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for the Northern District of New York. 

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The poorest prospects were now in store for the German 
troops ;* for who would take their part under their present 
circumstances, so far away from their own land ? It was evi- 
dent that congress had broken the treaty. The English govern- 
ment could not consistently enter into direct negotiations with 
congress, as it was unwilling to acknowledge its authority ; and, 
consequently, no way could be seen out of the diffigulties under 
which the prisoners suffered. It might reasonably be expected 
that if any favors were shown by congress to the troops, it 
would be to the English who had hitherto been treated better 
than the Germans, a fact of which the latter were well aware. 
Their difficulties were furthermore increased by the repeated 
disputes between the prisoners and the Americans by whom 
they were guarded. Each party vied in irritating the other, 
the former being instigated by hatred towards those who en- 
deavored to assume the appearance of soldiers, a course which 
only made them ridiculous as they were anything but soldiers, 
and the latter by arrogance and a desire of being revenged upon 
those whom they knew to be their superiors in military matters. 
These quarrels, moreover, occurred almost daily, notwithstand- 
ing the strictest orders of the commanders that their men not 
only should hold no intercourse with the Americans, but should 
not even speak to them. These orders were issued so that 
there might not be the slightest pretext for a quarrel. In con- 
sequence of General Burgoyne's request, some of the English 
officers had been already exchanged, but none of the Germans. 


• e 

:. •• • 


• *• •• 
• • •• • 

General Riedesel/tuJCoydingly, thought it best at this time to 
appeal to GeneE&K^ioVe. He, therefore, wrote to him as fol- 
lows : 

■ « 

• • • 
• • • 

" Cambridge, January 7, 1778. 

•*• '^I^your excellency will permit me to solicit your protection 
., ; *t&ild assistance on behalf of the German officers who were cap- 
tured during the last campaign. In consequence of a request 
on the part of General Burgoyne, General Gates has exchanged 
a number of British officers at Albany ] but, on being asked to 
exchange, also, a corresponding number of German officers, he 
answered that he could not agree to an exchange of German 
troops without special orders from congress. This answer gives 
to a rumor, now current in this province, the appearance of 
truth, that congress has resolved to exchange none of the Ger- 
man officers who were captured. Such a resolution, if true, 
will make our situation a sad and humiliating one, especially 
since we are thus deprived of the same advantages which have 
been accorded the other troops, and which are customary in 
war among those serving the same cause, the same master and 
with the same diligence, which latter fact has been publicly de- 
clared by General Burgoyne. 

" Perfectly convinced of your justice and fairness, I take the 
liberty of addressing you and of praying you, that, as the com- 
mander in chief of the army in America, you will exert your 
influence in our behalf to bring about an exchange of captured 
German officers with General Washington, equal in amount to 
the number of English officers who were exchanged by General 
Gates. I have the honor of inclosing a list of the German 
officers captured during the last campaign, and would recom- 
mend to your especial protection Lieutenant Colonel Specht, 
Captain Fricke, Captain Geisau, Lieutenant Gebhardt, Lieu- 
tenant Breva and Captain O'Connell, my adjutant. 

" I remain, etc., 

" RiEDESEL, Major General.'' 


General Riedesel took special pains to preserve his right of 
jurisdiction over his troops, and thug avoid giving any cause to 
the Americans for taking it from him. For this purpose the 
preservation of discipline was particularly necessary; but this 
was by no means an easy matter under existing circumstances. 
Owing to want of employment, the soldiers were more than ever 
inclined to insubordination. For the purpose of correcting 
this state of things, the first thing the German general did was 
to detach from each regiment, a guard, consisting of one non- 
commissioned officer and sixteen privates, under the commanji 
of a lieutenant. It was their express duty to see that quiet 
and order were observed. A staff officer, as officer of the day, 
had these guards under his supervision. Everything had to be 
reported to him. He was empowered to settle difficulties 
between the soldiers and provincials on the spot. General 
Riedesel, himself, drew up the necessary instructions, and a 
severe penalty was inflicted upon those who endeavored to 
thwart them 

These prudent measures soon produced good results. In the 
first place difficulties were thus nipped in the bud, and had, 
therefore, no chance to grow larger ; and, secondly, the provin- 
cials saw that nothing which the prisoners did deserving punish- 
ment, was overlooked. The benefit, also, arising from the guard 
system was soon seen in the men being easier kept together, 
and desertions becoming less frequent. The better, also, to 
give his men employment and thus keep up discipline, Riedesel 
obliged them to drill every day in divisions, when the weather 
allowed it. Not having any arms, they could only go through 
the evolutions of marching ; but this, besides giving employment 
to the men, kept them proficient in this kind of drill. , 

All officers, and those who bore the rank of officers, were 
permitted to retain their side arms. General Heath even 
directed, in an order issued January 7th, that these arms should 
be constantly carried whenever the officers went beyond the 
outposts. This was done to obviate the necessity of their show- 


ing their passes to the provincials who otherwise were required 
to insist upon seeing all passes. 

On Winter hill it was not as quiet as on Prospect hill. At 
the former place excesses grew more and more frequent. The 
Americans did not send those of the English whom they ar- 
rested, back to their quarters, as was their custom with the 
Germans, but dragged them either to the guard house or the 
guard ships. The following instance will serve to show the 
extent to which mutual ill feeling had grown : 

On the 8th of January, the American Colonel Hawley, with 
his men, was on guard behind the barracks on Prospect hill. 
In front of one of the barracks stood eight English soldiers 
belonging to the 9th Regiment. They were engaged in conver- 
sation, when suddenly the above mentioned colonel ran in 
among them with a drawn dagger like a maniac, and in an 
instant mortally wounded two of the group. The cause, if any, 
that led him to commit this outrageous act has ever remained a 
secret. The indignation and bitter feeling of the English 
toward their jailors were increased by this event to the highest 
pitch; and General Burgoyne, in an energetic letter, demanded 
of General Heath the arrest of Colonel Hawley and a strict 

Colonel Hawley was publicly tried on the 20th of January, 
in the meeting house at Cambridge. Brigadier General Glover 
presided. All the English and German generals, also many 
officers of both sides, and a great number of civilians, were 
present. General Burgoyne, personally appearing as plaintiff, 
made the complaint in a strong and masterly speech which 
gained him the admiration of all present. With the close of 
this speech, the proceedings terminated for the day. On the 
1st of February, Colonel Hawley was again arraigned before 
the same tribunal. The room was filled, and many witnesses 
were present, forty of whom were examined. The investigation 
lasted for twenty sessions, and occupied an entire month. The 
Americans themselves, considered Colonel Hawley lost; but 


their indignation was greatly increased against General Bur- 
goyne for carrying the matter, as they thought, too far ; and 
his soldiers consequently suffered from it. The press published 
impudent lampoons and scornful poetry against the English 
general, thereby endeavoring to create sympathy for the Ameri- 
can colonel. Finally, on the 25th of February, he was brought 
before a court martial ; and it will scarcely be credited that this 
court martial, consisting only of officers, cleared him. Nor 
was this all ; for in order to crown American wantonness and 
offend General Burgoyne and all the English, yet more. Gene- 
ral Heath appointed this noble colonel commander of Cambridge, 
and consequently of the two hills also ! Colonel Lee, who had 
hitherto filled this position, being absent. 

These occurrences had the effect of putting General Riedesel 
still more on his guard and preventing his troops from com- 
mitting excesses, if he and they would preserve their independ- 
ence as much as possible. Accordingly, he issued the following 
circular to his troops : 

" Experience daily shows that the provincials on Prospect 
hill,i are depriving the regiments of their just rights, and are 
not permitting them to preserve their own jurisdiction as they 
agreed. They enter into their barracks, and, by force, either 
arrest soldiers and carry them to the guard ships, keeping them 
there from eight to fourteen days, without giving to their 
respective commanders the least notice, or even the reasons why 
the soldiers have been arrested. The cause of this unjust 
treatment must either originate in the fact that, at the begin- 
ning, when the soldiers had difficulties with the provincials, 
there was on the English side no prompt or sufficient satisfaction 
given, or that hard words and actions have embittered the 
provincials to such an extent, that they now do not keep the 
promises to which the treaty had bound them \ and, consequently, 

1 It mast be kept in mind that the English were quartered on Prospect and the 
Oermans on Winter MU. 


they are endeavoring by these harsh proceedings to humble 

" It is altogether different with the German troops on Winter 
hill. The provincials let our people and their barracks alone ; 
and in case the latter have difficulties with the former, and are 
arrested, they are delivered up to our post; those in charge of them 
being generally satisfied with a slight punishment. Now what 
ifi the cause of this honorable difference in the way in which 
our men are treated ? Nothing but good discipline on our side, 
and praise-worthy vigilance of the staff officers to give prompt 
satisfaction to the offended party. This I thankfully acknow- 
ledge. We must endeavor to preserve this authority and 
jurisdiction. We cannot do it by force, for we are under 
constant surveillance. Politeness, modesty and prompt satis- 
faction are the only means by which we can maintain our 
prerogative. The very first time that we have the misfortune 
to cause them to be dissatisfied with us and with our jurisdiction ; 
and the very first time that they send a prisoner to the guard 
ship, or refuse to surrender him to us, then our exemption is 
forever lost, and henceforth, they will treat us in the same 
manner as they now treat the English. 

" In order, however, to avoid even the possibility of this 
contingency, all communication between our troops and the 
provincials must be avoided. The men must be modest, though 
not cringing, toward the provincials. In case a soldier insults a 
provincial, or is arrested by one of them in consequence of a 
misdemeanor, the fact is to be reported to the staff officer of the 
day, and it shall be his duty to do all in his power to have the 
offender returned to us, promising prompt satisfaction. If the 
offense is of such a nature that it can be punished without a 
hearing, then the punishment shall be inflicted in presence of 
the offended party ; and the penalty shall be such as will satisfy 
the aggrieved. In short, it is the design to have all such cases 
settled at once, and during the first excitement. 

" As I refrain from having any jurisdiction over the regiment 


of Hesse Hanau, it will entirely depend upon the commander 
of that regiment to inflict the punishment usual with that 
regiment, and as shall be ordered by Brigadier General Von 
Gall. This noninterference, however, is based on the supposi- 
tion that the misdemeanor is of such a nature that the oflended 
party is satisfied, and we are not put to the inconvenience of 
being refused at a subsequent time when we ask for the sur- 
render of a prisoner. The manner of punishment must be 
reported to the officer of the day, that he may be enabled to 
report the case and its results to me. 

" But if against all our expectations, theft or marauding take 
place, then the returning of, or paying for, such property shall 
constitute the first proceeding, and the investigation and punish- 
ment the second. In such a case extra pains should be taken 
to have the prisoner returned to us, because, according to the 
laws of this land, as well as of those of England, a thief must be 
tried before a civil authority and punished by it. What a 
disgrace it would be if, contrary to our rights and prerogative, 
a German soldier should be brought before a civil magistrate 
and tried by him. 

" In order to rectify mistakes and preserve our jurisdiction 
to the end, I hereby publish this lengthy order, firmly believing 
that each commander will continue to enforce it in every re- 

" EiEDESEL, Major General. 

" Cambridge, February 16, 1778.'' 

Congress, by this time, had thrown off all disguise in regard 
to the treaty. The same tone was also held by the official news- 
papers of North America, published toward the latter end of 
March, viz : that congress had resolved to have nothing to do 
with the treaty of Saratoga. Those prisoners, who had not 
hitherto given up all hope of a speedy release, were now the 
first to give up. Accordingly, desertions became more and more 
frequent. This was, however, more the case with the English 


than the GkrmaiiB ; yet even the latter had lost by it, during the 
last month, five men. 

As early as January, General Eiedesel had appealed to Gene- 
ral Washington in regard to the exchange of officers. At the 
end of March, the latter answered him as follows : 

"Head Quarters, Valley Forge, March 31, 1778. 

" Sir : It is sometime since I was honored by your letter, dated 
January 11th. I would have replied sooner, had I not been 
obliged to wait for an answer from General Gates in regard to 
the matter contained in your favor. He says you never applied 
directly to him for the exchange of yourself or any German 
officers, nor for that of your family or corps ; but that it was 
currently reported at Albany that you and Major General 
Phillips had addressed yourselves to Sir William Howe to be 
exchanged for General Lee, and had been answered, that as 
General Prescott had first been taken, he must be first ex- 
changed. By your letter, I should judge that General Gates 
has misunderstood you, as he says, that he has no objection to 
an exchange of foreign as well as British officers. 

" My commissioners are at present negotiating with the com- 
missioners of General Howe for a general exchange of prisoners. 
If these shall agree in regard to the conditions, I shall not at all 
object to an exchange of a part of the foreign as well as British 
officers. But you will please take notice that this is a case 
which solely depends upon Sir William Howe's pleasure, as he 
has a right to demand such officers as he thinks proper for 
an equal number of equal rank; but I anticipate that justice 
toward his allies will constitute the foundation of an impartial 

" I have the honor to be 

" Your most obedient servant, 

" Washington.'' 

A few of the English officers still retained a few guns and 


pistols. By the time that this rumor reached General Heath, 
it had gained so rapidly that it was said that five hundred guns 
and a large quantity of other arms were hidden in General Bur- 
goyne's house and the barracks. That American general, being 
not a little scared at it, at once ordered a strict search in the two 
camps in which Colonel Hawley commanded. But after the 
house of General Burgoyne and each of the barracks had been 
thoroughly searched, and only a few guns and pistols were 
found, the rumor was discovered to be false, and the arms were, 
accordingly, restored to Burgoyne, with the advice to keep them 
in his own house. It was generally thought that Colonel Hawley 
would act overbearingly on this occasion ; but to every one's sur- 
prise he acted, on the contrary, in a very friendly and obliging 
manner. His course, however, was not dictated by real good 
will, but from the simple reason that he feared his person would 
be attacked by the incensed Englishmen. 

A commissioner, by the name of Masserow, had been sent by 
congress to Cambridge, for the purpose of witnessing the pro- 
ceedings and reporting them. It was in the power of this man 
to exercise a very decided influence, either for weal or woe, upon 
the troops. Much, therefore, depended upon his favor or dis- 
favor. The prudent General Riedesel soon read the character 
and learned the circumstances of this man. He was poor and 
avaricious ; and was, therefore, desirous of making as much as 
possible out of his position in order to fill his empty purse. In 
addition to this, Biedesel learned that he had accepted presents 
from the English. He, therefore, did not hesitate to practice 
the same thing, although he detested the employment of such 
means to accomplish a purpose. But in this instance, the wel- 
fare of his men was at stake ; and he did not wish to leave any- 
thing untried in bringing that about. He, accordingly, sent 
the commissioner thirty guineas, which were gladly accepted by 
the latter. This sum was placed to the account of the troops, 
and afterward deducted from their pay according to their grade. 
It was entered in the following manner : 



^'•Douceur to the commissioner of the provincials^ ordered hy 
General RiedeseV General Riedesel did not wish the name of 
the commissioner to be mentioned, that the man might not be 

The good result was soon evident. The English officers also 
endeavored to avail themselves of the corruptibility of this man. 
They felt their situation to be worse than that of the Germans, 
inasmuch as they were more accustomed to various comforts and 
recreations. Consequently, they attended to their exchange, 
each on his own hook, and waited upon the commissioner un- 
known to Burgoyne. For every one that he recommended to 
congress, the commissioner charged from fifty to one hundred 
guineas ; and, as a matter of course, did a good business. It 
seems, moreover, very likely that Burgoyne used this man's 
influence in his own behalf; for, notwithstanding, he was greatly 
out of health, and, notwithstanding, also, he had the permission 
of congress to return to England, the fulfillment of this promise 
was constantly delayed. Finally, however, on the 18th of March, 
congress granted him permission to depart, but only on the con- 
dition that the sum of 40,000 thalers should be paid, which sum 
was charged for the maintenance of the army up to that time. 
As there was no money, it was paid in provisions; General 
Howe sending ships from Rhode island laden with flour and 
meat. By the Americans, this was more desired than money ; 
for they needed money less than provisions, as they could easily 
get along with their paper currency. 

General Eiedesel, through Commissioner Masserow, petitioned 
congress for permission to send to Canada for the baggage and 
clothing of his troops. This was granted; and the condition 
of the men henceforward was consequently much improved. 

The American newspapers, at this time, announced, with much 
parade, the alliance with France, and the recognition of the 
United States by Spain. But the immense armaments of Eng- 
land, by sea and land, put forth in a great effort to recover her 
revolted colonies, again poured wormwood into their cup of joy. 


Under Admirals Keppel and Byron, two fleets were eqniped; 
and according to rumor, eighteen hundred men were to be sent 
out to America as reenforcements. Arrangements were now 
made to send the captured troops to the southern provinces, 
and to distribute them into the interior of the country, as it 
was considered dangerous, under the present aspect of affairs, to 
keep them together near the coast. The militia and the Conti- 
nental troops were, therefore, increased. The province of Mas- 
sachusetts bay, furnished for this purpose, three regiments, 
Colonels Lee, Jackson and Hawley receiving command of them. 
The light horse and artillery were, also, increased. The main 
recruiting stations were in the villages near the prisoners, viz : 
at Boston, Cambridge, Medford, Mystic, Manatomie and Water- 
town. These places were not selected without a cause. They 
were chosen with the object of more easily inducing the pri- 
soners to desert. This plan was well laid as will soon be seen. 
Certain individuals carried on a regular trade with the English 
and Grerman soldiers, very easily inducing the latter to leave 
their camp under the ostensible plea of hiring them to do their 
spring work for which they were to be well paid and boarded. 
But no sooner were they in the power of the Americans, than 
the latter told them that they were their prisoners, and sold 
them to the recruiting officers for from two to three hundred 
thalers. Many a one thus misled, led a miserable existence, 
from which they were only relieved by death. The American 
outposts for the purpose of aiding the desertions, suffered the 
men to go beyond the chain whenever they desired to do so. 
Indeed, they even went so far as to hold out by false repre- 
sentations, every inducement to the soldiers to desert, i whenever 
the latter, contrary to orders, spoke with them. The Bruns- 
wick commanders, however, could not complain of desertion 
during this month; for only three soldiers proved untrue to 

1 Up to April 5th, six hundred and fifty-five of the English had deserted, of the 
GermanB, one hundred and nineteen men, and of the Hesse Hanau, forty-one men. 
Total eight hundred and fifteen men.— Note to original. 


their oaths, while the English, since the 17th of October, lost 
six hundred and fifty men. 

On the 5th of April, General Burgoyne left Rhode island to 
return to England. The day previous to his departure he took 
an affectionate farewell of the army, thanking them warmly for 
their good conduct and bravery. Before his embarkation he 
handed General liiedesel a letter addressed to the duke of 
Brunswick, in which he bestowed special praise upon the troops 
of the latter, and stated that he considered himself most fortu- 
nate in having had them under his command. This deserved 
tribute came too late ; but it seems that misfortune had made 
the general more just in his views than in time past. General 
Riedesel, in consequence of this, issued to his troops the follow- 
ing circular : 

" General Burgoyne has commissioned General Riedesel to 
return his thanks to all the Brunswick troops for the bravery, 
good will, discipline and subordination which they have shown 
during the last campaign, and during the time that they have 
been under his command. lie has also directed General Ried- 
esel to tell them that he regrets to leave these brave troops, and 
that he will not fail to bear the same testimony before his king 
as soon as he arrives in England, as the greatest share of credit 
is due to the commanders of the regiments and the officers, he 
tenders them, in an especial manner, his greatest thanks, and 
will be happy, if an occasion presents itself, to show them his 
friendship and esteem. 

" General Burgoyne has also written to his most serene high- 
ness, the duke, our most kind lord, a letter, in which he speaks 
in the highest terms of praise of the troops, and states that he 
considers himself happy in having had such brave troops under 
his command. 

" I was desirous of publishing this compliment of the general 
to all the troops ; and I here express the great joy which I 
experience in having the honor of commanding such troops 
who thus cause and merit such universal satisfaction. 


" Letters received from England cannot describe the honor, 
glory and satisfaction which is expressed toward the army of 
General Burgoyne, notwithstanding the sad situation in which 
it was placed by the superior numbers of the enemy. Each 
soldier may, therefore, rest assured that he can return to his 
country with the greatest honor. And what joy will it be when 
I can surrender these brave men to my gracious sovereign, and 
be able to report to him the good behavior of this excellent 
corps. Neither misery, nor want, nor frost, nor heat can be 
hard or severe enough to prevent us from being constant in 
view of the honorable and glorious prospect we have before us. 

" But with what pain must I not see that every little while 
men leave their regiments and their officers, with the idea of 
having an easier and better life than their comrades, and that 
only for a few months, committing, therefore, perjury against 
their God, their sovereign, myself and their officers ) and losing, 
moreover, the glory and honor and gratitude which otherwise 
would await them in their homes. Which is better, to be false 
now and desert, and, after the war, be a slave, or to live here with 
the officers and soldiers for a short time in misery, and return 
afterward as an honored and brave soldier to his own people, 
and be able in peace and quiet to recall one's good actions ? 

" I therefore, exhort all the brave soldiers, considering them 
my comrades, and loving them as my children, to reflect and 
act as becomes a good soldier, and give up all thoughts of de- 
sertion ; and should there be evil disposed men in the corps, I 
hereby admonish all the good ones to keep a vigilant eye on 
these, in order that the already achieved glory of the whole 
corps may not be dimmed by such shameful desertions. 

" I hereby declare that I am resolved to live and die with 
these brave troops, to share with them manfully, prosperity and 
adversity, misery and sorrow ; and, furthermore, that I shall 
never accept an opportunity of being exchanged, even if it 
should be offered to me, unless it be in obedience to the com- 
mand of my sovereign ; but, on the contrary, to remain here 


until I liave the good fortune to take these brave soldiers with 
me, and share with them at home the honor which we have 
gained here in the midst of misfortune. 

" RiEDESEL, Major General. 
'' Cambridge, April 4, 1778." 

This order was read to each battalion at the evening parade. 

Riedesel gave to the adjutant general of Burgoyne, Major 
Kingston, several dispatches and letters to his sovereign and 
others in Europe. ^ 

Up to this time not a single German officer had been ex- 
changed. However, two English lieutenant colonels, Amstru- 
ther and Southerland were permitted to go on parole to Rhode 
island, that they might the better arrange with General Howe 
for their exchange. General Phillips, together with the staff 
officers of Burgoyne, had already been exchanged. Phillips, 
who, after the departure of Burgoyne, had the apparent com- 
mand over the captured troops, although an honorable man and 
friendly to Riedesel, had not a particle of influence as far as 
regarded the exchange of prisoners ; the commander in chief, 
Howe, having this under his special charge. Riedesel bitterly 
complained to the latter of the course which things had lately 
taken; whereupon he promised to observe the strictest im- 
partiality in the exchange of the troops of both nations. This 
last remark, it must here be understood, refers only up to the 
present date of the captivity. Henceforth General Phillips 
issued proper orders to his troops to do nothing toward effecting 
their exchange, without obtaining his consent. 

The inactivity of camp life among the Germans, besides 
increasing desertion, augmented another evil, viz : the passion 
for gambling. The following order of General Riedesel, upon 
this subject, explains itself: 

1 General Biedeeel gave all the letters to the a^ntant general, unsealed, belieytng 
that all papers woold be inspected at Boston. He, therefore, ordered Migor Kings- 
ton to seal them in Ittiode island.— Note to original. 



" Order op April 11, 1778. 

"I am perfectly willing to allow all innocent amusements 
that the troops may choose to provide for themselves, for the 
purpose of passing away the time in the present inactive situa- 
tion. One of these enjoyments is the game of ten pins, which 
benefits the body by the exercise of the muscles in a particular 
manner. But I am grieved to learn that the common soldiers 
play for piasters and even for guineas ; for the result of this is, 
that men, who have saved a little, lose it at once ; others again, 
run in debt, and after losing their money and fearing to get 
into difficulty with their creditors, desert, thus entering into 
perpetual slavery. General Riedesel is so well informed in 
regard to this state of things, that he is well acquainted with 
the fact that one soldier, last week, lost nine guineas in one 
day, and then deserted. 

" General Riedesel does not prohibit playing at ten pins, but 
he does not wish his men to play for money ; indeed, this, in 
the common soldier, is already forbidden in the * regulations.' 
The commanders of battalions will, therefore, issue strict orders 
prohibiting playing at ten pins for money, and the officers are 
hereby enjoined to watch those of the company who shall 
disobey this order. It shall, also, be announced to the different 
companies, that those who have lost piasters and guineas, are 
at once to report it, when the commanders are to see that the 
money lost is returned. Those, who in future shall be caught 
playing for money, will be severely punished. 

" Riedesel, Major General. 

" Cambridge, April 11, 1778." 

On the 11th of April, General Phillips received intelligence 
from the governor at Boston, that congress had resolved to 
send the English troops into a section of country lying within 
the province of Massachusetts bay. Accordingly, on the 15th, 
the English artillery and light infantry, together with a detach- 



ment of the 33d Regiment as belonging to the artillery and the 
army of General Howe, marched to Rutland, where some bar- 
racks had been erected in great haste. 

After the departure of the English troops, the recruiting offi- 
cers at Boston carried on their business almost exclusively among 
the Germans. The generality of these recruiting officers were 
good for nothing Germans, who, by all kinds of representations, 
induced their countrymen to become renegades to their duty. 
This state of things, moreover, was increased by the fact that 
a French adventurer, named Armand, who was tolerably fami- 
liar with the German language, intended to raise a light corps. 
This man, aided by the garrulity and frivolity peculiar to his 
nation, did his best to convince the good natured and credulous 
German of the happiness of a volunteer who should serve under 
him. The provincials, also, whose duty it was to watch the 
German soldiers, furthered desertion in every possible way; 
and, as a consequence, the recruiting officers grew more bold 
and impudent every day. They would not allow either officers 
or noncommissioned officers to pursue runaways across the chain. 
Yea, some of these who endeavored to perform their duty in this 
particular, were grossly insulted. General Riedesel used all the 
means in his power to stop this evil. For instance, he had several 
provincials, who had crept into the barracks of the soldiers, and 
endeavored by the use of liquor, to induce the men to desert, 
kicked out and forbidden, henceforth, from entering the camp ; 
certainly a queer fact, for prisoners to treat their overseers in 
such a manner ! Riedesel, also, offered a full pardon to such as 
would voluntarily return ; and the result was that several of the 
deserters, finding themselves terribly deceived, came back, bring- 
ing with them a frightful description of the misery they had 
endured in following their wanton inclination. Riedesel did 
not omit, at the roll-call, to have such step in front and exhibit 
them to the soldiers as striking examples of the result of deser- 
tion. Yet, it must be admitted on the other side, that the 
wages given by the inhabitants offered a strong inducement to 


desertion. Accordingly, to counteract this last powerful stimulus, 
Riedesel agreed with General Heath to give the farmers of the 
neighboring villages men who, while working for them, should 
be provided with passes, and report once a week, on Thursday, 
at roll-call. In this way, the troops could earn something, and 
have a pleasant change without being unfaithful to their country. 
This arrangement was henceforth kept up and proved very good. 
During the month of April, forty-five men deserted from the 
Brunswick regiments. 

Desertion, which, among the German troops, might be called 
moderate considering the circumstances, suddenly, toward the 
end of May, increased to such an extent, that sometimes six 
men ran away in one day. The cause of such an extraordinary 
state of things was soon ascertained. It seems that emissaries 
had circulated a printed handbill in German and English 
among the soldiers, iij which the rewards to be obtained by 
desertion were set out in the most enticing light. This pecu- 
liar proclamation, so unique of its kind, and a real offspring of 
revolution, which is always very liberal in promises to the 
credulous, is here given as illustrating the manner in which 
good soldiers were entrapped : 

" Done in Congress, April 9, 1778. 
" To those officers and soldiers in the service of the king of Great 
Britain who are not the subjects of the above named kinxj : 

" The sons of freedom of the United States are carrying on a 
just and necessary war, in which they are not the only interested 
persons. They are fighting for the rights of mankind, and deserve, 
therefore, the protection and the aid of all men. Their success 
will procure for those, who desire to satisfy their consciences and 
enjoy the fruits of their labor, an asylum against persecution and 

" There is no doubt that a kind providence which often 
works good out of apparent evil (having, for instance, permitted 
us to be engaged in this cruel war, and having forced you to 



assist our enemies in the vain attempt to enslave ns) designs 
establishing perfect liberty on this continent for all those that 
are bowed down by the heavy yoke of tyranny. In considera- 
tion of your being forced against your will to become the tools 
of avarice and ambition, we will not only forgive you for those 
acts against us into which you have been forced, but will, also, 
offer you a part in the prerogatives of free and independent 
states. Great and fertile countries, which will richly repay 
your industry, invite you. Tracts of from twenty to thirty 
thousand acres of land will be apportioned and given to such 
2A shall come over to our side in the following manner : 

" Each captain, who will bring to us on the 1st of September, 
1778, forty men from the service of -the enemy shall receive 
eight hundred acres of good woodland, four oxen, one bullock, 
three cows and four pigs. Each noncommissioned ofl&cer, who 
brings parties of men, shall receive an additional present of 
twenty acres of land for each new man ; and every soldier who 
comes without a commissioned or noncommissioned officer shall 
receive fifty acres of land. If he brings his own equipment he 
shall be entitled to an additional present of twenty thalers. 
These officers and soldiers will be allowed at once to attend to 
their land without being obliged to serve ; and they will re- 
ceive, in proportion to the amount of their land, provisions for 
six weeks. Such commissioned and noncommissioned officers 
as shall serve, will be promoted in those corps that are composed 
of native Germans, or in those corps hereafter to be raised by 
Germans living here. These corps shall do no other service, 
unless they desire it, than act as guards at a distance from the 
enemy, or as garrisons on the western frontier. 

*' Those among you who are skilled artisans will, besides their 
land and other articles, find abundance of riches in the pursuit 
of their business, the necessaries of life being very cheap in 
comparison with the prices paid for manufactures, and there 
being such a demand for men that each mechanic can find 
plenty of work. 


" Some of you have had an opportunity of testing the truth 
of these representations, and will, without doubt, inform your 
countrymen and acquaintances of their correctness. Hitherto, 
we have met you on the battle field with an inimical heart, 
caused by the principles of defense ; but whenever the fortune 
of war has brought any of your countrymen into our hands, 
our hostility was immediately at an end, and we have treatied 
them more like free subjects than as prisoners. We can here 
refer to their own testimony ; and we now call upon you as part 
of the great family of mankind whose liberty and happiness we 
are endeavoring with great honesty to secure. Manifest your 
detestation of remaining longer the tools of mad ambition and 
lawless force ! Appreciate the dignity and grandeur of your 
nature ! Exalt yourselves to the rank of free people of free 
states ! Desist from your vain endeavors to devastate and 
depopulate a country which you cannot conquer, and accept 
that of our magnanimity which you can never obtain from our 
fear ! We are willing to receive you with open arms to the 
bosom of our country. Come, therefore, and partake of the 
good which we offer you in all candor. ^ In the name of these 
free and independent states, we promise and assure you a free 
and uninterrupted exercise of your religion, perfect 'protection 
of your persons against injury, undisturbed possession of the 
fruits of your honest labor, and absolute possession of your 
lands which shall go down to your children unless you other- 
wise will it. 

" Henry Laurens. 
" Attested by 

" Charles Thomson, Secretary." 

The object which congress intended to accomplish by this 
proclamation can readily be seen. From it no small results 
were expected. After repeated reports, an English fleet arrived 

» Or more literaDy, " whicli we offer you with a candid heart.** 


with twenty thousand troops, who were to reenforce the British 
army in America; an eyent which gave no little apprehension 
to the Americans in view of a successful termination of their 
cause. They intended not only to rid themselves of the prison- 
ers, by inducing desertion, and thus save the expense of 
provisioning and guarding them, but also to induce desertion 
among those troops that were in Canada and under Howe, and 
thereby weaken the royal army as much as possible. How 
little congress knew European soldiers is evident from the fact 
of its holding out as an inducement the promise that they 
should be stationed as far from the enemy as possible. Or, did 
congress have in view the fate which awaited deserters should 
they again fall into the hands of their old commanders ? But 
congress made other promises which it .was powerless to fulfill, 
and which, moreover, could only have been believed by those 
who were unacquainted with the peculiar circumstances incident 
to this foreign land. If, for instance, it is difficult even at this 
late day for the American government to protect the lives and 
property of emigrants in distant and uncultivated districts, it 
was certainly much more difficult in those days when every- 
thing was in its infancy, to say nothing of its being in a time 
of war. Supposing, however, that a soldier had accepted the 
proposition and taken possession of his land in those vast 
deserts, what could he have done with it ? He had no tools, 
seeds, nor cattle; and if anything had happened to him, who 
was there to assist him ? Thus many, who availed themselves 
of this offer, were plunged into terrible misery. 

This presumption of the Americans soon degenerated into 
impudence. They not only busily circulated the proclamation, 
dressing it in the most tempting language, but they posted it 
on houses by the roadside, and even in the camp upon the bar- 
racks and the houses of the sentinels. ^ 

1 The above named French adventurer, Armand, carried this nniBance so fer, as to 
have some deserters, who had volunteered under him, clad in a fantastic garb and 
driven across Winter hill, in order to show their old comrades what a good fiate they 


General Riedesel sought, in every possible way, to put a stop 
to this nuisance. He first applied to the American colonel, 
Hardy, who, having succeeded Colonel Lee, now commanded at 
Winter hill. Speaking of this officer. General Riedesel says 
himself, that he was the first American officer he had met, 
whom he could esteem for his unselfishness and honorable 
character. This colonel at once ordered that the above men- 
tioned proclamation should be torn down, and was, besides, 
very indignant at the whole affair. 

Indeed, Riedesel, both in writing and speaking, addressed 
his soldiers in a powerful and touching manner. Both he and 
General Phillips, who, by the way, was a great favorite with the 
German soldiers, visited the barracks almost daily ; indeed every 
possible means for the prevention of desertion was employed. 
Between the barracks and the chain of American outposts on 
the road beyond, noncommissioned officers were stationed. It 
was necessary to take the latter for this purpose, as none of 
the privates could be trusted. This service, however, proving 
too severe for the old officers, new ones had to be employed. 
Every soldier caught outside the barracks without a pass signed 
by the commandant of his regiment, was at once arrested and 

Colonel Hardy, believing that the seductive proclamation of 
congress was designed more for the English army, still in the 
field, than for the prisoners, was so kind as to offer to arrest all 
German deserters who were found beyond the prescribed limits. 
Thereupon, General Riedesel, who knew of six deserters being 
hidden at Mystic, requested Hardy to arrest them at once ; and 
being exceedingly anxious to have them returned for the sake 
of the example, he wrote at the same time to General Heath 

had met with. But those, who thus rode about, did not state that the carriages had 
been hired, and that not all the soldiers, belonging to the corps, were dressed in 
such uniforms. These facts show the demoralization already existing among a 
portion of the troops, the deserter feeling no shame in showing himself again to 
his old comrades and officers.— Note to the original. 


requesting him to grant their return. Heath answered that 
the deserters would be returned in two days. But this was not 
meant in earnest; for the same day they were taken under 
guard to Prospect hill and allowed to escape. Riedesel, natu- 
rally very indignant, complained of this breach of faith in the 
strongest language, but to no purpose. 

Lieutenant Colonel Specht, who had hitherto been a prisoner 
at Hartford, received — chiefly through the interposition of 
Riedesel with the commissioner — permission to proceed to 
New York on parole on account of his health. Riedesel re- 
quested him while on the journey, to inquire into the circum- 
stances of the other prisoners, and report the facts to him. In 
pursuance of this order, in a letter written from Chatham under 
date of April 28, he draws a sad picture of their condition. He 
found most of the prisoners covered with vermin, their clothing 
worn out, and themselves otherwise in a lamentable condition. 

On the 18th of May, the 19th English regiment was ordered 
to march to Rutland. 

On the 29th of May, some Brunswick officers succeeded in 
capturing a deserter on the way from Cambridge to Watertown. 
This deserter belonged to Riedesers own regiment. The poor 
fellow, as being the first caught, had to suffer as an example 
for all future deserters. The punishment, a hard one for those 
days, was administered in the presence of all the troops. The 
man was tied to a post ; thirty lashes were given him ; his hair 
was then cut off; after which he was turned loose as dishonored. 
The Americans quietly witnessed the scene until it was finished ; 
when the Brunswickers plainly saw the American recruiting offi- 
cers meet the deserter on the other side of the chain, and carry 
him off in triumph as a martyr to liberty. 

This punishment, however, had the effect of preventing de- 
sertion for a while; but the Brunswickers nevertheless, lost 
seventy-three men during this month. 

Toward the end of the month, little circulars, printed in Ger- 
man, were distributed. Their purport was as follows : 



" Resolved in Congress, May 22, 1778. 

" That it be recommended to the governments of the several 
states the passage of laws, by which, all those who have deserted, 
or shall desert during the present war from the English army or 
navy, shall be free from militia service. That it be further 
recommended to the governments of the several states to declare 
all prisoners and deserters incompetent to serve as substitutes 
in the militia during the present war, and further, to declare 
void all agreements in this respect, and to empower those pri- 
soners and deserters, who have agreed to go as substitutes, to 
keep the money they have received for this purpose, for their 

own use. 

" Charles Thomson, Secretary.'^ i 

By this it was intended to encourage deserters to become 
citizens of the United States, as they were thus exempted from 
performing the militia duty to which every native was subject. 
Captain Hardy was kind enough to show the above circular to 
Captain Poelnitz on the same day on which the six deserters 
were arrested. 

On the 11th, three English commissioners arrived in America, 
for the purpose of seeing if a peaceable solution of these diffi- 
culties could not be arrived at. These were Carlisle, Eden and 
Johnston. Congress, however, did everything to prevent their 
having a hearing. 

The 9th English regiment, which was ordered to Rutland, 
started on the 1st of June, but as all the officers could not be 
furnished with lodgings, it was commanded only by a captain, 
only one lieutenant remaining with each company. 

On the 1st of June, the following general order of General 
Phillips was read to the German prisoners at their camp : 

" The constant and continually increasing desertion induces 
General Phillips to believe that our enemies have found oppor- 

^ Extract from the document printed at Lancaster by Fred. Bailey. 


tunities to distribute in our barracks specious promises regarding 
the pay which will be given our soldiers, in case they desert. 
He believes that in this way some soldiers are blinded and led 
off into perpetual slavery. 

'' What can a Crerman win in a country where nothing circu- 
lates but paper money ? What frightful taxes will the inhabit- 
ants of this country have to pay after peace is declared in 
order to liquidate the public debt ? What labor, for a foreigner 
to clear and cultivate a few acres of land covered with wood ? 
Why, after many years he will scarcely be able to procure from 
them his daily bread, which he will then have to eat under the 
contempt of his neighbors, and a gnawing conscience constantly 
accusing him of having forever left his parents, his countrymen, 
his fatherland and his sovereign ! 

"Is it not more delightful and more glorious to suffer for a 
time, and afterward return with honor and glory to his father- 
land, where, with his comrades in arms, he can recall all the 
pleasant and honorable memories of these campaigns ? 

" No, soldiers ! Be not deceived by these vain promises. Your 
own experience, the treaty which has been publicly broken, not 
to speak of other examples, ought to show you the kind of faith 
that is to be attached to these promises. They ought, also, to 
prove to you that you had far better be thinking of those 
obligations to which you are bound by your oath. Remain 
faithful to your God and your sovereign, and wait patiently for 
the time when you can rest once more in your fatherland, hav- 
ing the witness of all that you have fought honorably and 

" Phillips, Lieutenant General. 

" Cambridge, May 26, 1778." 

General Riedesel also sought, by addressing himself to their 
sense of honor, to accomplish more toward putting a stop to 
desertion than by threatening punishment. Thus, for instance, 
he published to the troops in the beginning of June, an article 


from the London News in wliicli the behavior of the Brunswick 
and Hesse Hanau troops were highly praised. 

For the purpose of loosening the bands of discipline still 
more, General Heath, without the knowledge of Generals 
Phillips and Kiedesel, issued passes to the English and German 
officers, permitting them to go to Boston. Upon learning this 
fact, Phillips issued a strict order to the officers forbidding them 
to visit that city in future. He also issued another order to 
the commanders of regiments and battalions that they should 
gather up and deliver all such passes to him. 

Notwithstanding the destitute and miserable condition of the 
prisoners at this time, they resolved to celebrate, on the 4th of 
June, the birthday of his majesty, the king of Great Britain. 
Accordingly the troops marched in their variegated rags and 
torn shoes to the parade ground and formed in line, as they 
had formerly done when splendidly accoutred. The generals 
walked down in front of them closely scrutinizing the expres- 
sion of each soldier's countenance ) and although there were 
some in whom they had lost all confidence, yet many a faithful 
eye gazed calmly into theirs. After the parade had thus been 
finished, the men were addressed by the generals in a short 
speech, in which the latter described in strong language the 
crime of desertion and admonished the soldiers to keep faith 
with their sovereign in the future. The Americans, who were 
present and saw and heard everything, looked on with astonish- 
ment, but otherwise kept quiet. At the close of the exercises, 
one shilling was given to each noncommissioned officer, and 
six-pence to each private, for the purpose of celebrating the 

The members of the Massachusetts assembly having deter- 
mined to hold their next session at Watertown, General Heath 
issued an order to the prisoners in which he informed them that 
the hitherto extended lines were to be contracted to Richards's 
tavern, about half way to the former town. This was done that 

those gentlemen might not be disturbed in their meetings. For 



the protection of the assembly, a strong detachment was at the 
same time sent by the governor from Boston to Watertown. 

