparations, 
differ so essentially from those given in systematic treatises that it 
may be truly said he has thrown a flood of light upon the anatomy 
of that most complex of bones. It should be mentioned in this con- 
nection that while he admits, with Prof. Huxley, the presence of 
two ossificatory centers in the development of the temporal bone, 
the prootic and opisthotic, he views the so-called third centre or 
epiotic bone, not as a distinct centre, but as a continuous out-growth 
of the posterior semicircular canal. 

/ He was one of the few anatomists who described the vocal mem- 
/ ilbranes of the larynx as being membranes instead of cords. The latter 
name, most inappropriate and misleading, was originally given to 
them because it was supposed that the voice was produced in the 
same manner as sounds are produced by the vibration of strings, 
whereas the larynx is rather comparable to a reed instrument, such 
as the oboe. 

In an excellent paper, well illustrated, he described accurately 
the structure and attachments of the crico-thyroid membrane 
as well as the relations of the adjacent muscles, more particularly 
of the thyro-arytsenoideus, and thyro-epiglottidseus, the superior 
and inferior arytseus epiglottidseus. 

The first edition of the " Elementary Treatise on Human Anatomy'' 
published in 1861. It is one of the best works ever offered to the 
medical profession on the subject, and more than fulfilled its 
author's anticipations of usefulness. The work was prepared, not 
in the hope that it would supersede the classical treatises already 
before the profession, but to place in the hands of students and prac- 
titioners of medicine a work on human anatomy which, while brief 
and clear, should be sufficiently complete for all practical pur- 
poses. The description of the various organs, illustrated by excel- 
lent figures, many of them original, is always lucid and graphic. 
Especially is this true of the observations upon general histology, 
usually prefacing the descriptions of great systems such as the mus- 
cular, alimentary, nervous systems, etc. One of the striking features 
of the work is the employment in the text of the English name 
only for the part to be described, the Latin or other synonyms 
being given in foot notes, thus greatly simplifying the nomencla- 
ture. The work throughout bears the impress of the comparative 
anatomist, of one as familiar with the structure of an infusorial 
animalcule as with that of the complex vertebrate. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 21 

The variety, extent and exactness of Dr. Leidy's knowledge of 
nature was unsurpassed, if equalled, by that of any living naturalist. 
It was this familiarity with all natural objects which invariably im- 
pressed those brought in personal contact with him. If some min- 
ute infusorial! were casually mentioned in conversation, one would 
have supposed from his remarks that he had devoted his life to the 
study of the Protozoa ; an intestinal worm being the subject of dis- 
cussion, from his description of its structure, origin and mode of life, 
it would have been inferred that helminthology was his exclusive 
specialty. The opportunity of seeing him dissect an insect, mollusk 
or vertebrate, would soon convince one that he was a most skilful 
anatomist. A fragment of rock, a plant, a shell submitted to him 
called forth criticisms worthy of the professional mineralogist, bot- 
anist or conchologist. 

Profound as was his knowledge of living plants and animals, it 
can be truly said that his acquaintance with the extinct forms of life 
was equally so. Indeed it was his great familiarity with the existent 
types of vegetable and animal life that so eminently qualified him 
to determine fossil forms. 

In the year 1847 Dr. Hiram A. Prout of St. Louis, published in 
the American Journal of Science and Arts the description of a 
fossil maxillary bone of Paleotherium, from near White River, 
Nebraska. This communication at once directed the attention of 
geologists and paleontologists to the Mauvaises Terres. 

At about the same time Dr. S. D. Culbertson of Chambersburg, 
Penna., submitted to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, some fossils sent to him from the Bad Lands of Nebraska by 
Mr. Alexander Culbertson. These were afterwards presented to the 
Academy by the collector and described by Dr. Leidy in the Pro^ 
ceedings, together with the paleotheroid form just referred to from 
the same locality. 

The collection of fossils, in the possession of Prof. O'Loghland, of 
St. Louis, as well as those made in the Bad Lands of Nebraska by 
Dr. Evans, at the request of Dr. Owen of the Geological Survey of 
Nebraska and by Captain Van Vliet of the U. S. Army, were 
also placed at Dr. Leidy's disposal for description in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy. The late Prof. S. F. Baird, fully appre- 
ciating the importance of the discoveries, sent Mr. T. A. Culbert- 
son to the Bad Lands of Nebraska. He returned with a most 
valuable collection of mammalian and chelonian fossils. These 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

specimens, with others obtained from the same locality, were sent 
I to Dr. Leidy by Prof. Baird, who, with his characteristic judg- 
ment, remarked that Dr. Leidy, though but thirty years of age, was 
the only anatomist then in the United States qualified to determine 
their nature. 

The finding of these fossils, together with the appreciation of their 
value and the recognition of their relations, constitutes a discovery 
which, if equaled, has never been surpassed in importance by any 
other contribution to paleontology. 

The "Ancient Fauna of Nebraska", appeared in 1853. It con- 
tained descriptions of the fossil remains just referred to, together 
with some previous publications to be mentioned hereafter, and was 
the beginning of a most brilliant series of paleontological researches. 
They extended over a period of more than forty years and culminated 
in discoveries which, together with others made in the same field, are 
regarded by many as going farther to establish the doctrine of evolu- 
tion than all the other facts hitherto advanced in favor of that 
theory. The remains of the extinct animals described in this work 
excited a great deal of attention when submitted to the Academy, 
as they were the first fossils brought from the tertiary beds of the 
I West. They were of a more generalized type of structure than those 
living at the present day, a remarkable feature, especially in the case 
of the Tertiary mammalian remains discovered, some of which, to a 
I considerable extent, bridged the gap between extinct and recent 
i mammals. These facts, commented upon as so remarkable at the 
\time, afterwards became perfectly intelligible in the light of the the- 
ory that the early tertiary mammals must be regarded as the ances- 
tors of those living at the present day. 

Among the ancient mammals from the tertiary beds of Nebraska 
described by Dr. Leidy, may be mentioned Poebr other mm, a ruminant 
nearly allied to the musk deer and through Proeamelus, described 
later by our author, the ancestor of the camel. Agriochcerus and 
Oreodon, peculiar ruminants, were especially interesting as filling up 
the interval between Anoplotherium of Cuvier and recent ruminants, 
as Zeuglodon, whose vertebrae were once so common in Alabama as 
to be used for fences, and which bridges the gap between the 
carnivora and the cetacea. Oreodon, intermediate in its structure 
between the hog, deer and the camel, appears to have lived in 
herds inhabiting the whole continent from Nebraska to Oregon. 
Archeotherium, a recent genus of suilline ungulata, was an illustra- 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 23 

tion of the generalized type of mammals living in those early 
tertiary times combining ruminant with carnivorous characteristics. 

The skull and jaws of the horse-like mammal Anchitherium, were* 
particularly important as being the remains of a genus hitherto) 
represented in Europe by other parts of the skeleton. 

In view of what has since been established regarding the gene- 
alogy of the horse, it is interesting to find Dr. Leidy remarking 
that " it is extraordinary that Anchitherium should be so much like 
Paleotherium in the anatomical and physiological construction of its 
teeth, and yet be so much like the horse in its skeleton. " Titano- 
therium, of which the lower-jaws, as already mentioned, were the 
the first fossils presented to the notice of the world from the great 
mammalian cemetery of the West, resembles, according to Dr. 
Leidy, the Paleotherium of Cuvier, though much larger than 
Paleotherium magnum. Later researches have shown that Titano- 
therium has affinities with Limnohyus and Paleosyops, afterwards 
described by Dr. Leidy, as well with Brontotherium. 

Two species of Rhinoceros were described in the work as having 
once inhabited the Bad Lands of Nebraska, the largest of the two 
species being about three-fourths the size of Rhinoceros Indicus of 
the present day. 

As an illustration of Dr. Leidy's remarkable knowledge of osteol- 
ogy even at that early date, it may be mentioned that he established \W. 
this species of extinct Rhinoceros upon a few small fragments of / 
molar teeth, without having even those of a recent Rhinoceros with/ 
which to compare them. The correctness of this determination was 
questioned when the teeth were first brought to the Academy, it 
being considered incredible that such an animal should have ever 
lived in Nebraska. His opinion, however, was fully sustained 
soon afterwards by the discovery of several entire molars together 
with a complete skull of the animal. Of the remaining mammalia 
described as occurring in Nebraska at that time should be men- 
tioned Machairodus, recognized later as a synonym of Drepanodon\ 
or the sabre-toothed tiger, which had already been found in / 
France, India and Brazil, and which no doubt preyed upon the 
herds of Oreodon roaming over the country in those remote times, 
much as the lion and tiger prey upon the deer in Asia and Africa 
at the present day. 

A most striking peculiarity of the paleontology of the Bad Lands 
of Nebraska, is the fossil turtles to be seen by hundreds particularly 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

in the neighborhood of Bear Creek, which appears to have been at 
one time a vast lake. All the turtles from this region submitted to 
Dr. Leidy for determination appear to have been species of 
Testudo. 

The " Ancient Fauna of Nebraska " is a very remarkable work not 
only on account of the admirable descriptions it contains of animals 
long since extinct whose existence on this continent, as in the case of 
HJie rhinoceros, had never been suspected, but particularly in view of 
Ahe lack of opportunity to compare the fossil remains with those of 
\recent animals. The identification of fossil remains, the determina- 
tion of their relations and affinities, always present difficulties to the 
best comparative osteologists even when studied in connection 
with such magnificent collections as those of the Royal College of 
Surgeons or of the Jardin des Plantes. The accuracy of Dr. Leidy's 
work is, therefore, specially worthy of note as he had no material 
for comparison except that contained in the limited collections of 
the Academy ; yet how comparatively few are the errors his suc- 
cessors have indicated. 

