Skip to main content

Full text of "Memoir of Rev. David Millard; with selections from his writings"

See other formats

^' s^. 

W.^ '^^ ■'^. \^ 


I •\*' 


V -t^ 


.^ ^-^ 




^^ ,.^ 



7^ ^ «' ^ - . \^ 

^ ''^.<^' 

V "^^ 




^^ - « . 

^ -;^ V 



'^^^ <^ 


^■: s^"^.^ 

.^ ^. ° 

> ,0: 

^ o 

^ %^ 


C^ ^c^. ^\ 


- -J ^ 

■'^^ ^' 


0, x-^ 

C' ^^->/^' 


■ 0' 


,0' ^ ^^ /■ o 


^ j$^- 

■- ■■ « 



^ -4^ 


..... ■"oc.'< 

'^A V^ 

." A-^ 

■J •''' , 








BY niS SOX, 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Wasbingtou. 



This Work is Respectfully Dedicated 






Birth, Ancestry, and Education. 
Family Annals— Incidents of his youth— School-days— Religious 
Impressions 13 


Taste for Books— Conversion, 
Commences to Teach School— Writes Poetry— Lines to Spring— Con- 
verted under the Labors of Nancy G. Cram— Settlement of His 
Religious Views 23 


Call to the JMinutry, 

Temptations— Iiiipressions of duty— Improvement of his Gift — Visits 
Greene County— First Sermon 3i 


Firist JPi-eaching 'Jour— Ordination. 
Lines on Farting with Friends— Again Visits Albany and Greene 
Counties— Labors in connection with Elders Martin andPeavey— 
Successful Labor in Delaware County— Ordination— Visits Cen- 
tral New York 43 


SMleracnt— Marriage— Public Labors. 

Leaves Delaware County— Settles in West Bloom field— Organizes a 
Church— Marriage— Controversial Writings— General Labors — 
Tour to New England 57 


Visits Virginia— First Issue of the " Luminary. ^^ 
Extends His Tour from New England to Virginia— Lines on Leaving 
Norfolk— On His Return Preaches in Various Places in New 
England— Visits His Native Place— Revivals in West Bloom- 

tield— Publishes the Gospel Luminary 70 




Editorial and Pastoral Work—Fuhlic Debate. 

Prosperity of the Cause under His Labors — Another Visit to Canada- 
Dedication of the ( hurch in West Bloomfield— Debate witli Mr. 
Reese— The Second and Tliird Volumes of the Luminary— An 
Editorial i>i 


United States Covfei ence— Delate with Wilber Hoag. 

Conference Meets in West Bloomfield— Change in the Luminary- 
Visit to New York— Tour to Kew England— Resigns the Editorial 
Chair— Debate with Rev. Mr. Hoag 96 


Entei's upon the Work of an Evangelist. 

Extended Tours among the Churches— Lines to the Susquehanna 
River— Tribute to Elder William Kinkade — General Success in 
His Ministerial Work -... 108 


Labors of an Evangelist Continued. 
Journey to Kentucky— Letters— Lines on the death of Rev. John 
Blodgett— Objects of the Tour 125 


Public Labors in (he 3Iiddle States. 

Labors in Kew York— Visit to Pennsylvania— "The Evangelists' 
Farewell "—Again Visits Canada— Other Lahore 145 


Visits the West and East. 

Michigan— General Labors — Revisits His Native Place— Tour 
Through New England — Closes His Lahore as an Evangelist ,. 159 


Locates in New England. 

Settlement at Portsmouth, New Hampshire— Revivals— The Anti- 
Slavery Cause— Editorial Work— Lett ere— Failing Health— La- 
bors in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, and Portland, Maine— Returns 
to New York— Decides on a Foreign Voyage 172 



Voyage to Malta— Thence to Egypt. 

Embarkation— Arrival at Malta— Departure for Egypt— Arrival at 
Alexandria— Trip up the Nile— Cairo— The Pyramids— Arrange- 
ments for a Journey Through Arabia Petra— The Start 187 


From Cairo to Mount Hot. 

Course from Cairo— Suez— Passage of the Red Sea— Well of How- 
ara— Arrival at Mount Sinai— Departure— Akabah— Mount Hci-— 
Aaron's Tomb lliD 


From Mount Hor to Beyrout. 

Departure from Mount Hor— Ruins of Petra— The Khasne, or Treas- 
ury of Pharaoh— Other Ruins— Departure— Hebron— Bethlehem 
—Jerusalem— Nazareth— Beyrout 20S 


Voyage Home. 

From Beyrout to Smyrna — Cyprus— Rhodes — Patmos— Turkish 
Ruins— Samos— Arrival at Smyrna— The Lazaretto— Departure 
— Foui'th of July at Sea— Arrival at Boston 21^ 


Again Settles in West Bloomficld 

Publishes his Journal of Travels— Revival— Death of his Wife- 
Pastoral Work— Second Marriage— Articles on Reform.s— Ap- 
pointment to a Professorship— Intei-est in the College Move- 
ment—Lines to the Alploss 231 


Lecturing Tours— other labors from 1850 to 1868 

Lectures in Different Places— Tribute to his Daughter— Convention 
at Cincinnati— Interest in the National Struggle— Lines on the 
Death of Lincoln— Last Years in Bloomfleld 219 


Life in Michigan. 

Moves to Jackson, Michigan— Various Calls to Preach— "Last Lines" 
—Interesting Correspondence— Advocates Womali's Siaffrage— 
Last Entry in his Journal— Failing Health 2G1 



Lifc''s Close. 

Last Sickness— Death— Fuueral Obsequies— Extract Ironi Rev. C. i. 
Doyo's Sermon 2Si 


Dlsting^aishing Traits of Character. 

" What made Elder Millard a Marked Man and Preacher "— By 
Rev. I. C. Goff 293 



Evidences of an Omnipotent Powei'— That Power one God— Genu- 
ineness of the Scriptures— Prophecies Relating to Clirist— The 
Resurrection 308 


Human Accountability a Doctrine oi Reason and Revelation— A 
Judgment-day— Retribution 374 


The Church an Organiz d Body — Its Officers and their Duties— Its 
True Position Concerning Reforms 3.96 


Descrip^ ion of a True IMinister— God is Good— Hymn for Saturday 
Evening— Tlie African Chief— The Dead Sea— Death of My 
Mother— To My Muse 412 


The Mode— The Subjects— The Duty 426 


The Sin Denounced— Liberality Enjoined..,.. 4.50 


The Gospel Field— Laborers Needed— The Call Given— Who Will 
Obey? ; 451 


Biography is a species of composition mucli admired and 
sought after. It is therefore highly important that the 
characters of those persons whose lives are deliDeated in this 
form of written narrative, should either possess many points 
of excellence worthy of study and imitation, or, if descript- 
ive of vicious persons, their vices should be set forth in such 
a way as to lead the young to detest and shun them. 

He whose life is sketched in this volume has said : ''The 
faithful biography of a good man, in every sense, confers a 
benefit upon society. It holds up an example of the past as 
a burning and shining light to the future. It presents a 
mirror into which others may look, and there see their true 
character reflected, admire, and resolve to imitate." 

The subject of this Memoir was a man who possessed at 
least some of the elements of true greatness ; and it is thought 
that his valuable services in society, and especially in the 
denomination to which he belonged, should not be "suffered 
to live merely in the recollection of the j^assing generation." 
Hence this volume has been written. 

As evidence of a demand for its publication, we give the 
following statements from emiitfnt "Christian" ministers. 
Sajs Dr. N. Suoamerbell: "Your father's life was long, 
active, and honored He was faithful over a few cities, and 
will be ruler over many. Concerning his biography and 
writings, there can be but one voice: Publish them! The 
echo seems to come up from every quarter, ' Publish them ! ' " 
"We lost a great and good man in Father Millard," says 
Rev. H. Y. Rush. "I should like to see a volume compiled 


from his posthumous manuscripts. 1 think it would meet 
with ready sale among our people." Rev. J. Maple says: 
"Your dear father is gone, but he filled his mission nobly. 
I am glad his biography is to be published " "I am glad to 
know," says Bro. B. F. Summer bell, "that you have your 
father's manuscripts, and hope jou will prepare them for the 
press. There ought to ba a large demand for such a hookas 
you can make with them." Many similar expressions have 
been received from other brethren in the ministry whose 
opinions we value. But aside from these, there is a large 
circle of friends who are anxiously desiring that some " tribute 
of memorial" should exist of the departed through succeed- 
ing days. 

In anticipation that his biography might sometime be pub- 
lished, the subject of this Memoir kept for many years a 
journal of his life. For about twenty years this journal con- 
tained quite a full history of his eventful carter. Subse- 
quently it was much condensed, and during the last six or 
eight years contained only the brief entries made on each 
returning birthday. 

At his death, his journal and other manuscripts were left 
in the hands of the writer to be used, if deemed best, in the 
publication of a volume to contain his Memoir aud Selections 
from his Writings. These, together with pubhshed letters 
running through many volumes of the Christian Pal- 
liADiUM, and our own personal knowledge and observation, 
have been the chief sources from whence the materials for 
.this book have been derived. 

The chief difficulty which presented itself in the compila- 
tion of this work was to determine, not what to publish, but 
what to omit. To publish all that seemed to be of interest 
in the life of our subject, and all that is of value in his writ- 
ings, would make several volumes of considerable size. This 
was not deemed expedient. On the contrary, it was thought 
best to make but one volume, and that not too large. "In 
the hurry and flutter of these days," says an emiaent and 
judicious friend, "there is little opportunity for reading, and 
a large book repels people." 

We have in these pages aimed to give a connected history 


of one whose life has been eminently active and useful, 
sometimes in his and sometimes in our own language. Of 
his writings w^e have, in accordance with his request, given 
preference to those that have never before appeared in print. 
We have likewise given an abstract of his foreign travels, 
and made some selections from his poetry. The chaptei 
written hy his esteemed friend and "son in the gospel," Eev. 
I. C. Goft*, will well repay perusal. 

Under a sense of duty, and with a sort of mournful pleas- 
ure, this work has been undertaken. Such as it is, it is now 
presented to the public, with the hope that it will be accept- 
able to those who have been looking for its appearance, and 
be especially useful to ail who shall examine its pages. 

D. E. M. 

Marshall, Michigan, 1874. 




The subject of these pages was a firm believer in 
the doctrine that "all men are created free and equal." 
He considered the question of family descent, 
especially when raised by those who founded upon 
it their only or chief claim to elevation in the scale 
of being as of very small value, and was wont to 
say, " I expect to derive no merit or demerit from 
my parentage. " It is, however, natural for us to 
desire to know something of the ancestry of one 
whose biography is deemed of sufficient importance 
to be written and published to the world. Nor is 
it idle curiosity alone which prompts the desire. 
All men possess it to some extent, and many nations 
and tribes pay divine honors to their ancestors. 
True, as societies become more democratic, the an- 
cestral tie weakens, but it does not wholly leave us. 
Hence, in giving a particular record of the charac- 
ter and labors of a person of marked usefulness in 
the world, the subject of ancestry can not be entirely 

Two brothers by the name of Eobert and E"a- 


thaniel Millard emigrated from England and settled 
in the town of Rehobeth, Massachusetts, about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. They were both 
members of the Baptist denomination, and fled from 
their native land on account of persecution. Rob- 
ert was a minister of the gospel. Both lived to be 
aged men, and died in the town where they first 
settled. Rev. Robert Millard had a son who bore 
his name, and he likewise had a son Robert, who 
was born in Rehobeth, in the year 1700. This third 
Robert was also a Baptist minister. He lived to an 
advanced age, and died respected by all who knew 
him. He married twice, and was the father of a 
large family. Among the children of his second 
wife (whose maiden name was King) was Eleazar 
Millard, grandfather of the subject of this sketch. 
Eleazar Millard, soon after his second marriage, 
removed from Rehobeth, Massachusetts, into 
Dutchess County, 'New York, and subsequently to 
Stillwater, Saratoga County, in the same state. 
At the latter place, on the 13th of December, 1764, 
I^athaniel, the father of David Millard, was born.* 
The Millard homestead was in the immediate 
vicinity where, in the revolutionary war, the battle 
was fought which resulted iu the capture of the 
British army under General Burgoyne. In this bat- 
tle his step-son, Issachar Robinson, was engaged, 
and by him the subject of these pages had heard 

* Abiathar Millard, brother of the grandfather of David 
Millard, was a physician who lived and died in Rutland 
County, Vermont. He was grandfather of Millard Fillmore, 
Ex-president of the United States. 


related the details of the battle. Others of the 
family saw service in the revolutioiiarj war, among 
whom, notwithstanding his tender years, was the 
father of the subject of this memoir. An older 
brother had been drafted, and stationed at Fort Ann, 
in Washington Coanty, Ts ew York. He had served 
out his time within about four weeks, when he was 
taken ill. Having an opportunity to send a request 
that one of his brothers should come and relieve 
him, he did so. J^athaniel, then not quite sixteen 
years old, volunteered to go, expecting to be home 
again in a few days. He was accepted, and his 
brother was permitted to return home. 

Weeks passed, and the young volunteer had 
nearly served out his time, when a force of British 
and Indians invested the fort and demanded its 
surrender. At that time there were but eighty men 
in the garrison, poorly provided with ammunition, 
and with a small amount of provisions. The enemy 
were about twelve hundred strong. Resistance was 
useless, and the garrison capitulated. By the articles 
of capitulation, they were to surrender as prisoners 
of war, with the promise that none of them should 
be given to the Indians. But how false the prom- 
ise ! Two days after the surrender, thirty of the 
prisoners were given over to them; and of this 
number Nathaniel Millard ^was one. The his- 
tory of his captivity, though quite interesting, 
would be too long to give in detail. It will suliice 
to say that for several months he was held -a prisoner 
among the Indians in Canada. From them he 
was retaken by the British, and, with others, placed 


in prison at Quebec, where, through sickness and 
starvation, he nearly ended his days. Thence he 
was taken to England, and was held in confinement 
for several months in Mill Prison in Marblehead. 
After a series of hardships and deprivations he was 
at length restored to the free shores of his native 

In the year 1787, I^athaniel Millard and Mary 
Hunter were united in marriage. The latter was 
born in Eannelstown, County of Antrim, in Ire- 
land, August 27, 1767, of Scottish parents. Her 
parents belonged to the denomination called Came- 
ronians, and were rigid adherents to the Protestant 
faith. Her father had been wealthy, but lost tbe 
principal part of his property by being security for 
a brother. G-athering up the wreck of his fortune, 
he emigrated to this country in 1774, and settled 
in Ballston, 'New York, near what is known as the 
Mineral Springs. At that time the entire region 
was new. Four years after this he died, and was 
followed in four years more by his wife. Mary was 
thus left an orphan at the age of sixteen. Of 
her four brothers, two continually followed the seas, 
and both became masters of vessels. One of the 
remaining two emigrated to Canada, and the other 
continued on the homestead. With him Mary 
Hunter chiefly resided till she was married. Virtue 
guided ber footsteps, gained her valuable friends, 
and was ever the ornament of her life. 

The fruits of this marriage were eleven children 
— five sons and six daughters. The oldest son died 
at the age of three years, and bore the same name 


as that given to th^ subject of this memoir. Both 
parents were exemplary Christians, and aimed to so 
guide the steps of their children in "wisdom's- 
ways " that all the virtues of social and religious life 
might grow with their growth and strengthen with 
their strength . Neither did they labor in vain. Few 
have succeeded better in guiding in the right path 
so large a family. 

ISTathaniel Millard died on the 6th of August, 
1829. His death was occasioned by a fall from a 
load of hay. He lived but thirteen hours after- 
wards, but died, as he had lived, a Christian. His 
wife survived him a number of years. She died in 
the city of Eochester, E'ew York, at the residence 
of her son-in-law, Edmund Lyon, Esq., on the 8th 
of July, 1850, at the advanced age of nearly eighty- 
three years. While living, she walked with God, 
and at death fell asleep in Jesus. 

David Millard, the subject of this memoir, was 
born in Glenville, Schenectady County, New York, 
November 24, 1794. In a note appended to his 
written journal, we find the following statement : 
" As my birthplace was but half a mile from the 
line of Ballston, and subsequently my father's resi- 
dence only a few rods from that line, it has often been 
published as my native town. The error is here 
corrected." His father was not in easy circum- 
stances, and, as we have seen, had a large family to 
provide for. Hence, the son was brought up to 
habits of industry, and,so soon as able to labor, his 
task was assigned him according to his ability. 
*'This," he savs, "excluded me much from the 



world, as well as from many vices attendant on idle- 
ness, and taught me a lesson of industry much to 
my benefit. " Hearing his father pray in the family 
first led him to think of God, and the duties he 
owed to him. And the religious counsels of his 
mother made impressions upon his mind which 
were never forgotten. 

He began to attend school at the early age of 
four years, and, even at that time, evinced a more 
than ordinar}^ , genius for education. His youth 
exhibited a vigorous mind; but, after he became 
able to use any kind of farm implement, his school 
■opportunities never exceeded three months in each 

At eleven years of age, having been run over by 
a frightened team, he narrowly escaped death. 
This event seems to have given quite a religious 
turn to his thoughts. Referring to those early 
days, he says: " During this part of my life I was 
not without religious impressions. Sensible that I 
was born to die and bound to judgment, my mind 
was filled with awful fear of 'a hereafter.' Fre- 
quently something would seem to say, 'If you 
experience religion you will have to preach.' This 
I did not like, as I was much opposed to the thought 
of being a preacher, believing it would debar me 
from social enjoyments, and sink me to a life of 
gloomy sobriety." Will not some who read these 
pages, here read their own experience ? How many 
living ministers can recall similar impressions of 
early childhood I And how natural to the ' children 


of this world' is this mistaken view of religion. 
They have yet to learn 

*' It never was designed 

To make our pleasures less. " 

" Ahont this time, " he writes, " a rich gentleman 
and his wife, residing in the city of Schenectady, 
]^ew York, having no child of their own, made the 
proposal to my parents to adopt me as their son, 
give me a classical education, and make me their 
sole heir. My father, probahly, would have con- 
sented ; but my mother struggled under all the tender- 
ness of a mother's heart. Although at that time she 
had nine living children, looking round upon them 
she could not be made to think she had one to 
spare. But for years it would come up to my mind, 
while laboring hard from day to day in the field, 
how much better might have been my fortune had 
my mother only willingly permitted me to become 
the adopted son of this man of wealth. But in 
later years I thought difi:*erently. And when I con- 
sider how God has led me on, I feel reconciled to 
the fortune allotted me. Had I been placed in the 
midst of wealth it might have been my ruin. I was 
brought up to practice industry and frugality. This 
has been of more value to me than wealth, conferred 
as a gift, might have been, with all its snares and 
exposures. I now think God overruled and led me 
in the right path. " Let those who are inclined to 
murmur, because they were not born into a more 
favored earthly lot, learn wisdom from this state- 
ment of one who had himself learned that God's 


ways are "better than man's, and that he ordereth all 
things wisely and well. 

During the days of his youih, the mind of the 
subject of these pages was often exercised by relig- 
ious thoughts. Much of this no doubt was due to 
his Christian instruction and the force of parental 
example. But the fact that he possessed, by nature, a 
mind of strong religious cast, should not be over- 
looked. In his thirteenth year he was awakened 
in an especial manner to a sense of his duty as an 
accountable being, chiefly through the preaching 
of a Methodist minister, by the name of Miller, who 
was then holding meetings in the neighborhood. 
The preaching of this minister seems to have taken 
strong hold upon the minds of the young, and quite 
a number of the associates of our youthful subject 
were among the converts. He was also in the habit 
of attending the social meetings they had instituted. 
At one of these meetings he was deeply affected by 
the warm exhortations of his young companions. 
" Several times, " he says, " I had nearly risen to my 
seat to tell them I was willing to be a Christian, 
and to ask them to pray for me. I returned from 
this meeting laden with a burden of sin; all my 
former life appeared disclosed to me, and my sins, 
in the blackest dye, stared me in the face." 

He at once resolved to commence a life of prayer. 
But his temptations were strong, and, at times, 
almost overwhelming. ''When I attended meet- 
ing," he writes, "it appeared as though thepreach- 
ine: was all to me ; sometimes mv character and 
feelings were pointed out exactly, and even my 


thoughts were told me. Often I was so affected 
that I would tremble like Belshazzar when he saw 
the writing on the wall. My tears would flow in 
torrents, while I was mortified as others saw me 
weep." His exercises of mind continued variously 
for three or four months, when they gradually wore 
away. For this a cause is assigned, which, alas! 
has two often effected similar results — namely, a 
contentious and sectarian spirit among those who 
were "counted leaders." As a result, the con- 
verts were soon divided into parties, and the love 
they first manifested grew fainter and fainter in the 
midst of controversy. Many who had felt power- 
fully impressed, himself among the number, turned 
again into the world, and gratified their pride and 
love of pleasure more than ever before. Of this 
turn of affairs he writes: "I then felt astonished 
at the conduct of professors of religion, but have 
since, to my sorrow, witnessed much of a similar 
nature. How little do man}^ who profess religion 
realize the iujury they inflict upon the cause of 
God, by introducing contention and controversy in 
the time of revival. Many for this, I fear, will 
have the blood of souls to account for, in the day 
of eternity." 

After these impressions had worn away, the sub- 
ject of these pages entered with all his heart into 
the pleasures and amusements of the world. His 
chief study was how best to appear in company, 
and to render himself attractive, and his society 
pleasing to his young associates. In this he was 
eminently successful, and soon became a recognized 



leader among them. But the "pleasures of sin," 
as the sequel will show, though enjoyed for a season, 
failed to satisfy the demands of his religious nature, 
and, in time, were abandoned for higher and nobler 




The winter following his sixteenth birthday 
closed the school-days and privileges of David Mil- 
lard. He was then deemed qualified to teach a 
com.mon school, and before he was quite seventeen 
years of age commenced teaching near the home of 
his childhood. During this year he met with two 
more narrow escapes from death : One from the 
falling of a large stone over a bank near where he 
was standing; the other, from the premature fall- 
ing of a building at which he was assisting in taking 
down the frame. Viewing these to be calls of 
Providence, he was again led to reflect seriously 
upon the subject of religion. He went to meeting 
more frequentl}^, and was a more attentive ' hearer 
of the word." The preaching of Rev. Samuel 
Draper, a Methodist minister, appears to have stirred 
his feelings, but, for some reason, was attended with 
no permanent results. 

He was much given to speculating on religious 
subjects, and early evinced that fondness for argu- 
ment which afterward made him so able a defender 
of what he believed to have been the primitive faith 


of the church. The doctrine of unconditional elec- 
tion and reprobation was then attracting much, 
attention, and, as it appeared to him fraught with 
horrid consequences, and based upon grounds repug- 
nant to reason and Scripture, he took a decided 
position against it. ''To believe," he says, "that 
God should bring millions of beings into existence 
from senseless nothing, 'on purpose (as I could not 
think he acted without a purpose) to consign them 
to excruciating pains forever, appeared too horrid 
for me. " As, in those days, this doctrine prevailed 
to quite an extent, it seems to have nearly carried 
him over, as it has many before and since, to Uni- 
versalism. He writes, " When about eighteen years 
old I came near embracing the doctrine of univer- 
sal salvation, but was afraid of it. Something 
seemed to whisper to me that the foundation was 

His love for reading was intense, and he devoured 
about every thing that came in his way. For awhile 
he was strongly attached to novel reading ; but at 
a certain time, in reading a fiction entitled "The 
Midnight Bell," he became disgusted with the fool- 
ish inconsistencies of novels, and read but few of 
them during the remainder of his life. Histories, 
journals of travels, and poetical works were chiefly 
sought and became favorite studies with him. He 
early evinced a talent for poetry, and in his eight- 
eenth year began to write verses for the newspapers 
over the signature of " Edmund." He continued, 
" even down to old age, " occasionally to indulge a 
poetic fancy, and though he assures us that he 


" never could make mucli pretension to poetic 
ability, " yet many of his pieces have been pub- 
lished, and quite a number have been thought, by 
competent judges, to possess no small degree of 
merit. Among his earliest productions, written in 
his sixteenth year, we find the verses we shall here 
insert : 


Hail ! all ye vocal woodlands, hail ! 

And liail the glad return of spring ; 
Let every woodland, marsh, and dale, 

With notes of joy respondent ring. 

See Phoebus sheds a warmer ray; 

Reviving nature smiles again ; 
Stern winter blasts to spring give way, 

And vegetation plants the plain. 

l:>fo more hoarse, chilly blasts resound. 
Nor gloomy clouds hurl round my head ; 

No more hoar snows pervade the ground, 
Nor Avinter's devastation spread. 

"Where autumn's frosts have borne the sway, 
Of clothing stripped the lofty trees, 

Reviving leaves on branches play, 
As wafted in the balmy breeze. 

* Where fleecy snows of late were seen, 

And chilly blasts with sternness blew, 
Now herbage clothes the plain in green. 
And blooming flowers ope to view. 

While on with devious steps I rove. 
O'er fields with vegetation crowned, 

Soft notes come warbling from the grove, 
To cheer me with enchanting sound. 


Around in mirth, from spray to spray, 
Tlie feathered choir in concert sing ; 

Each pouring forth his vocal lay, 
The fields and groves with music ring. 

With fragrant scent the opening flower, 
While raised by Phoebus' warmer ray, 

Distilling sweets each shining hour. 
Invites the bee t' improve the day. 

The flocks along the flow'ry mead, 
With transport view return of spring ; 

The plowman spurns his lazy steed, 
And thus, methinks, I hear him sing : 

Hail ! all ye vocal woodlands, hail ! 

And hail the glad return of spring; 
Let every woodland, marsh, and dale, 

With notes of joy respondent ring. 

The Lord m'akes use of various instrumentalities 
in accomplishing his designs. In the summer of 
1814 a lady by the name of N"ancy G. Cram came 
into Ballston, and commenced holding meetings in 
that vicinity; curiosity was aroused, and, of course, 
multitudes flocked to hear her preach. Among 
those whom curiosity drew to her meetings was the 
then youthful subject of our memoir. The service, 
as was not unusual in those days, was held in a 
barn. Before going, fancy had painted a not very 
pleasing picture of the person he was to see and 
hear. But the picture proved more fanciful than 
real. He writes : " Instead of finding her, as I had 
expected, a woman of masculine appearance, she 
evinced distinguishing marks of modesty, and her 
deportment indicated a woman of refined manners. 


After sitting awhile, she arose and sang a hymn 
commencing thus: 

" *Oh, that poor sinners did but know 

What I for them do undergo, 
I who am called to bear the news 
To gentile nations and the Jews !' 

I thought her prayer the most able and powerful 
I had ever heard, and her exhortation was very 
afiecting. " 

ISTancy Cram continued, for some months, to 
exercise her gifts as a speaker in that vicinity, and 
a reformation was the result. A small church was 
gathered, and a number were baptized by Elder 
Jabez King, who occasionally visited and preached 
in the place. 

" Among the thirteen that then and there united 
in church relation," writes that venerable and 
beloved disciple. Rev. John Ross, " my name was 
enrolled." In September she left Ballston to visit 
her friends in ISTew Hampshire. At that time many, 
besides the subject of this sketch, were under deep 
awakening. After an absence of several weeks she 
returned, contrary . to the predictions of some 
whose peace bad been disturbed by her earnest and 
faithful testimonies. 

In the month of December certain young men in 
the place, David Millard among the number, met, 
as had been their previous practice, to make 
arrangements for a ISTew Year's ball, or, as they were 
pleased to term it, a "civil frolic." The time and 
place were agreed upon, and he was chosen one of 


the managers. " I had now, " he says, " determined 
to banish from my mind all present thought ot 
religion, to let my heart cheer me in the days of my 
youth, and to walk in the sight of mine own eyes. 
Oh, the mercy of God in not cutting the brittle 
thread of life, and calling me to- immediate judg- 

On the following Sabbath Nancy Cram held a 
meeting at the residence of Nathaniel Millard. The 
son thought he had armed himself with the resolu- 
tion of a stoic. How weak the armor proved, 
the following extract from his journal will show : 
"The whole sermon was peculiarly suited to my 
case, while words like arrows pierced my heart. * * 
I dared not look up, for it appeared as though my 
sins were naked to the eye of every one in the 
assembly. I would have given almost any thing I 
had to be free from the ball engagement. " Through 
the night he was gloomy, and the day following 
was one of severe trial to him. His struggle was 
to determine whether he would relinquish what he 
viewed to be the unhallowed pleasures of the world, 
or still cling to them at the risk of losing his own 

On the next evening he was to meet his young 
associates to make further arrangements for the 
New Year's party. A religious meeting was also to 
be held the same evening. He had a severe con- 
flict of mind concerning which place he should 
attend. "On one hand," he says, "I viewed the 
alluring pleasures I had been so largely courting; 
on the other hand, I viewed the cross of Christ, 


with all its reproaches. I knew I must be nailed 
to this and have the world crucified to me, and 
myself to the world, if I would become a Chris- 
tian." He finally decided to attend the relig- 
ious meeting, and to leave his young companions 
to get along without him in making the arrange- 
ments for the ball. That decision, as the sequel 
will show, he had no reason to regret. 

The evening's discourse had for him a thrilling 
interest, and, at its close, he was left in great dis- 
tress of mind. Several exhortations followed, 
every one of which seemed to drive the arrow of 
conviction deeper and deeper into his heart, until 
at length he said, mentally, " God, be merciful to 
me, a sinner!" For a period of ten days he con- 
tinued under a distressing confiict of mind, impressed 
all the while with the thought, "If I embrace relig- 
ion I must preach the gospel." To this he felt 
utterly opposed, so different was it from the work 
of his choice. Indeed, such was his opposition to 
a ministerial life, that he would say, " Give me any 
other honest employment but that." By this we 
may see wh}^ some go mourning many days on 
account of their sins. So long as we want to have 
our own way in any particular, and are unwilling 
to let God have his, just so long do we continue in 
the dark, and seek for peace in vain. Here was 
the difficulty with the subject of these pages. He 
wanted to be a Christian, provided he could be one 
and not be compelled to preach. During all his 
trying experience, whenever he attempted to pray 
for mercy, the work and duty of the gospel minis- 

30 MEMOIR or 

try would appear before Mm, and expressing a 
willingness to engage in the work, and to dis- 
charge the duty, was the last point he surrendered. 
"When," says he, "I promised God that, if he 
would show me mercy, I would be any thing he 
would make me, I knew well what that meant." 

It is not necessary, in these pages, to follow him 
through all his varied experience till the conflict 
was ended; but the happy moment when the new 
light dawned, and h^ was made to " feel sweet peace 
within," we will let his own pen describe. " Under 
the influence of one of my religious exercises of 
mind, my steps seemed unconsciously to lead me to 
the stable. I entered, fell on my knees, reclining 
my head on the manger, and began to pray. A 
load insupportable seemed to press me, as it were, 
into the dust. Never before did I plead with such 
fervor, and never before did my heart break down 
and melt in such unreserved contrition. While 
praying, all of a sudden a stream, as it were, of 
glory, filled my soul. Oh, what sweet peace filled 
my mind! My tears flowed freely; but never did 
I shed such tears before. They were the contrite 
effusions of a heart overwhelmed in gratitude to 
God. I felt like a condemned criminal released from 
death at the expected hour of execution. When I 
opened my eyes, and arose from my knees, never 
did objects around me look so lovely, and I could 
say from a full heart, 'Let everything that hath 
breath praise the Lord.'" Thus, on the 28th of 
December, 1814, was he "born again;" "not of 
blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will 


of man, but of God." Let those who are wont to 
object to women's preaching remember that Elders 
John Ross and David Millard, two of our most 
efficient and honored ministers, were led to Christ 
through the instrumentality of a female speaker. 

Soon after the event above recorded the subject 
of our sketch began to exhort in public. About 
this time he formed the acquaintance of John Ross, 
an acquaintance which ripened into the w^armest 
friendship and remained unbroken to the last. In 
a publishedletterFather lioss thus alludes to the time 
of which we are writing : " I was not present at 
the mieeting. when you publicly volunteered in the 
service of Christ, resigned your position as manager 
of the ' New Year's ball,' and "accepted the card of 
invitation, from the 'Master of assemblies,' to a 
grand banquet at the ' marriage of the Lamb' in 
the kingdom ot God. The news of your conver- 
sion spread rapidly through the region, and the 
revival received a new impulse. From this period 
our acquaintance became intimate. * -^ Brother 
Millard, from the time of his conversion, seemed 
inspired w^ith- a gospel treasure, was bold, enthusi- 
astic, energetic, determined, and faithful." 

In the winter of 1814-15, we find him again 
teaching school, but his mind is so full of thoughts 
on religion and its pressing duties, he has but little 
relish for the work in which he is engaged. Out of 
school hours much time is given to prayer and the 
study of the Scriptures. This last work was more 
thoroughly prosecuted from the fact that the people, 
called " Christians, " among whom he was converted, 


ana whom he dearly loved, were not numerous, 
were harshly assailed by sectarians, and were 
accused of holding bad sentiments. This greatly 
grieved him. Finally, he determined to examine for 
himself, and, after careful study, if convinced that 
what was said of them was true, much as he loved 
them, he would forsake them utterly and forever. 

The method he adopted in settling his mind upon 
religious doctrines may well be recommended to 
others, and especially to the young. We shall, 
therefore, give it in his own words : 

"I minuted down all the points of doctrine upon 
which I wished to satisfy my mind by reading the 
Scriptures, concluding that every doctrine necessary 
for salvation was clearly taught in the N"ew Testa- 
ment. I accordingly provided myself w^ith a pocket 
testament and carried it with me constantly. I never 
dared to read it without praying to God for light 
and understanding. Whenever any passage came 
up before me which seemed to have the least bear- 
ing on any doctrine, I marked it with a pencil. I 
would generally read a chapter through two or 
three times before I left it — and thus read the Hqw 
Testament through by course. After having com- 
pleted this in the honest sincerity of my soul, I 
took all the passages which I had marked and 
copied them, carefully arranging each passage under 
the doctrine which I thought they were calculated 
to illustrate. I then studied them prayerfully, and 
Bought to reconcile Scripture with Scripture. My 
mind came out as clear as the sun on the principal 
points of controverted doctrine. From that day to 


this, it has not varied in one essential point. I soon 
after carefully read the Bible through by course.* * * 
When my mind was settled in doctrine, I became 
convinced that it was my duty to join the people 
called ^Christians/ persecuted and opposed though 
they were." 

He was received into fellowship with the Chris- 
tian Church at Ballston, 'New York, February 14, 
1815. Having become fully settled in his religious 
sentiments, he was ever after an able, fearless, and 
successful defender of the principles of the " Chris- 
tians. " 





Immediately after the Savior was baptized, we 
are informed that he was led into the wilderness to 
be tempted forty days. So, the day following his 
baptism, David Millard was called to undergo an 
experience which might well have reminded him of 
his Master's. He was brought into a state of severe 
trial. From early life he had thought that if he 
ever professed religion he would rest satisfied with 
nothing short of indisputable evidence of his accept- 
ance with Grod. The thought now occurred to him, 
"What, after all, if you are mistaken? What if 
the result should prove that you are only deceiving 
yourself and others by indulging false hopes?" 
This was a keen shot from the enemy, such as he 
well knows how and when to give. Of course, 
when these thoughts were indulged his mind began 
to sink, and for a few days a peculiar gloom over- 
spread his prospects. Often he gave utterance to 
this prayer, "0 Lord, if I am deceived, undeceive 
me; if indeed I am not thine, make me to see it; 
if indeed I do not love thee, make me to know it." 
At times his soul truly agonized in prayer, but 


prayer amid so many doubts brought him no relief 
— no answer of peace. At length while at work 
near his father's house something seemed to whis- 
per to him, "Go into the house; take up the Bible, 
and there you will find something that will aftbrd 
relief to your mind." He obeyed. On opening the 
Bible the first words on which his eyes rested were 
these blessed promises of Jesus: "Let not your 
heart be troubled ; ye believe in God, believe also 
in me. In my Father's house are many mansions ; 
if it were not so I would have told you. I go to 
prepare a place for you." He could read no fur- 
ther. These words filled his heart with unmingled 
joy. Tears coursed freely down his cheeks, and 
praises fiowed as freely from his tongue. Every 
doubt vanished, and the glories of the better world 
seemed to open before his enraptured vision. From 
the depths of his soul he could say, "I know that my 
Kedeemer liveth;" and he then felt that all the 
powers of darkness combined would never shake 
his confidence again. 

The custom of encouraging the improvement of 
gifts by speaking in the congregation prevailed 
extensively in those days, and was a standing order 
in the church at Ballston. Whether there was 
preaching or not, every member was at liberty to 
speak or pray in any of the meetings. To this 
custom he attributed much of the success of that 
period in raising up ministers of the gospel. Among 
those who were the product of the above church 
were John Eoss, David Millard, and Abigail Rob- 
erts — a noble trio. The two former for more than 


half a century were acknowledged leaders in the 
denomination to which they belonged ; and all were 
most intimately associated with the early history 
and growth of our cause in the States of ^N'ew York 
and ISTew Jersey. 

From the time that the subject of our memoir 
became a member of the church at Ballston, he 
often availed himself of customary usage, and spoke 
and prayed in the public congregation. In so doing 
his gift steadily and manifestly improved. Sectarian 
opposition continued to the extent that most of the 
school-houses in the vicinity were closed against 
the infant church. Still, as is usually the case, the 
church prospered amidst persecution 

In the summer of 1815, he began to feel strong 
impressions that it was his duty to make appoint- 
ments abroad ; but he was troubled with the thought, 
""Where shall I go, and how shall I begin ?" For 
weeks he labored under severe trials relative to this 
duty. He would fain have been excused, but he 
had made the most solemn vows and dared not 
look back. In February preceding he had taken an 
active part in a meeting in the town of Amsterdam, 
some miles distant from his native place, and God 
was pleased to make his exhortation at that time 
the means of leading two persons to Christ. Here 
his mind now seemed to rest. He did not want his 
friends to know that he was about to make an 
attempt to preach; and if he tried and failed he 
wanted it to be far enough off not to disgrace his 
friends at home. "I felt," he says, "like a man 
who puts his life into his hand when he is just 


going into battle. How to get an appointment to 
that meeting I did not know." But Providence, it 
seems, opened a way. One who had been awakened 
and converted at his former visit, was at meeting in 
Ballston the next Sabbath and warmly urged him 
to again visit Amsterdam and exhort the people. 
The result was that he sent an appointment to the 
school-house at Crane's Hollow for the following 
Sabbath afternoon. This was on the 16tli of July, 

"During the week," he writes, ''my mind was 
iilled with a thousand temptations and trials; but 
on the next Sabbath I set out full of hopes and 
fears to attend the meeting. When I arrived in 
sight of the school-house and saw a crowd ot peo- 
ple assembled, a strange fear possessed me. Ah I 
thought I, did this crowd of people know the weak- 
ness and inability of the one they had come to hear, 
they would disperse immediately. A degree of 
trembling seized me, and when I went into the 
house I felt like one laboring under an insupport- 
able load. After singing and praying, I read and 
talked from Isaiah iii. 10, 11, ' Say ye to the right- 
eous it shall be well with them, for they shall eat 
the fruit of their doings ; woe to the wicked, it shall 
be ill with him, for the reward of his hands shall 
be given to him.' My discourse was mixed up 
much with my own experience and exhortation, 
but the congregation gave good attention and 
appeared solemn." We now find the subject of 
these pages fairl}' in the field, and fully determined 
to " war a good warfare" as a preacher of righteous- 


ness and a defender of his Master's cause. He con- 
tinued to hold meetings in the same neighborhood 
till the month of October following, when, in 
attempting to speak from a passage of Scripture, 
he became confused, and was obliged to sit down 
in the midst of his discourse. This greatly wounded 
his pride, and nearly closed his attempts to preach. 
True, he had seen some conversions through his 
labors there, but this failure made him feel that he 
had, after all, mistaken his calling. For a season 
his mind was depressed, and darkness shrouded his 
enjoyments. Just at this critical period in his his- 
tory, Eev. Jabez King came to Ballston. As he 
had a similar experience in his early ministry, 
he was able to afford the young and discouraged 
preacher great relief. "Be not discouraged," said 
he, " you will find that very circumstance one of the 
most beneficial of your life. God has taught you 
in that, that your strength is not in yourself, but in 
him. Remember this, and be not discouraged." 
He accordingly sent another appointment; and 
when on the next Sabbath he went to fill it, he 
found of a truth the Lord was at work among the 
people, and in his preaching that day he was greatly 
blessed. From this time he filled frequent appoint- 
ments in that vicinity, and, as a result, between 
twenty and thirty were converted. While filling 
these Sabbath appointments, his week-days were 
still devoted to hard manuel labor on his father's 

The following incident from his "life's journal" 


is liere inserted to show the strength of religious 
prejudice and sectarian bigotry in those days: 

''At an early stage of my labors in Amsterdam, 
an event occurred which I think proper to relate. 
A Presbyterian deacon in the vicinity evinced a 
good deal of concern for the people lest I should 
lead them away into dangerous error. As I was 
informed, he tried to induce his pastor to go to the 
neighborhood where my meetings were held and 
faithfully expose what he termed our dangerous 
errors, and warn the people to beware of the heretic. 
It happened that the pastor and myself had been 
schoolmates and acquaintances, though he was a few 
years my senior. lie kindly declined compliance 
with the deacon's request. But as the interest 
increased and congregations grew larger, the deacon 
concluded something must be done. He finally 
determined to address the people himself, and 
accordingly appointed a meeting for that purpose. 
He most earnestly warned the people, and especially 
the young people, to beware of me. He insisted 
that I was a deceiver and would go to perdition, 
and lead to the same place all who embraced the 
pernicious doctrine. 

" Some weeks after this I happened to attend a 
prayer-meeting at the deacon's house. He was about 
opening the meeting when I entered, but he did 
not know me. In the course of the meeting he 
invited Christians of any denomination to use their 
liberty, and urged them to do so, as the meeting 
was free. At length I rose and addressed the assem- 
bly. Before I iinished my testimony I felt the 


power of God's spirit upon me. Many of those 
present, especially the young, wept, l^o sooner 
had I taken my seat than the deacon rose and most 
earnestly witnessed that the truth had been spoken. 
*0h, how much good it does my soul,' said he, *to 
hear such testimony from a youth. ' He most earn- 
estly urged the young people to lay to heart the 
testimony they had heard, for it was true, every 
word of it. 

"At the close of the meeting he inquired of a 
friend who accompanied me to the meeting who 
that young exhorter was. ' Why ! it is Millard, the 
Christian preacher.' 'Is that Millard?' said he; 'I 
thought he was a Methodist, for every word he said 
was true. ' I never heard of the deacon's saying a 
word against me after that." 

"We have now traced the life of the subject of 
these pages from birth to manhood. On the 24th 
of iTovember of this year (1815) he was twenty-one 
years old. Thus when but twenty years of age he 
began to preach, and had met with considerable 
success before he reached his majority. We shall 
soon find him cutting loose from home and friends 
and entering with great earnestness upon the work 
of an evangelist. But before this, he must Once 
more visit Amsterdam, the place of his earliest 
labors. He went there on the very day he was of 
age, and as he thought this might be the last visit 
he should make them very soon, he remained there 
three days. Elder C. W. Martin was then preach- 
ing in Ballston and vicinity, but was expecting soon 
to leave for Greene County, and was anxious that 


the young preacher should accompany him. Of this 
minister Mr. Millard thus writes : '' He had become 
acquainted with, my labor of mind relative to duty, 
and was indeed to me a father in Israel. I shall 
ever have- cause to respect him, as will many others, 
while life, or thought, or being last. " 

From Amsterdam he visited Gal way and enjoyed 
some excellent meetings, after which he returned to 
his father's house, intending on the following week 
to accompany Mr. Martin to Greene County; but 
his time had not yet come. On his return home, 
his father asked him what business he had concluded 
to pursue, as lie was then of age. He had not con- 
lideiice to tell him what course he wished to take, 
though his parents had never opposed him in relig- 
ious duty, but on the contrary were forward to help 
him so far as they were acquainted with the lead- 
ings of his mind. He was then informed by his 
father that during his absence there had been two 
diiierent requests made for him to take a school, at 
what was then deemed fair compensation, and his 
father encouraged him to do it. Acting more upon 
his father's suggestion than bis own mature judg- 
ment, he went that evening and engaged a school 
for three months. The school was in Clinton, six 
miles from home. He had been teaching but a few 
days when he felt sensibly that he was not engaged 
in the work to which his Master had called him. 
Owing to previous mismanagement the school had 
become insubordinate, and the state of his mind 
was such as to render him quite unfit to enforce 
rigid discipline where nothing else would answer. 


He was in the habit of closing his school every 
evening with prayer, and this displeased a few of 
the patrons. He also preached occasionally in the 
vicinity, and was conscious that good was done; 
but his mind was not at rest. He longed to be 
released that he might travel and preach the gospel 
wherever an open door might offer. "At the close 
of my term," he writes, "I felt like one released 
from prison, and made arrangements without delay 
to start for Greene County, wliere I expected to 
meet Elder Martin." 

He was now quite willing that all should know, 
and his parents especially, what his intentions were. 
Many times had he been made to regret that he did 
not disclose his mind to his father before taking the 
school. He now told him all, and the following 
letter of commendation will show how well the 
father approved of the choice his son had made: 

"To all whom, these presents inay come^ greeting: 

"This may certify that my son, David Millard, the bearer 
hereof, has left my house with my perfect consent, and 
I furthermore believe him to be one moved by the Spirit of 
God, to go forth and improve his gift in the vineyard of the 
Lord. May God bless his labors to the convicting of sinners 
and the edifying of the saints. 

" Nathaniel Millard. 
"MABCH19, 1816." 




Three clays were chiefly devoted to making prep- 
arations for the journey. At length the eventful 
day dawned. On the 20th of March, 1816, he took 
an aftectionate leave of his parents, brothers, and 
sisters, and went forth to preach, far and wide, the 
gospel of the Redeemer. In anticipation of this 
event he wrote the following verses : 


Farewell, niy friends and kindred dear! 

With you I now must part; 
While heaving gigh and pearJy tear 

Evince a throbbing heart. 

My Lord commands me to the field, 

With stern and threat'ning w^ord. 
To handle faith's all-conquering shield, 

And wield the gospel sword. 

Nor shall the strongest ties below 

Compel me here to stay, 
While Jesus bids his servants go 

To regions far away. 

There stands his banner, wide unfnrl'd, 

High waving through the sky, 
While loud the trump sounds through the world^ 

" Sinners, repent or die. " 


Swift round his standard saints unite, 

Resolv'd to take the field ; 
See how his foes are put to flight ! 

They fall ! they sink ! they yield I 

His heralds, firm like flames of fire, 

In front the battle staud; 
While holy zeal their hearts inspire, 

They fight with sword in hand. 

Christ rides triumnhant o'er his foes, 

And leads the conq'ring band ; 
My heart with martial ardor glows 

To run at his command. 

As the farewell words were spoken, all were sen- 
sibly affected. He mounted his horse while the 
tears were coursing down his cheeks, and then 
started out into the broad world to "work for 
Jesus." During the day, so much was his mind 
absorbed in the great work upon which he had 
embarked, that the objects of nature would scarcely 
for a moment divert his thoughts, ^or can we 
wonder! For how empt^^ are all the objects of 
time and the charms of nature, when eternal things 
engross the soul's attention ! 

He proceeded to Schenectady, and there endeav- 
ored to ascertain his nearest route to Greenville, in 
Greene County; but he was misdirected, and after 
traveling till night found he had gone a number ot 
miles out of the way. He was compelled to pass 
that night at a tavern in Bern, Albany County. 
After seeing his horse provided for, without taking 
any refreshments, he sought his room, committed 
himself to God in prayer, and endeavored to find 
repose, but sleep seemed to have fled Hours 


passed in wakeful meditation, and his pillow was 
wet with tears. At length balmy sleep lulled the 
emotions of his mind. The next morning, before 
sunrise, he was well on his way. About seven o'clock^ 
from the top of the mountain he was crossing, the 
country to the south, for along distance, was spread 
Defore him. The prospect was a charming one. 
He could faintly see distant villages, surrounded by 
a country which denoted affluence and prosperity. 
J^e'arly the whole of the county of Greene, so rich 
111 natural scenery, was spread out before him. 
While scanning the scene, a strong temptation 
seized him. Of this he writes: "I thought the 
-people in that part of the country w^ere used to 
great preaching, and what, thought I, can a weak 
strippling like me do among them. My own weak- 
ness, and the greatness of the people among whom 
I was going, seemed to be worked up in my mind 
in the worst shape. I actually stopped and queried 
for minutes whether it was not best for me to turn 
about and go back. As no one was in sight, I 
turned aside from the road, and tried the strength 
of prayer. My supplications were earnest, and my 
tears flowed freely. The temptation vanished, and 
I pursued my journey." Truly, in seasons of tempta- 
tion, there's nothing like prayer. 

It was about ten o'clock in the forenoon when he 
arrived at the house of Mrs. Teats, mother of Elder 
John P. Teats, who resided in the town of Westerlo. 
Here he w^as received in a very friendly manner. 
IsTo sooner was he seated than he Avas asked by this 
mother in Israel, if his name was not David Millard. 


On being answered in the affirmative, she added, 
"Elder Martin has been expecting you for some 
days." The table was spread, and here the subject 
of our memoir ate his first meal since leaving his 
father's house the day before. Being informed that 
Mr. Martin was to preach that evening at a place 
called Cairo, about ten miles distant, he hastened to 
that place; but, on arriving, found that he had been 
misinformed, and that the appointment for that 
evening was in Xew Baltimore. Night had then 
overtaken our weary traveler, and he found a rest- 
ing-place at the house of a Christian brother in 
Cairo, by the name of Shepherd. It was a Christian 
home, and he was kindly entertained; but even 
this apparently slight disappointment had a trying 
effect upon his mind. Indeed, when the mind is 
wrought up to a high pitch of excitement relative 
to duty, as was the case with the subject of these 
pages, a slight discomfiture becomes a mountain of 

On the following day he returned to Westerlo, 
and in the evening met Elder Martin at his appoint- 
ment in that town. He writes : " Under the trying 
state of my mind, the sight of him cheered me like 
seeing my nearest relations. Complaining of ill 
health, Bro. Martin requested me to preach. Under 
much embarrassment, I spoke from I. Tim. iv: 8 — 
Godliness is profitable unto all things.' "We went 
to Freehold, and spent the night at Dr. "Warner's. " 
The kindness of this family he seemed never to 
forget. On the next morning, which was the Sab- 
bath, Mr. Martin preached in Freehold, and admin- 


istered the Lord's Supper. "Without consulting his 
young friend, at the close of the meeting he gave 
out an appointment for him to preach in the even- 
ing. This he endeavored to fill, but labored under 
considerable embarrassment, and was far from satis- 
fied with his discourse. " I began to think," he says, 
''that one of two things must be true: either that I 
had no work to do in Greene County, or was not pre- 
pared to do what God required of me." "We shall 
soon see that his place of labor was in another 

A number of persons who had formerly belonged 
to the church, under the pastoral charge of Elder 
Daniel Hix, in Dartmouth, Massachusetts, had 
moved into Roxbury, Delaware County, Xew York. 
These had heard of the labors of Elder Martin in 
Greene County, and a few days before one of them 
came to see him, and brought an urgent request 
that he should come to Delaware County to preach. 
We will here quote from the written journal: 

"Elder Martin had given some encouragement 
that on my arrival he would come. The distance 
was about forty miles, and I encouraged him to go 
promising to accompany him. We left Freehold 
on Monday, March 25th, held a meeting in Durham 
that evening, and remained over night at the house 
of a Methodist brother by the name of Butler, who 
treated us very kindly. The next day we rode to 
the town of Roxbury, and arrived in the evening at 
the house of Brother Reuben Baker, the man who had 
requested us to come to that place. Several of the 
neighbors came in that evening to see the strangers 


belonging, as many thought, to a strange people. 
No preacher of the Christian connection had ever 
been in the place before. We sung and prayed 
with them, and gave an appointment for the 'next 
day at the stone school-house. I felt a reniarkable 
calmness of mind beyond what I had enjoyed since 
leaving my father's house. My peace seemed to 
rest in that place. On retiring to bed, I told Brother 
Martin that I had not felt as well for a long time. 
Said I, if we do not see the glory of God in this 
place, I shall be much disappointed." A brief time 
will disclose how well his anticipations were realized. 

The next day brought a crowded assembly to the 
school-house. Elder Martin preached an impressive 
sermon. His co-laborer followed in exhortation 
with much freedom and solemnity of mind. On 
the day following another meeting was held, with 
a still larger congregation in attendance. From 
that meeting many went awa}^ sorrowing on account 
of their sins. The next evening at a meeting held 
in another part of the town quite a number requested 
prayers. It now appeared evident that souls were 
to be converted in that place. 

After attending the meetings already named, Mr. 
Martin returned to Greene County, leaving Mr. 
Millard in Roxbury. "Being now alone among 
strangers,' he writes, "I felt that my only trust 
was in God. The fields truly appeared ripe and 
ready to harvest; 'but. Lord,' thought I, 'who is 
sufficient for these things ?' However, I commenced 
with trembling, and God was truly with me. In 
nine days I preached eleven times in difierent parts 


of Roxbury and Middletown. In several of these 
meetings the power of the Highest was displayed in 
a most remarkable manner, and in two or three of 
them I met with some sectarian opposition. " 

The incident we are now about to relate will serve 
to show how peculiarly, not to say mysteriously, 
the mind is sometimes affected in a state of sleep. 
At the first meeting held by the subject of this 
memoir, in what was then called the west settle- 
ment in lloxbury, a large congregation assembled. 
When he entered the house, of course all eyes were 
turned toward the stranger. A lady in the audi- 
ence thought she had seen him before, but where, 
she was unable at first to determine. After the 
opening exercises were concluded, and the text 
(Proverbs i. 24-28) announced, the mystery, in a 
measure, was solved. She then recalled a dream 
that she had had about two months before, in which 
she fancied herself crossing an extensive field which 
was partly covered with trees. When about mid- 
way of this field there suddenly arose a frightful 
tornado. Trees were falling in every direction, and 
death seemed inevitable. While pondering, in the 
most fearful distress of mind, which way to fly, a 
person came running from an opposite direction, 
and as he approached pointed a certain way, and 
cried, "Fly for your life!" She started to run, 
when she awoke. She now recognized in the 
speaker the person whom she had seen in her dream. 
When he dwelt upon that part of the text which 
says, "When your fear cometh as a desolation and 
your destruction as a whirlwind," she cried aloud. 


and many others wept. From that meeting the 
work spread in the settlement with great rapidity. 

On the 9th of April Elder Martin returned, and 
for two or three weeks following they labored 
together with the most encouraging results. On 
the 22d of April a church was organized of eleven 
members. From this small beo^innins: the church 
in Koxbury increased to the number of eighty in 
six months. 

During the month of May the subject of our 
sketch returned to his native place. On the 20th, 
after an absence of just two months, he arrived at 
his father's house. On his way home he spent a 
Sabbath in Freehold. One who had ridiculed him 
on a former visit was now brought under convic- 
tion, and soon afterward converted. When he 
arrived at Ballston he found Elders Elijah Shaw 
and John L. Peavey, from ^ew Hampshire, had 
just come into the place, and with them he formed 
an endearing acquaintance. 

In June followiug, he returned to Roxbury, Mr. 
Peavey accompanying him. On the way they held 
meetings in Charleston and Canajoharrie. In Dela- 
ware County their labors were greatly blessed, and 
in the east part of Middletown about thirty were 
converted within a few days. But the way was not 
all smooth. Among those in the vicinity of Mid- 
dletown whom they ranked as friends were a few 
Methodists. A camp-meeting in the interest of 
that denomination was soon to be held in the town 
of Kortright. These friends very earnestly invited 
the young preachers to attend. They accepted the 


invitation, and on July 4tli rode in company with 
tliem about fourteen miles to the camp-ground. 
They had not long been at the place when they 
found themselves the chief objects of comment, and 
against them much of the preaching was directed. 
The presiding elder, after preaching a doctrinal 
sermon, in which he took strong ground against 
them, said the devil was sending his emissaries into 
that partof the country, who had the heaven-daring 
presumption to deny the doctrine he taught. 

ISTo wonder the meeting lacked spirituality and 
power. The young men felt their souls full, and 
longed for the privilege of speaking in the name of 
the Master; but no liberty was given them. On the 
morning of the 5th, as the meeting was about to 
close, they concluded to ask the privilege of speak- 
ing to all such as felt disposed to remain and hear 
them. "We made our minds known," says Mr. 
Millard, " to a few Methodist friends, who appeared 
anxious to hear us. Previous to the meeting being 
dismissed the presiding elder gave the people 
another vehement warning against deceivers. When 
the meeting was formally dismissed. Elder Peavey 
asked the privilege of speaking to such as were dis- 
posed to hear. The owner of the camp-ground 
spoke up in a sharp tone as he said, 'I shall forbid 
your speaking on this ground, sir!' 'There will be 
preaching in the I'oad yonder in -Q^ve minutes,' says 
Brother Peavey ; ' I suppose there are no objections 
to our going into the highways and hedges!' We 
immediately joined arms and turned toward the 



road, while a crowd followed us. We stepped upon 
a large log by the roadside, and sung : 

'' 'Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone, etc. ' 

"It was thought a congregation of five hundred 
soon gathered around us. After prayer, Brother 
Peavey preached some over an hour, and I immedi- 
ately followed him. Before w^e had done, the power 
of God swept through the assembly, and sinners wept 
and cried aloud. About twenty came forward for 
prayers, and several found mercy before we sepa- 
rated. Several of the Methodist brethren said, 'this 
is the w^ork of God; we must witness to it.' At 
the close of the meeting, the man who forbade our 
speaking on the camp-ground came to us and asked 
our forgiveness. A field now opened before us 
immediately, and requests were given us in every 
direction to come and preach. We entered the 
field in the name of the Lord, and the w^ork soon 
spread in different parts of Kortright, Stamford, 
and Harpersfield. " 

After spending about six weeks in this region, in 
arduous and unremitting w^ork, during which time 
his labors proved highly acceptable, and, as we have 
seen, were blessed of God, he returned again to 
Ballston. His duty concerning the ministry was 
now no longer with him a matter of doubt. He 
had the best possible evidence of the genuineness 
of his call in the fruits of his labors! Hence the 
reader will not be surprised to learn of his ordina- 
tion. This took place at Ballston on the 4th of 
August, 1816. The following, copied from the 


orignal charch record, and kindly furnished by Rev. 
B. F. Summerbell, will be found of interest in this 


''At a regular meeting of the Church of Christ in Balls- 
ton, Burnt Hills, New York, held August 3, 1816, the follow- 
ing letter was received from the Church of Christ in 
Roxbury : 

"The Church of Christ in Roxbury, Middleton, and the 
region round about, on the 6th day of July, 1816, seudeth to 
our beloved brethren and Elders Jabez King, jr., Philip San- 
ford, Jonathan Thompson, Christopher W. Martin, Wm. 
Martin, and Elijah Shaw, greeting. 

" Whereas, our beloved brother, David Millard, who has 
been laboring in this region, and his labors having been 
miuch owned and blessed of God in the awakening, conversion, 
and gathering of many into the Redeemer's kingdom, we 
wish this our request to be complied with, namely, that he, 
our brother, David Millard, should be separated to the work 
of the ministry, whereunto we believe the Holy Ghost has 
called him. Amen. 

" Dear brethren, the harvest is great and laborers with us 
are very few. May God raise up, quality, and send forth 

"John L. Peavey. 

"The church, after the letter was read, and hearing also 
the testimony of Bro. David Millard, especially his being 
called to preach, were unanimously agreed with the church 
in Roxbury in having him ordained according to the New 
Testament. Accordingly, the day following he was publicly 
ordained in BaUston, at the Burnt Hills, by fasting, praying, 
and laying on the hands of Jabez King, jr., and Jonathan 
S. Thompson, Elders in the Church of Christ." 


"To all unto whom these presents may come, greeting: 

"This may certify that our well-beloved brother, David 
Millard, after due examination, was publicly ordained to the 
work whereunto the Holy Ghost has called him, as a minis- 
ter of the New Testament, to administer the ordinances in 
the Church of Christ, on the fourth day of August, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and sixteen, bj' fasting, and praying, and 
laying on the hands of us. 

"Jonathan S. Thompson, 
".Jabez King, Jr. 
"In confirmation of the above. James Wilson." 


The second day after his ordination he baptized 
three persons whose given names were Peter, James, 
and John. 

In the latter part of August he returned to Kort- 
right, and in connection with Elder Martin again 
entered the field of labor in Delaware County. They 
laid out a circuit of one hundred and fifty miles, 
which each traveled once in two weeks, preaching 
once or twice every day. In these labors they were 
greatly blessed. By December following his ordi- 
nation, Mr. Millard baptized in Middletowu, Stam- 
ford, and Roxbury, a )Out sixty persons. 

But, notwithstanding the success which had 
attended his labors in this region, it soon became 
evident that here he was not to find a permanent 
home. iTear the close of the year 1816, Elder 
"William Cummings and Edward Webber, of ISTew 
Hampshire, came to Roxbury and attended a gen- 
eral meeting. Mr. Webber concluded to spend a 
few weeks in that county, and as Elder Cummings 
intended to visit western ^N'ew York, the subject of 
our memoir decided to accompany him. On their 
way west they spent about tw^o weeks in Otsego 
County, and preached to large assemblies in Otego 
and Laurens. They were present at the organiza- 
tion of the Christian Church in the latter town. 
During their stay in Otego some were converted, 
and they left a number under conviction. 

Leaving Otsego County they journeyed westward, 
preaching in the town of Nelson, Madison County, 
on the way, and stopping finally at Brutus, Ca^^uga 
County, where Rev. Elijah Shaw was then preach- 


ing. Elder Sliaw liad been preaching in that town 
for several months, and his labors had been signally 
blessed. Subsequentl}^ it was arranged that Elders 
Shaw and Cummings should travel together into the 
western part of the state, and that Elder Millard 
should remain in Cayuga County till their return. 
The former were absent about six weeks, and dur- 
ing this time the labors of Mr. Millard were unre- 
mitting. For most of the time, however, his mind 
seemed to be under a cloud. Still his work was 
not in vain. He saw some conversions in the towns 
of Brutus, Meutz, and Aurelius. Having completed 
his work in this county, he returned about the first 
of March to his former held of labor in the county 
of Delaware. This brings us to the spring of 1817. 
During the month of April an extensive work of 
grace followed his labors in the town of Andes. 
In the early part of the month he attended a meet- 
ing in the place and preached to a good congregation. 
The next day, while passing through the settlement 
on his way to Middletown, he was impressed to call 
at a certain house, which he did. Two ladies were 
present. He conversed and praj^ed with them, and 
left them in tears. AVhen he next visited the place 
he found both had experienced religion, and several 
others were under deep conviction. He increased 
his labors in the place, and within two months saw 
between fifty and sixty hopefully converted. Some- 
time during this season he must have visited and 
preached in Freehold, as Elder J. Blackmar writes : 
" Under his ministry in Freehold, I^ew York, in 
1817, 1 date my religious conversion." 


During the summer of this year he left the 
churches in Delaware County in charge of Elder Cum- 
mings, who had removed intoRoxbury, and returned 
to his native place, intending to start jn a few weeks 
for western Xew York. That region w^as then new 
and presented an inviting field for gospel labor. 
Previous to leaving he baptized twenty persons in 
Andes, and subsequently a church was organized 
there by Elder Cummings. He reached Ballston in 
the month of August. As he had now been absent 
many months, much interest was felt in his preach- 
ing. He remained there till I^ovember, and saw 
about forty persons converted. Among those he 
baptized was John Hollister, for many years an 
efiicient minister of the gospel. 




Though his labors had been very successful in 
Delaware County, and personally he was held in 
high estimation by the people in that region, it was 
not here that Providence intended he should remain. 
In the western part of the state a new and inviting 
field presented itself to the ardent and faithful 
young minister, and here his labors were chiefly to 
be bestowed 

In the latter part of Xovember of the year 1817' 
he commenced his journey westward, preaching on 
the way in Albany, G reene, Delaware, Otsego, and 
Chenango counties. He arrived in Brutus, Cayuga 
County, sometime in January, 1818. In that town 
an extensive revival was in progress among various 
denominations. Elder Shaw was much eno'asred in 
the work, and many were added to the Christian 
Church. Mr. Millard remained a considerable 
length of time in the vicinity, and gave himself 
earnestly to the cause. During the winter his labors 
extended through Mentz, Aurelius, Auburn, and 
Camillus. He preached nearly every day, and 
his labors were abundantly blessed; and though he 
encountered persecution, and met with some finan- 


cial embarrassments, he felt sustained hj Divine 
power, and found friends who were kind and true. 

But he had not yet reached the place of his future 
labors. About the first of April he left Cayuga 
County, and pursued his course westward to the 
town of Rush, in Monroe County, where two of his 
sisters then resided. He immediately commenced 
preaching in that vicinity. Some excitement fol- 
lowed. A few were hopefully converted, and two 
were baptized. More doubtless would liave been 
accomplished had he remained and continued his 
labors in that place; but calls were urgent and 
numerous, and in his anxiety to meet them, as he 
subsequently remarked, he scattered his labors more 
than was profitable and wise. This is a mistake 
into which many have fallen, and in later years the 
subject of our memoir made it a point to urge min- 
* isters to guard against this evil. 

In the year 1817 Eev. Joseph Badger had organ- 
ized a Christian Church in the town of Mendon, 
near Bush. Mr. Millard soon became acquainted 
with him, and for many years they were intimately 
associated in Christian labor and in defending the 
principles of the "Christians" against the assaults 
of bitter foes. In the same county Elder John 
Blodgett was also doing the work of an evangelist, 
and with him an acquaintance was formed which 
soon ripened into warm attachment. Between 
April and June Mr. Millard preached much in Rush, 
Henrietta, Mendon, and Lima. 

About the middle of June a general meeting was 
held in Covington, Genessee County, Xew York. 


Elders Badger, Millard, and Blodgett were present. 
The meeting was held in a grove, and the attend- 
ance was large. During the previous fall and win- 
ter there had been an extensive revival in that 
place under the labors of Eev. William True. Once 
there was a flourishing church in that town, and 
though long since broken and scattered by removals 
and deaths, it continued for many years to speak 
through the voices of the ministers who had been 
raised up within its borders. 

At this meeting the flrst steps were taken toward 
organizing a Christian conference in the State of 
^ew York. There might have been in the state a;t 
that time, twenty ministers simply denominated 
"Christians," and 'perhaps twenty-hve churches of 
the same order. Men of corrupt characters were 
beginning to impose upon the churches and public^ 
claiming to be ministers in connection with this- 
religious body. An unscriptural mode of ordina- 
tion w^as also advocated in a few churches. Their 
position was, that a church of private brethren had 
a right to ordain any man whom they saw fit, simply 
by a vote of the uplifted hand in the church. Mr. 
Millard having traveled much among the churches 
had seen and felt the effects of these evils, and at 
this meeting was the first to propose the organiza- 
tion of a conference. The proposition found gen- 
eral favor. Accordingly, a meeting Avas called for 
the purpose named. Elders Badger and Millard 
were appointed a committee to correspond with 
other ministers upon the subject. The meetingy 
which was well attended and generally approved^ 


was held in tlie month of October at Hartwick, 
Otsego County. Thus, as we are informed, origi- 
nated the first regularly organized conference in 
the Christian connection. But similar associations 
:Soon after formed in different states, and now exist 
throughout the denomination. 

A short time previous to his attending the meet- 
ing at Covington, Mr. Millard had preached once 
on a week-day in the town of West Bloomfield with 
much freedom, and to an attentive and solemn 
assembly. On his return from the former place he 
preached there again, and saw unmistakable indica- 
tions of a revival. He was then importuned to 
<5ommence Sabbath preaching there, and soon after 
l)egan to hold meetings regularly in a brick school- 
liouse in the south part of the town. The meetings 
Tvere well attended, and the word was preached 
Tvith power. In the month of July, Rev. Elias 
Sharp, of Connecticut, was with him, and was an 
•earnest and successful fellow-laborer. A revival 
^commenced with the first meeting and continued 
through the summer and fall. Between fifty and 
«ixtj were converted. But opposition poured upon 
the young minister like a torrent. He was a stranger 
in the place, and the people with whom he belonged 
"were but little known. The worst reports were 
raised and circulated against his sentiments and 
character. He writes: "Had not Israel's God sus- 
tained me, I should have sunk under discourage- 
ments. I was the very butt of sectarian malevo- 
lence, and some who spoke against me the most 


severely seemed to think they were doing God the 
most essential service !" 

In consequence of his sentiments being continu- 
ally misrepresented, he this year (1818) wrote and 
published a pamphlet of thirty-eight pages entitled 
"The True Messiah Exalted." This was a plain 
and pungent defence of the scriptural view that 
Christ is the ''Son of God," and was generally con- 
sidered an able vindication of himself, and the 
denomination he represented, against the assaults- 
and misrepresentations of his opposers. 

In October of this year he organized the Christian 
Church of West Bloomiield, ^N'ew York, with six- 
teen members. His labors continued highly accept- 
able, and commanded large assemblies, and the 
church increased within a few months to fifty mem- 
bers. About this time, owing to the excessive use 
of his organs of speech, his strength became 
impaired, and at times, for several months^ he 
raised blood. As a result, he was compelled to 
relax his labors somewhat and have recourse to 
medical treatment. When healed, he was left with 
a hoarseness which ever after affected his speech. 

On the 27th of June, 1819, the subject of these 
pages was united in marriage with Miss Celia Hicks^ 
of Taunton, Massachusetts. He had formed an 
acquaintance with her while she was teaching a 
select school for young ladies at Allen's Hill, in the 
town of Eichmond, near the field of his labors in 
Bloomfield. She was a lady of intelligence and 
culture, but seems never to have entered into full 
sympathy with his work as a Christian minister^ 


They were married in Homer, ITew York, at the 
house of her brother. Soon after, leaving lier at 
Homer, he returned to West Bloomlield, and con- 
tinued his labors there for nearly three montlis. 

In the month of September he returned to Homer, 
and thence accompanied his wife to Taunton, Mass- 
achusetts, where her father still resided. On the 
way he visited his native place, and preached there 
■several times to great acceptance. Pursuing his 
course eastward, he also preached at Windham and 
Hampton, Connecticut. They remained in Taun- 
ton and vicinity several weeks, during which time 
he preached frequently, not only in Taunton, but 
also in Eehobeth and Assonet. In the month of 
October they returned to "West Bloomlield, where 
soon after they commenced housekeeping in ''an 
hired house." From that time, and during the 
year 1820, his labors were chiefly confined within 
the borders of his church, though occasionally he 
lectured and preached in neighboring towns. We 
have no particular account of the result of his 
labors here during this period, but know they were 
highly acceptable to his charge, and were blessed 
in the strengthening and growth of the church. 

It was during this year that he by request first 
-visited Marion, I^ew York. In this place there 
had been a remarkable work under the preaching 
of Samuel Galloway, an unordained minister from 
the State of Ohio, who had spent about six weeks 
in the town and then returned to his home. In the 
month of October Mr. Millard visited the place. 
Here he found a large number of happy souls wait- 


ing for a Christian minister to baptize and organ- 
ize them into a church. On his first A'isit he 
preached a nnmber of times and baptized fourteen 
persons. Four weeks later he visited them again 
and baptized sixteen. During this visit he .was 
accompanied bj Eev. J. Badger, and together they 
organized the band into a church. Afterward 
Elder Badger baptized about as many more. The 
following year Mr. Galloway revisited Marion, and 
died there. He appears to have been a spiritual, 
godly man, and his preaching, though plain and 
simple, had a wonderful effect upon the unconverted. 
Mr. Millard continued to visit Marion occasionally 
till the following spring, when Eev. Oliver True, 
who was ordained in that town, took the pastoral 
care of the church. 

It should have been mentioned that in the spring 
of this year (1820) Mr. Millard organized the church 
of Cohocton and Xaples, Xew York. He first 
visited Ils'aples and Cohocton in December, 1819, 
and immediately saw tokens of good. After that, 
he continued his visits occasionally. His meetings 
were largely attended. Several times he drove his 
carriage into a grove, and then standing in it he 
addressecUthe multitude. For more than two years 
he continued his visits once a month, and many 
were added to the church. Among the number 
whom he baptized at iSTaples was Major Joseph 
Clark, father of Myron H. Clark, a former governor 
of the State of Xew York. 

In the spring of 1821 we find him m the midst 
of another revival in the church at West Bloom- 


field. This appears to have been a very steady and 
interesting work, devoid of outward excitement, 
biit full of spiritual power. The revival was not 
confined to his own church, but spread among the 
Presbyterians, and resulted in the addition of about 
sixty to the two churches. 

During this time, and especially following this 
revival, his views concerning the sonship of Christ 
were bitterly assailed, and in some instances grossly 
misrepresented. Hence, in the fall of 1822 he 
commenced writing his work entitled ''The True 
Messiah in Scripture Light." This was a full and 
thorough examination and defence of the doctrine 
which he had briefly but ably advocated in a former 
pamphlet. The work was published in the follow- 
ing spring. It immediately produced a stir in the 
religious world, and for those times met with quite 
an extensive sale. In the preface to this volume he 
says : " On account of my views being constantly 
misrepresented, I published a pamphlet in 1818 
entitled 'The True Messiah Exalted, or Jesus 
Christ really the Son of God,' in which I briefly 
discussed the subject of the present work. That 
pamphlet has undergone two large editions, aiid 
there is still a pressing demand for them which 
could not be answered without reprinting them. 
By the importunity of my friends I have been con- 
strained to investigate the subject more extensively, 
and now present it to the public in the present 
form." This work has always been considered an 
able vindication of the doctrine of the sonship of 
Christ as generally held by the "Christians," and 


has been the means of settling many able minds 
in relation to that doctrine. Among- those who 
acknowledge its worth is Rev. J. Blackmar, of Bos- 
ton, Avho in a recent article informs us that he 
became anti-trinitarian by the perusal of this Avork 
in 1823. Many others have borne, and many more, 
could they speak, would bear the same testimony. 
The volume is still considered a work of much 
ability, if not authority, among our people. 