On the Gth of June, an order of Heath to the captive officers 
was published. This prohibited riding cither on horseback or 
in carriages in Cambridge or Mystic on Sundays. 


The commission, appointed for the exchange of prisoners, 
finally agreed on the 10th of June, that all prisoners of war, 
without distinction of nationality, should be exchanged accord- 
ing to the time of their capture. Thus, those prisoners who 
had been captured near Bennington, had the first chance of 
being released. 

Captain O'Connell,^ asked permission of Riedesel to return 
to Europe and arrange some pressing family affairs. As the 
presence of this brave oflicer could now be of little use, Ried- 
esel did all in his power to further his wishes. In the middle 
of June, he received permission from congress to return to 
Europe on parole. Riedesel took this opportunity to send by 
him his dispatches to his court, also the flags which he had 
saved. These flags the captain left in Rhode island. They 
were afterward carried to Canada by Lieutenant Colonel Specht. 

On the 14th, a new difficulty arose between the provincials 
and a Brunswick soldier of the regiment Rhetz, which cost the 
latter his life. He was on the point of going beyond the chain 
with his young and beautiful wife who had followed him from 
Europe, when six brutal militia men began joking with the 
woman in a coarse manner. The husband in protecting the 
honor of his wife finally found himself forced to defend her and 
himself with a cane against their assailants. The sentinel near 
by, witnessed the unequal combat with all composure, but when 
the German drove back the Americans, he ran up and thrust 
his bayonet through him. The poor man soon expired. Ried- 

^ Biedesers adjutant. 


esel again complained bitterly to Heath, whereupon the latter 
sent the murderer to Boston for trial ; but it could never be 
ascertained what was done to him. 

New troubles had by this time also broken out on the side of 
the English. Two British officers, who had been arrested, had, 
in the opinion of the Americans, abused the freedom allowed 
them. Greneral Heath was on the point of having them tried, 
in which case they would certainly have been sentenced whether 
guilty or not, when Phillips interfered, and by great exertions 
saved them from this disgrace. 

A still sadder case, however, occurred on the 17th of June. 
On that day the English lieutenant, Browne, with two Boston 
ladies, rode down Prospect hill in a one-horse carriage. The 
road was very steep, and the horse, consequently, was going at 
full speed. At the foot of the hill a double guard of Ameri- 
cans was stationed whose duty it was to watch that portion of 
the road lying outside the chain, and also the storehouse at this 
place. The guard, although they must have known Browne by 
his uniform, nevertheless called on him to stop. This it was 
impossible for him to do at once, as the horse was running at 
great speed. He therefore turned round to show his sabre, 
thereby indicating that he was an officer. Notwithstanding 
this, however, the Americans ran up with fixed bayonets, and 
one of them, regardless of the ladies in the carriage, fired 
a bullet through the head of the officer. He died a few 
hours afterward. General Phillips, upon hearing of this cir- 
cumstance, was fairly beside himself with anger, and, during 
his first excitement, wrote the following note to General 

"Finally it has come to murder and slaughter. An officer 
riding from the barracks down Prospect hill has been shot by 
an American sentinel. I ascribe this terrible event to the 
thirst for blood which has become inseparable to this rebellion, 
and in this opinion the whole of Europe concurs. I demand 
no justice, for I believe that all principles of justice have left 


these provinces. I demand tlie liberty of sending a report of 
this murder to General Sir Henry Clinton, by the way of 
General Washington's head quarters. 

" William Phillips. 
" Cambridge, June 17, 1778." 

This was bold language for a prisoner exposed to the moods 
of an unjust enemy ) and General Heath was not a little excited 
when he received this abrupt note. The result was, that a 
guard of one noncommissioned officer and nine men were 
stationed in General Phillips's house, while he, himself, was 
ordered not to leave his house and the adjoining garden, until 
further orders. In other words he was placed under arrests 
At the same time Heath sent his adjutant, Lieutenant Colonel 
Pollard to General Riedesel and Brigadier Hamilton, offering 
the former the command of all the captured troops. With 
dignified composure, General Riedesel listened to this offer } 
and when the adjutant had finished, he told him curtly and 
without caring for the selectness of his language, that no 
general had the power to take from an English general a com- 
mand that had been given him by his king, and he would, 
therefore, at all times acknowledge General Phillips as the 
commander of those troops. This occurrence caused a general ex- 
citement in both camps, especially in that of the English. Some 
officers who had hastened to the scene carried their mortally 
wounded comrade into the camp, and caused the sentinel who 
had committed the murder to be arrested. The latter was sent 
to Boston, but nothing was heard of his being punished. 
According to rumor, the fellow was sent to the army of General 
Washington, where, perhaps, other opportunities were given 
him of showing his bravery in a similar manner to an unarmed 

As soon as General Phillips had somewhat calmed down, he 
issued, on the 18th of June, an order to his troops, in which, 
among other things, occurs this passage : 


" Should it become evident that this proceeding has originated 
in consequence of express orders, or of an intention of exciting 
the captured troops, we will for the present bear it patiently 
and calmly, leaving it to providence to punish such wicked 
deeds. The treaty, by all appearances, seems likely soon to be 
ratified. We will, therefore, do nothing which might cause 
any delay.'' At the same time the general thanked the officers 
of the 21st Regiment, the one to which the deceased belonged, 
for their calm and becoming demeanor. 

On the 19th, the deceased was buried with all military honors, 
and entombed in the church at Cambridge, Heath having given 
his consent to it. All the English officers and soldiers, together 
with nearly all the German officers, took part in the funeral. 
In the cortege were several American officers of high rank, 
who were present, either for the purpose of showing sympathy, 
or of keeping, by their presence, the provincials and the unruly 
populace from disturbing the procession. 

Meanwhile, Phillips received, on the 17th of June, a letter 
from General Howe, who was in Philadelphia, in which the 
latter informed him that in consequence of his own request he 
had been relieved by his majesty of the command of the army, 
and that it had been given to General Henry Clinton. The 
fact was that Howe was dissatisfied with the home government 
in several particulars. He complained to Lord Germaine of 
the inattention shown to his recommendations, and, also, of a 
want of confidence in him, and poor support. This general, 
like many other commanders, knew how to gain a victory, but 
did not know how to take advantage of it. When he believed 
he had done his part, he relapsed from the greatest activity 
into the most uncomprehensible neglect. We have already 
seen this demonstrated in the events of the latter ps^rt of the 
year 1776, when the brave Hessians near Trenton were sacrificed 
to his negligence. 

In consequence of constant out door life and poor rations the 
number of sick in the prisoners' camp was considerably increased. 


General Howe liad sent into Boston harbor several ship loads 
of provisions to the prisoners, but the Americans — devoid of 
conscience — kept the good provisions to themselves, sending 
codfish and other still poorer articles to the captives. The 
captured generals had repeatedly and urgently requested Heath 
at least to send the sick a few fresh provisions, but without 
avail. The poor invalids continued to lie in the old, miserable 
barracks in want of medicine ; for at that time the drugstores 
in Boston were most miserably kept, and what medicines were 
to be had, were enormously dear. Fresh provisions, also, were 
very high ; but as these were absolutely necessary for the sick, 
Riedesel, on the 19th, ordered the necessary money for this 
purpose to be drawn from the regimental funds. Considering 
cleanliness, moreover, as the chief preventive of disease, he 
issued on Thursday, the 17th of July, the following order : 

" General Riedesel, in the course (to-day) of his weekly in- 
spection of companies on parade, observed that some of the 
men were neither washed nor shaved, nor, indeed, was their 
hair even properly attended to. He noticed, also, that there 
was a want of neck and pig-tail ties, and that the men wore 
pocket handkerchiefs around their necks. 

" The closer and the more uncomfortable the men lie in the 
barracks, the more necessary it is to attend to personal clean- 
liness ) otherwise diseases will break out. Vermin is the first 
consequence of this state of things, after which come epidemic 
diseases, especially when the combing of the hair is neglected. 
General Riedesel has firm confidence in his battalion com- 
manders, that they will as far as possible act upon these hints 
in their battalions, and that he will see the results of them next 

" Riedesel, Major General." 

Riedesel, also, used his utmost exertions to enforce cleanliness 
in the barracks. The privies and the sewers had to be cleaned 
frequently. No refuse, such as vegetables, meat, fish, etc., 


were allowed to be thrown in front of the barracks. Two 
brooms were obliged to be kept in each of the latter, which 
were used for sweeping them twice a day. 

Commissary General Masserow, on the 25th, issued an order 
to the inhabitants of Massachusetts bay, to the eflPect that the 
prisoners of the 71st English regiment were to be sent to Rut- 
land, and thence to Newport, in Rhode island, for exchange. 
There was yet nothing said in regard to the exchange of the 
G-ermans. Upon making inquiry concerning it, Riedesel re- 
ceived from the commissioner the doubtful consolation that the 
general exchange of the two nations would shortly take place, and 
the turn of those prisoners who were captured near Bennington, 
would, therefore, soon come. 

The number of Brunswick deserters was much smaller this 
month than the previous one. Only seven names were on the 

In the middle of July, Riedesel issued the following circular 
to the commanders of regiments and battalions : 

" The strict orders which have been issued at Boston induces 
General Riedesel to believe that General Heath intends to find 
out whether or not the captured officers have obeyed the orders 
which were issued by him, that he may have an excuse for pun- 
ishing the transgressors more severely. The larger the number 
of those who have disobeyed, and the higher the rank of the 
offender, the better he will like it. We must, therefore, be on 
our guard, from the highest to the lowest, that nothing may be 
found in our conduct which can give the Americans the slightest 
excuse to call us to account. All officers should, therefore, act 
accordingly, and be very careful in the supervision exercised 
by them over the soldiers under their respective commands, as 
it seems that nothing is spoken or undertaken by the officers 
without its being known at Boston. Notwithstanding General 
Heath, in an order of the 15th of July, expressly prohibited 
any of the prisoners working for the inhabitants, either within 
or outside the limits, the same general, yesterday and to-day. 


issued a large number of passes to the inhabitants, permitting 
them to engage German soldiers to work for them, in case 
General Riedesel should allow it. 

" The latter would cheerfully allow his men, by these means, 
to increase their pay, providing that their number be not too 
large ; that the commanders of battalions know those men whom 
they permit to work to be reliable ; that the place where they 
work be not without the limits; and that the soldiers come 
every Thursday to the parade on Winter hill. But no man is 
to be allowed to go, without the citizen showing a pass from 
General Heath. For the Brunswick troops, the passes must be 
signed by Adjutant General Von Poelnitz. Brigadier General 
Von Gall will have the passes for the Hesse Hanau troops signed 
by the brigade major. They are to be sent to Adjutant General 
Von Poelnitz every week, together with the report of the num- 
ber of the Hesse Hanau soldiers who work for the inhabitants. 
Thus General Riedesel will be able at any time to answer the 
questions of General Phillips, in regard to the number of Ger- 
man soldiers furnished with passes allowing them to work for 

the inhabitants. 

" Riedesel, Major General. 
" July 17, 1778." 


The confidence of the Americans in their cause rapidly 
increased, especially after France — as a proof that she was in 
earnest in regard to her acknowledgment of the independence 
of the United States — sent a fleet of twelve ships of the line, 
four frigates and twelve thousand men to their succor. This 
fleet, under the command of Count D'Estaing, was already 
cruising ofi" the coast of Virginia. This movement of D'Estaing 
caused General Clinton to evacuate Philadelphia and retreat 
further and further north, as he expected that an attack would 
soon be made on Rhode island. 

The Americans talked now of the capture of Clinton's army 


as if it was already a fait accompli^ and designed for it a fate 
similar to that of General Burgoyne. They, accordingly, endea- 
vored to gather a force (juickly together, and advance with it on 
Providence, R. I. For this purpose, several regiments were 
taken from Boston, and also, with the exception of a small 
detachment, those troops who had hitherto guarded the pri- 
soners. As it was now impossible to keep a chain of outposts 
around the captured troops, the latter, as a natural consequence, 
went beyond the prescribed limits, a circumstance of which 
General Heath complained. The two generals, ^ therefore, in 
order not to give any further cause for dissatisfaction, and also 
to avoid all future trouble, formed a line of their own men 
around the two hills, no one being allowed to go beyond it 
without a pass. For this purpose, each hill furnished daily one 
captain, two noncommissioned officers and sixty men. 

General Heath had reported to congress the case of the shoot- 
ing of Lieutenant Browne and the arrest of General Phillips, 
inclosing at the same time the severe letter of Phillips. On 
the 7th of July, an answer was received to the effect that 
Heath's conduct was indorsed. The arrest of Phillips was 
therefore considered proper ; but in the face of his arrest, the 
lattei* continued to attend to the duties of commander of the 

Meanwhile, General Clinton accomplished his masterly retreat 
to New York. The Americans were not a little astonished when 
they found that the army, which they thought would be cut off, 
was now in safety. At first, congress did not know which of the 
generals was to blame for this failure. All that was plain was, 
that the proposed plan for capturing the army, which was in 
itself very defective, had been rendered yet more so by the 
irresolution of the commanders in carrying it out. Finally the 
entire blame fell upon Major General Lee, who was the scape- 

Phillips and Hiedesel. 



goat for the rest.i General "Washington, who accused him of 
negligence, caused him to be arrested and tried before a court 
martial. He was sentenced to be deprived of his command for 
one year. On the 27th, the 20th English regiment started on 
its march to Rutland. In an order of the 28th, Heath pro- 
hibited the soldiers trading in provisions. On this day he directed 
that the provisions should be taken away from all those who were 
met with on the way from Cambridge to the hill. Among this 
number were many servants of the officers, and soldiers who had 
brought with them the necessaries of life for others. This pro- 
hibition, moreover, was the harder for the prisoners, since the 
American commissioners did not furnish enough of those pro- 
visions which were actually necessary to support life. During 
this month, desertions again increased ] twenty-four men having 
escaped in that time from the Brunswick corps. 

On the 1st of August, the birthday of the duke of Brunswick 
was celebrated as gayly as possible. Divine services were held 
in the morning, after which the parade took place, the hant- 
boyists being present with their instruments, a portion of which 
they had managed to keep. Three cheers were given for the 
sovereign, the soldiers waving their hats every time. After 
this the troops defiled. At the conclusion of the parade, Eied- 
esel received the congratulations of his officers, after which he 
gave a dinner, to which all the brigadiers and staff officers were 
invited. The noncommissioned officers received this day the 
same douceur, that had been given them on the birthday of the 
king of England, with which to drink the health of their 

During the 11th, 12th and 13th of August, a terrible storm 
raged, which tore up the strongest trees and demolished a few 
of the barracks. Indeed, throughout the entire summer, there 
were heavy thunder storms in this section of the country. 
There were, also, heavy dews at night. 

1 Vide the Treason of Major Oeneral Lee^ by Gteorge H. Moore. New York, 1860. 


The chief theatre of action was now in the vicinity of Rhode 
island, which was attacked by land and water by the Americans, 
but was bravely defended by Clinton. The English fleet, under 
Admiral Howe, was a match for the French fleet, although severe 
naval engagements occurred every now and then. The wounded 
in these combats, who had been brought to Cambridge, said that 
the Americans could not take Rhode island. General Phillips, 
therefore, announced to his men that the American regiments 
would soon return to Boston, at the same time forbidding all 
conversation upon this topic, that all difficulty between them 
and the excited Americans might be avoided. General Heath 
was extremely indignant when he heard of this order, which 
struck him as premature. 

On the 29th of August, the French fleet entered the harbor 
of Boston and cast anchor, for the purpose of repairing the 
ships which had been severely damaged both by the late storm 
and the naval engagements. The admiral's ship, Languedoc^ 
had lost her masts and bowsprit, so that it was towed into the 

The American land troops that had been sent on the expedi- 
tion to Rhode island were led by General Sullivan. Very 
little was known in the prisoners' camp regarding the result of 
this undertaking, and that little was very unreliable. This 
arose from the fact that the Americans were very secretive, not 
allowing even the privates to talk about it; and the statements 
of those of their newspapers that said anything about it were 
evidently so onesided as to be utterly unreliable. During 
this month (August), the Brunswickers lost five men by deser- 
tion. Seven, however, who had previously deserted, returned 

On the 1st of September, the Bostonians were thrown into no 
little terror, by the fleet of Admiral Howe, numbering twenty- 
two sail, making its appearance. The French admiral feared 
lest the English admiral, taking advantage of the dilapidated 
condition of his own fleet, might make a demonstration against 


the city. He, therefore, immediately hoisted his alarm flags, 
which was followed by a similar action of the Bosten authorities 
on their buildings and spires. Every one who could carry or 
obtain arms hastened to the city. The people of the neighbor- 
ing townships came riding into the city on horseback. Go- 
vernor Hancock, who had just arrived from Rhode island, at 
once had the most important parts in and around the city 
occupied. Meanwhile, it grew dark ; and the alarm fires shone 
from the heights. All this haj)pened in full view of the pri- 
soners. How did their hearts beat in expectation of a possible 
liberation ! Every moment might bring on a decisive action I 
Who could tell upon whose banners victory might perch ? 

The Americans, owing to the proximity of the prisoners, 
were under consideBable alarm. But to what place could they 
send 'them without an escort, since no troops could now be 
spared for this purpose? They, however, endeavored to rid 
themselves of a portion, at least, of these obnoxious guests by 
ordering the 2l8t and 47th English regiments to march to 
Rutland. The necessary teams for this purpose were accord- 
ingly procured in all haste ; and the regiments ordered to start 
on their march the next day (September 2d), at noon. An 
order was also issued that no officer or private of the captured 
troops should leave his quarters after sunset. But when on 
the following morning it was found that the English fleet had 
departed, the Americans breathed easier. 

The preparations of the people of Boston for receiving Ad- 
miral D'Estaing, had been interrupted by the sudden appearance 
of the English fleet ; but it was now determined to welcome 
him with extraordinary pomp, on the 4th of September. The 
large court house at Boston was expressly fitted up for his 
public reception. The first men of Boston, together with all 
of the higher grade of officers, assembled here on this occasion. 
Speaking of this event Riedesel's journal says : " Dinner was 
served at the palace of General Hancock at the expense of 
congress. Never before had Boston witnessed such splendor ; 


and it is said that all the French officers, who were present and 
who were gallants by nature, enjoyed themselves amazingly 
during the festivities of this occasion. Afterward the French 
officers began to make the acquaintance of the prisoners on 
Prospect and Winter hills/' Thus absolutism and democracy 
fraternized on American soil in order to fight a common enemy. 
Not a solitary fact in history. 

But, notwithstanding these enthusiastic manifestations of 
friendship, a coolness soon arose upon several questions. Count 
D'Estaing had expected that his vessels would be fitted out 
with all necessary provisions by his new allies, and was conse- 
quently not a little astonished when the latter utterly refused 
to do it. The shrewd Americans wished to have his aid as 
cheaply as possible, and violent discussions arose between the 
two parties. D'Estaing then made a second demand, io the 
effect that congress should erect hospitals and take care of the 
wounded and sick. After considerable talk it was finally 
agreed that the Americans should furnish the medicines, but 
not the provisions ; and the count was forced to pay dear for 
every article he took on board, even to a hogshead of water. 
Nor was it long before the Frenchmen and the Bostonians 
looked askance at each other. Indeed, their bad feelings in- 
creased to such an extent that bloody fights took place between 
them almost daily. The people of Boston thought that the 
polite Frenchmen were too lofty and aristocratic; while the 
latter on their side, thought the Bostonians too vulgar. At 
last, matters reached such a pass that D'Estaing was obliged to 
forbid his officers, soldiers and sailors from visiting the city. 
This state of things was so unpleasant to the governor, that he 
endeavored to smooth over matters by representing in the public 
prints that there was no truth in these reports. Indeed, he went 
so far as to forbid anyone giving them currency in conversation. 

During this season tie so called foul fever, ^ raged so severely 

1 Was it tlie yellow fever f 



in this part of the country, that many of the prisoners sickened 
and died. Generals Riedesel and Phillips instituted energetic 
measures to put a stop to the contagion. Those who were sick 
of this distemper were separated from the other patients, 
placed in separate barracks and received separate nurses. 

The peace commissioners, Carlisle, Johnston and William 
Eden, who were treating with Washington, had all along kept 
in view the fulfillment of the treaty by the Americans, and 
continued to make representations to congress. The latter 
returned evasive answers as long as it was able, until it was 
forced, on the 4th of September, to return a plain answer, as 
follows : 

" Congress, having resolved, on the 8th of January, 1778, 
that the embarkation of General Burgoyne, and the troops under 
his command, should be postponed until a plain and clear 
ratification of the convention at Saratoga could be sent to the 
court of Great Britain, hereby again resolves that no ratification 
of the treaty at Saratoga can be acknowledged by congress, 
even if it should be oflPered by such powers as are interested in 
it by connection, participation or otherwise." 

This news caused great excitement among the prisoners, 
although they had long since given up all hope of having the 
treaty fulfilled by the Americans ; and as congress hesitated 
not to express itself in this manner, might not even worse 
things be expected ? 

Lieutenant Colonel Specht, who had gone by a pass to New 
York, in April, had meanwhile been exchanged, and received 
orders from the governor of Canada, to gather together the 
exchanged soldiers and bring them to Canada. In a letter 
from New Wolfenbiittel, under date of September 4th, 1778, 
he describes the miserable condition of the prisoners in the 
northern portion of the United States. Among other things, 
he says : " The men go naked, without a coat to their backs ; 
and some who have been in the hospital are wearing pieces of 
blankets, so that I am forced to have uniforms made." 


As early as September 19th, tlie rumor was rife in the 
prisoners' camp, that it was the intention of congress to sepa- 
rate both nationalities, and send the English troops to Rutland, 
and the Germans farther in the interior of the country. 

On the 21st of September, two more peace commissioners. 
Doctor Berkenhut and Mr. Temple, arrived from England. 
The latter is described by General Riedesel as very indolent 
and careless, but the former as an exceedingly active and care- 
ful man who sought to do his duty with all diligence. Dr. 
Berkenhut, who acted entirely in unison with his brother 
commissioner, the newly sent Governor Johnson, first en- 
deavored to make the acquaintance of influential Americans, 
especially with the members of the lower courts, those having 
the most influence with the different classes of the people. 
This was done by him with the object of influencing them 
against congress, and thus creating a division. This person 
was accused of attempting to carry out his designs even in 
Philadelphia ; a circumstance which so enraged congress that it 
sent the English peace commissioner to the penitentiary. 

On the 24th of September, Riedesel received intelligence 
from Major Maiborn, who was a prisoner at Westminster, that 
Commissioner Masserow had stated that a portion of the officers 
captured near Bennington were to be exchanged. Soon after, 
news to the same effect was received from the commissioner 
himself. Upon the reception of this news, Riedesel ordered 
lots to be cast to decide which of the officers, belonging to the 
regiment of dragoons and the battalions of grenadiers and yagers, 
should remain with the captured troops after the others had 
been exchanged. He excepted, however, from this order, the 
cavalry captain, Fricke and Lieutenant Gebhard. These, hav- 
ing hitherto served as regimental quarter masters, he ordered 
to remain and attend to this business for the troops. The fol- 
lowing were the officers, who, a few days subsequent, were 
exchanged and went to Rhode island. Major Von Maiborn, 
Cavalry-Captain Von Schlagenteuffel, Lieutenants Breda and 


Von Reckrodt, Cornet Stutzer, Doctor Vorbrodt, Auditor 
Thomas and Chaplain Melzheimer of the dragoon regiments; 
Lieutenants Von Burghoff and Meyer of the grenadier Bat- 
talion ; Ensigns Donicke and Andre of the regiment lliedesel ; 
Captains Von Geisau and Dommcs and Ensign Cornet Eanzan 
of the battery of Barner ; and Lieutenant Bach of the Hesse 
Hanau troops. 

During this month (September), there were only four deser- 
tions among the Brunswick troops. 

By the beginning of October, the difficulties between Phillips 
and Heath had reached such a pass that the latter refused to 
receive any letters from the former. No more business wa« 
therefore transacted between the two. Henceforth, Heath 
addressed himself only to Riedesel, who received from the 
governor of Boston, a command to attend in the future to all 
business connected with the English troops. Although Ried- 
esel, who highly respected and loved Phillips, disliked this 
arrangement, he could not very well refuse compliance with it 
unless at the risk of having an inferior officer placed over him. 

Unfortunately, in the beginning of this month, desertion again 
increased so rapidly, that Riedesel was forced to isssue another 
address to his troops. 

On the 5th, the 24th English regiment started for Rutland. 

In consequence of the presence of the French fleet in the 
harbor of Boston, provisions were extremely dear, a circum- 
stance that was severely felt among the prisoners. General 
Phillips was consequently obliged to send the English pay- 
master Geddes to Rhode island to obtain money and provisions. 
Commissary General Clarke was also sent to New York on a 
similar mission, charged, however, with the reporting to Clinton 
the present condition of afliiirs among the prisoners and their 

On the 11th October, there was another great excitement 
among the inhabitants and garrison at Boston. General Sul- 
livan having informed the governor that a strong English fleet 



of thirty men of war and one hundred transports had been seen 
off the coast making directly for Cape Cod, Heath advised the 
inhabitants to pack up their effects and remove the women and 
children. The alarm, however, was again groundless. 

On the 15th, in obedience to an order from the governor, the 
62d English regiment — the last of the English troops on Prospect 
hill — started for Rutland. The greater part of their officers, 
however, remained in their old quarters in and around Cam- 
bridge, there being, as yet, no room for them in Rutland. Only 
one captain with each regiment and one lieutenant with each 
company had accompanied the troops to that place. 

Meanwhile, the ships from Canada, with the long expected 
baggage, arrived in New York. The English lieutenant. Col- 
lier, who had been sent by Phillips, with the consent of Gates, 
from Saratoga into Canada, came with the ships, and reached 
Cambridge on the 16th of October. He brought some letters 
from Lieutenant Dove — who belonged to the German troops in 
Canada — to General Riedesel. Through these letters it was 
first learned that General Carleton had left for England, and 
that his command had been given to General Haldimand, who 
had been appointed governor of Canada. It was also learned 
that a second transport, having on board four hundred and fifty 
men, had safely arrived from Brunswick. General Clinton also 
sent Phillips, through the same channel, the welcome news that 
four thousand blankets, and cloth for long pantaloons and caps 
were on their way, all of which was the sole gift of the king of 
England. The uniforms for the companies were paid for out of 
a special disbursement in the charge of the captain ; but the 
smaller articles of clothing the soldiers were obliged to pay for 
themselves, a small deduction for this purpose being taken from 
their monthly pay. A fire which happened in New York at this 
time, burned up one hundred thousand yards of cloth and fifty 
thousand woolen blankets — a great loss for the English troops, 
upon the verge of winter. 

Notwithstanding congress, in the letter of the 4th of September 



before alluded to, had plainly declared the invalidity of the 
treaty at Saratoga, General Clinton took the trouble once more 
to express his opinions in a letter to Washington as follows : 
The letter is dated the 19th September. 

" Sir : Nothing but the express orders of his majesty — a copy 
of which I herewith inclose — could have induced me again to 
trouble you or the American congress in regard to the captured 
troops now in New England, kept there contrary to the treaty 
at Saratoga. The uniform disregard paid to all requests in this 
particular, is unheard of and without a parallel among contend- 
ing parties. I therefore repeat the request, that the treaty, 
which was negotiated at Saratoga, shall be carried out, and 
now offer, with the special and only lately repeated command 
of his majesty the king, and in his name, to renew all those 
conditions which were agreed upon by Lieutenant General Bur- 
goyne in relation to those troops under his command. I con- 
sider myself hereby discharged from all obligations, not only 
toward his majesty the king, whose order I obey, but toward 
the unhappy people whose fate I bring before your conscience 
. in the hope that your sense of justice will prevent the evil con- 
sequences which your newly introduced system of warfare will 
necessarily bring about. 

" I have the honor of being, etc., 

" Clinton." 

General Washington sent this letter to congress, and the latter, 

with laconic brevity answered, through its secretary, as follows : 

"Your letter of the 19th September has been laid before 

congress. I am ordered to inform you that the congress of the 

United States of North America never answers offensive letters. 

"I am, etc., 

" Charles Thomson, Secretary." 

Thus vanished the last hope of negotiations with congress in 
relation to the exchange. 


On the 24tli of October, a lieutenant arrived witli the articles 
sent by Clinton. They, however, could not be used at present, 
for on the next day Heath informed Kiedesel that the latter 
was to march on the 5th of November with his Germans to Vir- 
ginia. The ships, that had arrived from Canada with the bag- 
gage, and which had already left New York, received orders to 
sail toward the Virginia coast, it being impossible to transport 
the baggage over land on a road six hundred and fifty miles 
long and in poor condition. 

This news was very unexpected to the German troops, for 
who could have supposed that they were to be forced to under- 
take such a tedious march just before the approach of winter? 
What could have induced congress to take such a measure, was 
asked by all ? The question was soon solved. When Clinton 
perceived that all negotiations with congress were broken off, 
he declared that if the convention troops were to be treated 
like other prisoners, they must be supported by their captors. 
Hitherto the royal magazines had furnished them the neces- 
saries of life, and the extravagant and unreasonable bills of the 
Americans for quarters, fuel and other things had been paid. 
This was now to cease. Congress, therefore, not wishing to 
support the prisoners on the resources of a portion of the 
country already considerably exhausted by the French fleet and 
the American army, nothing else remained but to send the 
prisoners into that section of the country, which, by being 
farther removed from the theatre of war, had suffered less. 
Charlottesville, on the James river in Virginia, was accordingly 
selected for the Germans. This region was called by the Ame- 
ricans a paradise ; where, they said, was to be found an abun- 
dance of everything. 

The cloth, which had in the meantime arrived, was distri- 
buted among the companies on the 26th, in order that warm 
pantaloons, caps and mittens might be at once made up for those 
soldiers who stood most in need of such articles of clothing. The 
blankets were also distributed. What was now most anxiously 


desired was money; for it would certaiDly have been a very 
foolish thing to start out on so long a march and into a country 
cut oflf from all communication, without the requisite amount of 
money. Paymaster Godecke, who was expected from Canada 
with the baggage and a full purse, was obliged — in order to 
fill the latter — to go by way of New York. Upon his arriving 
at New York, however, and applying to Clinton for the necessary 
funds, he was refused. The latter reasoned as follows : " The 
Americans have hitherto acted contrary to all faith ; and they 
will not hesitate to take away money from the paymaster oA the 
route to reimburse themselves for the provisions supplied to the 
captured troops. The latter have to be taken care of any way ; 
and if they have nothing, they can pay nothing.'' But while 
Clinton could thus force congress to support the prisoners, the 
latter suffered. The two generals, Phillips and Riedesel, both 
of whom, always solicitous for the welfare of their men, were 
anxious to lessen their sufferings, were no little embarrassed 
by this answer. Finally, after considerable trouble, they suc- 
ceeded in obtaining from Heath permission to send Lieutenant 
Campbell to Rhode island in order to borrow as much money 
as possible for the present emergency. 

During this month, ten Brunswickers deserted. 


On the 2d of November, Phillips issaed directions for the 
march in conformity to Heath's order to the commanders. 
According to this, the prisoners were to leave Rutland and 
Winter hill in six divisions. Each nationality formed three 
divisions, and was attended by an American escort. The first 
English division, consisting of the artillery, grenadiers, light 
infantry and the 9th Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Hill, 
and the first German division, consisting of the dragoons, grena- 
diers, and the regiment Von Rhetz under Major Von Mengen, 
were to start on the 5th of November. The second English 
divisions, consisting of the 20th and 21st Regiments under com- 


mand of Major Forster, and the two Grerman divisions, consisting 
of the regiments Von Riedesel and Von Specht and led by 
Brigadier General Specht were to follow on the 6th. Briga- 
dier Specht was to command the entire German divisions. On 
the 7th, the third English division, composed of the 24th, 47th 
and 62d regiments, under the command of Brigadier Hamilton, 
was to follow. The latter also had charge of the other two Eng- 
lish divisions. The third German division, which was made up 
of the battalion Barner, the regiment Hesse Hanau, and the 
Hanau artillery under Brigadier Gall, were also to march on the 
same day. The strictest order and discipline, and the avoid- 
ance of all trouble with the escort of provincials, were especially 
enjoined; and to prevent any quarrels and disorder, an officer 
was given to the commander of each division, who was to act as 
commissary on the march, and make all necessary arrangements 
with the American leaders in regard to quarters. All the 
captured officers and soldiers were to bring their complaints 
or wishes to this commissary; all direct transactions or even 
conversation with the Americans, being strictly prohibited. 
Each of these commissaries received daily five shillings, with 
which to defray, if need be, the most necessary expenses. 
In case, however, this sum should not be sufficient, they were 
authorized to draw upon the commanders of regiments, who 
were ordered in such cases to advance money out of the regi- 
mental fund. 

Immediately upon the order for the march being issued, Ried- 
esel obtained permission from the commissary to send for two 
officers, Captain Von Baertling and captain of cavalry Fricke, 
that they might receive from him, personally, directions in rela- 
tion to the German prisoners still at Rutland and Westminster. 
These officers were enjoined to use their utmost exertions to 
gather together the deserters. They received, also, cloth and 
blankets for the troops, together with the permission to take 
the requisite amount of money for present necessities from the 
Hessian funds in New York and Rhode island. General Ried- 



esel wrote in regard to this to the Hessian commanders, Yon 
Knyphausen and Losberg. 

General Heath made numerous objections to the number of 
teams necessary for the march. At last, Phillips lost all patience 
and declared that he might send the wounded and sick prisoners 
for exchange to Rhode island by water, or to Charlottesville, as 
it was utterly impossible to take them upon such a long and 
tedious march even with an ample supply of teams. Upon this, 
Heath answered that he had no power to do anything further ; he 
would, however, consent that those who were unable to march, 
should remain in the hospital at Cambridge. This necessarily 
gave rise to various explanations and orders, and the march was 
accordingly postponed to the 9th. 

This postponement was a source of great gratification to the 
two generals, as neither the English paymaster, nor Godecke, nor 
Captain Campbell had yet returned from their quest for money 
in Bhode island, and it was of the last importance that funds 
should be obtained before starting on the march. Eegarding 
this, RiedesePs journal says : 

" The want of money was one of critical importance in our 
position at that time. All the officers, who had money, were 
obliged to lend it for the use of the troops, who in this manner 
received their pay in hard cash. Those officers that were in 
need of money had as much furnished them as was necessary to 
procure horses, etc., for their long journey. Nor was this any 
more than fair, as several months' pay was already due them. 
This arrangement was somewhat of a help, it is true, but not 
nearly enough to satisfy the demands of all. This being the 
state of affairs, Riedesel, who alone corresponded with Heath, 
requested the commander at Boston, in the n'ame of General 
Phillips, to postpone the march of the troops for a few days 
until the return of those officers that had been sent to New 
York and Newport." 

This extract will show how carefully the German general 
looked after the welfare of his troops, and how the wants of the 


privates were taken care of by the officers. Indeed, not a few 
of the latter afterward found themselves exposed to considerable 
suffering by their noble self-denial. These few lines from the 
journal, moreover, will serve to refute whole books written by 
individuals who, in their blind zeal, were anxious to represent 
the treatment of the Germans in the worst possible light. 

The long dreaded 9th of November at length passed, and 
still the longed for supplies came not. Phillips and Eiedesel, 
therefore, determined to borrow, on their own credit, as much 
money as possible in and around Boston. This was connected 
with great difficulties, but money must be procured at every 
sacrifice. - Accordingly, when the troops marched on the 9th, 
the two generals remained behind in Cambridge to negotiate 
for a loan. 

On the 9th, the first two divisions began the march. Pre- 
vious, however, to taking their departure, all the officers were 
obliged to give their word of honor in writing, that they would 
faithfully carry out in their place of destination the promises 
made by them here. The wounded, the sick and the disabled 
were sent to the hospital at Cambridge, the English ensign; 
Fielding, being left with them. But all who were able went 
with the troops. Captain Schlagenteuffel of the regiment 
Specht, and Lieutenant Bheims of the light battalion of the 
Brunswick troops were taken so ill, that their recovery was 
considered doubtful, and they were, therefore, left behind in 
their old quarters at Cambridge. 

General Eiedesel accompanied the first division as far as 
Watertown. It arrived in the evening at Sudbury after a 
march of seventeen miles. His wife, Madame Eiedesel, de- 
scribes her stay at Cambridge as a happy one under the circum- 
stances, and says that she would gladly have remained there 
with him during the whole of his captivity. She dreaded the 
journey chiefly on account of the increasing ill health of her 
husband, who was more than ever subject to nervous excitement, 
oppression and headache. Vexation and sorrow gnawed con- 


stantly at bis heart, injuring the body wbicb was already 
weakened by hardships. Just previous to the start, be bought 
a new English carriage for himself and family, and provided 
them with all things needful for a journey which would take 
them frequently through inhospitable regions. 

On the 10th of November, the second division followed, 
stopping over night in the same place that had been occupied 
the night previous by the first division, the latter having con- 
tinued its march to Marlborough and thence to Shrewsbury. 
The third division followed on the 11th. It was so arranged 
that one division was always one day in advance of the other. 
These last two divisions Biedesel also accompanied as far as 
Watertown. The generals, Eiedesel and Phillips, employed the 
last days of their stay in Cambridge in successfully endeavoring 
to induce Heath to grant several farms to the troops. Among 
other things, that general granted permission for those troops 
who were obliged to remain behind at present on account of 
sickness, to make the journey to Virginia by water. 

Strong hopes of being rescued from captivity, were indulged 
in by the prisoners just before beginning their march. Com- 
missioners were appointed on both sides to arrange a general 
exchange ; and it was confidently thought tHat news of final 
deliverance would be received by the troops during their 
march. Alas ! these expectations were also not destined to be 

On the 12th of November, the first German division reached 
Worcester. On this day, Phillips received a report from 
Brigadier General Hamilton, announcing that desertion, espe- 
cially among the Germans, was greatly on the increase. Phillips 
immediately acquainted Riedesel with this fact, upon which 
the latter at once sent off" an officer to investigate the matter. 

On the 13th, the first German division marched to Spencer 
by the way of Leicester ; on the 14th to Brookfield ; and on the 
15th to Palmer. On this last mentioned day, the officer dis- 
patched by Riedesel returned and reported that the English 



had lost on the march to Brookfield thirty-seven men, and the 
Germans twenty; six, however, had returned. 

Meanwhile, a change in the government at Boston had taken 
place. General Gates having succeeded General Heath. This 
change at once put an end to the arrest of General Phillips. 

On the 16th, the first division arrived at Wilbraham, near 
the line between Massachusetts bay and Connecticut. On the 
17th, it reached Enfield, on the Connecticut river. Here 
General Prevost was kept a prisoner. The troops were obliged 
to cross the river at this point ; and the march was, in conse- 
quence, greatly delayed. Nevertheless, they arrived in the 
evening at their destined quarters in Suffield. On the 19th, 
the first division reached Simsbury ; on the 20th, New Herford ; 
and on the 21st, Norfolk. 

Hitherto the troops had been quartered only in barns. 
Nevertheless, they were always well pleased with their quarters 
if only one company were put in a barn. But it sometimes 
happened that one or two regiments were placed in one build- 
ing. In such cases no rest could be obtained by reason of so 
many being huddled together. Notwithstanding, also, that 
certain villages were always designated in advance as quarters 
for the soldiers, the latter seldom found sufficient accommo- 
dations ; and they were obliged, therefore, to avail themselves 
of the farmhouses along the roadside. Thus companies and 
regiments were at times miles asunder. Everything, however, 
up to this time had gone on quietly and in good order ; and 
the men had withstood cheerfully and with courage, their many 
hardships and privations. Nor had there as yet been any 
difficulty between the prisoners and their escort. 

At Norfolk the march began to be extremely difficult. It 
was now to be continued over mountains and through the pri- 
meval forest. The roads were covered with ice ; a cold wind 
drove the snow and sleet into the faces of the men. The march 
was slow ; and it was impossible to reach the place that had 
been designated as their quarters for the night. The weary 



troops, therefore, bivouacked in the woods, in the midst of a 
pelting rain, without straw, wet to the skin. The country was 
very wild. Naked and steep rocks rose up on either side, and 
foaming waters rushed over precipices and pieces of rock. 
Only the valleys were covered with woods. 

On the 23d, after crossing the Housatonic, the troops marched 
to Salisbury. Here 17,000 paper thalers arrived, having been 
sent on from Cambridge by General Riedesel. 

Major Hopkins, who had been appointed commissary by the 
Americans, gave universal satisfaction. He had accompanied 
the troops as far as Connecticut, when he returned to Cam- 
bridge. Brigadier Generals Hamilton, Specht and Gall, sent 
back by him their reports to Phillips and Riedesel. The latter 
saw by these reports that the English had lost fifty men by 
desertion, the Brunswickers thirty and the regiment Hesse 
Hanau twenty-three. Eight of the Brunswickers, however, 
voluntarily returned to their respective companies. 

On the 25th, Captain Campbell returned from his mission 
which had proved an entire failure. General Prescott, to whom 
the captain had applied, returned the curt answer, that " he 
could give no money from his funds to the captured troops, as 
he believed his orders prohibited such a course." Neither 
could any person in New York be found willing to lend money 
for that purpose. 