The remains of the extinct gigantic sloths that inhabited North 
America during the quaternary period, and which probably were 
the ancestors of similar but smaller animals now living in South 
America, early attracted the attention of American naturalists. 
As long ago as 1797, Thomas Jefferson, in a communication to the 
American Philosophical Society, described certain bones discovered 
in a cave in Green Briar County, Virginia, which he regarded, 
on account of the claws, as being the remains of a carnivorous 
animal which he named Megalonyx. The bones being sub- 
sequently presented to the American Philosophical Society 
were again described by Dr. Wistar, who, basing his opinion upon the 
form and arrangement of the bones of the feet, suggested that 
Megalonyx was a kind of Sloth and not a carnivorous animal as Mr. 
Jefferson had very naturally supposed. An examination by the 
great paleontologist Cuvier, of casts of these bones sent to him by 
Mr. Peale, fully confirmed Dr. Wistar's opinion as to the sloth-like 
nature of Megalonyx Jeffersoni, as it was afterwards called by Dr. 
Harlan. The original specimen described by Mr. Jefferson, now in 
/ the Museum of the Academy, together with other remains of 
Megalonyx, Megatherium, etc., obtained from Tennessee, Mississippi, 
vVxKentucky, Alabama and Georgia, constituted the material upon 
-7\\$vhich was based Dr. Leidy's admirable " Memoir on the Extinct 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 25 

Sloth Tribe of North America" which appeared, beautifully\ 
illustrated, in 1855, two years after the publication of the "Ancient 
Fauna of Nebraska." 

At the time that Dr. Leidy began his researches upon the extinct 
sloths considerable difference of opinion prevailed as to whether 
certain bones that had been discovered since the sloth-like nature of 
Megalonyx was satisfactorily determined were the remains of that 
animal or of one somewhat closely allied. Dr. Leidy showed con- 
clusively that while several of the bones in question were those 
of Megalonyx, many that had hitherto been regarded as such 
were undoubtedly the remains of other extinct edentata such as 
Gnathopsis, Mylodon, Megatherium, Scelidotherium, etc., the generic 
and specific characters of Megalonyx being clearly indicated as well 
as those of the other edentata just mentioned, many of which 
had already been described by Cuvier and Owen. As an illustration 
of the exactness of Dr. Leidy's determination of the nature of 
Megalonyx, it may be mentioned that in his first description he 
attributed five toes to the hinder feet as well as to the fore feet, a 
greater number than is known to belong to any other genus of the 
Tardigrada. The correctness of this view was fully substantiated 
the following year by the discovery of remains of Megalonyx among 
which the particular bones of the feet that were missing in the spec- 
imens previously described happened to be represented. These 
were made the subject of some further observations upon the feet 
of Megalonyx. 

The extinct fishes discovered in the Devonian deposits of Illinois 
and Missouri and the Devonian and Carboniferous formations of . 
Pennsylvania now attracted his attention and were made the subject 
of special communications to the American Philosophical Society 
and the Academy. 

Among these interesting remains from the red sandstone forma- 
tion of Tioga County, Pennsylvania, discovered by Charles E. 
Smith, Esq. and described by Dr. Leidy, were those of Holoptychius 
Americanus, a Ganoid fish represented at the present day in our 
waters by the gar-pike and sturgeon, and those of Stenacanthus, a 
Placoid characterized by its peculiar dorsal spine and supposed to have 
been allied to the sharks of the present day. Another remarkable 
and gigantic fish described by Dr. Leidy as living in the seas of 
these remote times was Edestus vorax, the teeth of which, resembling 
those of Carcharodon, are nearly two inches long. These were 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

afterwards regarded as spines, which is also the opinion of Sir 
Richard Owen. According to the recent researches of Trautschold, 
however, the parts in question in Edestus are really teeth as 
Dr. Leidy first supposed. 

Various genera, Cochliodus, Helodus, Chomatodus and Ctenopty- 
chius \\ere also described, and their relations to the living Cestracion 
Phillippi or Port Jackson shark of Australia were pointed out. 
The jaws of this fish, a relic of the most remote ages and of living 
Placoids, and resembling most the extinct carboniferous fishes just 
mentioned, are covered with rounded plates much like a cobblestone 
pavement, instead of the lancet-shaped teeth so characteristic of the 
sharks of the present day. 

About this period the remains of the Walrus discovered upon the 
coasts of Virginia and New Jersey, were identified as being of the 
same species as the recent Trickecus Rosmarus, which once lived in 
great numbers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These remains were 
regarded as those of individuals that had been floated upon fields of 
ice and ultimately deposited upon our southern coasts, or of such 
as may be supposed to have migrated to the South during the Glacial 
epoch. 

It is well known that the remains of the Peccary have been found 
in considerable quantities in the states of Illinois, Kentucky, Iowa, 
Missouri and Virginia. Dr. Leidy was at one time inclined to 
think that these remains represented a number of genera and species. 
A more recent study, however, based upon an examination of the 
recent Peccaries, which the lack of material had previously rendered 
impossible, convinced him that the remains hitherto described 
might all be referred to Dicotyles compressits. He adds, however, 
that if the anatomical characteristics offered be considered sub- 
generic, then the name Platygonus compressus, previously employed, 
would include all the genera and species. 

In the year 1865 there was published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Knowledge one of the most important of Dr. Leidy's 
, paleontological works : the memoir entitled " Cretaceous Reptiles of 
the United States." Most of the fossil remains constituting the 
subject of this memoir were obtained from the Green Sand or Marl 
of New Jersey, so extensively excavated for agricultural purposes. 
They are preserved in the Museum of the Academy. Among them 
are those of the extinct crocodile Thoracosaurus, closely allied 
anatomically to the Gavial of the Ganges, the skull of which measures 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 27 

nearly four feet in length and two feet in breadth. Other interesting 
crocodile-like reptiles described as of the same general character in 
the work were Bottosaurus and Hyposaurus. The huge Cimoliasaurus 
and Discosaurus measuring sixty feet in length appear to have repre- 
sented in our waters the Plesiosaurus of the English cretaceous seas. 

The teeth and some of the bones of the extremities of Mosasaurus, 
an extinct saurian resembling in some respects existing reptiles like 
the Monitor and Iguana, were also described. In the case of the 
extremities this was especially important, as few bones that could 
be identified as such had been discovered among the remains of 
Mosasaurus hitherto described. Indeed Cuvier was so much impressed 
with the absence of any remains of extremities in the case of the 
celebrated Msestricht specimen now preserved in the Jardin des 
Plantes that at first he was led to doubt whether the animal 
possessed any limbs. Dr. Leidy also called attention to the remark- 
able character of the vertebral column of Mosasaurus, the co-ossifica- 
tion in the hinder part of the tail and of the chevron bones with the 
bodies of the vertebrae, a condition previously known only in fishes. 

One of the most remarkable reptiles described by Dr. Leidy was 
Hadrosaurus Foulkii, the restoration of which forms a conspicuous 
object in the Museum of the Academy. It resembles somewhat the 
Iguana and Cyclura among existing lizards. This gigantic reptile, 
the representative during the cretaceous period of North America of 
the Iguanodon of the Wealden of England, was twenty-eight feet 
long and, judging from the development of the pelvis and the great 
difference in the size of the hind as compared with the fore limbs, it 
probably stood and walked like a bird or a kangaroo, and was 
provided with a powerful tail like the last named animal. While 
the femur measured nearly four feet in length and the tibia 
three feet, the humerus and ulna were only about half those dimen- 
sions respectively. Hadrosaurus like Iguanodon was a vegetable 
feeder. Its teeth resembled those of the latter but were disposed in 
rows like a tesselated pavement. One of the most interesting results 
of the study of the remains of Hadrosaurus was the identification 
of the pubic bone with that described as the clavicle in Iguanodon. 
The determination of the proper relations of this bone was a most 
important one, leading as it did to the subsequent generalization 
that the Dinosauria are the ancestors of the birds, the gap between 
the two groups being filled up by the Struthious birds, such as the 
ostrich and certain reptile-like birds and bird-like reptiles since 




28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

discovered. Among the other reptilian remains discovered in the 
marl of New Jersey many were recognized as being those of turtles 
such as Chelone, Emys and Trionyx. Bothremys Cookii found near 
Barnsboro, of especial interest as being the first Chelonian skull 
discovered in the Green sand formation in the United States, was 
regarded as closely allied to the great turtle of the Amazon, Podoc- 
nemys expansa. 

During the time intervening between the years 1853 and 1866, 
the able and indefatigable explorer, Dr. F. V. Hayden, made 
several visits to Nebraska and Dakota, returning each time with 
large collections of the remains of the extinct animals of that region, 
those from the vicinity of the Niobrara river being the first obtained. 
All these fossils were submitted to Dr. Leidy for determination 

:and, together with those previously described in the " Fauna of Ne- 
braska, " etc., already referred to, constituted the subject of his great 
work, "The Extinct Mammalian Fauna of Dakota and Nebraska," 
which appeared as Volume VII of ~he Journal of the Academy, in 
1869. In this remarkable work over seventy genera with numerous 
Species of extinct mammalia, many of them new to science, were first 
(described. The Carnivora, Pachydermata, Ruminantia, Proboscidea, 
B-odentia and Insectivora were especially well represented. Remains 
of the Equine family were most conspicuous. 