In October, 1823, Mr. Millard arranged for a 
tour into the Southern States. He rented his house 
for six months, and leaving his oldest child with 
his sister, in the town of Rush, he took his wife 
and youngest child, a babe, and started on what 
might well have been considered in those days a 
long journey. He was lirst to visit ^ew England, 
where his wife was to remain with her friends till 
his return from the South. On his way he j)reached 
in Camillus, Onondaga County, where he met with 
Rev. 0. E. Morrill (then a young man) who was 
traveling and preaching in that region. They 
arranged to meet again in Cumberland, Rhode 
Island, in December following, and from thence pro- 
ceed in company to Virginia. On leaving Camillus 
he visited his father at Ballston, and while there 
preached several times. Erom Ballston he directed 
his course to Poultney, -Vermont, where he then 
had a sister residing. He crossed the Green Mount- 
ains from Rutland to Stockbridge, on the 28tli of 
October. In his journal he says: "We passed a 
tavern at the top of the mountain about thirty min- 
utes before sunset, and not thinking to inquire how 


far it was to the next house of entertainment, 
we found ourselves, when night overtook us, in a 
woods of several miles in extent, the roads covered 
with snow and ice, sideling and slippery. As we 
rode in a one-horse chaise we were often in danger 
of being upset. I was obliged to lead my horse for 
several miles down the mountain, in the most care- 
ful manner, and fatigued we arrived at about ten 
o'clock at a miserable inn and put up. In the morn- 
ing the snow was six inches deep. Rode that day 
to Bethel, on White River, where we found a few 
Christian brethren. On the next day, which was 
the Sabbath, I preached twice in that place. On 
Monday rode to ^^orthlield, where I preached in the 
evening. Here met Elder Patten Davis. On the 
2d of i^ovember we arrived at Calais, Vermont, 
at the house of Oideon Hicks, Esq., brother of 
my wife. " 

In Calais and neighboring towns he spent four 
weeks, and preached as many times as there were 
days. Among other places he preached in the town 
of Stowe, where he found his former friend and 
fellow-laborer in the gospel, Rev. C. W. Martin, 
who had married, and was then settled in that 
town. About the first of December they took leave 
of their friends in Calais and went to Randolph, 
where they were kindly entertained at the house of 
Daniel Parrish, Esq. A few days were spent in 
Randolph and Braintree, where he preached, and 
became acquainted with Elder E. B. Rollins, then 
about to commence the publication gf his periodical 
called the " Bethlehem Star. " Erom Randolph he 


went to Bethel, and there on the first Sabbath in 
December preached to a crowded and solemn assem- 
bly. The next day they rode to Woodstock and 
enjoyed a brief but pleasant visit with Elder Jasper 
Hazen and family. The time was now approaching 
when Elders Morrill and Millard were to meet and 
arrange for their southern tour. Hence, from 
Woodstock Mr. Millard continued his course direct 
to Cumberland, Rhode Island, which he reached 
not far from the middle of the month. ]!^ot meet- 
ing Elder Morrill there he proceeded to his father- 
in-law's at Taunton, Massachusetts, where he 
remained a few days and preached, both during the 
week and on the Sabbath. On the 18th of Decem- 
ber Mr. Morrill arrived at Taunton. The subject 
of these pages, leaving his wife and child at her 
father's, set out immediately in company with Elder 
Morrill for Providence, Rhode Island, and there 
engaged their passage on a packet to I^ew York — 
there being no vessel that Avould sail soon from the 
former place for Virginia. Owing to head-winds 
they remained in port till the 22d, and on that day 
only ran as far as Newport. The wind was still 
ahead, and they were obliged to lay in that port dur- 
ing the next day, which was the Sabbath. There 
were about thirty passengers on board the vessel, 
and prayers had been attended every evening. It 
was now the mind of the captain and passengers to 
have a sermon preached on Sunday in the cabin. 
At eleven o'clock a. m. all were seated in order, 
when Elder Morrill preached a good and instructive 
sermon. In the evening they went on shore and 


Elder Millard preached in a private house whiAi 
was filled to repletion. After meeting, while 
returning to the vessel, the captain, tapping him on 
the shoulder, said, "If I had known you could 
preach in this way, I should have had you preach 
in Providence." 

. They arrived in J^ew York on the 25th of 
December, after having encountered a severe gale 
on Long Island Sound. On the 27th they set sail in 
a packet for J^orfolk, Virginia. They were, how- 
ever, windbound twenty-four hours ofi* Staten 
Island. But five passengers besides themselves were 
on board the vessel. Two of these were officers in 
the navy. The ministers were permitted to attend 
prayers every evening. One of the passengers, a 
merchant residing in I^orfolk, Virginia, was an 
avowed skeptic, and one evening after prayers 
attempted a sally of vulgar wit. But he was soon 
checked by one of the naval ofiicers, who remarked, 
"It always wounds my feelings, sir, to hear religion 
spoken against. If any one doubts its reality, I 
would advise him to go and see a Christian die." 
He then reverted to the death of his grandmother, 
which he had witnessed in his boyhood. In describ- 
ing the scene he was sensibly afiected. Previous to 
her death, she had called him to her bedside and 
said: "George, remember you, too, must die;" as 
he spoke this, his voice choked. At length he said, 
" I remember that scene as well as though it hap- 
pened yesterday, and just how I felt, too, though I 
was then but eight years old. I used then to pray 
God to make me as happy when I died as she was. 


But oh," said he with earnestness, ''what a wicked 
wretch I have been. If I should die before to-mor- 
row morning I should go to perdition. " The skep- 
tic said no more, and the conversation became very 
interesting. The subject of our memoir endeavored 
to press upon the mind of that officer the import- 
ance of his adherino* to earlv instruction in relio:ious 
things, and he had reason to believe, before the con- 
versation closed, that his counsel was notwholl}^ lost. 




On account of calms and head-winds their passage 
to iTorfolk was not as pleasant as it might have 
been. Still they were preserved from any serious 
accident, and on the 3d of January, 1824, entered 
Hampton Eoads. That night they anchored in the 
midst of an American squadron, part of which was 
to sail the next morning for the Pacific Ocean. One 
of the officers w^as a passenger on the same vessel 
with them, and was to go out on a sloop-of-war on 
a cruise of two years. Elders Morrill and Millard 
arrived at ^N'orfolk on the 4th of January, and 
crossing over immediately to Oasport, they were 
kindly received at the house of Mrs. Millar, mother 
of Rev. Nelson Millar, who was then in the midst 
of a useful and promising career. In Mr. Millar 
they found a Christian, a gentleman, and a scholar. 
He was at that time a young man residing with his 
widowed mother. His death, which occurred about 
two years after\yard, was w^idely and sincerely 

The visiting ministers traveled and preached in 
different parts of ]S'orfolk,]^ansemond, South Hamp- 
ton, and Isle of Wight counties, in Virginia, and 


also in Hertford County, in ^N'orth Carolina. Every- 
where they were well received. Their congregations 
were large, the blacks constituting about one-half 
the number. Of general meetings they attended 
one at Smithfield, Isle of Wight County, and one 
at Holy Neck, Xansemond County. At both of 
these much of Divine power was manifested in con- 
victing sinners, many of whom came forward for 
prayers, and some of whom were converted. In 
his journal Mr. Millard says: "We formed an 
endearing acquaintance with hundreds of loving 
brethren, and several preachers, among whom were 
Elders Nelson Millar, Nathaniel P. Tatem, Burwell 
Barrett, Mills Barrett, James Livesay, John Live- 
say, and Francis "Williamson. The Christian breth- 
ren in Virginia and North Carolina separated from 
the Methodists about the year 1790. They associ- 
ated themselves as a body under the name of 'Chris- 
tian,' in 1793, and consequently were the first of the 
connection in the United States. They have since 
spread in nearly all the Southern States, and are 
very similar in doctrine and form of worship to our 
brethren at the North. They received us with 
much frankness, and endeared themselves to our 
lasting memory by their acts of kindness. Indeed, 
kindness to strangers is a peculiar trait in a Vir- 
ginian's character." 

In Isle of Wight County they held a meeting in 
a church -building which was erected in 1626, ten 
years after the settlement of Jamestown. This 
building was a curiosity. It was built of brick and 
contained enough, it was thought, to make four of 


its size. It had been newly roofed several times, 
but was then, though two hundred years old, in 
tolerable repair, and belonged to the "Christians." 
On the 16th of February they took leave of their 
friends in Virginia and set sail in a schooner bound 
for 'New London, Connecticut. On the eve of his 
departure, the subject of these pages composed the 


Farewell to Virginia ! your shores I must leave ; • 

Adieu, with reluctance of heart, 
To friends who so kindly the stranger receive 

That painful he finds it to part. 

Twas duty first called me to visit your shores ; 

In duty I leave them again ; 
And tho' widely between us the raging sea roars 
You still my aflection retain. 

In fond recollection I'll often retrace 

The scenes I have witnessed with you; 
While on mem'ry is painted fall many a face 

With whom I have bid an adieu. 

My message delivered, my work here is done; 

This part of the vineyard I leave; 
At my Master's behest in obedience I run 

That more may salvatiou receive. 

Adieu, my dear brethren, and when far apart 

May our prayers incessant arise, 
And daily ascend from each altar, the heart, 

Like incense to God in the skies. 

That when these frail forms back to dust shall descend, 

And the days of our conflict be o'er ; 
Where brothers meet brothers, and friends embrace friends, 

We'll there meet to part never more. 


During nearly the whole of their passage to New 
London the wind blew a gale, and they were much 
distressed with seasickness. "But from the deck 
of the vessel," said Mr. Millard, "I often gazed 
with admiration on the grandeur of the ocean. To 
see mountains of water and to be in the midst of 
them is to behold sublimity in a form not easily 
described." The passage from Norfolk to New 
London was made in three ilays, which was then 
considered a remarkably quick one. On the day 
following their arrival at the latter place, they took 
the stage for Providence, Ehode Island, which place 
they reached the next day about noon. Here Mr. 
Millard parted with Elder Morrill; the latter going 
direct to Cumberland, the former going to Taunton, 
where he arrived the same evening. 

On the week following his arrival at Taunton, he 
rode to Boston in his own carriage, his wife accom- 
panying him, where he preached on the evening of 
his arrival to a very large congregation. The next 
evening he preached at Salem, and stopped with 
Rev. Abner Jones, who was then living there. This 
was his first acquaintance with that pioneer of the 
"Christian" cause in New England. From Salem 
he proceeded to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, pass- 
ing through Kensington and Stratham, and stopping 
at the former place with the father of Elder Shaw, and 
at the latter with the Eev. Noah Piper. Before reach- 
ing Portsmouth, he learned that a kind of "zeal 
without knowledge" had crept into the church, and 
almost regretted that he had engaged to visit the 
place. On the evening of his arrival, which was 


Saturday, he attended a prayer-meeting in the ves- 
try of the Christian church, and soon discovered 
that some were influenced by an enthusiastic spirit, 
the eflfect of which produced death to his feelings. 
They claimed a superior degree of holiness, and 
were disposed to pronounce all who did not enter 
into their measures, or at least sanction them, back- 
sliders and hypocrites. They however constituted 
only a small part of the 'members while a few 
individuals who were not members were in sympa- 
thy with them. The subject of this memoir had 
no faith in such manifestations. To him their bois- 
terous language seemed to have neither the " certain 
sound" nor the meek spirit of Christ in it. Said 
he : "I have seen in several places a species of this 
same spirit, but never have felt to approbate it. It 
is a loMrlwind and thunder-storm — the Lord is not 
in it. This spirit is in itself intolerant, dealing 
abuse on all who will not imbibe it. It is in my 
judgment a scourge to any church where it is 
admitted. I believe much in the feeling part of 
religion, and am far from advocating a system of 
dead formality ; but I have sufficientlj^ seen the fruits 
of ivild enthusiasm to oppose it in the spirit .of meek- 
ness wherever I meet it. I found a part of the 
church in Portsmouth were sadly tried with these 
things. I rejoiced afterward to learn that the 
church had been delivered from these difficulties. " 
On the Sabbath he preached twice to large con- 
gregations, and with much freedom. In the even- 
ing the meeting was considerably disturbed by one 
of these enthusiasts above mentioned. But on the 


whole his visit to Portsmouth was interesting to him^ 
and withal, it is helieved, profitable to the cause. 

On Monday evening he preached in Stratham at 
the house of Elder Piper. On Tuesday he rode to 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, and preached there in 
the evening. This w^as a meeting of unusual 
solemnity. Previous to retiring for the night, he 
was sent for to visit another house and pray with 
several who were in distress of mind. Rev. Henry 
Plummer accompanied him, and two souls were 
made happy by this visit. From Haverhill he 
returned to Taunton, remaining one evening in Bos- 
ton and preaching there. 

The next day after his arrival in Taunton, he 
went to Assonet and preached in the evening. On 
the next eve'ning he preached at the house of Elder 
Daniel Hix,in Dartmouth, and on the day following, 
which was Sunday, in the Christian church, in the 
same town. ''Old Elder Hix," he says, '• appeared 
to me like an old patriarch. " Sabbath evening he 
preached to a crowded assembly in the Christian 
church in ^ew Bedford, there then being but one 
in the place, liev. Moses How w^as at that time 
preaching there, and by him the subject of these 
pages was very cordially received. He also formed 
an agreeable acquaintance with Pev. Harvey Sul- 
lings, who was a resident of the place. During the 
week he preached at several places in the vicinity, 
and on the Sabbath following preached three times 
in iTew Bedford to large congregations, and with 
much freedom. '' I received," he says, " a liberality 
from the congregation there that I have ever 


held in grateful remembrance." Subsequently, he 
extended bis visits into Fairhaven, Mattapoisett, 
and Steepbrook, preaching in each of those places 
with earnestness and power. The remainder of the 
week and the following Sabbath were spent in 
Taunton, where he preached several times. 

It was now drawing toward the close of March, 
and the time had come when he must return to the 
State of New York. Pi^eparations were soon made, 
and in a chaise with wife and child the long journey 
was commenced. On the way he called on Rev. 
Elias Sharp in Hampton, Connecticut, and preached 
twice in that vicinity. Passing through Hartford 
they entered the Empire State at North East, in 
Dutchess County. Arriving at a small village in the 
vicinity just as the sun was setting, he made inquiries 
for Rev. John L. Peavey, of Milan. In the con- 
versation the people learned that Mr. Millard was 
a minister, and he was invited to remain over night 
and preach in the place. Certain ones, however, 
learning what he called himself, endeavored to shut 
him out of any convenient place to hold a meeting. 
But in this they were not successful. "A mer- 
chant," says Mr. Millard, "who did not profess 
religion, feeling disgusted at such conduct toward 
a stranger, requested to have the meeting appointed 
at his house. The singular circumstance of a meet- 
ing being appointed there drew out a crowded 
assembly. I do not recollect in all my life of enjoy- 
ing more liberty in speaking, nor did I scarcely 
ever witness a more weeping congregation. Many 
in tears plead with me to stay and preach to them 


again, among whom vras tlie merchant himself, who 
appeared deeply concerned for his soul. I learned 
afterward that this meeting was the means of his 
conversion. So much for his liberality in opening 
his house for a stranger to preach. My time in con- 
sequence of appointments sent forward was limited, 
and I knew not how to stop longer; but I never 
left a strange place more reluctantly." 

The next day they rode to Eock City, in Milan 
township, w^here the subject of our sketch met his 
old companion in gospel labor — Elder John L. Pea- 
vey. He spent the Sabbath and preached in this 
town. From thence they took the most direct 
course to Ballston, w^here they arrived on the fol- 
lowing Thursday. Here they remained over the 
next Sabbath, w^hich was the first of April, when 
he preached once more to his old friends and asso- 
ciates near his native place. They now pursued 
their journey homeward as rapidly as they could, 
and reached EastBloomfield the next Saturday even- 
ing. On Sunday morning he rode to West Bloom- 
field, and arrived in time to preach at the usual 
hour of morning service. He had been absent 
from his congregation just six months to a day. 
His journey had been long, fatiguing, and full of 
incidents; but no fatal accidents had befallen him. 
The Lord had kindly preserved and blessed him, 
and now^, with a heart overflowing with gratitude, 
he stands before the people he so dearly loves. In 
his journal he w^rites : "We found our little daugh- 
ter w^ell, though death had taken away a few dear 
friends. I believe my brethren were rejoiced at my 


return, nor did I feel less thankful to find myself 
once more among a people as dear to me as any on 

During the pastor's absence the church had 
passed through some trials ; but the members had 
generally maintained their standing, and were in 
excellentr spirits. They had been favored with but 
little preaching, but continued to hold their meet- 
ings regularly, and now that their pastor had 
returned, were prepared to enter heartily into the 
work with him. He commenced to labor with 
much earnestness, and soon there were unmistakable 
indications of a revival. In a short time the work 
broke out, and a revival interest was awakened 
which continued with the best results for more than 
a year. Some months later he published accounts 
of this very interesting work of grace, from which 
we make the following extracts : 

"In this town," he writes, "we have recently 
experienced a ' time of refreshing from the presence 
of the Lord;' nor has the cloud of mercy left ns 
jet. * ri^ ^ For about one year previous to the late 
revival we witnessed a cold season and some declen- 
sion in the church. Concluding that my labors for 
a few months might be more profitable in other 
places, I left my home in October, 1823, and was 
absent just six months. During this time I trav- 
eled in eight of the United States, by land and 
water, more than four thousand miles, and preached 
on an average about once a day. 

"Just before my return God was pleased very 
suddenly to remove Mrs. Clarissa Peck, one of our 


devoted sisters, to a world of spirits. Her sudden 
death was blest to the awakening and conversion 
of two of her children. On my return I found 
these with one more under deep awakening, while 
at the same time an uncommon spirit of prayer was 
manifest among the brethren. Our meetings imme- 
diately became frequent. The first who experienced 
a change of heart was a youth, who was soon fol- 
lowed by another and another. The work spread 
with power among the younger class ; nor were 
those of more advanced years passed by. 

" On Sabbath (May 2d) I baptized six. Our 
meetings now were not only frequent but crowded, 
and sometimes from fifteen to twenty in distress of 
soul would arise in one meeting to request prayers. 
There were instances where a number of the youth, 
who had lately found relief, would accompany their 
mates on their way from the meetings, encouraging 
those in distress of mind to continue seeking, and 
others to set out, and before parting kneel with the 
whole by the wayside and pray. 

" On Sabbath (June 6th) I baptized sixteen. A vast 
crowd gathered at the water's side. The candidates 
walked a distance to the water, singing a hymn, 
commencing thus: 

" 'Humble souls who seek salvation 

Through the Lamb's redeemiug blood, 
Hear the voice of revelation : 
Tread the path that Jesus trod. ' 

" This was a season never to be forgotten. ]^^ever, 
while my soul lingers on the shores of mortality, 
do I expect to enjoy more of heaven than I did then. 


" The precious work has been gradually progress- 
ing since April last (1824), even till the present 
time (January, 1825); nor do I think it has yet come 
to a close. * ^^ * Since the commencement of the 
work forty have united with the church under my 
pastoral care, and fifteen with the Baptist Church. 
Several others have hopefully experienced a gra- 
cious change, hut have not yet come forward in 
church ordinances. The work has been very free 
from enthusiasm, and the experiences of converts 
generally clear and confirming. But by their fruits 
they are to be known. God grant they adorn their 
profession through life, finish their course with joy, 
and shine as stars forever. " 

In the month of June, 1824, the annual confer- 
ence met in the town of Lima. Here many inter- 
esting subjects were discussed; that of establishing 
a new monthly periodical elicited especial interest. 
It was finally decided that such a periodical was 
called for, and that a. paper to be called "The Gos- 
pel Luminary" should be published in that part of 
the country. Elder D. Millard was chosen editor. 
He did not, however, commence the work immedi- 
ately, but concluded to defer its publication till the 
beginning of the new year. 

In the month of July he took a journey into the 
State of Pennsylvania, and attended a general meet- 
ing in Columbia, Bradford County, in that state. 
In that vicinity John Hollister, an unordained min- 
ister, had been preaching with success for several 
months. He was ordained at this general meeting, 
Mr. Millard assisting in the service. After this 


meeting, the subject of these pages, in company 
with Elders R. Farley and J. HoUister, Avent to 
Lewisburg where, on the following Saturday and 
Sabbath, they attended another general meeting. 
Both these meetings were deeply interesting, and 
the Divine blessing was upon them. After an 
absence of about twenty days, he returned to his 
home and to the church of his charge. Soon after, 
in addition to his home labors. Elder Badger having 
taken leave of absence for some months, Mr. Mil- 
lard commenced preaching once a month in West 
Mendon,^ew York. He continued to preach there 
once in four weeks for a period of nine months. 
During the time considerable religious interest was 
awakened, and he had the pleasure of baptizing 
about thirty persons. 

On the first of January, 1825, he issued the first 
number of "The Gospel Luminary," with seven 
hundred subscribers. During the year the list was 
considerably augmented. Though this monthly 
was quite inferior in size to the religious publica- 
tions of the present day, it was certainly an inter- 
esting and spicy paper, and still has some historical 
value. He had associated with him as an editorial 
council sucli men as Joseph Badger, Elijah Shaw, 
O. E. Morrill, Oliver True, and Joseph Bailey — 
strong men and good advisers, all of them. 

On assuming the editorial chair, after referring in 
earnest and impressive terms to the progress which 
liad been made both in the civil and religious world, 
he says : "But notwithstanding the much done and 
doing^ much remains to be accomplished. The 


enemies of the cross are not all vanquished, nor is 
every obstacle removed out of the way. To the 
sincere patrons of Christian liberty, it is a matter 
of deep regret that so great proportion of exertions 
at the present day is for the support of religious 
party. True, ivith God 'there is no respect of per- 
sons, but in every nation he that feareth him and 
worketh righteousness, is accepted with him. ' But 
with men this is not sufficient to entitle to that fel- 
lowship and brotherly love which Christian should 
feel for Christian. The hateful spirit of religious 
rancor still infests the church. For a man to 
think for himself, is by many deemed a great crime, 
provided his sentiments exceed the narrow bounds 
of bigotry, and cross the track of such as would 
wish to crush every vestige of religious toleration. 
We are far from saying it matters not what a man 
believes; but we do affirm, without any equivoca- 
tion or mental reservation, that it is far more 
important what a man is in life and conversation, 
than what are his peculiar views in theology. Let 
us see the zeal of professed Christians turned against 
Sill unrighteousness ; let it be exerted against 5m in 
every shape; let it be employed for the transfusion 
of the pure principles of Christianity, the basis of 
which is love, and we will heartily bid them God 
speed, assuring them that if diligent in their call- 
ing they will hnd no time to fall out with each other 
by the way. To a spirit of sectarian intolerance 
the Luminary will ever stand opposed. We con- 
tend that the test of Christian fellowship is pure 
religion, and not the externals of it. As every 


Christian is a child of God and an heir of life, the 
test of our fellowship on earth ought not to be 
predicated on stricter principles than our title to 
the joys of heaven. That polemical sentiments 
may be canvassed to mutual benefit, and that relig- 
ious inquiry is consistent with duty, we most cor- 
dially admit. But let such examinations and 
inquiries be seasoned with the temper of Christ; 
let them breathe the pure spirit of forbearance and 
love. In short, let us in these days ^do unto others 
as we would that others should do unto us,' and we 
shall soon see mountains which now exist between 
Christians sink into 7nole-hiUs. 

"It will doubtless be our duty, in pursuing the 
arduous task assigned us, at times to dip into con- 
troverted subjects ; but we hope to do it in the spirit 
of meekness. Should the Luminary, in dissemi- 
nating its light, expose the weakness and deficiency 
of human fabrics connected with religion ; should 
it exhibit to the inquiring traveler the old j^ciths,' 
we hope its humble light will not be rejected. That 
it may invigorate the j^lcoits of Zion and cheer the 
hearts of many thousands by the joyful tidings it 
may bring, shall be the chief object of our unwearied 
exertions. " 




Though considerable time was devoted to editorial 
work, and the paper evinced a good degree of care 
and ability in its preparation and contents, yet the 
revival which was still in progress in the church 
of his charge, and continued till late in the spring, 
must have drawn largely upon his strength and 
zeal. In the February number of the Luminary 
he says: "In this town the work of G-od still pro- 
gresses gloriousl}^ Of late it has spread into the 
southwest part of the town, and some in Lima. It 
is believed there are but few so hardened or blinded, 
could they but witness the displays of mercy on the 
people in that neighborhood, that could question , 
the hand of God in the work of reformation. " In 
the March number he adds : "I am happy to state 
that the precious work still continues, though to 
appearance not as powerful as it has been. It has 
been a gradual scene of reformation with us ever 
since April last. Brother Asa Chapin, formerly of 
Gilsum, 'New Hampshire, is in this part of the vine- 
3^ard laboring, and is well received. Such a season 
of extensive and powerful revivals was probably 
never known in this part of the country since its 


settlement. " In the May number he gives the fol- 
lowing summary of results: "Some over one hun- 
dred have hopefully become subjects of redeeming 
grace. Of the fruits eighty have united with the 
people called Christians, and twenty -five with the 
Baptists. Several have not yet come forward m 
church ordinances, and the work appears to be 
drawing to a close. " 

The meetings thus far, since he began to preach 
in "West Bloomiield, had been held chiefly in school- 
houses ; but following so extensive and interesting 
a work, we are not surprised to read soon after; 
"The Christian brethren are erecting a commodious 
meeting-house in this town. " A deep interest was 
felt in the success of this enterprise. The work 
was prosecuted with energy, and was carried for- 
ward to completion, the pastor himself giving a 
strong impulse to the movement. 

In the summer of 1825, Elders Millard and Bad- 
ger made a tour among the churches in what was 
then called Upper Canada, now the Province ot 
Ontario. They sailed from the mouth of the 
Niagara River, having previously visited some of 
the churches in western ^""ew York, on Thursday, 
July 28th, and in five hours and a half landed at 
York, til en the capital of the province. In a pub- 
lished letter he says: "At York we met Elder John 
Blodgett, who was waiting our arrival with a car- 
riage to convey us to the town of Whit Church, 
thirty miles north of the former place. We rode 
that evening sixteen miles to the town of Markham. 
Here resides Sister Mary Stodgill, formerly of Green- 


ville, 'New York. She is about the first of the 
Christian connection who came to Upper Canada 
to live. A letter from her published in the Chris- 
tian Herald in 1821, was instrumental of lirst call- 
ing Christian laborers into that part of the vine- 
yard; and oh, what precious results have since fol- 
lowed! Doubtless many souls in glory will rejoice 
that a letter from the king's dominion summoned 
those despised, persecuted laborers to come and 
faithfully dispense the word of life in Upper Canada." 
As a fitting tribute both to Mary Stodgill and the 
subject of these pages, we will here insert the fol- 
lowing from the pen of Kev. J.Blackmar, entitled: 


"Elder David Millard visited Freehold, New York, the 
village of my home, iu 1817. He wiis young, active, hum- 
ble, filled with the spirit of his divine calling, preached 
Christ, not himself, labored with many tears to enlighten his 
numerous hearers, urged the absolute necessity of the new 
birth, and exhibited proof that he felt as did one of old who 
said, 'Give me children, or I die.' His prayers, t^ars, 
preacliiug, yea, his life prevailed, and children unto liini were 
born, among whom was jNIrs. Mary Stodgill, who, with her 
husband, moved into Canada, a few miles north of Toronto. 
Denominationally standing alone, she not only struggled in 
prayer to God, but expressed by letters mailed to the village 
of her second birth, her ceaseless wish that some Christian 
minister might be directed to Canada to preach a free, a lib- 
eral, an unsectarian gospel, in her house, and in towns 
round about, that there might be raised up some who could 
sympathize with her in opposing sectarian creeds and names, 
and in contending for the Bible as the only rule of faith and 
practice for Christ's disciples, and the name Christian as the 
only name by which they should be designated. She lived 
to welcome about a dozen ministers to her hospitable home, 


who were in her day instrumental in organizing several 
Christian churches. 

''In 1871, when Brother Goff and I, after a lapse of forty- 
four years, returned to attend the jubilee, the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the first Christian church tliere, we found, not 
Mary, for she had gone tojier reward, but that about thirty 
churches had been organized, and that twenty-three meet- 
ing-houses had been built for their accommodation. All 
these members, except those who joined by letter, were born 
again directly or indirectly, by the faithful labors of Sister 
Mary Stodgill, who was Brother Millard's daughter in the gos- 
pel. Hence she and all her spiritual descendants will help to 
increase the number, who, as stars, will make brilliant the 
crown of our highly-esteemed and dearly beloved Brother 
David Millard. " 

'•On Satarclay the SOtli," writes Mr, Millard, 
'*vre met a full congregation convened in a grove 
in Whit Church, in conformity to a notice of a gen- 
eral meeting. The meeting continued two days. 
The ministers present were John Blodgett, John T. 
Bailey, Thomas Mclnty re, Joseph Blackmar, Joseph 
Badger, and David Millard. The season was sol- 
emn, and we have reason to believe is not soon to 
be forgotten. On Monday, August 1st, a number of 
brethren accompanied us to the north line of Mark- 
ham, where we met a solemn assembly on the fol- 
lowing day, to wbom three sermons were delivered. 
A church of Christian brethren is organized here, 
with, whom our parting was solemn and interesting. 
On the following day we spoke twice to a large 
assembly in the south part of the same town, where 
we found a living company of free disciples who 
have some opposition to encounter. The next day 
we preached twice to a crowded assembly in Pick- 


ering, and took our leave of many loving brethren 
and affectionate friends. After this meeting, on 
the same evening, we rode twenty miles on our 
return homeward. Brothers Blodgett, Bailey, and 
Blackmar accompanied us as far as York on the 
following day, where we took our leave of them and 
crossed the lake. 

"Our visit in Upper Canada," he concludes, 
"though short, was highly satisfactory. ^ -^^ ^ Elders 
Blodgett and Bailey are laboring successfully in 
that region, and also Brothers Mclntyre and Black- 
mar; but they are unable to attend even one-half 
of the calls. In this field the preaching of Elder 
Asa C.Morrison will be held in lasting remembrance. 
His faithful and indefatigable labors have endeared 
him to hundreds." 

At the mouth of !^iagara Kiver they were met 
by a warm friend and Christian brother, Stephen 
Bugbee, of Royalton, 'New York, who conveyed 
them by carriage to that place, where they arrived 
the next day, August 6th. Here they attended a 
fellowship meeting on the afternoon of the same 
day, and heard testimonies from about sixty believ- 
ers in Christ. On the next morning, which was the 
Sabbath, they met at nine o'clock on the banks of 
the Erie Canal, and after appropriate services Elder 
Badger baptized eight happy converts. They then 
repaired to the church, and the subject of this 
memoir preached to a large congregation with much 
effect, after which the Lord's Supper w^as adminis- 
tered. Erom Royalton they were conveyed by 
packet to Rochester, a distance of sixty miles in 


seventeen hours, and this in those days was not con- 
sidered slow. 

From Rochester Mr. Millard returned to "West 
Bloomfield, and through succeeding months gave 
unremitting attention both to his pastoral work and 
to the supervision of the Luminary. On the 8th of 
December the new church-building was dedicated. 
An appropriate sermon was preached by Eev. Reu- 
ben Farley, founded on I. Kings VIII. 29: "My name 
shall be there." The following hymn sung at the 
opening of the Christian church in West Bloom- 
field, !N'ew York, was composed by the subject of 
these pages. 

O Thou, who reign'st enthroDed in light, 

Whom heavenly hosts obey ; 
Creation owns thy boundless might ; 
Thou rul'st with potent sway. 

While Nature chants her builder's fame 

In songs of sacred praise, 
Within these walls, O God, thy name 

We sing in joyful lays. 

This house we dedicate to thee ; 

Here shall thy praise be sung ; 
Here may thy saints in unity 

Employ the tuneful tongue. 

Let bigotry and party zeal 

Be banished from the place ; 
Let Christians here for Christians feel 

Love boundless as thy grace. 

Here may thy sacred word be taught, 

Our only rule obey'd ; 
Here by almighty power wrought, 

Be wondrous grace displayed. 


Humbled beneath thy wondrous power 

We at thy footstool fall; 
Thine be this consecrated hour ; 

Thine be our lives, our all. 

The Gospel Luminary was still issued regularly 
once a month, and had slowly but steadily increased 
its circulation, thus meeting in a satisfactory man- 
ner the demand w^hich called it into existence. 
Though small in size, each number contained a 
variety of entertaining and instructive reading, 
while the editorials w^ere positive, pointed, and 

At the close of the first volume, he says : " In the 
discharge of our no small task we have not expected 
to please every one, neither have w^e sought the 
honor of mortals. We possess one consolation 
worth more to us than meeds of praise, which is 
the consciousness of having done our duty. We 
shall still pursue the same course, and shall hope to 
make truth our jpolar star. Should any one be 
inclined to think we have been too caustical, we 
have barely to state that it is the disease, and not 
the patient, we are at war with. ' Facts are stubborn 
things,' and nothing comes nearer home than truth. 
The guilty dread the tribunal of -justice, but the 
righteous fear it not through a good conscience." 

In January, 1826, the first number of the second 
volume of the Luminary was published. In this 
it was announced that the price would be one dol- 
lar a year, payable in advance. The terms had 
previously been one dollar and a quarter, payable 
at the close of the volume. This change no doubt 


was occasioned tbroiigli the slackness of some in 
paying their subscriptions, for in the same number 
he says: "We depend on punctual pay from our 
subscribers for support of the work. As we wholl^^ 
disclaim slackness in business and contracts, we 
intend to pay our printer and paper-maker 'punctu- 
ally, and we do not desire the patronage of any but 
such as intend to pay us ^punctually also." 

As we have already remarked, Mr. Millard 
wielded a more than ordinary sharp pen ; and as he 
was quite decided in his convictions, and very posi- 
tive in his statements of doctrine, he not unfre- 
quently aroused the spirit of opposition in those 
who chose to diiier from him. Among the views 
which he considered not only erroneous but harm- 
ful, and against which he felt called upon to lift up 
his voice, was the doctrine of Universalism as it was 
then taught. Against the doctrine of the uncondi- 
tional salvation of all men he took the most open 
and decided ground. 

As a result, in the summer of 1826 he was chal- 
leno-ed to meet one of the advocates of that doc- 
trine, and each to preach a sermon on the subject 
of a future judgment and future punishment. He 
Felt compelled to accept the challenge or rest under 
the charge of cowardice. Therefore, though with 
reluctance, he chose the former alternative. It was 
arranged that the sermons should be preached in 
the Christian church in West Bloomtield, Septem- 
ber 27th, 1826. We have no fall account of this 
discussion. But it was a matter of conversation 
and comment in the community for years afterward. 


Eev. Mr. Reese, a minister of ability and culture, 
was to represent and advocate the views to which 
Mr. Millard stood opposed. He preached the first 
sermon, in which, he endeavored to show that the 
-doctrine of a general judgment, as well as all future 
punishment for the sinner, was unfounded in truth 
and unsupported by Scripture. He preached nearly 
two hours, and his sermon, it would seem, was 
ingenious and interesting. He was followed by 
the subject of this memoir in a sermon of close 
argument and great power, occupjang two hours 
:and a half in its delivery. Whatever differences of 
opinion may have been held in reference to the argu- 
ment of each, it is quite certain that the advocates 
of the views of Mr. Reese gained no accessions in 
that community by the discussion. In commenting 
upon it Mr. Millard says: "Although I felt no 
hardness against IJniversalists, yet I treated their 
doctrine in a plain, independent manner. I have 
ever viewed it a dangerous system, not calculated 
to naake its votaries any better. " He afterward 
published in the Gospel Luminary a series of letters 
-addressed to Kev. Mr. lleese, in which the doctrine 
was further examined, but these elicited no reply. 

His duties as pastor of the church in West Bloom- 
^eld were still the first to command his attention, 
and he preached regularly to his congregation in 
that place. But besides attending to these duties, 
and those incident to his position as editor, he also 
found time occasionally to preach in neighboring 
towns, and now and then to attend a general meet- 
ing. On the second and third days of September, 


of this year, he attended a general meeting at 
Arcadia, ^ew York, and in connection with other 
ministers, preached in a grove to a very large and 
appreciative congregation. At this meeting Elder 
John Case was ordained to the work of the minis- 
try; Oliver True, Benjamin Farley, Elijah Shaw,. 
and David Millard officiating. In the winter previous- 
he preached the sermon at the dedication of a meet- 
ing-house in the town of Mendon, founded on Psalm 
cxxvii. 1: "Except the Lord huild the house they 
labor in vain that build it." It was a sermon 
deemed peculiarly appropriate for the occasion. 

In January, 1827, the third volume of the Gospel 
Luminary was issued from the press. Though some- 
had criticised the editor's sharp manner of dealing- 
with controverted subjects, the paper had steadily 
grown in favor, and was still considered an able and 
fearless exponent of the sentiments of the Chris- 
tians, as well as a valuable medium of religious- 
communication and intelligence. We will close 
this chapter by quoting the following editorial in 
the Ma}^ number of this year: 


'*We can not but view with some degree of surprise, as^ 
well as disgust, the eflbrts of some to fix upon us a different 
name than that which we assume. At the first rise of our 
connection in America, the name Christian was taken to the 
exclusion of all party names set up among different bodies 
of professors. This name^ however, was not assumed as 
being appelative to us only, but because we thought it name 
enough, and, to say the least, the most proper name by 
which the followers of Christ could be designated. Different 
sectarian names are by us viewed as injurious to the cause of 


Christianity, and a departure from the original rule. They 
foster pride, covet popularity, and draw division lines never 
instituted by the great Head of the church. At some future 
day they must be laid aside. Under the name Christian 
and no other all the followers of Christ will become united. 
''The principal bodies professing Christianity are looking 
forward to a future day termed the millennium, in which all 
Christians will be of one heart and one mind, and see eye to 
eye. They are earnestly praying the Lord to hasten on the 
day ; but we ask, Are they in every respect laboring to forward 
what they are praying for, while they still hold up party 
badges ? When that happy period arrives in which all shall 
know the Lord from the least to the greatest, will it not be 
enough to be known as Christians, without any distinctive 
titles or appellations? All say, yes. We would then ask. Is 
it not our duty immediately to divest ourselves of every 
known thing which in the least prevents the ushering in of 
that happy day ? 

" We not only think the name Christian the proper appel- 
lation for the followers of Christ to assume, but we also con- 
sider it a name first given by Divine appointment. Some 
suppose it was first given the disciples by their enemies out 
of reproach, but this is a mistake. Dr. Doddridge, as well 
as other eminent linguists, has very justly rendered the pas- 
sage in Acts XI. 26, thus: 'And the disciples were called 
Christians by Divine appointment at Antioch.' Isaiah 
prophesied, ^The gentiles shall see thy righteousness, all Mngs 
thy glory y and thou shall be called by a new name which the 
mouth of the Lord shall name. ' Again, ' The Lord shall call 
his servants by another name.' James says, 'Do they not 
blaspheme the name by which ye are called?' And Peter 
says, 'If any man suffer as a Christian, let him rejoice.' By 
these passages, and more which might be quoted, it is evi- 
dent that the name Christian was not by the disciples con- 
sidered a title of reproach, but a name given to them by 
Divine appointment, of which they ought not to be ashamed. 
" ' I'm not ashamed his name to bear 

With those who his disciples were ; 

Christian ! sweet name ! its worth I view ; 

Oh, may I wear the nature, too. ' 


"Many of our opposers endeavor to distort this name 
when appHed to us by a most barbarous mode of pronunci- 
ation, and in some instances of spelling. * * * Such attempts 
we consider pitiable. We simply call ourselves Christians^ 
without murdering the rules of orthography^ by outlandish 
pronunciation. " 




Ill September of this year (1827) the General 
Christian Conference, composed of delegates from 
different local conferences, convened in West Bloom- 
field. Messengers from seven conferences appeared 
and took their seats. Other conferences were rep- 
resented by letter. Eev. Harvey Sailings, of Massa- 
chusetts, was chosen president, and David Millard 
clerk of the session. Considerable important busi- 
ness was transacted, an account of which does not 
properly belong to these pages. But among other 
things it was voted "that we approbate Elders 
David Millard and Simchi Clough to change the 
form of the Gospel Luminary, after the expiration 
of the present volume, and publish it in the city of 
"New York, in semi-monthly numbers." 

In the minutes of the l^ew York Western Con- 
ference, held this same year, we find the following 
statement: "Accepted the report of the editorial 
council relative to the character of the Luminary, 
and approve of it generally. Reappointed David 
Millard to the office of editor. " This was in June 
before the meeting of the General Conference, the 
action of the latter body superceding that of the 


former. Hence, at the close of the third volume 
the city of xTew York became the place of its pub- 
lication. In the closing number of this volume, the 
editor says: "As the Luminary will in future be 
published by direction of the General Conference, 
it is intended as a general medium of correspond- 
ence throuorhout the Christian connection." 

About the first of January, 1828, Mr. Millard 
went to Xew York and spent several weeks in 
arranging for the first volume of the new series. 
The management was left in charge of Elder Clough, 
though the former editor was to continue his con- 
tributions, which he could do from his home. 

In returning to West Bloomfield, he spent some 
days !n "Westchester and Dutchess counties, and 
preached in several places. At Rhinebeck he took 
a steamboat to Albany, and from thence returned 
home by stage, arriving there in the latter part of 
March. The next day after his return his youngest 
daughtei', an infant of four months, was taken away 
by death. 

''As the sweet flower that scents the morn 
But withers in the rising day, 
Thus lovely was this infant's dawn, 
Thus swiftly sped its life away. " 

Following his return, there was some revival 
interest awakened in his congregation. This, 
however, was soon checked by sectarian opposi- 
tion, and thus a good work was stopped through 
party strife. During this spring he preached sev- 
eral times in East Mendon, and baptized fifteen con- 
verts. These with others he organized into a church, 


which afterward became a part of the church in 
West MendoD, now Honeoye Falls. 

The subject of these pages possessed a vigorous 
constitution, and had generally been blessed with 
excellent health; but in the summer of this year 
he was taken very sick, and was brought to the 
verge of the grave. It was hardly thought possible 
that he should recover. '' But, " he writes, " if I ever 
knew what it was to be completely resigned to the 
will of Grod, it was then. My mind was calm; and 
such was the state of my feelings that at times I 
would not have turned my hand over to either live 
or die. " It was the Father's good will that he 
should recover. But how full ol vicissitude is this 
changing life of ours. In the following gfutumn 
the house in which he lived being unsuited to the 
wants and comfort of his family, he commenced to 
build a new one. Before cold weather fairly set in, 
the new building was inclosed, and the joiners 
were engaged finishing the inside during the win- 
ter. On the morning of the 9th of February, 1829, 
they kindled a fire and left the house for a short 
time to grind tools. Before they returned, by some 
means the iire got among the shavings, and in a few 
minutes the whole was in a blaze. The new house 
was only a few feet from the old one, so that in 
twenty minutes both buildings were wrapped in 
flames. But a short time remained to save all 
that was rescued from the devouring element. This 
was on Monday morning. The evening before Mr. 
Millard preached some miles from home, and 
remained over night. Returning in the moaning 


he knew nothing of his misfortune till he came in 
sight of the smoking ruins. Then his feelings over- 
whelmed him, for he knew not but that his family 
had perished. 

To his great joy, however, he found that his fam- 
ily was alive, that his friends had procured a house 
for them, and that they were even then loading up 
the remnant of his effects to convey them thither. 
In this time of calamity he discovered that he had 
a multitude of friends, and was overwhelmed with 
their benevolence. "Xever," sa^^s he, "shall I for- 
get the kindness of the people among whom I lived. 
I Avas assisted to build another house in the spring, 
and was enabled to move into it in July." 

. In May, 1829, in company with Rev. J. Badger, 
he attended the New York Eastern Conference, 
which was held at Gal way. Previous to this con- 
ference, on the first Sabbath of the month, they 
attended a general meeting at the Christian church 
at Ballston. Here the subject of our memoir first 
formed an acquaintance with Elders Kinkade and 
AVilliamLane. An interesting and profitable meet- 
ing was enjoyed. The session of conference was 
not altogether harmonious. Elder Elias Smith, 
whose vascillating course has been the cause of 
much comment, had about two years previous 
renounced Universalism, and in the city of Boston 
commenced preaching the doctrine of the Chris- 
tians, of which doctrine he was one of the ear- 
liest advocates. The Boston church could not fel- 
lowship Mr. Smith, and would not open their 
house of worship for him to preach. In conse- 


quence of this he succeeded in making a division 
in the church in that city, and drawing off' a party 
set up an opposition meeting. His course had been 
severely criticised by the editors of the Gospel 
Luminary, and they (Mr. Millard being one) had 
made some pointed strictures on his character. On 
account of Mr. Smith's former usefulness, many of 
his old friends seemed disposed rather to sustain 
liini without that humble repentance and reforma- 
tion wdiich most of those acquainted with the cir- 
cumstances thought he owed his former brethren 
and the public. The subject had been carried into 
several local conferences, and was finally brought 
into this. Some took high ground in his favor, and 
though certainly misguided w^ere probably honest. 
The controversy came near producing a serious 
division; but as Smith soon resumed his relations 
with the Universalist denomination, this put an 
end to it. 

In August of this year, ^N^athaniel Millard, father 
of the subject of this memoir, terminated his life 
by means of a fall from a load of hay. He lived 
but thirteen hours after the accident occurred. In 
September, Elder Millard on going east visited a few 
days in his native place. '^I found," he says, "no 
father to welcome me as before, but found my aged 
mother in lonely widowhood. " While there he 
preached; but his visit was one of peculiar sadness. 
From Ballston he w^ent to the city of E'ew York to 
attend another session of the General Conference. 
He reached the city on Saturday morning, and as a 
general meeting w^as to commence that day at Camp- 


town (nowlrvington), in I^ew Jerse}^, and there was 
a prospect of but few ministers attending it, Rev. J. 
Y. Himes and he took passage on a steamboat to 
j^ewark, whence they were conveyed by carriage to 
the place of meeting. Besides Elders Himes and 
Millard, there were present at this religious gather- 
ing Elders Kinkade, Thompson, and Lane. The 
meeting, though interesting and impressive, was 
attended with no special results. On Monday the 
brethren named returned to I^ew York, and were 
present at the opening of the General Conference. 
Over this body Elder Millard was called to preside. 
The session continued three days, and a good degree 
of harmony prevailed. Much business was trans- 
acted which was deemed of importance^ an account 
of which would be of no special interest to the reader 
of these pages. 

On Friday following the conference, in company 
with Elders Kinkade and Burlingame, he took a 
steamboat for Providence, Rhode Island, where they 
arrived next day. Mr. Burlingame returning to 
his home in Coventry, Elders Millard and Kinkade 
remained over the Sabbath in Providence, and 
preached in the Ereewill Baptist church. They vis- 
ited several other places in the vicinity, and after 
preaching a number of times in Rhode Island, Mr 
Millard left Elder Kinkade in Coventry and took 
the stage from Providence to Boston, where he 
spent the next Sabbath and preached. During the 
following week he preached several sermons in Bos- 
ton, and attended the ordination of Brother Knight 
in Beverly, preaching the sermon on that occasion. 


Visiting SaJem, he preached one discourse in that 
city. On his return to Boston he found Elder Kin- 
kade there. The next Sabbath tliey both preached 
in that city. This was a day of much interest. 
Immediately following this meeting, the church 
being destitute of a stated supply, Mr. Millard 
received an urgent call to assume the pastoral 
charge; but after much prayerful consideration he 
decided to decline, and to continue his labors in 
what was then called the West. ' 

From Boston he proceeded to Taunton, where he 
spent a few days and preached. He went thence 
by stage to Providence, where he took a steamboat 
to 'New York City. Remaining at the latter place 
but a few hours, he passed up the North River to 
Albany. He went thence by stage to Ballston, 
where he remained a few days with his friends, and 
then returned to his home in West Bioomtield. On 
his return, he devoted much time to pastoral work, 
and was unremitting in his labors for the spiritual 
good of those Avho waited upon his ministry. He 
also continued to write for the press, and found 
time occasionally to extend his labors into neigh- 
boring towns. 

We now enter upon the year 1830, w^hich was 
one of remarkable revival interest in the church of 
liis charge. During the early part of the year 
nothing of especial moment occurred ; and though 
there was a fair degree of spiritual life in the church, 
there were no strong indications of the great work 
which commenced in the autumn following. The 
pastor continued earnest! 3^ and faithfully to do his 


duty in the pulpit and in his associations with the 
people, and in due time was abundantly rewarded. 
Under date of ^N'ovemher 12, 1830, he w^rites to 
the Luminary: "We have long desired to see the 
time when w^e could have it to say the Lord had 
again revived, his w^ork among us. It has been a 
conflicting season for the Zion of God in this town 
for three years past, till within a few weeks. The 
work of reformation has again commenced. * * '^ 
At our fellowship meeting for the present month 
three were received into membership, since that 
time several have been hopefully converted. The 
work is spreading among various denominations. 
O Lord, send thy spirit in power." The work, it 
seems, continued through the winter and part of 
the spring following. For the Luminary, under 
date of April 12, 1831, he writes : "We have sev- 
eral times made mention of the revival in this town, 
and would now add that it has been solemn, inter- 
esting, and extensive, perhaps beyond any other 
that was ever experienced among the people of this 
place. It is estimated that upwards of one hundred 
and fifty have experienced a saving change w^ithin 
live months. There are Ave congregations in this 
place, and all of them have had considerable acces- 
sions. The Christian Church has received thirty- 
six since the commencement of the w^ork, and per- 
haps twenty more will soon be added. We are a 
highly-favored people, and have abundant reason 
to be humbled under a sense of God's goodness 
to us. " 

It w^as in the year 1831 that the first edition ot 


the "Christian hymn-book" was issued from the 
press. This was a small book of four hundred and 
sixty-four pages, and as it was compiled by David 
Millard and J. Badger, Avas known as the "Millard 
and Badger hymn-book." For many years it was 
the standard book of song in quite a large number 
of churches, especially in central and western I^ew 
York. Quite a number of hymns were contributed 
by the subject of this memoir; and though the book 
was quite inferior to the one we now have in use, 
it served a good purpose in its day, and there are 
old people still living who think there never w^as a 
better collection of hymns and spiritual songs than 
was that. 

In this same year Mr. Millard resigned his place 
as editor of the Gospel Luminary, and became a 
member of the editorial council of the "Christian 
Palladium, " then a new paper, published under the 
auspices of the Genessee Christian Association, of 
which he was one of the Executive Committee. Of 
this paper liev. J. Badger was editor. Formerl}--, 
more than at the present time, subjects strictly doc- 
trinal in character were themes of discussion in the 
sacred desk. Points of difference between religious 
denominations were much dwelt upon, and these 
discussions were often conducted with undue asper- 
ity. As the views generally held by the " Chris- 
tians, " especially the sonship of Christ, were not 
popularly considered orthodox, they of course 
attracted no small share of attention from surround- 
ing sects. The subject of this memoir, after careful 
study, had arrived at the conclusion that the senti- 


meiits generally held aud advocated touchiDg this 
question were unsound and unscriptural. As the 
Scriptures call Christ not "God the Son,*' but the 
"Son of God.'' and the words trinity, triune, "God 
the Son," etc.^ do not occur there, he took the 
oTound that thev Avere not to he tauo'ht and received 
as the doctrine of the church. He had thoroughly 
discussed, and ably maintained, his position in his 
work entitled the "True Messiah in Scripture Light," 
which he had publislied and given to the world. 
His sentiments so positively declared and ably 
defended were often attacked by those opposed to 
them. Among the number who had referred some- 
what sharply, not to say contemptuously, to the 
views he held, was the Kev. AVilber Hoag, a Meth- 
odist minister of considerable notoriety and of 
acknowledged ability. This led to a sharp corre- 
spondence between the parties, and hnally to an 
arrangement for a public discussion of the points 
at issue. Accordingly, on the 19th of July, 1831, 
they met at the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
West Bloomfield, when both preached on the char- 
acter of Christ. In the August number of the Pal- 
ladium the editor, Mr. Badger, thus refers to this 
occasion : " Mr. Millard and Mr. Hoag met agree- 
ably to previous arrangement. The assembly was 
large and attentive, and each one, at the close, was 
left to judge for himself relative to the merits or 
demerits of each discourse. After the correspond- 
ence was read and prayer offered, Mr. Millard 
preached an unanswerable discourse, under which 
the assembly appeared highly interested for the 


space of three hours. He set before the people, in a 
clear and convincing manner, the character of one 
God and one Mediator, lie also noticed with great 
success the principal arguments and scriptures 
brought by trinitarians in support of their doc- 
trine." After an intermission of an hour and a 
half the congregation again assembled. Mr. Hoag 
commenced by reading and singing. Then, after a 
few remarks as an apology for not noticing Mr. 
Millard's arguments, he presented a w^ritten dis- 
course, which he read. '-But," says Mr. Badger, 
^'unfortunately for him Mr. Millard had anticipated 
all his strength, and had refuted all his arguments 
before they were advanced, which placed him in 
a very awkw^ard position before the enlightened 
part of the congregation. Ilis sermon and remarks 
were about two hours in length ; and we will say in 
j ustice to Mr. Hoag that we think he did as well as any 
of his brethren could do in similar circumstances, 
but had he done nothing, we think he would 
have accomjjlished more for his cause." Evidently, 
this criticism is not impartial, but if not it will show 
in w^hat estimation the effort of Mr. Millard was 
held by his friends and the friends of the doctrine 
he advocated. It is also an acknowledged fact that 
those who w^ere unwilling to accept his views were 
forced to admit that he sustained himself in this 
discussion wdth signal ability and great power. The 
sermon in full, together with a criticism of Mr. 
Hoag's sermon, and the correspondence, making a 
pamphlet of seventy-iive pages, was printed soon 
after, and had quite an extensive circulation. The 


whole comprises an able defence of the doctrine of 
the unity of God and the sonship of Jesus Christ, 
but is too strictly and sharply controversial to be 
adapted to the times in which w^e now live. Let 
us rejoice that these theological *' bones of con- 
tention" are being gradually laid aside; that relig- 
ious difterences are not magnilied as they once were ; 
and that w^e already behold the dawn of the day 
when the Savior's prayer shall be answered, and the 
disciples of Jesus shall indeed be one. 

108 * MEMOIR OF 



I^otliing of special interest occurred in Mr. Mil 
lard's field of pastoral work during the remaindei 
of the time that he continued in it; but in the fall 
of 1832, having made suitable arrangements for his 
family, he resigned his pastoral charge of tlie church 
in West Bloomfield, and entered upon the work of 
an evangelist. 

On the 8th of October, in accordance with a pre- 
vious promise, he set out for the valley of Wyo- 
ming, Pennsylvania, in company with Colonel Mor- 
gan, of Lima, who furnished him conveyance in 
his carriage. They rode that day to Kennedyville, 
Steuben County, New York, where they found a 
very interesting revival in progress, under the labors 
of Elders Eleming and Hendrick. In the evening 
Mr. Millard preached to a crowded congregation, 
and with more than usual power. At the close of 
the sermon, not far from fifti/ anxious persons, some 
of Vv^hose heads bore the blossoms of age, with 
trembling pressed toward the stand for prayers. 
This he ranked among the peculiarly solemn seasons 
of his life. The next day he rode to Elmira, and 
preached in the evening in the court-house. At 


Elmira they crossed the Chemung Eiver, and soon 
entered the State of Pennsylvania. They continued 
on their course through Bradford County, till on 
the 12th of the month they reached Kingston^ 
where they were kindly received by Christian 
friends. He was now in the far-famed valley of 
Wyoming, of which he thus writes: " This valley 
presents picturesque scenery. It is about twenty 
miles in lengthy stretching from north to south, and 
from two to four miles in width. Its sides are 
skirted by lofty mountains, while the majestic Sus- 
quehanna runs through its centre. The original 
settlers were from Connecticut. The lands are 
highly cultivated, and the whole valley indicates- 
neatness and affluence. About midway of the val- 
ley stands the pleasant village of Wilksbarre, the 
capital of Luzerne County; and opposite to it, on 
the west side of the river, is the village of Kingston. 
The mountains which skirt the valley abound with 
stone-coal, immense quantities of which are trans- 
ported to different parts of the country. We vis- 
ited several coal-mines. To walk a long distance 
under ground by the light of burning tapers 
arranged in rows, and to see the busy miners with 
sooty dresses and countenances, plying the mattock 
and the sledge to rid the earth of a part of its 
treasures, presents some little novelty to a stranger. 
-j^ ^ ^ The valley of Wyoming is of sorrowful mem- 
ory from its horrid Indian massacre, in the Revolu- 
tionary War. The bones of many of its murdered 
inhabitants bleached in the woods for years, and we 
passed the spot where hundreds who had fallen 


under the Indian tomahawk were buried in one 
common grave." "While in this valley he indited 
the following lines : 


Along thy banks, sweet tranquil stream, 
I've watched thy limpid waters flow ; 

And oft in retrospective dream 
Have fancied what I must not know : 

The scenes thou witnessed long before 

The white man's feet had pressed thy shore. 

When nature*s wild romantic shade 

Of devious foliage decked thy brow, 
A scene of beauty was displayed 

Unlike the one that skirts thee now ; 
What great events occurred near thee? 
What didst thou hear? what didst thou see? 

Thou'rt silent then ; well, roll along. 

For on thy verge, in later years, 
Was wrought a tragedy for song ; 

Scenes o'er which mem'ry bends in tears. 
Long as thy crystal waters run, 
Shall these be told from sire to son. 

Along thy shores the war-whoop rang, 

And war's dread weapons fearful gleamed ; 

The savage horde from ambush sprang, 
And life-blood from their victims streamed. 

The tomahawk and scalping-knife 

Were wielded here in murd'rous strife. 

A death-like silence held its reign ; 
Save the retiring savage yell, 

Or the last groan of mangled slain — 
When cottages in embers low 
Lieft on the clouds a fearful glow. 


Near where yon village specks the plain,* 

Promiscuous in one common grave 
In silence sleep the noble slain ! 

The good, the generous, and the brave I 
And there till Gabriel breaks the spell 
Each hollow breeze will sing their knell I 

But now, along thy fertile shores 
Peace smiles and plenty holds its reign ; 

Wyoming blooms in ample stores, 
And health and beauty walk the plain. 

Here gladly would my wand'rings cease; 

Here would I live and die in peace. 

But ah ! the pilgrim stops not here ; 

With onward course he wends his way — 
O'er mountains high, thro' forests drear. 

He goes his Master to obey. 
Farewell ! sweet stream, perhaps no more 
This wand'rer's feet will press thy shore. 

The subject of these pages spent several days in this 
beautiful valley, preaching in Kingston, Plymouth, 
Wilksbarre, and Providence. AYhile at Wilksbarre 
he first learned through Pev. William Lane of the 
death of Elder Kinkade. He writes: "Although 
I had been expecting the solemn tidings, when I 
came to read an account of his departure I could 
not refrain from tears. I formed an interesting 
acquaintance with him in 1829, at which time I 
traveled some weeks with him in I^ew England. 
He was a man of deep piety, and one of the ablest 
champions of Christian libert}". But he has gone 
from works to reward; and his memory is embalmed 
in the hearts of thousands." The death of this 

* New Troy. 


useful and distinguished minister of the gospel 
called forth from his pen this — 


From all the ills, afflictions, pains, and cares, 
From Satan's wiles, and earth's seductive snares, 
From ev'ry burden nature's doom'd to know, 
Whilo passing through this pilgrimage below, 
Kinkade's released ; his heavenward race is run — 
Life's battle fought, and endless vict'ry won ! 

Kinkade, though gone, still meni'ry loves to dwell 

On every virtue that adorned thee well ; 

Fond recollection loves thy path to trace, 

And meditate thine ev'ry sainted grace. 

Feeble in health, but nerved by giant mind. 

Thy arduous life to usefulness designed, 

Has marked the way for other feet to go ; 

A heavenward j)ath through earth's drear waste below. 

Humility, religion's choicest grace, 

A-dorned thy life throughout thy earthly race; 

Meekness unfeigned thy tender soul inspked, 

"While holy zeal thy ardent spirit fired. 

Thy lib'ral mind, thy warm expanded soul, 

Loved all the saints, and fellowshiped the whole. 

Long shall the church thy early fall deplore ; 
But, ah ! 'tis ours to tremble and adore 
Jehovah's ways. We'll humbly kiss the rod, 
And bow submissive to the hand of God. 

Though mute thy voice, yet thou instructest still; 

Thy writings live, inquiring minds to fill 

"With choicest truth, and point the onward way 

That leads the pilgrim to the realms of day. 

Long may they live, successive ages teach ; 

Wide may they spread, heaven's sacred truth to preach. 


Sleep on, my brother ! peaceful be thy rest ! 
And, while the sod shall flourish on thy breast, 
A bending willow o'er thy ashes wave, 
And spring's first flower bloom upon thy grave; 
Thy mold'ring dust shall guardian angels keep, 
And naught disturb thy peaceful, hallowed sleep, 
Till Time's last trump shall bid thy ashes rise, 
Leap into life, and seize th' immortal prize. 

The meetings held in the places already named 
were iDteresting and impressive. On the 20th, a 
two-days' meeting was held in Providence. The 
ministers present were Elders Kichmond, Case, and 
Millard. This meeting was one of marked inter- 
est. On the Sabbath, about twenty came forward 
for prayers ; and in the evening some, it Avas thought, 
were hopefully converted. The parting that even- 
ing was peculiarly afiecting and solemn. 

On Monday, the 22d, in company with his friend^ 
Colonel Morgan, the subject of our memoir started 
on his journey home, returning by nearly the same 
route, and, as before, preaching on the way. On 
Saturday evening they arrived at Mr. Morgan's 
residence in Lima, and on Sabbath mornin<r Mr. 
Millard preached to his old congregation in West 

Here he remained for a few weeks, when, after 
completing the arrangements for his family, he left 
the field of his labors for so many years, and went 
forth to work for the Master as the way might open 
before him. For years he had been a settled pas- 
tor; now, for an indefinite time he was to be an evan- 
gelist. He thus writes to the Palladiuiii, under 
date of December 17, 1832 : " I left Bloomfield on 


the 6 til instant. On taking leave of my many 
friends and brethren in that place, my mind was 
peculiarly solemn. I feel that I have a thousand 
endearing ties to bind me to that church and soci- 
ety. The Lord made me the unworthy instrument 
of planting and gathering that church. I baptized 
nearly all its members, and have served them as 
their pastor for more than fourteen years. From 
the organization of the church to the time of my 
leaving there had been over two hundred and fifty 
members received. I believe I have ever had the 
confidence and warm fellowship of my brethren. 
Should my frail body ere long fall by death, and 
mingle with its kindred dust, hundreds of miles to 
the south, among my last dying wishes will be the 
prosperit}^ of my brethren in AVest Bloomfield." 

On taking his leave of the church, the retiring 
pastor was cheerfully and heartily furnished with 
the following letter of commendation: 

"lb luhom it may concern: 

"We, the undersigned, do certify that Elder David Mil- 
lard came into this town in June, 1816, in the character of 
a preacher of the order called Christians. His labors were 
signally blest, and a reformation immediately followed ; so 
that, in October following, he was enabled to organize a 
church of sixteen members. Since that time he has contin- 
ued to exercise the pastoral charge of said church, and has 
proved himself a faithful and zealous minister of the Xew 
Testament ; has frequently seen the fruits of his labors in 
the conversion of souls, and with large additions to the 
church of which he is pastor. As is the common lot of all 
who fearlessly advocate the doctrine which he professes, he 
has encountered much opposition and persecution from sec- 
tarians. The shafts of slander and detraction have been 
hurled at him without mercy ; but, by the straight, undeviat- 
ing course which he has uniformly pursued, he has been 
enabled to foil every assault of his enemies ; and their weap- 


ons, aimed for his destruction, have fallen harmless at his 
feet. We do cheerfully recommend him to the Christian 
community as an able and faithful advocate of the cause of 
the Redeemer, and a man whose moral character is, in every- 
way, above the reach of calumny and reproach. 

Signed by order and in behalf of the Christian Church in 
West Bloomfield, New York, this 1st of December, 1832. 
David PiLSBrav, Clerk. 
Asa Chapix, Minister. 

Wheeler Geiffix, i r).^^..,. 
James Harvey. ) ^^^^^"^• 

So strong was his attachment to this people, that, 
on leaving them, his mind, for a season, rested under 
a peculiar weight of sadness — a sadness intensified 
by the scattering of his family, w^iich became nec- 
essary before he engaged in his new calling. "AYhile 
pursuingmy journey on the first day of my leaving* 
Bloomfield," he writes, ''a strange melancholy, 
at times, overspread my mind. I sensibly feel 
myself a stranger and pilgrim here on earth. I 
have left all behind, and entered the gospel field 
again as an evangelist. 

"Yes, nature, all thy soft delights 
And tender ties I know ; 
But love, more strong than death, unites 
To Him who bids me go. " 

After leaving the place he had so long called his 
home, the place w^here he had spent the best years 
of his life, and bestowed his most earnest and un- 
remitting labors, he passed into Yates and Tomp- 
kins counties, spending several days, and preaching 
in Starkey, Hector, and Enfield. Thence he pur- 
sued his course into Pennsylvania. Eev. Seth Mar- 
vin, whom he described as "a young man of piety 
and talents, possessing an ardent spirit, and may 


be empliaticallj termed a Timothy in the cause," 
arranged to accompany him on this journey. Such 
was the extreme badness of the roads that they 
were four days performing the journey from Elmira 
to Lewisburg — a distance of about one hundred 
miles — by private conveyance. Says the subject of 
our sketch: "We had pleasant weather, and a 
convenient opportunity to contemplate surround- 
ing objects as we passed. The scenery along the 
Lycoming River, which seems to have barely made 
a notch through a branch of the Alleghany Mount- 
ains, piled in broken columns, whose awful summits 
contend in majesty with the clouds of heaven. 
Through the lonely vale beneath, on many parts of 
which the sun never shone, winds the L^^coming, 
whose crystal waters are the very emblem of inno- 
cence. In traveling about twenty miles down this 
stream, we forded it between ten and twenty times. 
* * * After passing a lonesome but interesting jour- 
ney of about thirty miles down the Lycoming River, 
all of a sudden a most beautiful scene presented 
itself to our view. The wide, spacious flats along 
the Susquehanna, in a beautiful state of cultivation, 
presented a most pleasing contrast to the rugged 
region we had just passed." 

They arrived at Lewisburg on the evening of the 
29th of December, and found the spiritual condi- 
tion of the church, owing to the lack of a stated min- 
istry, quite low. J. H. Currier, then an unordained 
minister, had been preaching there for a few weeks, 
but previous to his coming the church had been 
without preaching for months. The labors of this 


brother, and those of Rev. L. D. Fleming in June 
preceding, had been blest to some extent. Elders 
Millard and Marvin were at once oppressed with 
deep anxiety for the cause. A series of meetings 
were commenced, and the most faithful eflbrt was 
made to build up this drooping Zion. Their labors 
were not in vain. The church was soon revived, 
and numbers were converted. 

It seems that liberal religious sentiments prevailed 
to quite an extent, and among a large portion of 
the most respectable inhabitants of this place. But 
in the extracts we shall now give from his published 
correspondence, the reader will learn what then 
was his opinion of liberality of sentiment without 
piety of heart, and the view there expressed, he 
never renounced. ^'The proscriptive spirit of sec- 
tarianism," he writes, " with some of its absurd dog- 
mas, has long since been exploded by many in this 
place. Any system which would proscribe the right 
of private judgment, or hurl anathemas at a follower 
of Christ, merely for his honest belief, would bo 
hissed into contempt by the most understanding 
part of the community. And yet many such dear 
friends here need the converting grace of God. 
Many persons of amiable minds and exemplary 
lives and liberal souls, are awfully indifferent to Hhe 
one thing needful.' * ^ ^ ]N"ever have I seen and felt 
greater necessity of handling the word of God hon- 
estly Sind 2^1 ciinhj than of late. When I see a min- 
ister afraid to deal faithfully with his hearers for 
fear of displeasing some of them, I pray God to 
thunder one solemn truth to his soul: 'If we seek 


to please men, we cease to be the servants of Jesus 
Christ.' While I detest the harsh, uncouth, and 
extravagant manner of some, in thundering the 
terrors of hell in the dialect of bedlam, I would say, 
let the minister of Christ faithfully warn his hear- 
ers in the melting strains of tenderness and love. 
God has pronounced a woe on that watchman who 
does not faithfully warn the wicked. (Ezek. in. 28)." 

The revival interest continued for a number of 
weeks, and resulted in the conversion of between 
sixty and seventy persons. Among the converts 
were several of the class already mentioned, includ- 
ing some of the most prominent in the place. Two 
physicians, Drs. Vorse and Joyce, were among the 
converts who united with the Christian Church. 
They were both men of talent, and for years had 
zealously advocated the doctrine of the final salva- 
tion of all men. Dr. Joyce afterward published in 
the Palladium an able summary of the reasons 
which led him. to renounce this doctrine and embrace 
the views of the Christians. 

On the 20th of February, 1833, Mr. Millard left 
Lewisburg, while Elder Marvin remained. The 
former visited Milton, Muncy, and Fairfield. In 
all these places he preached with his usual freedom, 
and good results followed his labors. On the 9th 
of March, at Fairfield, Daniel Rote and John H. 
Currier were ordained to the work of the gospel 
ministry; ofiiciating ministers: Seth Marvin and 
David Millard — sermon by the latter. "I believe 
good might be done here could I tarry," said Mr. 
Millard, "but I have a desire to visit other places 


before I return to Xew York, especially the valley 
of "WyomiDg. The Lord has so ordained that my 
labors till now have since my arrival been confined 
to Pennsylvania, whereas, I intended to go at least 
as far as the State of Maryland. But all is right, 
and I am satisfied : ' Speak, Lord, for thy servant 

After continuing in Fairfield a short time, and 
seeing a church organized there, he returned to 
Lewisburg, where he remained about two weeks, 
preaching in that place and in the vicinity with 
varied results. He then returned to Wyoming Val- 
ley, where he spent four days. " The time which I 
spent here," he writes, " I trust was not in vain in 
the Lord; and the kindness and liberality of my 
brethren in that vicinity will not soon be erased 
from my memory." On the 17th of April, in com- 
pany with Elder Richmond, he set out to attend 
the annual session of the Xew Jersey Christian 
Conference. They arrived at the house of Rev. J. 
S. Thompson, in Johnsonburg, Xew Jersey, on the 
evening of the 19tb. The general meeting previous 
to conference commenced on Saturday, April 20th, 
and continued three days. Of this meeting he spoke 
in high terms, and was greatly pleased in witness- 
ing the harmony and dispatch with which the busi- 
ness of the conference was done. From Johnson- 
burg he went to Milford, ^N'ew Jersey, reaching that 
place on the 26th. Here he remained over the Sab- 
bath in company with Elder William Lane, who 
was then pastor of the Christian Church at Milford. 
In the absence of the pastor, he and Elder I. ^. Wal- 


ter supplied the pulpit on the Sabbath follow- 
ing. From, Milford the subject of our memoir 
went to Philadelphia. Here he spent several days 
in company with Eev. Frederick Plummer, preach- 
ing not only in the city, but in other places in. 
the vicinity, in the field of the elder^s labors. 
Many were attracted by his preaching, and some 
were induced to enlist in the service of Christ. He 
was much pleased with Phil&,delphia, and in one of 
his published letters vividly described some of the 
places of interest which he visited. He thus speaks 
of Independence Hall: 

" Several of the public squares or commons pre- 
sent such picturesque beauty that they bring to 
mind the fabled descriptions of elysian fields and 
groves. In front of one of these stands the old 
Independence Hall, where the sacred instrument 
which gave birth to our liberties was signed. ^ * * 
E'o American can enter that consecrated spot with- 
out a thrill of soul and a flow of thought. In that 
place he feels that liberty is his birthright, for which 
the fathers pledged ' their lives, their fortunes, and 
their sacred honor. ' " 

Some of the meetings attended in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia were of great power. At what is now 
known as "Gulf Mills," Elders Millard and Plum- 
mer held a few meetings, in which much of the 
Divine presence was felt. Between twenty and thirty 
were hopefully converted. 

Leaving Philadelphia, he went in company with 
Elder Plummer to the city of 'New York, where a 
relisfious convention of some interest to the denom- 


ination was being held. After attendiDg this con- 
vention, in which, as usual in such gatherings, he 
took an active part, he visited and preached a few 
times in Camptown (now Irvington), and then 
returned by the most direct route to his former 
home, reaching West Bloomiield in time to preach 
to his old congregation on Sabbath morning, June 
14th. He addressed a large congregation with 
much emotion and great spiritual power. "I had 
now been absent about six months and a half," he 
says, "and on meeting again a flood of sensations 
rushed upon my mind — some painful and depressive, 
others joyous and animating. But soothing to the 
pilgrim's bosom is the thought that life's rugged 
journey will ere long terminate, and he rest, forget- 
ful of his past toils and sorrows." He remained a 
few weeks in Bloomfield and vicinity, preaching 
some and visiting among his old and tried friends. 
In the month of July he again visited Yates County, 
and was present and assisted at the opening of the 
Christian Church in Starkey, and at the general 
meeting that followed. 

In September of this year (1833) he took a tour 
through what was then called the Black River 
Country, visiting and preaching in Oswego, St. 
Lawrence, and Jefferson counties, ISTew York. In 
this tour he was accompanied by Elder J. McKee 
and others. He says: "I had never visited the 
Black River country before. My journey has been 
very interesting and pleasant. On my arrival I 
found our brethren had a general meeting in Rut- 
land. I attended it on Sabbath (September 1st), and 


preached two discourses. At this meeting I met 
Elders L. Field, A. Field, J. McKee, J. Knight, and 
a young brother by the name of Cobb, who was 
converted less than live months ago, and is now 
preaching with good success. The meeting was 
very solemn and impressive." He also preached in 
Burrville, Le Ray, Watertown, Sackett's Harbor, 
Colosse, and other places, to large and attentive con- 
gregations, and had reason to believe that his visit 
to that part of the state was not in vain. Eeturn- 
ing through Cayuga County he attended a general 
meeting at Canton with Elders Morrill, Coburn, 
and Sharrard, and enjoyed an interesting season. 
He writes: ''Many hold in tender and grateful 
remembrance our lamented brother. Elder B. H. 
Miles. He labored steadily for months in that 
region, and many who are fruits of his labors men- 
tion his name with emotion; but far from them 
he sleeps in death, and the majestic Ohio rolls 
its mighty current near the lowly bed where he 
reposes." Thus is the faithful minister of Christ 
ever held in grateful remembrance after his voice is 
hushed in death and he has gone to his reward. 