This intelligence came upon the two generals like a thunder- 
bolt ; for they had been expecting hourly Campbell's return 
with a well filled purse. General RiedeseFs predicament, how- 
ever, was worse than Phillips's, since he had borrowed the above 
mentioned 70,000 thalers from merchants in Boston, by promis- 
ing to refund the amount in a few days when he should receive 
funds from Rhode island. There was no little excitement 
among- these merchants when they heard of the failure of 
Captain Campbell's mission, and, with great heat, they demanded 
of General Riedesel their money. He confessed to them frankly 
that no money could be expected from Rhode island, and that 



his only hope was now in General Clinton. He further said, 
that all he at present could do, would be to give them drafts 
on Germany or England. At the same time he offered to give 
them his person as security until the money was paid. 

But of what use could the general's person be to the Boston 
merchants ? They, accordingly, accepted the offer of the drafts. 
There was, however, one exception, viz : a merchant from 
Mystic, who had lent one thousand guineas. This one would 
hear nothing of a draft. He came with a justice of the peace 
and a constable to Eiedesers quarters, and demanded in a 
terrible state of excitement his money, threatening, in case of a 
refusal, to arrest the general and bring him to trial before 
a civil magistrate. The general quietly responded that he was 
unable to offer anything but good drafts, and if the gentleman 
insisted on his arrest, he would have to put up with it. At 
length the merchant, perceiving by the quiet demeanor of 
Riedesel, that nothing could be accomplished by threats, and 
knowing that he would have to bear the expenses of the arrest 
and trial, came to terms and accepted the drafts. 

On the 5th, after a hard march, the troops arrived at Sharon. 
Here again, they were forced to cross steep and high mountains 
along narrow paths where only two men could walk abreast ; a 
circumstance which greatly protracted the march. 

General Washington, who had made Fishkill his head quarters 
at this time, was careful to send to the left of the prisoners a 
few brigades in addition to the regular American escort. This 
he did, partly through fear that Clinton, in whom he had no 
confidence, would undertake something in their favor, and 
partly also through fear of the inhabitants, a large number of 
whom he knew to be still loyal to the king. Nor was his fear 
regarding Clinton without foundation ', for the latter had 
already senf a few frigates, manned with land troops, .up the 
river. The plan was to force the passage of the narrows, in the 
highlands, and then attack the post at Peekskill, by which it 
was thought that the prisoners might be rescued, or at least an 


opportunity afforded some of them to escape. But the many 
fortifications among the highlands rendered the passage of the 
narrows impossible, and the expedition failed. Nevertheless, a 
few hundred English soldiers succeeded in making their escape 
and reaching the ships. 

Upon their arrival at Sharon the troops were close to the 
Connecticut boundary line. They bivouacked in the woods 
close to the Nine Partners. 

The writer ' of the journal, so often quoted in this work, gives 
a short description of the spirit of the province at this period. 
It may, perhaps, be of interest to quote here from his pen as 
those states mentioned by him have since progressed more rapidly 
in culture and population than any of the others. The journal says : 

"In traveling through the different provinces of North Ame^ 
rica, one cannot help noticing the difference which exists between 
them. One sees in a moment the genius of the inhabitants in 
their mode of living and culture. Thus, in the province of 
Massachusetts bay, the inclination of the people is for commerce, 
navigation and the military art. The numerous Europeans, who 
daily visit the harbor of Boston for the purpose of trading, have 
introduced, besides the new fashions and extravagance in dress, 
a sort of luxurious and idle life. Consequently, agriculture, as 
a general thing, is poorly attended to. The greater portion, 
also, of the inhabitants in the rural districts, either carry on a 
small store or keep taverns, whereby they make a livelihood 
without much trouble. It is only at the new country seats, 
built by a few wealthy Englishmen about thirty years ago, that 
agriculture and horticulture is properly attended to. The native,^ 
gets along with Indian corn, cabbage, potatoes and fruit, all of 
which the rich soil produces without much trouble on his part. 
It would, therefore, not be difficult for the inhabitants to raise 
much cattle ; but as it is, they get along with salt pork, the 

1 Riedesel. 

3 1, e., a native bom American. 



animals from which this is made, growing up at large in the 
woods. Many horses are raised, the breed of which could be 
greatly improved. The men and women are generally well 
formed and of good growth, but the beauty of the latter is of 
short duration. They grow old very early and become homely. 
The population is large, but not many old people are to be seen. 
Most of the males have a strong passion for strong drinks, 
especially rum and other alcoholic beverages. The females of 
all classes are well educated, and can all write. All are fond of 
dress, and are dressed up every day, even the women of the lower 
classes. They ride very well on horseback ; love music and 
dancing ; but hardly ever work. The man has to do the house- 
work, and wait upon his lady. The women love to domineer, 
and the spirit of rebellion is more deeply rooted in their hearts, 
than in those of the men. Besides the taste for commerce, 
the New Englander has considerable talent for the military art. 
Industry, they have little to do with, although a few good me- 
chanics are found among them, especially hatters, tanners, 
saddlers, etc. The great fault with them is, that he who has 
saved a little by his trade, starts either a small store, or seeks a 
position of military honor. In their own houses they are cleanly. 
" The inhabitants of the province of Connecticut are much more 
industrious and diligent. The women dress more modestly, and 
are good housekeepers. Agriculture flourishes, and the breed- 
ing of cattle is a source to them of great wealth. The manu- 
facture of linen and woolen goods is as yet in its infancy. The 
weaving loom is the pastime of the women, even among those 
who consider themselves of rank; and the man of the house 
considers it an honor to wear cloth that has been made on his 
farm. Connecticut furnishes cattle and corn to the American 
army. The spirit of the inhabitants is less military than that 
of Massachusetts bay ; but the theatre of war being near their 
lines they are carrried away, notwithstanding they love peace 
and labor rather than war. Many are loyal, and are therefore 
exposed to the persecutions of the others. 


" In the district of New York, through which we passed, are 
many families of Hollanders ; also many Grermans. The most 
of the inhabitants are tories. Many avow this openly, and 
many are therefore ftigitives. The American army being in the 
heart of the province, their hands are tied ; otherwise, it is believed 
that the royalists would be in the majority. During the march 
of our troops through this province, many offered to lead 
parties of forty or fifty of our men safely through the woods to 
the army of General Clinton ) but the honor and the parole of our 
officers would not permit this. The country, once so beautiful 
and flourishing, was entirely drained of its resources, and the 
inhabitants could speak of nothing but the abundance and the 
happiness they had enjoyed previous to this desolating war. 
Numbers of tories have joined the disaffected, who reside in 
Canada, and have made so much uproar in the colonies. Most 
of the English inhabitants are great rebels, but their number is 
not in the majority in the district through which we have 

The first division took up their quarters on the 27th of No- 
vember at Beekman's, having passed that day a village in the 
middle of a forest. 

On the 28th of November, General Kiedesel and family started 
from Cambridge in two carriages. Himself and family rode in 
one, and his servants in the other, which served also for a bag- 
gage wagon. General Phillips remained a few days longer. 
General Gates, who had succeeded Heath in the command at 
Boston, by his customary friendly demeanor, made the few 
remaining days of Eiedesers stay very pleasant. It seemed as 
if he wished to neutralize the unpleasant conduct of his pre- 
decessor. In fact, there is no question that if this brave man 
had made his appearance sooner in Boston, much trouble would 
have been spared to the general, as well as much suffering to 
the troops. 

Gates did all in his power to make the journey for Eiedesel 
and his family as comfortable as possible. He sent with them, 


as an escort, Colonel Troup, with orders to accompany the 
travelers as far as the province of Jersey, and procure for them 
the best of provisions, horses, quarters, etc. ; in short everything 
that was necessary for their comfort. He even went so far as to 
give Riedesel letters to influential persons who resided in those 
sections of the country where it would be difficult to obtain good 
lodgings. Thus, the American and German generals parted in 
the most cordial manner. 

On the 28th, the troops arrived at Fishkill, the head quarters, 
at this time, of General Washington. Speaking of the latter, 
the journal says : " General Washington saw all our divisions 
and treated our officers with great politeness. All that can 
possibly be said against this man is, pity is it, that a man of his 
character and talents should be a rebel against his king.'' 

On the 29th, the English troops were ferried across the 
Hudson in the midst of a severe storm ; nor was it until the 
third day that the passage was entirely accomplished. After 
the English troops had crossed, they waited for the Germans 
to follow them over the river. At Fishkill, the officers received 
sufficient forage money for one hundred and sixty-five days, and 
the soldiers stockings and shoes. This caused universal joy.. 
These articles had been sent by Clinton directly by way of 
Washington's head quarters, as he felt sure from that general's 
character that the troops would receive them. 

The Brunswickers lost during this month fifty men by de- 

On the 1st of December, the first and second German divisions 
were conveyed across the river to Newburgh. The same day 
the third German division also arrived at Fishkill. General 
Washington was now more than usually vigilant, hearing, as 
mentioned above, that Clinton would make a diversion in favor 
of the prisoners. 

As soon as all the troops had crossed, the American general 
in chief changed his head quarters to the Baritan river in the 
province of New Jersey; and the Marquise de Lafayette, who 



up to this time had been with Washington, went to Boston. On 
his journey he met RiedeseVs military and personal family at 
Hartford, where the travelers had halted a day for rest. Ried- 
esel, who had arrived in advance of the others, and was 
occupying the only good tavern in the place, invited the 
marquise and his escort to dinner, knowing that the French- 
man loved a good table. He accepted the invitation and during 
the meal appeared very amiable and friendly. The conversation 
being carried on only in French, the American officers of Lafay- 
ette's staff who were present, not understanding that language, 
expressed by their looks great dissatisfaction — thinking perhaps, 
that Riedesel was endeavoring to make a proselyte of the French 
general. I The latter spoke in high terms of England, especially 
of the kindness of the king as manifested toward him during his 
stay in that country. Upon this Mrs. Riedesel could not let slip 
the opportunity of making a few sly remarks upon the fact that 
while, according to his own confession, he was the recipient of 
kind attentions from the king, he was about offering his 
services to his majesty's enemies. This attack of his fair 
hostess embarrassed the otherwise versatile Frenchman not a 
little. Indeed, before his departure from England for America, 
he was accused of being a spy. The Journal states that Lafay- 
ette fell in with Riedesel purposely on this journey. Speaking 
of the former, it says : " Besides his manly, physical beauty, he 
possesses the politeness of a Frenchman of high birth. In 
modesty he outdoes his nation, thereby proving still more his 
noble lineage." 

On the 2d of December, the first German division marched 
to Otter hill and Groshen-town ; and on the 3d, by the way of 
Florida to Warwick, the last town in the province of New York. 
On the 4th, they crossed the line and halted for the night at 
Hardy's town in Jersey. On the 5th, they reached Sussex 

1 As both Biedesel and Lafayette conld speak English, this treatment of the Ame- 
rican officers was far from coarteons. 


court house; and on the 6th, Endeavor, where they were 
obliged to remain until the 9th, while waiting for teams. On 
this day, they again started and marched as far as Haket's 
town. On the 10th they were at Changewater ; on the 11th, 
at Pittstown; and on the 12th, at Everit, on the Delaware. 
That river forms at this point, the boundary line between the 
provinces of Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

Hitherto the roads had been bad beyond all description, often, 
indeed, almost impassable. In the best of weather they were 
miserable, but now they had been rendered a hundred times 
worse by the continual rain and snow. The shoes of the sol- 
diers frequently stuck fast in the mud, rendering marching 
extremely difficult. General Kiedesel did his best to come up 
with the troops, but was unsuccessful. The greatest trouble 
was experienced in raising a sufficient quantity of horses. Mrs. 
Riedesel, with her children, was in constant danger ; and the 
English adjutant, Edmonston, often dismounted to assist her 
servants in preventing the carriage from being upset. 

On the 13th of December, the travelers arrived at Fishkill ; 
and notwithstanding the exertions of the American commander, 
Major Douglass, to collect the needed number of horses, they 
were forced to remain here until the 18th. The same experi- 
ence also attended. General Phillips, who had started from Cam- 
bridge on the 1st of December with the intention of catching 
up with Riedesel. Colonel Troup being obliged to return in 
a few days to Boston, Kiedesel requested Washington to send 
him another officer in place of the colonel. 

On the same day (the 13th), the first of the German troops 
crossed the Tokiken river, and halted at Blamstedt in Bank's 
county, Penn. On the 14th, they reached Montgomery in 
Philadelphia county, and on the 15th, New Providence. On 
the 16th, they crossed the Schuykill, near Downing town, to 
Valley Forge. Here a few days of rest were given them. 

On the 17th, the march was continued to Salisbury ; thence, on 
the 19th, across the Brandy wine to Leekok township ) thence 



across the Canostoga river to Lancaster, where, on the 20th, 
they had another day of rest. On the 21st, the march was 
continued to Hampton, and on the 22d, the Susquehanna was 
crossed near Wight's ferry, and quarters taken for the night 
at Yorktown. On the 23d, McAllister town (Hanover) was 
reached, where the 24:th was spent as a day of rest. The 25th 
found them at Pater-Little, the last town in Jersey. On the 
26th, the boundary was passed and the troops quartered at 
Tawney town. 

The Journal thus speaks of these two states : " The province 
of Jersey is, as a whole, populous and as well cultivated as that 
portion of New York through which we passed. A great many 
Irishmen have settled here, whose natural abilities are pretty fair, 
though they do not equal the Germans in economy and in the 
cultivation of the soil. Nor do they by any means come up to the 
Herrenhiiters, who, forty years since, settled a few places, among 
which is Bethlehem, on the line of Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
Occasionally one sees beautiful settlements belonging to the 
quakers. So far as we have had an opportiinity of judging the 
sentiments of the people, we should say that, perhaps, not one- 
fifth of them are loyal to the cause of the king. The inhabit- 
ants of this province are very likely in fear of the stronger 
party, the army being quartered among them. Many have left 
their property and enlisted in the royal army. 

" The state of Pennsylvania may be said to be as well culti- 
vated and populated as the best German province. Besides 
her chief city Philadelphia, it has many large and beautiful 
cities, and is the corn magazine for the middle provinces of 
North America. Inasmuch also as it has been made rich by 
industry, its prosperity is an honor to the German nation. 
The raising of cattle is extensively carried on. Accordingly, 
Pennsylvania furnishes most of the teams for the army. It 
has very good linen and woolen factories. In the manufacture 
of linen and leather, the inhabitants are independent of Europe. 
There is, however, as yet, a want of dye-houses. The inhabit- 


ants are peaceable and temperate, and have a great liking for 
agriculture and mechanical trades. This latter fact may, per- 
haps, be owing to the principles of the different religious sects. 
The Quaker, for instance, is not allowed to go to war, unless he 
renounces his doctrine. The same is true of the Denkers or 
Anabaptists. The province is full of these two sects. The 
Reformed Dutch and the Lutherans are the only ones who can 
be had for militia. The others, however, are obliged to pay a 
fine. The inhabitants of both sexes are not as good looking, 
nor of as pretty a form as those of New England. The royal 
party is strong, but their opposition to the whigs is of not much 
account, as their religion forbids their acting in a hostile man- 
ner. Our troops were received in some of their houses far too 
well, as we knew to our sorrow." ^ 

On the 27th, the first division crossed the large and small 
Bempaip creek, and were quartered at Bempaip Hunnert. On 
the 29th they crossed the Manakessi river and reached Frede- 
rick's town. On the 30th, they arrived at Charlestown, near 
the Potomac. This river forms at this place the boundary line 
between Maryland and Virginia. Speaking of the former, the 
Journal says : 

" Maryland, as far as regards cultivation, is very similar in 
appearance to Pennsylvania, although it is far behind the latter. 
The country on the Potomac is beautiful and fertile. The 
Germans and English are here about in the same proportion. 
There are, perhaps, a few tories in the province, but they are 
not allowed to manifest their feelings openly. Frederick's 
town is a pleasant inland city." 

On New Year's eve, 1778, the German troops first stepped 
on to the soil of Virginia, a country which had been described 
by the people around Boston as a real El Dorado. The soldiers 
crossed the Potomac near Knowland's ferry and bivouacked 
during the night in the woods in London county. Here they 

1 Becanse some of the Geiinans, in conseqaence, deserted.— Note to original. 



remained over New Year's day, for the purpose of recovering 
from their fatigue. Here Germany's sons laid in the woods, 
wet and cold, in snow a foot deep, with a gloomy future in 
store for them. Perhaps, each of them thought of his home in 
the distant fatherland, of dear relations and friends, of the 
days of his boyhood, and of the joys of former New Year's 
nights, passed, never to return. The fires which were kept 
going with green wood emitted scarcely any warmth. All was 
cold and cheerless. In that dreary primeval forest, naught 
was heard save the dismal moaning of the wind among the old 
tree tops ; and while some laid on the snow covered ground to 
rest their tired and aching limbs, others meditjited sadly be- 
sides the camp fires. In this manner the Germans spent the 
New Year's night in the wilds of North America. 

On the 2d of January, 1779, the first division reached the 
little hamlet of Leesburgh, where the troops were miserably 
quartered in barns and in the cabins of the negro slaves, be- 
longing to a planter. On the 3d, the division crossed Goose 
creek and bivouacked in Leicester. On the 4th, it was 
quartered near a tavern, called Read's house, in King Wil- 
liam's county. On the 5th, it reached Fouquier court house^ 
in the same county. 

On the 7th, the same division crossed the Rappahanock in 
Culpepper county ; and, on the 8th, Culpepper court house. 
On the 9th. the arm of the above named river was likewise 
crossed, the troops remaining that night in the same county. 
The Robertson river was reached on the 10th, and crossed on 
the 11th, the men arriving the same evening at Orange court 
house. During the night there was a heavy frost, an occur- 
rence which seldom happens in these southern parts. The 
12th, was passed in this county, and by the 13th, Albermarle 
county was entered. On the 14th, the division crossed the 
James to Charlottesville; and, on the 15th of January, reached 
their place of destination. The barracks were not yet com- 
pleted. The foundation, it is true, was laid, but the snow had 


scattered the workmen ; and the troops, on their arrival, beheld 
nothing but a hilly surface covered with snow. This was the 
first picture that greeted their vision in this greatly praised 
country ! 

We left General Riedesel and his family at Fishkill. During 
this journey he experienced much that was disagreable, and 
suflfered many wrongs from the inhabitants who were to a man, 
in favor of " the cause of freedom." Some of them scarcely 
would grant a shelter to the weary travelers, even when extreme 
fatigue prevented them going a step further, and it would have 
been still worse for them, had not Madame Riedesel been in 
the party. By her eloquence and patience, she knew how to 
move these obdurate people. 

The passage across the Hudson in a miserable skifi" in the 
midst of stormy weather, was attended with extreme danger ; 
and competent judges, who afterward heard of it, could scarcely 
understand how it was that it had been so successfully accom- 
plished. 1 The river having been safely crossed, the party 
continued their journey as far as the residence of an American 
colonel, by the name of Horborn,*^ to whom Riedesel had a 
letter from Gates. They were received by him in a most 
friendly manner, notwithstanding he was a great enemy to the 
royalists, as well as a very blunt man. 

The fact that General Riedesel did not arrive at Lancaster 
on the 19th of December, with the troops, was, perhaps, a most 
fortunate circumstance; for the inhabitants were so enraged 
against him, that extreme measures might have been provoked 
by his presence. Among the many silly reports which were 
circulated and believed in these excitable times by the people 
of Lancaster, was one to the eflfect that the city of Lancaster, 
and the surrounding country had been presented to the German 

^ For a minnte acconnt of this passage from Mrs. Riedesers own pen, the reader 
is again referred to her Letters and Journals^ published by J. Munsell. 
3 Probably Osbom. Mrs. lUedesel, also, spells it Horbom. 


general, by the king of England, and that the general would 
soon arrive with his troops to take possession. The excitement 
was, therefore, great when the German troops arrived ; but as 
soon as the American officers on the escort, explained the true 
position of aflfairs, and the pitiable condition of the troops was 
seen, many a good citizen of Lancaster wondered how he could 
have given credence to such a ridiculous rumor. ^ 

Snow had already fallen to such a depth that the carriages 
of the generaFs party could scarcely move. The coachmen, at 
times, were obliged to take the horses from the vehicles, and, 
with the officers who escorted the family, ride on in advance, 
to break a road. The provisions were exhausted; and very 
often not a particle of food could be had of the evilly disposed 
inhabitants even for money. Mrs. Riedesel and her children 
actually suffiired from sheer want, and this, notwithstanding 
her husband and his officers deprived themselves of everything, 
that the women and children might be provided for. Captain 
Edmonston, who out of love for the children, had accompanied 
the party, would often ride to the huts, which were a little off 
the road, and beg provisions of the inhabitants ; but he gene- 
rally returned from a bootless mission. The people either 
answered very curtly, that they had nothing themselves, or else 
said plainly, that they had no provisions for a royalist. One 
woman, who was a thorough republican, said on one occasion 
in the presence of the Madame Riedesel and her children who 
were weeping and trembling from cold and hunger, that it 
would be the greatest pleasure for her to see them perish before 
her eyes. And yet all these insults were borne by this noble 
woman with admirable resignation ] and her eloquence finally 
succeeded in softening the heart of this virago so far that, after 
a few hours, she offered to her everything that, she had in her 
house and cellar. 

1 Lancaster, at this period, was one of the most important cities of America. It 
nambered about nine hundred houses. — Note to original. 


Soon after crossing the Hudson, General Riedesel, with a 
few of his adjutants, left his family, in order to overtake his 
troops. It is not known definitely where he met them, or, 
indeed, if he overtook them at all. Only this much is known 
to a certainty, viz : that the general waited for his family at 
CoUe, which is distant about two hours from Charlottesville. 
Here he had hired a house, which he was occupying when Mrs. 
Riedesel and the children joined him about the middle of 
February. The party had been twelve weeks on their way, 
had crossed six states, and had journeyed six hundred and 
seventy-eight miles. The house, hired by Riedesel at Colle 
belonged to an Italian, who, a few weeks later, moved out of it, 
leaving it, together with a nice little garden, to Riedesel and his 

The troops, as already mentioned, found the barracks un- 
finished, but received the material, already partly prepared, 
together with the necessary tools. There was, therefore, no- 
thing left for them but to go to work, which they did with a 
will. They worked so diligently that in a short time a little 
board city, with regular streets, was built. It had been confi- 
dently expected by the troops, that ample provision would be 
made for supplies upon their arrival. On the contrary, how- 
ever, they suflfered from actual want, as it was found that the 
meat, which had been stored in anticipation of their arrival, 
was all spoiled. This meat, according to the custom of the 
country, was kept in holes dug in the ground. But the pits 
not being sufficiently deep, the meat composing the upper 
layers was rotten, and of course entirely unfit for use. Dire 
want, however, compelled the men to preserve those portions 
that were partially decomposed, by washing and smoking them. 




In the preceding chapter it has been seen that this year, also 
commenced inauspiciously for the captured troops. The last, 
hope of deliverance, which had buoyed them up during their 
weary march, had now vanished. The expectation of a partial 
amelioration in their condition, especially in regard to shelter 
and food, had come to nought. In their present quarters every- 
thing was even worse than it had been at Winter hill. They 
had now come, indeed, into a foreign land. They had to become 
acquainted with the customs and ways of the inhabitants. They 
had, also, to become acclimated. The country, with the excep- 
tion of those portions near the swamps, and some sections in the 
vicinity of the coast, was generally healthy. But the heat during 
summer was very great. The temperature changes quickly; 
and violent thunder storms characterize the southern climate. 
The troops found fewer populous cities, less cultivated land and 
a smaller number of artificial roads. The rich planters had 
divided among themselves the fertile soil, which they generally 
allowed to lie untilled. They spent their lives in eflfeminate 
leisure, while their negro slaves were forced to raise tobacco 
and maize under the lash of a hard hearted overseer Outside 
of the few cities there were only masters and slaves ; for even 
to this day Virginia belongs to the slave states, and has main- 
tained her prerogatives in regard to man selling. Thus, Vir- 
ginia, of all the states in North America, has kept her old insti- 
tutions the most intact. ^ The customs of the grandparents were 
inherited by the grandsons without alteration. The plantations 
of the rich planters were the same then as now, notwithstanding 
the present views of freedom. The villages consisted of miserable 
huts inhabited by negroes. The barns and wagon houses which 
took up considerable space, and the rich lands and woods, reach- 

1 This book was written in 1856. 


ing as far as the eye could reach, belonged to only otie lord, whose 
sole care was to amass more riches by the sweat of his negroes, 
in order to extend his boundaries yet farther — the influence 
of the planter being measured by the extent of his possessions. 

The manner in which the troops lived, also, was now alto- 
gether diflferent from that to which thiey had been hitherto 
accustomed. Animal food and maize were chiefly used ; vege- 
tables were scarcely known. For drink, they had sour cider, 
whisky, and a kind of sweet beer, prepared from the fruit of 
the diospyrus. The negro, like the cattle, was fed on maize. 
Whatever else the lord and his family needed, was bought in 
other parts of the country with his good ' money. ^ 

It can, therefore, be easily imagined that under such circum- 
stances very little could be had for the troops, and that little only 
at enormous prices. The sad condition of the men was a source 
of great sorrow to Generals Phillips and Riedesel; and yet 
nothing whatever could be done, but to comfort the poor sol- 
diers with the prospect of a better future. This was certainly 
no easy matter, after their many previous disappointments. 
Still, the generals did all in their power to encourage them. 
Thus, General Phillips, before reaching the troops, issued the 
two following orders : 

" Order op General Phillips. No. I. 

" Georgetown, February 12, 1779. 

" General Phillips informs the troops that he intends soon to 
join them, and that he will make every eflfort to render their 

1 The Bense in which the adjective " good ^^ is here nsed, iB not quite clear. Per- 
haps, it is meant to distinguish gold and silver from paper or continental money. 

3 The great passion for extravagance among the Virginian ladies at that day, is 
mentioned by contemporary writers as being most extraordinary. Schoff says that 
when he traveled in Virginia, in 1780, he stopped one day at a planter^ s house which 
was a most wretched affair. It was a kind of log house without glass windows, and 
with everything else to correspond. But the lady of the house, who received him, 
was dressed in silk and velvet, and wore a bonnet trimmed with feathers ; gloves, 
plenty of jewelry, etc.— iVofo to oriffinal. 



sad stay as comfortable as possible. The ships with the uni- 
forms are on their way ; and all other articles conducive to the 
comfort of the troops shall be procured very soon. Money will 
arrive at the same time with the baggage. 

" General Phillips desires nothing so much as to be able to 
give the troops good news in regard to their speedy exchange ; 
but all the trouble that the commissioners have taken to bring 
this about, has, up to this time, proved fruitless. His excellency, 
General Clinton, has made several propositions to congress, but 
they have all been rejected. General Phillips, also, has sub- 
mitted propositions to General Washington, having referenoe 
to the same object, but they likewise have been rejected. It 
seems as if the Americans intended to separate the officers from 
the troops, but we cannot allow this without forfeiting our honor. 
We must, therefore, patiently bear our misfortunes a little longer. 
On the arrival of General Phillips, the proceedings of the com- 
missioners in relation to the exchanged will be published to 
the troops. 

" Phillips, Major General." 

Eight days later, the following order was issued : 

"Order of General Phillips. No. II. 

" Fredericksburg, February 20, 1779." 

" General Phillips perceives with sadness, in the reports of 
General Riedesel and Colonel Hill, the sorrowful situation of 
the troops, and promises to relieve their miserable situation as 
speedily as possible. His duty alone obliges him already to take 
part with the troops under all circumstances ; but this duty is 
doubled by the extraordinary good behavior of the troops 
during the severe march of the past winter, and makes it the 
more binding upon him to do everything possible for their 

" The army of brave English and German veterans, who, with 
so much endurance, have withstood the difficulties of so long a 


marcb, and the still greater misfortunes of their present situa- 
tion, may be assured that this example of honor and faithfulness 
to the king will always be remembered with praise and high 
consideration. General Phillips will not fail to report this con- 
duct of the troops to General Clinton, who will announce their 
meritorious behavior to the king himself. 

" Phillips, Major General." 

The increasing scarcity of money was the cause of paper 
money being finally issued to the troops. The paymasters of 
the diflferent regiments accordingly met on the 1st of March at 
Charlottesville, and conferred with the English paymaster, 
General Geddes. 

Warm weather came on very early. The trees were in blos- 
som by the middle of February. General Riedesel determined 
that now, at least, his family should have plenty to eat. Ac- 
cordingly, having hired the house of the Italian, and the garden 
belonging to it, he planted the latter — and other ground also — 
with vegetables. The seeds he procured from various places. He 
encouraged his men, also, to practice horticulture, giving them 
seeds for this purpose. Soon there was to be seen a little garden 
surrounding each barrack ; and here and there a fended inclosure 
in which were kept chickens and other fowl. This aflforded 
amusement to the soldiers, and broke up, somewhat, the mo- 
notony of their inactivity. By this means, also, they obtained, 
at a comparatively cheap rate, vegetables of which they had 
hitherto been deprived. 

The dwelling house proving too small for EiedeseFs family 
and friends, he built a log house, in the centre of which was a 
kind of hall with two rooms on either side. The furniture was 
adapted to the house ; for the chairs consisted of blocks of wood 
and the tables of boards laid across the chairs. A stable for 
the horses and a carriage house were also built in the same 
manner. Adjoining the house was a fenced garden in which 
the general loved to employ himself. Besides this, he bought 


COWS, pigs, chickens and other domestic animals, so that the 
general appearance was more like a farm than the habitation of 
a general. Having many at his table, he had an ox and two 
pigs killed every fortnight. Besides his own family, he had 
daily at his table Captains Von Pollnitz, Gerlach, Willoe and 
Geismar, Lieutenants Cleve and Freeman, ^ and Chaplain My- 
lius. In addition to these, he frequently invited other officers to 
dinner, both German and English. General Phillips was a daily 
guest. The negroes occasionally brought in fowls, fruit, or a few 
vegetables, and small farmers also came with butter, eggs, etc. 
In this manner the most necessary provisions were obtained. 

In June of this year, Riedesel came very near losing his life. 
One day he went out of doors in the heat of the sun, having 
neglected to cover his head. A few moments after, he fell to 
the ground apparently lifeless. Upon being brought to, he 
stated that he was just on the point of returning into the 
house, when he fell senseless. He had been sunstruck. This, 
in most cases, proves fatal ] and in the present instance, it would 
have proved fatal, had not speedy assistance been at hand. The 
fact, moreover, that it was at hand was due to the merest chance. 

This accident, together with the continued heat, greatly 
increased Riedesel's ill health. His nervousness, tightness of 
the chest, and sleeplessness increased more and more. He 
was now always sad and irritable; and it was fortunate for 
him that he had his careful wife as nurse. The physicians 
advised him to go to Frederick's spring in Virginia. He re- 
ceived permission from congress to do so; and, in company 
with his family, his adjutant,'- Captain Geismar, Lieutenants 

1 The same who drew the maps of the actions at Freeman's farm and Bemis's 
heights, copies of which illustrate this work. 

3 The English adjutant, Edmonstone, who had been so faithful to Riedesel, had 
left a short time previously for New York to be exchanged. Riedesel gave him a 
letter of recommendation to the adjutant of W^ashington, Colonel Henry, with whom 
he was well acquainted, and whom he requested, in the letter, to assist the English 
officer on his journey as soon as possible. Before the outbreak of the North Ame- 
rican war, Edmonstone had been a member of the Collegium Carolinum at Bruns- 
wick.— Note to original. 


Freeman and Cleve and a few servants he started for that place, 
taking with him as his medical attendant, the regimental doctor, 

At this both Eiedesel and his wife formed some pleasant 
acquaintances, and among others, that of Washington's family. 
It is a pity that Mrs. Riedesel, in her interesting book, does 
not say anything concerning the latter. She mentions some 
of their cousins whose acquaintance she also made; and it 
may therefore, naturally be presumed that this acquaintance 
did not extend beyond the limits of the common forms of 

It was fortunate that Madame Riedesel did not lose courage 
under all these difficulties. She was thus enabled to alleviate 
the suflferings of her husband, besides, gaining many friends. 
Captain Geismar would occasionally accompany her with the 
violin. At such times she would sing a merry song, to the 
great delight of her husband who was very fond of music. 

While at Frederick's spring, Riedesel received the joyful 
intelligence that both he and Phillips had received permission 
to go to New York with their adjutants. Some time previously 
the two generals had asked for this permission, believing that 
their prospects for an exchange would be much better in New 
York than in Virginia. Riedesel, accordingly, returned to CoUe 
on the 5th of September, to arrange matters with his troops 
and at his house, before his departure. He wished, also, to 
sell his furniture. The house which he had put up, but which 
had not, as yet been occupied, cost him one hundred guineas. 
Mrs. Riedesel remained for a short time longer at Frederick's 
spring, it having been agreed between herself and husband to 
meet each other at Yorktown, in Pennsylvania, i 

* Duke Bemhard, of Weimar, who traveled through the North American states, 
visited the spot where this block hoase of Riedesel had formerly stood. It was an 
uncnltivated hill npon which stood some pines which Riedesel had planted. The 
dake took a few twigs to the son of the general, as a memento of his father^s cap- 


Before going to Frederick's spring, Riedesel had made special 
efforts to arrange some matters in whicli he was very much 
interested. Congress was continually endeavoring to separate 
the officers as much as possible from their troops, and the 
former had accordingly been quartered at Eichmond. Congress, 
by this conduct, could have had no other motive, but to deprive 
the captured soldiers of the supervision^ and thus facilitate and 
encourage desertion. Riedesel was, therefore, anxious to have 
these orders of congress partially, if not entirely revoked. His 
remonstrances, however, were of no avail. Congress not only 
paid no heed to his supplications, but sent the Brunswick 
officers from Eichmond, still further into the country. Eiedesel 
then appealed to General Harvy, at that time commanding at 
Richmond, and by whose orders the officers were to leave the 
city. General Harvy returned a very civil reply to the effect 
that as there was considerable ammunition in Eichmond, any 
one evilly dispoeed, especially a servant, might do a great deal 
of damage. But the main reason which he gave for his course, 
was, that the populace of Eichmond were very much prejudiced 
against the officers, and that evil consequences might be the 
result if they remained in the city. 

Meanwhile, the baggage from Canada arrived at Richmond. 
It was intended to have sent this at once over to the officers' 
camp. The latter's sudden departure, however, prevented its 
immediate delivery. On the 7th of June, Riedesel wrote to 
Phillips requesting permissson to send a few officers to Rich- 
mond, to take care of the baggage. In this letter, the necessity 
for such a course, in view of the soldiers having no clothing 
and the officers not being in a much better condition, waa 
strongly presented. In reply. General Phillips granted per- 
mission for one officer from each regiment, and a sufficient 
number of noncommissioned officers, to proceed to Richmond 
for that purpose. The officers ordered upon this service were 
Captain Gerlach, five quarter masters and one dragoon from 
the Brunswickers, and one officer and one noncommissioned 


officer of the artillery from the Hesse Hanau division. Upon 
their arrival at Eichmond the baggage was given up, but they 
themselves were awfully cheated by the inhabitants, several of 
the noncommissioned officers having to pay two thalers for a 
miserable bed and poor board. In his report, Riedesel com- 
plained of this treatment to Phillips, and requested him to ask 
the United States government to allow a certain amount for 
the board of these officers, who had been detached for this 
service, as had been customary while they were in New England. 
But besides all these vexations, the long expected baggage was 
itself in a bad condition ; a large portion of it being either 
missing or spoiled. The infantry and artillery regiments of 
Hesse Hanau were in a bad predicament. The new clothing 
for the troops had been sent from Hanau almost two years 
before, and had not yet arrived. The men were, therefore, all 
in rags. And to put the finishing blow to their hopes, when 
the baggage finally arrived from Canada, it was found that 
but a small portion of the clothing had come, that which had 
arrived being so damaged as not to be fit to use. There were 
in this country very few hotels and taverns ) and, those travelers 
who were so unfortunate as to be caught over night in the 
country, were obliged to throw themselves upon the hospitality 
of a planter or a white settler, either of whom generally charged 

Upon RiedeseFs departure from Frederick's spring, from 
which, by the way, he received no benefit (the warm baths only 
exciting his nervous system to the great detriment of his health 
by depriving him of sleep), he gave his command during his 
absence to Brigadier General Specht. At the same time he 
dispatched his adjutant, Cleve, to Phillips, to arrange several 
matters relating to the exchange. This latter mission was 
performed as secretly as possible, as no reliance could be placed 
on the American commissioner, Willichen, who was with the 
troops, and who, being of a malignant and deceitful character, 
might postpone the whole affiftir. After arranging his affairs 


in Colle, and doing everything in his power for the comfort of 
his men at Charlottesville, Riedesel started on his journey 
with the intention of meeting his wife at Yorktown. On his 
reaching there a few days afterwards with Greneral Phillips, 
whom he had met on the way, he found that his wife had 
arrived a few days before him. After encountering many 
dangers, that brave woman with her children had reached the 
place a few days earlier and had thus had an opportunity of 
enjoying a little rest which she at that time very much needed, 
for she was sick and weary, and expected shortly again to 
become a mother. 

From Yorktown, the travelers pursued their journey through 
beautifully cultivated regions, and arrived safely at Elizabeth- 
town opposite Staten island. They were joyful and in high 
spirits at the near prospect of a termination of their journey. 
Little did any one expect that in a few moments their long 
cherished hopes were to be dashed to the ground ! The party 
were just eating supper, after which they^intended to embark 
for New York, when the door opened, and without ceremony a 
commissioner from Washington made his appearance, and, in a 
very pompous manner, handed a large document to General 
Phillips. The latter could scarcely believe his eyes when he 
read in it a revocation of congress, of the permission to proceed 
to New York and be exchanged. Phillips, who was naturally 
very excitable, jumped up from his chair in a towering passion, 
and, striking the table with his fist, exclaimed in English, 
" Very good ! This might have been expected of men who are 
all rascals ! " These words having been uttered in the presence 
of the commissioner, Mrs. Riedesel was not a little alarmed at 
this inconsiderate act. Which, being noticed by Phillips he 
was self-possessed in a moment ; and, taking hold of the hand 
of the alarmed lady, said, " Well, my friend, be not discouraged ; 
follow my example ] look, I am collected." " Each one," 
replied Mrs. Riedesel, " shows his grief in his own manner. I 
keep mine in my bosom, and you give vent to yours in passion ; 


but I think you would do better not to show these people your 
anger, for they only scoff at it, and it can only cause you more 
trouble." In return, the general admitted that the prudent 
German woman was right. He thanked her, and assured her 
that henceforth he would bear his grief patiently. This con- 
versation had been carried on in French. Fortunately, the 
American took no notice of it, merely smiling scornfully at the 
demonstration of the excited general, and going quietly back 
whence he had come. 

The travelers were accordingly obliged to return to Beth- 
lehem through which they had already passed twice. Here 
they put up at a good hotel, with the intention of remaining 
until permission for them to continue their journey should 

Bethlehem, situated on the beautiful Leiheigh, in a delightful 
region, presented a very friendly and neat appearance. Cleanli- 
ness was apparent both within the houses and on the streets. 
The village, and also the adjoining one, called Nazareth, had 
been begun about forty years previously. It numbered at this 
period nearly sixty houses, and had some six hundred inhabit- 
ants. There was here, as there was in every other village of 
the Hernhiiters, a large convent of brothers and sisters. Mrs. 
Eicdesel went every Sunday to the beautiful church. In her 
book she makes special mention of the fine singing of the con- 

^ The two generals, Riedesel's family, adjutants and servants, 
formed a caravan altogether of twenty persons, and twenty 
horses. They all put up at the same hotel, the host of 
which was also a Hernhuter. This man had been so 
friendly and obliging on the two previous occasions of 
EiedeseFs family stopping with him, and his bill had been so 
reasonable, that no bargain was made as to his price for the 
present party. 
It was at this place, that Riedesel, who had hitherto been a 



great smoker, exchanged the pipe for the snuff-box. He had 
always had a great antipathy against this latter habit, but he 
suflfered so constantly from severe headaches, that his wife 
induced him to take snuflf as a remedy. As this always relieved 
him, he soon became accustomed to it. 

The obliging General Bland ordered Captain Randolph to 
accompany the two generals. He was an obliging and amiable 
man; and did everything to make the captives' journey as 
pleasant as possible. When he bade adieu to the generals at 
Bethlehem, they warmly thanked him for his attentions. Ried- 
esel gave him a letter, dated October 12th, to General Wash- 
ington, to whose head quarters Randolph first went. In this 
letter the writer praises his conduct, and thanks Washington 
again for his kindness. The two generals, also, took this oppor- 
tunity to appeal once more to Washington, in relation to the 
interruption of their journey. The latter answered these 
letters very soon and with great courtesy; but as usual he 
declined using his influence and advised the writers to appeal 
directly to congress. 

But the two generals had, nevertheless, to thank Washington 
for obtaining permission to go to New York, with their adju- 
tants, the latter part of November. And, although the general 
exchange had again been postponed, they considered it a great 
blessing to go thither, as Madame Riedesel wished to be there 
during her confinement, and her husband expected to derive 
some benefit from the physicians and the favorable climate of 
that city. 