The vast number of bones from the pliocene deposits of Dakota 

recognized by Dr. Leidy as being the remains of horses, led him to 

infer that the North American Continent, during that period, was 

emphatically the country of the horse, the different forms being 

\ then better represented than in the recent fauna of any part of the 

\ world. He was specially interested in the relations of the extinct 

\horses to each other and to those of the present day. 

/His first communication on this subject was made to the 
- Academy in 1847; his last as recently as May, 1890. He made 
a collection of the skulls, jaws, teeth, bones of the limbs, etc., of the 
different breeds and ages of recent horses with the view of comparing 
them with the corresponding parts of the extinct forms. In speaking 
of the great difficulties experienced when endeavoring to positively 
identify certain bones as those of one so-called species of horse 
as distinguished from another, he observes that if the " bones and 
teeth of the domestic horse, the mule, the ass, the'djiggetai, the 
hemione, the quagga, the daww, and the zebra, were commingled, 
they might readily be considered as belonging to varieties of a single 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29 

species, " and that the " bones and teeth of the three last named 
species are so nearly alike that, had they been found in a fossil 
state in Southern Africa instead of the living animals, they would 
have been unhesitatingly considered as pretaining to a single 
species." To this circumstance, so thoroughly appreciated by the 
author, was due his caution in identifying the remains submitted to 
him as belonging to any particular species of the horse. Indeed 
the difficulties are so great in determining to what particular species 
or genus the remains of extinct horses are to be assigned, that it is 
impossible to say whether or not the several forms first described 
by Dr. Leidy, are the same as those subsequently described by 
others. 

Without committing himself to any positive theory of the origin 
of the horse, it may be said that Dr. Leidy, provisionally at least, 
regarded the genus Equus of the Pliocene period as the descendant of 
the Merychippus, or a similar form, which in turn had descended from 
Protohippus and Hipparion, the latter having replaced the Para- 
hippus of the Miocene, which had been preceded by the Anehippus 
and Anchitherium or similar forms of that same period. As to the 
origin of Anchitherium, it will be remembered, as already mentioned, 
that in his description of that genus he called attention to 
the fact that this curious animal resembled Palwotherium in the 
form of its teeth, and the horse in the character of its skeleton. 

During the five years that elapsed after the publication of the im- 
portant work on the extinct mammalia of Nebraska and Dakota just 
referred to, the remains of a great number of extinct vertebrates had 
been discovered in the neighborhood of Fort Bridger, Wyoming. 
These fossils, obtained principally by Drs. Carter and Corson, in- 
cluded the remains of fishes and reptiles as well as those of mammals 
and were, together with others from the Green River and Sweetwater 
River deposits of Wyoming and the John Day river of Oregon, 
submitted to Dr. Leidy for determination. The result of his study 
was given in his " Contributions to the Extinct Vertebrate Fauna of ! 
the Western Territories" published in 1873 by the United States 
Geological Survey. Among these remains he recognized not only 
those of extinct animals that he had previously described either in 
the general works we have referred to or in communications 
made to the Academy, but also those of many new and interesting i> 
forms previously unknown to science. Of these Uintatherium was 
one of the most extraordinary. Its name was derived from that of 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

the Uinta mountains, in the neighborhood of which portions of the 
skull, jaw and limb bones were found. Its characters were so 
/peculiar and unlike those of any other known animal as to render 
\its ordinal affinities obscure: That great difficulty should have been 
experienced in determining the nature of Uintatherium will not 
excite surprise when it is remembered that its canine teeth resemble 
those of the sabre-toothed tiger, its molar teeth those of the tapir, its 
limbs and feet those of the elephant, while, as subsequently shown, it 
appears to have been provided with two pairs of horns. This 
unusual combination of characters is an illustration of how readily 
a paleontologist may be deceived as to the nature of an extinct 
animal when fragmentary remains only are in his possession. There 
can be no doubt that had the skull, jaws, teeth and limbs been found 
by different paleontologists, as many separate genera would have 
been described and named. As a matter of fact, when the tusk, the 
first part of Uintatherium discovered, was found by Dr. Corson and 
submitted to Dr. Leidy's inspection, the latter regarded it, as he him- 
self tells us, as the canine tooth of some large carnivorous animal 
allied to the sabre-toothed tiger of Brazil, for which he proposed the 
name Uintamastix atrox. The association in the same individual of 
a tusk-like tooth- with two pairs of horns, tapiroid teeth and ele- 
phantine limbs would have been deemed impossible by the best 
comparative osteologist of the day and as violating in every particular 
the principle of correlation of animal structures as maintained by 
Cuvier. On the other hand, it is such animals as Uintatherium and 
other similar extinct highly generalized mammalian types that the 

\ theory of evolution would lead us to suppose had preceded in time 
their more specialized descendants of the present day. 
/ This great work was the last of Dr. Leidy's elaborate and im- 
portant treatises on the paleontology of the Western States and 

/ Territories and was regarded by the author, at that time, as his last 

\paleontological work of any kind. 

A few years later, however, a collection of fossils from the Phos- 
phate Beds of South Carolina having been placed at the disposal 
of the author of this memoir, he induced Dr. Leidy to examine the 
collection with the view of ascertaining if there were among the re- 
mains any extinct animals new to science, or of especial interest. 
The result of his study of this collection, as well as that 
of some additional specimens obtained from the same locality and 
elsewhere, were embodied in his " Description of Vertebrate Re- 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 31 

mains chiefly from the Phosphate Beds of South Carolina, " pub- 
lished in the Journal of the Academy for 1887. Among the remains 
of extinct animals described in this admirable memoir may be men- 
tioned the teeth of the gigantic sharks, rays and teliosts, the verte- 
brae, ear-bones and teeth of whales, the bones of the manatee and 
walrus, the teeth and bones of the elephant, Megatherium, horse, / 
tapir, bison, deer, beaver and capybara, many of which were repre- 
sentative of entirely new genera and species. 

During the interval elapsing between the publication of the work 
just referred to, and his death, Dr. Leidy, from time to time as 
occasion offered, made communications to the Academy on the 
remains of extinct animals submitted to him for determination. All 
of these observations are of interest and importance and are marked 
by the same exactness and accuracy of description, so characteristic 
of all the work of the great paleontologist. 

It will be observed from this necessarily brief resume of Dr. Leidy 's 
work that he made contributions to the sciences of mineralogy, 
botany, zoology ; general, comparative and human anatomy, and 
paleontology. Of his numerous scientific communications some were 
very brief, mere notices ; others exhaustive and elaborate treatises. 
His work, however, whether lengthy or brief was always most exact 
and accurate. Later investigators in the same fields of research 
have been able to point out but few errors of interpretation, still 
fewer of fact. His works are essentially records of facts, often 
new and of the greatest scientific importance, containing but 
rarely any generalizations or deductions based upon the same. 
Possibly no country ever produced a student whose knowledge of 
nature was at once so accurate and so comprehensive. He was an 
excellent mineralogist and botanist without claiming to be either, 
among the highest living authorities on comparative anatomy and 
zoology, one of the most distinguished helminthologists living, and 
the equal of any paleontologist at home or abroad. 

The following catalogue of volumes, papers and communications 
published by Dr. Joseph Leidy illustrates the extent, variety and 
value of his contributions to science : 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1. On the existence of the sack of the dart and of the dart in several species of 
North American pneumonobranchiate Mollusks. Boston, Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
II, 1845, p. 59-60. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

2. Notes taken on a visit to White Pond, in Warren Co., New Jersey. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1845, pp. 279-281. 

3. Anatomical description of the animal of Littorina angulifera Lam. (1845.) 
Boston, Jour. Nat. Hist. V, 1845-47, pp. 344-347. 

4. On several important points in the Anatomy of the human larynx. Amer. 
Jour. Med. Sci. XII, 1846, pp. 141-143. 

5. Remarks upon the Anatomy of the abdominal viscera of the Sloth, Bradypus 
tridactylis Linn. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 1846, pp. 287-288. 

6. On an Entozoon from the thigh of a hog, Trichina spiralis ? Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1846, pp. 107-108. 

7. Fecundity of Cryptogamia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1846, p. 195. 

8. On the Anatomy of Spectrum femoratum Say. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Ill, 1846-47, pp. 80-84. 

9. Description of a new genus and species of Entozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. Ill, 1846-47, pp. 100-101. Ann. Nat. Hist. XIX, 1847, pp. 209-210. 

10. On the mechanism which closes the membranous wings of the genus Locusts. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 1846-47, pp. 104-105. Ann. Nat- Hist. XIX, 
1847, pp. 214-215. 

11. On the situation of the olfactory sense in the terrestrial tribe of the Gastero- 
podous Mollusca. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 1846-47, pp. 136-137. Ann. 
Nat. Hist. XX, 1847, pp. 210-211. Silliman's Journ. Ill, 1847, pp. 434-435. 

12. Discovery of crystals in the cellular structure of Parmelia. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1847, p. 210. 

13. On the Cranium of a New Hollander. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1847, 
p. 217. 

14. On an Entozoon from the Pericardium of. Helix alternata. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1847, pp. 22(1-221. 

15. Request to change the name of an Entozoon from Cryptobia to Cryptoicus. 
Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila. 1847, p. 239. 

16. Remarks on Squatina Dumerili. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1847, 
p. 247. 

17. On the fossil Horse of America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 
1846-47, pp. 262-266. 

18. Description and Anatomy of a new and curious sub-genus of Planaria. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 1846-47. Ann. Nat. Hist. I, 1848. 