On Sabbath (October 13th) he again preached in 
West Bloomfield to a<}rowded assembly. This was 
a very solemn occasion. As he was about to take 
a long and hazardous journey, he preached a part- 
ing discourse. Referring to that trying day, he 
says: "Xo more shall we all meet in time, but on 
taking leave of that dear people with w^hom I have 
endured much and enjoyed abundance, one cheer- 
ing hope animated my soul : 


" 'There is a land where storms no more 
8 weep o'er to desolate the peaceful habitation 
Of Zion's sons ; where, far from envy's scowls, 
Jealousy's bite, and mad ambition's scourge, 
The pilgrim rests, bereft of care. ' " 

On the 15tb, in company witli several ministers^ 
he started for Milan, Dutchess County, where a 
convention was to meet on the 24th. " The leadinor 
object of the convention was to arrange some 
important business relating to the Christian con- 
nection. Convened, as its members were, from dif- 
ferent sections of our country, as might be ^pected,. 
some sectional interests were brought in direct con- 
flict with each other. The session lasted five days^ 
and in the midst of the free and liberal discussion 
which was allowed, all were made willing to sacri- 
fice sectional and personal interests on the altar of 
general good, and to unite our strength for the 
spread of what we deem to be Bible truth and primi- 
tive Christianity." 

At this meeting the subject of uniting the several 
periodicals in the Christian connection was consid- 
ered and acted upon. It was proposed to publish 
the new paper weekh^, and to call it the ^'Gospel 
Palladium." Elder Joseph Badger was unani- 
mously chosen editor, and Elijah Shaw, David Mil- 
lard, Simon Clough, Jasper Hazen, and John Spoor,, 
were chosen executive committee. From the con- 
vention Mr. Millard went directly to the city of 
]N"ew York, where the executive committee were 
engaged two days in transacting business prepara- 
tory to the new arrangement. The paper was con- 


aiderably enlarged at the commencement of the 
new volume, but was published semi-monthly instead 
of weekly, and still called the Christian Palladium. 
This paper was conducted with much ability, and 
under the editorship of Mr. Badger, attained for 
the tin.ies a position of considerable influence. It 
was ever regarded as eminently sound in doctrine, 
and was a powerful instrument in promoting the sen- 
timents of the people by whom it was sustained. 




On the 2d of Xovember, 1833, Mr. Millard left 
the city of Xew York for Philadelpliia, arriving at 
the latter place the same evening, and was kindly 
received by affectionate brethren and friends. He 
attended some meetings, and preached in the city 
and at other places in the field of Elder Plnmmer'& 
labors. A good degree of religious interest had 
continued in this section since his visit in June pre- 
cedino;, and it was iudo:ed that about eio'htv had 
been converted. 

After spending a few weeks with Elder Pluramer, 
and enjoying some meetings of marked spiritual 
power, especially at Upper Marion and Tullytown,. 
and where, in the latter place, he was assisted by 
Elders I. X. Walter and P. Roberts, in company 
witli the former he left for Baltimore, and thence 
for an extended tour into Ohio and Kentucky. 

While pursuing his travels and performing the 
most exhausting labors in his Master's service, he 
was not forgetful of his family, and especially of the 
dear children he had left scattered among his friends. 
His letters not only express tke warmest emotions- 
of a parent's heart, but also contain sentiments scv 


judicious and excellent as to merit more than a 
passing notice. We shall accordingly in this chap- 
ter introduce a few extracts from this correspond- 
ence, that the young, who shall read these pages, 
may profit by his suggestions. The letters from 
wdiich w^e shall quote Avere written to his oldest 
daughter, who at that time was his principal corre- 
spondent among the children. The iirst letter w^as 
written in Philadelphia, during his former visit in 
May, 1833. It reads as follows: 

*' My Dear Daughter : I was glad to hear from you by 
letter, and to see a specimen of your writing. I think it verj^ 
good, considering your age (twelve years), and if you are care- 
ful to improve your hand your writing will yet prove an 
honor to you. Remember, my child, you are now qualifying 
yourself to transact the business of life, and without a good 
education you will enter upon life (should God spare you to 
grow up) under many disadvantages. You have now an excel- 
lent opportunity to prepare yourself for future usefulness. 
How very kind your uncle and aunt have been and still are to 
you. * •■ I do not doubt but that your young innocent heart 
loves them. * -• Should you live to mature years, you will then 
be enabled to set some estimation upon their goodness ; and 
should you live when they are dead their very graves will 
be dear to you. Be attentive to your studies. * * * You most 
probably attend the Sabbath-school. You will be learning 
many excellent things there. Think, my dear child, that 
what you learn in that school is to prepare you for another 
^nd better world than this. Try to improve from the instruc- 
tions you receive. You attend church regularly. Pay good 
attention to the preaching and prayers. As you love your 
-dear pa, let me assure you, my dear child, that nothing could 
^ive me greater joy than to learn that you was a Christian. 
Remember, your father often prays for you. Be good to 
•Caroline and David Edmund. Tell them that pa loves them, 
^nd that they must be good children. Your affectionate 
father. D. Millard. " 


Under date of November 29, 1833, lie ag'ain writes 
from Philadelphia: 

" My Dear Mary Jane : As I promised in parting with 
you that I would occasionally write you a letter, you will be 
pleased to accept this in room of a better. I have very often 
thought of you and Caroline, as well as Harriet and little 
David. We are now a great ways apart, and, should my life 
be spared, I expect in a few days to be a great way farther 
from you. But you and I shall still be under the protecting 
care of our heavenly Father. He well knows our wants, and 
his guardian care w^ill ever be over his obedient children. I 
have proved his faithfidness to me for about nineteen years, 
since his grace was interi^osed for my salvation. In the midst 
of all nay trials and adversities, he has ever been to me a 
stronghold in the day of trouble, and I have confidence to 
hope in him to the end. 

"It was to me a source of unspeakable joy when I learned 
that you had found the Savior precious. Oh, what inex- 
pressable joy it did afford me! Xow, my dear child, be 
faithful, and never forsake the Lord. Oh, there is an eternal 
weight of glory in store for the faithful, and often do I antic- 
ipate it with rapture. There I hope to meet you where not a 
wave of trouble will roll over the peaceful breast. Be good 
to your sisters and little brother. Be also obedient and kind 
to your uncle and aunt, who have done and still are doing so 
much for you. Try to improve your time in study and learn 
all you can. TeU Caroline that I love her, and if I had 
room would write to her too. From your affectionate 
father. David Millard." 

He did not leave Philadelphia for the Soutli 
quite as soon as he intended, for when the time oi 
his departure arrived, such were the prospects, and 
such the entreaties of his brethren and friends, that 
he concluded to stop a few days longer. A remark- 
able interest was awakened in the different churches 

128 3IEM0IR OF 

of Elder Pliimmer s charge, and large numbers were 

On the 10th of December Elders Millard and 
Walter left Philadelphia for Baltimore. He writes : 
" At Baltimore we once had a flourishing society. 
It was organized bj^ Elder James Dickerson in 1823, 
but 'hoiD has the fine gold become dim..'' I propose to 
proceed w^ith all possible speed to Ohio. " On the 
12th they took passage on the railroad from Balti- 
more to Frederick, Maryland, sixty miles, "which 
distance we were conveyed in seven hours and a 
halfi^' Mr. Millard says. This certainly could not 
have been an age of steam. He continues: "At a 
place where the cars stopped on the way, I saw 
three blacks (two brothers and a sister) manacled 
with irons and tied together, being driven to Balti- 
more like beasts for market. They had been pur- 
chased by Woolfolk, the noted slavedealer, at Bal- 
timore, and were designed for the l^ew Orleans 
market. It is probable that persons accustomed to 
witness spectacles of this kind do not feel in view 
of them as I did. I inquired the price for which 
they had been sold, and was informed twelve hun- 
dred dollars. Alas, my country; how long wilt 
thou be stained with the trafilc in hu-man flesh and 
blood!" He lived to see this foul curse removed, 
though the terrible scourge of war w^as necessary to 
accomplish it. 

At Erederick he took stage for Wheeling, and 
after traveling twelve miles he parted with Elder 
Walter, who was to go to Eockingham County, 
Virginia, while he w^as to proceed to Ohio. Of the 


journey to Wheeling he thus writes: '-The whole 
distance from Baltimore to Wheeling is two hun- 
dred and seventy-eight miles, and from Hagerstown 
(eighty-six miles west of Baltimore) the road leads 
over a rough mountainous region. We were three 
days and a half getting through, traveling two 
whole nights in succession. There were eight pas- 
sengers in the coach with heavy haggage, and such 
was the badness of the roads that part of the way 
a team of six horses was necessary to get us along. "" 
He was detained at Wheeling two days before a 
steamboat arrived to furnish a passage down the 
Ohio Kiver. From Wheeling to Cincinnati — a dis- 
tance by water of three hundred and seventy-four 
miles — in consequence of the many stops on the way, 
the journey consumed three days. lie reached Cin- 
cinnati on the evening of the 20th, and was cordi- 
ally received by Rev. Jacob P. Andrew, then the 
pastor of the Christian Church in that city. Here 
he remained three days, preached three times, and 
administered the ordinance of Ijaptism. On his 
journey he contracted a severe cold and hoarseness, 
which made it very difficult for him to speak. From 
Cincinnati he ivent to Burlington, a distance of 
about twelve miles. In consequence of poor health 
he remained in that place several days, preaching 
once in a chapel belonging to the United Brethren 
at Mt. Pleasant, and four times in the Christian 
Churcb at Burlington. This church had sent forth 
some able ministers, among whom were Elders Wil- 
liam Lane and J. P. Andrew. Here also Elder 
Kinkade was buried. ''Often is the grave visited 


by those who have felt the charm of his eloquence," 
says Mr. Millard, "while the sod that covers his cold 
remains is bedewed by the warm tear of affection." 

Leaving Burlington on the 30tb of December, he 
rode to New Baltimore, and preached at the house 
of Samuel Pottenger. The next day he rode a dis- 
tance of seventeen miles, but sucb was the condi- 
tion of the traveling, he was busily engaged during 
the day in getting that distance. He stopped at 
the house of Elizabeth Pottinger, sister of Elder Kin- 
kade, at whose house that faithful minister breathed 
his last. On the 1st of January, 1834, he rode to 
Dover, and preached that evening to a good congre- 
gation w^ho seemed to appreciate the truth. The 
Christian Church in this place was organized in 
1807, by Elders David Purviance and Reuben Doo- 
ley. Of the latter, who bestowed much labor here, 
and was eminently successful, he speaks in the high- 
est terms. He says of him: "He was a powerful 
speaker, and a man of deep piety. * '^ His memory 
still lives in the hearts of many who were the fruits 
of his labors, and 'though dead he yet speaketh.' " 

Mr. Millard was detained at Dover over the 2d 
.of Januar}^ in a severe storm. On the 3d he rode 
to Eaton, the county seat of Preble County, and 
preached that evening to a very large and sol- 
emn congregation. He spent two days here, and 
preached three times with much effect. On the 
6th, in company with Elder Monfort (who was 
then pastor of the church in Eaton, and also one of 
the judges of the court), he went to "New Paris, in 
the same county, and preached that evening to a 


very large and attentive audience. At this meeting, 
besides Elder Monfort, there were present Elders 
David and Levi Purviance, John Adams, Samuel 
Mitchell, and Samuel Snodgrass; with these he 
formed a short though pleasing acquaintance, espe- 
cially the three former. We here quote from a pub- 
lished letter : 

"After preaching twice at New Paris, on the 8th 
I shaped my course west into Indiana. Passing 
through the beautiful county of "Wayne, and thence 
to Liberty, the seat of justice for Union County in 
that state, I stopped with Brother Thomas Carr, and 
preached that evening in the court-house to a good 
assembly. * '•' ^ Brother Carr is a man of character, 
talent, and influence. There are many Christian 
churches in Indiana, and the cause of liberal truth 
is advancing in that state. ]S'o section of country 
that I have ever traveled presents a more delightful 
surface or richer soil than that part of Indiana. 

*' From Liberty I took a southeast course, and 
again entered the State of Ohio near Oxford, But- 
ler County, and preached in that place on the even- 
ing of the 9th to a small but solemn assembly. On 
the following day I rode twenty miles through rain 
to New Baltimore, on the Big Miami; but the 
storm prevented a meeting that evening. On Sab- 
bath (the 12th) preached twice in Burlington. The 
brethren in that place endeared themselves much 
to me by their kindness and liberality. On the 14tli 
I preached in Cincinnati. The next day crossed the 
Ohio Biver into Kentucky. It was then rapidly 
rising, and soon afterward overflowed its banks. It 


was at that time hazardous crossing on account of the 
immense quantities of flood-wood constantly drift- 
ing down stream. Preached that evening at the 
house of Elder John Ellis, at Dry Creek, Campbell 
County, Kentucky. He received me very affection- 
ately, and furnished me with letters of introduction 
further south. On the evening of the 16th, I 
preached at the house of Brother Alvin Keys, in 
Grant County, who was formerly from West Bloom- 
field, New York. * -s^ ^ I was detained at his house 
on the 17th by a severe rain. On the 18th I rode 
to Willianastown, w^here I spent Sabbath (the 19th) 
and preached twice. Although through the day 
the rain was incessant, yet the congregation was 
very respectable. The traveling by this time had 
become as bad as it could be. On Monday set out 
for Georgetown, and with all my exertions was 
enabled to ride only eighteen miles. At seven 
o'clock in the evening, fatigued and literaljy cov- 
ered with mud, I put up at a tavern. On Tuesday 
morning I had to ford (at some hazard) Little Eagle 
Creek, which was high and rapid. That evening I 
reached the house of my good brother, Elder Barton 
W. Stone, in Georgetown, and was received in a 
very affectionate manner by him and his family. 
Brother Stone is so well known to our brethren 
that I need say but little concerning him. lie needs 
only to be known to be beloved. Once he stood 
comparatively alone in this part of the country in 
defence of Christian liberty. Now he is surrounded 
with many in his own vicinity w^ho are able and 
intrepid defenders of the cause in the sustaining of 


which he has suffered so much ±rom sectarian malev- 

"Since my arnval at Georgetown, I have gener- 
ally preached as often as once a day in different 
places. I came to this city (Lexington) -^ve days 
ago, and have preached three times here and twice 
at the Ecpuhlican Chapel, SLve miles west. ^ ^ ^ I 
shall probahly spend a few weeks more in this state, 
and then return to Ohio. I am now about seven 
hundred miles from my friends in the State of ISTew 

While at Georgetown, he wrote the following 
letter to his daughter: 

**My Deak Mary Jaxe: Your alfectiouate letter of the 
2Sth ultimo, was indeed a source of joy to your pa while far 
from you, a strauger in a strange land. To hear from you 
will always give me joy, and I doubt not you are as glad to 
hear from nie. I am now seven hundred miles from you ; 
but though montains rise and rivers run between us, yet 
our hearts are susceptible of affections which often bring us, 
as it were, together, in spite of distance and obstructions. I 
very often think of you and my other dear children. While 
so far from them I frequently think, shall I ever be per- 
mitted to see them again ? Yes, I fondly anticipate a meet- 
ing with you all in this world. Be good children, and God 
will bless you. Think, my dear child, that you profess to be 
a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus. Keep him con- 
stantly in view. Be watchful and pray much. Strive to 
enrich your mind with useful instruction and aim constantly 
at Improvement. * * * Farewell, my child. God bless you. 
Write again. From your affectionate father." 

On the 4th of February he left Lexington and 
returned to Georgetown, where he preached twice. 
On the 7th, in company with Elder Palmer, he 


started for Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, so noted on 
account of its connection with the "great revival" in 
1801. On the 8th hepreached afternoon and evening 
in the church at Cane Ridge to crowded congrega- 
tions. " On coming out of the chapel a novel scene 
presented itself," he says. '' About seven hundred 
people, mounted on horseback, were proceeding in 
different directions over the green toward their 
homes. ISTot a carriage among the whole, and but 
few on foot. Such an entire troop of males and 
females I did not recollect to have ever seen before. 
The church at Cane Ridge is, I believe, the oldest 
among the 'Christians' in the West, as it followed 
Brother B. W. Stone out from the Presbyterians in 
the year 1801." He returned to Georgetown, and 
on the evening of the 12th preached in that section 
of the country for the last time. He says, "The 
parting scene with Brother Stone and others, to me 
was solemn. The kindness and liberality of the 
brethren in that part of Kentucky will long endear 
them to my rhemory. Shall I see them no more in 
time ? God grant us a meeting in the blissful world 
of glory. 

" Adieu ! and may heaven his Zion protect 
Where my soul in sweet union is bound r 
We part here in time, but I fondly expect 
, To meet you on immortal ground. 

* In fond recollection, I'll often retrace 
The scenes I have witness'd with you ; 

While on mem'ry is painted full many a face^^ 
With whom I have bid an adieu. " 


On the 13th he started on his homeward journey, 
and preached that evening at the house of a Captain 
Walls, near Eig Eagle Creek. On the 14th and 
15th he preached at Williamstown, to large and 
solemn assemblies. On the 17th at Pinhook, and 
again on the 18th at the house of Rev. John Ellis, 
in Campbell County. On the 19th he left the State 
of Kentucky, crossed the Ohio Elver at Cincinnati, 
and preached twice in that city. 

While at Cincinnati he first learned, through the 
Palladium, of the death of his sister, Mrs. Ann 
Lyon, of Rush, l^ew York. Of this he wrote: 
^'Although we shall meet no more on exirth^ short 
will be our separation. She has gone to a better 
world, and why should I wish her back?" As a 
tribute to her memory, he subsequently Indited the 
following lines : 


Thou art dear, lonely grave, to this heart thou art dear ! 

For the treasure thy bosom contains ; 
Tho' no low bonding willow distils the soft tear 

On the sod o'er my sister's remains. 

Tho* no parian column may ever be given 

To tell where her body reposes ; 
A plain marble slab pointing upward to heaven, 

The name of my sister discloses. 

But tho' not a trace of that name did appear 

Near the place of her low pillowed bed ; 
This spot to affection would still remain dear 

And hallowed because of its dead. 


I loved thee, my sister ! full well did I know 
That virtue and goodness were thine ; 

Thy mem'ry is worthy the tear I bestow — 
Thou art fitted in heaven to shine. 

May spring's early flowers bloom fresh on thy grave, 
And moistened by night's pearly tears, 

May summer's green mantle of foliage wave 
O'er thy ashes through time's fleeting years. 

Enshrined in affection thy mem'ry shall live 
While life's eddy flows in this breast ; 

A brother's warm heart oft a tribute shall give 
To the mem'ry of her now at rest. 

The last mortal ligament riven ; 
When the world's thorny maze I shall traverse no more, 
I'll meet thee, my sister, in heaven. 

On the 21st of February lie left Cincinnati and 
rode to Anderson, twelve miles up the Ohio Kiver, 
where he preached that evening. On the 22d he 
rode to Bethel, in Clermont County, and there met 
Elder John T. Powell. He remained in that county 
some days, and preached in Bethel, Monroe, Bata- 
via. Mount Pleasant, and Felicity, in all more times 
than he was days in the county. He wrote, "The 
cause of Christian liberty is prospering in that part 
of God's heritage." From Clermont he w^ent into 
Brown County, preaching on the 8th and 9th of 
March in Lewas township. He then by special 
request returned to Clermont County, preaching 
at Felicity, ISTeville, and other places, to crowded 
assemblies. On Saturday, the 14th, a three-days* 
meeting commenced at Salem Chapel, which waa 
largely attended. At that meeting he preached 


five sermons, and four persons were added to the 
church. On the 20th of the same month he attended 
a meeting in Union Chapel, Brown County, in com- 
pany with Elder Matthew Gardner, who so soon 
followed him to the grave. He attended with that 
veteran minister many interesting meetings in that 
region. A two-days' meeting which they held at 
Georgetown on the 22d and 23d is referred to as 
one of great power. On the 24th Mr. Millard 
preached to a crowded assembly at White Oak 
Creek. Five came forward for prayers. On the 
25th and 26th he preached in Bird township, and 
on the 28th at Liberty Chapel on Eagle Creek, 
where he was introduced to, and formed a very 
pleasing acquaintanceship with, Elder Alexander 
McLain. On the 30th and 31st he preached at 
Pisgah Chapel to large congregations. This was 
a solemn and interesting season. At tlie close of 
the meeting six came forward for prayers. That 
church was then nnder the pastoral care of Elder 

He now set his face toward the State of Xew 
York. On the 2d of April he left Eagle, Brown 
County, and passed through Ils'ew Market to Hills- 
borough, the seat of justice for Highland County, 
where he remained a few hours on account of rain. 
He then pushed his way between showers to Lees- 
burg, and stopped at a tavern over night. During the 
night it rained incessantly. Erom Leesburg he rode 
to Washington, the capital of Eayette County. The 
country was then new, and the roads which were 
bad at best had been rendered worse on account of 


the rain. From Washington he traveled east to 
Williamsport, Pickaway County. During the day 
he had to ford three streams, which were rapid and 
high. He says : '' The first two I crossed without 
any difiiculty, except fearful apprehensions. When 
I arrived at Paint Creek it was overflowing its 
banks. I was directed by a person on the opposite 
side to ride up the stream a few rods to a place 
where he informed me I would cross w^ith safety. 
I obeyed the directions, but on reaching the chan- 
nel of the stream found it nearly ^ve feet deep and 
foaming down with rapid current. My horse 
became frightened, and commenced rearing and 
jumping. Sometimes he was nearly under water, 
and myself partly so. 'Hold on F was the cry of 
those on shore, who expected to see me unhorsed 
in the foaming stream, and who could render me 
no assistance. I was, however, enabled to keep 
mounted, and my affrighted animal at length gained 
footing on terra fir ma, at which I felt to thank God 
and take courage for that deliverance. Myself and 
the contents of my traveling-bag were some- 
what wet. I stopped a short time, made some 
change of clothing, and rode to Elder George 
Alkire's, in Williamsport, where I was kindly 
received, warmed and fed." 

The subject of our memoir spent five days in 
Williamsport, and preached five sermons. For the 
kindness and liberality of the brethren in that 
place he always felt grateful. On the 8th of April 
he rode fourteen miles to the town of Scioto, and 
preached that evening in the house of one Peter 


West, to a crowded congregation. On the 9tb he 
preached in Bloomfield, a small village near the 
Scioto River. On the 10th he rode nineteen miles 
to the village of Aragon, and preached in the even- 
ing to an attentive audience. He writes: ^^That 
day I had to swim my horse across a considerable 
stream, called the Big Walnut, while I with my 
baggage was carried over in a skiff." Oq the 11th 
he rode twenty-seven miles to Hebron, a village on 
the Ohio Canal, much of the way in the rain. 
Though quite unwell and much fatigued by his 
journey, he preached that evening to a large assem- 
bly, who seemed to hear the word gladly. On the 
12th he rode to Lake Fork, Licking County, in 
poor health, but preached in that place on the 12th 
and 13th to crowded and solemn assemblies. He 
spent several days in that county, preaching in 
various places On the 19th and 20th, in company 
with Elders H. Ashley and J. Haze, he attended a 
two-days' meeting in Clear Fork, in the same county, 
which drew out a large number of people, and was 
deeply interesting. On the 20th he preached in the 
village of XJtica, and on the evening of the same 
day at Mount Yernon. On the morning of the 23d 
he left Mount Vernon, and started for Ashtabula 
County, and thence for the State of New York. 

On the 26th of April he arrived at the house of 
Samuel Brown, in Litchfield, Medina County, where 
he was cordially received, and preached in the even- 
ing. The next day, the pastor being absent, he 
preached twice in the Presbyterian church. He 
arrived at Conneaut on the 1st of May, and wrote: 


'''As I approached tliis pleasaut village, I cast my 
eyes to the right and saw a graveyard. ConcludiDg 
that this might be the spot where my beloved 
brother, Elder John Blodgett, sleeps, I stopped and 
entered the inclosure. Approaching the center, I 
saw a grave inclosed with a paling, on which I read 
his name. Leaning over the head-board, a train of 
solemn reflections passed through my mind. When 
both of us were young in the ministry and in 
our youth, we traveled extensively together, and 
preached the word of life. Peace to thine ashes, 
my beloved brother; thy lot will soon be mine." 
Among his poetical writings we iind these lines on 
the death of John Blodgett, and which were sug- 
gested by hearing of his decease. 


Once more, my muse, from slumber wake ! 

'Tis worth demands a tribute due; 
Arise, the mourning badge betake 

For sorrows felt by not a few. 
For many a tear shall freely flow 
O'er Blodgett now in death laid low. 

He who so oft assuaged the grief 

Of those by sorrow's load oppressed; 
The tongue that often dealt relief 

To those by sin and guilt distress' d, 
Now mute in death is bid be still, 
Obedient to God's righteous will. 

How oft beneath his warning voice 
Have thousands sat with anxious ear, 

While pious saints heard to rejoice, 
The guilty sinner shook with fear : 

For faithfully he dealt the word 

In calling sinners to the Lord. 


Thousands, who oft his voice have heard, 
"Who fain would hear that voice again. 

In mem'ry long will hold endeared 
The voice that roused their souls from .sin ; 

For many a soul yet lives to say, 

He pointed them to wisdom's way. 

Not earthly wealth or ease he sought, 

As a reward for toil and care ; 
But deep his soul with love was fraught, 

That siuners might be brought to share 
With him the grace so freely given, 
And tread the path that leads to heaven. 

Blodgett, adieu I a short adieu! 

Soon shall my toils like thine be o'er; 
Then shall our kindred souls renew 

The ties we oft have felt before ; 
In heaven with thee I hope to meet 
Where labors end in bliss complete. 

Mr. Millard spent several weeks in Conneaut, and 
there first met Rev. Jonas Lawrence, who was 
then laboring as pastor of the Christian Chnrch. 
While Elder Lawrence went east, the subj<;ct 
of these pages remained and supplied his pulpit. A 
good degree of religious interest was awakened, 
some were converted, and two were baptized. He 
also preached twice in Monroe and once in Jeffer- 
son, w^hich was the county seat. On the 20th of 
May he parted with the brethren at Conneaut, and 
proceeded on his journey to the east. On the 
evening of that day he preached at Fairview, Penn- 
sylvania, at the house of Rev. Samuel P. Allen, 
w^ith whom he had formed an acquaintance at a 
former period in Otsego County, 'New York. 

On the 22d he arrived at the house of Ekler Oli- 


ver Barr, who then resided at Sinclairsville, Cha- 
tauqae County, l!^ew York. Eleven days were 
spent in company with Elder Barr in that county, 
during which he preached to crowds of solemn 
hearers. Among other places, he preached at 
Jamestown, Fluvanna, and Ellington, all of which 
meetings he pronounced "solemn and interesting." 
He spoke in the highest terms of the lahors of Elders 
Joseph Bailey and Oliver Barr, both of whom had 
preached extensively in that region, though Elder 
Bailey at that time had removed to Wayne County, 
in the same state. 

On the 8d of June Mr. Millard left Pomfret, and 
made no stop, except for refreshments, till he reached 
West Bloomfield, a distance of one hundred and 
twenty miles, where he arrived on the 6th; and on 
the 8th he again preached to a crowded congrega- 
tion in the Christian church in that town. This 
church was then enjoying the efficient and success- 
ful lahors of Rev. I. C. Goff as its pastor. 

In a letter to the Palladium, under date of June 
9th, the subject of this memoir writes: "To-day I 
have been reflecting on my long journey. I think 
of the goodness of God, and what he has sustained 
me to endure, that he has restored me once more to 
the bosom of my friends. Since the 15th of Octo- 
ber last I have traveled in nine of the United States, 
and in all over three thousand miles.^^ I have expe- 
rienced fatigues beyond what I ever before knew. 

*And this not by the easy mode of conveyance we now 
have, but much of it by private carriage and on horseback. 


and have encountered difficulties to which I waa 
previously a stranger. But under the whole my 
merciful Father has sustained me, and I am yet in 
the land of the livings though in rather poor health. 
I reflect on the thousands with whom I have shaken 
the friendly hand, whom I shall see no more in 
time. In many sections I have met wdth warm- 
hearted brethren and friends, who administered to 
me liberally, and in some instances have felt the 
cold hand of misanthropy. However, I am not dis- 
couraged, but still intend to pursue the life of an 

In referring to his tour in Kentucky he thus ex- 
presses himself: "I am much pleased with the 
plainness, frankness,, and liberality of the Kentuck- 
ians. Their manners generally render them easy 
of access, and the open familiarity of a well-edu- 
cated Kentuckian makes his society interesting and 
pleasing. In the section of the state where I spent 
most of my time, labor is principally performed by 
slaves. * * * One day while passing near Lexington 
I met a drove of slaves chained together, on their 
way to the southern market. Such scenes are fre- 
quent here, but they can never fail to excite disgust 
in every bosom fraught with the better feelings of 
humanity. Wretched sons of Africa! miserable 
offspring of degraded Ham! how long must ye bo 
doomed to wear the fetters of bondage, the galling 
yoke of oppression! And thou, my beloved coun- 
try, the land of my birth, whose very name is encir- 
cled with a halo of glory! while thou art a refuge 
and a home for the oppressed, shall not thine own 


oppressed be set free?" To bis honor, be it said, 
he never ceased to " cry aloud and spare not" till 
this foul evil was removed, and the curse of slavery 
ceased to blight the fairest portion of our land ! 

Two leading objects Avere had in view by this 
visit to the south and west. One was the associa- 
tion of the periodicals of the two sections; the 
other to make arrangements for compiling and pub- 
lishing a history of the denomination. If in these 
he was only partly successful, his visit was still 
highly valuable in removing prejudices which had 
before existed between the brethren of the East and 
West, from a lack of knowledge of each other. Of 
his visit to Kentucky the editor of the Christian 
Messenger, Elder Barton W. Stone, thus writes: 
"Brother David Millard, of Xew York, has been 
among us for several weeks. His ministrations 
have been well received, and it is believed have been 
blessed to the i)eople. We are highly pleased with 
his visit, his person, his piety, and his public exhi- 
bitions. He has happily removed the unfavorable 
impressions made on many minds, that the Chris- 
tians in the East were fast approximating to sectari- 
anism, and had settled down on former opinions 
without further examination of revealed truth. We 
should rejoice at the frequent visits of such brethren 
from the East, and that such brethren from the 
West would interchange the visits. This would be 
a happy means of cementing a union important to 
the interests of religion. Brother Millard leaves 
us beloved, with our best wishes for his prosperity 
and hearty prayers for his success." 




After remaining in Bloomiield ii few days to rest 
from the fatigue of his long and laborious journey 
— a journey and labor that must have taxed to the 
utmost the strength and energy even of his vigor- 
ous frame and mind — he became restless, and felt 
that he must again be at work for his Master. We 
here make an extract from a published letter, writ- 
ten at Eddytown, August 4, 1834: "Since my 
arrival at West Bloomiield on the 6tli of June, 
I have not remained at any place for any consider- 
able length of time, as more than half of my time 
has been taken np in attending general meetings. 
These, however, have all been interesting, and some 
of them especially blest to the awakening and con- 
version of souls. On the 14th and loth of June I 
attended a two-days' meeting in West Mendon, 
which we have reason to believe was a very profit- 
able season. On my way to our annual conference 
I preached on the 19th at Xo. 9 Canandaigua. 
My plain remarks in defense of the Scriptures 
oflfended a deist, with whom I afterward had some 
conversation. He said the Bible is no more sacred 
than the histories of Greece and Rome. It is a fact 


to be deplored, that infidelity is on the increase in 
some parts of our country. 

"Our general meeting at Starkey, on the 22d and 
23d, was an interesting and solemn season, and our 
conference which followed was as good as any I ever 
recollect attending. From Starkey I returned to 
Canandaigua, in company with Elders E. S. ISTott, 
S. Marvin, and J. li. Currier. On the 28th and 
29th we held a three-days' meeting in the Christian 
chapel near Elder Sanford's. This was a season of 
peculiar interest. Several mourning souls came 
forward for prayers, and the church was much 
revived. Elder Currier here preached in his native 
place. ^ ^ ^ His fervent prayers, his zealous exhor- 
tations, and his tears, at this meeting, I think can 
not be in vain. Fruits of this meeting I expect to 
see in eternity." 

On the 6tli and 7th of July he attended a two- 
days' meeting in Clarendon, Orleans County, in 
company with Rev. E. Marvin, and other brethren 
in the ministry. On the 9th he preached in West 
Clarendon at the ordination of Ezra Smith. On 
the 10th he delivered a discourse in the Baptist 
church in Holly, on " The Unity of God and the 
sonship of Jesus Christ." This sermon was preached 
by special request, and was delivered partly in con- 
sequence of an attack made in that place on the 
"Christians," by Eev. Mr. Burchard, a Presbyterian 
revivalist. The sermon produced quite a sensation ; 
and, by many, the doctrine of the discourse was 
heartily received. On the 13th he preached again in 
West Bloomfield, and on the 18th rode to Starkey. 


On the 19th a two-days' meeting commenced in 
Reading. In this he was assisted by Eev. Ira 
Brown. Mr. Millard writes: "On the afternoon 
of Sunday the searching power of God was mani- 
fest. Ten or twelve came forward in tears, and 
bowed for prayers, several of whom have since 
found peace in believing, and joy in the Holy 
Ghost. On Sunday morning, after preaching in 
the village of Eddytown, about as many more 
bowed before the Lord, with the language, 'Pray for 
me.' * ^ ^^ I regret that my previous engagements 
make it necessary for me to be absent from this sec- 
tion for several days, but as soon as I can fulfill my 
distant appointments I design to return to this 

On the 10th of August he preached at the dedi- 
cation of a chapel at Kennedyville, to a very large 
and interested congregation, and on the 11th at 
North Cohocton, where he organized a church in 
1820. He was the first minister of the Christian 
connection who raised the standard of liberty along 
the Cohocton River. On the 16th and 17th he 
attended a general meeting, in company with Elders 
S. Marvin and J. Bailey. The burden of labor 
rested principally upon the two last named. A 
good work broke out, and between forty and fifty 
were converted. 

On Mr. Millard's return to Starkey, he found the 
work had progressed to some extent during his 
absence. September 7th he baptized seven in Sen- 
eca Lake, near the village of Eddytown, and on the 
21st nine more. The meetings in the village at 


that time were held in a school-house, the oulj' 
meeting-house in the place being shut against the 
*■' Christians." 

The subject of this sketch had now been engaged 
in the Christian warfare about twenty years, nine- 
teen of which had been devoted to the Christian 
ministry. He says: "To look back — how frail the 
period! how swift it has glided away! I can call 
to mind many points on which I have erred; but 
on this portion of my life I reflect with more satis- 
faction than on all the preceding. I am not like 
Dr. Franklin, who would have chosen to live his 
life over, had it been in his power. "When I look 
back, I see so little to live for, and when forward 
so much to die for, that I have comparatively but 
little to bind me to this life. Earth, contrasted with 
heaven, looks cheap! very cheap!! And yet, with 
regard to that within the veil, how little do we 
know! All that charms in that direction is alone 
seen with an eye of faith. Yet, thank heaven, 
4aith is the substance of things hoped for, and the 
evidence of things not seen.' " 

During the month of September he returned to 
"West Bloomfield, and spent two Sabbaths. He 
writes: "Since our general meeting, held there in 
August, there has been a very considerable addi- 
tion to the church. Elder I. C. Gotf is very highly 
esteemed among them, both as a citizen and a min- 
ister of the gospel. At that place I met with Elder 
Oliver Barr, of Chatauque County, on his way to 
the general convention. He gave us one interest- 
ing sermon there, and then went to Henrietta to 


attend a general meeting, which commenced on the 
11th of October. Previous engagements prevented 
my attendance on the first two days, but was pres- 
ent on the third, and spoke to a very solemn assem- 
bly. I found the Lord was truly in the place. In 
the evening, after Elder Barr had delivered a very 
solemn sermon, from fifteen to twenty came forward 
for prayers. Truly, the place seemed like holy 
ground. So much of the power arid presence of 
the Holy Spirit was witnessed and felt in the meet- 
ing, that one man, who had been troubled with 
Mr. Campbell's speculations, gave up his skepticism 
relative to the direct influence of the Holy Spirit, 
and told me he thought such empty theories would 
trouble him no more. Amen. So let it be." 

From this meeting Mr. Millard went to Union 
Mills, to attend a convention for general business, 
where he arrived in season to preach on Sabbath, 
the 19th of October. The meetings on that day 
and evening were peculiarly solemn. On the three 
succeeding evenings several came forward for pray- 
ers, and some were hopefully converted. The con- 
vention was deemed an important one, having spe- 
cial reference to the Palladium and publishing inter- 
ests. He writes : " At the con.vention my heart 
was cheered at beholding the countenances of sev- 
eral preachers w^ith whom I had labored extensively 
in the gospel field years gone by. Then, we were 
in our vigor; but now, age and broken constitutions 
admonish us that our warfare will soon be accom- 
plished. God of our fathers, permit us not to out- 
live our usefulness." 


The remainder of the year 1834, and a portion of 
the year following, was spent mainly in Starkey 
and vicinity. In the village of Dundee, in that 
township, the advocates of the doctrine that all men 
will be finally saved, w^ere quite numerous. We 
have already seen that the subject of this memoir 
had no sympathy with that doctrine. " As a faith- 
ful minister of Christ," he says, "I certainly ought, 
to the utmost of my abilities, set that before sinners 
which wall be most likely to lead them to repent- 
ance and reformation; for that w^as the leading 
object of our Savior's mission to earth — the grand 
design of the gospel. For this I have often been 
accused of preaching against Universalism; but 
how can I avoid it, if that system lies right between 
me and sinners? When it gets out from between 
me and the impenitent, I shall no longer shoot 
through it to hit them. In reality I desire to war 
with no sect ; but the salvation of my fellow-men 
from sin is dearer to me than the friendship of all 
the world." 

About this time a very sharp newspaper contro- 
versy sprung up between Elder Millard and Rev. 
M. L. Wisner, a Universalist minister of central 
'New York. The latter communicated through the 
"Herald," a Universalist paper, then published at 
Geneva, New York, and the former through the 
Christian Palladium. This controversy was con- 
ducted with considerable asperity on both sides — Mr. 
Millard especially wielded a very sharp and severe 
pen. We shall, however, introduce none of the 


controversy into this volume, as . its chief interest 
passed with the occasion which called it forth. 

In the month of March, 1835, the subject of these 
pages again visited the churches in central Penn- 
sylvania. On his return to Starkey, he wrote : "My 
tour to me is a pleasing source of reflection. I hold 
in grateful recollection the kindness of many breth- 
ren and friends, especially those in Plymouth and 
Lewisburg. May God reward them a hundred fold. 
I have been many years in the field, and must soon 
retire in silence to the grave; but I can die, rejoic- 
ing that I have seen God's salvation. On leaving 
Lewisburg, during one of his visits to that place, he 
composed and sung the following hymn : 


Now my time is come for going, 

Now my heart begins to swell ; 
While the silent tear is falling — 

Scarce can say, my friends, farewell ! 
Yet farewell to each believer; 

Where my God commands I'll fly; 
We must part, but not forever — 

We shall meet above the sky. 

While I range o'er distant regions, 

Far from friends so fondly dear; 
While o'er souls exposed to ruin, 

Oft I shed the anxious tear ; 
Still my mind with warm affection 

Fondly will revert to you ; 
Time nor distance can not sevei 

Me from those I bid adieu. 


Say you will your feeblest servant 

On your faithful spirits bear ; 
When your faith and love are fervent 

Will you mention me in prayer ? 
Surely on my mind I'll bear you ; 

Though we may far off remove, 
Yet my spirit shall be with you, 

Till we take our seats above. 

Now my soul, in hope exulting. 

Looks beyond death's chilly wave; 
Where the saints with whom I've parted 

I shall meet beyond the grave, 
There to meet o'er Jordan's billow. 

Safe within the promised land ; 
I to God in love commend you, 

And must give the parting hand. 

From Pennsylvania he returned to Starkey, ^ew 
York, and there remained till the June following. 
He then took leave of the brethren in that vicinity, 
where he had bestowed in all about eight months of 
labor, and had formed many endearing attachments. 
On the 29th of June he attended a session of the 
Isew York Central Conference at Marion, Wayne 
County, and delivered the annual address. That 
address possessed chiefly a local interest, but the 
language we shall here quote will be more largely 
indorsed and appreciated now than when it was 
uttered nearly forty years ago : 

"The basis on which the Christian connection 
was first established must and will ultimately tri- 
umph. Every reform which we witness among the 
sects around us is but an advance toward the very 
ground on which we stand. One thing is certain, 
that in the final issue of reformation in the church 


party names must be abandoned and human creeds 
be relinquished.'' 

From the annual conference, he in company ^yith 
Elder Seth Marvin visited some of the churches in 
western Xew York, and on the 11th of July took 
passage in a steamboat at Kochester for what is 
now known as the Province of Ontario. They 
spent about four weeks in visiting and preaching at 
various places in that province ; at the close of 
which he writes: -'behave traveled over two hun- 
dred miles in this province, and preached nearly 
forty times in less than four weeks.*' 

On the lOtli of August they were conveyed to 
Toronto. Here they stepped on board a steamer, 
and in four hours and a half landed at the mouth of 
the Xiagara River, and from thence were conveyed 
that same evening by steamer to the mouth of the 
Genessee River, near Rochester, arriving in that 
city on the morning of the 11th. 

During the remainder of the summer aiid through 
the fall of 1835, Elders Millard and Marvin contin- 
ued as evangelists, visiting many churches in cen- 
tral and western Xew York. In Cayuga County 
they attended numerous meetings in company with 
Elder O. E. Morrill. They also visited Starkey, 
and attended an impressive and interesting meeting 
at Rock Stream, which was held in the month of 

On the Tth and Sth of October they attended a 
meeting of the Executive Committee of the Chris- 
tian Book Association, at Union Mills, Xew York. 
On the 9th of the same month they went to Charles- 


ton, and commenced a meeting there on the 10th. 
This meeting lasted live days, and resulted in the 
conversion of quite a number of persons. Elder 
Ross was then in feeble health. Little did the sub- 
ject of this memoir think, when he penned the 
words we shall now quote, that he should finish his 
earthly pilgrimage before his then feeble brother in 
the ministry : 

''Elder Ross is in some better health than he has 
been, but is still unable to speak above a whisper. 
* * >K Qq Sabbath, a written communication from 
him was read to the congregation, which drew tears 
from many. * -'"^ * Elder Ross and myself were youth- 
ful mates, and entered the work of the ministry 
about together, i^ow he is almost worn out, while 
I am enabled to travel and preach the word of life. 
His patience and meekness under present afflictions 
may I copy and carry through the remainder of my 
pilgrimage. God bless thee, my dying brother! 
May his almighty grace sustain and comfort thee, 
and finally bring us both to meet in that land where 
the inhabitants thereof shall no more say, I am sick. 

'* 'For, see, o'er death's bewild'ring wave 

The rainbow hope arise ! 
A bridge of glory o'er the grave, 

It bends beyond the skies. ^ 

From earth to heav'n it swells and shines, 

The pledge of bliss to man ; 
Time with eternity combines 

And grasps them with a span.' " 

Leaving Charleston, they visited Greene County, 
New York, arriving at Freehold on the 16th of 


October, and attending a two-days' meeting on the 
17th and 18th. They preached to large assemblies 
in different places in the county till the 22d. On 
the morning of the 23d they took passage in a- 
steamboat at Coxsackie, and arrived in ^ew York 
City that evening. Elder I. X. Walter was then- 
pastor of the Christian church in that city. Sev- 
eral days were spent with his congregation preach- 
in o: and visitino: from house to house. Durino^ the- 
time they were in the place sixteen came forward 
for prayers, several of whom found peace in believ- 
ing, and afterward united with the church. 

Mr. Millard writes : "Early on the morning of 
the 30th we stepped on board a steamboat at the- 
city, and landed about noon at Poiighkeepsie, 
where Elder P. Roberts met us with a carriage and 
conveyed us to Union Vale, Dutchess County." 
Here Elder Marvin was prostrated by an attack of 
fever, and was seriously threatened with death. 
Says the subject of our memoir: "Ou the 6th of 
June I was brought into a peculiar strait relative 
to parting with my dear Brother Marvin, and pur- 
suing my journey alone. AVe had appointments- 
given out on a route of about three hundred miles,. 
and it was his decided opinion that I should pro- 
ceed to fulfill them. Concluding that he was where 
every attention would be paid him, and that I could 
render him no essential service, after consulting 
others I decided to take my leave. But never shall 
I forget my feelings on giving him the parting 
hand. Since we started together we had traveled 
in company about fifteen hundred miles, had 


preaclied to crowds iu many places, and had seen 
some hundreds bow before the Lord for mercy and 
salvation. The union of souls w^hich has Ions: 
bound us together, death can never sever." 

On the 10th of I^ovember Mr. Millard preached 
the dedication sermon at the opening of a chapel 
in Hall's Hollow, near Rensalaerville, I^ew York. 
The sermon was founded on Matt. xxiv. 14. Meet- 
ings continued for three days, many were converted, 
and the searching spirit of the Highest ran through 
the congregations." 

After this he traveled extensively through Scho- 
harie, Delaware, and Otsego counties, preaching in 
many places, and witnessing, in some instances, 
great displays of Divine power. Leaving the sec- 
tion already named, he again took a missionary tour 
to the churches in Clarendon, Shelby, Royalton, 
and Stafford, and soon after entered into an arrange- 
ment with Elder E. Adams to travel for six months 
through a region extending from Stafford, Genes- 
see County, to Royalton, l^Tiagara Count}^ 

Under date of April 26, 1836, he wrote: 
^'Having for live months past been almost Avholly 
conlined to a circuit, w^hich extends through a part 
of Genessee, Orleans, and Niagara counties, I have 
had less than usual to write for publication, as a 
considerable of sameness has attended my weekly 
labors. I have been compelled to travel on horse- 
back most of the time during the coldest weather I 
ever witnessed. I have several times been severely 
frost-bitten, and on the whole have attended about 
as many meetings as there have been days. But I 


have been remarkably preserved in health; and, 
blessed be God, while the toils of the past winter have 
been excessively arduous, they have not been with- 
out some fruits." The circuit rode by Elders Mil- 
lard and Adams embraced about one hundred and 
fifty miles travel, and extended through nine 
churches. They occasionally turned aside and 
visited other churches not directly on their route. 
Among the places visited occasionally by them 
was Parma, Monroe County. "Here I saw God's 
power displayed in the conversion of some of the 
hardest in the pkce," Mr. Millard wrote. He also 
witnessed a marked and interesting revival in Staf- 
ford. And in Royalton and Barre there was con- 
siderable religious interest. 

In June, 1836, Mr. Millard left the circuit he had 
been traveling with Elder Adams, the latter con- 
tinuing to occupy a part of the field, and Rev. Asa 
C. Morrison (then recently from New Hampshire) 
another part of it. He writes: ''On the 10th of June 
I preached the dedication sermon at the opening 
of the new chapel in Henrietta. The congregation 
was large. Elder Adams preached in the afternoon 
of the same day. The meeting continued the fol- 
lowing three days, at the close of which several 
mourning souls rose for prayers, one of whom soon 
after found deliverance. When we left, several 
others, to appearance, were nigh the kingdom." 
Subsequently, he visited Onondaga, Yates, and 
Ontario counties, preaching in several places, and 
in some witnessing powerful displays of Divine 
grace. His appeals to the consciences of men were 


truly powerful, and when these appeals were made 
in the fulness of his soul, few could withstand them. 
It was not an unusual thing to see the entire con- 
gregation bathed in tears while listening to one of 
those earnest exhortations he was accustomed to 
make at the close of his discourses, and often per- 
sons who w^ere affected by them would cry out for 
mercy, and then, under the promptings of the Spirit, 
would seek and find pardon. 




Having received very urgent requests to visit 
Michigan, on the 10th of July, 1836, the subject of 
these pages — leaving his horse and carriage at Staf- 
ford, !N'ew York — took tlie stage for Buifalo, and 
arrived in that city the same evening. He writes: 
*'0n the morning of the 13th I set sail from Buffalo 
in a beautiful steamer, crowded with passengers, 
most of whom were either emigrants for Michigan 
or land speculators bound for the 'far West' in 
search of fortune. ^ ^ * After touching by the way 
at the harbors of Dunkirk, Erie, Cleveland, Huron, 
and Sandusky, we were landed at the city of Detroit 
on the morning of the 15th, safe and sound." 

On the morning of his arrival he took a seat in a 
stage for Royal Oak, twelve miles from Detroit. 
"After proceeding about four miles," he says, "on 
one of the worst roads ever traveled by any kind of 
carriage, I met Elder John Cannon coming with a 
horse saddled for my use. Glad to be discharged 
from the unpleasant seat I occupied, I mounted the 
horse brought by Brother Cannon, and we soon left 
the stage far in our rear." He spent some days in 


Oakland County, traveling and preaching in com 
pany with Elder Cannon, who was then laboring 
earnestly and successfully as a minister of Ciirist in 
that region. He afterward visited and preached in 
several places in Wayne, Washtenaw, Lenawee, 
and Jackson counties. While in the latter county 
one of the brethren kindly gave him the use of a 
horse for a week. He says : " I set out on the 27th 
for Kalamazoo County, accompanied by Elder F* 
H. Adams, and preached at live o'clock in the aft- 
ernoon at Homer, Calhoun County. We put up 
that night several miles west of Marshall, at the 
house of a friend, formerly of Clarendon, 'New 
York. The next day w^e called a short time at the 
house of Elder Amos Whitcomb, formerly of ^N^iag- 
ara County, New York. We found him digging 
on his small new clearing, surrounded by a lofty 
forest. He welcomed us to his log cottage with all 
the affection of a brother. ^ ^ * We soon gave him 
and his kind family the parting hand and proceeded 
on our way, which for eight or nine miles lay 
almost entirely through an uninhabited forest. 
Merging from this forest we entered upon a beauti- 
ful prairie called 'Gourdneck' from its peculiar 
shape. Crossing, at several miles travel, that 
delightful plain, we passed a thin copse, and at bnce 
entered upon the most beautiful prairie I had ever 
beheld, called 'Prairie Ronde. * ^ -i^ Skirted on all 
sides by a noble forest, this prairie presents pictur- 
esque scenery rarely to be met with. Here resides 
Elder Benjamin Taylor, who with his kind family 
received us very affectionately. Sabbath, July 31st, 


I preached twice on the prairie to good congre- 

"I had now arrived at the end of my journey 
westward, and on Monday took leave of Elder Tay- 
lor and family ; and also of Bro. Adams, wliom I 
had found an excellent traveling companion, and 
set my face eastw^ard. Passing over Gourdneck 
and a long region of forest, mostly an Indian reserve, 
about noon I came out upon a beautiful settlement 
on a prairie called Climax. * -'^ ^ Often, in crossing 
prairies and traversing bur-oak plains, the eye of 
the traveler is delighted with the landscape, espe- 
cially the beauty of the herbage. As he passes be 
is often reminded of the fabled elysian fields and 
groves." He was twenty-five days in Michigan, 
during which time he traveled over four hundred 
miles, and preached twenty-one sermons. He says : 
"Long shall I remember the preachers with whom 
I associated, and such acts of kindness as I received 
from many brethren who are indellibly enstamped 
upon a grateful heart." 

On the 9tb of August he took passage at Detroit 
on a steamboat, expecting to land at Conneaut, 
Ohio ; but a strong east w^ind prevented their enter- 
ing that harbor. He was thus compelled to give 
up bis contemplated visit to that place, and passing 
on landed at Buflalo on the 11th of the month. 
He reached Barre, Orleans County, New York, on 
Friday the 12th, and preached there on the 14th. 
He writes: "Here I enjoyed an excellent interview 
with Elder Jotham Morse, w^ho is an Israelite with- 


out guile." Thence he returned to Stafford, and 
immediately started on a visiting tour among the 
churches in Genessee, Erie, and Chatauque coun- 
ties, attending a session of the Erie Christian Con- 
ference, at Ellington, in the latter county, on the 
30th of August. Meetings were held in the chapel 
each evening during the session of conference, and 
sermons were preached by Revs. J. Bailey and D. 

After this he proceeded eastward, and spent most 
of the time till the latter part of October in itiner- 
ating among the churches in central and eastern 
I^ew York. On the 9th of October he returned to 
the place of his nativity, and preached in Burnt 
Hills, in Ballston. He says : ''I had not been there 
before for seven, years. Several circumstances con- 
spired to render the season peculiarly solemn to me. 
Twenty years ago I left that place, since which 
time I had only paid it occasional visits. JSTow I 
almost found myself in a land of strangers. My 
father's family had all moved away, and of the 
large congregation present there was scarcely fifty 
persons that I knew. I could but exclaim in my 
own mind, 'Scenes of my childhood ! ye are here, 
but where are my former friends and associates!' 
* ^ M< Every road, grove, hill, and rivulet waked up 
some early recollection. But, alas! a lonely melan- 
choly brooded over the whole scene, and there was 
visible but the shattered vestige of what was famil- 
iar to me twenty years ago!" During this visit he 
wrote these lines : 



Sweet scenes of my childhood ! once more I retrace 
The beauty and charms of my dear native place ; 
The groves and the fields and the roads and the streams, 
Awake in remembrance my juvenile dreams. 

Each object before me holds witl;i it combined 
Some early occurrence still fresh to my mind ; 
True, friends have grown older, but still I retrace 
A likeness preserved on each age-furrowed face. 

The home of my parents, still stately but plain, 
Tho' rev'rend with age, looks familiar again. 
Here childhood's soft hours, and youth s sunny day, 
Sped lightly and blithsome and careless away. 

I aided my father in planting those trees ; 
Those stately tall poplars that sigh in the breeze ; 
That orchard which bends under fruit now so fair— 
I rambled that field ere a tree was set there. 

The chestnut grove yonder, romantic and wild, 

I remember I visited oft when a child ; 

There gathered the nuts as they fell from the trees, 

When the forest was shaken by autumn's rough breeze. 

By the side of the road, near to yonder sand-hill, 
Stood a school-house, tho' gone I remember it still ; 
^Twas there I received my first lesson at school. 
And learned by experience a pedagogue's rule. 

On the banks of the Alploss that winds through the vale, 
I wandered in childhood when sprightly and hale ; 
Oft bathed in its waters and drank from the rill, 
Or skated its bosom when frozen and still. 

I remember the place where the blackberries grew, 
And often I feasted myself on them, too; 
In the clover-field watched the industrious bee, 
Or the woodpecker tapping the hollow pine tree. 


T remember the grove where the brown thrasher sung— 
Where the wood-pigeon nestled and reared up her young ; 
O'er the fields often roved where the quiet flocks fed, 
Or reclined in the shade on a grass-covered bed. 

But, ah ! while I am gazing, the tears flow apace ; 
I weep o'er the scenes of my dear native place. 
A gloom overcasts every object I see ; 
Sweet home of my childhood, home no more to me I 

A father's fond smile often greeted me here; 
A mother's embrace rendered home doubly dear ; 
But parents and sisters and brothers are gone ! 
This home's now another's ; I stand here alone ! 

Fate has exiled me far from the spot I held dear ; 
;But mem'ry will oft pay a pilgrimage here ; 
The home of my childhood affection shall prize, 
Till my pilgrimage ends at my home in the skies. 

From Ballston he went to Berlin, !N'ew York, 
and preached six times in the Christian chapel in 
that place, and once in the adjoining township of 
Petersburg. At the latter place he received an 
urgent request to remain and preach for several 
months; but he did not at that time feel it his duty 
to locate anywhere. On the 22d and 23d of Octo- 
ber he preached -^ve discourses to large congrega- 
tions in the village of South Adams, Massachusetts. 
Of this place he writes : " When I see an infant 
church struggling against a torrent of opposition, 
like that at South Adams, I want to be w^ith them 
and bear a part of their suflerings. I parted from 
them with regret, and have often thought of them 
since; but I hope yet to be with them again. O 
Lord, be thou a wall of lire round about them, and 
thy glory in their midst I" 


On the evening of tlie 24tli he addressed a large 
congregation in Stephentown, Xew York, and on 
the 27th attended a general meeting at Milan, 
Dutchess County. Besides himself, there were 
present at this meeting Elders Marsh, Spoor, Ford, 
iind Roberts. The meeting continued four days. 
The congregations were large and attentive, and 
several persons came forward for prayers. 

After attending other meetings in Dutchess and 
Columbia counties, he started on the 16th of 
!N'ovember for the State of Connecticut, and on his 
way passed through Stockbridge and Lee, Massa- 
chusetts, then through Colbrook to 'New Boston, 
on Farmington Eiver, and on to Hartford. After 
three days' travel he reached Elder Elias Sharp's, 
in Chaplin, Windham County, and was very kindly 
received. On the 19th he rode with Elder Sharp 
to AYestford, where he preached on Sabbath the 
20th, and on the evening of the same day addressed 
a congregation in the elder's neighborhood. On 
the 24th, which was Thanksgiving-dayj he preached 
in the Burnham Chapel, in Hampton, in the day 
time, and not far from that place in the evening. 
While there he preached several times in the neigh- 
borhood, and quite a number were converted. 
From Hampton, Connecticut, he went to Coventry, 
Ehode Island, and there attended a general meeting 
on the 6th of December. From that time till the 
10th of January, 1837, he was unceasingly at work 
for the cause in Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
preaching in Coventry, Hampton, Plainfield, Lis 
bon, Lebanon, and Providence. 


In a letter written during this period he says ; 
"Often, those who enjoy the sweets of retired life 
thirst for a more public station, aiiticipating that it 
would bring with it an increasing enjoyment. But 
how often has the statesman, and even the monarch, 
sighed for retirement. How often is the evangelist 
— the embassador of Jesus — if not weary of the 
work, weary in it, and if it were pleasing to Him 
who sent him forth, would seek some humble, 
retired abode of peace. * ^ ^ But shall I stop? Shall 
I leave the gospel Held, and retire? ]^o; God for- 
bid that I should do this thing, without permission 
from him who has called me 1 The watchword is, 
'Onward and upward'. There is no discharge in this 
war till the last foe is vanquished, till the victory 
is gained, till the prize is won. Too many have 
already retired from the field, and sought other avo- 
cations. Who sent them forward? Who sent them 
back again? Was it the same master in both 
instances? l^o character under heaven fills so 
important a station as the minister of Christ.' 
Think of it ! oh, think of it, ye that retire from the 
field, and ye that are slothful ! And you, my breth- 
ren in Christ, beware of covetousness, which is idol- 
atry. Let not a selfish, penurious spirit in you lay 
a temptation for your minister to retire under dis- 

From Providence he passed into Massachusetts, 
preaching at Taunton, ^ew Bedford, Fairhaven, 
Lynn, Boston, and other places. These meetings 
were generally interesting and impressive. He 
says : " My last discourse in New Bedford was given 


to a very large assembly. If I ever felt the power 
of God rest on me while speaking, it was there. 
The fruits of that meeting, I doubt not, will be 
seen in eternity. The next morning I met many 
brethren and anxious souls in the vestry of the First 
Church, where a season of earnest exhortation and 
fervent prayer was spent." This was the 26th. 

On the 31st of January we find him at Salem, 
where Eev. William Coe was then preaching. In 
Salem he found his early colleague in labor, Elder 
C. "W. Martin. Their short interview awakened in 
recollection many interesting events of by-gone 
years. On the first of February he went to Salis- 
bury Point, and in the evening preached to a large 
and attentive congregation. On the next evening 
he preached in the Friends' meeting-house in Ames- 
bury; and on the evening of February 3d addressed 
a small but interesting assembly in Kensington, 
New Hampshire. On the 4th he rode to Exeter, 
where he was very cordially welcomed to the house 
of Elder Elijah Shaw. With him he had, in former 
years, enjoyed a long and happy acquaintance which 
was renewed on this occasion. He spoke three 
times on the Sabbath to large assemblies, and on 
Tuesday (the 7th) rode in company with Elder Shaw 
to Elder Piper's, in Stratham. With the latter he 
formed a very pleasing acquaintance, and that even- 
ing preached to his congregation. He also preached 
at Hampton and Pye. 

On the 11th of February he arrived at Ports- 
mouth, and on the next day, which was the Sabbath, 
preached three times to large assemblies, and again 


on Monday evening. On the evening of the 14th 
he preached at Kittery Point, in the State of Maine. 
Here he had an excellent interview with Elder 
Mark Fernald, in speaking of whom he says : '' This 
servant of God has heen many years on the walls, 
and amidst the changes and speculations of the age 
has maintained but one course, and that is directly 
onward. He has ever possessed the moral courage 
to declare the whole counsel of God wherever he 
went. [N^either flatteries nor frowns can turn him 
either to the right or left." He preached also at 
Portland, Saco, and other places in Maine. Return- 
ing from the East he held meetings in Exeter and 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and in Haverhill, 
Lynn, Boston, 'New Bedford, Taunton, and other 
places in Massachusetts. 

On the 12th of April he preached in Providence, 
Rhode Island ; and thence proceeded to Coventry, 
where he preached three times. From Coventry he 
directed his course hack through Connecticut, stop- 
ping at nearly the same places he had visited before, 
^ and preaching with his usual zeal and power. Hav- 
ing spent about six months in his tour through 
New England, he now started westward. After 
preaching in several places in eastern E'ew York, 
he made his way to Charleston in season to attend 
the New York Eastern Conference, which was held 
in that place on the 3d, 4th, and 5th of June. The 
conference was harmonious and interesting, and the 
religious meetings held in connection with it were 
excellent. From Charleston he set out for West 
Bloomfleld, a distance of two hundred miles, which 


place Le reached on the 9tli of Jiiue. Here lie 
preached twice on the following Sabbath. He writes : 
''On the next Saturday and Sabbath I attended the 
yearly meeting in West Mendon. The conference 
followed on Monday and Tuesday, in wdiich much 
business w^as done, and in an orderly manner. I 
found the cause w^ithin the bounds of the confer- 
ence thriving and prosperous. On the 25th and 
26th I attended the ISTew York "Western Yearly 
Meeting in Clarendon. This meeting was very 
good. My engagements, however, prevented my 
staying to the conference, which I much desired 
to do. 

" The time had now arrived when m}' appoint- 
ments called me eastward again. After spending 
a short time with some relatives in Eochester, I set 
out and traveled in my carriage two hundred miles 
in four days, a part of which time I was much 
annoyed with rain. On Sabbath, July 2d, I 
preached to crowded assemblies in Laurens and 
^QW Lisbon, Otsego County." He then visited 
some of the churches in Albany and Greene counties, 
and on the 15th of July reached ISTew York City, 
where he spent nine wrecks with the church then 
under the pastoral care of Rev. I. 'N. Walter. . He 
writes: "During my stay in the city I generally 
attended -^ve and six meetings in each w^eek. IS'ot- 
withstanding many of the society were at that 
season in the country, the congregations w^ere large. 
A solemn and increasing interest seemed manifest 
in the meetings, especially during the latter part of 
the time. A few were hopefully converted, and 


many others were anxiously exercised in mind at 
the time of my leaving. I rejoice to since learn, by 
Elder Walter, that the work of reformation is 
gradually progressing in the society. God bless 
that dear congregation. My stay among them 
strongly endeared them to me, and united us in 
bonds stronger than death." 

On the 14th of September he took an evening 
boat up the ^N'orth Kiver, and landed the next 
morning at Rhinebeck. From there he was con- 
veyed by carriage to Rock City, Dutchess County, 
and preached in that place in the evening. The 
next morning he went to Stanfordville, where a 
general meeting commenced on that day. He was 
assisted in this meeting by Elders P. Roberts and 
R. Collins. Much interest was felt, and quite a 
number were converted. He also preached at Milan, 
Catskill, Ereebold, Greenville, and Westerlo. These 
meetings were all very interesting and impressive. 
On the 4th and 5th of October he attended the 
annual session of the Executive Committee of the 
General Book Association at the Palladium Office, 
then located at Union Mills, 'New York. 

The subject of our memoir had now finished his 
labors for the present, at least as an evangelist. 
Eor more than four years he had been unremitting 
in this work — had, as we have seen, traveled thou- 
sands of miles, preached hundreds of sermons, and 
had seen large numbers converted under his preach- 
ing. The time had now come for him to retire 
from this field, and return again to the pastoral 
office. And so, at the close of the meeting just 


referred to, he set out for Portsmouth, Kew Hamp- 
shire, to enter upon an engagement which he had 
made with the Christian church in that city to 
become its pastor. In the following chapter we shall 
notice his labors in Portsmouth, and also in other 
places in !N'ew England. 




The subject of this memoir arrived at Ports- 
mouth, "New Hampshire, on the 13th of October, 
1837, and entered at once upon his pastoral work 
with a devotion and earnestness that gave imme- 
diate promise of success. His laborious and per- 
sistent efforts were remarked by all who knew him, 
and were abundantly rewarded in the growth of his 
congregation, and the increase of pi^ty and spiritual 
iabor in the church. In a letter subsequently writ- 
ten to his daughter, he says : 

" The church of which I have taken charge was 
very low at the time of my arrival, having been 
only indifferently supplied with preaching for sev- 
eral months previous. Elder How, their former 
pastor, had preached for them eleven years, and had 
been much blessed. He had, however, left them 
and moved to 'New Bedford. The consequence was 
that the congregation scattered considerably among 
other meetings. When I entered upon my labors 
they began to gather back. Soon every pew in our 
house was taken, and our congregation filled it 
throughout." When he had spent two weeks in 
the place he wrote to a friend: "I have preached 


eight times in all, attended eleven meetings, and 
visited much from house to house." His preaching^ 
was well calculated to arouse and reform. "What 
has been said of another will apply to him : "When 
he directed the minds of his hearers to Christ, and 
exhibited the mercy of God to the penitent, there 
was a softening, subduing influence that involun- 
tarily started the tear from the eye; but when ho 
addressed impenitent sinners in the language of 
warning, Sinai seemed to tower over their heads 
and cast forth its fearful flames; the glittering 
sword of Divine justice impended; the scene of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, as the descending flames 
spread over these fair portions of earth, seemed to 
rise before them, and the thunder of an insulted 
God convulsed the earth." 

On the 24th of November he commenced holdincr 
meetings every evening, and, for a while, during the 
day also. These meetings lasted through the 
months of December and January. Under date of 
February 2, 1838, he writes: "The revival still 
continues in the congregation to which I preachy 
though I think it is abating some. Probably some 
over fifty have experienced religion, and more are 
still anxious. My labors have been abundant, but 
my strength has been remarkably sustained." 

While in Portsmouth he took a very decided 
interest in the temperance and antislavery move- 
ments. He did not hesitate to speak out upon these 
subjects with the boldness of conscientious sincerity. 
While he never neglected pastoral work to attend 
to these reforms, he felt that he could not fail to 


interest himself in them and be a true m.inister of 
the gospel. From the first he was an abolitionist, 
and branded slavery as a "God-dishonoring, man- 
debasing, and heaven-daring sin." When the Amer- 
ican Antislavery Society was formed, he became one 
of its earliest members, and while at Portsmouth, 
was president of the local society. In 1838 he 
wrote these lines : 


Of all the ills with which our land is curs'd, 
The deadly sin of slavery is the worst : 
Pandora-box of vices, like disease, 
Spreading infection on each passing breeze ! 
What hateful vice but slavery serves to feed ? 
What damning sin does not that monster breed? 
Think of each ill you'd warn me to beware, 
Then turn to slavery, see it cradled there. 

There human beings shorn of human rights, 
Stript of their manhood, robb'd of life's delights, 
Transformed to goods and chattels, held as such, 
Are bought and sold for little and for much ; 
Doomed 'neath the lash to drag a life of toil, 
And, unrequited, cultivate the soil; 
Thrust out like brutes, to pamper pride and lust, 
And bear God's image trampled in the dust! 

Doom man a slave — then talk of doing right ! 
Can food and clothes for liberty requite? 
What can content the human mind enchained, 
To sigh in bondage, till life's sands are drained? 
To toil for others, wages all withheld, 
The hope of freedom from the soul expelled ! 
Let sweetened mixtures this sad chalice fill, 
Oppression's victim sighs for freedom still. 


^Twixt slaves there may be difference of fate ; 
Disease may vary in its kind and state ; 
Yet who's diseased but seeks release from pain • 
And who's enslaved that would not freedom gain ? 
Mold human bondage in what form you will, 
Oppression's victim sighs for freedom still ! 

And thou, my country, land that gave me birth! 
Boast of the world, and fairest clime of earth I 
How long shall slavery sully all thy fame, 
And mantling blushes paint a nation's shame? 
How long shall monarchs point the hand of scorn, 
And jeer at millions here in slavery born? 
Our ten miles square,* beneath a nation's laws, 
Where statesmen eloquent in freedom's cause, 
See human beings daily bought and sold, 
And freedom sacrificed to sordid gold ! 
Hear clanking chains, the lash, the victim's shriek ! 
Then gag the statesman who would dare to speak ! 

Dread, guilty land, a fearful reck'ning daj'I 
"Vengeance is mine," saith God, ** I will repay I " 
E'en now a storm is muttering o'er thy head ; 
Tho' justice slumbers, ye its arm may dread ! 
A nation's pride may garnish its own tomb — 
In fallen empires read thy threatened doom ! 

More than twenty years after these lines were 
written, how tearfully did the storm referred to 
spend itself on our nation during its fonr years of 
civil war. About a year later he wrote as follows : 
"AVe regard the abolition of slavery as a moral and 
religious question, and, as such, a cause which makes 
a direct appeal to the church, .and to every philan- 
thropist. On moral and religious grounds we com- 

*District of Columbia. 


menced our feeble labors against slavery^ and, 
by the help of God, we shall still prosecute those 
labors." Again, he says : ^' Too long have even 
Christians contemplated slavery as an evil — but a 
necessary evil. Too long have many supposed that 
the safety, of our country makes it necessary to let 
slavery alone. * ^-'^ '^ What nation's safety was ever 
guarded by a continued course of oppressive wrongs ? 
It is always safe for individuals and nations to do 
right. The church is under obligations to do right, 
be the consequences what they may. Wickedness 
and oppression have overthrown nations, but right- 
eousness never. There are awful judgments in 
store for this nation, if slavery continues in it much 
longer. God grant that every professor of religion 
may wash his hands before insulting heaven fvom 
this ^black and crying iniquity. So long as the 
church upholds slavery in its body, it will remain 
fastened upon our land, and on professors of 
religion. " 

At the time these utterances were made it required a 
high degree of moral courage and manly decision to 
maintain the position he then occupied. But he was 
equal to the emergency, and never faltered in the dis- 
charge of duty. His course upon this subject made 
him some enemies, but it did not injure his useful- 
ness as a minister and pastor. His honesty and manly 
independence were admired by many who were not 
then prepared to indorse his sentiments. His con- 
gregations were large, and the church continued 
to steadily prosper under his efficient and untiring 
labors, but his strength was considerably impaired. 


In the summer of 1839, lie made a short visit to 
his friends in western ^i^ew York, and on his return 
wrote the following letter: 

" Portsmouth, New Hampshire, July 12, 1839. 
"My Dear Mary Jane: Once more from the shore of 
the wide Atlantic I take up my pen to address a few lines to 
you. The wind is now blowing softly from the southeast, 
and, coming directly off the ocean, renders tlie air very 
refreshiug at this season of the year. ^- * •• From the window 
where I am sitting I can faintly hear the roar of the waves 
as they break along the shore. You have never yet stood by 
the side of the mighty ocean. It is a majestic and interest- 
ing scene. I have repeatedly stood on the beach and watched 
billow after billow as they broke along the shore. Some- 
times they pour in angry surges ; then breaking partly into 
spray, sprinkle the whole border for several rods. At other 
times they gently reach their boundary in calm succession, 
and ^heu slowly recede till again lost in succeediug ones. 
But the ocean in its calmest moments evinces a restless 
motion along its beach. The mind of the wicked is by the 
prophet compared to the restless oceau. You probably rec- 
ollect seeing a piece of my poetry which contains the follow- 
ing lines: 

" 'When beside the mighty ocean 

Where its lashing surges roar, 
I have watched its wild commotion 

As it broke along the shore. 
Ocean's voice in awful roaring 

Bore the echo where I stood : 
'Mortal, bow, thy God adoring ; 

Own his greatness— God is good.' 

"I wish you could stand beside the mighty deep, there first 
see it in its calm and placid beauty, and then see it in its 
angry and wild commotion. You would witness a majesty 
not easily described. But the sea of time on which your 
barque and mine are launched, has its storms and calms not 
wholly unlike the Atlantic. It has its prosperous adventur- 


ers and its shipwrecked mariners ; but everything depends 
upon what kind of a pilot we have on board, and how well 
we obey his orders. If Jesus is our helmsman, the Bible our 
chart, and truth our compass, though the voyage may be 
stormy,, we shall be sure to make the port of heaven. My 
voyage will most probably be run before yours ; but may we 
safely meet there at last. So prays your affectionate father. 

''David Millard. " 

Daring this year, he again wrote as follows: 

"My Dear Daughter : As 1 expect you have now closed 
your labors at the seminary, you will not, I conclude, sup- 
pose you have terminated your studies. Indeed, these never 
ought to close with us while we live. The longer you live 
the more you will see the imperfections of human knowledge, 
and the more necessity of making advances still onward. 
Although absolute perfection is not attainable in this life, 
yet it is our duty to advance as near to it as our limited pow- 
ers will permit. You are now, as it were, just entering on 
the busy theater of life, and one thing I would suggest to 
you as important : Collect together in your mind every prin- 
ciple, acquirement, and qualification which you think would 
make a lady just what she should be. Frame a perfect pat- 
tern, and let it be deposited in your mind. Then resolve 
that you will use your efforts to assimilate that pattern as 
near as you can. The pattern you will frame will be an ele- 
vated one, but let not its greatness discourage your efforts to 
be like it. Improvement should be a watchword with us 
through life. We shall never make too great efforts in that 

"Society is made up of parts, and parts combined make 
parcels. We are not placed here to live for ourselves only, 
but for the good of ourselves and others around us. Every 
individual should aim to be living for usefulness. Nor is 
this all ; but we should ever remember that we should be liv- 
ing for another and a better world. Time, how short ! — eter- 
nity, how long ! Live, my child, for usefulness, for happi- 
ness, and for heaven. From your affectionate father. 

David Millard. 



During the winter of 1839-40, another revival 
broke out in Mr. Millard's congregation, which, also 
spread through the several churches in the city. 
While engaged in this work his labors were exceed- 
ingly wearing. Meetings were continued in the 
church about every other day and evening for four 
weeks, and during the five succeeding weeks about 
every evening. Besides the regular Sabbath labor, 
for a length of time, on each Lord's day, he baptized 
several believers. On one Sabbatb he baptized a 
large number, preached three times, and adminis- 
tered the ordinance of the Lord's Supper. In a 
number of the " Christian Herald" for April, 1840, 
we find the following: "Probably about one hun- 
dred and fifty souls have been converted in our 
meetings, but as a part of these were from other 
congregations, some have returned to their former 
meetings. ^ * * For weeks together, the ringing of 
bells for daily meetings rendered our town like a 
continual Sabbath. ^ * * It would be difficult at 
present to ascertain the exact number of conversions 
in town. They are variously estimated at from 
five hundred to seven hundred. We have received 
into fellowship eighty-one. l^one of these were 
received on previous profession, l^ever, while we 
linger on the shore of mortality, do we expect to 
enjoy more of heaven than we have in some of our 
late meetings, and on baptizing occasions. At the 
waters side thousands would gather to witness this 
solemn institution in Zion, and many would retire 
from the place weeping." 