The travelers, however, on their departure, were no little 
astonished at seeing the bill of their conscientious and kind 
appearing host. It amounted to more than four hundred 
guineas. The pious man could not hide his soul. Behind the 
mask of piety, he concealed an avaricious spirit. The party, 
moreover, would have had considerable difficulty in meeting 
the bill had not a firm royalist chanced to arrive at the tavern, 
desiring to exchange good money for paper. Perhaps, the 


pious host would have taken the shining guineas at par for his 
bill ! 1 

From Bethlehem, Kiedesel, with Phillips, traveled in advance 
of his family to New York, in order to engage suitable quarters 
for them. He went to Elizabethtown, and thence by boat to 
New York. His wife took the same route, and arrived in New 
York late in the evening. At the gate, she was met by a 
German soldier who had been sent by her husband to meet and 
accompany her to her future quarters. The soldier led her to 
a beautiful mansion, where she was shown to a room in which 
everything was prepared for her reception, even to a supper for 
herself and children. Her husband had been unable to meet 
her on account of having been invited that evening to the 
house of General Cornwallis, whence he returned very late. 
The house to which Mrs. Riedesel had been conducted, was the 
residence of General Tryon. He had placed everything at her 
command ; and in order not to embarrass his guest, he had gone 
to Long island where he had a command. 

Shortly after his arrival in the city, Riedesel received the 
following delightful letter from the hereditary prince of Bruns- 

" Right Honorable Sir : I had the pleasure of receiving, on 
the 10th instant, your welcome letter of the 2d of April, for 
which I heartily thank you. Be assured that I deeply sympa- 
thize with you in all that has happened to you during this un- 
successful American expedition ; also, that I grievously lament 
the fate of our brave Germans, who have merited so glorious 
a testimony from their worthy chief. But rest assured that I 
do perfect justice to your conduct, your prudence and the 
exemplary diligence you have shown in caring for the comfort 
of the corps entrusted to your care, and believe me when I say 
that I ftdly appreciate the credit you have merited by your 

^ Owing to the vast amount of paper money at that time afloat, a handsome pre- 
miom was paid for coin.— Note to original. 


active and unselfisli exertions for the preservation of tlie corps 
in its present sad situation. I shall be pleased to use every 
opportunity in which to manifest this sentiment in your behalf, 
and shall be especially gratified if I can be of any service to the 
corps under your command. 

" I wish you all success, at the same time assuring you of my 
entire esteem, and am 
"Your excellency's 

" Most obedient servant, 
" Charles W. F., 

" Prince of Brunswick and Llineberg. 
"Shonewalde, June 11, 1778. 

" P. S. We are here on the Bohemian line with the object 
of settling a difficulty between the king and the emperor. We 
have Saxons and Kussians for auxiliaries, while France gives 
aid to Austria. This is the most important news from these 

" Adieu : do not forget us. 

" Ch. W. Fb.'' 1 

New York, which now numbers half a million of inhabitants, 
had then scarcely twenty thousand, and of course presented 
quite a different appearance from what it does at the present 
time. The place was of the greatest importance to the English, 
and both parties fought severely for its possession. Here a large 
number of royalists had taken refuge from those parts where 
the contest raged severest, and where their party were in the 
minority. This, however, while it made the stay of Kiedesel and 
his family more pleasant, made the necessaries of life much 
dearer. Thus, for example, a turkey cost, in German money, 
four thalers; a chicken, twenty groschen; six onions, one 

1 This letter, which, as will be seen, was dated June the 11th, 1778, did not reach 
Biedesel until November 29th, 1779 ; almost a year and a half after it was written.— 
Note to original. 



thaler ] one quart of milk, six groschen ; and everything else 
in proportion. 

The small-pox was at this time very prevalent in the city, 
and General Clinton, that Mrs. Riedesel and her children might 
have an opportunity of having themselves vaccinated, offered 
them his villa, an offer which was very thankfully accepted. 
This villa was distant an hour's walk from the city, and was 
furnished very comfortably. During this month Mrs. Riedesel 
had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of the amiable 
General Try on, who had shown her so much consideration in 
surrendering up his house, and who had now returned from 
Long island. She describes him as a very friendly and modest 
man, and gifted with the best of manners. 

Upon the return of Riedesel and his family from Clinton's villa 
to New York, they found the house that was intended for them 
ready for occupation. It was furnished with everything that 
English elegance and comfort could devise. The furniture was 
of mahogany, and the floors and stairs were covered with car- 
pets. 1 Upon Mrs. RiedeseFs expressing surprise at all this 
outlay, she was informed that it had been done by the orders 
of the governor. The wealthy and respectable English families 
vied with each other in making the stay of the Riedesels as 
agreeable as possible. Particularly obliging was a certain Major 
Brown, who was in the commissary department, and who always 
considered it a privilege to attend personally to the necessities 
of the family. During this winter, which was terribly severe, 
there was a great want of fire-wood in the city ; so much so, 
indeed, that at times no fdel could be had even for the highest 
price. But Major Brown had trees cut down outside of the city, 
. and sent the wood to the Riedesels. By this timely kindness, 

1 The mentioii of this fiict will not be considered singular by those who are ac- 
qnainted with social life in Germany. As a general role a carpet is rarely seen, 
even in the mansions of the wealthy. Very recently, however, innovations in this 
respect have begun to creep in, very much to the disgust of the conservative Qet- 



the winter, notwithBtanding other disagreeable citcumBtances, 
waa passed iu comparative comfort. 

There is Btill in ezisteace a list of the Brunswick troops as 
they stood at the close of the present year. It ia indorsed, 
" Memoranda for General Phillips, given to him, in a confi- 
dential communication by General Biedesel, on the 11th of 
December, 1779." 

" According to the last reporte from Canada, the Brunswick 
troops, which were left there, besides those who have lately 
arrived, consist of: 
























Regiment Prince Frederick, 


Regiment Von Specht, 

Battalion Bnrner, 









It should here be mentioned, that Lieutenant Dove,' on his 
journey to Canada, met, while on the St, Lawrence, two ships, 
having on board 580 Brunswick troops destined for Canada. 

The number, therefore, including those mentioned above, 
would, perhaps, be as follows : 54 officers, 144 noncommis- 
sioned officers, 25 drummers, 1,886 privates, 76 servants and 
2,185 men. 


lAst of Brunswick troops in Canada^ after the exchange^ in- 
cluding those officers and others formerly belonging to the 
captured troops^ hy which the regiments in that province were 


GeneraVs staff, 21 

Regiment of Dragoons, 282 

Battalion of Grenadiers, 321 

Regiment of Prince Frederick, . . . . . 642 

Regiment Von Rhetz, 302 

Regiment Von Riedesel, 292 

Regiment Von Specht, 290 

Battalion Bamer, 364 

Total, 2,514 

According to the agreement made in regard to the exchange, 
there were exchanged of the Brunswick troops, 67 officers, 
149 servants and 113 noncommissioned officers; in all 329 

Two noncommissioned officers only, remained with each 
company. Consequently, the number of troops that remained 
at Charlottesville, consisted of 1 lieutenant colonel, 4 captains, 
17 officers, 1 chaplain, 1 physician, 4 assistant physicians, 1 
auditor, 14 noncommissioned officers, 26 drummers, 788 privates 
and 23 servants ] total, 906 men. Accordingly the number of 
Brunswick troops at the close of the year 1779 was as follows : 
2,514 men in Canada ) 329 destined for exchange ; 906 men 
(prisoners) to remain in the barracks ] 3,749 men in all. 

^ It seemB strange that there were, according to the nnmber of officers so many 
servants exchanged. This was probably done with a view of facilitating the ex- 
change of the common soldiers, there being an agreement that the servants of 
officers shonld be exchanged with their masters. There were twelve servants to a 
general, five to a brigadier, three to a captain and two to every one of the other 
officers. Only twenty-three remained with the twenty-five officers who were not 
exchanged ; and yet their services were sorely of more use to the latter than the 
former.— Note to original. 


General Riedesel was espeoially anxious that the force in 
Canada should be increased, and his own corps reformed there 
as soon as possible. But good noncommissioned officers were 
particularly wanted, and he was, therefore, exceedingly desirous 
of effecting their exchange. 

The Hesse Hanau troops in Canada consisted of the follow- 
ing : Regiment of infantry, 4 officers, 14 noncommissioned 
officers, 2 drummers, 124 privates; total, 144. Regiment of 
artillery, 2 noncommissioned officers, 6 privates, 1 servant ) total, 
9. In all, 4 officers, 16 noncommissioned officers, 2 drummers, 
130 privates, 1 servant; total, 153 men. 

16 officers and 40 servants (56 men), were to be exchanged. 
In the barracks there were to remain 1 captain, 6 officers, 1 
assistant doctor, 41 noncommissioned officers, 13 drummers and 
234 privates ; total, 296 men. 

The following is the complete list : 153 men who remained 
in Canada ; 56 destined for exchange ] 296 still prisoners of 
war; total, 505 men. 

This, however, does not include the recruits who had in the 
meantime been sent into Canada. 

Great as was the desire of General Riedesel to be exchanged 
that he might assume the command of the German troops in 
Canada, he was sadly disappointed at the end of the year. 
Neither he nor Phillips were so fortunate as to be included in 
the partial exchange which took place. Thus the year vanished, 
and with it his long cherished hope. A gloomy future was 
before him. 




Although General Riedesel labored under severe mental and 
physical depression, caused in part by his great disappointment 
respecting his exchange, he would not allow himself to be 
discouraged. On the contrary, he worked assiduously to bring 
about a more favorable turn in his own affairs and that of his 
men. He had already made the personal acquaintance of 
several influential men of the opposite party, with whom he 
kept up a correspondence. The American commissioner in 
chief, Clinton, an honorable and upright man, esteemed him 
very highly ) and thus he could safely count upon a final favor- 
able result of his various exertions. Besides all this, he was 
sustained by the consciousness of laboring in a just cause. 
Notwithstanding his fiery temper, augmented by his ill health, 
he was careful never to overstep the bounds of prudence, and 
never allowed himself to be carried away by excitement. He 
possessed, also, too much self-control and too much judgment, 
not to perceive that by giving way to passion, more would be 
lost than gained. His friend. General Phillips, in this respect, 
was a good example for him ] ^ indeed the considerate behavior 
and fine tact of the German general was of vast benefit to the 
former. Besides this, he was too proud to forget himself in 
the presence of the overbearing Americans ; for although he 
respected a few of the latter he considered their conduct as a 
wicked rebellion against their rightful king and lord, and hated 
the intrigues and despicable action of congress and the military 
authorities against the royal troops and tories. He was fully 
aware that the cup of suffering was not yet empty, but that 
courage, which strengthens and elevates in misfortune, had not 
forsaken him. 

^ I. e., as a warning. 




At the beginning of the year Kiedesel sent one of his adju- 
tants, Lieutenant Cleve, to Brunswick to arrange some matters 
of great importance. This ofl&cer enjoyed his entire confidence, 
and, being perfectly satisfied of his faithfulness and capacity, he 
used him in the most difficult affairs. Cleve knew how to use 
the pen as well as the sword. In addition to all this, he pos- 
sessed a clear head, while his tact carried him through the 
most intricate combinations.^ Upon his departure, Kiedesel 
gave him a letter of recommendation to Duke Ludwig, then at 
the Hague, in which he thus speaks of him : 

" The talents, the military knowledge, the diligence, and the 
good character of Lieutenant Cleve your excellency is already 
acquainted with. It is, therefore, not necessary for me to 
repeat them here. Still, I cannot pass by in silence the 
humble duty I owe to your excellency in obtaining, by your 
recommendation, this worthy officer for my adjutant, who, in 
every conceivable case, has assisted me so faithfully. It is, per- 
haps, too bold for a person, of so little influence as myself, to 
recommend officers to your excellency ] but the gratitude I owe 
to Lieutenant Cleve prompts me to go beyond the usual limits 
of propriety. I cannot deny that I should most sincerely and 
humbly thank your excellency, if Lieutenant Cleve, by your 
patronage, received promotion in the army ; and I am convinced 
that he will show himself worthy, in the future, of this high 
favor.'' 2 

1 CQeve was in the service of the NetherlandB. It Ib not known with certainty in 
what precise manner he became attached to Riedesers staff. Dnke Ludwig of 
Brunswick, it is said, obtained him as an adjutant for Riedesel. The latter, in a 
letter dated March 25th, 1780, requests the governor of the Netherlands, the prince 
of Orania, to prolong the ftirlough of his adjutant, as he was in honor bound to 
return to America ; Cleve not having been as yet exchanged, but only allowed to 
go to Europe on parole. 

3 Lieutenant Cleve, although a subordinate, occupied no unimportant position. 
During the American war, he obtained a great knowledge of the internal affiiirs of 
that country. He occupied more the x>osition of private secretary to General Ried- 
esel than adjutant. After the war, he entered the Brunswick service, and died at 
an advanced age in that country highly honored as a staff officer. — Note to original. 

Lieutenant Cleve, who probably in response to Riedesers recommendation, re- 



While General Kiedesel was busy dispatching letters to Eu- 
rope, his family affairs did not appear very consoling. His wife 
was delivered of a daughter on the 8th of March. He was thus 
once more disappointed, for so surely had he counted on a son, 
that he had already selected for him the name of Americus. 
Now, however, there being, instead of the expected heir, an 
unexpected heiress, the male name was changed into a female 
one, the little one receiving in baptism the name of America. 
Generals Phillips and Haldimand, together with the Hessian 
general, Knyphausen and the Hessian colonel, Von Wurmb, 
acted as godfathers to the little one, whom Ricdesel, notwith- 
standing his disappointment, soon learned to love most fondly. 
A few days subsequent to the baptism, his eldest daughter was 
taken dangerously sick, and shortly after, the third one, Caroline, 
also, fell seriously ill. General Riedesel, who loved his family 
dearly, became, in consequence, very much alarmed, and being 
already greatly depressed, he fell into a state of melancholy 
hypochondria. It can, therefore, readily be seen that his wife 
had her hands full, not only in taking care of her sick children — 
both of whom shared her bed — but in cheering and comforting 
her husband. Fortunately her naturally joyous temperament 
enabled her to bear these misfortunes easily. 

Toward the close of the winter, Tryon returned to England, 
taking the same ship as Lieutenant Cleve. Before his departure, 
he presented Mrs. Kiedesel with a most beautiful set of furniture, 
curtains, silk tapestry, etc., with a request that she would use them 
for her comfort. This general was an intimate friend of Ried- 
esel's family, having been during the whole winter a cherished 
friend in the family circle. Friendship in a strange land during 

turned from Germany a captain^ brought to Riedesel the newB that Burgoyne had 
endeavored to prejudice the public against liim, by the statement that he was the 
cause of the defeat near Bennington, and in consequence of Saratoga. In reftita- 
tion of this story, Riedesel wrote a long letter to his sovereign ui>on the subject. 
This letter I was so fortunate as to procure during my visit to Brunswick in 1857, 
and I accordingly give it in the appendix to this work— after the appendix to the 
original. W. L. S. 



misfortune, and at a great distance from home, is doubly prized ] 
and a feeling of unusual sadness came on them when they saw 
him take his departure. Providence, however, sent a new 
friend to replace the lost one. General Clinton, who was at 
this time in New York, was so drawn toward this German 
family that he also was soon a welcome guest at their fireside. 
At first, as is the case with every educated Englishman, it 
was very difl&cult to approach him. He was polite, but very 
dignified and formal. His first visit consisted of a series of 
ceremonies which were very burdensome to both parties. Not- 
withstanding, however, both Riedesel and his wife were very 
much pleased with him — the former esteeming him highly for 
his talents and honesty. Finally, Phillips, who was well 
acquainted with Clinton, succeeded in making him act out his 
natural disposition, and thus, his exterior having been thawed 
out, he became a most amiable and valuable friend. Upon the 
approach of spring, he again offered his villa to the German 
family, an offer which was gladly accepted. 

This villa now looked very different from what it had in the 
winter when the trees were leafless and the fields covered with 
snow. The house, close by which the beautiful Hudson flowed, 
was surrounded by most charming gardens, clusters of trees and 
shady walks. Occasionally Clinton went there to make the 
family a visit, but always in the garb of a hunter attended by a 
single adjutant. Upon his last visit to them, he was accompa- 
nied by the amiable Major Andre, who soon afterward met with 
such a terrible fate. 

Meanwhile, both Riedesel and Phillips busied themselves 
with the exchange of the prisoners — the former having already 
matured a plan for the reorganization of his men immediately 
upon their liberation. Phillips wished to consider the infantry 
regiment Riedesel, which formed a part of the second division, 
as belonging to the first, that it might sooner be exchanged. 
He, accordingly, suggested this to Riedesel knowing that he 
was especially interested in this regiment. But the latter was 


too just to agree to it, knowing that it would be an act of 
injustice to the other regiments. He, however, thanked Phillips 
in a letter for his friendly offer, but said that the dragoon 
regiment, the regiment Von Rhetz, the grenadier battalion, 
and the light battalion had the next claim to an exchange. 

The pleasant visit at Clinton's villa was clouded by the ma- 
lignant fevers which, in that country, are frequent in this 
season of the year, but which were even worse during the 
present year than usual. At one time all the family of Riedesel, 
including the servants, were sick with the exception of his wife, 
the pastor, Mylius, and the faithful yager, Rockel. The general, 
his little daughter Augusta, and six of his domestics were at 
one time at death's door. Indeed, at one period, during his 
illness, the former cared little whether he lived or died ) for in 
addition to the fever he was attacked with a disease resembling 
cholera, which brought him very low. His powerful constitu- 
tion, however, aided by the care of a skillful physician from 
New York, enabled him to conquer this severe attack. Mrs. 
Riedesel had the entire charge of this hospital, besides nursing 
a little infant ; yet she managed to attend to the comfort of all 
the invalids. Day and night she ministered to the wants of 
her husband and servants, and neglected not her child. During 
the whole of this time she never undressed, but threw herself 
upon the bed ready to respond at a moment's notice to the call 
of the sick. In a word, she was the same angel that ministered 
to the wounded during the days of terror at Saratoga. A kind 
providence repaid her for her self sacrilice; and, she had the 
happiness of seeing her husband, her child and her servants 
fully restored to health. 

In the beginning of May, the Hessian captain. Von Geismar, 
one of Riedesel's adjutants, returned to Europe, having been 
recently exchanged. ^ Riedesel availed himself of this opportu- 
nity to send letters and dispatches. 

1 This Captain Qeismar had been detailed on lUedeserB staff to attend to all 



Toward the latter part of June, Kiedesel received official 
news of the death of his sovereign, Duke Charles, in a letter 
from the latter's successor, Duke Charles William Ferdinand, 
under date of April 1st, 1780. He was greatly affected at this 
sad intelligence, for he had devotedly loved his sovereign, and 
had respected him for his many good qualities of heart and 
mind. Duke Charles was a prince who enjoyed the love of his 
subjects to a greater extent, perhaps, than any other of his 
race. Kiedesel, therefore, lost no time in availing himself of 
another vessel, that sailed the last of June, to congratulate his 
new sovereign on the threshold of his reign, and to express, 
also, his grief at the death of the duke. 

After the successful campaign of Clinton against Charleston, 
Riedesel expected that an exchange would surely take place ; 
but he was again disappointed. Congress could not make up 
its mind to deliver up the captives, of whose possession it was 
not a little proud. Accordingly negotiations were begun anew, 
and another summer passed without anything having been 
accomplished toward this result. 

According to a report of Colonel Specht, made the 16th of 
August, 1780, the number of troops at Charlottesville, was as 
follows : 77 officers, 142 noncommissioned officers, 25 drummers, 
809 privates and 94 servants; total, 1,147 men. It appeared, 
also, that since the departure of Kiedesel, three men had died, 
and no desertions had taken place. 

Upon the approach of autumn, Kiedesel left the beautiful 
villa of Clinton, and moved back to New York. Finally, in 
October, he received the intelligence that himself and General 
Phillips, with their respective adjutants, had been exchanged. 

basinesB relating to the Hesse Hanau troops. Riedesel was much pleased with 
him, finding him a man of honor and reliability. After his exchange he was on the 
point of returning into Canada, but having received an urgent letter flrom his 
father, who was eighty years old, asking to see him once more before his death in 
order to arrange femily matters, Riedesel obtained for him a ftirlough from General 
Phillips.— Note to original. 


But his joy was diminished by the fact that congress had re- 
fused to exchange the rest of the captured troops. 

Immediately upon his exchange, Clinton, that he might reward 
his services and also compliment the new duke of Brunswick, 
nominated Biedesel for lieutenant general^ and that he might 
haye a field for his activity, gave him, at the same time, a com^ 
mand on Long island opposite New York. Mrs. Eiedesel 
remained for the present in the city. It will soon be seen in 
what condition Eiedesel found his new command. 

Encouraged by the victory of Clinton over General Lincoln 
at Charleston, General Cornwallis in October started for North 
Carolina ] but learning that a corps, which he had sent in a 
more northerly direction, had been attacked and annihilated, 
he returned into South Carolina. Some other advantages, 
achieved by the Americans in the fall of this year, gave them 
so much encouragement that they still confidently believed in 
the success of their cause. 


It was no small proof of the confidence which was reposed in 
General Eiedesel that he should have been given the command 
on Long island. This was one of the largest islands belonging 
to the northern states, and was considered the bulwark of New 
York, at that time the most important place in the possession of 
the English. New York was the great depot for the stores of 
the army ; and Long island was the main harbor for the fleet. 
The latter was occupied by the flower of the English troops. 
Scarcely any Germans were there ; and the work of fortifying 
the place was constantly going on. 

A small house was given to Eiedesel for a dwelling. It was 
at Brooklyn, and looked out upon the bay. A strict watch 
was obliged to be kept, for the island being so near the main 
land an assault by the enemy could easily be made. Eiedesel, 


accordingly, sought to familiarize himself with the island. He 
visited all the fortified places and outposts, making here and 
there those alterations which struck him as necessary. The 
English, generally, do not like to be commanded by a foreigner ; 
but such was the love in which they held Riedesel, that they 
obeyed him cheerfully. The ofl&cers, especially, vied with each 
other in manifesting their good will. 

Meanwhile, Colonel Specht, in consequence of his growing 
ill health and his advanced age, asked permission to return to 
Europe. As Riedesel cheerfully consented, the commander in 
chief made no opposition. Specht, therefore, left New York 
in January. Riedesel availed himself of this opportunity to 
send oflf his letters and dispatches. Among these was the fol- 
lowing answer to the hereditary prince of Hessia : 

" To Ms Highness^ the Hereditary Prince, 

" Gracious Prince and Lord : The kind letter of your highness, 
of the 5th of September of last year, has awakened in me feelings 
of the profoundest gratitude and devotion ; and the kind expres- 
sions of my future sovereign reward me a hundred fold for the 
little care which I have bestowed upon the troops of your highness, 
and which, indeed, have been amply merited by the conduct of 
the troops themselves. Your highness may rest assured that I 
shall never be weary in bestowing upon those brave troops, who 
have shared all the fortunes and misfortunes of our own men, the 
same care, attention and devotion which I give to the soldiers of 
his highness, my own duke. It is possible that your highness 
will be astonished at the result of the new measures which have 
been employed in behalf of the prisoners. After all possible 
efforts to bring about a general exchange, and the^ rebels having 
introduced — moved by an incomprehensible prejudice — the 
system of refusing all propositions in regard to those troops, 
choosing rather that their prisoners at Charleston 'should die 
than be exchanged, the English secretary of war has found it 
advisable to exchange all their superfluous oflicers and employ 


them in other places. It is hoped in this way to neutralize 
some of the evil that has been caused by this stubborn detention. 

" In pursuance of an order from the minister, the following 
measures have been adopted, viz : 1st. The captured troops are 
no longer to be considered as regiments, but as detachments. 
2d. The superfluous English ofl&cers are to go to England, and, 
by recruiting in that country, fill up the regiments as much as 
possible. 3d. The superfluous German officers are to go to 
Canada to the detachments which were left there, and form the 
recruits that arrive there from time to time, into companies. 
According to this arrangement, 1st, one officer remains with 
the German troops who is to command the whole detachment. 
This officer is Lieutenant Colonel Von Mengen. 2d, one cap- 
tain from each regiment, and 3d, one noncommissioned officer 
from each company. In this situation the unfortunate troops 
must await their future fate. 

"Brigadier General Gall has, I presume, reported to your 
highness the names of the officers whom he has himself ap- 
pointed to remain in Virginia. Part of the officers, who are to 
be exchanged, have already arrived here. 

" General Washington, although he declined the second appli- 
cation, has altered his mind and agreed to an exchange. I am, 
therefore, in hopes that the order for an exchange will soon 
reach us here. In this case, I shall, after receiving orders from 
the commanding officer, Sir Henry Clinton, go to Canada, for 
the purpose of setting the troops of my gracious master to work 
by regiments in accordance with the instructions of his majesty 
the king. 

" Nothing would give me more joy than to succeed in carry- 
ing out the orders of your highness. Let me receive your orders 
in detail upon this point. 

" I remain, with the devotion becoming a subject, 

" Your highnesses most obedient servant, 

" EiBDESEL, Major General. 

"Brooklyn, February 20, 1781.'' 




The next step of Riedesel was to issue a general pardon for 
deserters, hoping, by this means, to collect his scattered forces. 
It reads as follows : 

" General Pardon. 

" From Major General Riedesel, baron of Eisenbach, com- 
mander of the troops of his highness, the duke of Brunswick, 
which troops are now in the service of Great Britain. 

" As there are now several noncommissioned officers and pri- 
vates of the Brunswick troops, who have deserted and are now 
in the enemy's ranks, or are concealed in the country of the 
rebels, therefore, I hereby declare a full pardon to all those who 
shall return to the army of the king, and who shall, for this 
purpose, report themselves to a Brunswick officer, before the 
15th of August, within the lines of the royal British army. I, 
also, declare that they shall be returned to their respective regi- 
ments without receiving any punishment. Given under my hand, 

" Riedesel, Major General. 
"Brooklyn, Long Island, February 22, 1781. 

" By order of Major General Von Riedesel. 

" Captain Cleve, Aid de camp." 

Although the number of deserters, who reported in conse- 
quence of this pardon, was not as large as was expected, some 
availed themselves of the opportunity to return to their flag. 
Those who did thus return were doubtless influenced, not only 
by the pardon, but by the immediate prospect of active military 
life. Many, of course, who earnestly desired it, could not leave 
the American army, nor the farms upon which they had hired 
themselves out to work. They were watched too closely ; besides 
which, those Germans, who had gone over to the Americans, were, 
as a matter of course, never permitted to go into battle nor per- 
form duty on the outposts. They were obliged to do other ser- 
vice in the interior of the country where there was no chance 
for escape. 


During his stay in Brooklyn, Kiedesel found many things 
that did not suit him. He was stationed here on an important 
post with strange troops under his command, while his own 
men were in Canada under another ofl&cer. These latter, 
reenforced by recruits from Germany, must be organized and 
drilled before they could be used against the enemy. Should 
he leave this work to another ? But in addition to all this, the 
climate around New York was unfavorable to his health ; he 
having had frequent attacks of fever during his residence there. 
He had more hope of recovering in Canada where the air was 
purer and more strengthening, and the climate of which had 
formerly agreed with him. He was, also, pretty well convinced 
that his stay in Long island would be but temporary. It was, 
however, his earnest wish, before leaving this part of the country 
and before bidding adieu to General Phillips,' who had been to 
him such a staunch friend, to arrange all the details relating to 
the exchange of the captured troops in Virginia. He accord- 
ingly wrote to Phillips the following letter : 

"My Lord: I beg pardon for troubling you so often with 
the same request. But I am very anxious that matters in 
Virginia should be brought to a close by means of your inter- 
cession. To me it is of the greatest importance that Captain 
Gerlach should arrive in Virginia to settle the accounts of the 
troops, before the quarter masters of the regiments who are 
included in the list of exchanged officers. It is, also, necessary 
that Captain Gerlach should return and report in regard to the 
result of his mission before I leave New York. This is ren- 
dered the more imperative, because, before leaving New York, 
I desire to send a full report to my sovereign of all agreements 
that have been entered into respecting the prisoners while I 
was in command. I am about entering upon a new sphere in 
Canada, and design placing myself at the head of the troops of 
my sovereign, who are now in that province. Taking, therefore, 
these motives which I have mentioned into consideration, you 
will, I think, find my request justifiable, and will excuse the 



liberty which I take in thus constantly troubling you with the 
same thing. 

" One thing which increases my impatience is, that you may 
have to leave for Virginia before all the orders and dispatches^ 
have been properly arranged. This would crush all my hopes. 
It would place me in an unpleasant position as regards my 
government of the troops; and consequently all my labors 
for six years would be repaid by the disapprobation of my 

" Having thus poured out my heart, nothing remains but to 
trust you. This I do, at the same time remaining 
" With all considerate respect, 
" As ever, etc., 

" RiEDESEL, Major General. 

" Brooklyn, February 25, 1781.'' 

General Phillips was ordered to assume command in the 
south. A detachment, under General Leslie, had already been 
sent thither by Clinton; afterwards another under Arnold, 
who, as senior officer, took the command of both. In March, 
Phillips was sent to Virginia with two thousand English troopB 
as reenforcements. The latter immediately assumed the entire 
command. General Riedesel was to go north. The separation 
was very sad. Both, having, for so long, shared each others 
pleasures and pains, had become very dear friends. They, 
therefore, now embraced each other for the last time; for 
Phillips died on the 9th of May at Petersburg of a fever. In 
him the English army lost one of its best and most careftil 

As soon as spring appeared Madam Riedesel, with her 
children, and servants, moved over to Brooklyn to be with her 
husband. The house in which he lived being small, she was 
obliged to get along with very little room. From the house, 
however, she had a magnificent view of the city and its harbor. 
The outposts were now more than ever exposed to attack ; and 


Major Maiborn, who had just returned from captivity, was 
surprised one night in his bed and carried off.^ 

The Americans were exceedingly anxious to capture Riedesel. 
Being well aware of this fact, however, he was very vigilant. 
Indeed, such was his terror of another captivity, that he only 
slept when sure that his wife was awake ; and, as it was, he 
would jump out of bed at the slightest noise. Even a strong 
guard, which remained in the house night and day, he did not 
consider sufficient. 

Those of the German troops who were on Long island were 
organized into a battalion and garrisoned at Flatbush. It was 
entirely officered by Grermans, and was commanded by Major 
Lucke. Those Brunswick dragoons, also, that had been cap- 
tured near Bennington and exchanged, were stationed here. 
Schlagenteuffel, captain of cavalry, commanded them. In a 
general order, dated the 29th of April, General Riedesel, among 
other things, says ; " Captain of cavalry, Schlagenteuffel, senior, 
will make such arrangements at the quarters of the officers as 
shall guard against a surprise. At a quarter of nine each 
morning, the men, who were to do guard duty, gathered on the 
parade ground and formed into four companies. The pickets 
for the night turned out at the same time, but returned to the 
barracks after the parade. Major Lucke had charge of the 
parade. The men marched off to the sound of music. Roll 
call was at half-past six in the evening. Major Lucke was the 
officer in charge on these occasions also. He drilled the men 
with muskets, at the same time making them practice all kinds 
of evolutions in marching. Riedesel was generally present both 
at parade and roll oall. At night a patrol, composed of three 
officers and two noncommisioned officers composed the beat. It 
was their duty to visit all the sentinels and posts at Brooklyn 
and the fort. These patrols were obliged, also, to pay special 

1 Major Maiborn, flrom despair and ennui daring his captivity, became addicted 
to drunkenness, a yice from which he never recovered.— i\r(7^ to original. 


attention to the sailors, who were in the habit of going about 
drinking at the different saloons, fighting and raising a dis- 
turbance. At Yellow hook there were stationed one officer, 
three noncommissioned officers and twenty privates. On the 
6th of May, Riedesel issued special instructions to have all the 
single posts well guarded. This had been hitherto neglected by 
the English. These instructions were headed "Regulations 


As has already been remarked, Riedesel had requested Gene- 
ral Phillips to exchange several German officers ; but when the 
next exchange took place no Germans were included in it. 
Very much offended, he appealed directly to General Washing- 
ton. The following correspondence in regard to it will explain 

General Riedesel to General Washington. 

"Brooklyn, April 2^, 1781. 

" Sir : Several of the German officers captured at Saratoga, 
having appealed to me to procure their exchange on account of 
family affairs, I requested Major General Phillips to propose 
to your excellency such an exchange as would be an answer to 
my request. General Phillips sent me your letter in which 
you consent to it ; in consequence of which I handed General 
Phillips a list of those officers whose exchange I requested. 
This list, he assures me, has been sent to you. 

"But as all the English officers, whose exchange Major 
General Phillips requested, have arrived unaccompanied by a 
single German officer, I presume that said list has never 
reached your excellency; for I believe that you, sir, are governed 
by the same impartiality toward my nation as toward any other. 
I, therefore, take the liberty to reiterate the request of General 
Phillips, that you, sir, will have the goodness to respect the 
claim of those German officers who are mentioned in the list (a 
copy of which I here inclose), and will order those gentlemen 
to be sent to New York. 



" Major Maiborn of my regiment of dragoons, and Ensign 
Maiborn of my infantry regiment belonging to his highness the 
duke of Brunswick, having been captured a few days since on 
Long island, I would consider it a proof of your excellency's 
kindness, if you would allow these two officers to come to New 
York on parole. The poor health of Major Maiborn requires 
special attention ; and I shall do all in my power to induce his 
excellency Sir Henry Clinton to exchange them, provided your 
excellency is so kind as to give your consent. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" Your excellency's humble servant, 

" RiEDESEL, Major General.'' 

General Washington to General Riedesel. 

"Head Quarters, New Windsor, May 11, 1781. 

" Sir : I have received your favor of April without a date.i 
Either you must be wrongly informed in regard to the letter 
addressed to me by General Phillips, dated December 23d, and 
my answer to Sir Henry Clinton of January 25th, or you have 
misunderstood them. I, therefore, inclose copies of them. I 
only consented to an exchange of those British officers who are 
expressly mentioned in General Phillips's letter, and rejected 
his proposition that an indefinite number of British and German 
officers should be sent to New York under the superintendence 
of Brigadier General Hamilton. 

" Some time after this, other propositions, under date of 
March 3d, were made to me, having reference to other ex- 
changes, among which were those German officers whom you 
have mentioned. These propositions were submitted to me 
through my commissioner general of prisoners, but which I did 
not consider it advisable to accept, as I was convinced that the 

1 In the original draft, the date, April 28th, is given. This was probably omitted 
in the copy by Riedesel' s secretary, by mistake.— Note to original. 



exchange of Lieutenant Greneral Burgoyne wonld be unreaBon- 
ably long postponed. My answer and instructions in regard 
to this clause have been given at length through Messra. 
Skinner and Loring. 

" Even if I were inclined to be partial to the British officers, 
it would be impossible to do so, since the selection of those 
exchanged is not left to me. 

" As regards your special request, I have given orders that 

Major and Ensign Maiborn should be sent to New York on 


" I have the honor, etc., 

" Washington." 

General Kiedesel to the Hereditary Prince of 


'* To his Highness the Hereditary Prince of Hessia. 

" Gracious Prince and Lord : Since my letter to your high- 
ness, under date of April 28th, I have been pained to learn 
from the report of Lieutenant Colonel Von Mengen, who, after 
the departure of the colonel and brigadier general, has taken 
the command of the captured Brunswick troops, that congress 
has finally taken the treacherous step of entirely annulling the 
treaty by separating the officers from the noncommissioned 
officers and privates, and prohibiting all communication between 
them. It has, also, cut down the usual rations for each man to 
one-fourth, and has taken them entirely from the officers and 

" This unfortunate change, which must result in obliging 
the privates thus left to themselves to obtain sustenance by 
working around the country, occurred during the month of 
April. All of the German officers are at present at Winchester 
in Virginia within a circumference of ten English miles. The 
privates are four English miles from the latter place, living in 
the wood9 in huts which they were generally obliged to build 
for themselves. 



" In spite, also, of all the representations which have been 
made, congress has forbidden any ofl&cer to visit the men ; and 
the question whether or not a regimental surgeon shall be per- 
mitted to attend on the sick, will not probably be decided before 
the middle of next month. 

" I see by the report of Lieutenant Colonel Von Mengen, 
that he knew as early as the 22d of April of Captain Gerlach's 
arrival in Virginia. This officer brings money, clothing, uni- 
forms and other articles to the troops, a circumstance which 
will be of no small consolation to this unfortunate corps in its 
present lamentable situation. 

" As the officers have been rendered powerless, by this breach 
of faith of congress, to continue their praiseworthy efforts for 
the care of the troops, I have asked of his highness, my 
sovereign, permission to leave one officer with each regiment, 
whose duty it shall be to see that the men receive what articles 
the general in chief, Sir Henry Clinton, may allow to be 
forwarded from time to time to this corps. I have also asked 
him whether it would not be best to have all the other officers 
exchanged and made use of in places where they can be made 
available to the service. As I cannot expect his answer while 
in New York, I have requested him to send his reply direct to 
Lieutenant Colonel Mengen, and at the same time to inform 
the commanding general at this post in regard to his wishes. 

" As long as it lies in my power to extend to this corps, and the 
other troops of your highness a helping hand, be it ever so little, 
I shall always consider it one of my most sacred duties to do so. 
This much I should feel obliged to do from the deep reverence 
and great attachment" I feel toward a prince whose troops have 
been faithful companions in our alas 1 general misfortune. 

" With the heartfelt assurance of my deepest devotion, 

" I remain your highness's 

" Most obedient servant, 

" RiEDESEL, Major Greneral. 

" Brooklyn on Long island. May 9, 1781.'' 




It has been seen by a letter mentioned a little way back from 
Riedesel to Phillips, that the former had requested the Ame- 
rican government for a flag of truce under which Captain Ger- 
lach might visit Virginia. The reasons, also, which induced 
Riedesel to hasten this matter, have also been adverted to. 
General Phillips not only attended to this request of the Ger- 
man general, but procured from Washington a pass for Gerlach 
to Virginia. The latter took with him money, clothing and 
other necessary articles for the troops who were literally desti- 
tute of everything ; and his visit, therefore, could not be post- 

The pass from General Washington read " as far as the coast 
of Virginia.'' At this point. Captain Gerlach was directed to 
apply to the governor of the province. General Jefferson, who, 
he was told, would arrange matters in regard to the transporta- 
tion of the supplies by land as far as Winchester. Gerlach, 
accordingly, applied to the governor ; but the latter raised so 
many objections that he was forced to write to Riedesel for 
further instructions. The German general, who was no little 
embarrassed by these repeated delays, at once wrote on the 3d 
of June, to General Cornwallis requesting him as the nearest 
general to Governor Jefferson, to attend to the matters of Ger- 
lach. Cornwallis immediately entered into the affair with the 
greatest zeal, and with so much success that Gerlach finally 
reached Winchester with his supplies. He found the troops in 
a very miserable plight, living in huts, and in want of every- 
thing. The English troops were at Yorktown. 

On the 6th of June, Riedesel wrote from Brooklyn to Briga- 
dier General Specht in Canada, as follows : " I cannot blame 
you, my Brother, ' if you should believe that I had been buried 
long since or had forgotten my Canadian friends. But never in 
my life, have I seen so little intercourse between two provinces 
so near together as Canada and New York. I verily believe 
that I could easier send a letter to Batavia than to Canada." 

1 1, c, brother in arms. 



Riedesel had now been a long time ra readiness to start for 
Canada with forty officers and four hundred, 'i»en, but the ne- 
cessary escort was wanting. This was to ha'Vo ^i^^sted of a 
frigate ; but the British admiral appeared loth to iurnish* one. 
The Hessian colonel, Von Gall, had already left New Xork Ar 
Germany, when Riedesel received from the hereditary priij^e^* . . 
the letter dated April 18th. Colonel Gall was very unkindly ' -^ 
received by the prince in consequence of having left America 
without permission. This action of the prince, however, also 
arose from his having heard that Gall had been partial in his 
conduct of his men, and had embezzled money. This is seen 
by the following letter from the prince to Riedesel : 

" Hanau, April 18, 1781. 

My very dear Major General : The especial kindness which 
you constantly manifest toward me and my soldiers, and for 
which my warmest thanks are continually due you, leads me 
to hope that you will not conceal from me in any particular, the 
conduct of Colonel Von Gall, who has been so long under your 
command, and who has returned without my permission. He is 
accused of retaining money and appropriating it to his own use, 
and also of partiality. It is even said that he was tried by a 
commission in Canada. Since it is incumbent upon me to go 
to the bottom of this matter, and since this officer by all appear- 
ances seems guilty, I conjure you to send me a speedy answer 
regarding this whole matter. Keep nothing from me ; but give 
me a special proof of your interest in my men, who have been 
so unfortunate and so abused. I ask you to do me this favor 
as an old Hessian, and for the good of the service. 

" In real friendship and high esteem, 

" I remain your sincere and true friend, 

" William, Hereditary Prince of Hessia. 

" P. S. I send a copy of this letter to New York, not know- 
ing whether or not you have left there for Canada. 
" To General Von Riedesel, Canada." 

^ ^ ^ <j 


General Riedesel,\who^iiad not suspected anything of this 
kind, was very much astonished at the contents of this letter. 
After examining' the case, he returned the following answer to 
the prince\ "- ^ 

W » 

. . yp-Jvis most serene Iliyhness^ the Hereditary Prince. 

>. : • "Gracious Prince and Lord: The kind letter of your most 
. ••\^ \ • " serene highness of April 18th, I had the honor of receiving by 
-; I ' the packet the latter part of last month. I am extremely sorry 

that your highness was so much displeased at the return of 
Colonel Von Gall. T hope that my letter of June 6th will 
excuse my having been the seeming instrument of his return 
by having obtained for him the required permission for that 

" Your highness requests me, in a very gracious manner, to 
send you a report of the conduct of Colonel Gall, and also an 
account of those transactions in Canada, by which the regiment 
is said to have suffered. In response to this request, I can 
only say that all orders have been invariably obeyed by the 
troops under Colonel V. Gall in the most faithful manner ; and 
if troubles have occasionally occurred, they have arisen rather 
from want of knowledge of our situation, or by fear, perhaps, 
of sacrificing some of the national prerogatives of the troops 
of your highness than from other reasons. Such cases have 
always been speedily arranged whenever Colonel Von Gall has 
consulted me. Very likely, also, Gall has not always considered 
it to be for the interest of your highness to follow the advice of 
the commander of another nation. 