19. Description of two new species of Planaria. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Ill, 1846-47, pp. 251-252. Ann. Nat. Hist. I, 1848, pp. 78-79. 

20. Additional observations on the Fossil Horse of America. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1847, pp. 262-266. 

21. On a new genus and species of fossil Ruminantia, Poebrotherium Wilsoni. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 1846-47, pp. 322-326. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1, 1848, 
pp. 389-392. Silliman's Journ. V, 1848, pp. 276-279. 

22. History and anatomy of the hemipterous genus Belostoma. Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. I, 1847-50, pp. 57-67.- 

23. Miscellanea Zoologica. 1. Description of a new genus and species of 
Entozoa, Cryptobia helicis. 2. On the mechanism which closes the membranous 
wings of the genus Locusta. 3. On the situation of the olfactory sense in the 
terrestrial tnbe of the Gasteropodous Mollusca. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. I, 
1847-50, pp. 67-70. 

24. Descriptions of two species of Distoma with the partial history of one of 
them. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. I, 1847-50, pp. 301-310. 

25. Researches into the comparative structure of the Liver. Am. Jour. Med. 
Sci. Phila. 1848. 

26. On the eye of the Balanus. Silliman's Journ. VI, 1848, p. 136. 

27. On the existence of the eye in the perfect Cirrhipoda. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1848, pp. 1-2. 

28- On some bodies in the Boa-constrictor resembling the Pacinian corpuscles. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 27-28. Muller's Archiv. 1848, pp. 
527-530. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 33 

29. On a new fossil genus and species of ruminantoid Pachydermata, Merycoi- 
dodon Culbertsonii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 47-50. 

30. Remarks on the hair of a Hottentot boy brought to Phila. by Capt. Chase 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1848, p. 7. 

81. Observations on the development of bone, the structure of articular cartilage, 
and on the relation oftheareolar tissue with muscle and tendon. Proc Acad 
Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 116-117. 

32. Observations on the existence of the intermaxillary bone in the embryo of 
the human subject. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 145-147. 

33. Tapirus Americanus fossilis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, IV, 1848-49 
pp. 180-183. 

34. On the existence of Entophyta in healthy animals, as a natural condition. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 225-233. Ann. Nat. Hist. V, 
1850, pp. 71-76. 

35. On the intimate structure and history of the articular cartilages. Am. Jour. 
Med. Sci. Phila. 1849. 

36. On some new genera and species of Entozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
IV, 1848-49, pp. 229-233. Ann. Nat. Hist. V, 1850, pp. 314-317. 

37. Observations on the characters and intimate structure of the odoriferous 
glands of the Invertebrata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 234- 
236. 

38. Descriptions of new genera and species of Entophyta. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. IV, 1848-49, pp. 249-250. 

39. On the intimate structure and history of the articular cartilages. Amer. 
Journ. Med. Sci. XVII, 1849, pp. 277-294. Ann. Nat. Hist. IV, 1849, pp. 156- 
158. 

4 0. On the development of the Purkinjean corpuscle in bone. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
IX, 1849, pp. 74-75. 

41. On the arrangement of the areolar sheath of muscular fascicule, and its rela- 
tion to the tendon. Ann. Nat. Hist. IV, 1849, pp. 158-159. 

42. Internal anatomy of Corydalus cornutus, in its three stages of existence. 
1848. Boston, Mem. Amer. Acad. IV, 1849, pp. 162-168. 

43. Descriptions (accompanied by drawings) of new genera and species Ento- 
phyta. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila. 1849, pp. 249-250. 

44. Notice of certain peculiar bodies observed in the human subject. Amer. 
Journ. Med. Sci. XX, 1850, pp. 89-91. 

45. Notice on the formation of some crystalline bodies in collodion. American 
Journ. Pharm. XVI. 1850, pp. 24-26. 

46. On the characters and intimate structure of the odoriferous glands of the In- 
vertebrata. Ann. Nat. Hist. V, 1850, pp. 154-156. 

47. Nyctotherus, a new genus of Polygastrica allied to Plesconia. Ann. Nat. 
Hist. V, 1850, pp. 158-159. 

48. On crystalline bodies in tissues of plants. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1850, pp. 32-33. 

49. On Rhinoceros occidentals. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1850, p. 119. 

50. Descriptions of new Entophyta growing within animals. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 35-36. Ann. Nat. Hist. VII, 1851, pp. 236-237. 

51. Observations on two new genera of mammalian fossils, Eucrotaphus Jack- 
soni and Archreotherium Mortoni. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 

52. Contributions to Helminthology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850- 
51, pp. 96-98. (Six separate papers.) 

53. Notes on the development of the Gordius aquaticus. Proc. Acad. Nat. bci. 
Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 98-100. 

54. Two new species of infusorial Entozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 

55. 'Description of some Nematoid Entozoa infesting Insects. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 100-102. 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

56. Descriptions of three Filarige. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, 
pp. 117-119. 

57. On the nettling organs of the Hydra. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 
1850-51, pp. 119-121. 

58. On some fossil Mammalian remains. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 
1850-51, pp. 121-122. 

59. Descriptions of new genera of Vermes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 
1850-51, pp. 124-126. 

60. Descriptions of new species of Entozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V. 
1850-51, pp. 155-156. 

61- On a Fossil Tortoise Stylemjs Nebrascensis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
V, 1850-51, pp. 172-173. 

62. Contributions to Helminthology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, 
pp. 205-209, 224-227, 239-244, 284-290, 349-351. 

63. On fossil remains of Ruminant ungulates from Nebraska. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 237-239. 

64. On the genus Plumatella Bosc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, 
pp. 261-263. 

65. On Cristatella Cuv. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 265- 
266. 

66. Corrections and additions to former papers on Helminthology. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 284-290. 

67- On the fossil remains of Balaena palseatlantica and B. prisca, from the 
Miocene formation of Virginia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. V, 1850-51. pp. 
308-309. 

68. On some American fresh water Polyzoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
V, 1850-51, pp. 320-322. 

69. On some fossil Reptilian and Mammalian remains. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. V, 1850-51, pp. 325-330. 

70. Description of some American Anellida abranchia. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. II, 1850-54, pp. 43-50. 

71. Description of a new species of Crocodile from the Miocene of Virginia. 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. II, 1850-54, pp. 135-138. 

72. On the osteology of the head of Hippopotamus, and a description of the 
osteological characters of a new genus of Hippopotamidse. Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. II, 1850-54, pp. 207-224. 

73- On Bathygnathus borealis, an extinct Saurian of the new Red Sandstone 
of Prince Edward Island. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. II, 1850-54, pp. 327- 
330. 

74. Special Anatomy of the Gasteropoda of the United States. Terrest. Moll, 
of U. S. (Binney) I, 1851, pp. 198-260, pis. I-XVI. 

75. Zoological Researches. Silliman's Journ. XI, 1851, pp. 274-275. 

76. On some fragments of Palseotherium Proutii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1851, pp. 170-171. 

77. On the transplantation of Animal Tissues. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1851, p. 201. 

78. On Fungous growth in the Mole-cricket, two papers. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1851, pp. 204, 210-211. 

79. On the introduction of cancerous matter into the integument of the frog. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1851, p. 212. 

80. On fungous disease in Cicada septemdecim. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1851, p. 235. 

81. On the Gordiacese. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1851, pp. 262-263, 275. 

82. Report upon some fossil Mammalia and Chelonia from Nebraska. Smith- 
sonian Reports, 1852, pp. 63-65. 

83. Remarks on a fossil vertebra from Ouachita, La. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1852, p. 52. 

84. On the osteology of Hippopotamus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, 
pp. 52-53. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 35 

85. On fossil Tortoises from Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, p. 
59. 

86. On red snow from the Arctic regions. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, 
p. 59. 

87. On two crania of extinct species of Ox. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci Phila 
1852, p. 71. 

88. On the Honey Ant of Mexico. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, p 72 

89. Reference to a fossil tooth of a Tapir. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852 
p. 106. 

90. Remarks on the fossil Ox. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, p. 117. 

91. Remarks on some fossil teeth of a Rhinoceros from Nebraska ' Proc Acad 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, p. 2. 

92. On a Fossil Turtle from Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1852, p. 
o4. 

93. On a new species of fossil Delphinus and a new Saurian Thoracosaurus 
grandis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI, 1852-53, p. 35. 

94. Ursus amplidens, new fossil species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila VI 
1852-53, p. 3i)3. 

95. On some fossil Cetacean remains. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI. 1852- 
53, pp. 377-378. 

96. Description of the remains of extinct Mammalia and Chelonia from Nebraska 
Territory, collected during the Geological Survey under the direction of Dr. David 
Dale Owen. kept, of Geol. Surv. of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, D. D. Owen, 

1852, pp. 540-572. 

97. On the organization of the genus Gregarina Dufour, 1851. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. Trans. X, 1853, pp. 233-240. 

98. Some observations on Nematoidea imperfecta, and descriptions of three 
parasitic Infusoria. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. X, 1853, pp. 241-244. 

99. Description of an extinct species of American Lion, Felis atrox, 1852. 
Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. X, 1853, pp. 319-322. 

100. A memoir on the extinct Dicotylinse of America, 1852. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
Trans. X, 1853, pp. 323-344. 