So much was his mind absorbed in this blessed 


work that for some time he remained unconscious 
that his health was giving way. But when the 
interest had measurably subsided, and he had 
relaxed his efforts, he found that his nervous system 
was so affected as to almost unfit him for his pas- 
toral duties. 

It should have been mentioned that, during the 
second year of his pastorate at Portsmouth, he was 
chosen by the Eastern Publishing Association one 
of the editors of the '' Christian Herald," a weekly 
paper then published in Exeter, 'New Hampshire. 
To him the duty was assigned to furnish for each 
number of the paper one third of the editorial mat- 
ter. This, at the time mentioned, added not a little 
to his already over-burdening labors. He held his 
position as one of the editors of the Herald for 
three years, when he resigned. 

On account of his impaired health, Mr. Millard 
closed his labors in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
in July, 1840. On resigning the pastoral charge of 
the church in that city, he had intended to prepare 
for a foreign voyage, hoping thus to recruit his fail- 
ing health ; but at that time the church in Fair- 
haven, Massachusetts, was without a pastor. An 
urgent call was made for him to supply for a few 
months with such labors as ho might have strength 
to bestow. This call he was finally induced to 

Near the time of his^ leaving Portsmouth, he 
wrote in a private letter: '' I have now asked my 
dismissal from the pastoral charge of this church, 
with the intention of going to Fairhaven, Massa- 


cliusetts. My letter of resignation was acted upon 
by the society last evening and accepted, as I have 
reason to believe, with reluctance. There are many 
things to endear this society to me. My acquaint- 
ance has become large, in the circle of which are 
many who will have a warm place in my affections 
while I live. I shall leave the church prosperous. 
I have baptized over one hundred since I came here, 
and about one hundred and forty have been added 
to the church during that time. I have also sol- 
emnized some over forty marriages since I came 
here, and have attended about one hundred funerals. 
These circumstances and associations have served 
to create endearment and affection. Besides, Ports- 
mouth is a delightful and pleasant place. It is, 
however, my choice to leave. I must go where my 
labors will be less." 

In this connection we will introduce the folio w- 
ins: letter and resolutions: 

''PoETSMorTH, New Hampshire, May 26, 1840. 
* ' Elder David Millard : At the society meetiDg holden 
last evening, composed of the male members of the First 
Christian Church and Society, the following resolves were 
passed unanimously ; and it is with great pleasure that we 
communicate a copy of them to you, agreeably to the wishes 
of the society. Very respectfully your obedient servants. 
*' Joseph M. Edmonds, Chairman. 

'' Isaac Dow, Secretary. 

^^ Resolved, That it is with deep regret we receive the infor- 
mation from our present devoted and beloved pastor, Eider 
David Millard, by his letter to the wardens, just read to us, 
that he contemplates leaving us at the termination of our 
fiscal year; and it is only from a deep conviction that it will 
l)e for his present interest to leave us that we consent to 
^ny proposition of the kind. 


'■^ Resolved^ That we have the fullest confidence in him as 
a Christian and a minister of the gospel. His character 
stands uncontaminated, and, by well-directed and faithful 
labors, which we have reason to believe have been blessed 
of God, he will leave us in a flourishing, prosperous, and 
united condition, and he will carry with him not only an 
unblemished character, but our best wishes and prayers. 

^^ Mesolved, That we owe him a debt of gratitude, which 
time will never cancel, for the independent course he took 
in our removal from the meeting-house on Chestnut street 
to our present meeting-house on Pleasant street; for we 
firmly believe that if we had not had a minister of great 
firmness and independence, he would have sunk under the 
troubles and trials of that event." 

In the Herald, under date of July 9tli, he says: 
^'This week we take a harmonious and affectiouate 
leave of the First Christian Church at Portsmouth, 
to move to Fairhaven, Massachusetts. We have 
now devoted two years and nine, months in this 
city, during which time, as is the common lot of 
all, we have had to encounter some trials ; but, upon 
the whole, we have been greatly prospered, and 
have been permitted to see much of Messiah's 
glory. We part with the society of our late charge 
under the best of feelings, and such as we have 
ample reason to believe are reciprocal. -J^ * * Finally, 
as our valedictory, Ave would adopt the language of 
the Psalmist: ^Peace be within thy walls, and pros- 
perity within thy palaces. For my brethren and 
companions' sake, I will now say. Peace be within 
thee.' Beloved brethren of Portsmouth, farewell. '^ 

From Portsmouth he went directly to Fairhaven, 
and though his licalth was impaired, it was not 
in his nature to make work easy. During the 
six months that he remained there, he was unceas- 
ing in his labors; nor were they by any means 


fruitless. A good degree of religious interest was 
awakened, and sonae good accomplished through 
his ministrations. In February, 1841, he wrote as 
follows to the Herald : 

"We have resigned our pastoral connection with 
the church and society inFairhaven. This we have 
contemplated for some months, and had been making 
arrangements accordingl3\ Indeed, we have long 
been desirous of retiring to a more limited field of 
labor, feeling, as we sensibly do, the advance of age 
and a broken constitution. We have lono- been 
anxious to return to the field of our early labors in 
the West. * * * We expect soon to take an affec- 
tionate leave of this people, and in doing it we 
believe we shall part in the aflections of our breth- 
ren. In this church are many pious and devotional 
souls. Indeed, we know of no better brethren in 
all our acquaintance. * * * Long shall w^e hold them 
in fond and grateful recollection. The church at 
the present time is well united and greatly revived. 
There have been some additions of late; and at the 
present time there is an interesting state of feeling 
in the congregation. While we leave this dear peo- 
ple, our feeble prayers shall be that *God may be a 
wall of fire round about them, and his glory in the 
midst.' We believe they wdll not forget to pray 
for us. 

*'In connection with our resignation in Fair- 
haven, we have received a pressing invitation to 
visit Portland, Maine. We now contemplate going 
there, and may probably remain till after the open- 
ing of navigation in the spring, when we anticipate 


our course will be westward. O Lord, direct thy 
servant, and make his way prosperous." 

It seems that Rev. L. D. Fleming, who was preach- 
ing in Portland, had, in consequence of a bronchial 
affection, lost his voice, and was thus compelled to 
relinquish his pulpit. He accordingly wrote an 
urgent letter to the subject of these pages to visit 
the place, and supply for a season before going to 
the State of N"ew York. About a year before, and 
while he was. residing in Portsmouth, he had spent 
a few weeks in the same congregation in a series of 
very interesting meetings, Elder Fleming in return 
supplying the Portsmouth pulpit on the Sabbaths. 
The results of the meetings were glorious. Some 
hundreds were converted in that and other congre- 
gations. But the labors of Elder Fleming woret 
bim down. Mr. Millard now felt that he could not 
deny his request. He reached Portland on the 20tli 
of February, and at once entered upon his work, 
hoping that the pastor's health would be restored, 
and that he would soon be able to resume bis pul- 
pit labors. In this he was disappointed. Mr. 
Fleming was in a short time obliged to resign his 
pastoral charge and seek retirement. As a conse- 
quence, Mr. Millard's visit was protracted through 
several months. In the month of May he wrote: 
"The church in Casco street, where I have labored 
the last three months, is prosperous. There is a 
good spirit of engagedness in our prayer-meetings, 
and they are well attended. On the last commun- 
ion day I administered baptism, and gave the right 
hand of fellowship to four." 


In the month of August he decided to leave, and 
on the 10th of the month wrote to the Herald as 
follows : 

"Having now closed mvlahors in Portland, I this 
week take an affectionate leave of the brethren and 
friends in that city. I have spent six months with 
the Casco street Christian society. Daring that 
time there have been some baptisms, and several 
additions to the church. The church and conofre- 
gation are large, and more labors are needed among 
them than the peculiar state of my health would 
permit me to bestow. It was the united wish of 
the church, as I was assured, that I should continue 
with them; but I have declined, wishing once more 
to return to my native !N"ew York. Indeed, I have 
already remained much longer than I designed 
when I came to this city. I have hoped that the 
church would be provided with a pastor to imme- 
diate! v succeed me; but one is not vet obtained. 
God grant that the ultimate choice maybe a united 
and happy one." 

On the evening of the 13th of August, 1841, he 
took his leave of Portland for Boston, on a steamer 
bearing the name of the former place. Eemaining 
but a few hours in the latter city, he proceeded to 
iSTew Bedford, where he was cordially received by 
Elder How and others. He enjoyed some excellent 
meetings in Xew Bedford and Fairhaven, and espe- 
cially in the latter place was greeted in a very affec- 
tionate manner by those with whom he had form- 
erly labored in the gospel. From ]S"ew Bedford he 
went to Taunton, where he remained a short time. 


Thence passed through Providence on the 20th, and 
in the evening took the steamboat at Stonington 
for the city of "New York, where he spent Sab- 
bath, August 23d. ire was received cordially by 
Elder Simonton, and preached three times to his 
congregation. The next evening he took passage 
in a steamboat for Albany, and from thence has- 
tened to western ^ew York. On Sabbath (the 29th 
of August) he preached at Houeoye Falls, to the 
church of w^hich Elder Badger was then pastor, and 
on the Sabbath following to his old congregation 
in "West Bloomfield. 

He now spent a few wrecks in scattered labors in 
places where he had formerly preached. But his 
mind w^as still bent upon a foreign voyage. Such 
a voyage it was thought w^ould be favorable to his 
impaired health, and had also been repeatedly rec- 
ommended by physicians. 




On the 16th of October, 1841, Mr. Millard 
embarked from Boston on a new and fast-sailing- 
barque, bound directly for Malta. The voyage was 
prosperous, though, as might be expected at that 
season of the year, rough and stormy. It was com- 
pleted in thirty-six days. After being placed in 
quarantine for one day, the clerk of the American 
consul came on board, and by him the subject of 
these pages was very politely conducted to the con- 
sul's office. Here he was received very cordially, 
and that official imparted to him some essential 
information. He remained on the island in all 
about eight days, and during that time visited many 
places of interest. "I saw little worthy of note," 
he writes, *^with the exception of a visit to St. 
Paul's Bay. This is the supposed place where that 
apostle was shipwrecked. It is situated about seven 
miles from Valetta, the capital of the island. This 
bay is about three miles in length, and two in width 
at the entrance, gradually decreasing toward the 
extremity. * * * A small chapel has been erected 
over the supposed spot where the barbarians lighted 


a fire to warm the shipwrecked company. It con- 
tains several old drawings, illustrative of the event 
it is designed to commemorate. The day was pleas- 
ant and fair, and the whole scene presented a lovely 
tranquility peculiarly suited to the musings of my 
mind. * * -J^ A week or ten days may be spent very 
pleasantly in Malta in the autumn of the year." 

While at Malta he formed an acquaintance with 
an English gentleman of fortune, traveling for his 
own pleasure. This gentleman was now on his 
way to India by the Eed Sea, and, like Mr. Millard, 
was waiting a conveyance to Alexandria, in Egypt. 
On the morning of the 80th of l^ovember they 
took passage in a French armed steamer for that 
place. On the day of leaving Malta, they passed in 
view of a part of Sicily. Mount yEtna was in 
sight, and they could see columns of smoke ascend- 
ing from the crater. On the 2d of December they- 
were in sight of that part of Greece called the 
Morea, and much of that day sailed near the coast. 
On the morning of the 3d they found themselves in 
the harbor of Syra. Here a part of the passengers 
exchanged steamers. The one from Malta proceeded 
directly to Constantinople, while passengers for 
Alexandria were taken on board another French 
steamer, which was also armed. 

Passing out from Syra they came in sight of Pat- 
mos, the island to which the Apostle John was 
banished by the Emperor Domitian, and on which 
he wrote the book of Revelation. "This island is 
about thirty miles. in circumference," Mr. Millard 
says, "and has a broken and mountainous aspect. 


* * * A cave is still shown wliere the monks say 
John wrote the Apocalypse/' 

On the morning of December 4th they passed 
the island of Candia, the ancient Crete of the iN'ew 
Testament, and toward evening of the 5th they 
came in sight of Alexandria; but on account of a 
severe storm arising, they were unable to enter port 
and effect a landing till nearly three days afterward. 

"In approachiug the harbor of Alexandria," Mr. 
Millard writes, ^'the first prominent objects that 
strike the eye are the immense number of wind- 
mills. These, facing the sea, stretch around the 
entire harbor. The Seraglio occupies a prominent 
and airy position, and is seen to good advantage in 
enteriug the harbor. It is spacious, and has con- 
siderable elegance about it; but its very name must 
render it odious to the Christian. -^ -^ ^ An excur- 
sion to Pompey's Pillar and Cleopatra's ^N'eedles, 
situated as they are at opposite points, gave us a 
cursory view of nearly all that is wortlw of note in 
the fallen city of Alexander the Great. 

"Pompey's Pillar is said to have occupied the 
center of Alexandria, when that city was in its 
glory; now it not only stands without the gates, 
but at a considerable walk even from the suburbs 
of the cit\\ Xot that the monument has been 
removed, but the city has receded till Pompey's 
Pillar now stands towering in loneliness, on a slight 
eminence between the present city and the Lake 
Mareotis. '^ * '^ It is a siAgle column of finely pol- 
ished red granite,, seventy-three feet high, and a 
little over nine feet in diameter. It stands on a 


pedestal of the same material, which measures about 
Mteen feet on each side. The entire erection is 
surmounted by a well-wrought Corinthian capital 
of corresponding proportions. * * ^ The shaft is 
beautiful and smooth, shining in the sunbeams like 
burnished steel, except parts which have been 
shamefully daubed up with English names." 

From visiting Pompey's Pillar they rode over 
and by ruins, back to the gate of the city through 
which they had made their egress. They took a 
'direct course to Cleopatra's IS'eedles, but stopped 
for a moment at the celebrated wells made in the 
time of Alexander, at the very founding of the city. 
They were then in use, and still aflbrd much water. 
*^ The Needle of Cleopatra now standing is a granite 
obelisk, rising to the bight of sixty feet, and sud- 
denly sharpening at the top. It is covered on all 
sides with hieroglyphics. On the side facing the 
desert, and on which the sirocco has beaten for 
many centuries, the characters are nearly obliterated, 
while on the other sides they stand out fresh and 
lair. A few yards from this lies its prostrate brother, 
partly buried in the sand. It is said to have been 
taken down many years ago, for the purpose of 
removing it to England, but that the pacha finally 
refused to have it taken away. It is about the size 
of the standing one, and, like it, covered with hie- 

Two days, it seems, satisfied their' curiosity with 
examinations in and arodnd Alexandria, and they 
were ready for a trip up the Mle. Eather than 
wait ten or twelve days for the steamer which plied 


between Atfe and Alexandria, they concluded to 
take passage in a sailboat, with Arab attendants. 
Toward evening of December 10th, they were ready 
to start for their boat on the Mahmoudieh Canal, 
through which they must be conveyed as far as Atfe 
— fifty-eight miles. He says : "AVe had been prom- 
ised the best boat on the canal. It possibly may 
have been such, but it was in reality an old filthy 
concern. Its length was about that of a line-boat 
on the Erie Canal, of a longer beam, and covered 
in a similar manner about two-thirds of the way. 
The covered part was separated b}^ cross-partitions 
into three small rooms. It had two short masts, 
with lone: lateen sails. These are raised when the 
wind is fair. When there is no wind, five or six of 
the men go on shore, and by pulling a rope tow 
the boat at a very sluggish pace." The Mahmoud- 
ieh Canal is designed as an opening for the com- 
merce of the Nile direct to Alexandria. 

On the next day after they embarked they arrived 
at Atfe. Here they changed boats. "It was on a 
beautiful afternoon (the 11th of December, 1841)," 
Mr. Millard writes, "that I found myself floating 
for the first time on the bosom of the mighty ISTile. 
Indeed, new emotions were awakened from my first 
entrance upon this noble stream, the frequent read- 
ing of which was so closely connected with my 
school-boy recollections. It was a grand sight to 
look upon this noble river!— rolling its waters for 
nearly fifteen hundred miles, without receiving a 
single tributary, laving a region which but for it 


would be a desert, and rendering this tlesert by its 
waters, the garden of the world." 

Their journey from Alexandria to Cairo com- 
pleted just nine days, owing to headwinds and the 
slow towing of the boatmen. Of their comfort the 
reader can form a just inference, when informed 
that the boat was sadly infested with vermin, while 
of the cooking the least said the better. As they 
were so long on the river, they had ample time to 
note everything of interest on the route. Frequently 
they went ashore, traveling on foot for a consider- 
able distance, and visiting a number of the villages, 
which they found filthy in the extreme. At a vil- 
lage called Yenisillama, about thirty miles from 
Cairo, they exchanged their boat for camels and 
donkeys, and, in taking a direct course for the latter 
place, struck immediately oif from the Mle back 
into the country. During their first day's travel 
they passed nine Arab villages. These looked 
pretty when viewed at a distance, but as the trav- 
elers approached them their beauty vanished. 

At about 3 o'clock, p. m., December 19tli, the}^ 
entered the city of Grand Cairo, the famous seat of 
so many oriental tales and so much eastern legend- 
ary. After he had secured lodgings and eaten a 
hasty meal, the subject of these pages hastened to 
pay his respects to the American consul, by whom 
he was very courteously received, and promised 
such assistance as could be rendered. As the 
steamer from Alexandria was expected hourly, on 
the arrival of which his English friend was to 
embark for India, that gentleman was anxious, before 


leaving, that Mr. Millard should accompany him 
on a visit to the pyramids, the two largest of which 
are situated about eight miles from Cairo. He 
says : "Without waiting to take a view of the city, 
we set out on the morning of the 20th of Decem- 
ber, mounted on donkeys, and accompanied by a 
guide, for the purpose of visiting those vast monu- 
ments of antiquity, ranked among the world's won- 
ders. Threading narrow and crowded streets for a 
long distance, we at length passed out of the city 
by a gate on the west side. Our course lay direct 
to old Cairo, which is situated on the banks of the 
Nile, distant from the wall of the present city about 
three miles. It is now but a small place, and has 
in its suburbs many ruins. Near old Cairo is the 
small island of Roda, where, according to tradition, 
Pharaoh's daughter found the infant Moses. 

Mr. Millard writes : *' At old Cairo we crossed 
the river in a ferr^^boat to Gizah. Here we again 
mounted our donkeys and set out on a full gallop, 
desiring to lose as little time as possible on the way. 
The pyramids are situated five miles west of Gizah, 
on the edge of the Lybian Desert. 

'^Approaching them from a southeast direction, 
we came first to the Sphynx, which stands about 
eighty rods from the Pyramid Cheops, and directly 
in the midst of an enormous sandbank. It is an 
enduring monument of ancient art, and shows that 
sculpture flourished in Egypt to an astonishing state 
of perfection ere the science of letters was known." 
From the Sphynx they ascended the sand eminence 
to the largest pyramid called Cheops. Tliis enor- 


mous pile, which covers over eleven acres of land, 
they thoroughly explored in the interior and 
ascended to the top, from which a magnificent 
view w^as obtained. Mr. Millard writes: ^'Iso man 
can gaze from the top of the Pyramid Cheops with- 
out emotions never to be forgotten. His thoughts 
roam backward through thousands of years. He 
gazes wdth astonishment on the mysterious works 
of art spread at his feet. He thinks of countless 
thousands employed in constructing these vast mon- 
uments of human toil. He contemplates the whole 
as done by men who lived and moved and had a 
being more than four thousand j^ears ago! Where 
are they now? Gone! all gone! — their names 
lost, and even the design of their vast labor envel- 
oped in mystery and uncertainty!" 

Leaving this pyramid, they proceeded to a range 
of catacombs situated at a short distance south, 
which they examined, and some of which they 
found to be very large and of very ingenious work- 
manship. " We passed some distance in front of 
these subterraneous chambers," says Mr. Millard, 
*' situated side by side, extending many rods, and cut 
into the side of a hill. At length an Arab boy 
pointed to a catacomb with peculiar interest, and 
leading the way, we followed. There was an open- 
ing at the mouth, though the entrance was nearly 
closed up w^ith sand. We crawled on our hands and 
knees through the small aperture. Here we entered 
a chamber about thirty feet long, fifteen wide and 
ten high. The entire w^alls were covered with hie- 
roglyphics made with red paint, and still in a good 


state of preservation. * * * On one. side of the wall 
was a niche, and in it the image of a female ingen- 
iously sculptured; all of the stone that formed the 
wall. This may be the likeness of some great queen 
whose body was deposited there, and for whom this 
catacomb had been mainly constructed. There was 
a deep hole or shaft in the center of this tomb, 
probably one leading to a mummy-pit below, where 
bodies had been stowed in great numbers. All, 
however, has been rifled, and not an entire mummy 
now remains in this decorated charnel-house. Alas ! 
for the vanity of human greatness, and the futile 
attempts of man to preserve that which is only dust 
and properly belongs to dust again!" 

After examining the catacombs and taking a 
hasty survey of the other pyramids, they started 
about 4 o'clock on their return to Cairo, which they 
reached just after sunset, and but a few moments 
before the gates were closed for the night. 

The next day Mr. Millard began his rambles in 
Cairo. First, he took a stroll for some hours amono- 
the bazars and workstalls. After that he visited 
the slave-market, through which he was conducted 
by a guide. He was painfully disgusted with the 
sickening scene. On the day following, which was 
the 22d of December, he took a donkey-ride out to 
see the citadel, and other points of interest in 
the vicinity — including the tombs of the Mame- 
lukes, the pacha's family tomb, and the tombs ot 
the caliphs. On his return he met a funeral pro- 
cession, with the wailing women following the 
corpse. A short distance further they came to one 


of the largest mosques in CairOj that of Saltan Has- 
san, which they entered. The inside presented a 
beautiful specimen of workmanship. In Egypt, 
unlike other Mohammedan governments, mosques 
are open to the inspection of Christians. The sub- 
ject of this memoir spent nine days in Cairo, during 
which time he visited about every thing in and 
around the city of interest to the traveler. But we 
shall not attempt to follow him in all these rambles. 

At Cairo he providentially met two American 
gentlemen, who had recently returned from the cat- 
aracts of the Mle, and had been making arrange- 
ments to go to Palestine, by the way of Suez, Mt. 
Sinai, Akabah, and the ruins of Petra. Late news, 
however, of the disordered state of Syria by civil 
war, and the effects of a recent revolution in the 
Holy Land, had thrown some discouragements in the 
way of their enterprise. But they finally deter- 
mined to go, and expressed a wish that he should 
accompany them. As he was anxious to pass over 
that interesting route, he encouraged the enterprise 
and accepted their invitation. 

Preparations were immediately put in train for 
accomplishing the journey. On the 28th of Decem- 
ber, at 3 o'clock p. M., Sheik Tueilib, accompanied 
by several Bedouins of his tribe, came with twelve 
camels to take them and their baggage on their 
way. About two hours were consumed in getting 
ready. At about an hour's sun all was ready for a 
start. They encamped that night only one mile 
southeast from the city, and not far from the tombs 
of the caliphs. Here, for the first time, they took 


their coffee and supper in their tent. The nigbt 
was pleasant, and all enjoyed a very comfortable 

From Cairo to Suez there are three tracks, and 
they chose the southern one as the most probable 
route taken by the Israelites on their way from 
Egyptian bondage. Of this, however, Mr. Millard 
was doubtful. They agreed to take eleven camels 
under their pay. At about nine in the morning 
they got under way. Two Arabs, mounted on cam- 
els, joined them, making thirteen animals in all. 
He says: "To me the scene was romantic and 
grand. In my school-boy hours I had often tried 
to picture to myself a caravan in the desert; but 
little did I then think I should ever see one, much 
less that I should ever travel in a desert of Africa." 

While traveling on a dromedary, he wrote the 
following : 


O'er the desert, faint and weary, 

See the trav'ler bends his way ; 
Trackless is the waste, and dreary, 

Yet his footsteps do not stray. 
'Midst the dangers that betide him, 

One companion keeps his side ; 
Faithful does his compass guide him 

O'er the trackless desert wide. 

Or, when night comes cool and airy, 
Still the trav'ler, urged by haste, 

Mounts his faithful dromedary — 
Dares the darkness of the waste. 


'Midst the orbs that sparkle o'er him, 
One there is that shines afar, 

Still to light his way before him— 
'Tis the faithful polar star. 

What's this world but lone and dreary, 

A vast wilderness spread wide, 
"Where life's trav'lers, faint and weary, 

Roam too oft without a guide? 
Virtue ! oh, my compass, guide me 

Through life's day and desert far ; 
And when death's lone night betide me, 

Cheer me, Hope, thou polar star. 




On leaving Cairo their course was about due east. 
In one hour every human habitation was out of 
sight, and they were completely surrounded by a 
desert waste. In two hours they began to pass a 
portion of what is called the petrilied forest. Their 
first day's experience in riding dromedaries was 
more unpleasant and fatiguing than it was subse- 
quently. "We shall not, however, attempt to give 
a description of each day's march. They met sev- 
eral caravans on the way, one of wliich numbered 
one hundred and fifty camels, loaded with coffee. 

A little past noon, January 1, 1842, they entered 
the town of Suez, and repaired at once to Hill's 
English Hotel. Their dromedaries were dispatched 
round the head of the gulf, to be in readiness for 
them on the opposite shore when they should be 
prepared to cross the Red Sea. As it must have 
been near the present site of Suez that the crossing 
of the children of Israel took place, this was the 
point of most interest in that vicinity. Mr. Mil- 
lard writes: "The most prevalent tradition fixes 
the miraculous passage of the Red Sea at Ras 


Ataka, a promontory extending into the gulf about 
five miles south of Suez. Without pretending to 
a decided opinion on a question which can not be 
determined with certainty, my impression is that 
the Israelites did not cross much (if an}') higher up 
than this point.'' This place seems most completely 
to answer the description given in the divine Eecord. 
On the one hand were the mountains; on the other 
the sea; and when the Egyptian hosts pursued them 
into this fastness, they had no alternative but to 
defend themselves in their disadvantageous position, 
or to march through the water. 

During their stay at Suez, they walked a distance 
south of the town, inspecting with their eyes every 
point of land along the gulf as far as their sight 
could stretch. This confirmee! Mr. Millard in his 
opinion that at Kas Ataka was wrought the stupen- 
dous miracle of the passage of Israel through the 
Eed Sea. At this point the sea is probably five 
miles wide. 

After spending about four hours at Suez they 
crossed in a small sail vessel to the opposite shore, 
and there found their dromedaries in waiting. At 
a little past seven in the evening they reached the 
Fountains of Moses, v/here they found their tents 
pitched and all things in readiness for them. It is 
here that the Israelites are supposed to have first 
encamped after having come up out of the Red Sea. 
They are six or seven springs of brackish water, all 
within a short space of eacli other. On the 2d of 
January they again took up their line of march. 
On leaving the Fountains of Moses their course was 


nearly south, over a dreary wilderness of sand. 
They encamped about 5 o'clock p. m. in Waddy 
Sader, still in siglit of the sea. 

On January 3d their course bore more to the east, 
and soon after starting they lost sight of the sea. 
For about ten miles their path lay over a level waste 
with scarcely an undulation. They were, however, 
approaching a mountainous region, and about one 
hour's sun arrived at the "Well of Howara, — sup- 
posed to be the"Marah" of Scripture,— and there 
encamped. As we do not intend to enter into the 
full details of this journey, we will here pass over 
a few days covering their march through wild and 
rugged scenery, till on the afternoon of the 7th ot 
January we approach Avith them the convent ot 
Mt. Sinai. This convent is situated at the foot of 
the mountain, and on the east side. 

AVe again quote: "The monks had seen us 
approaching, and, on our arrival, several of them 
showed themselves at a door in front of the build- 
ing, but elevated at the bight of over thirty feet 
from the ground On our dismounting, a rope was 
lowered to receive our letter from the convent at 
Cairo. This being read, the rope was again lowered 
for one of us to be drawn up. The process of draw- 
ing the rope was by a windlass, turned on the inside ; 
and the operation of being hoisted up in this way 
is rather a ludicrous and dizzy performance. ^ ^ ^^ 
On arriving at a hight opposite the door, a monk 
took hold of the rope and drew me in like a bale 
of goods.*' 


The following graphic description will he read 
with interest by the general reader: 


''HaviDg fixed upon this day (Janiia-y lOtli) as our lime 
for ascending Mt. Sinai, we made early preparations for the 
journey. A young novitiate, who could s^peak Italian, agreed 
to accompany us as a guide. * * The way of ascent is 
througli a ravine on the south side of the convent. The 
course from the convent to this pass, and nearly to the heart 
of it, is about south. It here opens a pass^age through the 
almost perpendicular sides of the mountain. At first the 
ascent was easy, but at length it became steep ; and for 
twenty minutes we ascended on rude stone steps. In half 
an hour we came to a beautiful clear fountain under an over- 
hanging rock. The water of this spring is said to be carried 
down to the convent by an aqueduct. It is, by the Arabs, 
called the mountain spring. * * * The water is excellent. 

**In about half an hour more we came to a little chapel 
dedicated to the Virgin. Around this place, some centuries 
ago, resided a large number of hermits. * * Passing onward, 
sometimes by rude steps made with stones, we entered a 
defile of precipitous rocks, and soon reached a gate about 
three feet wide. When pilgrimages to this place were fre- 
quent, a guard was stationed here, to whom it was necessary 
to show a pass from the 'superior' of the convent. A lit- 
tle beyond this is another narrow passage, secured by a door. 
Here, also, it was formerly necessary to show a pass from 
the keeper of the gate below. This passage gives entrance 
into a small plain, or basin of land. In ascending the peak 
of Sinai, that part of the mountain called Horeb terminates 
at this plain. * * It is an open space of some twenty rods 
long and perhaps four rods wide. Near its center is a well 
called the Fountain of Elias ; and the monks say the prophet 
dug this with his own hands when he dwelt in this mount- 
ain. * * A few rods from the well, and just where the ascent 
of Sinai begins, is a small rude stone building, containing 
the chapels of Elijah and Elisha. 

''Leaving this building, which is fast going to decay, we 


began our ascent of what is called the peak of Sinai. The 
way is steep, though not difficult, as in many places there 
are steps constructed of loose stones. On our way we turned 
a little one side to see the track of Mahomet's camel, said to 
be left in the solid rock, as a memorial of his having once 
ascended this mountain. It is, indeed, a t<derabie represen- 
tation of the track of a dromedary, cJdseled in the rock. * * 
In about thirty minutes after leaviDg the chapel of Elijah, 
we arrived at the summit of Mt. Sinai. Solemn indeed, were 
my impressions as I stepped upon the hallowed n^ck, once 
signalized by the most awful display of Jehovah's pr« sence. 
Was it a dream that I stood on that sacred spot? ISo; all 
was reality! I could see the place every w^ay suited for the 
awful diirplay recorded by the inspired historian. After 
indulging a few moments' reflections amidst a hasty view 
of the scenerj', one of our company read from the Holy 
Book the ten commandments. Never had I listened to the 
sacred decalogue with such solemn awe. I heard as if here 
receiving them frpni the Deity himself. I took the Bible, 
and silently read them over again. Never shall I forget the 
overwhelming sensations of my mind while standing on the 
bleak, lonely summit of the sacred mouut of God !" 

The party descended the mountain in about one 
half the time they had occupied in ascending it; 
and, on arriving at the convent, were both weary 
and hungry, but were kindly entertained by the 

On the 13th of January the travelers took leave 
of these kind monks, and at 11 o'clock were again 
under way. Their course led north to the Valley 
of Rahah. When crossing a part of that plain, 
they turned in a northeast direction into Waddy 
Sheik. Late in the afternoon they passed the tomb 
of Sheik Salih, a spot deemed very sacred by the 
Arabs on the peninsula. This saint is held as the 

204 . MEMOIR OF 

progenitor of one of the leading tribes of Bedouins, 
and pilgrimages are made to his tomb. At about 
noon of the 16th they came in sight of the Gulf of 
Akabah. The sea afforded a pleasant sight, just 
emerging as they were from the midst of loneli- 
ness and solitude. 

"A little past nOon of January 18th-," Mr. Mil- 
lard continues, '^ we came to a bold, high promon- 
tory, approaching to near the water's edge. Our 
way wound around its base, and beyond it the 
mountains fall back, leaving near the coast low 
hills. The head of the gulf was plain before us, 
and, embosomed in a grove of palm trees, on the 
opposite side was to be seen the fortress of Aka- 
bah. We could now see the opening of the great 
Valley of Arabah stretching north toward the Dead 
Sea. Far up, on the east side, the dark mountains 
of Seir w^ere rearing their summits in all the gran- 
deur of wild desolation. The valley appeared 
strewn with yellow sand-drifts as far as the eye 
could stretch. Soon, turning in an easterly direc- 
tion, we passed along the north end of the gulf, 
and, winding around the east side, arrived at Aka- 
bah a little past 2 o'clock p. m. Our tents were 
immediately pitched in the midst of a grove of 
palms, situated directly between the fortress and 
the sea — a picturesque and pleasant spot. 

''We had now arrived at the end of our engage- 
ment with Tueilib, and, according to arrangement 
among the Bedouin tribes, he had no right to con- 
duct us any further. Sheik Hassein, of the Alloeens, 
was to meet us at Akabah, with camels and an 


armed guard, to conduct us thence by the ruins of 
Petra to Hebron." 

On the morning of the 24th Sheik Hassein and 
his men came to their tent. At about 11 o'clock a. 
M., they took up their line of marcli, their course 
lying up the great Valley of Arabah,, extending 
northerly from the Grulf of Akabah toward the Dead 
Sea. They were now advancing into the doomed 
land of Edom. 

On entering the A^ alley of Arabah, every thing 
bore a most desolate appearance. Ridges of light 
and drifting sand were scattered before them as far 
as the eye could stretch. We quote: 'rOn our 
right were dark mountains of bare granite, tower- 
ing in most desolate majesty. Xot a tree, shrub, 
blade of grass, or any species of vegetable life what- 
ever, spotted their dark massive sides or lofty sum- 
mits. For some miles the valley seemed impreg- 
nated with salt; but after advancing a considerable 
distance north there was a faint appearance of veg- 
etation. On the Avost side of the valley the mount- 
ains are of purely sandstone formation, while on the 
east they are uniformly of the red granite. Those 
on the west have, in many places, been Avorn into 
every fanciful shape, and are entirely bare of vege- 
table life. 

•'^The northern part of the Valley of Arabah is 
generally believed to be the Desert of Zin, in which 
the Israelites w^ere encamped at Kadesh, when they 
applied to the king of Edom for permission to. pass 
through his countr^^ When their request was pos- 
itively refused, they appeared to have fallen back 


'by way of the plain before Elath,' now Akabah. 
There they turned romid the southern extremity of 
the mountains, and thence proceeded northward 
along the eastern boundary of Mt. Seir." 

At eleven o'clock a. m., January 27th, arriving 
at the Valley of Abushaba, Mt. lior appeared but 
a short distance to their left. Here they concluded 
to leave their caravan, and on foot make an ascent 
to Aaron's tomb, on the top of that mountain. 
Taking their interpreter and four of their Arabs 
with them, they commenced their toilsome walk, 
and after some difficulty and much fatigue, reached 
the summit. 

''On the top," says Mr. Millard, "which is an 
area of about sixty feet square, is a low stone build- 
ing of about thirty feet on a side, and surmounted 
by a dome. This is called Aaron's Tomb. The 
entrance is near the northwest corner, and a few 
feet from the door, inside is a tombstone, in form 
similar to the oblong slabs seen in our church-yards, 
but larger and higher. The top is rather larger 
than the bottom, and over it was placed a pall of 
faded red cotton, in shreds and patches. The pall 
bore marks of blood, and near it was a stone altar 
on which sacrifices were offered. 
, "In the northeast corner of the building is a 
flight of stone stairs, descending to a vault below. 
We requested our Arabs to furnish some kind of 
light to enable us to explore this lower apartment, 
as all below was dark. They seemed loth to do it, 
considering, as I inferred, that the jjlace was too 
holy for us to enter. We, however, insisted upon 


it, and finally succeeded in getting together a few 
small dry twigs, whicli were set on fire by means 
of powder and fiint, to make a kind of torcli. 
With this we descended into a grotto hewn into the 
rock, about eight feet wide, twenty long, and seven 
and a half high. At the west end of this grotto, 
and, as near as we could judge, directly under 
the tomb, with a pall above, were two small iron 
gates, closing together in the center. These shut 
directly against a small niche in the wall, which is 
considered by the Mohammedans the real place of 
Aaron's grave. Our light was now nearly burnt 
out, and was thrown upon the ground. An Arab 
threw upon it a quantity of small brush, which 
immediately kindled into a furious blaze, and very 
soon the place became nearly sufibcating. We 
rushed for the stairs, but the Arabs were all hud- 
dled upon them, and seemed bound there with a 
strange spell; for it was not until we had stormed 
and scolded for some little time that we could get 
them started so as to let us pass up. And here 
closed our inspection of Aaron's tomb." 

The top of Mt. Hor overlooks every thing around 
it for many miles ; and hence the view from this 
eminence is spacious and grand. After some difii- 
culty, they succeeded in descending the mountain, 
and again reached the plain below. 

208 • MEMOIR OF 



On leaving Mt. Ilor their course bore an easterly 
direction. After continuing this course for about 
two miles, the ruins of Petra began to appear. 
Numerous tombs were passed, cut in the solid rock 
on sides of mountains. Some of these were situ- 
ated twenty and thirty feet high in the perpendicu- 
lar cliff. By their way were two ruined palaces or 
temples, whose fallen pillars and prostrate walls 
barely marked the place where they once stood. 

"Passing over the plains of the ruined city," says 
the traveler, " now thickly strewed with the sad 
relics of former splendor, w^e arrived at what is 
called the Corinthian tomb, which had been selected 
as our- place of lodging. Our caravan had arrived 
but a few minutes before us. What a thought, 
reader! — to select a tomb for our sleeping place!" 

"We shall quote from the publishe-d journal only 

one of several descriptions given of the ruins of 



" After a night's rest in the Corinthian tomb, and an early- 
breakfast the next morning, we set out to inspect the exten- 
sive and wonderful ruins, spread out in lonely grandeur 
around us. ■' ' * In a little less than half a mile, turning by 


a small point of perpendicular rock to our right, the sight of 
a most beautiful edifice burst upon our view. It is called by 
the Arabs El KhasneFaraoun, or 'the Treasury of Pharaoh.' 
At the first sight of this wonderful piece of architecture, all 

three of us exclaimed, 'Oh, the beauty!' Mr. B could 

not, for some time, cease to express his admiration, declar- 
ing that, in all his travels in Europe, he had never seen mag- 
nificence to compare with this. * * 

"The entire edifice, however, owes much of its effect to 
the suddenness with which it bursts upon the sight — from 
the beauty and freshness of its color, and from its fanciful 
design— all in strange contrast with the loneliness of the 
place, and the wild, weather-beaten crags with which it is 
surrounded. Sheltered in an immense niche in the rock, it 
has been ^vonderfully preserved from the effects of the 
weather, and now retains the same luster it bore when just 
fianished by the artist. The rock in w^hich it is cut, w^hen 
polished, is of the most beautiful colors. Different colors 
intermingle the surface in beautiful waves, reflecting all the 
luster of the rainbow. 

"The mountain cliflf at this place rises in perpendicular 
form for over one hundred feet, and it will be remembered 
that this vast edifice is cut in the solid rock. Every column, 
cornice, and indeed every part of it, is in reality part of the 
rock where it stands. In front is a portico of four columns, 
with Corinthian capitals, supporting an entablature, above 
which is a gable with broad, highly-wrought cornices, in the 
center of which is an eagle with extended wings. The entab- 
lature is ornamented Avith vases, connected by festoons of 
flowers, and the summit of the whole is crowned with a 
large, beautiful urn. On both sides of the portico are other 
ornaments of various dimensions. The columns are about 
thirty-five feet in hight and three in diameter. One of these 
has now fallen, and lies nearly covered in sand and rubbish. 
Yet from a distance the missing brother scarcely disfigures 
the edifice. " 

"At each end of this portico is an excavated chamber of 
about fifteen feet long by five or six wide. The doors into 
these apartments, as well as that of the large principal room, 


are beautifully ornamented. The great room is about forty- 
five feet square, and perhaps twenty in bight. Ou three 
sides of this room are doors leading to smaller apartments. 
The entrance in fnuit has a window on each side, which 
admits sufficient light mto the large room. The stnail rooms 
adjoiaing have n^ lijihr, except what is admitted from the 
large one. All these rooms are perfectly plain, though hand- 
somely wrought. 

''There is nothing in the interior of this structure to indi- 
cate its having been used as a tomb. From the style of 
architecture aud the arrangement of the rooms, my impress- 
ion id that it was a temple." 

Having spent over three days in their ascent of 
Mt. Hor, and in the examination of the rains of 
Petra, the travelers were now prepared to depart. 
At 2 o'clock p. M., on the 30th of January, they 
mounted their dromedaries, and again advanced on 
their journey. On their way they again passed at 
the foot of Mt. Hor, and tlieir course now lay in a 
northwest direction. They met a caravan of about 
two hundred and iifty camels. They also passed 
the ruins of ancient Maon, Carmel, and Ziph, and 
on the 3d of February came in siglit of Hebron. 
At 1 o'clock p. M. they selected a pleasant .green 
spot, west of the city, where they pitched theii* 
tents, and decided to spend the afternoon in making 
examinations in and around Hebron, in order that 
they might leave in the morning for Bethlehem and 
Jerusalem. The most imposing object which they 
visited was the great mosque, regarded by the 
Mohammedans as one of the most sacred places in 
the Holy Land. Its situation is prominent and 
commanding. It measures about two hundred feet 


in leHgtli and one liuDclred and fifty in breadth, and 
is about £fty feet high. Under this huge pile is 
said to be the cave of Maehpehah, where Abraham 
and the other patriarchs were buried. 

Mr. Millard says : " Hebron is called by the Arabs 
El Khalih Ibrahim — 'Abraham the friend.' It lies 
principally on the eastern side of the valley ascend- 
ing back. The houses are all of stone, high and 
substantially built, with fiat roofs. On these roofs 
are small domes, sometimes two or three to a house. 
This gave the place a rather novel appearance to 
us. It is not walled aroun d, but the entrances of sev- 
eral streets are by gates. Its population is variously 
estimated at from four thousand to six thousand. 
The inhabitants are Arabs, Turks, and Jews. The 
Mohammedans of Hebron are of the most rigid 
sort. Surrounded with vineyards, olive groves, 
and abundance of fruit trees, the place has a very 
pretty appearance in the distance, and, indeed, on 
entering it, we found it better than we expected. 
The streets, however, are mostly mere narrow alleys, 
and very filthy." 

A considerable distance furtlier up the valley, 
and about two miles north of the town, stands a 
large isolated oak tree, of a peculiar species. Their 
Arab guides pointed to this as the tree of Abra- 
ham, under which he entertained three angels. 
Genesis xviii. 4-8. At sunset they returned to their 
tent, fatigued with the rambles of the day. They 
partook of their evening meal, and shortly after 
"were lost in the depths of sweet slumber." 

They had now done with their Arab guides, who 


had conaacted them from Akabah to Hebron. 
After settling up with them, their guides returned 
to their homes in the desert, while the travelers 
mounted their horses a little past 8 o'clock a. m., of 
February 4th, and, accompanied by three muleteers, 
and an armed guard of three, set out for Jerusalem. 
We shall not follow them on the way, but will at 
once enter with them the place of our Savior's birth. 


"We proceeded directly through the town, without stop- 
ping, till we arrived at the level part of the ridge between it 
and the convent. This building covers a vast extent of 
ground, and, frf)m its massive walls, rather resembles a fort- 
ress. It incloses the church (said to be built by the Empress 
Helena) over the spot that tradition consecrates as the birth- 
place of our Savior. * * The reader desires to be conducted 
to the place where the Savior was born. This is said to be a 
grotto under the church. •'" * The room of the grotto is thirty- 
seven feet long and eleven wide. The floor and walls are of 
a greenish marble ; and the latter are set oft' with tapestry 
and paintings. Directly in front of the door by which we 
entered, at the further end of the grotto, is a semi-circular 
recess, lined and floored with marble. In the center of this 
is a gilded star, bearing on it the inscription : ^ITia oiatus est 
Jesus Christus de Virga^— here Christ was born of the Virgin. 
A large number of lamps, burning night and day, constantly 
throw their light on this as the birthplace of the Savior of 
mankind. On the right, descending two steps, you pass into 
another chamber, paved and lined with marble. At one end 
is a stone block, hollowed out, and this is shown as the man- 
ger in which the infant Savior was laid. * * •■ 

"Whether I was standing in the very room where the 
Savior of man w^as born, or not, I was standing in Bethle- 
hem, his birthplace. It mattered little to know the very 
spot, or to have it pointed out ;— T knew he was born there. 


There the tidings of 'peace ou earth, and good-wiil to meu,' 
had heen proclaimed by heavenly messengers. Those very 
tidings of mercy and love, borne from nation to nation, and 
echoed from age to age, had sounded in my ears from child- 
hood. I had for manj^ years known their sweetness and 
consolation; and now, coming like a pilgrhn from a far- 
distant land, to the birthplace of the divine Redeemer, could 
I stand in Bethlehem without emotions never to be forgot- 
ten? No ; impossible ! The very place where I stood seemed 
to me like holy ground. 

"Bethlehem is situated on the slope of a hill, is a compact 
built town, and has a population of about four thousand. 
The houses are of stone, substantially built, and the streets 
narrow and filthy. It is surrounded hy olive and other treesr 
and has a pleasant appearance at a short distance. * * A val- 
ley, which the town overlooks, is represented as the place 
where the shepherds w^ere tending their flocks by night, 
when the angel announced to them the birth of the Savior. 
And about half a mile from the town, in a northeasterly 
direction, is shown the well of David, from which his young 
men procured him water when he was thirsting." 

After making their observations in and around 
Bethlehem, they returned to the room of the "supe- 
rior" of the convent, and found the table spread 
with a very good dinner, of which, having fasted 
since early in the morning, they partook with a 
relish. Having sent their men and baggage for- 
ward, they concluded to set out and reach Jeru- 
salem that evening, distant six miles. Soon they 
had crossed the valley in a northeastly direction, 
and were climbing the mountain on the other side. 
They halted awhile at the tomb of Rachel, and 
then passing the convent of Mar Elias, which stands 
on the brow of the high ridge overlooking Bethle- 


hem, they soon had their first view of the Holy 
City, whence so many pilgrimages have been made. 


"Long and ardently had I desired to see that hallowed 
place ; and now with what intensity of feeling did I gaze 
upon it! * * Crossing the Valley of Gihon, and winding up 
the hill on the west ?ide of the city, we entered Jerusalem 
just as. the sun was setting behind the hills of Judea. * * We 
were immediately conducted to the Latin convent, the only 
real asylum for strangers in the Holy City. 

'*Of the situation and external appearance of Jerusalem, 
the reader will form the best idea by supposing himself 
approaching from the north. At the distance of two miles 
out he would stand on a rise of ground, and see before him 
a broad plain with some slight undulations, but sloping 
gradually to the south. Beyond this he would see the walls 
and domes of the city. Advancing a short distance, he 
would cross the shallow bed of the Kedron, w^iich sweeps 
round from the northwest. At that place of crossing the 
Valley of the Kedron is small ; but he would see it at his 
left, bending round to the southeast, and then to the south, 
deepening as it advances. It passes directly along the east 
side of the city, separating Jerusalem from the Mount of 
Olives. At that place it becomes deep, and is called the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat. Passing south half a mile beyond 
the city, it takes a more easterly direction, and is known as 
the Valley of the Kedron till it terminates at the Dead Sea. 
Advancing from his first position one mile, he would see at 
his right hand the shallow basin which forms the beginning 
of the Valley of Gihon andHinnom, both being but the con- 
tinuation of the same valley. This valley takes at first a 
southeast direction, deepening as it advances. Having 
become deep, it passes directly along the west side of the 
city to the lower pool of Gihon, where it takes the name of 
the Valley of Hinnom. From thence it gradually winds 
around east, and at length unites with the Valley of Jehosha- 
phat. Between these two valleys stands the city of Jerusa- 


Ten days were spent in Jerusalem and its vicin- 
ity, during which time every thing in and around 
the Holy City, of much interest to the traveler, was 
examined. Calvary, the site of the ancient temple, 
the Garden of Gethsemane, Mount of Olives, the 
various pools, the tomb of Joseph and Mary, Pot- 
ter's Field, and all other points of interest were 
visited. An excursion was also made to the Dead 
Sea and the River Jordan. But for a description 
of these we must refer the reader to his published 
journal of travels. 

AYhile taking his last view of the Holy City, he 
wrote these lines : 


I saw Jerusalem's sun had set ; 

Her hills around looked sere I 
Messiah wept on Olivet, 
Her coming woes, her fall ; and yet 

She scoft' d at ^Mercy's tear ! 

Those woes have come I her charms have fled — 

Save hills and vale and name ; 
Her Kedron no more laves its bed ; 
Bethesda's healing power is dead, 

And Zion droops in shame. 

But Palestine, to hope allied, 

Again to life shall spring — 
Shall burst her bands and fetters wide, 
When He, whom once she crucified, 

Shall reign her rightful King. 

Early on the morning of the 14th of February, 
mounted on horseback, they passed out of the 
Bethlehem gate, and wound round the northwest 


angle of the city wall. Tlience they pushed their 
way northward over a portion of the plain of 
Rephaim. Without particularizing, we will simply 
say they passed the ruins of Bethel, Joseph's tomb, 
Jacob's well, Mt. Gerizim, and Mt. Ebal, ancient 
Sychar, Samaria, and Mt. Gilboa, and at 2 o'clock 
p. M., February 17th, they w^ere ascending among 
the hills that surround the village where the Savior 
spent so many years. "We will give in brief his 
description of this place : 


"Nazareth is located about seventy miles north of Jeru- 
salem, and is iu the district of Galilee, the northern 
division of the land. The place where it stands is rather 
romantic and pretty; especially in aj^proaching the town 
from the south it has quite an attractive, inviting appear- 
ance. It stands at the head of a valley descending from 
the north. The position is rather singular— that portion 
of the valley being much broader than any other part of 
it; consequently, the town stands in an amphitheater of 
hills. From its peculiar location and romantic scenery, I 
saw no place in Palestine that struck my eye so delightfully 
as Nazareth. The population is estimated at about three 
thousand five hundred. 

"Among the other places that I visited in Nazareth was 
the Church of the Annunciation. Internally this is a highly 
decorated edifice, and is said to cover the place where Mary 
was when the Angel Gabriel appeared to her. Contiguous 
to the town on the southwest is an abrupt rocky cliff, over 
which the wrathful Jews sought to cast our Savior ; but he 
escaped out of their hands. But what avails looking for 
peculiar localities in Nazareth ? The whole is peculiar, as 
the place of our Savior's nativity. There he abode for thirty 
years prior to entering on the work of the ministry. There, 
while walking the streets, climbing the hills, or surveying 
the surrounding scenery, the visitor feels the reflection 


forced upon his mind— how often has all this been trodden 
over by the Redeemer of man ! Every spot of ground on 
which the eye rests has been made sacred by the footprints 
of the Holy Son of God ! The Christian here feels that he 
is indeed in the midst of high and holy associations." 

At about niue in the morning of February 20tb, 
they took their final leave of Kazareth, and on the 
evening of the same day reached the Latin con- 
vent on Mt. Carmel. Here they were hospitably 
entertained. The next morning their course lay 
direct to Jean d'Acre, round the head of the bay, 
which place they reached at a little past 1 o'clock. 
Acre is properly the ancient city of Accho, men- 
tioned in Judges i. 31, from which the Israelites 
were unable to drive out the Canaanite?. It stands 
on the north side of the bay of St. Jean d'Acre. Its 
present population is about fifteen thousand. 

On account of the plague which was raging at 
Tyre, they here gave up their land route and took 
passage to Beyrout by water. Soon after passing 
Tyre, they were overtaken by a storm which caused 
them to anchor off Sidon, where they were detained 
three nights and two days. On the morning of the 
25th, the sea having greatly calmed, and the 
weather become fair, they again set sail for Bej'rout, 
which they reached after a passage of about five 
hours. Here Mr. Millard parted with his compan- 
ions — they going to Europe, and he returning to 
his native land. And thus ended his travels in 
Palestine. He was detained at Beyrout some over 
three weeks, and formed a very happy acquaint- 
ance with the missionaries and their work. Dur- 
ing his stay there, he had ample leisure to reflect on 


the interesting scenery he had just passed through 
in Palestine. These reflections produced the fol- 
lowing effusion : 


Fair Palestine, tho' still envelop'd in night, 

Tho' wan desolation broods o'er thee, 
The sun of thy glory shall rise in his might, 

And the arm of Jehovah restore thee. 

Tho' long hath oppression environ'd thee round, 

The grasp of thy foes shall be broken ; 
The mountains and valleys with joy shall resound, ' 

For the word that Messiah hath spoken. 

Thy down-trodden children, now scattered afar, 
Redeem' d from the hand of oppression, 

Shall follow the guide of their Bethlehem Star, 
To inherit their promised possession. 

The crescent now waving in Mussulman's pride, 

Shall fall with the power that bore it ; 
When the banner of Him who on Calvary died. 

An ensign of peace shall wave o'er it. 

Jerusalem's temple again shall arise, 
Than her former more dazzling and splendid, 

When Messiah as king hath descended the skies, 
And the throne of his Father ascended. 

Then from Zion shall go forth the mandate of peace, 
Till the nations shall bow in submission ; 

Till war's desolation and carnage shall cease, 
And earth be Messiah's possession. 

Eejoice, Palestine, that thy morning star bright 

Already hath risen high o'er thee ; 
Soon the sun of thy glory shall rise in his might, 

And the arm of Jehovah restore thee.- 




The volume known as ''Millard's Journal of 
Travels "closes with his arrival at Be}' rout. Sub- 
sequently, he published, in different numbers of the 
Christian Palladium an " Appendix," in which he 
describes various other places visited by him, and 
gives an account of his homeward voyage. We 
will here give the substance of those letters in the 
w^riter's language. 


''Providence seemed to smile in almost every way on my 
entire journey, till my arrival at Beyrout. There I expected to 
meet an Austrian steamer, which, at that time, plied monthly 
between that city and Smyrna. But, after waiting anxiously 
for over fifteen days, unwelcome news arrived that that ves- 
sel would not visit Beyrout again under two months. She 
had been sent on another route, to supply the place of a 
steamer that had been wrecked. Under these circumstances, 
I thought strongly of going again to Alexandria in Egypt, 
and there take passage to England, But here another seri- 
ous difiiculty presented itself. The plague was raging but a 
few miles out of Beyrout, in consequence of which a quar- 
entine of fifteen or twenty days would be imposed on my 
arrival at Alexandria. This term I should have to serve out 
within the walls of one of the filthiest and worst of Turkish 


Lazareltos. This, too, would prevent my takin<^' the next 
steamer, after my arrival, for England. As the English 
steamer left Alexandria only once a month, I might thus be 
cocppelied to remain about sis v^eeks in that sickly citj-, 
about half of which time I must pass locked up 'in durance 
vile.' I therefore relinquished that plan. 

"The distance from Beyrout to Smyrna is about seven 
hundred miles. This distance is passed by a steamer in 
about five days, w^hile a sail vessel is not unfrequently three 
weeks in performing it. Had the Austrian steamer come to 
Beyrout according to contract, I might have escaped quar- 
antine at Smyrna, as at that time none was imposed on ves- 
sels from that place. Not only so, but I might have been at 
Smyrna in season to have taken passage home in a Boston 
vessel that sailed early in April. But believing that a mer- 
ciful Providence had ordered all for the best, I submitted 
without a murmur. After consulting the American consul 
and missionaries at Bej^rout, I concluded to take passage for 
Smyrna in a small Greek brig. 

'' We sailed from Beyrout on the 16th of March, 1842. On 
board was a company of Turkish troops, besides a colonel, a 
major, and a surgeon. Although I was the only Frank pas- 
senger who quartered in the cabin with these officers, and 
wnable to converse with either of them, they learning that 
I was an American, treated me with unexpected kindness. 

"Our vessel was small, a dull sailer, quite filthy, and 
almost wholly destitute of convenience. The cabin was 
very small, and besides the captain, chief mate, and myself, 
iive Turkish officers and a servant were quartered in it. 
Every passenger had to furnish his own bedding an(f pro- 
visions. I still had v/ith me the bedding that had served me 
through the desert of Arabia ; and previous to leaving Bey- 
rout had filled a small sea-chest with provisions. * ••• '•• 

"As we advanced out to sea, Mt. Lebanon, with its snow- 
capped peaks, presented a grand appearance. It may be 
seen on a fair day at a distance of one hundred miles. We 
passed the Island of Cyprus on the 18tb. Several pleasant 
looking towns and villages were in view, among which was 
Larnaca, one of its principal harbors. As it was expected 
that our vessel would put in at that port for some supplies, 


I bad a letter of introduction to an American missionary 
stationed there; but the captain supposing the wind to be 
fair, thought best to push forward. 

" After passing Cyprus, the wind and current bore us so 
far north that a point of land on the coast of Caramania lay 
directly before us. For three days we beat off and on this 
coast, without being able to pass this promontory. With so 
many on board our vessel, our water was getting nearly 
exhausted, and on the night of the 22d we were obliged to 
put into Casteloriso. This is a small island near the Cara- 
manian coast, on which is a pleasant little town and a good 

"On the next morning a few of us were permitted to go 
ashore. We were, however, pronounced to be in quaran- 
tine, and were not allowed to enter the town. On the even- 
ing of the 23d we left the harbor with a fair wind. On the 
24th we passed Rhodes, and had a fine view of the north 
part of that island. From the observations I made with a 
good telescope, the scenery appeared beautiful and inviting. 
Rhodes is about forty miles long and fifteen broad. It is 
supi^osed to have derived its name from the Rhodanim, 
descendants of Japheth. The Apostle Paul touched at this 
island on his way from Miletus to Jerusalem. 

"During the 24th the wind kept increasing, and at 5 o'clock 
p. M. we were obliged to put into a small desolate harbor, 
near the west end of Cape Crio, in Turkey. This harbor is 
formed by a small bay, at the entrance of which is a break- 
water, constructed of massive rock. On two sides of this 
bay lie the ruins of an ancient city still bearing marks of 
former opulence and splendor. By examining the ship's 
chart, I found we were in the'harbor of the ancient city of 
Gnidus, the ruins of which lay before me in lonely grandeur 
and desolation. They are situated about forty miles nortli 
from Rhodes. 

"The ground ascends back from the water rather abruptly, 
and consequently the houses had been built on terraces. 
These last are plainly to be traced, but there are not now 
standing the entire walls of a single building. On the 25tb, 
the wind still being ahead, seeing several Turkish officers 
about going ashore, I accompanied them ; but not knowing 


what course they intended to take, as we could hold no con- 
versation with each other. We landed on the south side of 
the bay, and passed round the west end amidst ruins scat- 
tered in every direction. Broken columns of ma&sive struc- 
ture and richly carved capitals were se^-n here and there, 
with splendid wrought stone cornices. I examined the inte- 
rior of an amphitheater, sufficient i^ size to seat rining of 
three tliousand people. It had bees:, constructed in the side 
of a hill, which at that place rise-* abruptly. Ttie seats were 
arranged in ancient amphitht-ater form; that is, forming a 
semi-circle, and rising back in succession. They were com- 
posed of blocks of white marble, o early matched and beveled 
on the frout sides. There were just twenty rows of these 
seats. At bothexi:remities of theseini-clrcle were two under- 
ground rooms, wall*-d and arched, wit t entrances about four 
feet broad and six high. These rooms had unquestionably 
been appropriated to the beasts which were often let out in 
the barbarous games and .--ports acted in this place of giddy 
amusements centuries ago. In front lay a ruinous mass, 
partly covered with earth, among which were brok*^n col- 
umns and cornices. A short distance east were the ruins of 
a fortress. The whole of these remains were thickly inter- 
spersed with oleander and other wild shrubbery. 

"Following my Tarki-^h leaders in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, and crossing two very con -^iderable eminences, we came 
in sight of another bay, situated about two miles froai the 
one we had left. Here, we agaia passed in the mid-st of 
ruins, which, if not so extensive as the others^ were in many 
respects more splendid. * -■- At one place I examined a spa- 
cious dilapidated tomb containing several apartments. It 
had been cut in a ledge of solid rock. But it also bore the 
marks of the de-poiler. It had been defaced and broken in 
many places, and the dust of its sleeping tenants hurled out 
to the winds of heaven. 

" The ruins of both these cities now only present to the 
passing traveler sad mementoes of devastating war. Every 
part of Turkey abounds with desolated remains, similar to 
these, made when Saracen conquests swept over the fairest 
portions of the East. The Turks destroyed the grandeur of 
every country they conquered, and, as if still proud of 


their own work of devastation, they permit their dominions 
to remain a field strewn with ruins. 

"I followed my guides about five miles to a small Turkish 
village. Betweeu the harbor where we had left our vessel 
and this village there was not a single human habitation. 
Much of the land had a fertile appearance, but it lay wholly 
uncultivated. Once this whole country teemed with an 
enterprising and industrious people. Now how mournful is 
the desolation that reigns over this scene of fallen grandeur 
and pride ! The village we visited w^as situated on a beauti- 
ful plain, interspersed with scattered trees. As a village, 
however, it had rather an abject appearance. 

♦'At about 4 o'clock p. M. I set out on my return for our 
vessel, accompanied by a Turkish soldier. We were about 
two hours and a half on the way, which gave me over an 
hour more among those relics of magnificence, now min- 
gling with the dust. Before we reached our vessel, the sun 
had set amidst the mellow beauty of an Asiatic sky; and, as 
the shades of evening gathered around me, the whole scene 
awakened many reflections suited to the lonely devastations 
among which I had just been rambling. 

"After lying at the ruins of Gnidus for nearly three days, 
w^e succeeded in getting out of the desolate harbor on the 
morning of the 27th of March. After passing several islands, 
at about sunset we came in sight of Patmos, "hallowed as the 
scene of the Apocalypse. At about three the next morning 
we pas:?ed the Island of Samos ; and very soon after the 
wind shifted ahead. As a consequence, our vessel was put 
about and run into a small bay in one of the Furna Isles. 
Here we were compelled to lay for two days. 

♦' On the morning of the 30th we succeeded in getting out ; 
but the wind dying away we lay becalmed for several hours 
on the south side of those islands. Toward evening the 
wind sprung up, but it was ahead. We were compelled to 
lay our course along the south side of Samos, and finally 
around the east end of that island. For several hours we 
had a fine view of the Island of Patmos, with its rock-bound 
shores and craggy peaks, but a few miles south of us. My 
eyes were upon it much of the time, until it was finally lost 
amidst the gathering shades of night. While it was still in 

224 MEMOIR O: 

view, seated on the d 
lines with my pencil : 


"Patmos! lonely midst the sea, 
With thought intense, I gaze on theej 
Sacred still, as holy ground, 
Glory halos thee around ; 
Thought lights up Devotion's flame, 
And reverence kneels to kiss thy name. 

"Not thy rock-embattled shore, 
Round which warring surges roar; 
Not thy crags that beetle high, 
Battling storms at midway sky ; 
Not thy sterile hills and vales, 
Wasted oft with scathful gales; 
Not for all thou now art seen. 
But for what thou erst hath been ; 
Do I, lone island of the sea, 
Gaze with reverence on thee. 

"Thou wast made a scene of wonders, 
Where once spake the seven thunders ; 
Where the mystic book unsealed, 
Vast events thro' time revealed; 
Where the fearful trumpets sounded. 
Blasts that heaven and earth astounded 
Whence the vials poured their fury, 
O'er the gentile world and Jewry. 
Thou wast made the hallowed station 
Of banished John and Revelation. 

"Gladly would I tread thy coast, 
Not for vain or idle boast ; 
But to seek the holy grot, 
And pay devotion on the spot, 
Where 8aint John, with pious awe, 
Wrote the wonders that he saw. 
But eve now sheds its twilight gray, 
And fast the breeze bears us away ; 
Ere yet thy form has sunk from view. 
Lonely isle I adieu ! adieu ! 


*' Patmos lies directly south of Samos. It is mostly naked 
rock, having but little fertile soil, and is about twenty-five 
miles in circumference. 

*' On the next morning we found ourselves on the north- 
east side of Samos, opposite the pleasant little town of Cora. 
That portion of the island has a fertile and beautiful appear- 
ance. * * This island was celebrated anciently for its valuable 
potteries, and also as the birthplace of Pythagoras. It was 
visited by the Apostle Paul when on one of his voyages to 
Jerusalem. Acts xx. 15. 

'' Our passage around the Island of Samos was gaining us 
nothing on our direct course ; for on the fii-st of April we 
found ourselves in sight of the islands where we had anchored 
four days before. JLate in the day, however, w^e came in 
sight of the Island of Scio, and in the course of the night 
passed it w^ith a fair wind. I now began to flatter myself 
with a speedy arrival at Smyrna, which is only about forty 
miles from Scio; but this prospect was soon blasted. At 10 
o'clock A. M. the wind hauled ahead, and we were compelled 
to run into the harbor of Toucher. 

" This is a small Turkish town, walled and garrisoned, and 
has a good harbor. Here w^e lay four days. On the morn- 
ing of the 6th of April we left this harbor, and about sunset 
arrived at Smyrna. This ^vas our twenty-second day from 
Beyrout ; a long and comfortless passage, though, in many 
respects, an interesting one. Early the next morning a 
health officer came on board, and all, except the captain and 
crew, were directed to prepare themselves for the Lazaretto. 

'* The Lazaretto at Smyrna stands about one mile from the 
city, on the shore of the gulf. It is handsomely located, and 
is a spacious establishment, but, so far as comfort is con- 
cerned, is inferior to most of the jails in the United States. 
vr ip * Every company that comes in is immediately placed 
under the guard of one or more health officers, who watch 
every individual strictly. * * ISo beds are furnished, and if 
the traveler have no bedding of his own, he will find him- 
self in a sad plight. * * The room assigned me was small 
and very filthy, with the naked earth for floor, and without 
a single article of furniture. The whole place was sadly 
infested with vermin. 


"The following lints written in that abode of wretched- 
ness, give but a true picture, whatever may be thought of 
their satire and severity. 


'* So here I am behind the grates, 
Which every free-born Yankee hates ; 
Jugg'd up secure in durance vile 
For that which only makes me smile; 
'The powers that be,' in sullen mood, 
Have lock'd me up for public good. 

** 'For public good?' you say; *ah, true, 
Such doom for rogues is but their due; 
What vicious act, in name of Mars, 
Has placed you under bolts and bars?' 
Now hold, my friend ; your cant of 'vicious^ 
Proves little souls are most suspicious ; 
That those whose acts are often mean. 
Are first to vent suspicion's spleen. 

^* Who has not learned that 'public good' 
Has reeked itself in martj^rs' blood? 
That human laws by times applied. 
Lean oft'nest to'ard the strongest side? 
In fine, that justice oft is tame, 
And 'public good' an empty name ! 
Who has not proved all this as truth, 
Must be at least a beardless youth. 

''My only crime, if crime it be, 
Is trav'ling far by land and sea ;— 
In Ei^pt, Palestine and Syria, 
By donkey, horse, and dromedary, 
Arriving here (lest some contagion 
Where I had been, might chance be raging, 
Some scent of which upon my clothes, 
Mijiht chance infect the public's nose), 
The law seized on me in a trice, 
And lock'd me up 'mongst rats and mice. 
So here's the head,'' without contending, 
As well as front of my offending. 


" I'd not comi)laiu without a cause, 
Much less assail fair wholesome laws ; 
Nor even would I vent a spleen 
Agamst the law of quarantine. 
The system's well at special times, 
While plague infests these sickly climes; 
But while I would by laws abide, 
Let justice bear on every side : 
Tho' 'public good's' a special thing. 
The traveler's right I dare to sing. 

*' Are fifteen days of close confinement 
What justice metes as fair assignment 
To men who pass full twenty more 
At sea, remote from every shore ? 
No fell contagion whence they came. 
And none on board of any name? 
E'en then, if quarantine's applied, 
Must every comfort be denied ? 
Are Lazarettos built for hells 
Where men must herd in filthy cells? 
Or rooms as foul as barn or stable, 

" Does 'public good' play off the trick, 
Of jugging men to make them sick ? 
Foul, sickly den ! my patience smarts ! 
While every pulse indignant starts, 
In brooding o'er the wrongs I feel, 
Where law is deaf to all appeal. 

^'O Phoebus! help me to indite, 
And mix satire with what I write ; 
I'd pour its scathful, withering flame 
On this foul Lazaretto's name ! 
Its grated windows, bolted doors, 
Its filthy rooms, with earth for floors ; 
With not a table, chair, nor bed, 
On which to rest the back or head ; 
Surcharged with hoards of rats and mice. 


Cockroaches, fleas, and even lice ! 
A charming place to check disease, 
And sovereign 'public good' to please ! 
Let me escape the loathsome den, 
I'll leave and ne'er return — again. 

'* At about 7 o'clock on the morning of the 21st, I was per- 
permitted to take final leave of this filthy prison-bouse, for 
it deserves no better name. As this was the only time I ever 
found myself under lock and key, I was convinced of two 
things : First, that liberty is a most precious boon ; and, sec- 
ond, that in the disposition of my nature, I am most sadly 
unfitte<i for a 'jail-bird.' My Greek friend who had sup- 
plied me with provisions daring quarantine, and who spoke 
English, was on hand with his boat to convey me to the 
city. At his house I was provided with a room and good 
accommodations during my stay in Smyrna. 

"Smyrna is a city of about one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand inhabtants, principally composed of Turks, Greeks, 
Armenians, and Jewi^. * * At best the city presf^nts but little 
of magnificence or splendor. The streets are narrow and 
irregular, and, like all the eastern cities that I have seen, 
quite filthy. Often, you will mnet a line of loaded camels, 
ten or twelve in number, following each other in a single 
train, while their loads sweep nearly from side to side of a 
street. When two of these lines meet, you will often see 
trouble between the drivers in passing each other. * * 

"The location of Smyrna is delightful, and the scenery 
around it is highly picturesque. It stands on the south side, 
and near the head of a gulf bearing the same name. This 
large sheet of water, with its shores, contiguous mountains, 
villages, and their variegated scenery, lie spread to view for 
a great distance. The harbor is a vast road in which vessels 
lie at anchor. It is well protected against every wind except 
the northwest. * - 

"A mountain, almost in the shape of a crescent, bends 
round the south and west of the city. * * On the summit of 
this mountain, which is directly south of the city, are the 
remains of an ancient fortress. From this eminence a most 
beautiful view is had of the city, its environs, and the adja- 
cent country. * * A short distance to the west of this ruined 


fortress are the ruins of an ancient Homau amphitheater. 
A little to the west of these ruins are several large Mohamme- 
dan burial grounds. Indeed, they may well be called mighty 
fields of the d«-ad. I should thhik they extend more than a 
mile in one way. The number of monuments over graves 
is almost countless. * * 

*The market bazars of the city appeared to be well 
stocked with provisions of the usual variety, and most of 
th-^m were sold cheap. Fruits, such as oranges, figs, and 
rai-^ins, were sold surprisingly low. The figs of Sm^'rnaare 
probably superior to any in ihe world ; and their raisins can 
be excelled no vv here. As to oranges, the best I ever saw- 
were in Egypt. 

"Although Smyrna was the seat of one of the seven 
churches of Asia to whom John wrote in the Apocalypse, 
and although that church escaped censure in that epistle, 
how has the fine gold since become dim ! There is, indeed, 
much Ciilled Christianity in Smyrna. No city in Asia Minor 
has within it so many professing Christians, in proportion to 
its population, as this. Of these the Greek Church, Roman 
Catholics, aud Atmenians constitute the great mass. But 
among the whole of these sects, so far as I was enabled to 
see, there is far too little to commend Christianity to unbe- 
lievers around them. * * 

*' At Suoyrua I took passage for my native land, on board 
the brig Choctaw. The vessel was one of the largest of the 
class, but, to my regret, proved a dull sailer, and subjected 
us to a long passage. We set sail on the third day of May, 
1842, with a fair wind and tine weather. ^' * On the following 
day we passed the beautiful Scio. This island, though prop- 
erly Grecian, is still in the hands of the Turks. Its fate, 
connected with the late Greek revolution, is of the most 
thrilling memory. The interesting view I had of this 
island, together with the mournful reminiscence of its mod- 
ern historv, produced the following lines : 
When I pass'd thy coast, fair Scio, 

All thy wrongs before me rose ; 
And the blood that stains thy valleys 
Cried for vengeance on thy foes ! 


Dark the deed of foul oppression 
Wrought by Moslem hands on thee, 

When the charge of thy transgression 
Only was, thou wouldst be free. 

" Once thy palaces, fair Scio, 

'Midst thy fields and verdant groves, 
Pictured thee an Eden landscape. 

Where the muses sang their loves. 
8ad the day of desolation, 

When a murd'rous craven foe 
Wrapped thee in wild conflagration ; 

Burned and laid thy beauty low. 

** Wasted are thy hills, fair Scio ; 

Ruin marks each verdant plain. 
And the sea-bird screams the requiem 

O'er thy loved ones basely slain ! 
What tho' vengeance long hath slumbered 

O'er the power that dealt the deed ; 
All thy wrongs shall yet be numbered, 

And thy foes in turn must bleed ! 

"On the 7th instant we came in sight of the Peloponesus, or a 
point of the Morea in Greece. Here we were mostly becalmed 
and made but little headway for several days. The 20th, came 
in sight of Sicily. On this island we were confined four days 
by calms, head- winds, and counter-currents. On the morn- 
ing of the 29th, Sardinia lay in view a few leagues before us. 
We were consequently compelled to tack ship and stand off 
west-by-south. We beat off and remained on this coast for 
nearly a week, being able to make but little headway. On 
the 18th of June we came in sight of the mountains of Ande- 
lusia, in Spain. As we approached the Spanish coast, the 
town of Almesia was spread plain to our view, and from our 
distance presented an inviting appearance. Here some 
Spanish fishermen came to our vessel, from whom we pur- 
chased some fresh fish. On the morning of the 20ih of June 
we found ourselves nearly becalmed in the Bay of Malaga, 
and in fair view of the city. On the morning of the 25th 


of June we arrived at Gibralter. This completed fifty- 
three days from the time we left Smyrna. We were obligwl 
to put into Gibralter for a fresh supply of provisions and 
water. Those we obtained were of excellent quality. 

"On setting sail frona Gibralter, the wind was favorable 
for carrying ns through the straits, and, in twelve hours after, 
we were again completely out of sight of laud, rolling and 
tossing on the bosom of the broad Atlantic. 