" But it is my duty to bear witness to the good intentions of 
Colonel Von Gall in his efforts to arrange pecuniary matters; 
and although differences between him and the late General 
Phillips occasionally arose, yet by my and the latter *s explana- 
tions they were always settled. I am not prepared to say that 
Colonel Gall was always wrong on such occasions, but his de- 
mands were at times not in accordance with the situation of 



affairs. Everything, however, has invariably been settled in 
an amicable manner ; and Grail parted from Phillips and myself 
on the best of terms. Not, however, to be too lengthy in my 
answer, I must respectfully ask your highness to inquire further 
of Captain V. Geismer, who is perfectly familiar with these 
transactions, and who, I feel confident, will confirm that which 
I have here written. 

"As regards the matter of the provisions in Canada, the 
investigation of which was committed to me by General Sir 
Guy Carleton at Berthier in that province, I can only give you 
a correct report by sending you the documents. But as they 
are with my baggage in Canada, I cannot send you a complete 
report in regard to the matter until my arrival in said province. 
I will then do so. For the present, I will only remark that 
this affair appears to be very disadvantageous to Colonel Gall ; 
and, further, I may say, that had any one other than myself 
investigated this matter, it would have turned out very badly 
for the colonel ; for it was evident that the provisions had been 
distributed among the troops at a smaller weight than had been 
ordered by General Carleton, and that the inhabitants com- 
plained at being obliged to provide for the soldiers at this rate. 
But when I consider, on the other hand, that one and a half 
pounds of meat and one and a half pounds of bread was more 
than a soldier could eat, and that Gall intended to accumulate 
a regimental fund for unforeseen cases — such as frequently 
occurred among the Brunswick troops — I consider him only 
to blame for not foreseeing the danger which was connected 
with this act, no matter how good was his intention. 

" Upon my arriving at Berthier in order to begin the inves- 
tigation, it looked at first as if the colonel intended to deny the 
matter. Seeing, however, that I commenced the investigation 
in an earnest, but impartial spirit, he confessed the truth, and 
stated the cause which led him to act in this manner. From 
that moment I changed the whole course of the investigation, 
and advised the inhabitants to compromise the matter. Cap- 


tain Geismar assisted Colonel Gall in fully satisfying the inha- 
bitants. The latter appeared before the authorities and took 
back their complaints, saying, that they were satisfied; and 
some even went so far as to ask the forgiveness of Colonel Gall 
for having lodged complaints against him with the commanding 
generals. Thus, the affair was settled. My report was sent to 
the commanding general without the minutes of the investiga- 
tion, and he expressed himself perfectly satisfied with the result 
of the commission. I have never cared to ascertain the amount 
paid to the inhabitants. Colonel Von Gall will doubtless be 
able to furnish your highness with the most satisfactory expla- 
nations regarding his conduct, of which nothing can be learned 
from the documents themselves. 

" I here state to your highness that Admiral Graves has at 
last concluded to convey us to Canada. The troops will be 
embarked day after to-morrow, and I hope we shall sail before 
the end of this month. As soon as I arrive in Canada, I shall 
again report regarding this matter to your highness. 

" The commanding general. Sir Henry Clinton, has commu- 
nicated to me an order from your highness, addressed to all 
captured officers, commanding them to embark for Canada at 
the first possible moment, and cautioning them against return- 
ing to Germany without permission. Being unable to do any- 
thing more toward the execution of this order, on account of 
my departure, I shall request Lieutenant General Von Knyp- 
hausen to inform the troops of your highness arriving here of 
your wishes. 

" Hoping to enjoy a continuance of your favor, 
" I remain, your highnesses devoted and 

" obedient servant, 

'' RiEDESEL, Major General. 

"Brooklyn, July 19, 1781." 

We may state in explanation of the above letter, that this 
investigation took place while the troops were yet in Canada. 




The soldiers were those mostly quartered on the inhabitants, to 
whom they sold their rations, and by whom they were boarded 
in exchange. The soldiers were also furnished with rice, flour 
and other articles; and the inhabitants, having, in Colonel Gall's 
opinion, the advantage, he desired to turn the scale in favor of 
his men by cutting down those rations which the inhabitants 
received from the soldiers, hoping to turn the surplus into 
money out of which a fund could be created for the benefit of 
the men in unforeseen emergencies. Colonel Gall had taken this 
idea from the Brunswickers, who had a reserve fund of this 
nature made up by the monthly contributions of the men, a 
small amount being deducted from their regular monthly pay. 
Economy was at that time an especial characteristic of the 
Brunswick troops ; and in their order and excellent self-control 
the soldiers of that period set an example to the ones of the 
present day. Riedesel paid particular attention to the adminis- 
tration of the finances, always keeping a strict watch over the 
welfare of his men. 

This aff'air of Colonel Gall attracted great attention, not only 
in Hessia, but throughout Germany. It was even discussed in 
the public journals. The philanthropical howlers who were 
grumbling so continually about " soul selling,'' sought to make 
capital of this case for their side by expatiating upon the dread- 
ful way in which the poor soldiers were treated, by being cut 
down in everything. The compiler of this work has, therefore, 
considered it his duty to quote the documents referring to this 
case, in order to remove all stain from the name of so merito- 
rious and honorable an ofl&cer, and also again to show how well 
the German troops were cared for. 

At length, the English admiral furnished the necessary num- 
ber of ships for the voyage to Canada. On the 22d of July, 
General Riedesel, with his family and suit went on board of the 
transport Little Deal, in which they were to make the journey. 
Although they were very desirous to start for Canada, the 
parting from so many of their friends, who had shown them 


such great kindness, and to whom they were warmly attached, 
was very sad. The English government, also, had acted nobly 
toward them up to the last moment ; for the general was solicited 
to take with him all of the costly furniture it had given him, 
for his house in Canada. Nor would the authorities take back 
the wood which was left of what they had furnished him. This 
amounted to about thirty cords, and was of great value at this 
time. But the German general was not the man to put himself 
under obligations to others if he could avoid it. He, therefore, 
sent the furniture to the magazine, and distributed the wood 
among some needy families, whose blessings followed him on his 

General Clinton, who particularly regretted the departure of 
this German family, and, therefore, desired to make their 
voyage as pleasant and comfortable as possible, himself arranged 
the details of their journey. He sent for the agent of the ship, 
and especially enjoined him to select for their use, the best 
sailing vessel, and accompany the travelers himself. The latter 
was rich in promises, but the result soon showed that Clinton 
had not been very fortunate in the selection of his man. The 
vessel was a very poor one, and the captain an exceedingly 
ignorant and uncouth fellow, who grew more discourteous the 
further he got from New York. In consequence of a contrary 
wind, the ship was forced to remain at anchor eight days near 
the city ; and when the flotilla finally got under way it was 
discovered that the vessel, containing Kiedesel and family, was 
the poorest one of all. It was a poor sailer, and actually had 
to be towed by one of her consorts. Neither were there men 
enough on this vessel to man her properly, and she was conse- 
quently often in danger of being capsized by gales of wind. In 
addition to all this, the ship sprang a leak thus compelling the 
pumps to be constantly worked. A hostile attack was, moreover, 
continually to be feared ; and had such an event occurred and the 
flotilla been compelled to flee, the ship, on which was the gene- 
ral, would undoubtedly have been the first one to fall into the 



hands of the enemy. And as a climax to the whole the agent, 
who by the orders of Clinton accompanied the travelers, and 
whose expenses were paid by them, was a very unpleasant and 
uneducated man. Indeed he was more of a burden than a 
help, and rendered himself exceedingly disagreeable during the 
entire passage. 

The flotilla encountered difficulties of all kinds. Madam 
Riedesel was taken ill ; and the general ill health of her husband 
was greatly increased by the voyage. The fleet put in for a 
little while at Halifax. General Riedesel and family went on 
shore and paid a visit to the governor, who received them in a 
most friendly manner, and invited them to dinner. This atten- 
tion they accepted; and the next day, they were taken by 
their host all over the city and island and shown everything 
that was worth seeing. 

From Halifax the voyage was stormy, but the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence was reached without accident. Before reaching 
Quebec, the general issued the following order to the German 
troops in Canada, and sent it in advance by his adjutant : 

" On Board the Little Deal, before 
Quebec, September 10, 1781. 

" Major General Von Riedesel announces to the Brunswick 
troops in Canada, his arrival in the province after an absence 
of four years — a period spent in misery, chagrin and all pos- 
sible discomfort. He has left the rest of the captured troops 
in this sad condition, and without the least hope of a speedy 
liberation. The general feels intense joy at the near prospect 
of once more seeing those troops whom at all times he has con- 
sidered his friends ; and he is confident of finding among them 
the same willingness, punctuality and zeal in the service which 
they have shown of old. He will consider it a real pleasure if 
he can do anything for the welfare or pleasure of the troops, 
either as a body or as individuals. 

" For the present and until further orders, all reports, lists, 



applications, etc., are to be sent to Brigadier General Von Specht, 
until the general is more acquainted with the circumstances, and 
until the duration of his stay and his future destination is known 
to him. 

" RiEDESEL, Major General." 

Upon his arrival in Quebec, Riedesel called first upon the 
governor, General Haldimand, to report himself. He was 
received in an extremely cordial and friendly manner. 

General Haldimand had been described to Riedesel as a 
sour looking and morose man, and of a very unsocial disposition. 
The latter, however, was too much of an adept in human nature 
to allow such reports to prejudice his estimate of any man. At 
the first interview, therefore, he met Haldimand openly ; and 
the latter, who was in truth, somewhat morose, soon grew more 
friendly and talkative until the two generals finally parted, each 
well pleased with the other. 

General Haldimand had little intercourse with the inhabit- 
ants of Quebec. He lived more for himself and the company 
of his officers. During his stay of four years he had refitted the 
old government building and refurnished it, so that Riedesel 
found it a palace in comparison with what it had been formerly. 
The most beautiful gardens now surrounded it, filled with choice 
fruit trees. The building itself was also most splendidly situated 
upon an eminence from which there was a charming view. 

Riedesel tarried only long enough in Quebec to rest himself 
from the fatigues of the voyage. He then accompanied Haldi- 
mand to Sorel (he was to assume command) leaving, meanwhile, 
Mrs. Riedesel and the children for the present at Quebec. The 
governor expressed his sorrow at being unable to give him a 
suitable house in Sorel where at the best he would sufibr from 
the want of many comforts; "but," continued he, "it is a very 
important post, and I wished it intrusted to you." Haldimand, 
however, did the best he could for the German generaFs com- 
fort. He bought a house there that happened to be in course 


of construction, with the understanding that it should be finished 
by Christmas. 

Sorel, next to Montreal, was, undoubtedly, the most import- 
ant place in Canada. Here emptied the upper St. Lawrence 
and the Chambly river (Richelieu) and the Lake St. Pierre. 
Sorel was the key to the latter river and Lake Champlain. 
Further to the east the Yamaska emptied into the latter lake so 
that Sorel in fact held the estuaries of three rivers. The hold- 
ing of the fort at this place was thus of the greatest importance 
to the royal troops. Riedesel visited the quarters of the Ger- 
man soldiers ; and having ascertained their position and strength, 
entered at once upon the work of organization. 

The first thing he did was to form his troops in the follow- 
ing manner : The grenadiers — there not being a sufficient num- 
ber of these to form a battalion — were divided into companies 
and distributed among the infantry regiments. Of these, the 
regiment of Rhetz was the weakest, and therefore received, in 
addition to the company of grenadiers, one company from the 
regiment of Prince Frederick. The companies were now not 
more than half as strong as formerly, and there being also a 
lack of officers, each company received only one sergeant who 
commanded it, one quarter master, one captain dJarmes^ and 
three corporals. But even with this arrangement, there was 
still a great deficiency in officers, which had to be made up by 
exempts at times performing the duties of vice-corporals, for 
which service they received additional pay. The grenadier 
regiment was still weaker, for it had even fewer noncommis- 
sioned officers to each company, viz : one sergeant, one noncom- 
missioned officer who performed the duties of quarter master 
and took the place of a captain d^armes^ and two corporals. 
The subaltern officers were also equally distributed among the 
companies. The commanders of regiments were apportioned as 
follows : 1st. The regiment of dragoons, Captain of Cavalry Von 
Schlagenteufiel, Sen. : 2d. Regiment of Prince Frederick, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Praetorius : 3d. Regiment Von Rhetz, Lieutenant 



Colonel Von Ehrenkrook : 4tli. Regiment Von Riedesel, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Von Hills : 5tli. Regiment Von Specht, Major 
Von Lucke : 6th. Light infantry battalion, Lieutenant Colonel 
Von Earner.' 

The troops in Canada were distributed in their various winter 
quarters, by a general order of Ilaldimaud, dated October 8th, 
1781, in the following manner: 

Ist. The troops, under Major General Clark, were stationed 
at Quebec, on the Island Orleans, between St. PauFs bay and 
Machiche, on the north side, and from Camaraska as far as 
Lake St. Paul on the south side of the St. Lawrence. 

2d. The troops, under Major General Von Riedesel, occupied 
the space from Bacancourt to Point au Per on the north side of 
Lake Champlain, and from La Prairie to Sorel. 

3d. The troops, under Brigadier General Von Speth, with" 
the exception of those at the south side of the St. Lawrence, 
were at Montreal and Machiche, and on the north side of Cote 
au de Lac as far as La Prairie. 

4th. The Canadian Indians were under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Campbell, and the Mohawks under Colonel 

5th. The command of the fleet on Lake Champlain was given 
to Captain Chambers. 

After all these apportionments had been accomplished, General 
Riedesel went on a tour of inspection among the different bodies 
of his troops. 

In November he again traveled over his district ) and on his 
return, the 1st of December, he wrote General Haldimand from 
Sorel, the following letter : 


" Sir : By the accompanying report, your excellency will see 
that I have returned from visiting my district. By it you will 

» The general order in regard to this, is dated at Quebec, October 30, 1781. 
a Colonel Daniel Clans ; son-in-law and nephew of Sir William Johnson. 



also be informed of the workings of the different orders I have 
issued from time to time. I selected a poor time for my journey 
(the 30th of November and the 1st of December). I had terri- 
ble weather; and I was five hours on the road between La 
Prairie and the traverse of Longueil, a distance of two and a 
half leagues. I did not meet Colonel St. Leger. He had gone 
on private business from St. John to Montreal ] but Captain 
Forbes, being a very intelligent officer, I have arranged every- 
thing with him as well as if I had seen the colonel. I was 
ready both on Wednesday and the day following to go to 
Quebec, but the letter of your excellency of the 29th, makes it 
necessary for me to remain here, until I have received from you 
further orders. 

" Your excellency will remember that Sir Henry, ^ on my 
departure from New York, expected Count de Grasse with 
fifteen or twenty thousand men, who was to unite with General 
Washington and Count Rochambeau in an attack on that city. 
At that time Sir Henry had not more than eleven thousand 
men. Nevertheless, he requested me to tell your excellency 
that he had no fears for New York, but, on the contrary, was 
ready to meet the enemy. At present he has a fleet of twenty- 
two ships of the line, twenty-five hundred more German troops, 
and three additional English regiments. The enemy have only 
twenty-four ships ; and the number of land troops, brought by 
De Grasse, do not amount in all probability to more than four 
thousand, a large part of whom have returned to the island. 
Thus the situation of Sir Henry is much better now than it was 
at the time of my departure. These, your excellency, are the 
grounds upon which I base my hope that the enemy are in no 
position to undertake anything successfully against New York, 
and that a great many of them will be punished for their auda- 
city. Your excellency is acquainted with the situation of New 
York. If the enemy intend attacking it, it will be necessary 

1 Clinton. 


for them either to take Kingsbridge — at present an extremely 
well fortified place both by nature and by art — or divide their 
troops into several corps and attack Long island, Staten island 
and Paul's hook. In the first case a force of 18.000 men will 
be necessary to undertake the attack on King's bridge, besides 
a second force for the position of MacCowen's pass which is still 
better fortified. In the second case, if the forces are divided it 
will give Sir Henry a favorable opportunity to meet them 
singly, an easy matter, since we have the necessary number of 
small vessels to convey our men to a place which it would take 
the enemy two or three days to reach by land. If the rumor 
is true that the enemy intend to attack New York, I believe 
that your excellency will have in a short time, intelligence 
which will, in some degree, counterbalance the misfortunes in 

" Madam Riedesel feels very much flattered at your remem- 
brance of her, and sends her best respects. The inclement 
season of the year retards operations on our house, but I hope 
we will be able to move into it at the end of two weeks. It 
will give Madam Riedesel much joy to furnish a room for you 
in our house, and nothing will give us more pleasure than to 
have you as our guest. 

" Next Monday I shall go to Yamaska and St Francois, to 
arrange the new quarters of the men. Should those two places 
be too full, I shall report, on my return, to your excellency. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

*' Riedesel, Major General. 

"Sorel, December 3, 1781." 

And in his report to which he alludes in this letter under 
the same date, Riedesel says : " Day before yesterday, the first 
of the month, I returned from visiting my district. The 44th 
Regiment had just gone into winter quarters, one company 
having been sent to the parish of Point Olivier where I spent 
the night. I have instructed the commanding officer to pay 



special attention to the inhabitants, and to see to it that no 
stranger comes within the parish without his knowledge ] and, 
further, that none of the inhabitants stay away from here with- 
out his being informed of it. The oflScer has promised me to 
attend not only to this, but to the guarding of his district. 

" The fleet of Commodore Chambers, I have found in a good 
position. The Royal George, the Inflexible, and the Lady Mary 
protect one another by the direction of their guns, at the same 
time that they cover the sides of the fort. Each of the three 
large ships is surrounded by palisades erected on a wall of 
snow ) while a line of the same material covers all the other 
vessels which, according to their size, are so posted that it will 
be impossible to attack them without a large number of guns, 
and still more impossible to approach sufficiently near to set fire 
to them.i 

" The fortifications of St. John are still in the same condition 
in which your excellency found them last fall, with this excep- 
tion, that the great traverse, which runs behind the fort, is 
now ten feet higher ) but the heavy frosts hinder the completion 
of the -work. The garrison appear very watchful, especially at 
night. In the Savanne I have posted one noncommissioned 
officer with ten men from the regiment of Hesse Hanau for the 
purpose of keeping a strict watch on the inhabitants. Thence 
I went to the prairie, where I met the Hesse Hanau chasseurs, 
who have gone into winter quarters and hold the parish of 
Chateau Gay. 2 I have given orders to Captain Casten Dyk, in 
respect to the conduct of the inhabitants — desiring him to 
prevent hostile emissaries coming into the parish, as I believe 
that the rebels have in this way kept up their correspondence 
with the disloyal in Montreal. Captain Casten Dyk appears 
to me, to be an intelligent officer, and I hope he will not disap- 

1 Lake Champlain and the river were frozen, thus rendering an attack easier. 
The ships had been, therefore, drawn out on to the land and fortified in the above 
named manner. 

3 Hence the name Chatauque, which is not of Indian origin bb is generally sup- 



point my expectations. On my return I visited the quarters 
of the royalists, both at Bergere and Canton-coeurJ Major 
Nern was just making preparations to organize these troops 

" Everything is now settled in the district with which your 
excellency has entrusted me ; and I hope it has been done 
according to your wishes. The regiment Ehetz is the only 
one that has not yet gone into its quarters. I received the 
command of your excellency to give this regiment orders to 
march on the 22d of November ; but the rivers Yamaska and 
St. Francois having in the meantime partially frozen over, and 
being, therefore, impassable, I ordered it to march on the north 
bank, and cross the' great river near Point au Lac. The regi- 
ment, accordingly, marched on the 25th, and arrived on the 
28th, at Machise and Point au Lac ) but the river being no 
longer passable, the regiment remained, on the 29th, this side 
of it. Colonel Carleton, who has gone to Trois Rivieres, has 
promised me to assist this regiment over the river if it is a 
possible thing, but if it is not, then to have it quartered, with 
the permission of the inhabitants, where it now is, until the ice 
is sufficiently firm to allow of its crossing. This, however, is of 
no consequence, as all its rations are drawn from Trois Rivieres. 
After considering these circumstances, your excellency, will, I 
am sure, give me credit for endeavoring to carry out your 
orders, having only been prevented from so doing by the sudden 
appearance of the frost and cold. 

" The detachment of Captain Rippenhaus crossed the Yam- 
asljg, and Francois on the 21st and 22d. I doubt not, that by 
this time, it has arrived at the quarters of its regiment. 

" I shall visit the two companies of Earner, at Yamaska and 
Francois, and if I find that there are too many troops in the 
former parish, or that it is discommoded by the company which 

1 The royalists were a corps of volunteers, under Major Ncme, and consisted 
chiefly of Englishmen and Canadians. 



is in garrison at that place, I will endeavor to arrange every- 
thing according to the wishes of your excellency. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

^' EiEDESEL, Major General." 

Meanwhile, General Riedesel had anxiously watched the 
movements of Lord Cornwallis in the southern provinces, for 
upon the result of these depended the weal or woe of the cap- 
tured troops in Virginia. If that general's operations were 
successful, the Germans would be immediately liberated ; if not, 
no one could tell how long they would remain in misery. Ried- 
esel was, at this time, therefore, in constant communication 
with Cornwallis, and followed his every step with intense in- 
terest. In a letter to the latter, he congratulates him upon his 
victories, especially those near Camden (August 25th, 1780), 
near Guildford over Green (March 15th, 1781), and the one 
near Jamestown over Lafayette (July 6th, 1781). In conse- 
quence of these successful engagements, he expected without 
doubt, the complete subjugation of Virginia. But events sud- 
denly took an unexpected turn. Washington, with a view of 
preventing Cornwallis from being supported, succeeded, by 
spreading rumors, in making Clinton fearful of an attack on 
New York — than which, however, nothing was at that time 
further from the intentions of the Americans. The American 
commander also, was successful shortly after in cutting off the 
communications of Cornwallis with Clinton, and forcing the 
former to surrender at Yorktown, on the 19th of October, with 
6,000 prisoners. When Riedesel received the first intelligence 
of this disaster, he could not credit it. He considered it im- 
possible for such a misfortune to happen to so brave a corps 
under so talented a leader. But when the rumor was confirmed, 
he gave up all hope ; for now nothing could be expected from 
such an arrogant foe, but more severe and brutal treatment of 
the captured troops. 

But besides the loss of so many brave troops, the British 



were now rendered utterly powerless to concentrate their re- 
maining forces. Offensive measures were of course abandoned. 
They were doing well to preserve the few men that were left to 
them. The Americans, on the contrary, increased rapidly in 
confidence and numbers. A crisis had evidently been reached 
on the eventful day of October the 19th. The fortunes of the 
contending parties were then and there decided. 

According to a report, carefully prepared by Captain Cleve, 
the strength of the Brunswick troops in America, on the 1st of 

December, 1781, was as follows : 


In Canada, 2,520 

Imprisoned in Virginia, 1,053 

Other prisoners, 325 

Total, 3,898 

Up to this time 405 men had been lost, in killed and deser- 
tions. The troops in Canada were greatly in need of commis- 
sioned and noncommissioned officers, there being only 74 of the 
former with the regiments. 

From the letters of Riedesel already quoted, it has been seen 
that he paid as much attention to the enemy within his district 
as without. And he had certainly good reasons for his conduct. 
It was evident that the Americans spared no effort to revolu- 
tionize those northern provinces, that had hitherto remained 
faithful to the English. There were, however, a few in those 
provinces who at heart sympathized with the American cause, 
while apparently they were good royalists. Moreover, since 
the turn affairs had taken in the south, there was a still greater 
necessity for caution. Immediately after the capitulation of 
Cornwallis, printed placards were distributed among the inha- 
bitants of Canada, which stated plainly that the dominion of 
the English was now at an end. Hence, at any moment the 
spark hidden in the ashes might break out into a flame. Both 
Haldimand and Riedesel exerted every effort to destroy and 
suppress these incendiary placards, and prevent the standard of 



rebellion being raised. Of this latter event, however, there was 
not much fear, as Canada, in comparison with the southern 
provinces, was thinly populated, and its cities, with the excep- 
tion of Quebec, sparsely peopled. But the American com- 
manders were now free to operate against the northern countries. 
A larger district was therefore given to lliedesel. His com- 
mand included the garrisons of the most important forts between 
the St. Lawrence and the Richelieu, and from Montreal to Point 
au Fer as far up as Sorel on Lake St. Pierre. Notwithstanding 
the severity of the winter and his ill health, Riedesel was always 
" on the go.'' This continual activity was necessary to keep 
the troops constantly on the alert, and to forward as rapidly as 
possible the works around the forts. He also built several strong 
log block houses in different places. In all this he was ably 
seconded by General Haldimand. 

As before stated, the generals were obliged to maintain a 
strict watch over the inhabitants. They were therefore forced 
to employ measures to which they would have objected in less 
critical times. 

A regular system of espionage was now introduced, that the 
innocent might not suffer with the guilty. Haldimand accord- 
ingly issued orders to the higher grades of officers, that lists 
of all the inhabitants should be secretly made out, giving, beside 
the name, the political leanings of individuals. Those who were 
in any way suspected, were particularly watched. This work was 
intrusted to noncommissioned officers and privates. Besides this, 
there were spies who sneaked about villages minding every one's 
business but their own. As a result of this system of spying, 
the prisons in the fortified towns were filled in a short time. 
Among other things, Haldimand writes to Riedesel the follow- 
ing : " I fear that there are too many of these kind of people in 
this province ; and as there is a great lack of room to keep the 
prisoners, I desire that no more persons be arrested, unless there 
is a well founded suspicion against them." 

The loyal inhabitants of those provinces held by the enemy, 



considered Canada or New York city as the only safe place of 
refuge. Many left all their valuables behind them to escape 
the abuse of the rough militia, and if they had been too out- 
spoken they fled for their lives. Such fugitives were received 
by the government in the most ^friendly manner. They were 
assisted and often had money advanced to them in case of need. 
The commanders of the different districts were obliged to keep 
lists of all such refugees as well as of those wlio were suspected. 
This was necessary, so great was the fear that every stranger 
might be an emissary of the enemy or a secret spy. 

1782. • 

General Riedcsel with'his family moved into the new house a 
few days before (^hristmas. It had been carefully prepared for 
his recepticni by his thrifty wife. Some English officers, who 
had been invited in, helped the German family to celebrate the 
holidays which were thus observed partly in the English and 
partly in the German manner. Under the illuminated Christ- 
mas tree, was placed the Christmas pie, an article inseparable 
among Englishmen from this festivity. The house, it is true, 
was very new ; the trees of which it had been built having stood 
in the woods but six months previously. There was, however, 
in this, nothing unusual, as the Americans, even at that time, 
built with a celerity of which we in staid old Germany have no 
conception. As a matter of course, the walls were very thin; 
and it often happened that houses constructed in such a hasty 
manner were blown down by a storm. The house, occupied by 
Riedesel at Sorel, contained a dining, a sitting and a bed room 
for the general; a room and bed room for his wife; and a 
general reception, or drawing room. On the upper floor were 
four rooms, two of which were occupied by the servants. Two 
covered walks led from the house to the kitchen and wash house, 
the guard room being over the latter. The house was not in the 
village of Sorel proper, but about fifteen minutes walk in the 


suburbs, and so close to the outposts that six men of the guard 
were stationed everv oitrht in the hall to act as sentinels. 

The winter was ?eyere : the snow was deep ; and the rivers 
and lakes were frozen s<» hard that thev could be crossed in all 
directions. This circumstance rendered caution additionally 
necessary ; and Riedesel accordingly visited the posts and forts 
even more frequently than usual. He generally made these 
visits in a sleigh accompanied by one adjutant and a servant. 
The Canadian driver always drove very fast ; so that the general 
got over much ground every day. 

Riedesel and family would have been nearly cut off from all 
intercourse with the outside world, had it not been for the 
friendly offices of General Haldimand. who kept them informed 
by letters and newspapers of all the important events which 
occurred both in Europe and in America. With the exception 
of New Holland, this war was carried on in all parts of the 
world ; for where did not the two most powerftd nations on the 
water have possessions and conunercial interests ? Accordingly, 
we find Greneral Riedesel carrying on an extensive correspond- 
ence with the most influential men of the time upon those topics 
which filled every mind. Space, however, will not permit us to 
quote but two of these letters. 


Letter No. I. 

" I thank your excellency most warmly for the papers which 
I herewith have the honor of returning to you. Like your 
excellency, I, also, take great interest in the unhappy events 
which have taken place during the last year, and indeed, are 
still hanging over our heads. I am as much interested in them 
as if they had occurred in my own fatherland. Only powerful 
alliances or a miracle can make good our losses. I fairly believe 
that Washington and Rochambeau intend marching on Canada, 
unless, indeed, the French minister has his eyes on another pro- 



vince — a matter, which will be decided in a few months. If 
the army of your excellency falls a victim to our misfortunes, 
your arrangements will prevent its selling itself too cheaply. 

" No one has conversed with me in relation to the sad fate of 
Lord Cornwall is. I notice that everybody is careful not to 
allude to it in my presence. 

" RiEDESEL, Major General. 

" St. John, February 25th, 1782." 

Letter No. II. 

" Sir : I have the honor of thanking your excellency for the 
news which you were so kind as to send me, and which is even 
more interesting than the last. It seems to me that there is no 
doubt that Washington and Rochambeau entertain the idea of 
beginning the next campaign in Canada. I am convinced of 
this from the following reasons : Ist, that the Frenchman may 
no longer be dependent on the orders of Washington. 2d, that 
he may separate his troops from those of the rebels. 3d, that 
he may, if successful, achieve a separate conquest. I presume 
however, that this expedition will not be undertaken without 
the consent of his government. Nevertheless, the prepa- 
rations now making, indicate a very earnest attack. One 
thing, however, appears to me very singular, viz : that one 
report states that the French troops are fortifying themselves 
at Yorktown in Virginia, and another says that they are doing 
the same thing at Claverac near Albany. I very much doubt 
if Rochambeau would thus separate his men. You will, also, I 
trust, pardon me if I suggest that two good emissaries be at once 
sent down the Connecticut river as far as Hartford and Springfield, 
for the purpose of ascertaining what arrangements have been 
made by the enemy on the shores of that river, and whether 
there are any French troops at those places. Indeed, I should 
not be surprised at learning that the head quarters of Rocham- 
beau were at Hartford. Washington's head quarters being on 
the Hudson and his army in that vicinity, I take it for granted 


that the French form the second line on the Hudson as far as 
the Connecticut, and that the enemy are awaiting in that posi- 
tion further orders from France. 

" I rejoice with all my heart that your excellency is intend- 
ing to visit this place shortly ; and I await your arrival with 
the greatest impatience. You will then be on hand, should 
the enemy undertake anything ; while at the same time, your 
presence will encourage the loyal, and put an end to all quarrels 
and bickering. 

" General Clark leaves me to-morrow. I shall accompany 
him as far as Besancourt, and on my return, inspect the regi- 
ment Rhetz. General Clark has seen all that he came to see ; 
and if he has a military memory, may have acquired a general 
knowledge of the country. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" RiEDESEL, Major General. 

*' Sorel, March 4, 1782." 

" Report. 

" Sorel, March 4, 1782. 

" I have the honor of reporting to your excellency that I 
returned with General Clark from St. Johns last Friday, the 
1st of this month. I went as far as the royal log block house, 
where I met Captain Sherwood, who has taken every measure 
in his power to guard against a surprise. The situation of the 
block house is very good, but the house itself far from it ; and 
I greatly fear that in case of an attack, it would not hold out 
long. I refer you here to the report of Captain Twiss, which 
he has sent in, in regard to this matter. It is very difficult to 
send aid to this place. I believe Captain Sherwood, with his 
capacity, would be apprised of an intended attack sufficiently 
early ; and I think it would be better if your excellency should 
allow him to retreat to Point au Fer with his men — if he 
thought it best — in case of an attack by superior forces. The 


men in that case would be saved, while he could at any moment 
reoccupy his post after the departure of the enemy. 

" The post at Point au Fer, I have found so well defended 
that I am convinced the enemy cannot take it without artillery. 

" While I was sleeping at the fort, during the night of the 
26th, the small north block house burned down. The fire 
was caused by a stove that was out of repair. The fire made 
such rapid progress that the whole building, together with 
the wooden fortification this side of it was soon in a blaze; 
and had it not been for the extraordinary exertions of the 
garrison it would have been impossible to save the large house. 
Within the space of three hours, the latter caught fire in as many 
different places ; but when I left the fort at six A. M., the flames 
had been so subdued that there was no further danger. I im- 
mediately sent Lieutenant Dovenet from the Isle aux Noix to 
estimate the damage and provide means to repair the defenses. 
Your excellency will see by the accompanying report that the 
damage is not great, and that in a few days the place will be in 
as good a condition as ever. 

" I have the honor of inclosing a little plan, showing the 
condition of the fort before the fire, the extent of the damage, 
and the appearance of the place at present. 

" To-morrow I will see the regiment E-hetz, and afterwards 
the regiment Speth. I shall then be able to inform your 
excellency of the distribution of the troops in the manner di- 
rected by you. At present, I can only say, that, omitting the 
grenadier companies which contain a large number of old 
people, one-fourth of our men are over forty years of age. I 
have visited the 34th and 44th regiments, and have inquired 
of each man his age. The 44th has about eighty men who are 
over forty, and I think the former has nearly seventy of the 
same kind ; so that, in my opinion the proportion is the same. 

" I received your orders by the officer who returned to the 
post of Captain Sherwood, and have dispatched in all haste the 
necessary instructions to Colonel St. Ledger to send a detach- 


ment at once to Crown Point and destroy the gun carriages at 
that place. I did this because the corps of Ruggers is already 
very much weakened by the sending off of detachments, and 
thB garrison at St. John needs its men for cutting wood. I 
trust also that you will approve of my ordering Major Yessop 
to send an officer with thirty men to St. John, who are to re- 
main there until the detachment returns from Crown Point. 

" According to a report of Sherwood, the province of Vermont 
intends to erect three block houses at Castletown, Pitts and 
Rutland, which are to be armed with the six pounders now at 
Williamstown and Lensberg. 

" Day after to-morrow I shall see Captain Schmidand consult 
with him in regard to keeping a detachment on the Honsen 
road as long as possible, and also respecting the patrols from 
the Yamaska block house. I shall give orders for the patrols 
to act with the greatest caution.^ 

" I have the honor, etc., 

'^RlEDESEL, Major General." 

The forces in Canada were evidently too weak to protect such 
a large extent of country against a powerful attack. This was 
what Riedesel always feared. He believed at this time, that 
the British would be driver! across the St. Lawrence, and per- 
haps out of Canada. General Clinton was unable to send 
reenforcements, as he needed all his troops for the defense of 
New York and vicinity. The generals in Canada, were, there- 
fore, obliged to depend on their own Exertions for preservation. 
It was fortunate that they harmonized so well together, as iii 
this manner the conquest of Canada was rendered the more 
difficult. General Riedesel was, accordingly, very active the 
entire winter, keeping up the work on the forts. Nothing, 
indeed, was now thought of, but to act on the defensive. There 

» Mrs. Riedesel, also, speaks of the fire at Point an Fer, but makiBS it take place 
in the fell of 1782. This is certainly a mistake, for the report of General Riedesel 
is plainly elated March 4th.— Note in origincU. 



were in the district under Riedesel, besides the regiments 
already named, the 29th, 34th and 44th. The regiment An- 
halt Zerbst, was also under him indirectly. 

In historical works on North America, we find very little 
regarding the course of events in Canada after the year 1777. 
Everything naturally remained pretty quiet, for the war was 
carried on chiefly in the southern provinces. We are sorry 
also, that what did occur, cannot be given in regular order. 
We are able to quote only a few documents which throw light 
upon events at this time. These papers, however, are authentic, 
and will be of undoubted interest to the historical student. 

General Haldimand seldom received direct and official news 
from the theatre of war. The greater part of his information 
came incidentally and through his spies. General Riedesel, 
also^ rarely heard from the prisoners in Virginia, or of that 
which was going on in that province.* He was only able to get 
news occasionally by way of New York and Quebec, but this 
was a long and round about way. 

Meanwhile the battles in parliament, at London, were fully as 
obstinate as on the continent of America. There were victories 
and defeats on the floor of that body, according to the respective 
strength of the representatives of the people, and the ministry. 

The opposition were for peace ; the ministry for the prosecu- 
tion of the war. This state of things of course retarded 
operations, the bad consequences of which were continually 
apparent. But the opposition remained in the majority, and 
the ministry were, therefore, forced to resign. General Haldi- 
mand received the news of these events in May, and wrote 
concerning it to Riedesel, as follows : 


" Montreal, May 20, 1782. 

" Sir : You have undoubtedly learned that on the 16th of this 
month, a ship from Liverpool arrived at the Bickos, bringing 


news of a total change in the ministry. I have no official 
communications, but have received a private letter from Lon- 
don, under date of March 18th, in which I am informed that 
Mr. Ellis has been replaced by Lord Germain, Lord Sandwich 
by Admiral Keppel and Lord North by Cavendish. The ship 
was detained, on the 17th, at Camouraska by contrary winds. 
This is all I could learn ; but if the wind has not changed, I 
hope some of the passengers will land, and that Monday's paper 
may bring us further news about the ministers. May Heaven 
grant that they may act in our favor. The paper, which I 
intrust you with, will show you that we have cause for feeling 
very anxious. 

"Ferd. Haldimand." 

By the foregoing letter, we see how poorly even the governor 
of a province was kept informed of the event that had just 
taken place in the mother country. 

In the beginning of August, a volunteer of Rogers's corps, 
by the name of Jonathan Miller, who had been captured by 
the Americans, arrived in Canada. He, with two others, had 
escaped from the Albany jail. He stated that Washington had 
his head quarters at New Windsor, for the protection of which 
he had with him a regiment of his guard. Greneral Patterson 
commanded at West Point, which was garrisoned by six thou- 
sand men. Six hundred men were on the Mohawk river, and 
seven hundred were then marching to reenforce the enemy. 
General Riedesel questioned this man personally. It seemed 
that he, also, had been held a prisoner at West Point, whence he 
had attempted to escape, but failed. General Riedesel did not 
fail to communicate the statements of this man to Haldimand, 
in a report of the 5th of August. 

The soldiers at Sorel led a miserable life in the barracks, 
which in winter were terribly cold, and in summer fearfully 
hot. They were, also, full of insects. Referring to this in his 
report of August 5th, Riedesel says : 


" All the barracks in Sorel are at present full of bed bugs 
and other insects, so that the soldiers, in order to obtain any 
sleep at all, are obliged to sit in front of them the entire night. 
In consequence of this disagreeable fact, I am compelled to ask 
permission to have the troops encamp on those places, which I 
have already mentioned to your excellency. This will also 
afford the master of the barracks an opportunity to have them 
repaired by the engineer in chief of the department.'^ 

General Haldimand at once consented to this arrangement^ 
and the barracks were immediately cleaned and put in thorough 

On the 5th of August, Riedesel received the following letter 
from Haldimand : 


" Quebec, August 5, 1782. 

" Sir : I will lose no time in communicating to you an im- 
portant piece of news which T have received in cipher from 
Greneral Carleton. He writes me, under date of the 3d instant, 
that the packet arrived in New York on the 31st of July. By 
this, he learns that the preliminary conferences looking toward 
a universal peace have already begun at Paris, and that Mr. 
Grenville has been sent there as minister. He also states that 
as the independency of the North American states was made 
the basis of the treaty, his majesty authorized his minister to 
declare the independence of those thirteen states, before a single 
article of peace was proposed. We shall soon learn what have 
been the consequences of a concession of that which has been 
the only cause of the war. As far as I am concerned, I en- 
deavor to persuade myself that we are far from peace at present, 
and, perhaps, while I write it is all over with. 

" I send you, herewith, the last papers, in which you will 
find the most interesting news, also a letter from General 
Washington's commissioner. 


" There has been a very strong wind for the last three days ] 
and if there are any ships on the river, their arrival in port 
will not be delayed. I very much hope that they will bring us 
good news, 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

General Carleton, who is here mentioned, had lately arrived 
in New York to succeed Clinton in the command of the English 
and German troops in North America — the latter officer having 
been recalled to England. After the unfortunate capitulation 
of Cornwallis, all confidence in Clinton was lost. Indeed, it was 
not as yet known in England, which of the two generals was 
responsible. Carleton, although sent out by the old ministry, 
was confirmed as commander in chief. 

In regard to this, Haldimand writes again to Eiedesel as 
follows : 


" Quebec, August 18, 1782. 