101. A Flora and Fauna within Living Animals, 1851. Smithson. Contrib. V, 
1853. 

102. Memoir on the extinct species of American Ox, 1852. Smithson. Contrib. 
V, 1853. 

103. Remarks on various fossil teeth. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1853, p. 241. 

104. On some fossil fragments from Natchez Miss. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1853, p. 303. 

105. Remarks on a collection of Fossil Mammalia and Chelonia from the 
Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska. Pr c. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1853, pp. 392-394. 

106. Character explained of nodular bodies found in the tails and fins of fishes 
from Cold Pond, N. H. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1853, p. 433. 

107. Lecture introductory to the course of Anatomy delivered in the University of 
Pennsylvania. 8vo T. Phila. 1853, pp. 1-22. 

108. The ancient Fauna of Nebraska; or a description of remains of extinct 
Mammalia and Chelonia, from the Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, 1852. Smith- 
sonian Contrib. VI, 1854, pp. 392-394. 

109. On Brimosaurus grandis, n. g. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854, p. 
72. 

110. On Bison latifrons. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854, p. 89. 

111. On Dinictis filina. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1854, p. 127. 

112. On Prof. Lindley's review of" A fauna and flora within living animals." 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1854, pp. 128-129. 

113. On Hydrachna. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1854, p. 202. 

114. Hippodon and Merycodus, new fossil genera indicated. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, p. 90. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

115. Synopsis of extinct Mammalia, the remains of which have been discovered 
in the eocene formations of Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854- 
55, pp. 156-158. 

11(3. Description of a fossil apparently indicating an extinct species of the 
Camel tribe. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, pp. 172-173. 

117. On Urnatella gracilis and a new species of Plumatella. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, pp. 191-192. 

118. Notice of some fossil bones discovered by Mr. Francis A. Lincke, in the 
banks of the Ohio River, Indiana. Proc. Acadi Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, 
pp. 199-201. 

119. Remarks on the question of the identity of Bootherium cavifrons with 
Oribos moschatus or O. maximus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, 
pp. 209-210. 

120. Indications of twelve species of Fossil Fishes from New Jersey and S. 
Carolina. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 1854-55, pp. 395-397. 

121. Indications of five species, with two new genera, of extinct Fishes. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, VII, 1854-55, p. 414. 

122. Notices of some Tape Worms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VII, 854-55, 
pp. 443-444. 

123. A memoir on the extinct Sloth Tribe of North America, 1853. Smithson. 
Contrib. VII, 1855. 

124. On a so-called fossil man. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1855, p. 340. 

125. Contributions toward a knowledge of the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of 
the coasts of Rhode Island and New Jersey. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 
1855-58, pp. 135-152. 

126. Descriptions of some remains of Fishes from the Carboniferous and De- 
vonian Formations of the United States. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Ill, 
1855-58, pp. 159-165. 

127. Descriptions of some remains of extinct Mammalia. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. Ill, 1855-58, pp. 166-171. 

128. Descripiionsof two Ichthyodorulites. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 
1856, pp. 11-12. Silliman's Journ. XXI, 1856, pp. 421-422. 

129. A Synopsis of Entozoa and some of the Ecto-congeners. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 42-58. 

130. Notices of some remains of extinct Mammalia, discovered by Dr. F. V. 
Hayden in the Bad Lands of Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Phila. VIII, 1856, 
pp. 59-60. 

131. Notices of remains of extinct Reptiles and Fishes, discovered by Dr. F. V. 
Hayden in the Bad Lands of the Judith River, Nebraska Territory. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 72-76. Silliman's Journ. XXI, 1856, pp. 422- 
423. 

132. Notices of remains of extinct Mammalia, discovered by Dr. F. V. Hayden, 
in Nebraska Territory. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila VIII, 1856, pp. 88-90. 

133. Notices of the remains of a species of Seal, from the post-pliocene deposit 
of the Ottawa River. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 90-91. 

134. Notices of several genera of extinct Mammalia, previously less perfectly 
characterized. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 91-92. 

135. Notices of some remains of extinct Vertebrated Animals. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 162-165. 

136. Notices of some remains of extinct Vertebrated Animals of New Jersey, 
collected by Prof. Cook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 220-221. 

137. Notices of remains of extinct Vt-rtebrated Animals, discovered by Professor 
E. Emmons. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 255-256. Silliman's 
Journ XXIII, 1857, pp. 271-272. 

138. Notices of some remains of Fishes, discovered by Dr. John E. Evans. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 256-257. 

139. Notices of remains of two species of Seals. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
VIII, 1856, p. 265. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 37 



i p markS Qi o r !f in extincts P ecies of Fishes. Proc. Acad..Nat. Sci. Phila. 
loOO, pp. oOl ol'l. 

141. Notices of remains of extinct Turtles of New Jersey collected bv Prof 
Cook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1856, pp. 303-304. 

142. Notices of extinct Vertebrala, discovered by Dr. F. V. Hayden during the 
expedition to the Sioux country. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VI 1 1* 18567pp. 

143. List of extinct Vertebrata, the remains of which have been discovered in 
the region of the Missouri river; with remarks on their geological are Proc 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. IX, 1857, pp. 89-91. 

144. Notices of some remains of extinct Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Phila 
IX, 1857, pp. 167-168. 

145. Remark on a large species of Gordius and larva of CEstrus. Proc. Acad. 

146. On a boring Sponge. Silliman's Journ. XXIII, 1857, pp. 281-282. 

147. Observations on Entozoa found in the Naiades. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci 
Phila. 1857, p. 18. 

148. On Coprolites and Shales with Posidoniae. .Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila 

1857, p. 149. 

149. On New Red Sandstone fossils from the Gwynnedd Tunnel, North Penna 
R. Road. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857, p. 150. 

150. Rectificationof the references of the extinct Mammalian genera of Nebraska. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857, pp. 175-176. 

151. On the dentition of the Mosasaurus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857 
p. 176. 

152. On Oecanthus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857, p. 177. 

153. On a curious animalcule on stones and dead plants in the Schuylkill and 
Delaware Rivers. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857, p. 204. 

154. Observations on the introduction of the Camel into North America. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1857, p. 210. 

155. Notices of remains of extinct Vertebrata, from the Valley of the Niobrara 
River, collected during the Exploring expedition of 1857, in Nebraska, by Dr. F. 
V. Hayden. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. X, 1858, pp. 20-29. 

156. Contributions to Helmmthology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. X, 1858, 
pp. 110-112. 

157. On Urnatella gracilis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, p. 1. 

158. Remarks on Fossil Mammalia from Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1858, p. 7. 

159. Notice of Remains of extinct vertebrata from the valley of the Niobrara 
River. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, p. 11. 

160. Remarks on a cast of a Mastodon tooth. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1858, p. 12. 

161. Remarks on fossil remains from Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1858, pp. 89-90. 

162. Remarks on Chrysalides of the canker worm. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1858, p. 137. 

163. Remarks on Rhyncodemus sylvaticus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, 
pp. 171-172. 

164. Remarks on a specimen of Cryolite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, 
p. 177. 

165. Remarks on Antler of Reindeer. Proc. Adad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, p. 
179. 

166. Remarks on Polyzoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, pp. 188-190. 

167. Remarks on Hadrosaurus Foulkii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, 
pp. 215-218. 

168. Valedictory address to the class of Medical Graduates at the University of 
Pennsylvania. March 27, 1858, pp. 1-32. 

169. Lecture introductory to the course on Anatomy in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania for the session of 1858-59, 8voT. Phila. 1859, pp. 1-24. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

170. Observations on three kinds of dipterous larvae from man. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. XI, 1859, pp. 7-8. 

171. On Manayunkia speciosa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 2. 

172. On Hystracanthus arcuatus and Cladodus occidentalis. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 3. 

173. Remarks on tooth of Mastodon and bones of Mosasaurus. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, pp. 91-92. 

174. Remarks on teeth of Clepsysaurus, Eurydorus serridens and Compsosaurus, 
from Phcenixville tunnel, Chester Co. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 110. 

175. Remarks on fossils from Bethany, Va., and also from the Green Sand, 
Monmouth Co., N. J. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 110. 

176. Remarks on Ossite from Sombrero, W. I. on skull of Ursus Americanus 
from the drift, Claiborne, Miss. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 111. 

177. Remarks on fragment of jaw of Mosasaurus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1859, p. 150. 

178. On specimens of Palseotrochus from sub-silurian strata. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 150. 

179. Remarks on Dromatherium sylvestre and other fossils from Chatham Co., 
N. C. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 162. 

180. Remarks on antler of the Reindeer found at Sing-Sing, and remarks on 
Freija Americana from Newport. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 194. 

181. On the seat of the vesicating principle of Lytta vittata. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1859, p. 256. 

182. Introductory lecture to the course of Anatomy delivered in the University of 
Pennsylvania, Oct. 11, 1859. 8vo T. Phila. 1859, pp. 1-23. 

183. Notices of remains of the Walrus, discovered on the coast of the United 
States, 1856. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. XI, 1860, pp. 83-87. 

184. Descriptions of the remains of fishes from the carboniferous limestone of 
Illinois and Missouri, 1856. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. XI, 1860, pp. 87-90. 

185. Remarks on Saurocephalus and its allies, 1856. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. 
XI, 1860. pp. 91-95. 

186. Observations on the extinct Peccary of North America; being a sequel to 
"A memoir on the extinct Dicotylinae of America," 1856. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
Trans. XI, 1860, pp. 97-105. 

187. Remarks on the structuie of the feet of Megalonyx, 1856. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. Trans. XI, 1860, pp. 107-108. 

188. Extinct Vertebrata from the Judith River and great lignite formations of 
Nebraska. Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. XI, 1860, pp. 139-154. 