"I have before spoken of the splendor of a sunset at sea. 
Receding from the coast of Spain and Portugal, the gorgeous 
sunsets are most enchanting. They are so unlike every thing 
of the kind I ever beheld in this country, that I have gazed 
upon them with a delight and interest which I can not 
describe. The following lines were written off the coast of 
Spain in commemoration of those happy emotions : 


"I've seen behind the ocean wave 
The sun his golden pinions lave; 
Still sending o'er the wat'ry way 
The milder beams of closing day. 
The sky above, like burnished gold. 
Reflected on each wave that rolled ; 
While, far as e^^e could trace the s-cene, 
The sea was clad in dazzling sheen : 
Above, around, a halo spread 
Till glory mantled ocean tDed. 

"Bright scene of mild departing day ! 
I love to while an hour away 
In gazing on thy fading light, 
And watch the gath'ring shades of night. 
On the ship's deck, how oft I stood 
And eyed thy glory o'er the flood. 
Till faintly, and more faintly glowed 
The golden beauties thou hadst strowed ; 
Till night its somber pall had spread, 
And Luna shone in Phoebus^ stead. 


"Like scene beside the bed of death, 
I've watched the Christian's parting breath I 
There eyed poor life's last flick'ring ray, 
And measured man's frail transient day ! 
That place, tho' sad, was hallowed ground, 
For light celestial gathered round : 
As died away the breath of prayer 
Religion's halo circled there ; 
And glory shown like setting day 
As that freed sfjirit passed away. 

"On leaving the Straits of Gibraltar, our captain steered 
his vessel considerably north of the Western Islands, with 
the hope of more steady winds. Our course lay so far north 
that we saw none of the group ; but on my voyage out I 
was favored with all the view of those islands I desired. 
We were about in the longitude of the Azores on the Fourth 
of July. In accordance with previous arrangements, the 
day was appropriately celebrated on board the vessel. On 
the 11th of July we passed in sight of what is called the 
Whale Rock. It was probably about two miles north of us. 
The appearance it presented was very much like that of a 
whale lying on the surface of the water, and, with a gentle 
sea, it might at first view well be mistaken for that animal. 
For several days, in the forepart of August, schools of 
whales surrounded our vessel. They appeared by no means 
shy, as some of them passed by our side, and even under our 

"On the 22d of August, spoke the barque Sarah, of Boston, 
from Antwerp. As we had now been nearly two months 
from Gibralter, some articles of provisions had entirely run 
out, and others were getting short. We procured from that 
vessel a supply of such as we needed, which afforded us very 
timely relief. Five days after, fell in with the barque Nep- 
tune, of Boston. Their benevolent captain laid his vessel to, 
and kindly offered us any relief he could bestow. Of him 
we obtained some further supplies. This vessel lay at Gib- 
ralter when we left. It had subsequently been to Cadiz, 
taken in a cargo of salt, and had now fortunately overtaken 
us. That vessel arrived at Boston six days before us. 


*' On the 4th of September came ia sight of land on our 
continent. It was a poiut of Nova Scotia. We saw it again 
on the .5th, and stood off for fear of getting on shore in the 
night, the wind being southwest. On the 9th we saw the 
Highlands near Cape Ann. It was thea near sunset, and in 
the evening our vessel was laid to for morning light. When 
I turned out in the morning, to my inexpressible joy, Boston 
was in full view, with a fair wind to carry us directly int.?, 
harbor. At 10 o'clock a. m. I stepped on my native soil, 
with a transport of feeling better realized than expressed. I 
think I then knew what it was to feel a heart of thanksgiv- 
ing to the Parent of all good. We had been one hundred 
and thirty days from Smyrna. At Boston the vessel was 
supposed to be lost, and my friends had about given up ever 
seeing me again on the shores of time.'' 





The subject of these pages realized in improved 
health all, and even more, than he had anticipated 
from his long and, at that time, really hazardous 
journey. When he arrived at Boston he found it 
of the first importance to replenish his nearly 
exhausted wardrobe. This done, he wrote letters 
to his family and friends, most of whom had given 
him up for lost. Indeed, an elegy had been written 
by Rev. E. G. Holland, which would soon have 
appeared in print. He thus had the rare privilege 
of reading his own eleg}^ 

In a short note written about this time for the 
Christian Herald, he says: "Through a merciful 
Providence, I have once more safely landed on my 
native shore. During my absence of nearly one 
year I have visited the most interesting section of 
our globe — at least to every Bible student. * * Hav- 
ing traveled over the principal scenery,of the Bible, 
I would here state a few important facts. First : The 
dangers and privations attendant on such a journey 
far exceeded my expectations. Indeed, had I fully 
anticipated them, I doubt not I should have aban- 


doijed the undertaking. Second: The whole has serv- 
ed to estahlishjin a more conlirmed manner, my faith 
in the Holy Scriptures and tlie Christian religion. 
It would seem impossible for an infidel to travel the 
region I have traversed, to there see the actual ful- 
fillment of prophecy, and not feel his skepticism 
demolished. Third: I return with essentially improv- 
ed health, for which I desire to feel duly thaiikful to 
thei\^ther of all mercies. Fourth: From all I have 
seen of foreign lands, attachment to my native land 
has been strengthened. I leave this city (Boston) for 
w^estern Xew York.*' 

The church in West Bloomfield was then with- 
out a pastor, and had been anxiously waiting hi& 
return for nearly three months, anticipating that he 
would be willing to resume his labors in that place. 
In this they were not mistaken. An engagement 
w^as made, and he entered at once upon his pastoral 

In a letter he says: "After a few days spent in 
arranging my temporal aifairs, I took an upper 
room and devoted nearly every day. Sabbaths 
excepted, for seven wrecks, preparing my journal 
for the press. And in that brief time I wrote out 
and prepared my 'Journal of Travels in Egypt, 
Arabia Petra, and the Holy Land.' " For this work 
there was a popular demand. Before the first edi- 
tion of five thousand was half tn rough the press, 
he had received orders for the whole amount, and 
accordingly had another edition of five thousand 
struck off without delay, and this, too, was soon 
exhausted. The copyright then passed into other 


hands, and the book was still more widely circulated. 
From many flatterino^ notices wdiich the work 
received, w^e insert the following from the Rochester 
Republican: "We deem this volume the most inter- 
esting book of travels relating to the countries of 
which it treats, that has come under our inspec- 
tion. Its condensed form and concise manner, 
together with the richness of its matter, render it 
a valuable w^ork." 

When the manuscript was ready, he spent three 
weeks, Sabbaths excepted, in Rochester, superin- 
tending its publication. While there, a protracted 
meeting commenced in the First Baptist Church of 
that city, then under the pastoral care of Rev. Dr. 
Church. One evening Mr. Millard was invited to 
preach. He says: "I felt a special message from 
Ood to that people, and after the sermon about forty 
persons came forward for prayers." He preached 
in all seven evenings, and when he left the number 
of seekers was over seventy. 

About this time a revival commenced in his own 
consfreofation in West Bloomfield, Elder Hendrick 
(then of Lima, Xew York) having preached a few 
evenings during the pastor's absence. On his return 
the pastor entered into the w^ork with great earnest- 
ness. As the result of this precious revival, over 
eighty w^ere added to the church of his charge, 
while a number joined other churches. In this 
work of grace. Dr. J. Hall and Elder A. Chapin 
were very efficient helps. 

In the summer of 1843, the subject of this memoir 
bought himself a pleasant home in the village of 


West Bloomlield, witli the design of bringing 
together his long scattered family; but how vain 
are human calculations! As the arrangements 
were about completed, and the time for the reunion 
was approaching, death suddenly interposed, and 
removed the wife and mother to her eternal home. 
Iler scattered children were not to meet her a£:ain 
upon earth; but they fondly hope to meet her in 
heaven. In the following autumn the principal 
part of the family were brought together, and the 
pilgrim's home was re-established. 

The succeeding year was one of general prosper- 
ity in the church of his charge, notwithstanding 
the time of the pastor was divided between the cul- 
tivation of his little farm and his pastoral labors. 
lie also occasionally preached in other places, and 
attended a few general meetings. 

On the 24th of April, 1844, he was married to 
Miss ElminaL. Belote, a worthy and highly respected 
member of his church in West Bloomfield. This- 
union, which in every respect was a happy one, 
continued until his death. She in an eminent 
degree was his counselor, and a faithful colaborer 
in every good work. 

The fruits of the lirst marriage were eight chil- 
dren, and, of' the second, two. Of the first, five 
survive their father, of whom the writer is the only 
son. Of the second, a son only survives ; a daugh- 
ter of more than ordinary promise having been 
taken away in the bright da3's of her youth. 

We have already alluded to the antislavery sen- 
timents of Mr. Millard. Time served only to 


strengthen liis convictions upon this subject, and he 
was now actively engaged in using his pen and 
voice against the great and crying evil of oppres- 
sion. Xor did the subject of shivery alone absorb 
his attention. He was also an earnest and sincere 
advocate of the cause of peace. We might quote 
much from his pen upon these subjects; but a few 
•extracts will suffice. Under date of January 3, 
1845. he writes as follows for the Palladium : 


''With me it has sometimes been a nice point of inquiry 
bow far a Christian minister and Christian periodical are 
bound to go, when their course of action may come in direct 
contact with popular political measures. I have, however, 
long since come to the conclusitm that I am bound to reprove 
Svickednes^ in high places,' as well as low. In this I would 
be bold enough to be honest, and honest enough to be bold. 
The more formidable any combinaiion may be to sustain 
wickedness and opprrssion. the more imperative is the call 
for every Christian to exert a countermanding influence. 
Any plan in this prof ;sse<]ly Christian land, which purposes 
an outrage on humanity and mercy, setting at defiance the 
sacred principles of eieroal justice, I am bound to confront, 
not with carnal weapons, but by the all-powerful force of 
immutable truth. Slavery has long existed in this nation in 
ats worst form. Crushed under the iron heel of despotism, 
two millions and a half of human beings, created in the 
J mage of God, are unhumanized, Man is transformed into 
a thing, a chattel, an article of traffic. He is bought and 
sold at the will of oppressors, compelled to labor with- 
out wages, and flogged to his task. Crushed down in the 
dungeon of ignorance, it is made a crime punishable bylaw 
(even with death in some instances), to teach slaves to read 
God's holy word. The blave by law can possess nothing and 
claim nothing. He can not sue before any court for redress 
of wrongs, or petition any legislative body to redress his 


grievances. His oath is not allowed againsj-t a white man, 
even if one of his fellow slaves is murdered in his presence. 
If he attempts to fly from oppression, he is followed hy 
hloodhounds, trained for the purpose, and shot down as an 
outlaw if he refuses to surrender. Such is American slav- 
ery; and among its victims, too, are many pious and devoted 
disciples of Christ. '■• * * 

*' And what is the present attitude of our national govern- 
ment? Why, instead of showing a disposition to have the 
evil removed, efforts are still making to fortify slavery, and 
enlarge its borders wuthin our national compact. * * *' Now, 
I ask, have Christians and Christian periodicals no right to 
speak out on this subject? Do open and undisguised efforts 
to strengthen, perpetuate, and extend slavery in our nation 
merit no rebuke from the church of God? In the name of 
heaven and common humanity, shall this wicked plot be 
consummated, and Christians in the North sit silent and 
look on? No; God forbid. Let the voice of ever^^ Christian 
be heard, and his influence felt in this matter. Heaven, 
religion, and humanity, demand it." 

The following will show his views upon another 


" What greater calamity can possibly befall a nation than 
war? The waste of human life and the destruction of prop- 
erty are only a part of the evils. War throws open tlie very 
floodgates of vice and every evil work. Its hateful spirit 
when drank into fills the mind with the worst of passions, 
and uproots the best principles of the human soul. * * Is it 
possible to see any thing in war that bears a semblance to 
the precepts of the gospel, to the example of the meek and 
lowly Prince of Peace? Is not the spirit of war directly 
opposed to every pious and devotional feeling? How much, 
think ye^ do young converts feel like fighting? 

" But if war is contrary to the spirit and genius of Chris- 
tianity, is it right for Christian nations to engage in offensive 
war ? Let somephilosopher answer the following questions : 
If it is right for one nation to make war on another nation, 


is it not right for one individual to do the same on another 
individual? If one nation can righteously settle its difficulties 
with another nation, by resorting to bloodshed and carnage, 
may not a single individual be justified in taking the same 
course? Why should it be thought a crime for two individ- 
uals to fight even with deadly weapons, when it is pro- 
nounced justifiable for two nations to do it? How much 
worse is a single combat between two blustering duelists 
than a sanguinary battle between two contending armies? 
How miuch worse is it for the crew of a solitary vessel on the 
broad ocean to declare war against the world, and hoist the 
black flag, than for one part of the world to declare war 
against another part? Why should the former be made sub- 
jects of a gibbet and the latter be crowned with laurels and 
covered with glory?" 

• In the fall of 1845 the subject of this memoir 
was appointed to a professorship in the Meadvillle 
Theological School.* Concerning this appoint- 
ment the Palladium thus speaks : 

"Elder David Millard, of West Bloomfield, has been chosen 
Professor of Biblical Antiquities and Sacred Geography in 
the Theological Institute of Meadville, Pennsylvania. We 
learn he has accepted the apj)ointment. We think the selec- 
tion a judicious one — one that will secure the approbation 
and confidence of all w^ho are acquainted with his indefat- 
igable labors and unwavering course in the service of his 
divine Master. The duties of his professorship will require 
Elder Millard's attendance at the institution about one 
month in each year." 

*This school was established on a nonsectarian basis, 
through the united eflTorts of leading members of the Unita- 
rian and *' Christian " denominations. The money by which 
it was endowed was furnished almost exclusively by the Uni- 
tarians, the Messrs. Huidekoper, of Meadville, being the 
most generous contributors; but, for several years, the 
"Christians" furnished a majority of the students. 


For a period of more than t\\'enty yoarri lie con- 
tinued to 111], in an acceptable manner, this position. 
Between him and its Urst president, the Rev. Dr. 
Stebbins, a strong attachment existed. In 1856 
the retiring president wrote to Mr. Millard as fol- 
lows : *' I assure you that my regard for you is not 
abated by the more and more perfect acquaintance 
which I have been making with you the last ten 
years. May our brotherly relations continue till 
death; and in the heavenly world.'' And, in a letter 
to the writer, Dr. Stebbins says : '' For the ten years 
during which I was associated with your father in 
th,e instruction of the students at Meadville, I do 
not remember that w^e had any difference of opin- 
ion respecting how^ it should be conducted. ^' * He 
was true to his own people, while he was true to 
all." His relations, also, with the other professors 
were generally pleasant. Though of the five 
instructors he was the only representative of the 
"Christian" denomination, yet, during the whole of 
his connection with the school, he w'as true to his 
own people, and never compromised his principles 
in the least. When the time came to establish a 
denominational school, and the Christian Diblical 
Institute was opened, he was a firm friend of that 
movement, and gave it his hearty support. His 
connection with the Meadville school closed in 
the early part of 1867. 

From 1846 to 1848, there were no incidents of 

marked interest in Elder Millard's life. During 

these years his time was spent mainly in quiet w^ork 

with the church of his char fife. He, however, com- 



municated frequently through the press, aucl was 
earnestly engaged in promoting temperance and 
antislavjery sentiments. In fact, he was by nature 
a reformer, and could not remain inactive in any 
movement for the benefit of his race. A friend, 
Kev. A. A. Lason, writes : " Pie was a resolute 
reformer. He hated every species of bondage. He 
loved liberty, and labored ardently that all men 
might enjoy it. * ^ His position in reform and 
religion were far in advance of the age." 

In Jujie, 1847, he preached on the occasion of 
the ordination of Rev. B. P. Summerbell, at iN'aples, 
^N'ew York. Elders Jabez Chadwick, Ezra Mar- 
vin, A. Stanton, and S. M. Fow^ler, were associated 
with him in the services. 

He now had many calls to visit churches at a dis- 
tance ; and wherever he went large congregations 
gathered to hear one who had been to Jerusalem, 
visited the supposed sepulcher of our Lord, and 
stood on Calvary. In these labors he was often 
blessed, and saw many converted. 

So great was the interest manifested to hear lec- 
tures on Bible scenery, that he finally deemed it his 
duty to resign his pastoral charge and devote much 
of his time to this work. In reaching this conclu- 
sion, he was chiefly influenced by the belief that he 
could, in this way, not only interest his hearers, but 
more thoroughly establish in their minds the authen- 
ticity of the Scriptures, and press home essential 
truths upon some that he could not reach in any 
other way. 

Accordingly, in the summer of 1849, he vacated 


his pulpit, aucl arranged his affairs for lecturing in 
different places. lu his lirst tour, which was to 
iNew England, he was accompanied by his wifu 
and youngest daughter. This tour led him to 
Portsmouth, IsTew Hampshire, w^here he had form- 
erly labored. Here he spent two Sabbaths, and 
enjoyed a delightful visit, at the same time preach- 
ing and lecturing several times in the vicinity. 

On his return, he attended the Isevr England 
Christian Convention at Boston, where he was most 
cordially received, the convention arising en masse 
when his name was announced by the president. 
On the completion of this tour, he again returned 
to his home. The following winter was principally 
devoted to lecturing in his own state. 

In the winter of 1849, he wrote and published in 
the Christian Palladium an article entitled, "Expla- 
nations lielative to a Theological School," in which 
he referred at some length to the state of education 
in the denomination. '• Such," he says, "has become 
the enlightened taste of our times, that a thoroughly 
instructed ministry is called for in every direction, 
and no ofher will be long successful, in an eminent 
deorree, amons; a w^ell educated communitv." He 
had long entertained advanced views in reference to 
this subject. In 1835, in his opening address before 
the IsTew York Central Christian Conference, ho 
said: "i^ext to religion itself is the improvement 
of the human mind by means of education." He 
then urged with much earnestness the importance 
of establishing a literary institution to be under 
the control of the Christians in the State of ^ew 


York. Frora that time he was an earnest friend of 
the movement which resulted in the founding of 
Starke J Seminary. Of this seminary he was for 
several years a trustee, and to the last its firm and 
true friend. 

Though the article ahove alluded to was chiefly 
devoted to the. consideration of the wants of the 
ministry, and of Avhat was needed in order to estab- 
lish a theological school on a firm and successful 
basis, it awakened much interest on the general 
subject of education. It especially attracted the 
attention of Mr. A. M. Merrifield, who then resided 
at "Worcester, Massachusetts. So much was this 
gentleman interested in the subject discussed, that 
he took the pains to travel from Worcester to West 
Bloomfield, a distance of three hundred miles, to 
see the author of the article, and talk over the 
wants of the denomination in this respect. He 
also made liberal propositions to aid the enterprise. 
After a free intercharjge of thoughts, they finally 
decided to appoint an informal committee of five 
brethren to meet in the city of ]^ew York, and 
more fully mature a plan of action. This commit- 
tee consisted of Messrs. Merrifield, Millard, Barr, 
Pike, and J. W'^illiamson. 

The meeting was held in the month of May, 1850. 
Elders Pike and AYilliamson were unable to attend. 
Letters, however, were received from them indors- 
ing the movement, and agreeing to sanction the 
action of the three members of the committee in 
whose hands the business was left. By them a plan 
w^as matured, which was embodied in an address and 


published to theworlcl. The subject of our memoir 
was the author of the address. A few closing sen- 
tences is all that we jDurpose to insert. They are as 

"Brethren and friends of the Christian connec- 
tion, we wish you to start simultaneously and unit- 
edly to establish one college for our people. You 
can do it by one strong, united efibrt, and we shall 
fail without such effort and co-operation. 

"A convention of our brethren from every sec- 
tion is expected to meet in connection with our 
Book Association, in October next, at Marion, ^ew 
York. Before that convention we propose to lay 
our plan; and there. Providence permitting, we 
will press the subject. TVe expect that convention 
will complete the plan, and carry measures into 
immediate effect for its consummation. 1\\ the 
meantime our conferences will generally hold their 
annual sessions. Will not each conference seek to 
be represented there, by appointing one, two, or 
three delegates to it? Will not each conference 
also make some expression in relaion to the plan 
we herein propose, that their delegates may feel 
themselves instructed on the subject?" 

The publication of this address, with the accom- 
panying plan for founding a college, brought the 
subject directly before the brotherhood. It became 
at once the chief theme for discussion through the 
columns of our religious papers, and in the local 
conferences. The latter generally took action in 
reference to the subject, and appointed delegates to 
the proposed convention. In the month of October 



the couveiition met, as the address proposed, in 
Marion, 'New York. It was probably the largest 
convention ever held in the denomination, and in 
none, perhaps, did our ablest and best men ever more 
fully represent themselves. Many important sub- 
jects were considered and acted upon, but upon the 
subject of education the body was fully aroused. 
After mature deliberation, the plan set forth in the 
address was, in the main, adopted, and the prelim- 
inary steps were taken which resulted in the found- 
ing of Antioch College. To carry the enterprise 
forward, a •provisional committee of thirty was 
appointed — live of whom should constitute a quorum 
to transact business. Of this committee Mr. Mil- 
lard was appointed president; and in perfecting^ 
and carrying forward the arrangements which, in 
the earl}^ history of this movement, w^ere so suc- 
cessful, he bore an important part. We shall here 
enter no further into the history of this college 
enterprise. With its subsequent history the denom- 
ination is familiar. All, however, are agreed that its 
founders were moved by a high and noble purpose; 
and to the subject of these pages belongs no small 
share of the credit to which its projectors are 

At a meeting of the "Book Association," held in 
connection with this convention, Mr. Millard was 
re-elected one of the associate editors of the Chris- 
tian Palladium — a position which he had held for 
two or three years previous, by appointment of the 
Executive Committee. This position he continued 
to fill, to general acceptance, for some years. 


During the summer and autumn of 1850, he vis- 
ited various places in the eastern part of the State 
of 'New York, extending his tour to ^e\v York 
City, and to Camptown (now Irviugton), New Jer- 
sey. Wherever he went, he preached and lectured 
to large assemhlies. Among other places, he again 
visited Ballston and the home of his childhood, 
including the house where he was horn. He says : 
"I also wandered over the fields so often traversed 
hy me in childhood. Bordering the farm is a beau- 
tiful stream called the Alploss. I wandered along 
its shores for a distance, where object after object 
reminded me of some boyhood occurrence. At 
length, seated in a retired place on its margin, I 
wrote these lines : 


''Roll on, sylvan stream, as in days when T knew thee, 
'Midst scenes of my childhood and youth's suuny day ; 
Once more on thy margin, delighted to view thee, 
I trace thy loved valley and eye thy pathway. 

''Fairbanks, bright and verdant with foliage and flow^, 
Decked out as of yore when I traversed thy side ; 
Or wooed the coy muses 'midst Nature's own bowers — 
Those haunters of thought e'en at life's eventide. 

** Endearments that blend with my first recollection, 

Are linked with my rambles beside thee, sweet stream ; 
Still waking to ardor the soul's fond affection, 
For scenes in review that have pass'd like a dream. 

** Midst changes that Time has enstamped all around thee, 
Midst ravages Death has strewed wide in his tread ; 
Sweet stream, as of old, still unchanged I have found thee, 
The same lovely Al,pl,oss, still bright in thy bed. 


*'Tho' ia fame thou hast gathered no high predilection, 
Tho' thy name is not breathed out to minstrelsy's tune, 
Thou art dear to this bosom ; yea, dear in affection, 
As to Scotia's own bard was his loved ' Bonnie Doone.' 

"Thou wak'uest in mem'ry life's season of gladness, 
That kindred household where I mingled of yore ; 
But reflection is followed by thoughts of deep sadness, 
Those kindred far parted must meet here no more. 

** Well, roll OD, sweet stream, as in days when I knew thee, 
^Midst scenes of my childhood and youth's sunny day ; 
No more may I stand on thy margin to view thee, 
But thy mem'ry, fair Alploss, shall live far away." 




Much of Elder Millard's time from 1850 to 1860 
was spent in lecturing upon Palestine and the 
scenes of his foreign travels. We shall not attempt 
to follow him in these different lecturing tours, 
though in this chapter we shall briefly refer to some 
of them, and give a few extracts from his published 
letters. Said a writer'^ of that time, who was well 
qualified to judge: ^'The lectures are descriptive, 
instructive, and impressive; and no Bible student 
can listen to them without being deeply moved." 

In May, 1851, his arrangements called him again 
to Canada. Arriving at Oshawa, he was cordially 
greeted by Elder Thomas Henry, who at once con- 
ducted him to his hospitable home. He remained 
in the queen's dominion about three weeks. At 
various places large congregations gathered to lis- 
ten to his preaching, and his lectures excited much 
interest. While at iTew Market, he wrote: "This 
is one of the oldest of our churches in Canada. In 

«^Prof. E. Chadwick, of Starkey, New York. 


this region Elder Asa Morrison, who now sleeps in 
death, labored with great effect in first planting the 
cause, and fruits of his devoted ministry still remain." 
In the same letter he bore testimony to the faithful 
and successful labors of Elders J. Blackmar, J. E. 
Church, I. C. Goff, and others, who were instru- 
mental, in an early day, in doing much for the 
** Christian" cause in that interesting section of 

Arriving home on the evening of June 7th, he 
first learned of the death of his daughter, Caroline 
M.jWife of Lucas B. "Walker, of Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan. This lady was much esteemed on account of 
her amiability and social graces. She died June 
2d, after a protracted illness, peaceful, and resigned, 
in the 29th year of her age. Though the event 
was not entirely unexpected, yet when the final 
shock came it nearly unnerved him. He afterward 
gave expression to his feelings in these beautiful 


Sleep, gently sleep, beloved one, 
Companion of the dead ; 

Thy toils and cares and pains are done- 
Rest, rest thy quiet head. 

The struggle's o'er ; the scene is past ! 

How calm thy ceaseless sleep ! 
To ills that life's dark sky o'ercast 

Thou ne'er shalt wake to weep. 


And yet I scarce can think thee gone, 

Thou child so loved, so fair ; 
I seem to see thee still, as when 

Thou climb'd tby father's chair. 

In prayer I see thee by my side, 

In praise I hear thy voice ; 
I read thy thoughts to heaveu allied — 

For thine was Mary's choice. 

But ah ! too true, the pang is mine! 

Thy i^ains and ills are o'er ! 
Farewell, my much loved Caroline ! 
On earth we meet no more. 

But oh I bright heaven ! sure thou art there, 

There, 'midst the seraph throng ! 
An angel's portion thine to share — 

Thine more than angel's song I 

Then, when a few more daj-s are fled, 

A few more sorrows o'er, 
Where farewell tears no more arc shed, 

We'll meet to part no more. 

The summer of this year was spent mostly iu a 
quiet manner at home, but later in tlie season he 
preached and lectured in several places in western 
^ew York, in all of which he was cordially received, 
and addressed attentive congregations. 

During the twenty years and upward that he 
held his professorship in the Meadville Theological 
School, he was accustomed, nearly every season, to 
spend one or more Sabbaths with the church at 
Spring, Pennsylvania, long under the faithful pas- 
toral charge of Eev. J. E. Church. Between the 
subject of this memoir and Elder Church a strong 

252 ' MEMOIR OF 

attacnment sprung up. They had been acquainted 
for many years. When the latter was ordained at 
a session of the 'New York Western Conference, in 
June, 1826, the former was one who laid hands on 
him, and, with otherS;, gave him the right hand of 
fellowship. Through their long acquaintance, and 
frequent associations in later years, there was always 
a good understanding between them. Mrs. Church 
says: "Your father was always a welcome guest 
at our house." 

In the fall of this year, he visited Spring. Here 
he preached and lectured to attentive congregations. 
He also visited other places in th<5 vicinity, and, 
after performing his duties to his class at Meadville, 
returned to his home. 

In 1852 he took quite an extensive tour through 
the State of Ohio. " My object was to do good," he 
says, "as well as to gratify the desire of many to 
see and hear the man whose 'Journal of Travels in 
Egypt, Arabia Petra, and the Holy Land,' they had 
read with at least some interest." 

While on this journey he attended a session of the 
Provisional Committee of Antioch College, which 
was held at Yellow Springs on the 12th, 13th, and 
14th of May. Of the above committee he was still 
a member. He writes : " All our business was 
transacted in harmony, with cheering confidence in 
the success of our noble enterprise." 

Having previously revisited Genessee, Orleans, 
and ISTiagara counties, in the State of I^Tew York, 
in the winter of 1852-3 he again went to New 
England, to lecture. He writes: "My lectures 


were well atteaded, and I received marks of friend- 
ship that endeared the people to me. * '^ I reached 
home on the 11th of Fehruary; having heen ahsent 
fifty days, I had traveled by hind and w'ater fifteen 
hundred miles, and had addressed congregations 
forty-two times. I^Tot an accident befel me ; my 
health was excellent, and prosperity attended my 
whole tour, 'Bless the Lord, O my soul, and for- 
get not all his benefits.'" 

His time, for several months after his return, was 
spent principally in the vicinity of home ; but in 
August and September, 1853, he once more went 
into the western part of his native state, spend- 
ing his time chieiiy in Chatauque County. His 
Sabbath congregations were large, and his preach- 
ing was with spirit and with power. His lectures 
were everywhere attended with interest. 

In the fall of this year he revisited Michigan, and 
preached' and lectured to large assemblies in Mar- 
shall, Jackson, Parma, Dexter, Spring Arbor, Bat- 
tle Creek, and other places. He enjoyed this tour 
exceedingly, and was deeply interested in noting 
the improvements which had been made since his 
first journey through the same section, in 1836. 
Many persons with whom he had become acquainted 
at the East had found homes in this enterprising* 
state. Wherever he went, he saw familiar faces; 
and not only by these friends of former years was 
he cordially welcomed, but everywhere he received 
kindly greetings from those who, though they had 
never seen his face before, still felt that they knew 
hiui. He especially enjoyed his visit to Marshal) 


and vicinity, where he received many marks of, 

In the year 1854, his journeys were less extended, 
though in the summer he visited and lectured in 
Oswego and Broome counties, in his native state, 
and in the month of October was present at the United 
States General Convention at Cincinnati. This 
convention was largely attended. Important sub- 
jects were considered in which, lie took an active 
part. The discussion of slavery, especially, caused 
much excitement, and resulted in the withdrawal of 
some of the members. The position taken by Mr. 
Millard was decided and radical. "Sir," he said, 
" American slavery is either right or wrong. If it 
is right, we are certainly doing wrong to oppose 
it. * * On the other hand, if chattel slavery is wrong, 
all of us ought to stand opposed to it to a man. In 
my judgment, tlie question involves too high 
responsibility to admit of one inch of neutral 
ground." He then spoke at considerable length 
with great force and power, depicting the horrors 
of the system, and condemning it unsparingly, and 
with marked effect. 

On the 10th of January, 1855, he left his home 
for a tour among the churches in Indiana. This 
journey was made conformably with earnest and 
repeated requests which he had received from. that 
quarter. '' In two days after starting," he writes, 
"I found myself in Lebanon, Indiana, six hundred 
miles from home. During my stay in that state I 
preached and lectured in many places, and was 
everywhere kindly received. My Sabbath congre- 


gations were in every instance large, people attend- 
ing from ten to fifteen miles distance. At all places 
where I spent the Sabbath, meetings commenced 
on Saturday, and sometimes terminated on Monday 
noon. Most of the meetings w^ere seasons of deep 
solemnity, before the close of which additions were 
made to the church. Many wept under the search- 
ing power of God. 

"My range of visit and labor was wholly in what 
is called the "Valley of the Wabash. * * People in 
that section- of the country are enabled to live on 
the 'fat of the earth,' and increase in wealth full as 
fast as is for their real benefit. May God abun- 
dantly pour out his Spirit upon them, that they 
may with the 'fatness of the earth' enjoy the 'dew 
of heaven.'" 

Mr. Millard returned home on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, much worn down by his labors, but highly 
pleased with his visit, and bearing grateful remem- 
brance of the kind attention received so generally 
from his many friends. 

The subject of these pages had now reached the 
yixty-first year of his age, and was beginning sen- 
sibly to feel the weight of years. Still, when at 
home, he was in the habit of supplying a pulpit at 
Taylor Street, in the town of Mendon, about six 
miles from his residence. About this time he writes : 
"My health at present is far from good. * ^^^ I am 
solemnly admonished that I am fast passing down 
the declivity of life. It is now forty years since I 
first entered the work of the .ministry. But still I 
love that work. "='= "^ Many have called me an earnest 


and zealous speaker, and often I have been admon- 
ished to use more care, or I should wear myself out. 
But now, in the declhae of life, I do not regret a parti- 
cle of my past zeal. Dull, prosy preaching never 
was, and never will be, what our sinful world needs. 
God, heaven, time and eternity, with the destiny of 
man, are awfully earnest themes to dwell upon. 
Ohj for an able, earnest, and efficient ministry." 

In December, 1855, he again visited the State of 
Michigan, and during that month and the month of 
January, 1856, his time was spent chiefly in Oak- 
land, Macomb, Genessee, and Shiawassee counties, 
in that state. Elder John Cannon had not only 
arranged a list of appointments for him, but very 
kindly accompanied him and furnished conveyance. 
They spent fifteen days together, and visited many 
places, where Elder Millard preached the word of life 
to large assemblies. He also lectured on Palestine to 
audiences that expressed themselves highly pleased. 
He says : "My visit to Michigan has tome been 
very interesting. God grant it may be conducive 
to some benefit to the cause I embraced in my 
youth, and still love in my declining years." 

The summer of 1856 took him again to Renssel- 
aer and Columbia counties, where he ]3reached and 
lectured frequently to good and appreciative con- 
gregations. In the fall of the same year, w^e find 
him in Central Pennsylvania, spending his time 
mostly in Lycoming and Union counties. 

In the winter of 1856-7, he journeys again to the 
State of Ohio. "We shall not follow him through 
this somewhat extended tour. Suffice it to say, that 


he preached in many places, and " the people heard 
him gladly." There was still a freshness and power 
in his sermons which could not fail to interest and 
deeply move his hearers; and his lectures were 
always instructive and interesting. 

In the summer of 1857, Mr. Millard made another 
visit to Pennsylvania, spending his time mostly at 
Plymouth and other places in the vicinity; and this 
closed his preaching and lecturing tours for that 

The year 1858 was spent mostly near home ; but 
he was not idle. His pen was still active, and his 
voice was still heard in the promulgation not only 
of the gospel, hut also of all measures of reform 
which he believed the gospel inculcated or sanc- 
tioned. He preached nearly every Sabbath, and had 
many calls to attend funerals. His sermons on such 
occasions were peculiarly appropriate, and comfort- 
ing to the bereaved. 

During the early part of the year 1859, he con- 
tinued his labors near home, though occasionally 
preaching in other localities, conformably with 
requests received. In the month of August he 
journeyed through Saratoga, Fulton, Montgomery, 
and Schoharie counties, in his native state, and 
preached and lectured in many places to full houses. 
In December of the same year he visited Greene 
and Albany counties, where, during that month 
and in January (1860), he preached. and lectured in 
different localities, and was listened to with much 
interest by many of the friends of his earlier vears, 


and by large numl>ers who then saw and heard him 
for the first time. 

In the summer of 1860 he again went to Canada. 
Ill the month of August he took passage in a steam- 
boat at the mouth of Genessee Iliver, and, crossing- 
Lake Ontario, landed at Colborne. Wherever he 
went he was cordially received, and his congrega- 
tions were unusually large. Some of the meetings 
were marked by great spiritual power, and his final 
parting with those kind brethren was affecting and 

During 1861—62 he supplied the church at Lake- 
ville, about twelve miles from his residence. Not- 
withstanding his age and increasing infirmities, lie 
endured these labors remarkably well, while at the 
same time they were highly satisfactory to the 
ch urch of his charge. He also occasionally attended 
other meetings, and continued as heretofore to take 
an active interest in the various reformatory move- 
ments of the day. 

We are now brought down to the period of time, 
so fresh in the memory of all, when a million and 
a half of men were arrayed in arms, and "our ship 
of state " was made to "reel and stagger as if smit- 
ten by thunderbolts and dashing upon rocks." 
During the great conflict for the maintenance of 
our national existence, as might be expected, the sub- 
ject of this memoir felt a deep and abiding interest. 
Peace man though he w^as, he felt that war in the 
defense of the national life, against those who 
sought its destruction, was just and right. From 
the first he believed the conflict would result in the 


overthrow of slavery. Thus believing, be lent the 
aid of his pen and voice to help on tbe cause of 
bis country. Much of his time from the beginning 
of the struggle in 1861, till its close in 1865, was 
given to this patriotic work. 

In the winter of 1863 be went to Marshall, Mich- 
igan, and assisted his son in a series of meetings 
which continued more tban three weeks. He 
entered upon this work with great earnestness, and 
several of bis sermons evinced the power and 
strength of bis prime. His preaching was signally 
blest. The revival was a precious one, resulting in 
the conversion of nearly fifty souls, and in the addi- 
tion of about forty to the church. 

The verses we here insert were w^ritten by Mr. 
Millard when the war of the rebellion was at its 
bight. They will give tbe reader an impression of 
his feelings in those stirring times. 


My native land ! thy dearest charms 
Are shadowed o'er with war's alarms; 
With fields of blood and hosts in arms ! 

Sad tidings come oft and again 

From battle-fields bestrewed with slain, 

Filling the heart with grief and pain. 

Our nation mourns; our land's in tears; 
The past has griefs, the future fears; 
But still fond Hope our spirit cheers. 

Why is it thus ? What demon power 
Has ushered in this gloomy hour, 
With all its Pandemonium dower ? 


Oppression long, with scourge and brand, 
Has struggled on to rule the land, 
Till now the fight is ''hand to hand." 

Tho' despots raise their banners high, 
Shall earth's last hope of freedom die? 
No ; freemen, no ! to th' rescue fly ! 

Strike for the right ! our cause is just ; 
In God we hope, in God we trust, 
By his right arm prevail we must ! 

God of our fathers ! aid bestow, 
To quell this proud, relentless foe. 
Whose aim. is Freedom's overthrow. 

O God ! thy scourging hand I see ! 
Our nation's sins have cried to thee ; 
Oh, pity, cleanse, and set us free! 

He was now beginning sensibly to feel tbe infirm- 
ities of age. While his physical strength had thus 
far been well preserved, he could no longer endure, 
as he once could, a continued strain upon his men- 
tal faculties. lie this year discontinued preaching 
at Lakeville. He then commenced preaching at 
South Lima, which was a few miles nearer home. 
About this time he made the following entry in his 
journal. "My age admonishes me that my work 
on earth will soon be done." 

He continued to preach at South Lima through 
the year 1864, and his ministrations were well 
received. On the 24th of I^ovember of that year 
he wrote in his journal: *^ To-day, I am seventy 
years old. Is it possible? In boyhood, I little 
thought of living so many years — that period looked 


SO far distant. But as I now look back to cliild- 
liood, bow sbort and frail the time appears. Yet I 
know my journey of life has been an eventful one. 
I have tried to live for usefulness, but, alas! frailties 
and imperfections have marked ray way. I have 
no room left for boasting. God lias indeed been 
good to me, even in afflictions. I look back througb 
a merciful train of his providences tbat made me 
what I am. To him I am wholly indebted for any 
good I bave rendered to his cause or to tlie souls of 
my fellow-men. 1 am now in tlie fiftieth year of 
my ministry, and feel assured that my heavenly 
Fatber bas often given me special aid in preaching 
the word. Xotwitbstanding my age, I am 3'et 
athletic and even spry. "When I walk, I step quick 
and carr\^ myself erect. My bearing is as good as 
ever. My ej^esigbt bas never failed, and I read 
witbout glasses ; but I find I am more prone to for- 
getfulness. I can not think as clearly and rapidly 
as I once could. I feel tijat my eventful life must 
soon end. Tbe exact time I know not, and I am 
glad it is so. O my beavenly Fatber, I would sub- 
mit myself to tbee as tenderly as an infant would 
nestle on its motber s bosom. my Protector and 
my Guide, let me be thine for time and eternity !•' 

During tbe few years that be still remained in 
West Bloomfield, we find but few incidents in bis 
bistory of sufficient interest to tbe general reader 
to find a place in these pages. He continued occa- 
sionally to supply vacant pulpits in the vicinity ot 
home, and now and then furnished an article for 


the religious press. Embodied in verse we liere 
give his feelings on the death of the "martyr" 


Ah ! chief beloved ! thy fall we mourn ; 

So loth to smite, so kind to spare ; 
By thee the sword of power was borne, 

Yet thou but held a father's care. 

Around thy bier we sorrowing stand, 
Struck with an awe now felt by all ! 

Wrapped in the anguish of a land 
Now shocked with horror at thy fall ! 

Thy noblest work on earth is done, 
Thine be the patriot's honored grave; 

With name inscribed on deathless stone 
**He broke the fetters of the slave." 

Still deeper be thy deathless name 
Engraved in every patriot's breast ; 

Till ages yet unborn, proclaim 
Thy deeds of worth and call thee blest. 

Thy life so pure ; thy murd'rous foes 

Have writ thy name in golden light, 
High on the martyr-list of those 

On the 24th of I^ovember, 1865, he made this 
entry in his journal: "So time passes away. My 
health has generally been good during the past 
year. I preach occasionally on the Sabbath, and 
have preached quite a number of funeral sermons. 
My soul is still alive in the good cause. I love the 
precious Bible more and more. Precious book! 
How much it has done for the world, and especially 
for my own native land! 


'The mines of earth no wealth can give 

That would this volume buy; 
In teaching me the way to live 

It taught me how to die. 

jSTovember 24, 1866, lie writes: ''Seventy-two 
years have now passed over my head, and yet I live. 
I am surprised at my strength and health. My step 
is yet quick and elastic. My sight has never failed 
me. Yet I know my time on earth will soon close. 
But I know in whom I have believed. O Lord, keep 
me wholly thine. I preach occasionally to ditfer- 
ent congregations, and am gratified to see the tokens 
of respect paid me as an aged minister. I repeat, 
Lord, keep me wholly thine." 

With one more extract from his journal we shall 
close this chapter, and with it closes his residence 
and labors in West Bloomfield and vicinity. "No- 
vember 24, 1867: Again, I make a brief entry 
on my birthday. For some months I have been 
supplying the Christian pulpit at Honeoye Falls, 
four miles from my residence. My sermons through 
my whole ministry of over fifty-two years have 
been extemporaneous. But I can not preach with 
that flow of thought that I could twenty years ago. 
Yet I love the work of preaching the gospel. I 
think I have failed some physically and mentally 
since my last birthday. I am now seventy-three 
years old. O my heavenly Father, keep me by thy 
mighty power through faith unto salvation." 



LIFE IN MICHIGAN — 1868 TO 1873. 

The subject of our memoir had now resided in 
West Bloomfield since his return from his foreign 
voyage — a period of nearly t\Yenty-six years. Four- 
teen years of his early ministry had also been spent 
there. Thus about forty years of his life had been 
passed in that beautiful, rural village. He there 
had devoted the best years of his life to ministerial 
labors. There he had been called to pass through 
scenes of severe trial, and there he had won for 
himself and for the cause of truth some of his 
brightest victories. 

But time had w^rought its changes. Xearly fifty 
years had elapsed since he first entered that town a 
young and humble preacher of the Word of Life, 
ll^ow, having passed his three-score years and ten, 
he had outlived the most of those who had been 
associated with him in Christian labor in his early 
manhood, while of those who, in his prime, he had 
been instrumental in bringing to Christ, a large 
majority had been carried by the tide of emigra- 
tion to the young and growing West — and especially 
to the State of Michigan. In that state three of 


his childreu were residing. Tiiere, as we shall see, 
he was soon to find a home, and there, in a few 
brief years, to close his eyes to the scenes of mor- 

The causes that led to this change are suthciently 
explained in the extract from his birthday record, 
which we here insert: "Jackson, Michigan, 'No- 
vember 24, 1868 : Again I make my birthday entry. 
This has been a year of change in relation to my 
temporal affairs. ]\Iy son has the pasforal charge 
of the Christian church in this city. I visited him 
last January, and spent two weeks, holding meet- 
ings every evening, and saw some brought to repent- 
ance. After advising with him, I determined to 
sell my little property in West Bloomfield, ^N'ew 
York, and move to this place. I did so, and arrived 
here with my wife on the 7th of last April. I soon 
purchased a comfortable dwelling, and am now 
occupying it. Shall probably never change my 
residence again, till I go forever to dwell in the 
'house not made with hands.' " 

Notwithstanding his advanced age, he had hardly 
become settled in his new home, before calls began 
to pour in from every direction, for him to extend 
his visits to churches and neighborhoods, near where 
were residing persons who had heard him preach 
years before in his native state. He says: "I have 
gone at such calls, some of which took me over one 
hundred miles from home. In every place where 
I went, I was surprised to meet so many who knew 
me. What greatly added to my joy was to find 
that a fair proportion of them were converted to God 


under my labors in the gospel from twenty to fifty 
years ago. I have other appointments on hand 
which I shall fill as soon as convenient. I am still 
hardy and can endure considerable labor. Lord, 
I am thy servant, dispose of me according to thy 
own will and pleasure.'' 

Dnring the year following, he attended quite a 
number of appointments, and continued occasion- 
ally to write for the press. Some of his articles, 
especially those on baptism, written in reply to a 
brother whose views on the subject were nndergo- 
ing a change, evinced considerable research and 
much vigorous thought. The following stanzas, 
which appeared in print in the early part of the 
year 1869, while full of mournful interest, show 
that the spirit of poesy still dwelt in his soul. 


Oh, lead me through the valley 

Of Death's dark dreary reign ; 
The way thou trod'st before me, 

Thou Lamb on Calvary slain. 
The lamp of life thou bearest 

Will chase all fear away ; 
No evil can befal me, 

No tempter lead astray. 

Oh, lead me through the valley 

Where heart and flesh must fail ; 
Where earthly kindred leave me, 

Let faith and hope prevail. 
No merit can I offer 

For service rendered thee ; 
But thou hast died for sinners— 

Oh, then, remember me. 


To thee I fly, all helpless, 

Thou lover of my soul; 
Oh, guide me o'er Death's river, 

Though billows high may roll. 
Oh, take me to that haven 

Beside the shining shore; 
And land me where Death vanquished 

Can prey on me no more. 

There the celestial city, 

With gates all open wide, 
Will welcome me to enter. 

And there in bhss abide. 
Oh, what a flood of glory 

Will burst upon my view. 
Such scenes of heavenly rapture 

As mortals never knew. 

The exact time when this poetry was written is 
not recorded, but that they are the last lines he ever 
wrote, in poetic measure, there is no doubt. In the 
birthday entry for this year we find the following: 
"November 24, 1860. I am now seventy-live 
years old. My health, the most part of the time 
during the past year, has been good. I have sev- 
eral times preached in various towns in this state, 
among tliem Kidgeway, Eome, Pittsford, Oshtemo, 
and Sandstone. In this last town I gave thirteen 
sermons, and God blessed the word to the conver- 
sion of a goodly number.'' 

The publication of his "hast lines" touched the 
feelings of his old friend and fellow-laborer, Elder 
John Eoss, and led to a correspondence through 
the Herald of Gospel Liberty, so pathetic and 
replete with interest, that we shall reproduce the 
principal part of it in these pages. 



t< I jrpig greatly wise to talk with our past hours, and ask 
them what report they bore to heaven.' 

*'My Dear Brother Millard: The appearance of 

* those last lines of poetry' from your pen, published in the 
Herald of Gospel Liberty a few months since, awak- 
ened in me peculiar sensations, and caused me, in retrospect, 
to live over again the fifty-four years of my past life. My 
earliest acquaintance with you was near the close of 1814 or 
the beginning of 1815. But, if my memory serves me, you 
were present at the organization of the Christian Church in 
my father's orchard, in Ballston, New York, in August, 1814. 

* * * * Among the thirteen that then and there united in 
church relation, my name was enrolled. On the 8th of Sep- 
tember following I was mustered into militia service, with a 
battalion of detached infantry, under the command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Rodgers, and ordered to New York for the 
defense of the cit^", then blockaded, and threatened to be 
invaded l)y the army of Great Britain, with whom we were 
then at war. I have often since thought of my soldierly 
bearing on that occasion. I was slender, timid, and retiring, 
had never for one moment been in angry combat with any 
one, and was now too tender and broken-hearted to 'willingly 
set foot upon a worm,' and yet I was a soldier merely because 
my country said I must be. Thanks to God, I was never 
called to mortal strife on the battle-field. The only enemy 
I met in my campaign was 'typhus fever.' 

"On my return home, about the 1st of December, I found Elias 
Smith preaching in that region, and *no small stir about that 
way.' I was not present at the meeting, when you publicly 
volunteered in the service of Christ. The news of your con- 
version spread rapidly through the region, and the revival 
received a new impulse. From this period our acquaintance 
became intimate. In age and religious experience and pro- 
fession I was a few months your senior. In the work of the 
ministry I was left far in the rear. * ■■' * 

"While teaching school, I think in 1816, I received a 
friendly letter from Brother Millard, containing this appeal: 
*Does the Scripture read, Woe is rae if I teach not a school?' 

REV. DAVID iMILLAllD. ' 269 

That simple question has remained in my memory for fifty- 
three years. It was a great means of starting me into 
ministerial life. For, with all the inducements presented to 
my mind to enter the gospel ministry, I fear I should have 
lingered had not the *woe' from behind crowded me, yea, 
necessitated me to enter the field. I saw no other way thert 
to save my soul ; I see no other now, but in abiding faithfut 
in my calling. * * * 

'*In the spring of 1817, with a certificate of 'good moral 
and Christian character, and as having a public gift,' signed 
by Elders Jabez King, Edward Webber, and Elijah Shaw^ 
I left home, on horseback, for a tour to western New York. 
I must see Brother Millard by the way. I sought him in 
Greene County, but he was not there. I rode over the lonely 
road to Roxbury, Delaware County, but found him not. I 
had attended a few meetings by the way, and began to expe- 
rience what it was to be a traveling preacher. From Rox- 
bury I took a bridle-path over the mountains to Stamford. 
The ascent was steep and rocky, and I led my horse up the 
lonely road. On reaching the summit, I sat down in medi- 
tation, while holding my horse by tlie bridle. I looked 
toward Ballston, the home of my childhood, and found some 
relief in falling tears. I then thought if I could be permit- 
ted to return home and enjoy the sweets of private, domestic 
life, I would freely give, for the support of some competent 
minister, one half of all I could earn. But I found no one 
to release me from inward convictions of duty, and therefore 
pressed on. I was everywhere received with the utmost cor- 
diality and kindness, and soon met my dear Brother Millard. 
On meeting him, my spirit was greatly refreshed and com- 
forted . He seemed full of hope and untiring energy. 

*' The success that attended Brother Millard's labors every- 
where greatly encouraged me. * * But while my dear brother, 
with praiseworthy faith, at the Master's bidding, had 
launched out to cast his net into the sea for a draught of 
fishes, I was paddling my little canoe around in the shallow- 
est water, and very near the shore. I of course caught but 
few. I soon, however, made up my mind that the best thing 
I could do was to make the work of the gospel ministty the 
great prime object of my life. And this resolution has gov- 


erned nie, iis the ruling principle, thus far. And to the 
degree of faithfulness in which I have pursued the work, I 
iittribute all the prosperity, both in spiritual and temporal 
things, which has ever attended me. 

" In 1822 1 came to this place. And here, for forty-six years, 
in this kind of tread-mill of pastoral labor, this every-day 
work of feeding, guiding, and guarding the same flock, I 
have spent the prime and best of my earthly existence. In 
my early labors I was full of hope that I might live to see 
grow up a model church, all walking in the truth, and 'grow- 
ing up into an holy temple in the Lord.' But my dreams of , 
perfection, on earthly ground, have not been realized. In- 
stead of a vineyard in perfect fruitage, I have only had a 
nursery, from which plants have been steadily taken, to be 
transplanted in a more congenial clime for perfection. 

" And now, Brother Millard, while I yet stand in my pul- 
pit, I have only to cast a look out of the chapel window on 
the white marble monuments to be reminded where a large 
portion of my former congregation are reposing. Oh, w^hat 
a fearful thing it is to live as well as to die. And how awful 
the responsibilities of the gospel minister! In my ministe- 
rial vocation I have seemingly done w^hat I could thus far. 
But it is the finishing up of a work that crowns it. It is the 
last touches of the painter or sculptor that characterizes his 
work. This our great Master felt when he said : 'I have a 
baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened until 
it be accomplished.' In this strait I how am. 

'♦The largest number of the brotherhood with whom I 
have formed acquaintance have passed over the mystic 
river. Is it any wonder, then, that aged pilgrims, like the 
pale leaf iii autumn, lose attraction to things earthly? I 
often feel weary, and sigh for rest ; yet not the rest of being 
laid upon the shelf, with useless lumber, or that of uncon- 
sciousness in the grave, with worms and crawling reptiles. 
Jlest in Jesus, who is not in the grave, or rest in heaven, 
^eems desirable. But this is unattainable until the work is 

"♦Those last lines' of poetry have aroused me to retro- 
spection — in thought to live over again the past. That voice 
which cheered me in the home of my childhood; which 


taught me from the 'Sunny South,' when slavery, which 
curses at both ends, was rife and rampant ; which spake from 
the land of the Puritans — was heard from far-off Palestine, 
the home of prophets and Bible scenes, now cheers me from 
the West, 'where empire makes its way.' Thank God! 
'though the outward man perish, yet is the inward man 
renewed.' It is pleasant to feel the Christian sympathy of 
early loved ones — the pulsation of a heart in unison with 
your own. 

"I had thought that you would have closed up your 
earthly labors at your pleasant home in West Bloomfield. 
But I see that the same indomitable spirit of action and per- 
severance which has ever characterized you, has carried you 
farther toward the setting sun. I rejoice that j^our voice is 
heard on western prairies, and that your pen has not dried 
up in the inkstand. I rejoice that, instrumentally, you have 
given to the church and the world an esteemed and efficient 
minister. I willed to do the same. I hope God accepts the 
will for the deed. The increased distance which now sepa- 
rates us lessens the probability of our being able to carry out 
a suggestion made by you and cheerfully acceded to by me, 
that, God willing, the survivor should preach the funeral 
sermon of the first deceased ; but this may be of little con- 
sequence to any but a few surviving friends. Our 'record is 
on high.' As I near the closing scene, God appears to grow 
greater and man less. I see more of God and less of man 
in the whole scheme of human redemption. Am I not 
anticipating the day when God shall be ALL in ALL? 
With the kindest regards to you and yours, I am, 

"John Ross. 

"Charleston Four Corners, New York, April 19, 1869." 

This beautiful and affecting letter drew tlie fol- 
lowing' reply from the subject of this memoir: 


'*My Dear Brother Ross: Your very affectionate let- 
ter of April 19th is before me. I know not what the readers 
of the Herald may think of our thus exchanging letters 


through the medium of that paper. It may remind them of 
the love of David and Jonathan of olden times. Ours is 
only a brief expression of the love existing between David 
and John, or the mutual affection between two aged preach- 
ers, both in the seventy-fifth year of their age. They were 
both born into the world in the same year, were both born 
into the gospel kingdom in the same year, and joined the 
same church. The love they cherish for each other has been 
unbroken and unmarred for fifty-four years; and, further, 
we expect that it will not be broken in either time or 

**I read and reread your "letter, and now can but imper- 
fectly express the effect it produced on my mind. How 
it gathered up thoughts, incidents, and events running 
back through the vista of over a half century. All seemed 
to pass before like a moving panorama. As you express 
yourself, I seemed to be living my life over again, with vivid 

"In regard to the meeting when the Christian Church in 
Ballston, New York, w^as organized, I was present ; hence, 
your memory is correct. I was at that time under deep con- 
viction, but had not yet been brought to repentance. I 
remember when you gave a relation of your mind, to be 
received into the church, the hope you had obtained, the 
peace of mind you possessed. I thought what would I give 
could I but say that of myself. My true conversion to God, 
as I believe it was, occurred on the eveniug of December 28, 
1814 ; and our first personal acquaintance commenced early 
in January, 1815." 

After refeiTiDg' at length to his conversion, and 
other incidents connected with his early religious 
experience and labors in the ministry, which have 
already been set forth in these pages, he says : 

"I remember well your visit to me in Kortright. I felt to 
sympathize with you, and bid you God-speed with hearty 
feeling. I had now fully introduced myself into the gospel, 
but oh, what a life-journey I have traveled since then! 
Through wh^ vicissitudes have I passed! O Lord, thou 


knowest ! Every true preacher of the gospel, to be such, 
must be baptized into the truths of the gospel. He must feel 
the awful danger every impenitent sinner is incurring while 
living in open rebellion against God. He must feel that he 
is an ambassador for God, to pray them in Christ's stead to 
be reconciled to God. He must tell them that unless they 
turn and repent of all their sins, and become reconciled to 
God, the dark doom of utter despair is before them. To be 
alive to his duty in this respect, let him keep in mind God's 
fearful charge, 'When I say unto the wicked, Thou shalt 
surely die, and thou givest him not warning, nor speakest to 
warn the wicked from his wicked way, to save his life, the 
same naan shall die in his iniquity, but his blood will I require 
at thy hand.' Preachers of the gospel have the most respon- 
sible station assigned them of any class under heaven, 
Deeply should they feel and realize this. What faithful min~ 
ister can feel all this without deep emotions of heart ? 

^'' I served in the editorial department of some one of our 
papers for about twenty years. I think you served in that 
capacity about the same length of time. You would some- 
times chastise an opponent, when he well deserved it thor- 
roughly, but in such a chaste and pleasant manner that, 
though he would writhe under the lash, it would appear to 
him like the smiting of a friend, and he might well praise 
the castigator. I was not quite so fortunate. Some of my 
editorials were too highly-spiced to actualh' make my oppo- 
nents love me. I always yielded the palm to you in that 
respect. Indeed, I always loved you for your kind, affection- 
ate spmt. 

"I recollect in a letter you wrote me some months ago 
this expression : 'I have never yet felt a temptation to change 
my denominational connection.' To that sentiment I uttered 
a hearty Amen. That is truly so with me. I have lived at 
a time when sectarians said they had no fellowship for me 
solely on account of my religious sentiments; when they 
closed their meeting-houses, and even school-houses, wher- 
ever they could, slandering me besides. But I lived in spite 
of my revilers. With all the storms I have faced, with all 
the privations I have endured, my faith has never been 
shaken for a moment on the God-given platform of the 


Bible for our only creed, Christian piety our test of fellow- 
ship, and to be only known by the sacred name of Chris- 
tian. I love you, dear brother, for your uniform stability 
of mind. I always know where to find you. I have written 
and published several works in defense of our denomina- 
tional position. Not a sentiment that they contain have I 
revoked. I still believe them. I believe the body of people 
to which we belong were raised up at a peculiar time by the 
direct providence of God. They rose up in three distinct 
organizations, hundreds of miles apart, unknown to each 
other, nearly at the same time. These organizations for 
years remained unknown to each other. And when they 
became acquainted, they found but little variation of doc- 
trine or practice between them. When has any other relig- 
ious body thus risen? No history presents a parallel. 

" Your only child, a dear son, had arrived at mature age 
and entered the ministry, strong in mental faculties, only 
known to be beloved. As fades the lovely, blooming flower, 
he was taken from this cold world to bloom ever in fresh- 
ness in the paradise of God. All with him is well. Provi- 
dence has dealt with me in a propitious direction. God has 
spared me a son, and put him in the ministry. His success 
and usefulness are extensively known. Blessed be God. I 
trust and hope when my earthly mission is finally consum- 
mated I may leave a beloved son to more than fill the place 
of his departed father. 

"As to myself, I realize that my earthly labors must soon 
terminate. Separated from each other so far, it is not prob- 
able that either could attend the other's funeral.* Our record 
is on high, and our grand meeting-place is there. As I real- 
ize my sun of life declining, this world's flattering objects 
look less and less, and I see less to live for. I feel no desire 
to court earthly fame. I have none to take to myself. 'By 
the grace of God I am what I am.' If I have seen any good 
accomplished through my feeble efforts, to God and the 

^Distance rendered it impossible that Father Ross should 
preach at the funeral of Elder Millard. In the following chap- 
ter appears an account of the services. 


Lamb be all the glory. I have seen much of the world in 
my native land, in foreign lands, and even in barbarous 
nations. My life has been an eventful one. I hardly dare 
to say I have fought a good fight. I leave that for my divine 
Master to determine. But I can say I have fought a hard 

"Finally, farewell, my dear Brother John Ross. Ver^- 
probably, we shall never meet each other again on earth. If I 
fall first, do not shed a tear over the intelligence. Say, ^AU 
is welV If 5^ou are called first by a voice which says : 'Come 
up higher,' look out for me soon to follow. But while we 
live on earth, let us be brothers indeed. Let our impaired 
penmanship still keej) up an acquaintance. And when each 
steps down from the walls of our earthly Zion, and drops the 
trumpet, may it only be to seize the harp and the crown. 

"David Millakd. 

"Jackson, Michigan, May 24, 1869." 

The appearance of tliis correspondence led to the 
publication, a few months later, of the letter we 
shall here insert, from Elder I. C. Goff. 


"Father Millard: When some months ago letters 
passed between you and that 'archangel' of the church at 
Charleston Four Corners, I felt much like following in the 
w^ake, and noting some of my own early memories in the 
work and fellowship of the Christian ministry. Those let- 
ters had stirred my heart verj- deeply ; but being a genera- 
tion almost behind you, I did not dare to assure myself that 
I could sustain either the kind or measure of interest which 
those letters had awakened. But things determined me 
to make a private communication to you.- 

^^ First: It has been some time since your letters were 
written, and in this fast and pleasure-loving age, they may, 
with the multitude, pass into forgetfulness ; and I want to 
reassure you that there are some remaining in the ministry 

•^It was a private letter, 


— as I know that there are many in the older membership 
of the Christian Church— who can not consent to forget you 
or your work. 

^^ Second: Because already those ministers among us who 
were in Christ 'before me,' excepting yourself, have nearly 
all passed away. Long years have swept over the scenes of 
their labors and the land of their pilgrimage. But they 
were a generation of mighty men, and their shields were not 
'vilely cast away.' Take them all in all, I shall never see 
their like again. Of all this sacramental host of God's elect, 
only you and Brother Ross remain ! 

^^ Third: Because to yourself Lam more indebted than to 
any other man as an agent in my conversion — as a helper 
into and a succorer in the ministry. In 1821, 1 think, I heard 
you preach in North Rehobeth, Massachusetts; but I was 
too young to appreciate the sermon, or remember the text. 
Three years later, in the month of May or June, I attended 
a general meeting in Father Nott's orchard, at Cheshire, 
New York. I had never attended such a meeting before ; 
and, though I was a thoughtless youth, while memory serves 
me any mortal purpose, I shall never forget the music of 
Buzzell, the solemn earnestness of Shaw, the oily smooth- 
ness of Badger, or the earnest stirring prayers and exhorta- 
tions of Father Millard. I remember well to have felt 
rebuked by the spoken word. On the 24th of September 
following, you jDreached at my father's house, and baptized 
me. This was one of the memorable days of my life. The 
text was: 'Behold the man.' How different that sermon to 
me from that otheri'cceJ/omo which has recently so charmed 
theologians of both hemispheres. 

"In March, 1826, when I was inquiring 'what wilt Thou 
have me to do?' you indicated Canada West as a field of 
labor. I entered Toronto (then called Little York) on the 
17th of March, after a perilous voyage and a damaging ship- 
wreck. I remained in the province sixteen months, and 
spent my time in a most apostolic way. I traveled over 
five thousand miles, about one-half of the time on foot, and 
preached more times than I saw days, and more times than 
I ate regular^meals. In connection with Brother J, Black- 
mar, I gathered seven churches, extending over all the terri- 


tory from Darlington to HoUowell; never having been stop- 
ped by any weather, cold or stormy, or for any other cause 
made a disappointment. And you may be interested to 
know, that during my ministry of forty-four years — from 
1826 to 1860—1 have made only three disappointments. In 
two instances these were caused by death in my family, and 
the other by a storm of snow which stubbornly refused to 
allow me a pass ; and not in a dozen cases have I been behind 
the time of my appointments. 

*'I left Canada in September, 1827, wearing out the samr^ 
coat and boots which I wore in — a little the worse for wear, 
to be sure, but the state of my wardrobe did not then much 
disturb me. Up to this time I had not received in money 
three dollars for preaching, and yet these were among the 
happiest months of my life; nor is the mention of my no- 
salary or irregular board designed as a reflection upon any 
one. We fared as the pioneers fared among whom we worked , 
and we were satisfied. 

"On the 27th of September, 1827, I received ordination at 
Royalton, during the last session of the New York Western 
Conference undivided. Ezra Marvin and Joseph Blackmar 
were ordained at the same time. And although the sermon 
was preached by that good man, Mark Fernald, yet I was 
allowed, as were also the others, my choice for the charge 
and prayer. So I took my charge from you, while Elder 
Mclntyre prayed for me. I believe you were the only one 
who expressed any doubts about the propriety of ordaining 
me, and that only in reference to my age — being only seven- 
teen years old. I thought well of your caution in that mat- 
ter then, and have ever since. It had not seemed to me 
that I was old enough to be trusted with the functions 
of such an office; for young men did not then generally seek 
ordination — they wxre passive. For more than forty years, 
although my field of labor has been somewhat remote from 
yours, I have heard you when I could, have read all that you 
have written, and never forgotten or ceased to love you ; and 
within your ministry at home, or in the perils of travel 
abroad, I have never ceased to pray for you. I am rejoiced 
that you are permitted to spend the late evening of your 
over-worked life so pleasantly with your immediate family, 


and especially in fellowship with the ministry of your excel- 
lent son. May your evening be cloudless, your sun set in 
glory, and you gathered to the fellowship of heaven and the 
blessed, whom you have known, loved, and served on earth. 

"There is a place northwest of Henry, Illinois, some fif- 
teen miles, which is called 'The Lone Tree,' deriving its 
name from a solitary oak, which has lifted up its head amidst 
a thousand storms, and which for ages before the white man 
broke, or trod, or owned the soil, was a guide to the red man 
in his journeys. A few weeks since I passed through that 
country, and not least among the objects of interest 1 inquired 
for the 'Lone Tree," but it had gone. The 'Lone Tree' exists 
only in history and tradition. 

"In much love to your excellent wife and family, and in 
even more for yourself, I am yours truly. 

"Isaac C. Goff." 

This letter also called forth an answer from the 
subject of these pages, from which we will make 
some extracts. 


' * My Dear Brother Goff : In reading your affectionate 
letter, as it appears in the Herald of December 18th, it 
truly affected my heart. * •• * 

"I well remember the two-days' meeting held in Father 
Nutt's orchard, in Cheshire, New York, in June, 1826. 
Doubtless I saw you there among the many young lads in 
attendance. I also remember well the meeting at your 
father's house, at the place called Pool's Mills, when I bap- 
tized you in the pleasant stream that passes through that 
small village. Further, I recollect that I said to myself, 'I 
have baptized another preacher to-day.' I also well recol- 
lect your visit at my house, when you opened your mind to 
me as if you were conversing with a father. From your 
honest revelation of feelings, I read out your state of mind 
compared with my own early experience. I counseled you 
to fear not, but trust in the Lord, and you would find him a 
present help in every time of need. I spoke of Canada as 


an excellent field of labor. My counsel took in your mind, 
and you soon went there. How ardently did I pray for you ! 
There you found an open field, and the fruits of those six- 
teen months' labor may well be recorded as among the hap- 
piest months of your life. 

« cic- -;;r -» •?:- * « * * 

* 'You speak of a peculiar class of preachers that were raised 
up in the Christian denomination In an early day. The 
period of time and the work had much to do in making them 
what they were. -■■ * They had experienced a deep, thorough 
conversion of soul ; they knew by experience the sanctify- 
ing power of the Holy Ghost in their regeneration, and how 
to direct the wayward and sinning to the fountain of cleans- 
ing; they dwelt in their preaching much on experimental 
religion ; they believed strongly in the particular guidance 
and comforting influence of God's Holy Spirit ; they believed 
in the sacred call to the ministry, and that necessity was laid 
on them. Tell them that all the spirit they had to aid, 
enlighten, strengthen, and comfort them, was wrapped up in 
God's written word, and their answer would be, 'Dear friend, 
I fear your soul has never been truly converted to God.' In 
their prayer before the sermon, how earnestly did they 
entreat their Father in heaven to aid them by his Holy Spirit 
to deal the word of life to that judgment-bound assembly. 
Their manner of preaching was not generally the loud and 
boisterous kind. Though earnest, it was tender and sympa- 
thetic. 'We pray you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to 
God.' Often tears would stand in the eyes of the preacher, 
and sometimes stream down his face while preaching. Weep- 
ing would be seen in the congregation, and sometimes nearly 
a whole assembly would be moved to tears under a sermon. 
Revivals would about surely follow where a preacher of this 
class bestowed labors a few times. For years scores of these 
young men traveled abroad, and preached more sermons 
than there were days in each week, as you did in your six- 
teen months in Canada. They had no missionary society to 
furnish them funds ; and yet they would not leave the field. 

** No, Brother GofF, there will never be such another class 
of young men in our denomination, because it is not called 


for; but we need a class of preachers as strong in faith and 
as full of the Holy Ghost as they were. We need the gospel 
preached with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven as 
much now as we did then. I do know that there is spiritual 
aid to be sought for, and possessed by preachers as much now 
as then. 

v; ■» * * i-i * » tU ^;f 

" I now desire that every minister of the gospel be strong 
in the faith, that God does vouchsafe his spirit to aid his 
faithful heralds of the cross, who truly believe and trust in 
him. Education and native talent combined can never sup- 
ply the place of the gospel preached with the Holy Ghost 
sent down from heaven. We have a biblical school started ; 
but if it does not foster, nourish, and cherish a true revival 
spirit, I for one shall regret that it was ever brought into 

** Although our fields of labor have been mostly remote 
from each other, I have generally had means of obtaining 
intelligence of your whereabouts and your labors. You have 
seen many souls converted under your labors. Somehow 
or other, during your forty-six years of ministry, your repu- 
tation has been exceeding fortunate. You have had my 
prayers and affectionate wishes for many years. Always 
when I thought of you, it was with a kind of fatherly affec- 
tion. I can say I both respect and love you as 'mine own 
son in the gospel.' And now how soothing it is to my aged 
head and heart to learn by your pen that I still have your 
warm affection. God bless you for it. When the time comes 
that your figurative 'lone oak' is missing, and can no longer 
point earth's travelers to their right w^ay, but to be only 
known in the history of the past, say, 'AH is well'— his rec- 
ord is on high.' Again I say, God bless you. 

"David Millard. 

"Jackson, Michigan." 

Daring the year 1870 the subject of this memoir 
went from home but little. Feeling more and more 
the infirmities of age, he found in the quietude of 
his own dwelling his chief enjoyment. But he 


was not ioditfereut to wliat was going on around 
liim. He was deeply interested in the progress of 
the church, and in all reformatory movements was 
quite up to the demands of the times in which he 

While attending a temperance meeting in the fall 
of this year, he declared himself in favor of woman's 
enfranchisement. He said, " I firmly helieve that 
the scourge of intemperance will never be removed 
from our land till woman has the ballot. Give her 
that, and this evil will not long remain." Thus do 
we ever find him in the front ranks of the hosts of 
reform — battling alike for the slave in his chains 
and the slave of the wine-cup; for the cause of peace, 
and last, but not least, for the equal rights of all, 
irrespective of color or sex. 

On his next birthday he wrote : '-Seventy-six 
years old I AYhat a thought! AVhen young, I never 
thought of living so long. But now, in old age, 
when my mind travels back to my boyhood, the 
time seems but short; and every passing year seems 
shorter still. '^ '^ ^^ The past 3^ear has wrought more 
change in my physical and mental powers than the 
two preceding, particularly in my mtental faculties. 
Well, God gave me one of the best of constitutions, 
and it has been severely taxed. I have preached 
but little during the past year; but I hope, while I 
live, I may be enabled to do something in promo- 
tion of that cause I have plead for fifty-five years. 
My hope of heaven is like an anchor. Oh, heaven ! 
sweet heaven !" 

The year 1871 wrought but few changes in the 


life of Mr. Millard. His mental and physical 
strength were gradually failing. He, however, 
spent miicli time in reading, and, when the Bible 
was laid aside, was most interested in looking over 
the pages of the old Christian Palladiums, of which 
he had over twenty bound volumes. In the culti- 
vation of his garden, and in other work which he 
chose to do, he found the exercise which his active 
temperament required. 

He always felt a peculiar interest and deep affec- 
tion for the Jackson Church, of which, for upward 
of live years, he and his wife were devoted mem- 
bers. Till his last sickness his place in nearly all 
the meetings of the church was filled. On the Sab- 
bath he was a close and attentive hearer of the 
preached word, and was keen to appreciate a dis- 
course full of Scripture truth and spiritual power. 
!N'one enjoyed the social meetings more than he. 
He was also a thorough reader of his denomina- 
tional papers ; and although he could no longer 
take an active interest in them, he was still much 
concerned for the success of our various religious 

On the 24th of ^November, he made the following 
entry: "Strange to myself I have lived another 
year. To-day, I am seventy-seven years old, and 
ana in the fifty-seventh year of my ministry. "Why 
am I spared? My heavenly Father knows. * * My 
mental labors, by weakness and present failure, have 
nearly closed. Still, my physical strength is toler- 
ably good. I read without spectacles, having never 
yet lost my sight. But age has severely broken 


upon my mind. My faith is strong. I love to think 
of former days, and meditate on heaven. Heaven 
shines gloriously before me." 

In the spring of 1872 his health became sensibly 
affected. About this time he thus wrote to his 
daughter, Mrs. E. A. Chapin, of West Bloomfield, 
^ew York : ^'Lizzie, when you hear that I have 
passed away, remember I am fully prepared to go. 
I have no dread of death. I long to be among the 
blest, to praise the Lamb forever." Similar mes- 
sages were sent to his other children. 

A few months later he was prostrated by a severe 
attack of chills and fever, and for several days it 
was thought he could not survive. During this 
sickness, he said repeatedly, "If my time has come, 
1 am ready to go." Though his time had not then 
come, he never fully recovered from that sickness, 
and it soon became apparent to all .that his race was 
nearly run. 

The following is the last record he ever made in 
his journal — a record now full of mournful and ten- 
der interest. " November 24, 1872. My birthday 
passed quietly; have partially recovered from 
severe illness. Many of my friends thought at the 
time it would be my last; but I gave my life into 
the hands of my heavenly Father, resigned either 
to live or die. I could feel no anxiety. All was 
submitted to the will of God, who ^doeth all things 
well.' 'I know that my Eedeemer liveth.' Glory 
to his name." 




life''s close. 