" Sir : At last I have received a letter from Chevalier Carle- 
ton ; I will now communicate to you the news he has brought 
and forwarded to me. It seems that the rebels were in no 
hurry to accept the propositions made to them, although the 
contrary had been anticipated in England. Perhaps the min- 
istry will now discover that they did wrong in keeping back 
the reenforcements that were to have accompanied Chevalier 
Carleton to New York. The latter has not yet received my 
letters, and he tells me nothing so far of the result of his 
negotiations. He confines himself to telling me that he is still 
inactive ; that he has received no letters from England since his 
arrival ; and that he begins to fear that the packet has been 
intercepted. He adds in cipher : * / must inform you that at 
present^ there a/re indications of hostilities both in New York 
and in your province. But I am inclined to believe that the 


real intent iom^ of the enemy are against this citi/A You willj 
there/ore, he on your guard in the event of a French fleet arriv- 
ing here to cooperate icith the enemy.^ 

" I communicate to you, my dear general, the news as I 
have received it. It seems to me tliat the season of the year is 
too far advanced for the enemy to undertake anything against 
us; and I hope that the whipping he has received on the 
islands will prevent his sending a fleet against New York. As 
the Chevalier Carleton is constantly on his guard and closely 
watches his movements — thus forcing him to confine himself 
to his own region — I trust we shall be informed in season. 

" You will also receive by the courier a letter from the adju- 
tant general, in relation to the increase of the workmen on the 
Isle aux Noix. Meanwhile, you are authorized to select those 
officers whom you consider most fitted for the different detach- 
ments ; and you will oblige me by going from time to time 
to the designated places, as I am convinced that your zeal and 
presence will do much toward the progress of the work. Twiss 
will leave here next Saturday. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

General Riedesel was greatly embarrassed in regard to this 
order respecting the officers. Concerning this matter he writes to 
Haldimand in a report, under date of September 7th. " Being 
so deficient in officers I know not how to command the compa- 
nies. I am ashamed to say that there is not one among them 
that I could use in this mission.'' 

As an explanation to this remark, it should be mentioned 
that Haldimand had informed Riedesel that an English officer 
would soon go to the prisoners in Virginia, and that he also 
would be allowed to send an officer to attend to certain matters, 
and carry to them clothing. Finally Riedesel selected one 
from the dragoon regiment, who was to go to Virginia by water. 

1 1, e., New York. 


Letters of General Haldimand to General Eiedesel^ 


*' Quebec, September 16, 1782. 

" Sir : Had I suspected that the frigate Hussar would not 
sail before Wednesday of next week, and had I known that your 
recruits, your uniforms, and your baggage are at Halifax, I 
should not have insisted upon the speedy return of Mr. Grafe. 
But I will endeavor to make it up by sending Captain Hassel 
to Halifax ; and I will also write to Brigadier General Camp- 
bell, and request him to send your letters and other things this 
fall, if it can be done with safety. I will also charge Cornet 
Schonewald to send you thence all the intelligence he can obtain. 

" I am very much astonished at not having heard from Gene- 
ral Carleton, and am very impatient to procure some news 
concerning him from another source. Four days since I dis- 
patched an express by land, with letters to Penobscot, to the 
officer in command there, requesting him to inform me of every- 
thing that occurred there of the least interest. I expect him 
back in a month ; and I hope that you, also, will receive letters 
from some of your friends in that place. It is a pity that I did 
not learn their destination earlier. 

" Mr. Grafe, who arrived here during Saturday night, brought 
me your honored letter of the 13th. The one of the 12th I 
received by mail. The one, you have inclosed for New York, 
I will attend to, and will do my best to have Cornet Schonewald 
return this fall, as far, at least, as Penobscot or Halifax, whence 
it will be possible to obtain answers to your letters. 

" I also sincerely hope, my dear sir, that we are near peace, 
as your gracious sovereign has caused you to hope ; but I very 
much fear that the divisions which have again taken place 
among the ministers, and the ambition of Washington and his 
admirers, together with the ambitious plans of the French, will 
place great obstacles in its way. If the chevalier has received 



orders (as is stated) to evacuate New York, he will find it diffi- 
cult to carry this out, notwithstanding he has a fleet there as 
strong as the one at Boston. But it is to be hoped that the 
want of materials on the islands for repairing their fleet, will 
force the French to send it to the continent. In such a case, 
part of our fleet now at Boston may very likely pursue ; and 
yet Carleton needs the strength of the entire fleet. It is singu- 
lar that when he has such a safe opportunity of writing me he 
expresses neither hope nor fear, and that he leaves me, since his 
arrival, in so much uncertainty concerning everything. I am 
very sensitive about this. No one, my dear sir, could have taken 
more pains than yourself in perfecting our works on Isle aux 
Noix; and I rejoice exceedingly to learn that our redoubts 
will be finished before winter. I am determined to make you 
a visit before the end of the month if it is a possible thing. 

" Lieutenant Colonel Carleton will also avail himself of the 
opportunity afforded by the Hussar to visit his brother in New 
York. I shall select Colonel Hope to take his place as quarter 
master general. 

^' Praying you to give my respects to Madam Riedesel, 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 


" Quebec, September 30, 1782. 

" Sir : I presume you have heard that I have twice vainly 
attempted to do myself the honor of seeing you, and also paying 
my respects to Madam Riedesel. Last week I was already on 

my way, when Baron , whom I had left behind, brought 

me letters from the minister, which had been sent to him by an 

" The duplicates of the letters I received by another ship, 
which was also dispatched for this purpose. This was the 
reason for my immediate return. The ships have brought no 
other letters but these for me ; and you will, therefore, readily 


believe that this has given rise to many conjectures. But I 
tell you^ in confidence, that I have received orders to send at 
once to New York three transports and other vessels for em- 
barking the troops. They will have to be supplied with pro- 
visions and be in condition to receive the troops immediately, 
as they are to sail without delay for the islands. We may, 
therefore, take it for granted that the evacuation of New York 
is decided upon. 

" I expect every moment the arrival of some transports that 
are now in the river, and on which some of your pfficers and 
soldiers are expected. If the weather proves favorable I shall 
not allow them to cast anchor here, but will order them at once 
to Sorel. I will send you an express as soon as I am informed 
concerning this matter. In this way, you will have time to 
make the necessary arrangements to have each man go at once 
to his regiment. Perhaps it may be necessary for you to attend 
to this yourself. But as your presence on the Isle aux Noix is 
so necessary, you will remain there until you hear from me. 

"Please excuse my bad writing, but I have only time to 
assure you, etc. 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

" General Riedesel to General Haldimand. 

" Sir : I have the honor of informing your excellency that 
I received your letter of the 5th instant, also the Gazette 
which I herewith thankfully return. I have no doubt that 
peace has been concluded, and that we shall both return to our 
respective countries next spring. Your excellency is aware of 
the reasons which induce me to rejoice in this event; but, 
generally speaking, I am too good a patriot and (although no 
Englishman), love this nation too much not to lament over a 
disgraceful peace — concluded after such an expensive and 
bloody war that has lasted seven years. If this step gives peace 
and rest to millions, I shall be satisfied, for the enormous debt 
caused by this war, the heavy taxes the interest of which even 



it will naturally take a long while to pay, and the diminution of 
trade, hy the l(»ss of various channels that have vanished, must, 
as a matter of course, put a nation out of humor, cause dissatis- 
faction and new opposition, and thus create fresh sorrow for his 
majesty the king. These are signs, which, I am sorry to say, I 
see in the future. !Mfiy God grant that I am wrong, and that 
I hjive allowed my imagination to run away with me. 

" Tf, as I fear, Oanada and Nova Scotia are to be the only 
provinces in America retained by the English, then special 
attention should be paid by the latter to render the approach to 
them as difficult as possible. Then the enemy, in case of a 
new rupture, which sooner or later may take place, will be 
unable to become mast<}r of them before succor arrives from 
England. If this idea of mine is correct, Tsle aux Noix is 
particularly the most appropriate place for defending Canada 
toward the south. I think that the plan of your excellency — 
to fortify this island — has never been more desirable than at 
present, just previous to peace being declared and published. 
The construction of fortifications in time of peace is always a 
cause for fresh dissatisfaction, and protestations from the Ameri- 
cans. I believe, therefore, that I can justly congratulate you 
upon the public applause which you will earn from your nation 
for this wise precaution. 

'' We are getting along well with the work at this place; and 
Captain Twiss seems to be very well satisfied with the zeal and 
activity displayed by the German soldiers in their work. It 
is a pleasure to see the English labor; and I fejoice that the 
Germans are trying to imitate their example. If the masonry 
and the woodwork are done with the same celerity as the hand- 
work, I am convinced that we shall soon have finished the 
three redoubts, with the exception of the casemates and the 
barracks, which will easily be finished by ^lay or June of next 
year ; provided, of course, that the weather does not hinder. 

" My cashier, Mr. Godecke, has been taken dangerously ill 
just as he was arranging his accounts. He desires to see me. 


As I have everything in good working order here, I shall, 
therefore, with your consent, go to Sorel for four or five days, 
and be back again by the middle of next week. 

" Captain Twiss has gone to Coteau de Lac. He will be 
back at eight o'clock this evening. I am in hopes, from what 
Captain Willoe told me, of seeing your excellency very soon ; 
and it will afford me much gratification should my labors give 
you satisfaction.'' ^ 

We see by the above letter that the German general had a 
correct appreciation of the times, and spoke of and predicted 
events with amazing precision. 

As yet, Haldimand, as we have seen in one of his previous 
letters to Riedesel, knew nothing of the intentions of General 
Carleton. Very likely the British commander did not know 
them himself — for what with the actual condition of affairs, 
and the armistice between the two armies, communicated to him 
by the ministry, he hardly knew what course to pursue. 

General Riedesel's Answer to General Haldimand's 
Letter of the 30th of September. 

" Isle aux Noix, October 4, 1782. 

" Yesterday evening I received two letters from your excel- 
lency. The first was an answer to my report of the 25th of last 
Monday, and the second was a private letter. I cannot deny 
that the arrival of the two last ships, bringing only dispatches 
to your excellency, has raised the curiosity of the public to the 
highest pitch ; while the fitting out of the transports has stirred 
up a great commotion among the English regiments — the latter 
expecting every moment to receive orders to embark. I allow 
them to talk, knowing well that it does not diminish their zeal 
for work, although, it must be confessed, that the inclement 

^ This letter is only a rough draft, and has no signature. It was written, without 
doubt, at the beginning of October from the Isle aux Noix.— i\ro^ in original' 



season of the year greatly discourages the troops. In fact, we 
have not had altogether ten good working days this fall. 

" The hope of being soon united to my poor officers of the 
convention affords me the greatest joy. I must ascribe the 
event to the mediation of your excellency, for which I cannot 
too sincerely thank you. If you would send all those, who 
belong to the Brunswick troops, to Sorel, they might be disem- 
barked here, and I would assign them quarters in the parishes 
of St. Ours, Sorel and St. Denis, until your excellency desig- 
nates their winter quarters. In this manner, when the regi- 
ments arrive, each man can go to his own, and everything can 
be arranged for the men (who probably have no field baggage), 
without confusion, expense or inconvenience. I will arrange 
everything, with your consent, during my stay at Sorel. There 
is the best opportunity here for the Hesse Hanau officers to 
reach their own commands. 

" Should Sir Guy Carleton evacuate New York, the Ameri- 
cans will meet with no resistance but in Canada. This might 
cause them to meditate the subduing of the latter next year if 
France should assist them by a fleet. Their vanity, also, may 
lead them to cross the boundary into Canada without first tak- 
ing Quebec. 

'' Captain Twiss, I presume, by this time, has assured your 
excellency that everything is still in order, and that my absence 
has not caused the least cessation in the work. I hope you will 
not be dissatisfied at my excursion to Sorel, inasmuch as I was 
obliged to complete in that place my dispatches to my govern- 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" RiEDESEL.'' 

"P. S. Should your excellency allow provisions for sixty 
men to be left in the loyal block house, and provisions for one 
hundred at Point au Per, they would amount, for six months, 
to 29,280 rations. It is true that the garrisons of those two 


posts are not sufficient to consume this amount, but I have 
allowed more both for the secret service and for unforeseen con- 

The ship Mercury, which was one of the expected transports, 
cast anchor three leagues from Quebec on the 3d of October. 
The captain of the vessel immediately forwarded Haldimand*s 
and Eiedesers letters to them in advance. The latter, also, 
received at the same time one frim Lieutenant Colonel Mengen 
who was on board the ship. General Haldimand requested 
General Riedesel — if his health would in any wise permit — 
to come at once to Quebec and attend to the newly arrived men. 
But before his departure, the latter received the joyous news 
that the Isle aux Noix and St. John would be provided with 
provisions for 4,500 men for six months. General Riedesel 
named the two largest ships, the Royal George and the In- 
flexible, as the ones in which to transport the troops from 
River la CoUe. 

General Haldimand to General Riedesel. 


" Quebec, October 4, 1782. 

" Sir : The messenger, whom I sent last to New York, the 
latter part of July, has returned again by the same route, after 
having endured countless dangers and fatigues. I send you, 
my dear sir, the answer to the letter which you sent by him to 
your friend. My letters from Chevalier Carleton are dated 
September the 9th, and contain, besides general matters, no- 
thing of interest. I have not received any letters either from 
Governor Robertson or Colonel Marsh ; but I perceive by the 
date of the letter, which is in cipher, and a copy of which I send 
you, that he could tell us nothing new at that time. I received 
it the 25th of September. We must have patience for a little 
while longer. The season of the year has not advanced so far 


but that we may still expect ships both from Europe and 

" Mr. Marsh, whom you have seen at Tsle aux Noix, has not 
communicated to me anything of interest since his return from 
the colonies. The inhabitants of Vermont would like to renew 
their intercourse with this province, and settle again on the 
shores of Lake Champlain, but I cannot allow it. 

" I hope, my dear sir, that this letter will reach you after 

your happy return to Sorel. I cannot express to you the many 

obligations I am under to you, for the trouble you have taken 

in obtaining winter quarters for the troops. I hope you will 

not meet with any difficulty. We may yet expect some fine 

weather ; and I trust that the 34th Regiment can yet go to 


" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. IIaldimand." 

^' P. S. In five or six days I shall have an opportunity of 
writing to New York. Do you think that it will be too haz- 
ardous to send a letter ? We must certainly be particularly 

Notwithstanding his poor health, Riedesel undertook the 
journey to Quebec; the joy of once more seeing his officers and 
a portion of his men making him forget all personal considera- 

On his arrival in Quebec, he was, as usual, received by Hal- 
dimand in the most friendly and cordial manner. He remained 
there, however, only as long as was necessary to welcome his 
officers and men. There were very few of the latter. 

Immediately upon his return to Sorel, the general wrote his 
dispatches and several personal letters to Europe, and sent them 
by an opportunity that occurred shortly afterwards. 

He also sent a letter to Lord Shelbourne bearing testimony 
to the gratefulness which he had toward those who rendered 
him faithful services. 


In this letter, he writes respecting his two English adjutants 
as follows : 

'• I have in my suite two English officers — one in the capa- 
city of an assistant, by the name of Willoe, captain of the 8th 
Regiment, and another. Lieutenant Freeman, my adjutant, 
of the 24th Regiment, who was formerly brigadier major to 
Brigadier General Frazer who fell, October 7th, 1777, in the 
engagement near the school house. Both of these officers were 
detailed to me by Lord George Germaine by the orders of his 
majesty, the king of Great Britain. While the other generals 
have found means for doing something for their adjutants, I 
have been unable to do anything to show my gratitude to my 
two officers, who, consequently, hold to this day the same rank 
as when I first had the pleasure of having them assigned to me. 
Both are officers of talent, and both are full of zeal for the 
service, and can be employed with profit, should an opportunity 

" I am convinced that it would be of the greatest advantage 
to them if they should be remembered by your excellency when 
a chance of promotion occurs ; and such a favor, on your part, 
would lay me under the greatest obligation, which I should 
endeavor to reciprocate whenever an opportunity offered.'' 

Lord Shelboum soon met the wishes of Riedesel, being con- 
strained to it not only from the latter's devotion to the cause of 
England, but from motives of personal friendship. He had 
been Riedesel's companion in arms during the seven years' 
war, in which, as Marquis of Landsdown, he was schooled under 
the excellent Duke Ferdinand. 

The troops were distributed in their winter quarters in the 
following manner : 

The dragoons at St. Antoine, the western portion of St. 
Charles and the western part of Beloeil. 

The grenadier battalion at Berthier, La Norre and La Bal- 
trin. This battalion furnished an officer's post, together with 
twenty-five men, to Point au Lac. 


The regiment Rhetz (with the exception of the body guards 
and the company of Captain Olers, that went to Sorcl), at St. 
Denis, the eastern side of St. Charles, the eastern side of Beloeil, 
and Point Oliver. 

The regiment lliedesel at Sorel. 

The regiment Spccht at Yamaska, St. Francois, La Baye and 
Ricolet. This regiment furnished one officer and twenty-five 
men (under the command of General Clarke), for the barracks 
at Three Rivers. 

Earner's light battalion at St. Sulpice, Argentigny and 

The grenadiers and the light battalion, upon crossing the St. 
Lawrence, were at once placed under the command of Brigadier 
General Specht. 

These diflPerent bodies of troops left the Isle aux Noix, in the 
following order : 

1st. The grenadiers and the light battalion. 

2d. The regiment Von Specht. 

3d. The regiment Von Riedesel. 

4th. The regiment of dragoons. 

6th. The regiment Von Rhetz. 

The ships which conveyed the troops from the island to their 
quarters, were given up at Sorel by the deputy quarter master 
general. Captain Barnes. 

The regiments drew their rations at the following places: 
Those at Olivier and Beloeil, from Chambly. The rest of the 
three companies of the regiment Rhetz and the regiment of 
dragoons from St. Denis. The garrison at Sorel from Sorel. 
The men at La Baye and Richolet, from Three Rivers. Those 
at Yamaska and St. Francois, from Sorel. 

Those recruits that arrived in the fall, were distributed by 
Riedesel among the diflPerent regiments. They then were again 
redistributed among the companies, which was done by casting 
lots. Before the arrival of the captured troops the want of 
officers was felt so greatly, that Riedesel furnished many regi- 


ments from the one of Prince Frederick. Even then, some of 
the companies were entirely unofficered. Upon the arrival of 
the men from Virginia, those officers who had been taken from 
the regiment of Prince Frederick, returned again to it upon the 
island of St. John.^ 

Riedesel now ordered all the commanders of companies to 
send him complete lists of their men on the basis of which he 
had Captain Cleve make out a report. At the same time he 
had all the accounts properly adjusted. As there was, also, 
still a great want of subaltern officers, he directed Von Witz- 
laben and Von Fleischer — two young noblemen — to perform 
the functions of officers; and their names were accordingly 
entered on the official list. In view of the English allotment, 
this order was not unimportant. The order in reference to 
winter quarters is dated October 26th, 1782. 

General Haldimand to General Riedesel. 


" Quebec, October 27, 1782. 

" Sir : Reposing in you the same confidence, that has never 
been shaken since I had the honor of your acquaintance, I send 
you a copy of the letter I have received in cipher from General 
Carleton. It seems as if congress and the southern provinces 
had resolved to expel the Indians utterly from the country and 
to occupy their land. They will likewise endeavor to induce 
the European powers to allow them to retain Canada and the 
eastern portion of Florida. They will also, if this does not 
meet with favor, prolong the war without soliciting aid from 
Europe. They are led to this step having confidence in their 
own resources and materials of all kinds which they know well 
how to make use of. 

" Perhaps you will think it strange that they send me the news 
of the intention of the Americans to attack the upper countries 

1 It ia not known with certainty, whether the regiment of Prince Frederick at 
this time was stationed at St. John, or Isle aux Noix.— iVofe in original. 



about the beginning of October (I did not hear of this until the 
end of this month), and that I should be told that I could receive 
succor by way of Halifax. This is certainly very short notice. 
However, I suppose that orders will have to be at once sent to 
Halifax to forward troops here immediately. I think they will 
be able to get here before navigation closes. T dare not ignore 
the order without risk. I have sent orders to the 34th Regi- 
ment to march at once to Niagara. Its place at Montreal will 
be occupied by the battalion of Earner which, I hope, is suffi- 
ciently strong to attend to the duties usually performed by the 

" You have, I presume, received the letters from Quarter- 
master Gerlach, by which you will have seen the changes that 
have been made. You may, at your own pleasure, make such 
arrangements in your own district as seems to you most desirable. 

" 1 must now close, assuring you of my entire esteem. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

Copy of the above mentioned Letter of General 


" New York, Septemher 25, 1782. 

" Congress and the assembly of Pennsylvania have determined 
upon two expeditions into the Indian territory. The principal 
one, under Major General Potter, is to consist of four hundred 
Continental troops and six hundred militia and volunteers. They 
are to rendezvous at Fort Munscy, on the western arm of the 
Susquehanna, on the 8th of October, and thence are to march 
into the open country around the head of Pines creek, and into 
the country of the Senecas. The other one, under the command 
of General Irvine, is to consist of one thousand men, of which 
only a few are Continentals. They are to rally at Fort Pitt early 
in October and march to Lake Erie. The objective point is said 
to be the Seneca country ; and the news, which some of the 


escaped prisoners from there have brought, has done much 
toward getting up this expedition. 

" As there is a strong force in Nova Scotia, I have ordered 
Major General Patterson to give you all the support you may 

" The French and the Continentals, under General Wash- 
ington, are at Visplanks point. ^ 

" The L'Aigle of five guns. Captain La Fouche and the 
Welanda of twenty guns, and loaded with freight from France, 
have lately been taken on the Delaware. 

" Guy Carleton." 

The 8th Regiment which was stationed at Niagara was defi- 
cient in captains. Accordingly, the day after his last letter to 
Riedesel, Haldimand again wrote the latter in reference to this, 
and asked if he could spare Captain Willoe to proceed to that 
post, promising to allow of his return as soon as circumstances 
would permit. In the same letter, also, Haldimand approved of 
all the measures that had been taken in respect to the provi- 
sions sent to St. John. In a postscript he adds: "The two 
men who have brought me the letters from General Carleton, 
state that it did not in the least seem as if New York was to be 
evacuated. They also state that orders had been received not 
to evacuate Charlestown. I do not know what to think of it.'' 

Riedesel's Answer to these two Letters. 

" I had the honor of receiving two private letters from your 
excellency dated October 27th. The one in regard to Captain 
Willoe I received yesterday morning ; and the other one, with 
General Carleton's inclosure, also the same day. The confidence 
which you place in me binds me stronger to you every day. You 
may rest asBured that whatever you intrust to me is most sacred ; 
and your kindness may command me always. Your wishes are 

Probably YerpHanK'spoint. 


with me law, and I shall do all I can to further them in this 
case, although the separation from a man, who has been with 
me for seven years, is most painful. Since Captain Willoe has 
found out my thoughts and my tastes, he has greatly assisted me 
in my correspondence. His discretion has the ring of the true 
metal. I flatter myself that what I have just said will cause 
your excellency to allow him to return to me next spring, or, as 
soon as the danger in the north has passed. I fear, however, 
that he will not be able to render much assistance to his regi- 
ment, as he has been very unwell for the last two months ; but 
his ambition to serve, when your excellency needs him, forces 
him to start at once for Montreal. I hope he may reach his 
regiment safely. 

" The movement of the two corps toward the borders of the 
lake seems to be a forerunner of the execution of the plan which 
Franklin has proposed. He was three or four years with the 
French minister ; and I have no doubt that they intend, after 
having destroyed the Indian settlements on the lower Niagara, 
to carry it out. But I hope that the reenforcements, which 
you have sent to Niagara, have arrived in* time to frustrate their 
designs ; and, who knows but that the Indians, taking courage 
by these reenforcements, may play them a trick, and thus entirely 
destroy their plans. 

" It is to be regretted that Sir Guy did not immediately send 
orders to Halifax to have troops forwarded to your excellency. 
Had he done so, they might have been here now, and you would 
have been able to increase the detachments considerably. But 
this is policy again, which does more harm than the^ enemy ! 

"It is certainly an advantage for you to be able to write 
General Patterson by land, stating the number of troops you 
will need in the spring after the ice has gone. And if these 
succors will only arrive . in the month of May you will be able 
to materially increase your force. I fear, however, that the 
reenforcements from Halifax will only be productive of evil, 
since Sir Guy acts in the same manner as the king of Prussia 


acted in the last war toward his brother, Prince Henry in 

'• Should the rebels (which I will not believe) gain a foothold 
on the other side of Lake Ontario, then the second part of your 
plan might be to go over next spring to Sorel by the way of 
Hengen's road, and form a junction with the troops above 
Montreal. I hope that Isle aux Noix will prove an obstacle to 
their plans. Finally, we must have a firm confidence in provi- 
dence, and hope for the best. 

" The battalion Earner will arrive in Montreal to-morrow ; 
the 34th Regiment might, therefore, be relieved the same day.'' ^ 

Report of General Riedesel to General Haldimand. 

" After receiving the orders of your excellency te send the 
troops (hitherto encamped on the island) into their winter quarters, 
I took the necessary measures in all haste, and gathered the requi- 
site number of vessels and teams for the transportation between 
St. John and Chambly. In consequence of this, I have been 
obliged to postpone the departure of the troops for a few days. 
They are to move in different divisions, in order that one may 
be always a day's march behind the other. 

" I am in despair at having to report to your excellency that 
notwithstanding the praiseworthy exertions of the troops, the 
three redoubts are not entirely finished in the way in which I 
promised you they should be by the end of this month. The 
continuous rainy weather, making mud of the whole soil, has 
not only increased the tiresome labors of the men, but retarded 
the masons and carpenters — as, indeed, I expected before my 
departure. The redoubt (called the Lower Redoubt) is, as 
yet, nothing to what I promised it should be. The wall is two 
feet above the entry ; but two rows of masonry on the casemates 
and the rest of the stone work, are finished. On the Upper 

1 This draft is without date. It was probably written the last of October.— iVo^e 
in original. 



Redoubt there is still a portion of the wall wanting. One row, 
however, of the casemates is finished ) and the rest of the mason 
work on the West Redoubt is about two-thirds completed. 
Two new redoubts have been begun for the purpose of gaining 
again what has been lost by the bad weather. I leave all the 
masons and carpenters here. The former will work until ice 
comes, and the latter will remain here all winter, and prepare 
the wood and other things for next summer. This latter kind 
of work may be continued all winter ] so that I hope that some 
of the work, that has been retarded by the badness of the sea- 
son, may yet be accomplished before the close of the present 
year ; and should you allow me to recommence work as soon 
as the weather will allow, the whole may be finished by the 
month of August. 

" The provisions are all taken care of on the island ; and 
whatever may be needed at St. John will be sent there next 
week. One captain, two subalterns and fifty men will relieve 
the light company at Point au Fer. The latter will set oflP with 
me next Sunday to go into winter quarters. One officer and 
fifty men of the Hesse Hanau yagers will be stationed on the 
river La Colle for the protection of the wood cutters in case 
of need. The detachments in the two block houses at Yamaska 
are to be relieved by the corps of Major Yessop before they go 
into winter quarters in the district of Montreal. The two 
Frasers will take the command. The scouts are posted in the 
same manner as last winter. I have left plain instructions to 
Major Naern respecting his command at Point au Fer, the loyal 
block house. Riviere la Colle, and Isle aux Noix. I have also 
given orders to Major Campbell in regard to St. John and 
Chambly ; and have advised both of these officers not to trouble 
themselves with the secret service. Thus, I flatter myself that 
I have arranged everything according to the wishes of your 
excellency. I shall return to Sorel next Sunday. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Riedesel. 

" Isle aux Noix, October 30, 1782.'' 


We have already seen by the above, how correctly General 
Riedesel divined the intentions of the enemy ; and how wisely 
he had made his arrangements to meet them. In his opinion, 
Canada was to be kept in every event for the crown ; but for 
this purpose a well arranged system of defense was necessary. 
Nor did he believe, in view of the weakness of the military 
force, that this could be done except by fortifications. For the 
present the chief attention was given to the country between 
the outlet of Lake Champlain and the mouth of the Richelieu 
river into Lake St. Pierre, and from Fort Point au Fer to Sorel. 
There were already several forts along the shore of this river. 
These must now be made stronger, and redoubts and block 
houses built. 

St. John was now the main fort on the line of the river. 
This was situated nearly half way between Point au Fer and St. 
Charles. A little more to the south was the small Isle aux 
Noix, which, if properly fortified, would become a good bulwark 
to the fort in case of an attack from the east. Riedesel, there- 
fore, devoted himself mainly to the work of fortifying this 
island. He explained the necessity of this most fully to the 
English commander in chief,' and especially to Grovernor Hal- 
dimand. The latter, having the most perfect confidence in 
him, entered fully into his plans. Thus he obtained permission 
to arrange and carry out everything in regard to this matter, 
entirely as he thought fit. 

We have also seen by the above correspondence that there 
was, during this year, no union of action among the several 
English commanders. It was seldom that one received reliable 
intelligence from the other. Each did as he thought best. In 
addition to this there were dissension and irresolution in the 
counsels of the English ministry. In view of these circum- 
stances, the credit of preserving Canada to the English is espe- 
cially due to General Riedesel ; for only himself and Haldimand 

1 Carleton. 



commanded in that province. General Carleton did not trouble 
himself about it. To the pressing inquiries of the governor, 
he answered only as far as his knowledge went, and then only 
as much as he was forced to. He had enough to do in ac- 
quainting himself with the general confusion of things which, 
after the capitulation of Cornwallis, had taken hold of the 
English ministry. 

We have likewise seen in the letters, that have been quoted, 
how particular Riedesel was to acquaint the governor of Canada 
with this and that occurrence, and to oblige him to give in- 
structions in respect to things of which, perhaps, the latter 
would not always have thought. But his modesty and prudence 
would not allow him to count this as anything meritorious. 
We find, by his letters, that he did everything only in pursu- 
ance of orders and accordance with the will of his superior 
officer — even those things, the plan of which he had himself 
suggested. He evidently knew how to deal with Haldimand, 
who had the name of being a man with whom no one could get 
along. It must, also, be remembered that the latter being, at 
that time, sickly and peevish, could not travel often over his 
province. He was tired of his position, and greatly longed for 

Hitherto Riedesel had made every efibrt to fortify Isle aux 
Noix, before the close of the season ; the reason of his having 
been only partially successful has already been seen. He was 
not a man who easily gave up what he undertook, but in this 
case he could not conquer the elements. For weeks a cold rain 
poured in torrents, softening the soil and filling ditches and 
holes with water. And yet in spite of this the soldiers, espe- 
cially the Germans, nobly toiled on — the latter not wishing to 
give the English an opportunity of saying, that they were 
behind them in endurance and perseverance. They would 
stand up to their knees in the water, wet to the skin, but at 
the same time, lustily handling the spade and singing a German 
song, while, in a good laugh at some joke by a jolly fellow. 


thej would for a little while forget their misery. The English 
generally kept quiet and silent, swallowing their anger at the 
shocking weather, but working in their way just as well ) for 
they loved the German general, and did everything to please 
him. When the latter was present, the work advanced better 
and more rapidly;- for being himself jolly and in good spirits, 
he had always an encouraging word for his men. Then again, 
many of the young soldiers, seeing the sick men exposing them- 
selves to the inclement weather, felt ashamed at having com- 
plained of comparative trifles. 

In the beginning of November, Riedesel was still on the 
Isle aux Noix, when he received intelligence of the birth of a 
daughter. In a letter dated December 2d, Haldimand informed 
him that he had received a letter in cipher from Carleton, but 
which, as yet he had been unable to decipher. He promises, 
however, soon to let him know its contents. This he did, on 
the 5th of December, in the following letter : 


" Quebec, December 5, 1782. 

" Sir : I hope you received the letter from New York, which 
I had the honor of sending you by the last courier. At that 
time I was in hopes to have sent you through him something 
of interest, but I have been disappointed in my expectation. 
They considered it sufficient to tell me, under date of October 
25th, that the expedition against the upper country had been 
given up, and that the French and Americans, who had been 
camping together for a while, have separated. In another letter 
of November 1st, I am informed that the French are marching 
from the east ; that it is, therefore, believed they will go into 
quarters on the Connecticut river, though it is impossible to 
guess further than that of their intention. In a third letter of 
November 12th, I am told that the transports which I dis- 



patched on the 11th of the same month,* had arrived in 
New York. In conclusion, I am written to as follows : * I have 
just now learned that the French troops are about embarking 
for the West Indies/ Robertson and Colonel March send me 
two friendly letters, but do not consider the opportunity suffi- 
ciently safe to add more. I hope they will profit by the one of 
Cornet Schonewald, and that we shall see him in the course of 
January. I return you his letter. He seems by it to be very 
well satisfied with his commission.- 

" I am very sorry to hear of the sickness of Madam Riedesel; 
but I still hope that her good constitution will conquer the 
disease without the necessity of a surgical operation.*^ Please, 
my dear sir, to assure her of my solicitude, and give my respects 
to your family. I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand. 

General Riedesel soon after received letters from General 
Carlcton and Captain Willoe. The former contained nothing 
of special interest; the latter informed him of the writer's 
safe arrival at Niagara where his regiment was stationed. 

Riedesel had had of late some difficulty with an English 
colonel, by the name of McLean, who had intrigued against 
him. We cannot give here the particulars of the trouble. 
Governor Haldimand, to whom the matter was referred, de- 
cided it in a manner that placed the honor of the German 
general in the brightest light. The particulars of the affair 
are seen in the following letter : 


" Quebec, December 19, 1782. 

" Sir : Having been obliged to attend a council, which lasted 
some time, and upon which I had not counted, I could not 

1 Probably a misprint for last month. 

2 Comet ScbOnewald had been sent to New York on business. 
^ Vide JoumdU of Mrs. General Riedesel. 


before express to you tlie sympathy I felt upon reading your 
letter of the 16th of last month. The honorable sentiments 
which you there express, and the proofs of personal friendship 
which you give me have made an impression upon me that will 
only cease with my life. The prudent and firm conduct which 
you have observed toward Lieutenant Colonel McLean, is the 
best reason why you should feel no uneasiness in regard to the 
matter. Do not trouble yourself as to the effects of his bad 
conduct. He cannot injure you here, and much less in Eng- 
land, where I doubt not your zeal, your interest and your 
untiring devotion to the service of the king, will be duly appre- 
ciated. I believe, also, that his majesty has too good an opinion 
of my honor, than to pay no attention to the reports I have 
sent him; and I hope, therefore, that Mr. McLean's true 
character will then be found out. 

" I am exceedingly sorry that I have no other means of dis- 
posing of him, than ta-send him to Sorel, where the artillery 
staff is stationed. But I am convinced that you are well 
acquainted with his overbearing disposition toward his subordi- 
nates. Should you, however, against my expectations, take a 
different view of the matter, or have a different plan which 
suits you better, let me know it. 

" I have, etc., 

"Ferd. Haldimand." 

The Canadians use, during the winter, snow shoes, similar 
to those worn in Sweden and Norway. Riedesel found them 
so practical that he introduced them among his soldiers. On 
the twenty-ninth of December, he issued a lengthy order, in 
which, among other things, he says : " The frequent snows 
in this province render it necessary that those who go on 
expeditions, perform advance duty, etc., should wear snow 
shoes. This cannot be dono unless each man is supplied with 
moccasins; the wearing of which in the winter, in place of 
shoes, on or off duty shall be allowed, except in case that a 



regiDient in Quebec or in garrison ia forbidden to parade in 

Pursuant to thiH order, the subalterns and privates received 
each a pair of moccasins — an article of clothing which was 
very cheap, warm and comfortable. Thej were a kind of shoe 
made of the skins of animals, and reached a good ways above 
the foot — a kind of fur boot that lasted during an entire 
winter. A pair of them cost at that time 4s. and Gd. 

After his return from Isle aux Noix and the troops had 
gone into winter quarters, Riedesel devoted his attention to 
forming his men into equal regiments. The chief reason of 
doing this was the return of the captured troops into Canada. 
This task was entirely completed by the Ist of December. 
A report, signed by him on this day, has this indorsement : 

" SoREL, December 1, 1782. 

" General report of the corps of his most serene highness the 
duke of Brunswick, which is founded on the general statement 
made up from the lists of December 1st, 1782, after the arrival 
of Lieutenant (yolonel Von Mengen, with the exchanged ofl&cers 
and a portion of the men formerly of the convention, and aft;er, 
also, the arrival in Canada of the recruits of the fifth transport, 
who are consequently added to the report of the corps." 
According to this report, the troops consisted of, 
In Canada, 139 oflBcers, 25 ensigns, 198 subalterns, 66 drum- 
mers, 2,170 privates, 190 servants; prisoners of war, 5 ensigns, 
102 subalterns, 27 drummers, 977 privates, 26 servants; de- 
tached and on furlough, 15 officers, 2 ensigns, 2 subalterns, 8 
privates, 16 servants; total, 154 officers, 82 ensigns, 302 subal- 
terns, 93 drummers, 3,155 privates, 232 servants ; missing, 23 
officers, 1 ensign, 54 subalterns, 9 drummers, 217 privates, 29 
servants. Total number in Canada, 2,788 men ; prisoners of 
war, 1,137 men; detached and on furlough, 43 men; total, 
3,968 men. There were, therefore, wanting 333 men altogether. 
The regiments in Canada were of course very weak, for ; 



The regiment of dragoons numbered only, . . . 277 

The regiment of Prince Frederick, .... 618 

The regiment Von Rhetz, 401 

The regiment Von Riedesel, 399 

The regiment Von Specht, 396 

The battalion of grenadiers, ' 353 

The light battalion, 425 

The general's staff, 19 

Total nmnber in Canada, .... 2,788 

Of the officers either out of the province, on furlough, or 
sick, were; 

Lieutenant Colonel Specht, Captain Von Bartling, First 
Lieutenant Von Milcan, First Lieuteaant Von Hessler, in 
Brunswick, Germany; Auditor Schmidt, Lieutenant Petersen, 
sick in New York. 

Of the detached officers, were ; 

Captain Cleve in Penohscot on the sixth transport of troops. 

First Lieutenant Gebhardt, Ensign Specht, First Lieutenant 
Reineking, Second Lieutenant Von Cramer, Second Lieutenant 
Conrady, with the prisoners at Rutland; Ensign Grimpe, Cor- 
net Schonewald, in New York. 

The prisoners of the convention who had been in Virginia, 
were generally separated from their officers ; but the latter 
having been all exchanged, and congress declaring the conven- 
tion null and void, the designation, " Troops of the Convention," 
was henceforth changed to " The Prisoners op War." They 
were sent to Rutland in New England, where they remained until 
peace was declared. Only one officer. First Lieutenant Geb- 
hardt and Ensign Specht were with them ; these latter being 
detached merely for the purpose of keeping an eye upon disci- 
pline, etc. 

As not a single document, referring to the condition of the 
prisoners this year, has been found among RiedeseFs papers, 
nothing further can be said of them during this period. 




At the beginning of this year nothing was known in America 
in regard to the provisional treaty of peace made in Europe on 
the 13th of November, 1782. Financially, England was in a 
state bordering upon bankruptcy; Spain and France were 
nearly in the same condition ; and the Americans were deficient 
in almost everything necessary for a vigorous prosecution of 
the war. Especially was there a lack of provisions and a well 
regulated legislation. They were short of men and ammunition ; 
and, at the same time, a worthless paper money was the only 
means of paying the troops. Mutinies frequently occurred 
among the troops who were generally without discipline ; and 
some deserted, refusing to endure longer the hardships of the 
war. It is true that the late success of their arms had some- 
what increased the courage of the troops, but how long might 
it continue in case of a reverse ? 

The generals in Canada, who were furthest from the theatre 
of events, as yet knew not how matters stood. True, they had 
heard flying and contradictory rumors of a projected peace, but 
otherwise they were as much in the dark as any inhabitant of 
Canada, having, as yet, received no official intelligence. They 
could, therefore, do nothing but what every careful soldier is 
bound to do, viz : to take such measures as would prevent 
themselves being surprised. 

Meanwhile, Riedesel was waiting for the favorable season of 
the year, in order to continue the work on the fortifications of 
Chambly. The obliging General Ilaldimand, also, sent him, 
during this winter, all the important news that he heard of; 
and as a sincere and well meaning friend, took ^reat interest 
in the family affairs of the German general, which had grown 
worse since the operation that had been performed upon the 
breasts of Mrs. Riedesel. 


On the 9th of January, Riedesel, who was then at St. John, 
received from Haldimand a letter in which three documents 
were inclosed, containing more definite news, than had hitherto 
been received, of the events which had occurred the previous 
year in front of Gibraltar. 

Haldimand, it seems, had also sent a little while previous, 
some spies into Vermont. They returned safely ; but, brought 
thence no cheering news. 

Haldimand again writes to Riedesel as follows : 


" Quebec, January 13, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : During the night of day before yesterday, a 
messenger was sent to me from Halifax, by whom I expected 
important news. I opened the package in great haste, but how 
great was my astonishment at finding nothing but a private 
communication in cipher, dated at New York, October 26th, 
the duplicate of which I had received through the woods six 
weeks since, and the contents of which I communicated to you 
at the time. I send you herewith a copy of a letter from Gene- 
ral Patterson, which is just as original and laconic as the one 
of Sir Guy. Yet it seems that an alteration has been made 
respecting the destination of the troops now in Nova Scotia. I 
fear, therefore, that I shall not have the promised succors. 
Consequently, I cannot depend on anything from that direction. 

" I await impatiently the arrival of Ensign Schonewald with 
the dispatches which I suppose have been intrusted to him ; for I 
hope that the ministry will make them i pay the same attention 
to us in our corner as though we were engaged in enterprises 
of greater moment. This want of attention, on the part of 
our neighbors, confirms me more and more in my resolution, 
made as early as last summer. 

" I rejoice very much at your safe arrival in Sorel, and should 

1 1, e., Carleton, and the military goyernmcnt at New York. 


rejoice still more did I hear that Madam Riedesel had entirely 
recovered. I request you to assure her of Diy esteem. 