189. Remarks on Albertite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 54. 

190. Remarks on Hyalonema mirabilis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 
85. 

191. Remarks on experiments with Trichina spiralis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1860, p. 96. 

192. Notice of specimen of Hyla. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 305. 

193. Remarks on fossil teeth of Hippotherium from Washington County, Texas. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 416. 

194. Remarks on an extinct Peccary from Dr. D. D. Owen. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1860, p. 416. 

195. AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON HUMAN ANATOMY, with three-hundred and 
ninety-two illustrations, pp. I-XXIV, 17-663, Phila. 1861. SECOND EDITION OF 
SAME, with four-hundred and ninety five illustrations, pp. 1-950, Phiia. 1889. 

196. On the discovery of lignite at the border of the new red sandstone on 
Plymouth Creek. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila. 1861, p. 77. 

197. Remarks on certain minerals found in or near the city. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1862, p. 507. 

198. Remarks on a female Phalangopsis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1863, 
p. 212. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 39 

199. Cretaceous reptiles of the United States, 1864. Smithsonian Reports 

1864, pp. 66-73. Smithsonian Contrib. XIV, 1865, (Art. 6). Geol Mae' 
V. 1868, pp. 432-435. 

200. Fossil remains of Horses from California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila 

1865, p. 94. 

201. Fossil remains of Rhinoceros from Texas and California. Proc Acad 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, pp. 176-177. 

202. Observations on the existence of a boring sponge during the cretaceous 
period. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, p. 95. 

203. Observations on a Kjokkenmodding at Cape Henlopen. Proc Acad 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, p. 95. 

204. Remarks on a foetal Acanthias Amcricanus. Proc. Acad Nat Sci Phila 

1865, p. 175. 

205. Observations on Cryolite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Phila. 1865, p. 181. 

206. Remarks on specimens of Oolitic Phosphates of Lime and Alumina. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, p. 181. 

207. On bones and stone implements from Guano deposits in the Island of Or- 
chilla. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, pp. 181-183. 

208. Observations on Indian relics. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1866, p. 1. 

209. Remarks on a phalanx of an extinct reptile. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1866, p. 9. 

210. Remarks on cancer of liver in Turkey and on Trichina. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1866, p. 9. 

211. Remarks on human relics at Petite Anse, La. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1866, p. 109. 

212. Remarks on fossils presented June 5th. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1866, p. 237. 

213. Observations on the Kitchen Middens of Cape Henlopen. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1866, pp. 290-291. 

214. On Fossil bones from Mauvaises Terres, Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1866, p. 345. 

215. Remarks on the skull of Bison latifrons. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1867, p. 85. 

216. Exhibition of the skull of Geomys bursarius. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1867, p. 97. 

217. Of an antique copper hammer. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1867, p. 97. 

218. Of the skull of Castoroides Ohioensis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1867, 
p. 97. 

219. Of specimens of black horn-stone. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1867, p. 
125. 

220. Notices of some Vertebrate remains from Hardin Co., Texas. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 174-176. 

221. Indication of an Elotherium in California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1868, p. 177. 

222. Notices of some Reptilian remains from Nevada. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1868, pp. 177-178. 

223. Notices of some Vertebrate remains from the West Indian Islands. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 178 180. 

224. Notices of some remains of horses. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, p. 
195. 

225. Notices of some extinct Cetaceans. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 
196-197. 

226. Remarks on a jaw fragment of Megalosaurus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1868, pp. 197-199. 

227. Remarks on Conosaurus Gibbes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 
20020 

228. "Notices of American species of Ptychodus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1868, pp. 205-208. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

220. Notices of some American Leeches. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, 
pp. 229-230. 

230. Notices of some remains of extinct Pachyderms: Dicotyles nasutus, 
Anchippus Texanus, Anchippodus riparius, Lophiodon occidentalis. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 230-233. 

231. Notices of some remains of extinct Insectivora from Dakota. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 315-316. 

232. Description of Wolffia Columbiana. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, 
pp. 6-7. 

233. Description of a new sponge : Pheronema Annse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., Biol. and Micr. Section, 1868, pp. 9-11. 

234. Remarks on Sombrero Guano. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 
156-157. 

235. On the food of the shad. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, p. 228. 

236. On supposed Coprolites from the Huronian slates of Minnesota. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, pp. 302-303. 

237. On the iridescence of opals. Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868, p. 303. 

238. On asterism in Mica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1868. p. 313. 

239. On photograph of fossil bones from Topeka, Kansas. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1868,1x315. 

240. On the extinct Mammalia of Dakota and Nebraska, including an account 
of some allied forms from other localities. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Journ. VII, 
1869, pp. 23-362. 

241. Synopsis of extinct Mammalia of North America. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
Journ. VII, 1869, pp. 363-472. 

242. Notices of some extinct Vertebrates from Wyoming and Dakota. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1869, pp. 63-67. 

243. Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope. Amer. Journ. Sci.XLIX, 1870, p. 392. 

244. Fossil Sivatherium from Colorado Megacerops coloradensis. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sd. Phila. 1870, pp. 1-13. 

245. Remarks on Poicilopleuron valens, Baptemys Wyomingensis, Emys Stev- 
ensonianus and other fossils, from Middle Park, Colorado. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1870, pp. 3-5. 

246. On Reptilian remains from the cretaceous formation near Fort Wallace, 
Kansas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 9-10. 

247. On a fossil mandible from near Fort Bridger, Wyoming. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 10-11. 

248. Remarks on Xiphactinus audax and other Ichthyodorulites. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 12-13. 

249. Remarks on Asteracanthus siderius. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, 
p. 13. 

250. On Hadrosaurus and its allies. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 
67-68. 

251. Descriptions of Oncobatis pentagonus and Mylocyprinus robustus. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 69-71. 

252. On a new species of leech from near Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 89-90 

253. On Mastodon remains of the Warren Museum and the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Museum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 96-99. 

254. On Crocodilus Elliotti. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 100, 122. 

255. On Urnatella, a genus of ciliated polyps of the family Pedicellinidae. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 100-102. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. VII, 1871, 
pp. 309-312. 

256. On some fossils from the Sweet Water River, Wyoming Territory. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 109-110. 

257. Description of a new species of Oreodon : O. superbus. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 111-112. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 41 

258. On Anchitherium Condoni and Cordylophora Americana Proc Acad 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 112-113. 

259. Descriptions of Palaeosyops paludosus, Microsus cuspidatus and Notharctus 
tenebrosus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 113-114. 

260. Descriptions of Graphiodon vinearius, a fossil reptile. Proc. Acad Nat 
Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 122. 

261. Reptilian remains from Wyoming; Emys Teanesi, E. Haydeni Bsena 
arenosa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 123-124. 

262. Fossil remains of a Lacertian, discovered near Granger: Saniwa ensidens 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 124-125. 

263. Fossil fragment of the lower jaw of a small pachyderm ; Lophiotherium 
sylvaticum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 126. 

264. On the humerus of a sloth resembling Mylodon robustus and on Dromo- 
therium sylvestre. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 8-9. 

265. On specimens of vertebral bodies from the New Jersey green sand. Proc 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 10. 

266. On Ichthyodorulites. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 12-13. 

267. On fossil remains from Illinois. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 13. 

268. On Discosaurus and its allies. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 18- 

269. On the internal organs of generation of a hog. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Phila 
1870, p. 65. 

270. On fossil bones from Dakota and Nebraska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhila. 
1870, p. 65-66. 

271. On fossil remains from Idaho, Utah and Oregon. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1870, pp. 67-68. 

272. On Anguillulidse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 68-69. 

273. On fossils from the vicinity of Burlington, Kansas, and from the Rocky 
Mts. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 69. 

274. On the relations of European and American fauna. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1870, pp. 72-73. 

275. On a jaw fragment of Ovibos cavifrons. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, 
p. 73. 

276. On Nothosaurops occiduus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 74. 

277. On leeches. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 89-90. 

278. On Mastodon remains. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 96-99. 

279. O fossil remains in the Museum of Amherst College. Proc. Acad Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 98. 

280. On fossils from Bridge Creek, Oregon. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1870, pp. 111-113. 

281. On Cordylophora. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 113. 

282. On fossils from Church Buttes, Wyoming Territory. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1870, pp. 113-114. 

283. On fossils found under Table Mountain, Cal. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1870, pp. 125-126. 

284. Exhibition of the lower jaw of an aged man, and a wood carving from St. 
Paul de Loando. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1870, p. 133. 

285. On the reversed viscera of a human subject. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phiia. 

1870, p. 134. 

286. Remarks on some curious Sponges. Amer. Nat. IV, 1871, pp. 17-22. 

287. On Tsenia mediocanellata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1871, pp. 53-55. 

288. On Some extinct Turtles from Wyoming Territory. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1870, pp. 102-103. 

289. Remains of extinct Mammals from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1871, pp. 113-116. 

290. Remains of Palseosyops from Fort Bridger. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1871, p. 118. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

291. Remarks on a fossil Testudofrom Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1871, p. 154. 

292. Remarks on supposed fossil Turtle Eggs. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1871, pp. 154-155. 

293. Fossils from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 197. 

294. Remarks on fossil vertebrates from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1871, pp. 228-229. 

295. Notice of some extinct Rodents from Wyoming, and description of My- 
sops minimus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1871, pp. 230-232. 

296. Remarks on the Minerals of Mount Mica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1871, pp. 245-247. 

297. Remarks on Fossils from Oregon; Hadrohyus supremus, Rhinoceros 
pacificus. Stylemys Oregonensis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1871, pp. 247-248. 