We have copied the last entry ever made by the 
subject of this memoir in his written journal. The 
space allotted for the next birthday record was 
never tilled, as months before the time came for 
that to be made, his spirit had taken its upward 
flight, and his eventful earthly career was closed. 

Rev. Dr Holmes, President of Union Christian 
College, has kindly furnished for these pages the 
following extract from a letter written to him by 
the subject of this sketch. 

''Jackson, Michigan, January 6, 1873. 
*'Iii the month of October I passed through a severe term 
of sickness ; and, indeed, its effects upon my constitution are 
still lingering with me. My mind is much shattered, and 
my thoughts are broken and scattering. I have entered my 
seventy-ninth year. During my sickness my mind was calm. 
Many of my friends and brethren gave me up to die ; but 
never could I say more resignedly, 'Thy will be done' than 
then. I felt a peace that I could not describe. Oh, that feel- 
ing is sweet and glorious. I write with a trembling hand." 

During the winter there was little, if any, visible 
change in his health ; but returning spring clearly 
indicated that his once vigorous constitution was 


steadily and surely giving way. Tliougli lie still 
attended to his accustomed duties and labors, it was 
Avith but little of his former force and zeal. Indeed, 
it was evident that his days of .toil were nearly over. 
In the summer he had several severe attacks of 
sickness which continued to reduce his strength. 
After visiting him in July, we wrote as follows : 
"We found father in feeble health, and gradually 
failing under the weight of years and bodily infirm- 
ities, lie is conscious that the ^time of his depart- 
ure' can not much longer be deferred ; hut, like 
the apostle, he feels that he is ' ready.' " 

He was much affected when he learned that his 
beloved friend and co-laborer. Elder J. E. Church, 
had experienced another shock of paralysis, and 
wrote : "I deeply regret the present case of Elder 
Church. AYe know not how to spare him." Little 
did he think that his own life was so near its close, 
and that Father Church would so long survive him. 

The above was written on the 26th of July, on 
a postal card, and was about the last note or letter 
he ever wrote. On the same he said, ^'My health is 
not 2-ood. I have taken another turn of chill-fever. 
It was very severe. I have not yet recovered from 
its effects ; but I trust I am gaining. I have lost 
much flesh. I suffer fear that your mother may 
come down also, running on all the errands, and 
being broken of her regular sleep. She has been 
very faithful to me. If there is direct fear of my 
life, you will hear of it." 

On the 2d of August, just one weeiv from the 
time the above was written, he was prostrated by 


the sickness whicli terminated his earthly life. As 
usual, though too feeble to have done so, he went 
to the ofB.ce for his weekly paper. When he 
returned, he was completely exhausted, and soon 
after had a chill. This was followed by another 
still more severe, on Sabbath the 3d. 

On Monday, August 4th, the writer was sum- 
moned to Mr. Millard's bedside. Though the latter 
knew his son, and seemed glad to see him, he was too 
feeble to enter much into conversation. It was quite 
evident that he was nearing the end, though it was 
thought he might yet live several days. Messages 
were sent at once to his absent children. On the 
6th inst. his daughter-in-law, Mrs. E. E. Millard, 
of Marshall, and his daughter, Mrs. H. IT. Chapel, 
of Owasso, Michigan, arrived, and proceeded to 
bestow upon him the kind offices of affection, which 
privilege, however, was to remain to them but for 
a few brief hours. It was now apparent that his 
youngest son,"^ who was in the distant West, though 
he had been apprised of his father's failing health, 
could not reach home in season to see him alive. 
A daughterf residing at Grand Eapids, Michigan, 
was also unable to be present. The two daughters^ 
residing in the State of l^ew York, since in case of 
his death his remains were to be taken East for 
burial, were not expected ; but would be present at 
the last sad rites, and would drop aflections' tear at 
the grave of their beloved father. 

During his sickness he was not usually much 

•^=Cbanning Millard. fMrs. A. E. Crowell. 

JMrs. M. J. Avery of Rochester, Mrs. E. A. Cliapin of West Bloomfield. 


inclined to talk, except when in the delirium of 
fever, but in the forenoon of the 6th he engaged 
in a very animated conversation with his pastor, 
Eev. C. I. Deyo, and the writer of these pages. In 
that conversation, he urged with force the neces- 
sity of repentance and reformation of life, in order 
to gain salvation. Said he: "Press home these 
doctrines upon the hearts and consciences of your 
liearers. Tell the sinner that unless he repents and 
turns to God with full purpose of heart, he has no 
promise of heaven." 

After this conversation he seemed exhausted, and 
immediately sank into a stupor from which he did 
not rally for some time. In the afternoon he had 
another chill, and from that time began to sink 

Toward evening he said to his son, who stood 
by his bedside weeping, " Cheer up I the struggle 
will soon be over." It was then thought he could 
not survive through the night, but he lingered till 
8 o'clock the next morning. About an hour before 
his death, his son-in-law, Mr. Gr. AV. Chapel, arrived. 
The dying man knew him, and gave him an affec- 
tionate grasp of the hand. He had previously, in 
a short prayer, committed himself to God, and after- 
ward, while his pastor engaged in prayer, he seemed 
to join with him. Xow, when asked how the 
future appeared, he replied, "All is well; all is 
bright." Then, calling each of the family circle by 
name, that they might be by his bedside, he gave 
himself up calmly to Death, as a friend, and then 
sweetlv breathed his last — closins; his eves to earth 

288 MEMOIR OF ' 

" only to see Lis Savior s face, without a veil 

Thus, in the seventj-ninth year of his age, and 
fifty-eighth of his niinistr}". Elder David Millard 
fell quietly asleep in death on August 7, 1873, at 
his home in Jackson, Michigan. Around his bed, 
as he was breathing his last, stood his faithful wife, 
two of his children, and their companions, and one 
or two other friends. lie had desired that he might 
have his reason at the dying moment. This wish 
was granted, and he died conscious that his friends 
Avere with him, and apparently with a blessed vision 
of the '' world to come." And so, at a good old age, 
with a conviction that his work was done, he passed 
from labor to reward, from toil to rest. 

As, according to his own request, his remains 
were to be taken to West Bloomlield for burial, it 
was necessary that the services which were to be held 
in Jackson should occur on the afternoon of the same 
day that he died. Notwithstanding the shortness 
of the time, and necessarily limited notice which 
had been given, a large congregation assembled at 
the Christian church in that city, and listened to a 
feeling and apppropriate discourse from the pastor, 
Rev. C. I. Deyo. We here append the following 
from the " Jackson Patriot" of August 8th : 

The death of Father Millard, which has been hourly 
expected for some days, occurred at his residence on Francis 
street, yesterday morning, at half-past 8 o'clock, at the good 
old age of seventy-eight years and eight months. The death 
of this gentleman, who was, for many years, one of the 
leading ministers of his denomination in the United States, 
demands a somewhat more extended comment than is usual; 


but in the absence of any data of our own, we are compelled 
to rely upon the very Interesting sketch of his life and labors 
given bj'' Mr. Deyo in the funeral discourse which was deliv- 
ered yesterday afternoon. The obsequies were held at the 
Christian church ait 3 o'clock, and followed thus quickly upon 
death, because it was necessary to take the remains to Xew 
York for burial. Rev. Mr. Deyo based his discourse upon 
Psalm cxix. 96 : *' I have seen an end of all perfection, but 
thy commandment is exceeding broad." After discoursing 
of the inevitable law that governs the universe, stamping 
decay upon every thing from the cj'cle of the flower to the 
cycle of a planet, and marking alike every human endeavor 
and ambition, the speaker found a silver lining to the cloud, 
in the glorious permanence of God's commandments: '* The 
word of the Lord endureth forever." He then remarked : 

'' The words of the text seem very applicable to this occa- 
sion. They strike me with exceeding force as we perform 
these solemn services over the remains of Father Millard. 
As w^e briefly review that long life spent for the benefit of 
sinful and suffering humanity, we behold to-day its terminus. 
That once powerful voice that echoed salvation, is hushed in 
death; that hand that so readily penned truths that flashed 
like diamonds over the entire continent, is paralyzed in death. 
But those truths which he published to the world can never 
die, and the seeds which he so profusely scattered, God in 
his providence will refresh with the dews of his grace, and 
in the grand harvest every golden grain shall ripen ; and the 
fruit garnered shall be as dazzling stars in his crown of 

After referring to the sacred regard ^vhich the Christian 
student entertains for the places mentioned in Bible history, 
.the speaker thus referred to Father Millard's travels in the= 
Holy Land : 

"Thousands have traversed that sacred soil, and marked 
with veneration those sacred places where He who is the 
world's redeemer and the world's life, taught and toiled and 
suflfered to plant the gospel of good new^s to sorrowing 
humanity. Among that vast army of pilgrims the historian 
records the name of David Millard. Like the 'wise men,* he 
followed the star in the East until it guided him to Bethle- 


hem ; he sat at Jacob's well ; he walked through the shady 
g^rdea of GethsemaDe; he wa3 led to Calvary's brow. 
What a change had come over that laud of song and promise, 
when Father Millard traveled over its mountains and 
through Its valleys ! How applicable the words of the text: 
^1 have seen an end of all perfection.' That once proud city 
in ruins ! That land of the prophet's glory, the poet's song, 
the martyr's triumph, the Christian's hope, controlled by a 
semi-barbaric race ! That land where the gospel was born, 
in ruins ! Yet that gospel lives on, within the hearts of men, 
uniting them in the bonds of human brotherhood !" 

In the second place, the speaker observed that all human 
greatness comes to an end ; and this led to a discussion of 
Elder Millard's claims to true greatness, specifying particu- 
larly his positiveness of expression, his earnestness and zeal, 
his baldness of action, and freedom of thought. For illus- 
tration : 

"While he was pastor of the Christian church at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, slavery was considered a divine 
institution, and the ministers of religion were afraid to lift 
their voices against it. An antislavery society was organ- 
ized, aud while the other pastors dared not commit them- 
selves, he cheerfully and willingly accepted the position of 
president of the society. That was characteristic of his life. 
The denomination with which he connected himself in early 
•life was unpopular ; the principles upon which it was based 
were unpopular, yet he accepted those principles of Chris- 
tian union with all the odium that was then attached to 
them, gmd manfully aud bravely did he defend them to the 

After discussing his claims to greatness in other 
respects, the speaker remarked that the most far-- 
reaching intellect must come to an end, and con- 
cluded with some brief statistics of his life. Upon 
conclusion of the services, the remains were taken 
to the depot, and placed on the express train for 

the East. 

On the morning of August 8th a procession of 


friends and former townsmen of the deceased were 
at the depot in West Bloomiield, ^NTew York, and 
from thence conveyed his mortal remains to the 
Town Hall, formerly the church in which for so 
many years he had preached the word of life. Here 
at 3 o'clock p. M., another service was held, con- 
ducted hy the Congregational minister* of the 
place, whose words w^ere full of comfort to the 
mourners and of respect to the deceased. 

How many times, in the same house, had he 
whose lips were sealed in death, spoken words of 
comfort and sympathy to other sorrowing ones; and 
how often from the same place had he urged upon 
the living the need of preparation for the eventful 
hour! It was a deeply impressive scene; and the 
warm sympathy and kind attention shown by those 
who, in former years, had been associated with him 
and had enjoyed his society and labors, were pecul- 
iarly touching. 

After this service the body was conveyed to the 
family lot in the beautiful Kural Cemetery, at the 
dedication of which, years before, he assisted, and 
there committed to rest, in the not drear but quiet 

" So Jesus slept ; God's dying son 

Passed through the grave and blessed the bed ; 
Rest here, blest saint, till from his throne 

The morning break and pierce the shade." 

In a few years, at most, those wdio in sadness 
bent over his dying bed, or stood with tearful eyes 
at his open grave, as well as other surviving rela- 

*Rev. Mr. Patchin. 


tives* who sincerely mourn his departure, will fol- 
low him. May they be able to look forward, with 
a calm and holy confidence, to those realms of bliss 
where friends shall meet again to know no sorrow, 
but where the light of God's countenance shall 
shine upon them forever. 

We will close this chapter, and with it our part 
of the mournful but grateful task assigned us with 
an extract from the obituary notice written by his 

"I feel that I can do no greater honor to the dead, or pro- 
nounce a more truthful eulogy, than to say that Father Mil- 
lard was one of the great men of his age. That life, could it 
be re-read to the world in paragraphs and chapters, would 
demonstrate the truthfulness of what I say. Men have 
written the name of king, warrior, statesman, poet, high in 
the scroll of history, but the calling of an embasssador of 
Christ excels them all, as the brilliancy of the sun excels 
that of the stars. He loved that calling. As he once 
expressed it : 'Had I my life to live over, I would ask no 
higher honor ; I have no greater ambition than to be recog- 
nized as a Christian minister.^ But *how are the mighty 
fallen!' Out of the fullness of our hearts we seem to say: 
'Help, Lord, for the godly man ceaseth, for the faithful fail 
from among the children of men.' 

* *- * » -;;■- » •* » -:;.=■ 

"Dear father in the gospel, we bid thee farewell. Thine 
early associates that have gone before — a Badger, a Morrill, 
a Shaw, and an army of faithful workers— thou art greeting 
in the sunny fields of the 'great forever!' We wilt cherish 
thy memory in our hearts and enshrine it in the history of 
our church, and in God's time, as one by one we cross the 
mystic River, we will greet thee on the other shore.' 

-Those of his own family who preceded him to the "better land" have 
already been named. Of his own brothers and sisters but three of the 
nine were living at his death. One, Mrs. Jones, followed him in a few 
months. John F. Millard, a brother, lives at Chippewa Falls, Wiscon- 
sin. The only surviving sister, Mrs. M. Bushnell, is living, though iu 
poor health, at Lockport, New York. jRev. C. I. Deyo. 




A Xew England reporter of my address, delivered 
at the Hyannis camp-meeting in August, 1873, in 
the interest of the Biblical Institute, represented it 
as reflecting upon the intelligence and professional 
qualifications of our old ministers. The disiugenu- 
ousness of the report in this respect did not escape 
my notice at the time, but I suftered it to pass un- 
corrected, hoping that for certain reasons it might 
be less harmful than a public brotherly contradic- 
tion; but nov\', that I am asked to prepare a few 
pages for the forthcoming memoir of Father Mil- 
lard, under the above caption, it would seem proper 
and necessary that I should, in some manner, cor- 
rect the misrepresentation. This I choose to do by 
introducing here so much of the address as referred 
to them. 

" It has been objected to the education of the min- 
istry, 'that our first ministers were ignorant and 

*This chapter was written by Kev. I. C. GoflT, of Irvington, 
New Jersey. 


uneducated' men, and that notwithstanding this, 
great success attended their ministrations. If it 
were to any considerable extent true that they were 

ignorant and uneducated/ still the great changes 
of times and circumstances would destroy the force 
of the objection. But it is not true. 

^^JElias Smith. Was he an ^ ignorant and unlearned 
man?' Who that heard him preach, or has read 
his Autobiography, l^ew-Testament Dictionary, the 
volume of his 'Christian Herald,' or any other of 
his works, could make such a charge! 

I am in the habit of reading the latest issues of 
American literature, and am free to confess that for 
intelligent and interesting authorship, terse and fin- 
ished composition, his will not suffer by comparison 
with any of them. 

"Was Dr. Jones an ignorant man? We must do 
much for the education of our average ministry to 
get them up to his plane. Barton W. Stone was a 
fine classical scholar and profound biblical critic. 
This no competent party will deny who has read his 
twenty volumes of the ' Christian Messenger.' 
And for this reason his influence in Kentucky, Illi- 
nois, and Missouri is more widely felt in ecclesias- 
tical society than that of any other writer or preacher 
of the present century. William Kinkade was a 
thorough critic in Greek and Hebrew, and a writer 
whose compositions for power and purity are not 
surpassed by any thing in our language. And then 
there w^ere Clough, and Millard, and Badger, and 
Plummer, and Fernald, and Shaw, and Hathaway, 


and Morrison, and Taylor, and Bailey — men, all of 
them, who were not only the peers of average min- 
isters in other denominations, hut, like Saul, 'head 
and shoulders above them.' We want means to 
educate our average ministry up to their standard. 
I have always regarded these pioneers among us 
with veneration, as raised up by God for special pur- 
•poses. And the more I study their characters and 
work, and their influence upon the thought and 
spirit of the age, the more profound is that venera- 

As Luther and Knox and AYesley in the Church, 
Cromwell, Washington, and Lincoln in the state, 
were raised up for special work, so these men were 
raised up and qualified, supernaturally I believe, for 
the accomplishment of the greatest work in the 
church since the apostasy. Prominent and pre- 
eminent among these honored servants of God, in 
the middle states at least, was Father Millard. 
During a period of more than forty years, he occu- 
pied the van in this grand unsectarian movement — 
was the captain, under Jesus, of the Christian hosts, 
and the target of bitterest opposition. 

Between him and Elder Joseph Badger, his 
worthy and efficient associate during nearly the 
whole of this period, there was such dissimilarity as 
admits of the most generous eulogy of both, with- 
out prejudice to either. They were as Moses and 
Aaron. God knew the one "face to face." The 
lifting of his voice or rod was always in the name 
of God. The sea was divided, the flinty rock sent 
forth living floods for the famishing thousands of 


Israel. He was in the quaking, blazing mount with 
God, and talked with him " face to face." Then he 
descended to posts of greatest responsibility and 
peril, and lived and worked and died to save his peo- 
ple. The other was a good speaker, a man of poetic 
nature and resistless eloquence. 

During the whole period from 1824, until his 
retirement from the ministry, I knew him well, and 
for much the largest part of that time intimately, 
and I do not believe there was, during that period, 
any Christian minister of any denomination, from 
the Hudson to the AUeghanies, who enjoyed an 
equal popularity. He had preached in almost every 
county in the state, and in many of them, as Sara- 
toga, Albany, Greene, Otsego, Cayuga, Seneca, 
Yates, Steuben, Wayne, Ontario, Livingston, Mon- 
roe, and Genessee — his ministry had been emi- 
nently successful. From these counties have gone 
out colonies, families and friends, into every other 
county, and section of the state, and indeed through 
all the western states, who bore with them a 
charmed memory of his apostolic ministry. 

Daring ^a period of twenty or thirty years, an 
appointment announced for Elder David Millard to 
preach on any day in the week, in any part of I^ew 
York, Michigan, or Canada — excepting only in cities 
and large towns, where the slavery of sect influence 
could be more successfully exerted — would bring 
together eager crowds, and often from many miles 

But what made him the marked man that he 


was? First: His jprcsence and indimduality. Like 
Smith, Clougli, Plummer, Badger, Barr, and Wal- 
ter, Lis fresencc commanded and always received 
attention. He was above the medium hight, sym- 
metrically formed, with a head and face once seen 
never to be forgotten. He was made, and meant to 
be, a leader, and sucb he was apart from others. He 
would have been that in the field or forum, as ii 
politician or civilian. During his whole public life, 
I do not recollect an act of ambition for place or 
position among liis brethren, though leadership was 
generally accorded — even forced upon him. Some 
men, as Cromwell, Luther, Bunyan, Patrick Henry, 
Clay, Jackson, and Lincoln, are never allowed the 
enjoyment of obscurity, — no matter under what 
circumstances they commence the career of life. 
The laws of attraction and repulsion not more cer- 
tainly disturb the abnormal condition of substances 
than do the moral and spiritual forces the condi- 
tions in which men and women are born. We see 
instances all through the histories of the ages, and 
in our own time and country especially, where gen- 
ius and innate nobility, encountering the formid- 
a-ble front of circumstances, find their way, under 
divine providence, steadily and surely to eminence, 
distinction, and honor; while glory and wealth, 
inherited by the mean and profligate, are the most 
pitiable forms of disgrace and contempt. 

Second : In the manner and character of his preach- 
ing. This was original, direct, and unique. He 
copied no one, and could not be imitated. His style 


was not that of the essayist — it was not elaborate 
or exhaustive. He seized the strong points of his 
subject, and by a manner all his own reduced them 
to a most natural plan, and in a manner to produce 
the strongest conviction. His were eminently the 
method and manner of the embassador. Every 
sermon was a message from the Master, and direct 
to his hearers. He had no policy. His mission 
was not to please men by preaching "smooth things," 
and he seldom did it by mistake or accident. Noth- 
ing in the matter or manner of his preaching indi- 
cated a purpose or desire to make personal friends; 
and yet it seems to me that I never knew a minis- 
ter who had more or truer friends than he had. 
Tmie, they must have been, as their friendship was 
awakened by their interest in the truth which he 
preached, and in his earnest and truly apostolic 
manner — illustrating an important truth that a min- 
ister's friends should be made in Christ and brought 
by the way of the cross. Those who understand the 
amount of work performed by Christian ministers 
forty years ago, and especially by one like Father 
Millard, who gave his whole time to the ministry, 
will readily perceive that he could have little time 
for what is known as "pulpit preparation." With 
rare exceptions, even to the close of his ministry, 
he preached without manuscript or even a brief. 
And yet his thorough knowledge of the text of. 
Scripture, and of its significance, made his sermons 
not only eminently practical, but entirely respect- 
able, and even notable among scholars. As a 
preacher, he had few scholastic or artistic embel- 


lishments. According to the rules of the schools, 
he was no orator; and yet, if to move deeply all 
hearts by the presentation of Christian truth and 
the manner of its presentation be eloquence, who 
has known one more successful ! 

Third: Unity of purpose and devotion to the min- 
istry , This was another cause of his marked suc- 
cess as a preacher. He was only a minister. He 
was not doctor, lawyer, teacher, merchant, farmer, 
or speculator. According to the apostolic direction, 
'*he gave himself wholly to the work of the min- 
istry;" and his profiting was apparent to all. He 
was concerned only with the message of mercy, 
tenderly addressed to the sinning and lost. 

His devotion to the ministry, as that of most of 
our old ministers, proceeded from two causes : First : 
He believed himself called of God to the work. 
Second: He believed that the ministry of religion 
was the appointed means of saving men ; that " God, 
through the foolishness of preaching, saved those 
that believed." Under such convictions of its 
responsibility, the ministry must be an earnest work, 
can not be made secondary to any other work, call- 
ing, or interest, can not be exercised for profit or 
abandoned from want. 

This belief in a special call to the ministry was 
common to the whole Protestant ministry until 
within fifty years, and universal, I believe, among 
the Christians until within twenty-five years. And 
the raising of a question among us on the subject 
has seemed to develop about this : First : That some 


who thouglit themselves "called of God," were 
prohahlymistakeo. Second: That volunteer defend- 
ers of the new theory of " no call to the ministry," 
easily convinced themselves and every body else of 
its correctness as applied to themselves. The dif- 
ference, practically, between the two theories, seems 
to be this : If it be not specially the duty of a 
man or woman to preach; if there be to them no 
"woe is me if I preach not the gospel," they will 
not follow the calling to their personal disadvantage. 
If any other calling or profession is open to them 
promising more of profit, or ease, or honor, they 
readily and easily make the change; while others, 
like Paul and Peter, under the undoubted and ever- 
present conviction that they are required to forsake 
all to follow the Master in this calling, even to let- 
ting the "dead bury their dead," cheerfully make 
proof of their ministry "in much patience, in afflic- 
tions, in necessities, in distressess, in stripes, in 
imprisonments." * ^ "By honor and dishonor, 
by evil report and good report; as deceivers and yet 
true; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, 
yet making many rich; as having nothing and yet 
possessing all things." 

That a variety of opinions exist on this subject, 
and also in the character and moral influence of the 
nominal ministry, will not be questioned. "Some 
preach Christ of envy and strife, and some also of 
good will." "Some preach themselves, and some 
preach Christ Jesus the Lord, and themselves only 
as servants for Jesus' sake." " Some feed the flock 


for ' filthy lucre,' and some of a ready mind." 
'^ Some are lords over God's heritage, and some are 
examples to the flock." '' Some are weeping sowers 
of the precious seed, and some are wolves in sheep's 
clothing, *not sparing the flock.'" 

Elias Smith enumerates five kinds of ministers. 
"Those whom God has made and sent;" "those 
whom m.en have made and sent;" "those whom the 
devil made and sent;" "those who made them- 
selves;" and "those who never were made!" 
' Supposing this enumeration exhibits no unjust 
discrimination, that it fairly "grades up the profes- 
sion, it is not strange, since only one kind out of 
the five, were "made and sent of God," that the 
remaining four should challenge the credentials of 
the fifth. Father Millard believed that he was 
called of God specially to the work of the ministry, 
and his hearers believed it — believed it of necessity. 
It was the only solution of the problem of his devo- 
tion and almost universal success. 

Another cause of Elder Millard's success as a 
preacher, was his truly evangelical views. He 
accepted heartily the doctrine of Christ's "divinity, 
as opposed to the dogma of his mere humanity. 
The title " Son of God," as applied to Jesus, signi- 
fied to him more than "adoption." It was more 
expressive to him than that of any office, even the 
hisfhest^ whether on earth or in heaven. His nature 
was more than human — more than angelic ; it was 
divine. He was the " only-begotten Son of God." 
He believed in the divine and perfect inspiration of 
the Holy Scriptures. They were for him the high 


and ultimate written authority for the church. He 
did not tone down their claims or teachings to the 
standard of the scientism of Spencer, Herbert, 
Huxley, Darwin, Kenan, or Theodore Parker. He 
did not doubt that " until the great account between 
Christianity and science is liquidated, there -will be 
an appearance of collision or disagreement which 
does not really exist." 

He believed in and preached the absolute, unqual- 
ified, and universal necessity of regeneration, and 
this w^ith him w^as more than change of purpose — 
more than reformation. He believed in and preached 
the doctrine of the direct influence of the Holy 
Spirit, in and for all Christian work. And with 
such convictions, as might be expected, his minis- 
try was exercised with great unction, and specially 
attended with divine power. Wickedness and 
religious indifference were always and everywhere 
challenged by his searching preaching, w^hile his 
prayers and exhortations were ordinarily more 
nearly irresistible than those of any other minister 
1 ever saw. 

And finally, what made Father Millard a marked 
and successful minister, was his pure moral charac- 
ter, his beautiful and consistent spiritual life. They 
v/ere ever in harmony with his teachings — the 
expose of Christian principle. In this Father 
Millard, and all those ministers among us who 
"preached the gospel with the Holy Ghost sent 
down from heaven," differed from modern sensa- 
tional, mechanical, revival mongers, whose moral 


characters proclaim thein nottlic '• God-called," but 
the counterfeit, the cheat, and the fraud that they 
are — the scandal of the church as are "rings," rob- 
bers, and corporations of civilization. 

Father Millard as a writer and author. Under this 
head I have chosen to say what may seem proper 
to be said of the order of his talent, as viewed from 
a literary standpoint. In early life he enjoyed the 
advantages only of a good English education ; but 
his success in teaching before he reached the age of 
twenty, as also his subsequent successes, leave us 
no room to doubt his thoroughness in all his studies. 
He was not pedantic. E"o man more detested mere 
literary pretentions. lie thoroughly digested all 
the matter of his pages and pulpit eftbrts. If his 
education was not classical or "liberal," in the tech- 
nical sense, it was one described by Dr. E.ush as 
"never finished." His whole life was a school full 
of earnest exercises and marked successes. 

When a conference of brethren in western Xew 
York, in 1824, decided to publish the "Gospel 
Luminary," Elder Millard was unanimously chosen 
editor, because, as Elder Badger said, "his more thor- 
ough scholarship pre-eminently fitted him for the 
place." During the five years of his editorial con- 
nection Avith that paper, — three as sole editor and 
two as associated w^ith Elder Clough, — he sustained 
himself to the satisfaction of his patrons, and fully 
justifiecl the wisdom of the selection. 

On retiring from the editorial chair in 1831, he 
became a regular contributor to our denominational 
papers east and west. The interest awakened and 


sustained by his letters, essays, disquisitions, and 
reviews, for the next twelve years, is so well and 
generally remembered, as to render only this refer- 
ence to them necessary. 

His style as a writer was direct, clear, forcible, 
and singularly Anglo Saxon — neither elaborate nor 
brilliant, but a model in composition which allowed 
the critic no cause to complain of redundance, 
ambiguity, or uncertainty. He never offended good 
taste. Was always heartily in earnest in his sub- 
ject, and succeeded readily in securing such a co- 
partnership of interest with his readers as to make 
the completion of a letter, essay, or volume once 
begun, a necessity. 

We have said that his education was not " liberal," 
and yet his acquaintance with geography, history, 
ancient and modern, sacred, profane, and ecclesias- 
tical, wdth the arts and sciences, with current litera- 
ture, sacred and secular, was more thorough prob- 
ably than that of the average graduate of American 
colleges. The respect for his talent of competent 
judges may be inferred from the fact that about 
1828 the Unitarian Association of Massachusetts^ 
which had consented to the republication by Elder 
J3adger of the smaller work of ^oah V\^orcester, 
D.D., on the ''Divine Sonship," for circulation in 
the west, asked in return the privilege of publish- 
ing a cheap edition of '* Millard's True Messiah," 
for general circulation in JSTew England. 

Such testimony from an association of such lit- 
erary standing, and his subsequent connection for 
twenty years with their theological school at Mead- 


ville, Pennsylvania (representing the Christians), as 
Professor of Biblical Antiquities, alike satisfactory 
to the institution and creditable to him, sustains all 
the claims which we can desire to make. Of his" 
journal of travels in *^ Egypt, Arabia Petra, and 
the Holy Land," his largest, latest, and most impor- 
tant work, now that it has been before the American 
people for thirty years, passed through four editions, 
and been read by so many thousands, it remains 
only that we reaffirm our convictions of its merit 
as expressed years ago: "We deem this the most 
interesting book of travels of the many relating to 
the countries, nations, and customs of which it 
treats. It is not so voluminous as Robinson, so 
fascinating in style as Stephens, or so pretentious 
as Clark or Olin. But as the result of the personal 
observations and examinations of a faithful, com- 
petent, earnest student of sacred geography and 
biblical antiquities, its condensed form, concise man- 
ner, and the richness of its matter, renders it to us 
the most interesting work on the subject in market." 





David Millard, 





From whatever view I am enabled to take of the 
vast universe, so far as it may be scanned by human 
reason, especially the world in w^hich I live, I am 
compelled to admit the existence of a GOD — a 
rational, omnipotent, and independent God. Matter 
in all its varied forms, evidences perfect design, and 
design always supposes some designer or originator. 
If we embrace the lifeless s^^stem of atheism, and 
say that all we see sprang into existence by chance, 
we may be constantly looking in vain for the same 
chance to produce like wonders. Uninhabited 
islands, might people themselves. Chance may pro- 
duce confusion, but never order to any great extent. 
The tornado may prostrate the mighty forest, and 
chance may throw the falling trees into promiscu- 
ous confusion, but neither the tornado nor chance 
will construct any portion of them into a ship or 
a neatly-linished dwelling. An artificial globe now^ 

*The title given a manuscript — of which this paper com- 
prises the principal part — prepared for the press by Father 
Millard more than thirty years ago. It was left among his 
writings to be published after his death. 


before me is the work of an ingenious arc]iitect,the 
mechanical demonstration of a beautiful design, 
and yet how infinitely inferior is it to the globe on 
which I dwell. A vast number of the whole letters 
of the alphabet, printed on little detached pieces 
of paper, may be hurled chance-wise on the floor. 
The process may be repeated hundreds of times, 
and yet in not one instance will the right letters fall 
in proper order so as to spell out my name; much 
less would they fall in sucli order as to make out 
one page of any book in existence — one of Seneca's 
morals, or a proverb of Solomon. That beauti- 
ful doll is the fruit of ingenious mechanical art, and 
bears faint resemblance to a human being. It did 
not come by chance, but is the work of an ingen- 
ious designer. Doesthat artificial globe disclose any 
more design than the globe on which I dwell ? Does 
this book evidence any more design than the vol- 
ume of nature spread out before me? Does that doll 
evidence any more design than a human being of 
which it only bears an imperfect resemblance? 

If chance would produce the whole volume of 
nature, why can it not produce a neatly-printed 
book? If chance would produce man, why can it 
not construct a doll? If the smallest piece of 
mechanism we see evidences design and a designer, 
is it possible for us to cast our eyes over the vast 
field of nature, and not trace the handiwork of at 
least one infinite architect ? Most assuredly, with 
the Bible in my hand, I see the evidence in all 
nature of the exi&cence of a God ; but whether from 
nature alone, without any knowledge derived from 


the Bible, we should be enabled to determine the 
existence of one only living and true God, will be a 
matter of after inquiry. That it took an infinite cre- 
ative power, be that power one God or many gods, 
to produce nature as it is now spread before me, I 
think amply evidenced by nature itself. 

iTor is pantheism less free from difficulties than 
atheism. Suppose that I admit that life is a mere 
innate principle of matter, and that both life and 
matter are eternal — suppose I say that life is the 
soul of matter, and that both have eternally existed, 
what do I gain? Absolutely nothing. Life, abstractly 
considered, is not a conscious intelligent agent. 
Does a mere unconscious principle govern, order, 
and regulate the vast universe? Can we for a 
moment suppose that this infinite machine, with all 
its revolving and changing parts, has for six thou- 
sand years been regularly governed and kept in its 
astonishing order by nothing more than an innate, 
unconscious principle? With as much propriety 
might we submit our necessary every-day business 
to the direction and performance of an unconscious 
principle, with the whimsical expectation that it 
would all be transacted with perfect order and pre- 

If we adopt this principle under the name of 
pantheism, we are conceding the doctrine of athe- 
ism in the abstract. Does atheism deny the exist- 
ence of a God? So does pantheism, unless, indeed, 
an unconscious principle could properly be called 
God. A certain mcniern pantheist has published to 
the world that all the God he believes in is life and 


motion; that these pervade the "aniverse, and are the 
soul of matter. E'ow such a system subjects its 
advocate to the dilemma of haviug too much of his 
kind of God, unless it is better. Life and motion 
are often extremely corrupt and vicious. This, then , 
would be an unconscious, corrupt, no god^ which is 
atheism, substantially in its worst form. Separate 
conscious rationality from whatever we may be 
pleased to call God, and we reduce our ideas of a 
deity below the standard of heathenism itself. The 
heathen have ever believed that the images they 
bow down before, are only imperfect representations 
of conscious invisible beings, which is more than 
can be said of what modern pantheists have to pre- 
sent in the room and stead of God. In fact, the 
whole system has less of sober sense and sound 
reason to sustain it than heathenism itself. 

The very moment we divest God of rational con- 
sciousness, every thing, being and principle in the 
universe, is thrown into the scale of absolute fate 
and necessity. The same laws of necessity that govern 
the planetary worlds, govern every being that 
inhabits them. Life, as an innate principle, acts 
itself out as the governing principle of every thing- 
it pervades. If every thing is set in motion and 
kept in motion by this unconscious principle, then 
every motion is only the eflect of an absolute uncon- 
scious cause. Whether that motion be the motion 
of thought, or blowing of the wind, or whether it 
be an explosion of human wrath, or the bursting of 
a volcano ; whether it be a war of bloodshed, or a 
war of the elements, it is only the effect of one gov- 


erning principle which operates uncontrolled on- 
all matter and mind. Such a system strikes directly 
at the root of every moral principle, breaks down 
all dis,tinction betw^een virtue and vice, and asserts 
with brazen front that on the great scale of events 
there is no such thing as wrong. It strikes at all 
moral law; for what are moral laws good for so 
long as the irresistible law oi necessity does, and 
will unchangeably control all matter and mind in 
the universe ? This system, when carried out legiti- 
mately, laughs at all legislation, and aims at univer- 
sal anarchy. We hear infidels of the Owen school 
reprobating all laws designed to curb or control 
human nature. Some of them do not blush to assert 
that nature ought to go uncontrolled, and that the 
world will never be happy till nature in each indi- 
vidual is permitted to act itself out unrestrained. 
Such indeed, is the genius of infidelity, whatever 
name, or form it may assume, when carried out to 
its legitimate ends. It leads to universal anarchy. 
It establishes itself at the expense of all moral gov- 
ernment, and aims at the uprooting of the very 
moral principles whicli bind society together. 



There are three grand ideas which seem to pre- 
dominate throughout the human family: First. 


•There is a conscious, omnipotent, creative, and gov- 
erning ■poicer. Second: That man is destined to an 
existence after the death of the body. Third : That 
there will be a general retribution after death. 
These three ideas are held, in some shape or other, 
by nearly all nations of which we have any direct 
knowledge. They are sentiments not confined to 
Christian nations alone, but such as most generally 
pervade nations where the Bible is not read nor even 
known. I^ow, may not the general prevalence of 
these sentiments be regarded as strong presumptive 
evidence of their truth? Is the whole world, com- 
paratively, mistaken on these important points, with 
the mere exception of a few self-boasting philoso- 
phers ? 

If it should be said, these notions are but false 
traditions, derived originally from the Jewish Scrip- 
tures, that acknowledgment would go very far to 
establish the extrenffe antiquity of these scriptures. 
But one convincing reason w^ith me why I can not 
regard these ideas as merely traditionary in heathen 
nations, is the nniversal existence of polytheism 
among these nations. The Jewish Scriptures teach 
that there is but one Grod. If, then, the notion of 
an omnipotent, creative p^ower was carried from the 
Jewish Scriptures into all nations, how happens it 
that heathen nations hold that power to be myriads 
of gods? Might we not reasonably expect to find 
as much as one nation wholly ignorant of the Bible, 
and yet holding to the existence of only one God; 
that is, holding the tradition correctly ? But as this 


is not the fact, we are driven to the conclusion that- 
these ideas were en stamped on the rational mind by 
the God of nature; that there is a '^true light," 
which, to a certain degree, " lighteth every man that 
cometh into the w^orld." 

We see that man is naturally a religious being, 
naturally inclined to reverence and worship some- 
thing. From the same inward principle that makes 
man religious, originates the three grand ideas which 
we have before named. The same principle which 
moves man to be religious, gives scope to his 
thoughts and enables him to grasp such ideas as con- 
tinually feed and perpetuate in him religious feel- 
ings and desires. What Christian does not see the 
special providence of God in this ? Besides, the fact 
that religious worship is common in every nation, 
carries with it strong presumptive evidence that man 
is under obligation to pay hon:^ge and worship to 
an omnipotent power. That all religious disposition 
is the mere chimera of the brain, wholly depending 
for its origin and continuance on fabulous tradition 
and false education, will not pass with the sober and 
reflecting. Its general prevalence evinces that it is 
not founded in imposition, but on sober duty. He 
who sets up his philosophy as opposed to all religious 
worship, arrogates to himself more wisdom than 
whole nations combined. He assumes to be wiser 
than the mass of mankind from time immemorial. 

1:^0 nation, however, without some knowledge of 
the Bible, has been enabled to come at the fact, that 
there is only one living and true God. If the great 


volume of nature spread out before us evidences 
supreme creative power, it does not determine that 
power to be on]j one infinite being — one God. It is 
onfy by either direct or indirect knowledge of tlie 
Bibie that we can arrive at this fact. The Moham- 
medan believes his alkoran ; the alkoran recognizes 
the writings of Moses, and lience teaches that there 
is one God. Xo nation, w^ith all its learning, phi- 
losophy, and wisdom, has ever (independent of the 
Bible) been able to find out that there is only one 
living and true God. 

With the above facts considered, the deist may 
w^ell be taken to task for the origin of his faith in 
only one God. He declares his firm belief in one 
indepeodent deity. At the same time he sneeringly 
rejects the Bible as a revelation from God. But 
from whence does he derive his faith? He boasts 
that he reads his religion in the great volume ot 
nature spread out before him. But may he not be 
asked to put his finger on the page in the book o± 
nature where he reads there is only one living and 
true God? The deist says he draws his faith in the 
clearest possible manner from the works of creation 
combined with reason. Why, then, do not heathen 
nations do the same? Why do not the Hindoos and 
Chinese see w^hat the deist says he sees so plainly? 
Why do they not read out in nature that there is 
only one true God? Is it because they have not the 
Bible to help them to this truth? Most certainly it 
is. And does the deist read his faith in one God as 
plain because he first learned it from the Bible? 


Most certainly this is the fact, for without the aid 
of the very book he condemns, he never could have 
arrived at his present faith in the Deity. If deism 
is the only rational religion, and this clearly revealed 
by the works of nature, is it not astonishing that it 
has not long since taken the place of the polytheism 
which pervades all heathen nations? Let the deist 
remember that while he asserts his religion as that 
evidenced by all nature, he sets himself up as wiser 
than whole nations together. He says he learns 
with perfect ease, without the aid of the Bible, what 
whole nations without the Bible have never been 
able to learn. Let him, then, carefully look over 
his evidences 'agaif, and he will find that the Bible 
has had more to do in making him a believer in one 
God than every thing else. 

But the deist says he came to the decision that 
there is only one God from the order existing in the 
government of the universe. He reasons that order 
is always the evidence of union. He imagines it 
there were a plurality of gods there would be dis- 
union among them; that the order which now per- 
vades nature would be broken up, and that disorder 
and confusion would shake the universe. This phi- 
losophy indeed looks plausible; but let us examine 
it: The same difiiculty arises in testing this argu- 
ment that did in the examination of the deist's 
belief in one God. If existing order throughout 
the universe furnishes conclusive evidence that there 
is only one God, why do not heathen nations see it 
and embrace the doctrine ? Why has not deism long 
since annihilated the polytheism ot the heathen 


world? Does deism really comLine the vast fund 
of reason Avliich it arrogates to itself? Why, then, 
do not strong reasoning minds among the heathen, 
witli all their labor, arrive at what the deist asserts 
to be as clear as the sun at noon? 

But the deist's conclusion, that disorder and con- 
fusion must necessarily follow a plurality of gods, 
is based on the supposition that either a part or all 
of those gods must necessarily be corrupt and imper- 
fect. And why would this be necessary ? I can see 
no cause for such a conclusion. iS^ow, suppose we 
admit a belief in a plurality of good, holy, and per- 
fect gods. Such would be sure to act in harmony; 
for, notwithstanding numbers, perfection will always 
harmonize, lie who believes in a plurality of gods, 
I should suppose would be most likely to believe in 
a plurality of perfect gods. If he does, where is 
this evidence gone? How does the harmony of 
nature prove to such a man that there is only one 

In a word, abandon the 13ible and all books which 
recognize the truth of the Bible, at least of the Old 
Testament, and there is not one conclusive evidence 
within our grasp to do away polytlieism. There 
would not be left one convincing argument to estab- 
lish a belief in only one living and true God. If it 
were possible to sweep the Bible out of existence and 
out of memory, deism would lose its eyes; it would 
no longer read the existence of one independent 
God. Finally, destroy the Bible and deism would 
be destroyed with it, for it only lives in a land of 



We now come to the examination of the writings 
commonly called the Old-Testament Scriptures, of 
which the writings of Moses stand first in order. 
These writings bear evidence of extreme antiquity. 
They were indeed considered ancient in the days of 
Joseph us, and will, we believe, on proper examina- 
tion of collateral testimony, be reasonably admitted 
as the most ancient writings now in existence. If 
this point is duly established, it will also be admit- 
ted that it is utterly impossible to prove the facts 
they contain by reference to the writings of any 
author cotemporary with Moses, as the writings of 
no such author have come down to us. We shall, 
then, be mainly dependent on the internal evidence 
of the writings themselves, added to the well-known 
customs of the Jewish nation, to establish their 
truth and authenticity. 

The five books attributed to Moses contain not 
only a sketch of the most extraordinary historical 
events, but also a code of laws for a whole nation 
of people. The events therein stated have been 
believed by the Jews as a people for several thousand 
years, if we can attach any credit to their most 
ancient writers subsequent to Moses. In like man- 
ner, the statute of laws given by Moses has ever 
since been regarded as of divine authority by a 


whole nation. We may then well inquire, if these 
w^ritings are fabulous, how came that whole nation 
to he so egregiously imposed upon? 

These writings do not simply detail great events 
which had long preceded the age in which Moses 
lived, hut they point that very generation to mar- 
velous events wrought before their eyes. To estab- 
lish this point, I need only refer the reader to Deut. 
XI. 2-8 i 

"2. And know ye this day : for I speak not with your chil- 
dren which have not known, and which have not 8efn, the 
chastisement of tlie Lord your God, his greatness, his mighty 
hand, and his stretehed-out arm, 

" 3. Aud his miracles, and his acts, which he did in the 
midst of Eg>pt, unto Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and unto 
all his laud; 

''4. And what he did unto the army of Egypt, unto their 
horses, and to their chariots ; how he made the water of the 
Red Sea to overflow them as they pursued after you, and hoiu 
the Lord hath destroyed them unto this day; 

"5. And what he did unto you in the wilderness, until ye 
came into this place; 

"6. And what he did unto Dathan and Abiram, the sons 
of Eliab, the son of Reuben ; how the earth opened her mouth 
and swallowed them up, and their households, and their 
tents, and all the substance that luas in their posses&ion, in 
the midst of all Israel : 

** 7. But your eyes have seen all the great acts of the Lord 
which he did. 

"8. Therefore shall ye keep all the commandments which 
I command you this day, that ye may be strong, and go in 
and possess the land, whither ye go to possess it; " 

l^ow, if the great and astonishing events men- 
tioned in the above paragraphs were not known to 
the people to whom these writings were given, would 


they irot at once have been rejected as false, and 
Moses been hissed as an arrogant retailer of fiction? 
It is, however, asserted by some infidels that 
Moses never wrote the books ascribed to him; that 
they were written in some after-age, and only 
appeared in the name of Moses. To refute this 
assertion, another strong collateral evidence comes 
up before ns. A copy of the law written by Moses 
was to be deposited in the ark of the covenant, by 
an express ordinance contained in that law: 

"And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writ- 
ing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished, 
that Moses commanded the Levites who bore the ark of the 
covenant of the Lord, saying : * Take this book of the law 
and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord 
your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee.' " 
Deut. XXXI. 24-26. 

There was also a copy of this book to be left with 
the king : 

''And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his 
kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a 
book, out of that which is before the priests, the Levites : 
and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the 
days of his life : that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, 
to keep all the words of his law% and these statutes to do 
them." Deut. xvii. 18, 19. 

Here it will be perceived that this book of the 
law was to be carefully preserved in a noted place, 
not only as a record of things done, but as a stand- 
ing statute of both a nation and their king. 'Now, 
in whatever age after Moses these writings might 
have made their appearance, the people must natu- 


rally claim ooiiviuciiig evidence of tlieir authority. 
Had they been forgeries at the time of their appear- 
ance, the inquiry naturally y»-ould have been made, 
Have tliey been preserved, since the days of Moses, 
in the ark? lias a copy been known to be there? 
Has a copy been kept with the king, as the law 
declares it should be? and did the king copy the one 
he has from the copy preserved in the ark? If all 
this could not be made to appear, these laws, as a 
new thiniT, would not be received bv a whole nation 
JQst coming up, as they naturally would be, after 
the reputed author and giver of them had been dead 
many years. 

Could any man now invent a book of statutes, 
and then make the people believe that this book of 
statutes contained acts of the Legislature of the State 
of New York fifty years ago, and that the people had, 
ever since that time, been observing tliem? As 
impossible would it have been for the law of Moses- 
to be received by a whole nation for what it claims 
to be, if forged and brought up at any age after 
Moses was dead and gone. Permit me to ask any 
infidel. Was such a thing ever known as that a set 
of forged laws, claiming to be the work of a law- 
giver long since dead, was ever palmed off on a 
whole nation ? Till he can first show the possibilit}^ 
of this, let him cease to say Moses did not write the 
books attributed to him. Let him cease to call 
those books forgeries made long after Moses was 
dead. Let him remember that the Jewish nation, 

so far as we have any knowledge, have, from Moses 

322 • WKITING3 OF 

till the present time, acknowledged the writings 
attributed to Moses to be genuine. If the writings 
of Moses are not genuine, when was the forgery 
committed? and how was that whole nation drawii 
into this marvelous duplicity? 

The law of Moses is so closely interwoven with 
certain great and astonishing events connected with 
the Jewish nation, that it establishes the truth of 
those events, and those events also prove the genu- 
ineness of the law. Indeed, a considerable part of 
the law regulates the commemoration of those great 
events by peculiar festal celebrations. 'Now, if these 
events had never occurred, and the people had never 
before heard of them, how could a law possibly be 
palmed off on them regulating the celebrations of 
hctions? Further, these laws do not regulate the 
celebrations of events which were said to have 
occurred long before that generation, but those of 
recent occurrence. The books declare where that 
law was given, and w^here this nation was when the 
law was given. They were in the wilderness of 
Arabia, and had just come out of a state of bond- 
age in Egypt. If they never did come out of Egypt, 
and never did travel in the wilderness, as these books 
declare, when could an impostor make that nation 
believe the contents of these books? How could 
he make that nation believe they had, as a nation, 
ever since observed those laws, when in reality they 
knew nothing about either the laws or the circum- 
stances under which they were said to have been 
given ? 


When we simply read of certain festal days annu- 
ally kept in a nation, at first they strike the mind as 
of little significance to us. But when we ascertain 
that each one of those feasts were instituted to be 
observed annually, in commemoration of some very 
important event connected with that nation, they 
often assume an important signification. !N"ow, the 
Jewish nation had three such feasts; the first to 
commemorate the last awful plague that fell on the 
Egyptians, on the night of Israel's departure out of 
Egypt, called the feast of the passover. Fifty days 
after that they received the law at Mount Sinai, and 
a feast was instituted in commemoration of the giv- 
ing of that law, called the feast of pentecost. 
Another feast was instituted to commemorate their 
dwelling in tents during their wanderings in Arabia 
Petra, called the feast of tabernacles. Xow, how 
could those feasts possibly have been instituted if 
not correctly founded on the events they are designed 
to commemorate? How could an impostor impose 
them on a whole nation if those events never trans- 
pired? Suppose, fifty or one hundred years after 
those events are said to have transpired, an impos- 
tor should endeavor to impose them on the nation. 
He would have to first prove the nation had regu- 
larly observed them annually, when the nation had 
never even heard of such feasts. 



Among the great and extraordinary events record- 
ed by Moses, is that ot a universal deluge. It it, 
then, worthy of inquiry, Have we any evidence on 
which we may rely, aside from the testimony of 
Moses, that such an astonishing event ever occurred? 
In answer to this we may say, the globe gives most 
astonishing evidence of having undergone changes 
which would only have been produced by a deluge, 
similar to the one described by Moses. Were those 
changes few, and only on one portion of our earth, 
they might possibly be accounted for on the princi- 
ple of a partial flood ; but while these marks of a 
general inundation of water are met with in every 
country explored by civilized man, the traveler, if 
even an infidel, is obliged to exclaim, '^We live in a 
world that has undergone astonishing revolutions — 
leaving evidences that even the ocean, at some vastly 
remote period, has either wholly or in part changed 
its bed, or otherwise having broken from its con- 
finement has swept over the earth and washed even 
the summits of tall mountains." Forest trees, 
imbedded at a vast depth in the earth, are often 
found in difi:erent countries, sometimes in a petrified 
state. Says Malte Brun : 

* *Most naturalists consider pit-coal (and the same may be said 

of other bituminous substances) as being in a great measure 

a product of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. Such an 

origin appears at first marked out by the numerous remains 


REV. DA\aD MILLARD. . 325 

of the organic bodies, particularly of well-known sea-animals 
which are found in coal-mines; by the impression of many 
plants, particularly of the fern tribe in the chistos clay, whicfci 
forms the roof of these mines ; by wood, still partly in a lig- 
nous state, and partly bituminated ; so that we can, from 
such appearances, trace, as it were, the process follow^ed in 
the formation of coal from one point in the scale to another. 

"Fossil ears of corn, impregnated with silver, with copper, 
and with other metalic substances, have been found in Switz- 
erland, and near Frankenberg, in Hesse. Petrified fruits 
have been found on hights where they do not now grow. A 
trunk of a petrified tree has been met with on Mount Stella, 
at four thousand feet above the level where the last shrubs 
grow. Entire beds of petrified wood exist at the elevation 
of fifteen hundred feet above the sea, near the town of 
Munda, in Spain. In the environs of the town of Rheims, in 
France, are to be found quarries filled with transparent belem- 
nites, with sea-urchins, and with pyrites of different forms. 
There are likewise to be seen, in mingled confusion, 
amonis, fossil talc, petrified wood, and pieces of potter's 
earth, full of impressions of leaves. The canton of Courtag- 
non, in France, presents a bank of shells of several myriame- 
ters in length, and nearly two in breadth. It contains a 
quantity of fossils preserved entire, and some have even 
retained their color and polish. Below Montmirail, in 
France, there is a very extensive bed of sand filled with fossil 
shells of every kind . This bed is five metres in hight. Quar- 
ries in other parts of France furnish nearly the same fossils, 
as well as petrified wood, which resembles the true chestnut- 
tree. France still further supplies an example of one enor- 
mous bed of shells, covered with no other substance. I 
allude to the faluns of Touraine, one continuous bed of 
broken shells of about nine ancient leagues in superficial 
extent^ and at least twenty feet in thickness. The whole 
mass of shells is estimated at one hundred and seventy mill- 
ions of cubic toises. 

** Other countries in Europe are not less abundant in fossil 
shells. Twenty pages would be insufiicient to enumerate the 
places of Germany where they are found. The north and 

326 ■; ., ;wBiTKsG6 OF ; ; 

south of Europe do not yield to the central paits, in this 
respect. In Sweden they are found in vast quantities, three 
thousand feet above the sea. Finland and Norway abound 
in shells, some whole, and others almost changed into earth. 
In Greece and Spain we often travel over nothing but shells, 
Romond found them in the Pyrenees, upon the summit of 
Mount Perdu, at the hight of 10,578 feet. They are found 
in the Alps at the hight of 7,446 feet. Throughout Europe, 
Wherever there is limestone, maybe found marine shells." 

Other parts of the world are similar to Europe, 
with respect to the abundance of shells. Vast heaps 
of them exist in Lybia, in Barbary, and in gold 
mines in Guinea. Mount Lebanon and Mount Car- 
mel are sown with petrified oysters. The mountains 
of China are covered with them. In Siberia are 
vast quantities of marine shells. The United States 
and Canada contain enormous beds of calcareous mat- 
ter. On a mountain in Georgia is a yast ridge of 
oyster shells. M. de Humboldt refers to a high 
chain of the Andes covered over with petrified oys- 
ter shells, at an elevation of thirteen thousand two 
hundred feet. 

^Remains of other sea animals are abundant in 
many parts of the globe; of these, fishes are the 
most frequent. I^Tor are the fossil remains of quad- 
rupeds less generally extended over the globe than 
those of marine animals. The author already quoted 
says : 

*' These are found accumulated in regions where similar 
animals do not now exist. Some are buried deep in beds of 
gypsum, as found in the environs of Paris. Others are found 
in beds of sand, or marshy ground, as the greater parts of 
the bones of elephants. The megalonyXy an unknown ani- 
mal of the tribe of sloths, of the size of an ox, is found tn 
Virginia ; also the megatherium, discovered near Buenos 


Ayres, and which joins the character approaching that of 
the sloth, the bulk of a rhinoceros." 

Skeletons of an enormous sized elephant called 

the mammoth, have been found in various parts of 

Europe, northern Asia, and iSTorth America. 

"The animals, the remains of which are now found in 
caverns, evidently appear to have retired thither of them- 
selves, to seek shelter from some sudden revolution, the irre- 
sistible evidence of which, notwithstanding, involved them 
in general destruction. Were they flying from a sudden inun- 

Without adding any thing more to this catalogue 
of antiquities, which we could greatly enlarge, we 
may now pause and inquire, What could have pro- 
duced these astonishiug appearances? By what 
means were such vast quantities of sea shells, fishes, 
and other sea animals carried on the land to places 
remote from the present ocean, and even to the tops 
of lofty mountains, where their petrified remains are 
now to be seen in astonishing numbers? Could 
any thing have accomplished this but an immense 
deluge of water ? Is it not also highly probable that 
the same deluge threw into masses the vast beds of 
calcareous matter found in various sections of the 
globe, intermingled with which are sea shells, tur- 
tles, alligators, and the bones of other animals in a 
petrified state? 

Before dismissing these evidences of a general 
deluge, there is another fact connected with them 
which must be admitted, namely, that a portion of 
the globe has either changed its climate, or that cer- 
tain animals which inhabited northern regions have 
changed constitutions. The last suggestion, how- 

328 . wKiToas OP 

ever, can not be adinitted, as the remains of trop- 
ical plants, trees, shrubs, and fruits, are found in pet- 
rifactions, far to the north, where the bones of the 
elephant and rhinoceros are also found. Trees 
and plants have not changed constitutions. Has 
not our globe, then, undergone an astonishing 
change of climate, or how are we to account for 
the skeletons of tropical animals being found in 
vast numbers in the frozen regions of the north? 
Malte Brun continues : 

"The marine fossil animals are in a great measure foreign 
to the coasts of those countries where they have been found 
buried. The Abbe Fortis has discovered that the petrified 
fishes of Mount Bolca, in the Veronese, have their corre- 
sponding living species in the seas of Otaheite. According 
to Linnaeus, the porpites of Gothland appear to be petrifac- 
tions of the medusas of India. The madrepores, so abun- 
dant in the frozen solitudes of Siberia, exist only in the equi- 
torial and tropical seas. The greater part of the petrified 
shells that are found in England, are now to be met with 
occupying living tenants only in the Atlantic Ocean toward 
the coast of Florida. Scheucher has given the description of 
many of the fossil shells of Germany, which do not exist in 
a living state in our seas, or perhaps in any quarter of the 
globe. The greater part of the fossil plants which were found 
near Lyons are foreign to our climates. There was recog- 
nized there in particular the fruit of a myetanthes, the poly- 
podium^ and the adiantium.^^ 

In different parts of Europe remains of tropical 
wood, plants, and fruit have been found. In clos- 
ing: his account of the animal tribe in Siberia, the 
same author remarks : 

"Such is the picture which the physical geography of 
Siberia at the present time presents. But it must have been 
different at an epoch when large herbivorous animals, similar 
to those of the torrid zone, occupied rich pastures which 


must then liave suj)ported them in this country, and which 
presuppose a very mild temperature. We have already 
called the attention of our readers to the numerous remains 
of elephants and rhinoceroses, and other animals of the tor- 
rid zone, which have been found in Siberia along the Issim, 
the Irtysh, the Obi^and the Yenisei, and the very shores of 
the frozen sea. The bones of quadrupeds are found mixed 
with sea shells, and other bones which appear to be the skulls 
of the largest inhabitants of the ocean. They are met with 
along the river sides, in beds of earth. The liaikh of islands 
are composed entirely of gravel, ice, and the bones of ele- 
phants, rhinoceroses, and catacious animals. They have 
even found rhinoceroses, or mammoths, or Siberian ele- 
phants quite entire, with part of the skin in a good state of 

** These astonishing remains of an animal population for- 
eign to the present climate of Siberia, has given rise to vari- 
ous conjectures. It is unnecessary to refute the learned Bayer 
who wished to consider them as belonging to elephants which 
accompanied the Mangolian and Tartar armies. The im- 
mense number of bones found is adverse to such a theory, 
although no admixture of the remains of marine animals 
had been present. Pallas thinks they may have been car- 
ried to their present station by a deluge, but they present no 
trace of having been rolled, or dragged along for any length 
of way. These circumstances concur to make us consider 
the*m as the remains of animals which had lived in the very 
places in which they are found. But how could these ani- 
mals have subsisted in a country so barren and cold ? For 
the solution of this problem, it has been supposed that Sibe- 
ria must have been at one time much more temperate and 
fertile than now. Was this owing to » different position 
of the eliptic, producing a different state of the terrestrial 
zones ?" 

Such are the candid statements and reasonings ot 
a geographer, who was most prohably an infidel or 
atheist — a skeptic on the subject of Divine revela- 
tion. These facts, however, are awfully sublime and 

3^0 ■ WRITINGS OP » 

convincing to the Christian of two thing-s: First, 
of a general deluge; arid, secondly, that at the time 
of tliat deluge our globe experienced a revolution 
whicli produced an actual reversion of its zones; 
that it experienced at least a half revolution from 
soutli to north, which changed the torrid zone to 
the frigid, and the frigid zone to the torrid. This, in 
addition to its diurnal motion, could not fail to pro- 
duce a breaking up of th^ fountains of the great deep, 
— a general deluge as well as a changing of a part of 
the bed of the ocean ; at least, such is the philosophy 
that irresistibly forces itself on my mind in contemplat- 
ing the facts already enumerated. Indeed, if I had 
never heard of a Bible, with the foregoing facts before 
me I must have been driven to this very conclu- 
sion. Let the man wlio doubts the truth of Divine 
revelation attempt candidly to account for the fore- 
going existing facts, in relation to the present state 
of our globe, on principles independent of a general 
deluge, and I doubt not the result will be a refuta- 
tion of his own philosophy, and tlie final acknowl- 
edgement of an awful fact recorded by Moses^a 
general deluge. 



The belief of all the ancient iiations, and the con- 
firmation of many writers of antiquity, go very far- 


to coniirin Moses' accouDt of the deluge, and shovr 
that no article of ancient history is better supported. 
I will here i3resent a few strong authorities on the 
subject. The first authority among the heathen 
writers is that of Berosus the Chaldean. From his 
testimony we may learn the opinion of the Chal- 
deans respecting the flood. If we change the name 
of Xoah for that of Xisnthrus, it will appear that 
Berosus has the whole history of the deluge com- 
plete. He says : 

"Very anciently, the gods being greatly oflended at the 
wickeduass of the human race, foretold to Xisuthrus that 
they intended to destroy the world by a deluge. Xisuthrus 
immediately set about building a ship of very great dimen- 
sions. After many years, a prodigious vessel was construct- 
ed, and Xisuthrus, with his family, entered it with a multi- 
tude of creatures which were to be preserved. The flood 
came, the face of the whole earth was covered, and the ves- 
sel which carried the only surviving family of the human 
race, was buoyed up and floated on the boundless deluge. 
The waters at length abated, and the ship chanced to land 
on a mountain in Armenia, called Ararat." 

The same author says that, nigh to his own time, 
"large pieces of timbers were still seen on those 
mountains, universally supposed to be pieces of the 
ship of Xisuthrus." !Many other Chaldean writers 
mention the same things ; so the belief of the Chalde- 
ans in the deluge rests on the most unquestionable 
authorities. Moreover, the certainty that they did 
believe in it, is a consideration of great weight, for 
Kimrod, a great-grandson of Noah, founded their 
empire but a short time after the deluge; and they, 
of all the ancient nations, were the most likely to 

332 WRiriNGS OF 

have correct information, as far as depended on 

Varro, the most learned man the Roman state 
produced, says that " in ancient times there was a 
universal deluge in which the human race were 
nearly all destroyed." He says that the flood took 
place sixteen hundred years before the first olym- 
piad. ISTow, it is known that the first olympiad took 
place 776 before Christ. This account admirably 
corresponds with the Scripture chronology; for 1,600 
added to 776 makes 2,376; whereas the Mosaic chron- 
ology places the flood 2,348 before Christ,* a differ- 
ence of only twenty-eight years in a range of time 
so long. When we consider the learning of Yarro, 
and that his chronology was drawn from the Greeks 
and Egyptians, and came through a diflerent chan- 
nel from that of the Scripture, we may well be 
astonished at this coincidence, and can have no 
rational doubt of the correctness of the facts in 

Seneca, the celebrated Roman philosopher and 
historian, is very particular on the subject of the 
deluge. He not only says the same things as the 
above cited authors, but goes much further into the 
subject, assigning what were the probable causes of 
the flood. He moreover says, as the world was 
once destroyed by water, so it shall again be de- 
stroyed by fire. 

Few men were more extensively read or more 
deeply learned in history than Josephus, the Jewish 
historian. He afiirms that we read of the deluge 
and the ark in the writings of all the barbarian his- 


torians; and that all the eastern nations were uni- 
form in their belief of that article of the Mosaic 

Yassius says that a tradition prevails among the 
Chinese that Puoncuus, with his family, escaped 
from the universal deluge, and was the restorer of 
the human race. Even among the Indians of [N'orth 
and South America many traditions of a general 
deluge prevail. 

I shall here close this enumeration of authors 
with the great and respectable names of Strabo, 
Plato, and Plutarch, all of whom express their belief 
:n a general deluge. Plutarch, particularly, says 
that Deucalion, when the waters of the-flood were 
abating, sent forth a dove w^hich returned with an 
olive leaf in her mouth. It ma}", indeed, be said 
that he copied this from the history of Moses; in 
reply to which we only need answer: if so, then he 
doubtless gave credit to that histor3\* 

The ark w^as also called by the Greeks kilbotos, 
which would seem not to be a word of Greek ori- 
gin. It is in this way that the city Apamea in 
Phiygia, seems to have become particularly con- 
nected with the memory of the deluge. This city 
was anciently called Cibotus, whether in commemo- 
ration of the deluge, or whether being so called, the 
name was afterward referred to the ark, it is diffi- 
cult to say. At any rate, the people of this city 
seem to have collected or preserved more partic- 
ular and authentic traditions concerning the flood, 


do4 . WRITIXaS OF 

aud of tlie preservation of the human race, than 
are to be met with out ot the Bible. 

A specimen of this is given in a medal preserved 
in the cabinet of the king of France, and is too 
remarkable to be overlooked. It bears on one side 
the head of Severus; on the other a history in two 
parts, representing, iirst, two figures inclosed in an 
ark, sustained by two stout posts at the corners, and 
well timbered throughout. On the side are letters, 
on the top is a dove; in front the same two figures 
which we see in the ark are represented as coming 
out and departing from their late residence. Hov- 
ering over them is the dove with a sprig in its bill. 
(Double histories are common on medals). The 
situation of these figures implies the situation of the 
door and clearly commemorates an escape from the 
dangers of water, by means of a floating vessel."^ 

Many more testimonies might be adduced on this 
subject; but from those already stated, those who 
are disposed to tax the history of Moses with false- 
hood or absurdity, may see something of the nature 
of the controversy in which they are engaged. 


That the world, and the races of living crea- 
tures that inhabit it, had a beginning, are facts 
not wholly dependent on the writings of Moses 
for support. These facts are admitted, even by 
infidels, because they are confirmed by reason. 

^Calraet. ' 


Moses liias ci:iveii us the only Mstorv of the crea- 
tion with which the world is favored. If his 
account is not true, then the world is utterly igno- 
rant of the formation of this glohe, of the ori- 
gin of man, and of every living thing. Sweep the 
writings of Moses from credibility, and the mind in 
traveling back arrives at a dark chasm, beyond 
which there is no passing. How this world came 
into being, and how it became peopled, are inquiries 
calling for answers which can not be given. They 
grope after facts which must not be known. They 
seek a knowledge unattainable and shrouded in 
everlasting darkness. 

Let us examine, for a moment,what means Moses had 
from which to derive a correct knowledge of many of 
his most important historical facts, even independent 
of Divine revelation. Methusalah died during the 
year of the flood. He had seen and conversed with 
Adam many years. Shem, the son of ]Sroah, had 
seen and conversed with Methusalah. Both Abra- 
ham and Isaac had seen and conversed with Shem. 
Jacob had converse with his father (Isaac), and 
lived to converse with many of his grandsons, and 
with several of these had free opportunity to con- 
verse. Thus it will be seen that the history of the 
creation was handed down from Adam to Isaac by 
passing through only two successive individuals. 
Coming from Isaac to Moses, it was equally direct, 
and through a much shorter period. "We may then 
well suppose that Moses, being instructed in all the 
learning of Egypt, was prepared to write out, even 


independent of Divine revelation, the great liistoricaJ 
events he records. 

The book of Genesis gives iis the only account 
we have of the peopling of the earth after the flood. 
It says, " These are the families of the sons of Koah, 
after their generations in their nations; and by 
these were the nations divided in the earth after the 
flood." Learning and profound research have very 
conclusively establislied the countries where the 
descendants of Shern^ Ham, and Japheth settled, as 
well as the original extent of their dominions. This 
has been done by^ the learned Kollin and others to 
my entire satisfaction. But without the aid of pro- 
found learning, who tliat can read his Bible, and 
has read of suck people as the Assyrians, the Elam- 
ites, the Lydians, the Medes, the lonians, the Thra- 
ceans, but will readily acknowledge they had Assur, 
and Elani, and Lud, and Madai, and Javan, and 
Tiras, grandsons of ISToah, for' their respective 
founders? And who that derives this knowledge 
from his Bible, but considers it a valuable treasure? 

^ j}^ i/i i\i »j4 i,i ^j' ;j^ ^ ^Ji 

We here notice an objection. As the book of 
Deuteronomy records the death of Moses, it is urged 
that Moses could not be the author of that book. 
In reply we would say, we are free to admit that 
the books of Moses give evidence of having been 
revised and copied by a later author; most proba- 
bly by the prophet Samuel. The same may also be 
said of the book of Joshua. In this latter revision, 
what if some names more recently given to certain 


places had been inserted in room of those used in 
the days of Moses and Joshua? "Would this cir- 
cumstance invalidate the authenticity of those 
hooks? By no means. We are free to admit that 
this may have been the fact. We are free to admit 
that either Joshua or Samuel appended to the last 
book of Moses an account of his glorious death. 
!N^or does the admission of this fact in the least 
invalidate the truth of that account, or the authen- 
ticity of the entire book itself. 

That the book of Joshua is genuiue, is confirmed 
by very conclusive evidence. Apply to this book a 
similar course of argument to that we have already 
applied to the writings of Moses, and you will find 
its authenticity very strongly confirmed. The fact 
is, the book asserts things which purport to have 
taken place in the presence of a people who were 
living when it was written. If the wonderful events 
therein stated had never occurred, at what time 
would this record be brought up and palmed off on 
a whole nation, who never before heard of the events 
it sets forth ? 

The exterminating war against the Canaanites, 
detailed in this book, is used as an argument by 
infidels. If true, say they, it would not have been 
sanctioned, much less appointed by a God of justice 
and mercy. But why not against a people whose 
cup of iniquity was full? Did an infidel ever think 
of impugning the justice of God for sinking whole 
cities by earthquakes ? Has not a God of justice 
an equal right to sweep off a people by the scourge 
of war as by an earthquake ? 



I find that evea Paine aduiits the probability that 
the books of Ezra and Il^ehemiah are genuine, 
though he would discover no marks of inspiration 
in them, which is not to be thought strange in a 
deist. These and the subsequent historical books 
in the Old Testament are to be mainly regarded as 
-authoritative records of the Jewish nation, in which 
more than simply the writers of them were inter- 
ested in having kept correct. I shall therefore pass 
them over, with but one general remark. The 
authoritative manner under which these records 
were made is certainly to be regarded as some guar- 
antee of their general correctness. That even some 
errors might afterward have crept into them, espe- 
cially in relation to dates and numbers, would not 
be a matter of surprise, when we consider the vast 
number of times they were transcribed previous to 
the art of printing. That in some small instances 
such may have been their fate, we do not positively 
deny; yet when we consider the special care prac- 
ticed by the Jewish scribes in counting both the 
words and letters contained in each new-made copy, 
it affords very strong confidence in their general 
correctness. We shall, therefore, leave for the pres- 
ent the historical part of the Old Testament, and 
pass directly to the prophetical portions of it. 



-The extent of Scripture prophecy is vast and vari- 
ou-s. Its records occupy a very great portion of the 
sacred volume. In exploring this field, I hardly 
know where to begin, and can only make a few 
prominent selections. I shall, then, first very briefly 
notice some prophecies relating to cities, nations, 
and empires, showing their precise and astonishing 

I speak first of cities, but shall not dwell on the 
well-known prophecies of Xineveh and Tyre. 
AYhere are their former grandeur, power, and riches ? 
Who was it that declared that ''utter end" should 
be made of Xiiieveh, "that exceeding great city of 
three days' journey^of Tyre, the most celebrated 
city of Phoenicia, and ancient emporium, of the 
world; who said: "I will lay thy stones, and thy 
timber, and thy dust in the midst of the waters ; I 
will make her like the top of a rock; it shall be a 
place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the 
sea? " Who has accomplished these denunciations 
with such exactness ? So thoroughly was Kineveh 
wiped out, that even the site of that great city was 
disputed among authors and geographers I Tyre 
just preserves the marks imprinted on her by pro- 
phetic word, '' a rock whereon fishers dry their nets." 



Pass to Babylon. Ita walls, its hanging gardens, 
its palace, its temple of Belus, its lakes, and its 
embankments need not liere be described. But I 
would ask, Who predicted by name, more than a cen- 
tury and a half before, Cyrus the conqueror of this 
haughty city, the deliverer of the Jews, and the mon- 
arch that issued the decree for rebuilding the temple ? 
"Who foretold the very plan which he adopted for 
effecting his purpose? Who spoke of the "two 
barred gates and the gates of brass not being shut ; " 
of the "drying up of the river;" of the "might of 
the defenders failing them;" of the "posts running 
one to meet another, to show the king of Babylon 
that his city was taken at one end;" of the "heat 
of the feast, and the drunken and their perpetual 
sleep?" Let history tell. 

Go next to the ruins of Petra. And here I can 
speak from my own personal observation. That 
city was once the capital and emporium of ancient 
Edom. It was situated on a plain of three miles in 
circumference, environed by perpendicular moun- 
tains of rock, rising some hundreds of feet. There 
were but two narrow passes to enter it. These could 
easily be closed and defended against a large army. 
The excavations in the sides of these tall cliffs are 
indeed wonderful. They consist of several temples, 
dwellings, a theater, and many tombs. They evi- 
dence the vast wealth of the city at the time these 
works were in progression. Petra, in its time, was 
the common center where the whole trade of Arabia^^ 
Egypt, and Syria met, the source from which all 


precious commodities found their way to i]g\pt, 
Gaza, Jerusalem, Tyre, and Damascus. Tlie loca- 
tion of Petra had doubtless been chosen for its seem- 
ing impenetrable safety. But for its daring wicked- 
ness, its final desolation and abandonment, it became 
a subject of prophecy: "I will make thee small 
among the heathen, and despised among men." 
"As the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, and 
the neighboring cities thereof, saith the Lord, no 
man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man 
dwell in it." 

How improbable must this prediction have ap- 
peared at the time it w^as made, especially to the 
wicked and idolatrous Edomites. But whoever may 
visit these w^onderful remains, may read in what 
meets his eye the truth of this prophecy to the very 
letter. A large tribe of Arabs dwell in their tents 
at a short distance from these remains, but not one 
takes up his abode in one of the dwellings so beauti- 
fully sculptured in the rock. ISTor will the}" permit 
them to be inhabited by any other class of people. 
For over twelve huntlred years these remains have 
stood without a human inhabitant. Leaving other 
noted cities, whose destruction w^as previously as 
plainly a theme of prophecy as the three above 
named, I proceed to notice prophetic fulfillment in 
relation to nations. 