" McLean, inflated with arrogance, will omit nothing to gain 
adherents ; and, if the least opportunity is given him, will soon 
consider himself a man of importance. I should stir him up 
myself if he would stay here ; but I will communicate to you 
some information showing you his character in a yet different 

" In case of any news of interest occurring, I have directed 
Sherwood to inform you of it ] and I request you to forward it 
to me by the same courier, after you have read it, taking such 
precaution as you shall deem necessary. 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

General Haldimand was at this time unwell, but did not 
allow his sickness to prevent his attending to his official duties. 
The confidence, which he placed in the German general, is 
evident from a letter which he wrote to him on the 9th of 
January. Among other things he says in it : " If I was very 
sick and needed assistance in the service of the king, you may, 
dear sir, rest assured that you would be the first officer on 
whom I would call.'' He, himself, did not believe, at that 
time, in peace, for in a letter of February 5th, he says : " I 
am very much inclined to believe that the war will be continued 
more vigorously than ever. I hope that, as good allies, we 
shall be able to keep working, and be more succsssful than we 
have been hitherto." 

He writes again : 


" Quebec, February 10, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : The messenger, whom you were so kind as to 
send me, arrived this morning, and has handed me the package 
which you gave him. It contains some matters of interest from 


my correspondents in the colonies, but nothing from New York. 
Most of them were written some time since, but by one written 
more recently, I see that all the French troops have gone to the 
islands, and that only a single company remains on the conti- 
nent of America. I perceive, also, that General Washington 
has taken his head quarters on the highlands at Windsor ] yet 
nothing looks like hostilities either on one side or the other. 
He does not believe yet, that peace has been made, as congress 
is said to have resolved to do nothing without the consent of 
France, who is not inclined to any peace but a favorable one ; 
and as England will not acknowledge the independence of her 
rebellious colonies, he further says that each province, notwith- 
standing the high taxation which is necessarily imposed, is 
willing to support congress. He believes that we may expect 
unimportant news from the islands to which our and the French 
fleet were obliged to return. It seems that the allies are di- 
recting their attention to Jamaica. 

" My correspondent further assures me that Lord Howe has 
come to the assistance of Gibraltar and that he had gained 
there some advantages over the French and Spanish fleets. 
The particulars, however, are not as yet learned. But it is 
certain, that the allies have lost four or five ships of the line, 
which were either taken or destroyed, and that the siege had 
been raised in great haste, and with severe loss. It also appears 
that the Spanish fleet had suffered much damage by a storm 
before Cadiz. At the close of his letter, he says, that General 
Carleton would return to Europe, but it was not known as yet 
who would be his successor. 

" This, my dear sir, is all that I learned. But spring is at 
hand, when all mysteries will be solved in spite of all the reti- 
cence that is observed. I have, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

Meanwhile, the Americans becoming more active in the 
southern provinces and in the vicinity of Albany, Riedesel 



feared they were meditating a iiiovemciit against Canada. He 
reported what he had learned by his emissaries, in all haste to 
Haldimand through his adjutant, (Siptain Freeman. The go- 
vernor, therefore, answered as follows : 

" QuEBKC, Fvhruiiry 13, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : I trust tliat Captain Freeman will return 
safely to Sorel with the letters I have written to you. As he 
was completely exhausted when he arrived, I wished him to 
rest a little while, but the great anxiety pervading all circles 
here to learn the least thing, would not allow him to do so. 
This induces me to ask if you will not have the kindness, when- 
ever you send messengers to me, to direct them to remain at 
Major Holland's (of which arrangement I have already notified 
him) who will immediately start (or his son in his absence) 
and bring the dispatches to me. I can then, if necessary, go 
there myself and speak with the messenger and let him depart 
without any sensation. I confess to you, my dear sir, that I 
am ashamed at having to employ such means. I write by this 
messenger to Chevalier Johnson, i directing him immediately to 
send five or six of his most active and expert Mohawks to watch 
the road leading from Albany to West point, and report at once 
to the commanding officer at Point au Fer and himself whatever 
they may learn. As for Sherwood, I hope he will be on his 
guard that he may retreat in season ; and if it should prove 
true that the enemy meditate an expedition against Point au 
Fer, and if we can obtain news of his movements in time for 
Chevalier Johnson, with the savages and his light battalion, to 
fall back a few miles, even, above Point au Fer, I believe that 
we shall have made a good bargain. 

" I await intelligence from you with impatience and have the 
honor, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand.'' 

1 Sir John Johnson. 


Both the generals were obliged to observe secrecy respecting 
their preparations against a hostile attack, that they might be 
concealed as much as possible from the Canadians. They feared, 
and not without cause, that if the disloyal ones heard of it, a 
rebellion might take place, for the suppression of which Haldi- 
mand felt himself too weak. On the other hand, should the 
liberal party become acquainted with the intentions of the 
Americans — a fact which seemed likely — he desired to main- 
tain secrecy respecting his own arrangements that the enemy 
might not be informed, by the sudden confidence of the loyal 
Canadians, of the preparations made to resist an attack. Point 
au Fer was an important place, it being the key to the northern 
outlet of Lake Champlain. It belonged to Kiedesel's district, 
in which it was the most extreme point. The latter, accord- 
ingly, having had it well manned and fortified, had not the least 
fear of its being surprised. 

Indeed, Kiedesel with his accustomed carefulness and activity, 
had made every preparation to receive the enemy. Haldimaud 
was entirely satisfied with his plans. It seems, however, that 
he was somewhat in doubt regarding the discretion of the 
loyalists who occupied the loyal block house. 

For further safety, Riedesel formed a detachment, under 
Major Campbell, and sent it still nearer the threatened points 
for observation. His ideas, respecting this reconnoissance, he 
communicated to Haldimand in a letter, which the latter ans- 
wered under date of February 20, 1783. It is as follows : 



'' Quebec, February 20, 1782. 

" My Dear Sir : I see by the letter with which you have 
honored me, through Mr. Murray, that you have made up, 
with all possible precaution, a detachment to be located to the 
best advantage. I trust that this little excursion will be of 
material benefit to the troops in acquiring experience. It is 
not as difficult to march in winter from the log cabins into the 


woods as is generally imagined. Meanwhile, I give my consent 
to all the general and private orders you have issued for this 
purpose, and, I hope, that during your tour, you will have the 
satisfaction of having everything intelligently carried out, and a 
return of your health by the exercise consequent on this excur- 
sion. I only fear that the thaw has spoiled the roads, and that 
the ice between St John and Isle aux Noix will break, thereby 
making your tour very disagreeable. Should this be the case, 
I would request you to postpone the trip for the sake of your 
own health in which I am so much interested. 

" I know not as yet when I shall be able to pay a visit to 
Madam Riedesel ] but I foresee that it will be impossible during 
the present month. Meanwhile, remember me to her, and be- 
lieve me in the truest devotion, etc., 

" Ferd. IIaldimand." 

Again he writes a week later : 

" Quebec, FthrManj 2n, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : Convinced that exercise and a change of air 
will do more for the recovery of your health than all the skill 
of physicians, I greatly rejoice to see by your letter of the 25th 
that you thought of starting the next day for St. John. The 
frost, which we have had for the last two days, leads me to 
think that the weather will be favorable for you, and that you 
will return to St. John in perfect health. Captain Twiss left 
this morning, and, perhaps, he will have the honor of seeing 
you before you receive this letter. 

" Although I feel perfectly easy in regard to the safety of 
our advanced posts, I am very anxious to learn the real cause 
for the late movement of the rebels. If they are aiming at Ver- 
mont, and if they should be successful in conquering it, I anti- 
cipate for us very disagreeable consequences. Besides, my 
hands aie tied in everything ; and I hear nothing of what is 
occurring in Europe or on the Atlantic coast. I am very much 
surprised that we have no news as yet from Cornet Schonewald. 


lie must have arrived some time ago, or have sent his dispatches 
by an express. I presume, however, that he has been detained 
at New York. I have, etc., 

^' Ferd. Haldimand.'' 

We must be satisfied during this month with what Haldimand 
writes to Riedesel. Only one letter is extant from the latter, by 
which we are enabled to learn something regarding his activity. 
Feeling unwell at this time, he probably wrote no more than was 
absolutely necessary. The drafts of his letters, which are of 
importance, are generally met with, but nothing of the kind 
can be found written during this month. 

The attentive reader will have noticed a carelessness, on the 
part of Haldimand, in regard to the hostile movements against 
Canada. While the sick German general starts on a tedious, 
and perhaps, dangerous winter tour of the outposts, the governor 
remains quietly at Quebec scarcely on his guard ; while in respect 
to the intelligence which he receives, the English general takes 
his measures according only to what he himself believes to be 
true. Thus we find, even in an active and honorable man, that 
remissness by which generals and officers did so much damage 
to the cause of their king. The increasing ill health and dejec- 
tion of Haldimand, however, is some excuse for his conduct. 
He was often troubled with the stone, from which at times he 
suffered intensely. 

Riedesel, notwithstanding his ill health, set out on his tour 
of the northern forts. He rode over the Chambly river in a 
sleigh, and traveled very fast. Upon his safe arrival at St. John 
he wrote, among other things, to Haldimand, that up to that 
time the trip had been of great benefit to him. The governor 
answered the letter on the 3d of March. In speaking, in this 
letter, of the movements of the Americans, he says : "I foresee 
that we must neglect no means by which to find out what were 
the real intentions of the rebels. It is said that the thaw has 
frustrated the execution of their plans, and there is, therefore, 


nothing to be feared for our posts. The detachment of Major 
Campbell may now return to its quarters. Captain Twiss will 
nevertheless attend to the completion of the works. I request, 
therefore, that you will grant him all the necessary men that he 
asks for." 

He writes later : 

*• Quebec, March G, 1783. 
" My Dear Sir : At the moment that I am about taking my pen 
to answer your letter of the 2d inst.. Major Holland enters with 
the package which your messenger, who left St. John on the 
4th, has handed him. I am very much obliged to you my dear 
sir, for the trouble you have taken, and I now request you only 
to send a special messenger when circumstances warrant it. I 
have been prevented by the one now here from sending you the 
answer by post. I presume your sergeant has time to stay over 
till to-morrow. 

^' If the enemy really started on the 11th of last month (which 
is, however, very unlikely) either from the direction of Ver- 
mont or our outposts, he must, by this time, either have returned 
to his quarters or has intentions against Oswego or Carleton 
island. In the latter case, I trust that the recent thaw has 
made the roads, which he would have had to take, impassable. 
At any rate, I have every reason to believe that he has failed in 
his undertaking. Those two posts are commanded by two active 
and careful officers, and are supplied with everything necessary 
' for their defense. There were in the month of January 550 men 
at Oswego and 660 at Carleton island. I cannot, therefore, 
believe, that they have allowed themselves to be surprised. I 
am, I repeat, perfectly at ease in regard to those two posts. 
I am, however, very much obliged to you for writing to Cheva- 
lier Johnson. 

" Colonel Iloope left for St. John this morning, and will have 
the honor of seeing you next Sunday. I very much wish that 
he may be able to visit our outposts — the block houses and 


everything under the immediate superintendence of Captain 
Twiss. I discover in Colonel Hoope a warmth and a zeal for 
the service of the king, which makes me anticipate from him 
great assistance. I have instructed him to communicate to you 
a discovery which he has made in regard to the magazines in 
his district. I hope you will suggest to him measures to be 
taken against those persons implicated in the matter. 

" I am under renewed obligation to you for the trouble you 
have taken in the matter of Captain Pritchard.^ He is certainly 
a miserable creature ; and I am really at a loss to know what 
shall be done with him. 

" I have had no time as yet to read the newspapers which 
you had the kindness to send me ; but from their date, I do not 
think they contain anything of interest. 

" I rejoice to hear that your health is daily improving. No 
one wishes your recovery more than I. 

''I have, etc., 
" Ferd. Haldimand.'' 

It is not a little strange that Haldimand should now send 
Colonel Hoope to visit the posts, after being seemingly con- 
vinced that all danger had passed. The inference is that the 
general intended by this mission to pave the way for the 
colonel's promotion. 

The particulars relating to the intended expedition of the 
Americans, Haldimand learned from Major Ross, the beginning 
of March. 

Ross reported on the 27th of February, from Niagara, that 
he had learned on the 14th of that month, from an American 
deserter, that Villet (a French colonel), had intended to sur- 
prise this post during that night, but, led astray by his guides, 

1 Captain Pritchard — a Canadian and a wily man of doubtftil reputation — was 
employed by the two generals as an informer. It was his special duty to inquire 
into the sentiments of the Canadians. It was afterward found that he was deceiv- 
ing both parties. 


the plcin had heen frustrated, and that he would endeavor to carry 
out his purpose the night following. He had also learned that 
the enemy did not number over COO men ] and that they had 
arrived in sleighs, which they had left behind in their retreat. 
He (Ross) had sent out a detachment to destroy these sleighs, 
and, at the same time, had dispatcher a small corps of 200 men 
after the retreating enemy. The latter, however, had reached 
their sleighs in time and escaped. " Major Ross," writes 
General Haldimand, '-justly describes this expedition as the 
most stupid ever undertaken, and praises it only so far as the 
celerity cand secrecy shown in carrying it out. The distance 
from Saratoga to Niagara was made in eight days, and no one, 
the entire length of the Mohawk, knew anything about it. 
The enemy left behind nine ladders, and disappeared without 
having had a glance at the fort, or carrying with him a single 
prisoner ; so that he returned as he had come unfamiliar with 
everything but his own flight. The enemy lost five men in 
prisoners and deserters; and Major Ross was very sorry the 
enemy desisted from his design, as the good condition of his 
own men, and their anxiety for a fight, would have given the 
enemy a terrible defeat." 

Riedesel was only sorry that Major Ross was not sooner in- 
formed of this expedition, as it would have been an easy matter 
to capture the sleighs and thus cut off the retreat. 

Riedesel was also instructed to make inquiries regarding the 
suspected Captain Pritchard, and to investigate the defalcations 
in the administrations of the English magazines. As soon as 
Colonel Hoope gave him the necessary information in this 
matter, he, with his accustomed prudence, sagacity and strict 
impartiality undertook the investigation, examined witnesses, 
and kept minutes concerning the whole aflair. Captain Priteh- 
ard was found to be a party to the transaction, and, he, together 
with several officials of the English hospitals, was found guilty. 
The other culprits came under the jurisdiction of General 


General Haldimand to General Riedesel. 

" Quebec, March 17, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : I am very much obliged to you for sending 
me by an express messenger the speech of the king. I was 
exceedingly anxious to have it, and I have read it with great 
pleasure, although it is somewhat humble. I believe that he 
is for war, and that this concession was necessary, under the 
circumstances, in order to insure for himself the good will of 
his subjects in case that peace should demand too severe con- 
ditions. In such a case I do not believe that the nation will 
make the final offers. I believe, therefore, either that peace 
will now be made, or that the war will be prosecuted with more 
zeal than ever. Our navy haa lost nothing of her lustre, and 
although our expeditions on Taird have not been successful, 
everything might again be made right, and even the supremacy 
on this continent be once more obtained. Notwithstanding, 
however, peace seems to me to be desirable ; and although we 
surrender the colonies, the peace will be more honorable to the 
nation after having maintained the war so long against such 
tremendous odds, and in spite, too, of the cabals and internal 
divisions which were alone sufficient to have ruined her. What 
happens to us to-day will sooner or later overtake the Bourbon 
family. Envy against power will spring up ; alliances will be 
formed against it for the purpose of gnawing off its claws ; and 
the Americans, whom it now protects, may be the first who will 
enrich themselves from its legacy. It does not seem to me 
that they can long remain friends. 

" I expect news from New York and Halifax every moment, 
from which we may, perhaps, learn what is to be our fate 5 and I 
sincerely trust that it may give us the prospect of seeing each 
other next fall in London, and the winter in Brunswick. Amen. 

" I have, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

](;4 • .VAJOn GEyjf-JL'AL niKDKSKL 

A N S W V.n (t V (j K N KR A L T{ I El >KSK L. 

^^SoREL, March 10. 178:J. 

" ^fy Dear 8ir : T had the honor of receiving by to-day's 
mail and by a returned express yesterday, two official and one 
private letter from yourself. The private letter of your excel- 
lency has again raised my spirits. Although not born in 
England, I hope that everything I have suffered for the king 
may be for the best, and that providence may. in time, grant 
the means for repairing all losses. I shall not at all be sur- 
prised if America herself should be engaged in war within two 
years, and the northern colonies separate from the southern 
ones. I thank Heaven that the time is near at hand when I 
shall be able to return to my fatherland where I will be enabled 
to give my children a better education, and regain my health. 
But wherever T may be, I shall never forget my good fortune 
in having served under your excellency ; for, without flattery, 
the time I have spent under you has been the most pleasant of 
all during this war. With esteem and gratefulness I shall ever 
remember the kindness which I have received from yourself. I 
confess, also, that 1 would gladly pay my respects to that monarch 
for whom, and for whose empire I have now gone through fifteen 
campaigns; but, I greatly fear, in view of the enormous ex- 
pense of the war and the dislike which the present secretary 
has toward the foreign troops, that the reception may not come 
up to my expectations, unless I am introduced by d general 
under whom I had the honor of serving, and to whom the king 
and the nation must be grateful for the manner in which he 

governed this province. 

" I have, etc., 

" lllEDESEL.'' 

in tue american revolution. 165 

General IIaldimand to General Riedesel. 


^' Quebec, March 24, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : Doctor Maboii, who arrived here Friday 
morning greatly fatigued but entirely satisfied with his journey, 
has handed me the letter with which you honor me.' I feel 
highly flattered that you are so well satisfied with your second 
stay in Canada. Had i: been possible, and had I followed my 
inclinations T would gladly have done more for you and your 
family. But in our situation one must act according to circum- 
stances ) and you, my dear sir, have done everything with a 
zeal, an attention and a reliability which gives you a perfect 
right to claim my esteem. I shall always consider it my duty 
to do you all the justice which is due you. The state of your 
health, and your family matters, which lead you to wish to 
return to Europe, are both natural and praiseworthy, and I 
trust that your expectations may be fulfilled. Still, during 
the last summer I, myself, have written three letters in which 
I also asked permission to return there next autumn. I 
believe that my request will not be denied me in case peace is 

^' I expect news every moment, and cannot understand why 
it takes so long to come. If I do not receive any within a few 
days, I shall believe that something has turned up to prevent 
the conclusion of peace. ]^ut 1 hope we will receive letters 
from Penobscot in a few days. The son of Launiere, who left 
here the 17th of February, with a couple of savages to carry 
your letters there, ought to have been back in five or six weeks- 
We may, therefore, expect him at any hour. 

" The pain in my kidneys, which still continues, does not 

* The Eugliflh surgeon of ntaft*, Mahoii, had just fliuKhed a tour of the forts for 
the purpose of examining into the health of the troops. He was a great friend of 
both generals. Ricdesel generally stayed at the doctor's house when in Quebec 
wi(h his family. 



allow me to make the journey to Sorel on the ice ; but I intend 

to make np for it in the spring. Requesting you to assure the 

Madam of my esteem, 

" T am, etc., 

" Ferd. Haldimand." 

Haldimand, as late as the latter part of March, had no re- 
liable intelligence either in regard to the treaty of peace, or his 
own movements in case of a continiianee of the war. He writes 
concerning this to lliedesel, in a letter of the 31 st of March, as 
follows : " If the war is to continue, it is now high time for 
me to be told what I am to do. As I expect this,' T greatly 
desire that the works on Isle aux Noix should be strengthened. 
I have written Captain Twiss in regard to this matter, and have 
commissioned him on his passage through 8orel to consult with 
you regarding the means, the number of men, and the kind of 
laborers which you can furnish for the work. I expect him back 
by the 8th of next month, in order that we may lose no time." 

General Kiedesel being desirous of obtaining definite inform- 
ation concerning certain matters before making arrangements 
for the coming year — and Haldimand knowing as little about 
the future as he did himself — wrote directly to the commander 
in chief, Carleton. But neither did he succeed any better 
with him ] for the latter was, also, heartily sick of his position, 
and longed for nothing more than to be recalled from a theatre 
of war in which he was not only forced to remain inactive, but 
risked the loss of laurels gained in other campaigns with bo 
much trouble. He wrote to Riedesel the beginning of April as 
follows : 

" New York, April 9, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : The tranquil state of affairs in Canada, 
which, I believe, I must take for granted, should not be an 

1 1, e., a continuation of the war. 


excuse for neglecting this opportunity to assure you of my 
perfect esteem, and express to you my especial wishes for your 
welfare and health, in which I also include Madam Riedesel. 

" You will have learned that the preliminaries for a general 
peace have been signed and ratified at Paris. This, of necessity, 
will cause several alterations in the situation of the soldiers. I, 
for my part, without waiting for the results, some time since 
urgently asked for a furlough, and expect the arrival of a suc- 
cessor daily, to whom I will gladly surrender the command. 
But whether I am in England or elsewhere, I shall always be 
happy to give you proof of my esteem, with which 

*'I remain, etc., 

" Guy Carleton." 

General Carleton thus ignored the main question, preferring 
to leave its solution to his successor. Riedesel, therefore, knew 
now just as much as he did before, and had to leave the rest to 
time and chance. The only thing he could do was, to keep his 
troops in readiness for all contingencies, and to continue the 
work on the fortifications. 

The latter part of March, his youngest daughter, little Canada, 
died. The two older daughters loved their little sister so much, 
that her death made them both sick. The father, although he 
had summoned a good physician from Three Rivers, and did 
everything in his power for his loved ones, felt very solicitous ; 
nor was it until the physician assured him most decidedly that 
their illness was not alarming, that his fear subsided. 

Some of the German officers at Sorel had a cross with an 
inscription placed on the grave of the little Canada, who was 
there buried in consecrated ground. The populace of the 
place were strict Roman Catholics ; and the officers who placed 
the cross over the grave, belonged to the same religion. They, 
with a kind forethought, placed the cross over the little one to 
prevent wicked hands of fanatical people violating the heretical 


In the boginning of April, lliedoflcl wont to Fsle aux Noix, 
for the purpose of pushing forward the work on the fortifica- 
tions, lie also thought, by change of scene, to recover in a 
measure from his recent bereavement. 

Toward the middle of April, llaldimand received some indi- 
rect news respecting the treaty of peace by a ship which arrived 
from the east. They had already a cf)py of the treaty in Phila- 
delphia, and yet the governed* of (^anada had n(>t received any 
official news of it either from his government or the commander 
in chief in New York ! General Haldimand, therefore, hesitat<jd 
about saying anything publicly in regard to it, although he 
wrote respecting it to General lliedesel on the 17th, as follows : 

*' Since the treaty has not yet been published, and the future 
of Canada seems to me still in danger T shall not publish any- 
thing of what I have just learned, until it has been communi- 
cated to me officially. This state of things, however, cannot 
last long, as I have been assured that a package arrived in 
New York on the 2Gth of March. The arrival of Carleton's 
courier must be retarded only by the bad roads, since hostilities 
in America were to have ceased by the 20th of March." 

He also mentions in this letter the new boundaries of the 
United States of North America. 

In a letter of the 2Gth of April, llaldimand writes that he 
had received letters from Carleton. but none from the minister. 
lie stated, however, that he expected one by a frigate which was 
to arrive from England in a few days. All hostilities having on 
the 20th of March ceased on land and water — in consequence of 
the treaty of peace and in pursuance of the orders of his British 
majesty — llaldimand, in a manifesto announced the particulars 
to the troops and the inhabitants of Canada. Regarding his 
other preparations, he says in the above mentioned letter : " I 
will not stop the works which have l)een begun on the Isle aux 
Noix, for the reason that this is very likely the only fort we 
shall retain since the district of Niagara, Oswego, and, perhaps, 
Carleton island, also, are to be surrendered to. the rebels. The 


loyalists are downcast, and the Indians have been entirely for- 
gotten in the preliminaries. My soul is completely bowed down 
with grief at seeing that we (with no absolute necessity), have 
humbled ourselves so much as to accept such humiliating 
boundaries. I am heartily ashamed, and wish I was in the 
interior of Tartary." 

General Haldimand, notwithstanding the drafted peace, would 
not trust the Americans. He still feared that they might yet 
undertake something against the southern boundaries of Canada, 
before the peace was fully published. In this opinion, moreover, 
he was confirmed by a letter from the commanding staff officer 
at Oswego, to the effect that the enemy were contemplating a 
movement in that direction. Haldimand writes concerning this 
to Eiedesel as follows : 

" You understand as well as I, that I dare not for a moment 
slacken our vigilance, which is necessary as long as we have 
the misfortune of having anything to do with the rebels, and 
until the publication of peace in due form. I, myself, doubt 
whether even then, we can enjoy rest for any length of time in 
their neighborhood." 

The work on the fortifications, especially those on Isle aux 
Noix, was therefore pushed forward more vigorously than ever. 
Still, not as many men were employed on them this year as the 
last, as the generals, in view of the uncertainty of affairs, were 
unwilling to take the men away from their winter quarters 

On the 18th of May, Riedesel received several letters from 
Germany, and, among them, one from his brother sealed with 
black wax. His father had died on the 5th of September, 1782, 
at his manor in Lauterbach. At the time of his death, he bore 
the title of privy counselor of Great Britain, and was seventy- 
seven years of age. lliedesel, already sad, grew more low 
spirited upon hearing this news, and longed more than ever for 
home, where his presence was now urgently needed for the 
settlement of important family matters. He was, therefore, 


most happily surprised at receiving, the middle of June, the 
following letter from General Carleton : 

" New York, June 6th, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : Having this moment received orders from 
his majesty the king to send, without delay, all the German 
troops, who served in the army, to Europe, I am already 
engaged in making the necessary preparations for carrying 
them out as speedily as possible. I intend to embark those 
belonging to the Duke of Brunswick first. I have also given 
the same orders in regard to those troops now in the district of 
Nova Scotia. They will march to Dunen, where the rendezvous 
will take place, and where you will receive further orders. 

" Some of the Brunswick troops will have to remain for a little 

while longer in New England, but measures for their liberation 

have been taken. 

" I have, etc., 

"Guy Carleton." 

General Haldimand forwarded the arrangements for hastening 
the departure of the troops as much as possible. He allowed the 
Brunswick troops to remain in their quarters up to the time of 
their sailing, a circumstance which afforded them great satisfac- 
tion. General Riedesel, also, had everything so arranged that the 
men were ready for departure at any moment. 

In the beginning of July, an opportunity offering to send dis- 
patches to Europe, Riedesel availed himself of it to send a letter 
to the hereditary prince ; 

" To his most serene Highness^ the Hereditary Prince. 

" Most Gracious Prince and Lord : The three kind letters of 
your highness dated respectively the 26th of August, 1781, the 
26th of March and the 27th of October, 1782, were handed me 
eight days ago. It is to me one of the greatest sources of satis- 
faction to see that your highness is pleased with my conduct 


toward your troops, and that the documents in relation to the 
investigation at Berthier have finally reached you. It shall be 
my constant endeavor to carry out the commands of your high- 
ness, and to be of use to your troops in every emergency; and 
in case of acts occurring either against the interests of yourself 
or the service of the king, I should certainly take the liberty of 
reporting it to you. But the two corps here are commanded by 
two such worthy men, that such a case could not by any possi- 
bility occur ; and I can confidently report to you that the com- 
manding officer. General Loos, who has charge of the first 
battalion of your highness, is certainly able to give Colonel 
Von Leutz and his regiment the same good testimonial. It is 
also my duty to add the same in regard to my friend, Colonel 
Yon Kreutzberg, and the brave corps of chasseurs under my 
immediate command. ' Not a single complaint nor a report of 
any disorder has been made during all of the eighteen months 
that this corps has been under my command; and Colonel 
Kreutzberg has served with such distinction, that he has 
gained for himself the approbation and love of the entire army 
and the public. I, for my part, am under double obligations to 
him for the friendly readiness with which he assisted me in the 
command of my district. It being my most pleasing business 
to carry out the orders of your highness, I send you herewith a 
copy of the state of the Brunswick troops. I have also attested 
a statement of the number of the first battalion of your high- 
ness for Colonel Von Leutz. But not having received permis- 
sion to publish our system of economy, I must request you to 
keep it entirely for your own perusal. I have also asked the 
same of Colonel Von Leutz. 

" In conclusion, as there is no news of importance since peace 

1 Colonel Von Leutz took the command of the Hesse Hanaa regiment after the 
departure of Colonel Gall. Colonel Von Kreutzberg commanded the chasseurs.— 
Note to original. 




has been (leclarcd, T report to you that all the German troops in 
this province have received orders to embark as soon as the 
transports, wliich are daily expected, shall arrive here. These 
troops will very likely be disembarked at one and the same 
place in Germany, whence 1 will send a report to your high- 
ness. It is a pity that we are separated from the prisoners of 
war, and that the recruits also should be scattered over w.) many 
places. The latter, like myself, have been informed by General 
Carleton that they will be sent from the places where they now 
are directly to (Jermany ; a circumstance which will cause great 
confusion in settling up the business accounts. 

^•I reccmimend myself to the future favor of your highness. 

*' lllEDESEIi. 

"8orel, June 21, 1783." 

As mentioned in the above lettcjr, Riedesel had already learned 
that the convention prisoners would not be sent to him, but 
would go directly from the place of their captivity to Europe. 
This was very unpleasant to him, for he would have much pre- 
ferred to have had all his men together. But this could not 
be ; and he. therefore, consoled himself by doing for them all 
that lay in his power. Toward the latter part of June, he 
wrote the f(»ll(>wing to General Carleton : 

" His excellency. General llaldiniand, has given me permis- 
sion to send an officer by land to New York. I avail myself of 
this opportunity to acknowledge the receipt of three letters 
from you during the winter and spring, together with an in- 
closed note, all of which I have answered by way of Halifax 
and Penobscot. The last lettor of your excellency, which 
Cornet Schonewald handed me on the 2d of June, deprives me 
of the hope that our prisoners of war will be united with me 
before T leave the province. As wo have no orders as yet, 
respecting our departure, I take the liberty of sending this offi- 
cer to you in order to request your excellency to give your 
protection to Lieutenant lleineking, the officer who will accom- 


pany our prisoners (when they are exchanged) to Germany. 
He is a perfectly reliable man ) and as he will need a consider- 
able sum of money when the prisoners are exchanged, I would 
recommend him to your excellency, and would request you to 
kindly procure for him the amount he will need to satisfy the 
just demands of the convention troops. 

" Our prisoners of war being at present in two different pro- 
vinces, viz : those of the Saratoga convention in Pennsylvania, 
and those of Bennington, until the 7th of October, in Massa- 
chusetts bay, a union of these two divisions, preparatory to 
sending them to Europe, would be a great relief to the service ; 
for in this way the number of officers would be increased, and a 
better oversight maintained. ' 

" Your excellency has always given your support to the troops 
of my sovereign, and I therefore now leave them entirely under 
your protection. 

" Madam Von Riedesel and myself are under many obliga- 
tions to you for your kind remembrances. You may be assured 
that yourself and your entire family will always be respected 
and beloved by us. 

" I have received a letter from Lord North in which I am 
informed that I am to return to Brunswick with my troops. 
He also pajs me a compliment on the part of his majesty the 
king, in regard to the way in which I have led them during the 
war. The transports are daily expected. When they arrive, 
we shall at once embark and return to Europe. I flatter myself 
that we shall have the pleasure of paying our respects to Lady 

" T have the honor of recommending the bearer of this letter, 
Lieutenant D'Anniers, and I shall rejoice very much to see him 
here again before we start, in order to hear from him something 

1 We have already seen that with the Brunswick troops of the convention, who 
numbered about 900 men, there were only two officers ; while with the prisoners at 
Bennington there were comparatively a large number of officers.— iVo^e in original. 


respecting the condition of our troops. I therefore request your 
excellency to send him back as soon as possible. 

"I have, etc., 


General Carleton replied to this letter in a very friendly 
spirit. He said in his letter that the Brunswick troops of the 
convention had sailed for Europe, in charge of Lieutenant 
Reineking, as early as the Gth of June. Of the prisoners, who 
had been left at Rutland under two officers, one hundred were 
to be sent to New York ; and consequently the Hessian major, 
Baurmeister, had gone to Philadelphia to settle the matter with 
congress. The troops would be sent to Europe immediately 
upon their arrival in New York. 

This letter was brought by Lieutenant D'Anniers. He had 
arrived in New York too late to go south and inquire into the 
condition of the prisoners. They were already sailing on the 
broad ocean without Riodesel knowing in what condition they 
were in. The only thing which consoled him was his know- 
ledge of the skill and honor of Lieutenant Reineking, whom he 
knew to have done his best to procure all the necessaries for 
the troops. 

The English government, as a matter of course, was anxious 
to get rid of the auxiliary troops as soon as possible after the 
declaration of peace. They cost a great amount of money daily, 
and with her exchequer exhausted. England was obliged to be 
very economical. In addition to this, they were desirous to 
avail themselves of the favorable season of the year to transport 
to their homes the soldiers whom they did not wish to leave 
longer in their lamentable position. 

The above mentioned letter of Lord North to Riedesel reads 
as follows : 

» The draft of this letter is without name of place or date. It was very probably 
written at Sorel, the latter part of Jnne. 


" WniTEttALL, April G, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir : Preliminary negotiations for peace between 
his majesty and tlfe United States of America having begun, 
and it being the intention to refrain from all operations against 
Canada, I have received orders from the king to inform you 
that instructions have been given to Grovernor Haldimand to 
make the necessary preparations for the return of yourself and 
the troops of his highness, the duke of Brunswick. 

" The king has further instructed me to inform you that he 
has received, during your stay in Canada, the most honorable 
testimonials in regard to the merits and services of yourself, 
and the brave conduct of your officers and men. 

" I pray to be permitted to add that it gives me special satis- 
faction to communicate to you the assurance of the good will of 
his majesty, which, it is his royal wish, to have expressed to 
you in the best manner possible. " I am, etc., 

" North." 

At last, Riedesel, having arranged matters so that his men 
could start at any moment for their designated place of em- 
barkation, left Sorel with his family for Quebec the early part of 
July. He had long before this received invitations from Hal- 
dimand to visit him. It was his intention to await there the 
arrival of the transports. The governor received his friends as 
usual in the most cordial manner ; and, although he was not yet 
recovered from his illness, he did everything to make their last 
days in Canada as pleasant as possible. In his care for their 
coming journey he was indefatigable. He also, did everything 
in his power for the Grerman troops. He had a very pretty 
villa near Quebec, which he called Montmorency, where he 
often went with his friends to spend a pleasant hour. He still 
cherished the hope that he should return to Europe with them ) 
and both the Kiedesels and himself made all kinds of 
a delightful and comfortable journey together. 


Tn the beginning of August, the transports arrived. This 
obliged General lliedesel to return once more to Sorel to attend 
to several matters ; and as the vessel upon which he was to 
make this trip was quite roomy and comfortable, and the weather 
delightful, he took his family with him. Upon his return to 
Quebec he found everything ready for departure. Haldimand, 
with his usual forethought, had had a beautiful transport, 
which was a fast sailer, fitted up and provided with everything 
necessary for the voyage. Thus, several cabins were furnished 
in the most comfortable manner, and on the rear deck he had a 
miniature garden laid out in which (earth having been taken on 
board) lettuce was planted for use during the voyage. A new 
milcli cow was also sent on board by the special direction of 
Haldimand, for lliedesers children to whom he was very much 

In the meantime Haldimand received dispatches from London 
in which he was ordered to remain at his post in Canada. 
With weeping eyes he communicated this intelligence to Madam 
Riedesel, adding in a feeling manner, '' I had hoped that we 
should return together ) but the king has ordered it differently, 
and I must obey.'' 

Before his departure, Riedesel presented Haldimand with his 
favorite horse — a beautiful mare with foal. The latter, also, 
on his part gave Mrs. Riedesel a muff and tippet of sable " as 
a remembrance of the country in which she had remained so 
long." He likewise gave to her eldest daughter, Augusta, 
whom he playfully called the " little lady," a little dog to which 
she had taken a great fancy. 

The officers, also, manifested their devotion to the family of 
Riedesel, by giving a theatrical piece written expressly for the 
occasion, and referring to the approaching voyage. At the 
close of the performance, the actors sang a song in praise of the 
German troops, after which one of them addressed the general 
in a formal speech which spoke in high terms of his friendly 
treatment of the British troops. The last evening of his stay, 


Eiedesel, with his family and a few friends, dined at General 
Haldimand's. At the close of the entertainment the governor, 
with many of the officers and inhabitants of Quebec, accom- 
panied the travelers to the ship, where they bid them a Heart- 
felt farewell. 

Early the next morning, the anchors were hoisted. On the 
same ship with Eiedesel, were his adjutant, his staff officers. 
Chaplain Mylius, a band of music, and Doctor Kennedy and 
family. 1 The fleet, under an English commander, arrived 
safely at Isle de Pic at the mouth of the St. Lawrence. Here 
the ships were obliged to cast anchor, and wait for a favorable 
wind. This delay lasted fourteen days, causing every one to 
feel very impatient and exceedingly lonesome. Those who had 
taken with them fresh meat and vegetables for the voyage, used 
them up here. The joyfulness, which until now, had been on 
board the ship, gave place to gloomy silence. And, in addi- 
tion to this, there was danger of encountering equinoctial 
storms should the voyage be in any degree prolonged. The 
idea of having to remain another year in this part of the world, 
was to every one a sad, yea, a terrible thought. Every one 
longed for home. But one Sunday morning while divine service 
was holding on board of the generaFs ship, and while all were 
listening to the fervent prayer of Pastor Mylius for a favoring 
wind, a slight movement of the ship was noticed — a sure sign 
that the wind had sprung up ; and scarcely had the pastor 
finished his sermon when the command was given to hoist 
anchor. Instantly every one was on the qui viva. 

The general, to whom the voyage was very troublesome on 
account of his health, was exceedingly desirous to reach the 
English coast as soon as possible. He could be of no use to his 
troops during the voyage ; and, besides, he had dispatches to 
the king, which he wished to hand him as soon as practicable. 

^ Doctor Kennedy, the physician of Riedesers family at Sorel, had asked and 
obtained permisHion of the latter to go to England on the same ship. 


The captain of tho sliip, the Quebec, on which the general was, 
had a jrrcat notion of sailing aln^ad of the fleet; but this could 
not be allowed witliout the consent of the commodore; nor was 
it certain that this could be obtained. An accident, however, 
helped in tliis cnicr<rency. Two days after getting under way, 
ont; of the sliips sijrnalcd tliat its captain wished to speak with 
the coniniodon;. The whole fleet were, therefore, obliged to 
Hto]). Tlie commodore, out of politeness, called to the ship of 
<«(Micral iticdcsel tlirou<xh a speaking trumpet, " Keep on, gene- 
ral," hi;, of courst!, expecting that the ship would unite again 
with tlie rest of tlie fleet. J^ut the captain, making this an 
excuse for sailing ahead, hoisted all his sail, and soon the entire 
fleet w;us left behind. 

The following day a storm arose, which henceforth lasted 
more or less during the entire voyage. Still as the ship was 
now in advance of the fleet, and the wind was at her back, she 
was driven forward with great rapidity. 33ut one night, one 
of the sails was blown away, and the ship was thrown on her 
side, causing every one to fear the worst. The ship was also in 
danger of fire. A burning smell was noticed. Every place 
was examined; and, at length, Mrs. lliedesel found in the cabin 
of Mrs. ]Joctor Kennedy a string, on which the lantern liad 
hung, on fire. This string was tied around a beam, impregnated 
with tar, and had it not been for this opportune discovery, it 
would soon have been in flames. Shortly after this adventure, 
the ship encountered still another storm in which, this time, she 
lost one of her masts. And yet, notwithstanding all these troubles 
(by which the passengers were often in danger of their lives), 
the captain called it a favorable, wind. It did not agree with 
the general, however ; and, being unable to sleep at night on 
his bed, he remained generally upon deck. He was so tired of 
the voyage, that he one day remarked to his wife that he had 
rather stay in a pig pen than on board the ship. 

Toward the end of the voyage a dense fog arose, causing the 
captain, who could not exactly discover where he was, to fear 


the Scilly islands. He therefore took in his sails, and waited. 
On the afternoon of the 18th, the fog disappeared, and revealed 
to them, near at hand, the Isle of Wight, and in the distance 
the white, chalky coast of England. What a joyous sensation 
the passengers experienced at being finally so near their jour- 
ney's end ! The ship had sailed with amazing rapidity, having 
made the distance from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the 
coast of England in eighteen days.^ After sailing under a 
violent wind, and not without danger around the Isle of 
Wight, she entered at eight o'clock in the evening the bay of 
St. Helens. The next morning the ship again sailed, and 
would soon have reached Portsmouth had she not had the mis- 
fortune to run on to a sunken man of war - in that harbor. In 
this dangerous position she remained all that day and the fol- 
lowing night. Upon once more getting afloat, and entering 
Portsmouth harbor, chance so ordered it that she ran in between 
two other ships with which Madam Riedesel was well acquainted. 
One of them had carried her from England to Canada, and the 
other from New York to Quebec. 

As the vessel, on account of the ebb tide, was unable to reach 
land, Riedesel chartered a lugger to convey him ashore. This 
trip cost him considerable ) for he was badly cheated, and forced 
to pay fifteen guineas (over one hundred thalers) for a distance 
of only half an hour. The next day, Riedesel, accompanied by 
an adjutant, started from Portsmouth for London in order to 
hand the king the dispatches he had brought. The latter re- 
ceived him in the most kind and gracious manner. Madam 
Riedesel arrived in London a few days later. 