298 Notice of a new Tape-worm; Dibothrium cordiceps. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Phila. 1881, pp. 305-307. 

299. On a small collection of fossils from California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1871, p. 50. 

300. On Polydactylism in a horse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 112. 

301. On remains of Mastodon and Horse in North Carolina. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 113. 

302. Remarks on the Garnets of Green's Creek, Delaware Co. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 155. 

303. Remarks on Mastodon, etc. of California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1871, pp. 198-199. 

304. Note on Anchitherium. Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 199. 

305. Remarks on fossil vertebrates from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1871, pp. 228-229. 

306. Flies as means of communicating contagious diseases. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1871, p. 297. 

307. On some new species of fossil mammalia from Wyoming; Palseosyops 
humilis, Uintatherium robustum, Uintamastix atrox. Amer. Journ. Sci. IV, 1872, 
pp. 239-240. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 167-169. 

308. Notices of Corundum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 19. 

309. Remarks on fossils from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 
19-21. 

310. Remarks on some extinct Mammals. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, 
pp. 37-38. 

311. Remarks on some extinct Vertebrates; Felis augustus, Oligosimus grand- 
aevus. Tylosteus ornatus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 38-40. 

312. On a new genus of extinct Turtles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 
162. 

313. On some remains of cretaceous fishes; Otodus divaricatus, Oxyrhina ex- 
tenta, Acrodus humilis, Pycnodus faba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 
162-164. 

314. On Artemia salina from Salt Lake, Utah. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1872, pp. 164-166. 

315. Remarks on the habits of an Ant. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 
218. 

316. Remarks on mineral springs, etc. of Wyoming and Utah. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 21 8-220. 

317. Notice of a corundum mine in Pennsylvania. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1872, pp. 238-239. 

318. Remarks on fossil Mammals from Wyoming; Uintatherium robustum, 
Palseosyops major. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, pp. 240-242. 

319. Remarks on chipped stones from Wyoming. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1872, pp. 242-243. 

320. Remarks on fossils from Wyoming ; Pal seosyops junior, Uintacyon edax, 
U. vorax, Chameleo pristinus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 277. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43 

321. On a Mite in the Ear of an Ox. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila,1872. pp. 
9-10. 

322. Note on Gamasus of the Ox. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 138. 

323. Remarks on Mastodon from New Mexico. Proc. Acad Nat Sci Phila 

1872, p. 142. 

324. Remarks on fossil shark teeth. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1872, p. 166. 

325. Remarks on the action of wind and sand on rocks. Proc Acad Nat Sci 
Phila. 1872, p. 243. 

326. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXTINCT FAUNA OF THE WESTERN TERRITORIES. 
Rept. U. S. Geol. Sur. of Ter. (Hayden), I, 1873, pp. 1-358, pis. I-XXXVII. 

327. Notice of fossil Vertebrates from the Miocene of Virginia. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 15. 

328. Notice of remains of fishes in Bridger Tertiary formation of Wyoming. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, pp. 97-99. 

329. Remarks on the occurrence of an extinct Hog in America. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 207. 

330. Remarks on extinct Mammals in California. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1873, pp. 259-260. 

331. Fungus Parasite on a Mouse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, pp. 
260-261. 

332. On Diston.a hepaticum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, pp. 364-365. 

333. Remarks on fossil Elephant teeth. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. pp. 
416-417. 

334. On circulatory movement in Vaucheria. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1873, p. 420. 

335. On Iron Pyrites in Coal. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 257. 

336. On a specimen of Mus rattus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 257. 

337. On Dufrenite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 257. 

338. On Lingula in a fish of the Susquehanna. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1873, p. 415-416. 

339. Remarks on Hydra. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 10. 

340. Remarks on Protozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 13. 

341. On the Mode of Growth of Desmids. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, 
p. 15. 

342. On Actinophrys sol. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 23. 

343. Note on the Enemies of Difflugia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 
75. 

344. Remarks on a supposed Compound derived from Leather. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 75. 

345. Notices of some New Fresh-water Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1874, p. 77. 

346. Notices of some Fresh-water and Terrestrial Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 86-88. 

347. Remarks on the Revivification of Rotifer vulgaris. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1874, pp. 88-89. 

348. On Pectinatella magnifica. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 139. 

349. On a Parasitic Worm of the House-fly. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1874, p. 139. 

350. Notices of some Fresh Water Infusoria. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. I hila. 

851. Notice of a remarkable Amoeba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 

352. On the Mode in which Amoeba swallows its Food. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1874, p. 143. 

353. On the Motive Power of Diatoms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 18/4, p. 

143 

354. Remarks on Sponges. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 144. 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

355. Notices of some Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 155- 
157. 

356. Note on Dryocampa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 160. 

357. Notice of remains of 1'itanotherium. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, 
pp. 165-166. 

358. Note of Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 166-168. 

359. On Supposed Spermaries in Amoeba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, 
p. 168. 

360. On Specific Gravity. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, p. 218. 

361. Remarks on Fossils presented. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 
223-224. 

362. Notices of Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1874, pp. 225-227. 

363. Description of vertebrate remains chiefly from the Phosphate Beds of South 
Carolina. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. VIII, 1874-81, pp. 209-261. 

364. The Parasites of the Termites. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 1874-81, 
pp. 425-447. 

365. Remarks on Bathygnathus borealis. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. VIII, 
1874-81, pp. 449-451. 

366. On a Fungus in a Flamingo. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 11-12. 

367. Notes on some Parasitic Worms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 
14-16. 

368. Notes on some Parasitic Worms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 
17-18. 

369. Remarks on some marine Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, 
pp. 73-76.. 

370. Remarks on a Coal Fossil, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, p. 120. 

371. Remarks on Elephant Remains. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875. p. 
121. 

372. On a Curious Rhizopod. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, p. 124. 

373. On Psorospherms in a Mallard Duck. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, 
p. 125. 

374. On a Mouthless Fish. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 125-126. 

375. On Ouramoeba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 126-127. 

376. On Mermis acuminata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, p. 400. 

377. Remarks on Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, pp. 413-415. 

378. Quercus heterophylla. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, p. 415. 

379. On Petalodus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, p. 9. 

380. Mastodon andium. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, p. 38. 

381. Remarks on Arcella, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Plula. 1876, pp. 54-58. 

382. Remarks on Fossils from the Ashley Phosphate Beds. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1876, pp. 80-81, 86-87. 

383. Fish Remains of the Mesozoic Red Shales. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1876, p. 81. 

384. Remarks on Fossils from the Ashley Phosphate Beds. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1876, pp. 86-87. 

385. Remarks on Vertebrate Fossils from the Phosphate Beds of S. Carolina. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, pp. 114-115. 

386. Remarks on the Rhizopod Genus Nebela. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1876, pp. 115-119. 

387. Bituminous Sediment of the Schuylkill River. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1876, p. 193. 

3S8. Remarks on the Structure of Precious Opal. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1876, pp. 195-197. 

389. Observations on Rhizopods. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, p. 197. 

390. On Ozocerite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, p. 325. 

391. On Hyraceum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1876, p. 325. 

392. Impurities in Drinking Water. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 20. 

393. On Eozoon. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 20. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 45 

394. On the Diaphragm. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877 p 20 

395. xRemarks on the Yellow Ant. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phiia 1877 p 145 

396. On Intestinal Parasites of Termes flavipes. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci Phila' 
1877, pp. 146-149. 

397. Remarks on Gregarines. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, pp 196-198 
:98. On Chilomonas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877. p. 198 

399. On Flukes infesting Mollusks. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 

400. Remarks on some Parasitic Infusoria. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci Phila 1877 
pp. 259-260. 

401. Remarks on the Seventeen-Year Locust, the Hessian Fly and a Chelifer 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, pp. 260-261. 

402. Birth of a Rhizopod. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1877, pp. 261-265. 

403. On the Bed-bug and its Allies. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 284. 

404. On the Feeding of Dinamceba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila 1877 UD 
288-290. 

405. Concretions resembling Bones. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 290. 

406. Apparent Discriminative Power in the Selection of Food by a Heliozoon. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, pp. '291-292. 

407. Remarks on Rhizopods and Notice of a New Form. Proc. Acad Nat 
Sci. Phila. 1877, pp. 293-294. 

408. On Fossil Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, pp. 294. 

409. Remarks on Ants. Proc. Acad.' Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, pp. 804-305. 

410. Remarks on the American Species of Difflugia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1877, pp. 306-308. 

411. Circumspection of Ants. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 320. 

412. Rhizopods in an Apple Tree. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1877, p. 321. 

413. On Citrine or Yellow Quartz. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 40. 

414. On Hippopotamus Tusk. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 99. 

415. On Amceba. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 99. 

416. A Louse of the Pelican. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, 100-101. 

417. On Parasitic Worms in the Shad. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 
171. 

418. Species of Euglypha, Trinema, Pamphagus and Cyphoderia, with Synonyma 
and Descriptions of New Forms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, pp. 171-173. 

419. Foraminifera of the Coast of New Jersey. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1878, p. 292. 

420. On the Black Mildew of Walls. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 331. 

421. Remarks on Mactra. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, pp. 332-333. 

422. Foraminiferous Shells of our Coast. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 
336. 

423. On Crustaceans at Cape May, N. J. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, 
pp. 336-337. 

424. Notice of a Tetrarhynchus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 340. 

425. On Donax fossar. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, pp. 382-383. 

426. Notices of Gordius in the Cockroach and Leech. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1878, pp. 383-384. 