The present state of Egypt no less distinctly con- 
firms the ancient prophecies. " It shall be the basest 
of kingdoms ; neither shall it exalt itself any more 
among the nations ; there shall be no prince of the 


land of Egypt; the scepter of Egypt shall pass 
away." Such was the' voice of the divine oracle, 
uttered at a time when Egypt was one of the mighti- 
est of the kingdoms of the glohe, and no more likely 
to be a degraded nation than the loftiest of the pres- 
ent powers of the earth. "No other nation ever 
erected such durable monuments of the arts ; no 
country numbered so large a catalogue of kings. 
Its learning was proverbial. The population of its 
cities and its country, as recorded by ancient histo- 
rians, almost surpasses belief. It was the granary 
of the world, the cradle of science; but now, for 
niore than two thousand years, has it been sunk in 
degradation. Solemnly did I meditate upon these 
awful fulfillments of prophecy while traveling in 
that portion of our globe. 

Again, let me ask the reader to look at the graphic 
description given in prophecy of the descendants of 
Ishmael. His descendants, the Arabs, have been 
in every age, and are still, what was foretold they 
should be, a wild, unsubdued people, an uncivilized 
and independent nation, who retain their habits of 
hostility toward all the rest of the human race. 
"He shall be a wild man," says the word of proph- 
ecy, "his hand shall be against every man, and 
every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell 
in the presence of all his brethren." Still, adds 
the same prophetic spirit, "I will make him fruit- 
ful, and multiply him exceedingly; I will make him 
a great nation." How true, as I am able to attest, 
IS every item of these prophetic sayings! 



Here, to be brief, I sball come directly to the sub- 
ject, and notice what I regard as the most important 
facts relating to our Lord's life, character, and works, 
as predicted by ancient prophets. 

Christ's birth was to take place when the scepter 
was departing from Judah and the lawgiver from 
between his feet. Genesis xlix. 10. It was to be 
when the city of Jerusalem and the second temple 
was standing. Haggai ii. 6-9. It was to be when 
a general expectation of him should prevail. Mala- 
chi III. 1. It was to be while the royal house of 
David continued distinct from others, though ex- 
ceedingly depressed. Isaiah xi. 1. The birthplace 
of the Messiah was expressively fixed to be Bethle- 
hem Ephratah, to distinguish it from another Beth- 
lehem in the tribe of Zebulon. Micah v. 2. The 
family from which he was to spring was that of 
Abraham, through Isaac and Jacob to Judah, and 
from his tribe to the royal line of David, the son of 
Jesse. Genesis xii. 3, xviii. 18-^ xxvi. 4, xlix. 10; 
Isaiah xi. 1. His name was predicted to be Eman- 
nel, as the angel expounded, *' because he shall save 
his people from their sins." Isaiah vii. 14. A 
messenger was to be sent before him to prepare his 
way. Malachi III. 1, IV. 5 ; Isaiah XI. 3. 

]^ow, all these notices are distinct, and yet how 
accurately are they fulfilled in the person of Jesus 



of Nazareth. All of tliem combine in designating 
him to be the true Messiah. What can be plainer 
than the following : ''A virgin shall conceive and 
bear a son, and shall call his name Emanuel/' 
Isaiah vii. 14. His flight into Egypt was prophe- 
sied (Hosea xi. 1) ; his entrance into Jerusalem on 
the foal of an ass (Zachariah xi. 12, 13); the price 
at which he was betrayed, and the use to which the 
money was applied (Zachariah xi. 12, 13) ; the 
suffering which he should endure; his back given 
to the smiters; his cheek to them who plucked oft* 
the hair; his face 'dishonored with shame and spit- 
ting ; his wounds, bruises, and stripes; the mode of 
his death by which he suffered; sad companions of 
that death (Isaiah l. 6) ; his grave made with the 
wicked in his death (Isaiah liii. 9) ; his not being 
left to see corruption. Psalms xvi. 10. 

But more than this : Not only were those numer- 
ous events foretold which infallibly mark our Lord 
as the true Messiah; other events also are foretold, 
of themselves independent proofs of a divine mis- 
sion. The miracles of Christ, as I have before 
observed, were subjects of prophecy. The lame 
walked, the blind were made to see, the deaf to hear, 
the sick were healed, and even the dead were raised. 
His miraculous works of mercy filled the multitudes 
that gathered around with wondrous awe, and caused 
the candid and unbiased to exclaim : " When Christ 
cometh will he do greater things than these ? " 



Enough is recorded iu heathen authority to suc- 
cessfully establish the grand leading facts of Chris- 
tianity, l^or is it SO much a matter of wonder that 
they have recorded so little as that they have actually 
recorded so much. "We shall endeavor to show in 
the sequel, that their partially silent reserve is rather 
to be regarded as an evidence in favor of Christian- 
ity than otherwise. Evidently the learned men of 
that age were puzzled to know how to dispose of 
all the facts connected with our Savior's life, or their 
pens would have been successfully employed in 
exposing him as an impostor and his religion as a 
farce. Could this have been done, learning and 
talent for the task were not wanting, l^or was 
motive wanting, either among Jews or Ivomans. 
The Christian religion was making fearful and rapid 
inroads upon Judaism. It was also fixing an indeli- 
ble stain upon the Jewish nation as having mur- 
dered their Messiah. Why, then, were their learned 
writers so silent on this subject? Why did they 
permit an imposition (if an imposition it was) to 
spread so rapidly and extensively, if they had the 
means ef exploding it by open refutation and 
exposure? It is a fact that the Christian religion 
spread with astonishing rapidity over the Eoman 



empire duriDg the first century. It was making 
most fearful havoc with the established pagan rit- 
uals. Why was it permitted thus to spread, with 
nothing to restrain it but the arm of persecution, 
if it could have been thoroughly refuted and ex- 

But let us examine a little of what Jewish and 
heathen writers do admit in connection with our 

That the Jews were looking for their expected 
Messiah at about the time of our Savior's birth, is 
a fact that will not be disputed by those who have 
paid due attention to ancient history. Interpreta- 
tions given to the prophecies by their rabbis had 
established that very age as the precise period of 
their Messiah's advent. In consequence of this, 
many false Messiahs arose immediately before and 
after our Savior. So confident were the Jews that 
their Messiah would appear about that time, expect- 
ing also that he would be an earthly prince who 
would free their nation from the Roman yoke, that 
it strongly influenced them to rebel. The daily 
expectation that he would appear to their deliver- 
ance, also influenced them to hold out to desperation 
in defense of their city and temple. All these facts 
are expressly recorded by Josephus, and alluded to 
by Suetonius, Dion, and others. That Augustus 
Csesar caused the whole Eoman empire to be taxed, 
which brought the reputed parents of our Savior to 
Bethlehem, is admitted by several Roman historians, 
suchasTacitus, Suetonius, and Dion. A great light 


and new star appeared in the east, which directed 
the eastern magi to our Savior ; this is recorded by 
Ghalcideus. King Herod of Palestine, so often 
mentioned in Eoman history, made a great slaughter 
of innocent children, fnd was so jealous of his suc- 
cessor that he caused his own sons to be assassinated 
on that account. This character is given him by 
several historians, and this cruel fact is mentioned 
by Macrobius, a heathen author, w^ho speaks of it 
without the least marks of doubt.* While Pontius 
Pilate was governor of Judea, our Savior was brought 
to judgment before him, and by him condemned 
and crucified. This fact is definitely recorded by 
Tacitus. Many miraculous works and marvelous 
cures were wrought by Jesus of ISTazareth. This is 
confessed by Julian, Porphyry, and Hierocles. All, 
these w^ere not only pagans, but professed enemies 
to Christianity. Our Savior foretold certain things, 
which came to pass according to his predictions. 
This was attested by Phlegon in his annals, as we 
are assured by Origen against Celsus. At the time 
of our Savior's death there was a miraculous dark- 
ness and a great earthquake. This is recorded by 
Phlegon, who was not only a pagan, but a familiar 
friend of the Emperor Adrian. Christ was wor- 
shiped among the Christians. They would rather 
suffer death than blaspheme him. They received a 
sacrament, and by it entered into a vow to abstain 
from all wickedness. They had private assemblies 
of worship, and used to join together in singing 

* Addison 


hymns. This account is given by Piiny, about 
seventy years after the crucifixion of Christ. That 
Peter, many of whose miracles are recorded in Scrip- 
ture, did many wonderful works, is owned by Julian, 
the apostate, who, for that f^use, represents Peter 
as a great magician,. and one who had in his posses- 
sion a book of magical secrets, left him by our 
Savior. Celsus was evidently so hard pushed by 
the evidence of our Saviors miracles, that he was 
driven to account for them by pronouncing Jesus a 
magician. In this way he endeavors to account for 
our Lord's feeding, at two different times, so man}' 
thousands with so few loaves and fishes. But how 
unlikely a hungry multitude could be deceived in 
regard to being actually fed ! 

Let us now hear the testimony ot a few distin- 
guished individuals who were early converts from 
heathenism. Let it be considered, in favor of their 
sincerity at least, that these men embraced Chris- 
tianity 'at an age of persecution, when they had 
nothing of this world to gain by the avowal of their 
faith, but every thing to lose. They embraced Chris- 
tianity when their property, their character, and 
their lives were at stake for so doing. 

Aristides lived within sixty years of our Savior's 
crucifixion; was an Athenian philosopher, famed 
for his learning and wisdom, but a convert to Chris- 
tianity. As it can not be questioned that he read 
and approved the apology of Quadratus, in which 
is the passage we are about to cite, he also joined 
with him in an apology of his own to the same 
emperor on the same subject. This apology, though 


now lost, was, from good authority, extant in 870, 
and at that time highly esteemed by the most learned 
Athenians. This work must have contained great 
evidence of our Savior's history. Eut to the extract. 
In speaking of false miracles, which were generally 
wrought in secret, Aristides says : ^'But his works 
were always seen because they were true; they were 
seen by those who were healed, and by those who 
were raised from the dead. Xay, these persons who 
were thus healed and raised were seen not only at 
the time of their being healed and raised, but long 
afterward : nay, they were seen not only all the 
while our Savior was upon earth, but survived after 
his departure out of this world; nay, some of them 
were living in our days." Look at the above testi- 
mony, made at the time and under the circum- 
stances it was. I regard it as entitled to much 

Among the vast numbers who embraced Chris- 
tianity immediately after our Savior's crucifixion, 
of both Jews and Romans, were some very distin- 
guished men — men of profound learning, high 
standing, and great influence. Of these we may 
mention Joseph the Arimathean, a member of the 
Jewish sanhedrim. He had personally heard our 
Savior, andwitnessed some of his miracles. Xothing 
but overwhelming evidence could have made him 
a Christian. This man, according to all the reports 
of antiquity, died a mart^'r. Dionysius, of the Athe- 
nian areopagus, was a convert to Christianity, and 
died a martyr. Tliis is affirmed by Aristides, his 
fellow- citizen and cotemporary. Flavins Clemens 


was a member of the Eomaii senate, and at the time 
of his death was consul of Rome. He was an open 
and avowed Christian, and suffered martyrdom for 
his faith. Of this we are assured by both Roman 
and Christian historians. These great minds would 
never have embraced Christianity but from the most 
convincing evidences of its truth. That they were 
sincere converts, their martyrdom is sufficient evi- 

Tertullian tells the Roman governor that their 
corporations, councils, armies, tribes, companies, the 
palace, the senate, and courts of judicature were 
filled with Christians. Are we to suppose that such 
men would become Christians without first-examin- 
ing the evidences of Christianity, especially as they 
lived so near the ]Deriod of its commencement, and 
.so near its first theater of action ? Would they risk 
their reputation and hazard their lives short of this? 
That they had ample means of examining all the 
necessary evidences in the case, can not for a moment 
be doubted. 



In relation to the different books and writings of 
the Kew Testament, on which the Christian relig- 
ion is founded, several queries naturally suggest 


themselves : Do the four gospels contain an authen- 
tic-account of the birth, life, and death of Jesus of 
iN'azareth ? Are those books genuine, or are thej 
mere fabrications ? Is the Acts of the Apostles a 
genuine, though brief history of the church, up to 
the time at which it purports to have been written? 
Are the epistolary parts of the Kew Testament gen- 
uine? Have we sufficient evidence to establish the 
fact that all the books contained in the 'New Testa- 
ment were extant, and were generally regarded as 
genuine at a very early period of the church? 

In relation to the books of the iSTew Testament, 
we have a right to say the burden properly rests 
with the opposers of Christianity to prove they are 
not genuine. That there was such a person on 
earth as Jesus Christ, at the time stated in these 
writings, we have already shown from another 
source. Xow if the Four Gospels do not contain a 
true history of him, where is his history to be found? 

We shall, however, endeavor to establish the fol- 
lowing facts : First, that the Four Gospels and the 
Acts of the Apostles are repeatedly quoted and 
alluded to by a series of Christian writers, from 
those who were cotemporary with the apostles, 
through a close and regular succession of authors, 
up to a time when disputes about the existence of 
the l^ew-Testament writings cease with all. Second ; 
That these books were quoted as professing an 
authority which belonged to no other books, being- 
regarded as conclusive in all questions and contro- 
versies among Christians. Third; that they were 
at a verv earlv time collected into a distinct vol- 


ume. Fourth ; tliat they were publicly read and 
expounded in the religious assemblies of early Chris- 
tians. Fifth; that commentaries were written on 
them at a very early day, harmonies formed out of 
them, and versions of them made into difterent 
languages. Such, then, is the present task on our 
hands. ' ■ ' 

There is at the present day extant an epistle 
ascribed to Barnabas, the companion of Paul. The 
epistle of Barnabas is quoted as genuine by Clem- 
ent of Alexandria, in the year 194, and by Origen 
in 230. It is also referred to by other writers, such 
as Eusebius and Jerome. All the above authors 
regarded the epistle as belonging to the one whose 
name it bears. They also state that the epistle was 
well known and read among early Christians, though 
not considered part of the sacred Scriptures. It ap- 
pears to have been w^ritten shortly after the destruc- 
tion of Jej:"usalem, or a little over forty years after our 
Savior's crucifixion. The writer of it had evidently 
seen the Gospel of Matthew, for he makes several 
quotations from that gospel, and, indeed, quotes one 
expression which is only to be found in Matthew's 
gospel. The expression is : " Many are called, but 
few are chosen." He also quotes : " Give to every 
one that asketh thee," found in Matthew v. 42, and 
says : " Christ chose as his apostles, who were to 
preach the gospel, men who were great sinners, that 
he might show that he came not to call the right- 
eous, but sinners, to repentance." 

There is also an epistle Btill extant, written by 
Clement of Rome. Ancient writers say without 


any doubt, that the author was the same Clement 
mentioned by Paul in Phillipians iv. 3. This epis- 
tle is spoken of by the ancients as genuine beyond 
doubt. Of it Irenaeus sa^'S : "It was written by 
Clement who had seen the blessed apostles and con- 
versed with them." It is addressed to the Churcli 
at Corinth; and Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, in 
170, about eighty or ninety years after the epistle 
had been written, says, "that it had been w^ont to 
be read, in that church from ancient times." Euse- 
bius also bears witness to it. And what is Clement's 
testimony? Why, he has from fifty to sixty quota- 
tions from the E"ew Testament, or allusions to the 
languageof it, from nineteen of the ^ew-Testament 

In the Epistle to the Romans, the apostle sends 
salutations to a number of brethren, among Avhom 
is Hermas. A book called " The Shepherd ; or, Pas- 
tor of Hermas," is extant. Its great antiquity is 
incontestible, from the quotations of it in Irenaeus^ 
in 178, and Clement of Alexandria in 191, Tertul- 
lian 200, and Origen 230. In it are tacit allusions 
to Matthew's, Luke's, and John's gospels. Whoever 
reads the piece critically, can but be aware that the 
writer must have seen all these gospels. 

Ignatius became bishop of Antioch about 70".. 
His epistles are especially recognized by Irenaeus, 
Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome. He had seen and 
conversed with the apostles. Ignatius speaks of the 
gospels and epistles as already collected into vol- 
umes. He says: "In order to understand the will 
of God, he fled to the gospels, which he believes no, 


less than if Christ in the flesh had been speaking to 
him, and to the writings of the apostles, whom he 
esteemed as the presbytery of the whole Christian 

Polycarp had been taught by the apostles ; had 
conversed with many who had seen Christ, and Avas 
appointed bishop of Smyrna by the apostles. Ire- 
naeus, in his youth, had seen Polycarp, and gives, 
among other things, the following testimony con- 
cerning him. "I can tell the place where tl\e 
blessed Polycarp sat and taught, and his going out 
;and his coming in, and the manner of his life, and 
ithe form of his person, and the discourse he made 
to the people, and how he related his conversation 
with John, and others who had seen the Lord, both 
■concerning bis miracles and his doctrine, as he had 
received them from the eye-witnesses of the Word, 
of Life; all which Polycarp related agreeable to the 
Scriptures." Of Polycarp, we have an undoubted 
epistle remaining, vrhich, though short, contains 
nearly fort}' clear allusions to books of the ]^ew 

Papias was a hearer of John and a companion of 
Polycarp, as Irenaeus attests. That he lived in that 
age, all agree. In a passage quoted by Eusebius 
from a work of Papias now lost, it appears that he 
expressly ascribes two of the gospels to Matthew 
and Mark. He tells us from what materials Mark 
collected his account, namely, from Peter's preach- 
ing, and in what language Matthew wrote, namely, 
•in the Hebrew. 

All the foreo:oina: writers had lived and conversed 


with some or all of the apostles. What works of 
theirs remain, are generally short pieces; but they 
are rendered extremely valuable by their antiquity. 
Short as they are, they all contain valuable attesta- 
tions to the existence of the New-Testament books, 
at the early day in which the writers lived. That 
the quotations in these are not as in w^ritings of tlio 
next and succeeding ages, can be easil}^ accounted 
for from the reasonable fact that in so short a time, 
without the art of printing, the Scriptures of the 
x^ew Testament could not have become a gen- 
eral part of Christian education. As we advance 
along in the second century, we find the evidences 
greatly enlarging and the quotations much increased. 
After the lapse of only about twenty years from 
the last of the foregoing authors, comes Justin Mar- 
tyr. His remaining works are considerable more 
than either of these we have cited. His two prin- 
ciple writings are one addressed to heathens, and 
another containing a conference with Trypho, a Jew. 
The persons for whom his arguments were designed, 
did not probably indnce him to make so frequent 
allusions to the Xew-Testament writings, as likely 
would have been tlie case had he written wdiolly 
for Christians. He, however, makes nearly" thirty 
cjuotations from the gospels aud the Acts of the 
Apostles. He gives quotations from three of the 
gospels within the compass of half a page. See 
the following: "And in other words he says. 
Depart from me into outer darkness, which the 
Father hath prepared for Satan and his angels." 
This is from Matthew xxv. 41. "And before he 

4 - 

was cracified, he said, The Son of Man must suffer 
many things, and be rejected of the scribes and 
Pharisees, and be crucified, and rise again on the 
third day." This is from Mark yiii. 31. After 
quoting a passage in the history of Christ's birth, 
as recorded by Matthew and John, he fortifies the 
quotation with the following remarkable testimony: 
''As they have taught who have written the history 
of all things concerning our Savior Jesus Christ, 
and we believe them.'' Ilis writings also contain 
direct quotations from the Gospel of John. In 
speaking of the gospels he calls them, "Memoirs 
Composed by the AjDostles," ''Memoirs Composed 
by the Apostles and their Companions.*' These 
descriptions exactly agree with the titles which the 
gospels and Acts of the Apostles now bear. Justin 
further speaks particularly of the manner in which 
the Xew-Testament writings were used in his day, 
in the Christian assemblies. His words are: '^The 
Jlemoirs of the Aj^ostles, or the writings of the 
prophets, are read according as time allows: and 
when the reader has ended, the president makes a 
discourse, exhorting to imitation of so excellent 

Tatian, a follower of Justin Martyr, flourished 
about 170. He composed a harmony, or collation 
of the gospels, which he called ''Diatessaron of the 
foiirJ^ On this Paley observes: "This title, as 
well as the work, is remarkable, because it shows 
that then, as now, there were four, and only four, 
gospels in general use with Christians.' This was 


probably less than eighty years after the publica- 
tion of John's gospel. 

About 170, the churches of Lyons and Yienne, in 
France, sent a relation of the sufl'erings of their 
martyrs to the churches of Asia and Phrygia. That 
epistle is yet preserved entire by Eusebius. The 
testimony of these churches is carried to a higher 
age, by the fact that they had at that time among 
them for their bishop Pothinus, who was ninety 
years old, and whose early life must consequently 
have joined on with that of the apostles. In the 
epistle in question, are exact references to the gos- 
pels of Luke and John, and also to the Acts of the 

"We now come to testimony still more clear and 
explicit. Irenaeus succeeded Pothinus as bishop of 
Lyons. In his youth, he had seen and known Poly- 
carp who was a disciple of John. The time iu 
which he flourished was only about a century from 
the publication of the gospels, while he had derived 
his instructions from the apostle John's immediate 
successor. He says: '-We have not received the 
knowledge of the way of our salvation by any other 
than those by whom the gospel has been brought 
to us; which gospel they first preached, and after- 
ward, by the will of God, committed to writing, 
that it might be for time to come, the foundation 
and pillar of our faith. For that after our Lord 
rose from the dead, and they (the apostles) were 
endowed from above, with the power of the Holy 
Ghost coming down upon them, they received a 
perfect knowledge of all things. They then went 


forth to all the ends of the earth, declaring to men the 
blessing of heavenly peace, having all of them and 
every one alike the gospel of God. Matthew, then 
among the Jews, wrote a gospel in their own lan- 
guage, w^hile Peter and Paul were preaching the 
gospel at Rome, and founding a church there, and 
after their exit, Mark, also the disciple and inter- 
preter of Peter delivered to us in writings the 
things that had been preached to us by Peter, and 
Luke the companion of Paul, put down in a book 
the gospel preached by him (Paul). Afterward, 
John the disciple of the Lord, who also leaned 
upon his breast, he likewise published a gospel 
while he dwelt at Ephesus in Asia." What testi- 
mony can we desire more explicit than this ? His 
testimony in regard to the Acts of the Apostles and 
its author is no less explicit. 

The reader will here remark that the authority 
we have thus far adduced brings us to only a little 
over one hundred years from the death of the apos- 
tle John. It will also be observed that the force of 
the evidence is greatly strengthened, from the fact 
that it is the concurring testimony of writers who 
lived in countries remote from each other. Clement 
lived at Rome, Ignatius at Antioch, Polycarp at 
Smyrna, Justin Martyr in, Syria, and Irenaeus in 



Passing other writers, we come to Clement of 
Alexandria. He followed Irenaeiis at a distance of 
only sixteen years. In that portion of his writing 
preserved by Eusebius, he gives a distinct account 
of the order in w^hicli the Four Gospels were writ- 
ten first. He says the gospels which contain the 
genealogies we-re written first — Mark's next, at the 
instigation of Peter's followers, and John's last. 
This account, he tells us, he had from presbyters of 
more ancient times. Clement frequently quotes the 
Four Gospels by the names of their authors, and 
ascribes the Acts of the Apostles to Luke. In con- 
nection with mention made by him of a particular 
circumstance, are these remarkable words: "We 
have not this passage in the Four Gospels delivered to 
us, but in that according to the Egyptians." This 
puts a marked distinction on the Four Gospels, from 
all other pretended histories of Christ. Clement 
wrote several explications, of many books of the 
Old and. New Testament. 

Tertullian joins in the immediate succession 
of time to Clement of Alexandria. After enumer- 
ing various churches established by Paul and Peter^ 
he proceeds thus: "I say, then, that with them and 
not with them only which are apostolical, but with 
all w^ho have fellowship with them in the same 


360 WRITI^'GS OF- 

faith, is that Gospel of Luke, reGeived from its pub- 
lication, which, we zealously maintain." Soon after- 
ward he adds : " The same authority of the apostol- 
ical churches will support the other gospels, which 
we have from them; I mean John's and Matthew's, 
although that likewise which Mark published may 
be said to be Peter's, whose interpreter Mark was. 
This noble testimon}^ establishes the universality 
with which the Four Gospels were received, and 
their antiquity — that they were in the hands of all 
and had been from the first. Such is the testimony 
not more than one hundred and fifty years after the 
publication of the books. Tertullian frequently 
cites the Acts of the Apostles under that title, and 
observes how St. Paul's epistles confirm it. 

Passing over a considerable number of writers, 
during the space of thirty years, we come to Origen 
of Alexandria, who, m the multitude of his writings, 
exceeded all others of his day. Origen expressly 
declares "that the Four Gospels are received with- 
out dispute by the whole church of God under 
heaven." His attestation to the Acts of the Apos- 
tles is no less positive : "And Luke, also, once more 
sounds the trumpet, relating the Acts of the Apos- 
tles." The universality with which these writings 
were known is set forth in the following from Ori- 
gen against Celsus : " That it is not in any private 
books, or such as are read by a few only, and those 
studious persons, but in books read by everybody, 
that is written the invisible things of God, from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen, being 


understood by tlie things that are made." Origen 
wrote commentaries or homilies upon most of the 
books included in the ISTew Testament, and upon 
no other hooks but these. He wrote largely upon 
Matthew's gospel, also upon John's, and upon the 
Acts of the Apostles. 

'We have now arrived at a period when evidence 
of the general reception of our !N"ew-Testament 
Scriptures is abundant. Cj^prian, bishop of Car- 
thage, who flourished within twenty years of Ori- 
gen, says: "The church is watered like Paradise 
with four rivers, that is, with the Four Gospels.'' 
The Acts of the Apostles is frequently quoted by 
him under that name, and the name of the "Divine 

Passing over a crowd of writers following Cyprian 
within a period of fort}^ years, all of whom cite the 
^ew-Testament Scriptures as we have them, and 
speak of them with the most jDrofound respect, we 
will simply notice Yictorin, bishop of Pettau in. 
Germany. "We will notice him on account of the 
remoteness of his situation from that of Origen and 
Cyprian, who were Africans. This will show that 
the K'ew-Testament Scriptures were at that day 
known from one side of the Christian world to the 
other. This bishop lived about 290. In a com- 
mentary on this text in Revelation, " The first was 
like a lion, the second was like a wolf, the third 
was like a man, and the fourth like a flying eagle," 
he endeavors to make out that by these four crea- 
tures are meant the Pour Gospels. A fanciful 


explanation to bo sure, yet containing a very posi- 
tive testimony. He also cites the Acts of the 

We will next refer to Eusebius, bishop of Cesa- 
rea, whose name we have mentioned frequently 
already. lie flourished in 315. Besides a variety 
of large works, Eusebius composed a history of 
Christianity (from its origin to his own time), which 
is still extant. If all doubts in relation to the exist- 
ence of the New^-Testament Scriptures had not 
previously vanished, wdtli him they must cease for- 
ever. Eusebius furnishes a very material piece of 
evidence, namely, "that the writings of the apostles 
had obtained such esteem as to be translated into 
^every language, both of Greeks and barbarians, and 
to be diligently studied by all nations." lie further 
states that Quadratus, and some others who Avere 
the immediate, successors of the apostles, traveled 
abroad to preach Christ, carried the gospels with 
them, and delivered them to their converts. Euse- 
bius had before him not only the writings of Quad- 
ratus, but of many others which are now lost. 

The sacred value set on the JSTew-Testament Scrip- 
tures at this period is very evident from pertinent 
historical authority. Pamphilus, the martyr, in 294, 
we are told, "was remarkable above all men for a 
most sincere zeal for the divine books ; he not only 
lent copies of the Scriptures to be read, but most 
cheerfully made a gift of them to men and women 
who were eager to read them." Again : " It was 
one of the affecting scenes of the persecution (in 
303) to see the sacred and divine books burned in 


the market-places. The martyrs were interrogated 
if they had any divine hooks or parchments. They 
replied, 'AVehave; hut we do not give them up. It 
is hetter for us to he hurned with lire than to give 
up the divine Scriptures." 

The Jewish and heathen adversaries of Christian- 
ity, during the lirst four centuries, never attempted 
to call in question the genuineness of the jSTew-Tes- 
tament hooks. The heathen philosopher Celsus, 
about 175, advances all kinds of objections against 
Christianity, but he never calls in question the gen- 
uineness of any of the xTew-Testament books. He 
even argues from the facts and doctrines they con- 
tain, as the authentic writings of their respective 
authors. [N'othingcan prove more clearly, not only 
that such books really did exist in the second cen- 
tury, but they were universally received by Chris- 
tians, and that nothing could be alleged against 
them in that respect. 

Porphyr}^ was in the third century Avhat Celsus 
had been in the second, an embittered heathen 
opponent; and yet he admitted the genuineness of 
the jS'ew-Testament books. His testimon\^ is the 
more pertinent because he showed that he would 
have denied their authenticity, if it had been possi- 
ble. Julian in the fourth century comes in with a 
testimony, unwillingly indeed as a Roman emperor. 
Does he call in question the genuineness of the New 
Testament? JSTo! He allows the facts of Christi- 
anity, and argues npon our gospels as admitted 
works of the apostles and disciples of our Lord. 


"With all this mass of testimony spread <;>ut, we for 
tlie present dismiss this part of our subject. 


From what has been presented, no reasonable 
doubt can be entertained that the books of the ISlew 
Testament have been known and quoted in every 
period since the death of the apostles. I^ot an evi- 
dence exists that the very men did not write these 
books to whom they are attributed. They became very 
notorious and produced great excitement from their 
first appearance. Thousands at an early day received 
them as sacred and divine. Thousands from merely 
learning their contents renounced heathenism, and 
received them as setting forth the only true religion 
under heaven. If they are spurious and false, yet 
making so great excitement, and deceiving such 
vast numbers, how came they to escape detection 
during the first one hundred years after they were 
written. ISTot an enemy of Christianity during that 
period dared to attack their historical correctness. 
Not one presumed to assert that they were not writ- 
ten by the men whose names they bear. ISTo one 
presumed to say such occurrences did not take place, 
at the times and places set forth in these books. 
jSTot one presumed to publish that no such person 
as Jesus Christ had ever been seen or known in the 
land of Judea; or, if some such person had been 
known there, and the I^ew Testament account of 
him is false, not one attempted to correct that 
account. E'ot one pretended to give the true his- 
tory of him, and thus undeceive the multitudes who 


were embracing the -N'ew-Testament religion. That 
the enemies of Christianity had both the means and 
the motives to do this, can not be doubted if it 
could be done at alL Writings of enemies to Chris- 
tianity have come down to us from the third, sec- 
ond, and first centuries, writings that speak of these 
books, speak of Christianity and against it; but in 
vain do we search them to find an open exposure of 
the falsity of the ISTew Testament. If it could be 
done, why, we repeat, was it not done? In the 
absence of all the above, does not the 'New Testa- 
ment present the most striking marks of its gen- 

* * ^i^ ;ic ^Ji :ic ^!; :|c ;.;: :\: 



I now come to the great turning event in the final 
confirmation of Christianity. If this can not be 
established as a clear demonstrative truth, then one 
of the grand pillars of Christianity^ will be missing. 
That Christ was crucified, is not questioned by either 
Jew or Gentile who has carefully looked into the 
subject. The Jews admit that after his body was 
taken from the cross, it was laid'in a sepulcher hewed 
in a rock. It was known among his enemies that 
he had prophesied that he would rise again on the 
third day after his crucifixion. Hence, the sepulcher 


was made fast and a Roman guard placed around 
it to prevent the body from being taken away. Thus 
far botli Jewish and Christian testimony agree. On 
the third day the body was missing. What is the 
testimony on the side of Christianity: "Behold, 
there was a great earthquake; for the angel of the 
Lord descended from heaven and rolled back the 
stone from the door and sat upon it; and for fear 
of him the keepers [the guard] did shake, and be- 
came as dead men. Behold, some of tbe watch 
came into the city and showed unto the chief priests 
all the things that were done. And when they were 
assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, 
they gave large money unto the soldiers, saying, 
'Say ye, his disciples came by night and stole him 
away while we slept; and if this come to the gov- 
ernor's ears, we will persuade him and secure you.''' 
ISTow, the testimony that these soldiers were 
instructed to bear carries the stamp of falsehood on 
the face of it. If the body was stolen away while 
they were sleeping, how did tliey know it was stolen 
by the disciples? or how did they know that it was 
stolen at all? What do men know when they are 
fast asleep? Besides, who could believe a Roman 
guard of twelve men, placed there to guard that sep- 
ulcher, would all, or even any of them, be found 
asleep on their post? Again, what motive could 
the eleven apostles have to steal away that body ? 
Jesus had repeatedly told them that he would be 
crucified, and that on the third day after he would 
rise again. They knew that if he did not rise as 
he had said, he would prove himself a false prophet. 


Why, then, coald they even desire to disturb his 
body? But what said the living apostles? They 
publicly declared that Jesus had risen, for they had 
seen him, and even conversed with him after his 
resurrection, at different times. Did they declare 
the truth? It is not possible to admit that those 
men were honest, but only deceived. They did not 
simply say they believed that he had risen from the 
dead, but that they knew he had actuall}^ risen, for 
they had seen him and conversed with him in various 
places and at different times. They did not go to 
some distant place to make these declarations, but 
boldly published these facts immediately in every 
part of the land and even in Jerusalem. 

^ow, if the Jewish authorities could prove that 
the story of Christ's resurrection was false, they had 
every motive to do it. I also assert, that if it was 
false, they had the means of proving it so. These 
eleven apostles were easily to be found. They did 
not attempt to run away or even conceal themselves. 
They could have been arrested and brought before 
the Jewish sanhedrim. They could all have been 
examined separate and apart, one by one. AVe will 
suppose Peter is brought in to be examined first, as 
he appeared to be a leader among them. He is 
questioned thus: Peter, has Jesus risen from the 
dead ? Have you seen him ? Wh ere was it that you 
saw him? How many were present with you at the 
time? About what hour of the day or night was 
it when he made his appearance? How was he 
dressed? Did you converse with him? "What was 
the subject of conversation? Please to repeat what 


you can of it. Did you ask him any particular ques- 
tion or questions? What question ? What was his 
answer ? How long a time did he remain with you ? 
How did he disappear from you ? "Has he appeared 
personally to you more than once? Where did he 
appear to you the second time? How man}^ of you 
were present in that interview ? Give the particu- 
lars of that interview. Thus, reader, you may 
imagine how closely Peter could have been exam- 
ined on all the different interviews had with Jesus 
after his resurrection. They had scribes in those 
days competent to write down all that Peter said. 
Xow, suppose Peter to be taken out and John 
brought in. He has nearly or about the same ques- 
tions asked him tliat Peter had. He is taken out, 
and another examined; and so on until the whole 
eleven apostles were alike questioned, is^ow, if it 
could be even supposed that the story of Christ's 
resurrection was a fabrication, gotten up by these 
apostles in order to deceive, it would be one of the 
greatest of human miracles that eleven deceivers 
could have their manner of description so thor- 
oughly connected as to make no contradictions. 
Contradictions among the apostles would have de- 
feated the whole story and overthrown Christianity 
in its germ. 

But to defeat the Scripture account of the resur- 
rection of Christ, infidelity is compelled to charge 
the apostles as actually being deceivers. How can 
they set aside their testimony and believe them 
honest men ? The apostles do not simply urge their 


belief of his resurrection, but they assert and de- 
clare their positive knowledge of the fact. 

Men there have been, and men there are now, 
who have gone far in the practice of deceit for sel- 
fish purposes, such as personal aggrandizement, 
wealth, or worldly honor. But if a deceiver's dis- 
honesty brings him nothing in return but suffering, 
he will abandon it; or, if he even finds his work of 
deceiving bringing him worldly gain, should he be 
arraigned at the bar of justice where either death 
or renunciation is before him, he will gladly renounce. 
He will never consent to die a martyr to his dishon- 
esty or hypocrisy. 

But what of this world's wealth or honor did 
these apostles gain ? Xot one of them was wealth}', 
and all of them were persecuted, scourged, buffeted, 
despised, and imprisoned. All except John died 
the mart^^r's death, thus freely laying down their 
lives in confirmation of the sacred truths they 
taught. AYould it not be too astonishing to record 
that twelve men (for we may now include the apos- 
tle Paul, who said also he saw Jesus after his resur- 
rection), all of them leagued together to deceive the 
people without any earthly remuneration, and finally 
die martyrs, to establish that lying deception on the 
minds of men? Yet infidelity has to assert that as 
a fact. 


When I think of my dear native land, and con- 
template its high and heaven-bought privileges, so 


far above any other nation on our globe, I inquire, 
from whence have these signal blessings come upon 
us? The Christian truly says they are the gift of 
God. But through what grand and governing 
medium have they been transmitted? I unliesita- 
tingly answer, through the medium of the Bible. 
That blessed, book has laid the foundation for all 
the inestimable blessings to which I allude. Sup- 
pose our immediate ancestors had been heathen 
idolaters, w^e should now be in the darkness of 
heathenism; or suppose they had been Moham- 
medans, we should now be in the condition of these 
semi-barbarians. I have enjoyed the privilege of 
traveling among nations and seeing the result of 
both of these religions, especially the latter. My 
•soul sickened amidst the ignorance, barbarism, and 
«loth reigning over their benighted victims. My 
thoughts turned to my home, my dear native land, 
?ind I said I would not exchange my birth riglit,- if 
I could, for that of any other nation on earth. And 
I now iirmly believe the iniidel by times can not 
help rejoicing that he was born or is living in this 
our heaven-favored land. lie here sees science and 
arts flourishing in an astonishing manner. Here he 
sees also an open road which even the poor may 
travel to the highest literary attainments. He is 
also living under a religion and government that 
guarantees to every one all the liberty and rights 
that can reasonably be asked. Why, then, the in- 
veterate opposition to the Bihle, the grand magna 
charta of ail the good we are enjoying? Oh, could 
the unbeliever but taste the sweetness of pure piety 


springing from faith in God and his holy word, how 
much would it add to his mental enjoyment I 

But when skepticism triumphs in any heart, the 
hope of immortality is banished. It crowns the 
tyrant death forever on his throne, and seals the con- 
quests of the grave over the whole human race. 
It wraps the tomb in eternal darkness, and sufters 
not one particle of the remains of the great, the 
wise, and the good of all ages to see the light of 
eternity, but consigns, by an irreversible doom, all 
that was admired, loved, and revered in man to per- 
petual annihilation. It identifies human existence 
with the vilest reptile, and levels man to the grade 
of the meanest weed, whose utility is not yet dis- 
covered. Having robbed man of every thing which 
could make him dear to himself, it destroys all his 
hopes of future being and future bliss. It cuts the 
cable and casts aw^ay the anchor. It sets man adrift 
on the mighty, unfathomed, and unexplored ocean 
of uncertainty, to become the sport of the wind and 
waves of animal passions and appetites, until at last, 
in some tremendous gust, he sinks to everlasting 
ruin. Then, proud reasoner, of what utility is your 
philosophy? — what your boasts? You boast that 
you have made man ignorant of his origin and a 
stranger to himself; you boast that you have de- 
prived him of any real superiority over the bee, the 
bat, or the beaver; that you have divested him of 
the highest inducements to a virtuous life, by taking 
away the knowledge of God and the hope of heaven ; 
you boast that you have made death triumphant, 
not only over the body, but over the intellectual 


dignity of man ; and that you have buried his soul 
and body in the grave of eternal sleep, never to see 
the light of life again! O, skepticism, is this thy 
boasted victory over the Bible? And for this ex- 
tinguishment of light and life eternal, what hast 
thou to teach, and what to bestow? Thou teachest 
us to live according to our appetites, and thus enjoy 
an early earthly paradise. And for such a heaven 
thou art possibly fitting thy victims, in high hopes 
of eternal annihilation. Oh, beware! beware!! 

I've heard on Afric's dreary shore 
The serpent's hiss, the panther's roar, 

No footsteps marked their sands; 
No human voice the desert cheered, 
Save now and then were faintly heard 

The yell of savage bands. 

I've seen the red volcanic tide 
Tempestuous sweep the mountain side, 

And wrap the plains on fire, 
And heard the shepherd's plaintive moans 
Mingle with Etna's hollow groans, 

On passing gales expire. 

In twilight's faint and dusky beam 
I've seen the murderer's weapon gleam, 

Bathed in the victim's gore; 
Ghastly and pale, with many a wound, 
The mangled corse, half bleeding, found 

Stretched on the blood-stained shore. 

I've heard amidst the foaming deep, 
When tempests howl and whirlwinds sweep, 

Heart-rending cries to save; 
The shriek of many a trembling soul, 
And marked the sea's tremendous roll, 

Which swept them to their grave, 


No shepherd's moan, nor panther's roar, 
Nor wreck, nor corse npon the shore, 

To me such pain has aiven, 
As seeing, on the couch of death, 
The infidel resign his breath 

Without a thought of heavec. i 



''For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of 
Christ ; that every one may receive the things done in his 
body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or 
bad. Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord, we per- 
suade men." II. Cor. v. 10, 11. 

The accountability of man to his Creator is a doc- 
trine of reason as well as revelation. He who made 
man and upholds his being has a right to rule over 
li-im. A sense of responsibility is enstamped upon 
the human mind, and is constantly urging us to filial 
fear and religious reverence. Man never reaches 
the standard of his own better judgment until he 
assumes a religious life. But happily he is not left 
here, nor on other vital subjects, to the guidance of 
his own wisdom alone. Throughout the sacred vol- 
ume man's utter responsibility to God is made a 
leading theme. A law of commands and prohibi- 
tions is therein given, and to that divine law all are 
held amenable. As incentives to obedience unnum- 
bered blessings are proffered, while denunciations 
and fearful warnings are dealt to the wicked and 
rebellious. "Say ye to the righteous, that it shall 

*A sermon prepared for publication in 1854, but never be- 
fore published. 


well with him; for they shall eat the fruit of their 
doings. Woe unto the wicked ! It shall be ill with 
him; for the reward of his hands shall be given 
him." "Though hand join in hand, the wicked 
shall not be unpunished." "The wicked is driven 
away in his wickedness, but the righteous hath hope 
in his death." 

The doctrine of strict retribution to both the 
righteous and the unrighteous, the obedient and the 
rebellious, is most emphatically taught in the Bible. 
But still we are taught that God . can pardon the 
penitent sinner who turns from his wicked way. 
The language of inspiration is: "Seek ye the Lord 
while he may be found; call ye upon him while he 
is near; let the wicked forsake his \\*ay, and the 
unrighteous man his thoughts; let him return unto 
the Lord and he will have mercy upon him, and to 
our God, for he will abundantly pardon." Forgive- 
ness or pardon is the only medium through which 
the sinner can be absolved from his sins. He can 
not accomplish this work by mere acts of outward 
moralit}^ These he ought to do, and is guilty if he 
neglects to do them; hence he merits nothing by 
mere outward moral acts. Strictly, there is no merit 
in doing a work or act that we should be guilty not 
to do; for can the death of this body absolve the 
soul from sin? Death, truly, will change our phys- 
ical state, but there is no evidence from Scripture 
that it will change our moral condition, but the very 
reverse. "We read : " The wicked is driven away in 
bis wickedness," — not out of it. Of our Savior, 
Paul says: "He is able to save to the uttermost all 


who co7ne unto God by him/' — not all who stay away 
from him. Again : " He has become the author of 
eternal salvation to all them that obey him" — not to 
those who disobey him. In a word, if the sinner does 
not repent of his sins, that they may be blotted out 
by forgiveness, he will find them all registered 
against him in eternity's awful record; for, in the 
language of our text, "We must all appear before 
the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may 
receive the things done in his body, whether they 
be good or bad." 

That God will in some way, and at some period^ 
judge the world, and render to every one according 
to his works and character, is a Bible truth too plain 
to be denied; but in relation to the time, manner^ 
and result of the general judgment there are essen- 
tial grounds of difterence. One class confine the 
judgment entirely to this world, and assert that the 
day of judgment is the lifetime of each individual. 
That class teach that God is continually judging and 
punishing every man in this world according to his 
evil works. But, say they, if any are not sufficiently 
punished in this world, they will be in the next, and 
when all are punished enough, wherever they may 
be, they will be released and made immortal and 
happy. Concerning this absurd hypothesis I need 
say but little. It ought to be rejected for several 
important reasons. To admit its truth is to reject 
one of the cardinal items of gospel teaching — the 
doctrine of the forgiveness of sins. If every indi- 
vidual is punished in full for all his sins, then the 
doctrine of mercy and forgiveness, which is so much 


dwelt upon in the gospel, is wholly set aside. This 
doctrine teaches that salvation comes by punishment, 
not by grace and mercy. If this be true, then all 
men save themselves through the punishment the^^ 
■ endure, and are not saved through the forgiveness be- 
stowed by a pardoning God on the repenting sinner. 
If this doctrine be true, there can be no pardon in 
the case. What is pardon or forgiveness? Why, it 
is fully and entirely absolving the offender from the 
penalty or punishment due to his crimes or sins. 
The penitentiary criminal does not regard himself 
pardoned by being released, after having suffered in 
his person the full rigor of the law. In his release 
he only receives justice, and this he has a right to 
demand. What a palpable denial does this whole 
scheme afford of the doctrine of grace, mercy, and 
pardon, so profusely held up in the gospel to the 
turning penitent. I "will go further, and say salva- 
tion through punishment sets aside wholly the neces- 
sity of a Savior, by making every sinner his own 
savior; and, still further, what a perversion is it of 
the gospel to apply such a theory to the great day 
of judgment! 

Another class of theologians contend that the day 
of judgment is connected immediately with the death 
of the body and the departure of the spirit or soul. 
These generally deny that there will be an}^ second 
personal com'ing of Christ, or any resurrection of 
bodies out of their graves; that all the resurrection 
there ever will be takes place at the death of the 
body — a rising into a new state of being. The doc- 
trine of a future resurrection from the grave I re- 


gard as clearly taught in the 'New Testament. *It 
was also held by the mass of ancient and believing 
Jews, who adhered to Moses and the prophets. In 
II. Timothy ii, 18, Paul says : " Of whom are Hyme- 
neus and Philetus, who, concerning the truth, have 
erred, saying: The resurrection is past already, and 
overthrown the faith of some." Now, if the resur- 
rection is not to be a general one, and at some 
definite time in the future, what did the apostle 
mean? What did he charge those erring brethren 
with teaching, by saying the resurrection was past 
alread}^? Had they taught that men did once have 
a resurrection when they died, but that all that now 
is past, and that those who now die fall asleep, and 
that is the end of tjiem? Candidly, it does appear 
to me that this must be the only conclusion, unless 
Paul had taught a resurrection of the body at a 
future day. To me the testimony is full that he had 
so taught; and hence the apostle's warning against 
the false doctrine that the resurrection was past. 
Much could be said in proof of a future resurrection 
from the grave; but as that is not the subject now 
before us, I will here leave it. 

The class of theologians here under notice assert 
that all that is said in Scripture relative to the second 
personal coming of Christ, and as having a bearing 
on a future general judgment, was consummated at 
the destruction of Jerusalem. This is an important 
assumption, and deserves the most prayerful and 
careful examination. Two passages of Scripture 
are carefully relied upon by the advocates of this 
theory in support of their position. The first is 


Matthew xvi. 23: "There be some standing here 
who shall not taste death till they see the Son of Man 
coming in bis kingdom.'"' It is urged that the apos- 
tles then present, to whom Jesus spake, should not 
all depart this life till Jerusalem should be destroyed; 
but it appears that prior to that period all the apos- 
tles had died martyrs except John. There was but 
OQe left then to see his coming at the destruction of 
Jerusalem, provided he was there. But our Savior's 
words were: "There be some standing here who 
shall not taste death;" and this must mean more 
than one. But was John present at Jerusalem to 
witness what occurred there at its awful overthrow? 
It is about certain that he was not, but was at Ephesus. 
Then, what our Lord promised in this passage was 
not fullilled at Jerusalem. But the question is 
urged: When and how was it fullilled? I answer: 
It was fulfilled six days after it was spoken. (See 
Matthew XVII. 1-6): "And after six days Jesus taketh 
Peter, James, and John liis brother, and bringeth 
them up into a high mountain apart, and was trans- 
figured before them; and his face did shine as the 
sun, and his raiment was white as the light. While 
he yet spoke, behold a bright cloud overshadowed 
them; and behold a voice out of the cloud, which 
said: This is my beloved Son in whom I am well 
pleased, hear ye him." Our Savior thus transfigured 
in the presence of these three apostles, presented an 
exact view of his personal appearance, or as he will 
appear, when he comes in his kingdom. As proof 
that this was the understanding of the apostles after 
the event, (see II. Peter 1. 16-19) : " For we have not 



followed cunningly devised fables, when we made 
know^n unto you the power and coming of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, but were eye w^ituesses of his majesty; 
for he received from God the leather honor and glory, 
when there came such a voice to him from the excel- 
lent glory, This is my beloved Son in whom I am well 
pleased, hear ye him ; and this voice which came from 
heaven we heard when we were with him in the holy 
mount." IsTow, in wdiat mount? Why, in the holy 
mount of transfiguration, for in no other mount have 
w^e an account of any such occurrence. There they 
w^ere eye witnesses of the majesty of his coming, and' 
there they heard the mysterious voice from heaven. 
The other passage supposed to refer to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, is Matthew xxiv. 34: *'Yerily, I 
say unto you, this generation shall not pass till all 
these things be fulfilled." It should be remembered 
that our Savior had predicted to his disciples, then 
present with him, the utter destruction of the tem- 
ple. The question was asked: "When shall these 
things be? w^hat are the signs of the coming, and 
of the end of the w^orld?" Here were three ques- 
tions in one. The answers to these questions, as 
given by our Savior, are recorded in the 24th and 
25th chapters of Matthew. The last tAvo answers 
are given in the 25th chapter, beginning at the Slst 
verse. This extends to the coming of Christ and 
the judgment of all nations at the last day, or at 
the end of the world. But before I enter upon this 
part of the subject, let me notice the passage under 
consideration. The misunderstanding of this pas- 
sage rests chiefly on the word generation^ a frequent 


meaning of which in Scripture is a lineage, a race, 
a descent. The Jewish nation are repeatedly styled 
a generation, " a chosen generations^ '' a royal genera- 
tion," " a peculiar generation," and a ''chosen peo- 
ple." As a distinct generation or people, they have 
not passed away. Under calamities that would 
have blotted out auy other nation, they have by 
special providence been upheld as a distinct genera- 
tion, and are now supposed to be as numerous as 
they ever were. Xor is this all. Providence will 
not permit their distinctive visibility to pass away 
"till all these things shall be fulhlled." 

But to strengthen the conclusion that the coming 
of Christ was at the destruction of Jerusalem, the 
following words of our Savior are quoted : "Imme- 
diately after the tribulation of those days shall the 
sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her 
light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the 
powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and theR 
shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven; 
ayd then shall the tribes of the earth mourn, and 
they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds 
of heaven with power and great glory." Matthew 
XXIV. 29-31. The grand misunderstanding of this 
passage rests in the supposition that the "tribula- 
tion of those days" ended with the destruction of 
Jerusalem, but the real fact is, they have not ended 
even ye,t. The Jews, as a people, broken, scattered, 
and oppressed, are still in their tribulation, which will 
continue till a short space before the final coming 
of our Savior. Remember, he was not to come in 
the midst of the tribulation of the days mentioned, 


which would have been the case had his coming 
been at the destruction of Jerusalem. It was to be 
immediately after those days had ended. Further, 
it is not the Jews only who are to be afiected by his 
coming, but all nations. "Then shall the tribes of 
the earth mourn when they shall see the Son of Man 
coming in the clouds of heaven, for then shall be 
"the judgment of the great day." 

From a close study of the Bible for many years, 
my mind has become settled in the following con- 
clusions: First: That man is a moral agent, and as 
such is accountable for his works and character. 
Second: That this world is not designed to be a 
place of strict retribution, and that man does not, 
in this life, receive the reward commensurate with 
his works. Third: That God has appointed a day 
of judgment beyond death, in the event of which 
every one will have meted out to liim according to 
his works and character. Fourth: The result of 
this general judgment will be the complete salva- 
tion and happiness of the righteous, and final con- 
demnation and punishment of tiie wicked. With 
a mind wholly unbiased by human teachings, let 
the honest searcher after truth consult the Bible 
alone on these subjects, and he must inevitably 
arrive, in my opinion, to the foregoing conclusions. 

But if he first explore the field of theology, as 
spread out at the present day, he will have to en- 
counter much subtle philosophy, skill, and ingenuity, 
all tending to darken and obscure these general and 
leading truths so readily drawn from the Bible 


How often, in the most impressive manner, is the 
general judgment alluded to in the ITew Testament! 
"Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Beth- 
saida ! for if the mighty works which have been 
done in you had been done in T^a-e and Sldon, they 
would have repented long ago in sackcloth and 
ashes. But I say unto you, it shall be more toler- 
able for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment 
than for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art 
exalted unto heaven, shall be brought down to hell: 
for if the mighty works which have been done in 
thee had been done in Sodom, it would have re- 
mained until this day. But I say unto you, It shall 
be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day 
of judgment than for thee." These awful threat- 
eniiigs are to be fuliilled in the day of judgment. 
The rebellious inhabitants of those cities where our 
Savior preached and wrought miracles, will then be 
found more guilty than the inhabitants of Sodom. 
The wicked Sodomites had not the holy Son of God 
to warn them and do miracles in their midst,' as had 
the inhabitants of those cities just named. Black 
and revolting as had been the sins of the Sodomites, 
they had sinned against less light than had the 
inhabitants of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Caper- 
naum. Again: "The men of E"ineveh shall rise in 
judgment with this generation and condemn it; 
because they repented at the preaching of Jonas, 
and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here." Yes; 
the people of Nineveh repented when the prophet 
Jonah preached to them, while the wicked genera- 


tion of the Jews refused to hear, accept and believe 
the holy Son of God, but resisted him unto death, 
and crucified the Lord of life and glory. 

The general judgment is defined in Scriptures by 
the definite term ^'^A^ day of judgment," and not 
simply a day. How often do such expressions 
occur in the E'ew Testament. It is called the " j adg- 
ment of the great day" by the apostle Jude, and 
is called "the last day" by our Savior. He that 
rejecteth me and receiveth not my words, hath one 
that judgeth him; the word that I have spoken, 
the same shall judge him at the last day." Mat- 
thew XII. 48. Compare this expression also w^ith 
John xi. 24 : ^-T knoAV he shall rise again in the 
resurrection at the last day. The last judgment 
and the resurrection are to be connected to- 
gether, and both are to occur at the last day. 
Certainly they are both to transpire at a definite 
time, and that time to be in the future. Paul says 
(Acts XVII. 31) : " He [God] hath appointed a day 
in the which he will judge the world in right- 
eousness." "And as he reasoned of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled." 
Again : " As it is appointed unto men once to die, 
but after this the judgment, so Christ was once 
offered." Hebrews ix. 28. Here the judgment is 
definitely asserted to be after death. Are any dis- 
posed to dispute this? Then let them examine the 
connection. "As it is appointed unto men once to 
die, so Christ was once offered." Kow how was 
Christ offered ? The only answer is, In the death 
of his body. Then as he was ofiered, so it is ap- 


pointed unto men to die; but after this the judg- 
ment. The apostle Peter also says: "The Lord 
knoweth how to deliver the godly out of tempt- 
ation, and to reserve tlie unjust unto the day of 
judgment, to be punished." Here, then, we have 
arrived at a very important point in the argument. 
First: That the day of judgment is to be to every 
one after death, and "at the last day;" second: that 
it will be immediately connected with the general 
resurrection. At the judgment the unjust or 
wicked will be- punished. 

Notwithstanding the many efforts to destroy the 
force of Matthew xxv, by asserting that it has no 
reference to the general judgment after death, it 
still stands out in bold relief. Hear it : ''When the 
Son of Man shall come in his glory, and all the hoi}'" 
angels with him, then shall lie sit upon the throne 
of bis glory; and before him shall be gathered all 
nations, and he shall separate them one from 
another, as the shepherd dividetli tlie sheep from 
the goats ; and he sball set the sbeep on his right 
hand and the goats on the left. Then shall the 
king Bay unto them on the right hand, Come, ye 
blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared 
for you from the foundation of the world. -^ * Then 
shall he also say unto them on the left hand. Depart 
from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared 
for the devil and his angels. ^ ^ And these shall go 
away into everlasting punishment; but the righteous 
into life eternal." This representation has often 
been called the parable of the sheep and goats ; but 
it is not so called by our Savior, nor by the record- 


ing evangelist. It is a plain statement of what the 
judge will do when he shall come on the throne at 
his glory. Then all nations shall be gathered before 
him; and from the countless mixed mass a separa- 
tion shall be made as the shepherd divides thesheep 
from the goats; the sheep are placed on the right 
hand and the goats on the left. But who are those 
gathered on the right? They are the righteous who 
are known by their works, and they are so called in 
the account. " Then shall the righteous say," etc. 
The goats named are of the very opposite character, 
^s seen by the works attributed to them by the Judge, 
and the fearful sentence pronounced upon them: 
'^ These shall go away into everlasting punishment, 
but the righteous into life eternal." Oh, my soul, 
is such the fearful end to which the footsteps of 
every impenitent sinner is tending! As sure as 
our Savior's words are true, it is so. Oh, that the 
eyes of all such may be open in time to " flee from 
the wrath to come." What a perversion of truth 
is it to insist that all this transpired at the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. 

As a parallel passage to the one just given, I will 
next present one from the 20th chapter of Kevela- 
tion: "And I saw a great white throne, and him 
that sat on it, from whose face the earth and heaven 
fled away, and there was found no place for them. 
And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before 
God; and the books were opened; and another book 
was opened, which was the book of life : and the 
dead were judged out of those things which were 


written in the books, according to their works. 
And the s^a gave up the dead whic'h were in it; and 
death and hell delivered up the dead which were in 
them; and they were judged every man according 
to their works. This is the second death. And 
whosoever was not found written in the book of 
life was cast into the lake of fire." Here is a most 
solemn and impressive description of an event 
which rests in the future. And you, my hearers, 
will readily see that the detail here given bears a 
most striking similarity to that presented in the 
25th chapter of Matthew. Both must relate to the 
same great event. Looking forward to that day, we 
are to believe the sea will then give up the dead 
that are in it. Death and hell (Greek Hades^ or the 
abode of the departed dead) will deliver up the 
dead that are in them; and the dead, small and 
great, shall stand before God; that is, God will 
be present to judge the world by his Son Jesus 
Christ. Books of record w^ill there be opened, 
among which will be the book of life; and the dead 
shall be judged out of the things which shall be 
found written in the books. And whosoever is not 
found written in the book of life shall be cast into 
the lake of fire which is the second death. 

In treating of the future punishment of the 
wicked, I do not desire, by any remark of mine, to 
add to or diminish the testimony of Divine inspi- 
ration. Iwish to leave the subject^ as near as I can, 
where the testimony of heaven leaves it. Hence, 
I am not particular to explain the terms employed 


in Scripture. Let the declarations of sacred truth 
stand as I iind them. The terms used are suffi- 
ciently plain to define the fearful end of the wicked 
and rebellious. Oh, that every impenitent sinner 
may read for himself and ponder these things in 
his heart! With these awful developm^ents before 
you, can you draw from them one flattering pros- 
pect while persisting in sin ? Look forward to the 
resurrection and judgment; there see what black- 
ness and darkness brood over the end of the wicked. 
Hear the fearful warning of the Son of God: "The 
hour is coming in the which all that are in their 
graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; 
— they that have done good unto the resurrection of 
life; and they that have done evil unto the resur- 
rection of damnation." I dare not add to nor dimin- 
ish this testimony. 

I am aware that the clearness with which the 
second personal coming of Christ, the resurrection 
of the dead, and the general judgment at the last 
day, are set forth in the Book of Revelation, has 
called forth strenuous efforts to set them aside. I 
have not been unmindful of this fact, and have 
carefully examined the arguments on both sides. I 
regard the impeaching evidence a failure, and the 
book well sustained. This book clearly sets aside 
every effort to connect the judgment-day with the 
destruction of Jerusalem, as the evidence is clear 
that th^ Book of Revelation was written more than 
twenty years after that event. 

Now, in unison with the testimony already given, 


let US liear the apostle Peter on the subject under 
consideration : '^The heavens and the eartli, which 
are now, bj the same word are kept in store, re- 
served unto fire against the day ot judgment, and 
perdition of ungodly men." II. Peter iii. 7. Perdi- 
tion means the state of being utterly lost or destroyed, 
w^hich state is here connected with the day of judg- 
ment. In full accordance with this is another tes- 
timony of the apostje Paul: ''The Lord Jesus 
shall be revealed from heaven, with his mighty 
angels in flaming Are, taking vengeance on them 
that know not God, and that dbey not the gospel of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall be punished with 
everlasting destruction from the presence of the 
Lord, and from the glory of his power; when he* 
shall come to be gloritied in his saints, and be ad- 
mired in all them that believe." 11. Thessalonians 
I. 7-10. Surely, this language is most pertinent and 
fearful, referring, as it does, to "the judgment of 
the great day." "For the Soil of Man shall come 
in the glory of his Father; and then shall he reward 
every man according to his works." Matthew xvi. 
27. And again: "ISo shall it be at the end of the 
world : the angels shall come forth, and sever the 
wicked from among the. just, and shall cast them 
into a furnace of fire." Matthew xiii. 49. 

But once more. Let every impenitent sinner 
ponder w^ell the following fearful warning uttered 
by the apostle Paul, and so strikingly applicable to 
every worker of iniquity: "Or despiseth thou the 
riches; of his goodness and forbearance and long- 


leadeth thee to repentance? But after thy hardness 
and impenitent heart treasurest up to thyself wrath 
against the day of wrath, and revelation of the 
righteous judgment of God ;. who will render to 
every man according to his deeds : to them who hy 
patient continuance in well doing seek for glory 
and honor and immortality, eternal life: hut unto 
them that are contentious, who ohey not the truth, 
but obey unrighteousness, indignation, and wrath, 
tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man 
that doeth evil, to the Jew first and also unto the 
gentile. In the day when God shall judge the 
secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my 
gospel." Romans ii. 4-16. Now, what rebellious 
transgressor of God's law can need a more faithful 
warning of his sins and danger than is here given 
by the apostle. Look at it, my impenitent hearers! 
The character here described is your character. > 
The awful danger here portrayed is the very dan- 
ger to which you are exposed. And the ''tribula- 
tion and anguish" will be yours unless you forsake 
your evil way with humble penitence and contrition 
of soul. Then " turn, for why will ye die!" 

Here may I not pause and inquire. Is any more 
Scripture testimony needed on this subject ? Is any 
more required to establish the awful fact contained 
in my text? "We must all appear before the judge 
ment-seat of Christ; that every one may receive 
the things done in his body, according to that he 
hath done, whether it be good or bad." Is any 
more proof needed that there will be a future gen- 


eral judgment where an awful retribution awaits 
the enemies of God who die in impenitence and 
sin? I could still bring line upon line and warn- 
ing upon warning, adduced from the volume of 
Divine inspiration. But I trust I have already pre- 
sented evidences enough to set my subject in its 
true light, awaken solemn reflection, and I would 
hope arouse deep alarm in every prayerless individ- 
iial who hears me. If these are not sufficient, 
neither would they believe though one should rise 
from the dead. 

"Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord, we 
persuade men." It is not because my mind gloats 
over the harrowing scene presented that I dwell on 
this thrilling and alarming subject, 'No ; my friends, 
it is because I love your souls, and would fain lead 
you away from that impending ruin to which the 
footsteps of every wayward sinner are tending. I 
can not, I ought not to cry, Peace^ jyeace, where my 
God has said there is no peace. I can not sew "pil- 
lows under arm-holes," and deal anodynes that you 
may slumber on the brink of eternal ruin. Eather 
let me cry aloud and spare not. Rather let me tear 
off the deceptive covering that sin has thrown over 
your mind. Rather let me rend the veil that dark- 
ens your understanding. Oh, that I could enlighten 
your eyes, your hearts, your consciences, that you 
might see yourselves as God sees you, and as you 
truly are. Oh, that every impenitent sinner here 
to-day might see his past sinful life, moving before 
him like a panorama, and as every unsaved rebel 
will see it at the awful bar of God ! 


There the sinner will see the most sliocking devel- 
opment of his own heart. There lie will see that 
secret part of life invisible to others, and, w^orst of 
all, so little knowni to himself. In the presence of 
the eternal Judge, the whole will be visible at once. 
The whole dark catalogue of its cherished iniqui- 
ties wall be suddenly laid open to his utter shame 
and confusion. The dark train, from the lirst desire 
formed in the heart to its last longing sigh, will be 
collected before his eyes. All the sins dispersed 
through the different stages of life wdll confront 
him. He will see the numerous unholy temptations 
he has cherished and follow^ed out. lie will see 
wdiat enmity and opposition against his Creator 
have been fostered and strengthened in that heart. 
He will see how those wicked desires and dark, de- 
vices wounded the conscience, stifled its sensibili- 
ties, polluted his soul, and corrupted his life. Its 
unholy longings for sinful pleasures, its lustful intent 
on carnal gratifications, its secret promptings to 
evil, will all be laid bare. Its inordinate thirst for 
w^ealth or fame, or its groveling desires carried out 
in baseness and meanness, will all be developed in 
the dread light of eternity. The increased hard- 
ness from willfully grieving the Spirit of God and 
rejecting its light, its truth, will all be thrust before 
him. He will be made to enter into his own heart 
where he had never resided. A sudden light will 
clear up that secret abyss. Then he wdll see w^hat 
he never saw before — his own heart. The gossimer 
covering of the false professor, the self-righteous 
hypocrite, will be torn off. Then the empty moral- 


ist, Avho doted on his own goodness, avIio niaj have 
served others, but refused to love and obey God, will 
be made to see and understand his own heart. 

Often the sinner now complains that God has not 
done enough for him. He urges that the Creator 
lias brought him into this world, weak and incum- 
bered witli a temperament that he has not power 
to control. 'He urges that God does not bestow^ the 
necessary grace and strength to resist the many 
snares thrown in his way. But, ah, the eternal 
judgment will break this fatal delusion, and annihi- 
late these false excuses. There he will see that his 
w^hole life has been a continual abuse of mercies, 
struggling against means of good placed in his pos- 
session. He will there remember the many striv- 
ings of God's Spirit quenched. He will there see 
the many warnings and invitations of Heaven 
slighted;, the many counsels of wisdom despised; 
the many entreaties of mercy rejected. In view of 
all these, he will be overwhelmed and confounded. 
He will be shocked to see all that God has done for 
him; and what wretched returns he has made for 
all the blessings conferred, all the mercies bestowed, 
and for all the means of his salvation thwarted. 
He w^ill find all his vain excuses swept away and 
himself left speechless. He will have no refuge to 
flee to under the all-searching light of the judg- 
ment-day. Ah! if the unprofitable servant was 
cast into outer darkness for having only hidden his 
talent, with what indulgence can the sinner flatter 
himself — he who has received so many talents and 
has always employed them against his Master's 


interest and glory, who had intrusted them to his 
care ! 

Then, by the worth of 3^our precious souls, my 
impenitent friends, I entreat you to seek prepara- 
tion for the great judgment-day; by all that re- 
demption has cost, by the scene of Gethsemane, and 
by the scene of Calvary, I entreat you to seek that 
redemption from sin that our Savior has made ac- 
cessible; by the mercy of that God who has sworn 
that he has no pleasure in the death of him that 
dieth, I entreat you; by the brief period of pro- 
bation I entreat you; by the brevity and uncer- 
tainty of your frail life, I entreat you; by all the 
awful realities of a dying hour, I entreat you; by 
all the glories, the beauties, the felicities of heaven, 
I entreat you ; by the certain realities of the eter- 
nal judgment, I entreat you; by the fearful doom 
that awaits the workers of inquity, the horrors of 
the second death, I entreat you to listen to the voice 
of mercy. "Let the wicked forsake his way, and 
the unrighteous man his thoughts; let him turn 
unto theLord who will have merc}^ and to our Lord 
who will abundantly pardon." Here is your only 
refuge, and now is the only time you can call your 
own. Time that is past is gone forever, bearing 
with it the record of your past sins and your follies. 
Mourn over its misspent moments you may, but 
you can not recall them. Hours wasted and lost 
are lost forever. Will you still murder time by your 
Bins and your follies? What has a life of sin 
afforded you, that 3'ou should still cling to the way 
of transgression? What has God done, that you 


sliould longer rebel against him ? "What has the 
Savior done that you should persist in saying, **We 
will not have him to reign over us." How soon 
will this little busy scene of life be acted out with 
you, and all be hushed in the silence of death ! The 
grand leveler of human greatness is on your track, 
steadily intent on his purpose. You are born to 
die and bound to judgment. Oh, look forward to 
that final reckoning day, when the nations shall be 
summoned to Jehovah's awful bar; when the divid- 
ing line shall be drawn between the righteous and 
the vile, between him that serveth God and him 
that serveth him not." 

Shall heaven and hell divide this dying congrega- 
tion? They must, unless we are born of God, 
cleansed from sin, and made meet for the kingdom 
of heaven. thou Judge of all, look down with 
pitying eye upon us before thee. Vouchsafe thy 
grace and mercy, that we may then be found among 
the ransomed at thy right hand. Amen. 



" That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thy- 
self in the house of God, which is the church of the living 
God, the pillar and ground of the truth." I. Timothy in. 15. 

The eminent apostle to the gentiles exercised a 
fatherly care over Timothy, and styles him his own 
sou in the gospel. Timothy had been converted to 
Christianity under the special labors of Paul. He 
was regarded by the apostle as a pupil whom he not 
only carefully instructed in relation to his private 
Christian deportment, but in regard to his public 
ministerial duties. The grand object is expressed 
in our text, "that thou mayest know how thou 
oughest to behave thyself in the church of God." 
And additional weight is given to this instruction 
from the sacredness of that bod}^ in which he was 
to be a leading actor, and of which he w^as to be a 
superintendent or overseer. The church of the liv- 
ing God — the exclusive property of Jehovah him- 
self — that church "which is the pillar and ground 
of the truth;" the depository of the sacred archives 
of heaven transmitted to man: that bodv which 

*A-sermon preached at Enfield, New York, June 15, 1844, 
at the annual session of the Central Christian Conference. 


was not only the sacred receptacle of the truth of 
God as revealed and established by his Son, but its 
support and defense in the eyes of the world. 

The subject before me presents a vast field which 
the limits of one discourse will not permit me full}' 
to explore. I shall chiefly confine mj'self at this 
time to the following items : 

First: the church as a visible and organized 
body; second: certain ofiicers in the church and 
their respective duties ; third : the high and decided 
position the church is under obligation to take in 
difiusing truth and reforming th'e world. 

I. The church is a visible and organized body. 
To argue this w^ould be unnecessary, were it not for 
a disorganizing spirit which is abroad at the pres- 
ent time. Very recently a hue and cry has been 
raised against all church organizations. The lead- 
ers of this crusade have openly attacked all organ- 
ized churches, and declared that they, en masse, con- 
stitute the Babylon of the Apocalypse. ' But what- 
ever may be said of the churches at the present 
da}^, that there were church organizations in apos- 
tolic times cannot be successfully disputed. E'ot 
only is mention made of the seven churches in Asia, 
to whom John was to transmit certain messages, 
but epistles recorded in the 'New Testament were 
expressly addressed to other churches. 

It must also be conceded that these churches were 
organized conformably to a system of discipline 
instituted b}^ our Savior among his disciples, as 
recorded in the 18th chapter of Matthew: "If thy 
brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him 


his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall 
hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he 
will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two 
more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses 
every word may be established. And if he shall 
neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church : but if 
he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee 
as a heathen man and a publican." 

Now, without a church organized in such a man- 
ner that its members are personally known to each 
other, and can meet together to hear the cause of 
an oflended brother, how could this system of dis- 
cipline be carried out? Suppose that the modern an- 
archical system is admitted, namely, that the church 
has no distinct organizations in it, but simply con- 
sists of all believers throughout the world, how is 
the church to speak or decide on the case of an 
offending member, and in what manner could the 
offender fail to hear the church? 

As further evidence of distinctly organized 
churches in apostolic times, certain officers were 
appointed in each of these respective bodies to take 
the oversight, labor in w^ord and doctrine, as well 
as to enforce discipline and superintend the spiritual 
and temporal affairs of the church. Finally, with- 
out spending further time on this part of my sub- 
ject, I lay it down as a scriptural fact that churches 
have been and still are to be visibly organized bodies ; 
that in each church a system of gospel discipline 
is to be maintained, and that each' member is to be 
held responsible to the church for his or her walk 
and deportment. 


I have already stated that in apostolic churches 
certain officers were appointed to superintend and 
transact certain important business pertaining to 
these bodies. And, first, God has ordained a min- 
istry in his church. This consists of pastors and 
teachers, or evangelists. A pastor is one placed in 
charge of a special church, to have oversight of the 
flock, to administer the gospel and its ordinances, 
and implies the same as shepherd, overseer, or 
bishop. Every church should be provided with a 
pastor; and experience has long established the fact 
that no church can long exist without one. An 
evangelist or teacher is a minister at large, whose 
labors are bestowed wherever duty and circum- 
stances may call, without being confined to any 
local church. 

But I wish particularly to speak of another class 
of officers which existed in the apostolic churches. 
It is that of a board of elders who ruled well. That 
such a board of officers did exist in early churches, 
and under apostolic sanction, is, as I think, suscepti- 
ble of the clearest proof. This established economy 
in Christian churches was unquestionably derived 
from the well-known system of government and 
regulation in the Jewish Church. While the Israel- 
ites were in Egypt, it appears that this system of 
government was established among them. When 
Moses was sent into Egypt to deliver Israel, he assem- 
bled the elders and informed them that the God of 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,had appeared unto him. 
Moses and Aaron trusted the elders as representa- 


lives of the nation. "When the law was given, God 
directed Moses to take the seventy elders, as well as 
Aaron, ISTadab, and Abihn (his sons), that they might 
be witnesses. Ever afterward we find this number 
of seventy, or rather seventy-two elders — six from 
each tribe. It is probable that these elders formed 
a kind of senate in the Jewish nation, and hence 
was derived the famous sanhedrim in later ages. 
Originally among the Jews, the word jpre56?/^ero5, or 
elder, denoted a person of age. . Eut as the Hebrews 
and other oriental nations were in the habit of 
choosing aged persons for magistrates and rulers, it 
also became a name of oflice ; and in this latter sense 
it is commonly used in both tlie Old and 'New Testa- 
ments. As a name of office, the word denotes in" 
Scripture a magistrate, a senator, an overseer, a 
bishop, a counselor, a ruler. This meaning is 
affixed to the word in every instance, where it is 
employed, in either the Jewish or Christian Scrip- 
tures, wben applied to office, whether that office was 
held in the great sanhedrim of the nation, in the 
municipality of a city or village, or in the presby- 
tery of a synagogue or a church. An elder in every 
department of government was a ruler, a kind of 
magistrate, an overseer; an elder in the sanhedrim 
was a national ruler; an elder in a city or village 
was an alderman; an elder in a synagogue was a 
ruler in that synagogue — a kind of religious mag- 
istrate, to take cognizance of offenses and aid the 
whole congregation to maintain good ecclesiastical' 
government. The same idea attaches to the office 
of elder in the church. He is a kind of magistrate 


in the church to "rule well," to '^oversee" the spirit- 
ual interest of the church. » 

The title elder (presbuteros) does not belong to any 
man simply from the consideration or fact that he 
is a preacher. As a preacher, he is called by another 
term, which means a preacher or proclaimer. If a 
preacher is a pastor, he is also an elder, and the 
appellation belongs to him in consideration of the 
fact that he is a church officer — a servant of the 
church in maintaining good government. JSTow, if 
it can be proved beyond all reasonable doubt that the 
apostolic and early churches had each and all of 
them a judiciary, a board of most experienced 
brethren, chosen as elders or overseers, to take the 
general oversight of the flock and "rule well," 
then every church in the Christian connection is 
bound to adopt the same policy. As a people, we 
profess to accept the apostolic church as our true 
model in doctrine and discipline. While we strenu- 
ously repudiate the creeds and disciplines of secta- 
rianism, we have mo&t solemnly pledged ourselves 
to God and each other to be directed by the ]^ew 
Testament. So long as we profess to be governed 
by the teachings of God's w^ord, the main question 
for us to decide is: What say the Scriptures? 