427. On Tsenia mediocanellata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1878, p. 405. 

428. FRESH- WATER RHIZOPODS OF NORTH AMERICA. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
of Ter. (Hayden), XII, 1879, pp. i-ix, 1-324, pis. I-XLVIII. 

429. On Gordius and on some Parasites of the Rat. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1879, pp. 10-11. 

430. Fossil Remains of a Caribou. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 32- 
33. 

431. On Rhizopods occurring in Sphagnum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, 
pp. 162-163. 

432. Fossil Foot Tracks of the Anthracite Coal Measures. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 164-165. - 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

433. Explosion of a Diamond. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, p. 195. 

434. Remarks on Orgyia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 195-196. 

435. Notices of some Animals on the coast of New Jersey. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 198-199. 

436. On Cristatella Idse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 203-204. 

437. On Amoeba Blattae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1879, pp. 204-205. 

438. Wards Natural Science Establishment. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1879, pp. 208-209. 

439. Notice of the Cruel Thread Worm, Filaria immitis of the Dog. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1880, pp. 10-12. 

440. On a Filaria Reported to have come from a Man. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1880, pp. 130-131. 

441. Remarks on Pond Life. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1880, pp. 156-158. 

442. Rhizopods in the Mosses of the Summit of Roane Mountain, N. Carolina. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1880, pp. 333-340. 

443. Bone Caves of Pennsylvania. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1880, pp. 
346-349. 

444. Rhizopods as Food for Young Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1881, pp. 
9-10. 

445. Remarks on some Rock Specimens. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, 
pp. 10-12. 

446. Filaria of the Black Bass. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 69. 

447. On Tourmalines. Proc. Acad. Nat. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 71-73. 

448. On Balanoglossus, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 93. 

449. Scolithus in Gravel. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 93. 

450. On Sagitta, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 102-103. 

451. On some Entozoa of Birds. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 182, p. 109. 

452. On a Coprolite and a pebble resembling an Indian hammer. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 109-110. 

453. On Bacillus Anthracis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 145. 

' 454. On Enchytraeus, Distichopus and their parasites. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, 
Phila. 1882, pp. 145-148. 

455. The Yellow Ant with its flocks of Aphis and Coccus. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 148. 

456. Colorless Garnet and Tourmaline. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 
149. 

457. On Balanus, etc. at Bass Rocks, Mass. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, 
pp. 224-225. 

458. On the Tobacco Worm, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 237- 
238. 

459. Rotifera without Rotary Organs. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 
243-250. 

460. A new Infusorian belonging to the genus Pyxicola. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1882, pp. 252-253. 

461. Actinosphserium Eichhornii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 260- 
261. 

462. On Topaz and Biotite. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, p. 261. 

463. On Actmosphgerium, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 261-262. 

464. On Tubularia, etc. from Atlantic City. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, 
p. 262. 

465. On Remains of Horses. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 290-291. 

466. On an Extinct Peccary. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1882, pp. 301-302. 
4b'7. On the Reproduction and Parasites of Anodonta fluviatilis. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, pp. 44-46. 

468. Pediculus vestimenti. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, p. 46. 

469. A Flint Nodule from the Green Sand of New Jersey. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 1883, p. 76. 

470. A Social Heliozoan. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, pp. 95-96. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 47 

471. Mineralogical Notes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, p. 202 

472. Manayunkia speciosa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, pp. 204-212 

473. On Manayunkia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 203. 

474. A study of the Temporal Bone. Science, I, 1883, pp. 380-385, 475-477 
506-7. 

475. Crystals in the Bark of Trees. Science, II, 1883, pp. 707-8. 

476. Urnatella gracilis, a fresh-water Polyzoan. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
IX, 1884, pp. 5-16. 

477. Ant infected with a Fungus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 9. 

478. Cassiterite from Black Hills, Dakota. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci Phila 1884 
p. 9. 

479. The New Jersey Coast after the storm of Tan. 8, 1884. Proc Acad Nat 
Sci. Phila. 1884, pp. 12-13. 

480. Fossil Bones from Louisiana. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 22. 

481. Foraminifera in the Drift of Minnesota. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci Phila 

1884, pp. 22-23. 

482- Distomaand Filariae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, pp. 47-48. 

483. Dictyophora as Apsilus vorax. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, pp. 
5051. 

484. On Eumeces chalcides. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 66. 

485. Vertebrate Fossils from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, DD 
118-119. . 

486. A Rare Human Tape Worm. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 137. 

487. Pentastomum proboscideum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 140. 

488. Organisms in Ice. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1884, p. 260. 

489. On some Parasitic Worms of Birds. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1885, pp. 
911. 

490. Rhinoceros and Hippotherium from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1885, pp. 32-33. 

491. Remarks on Mylodon. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1885, pp. 49-51. 

492. Bothriocephalus in a Trout. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1885, pp. 122- 
123. 

493. Worms in Ice. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1885, pp. 408-409. 

494. An address on evolution and the pathological importance of lower forms of 
life. Therapeutic Gazette, Detroit, 1886. 

495. Mastodon and Llama from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1886, pp. 
11-12. 

496. Extinct Boar from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1886, pp. 37-38. 

497. Caries in the Mastodon. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1886, p. 38. 

498. On Amia and its probable Tsenia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1886, 
pp. 62-63. 

499. Toxodon and other remains from Nicaragua. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1886,275-277. 

500. Notices on Nematoid Worms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1886, pp. 
308-313. 

501. Remarks on Parasites and Scorpions. Trans. Col. Phys. Phila. 3rd. Ser. 
VIII, 1886, pp. 441-443. 

502. Notice of some Parasitic Worms. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, pp. 
20-24. 

503. Parasite of a Bat. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, p. 38. 

504. Asplanchna Ebbesbornii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, p. 157. 

505. Fossil Bones from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, pp. 309- 
310. 

506. Remarks on Hydra. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, pp. 310-313. 

507. Bot-larvse in the Terrapin. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1887, pp. 393- 
394. 

508. Tape-worms in Birds. Journ. Comp. Med. and Surg. VIII, 1887, pp. 
1-11. 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1891. 

509. On a Fossil of the Puma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1883, pp. 9-10. 

510. Chietopterus from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, 73-74. 

511. Criolana feasting on the Edible Crab. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, 
p. 80. 

512. On Bopyrus palaemoneticola. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 80. 

513. Note on Lepas fascicularis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 80-' 
81. 

514. Reputed Tape- Worm in a Cucumber. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, 
p. 81. 

515. Habit of Cirolana concharum. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 
124-125. 

516. Parasites of the Striped Bass. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 125. 

517. Tremotodes of the Muskrat. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 126. 

518. Entozoa of the Terrapin. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 127-128. 

519. A Crustacean Parasite of the Red Snapper. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1888, pp. 138-139. 

520- Distinctive characters of Odontaspis littoralis. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1888, pp. 162-164. 

521. Parasitic Crustacea. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 165. 

522. Parasites of the Rock Fish. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 166- 
167. 

523. Louse of the Pelican. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 167-168. 

524. Parasites of the Pickerel. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 169. 

525. Megalonyx Jeffersonii. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 273. 

526. Anomalies of the Human Skull. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, p. 
273. 

527. Remarks on the Fauna of Beach Haven, N. J. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1888, pp. 329-333. 

528. Food of Barnacles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1888, pp. 431-432. 

529. Parasites of the Shad-and Herring. Journ. Comp. Med. and Surg. IX, 

1888, pp. 211-215. 

530. On several Gregarines, and a singular mode of conjugation of one of 
them. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889, pp. 9-11. 

531. The Sabre-Toothed Tiger of Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889, 
pp. 29-31. 

532. Note on Gonyleptes and Solpuga. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889, p. 
45. 

533. The Boring Sponge, Cliona. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889,70-75. 

534. A Parasitic Copepod. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889, p. 95. 

535. Fossil Vertebrates from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1889, pp. 
96-97. 

536. Notice of some fossil human bones. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. II, 

1889, pp. 9-12. 

537. Description of Mammalian remains from a rock-crevice Florida. Trans. 
Wagner Free Inst. Sci. II, 1889, pp. 13-17. 

538. Description of Vertebrate remains from Peace Creek, Florida. Trans. 
Wagner Free Inst. Sci. II, 1889, pp. 19-31. 

539. Notice of some Mammalian remains from the Salt Mine of Petite Anse, 
Louisiana. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. II, 1889, pp. 33-40. 

540. On Platygonus, an extinct genus allied to the Peccaries. Trans. Wagner 
Free Inst. Sci. II, 1889, pp. 41-50. 

541. Remarks on the nature of organic species. Trans. Wagner Free. Inst. 
Sci. 11,1889, pp. 51-53. 

542. Hypoderasin the Little Blue Heron. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890. 
p. 63. 

543. Notice of an Ichneumon Fly. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, p. 63. 

544. Fossil Vertebrates from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 
64-65. 



1891.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 49 

545. Hippotherium and Rhinoceros from Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1890, pp. 182-183. 

546. Mastodon and Capybara of South Carolina. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1890, pp. 184-185. 

547. Remarks on Tics. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 278-280. 

548. Parasites of Mola rotunda. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 281- 
282. 

549. Beroe on the New Jersey Coast. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 
341-342. 

550. Remarks on Velella. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 408-409. 

551. Notices of Entozoa. Proc. Acad: Nat. Sci. Phila. 1890, pp. 410-418. 

552. Note on the Boring Sponge of the Oyster. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1891, p. 122. 

553. Notice of some Entozoa. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1891, 234-236.