I will now present some scripture evidence that 
the apostolic churches had each a board of officers 
called elders, overseers, helps, a presbytery, to aid 
the pastor to take the oversight of the flock, and to 
rule well as a church judiciary. 

There was a plurality of elders in the church at 
Jerusalem. When a collection was made in the 


churches in Greece and Asia Minor for the poor 
saints in Judea, it appears the money was sent to 
the elders (not to the elder) by the hands of Barna- 
bas and Saul. (See Acts xi. 30.) We read of this 
board in the church in Jerusalem again in Acts xv. 
4-6. When the elders and apostles composing the 
first Christian council assembled in that city to con- 
sider the question of circumcision, it is said : " When 
they came to Jerusalem they were received of the 
church and of the apostles and elders." 
• It would further appear from the testimony of 
Luke, that every church in Assyria, Asia Minor, 
.and Greece, gathered by the labors of Paul, Barna- 
bas, and Silas, had a presb^'tery or board of elders 
regularly appointed. He says of the labors of these 
men in gathering churches: ^'And when they had 
ordained them elders in every church, and had 
prayed with fasting, they commended them to the 
Lord on whom they believed." (See Acts xiv. 2, 3.) 
Here be it remembered that these elders were not 
persons who were simply seniors in years or relig- 
ious experience; they were elders by office, being 
ordained or appointed to this work. The apostles 
did not leave the churches they organized with one 
elder for every church, but there was provided a 
plurality of elders in every church. The arrange- 
ment was not temporal, incidental; or occasional; it 
existed in every church. Li relation to these elders 
being ordained, I will here remark, the Greek word 
here rendered ordained simply means appointedy 
without any distinct mode of appointing. Barras 
says: "The Greek word occurs but in one other 


place in the New Testament (II. Corinthians viii. 19), 
where it is applied to Luke and translated: "Who 
also was chosen of the church.'" The same writer 
says the word in Acts xiv. " refers simply to an elec- 
tion or appointment of elders." Let this, then, 
illustrate the manner in which this board of elders 
may be appointed in each church. 

A^ain: Luke tells us there was a plurality of 
elders in the church at Ephesus, which was gathered 
by the labors of St. Paul. Passing on shipboard 
from Corinth to the Holy Land, Paul and his com- 
panions touched a few days at Miletus, a maritime 
city in Asia Minor, near Ephesus. "And from 
Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called the elders of 
the church." In that interview he most solemnly 
instructed these elders, and among other things said: 
"Take heed, therefore, unto yourselves, and to all 
the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made you 
overseers." Here we not only see a plurality of 
elders in a local church, but we have an express 
delinition given of their office — they were overseers 
of the flock. 

Paul gives the following instruction to Titus after 
leaving him in Crete, an island in the Archipelago, 
now called Candia: "For this cause I left thee in 
Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things 
that are wanting, and ordain elders in every cit}^" 
This same church judiciary is mentioned in Paul's 
!First Epistle to Timothy, then bishop or pastor at 
Ephesus. He says : " Let the elders which rule well 
be counted worthy of double honor, especially they 
who labor in word and doctrine." By comparing 


this passage with Acts xx. 28, we learn ; .first: that 
the elders at Ephesus were overseers; second: that 
they were in some sense rulers, thougli "not lords 
over God's heritage;" and, third: that there were 
some elders who labored in word and doctrine, while 
there were others who did not preach. 

Peter expressly speaks of such a board of officers, 
and exhorts them to fidelity: "The elders which 
are among you I exhort, who am also an elder and 
a witness of the sufi'erings of Christ, and also par- 
taker of the glory that shall be revealed, feed the 
flock of God which is among you, taking the over- 
sight tliereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not 
for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as 
being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples 
to the flock." 

The church at Thessalonica also appears to have 
had the same kind or board of officers. "And wo 
beseech you, brethren, to know them [not him] who 
labor among you and are over you in the Lord, and 
admonish you and esteem them very highly for their 
work's sake, and be at peace among yourselves," 

The "elders as rulers are referred to repeatedly in 
Hebrews xiii : " Obey them which have the rule over 
you and submit yourselves, for they watch for your 
souls as they that must give an account." Again : 
"Salute all them that have the rule over you, and 
all the saints." Here we learn, on the authority of 
the apostle, that the eldership of the church is to be 
respectfully remembered ; obeyed when they admon- 
ish, and saluted respectfully. 

The elders of the church appear to be referred to 


in I. Corinthians xii. 28, as " helps," " governments." 
"And God hath set some in the church; first apos- 
tles, secondarily prophets, thirdly .teachers; after 
that miracles, then gifts of healing, helps^ govern- 
ments^ diversity of tongues." Here it appears to be 
a divinely appointed arrangement that the church 
should have helps in the administration of ati'airs. 
The idea expressed by the word helps appears to be 
amplified by the word governments, the helps being 
helps in government. 

I have now, as I conclude, adduced from the jS"e\v 
Testament sufficient evidence to satisfy unprejudiced 
minds that in the apostolic churches there existed 
a board of ofiicers constituting a church judiciary, 
who, in conjunction with the pastor of a church, 
were to take the oversight of the flock and be lielps 
in administering wholesome discipline. Had I time 
to follow the subject into the writings of the eai'ly 
fathers of the first and second centuries, I could show 
that this very principle of organization was con- 
tinued in the churches after the apostles. Clement, 
who was a disciple of Peter, and for a while bishop 
of the church of Rome, speaks particularly of such 
a board of elders in his epistle to the cliui-cli at 
Ephesus. Ignatius, who was converted under the 
apostle John, was bishop at Antioch, and was mar- 
tyred at Rome in the year 107, in several of his e])is- 
tles speaks of such a board of elders in the most 
definite manner. Rolycarp, a disciple of John and 
bishop of Smyrna, speaks also definitely on the 
same subject. Finally, it is well substantiated in 
history that this system of church polity was ob- 


served and maintained in the first and second cen- 
turies. Here I dismiss the evidences and come to 
the duty of such a board of elders. ' 

The more experience a preacher has in the pas- 
toral office, the more sensibly he sees the need of a 
certain class of officers in the church answering to 
that of the class already named. He sees the neces- 
sity of this to maintain wholesome church govern- 
ment and carry out a system of strict discipline. 
Our Savior said: ^'It must needs be that offenses 
come." Offenders will be found in the church, and 
offenses will arise in the body. Most of these are 
of a public nature, and must be attended to by the 
church in some legal way. Who are the men to 
labor witb public offenders and see that they are 
seasonably called to account? Is it the duty of the 
pastor? If it were his proper avocation, he would 
often find a task he would be incompetent to per- 
form. But a pastor's experience will sooner or later 
teach him that the less he has to do in personal 
labor with offending members the better, and espe- 
cially where those offenses involve altercations be- 
tween parties at variance, which is often the case. 
Let him beware how he interposes his own personal 
decision in opposition to an influential party in the 
church, though that party may be corrupt. His 
influence as a preacher may suffer very seriously by 
it. The pastor is not the person to institute church 
labor with offenders, if he mean long to retain his 
influence as a minister. And without a presbytery 
or board of elders in the church, who, then, are the 
persons to attend to labors of this kind? Is it said 


it is the duty of every church-member? To this 
course is too readily applied the stale adage: 
"What is every body's businecs is nobody's." 
Proper steps of labor with offenders are neglected 
till the church becomes infected with corruptions 
and trials. Church-meeting after church-meeting 
may be held to try them, till the herculean task of 
cleansing the body may discourage weak, timorous 
minds, and the church become broken and scattered. 
It is just here that the need of a board of elders is 
apparent. It is their duty to take oversight of the 
flock for this very purpose. For instance, an open 
ofiense comes to their knowledge. One of their 
number is sent to labor with the offender, and, if 
need be, to cite him to appear before a session of 
the eldership or presbytery of the church, where his 
case is tried, and if he make suitable reparation, 
the matter is ended; but if he prove incorrigible, 
the eldership decide that they have no fellowship 
for the individual. All that then remains is for the 
presbytery to report the case to the church and re- 
ceive its sanction. This disposes of the affair in a 
brief and summary manner. 

Here I may remark that the bringing an ofiender 
"before the whole church for trial is, in my judg- 
ment, not only unscriptural but evil in its tendency. 
Often cases of a most delicate nature are brought 
forward in an open meeting, and witnesses are made 
to testify. Often altercations arise, a bitter spirit 
is let loose, and offenses are committed in trying to 
settle offenses. I have thus known trials multiplied 
by labors of this kind in open church-meeting till 


the whole church became so weakened by division 
that it was unable to transact its own affairs. 

Where aboard of elders is organized, composed of 
a certain number of pious and judicious men, this 
great burden of labor and trial in open church-meet- 
ing is taken from the church. This presbytery, or 
board of elders, have their stated or regular sessions 
by themselves, in which they consult on the spiritual 
state of the church, and take measures to adjust 
whatever may call for their attention. They have 
the power not only to labor with open oflenders,but 
to summon such before the board for trial. They 
are authorized to hear all necessary testimony re- 
lating to the case, and finally to pass decision upon 
it. In this way many difficulties are stopped, set- 
tled, or disposed of in the bnd without any harm 
to the church; and often, indeed, are difficulties set- 
tled of which the main body of the church may' 
have no knowledge. 

Another duty of the elders is to be active in the 
church, in exhorting and admonishing the brethren 
to duty — to strengthen the weak, and confirm the 
wavering. In this respect they are a kind of lay- 
ministry in the flock. 

Again : They are to be intimate counselors and 
advisers with their pastor ; to report to him from 
time to time the state and wants of the flock; to 
keep him informed of what kind of instruction and 
doctrine there is the most need. In the special 
meetings of the board of elders, the pastor has a 
right, if he choose, to be .present, and is to be re- 


garded, when present, as the president of their 

A^Tot a few of our churches have adopted this kind 
of judiciary. In some of our oldest and most pros- 
perous churches, its utility has been tested for many 
years. In every instance, so far as my knowledge 
extends, it has proved a most obvious blessing. A 
presbytery, or board of elders among them, is gen- 
erally proportionable to the number of church-mem- 
bers. They often consist of five or seven, and some- 
times ten. It is well known to many of my brethren 
that for many years I have advocated this system of 
church polity. My knowledge and experience of 
its utility enable me in confidence still to recom- 
mend it. I most sincerely wish it might become 
an established order with all the churches of this 

Having now said all I purpose to, at this time, in 
reference to the internal regulations of the church, 
I propose to ofl'er a few remarks relative to its ex- 
ternal duties. It may well be said that we live. in 
an extraordinarily exciting and speculative age — an 
age of inventions, improvements, reforms, and de- 
forms. The civilized world seems to be filled with 
new plans and projects, and such is the zeal enlisted 
in connection with many of them that they are 
pushed forward with a kind of locomotive speed. 
Often in these operations, wild enthusiasm and mad 
fanaticism have been permitted to perform their full 
share of the work. Such has been the reprehen- 
sible spirit often manifested in these movements, 
that many minds of rather cool temperament have 


turned from the whole and declared they would 
have no part with them. Indeed, some have fled 
to an opposite extreme, not only declaring they 
would take no part in the moral reforms of the day, 
but have even lifted their voice and exerted their 
influence against them intoto. 

Kow, while it may he a question how far it is duty 
for a Christian to go in the reform movements of 
the age, there can he no question but that he is 
under obligation to treat them in the most sober 
and dispassionate manner. He is under obligations 
to take such grounds in relation to them all as will 
acquit his own conscience in sight of high heaven. 
The church is professedly a body of reformers, and 
her strength lies not in physical force, but in the 
power of truth and the strength of her moral 
•appeals. In a word, it is the bound en duty of the 
church to be found on the side of every good moral 
cause. She is bound to raise her voice against all 
sin, and to throw her influence against all iniquity 
and unrighteousness, and especially if that iniquity 
actually exists in any part of the church. 

On this ground she is under obligation to oppose 
the sin of intemperance. No matter if the subject 
of temperance is made a direct political question ; 
that by no means lessens the obligation of the 
church to exert its united strength and influence 
against this demon. Our churches should be strictly 
total abstinence societies. Ko person should be 
received into membership who does not pledge 
himself to abstain from all intoxicating drinks as a 
"beverage. In reference to this question, the church 


must see to the purity of its own body, and exert a 
reforming influence upon the world. And so in 
reference to all reforms, having a bearing upon the 
moral condition of our race, the church, must occupy 
no doubtful or halting position. 

But time admonishes me that I must close. When 
this conference assembles next year, the name of 
some one of its members, a beloved minister of 
Christ, who has fallen in death, will perhaps be 
announced. Who shall it be? O Lord, thou know- 
est! If it be the present speaker, the will of the 
Lord be done. When I fall, God grant it may be in 
the field of battle, Avith my armor on and my face 
toward the enemy. 

Finally, ''my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast 
and unmovable, always abounding in the work of 
the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labor is 
not in vain in the Lord." And when the Chief 
Shepherd shall appear, you shall each receive a crown 
of glory that shall not fade away. 


THE EMBASSADOR. vain Ambition trace the worldly great, 
Where storied urns enshrine the dust of state; 
Let other bards rehear-e proud deeds of fame, 
O'er fields of blood enkindle martial flame ; 
A holier theme inspires my humble lay — 
To trace a pilgrim to the realms of day. 
If aught that's charming meets th' approving sight, 
And sheds a luster more divinely bright 
O'er human ills, earth's dreary waste to cheer. 
Bids sorrows cease, and dries affliction's tear, 
*Tis mild Religion beaming on the soul, 
To cheer our passage thro' that gloomy goal 
Where travelers meet. This lights the moonless grave, 
Emboldens man the ills of time to brave. 
Smooths life's rough way, dissolves the doubtful gloom 
In immortality beyond the tomb. 
Oh, mild Religion, offspring of the skies! 
Friend of the poor ! thou bidst the wretched rise 
From sorrow's pit and mis'ry's miry clay, 
To guide them onward to the realms of day. 
Thou teachest man his sinful self to know; 
To learn the emptiness of things below; 
That pure enjoyment ne'er by earth was given ; 
That perfect happiness is found in heaven. 
Thrice happy saint, kept in thy meek employ 
To rescue souls, and Satan's works destroy. 
Lead erring mortals from destructive sins, 
And teach them where true happiness begins. 


What higher calling can to man be given- 
Commissioned an Embassador of Heaven ; 
Sent to assert Jehovah's righteous cause, 
And plead with rebels to revere his laws; 
Tell sinning man his enmity to God ; 
Point to the rescue in a Savior's blood ; 
^Twixt dead and living stand with solemn awe, 
Hold up the mandates of Jehovah's law; 
With winning accents melt the stubborn heart, 
And urge lost man to choose the better part? 
There are, I know, who seek this sacred place, 
Uncalled of God, unaided by his grace. 
Attempt to teach, with their own souls untaught, 
In parrot phrases, truths they never thought; 
Steal Heaven's garb to serve the Devil in, 
And turn reprovers while the slaves of sin. 
The priestly coxcomb mounts the sacred stand ; 
With pert politeness shows a lily hand : 
His foppish dress, smoothed down with nicest care, 
Shows that the toilet took the place of prayer; 
Adjusts his phiz, puts on a sacred grin. 
Takes up his book, and says, "Let us begin 
The worship of God by singing to his praLse.'' 
He tries to read with sacerdotal grace. 
The singing through, with Pharisaic air. 
He spreads his hands in attitude of praj^er, 
Beseeches God to teach him how to pray; 
(Perhaps has learned the form he has to say); 
With panegyrics compliments the Lord, 
And tells how much is taught us in his Word. 
Formal and dry, yet polished and precise, 
He says his task while shutting up his eyes. 
No self-abasement, zeal, or fervor there; 
Nothing but words to constitute the prayer. 
Right glad to hear the closing word, Amen, 
His hearers sally to their seats again. 
The sermon follows, formed by book-learned rules, 
Mere studied rhetoric, as taught in schools; 
Not of that kind whose energetic flow 


Breathes words that warm m sentences that glow, 
But dull, stiff, lifeless, formal, cold, and dry. 
That brings the nodding head and drooping eye. 
Such is the sermon, dress'd in classic lore, 
Of dogmas metaphysical, a store. 

The congregation sit at gapish ease ; ' 

Most prize the skill the preacher has to please ; 
His borrowed phrases some extol, and say, 
*'How eloquent our speaker was to-day ; 
How fine his dress, how polished was his air, 
Profound his sermon, copious his prayer." 
But there are those whose souls refuse to eat 
Such frothy food, such stale, unsav'ry meat; 
The bread of Life alone can satisfy ; 
They leave the place without the wished supply. 
Sinners return, still heedless as they came, 
Unaw'd, to revel in their guilt and shame. 
Their hearts untouched, they feel themselves secure, 
Sleep o'er their doom, and seal perdition sure. 
"Go preach the gospel" — what is the intent? 
T' reform the sinner, lead him to repent. 
Will empty words the profane cause to pray, 
Or turn the wicked from an evil way ? 
Tremble, such watchmen ! Hear what God commands : 
"Warn ye the wicked !" Will ye brace their hands, 
Flatter their hopes, thus pamper lustful will ; 
Deal anodynes, and see them slumber still? 
Watchmen, awake ! the fearful warning sound, 
Lest blood of sinners on your skirts be found ! 
. Oh, for a Cowper's muse, or Pollok's pen. 
To paint the minister of God to men ! 
One whose example sheds a radiant light, 
Amidst a sinning world, to guide aright. 
The man whose words and actions harmonize, 
And whom to Imitate is to be wise. 
His mind must be of elevated cast ; 
In native intellect, superior, chaste ; 
Ardent in soul, alive to every good ; 
His heart with living sympathies imbued : 


A daily student, giv'n to thought profound ; 
Slow to decide, but in decision sound ; 
Firmness enough to form stability, 
Yet, of self-confidence, distrustful, free: 
Alike for all he shows a tender care, 
And different grades his social converse share; 
But paramount is piety, sincere. 
The soul regen'rate, and the witness clear; 
Ransom'd from sin through the Redeemer's blood, 
"Born from above," a child and heir of God : 
In mind and will, affection and desire, 
Made "a new creature," clad in love's attire ; 
The Spirit's witness to the soul within 
Of grace extended, and of pardon'd sin. 
Let skeptics rage, and formalists deride, 
Exclaim "delusion !'' in their maddened pride; 
The Christian knows in whom he has believed; 
And not to know is but to be deceived. 
He knows the jjoint at which his soul erst found 
The sov'reign balm that heals sin's deadly wound: 
He knows the point where God to him revealed 
His pardoning mercy, and that pardon sealed 
Upon his soul, by his own Spirit's power — 
A child of grace from that immortal hour; 
Nor time, nor years, nor distance can erase 
The inward witness of that child of grace! 
With mind imbued with meditative thought. 
He reads in Nature s book what there is taught; 
Viewing God s bounty strewed on every hand, 
He seeks each providence to understand. 
Hours of retirement are to him most sweet, 
And oft he seeks some quiet lone retreat. 
Where bustling scenes no more attract the eye. 
The world departs, and none but God is nigh, 
Low on his knees, in secret, humble prayer, 
He pleads for aid, invokes a Father's care, 
That heavenly wisdom may inspire his soul. 
Direct his efforts, and his powers control. 
There, thoughts, by meditation, are refined, 


Clust'ring in beauty in his ardent mind; 
Ideas rise, in heavenly luster drest, 
To feed new ardor strugglicg in his breast : 
His field of effort, rising to his view. 
Inspires his soul the conflict to renew. 
On Sabbath morn, his mind in labor prest, 
Feels the day's task weigh on his anxious breast: 
His soul's desires awaken inward pain : 
'*Lord, shall the labor of this day be vain? 
Or shall the sheep and lambs of Christ be fed 
With living water and with living bread? 
Oh ! let thy word bear thine own sacred seal, 
And sinners, by its power, be made to feel ! " 
His soul, fresh-armed, is fitted for the task; 
Emptied of self, no high display would ask. 
Dead, both to censure and to vain applause, 
He leaves his own to plead his Master's cause: 
Stripped for the work, he thrusts poor self behind. 
And holds Christ up before the anxious mind. 
Him, as "the way," he draws in lines of light, 
And shows how works with living faith unite; 
While his examples mark a shining way. 
He says to Christians, " Imitate, obey," 
By self-denial, watchfulness, and prayer. 
Daily protected 'gainst each deadly snare 
Thirsting for holiness and growth in grace, 
An onward progress in the heavenly race, 
With moral duties free from selfish art. 
He presses home on every Christian heart ; 
Then paints that zeal that fires the ardent soul, 
While faith points upward to the heavenly goal; 
Dwells on that hope that triumphs o'er the tomb, 
Stripping death's valley of its dreary gloom ; 
Still upward cheers to realms of living light, 
Where end forever sorrow, death, and night; 
Where pains are lost in everlasting joy, 
And scenes of bliss immortal powers employ. 
Each sentence feeds and animates desire; 
The saints rejoice, and catch ecstatic fire. 
No empty dream, but God's assurance true, 


Opens a halo to faith's rapt'rous view ; 
Lifts mind and thought from earth and time away, 
To press the portals of eternal day ! 
The preacher pauses — 'tis a pause profound, 
'Midst solemn awe that sits on all around ! 
With mellow voice he scans the depths of sio, 
Bidding the sinner turn his eyes within; 
He paints the death that chains the carnal mind; 
Tears off the veil that renders sinners blind ; 
Portrays the enmity of wayward souls, 
The selfish will that all their acts controls ; 
Shows God long-suff'ring, merciful, and kind, 
And rebel man to his best int'rest blind; 
With eyes upraised, he paints with solemn awe 
The guilty rebel and the broken law ! 
What moving accents fall upon the ear ; 
What warm entreaties do the wayward hear 
To leave their sins, forsake the daug'rous way, 
Fly to life's ark, and enter while they may ! 
With open door he urges, there is room ; 

To enter in and 'scape the rebel's doom ! • 

Such warning falls not on the ear alone — 
The heart is reached, the conscience made to own 
The language true— the sinner's heart is vile ! 
Mercy is craved: "O, Lord, in mercy smile I 
Forgive our sins, remove the stony heart, 
Pardon the rebel, and thy grace impart ! " 
While some may preach to please the giddy crowd, 
Fawn round the rich, and court the tinseled proud ; 
Seek human praise, and strive for w^orldly fame ; 
Or, like the hero, pant to win a name — 
Efforts like these, unasked in God's own cause, 
May win no portion of high heaven's applause. 
The fawning sycophant, the slave of pride, 
God will despise, though men may not deride. 
I love that man, of warm and ardent soul. 
From whose full heart love's warning accents roll ; 
That man who scorns to cherish servile fear, 
But dares rebuke what pride may dread to hear ; 
Tears off the cov'ring spread o'er secret sin, 


Ohecks coming vices ere they usher in ; 
Holds up the mandates of a righteous law, 
I'hough oppressors quail, and villains shrink with awe. 
IE love that heart where heaven-born pity moves, 
"The soul that its own kindred manhood loves ; 
Who dares to speak when truth had need be told. 
And deal rebuke, though error's march be bold ; 
I Reach forth the hand to raise the crushed and poor, 
And break the chains that pining slaves endure. 
In manhood crushed he sees a kindred dear, 
And th' enslaved may claim his pitying tear. 
The soul besotted in the lures of sin 
From ruin's brink he labor's still to win, 
Seeking to gain the lowest of the base, 
And lead them home to virtue and to grace. 
The suffering sick may claim in him a friend, 
And visits oft, some kindly aid to lend. 
With tender words he soothes the suff 'rer's mind, 
Teaching, though God afflicts, he still is kind ; 
Showing how piety may arm the soul 
To meet each ill that man may not control ; 
That 'neath stern Providence the truth still lies, 

"Afflictions oft are mercies in disguise," 
By him controlled who errs not in behest. 
And in his gifts dispenses for the best ; 
Then lifts to heaven the deep, impressive prayer, 
That God may pity, and in mercy spare ; 
The sick one raise, his name to glorify. 
And fit the soul to dwell in bliss on high. 
A scene more dark in the abode of woe — 
Relentless death has laid his victim low : 
There sufF'ring wrings the agonizing tear 
Of kindred mourners o'er some kindred dear. 
Impressive scene ! sad destiny of man ! 
Where all alike a common fate may scan, 
Eye the dread point to which their footsteps tend, 
And canvass life's frail period to its end. 
Calm in the midst the man of God appears 
To sympathize with the bereaved in tears ; 
With mellow voice to urge this solemn call. 


And bid the living eye the fate of all. 

Dear friend of man, who labors thus for good I 

Oh, bright example! hard to be withstood, 

Though some may shun, but few will dare deride; 

Where conscience owns, the truth will live to chide. 

Knowing the man, most venerate his name ; 

Though some may slander, /ew will dare to blame. ; 

The man of God, of soul upright, sincere. 

All in the end will honor and revere. 

As onward passing through life's pilgrimage, 

His name and mark are stamped upon the age, 

And there will stand like the bright beacon-light 

That sheds its rays upon the breast of night. 

The saving influence of his life shall last 

Long after all his ardent toils are past. 

Dear is his name, to thousands fondly dear. 

And on his grave shall fall affection's tear. 

His warfare closed, his earthly race is run; 

The battle fought, and endless vict'ry won; 

His heavenly Father claims him as his own. 

Frees him from earth, and sets him near his throne. 


Scenes around me wake reflection; 

Heaven and earth, and sea and air. 
Teach a God who claims subjection 

In the creatures of his care. 
8ee creation, how it preaches! 

Can its language be withstood? 
Nature's volume amply teaches 

There's a God, and God is good. 

O'er the lawn I've roved at morning, 
Viewed his tasty hand displayed ; 

Seen of flowers the fields adorning, 
Every tint and every shade. 


When the grove I sought in sadness, 
Pensive trod the quiet wood, 

Feathered songsters, in their gladness, 
Seemed to warble, Ood is good. 

'Midst the storm of pealing thunder, 

Lightnings flashed in frightful glare. 
I have stood in maze and wonder, 

Seen his hand in power there. 
Calm again, in rapture gazing 

Where the tinseled rainbow stood 
On that arch, in letters blazing. 

Glowed the language, God is good. 

When beside the mighty ocean, 

Where its lashing surges roar, 
I have watched its wild commotion 

As it broke along the shore ; 
Ocean's voice, in awful roaring, 

Bore the echo where I stood ; 
Mortal, bow, thy God adoring ; 

Own his greatness : God is good. 

Winter's blast proclaims his power ; 

Spring ena-meled speaks his reign ; 
Goodness shines in Summer's dower ; 

Bounty swells in Autumn's grain. 
Seasons preach a God of kindness. 

Warm the heart to gratitude ; 
Every soul not sunk in blindness 

Joins the chorus : God is good. 

Orient Morn awakes with grandeur, 

Spreads his glory o'er the sky ; 
Evening twilight gilds in splendor 

Distant objects to the eye. 
Day and Night, in voice combining, 

Speak a language understood ; 
While the sparkling heavens, shining. 

Sing in grandeur, God is good. 


TheD, frail man, in adoration, 

Bow submissive to his will ; 
Own the God of wide creation : 

Cease thy murmurs ! Peaoe, be still ! 
Goodness shines in all before us, 

Calls for praise and gratitude ; 
Each fond heart should swell the chorus: 

Ood is good ; yes, God is good. 


How tranquil this moment, when freed from commotion 

And cares that perplexed me through six busy days ; 
The season's well suited to mental devotion : 

I think of God's goodness, and breathe forth his praise. 
Thro' the week many dangers around me have crowded; 

To evils, how many have fallen a prey ; 
Jehovah's pavillion my soul has enshrouded ; 

His Spirit has led me the straight narrow way. 

I cast back a look on the week now departed, 

Retracing my footsteps in search of each ill ; 
'Tis grace that has kept me, or I had deserted 

The cause of religion, and God's righteous will. 
But praises be given to him for protection. 

For watching my footsteps, and guarding my way ; 
With heart overflowing and warm with affection, 

I'll speak of his goodness by night and by day. 

This week, then, I'll close with renewed resolution 

My remnant of time in his service to spend ; 
When life shall advance to its last diminution, 

I'll hail with composure my toils at an end. 
Should God, through another week, deign to protect me 

'Midst life's busy cares, be they heavy or light, 
The thoughts of his goodness each day shall affect me, 

And urge me to praise him each Saturday night. 



Her canvas was spread, and the slave-ship was riding 
Majestic and grand o'er the ocean's blue waves ; 

While, in hoarse threat'ning language, the master was 
The tears of his cargo, the wails of the slaves. 

The moonbeams fell clear on the breast of the ocean; 

The stars sparkled bright in the azure-blue sky ; 
While gentle breeze wafted the ship, in its motion, 

Toward the land of oppressors, their marts to supply. 

On the deck stood an African chief, now degraded, 
Once master of thousands wh' obey'd his control; 

Though whelmed in disaater, his prospects now faded, 
His visage and mien showed a greatness of soul. 

Though chains of oppression and manacles bound him^ 
Uncrushed was his spirit, in thought he was free; 

He looked with disdain on the tyrants around him. 
And swore ne'er to bow to oppressors a knee. 

He thought of his country, the home of his childhood, 

His wife and his children, again and again; 
The cot where they dwelt, near an African wild wood, 
, Then thought of disasters, till crazed was his brain. 

"No, never! " he cried, "shall the white man possess me; 

I will not be bought nor be sold as a slave : 
Their scourge shall not drive, nor their fetters oppress me, 

While release can be found in a watery grave. 

♦You wept, my dear Yarrow, I know, when we parted. 
When I pressed my two babes and yourself to my breast; 

Perhaps, since my fall, ye have sunk broken-hearted, 
And gone from your sorrows to dwell with the blest. 

"There, soon shall we meet, for this night shall release me 
From the grasp of oppressors, from slavery's chain; 

My wife and my children again shall caress me; 
We meet where a parting shall ne'er come again." 


He spake, and a plunge in the ocean before hioi 
Told tyrants that death to a slave is relief; 

Then softly the white-crested billow rolled o'er him, 
And fled from their grasp was the African chief. 


Mysterious lake, thou dark Dead Sea! 

While standing on thy sterile brink, 
Dread scenes of ages shadow thee, 

To bid the wand'rer pause and think ! 
Jehovah gave thee bound and form. 
Midst earthquake shock and fiery storm ! 

Thy sullen waters press their bed. 

Where erst in bloom spread Sodona's plain ; 
And thy dark, gloomy waves now spread 

Where cities smiled midst Flora's reign. 
Here bloomed Gomorrah in her pride, 
And there stood Sodom by her side. 

But whelmed in vice those cities stood, 
Till damning sins their fate had sealed, 

When wrath, in one avenging flood, 
Jehovah's awful arm revealed. 

Jordan rolled back in one deep wave, 


Thou art gone, my dear mother, life's conflicts are ended, 
Thy cares and thy sorrows are now at a close ; 

Thy ransom'd-freed soul to its home has ascended, 
And thy fair earthly form lies in death's calm repose. 


Thou art gone, and 'tis well, for thou mayest not linger 
Where cares and adversities darken life's way ; 

Where even our joys, touched by sorrow's cold finger. 
Urge tears of regret to embitter our stay. 

Thine eyes were turned upward, descrying the dwelling 
Where sorrow and sin can no longer be known ; 

Where seraphim lips their glad anthems are swelling. 
And a halo of brightness encircles the zone. 

But I miss thee, dear mother, in sorrow, dejection ; 

I miss thy fond smiles, and thine accents so dear : 
The counsels thou gav'st with such warmth of afi'ection 

Have guided my path midst life's checkered career. 

How much do I owe thee, thou dear one departed, 

For all that I am, and for all I may be ! 
Of precepts thou gav'st, when life's journey I started, 

Their saving restraints are a debt owed to thee. 

If, on visits to earth, thy fond spirit can meet me. 
If a mother's warm love may still glow in thy breast, 

In angelic whispers, each night, oh then greet me ! 
Still guide thy frail son to the land of the blest. 

I shall meet thee again by the side of life's river, 
In regions of bliss, where no pain can annoy ; 

Where parting and sorrow and tears are known never, 
And desire is lost in the fullness of joy. 


Enchanting muse ! we must not part, 
For still I love thee fondly well ; 

Thou soother of this throbbing heart, 
Together let us dwell. 

•Written quite late in life. 


Thy winning smile has cheered me oft, 
When sadness twined around my heart ; 

Thy syren voice, so sweet, so soft, 
Bade all my gloom depart. 

Forgive me, that I ever sought 

To quench thine own ecstatic fire; 
Forgive me, that I ever thought 

To throw away the lyre. 

In wakeful hours at dead of night, 
A charm around me thou hast thrown, 

And fair aurora's blushing light 
Seemed blended with thine own. 

In field, in grove, by sylvan stream, 
Where warblers sing or fishes glide. 

Oft hast thou waked poetic dream. 
And soothing magic plied. 

And while I wander here below. 
Be Nature's breathless works a theme : 

Her mountains, vales, and flowers that grow 
Along the winding streams. 

And oft when thoughts ascend the sky. 
Go thou, my muse, and lead the wa^-; 

We'll range eh'sian fields on high. 
In light of fadeless day ! 

Then say, my muse, we will not part, 

While thee I love so fondly well ; 
Be near to soothe my throbbing heart 

And let me with thee dwell. 



The subject of baptism bas long been a source of 
familiar discussion. Within a few years, it has 
assumed among our pedobaptist brethren an inter- 
est not unworthy of remark. Formerly, great con- 
cessions were made by learned men in relation to 
the Greek word baptizo. The leading theologians 
admitted freely that "immerse" was its classical 
meaning, and that immersion was probably the 
practice of the primitive churches. The result of 
this was, large accessions were made to denomina- 
tions which held baptism to be immersion only. It 
was found that church -tnembers were becoming 
very lax in bringing their children forward to be 
sprinkled; and finally that the admission that an- 
cient baptism was immersion, was like to produce 
fearful dissentions, or force into- certain churches an 
innovation on an established rite. The result has 
been an effort to prove that baptizo does not sim- 
ply mean to immerse, but that it is a generic term, 
signifying to clease or purify. 

*Published by the Christian Tract Society, Union Mills, 
New York, October, 1845. 


This point, however, can be easily set at rest, by 
an appeal to the use of the word baptizo in the 
Greek language. In the Greek classics, in the writ- 
ings of Josephus, in the medical writings of Hip- 
pocrates, and also in the writings of Zenophon, it 
is uniformly employed as a specific term for immer- 
sion. As it might not be interesting to many read- 
ers to here quote passages from the above-named 
authors, I will come immediately to early Christian 

First: I then call on early Christians to inform 
us how they understood the word. Barnabas, who 
was cotemporary with the apostles, says: "We 
descend into the water and come out of it." Her- 
mas declares: " Men descend into the water bound 
to death, but ascend out of it sealed to life." Jus- 
tin Martyr says: "We present our Lord's sufferings 
and resurrection by baptism in a pool." Justin 
Martyr was a convert of the apostle John. Tertul- 
lian says : "We are immersed in water. Peter im- 
mersed in the Tiber." In the Apostolic Constitu- 
tions it is written : " Baptism relates to the death of 
Christ; the water answers to the grave, the immer- 
sion represents our dying with him, the emersion 
our rising with him." To the same import spoke 
Clement of Alexandria, Cyrel of Jesrusalem, Basil, 
.Gregory, Chrysostom, Theodoret, and others. 

Second: I appeal to modern German critics, who 
may be regarded as the highest authorities in lan- 
guage and antiquities. J^eander in his church his- 
tory says: "Baptism was originally immersion." 
The same is emphatically admitted by Mosheim in 


his Ecclesiastical History, Volume I. Tboluck, on 
Komans VI. 4, says: "In order to understand the 
figurative use of baptism, we must bear in mind the 
well-known fact, that the candidate in the primitive 
church was immersed in water, and raised out of it 
again." Schleusner, in his lexicon, on the word 
'^baptisma," says : " Those who were to be baptized 
were anciently immersed." Phienweld's Archaeol- 
ogy declares: "Immersion was the original apos- 
tolic practice." Much more might be quoted from 
the same source. 

Third: I appeal to the Greek Church. Who can 
doubt that the Greeks better understand their own 
language than any other nation ! Alexander de 
Stourdza, a wrijcer of the Greek Church, in a work 
published at Studgard, in 1816, speaking of bap- 
tism, says: "The western church has done violence, 
both to the word and the idea, by practicing bap- 
tism by aspersion, the very enunciation of which is 
a ludicrous contradiction." In truth, the word bap- 
tizo signifies, literally and perpetually, to immerse. 
When I was in the city of Smyrna, in 1842, 1 heard 
more than once similar statements made by Greeks 
with whom I had intercourse. On my passage home, 
on board the same vessels^ was a Greek gentleman, 
who was a native of the Morea. He had been to 
the United States before, had received an English 
education, and had graduated at Yale College. I 
inquired of him as follows : "If you were to translate 
the word baptizo, what English word would you 
use?" His reply was: "I know not how often I 
had that question asked me while I was in colleg^e, 


but I always told those who asked it, that it was 
perfect nonsense to call it in English any thing but 
immerse or bury; so I tell you now, baptism in 
Greek means immersion, and nothing else." The 
Greek Church has never practiced any thing for 
baptism but immersion, and contend that the Greek 
Testament teaches no other mode. ^ 

Fourtb: I appeal to other distinguished scholars 
in support of my position. Beza says: "Christ 
commanded us to be baptized, by which word it is 
certain immersion is signified." Vitrinasays: "The 
act of baptizing is the immersion of believers in 
water. This expresses the force of the word." Zan- 
chus says: "The proper signification is to immerse, 
plunge under, or overwhelm in water." Witsius 
says : "It can not be denied, that the native signifi- 
cation of the word baptize is to plunge, or to dip.'^ 
Dr. George Campbell, of Aberdeen, says : " The word 
baptize, both in sacred authors and in classical, sig- 
nifies to dip, to plunge, to immerse." It is always 
construed suitably to this meaning. 

Finally, the Roman Catholics themselves do not 
contend that sprinkling for baptism was taught 
either by Christ or his apostles. " The mode," say 
they, "was changed by a general council, and we 
consider decisions and instructions of general coun- 
cils always binding on the church." This senti- 
ment in relation to infant baptism, and the mode, is 
admitted by Dr. "Walters, of Philadelphia, in his 
sketch of the Roman Catholic Church, as inserted 
in the "History of the Religious Denominations 
now existins: in the United States." 


From this brief examination of the subject, the 
important fact is arrived at, that the classical mean- 
ing of the Greek word baptizo is '* immerse," and 
nothing less. This fact established, a most conclu- 
sive point is gained in governing the whole contro- 
versy. My next business is to examine Scripture 
authority. , 

All the important ancient oriental versions of 
the new Testament render baptizo by a word which 
signifies to immerse. Among these are the Syriac, 
(the oldest existing translation from the original 
Greek,) the Armenian, the Coptic, the Arabic, and 
the Ethiopic. This being the fact, it is at once seen 
that the overwhelming weight of authority is on 
the side of immersion. 

I now assert that immersion alone is appropriate 
to the design of the ordinance. .Baptism exhibits, 
in emblem, the resurrection of Jesus Christ; which 
is ever to be kept in sight as a leading gospel truth. 
Paul says: "If Christ be not risen, then is our 
preaching vain, and your faith is also vain." The 
resurrection of Christ was the confirmation of his 
doctrine, and the consummation of his finish- 
ed work. Hence, it was a leading theme in the 
ministry of the apostles. Am I asked for evidence 
that the rite of baptism symbolized the resurrection 
of Christ? The apostle Peter, in speaking of the 
family of IToah saved by water, makes a transition 
to baptism, and says that "in like figure baptism 
doth now save us, by the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ." I. Peter III. 21. Here baptism figuratively 
saves us as a memorial of the resurrection of Christ, 


by which we are really saved. I^oah and his fam- 
ily were saved by water coming forth, as it were, 
from a grave of w^ater,in which all the w^orld beside 
were buried. Believers are saved by the resurrec- 
tion of Jesns Christ. But his resurrection is sym- 
bolized in the act of baptism; and, hence, in like 
manner, by water, w^e are figuratively saved. 
Neitlier sprinkling nor pouring can symbolize this 
fact. Immersion is the only proper memorial ot 
Christ's resurrection, and this fact gives to baptism 
beauty, force, and value. Baptism not only sym- 
bolizes the resurrection of Christ, but also his burial ; 
and on this point the apostle Paul is admirably ex- 
plicit: "Buried wnth him in baptism, wherein also 
ye are risen with him through the faith of the 
operation of God, who hath raised him from tlie 
dead." CoUossians ii. 12. Again: " Therefore v\^e 
are buried with him by baptism into death; that 
like as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory 
of the Father, even so we should w^alk in new- 
ness of life. For if we have been planted together 
in the likeness of his death,- we shall be also in the 
likeness of his resurrection." Romans vi. 4, 5. 

I am aware that some pedobaptists assert that 
only spiritual baptism is alluded to in both the above 
passages. This I deny. The ordinance of water 
baptism is specially alluded to. The learned Dr. 
James Macknight, in his notes on the epistles, 
though a Scotch Presbyterian, does not withhold 
the truth on these passages, although against his 
own creed. On CoUossians ii. 12, he remarks: 
"Their belief of that great miracle [the resurrection 


of Christ] is justly represented as the means whereby 
they are raised ont of the water of baptism new 
creatures, who are, like Christ, to be raised at the 
last day to an eternal life in the body." On Romans 
VI. 4, he remarks : " Christ's baptism was not the 
baptism of repentance, for he never committed sin ; 
but, at the beginning, he submitted to be baptized — 
that is, to be buried under the water by John, to be 
raised out of it again, as an emblem of his future 
death and resurrection. In like manner the bap- 
tism of believers is emblematical of their own death, 
burial, and resurrection." 

IsTow, a believer in immersion could scarcely be 
expected to give better comments on the above 
passages. But remarks of Dr. Macknight are tbe 
more valuable because forced from one whose creed 
adopted sprinkling for baptism. Adam Clarke was 
also compelled to admit, in substance, the same 
things on these passages, is'ot only so, but, in my 
judgment, every honest critic and well-informed 
student of the Bible must admit that these passages 
plainly teach baptism to be immersion. In what 
sense can sprinkling or pouring represent being 
buried with Christ in baptism, and being raised to 
newness in life? 

A portion of the Corinthian church had become 
skeptical in relation to the resurrection of the dead. 
Paul, in his first epistle to them, argues at some 
length to prove there would be a resurrection, and, 
among other things, introduces baptism. "Else 
what shall they do who are baptized for the dead, 
if the dead rise not at all, why are they then bap- 


tized for the dead?" I. Coriiitlnaus xv. 29. This 
passa^^e has been tortured into as many meanings 
as almost any passage in the whole Bible, especially 
by those who assert sprinkling for baptism. And 
finally, some, to save their own theory on baptism, 
have asserted that it was impossible to determine the 
apostle's meaning. To me the meaning is simple 
and plain. Macknight renders it: "What shall 
those do who are baptized for the resurrection of 
the dead?" As much as if the apostle had said: 
Will they deny their own baptism? They were 
baptized for a representation of the resurrection of 
the dead. What will they do? Will they now 
throw away their baptism ? Baptism is immersion — 
a burial and resurrection. If there be no resurrec- 
tion of the dead, why is the resurrection of the dead 
symbolized in the ordinance of baptism ? Here is 
readily seen the adaptedness of the emblem to the 
apostle's design. But this is entirely lost if bap- 
tism is sprinkling or pouring. 

Certain accounts given in the Xew Testament of 
baptizings carry convincing evidence that the ordi- 
nance was administered by immersion. And here 
the baptism of our Lord is in point: "Jesus came 
from iSTazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John 
in Jordan. And straightway coming out of the 
water he saw the heavens opened." Mark i. 9, 10. 
It is not asserted that he was baptized at or beside 
Jordan, but "in Jordan." jS'ow, as we have seen 
that the classical meaning of baptizo is immerse, all 
attempts at equivocation in relation to our English 
translation is wholly futile and fallacious. If our 


Lord was immersed, he must have gone into the 
^vater, and consequently must have come up out of 
the water. He would not have gone into the water 
to be sprinkled, or to have a small quantity of water 
poured on him. Nor will the assertion that John's 
baptism was not a gospel institution answer for 
argument. In all tbings our Lord was the gospel 
pattern. Mark records it: ''The bci^inning of the 
gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God; John did 
baptize in the wilderness." Luke records: "The 
law and the prophets were until John; since that 
time the kingdom of God is preached." 

I have heard it asserted that the River Jordan is 
a very insignificant stream, scarcely more than ankle 
deep. Such assertions, however, only betray the 
ignorance of those who make them. I visited the 
Jordan in 1842, and was at the consecrated place 
w^here tradition fixes the scene of our Savior's bap- 
tism. I judged the river, at that place, to be about 
one hundred feet wide, with a sloping bank on the 
w^est side, and a gradual descent into the water. I 
could but see the adaptedness of the place for the 
scene of our Lord's baptism, as recorded by the 

"John also was baptizing in Enon, near to Salim, 
because there was much water there." John iii. 
23. Mark the language: "baptizing because there 
was much water there." Why does not the class- 
ical use of baptizo read as well in this place as any 
other meaning? Try it. "John was also immer- 
sing in Enon, because there was much water there." 


Why the necessity of resorting to a place where 
there was much water, if only enough to sprinkle 
or pour was necessary ? The baptism of the eunuch 
is another instance equally in point. "And they 
went down both into the water, both Philip and 
the eunuch: and he baptized him." Acts viii. 38. 
How trifling are such pleas as the following: " It is 
not said, ^Here is a sufficient depth of water;' but 
simply, ^ See, here is water,' which might have been 
a rivulet or spring." But suppose, too, that it 
might be a deep stream. It certainly may have 
been. If baptizo means immersion, we are sure 
the eunuch was immersed in his baptism. This 
fact is conclusive evidence that the water was deep 
enough for the purpose. 

But it is contended that the Greek preposition 
eis does not always mean "into," and that Philip and 
the eunuch merely went to the water. ^N'ow this ob- 
jection contains the elements of its own destruction ; 
for it admits that "into" is the usual signification. 
Of course it must have this sense, unless the nature 
of the case requires it to be differently employed. 
■Would it be sufficient to sustain the assertion, to 
simply say the word may be employed in some other 
sense ? It must be proved, beyond a doubt, to have 
some other sense in this case. Is it impossible to 
believe that Philip and the eunuch did both actu- 
ally go down into the water ? !N"o ; for Philip bap- 
tized or immersed the eunuch, according to the 
classical meaning of the word baptizo. 

Having ascertained beyond all dispute, that the 
classical meaning of baptizo is " immerse," I insist 


that this meaning should be given to it in the jSTew 
Testament, unless the connection or nature of the 
case clearly shows that it must be used in a differ- 
ent se.ise. If the writers of the ITew Testament use 
the term in the classical sense, then all discussion is 
at an end. If they do not, imperative reasons must 
be produced to show that they employ it in a differ- 
ent sense. How, then, is it to be proved that this 
word in thel!Tew Testament does not mean immer- 
sion? We are referred to Hebrews ix. 10 : " Which 
stood only in meats and drinks and diverse v^ashings 
[baptisms] and carnal ordinances." It is urged that 
''diverse baptisms" mean the sprinklings under the 
law ; but this is taking for granted what yet remains 
to hi proved. 

Under the law, persons and things were immersed, 
and "carnal ordinances" embrace all the rest of 
the purifications. If the passage had been trans- 
late 1 ''diverse immersions," would it not have ac- 
corded with the fact ? Stark observes that the bap- 
tisms with the Jews were not by sprinkling, but in 
addition to washing the whole body, an entire im- 
mersion. The Hebrew word can not possibly signify 
sprinkling. The Jews bathed before entering the 
temple, or synagogue ; and when the early Christian 
writers treat of Jewish purification, they always 
distinguish immersion from sprinkling. 

Luke XI. 38 is appealed to: "And when the 
Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first 
washed [baptized] before dinner." This is asserted 
to relate to the ^vashing of the hands, but it is a 
mistake. Whenever the word is used, without spe- 


cifyiog any particular part, the whole body is in- 
tended. To use the bath before dinner was a com- 
mon practice in eastern countries, and is at the pres- 
ent day. I could but notice the customs of fre- 
quent bathings during my travels in Palestine, as 
well as baths for that purpose. The Pharisees on 
some occasions would not dine without first bath- 
ing. Of course it would be expected of Jesus, on 
account of his superior sanctity. 

Another example is pre>sented in Mark vii. 3, 4 : 
^'Except they wash their hands oft, eat not. And 
when they come from market, except they wash 
[baptize] they eat not." Now why use two difi:erent 
terms, the one in relation to the hands, meaning to 
wash, and the other to immerse? If the hands only 
are intended in both places, it is trifling to su[)p()se 
that the first was washing by pouring water on the 
hands, and the second was washing by dipping the 
hands in water! The latter, then, must allude to 
the whole body. But does not baptizo signify to 
wash as in our translation? No; dipping is the 
thing properly meant. 

"And many other things there be which they 
have received to hold, as the- washing [immersing] 
of cups and pots, and brazen vessels, and tables — 
properly couches on which they reclined at meals. 
Now, it so happens that all these articles, except the 
last, were, by the levitical law, to be dipped. (See 
Leviticus xi. 32.) That a people so superstitious as 
the Jews, and so attached to traditions, should have 
put the couches on which they reclined at meals, 


and even their beds into water, in certain cases of 
HDcleanness, would by no means be strange. 

The figurative application of the word baptizo is 
appealed to in order to show that it can not mean 
immersion. The passage of the Israelites through 
the Red Sea, and their baptism unto Moses in the 
cloud and the sea, is quoted. It is asserted that the 
Israelites were sprinkled by rain from the cloud and 
spray from the sea. What, rain from the cloud 
which was a pillar of fire by night! How improb- 

But the principal figure on which the opponents 
of immersion rely, is the baptism of the Holy Ghost, 
In this the Holy Spirit is said to be poured out, and 
henccj say they, to represent this pouring of the 
Spirit, baptism must represent pouring. But here 
is a law given too absurd to command my assent. 
It is this : that the figurative application determines 
the literal meaniug of the word. IsTow let our op- 
ponents abide by their own law. The Holy Spirit 
is represented in its influences as the blowing of 
the wind. Baptism, therefore, means to blow. The 
influence is represented as anointing with oil. Bap- 
tism, therefore, means to anoint with oil. 'Now 
what sensible man will not repudiate a law which 
forever renders language unintelligible ! 

But to settle this point at once, let us refer to the 
baptism of the Holy Ghost on the^day of pentecost: 
"And when pentecost was fully come, they [the dis- 
ciples] were all with one accord in one place. And 
suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a 
rushing, mighty wind, and it filled all the house 


where they were sitting." Acts ii. 1, 2. iSTow by 
the time the Holy Spirit filled all the house where 
these one hundred and twenty disciples were sitting, 
they were immersed in the Spirit. This is reason- 
able as well as certain. But is not the baptism 
of the Spirit represented as the pouring of the 
Spirit? Not at all. This is confounding terms en- 
tirely different. The Spirit was poured out that 
those disciples might be immersed in the Spirit; 
but the pouring was not the immersion. 

I insist that in all these passages there is no 
weighty reason for using the term baptizo out of its 
classical meaning. But I wish to remove certain 
embarrassments thrown in the way of immersion, 
asserted to be involved in the ^N'ew-Testament his- 
tory. In the case of Cornelius and his friends, it is 
said, there is the same reason to conclude that they 
were baptized in the house, as that they heard Peter 
preach in the house. But what is that reason? 
"Why, Peter copimanded them to be baptized in the 
name of the Lord. But suppose he commanded 
them to be immersed, what then? Why, then, they 
were immersed in a suitable place. Cesarea wa§ 
situated on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, 
where there was ''much water." 

The case of the Philippian jailer is urged by some 
as evidence against immersion. "It is not likely," 
say they, "that the jailer and all his house would 
leave the prison and go away, we know not how far, 
to seek water for immersion at that time of night." 
But there is no trouble here. Tliat there was a 
river at Philippi is very certain, for Lydia, a seller 


of purple, was converted there ])y tlie side of a 
river. Besides all this, in every eastern jail, at this 
day, there is a large tank or pool in which the 
prisoners bathe. That immersion was possible, is 
sufficient for my purpose. 

The case of three thousand baptized on the day 
of pentecost, is offered as a serious difficulty. It is 
urged that this number could not be immersed in a 
city badly supplied with w^ater as w^as Jerusalem. 
'Now, I deny that Jerusalem was then, or is now, 
badly supplied with water. , I spent nine days in 
and around that city. There are there the two 
pools of Gib on, the pool of Hezekiah, the pool 
of Eethesda, and the pool of Siloam. All these 
are large, and w^ell suited for baptizing. Besides 
these, the Brook Kedron is there. Though in the 
hot season its bed is dr}^, yet in certain seasons 
it is a very considerable stream. The season of 
pentecost Avas the right season for this, and it is 
probable that the baptizing was in the Kedron. 

But it is asserted that there could not have been 
more than six hours spent in the w^ork, and three 
thousand could not be immersed in that time. Now, 
if there had been only the apostles to officiate, they 
would each have two hundred and fifty to immerse, 
and this could easily have been done in three hours; 
but the number of disciples together was one hun- 
dred and twenty, and it can scarcely be supposed 
that the seventy, formerly sent out by Christ, were 
absent at a time when the disciples were waiting at 
Jerusalem for the promise of the Holy Spirit. These 
would have made the number of administrators 


eighty-one or eighty-two, ^and about thirty-seven 
candidates for each. These could have baptized 
three thousand in less than forty minutes. 

In closing my remarks on this point, I would 
say that the word bajytizo must either perpetually 
mean to immerse, or it can never have that mean- 
ing at all. Immersion in our language expresses 
mode, and any word which expresses mode can 
not express two modes. If this word means to im- 
merse, it can not mean to sprinkle or pour, because 
these modes are essentially different from each other, 
and. have 'nothing in common. This is a position 
which challenges every attempt at a refutation. 
There stands thewordinits original classical mean- 
ing, and in all the lexicons of any merit in existence 
it is to ''immerse." If any practice commanded in 
the gospel can be clearly ascertained, it is that of 
baptism. My next business will be to show who 
are the subjects of this ordinance. 

At the present day all denominations admit that 
believers are the proper subjects of this ordinance; 
But if this be really the fact, must not unbelievers, 
^Vhether young or old, be regarded as not the sub- 
jects of baptism? This certainly must be the fact, 
unless an exception can be proved in the case of 
infants. Can such an exception be proved? This 
is the present subject of examination. 

I venture to assert that believers only are the 
proper subjects of baptism. For a portion of proof 
I appeal to the grand commission given by our 
Lord and Savior : ''Go ye, th,erefore, teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 


and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost — teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have com- 
manded you." Another evangelist records the com- 
mission : " Go ye into all the world, and preach the 
gospel to every creature; he that believeth and is 
baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth not 
shall be damned." Now, in comformity to this 
commission, believers or disciples were to be bap- 
tized, and it is certain that unbelievers can not be 
included in this law. Is it not self-evident that 
believers only can be the subjects of a rite which is' 
enjoined on believers only? If, indeed, another 
law could be shown, in conformity to which infants 
were to be baptized, or if the duty could be made 
out clearly by inference, it would not aftect this com- 
mission. By the imperative law of this commis- 
sion every person who believes, whether baptized 
in infancy or not, is required to submit to this ordi- 

Infant baptism claims to include the necessity 
of such being baptized after they become believers. 
As far, then, as infant baptism prevails, the com- 
mission of our Lord in relation to believers must be 
abolished. Think of this seriously, ye advocates of 
infant baptism. The apostle Peter defines the 
object of baptism in such a way as to show that it 
can not belong to infants. He says that baptism is 
'^not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but 
the answer of a good conscience toward God." I. 
Peter ni. 21. Now, in determining who is a right- 
ful subject of baptism, two important things are 
specified. First: The individual must have a con- 


science to answer. What conscience has the un- 
conscious infant? Just none at all. Second: The 
subject of baptism must have a good conscience. 
This can not be said of an infant who has no con- 
science at all, nor can it be said of an unregenerate 
person. Paul defines the right conscience in con- 
nection with baptism. "Having our hearts sprink- 
led from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed 
[Greek, baptized] with pure water." Hebrews x. 22. 
Have your hearts sprinkled by the blood of Jesus 
Christ, and then your bodies baptized with pure 
water. This is the gospel mode. A subject of bap- 
tism must have a conscience — a good conscience; 
and baptism is to answer that good conscience. Can 
this be said of an infant? jS^o; verily. May not 
the baptism of an infant answer the good conscience 
of the parent or guardian? No; for baptism is the 
voluntary duty of the subject, and duty always ap- 
plies to the individual's own conscience and not 
that of another. 

John's baptism was the baptism of repentance 
unto the remission of sins. He required those who 
came to him for baptism to confess their sins, and 
do works meet for repentance. Can infants repent? 
Can they make confession of sin? It is said, if 
John's baptism required repentance, how could 
Christ submit to it! Admit that Christ could not 
repent because he had no sin, yet the fact is stated 
tbat he was baptized, i^ow, the fact is not stated 
that infants were baptized by John. I care not 
bow manv infants were carried alons: with their 


parents, for the fact remains on record that all those 
of this crowd who were baptized were baptized in 
Jordan, confessing their sins. "Was not Christ of ' 
this crowd? His case is mentioned by itself, and 
forms a glorious exception. 

On the day of pentecost, when so many inquired 
what they should do, Peter said: "Eepent and be 
baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus 
Christ." Believing that Jesus is the Messiah, and 
that you have slain the Lord of glory, repent and 
be baptized, every one of you. Here were conscious 
acts referred to, and conscious duties enforced, 
and all in such a manner that it could not include 
infants. It is equally vain to infer it from the words : 
"The promise is to you and to your children." 
What promise? Why, the gift of the Holy (xhost. 
But this number is limited to " as many as the Lord 
our God shall call." Besides, that promise embraced 
the gift of tongues and prophesying, of which in- 
fants were not capable. 

Philip went down to Samaria and preached Christ 
unto the people; but when they believed Philip, 
preaching the things concerning the kingdom of 
God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were bap- 
tized, both men and women. Acts viii. 12. Every 
one may perceive that it was not necessary to men- 
tion women in this account, for they are included 
as believers. The question occurs : "Why should the 
Holy Spirit have dictated so precisely in relation to 
women, and yet not have said a v/ord about infants, 
if any were baptized ? How conveniently the account 
would have come in: "They were baptized, men, 


women, and children." All controversy might have 
been saved by the addition of a single word. 

The circumstance of little children being brought 
to Jesus, that he might lay his hands on them and 
bless them, as recorded in Matthew xix. 13, is some- 
times appealed to in support of infant baptism. 
For what purpose were these children brought? 
•Why, that our Lord might lay his hands on them 
and pray. And he did lay his hands on them in the 
form of the patriarchal blessing. But was this bap- 
tizing them? "Jesus baptized not, but his disciples." 

The confusion which our opponents make in the 
English language is truly singular. They say that 
infants were once constituted members of the church ; 
but when you examine into the point of this remark 
you find that the Jewish congregation is intended; 
or, in other words, infants belonged to the Jewish 
nation, God's ancient, peculiar people. "What has 
this to do with children belonging to the Christian 
Church ? Were all Jews, in the days of the apostles, 
members of the Christian Church? Certainly not. 

It is frequently urged that infant baptism is in- 
ferable from the baptism of households, mentioned 
in the 'New Testament. It is said there were prob- 
ably infants in those households. Then the argu- 
ment is reduced to a mere probable! But why is 
it probable? Is it because three households could 
not be found without infants in them ? In the course 
of my thirt}^ years' ministry, I have baptized over 
one thousand individuals; and lean now call to mind 
seven whole households w^hicli I have baptized, and 
yet I never baptized an infant in my life. But if I, 


in my limited labors, could baptize seven whole 
households without baptizing infants, is it strange 
that three households should be named in Scripture 
without an infant in them? 

The three households mentioned in the IN'ew Testa- 
ment are those of Stephanus, the jailer, and Lydia. 
Of the first, it is said they had addicted themselves 
to the ministry of the saints. These could not have 
been infants. Of the jailer, it is said : " Paul spake 
the word of the Lord to all that were in his house," 
and "he [the jailer] set meat before them, and re- 
joiced, believing in God with all his house." There 
could not have been infants among these. It is not 
probable that Lydia had any children, for there is 
no evidence that she was married. Then the infer- 
ence from households utterly fails. 

Infant baptism has been inferred from the follow- 
ing passage: "The unbelieving husband is sancti- 
fied by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sancti- 
fied by the husband ; else were your children unclean, 
but now are they holy." I. Corinthians vii. 14. 
When the Jews returned from Babylon they were 
commanded to put away their idolatrous wives. 
Some of the Corinthians seemed to think it was 
their duty to separate from their unbelieving com- 
panions. Paul opposes the idea, and his argument 
is simply this : You have pledged yourselves to each 
other; the contract is lawful, andean not be dissolved. 
You are sanctified or set apart to the ends of con- 
jugal life. If this were not so, then would your 
children be unclean or illegitimate; but as this is 
the fact, your children are legitimate or holy. The 


same word is employed of the unbelieving wife and 
husband as of the children. If, therefore, from this 
holiness of the children their baptism is inferred, 
that of the unbelieving parent may be as certainly 

It is said that the baptism of infants was uni- 
versally held and practiced in the church for several 
hundred years after Jesus Christ. I ailirm that the 
historical evidence is altogether against infant bap- 
tism. The immediate successors of the apostles 
during the first century, whose writings are known, 
were Barnabas, Hermas, Clement, Romanus, Igna- 
tius, and Polycarp. These writers frequently men- 
tion the baptism of believers, but preserve entire 
silence about the baptism of infants. The first his- 
torical evidence which Dr. D wight, and after him 
Professor Woods, of Andover, adduces, is that of 
Justin Martyr, who wrote about the middle of the 
second centary, or about the year 150. He says 
that, among those who weremembers of the church, 
" there were many of both sexes, some sixty, and 
some seventy years old, who were made disciples of 
Christ from their infancy." He uses the very word 
for disciples which our Lord employed in the com- 
mission, and this word involves the idea of instruc- 
tion, ^or does the Greek term used for infancy aid 
the pedobaptists here, for it is the very word which 
describes Eutychus, the young man who fell from 
the third loft while Paul was preaching, and is com- 
monly applied to youth.- They were made disciples 
of Christ from early life. Besides, Justin Martyr 
himself settles all controversy as to his meaning, 


for in another place he says : " We were (corporeally) 
born without our will, but we are not to remain 
children of necessity and ignorance (as to our birth), 
but in baptism are to have choice, knowledge," etc. 

My present limits will not permit me to pursue 
historical testimony from the fathers. The first 
traces of infant baptism are found in the western 
church, and then not till the latter part of the 
second century. In the fourth century it was theo- 
logically advocated by Augustine. Let it, however, 
be remembered, that even at that time infant bap- 
tism was not performed by either sprinkling or 
pouring, but by immersion. It is believed that 
sprinkling for baptism can not be traced back to an 
earlier period than the eighth century. 

I am aware, however, that the most common 
argument used against immersion is this : "As bap- 
tism is not a saving ordinance, it is not necessary to 
be particular about the mode. As baptism does not 
w^ash away sin, w^hy is not a drop as good as a fount- 
ain? Finally, baptism is a non-essential, and not 
worth contending about." But is this to be re- 
garded as the language of true piety ? A non . 
essential ! and what is that ? Essential is something 
needful, not to be dispensed with. A non-essential 
is something not needed, of no value, to be wholly 
dispensed with, useless. Is the Christian prepared 
to apply this definition to a command of the holy 
Son of God? Do you honor your Savior no more 
than to say he came from heaven to earth to insti- 
tute non-essentials — things of no use ? What better 
evidence ought you to desire that baptism is essen- 


tial tluui to know it is a command of tlie divine 
Kedeemer? If that command is from heaven, is it 
not essential to your soul that you obey it, just as 
God's word teaches? If you are rationally con- 
vinced that baptism is immersion, and then choose 
some other way to suit your own pride or accom- 
modate personal convenience, you may fatally stum- 
ble, fall, and backslide from God. " Baptism is the 
answer of a good conscience toward God." See 
that you act conscientiously in your baptism — see 
that your conscience is answered. A drop is as 
good as a fountain! If a drop would answer for a 
burial it might be, but not without. 

Reader, are you a believer, in the gospel sense of 
that term ? If you are, have you been baptized as 
the gospel requires? Settle this question, not by 
the teaching of man, not by what your parents may 
say they did for you in infancy, or what they have 
taught you since. . Settle the question as a judgment- 
bound individual: ''Have I been baptized as my 
divine Master was?" Dare you say that immersion 
looks the most like the ancient gospel mode, and 
then say jou will not submit to it? Rather pray 
for grace sufficient to render you ''willing and obe- 
dient," remembering that obedience is the right road 
to true peace and enjoyment here, and eternal life 
and blessedness hereafter. 




This is a crime which stands in rank with other 
sins which the apostle declares shall exclude from 
the kingdom of heaven. Ephesians v. 5. This is 
one of the sins of which, if a member be guilty, 
the apostle charges the church ^' wnth such a one not 
to keep company; no, not to eat." I. Corinthians 
V. 11. It implies an avaricious propensity, an inor- 
dinate love of gain, a selfish, greedy, niggardly dis- 
position. Finally, it is in Scripture pronounced 
idolatry. There is not a sin more directly condemned 
by the gospel than this, and yet it is an offense very 
rarely labored within the church. "We see no reason 
why this sin should not belabored with as faithfully 
as any other crime. 

The spirit of pure religion renders its possessor 
liberal. All he has and is belongs to God, and 
he regards himself as only the Lord's steward. 
What is the sordid, covetous individual living for? 
He may amass a large fortune and leave it to the 
ruin of his offspring. From the effects that follow 
four out of five of the large estates left, it w^ould 
have been a blessing if the dying man could take 
all his treasures out of the world with him. Better, 
far better for his offspring had he done more good 
while he lived and left less to be wasted by others ; 
better for his own soul had he died poor. It is a 
positive injunction that w^e serve God faithfully with 
our substance, and be liberal in every good thing. 
Professor of religion, see to it that you are not an * 



"The harvest truly is great, but the laborers are few : pray 
ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest, that he would send 
forth laborers into his harvest." Luke x. 2. 

Such was the direction of our Savior to his disci- 
ples. The fields to be reaped are the nations of the 
earth, who were then, and still are, ripe and ready 
for the harvest. Souls are to be gathered into the 
kingdom of Christ through the instrumentality of 
a preached gospel, and the laborers in this work are 
the ministers of Christ. "It pleased God, by the 
foolishness of preaching, to save them that believe." 
"How shall they hear without a preacher? And 
how shall they preach except they be sent?" The 
gospel must be preached, and men who are qualified 
must be willing to enter the field and labor. The 
work is great, and many who feel it laid upon them 
are ready to exclaim: "Who is sufficient for these 
things? " To such the encouraging promise is given : 
" My grace shall be sufficient for thee." 

The writer is among the number Who believe in 
a spiritual call to the gospel ministry. A pure love 
of souls, and an ardent desire for the advancement 
of Christ's kingdom, should be the moving princi- 
ples of those who enter upon this work. It is, howr 
ever, not enough to simply feel these; for every 


Christian feels them in a greater or less degree; but 
it is to feel them sent home by the powerful opera- 
tion of God's Spirit. It is to feel that God com- 
mands, and that we shall assuredly incur his dis-- 
approbation if we do not enter the field of labor. 
In a word, it is to feel the expression of Paul w^ith 
all its force: "Woe is unto me if I preach not the 
gospel." iSTone will feel this call who are destitute 
of mental qualifications, for God does not call those 
who are of no service— w^ho can not preach. A min- 
ister of Christ must possess an understanding mind, 
have a store of knowledge, and feel a continual 
thirst for superior acquirements. He must love his 
Bible as the first and best book, and be ready to 
avail himself of every avenue to Christian knowl- 
edge and wisdom. He must not only be "apt to 
teach," but be a constant learner himself, laboring 
to increase his store of knowledge that he may teach 
others understandingly. He must love secret prayer, 
reading, and meditation, and should know by expe- 
rience that God teaches him many important lessons 
at the throne of divine grace. 

It is not expected that, in the beginning, any 
young preacher will possess all the qualifications of 
an older or more experienced one. Let not his lack 
of what he may, by the help of God, acquire dis- 
hearten him. Is he young in years and young in 
the kingdom of grace, he is so considered by hia 
hearers. Less is expected from him, and he has less 
cause for embarrassment on account of his deficien- 
cies than one of longer experience, from whom more 
is reasonably expected. Let him, however, be con- 


tent to nse the gift that is within him, and never 
Btretch himself bejond his measure by vainly 
attempting to exhibit things which are not within 
his intellectual grasp. It is not to be expected that 
those who are called to the work of the ministry 
can or w^ill know the extent of their own qualifica- 
tions till they enter upon the work. As the trem- 
bling servant enters into the spirit of his calling, 
every power of bis mind will expand, and every 
energy of his soul will be roused into action. In 
many instances he will find that he is strengthened 
far beyond himself, and enabled through grace to 
soar superior to buman wisdom. 

It is not only the duty of Christians to pray for 
those who are called to labor in the harvest of the 
Lord, but it is also their duty to pray the Lord of 
the harvest that he would send forth more laborers 
into his harvest. Let this appeal be made to breth- 
ren of the Christian connection in general. Let 
me inquire : " Do you pray that God may call, qual- 
ify, and send forth more laborers into the gospel 
field?" You love the cause of Christian liberty 
which we, as a people, have embraced; but, oh, my 
brethren, labor unweariedly to stay up the hands of 
those whom God has called and sent forth. How 
much have they labored for your good, and what 
cause have you to rejoice that you ever heard the 
gospel from their lips. Pray that God may send 
forth young men into his gospel field who are strong 
in the Lord, having hxS word abiding in them. 
Help, by your prayers, and encourage by your ex- 
hortations. The harvest truly is great, and labor- 


ers with us are comparatively few. In this state* 
we have many earnest preachers, hut how small is 
the number to that which might he constantly em- 
ployed in traversing over plains, hills, and valleys, 
preaching the word of life. Churches of the Chris- 
tian connection are not planted in one town out 
of ^ve where they might he, had we a sufficient 
number of competent ministers; and until more 
are raised up, even all the churches now planted 
can not be supplied as they should be with the 
preached word. The doctrine which we hold and 
preach, in despite of the opposition it has had to 
encounter, is already wddely received. Vast num- 
bers in diflerent parts of our country would gladly 
enter our ranks, could Christian churches be planted 
in their respective vicinities, and be supplied with 
stated preaching. Take courage, my brethren ; the 
principles of Christian liberty w^hich we advocate 
are taking deep root in our country. Christian lib- 
erty and rational Christianity w^ill live and flourish 
when sectarian bondage and human mysticism will 
either be forgotten or only be remembered to be 
despised. "Pray the Lord of the harvest that he 
would send forth more laborers." 

A few words to young men in the Christian con- 
nection: Are there not some among you, my young 
brethren, wdio already feel moved upon by the Spirit 
of God to enter the harvest-field? Be not diso- 
bedient to the heavenly vision. You may feel a 
shrinking at the apparent magnitude of the work ; 
but enter upon it you must, or great will be your 

*T?ew York. 


condemuation. Think, young brothers, of a world 
lying in wickedness; think of the precious souls 
hastening to ruin ; think of what God has done for 
.you, and then ask yourselves : " Can we be inactive? 
Can we hold our peace?" If you feel a ^'thus saith 
the Lord" to go forth and labor for the salvation 
of your fellow-men, tarry not even to bury a father ; 
consult not flesh and blood. Your help is needed, 
and needed now! One who has been a laborer in 
this harvest many years, who has spent the flower 
of his days in the blessed work of preaching Christ, 
would fain encourage you to venture forth. 

Who were those who, years ago, traversed the 
various sections of this country, rearing the stand- 
ard of Christian liberty, while hundreds rallied 
around it? They were nearly all young men, but 
Israel's God was with them. They left their homes, 
their friends, and their earthly all behind them. 
Love for the precious cause and for their fellow- 
men fired their souls, and inspired them with zeal 
which defied the enemies of liberty and challenged 
the powers of darkness. They labored with fervor, 
and their labors were not in vain in the Lord. 
Thousands have been brought into the fold of 
Christ, and you among the number; but these serv- 
ants of God have already [spent the best of their 
strength. Some of them have already gone to an- 
other and better world, and many others, through 
excessive labors, are gradually sinking beneath com- 
plicated infirmities. Soon they must quit the field, 
and their voices be heard no more on earth. 

Young men of God, weigh this matter. Shall the 


places of your gospel fathers be left vacant, or shall 
they be filled by others, by some of you? Who 
among you feel the King's command to enter the 
field of labor? Go, nothing fearing, nothing doubt- 
ing. Go ! and may the great Head of the church 
go with you. 

6 91 ^^ 

.^^^^ ^-^,\^<^^.-\o' 


_^v^''^"^' '%%fif / '.N^^^ 

o 0' 

c^. ' * 

\' ^^^ ' ' 

XV> ,a\\" 

'J' A' 

'^ .c,^ 

•i-' -s-. 


'^^ . ^\. ' « 

,^^ C. X A^-~ 



.sxV ■/; 


^*^ '< 



^ '^.. 

t. V^ 


^'' : 

c 0' 

''^V aX"^'' 

■<> .^■ 

^ Y «