In London, the family met again many old friends, and among 
them General Tryon and others who had returned from Ame- 

1 This was the first ship that had made that distance in so short a time. She 
ran ahead of a French fHgate which made the same distance in nineteen days. — 
Note in original. 

2 Mrs. Riedesel, in her journal, states that this sunken ship was the wreck of the 
Royal George. 



rica. All did their best to make their stay as pleasant as pos- 
sible. The general and his wife were one evening invited to 
take tea at the court when no one but the royal family was 
present. Madam Kiedesel was seated between the queen and 
the oldest princess. She was obliged to relate a great deal of 
her adventures to the ladies, and she was fully equal to the 
task, for she had experienced much, and knew how to relate it 
in an interesting manner. She excelled, indeed, in carrying on 
a conversation. The king stood near the fire place conversing 
with the general upon more serious affairs. The former, also, 
was so obliging as to carry on the conversjition in the German 
language. Riedcsel and his wife remained until nearly ten 
o'clock with the royal family, whom Mrs. Kiedesel describes as 
exceedingly amiable. She writes : '• The royal family have, in 
fact, the gift of taking all constraint from one, so that we felt 
as if we were with a happy family of our own rank.*' 

During their stay in London, Kiedesel and family were the 
recipients of many proofs of esteem. Persons of high rank, 
whom he had not hitherto known, paid their respects to him in 
person. Among these were the secrettiries. North and Fox. 
Such distinctions were at this time, not generally paid in Lon- 
don to foreigners — an evidence that the German general had a 
good name in that city. 

The general wished very much to remain longer in London, 
and see some of his companions in the seven years' war and 
the sights of the great metropolis, but the German troops 
were hurried off, giving him no option in the matter. The 
latter were again embarked at Deal, a little city on the canal. 
The equinoctial had just begun ; and the weather was so stormy 
as to render the embarkation dangerous. Fortunately, how- 
ever, everything was accomplished without accident. Three days 
were spent in the stormy voyage to Stade. The entering of the 
Elbe was especially difficult; and the general, who was anxious 
to get to Stade as soon as possible, was conveyed to the shore 
in a boat, and thence in a carriage to the city. His wife arrived 


there at eleven o'clock in the evening under the escort of the 
captain of the ship who had carried her from Quebec to Eng- 

The general, wishing to wait for the arrival of his troops, 
remained here a day longer than his wife, who preceded him to 
Wolfenblittel. The latter was met in that town by her lady 
friends, who had already heard of her arrival. Her house had 
been prepared for her reception ; and she found everything as 
she had left it seven years ago. 

From Stade, Riedesel wrote the following letter to Duke Fer- 
dinand : 

" Stade, September 26, 1783. 

" Grracious Sovereign : Trusting that your highness has re- 
ceived my last letter, sent you by my adjutant. Captain Cleve, 
I have the honor of announcing to your highness the safe 
arrival of myself and the rest of the Brunswick troops on the 
coast of Germany. My health, strange as it may seem, has 
been, during the whole time, pretty good, but for the past few 
days I have been suffering from a slight fever, which has weak- 
ened me considerably. I hope, however, that air and exercise 
will aid me again to throw it off. 

" Eight days since I was in London, and had the good fortune 
of being presented to the king. His majesty requested me to 
give your highness his most friendly compliments, but I shall 
reserve to myself the pleasure of communicating orally all the 
expressions of regard and esteem for your person which the 
king expressed to me on this occasion. 

"I had also the pleasure of meeting several officers who 
enjoyed the protection of your highness during the last war,i 
especially General Conway, General Howard, Chevalier Clinton, 
and Lord Southampton — all of whom desired to be remembered 
to you. They are all very much attached to yourself, and openly 
glory in their affection and regard for their excellent general. 

' The seven years' war.— Note in original. 


*• I hhall nniiaiii lit* re a few days in order to draw the money 
for the siibHiKtence of the troops. I shall then hasten and place 
niYKi^lf a^iin at the Inuid of the first division, and remain in 
whatever garrison U\ which I am appointed. As soon as I am 
through with my official duties, I shall hasten to Brunswick to 
re]M>rt myself in ])ersou to your highness, and solicit the former 
favor which I have enjoyed, and also to assure your highnesB of 
the d(iep devotion and unalterable attachment with which I shall 
regard you all the days of my life. 

" My wife re<{uest8 me to remember herself and family to 
your highness. She waits impatiently for the time when she 
can pay her respects to you in person. Herself and family are 
very well. She will remain here a few days, and then go to 
lirunswk^k by the shortest route. 

'* Hoping to be able to wait soon on your highness, 

" I have the honor, etc., 

" Kl£D£S£L.'' 

The march to Wolfenbiittel occupied eight days. On the 
way he published a circular addressed to the commanders of 
regiments, thanking them for their devotion and good behavior 
during the war. It reads as follows : 

Ueltzen, October 4, 1783. 

"As the time is now close at hand when I must lay down 
the command of those Brunswick troops, known as the English 
subsidies, and as I am yet in ignorance of my future destination, 
I cannot let the opportunity pass of expressing to your honors 
my thanks for the great zeal and fidelity you have manifested 
in the service, and also for the personal politeness and friendship 
I have enjoyed from you during the time I have had the honor 
to command this corps in America; and, although I have 
thanked all the officers in a general order, yet I request your 
honors to repeat it again, and to present, in the liveliest colors, 
my gratitude to the different regiments. 


" It would be wrong for the Brunswick corps to believe, that 
as his most serene highness is satisfied with the conduct of the 
troops, and possesses complete knowledge of the qualities and 
merits of each officer, he will not treat every one according to 
his real deserts. In whatever cases his most serene highness 
consults me, I shall always faithfully make my report; and I 
hope that the officers will not ascribe it to me, nor annoy me if 
some persons are not as pleased as they expected. Whenever 
I can personally serve your honors, it will always give me the 
greatest pleasure to do so. In conclusion, be assured that I 
remain always with the greatest regard, 


" To Lieutenant Colonel Hille, 
Lieutenant Colonel Mengen, 
Lieutenant Colonel Earner, 
Major Maiborn, 
Major Lucke, 
Major Ehrenkrook, 
Lieutenant Colonel Praetorius." 

" To the Commander of the Dragoon Regiment: 

" I shall never forget the special love and attachment which 
this brave regiment has manifested toward me, nor the readiness 
with which it has ever met my wishes. It is a real satisfaction 
to me that his serene highness has such a good opinion of this 
regiment, that in future, it will be placed on a better footing 
than it now is, and that the reduction, soon to take place, will, 
perhaps, have no influence whatever upon this regiment.. I 
pray your honor, to inform not only the officers, but the whole 
regiment, of this fact, that the latter may be convinced that I 
have notr forgotten its merits. I am, also, in hopes that this 
assurance will do away with a certain ill humor and dissatisfac- 
tion which I have noticed, and enable it to go into garrison 
with the same honor with which it marched out. 



" To Lieutenant Colonel Yon IliUe : 

" As Colonel Yon Specht leads the second division as com- 
mander of the corps, your honor will lead my regiment into 
garrison ; and, 1 flatter myself, that unless fate greatly disap- 
points me, your future destiny will be such as to amply fulfill 
your brightest anticipations. 

" It has always been my custom to require as much as possible 
of my infantry regiment ; and I must here give testimony to 
the noble manner in which it has surpassed my expectations. 
I have but one more last demand to make of you and the corps 
of officers, viz : that you will go into garrison in the same neat 
and proper dress in which I have seen the regiment at Montreal 
and Sorel. The details, where it is possible, I leave to you, 
but you will allow me to work for the general good of the 
officers as I shall deem proper, and according to my best ability. 
I feel, also, assured that most of them, if they take a just view 
of things, will be satisfied with their future lot. 

" I remain, etc., 


On the 8th of October, the general, at the head of the first 
division, and surrounded by an immense and joyous concourse 
of people, entered Brunswick. The duke rode out on horse- 
back a part of the way in advance to meet him, and had the 
soldiers march to the parade ground. The troops, destined for 
Wolfenbiittel and to whom the general belonged, thereupon 
marched to that city. 

The brave troops brought back with them to their homes, 
their old loyalty to their beloved ruler. Their fame and glory, 
notwithstanding so many unhappy circumstances, not only had 
been kept unstained, but had been brightened by deeds of 
bravery, and still more by exemplary discipline under mis- 




• ♦« 



Cambridge, September 12, 1778. 

Since my report of the middle of June, no alteration has been 
made in the corps of his serene highness. Desertion increased again 
during the latter part of June, and lasted about fourteen days, when 
it ceased again, of its own accord. Since then no case has occurred. 
On the contrary, some of the deserters I'cturned. They were among 
those who deserted last winter and hired themselves out to work on 
the flats hoping in this way to escape the unpleasant life on Winter 
hill. They have now returned in consequence of the pardon held 
out by me to deserters generally. The chief reason, perhaps, for the 
decrease of desertion is the description given by those deserters, who 
have returned, of the treatment they received during their absence. 

But this evil no sooner vanished than it was replaced by another 
equally as bad, viz. ; the great increase of deaths. The extreme heat 
experienced here during the day (which cannot be compared to that 
of Germany), and the cool nights have produced dysentery and scor- 
butic aflfections generally terminating in diseases of the lungs. Fevers, 
also, have robbed us within the last four weeks of from forty to fifiy 
men. My infantry regiment and the grenadier battalion, which got 
along the best in this respect during the last two campaigns, have 
lately had the most deaths. All possible precautions are taken 
against these dangerous diseases. I have established regimental 
hospitals, in which all those who have contagious diseases are kept 
separate from the rest. Whenever salt meat is furnished to the men, 
I buy fresh meat and wholesome vegetables for the sick ; but all this 
does not bring about the desired result. 

In my last report I mentioned that an oflScer had been sent to 
Canada in April, by way of Halifax, to obtain our baggage and 


clothing ; but, although a long time has elapsed since he went, he 
has neither returned, nor have we since heard from him. Should 
these things not arrive myself and the regiments would be placed in 
a bad lix ; for I do not know how the soldiers of the second division 
would be protected from the cold weather. They have l>een wearing 
their uniforms now going on five years. Their coats arc so worn out 
that it is not possible to keep them any longer in repair. Piece after 
piece of cloth actually falls from them. General Phillips has ordered 
blankets from New York, and luis had coats made for the English 
regiments in case the clothing should not arrive from Canada before 
winter. This, however, has been done at the expense of the com- 
manders of regiments, who, by English custom, cloth their own men, 
and who owe them now two suits of clothing. 

As much as I dislike doing anything without instructions from 
your highness, and as much as I dislike putting you to expense, yet 
under the circumstances I shall have to adopt similar means. To 
this course philanthropy and duty alike urge me if I would preserve 
the men whom you have committed to my care. But I will wait 
until the last moment, and I am convinced that your highness will 
not be displeased with me for doing that to which I am forced by 

Our condition is always the same ; nor are we informed whether 
measures have been taken on the part of England for the ratification 
of the treaty. AVe have, therefore, no prospect of delivery. How 
happy would I be if I could receive but a single letter from your 
highness which might serve as a guide for my future actions. 

You no doubt know of all the events which have occurred in the 
American theatre of war, better than I can tell you, everything being 
done to prevent good and reliable news from reaching us. The 
march of Clinton by land from Philadelphia to New York through 
Jersey — which is considered a masterpiece — was carried out with the 
greatest skill. 

You have no doubt, also heard of the affair of the rear guard at 
Monmouth, where the rebels were beaten, but claimed the victory 
for themselves on the ground that the English rear guard, who 
whipped the American general, Lee, retreated in the evening. The 
enemy sustained in this action a great loss in dead and wounded, 
while Clinton lost but few. It is said, however, that he suflfered 
greatly by the desertion, both of English and Germans — a fact that 
is attributed to the acquaintances which the troops picked up among 
the Americans during their stay last winter in the province of Penn- 

Scarcely was Clinton nicely located in New York, Staten and 


Long islands, when the French fleet, consisting of twelve ships of 
the line, and four frigates under Count D'Estaing, entered the harbor 
of New York. Lord Howe, who was too weak (his largest ship 
carried only sixty-four guns), to risk a general engagement, contented 
himself with defending the entrance to the harbor. In this he was 
successful, and D'Estaing, seeing the impossibility of success in this 
quarter sailed for Rhode island, entered the harbor of Newport, and 
blockaded that town from the water side. At the same time a hostile 
army, under Sullivan (who had collected it at Providence), landed 
on Rhode island and attacked repeatedly but vainly the English 
corps under Pigot, who was in a fortified camp near Newport, The 
situation of the latter, however, was extremely critical, and there was 
good cause for alarm unless he was speedily reenforced. 

In the hope of creating a diversion in favor of Pigot, Lord Howe 
with his fleet made his appearance before the harbor of Newport. 
D'Estaing, misled by this strategy, sailed out of the harbor with the 
intention of giving battle to the English admiral. The latter, upon 
this, retreated to a certain distance, and when he thought that he 
had enticed the French admiral sufficiently far, turned suddenly 
around, and, in spite of his weakness, attacked the French fleet, used 
it almost up, and would have gained a complete victory had not a 
terrible storm come up (the like of which has never been known by 
the oldest inhabitant), and separated and dispersed both the fleets. Ad- 
miral D'Estaing returned to Newport after eight days. Two of his ships 
with seventy-four cannon were still missing, and his fleet was in a sad 
condition. In addition to having on board many sick and wounded, 
the hulls of many vessels were pierced by cannon balls, their masts 
and rudders lost, and their sails and tackling destroyed. He imme- 
diately wrote to Sullivan that his fleet, in consequence of the engage- 
ment and the stomi, was so damaged that he could not cooperate 
with the land expedition against Rhode island, nor oppose an English 
fleet that was expected. On the contrary he would be obliged to go 
into Boston harbor to refit. Then without waiting for an answer from 
Sullivan, he sailed into the harbor of Boston in a miserable condition. 

Meanwhile, Sullivan, who had continued the attack on Pigot dur- 
ing the absence of the French fleet, but, notwithstanding the fierceness 
of his attacks and the vigor of his cannonade, had accomplished 
nothing, raised the siege. While departing, he was attacked by 
Pigot (who had received reenforcements from Clinton) and lost more 
than 1,000 men, darkness alone permitting him to cross to the main- 
land, when he made good his retreat to Providence. 

This unsuccessful expedition has caused among the inhabitants 
great discouragement, and an intense dislike to the French. 



The; French fleet is here in t]ieharl)or, but there being no materials 
for its njpair, especially tor the larger masts, it is said that the fleet 
will not be able to put to sea under three months. D'Estaing desired 
to have his troops garrisoned in Boston, but was refused. 25,000 
pounds of flour and 13,000 pounds of meat have to be furnished daily 
to the French fleet, gratis. A bloody fight occurred in Boston, day 
before yesterday, between the French and Americans, in which the 
French officers were stabbed. Mistrust, jealousy and embittered 
liatred on the part of the populace, have caused such a disagreement 
between the allies that an extremely tart correspondence has been 
entered into, and a recurrence of unpleasant scenes may be expected. 

Admiral Breymann is said to have arrived finally (after being so 
long expected), with twelve ships of the line, and to have unitetl with 
Lord Howe. If this is so, the latter's fleet now consists of twenty- 
nine 8hi})s of the line and twenty-two frigates. It is also rumored 
that Clinton has sent off" a great i)art of his army on transports. The 
future will explain this movement. 

In my last report, I stated that the endeavors of the English com- 
missioners have been fruitless, and that all proposals for pea,ce had 
been rejected by congress. 

I remain, etc., 


* * 1 Virginia, March 22, 1779. 

As there is an opportunity of sending off" a letter by the return of 
the ships, that have brought to us our effects from Canada, I report, 
that the troops have made the march of 675 English miles from 
Cambridge to this place, in the roughest season of the year, with the 
most glorious endurance! Desertion, as the inclosed report will 
show, though considerable, has not been as great as I expected, fi*om 
the fact of our having had to march through a district of over 150 
miles long, the inhabitants of which are Germans in good circum- 
stances, and who have preserved the old customs of the fatherland. 
They spent money and used all possible inducements to persuade 
our soldiers to desert and remain with them. The troops have 
manifested the best discipline on the march, a fact which is spoken 
of in America in praise of the men. The copy of the two orders 
issued by Phillips in regard to this, as also his report to Sir Henry 
Clinton, and the one from him to the king, will prove to you that 
the troops, as well as the officers, merit your approbation and favor. 



In consequence of the rumor that the province of Virginia was 
infinitely to be preferred to that of Massachusetts bay, we promised 
ourselves that our soldiers would be placed in a much better position 
than in Cambridge, and would thus be repaid for the fatigues during 
their long march. But greatly to our surprise we find it the reverse 
in every particular. We were sent to one of the most out of the way 
plantations inhabited by poor people, where there is no communica- 
tion with the sea, and where not even the most necessary articles for 
the support of the soldiers, or the smallest articles of clothing could 
be procured for money. On the place which was appointed to the 
men for dwellings, foiTnerly stood miserable huts called barracks, 
but which were now in ruins. Here the soldiers had to spend over 
fourteen days in the snow, which was from two to three feet deep, 
until they had built themselves huts with their own hands, to pro- 
tect them somewhat from the snow and rain. 

It is my duty to report to your highness the care and discipline 
with which the march has been conducted by Brigadier General and 
Colonel Specht during my absence. 

Our sick were transported by water from Cambridge, and will 
arrive here with the remainder of the ships that contain the rest of 
our baggage. I remain, etc., 


New York, February 24, 1780. 

It is impossible for me to describe to your highness my disappoint- 
ment at the possible loss of all my reports, by which I shall be deprived 
of an answer to all my several inquiries which I have repeated in every 
successive report since my last one of 1778, from Cambridge. These 
inquiries were of a personal nature to myself. They were, whether 
your highness considered my presence of more importance to the 
troops of the convention, who have melted down to 800 men, or to 
the active troops who have increased in Canada to 2,000 men ; and 
further, whether I shall, in the latter case, request Sir Henry Clinton 
for a particular exchange, or in the former, return to the convention 
troops in Virginia. And although it will be hard for a man of my 
age to spend his best years — which might be used for the good of the 
service — in mournful captivity with a handful of unarmed men, and 
in a climate which is so detrimental to my health that I shall die if I 
return thither, yet I will be influenced neither by inclination nor 
personal interest, but will implicitly follow the wish of your highness. 

There is once more a new prospect for a general exchange. The 
captured American oflScers here, have at last, after repeated requests, 


fliicceeclcd in inducinir (•on<j^r(*8s to propose negotiations for a general 
cartel. Sir Henry Clinton, on his part, Iuib eonsc^nted to it; and 
General Phillips is ourtirst commissioner assisted by Colonels Gordon 
and Nathern, of the English guard. This new commissioner will 
commence business on the 1st of March, at Amboy. If they had to 
deal with m(?n of faith and truth, I, myB<?lf, could iKflieve, yes and 
even aMure your highness that this matter of exchange would be 
accomplished, and that your tr()oi>s, who have lxK»n in cjiptivity for 
the last two and a half years since the broken convention, would 
soon be exchanged. 

But alas ! I know the principles of congress t(K) well. It would 
seem as if that body makes this olfer only with a view of hushing 
the many voices of the ccmiplaining otficers ; and knowing well that 
such a cartel will only result to their disadvantage and our advantage, 
they will place so many impediments in its way, and ask for measures 
that it will be impossible for us to grant without violating the honor 
and interc^sts of the kiuij:, that the cartel will be defeated. I could 
wish that I am wrong in my opinion. 

Since my hist report of December 3d, in which I announced the 
departure of Sir Henry Clinton with 1,200 men, nothing has occurred 
worth mentioning. No news concerning him has yet reached us. 

A cold spell, the like of which is not remembered by the oldest 
inhabitant, has frozen over the North and East rivers so that they 
can be crossed witli wagons and artillery'. This circumstance greatly 
endangered our long extended chain of outposts from Paul's hook, 
Staten island. Long island. King's bridge and the garrison at New 
York. Each of these posts was exposed to an attack of the enemy 
with superior numbers, and we could not lose one of these posts and 
hold New York. 

At first, it seemed as if General Washington intended to profit by 
this favorable opportunity. He ordered Lord Stirling to cross on the 
ice from Elizabethtown to Staten island, but want of order, missing 
of roads, and other impediments frustrated the first plan of the 
Americans,! which was to surprise our troops on Staten island at 
night ; for on the next morning they found us prepared to receive 
them in our fortifications. The Americans marched up against it, 
but did not feel disposed to storm it, and retired again, the following 
night to Elizabethtown, after robbing the poor inhabitants on the 
island. Brigadier Sterling took several prisoners from our rear 
guard, and many froze to death. 

1 It will be observed that Rledescl does not speak so frequently of the Americans 
as rebels, as he did in the beginning of the yf&r.— Translator. 


This unsuccessful undertaking, on the part of Washington, was of 
great benefit to us, for it reminded us of the danger in which we 
were ; and our defenses were consequently increased two fold. The 
posts of Paul's hook and Staten island, and also the garrison at New 
York, were reenforced. The citizens of this city offered to take arms 
and defend it themselves. Five thousand of them were accordingly 
armed. New York being thus safe, we began to act on the offensive 
with detachments. 

A detachment from Staten island went twice to Elizabeth town, 
driving away the post there each time. A detachment from Paul's 
hook did the same with one at Newark. General Mathew at King's 
bridge, detached Colonel Gordon, with 400 men, to White Plains, 
who either killed or captured a post of the enemy consisting of a 
colonel and 250 men. These sniall expeditions brouglit us in 1 
colonel, 3 staff officers, between 20 and 30 other officers, and upward 
of 300 prisoners. General Washington, also, according to all the 
intelligence we received, threatened us with a general attack, lost his 
offensive spirit entirely, and since then, notwithstanding the best 
opportunities, has undertaken nothing. 

Washington has also refused me permission to send Lieutenant 
Cleve to Germany. 

I again ask for orders as to my future conduct, 

and remain, etc., 



ScndNEWALD, June 11, 1778. 

Right Honorable Sir, and Highly Respected Major General: 

I had the pleasure of receiving your honor's letter, dated April the 
2d, on the 10th of this month at this place. I thank you very much 
for it. Be assured that I heartily sympathize with you in everything 
which has occurred to you in this unhappy American expedition, 
and exceedingly lament the sad fate of our brave men who have 
merited such glorious encomiums from their wortliy chief. But do 
not in the least doubt that I do full justice to your conduct, your 
judgment, and the noble zeal which you have shown, under the 
most critical circumstances, for the welfare of the corps. Be assured, 
also, tliat 1 appreciate the pains you have taken in the preservation 
of this corps in their present lamentable situation, and your energetic 
and unselfish exertions in their behalf. I shall, most gladly, use 


every opportunity to manifest to you by my actions this sentiment ; 
and, it shall always be my delight to be of any service to the corps 
under your command. 

Wishing you all possible success, and assuring you of my perfect 

I remain, etc., 

Crown Prince of Brunswick and Loneburg. 


Brunswick, May 29, 1780.* 
My Dear Major General : 

It has given me great pleasure to hear, through Captain Cleve, 
from yourself and the captured troops ; and I beg you to feel assured 
that you have my hearty sympathy in all your difficulties. I consider 
it, moreover, my special duty to inform you that the people of 
Brunswick, and, in fact, the entire judgment of Germany, do you 
perfect justice. I cannot omit here remarking that I am entirely 
satisfied with Captain Cleve and his whole conduct while here. He 
has given me, in every respect, the most perfect satisfaction. With 
the best wishes for the welfare of yourself and the troops, and with 
the assurance of my high esteem. 

I remain, always. 

Your most faithful friend and servant, 
Charles Willlam Ferdinand. 
To Major General Von Riedesel. 


Brooklyn on Long Island, June 6, 1781. 

I closed my last report of military operations in this quarter, with 
the victory of Lord Cornwallis, near Guilford Court House, all the 
forces of General Green — the latter of whom was completly shat- 
tered. The destination of the corps, under Major General Phillips, 
was then unknown ; but I am now able to report that he has gone, 
with the largest part of his corps, through a complicated manoeuvre, 

' Answered September 10, 1780. 


having marched first into the vicinity of Williamsburg and York in 
Virginia, and thence to Petersburg, where he dispersed a body of 
1,500 rebels, with the loss of a few hundred men. Thence he marched 
against Richmond, when he partly destroyed the enemy's warehouses 
of tobacco, ammunition, provisions, etc. He also burned a few of 
the public buildings, ships and bateaux. The loss, suffered by the 
rebels in this excursion, is immense. All the magazines for Green's 
army were destroyed, and all the important articles destined for the 
French fell into our hands. They are thus almost entirely deprived 
of the means with which to continue the war against us in the south. 

While on his march to Portsmouth (our established post in Vir- 
ginia), General Phillips received a letter from Lord Comwallis 
informing him that the writer, intended marching from Wilmington 
to Petersburg, and inviting his cooperation in this movement. 
General Phillips, therefore, turned back toward Petersburg, where he 
came very nearly intercepting General Lafayette, who, on learning 
of Phillip's advance, retreated to Richmond in the greatest haste. A 
large number of adjutants, aid de camps, quartermasters and 
engineers were found and captured at Petersburg. Here, General 
Phillips, in expectation of the arrival of Cornwallis, established him- 
self, but on the 10th of May, he was taken dangerously ill of inflam- 
matory fever, and died on the 15th of the same month, to the greatest 
sorrow of all who knew him either personally or by reputation. 

The commanding general, Sir Henry Clinton, who, as I believe, 
had, some time ago, a strong notion of going himself to Virginia, 
sent four additional battalions from New York, viz ; two from An- 
spach, and the 17th and 34th regiments as reenforcements for the 
corps in Virginia. These arrived on the 24th of May, at Petersburg. 

Cornwallis's Theatre de la Guerre is bloodier, and, to the eyes of the 
people, seems greater and more heroic than that of other generals 
elsewhere ; but the extremely large territory on the one hand, and 
the enthusiasm of a few of the different partisans on the other, have, 
since the battle of Camden, split up the army in such a manner, that, 
occasionally, we have suffered here and there unpleasant affronts. 
In the hope of finding North Carolina ready to take up arms for us 
in large numbers, Cornwallis was induced to leave all his communi- 
cations and march into the centre of that province. General Green 
and all the rest of the rebels retreated before him. Our army sur- 
mounted all possible diflSculties and fatigues ; but the number of sick 
soon weakened it more than it was strengthened by additions. 
Indian corn, merely ground between two stones, was the subsistence 
of the soldiers, and the month of March, the army of Comwallis 
scarcely numbered 1,500 men. 


Meanwhile, General Green rallied all the troops that could be 
collected in Virginia and all those that General Washington could 
send him from his army, and, believing that ComwalUs was suffi- 
ciently weakened and in need of subsistence, crossed the Roanoke 
and advanced against the latter. CornwalUs then perceived that he 
had advanced too far, and that North CaroUna would not take up 
arms against the rebels to the extent he and every one had been led 
to expect. He beheved it too hazardous, if, indeed, it was not im- 
possible to retreat to Camden — a distance of over 500 miles — with 
a handful of men and before a refreshed army, and he, therefore, 
bravely determined to attack General Green, lie did so, beat him, 
captured his artillery, and made several prisoners. But, although 
Green's army was dispersed, and the country laid open to us, the 
position of CornwalUs was no better than before. He had now 
about 300 men wounded, with no wagons to carry them. This 
circumstance, together with a weary army and a scarcity of provi- 
sions, caused Comwallis to march to Wilmington near Cape Fair 
where some ships laden with supplies for the army had arrived from 
Charleston. He arrived at that place safely, and refreshed his army. 
Although Comwallis knew that Green had retreated beyond the 
mountains into South Carolina, thus endangering the posts he had 
left behind in South Carolina at Camden, Ninety-six, Augusta, beyond 
the Congaree, and at Georgetown, he, nevertheless, resolved to march 
eastward, and unite with the troops of Phillips at Petersburg. This 
he accomplished on the 19th of May. Time must show what reasons 
Comwallis had for pursuing this course, and what he will now do. 

The present situation in South Carolina is as follows: Lord 
Rawdon, with a single regiment of infantry and a few combined 
detachments, is fortified at Camden. A detachment of a few hundred 
men, for the communication with Charlestown, is beyond the Con- 
garee river. Another detachment, consisting of provincials, is at 
Ninety-six ; while Augusta to the left, and Georgetown to the right, 
are occupied by our troops. General Green, whose army was entirely 
dispersed at the battle of Guildford Court House, has rallied another 
army of 3,000 to 4,000 men beyond the mountains, and marched against 
Camden, where he besieged Rawdon for a few days. This brave 
young man came out with his garrison, attacked Green, and forced 
him to retreat. The remainder of our above named posts are all in 
great danger, and the communication between Lord Rawdon and 
Charlestown very much threatened. Should Green persist in his 
desire to conquer South Carolina (Charlestown excepted), it is not 
impossible he may do so while Comwallis is at so great a distance 
from him. In trutli Rawdon's situation is very precarious. 


It is easy to judi^e of the situation of New York and the troops 
under Sir Henry Clinton, by tlie detachments sent over there from 
here from time to time. It is more appropriate to call it a garrison 
of New York and environs tlian an army; and, until the arrival of 
tlie expected reenforcements from England, neitlier a Hannibal nor a 
Turenne could originate or execute offensive operations in this part 
of North America. A portion of the French troops from Rhode 
island have formed a junction with AVashington on the Croton river 
toward the east side of the North river, and act as though they 
designed assuming tlie offensive. I believe it is still uncertain (per- 
haps it is not yet decided), what Sir Henry Clinton intends doing 
aftcu- the arrival of the reenforcements from England — how the two 
generals will agree upon different points — and where the coup (Veckit 
will be. 

Admiral Arbuthnot cruises between Rhode island and the Chesa- 
peake bay with everything that can be called a war vessel. He has 
three objects in view. To prevent a hostile fleet entering the Chesa- 
peake bay ; to watch the manoeuvres of the French fleet near Rhode 
island, and to intercept a French fleet, said to consist of thirty trans- 
ports, with troops, magazmes, provisions, etc., and to be escorted by a 
man-of-war of sixty-four guns, and three frigates. It is hoped for the 
good of the cause, that Admiral Arbuthnot will soon go to England ; 
nor will the expeditions on land and on sea ever be harmonious until 
this change takes place. 

Admiral Rhodes seems to have fallen in love witli the treasures of St. 
Eustace, and , with General Brougham, has his quarters there still. He 
sent Admiral Hood with eleven ships of the line westward to destroy a 
fleet which was expected from France, and which was said to consist 
of many merchant vessels, under the escort of a few men-of-war 
and frigates. But instead of capturing a quantity of booty, he was 
received by twenty- two ships of the line and a host of transports 
filled with men, and had hard work to escape. A naval engagement 
took place, in which a large number were killed on both sides, and 
three of Hood's ships were badly damaged. He was so fortunate, 
however, as not to lose a single ship. For what purpose these large 
reenforcements are sent to the West Indies by France, and what the 
result it will be, time alone will show. I fear they are aiming at 
the south side of this continent, and our establishments in that 
quarter. It is a problem to me, liow the secretary and Lord Sand- 
wich can permit a French fleet to go to sea without at once sending 
adequate reenforcements to those places threatened by it. We 
always lose the time for a campaign ; and the blood of many men 
has to pay for this neglect. 



Tliis news, in ropird to our sitiintion, which huH lM»cn |i^thered in 
every way, and whicli is entirely reliahle, I si-nd to your serene high- 
ness for yonr private u»e. It* it is not so nnderst(KHl it may prove 
detrimental to me. 

1 remain, etc., 


P. 8. The dispatches not having as yet gone, I have still an oppor- 
tunity of adding, that yesterday, the 10th instant, Brigadier Arnold, 
with his own and the Robertson regiment of the provincials, arrived 
here from Virginia, and brought the intelligence that Comwallis 
left Petersburg to attack the Mar([uise de Lafayette at Richmond. 
The latter, however, at his approach, fell back, crossed the James 
river, made a halt between the Ravana and Flouvana rivers, twenty- 
eight miles from Richnumd. It is sjiid that Comwallis intends pur- 
suing him still further and thus become master of Virginia. 



Cambkukje, March 7, 1778. 

I had the pleasure of receiving, by the way of Rhode island, your 
letter of the 8<1 of last month, which you were so kind as to send me. 

I wish I couhl add to this letter a continuation of the journal, 
filled with heroic deeds and ccmquests; but, unfortunately, fate has 
cut asunder the thread of glory, and nothing is left us but to prove 
publicly, at the proper time, that this misfortune was not brought 
upon us by any cause of mine or of the troops who are under my 
command — those frfM/ps^ who have fought four times so gloriously, 
and were praised in the published order of the day. 

The troops are sulfering great tortures in th(;ir present position ; 
but they bear it with great firmness, and without murmuring. They 
are quiet, and conmiit no excesses. Congress refuses us permission 
to return to England ; and unless it changes its resolution, we shaU 
have to remain in this lamentable situation until peace is made. 

Nothing can console us but the sympathy of the public and our 
countrymen. As for me, it will be my only comfort if I can flatter 
myself that I retain the favor of our serene highness in the future. 
To merit this is my sole endeavor. 

I remain, etc., 



Cambridge, March 26, 1778. 

As Colonel Amstruther returns to England on parole, I embrace 
the opportunity to send your highness another letter. I trust that 
the letter, with the documents belonging to it, which I sent by Captain 
Green at the beginning of this montli, has safely arrived. The otficer 
whom General Burgoyne sent to congress to protest against its 
resolution not to allow the convention troops to depart — has returned 
with the curt answer, " That congress will not alter in any way its 
resolution until the king himself has ratified the convention." Thus, 
our unhappy fate is now settled, and there is no other hope of 
escaping this slavery but that of an exchange, which may be put off 
a long wliile. 

Not knowing w^hat may be reported in England in regard to our 
sad situation, I have written the following article for the sake of 
justifying the conduct of mj'^self and the troops in the sight of your 
highness ; and to prove that it contains nothing else than the truth, 
I have had all of the staff officers sign it after a consultation. I keep 
the original for the sake of warding off all the attacks which may be 
made on our troops, or in case the general should seek to lay the 
blame on them, which, however, I do not believe he will do. If 
none of these surmises be correct, and nothing of the kind takes place, 
I will burn the document without making any further use of it, and 
shall take the liberty of asking the same of your serene highness.* 

I have thought it my duty to answer this, and Colonel Amstruther 
will, as soon as he arrives in England, insert, in my np,me, in the 
London Neios the following answer: 

Cambkidge, March 26, 1778. 

To our great surprise we have read in the London News an infamous 
lie in reference to the conduct of the German troops, under the com- 
mand of General Burgoyne, to the effect, that many Germans deserted, 
and many did not fight with bravery. It is not necessary to answer 
such a slander, since the praises which have twice been given publicly 
by (Jeneral Burgoyne to the German troops in regard to their bravery 
and their good conduct, proves the reverse ; while the lists of the 
losses of the army during the last campaign will show that at least 
three Englishmen liave deserted to one German. 

1 This document is the same that is pablished in full in the body of this work, 
undpr the name of Riedescl^s military Memoir. A portion of it is also ^vcn in 
The Letters and J<yamal» of Mrs. General liiedesel.— Translatm'. 


The journal and the reports of the corps, I will scud at the first 

I remain, etc., 


CAMnRiixiK, May 9, 1778. 

Altti(Mi<rli I I'ear that I shall seem presumptuous in troubling your 
highness with nieanin«rless letterfi, the eonse(juence of the barren and 
dreaiy situation in which we unfortunately are at present, yet my 
devotion to your highness, and the remembrance of favors received, 
urge me to go beyon^l the limits of duty. 

Our sad situation — without the least prospect of a change — 
desertion, which arises among the troops from misery, inactivity, 
and the i)ersuasi(ms of many r(?cruiters and the humiliating treat- 
ment to which we are every moment subjected by the inhabitants of 
this country, opi)ress my spirits and enervate my body to such an 
extent that 1 doubt whether I shall ever again sec my fatherland. 
Surely 1 shall not, unless somehai)py accident extricates us from this 
labyrinth. How fortunate 1 would be, had I never seen this conti- 

We amuse ourselves in our inactivity, with all kinds of news, the 
most interesting of which is, a declaration of war between France 
and England, the exi)ected arrival of ccmimissicmers from England 
to make peace with the Americans, and the recall of Lord Howe, 
with the rumor that Lord Amherst will assume the command in 
America. Time will show" whether these news items are true or not. 

Major Latterlohe, who was the duke's agent in England, shines 
here as deputy (quarter master general to Washington. lie had the 
audacity to send his compliments to me ; but I returned him the 
answer that I hud no ac(iuaintance with a man of his character, 

I held it my duty to comnnmicate to Lord (lermain mj' remarks 
concerning the document of General Burgoyne, referring to the last 
campaign. My brother will hand this to you, and you will be con- 
vinced that it is the naked truth. It is sad that English pride does 
not allow the least satisfaction to foreign troops, even, when accord- 
ing to all principles of right and justice they deserve it; as, for 
instance, was the case of our soldiers in the last campaign. 

I remain, etc., 



Cambhidge, June 9, 1778. 

Your gracious letter of September lias given me the greatest joy. 
How changed is our situation, since, happy in the thought of being 
conquerors, we expected to meet General Howe in Albany, and hoped 
w^e would finish the war with that campaign ! In place, however, 
of such splendid prospects w^e were surrounded and surrendered, and 
the fortune of war placed us in our present sad situation. The only 
consolation in our misfortune is, that he who sacrificed us, and who 
was the cause of our calamities, has been recalled. But in my pre- 
sent unhappy condition, I cannot trust myself to speak. I have no 
other news to mention to your highness, except the movements of 
General Clinton, who is a talented and enterprising man, which will 
decide our fate. It is said that he has already opened the campaign 
with success, but this is all rumor, for the correctness of which I dare 
not vouch. 

I wish and hope that our liberation may soon enable me to write 
longer and more interesting letters. For the present I must close, 
assuring you, etc. 


Albany, October 21, 1778.' 

I suppose that your highness has seen the letter from my master, 
the duke, containing the most sad inteUigence in regard to our army, 
and that portion of the Brunswick troops that is with it. My con- 
science is clear. I was only a subordinate general on that occasion. 
No one asked my opinion, and I could do nothing else than carry out 
the orders given me. The damage it does to my name and that of 
my troops, is all that grieves me. My soul is yet so sad, that I am 
unable either to give a detailed report, or send a journal. As soon, 
however, as we arrive at Boston, I shall have the honor to send you 
a faitliful account of the whole affair. I may possibly be blamed, 
and since those who are absent are, of course, always in the wrong, 
raucli wijl be said against me. But I am convinced that your 
highness will stand by me until the whole matter is investigated, 
and until it is evident that the entire cause of this misfortune is due 
solely to poor combinations, and the gracious purpose of General . 
Burgoyne.'^ I remain, etc., 


^This is the date as given in the German edition, but of course it is an error — 
the true date being 1777, the year previous.— Translator. 

2 The meaning of the latter -elause in this last sentence is not clear, unless it is 
intended for irony.— Translator. 



Cambkidqe, Nbtember 10, 1778. 

Eight clays ago I received your gracious letter, for which I thank 
you. I have takeu the liberty of sending you several letters since the 
unlucky day which witnessed the beginning of our captivity. Even 
if only a few of these letters have reached you, you will know what 
has occurred since our unlucky campaign, also the reason of this 
campaign and the unfortunate state of affairs resulting from it.' 
I shall rejoice very much, if I receive but one letter from your high- 
ness this ye:ir alter the news of our misfortune has reached you.' 

Congress having emphatically declared, that it would not liberate 
the convention troops unless the convention, concluded between 
General Burgoyne and General Gates, was ratified by his British 
majesty, and the authority, even, conferred by the king upon the 
commissioners having been rejected, all hope of liberation has 
vanished, nothing save a decisive victory by Clinton can bring us 
hope. That might bring about an excrhange. 

Our troops, with the exception of some vagabonds, who have deserted, 
have borne all their misery and wretcliedness with the most noble firm- 
ness. But since congress has determined, under a frivolous pretext, to 
send our troops from here to Virginia, a journey of 700 English miles, 
in the middle of winter, it is uncertain whether they will bear their 
fatigues with the same endurance. It is equally uncertain, how 
many I shall succeed in bringing with me to our new place of 

We have the best of verbal promises from General Clinton, that he 
will use his utmost endeavors, to have us exchanged as soon as 
possible. Time will show how soon he will be able to carry out his 
promises ; and should I in a little while have the pleasure of writing 
you from New York, then its contents will be more interesting, and 
its style less melancholy. 

Our situation being so miserable, and that which occurs among us 
being of so little interest, I have ceased keeping a journal, but I will 
begin it again as soon as we are liberated, and I will not fail to once 
more forward it to 3'ou with the same punctuality as of old. I have 
sent to my master, the duke, several plans of positions, battles, etc., 
relating to the campaign of 1777, which I am confident he has shown 
to your highness. The fear that the package might be too large to be 

iDuke Ferdinand wrote on the margin of thin letter: " They have all reached 
me, and I have also answered them." 

2 The duke wrote a«fain on the margin : " It is atraiige that no letter of this year 
(1T78), has yet reached him." 


smuggled to New York by an officer, prevented me from sending you 
a duplicate of them. 

My wife and children, who, thank God, are well, desire to be 
remembered to your highness. I am anxious to see how they will 
endure the long journey hence to Virginia ; but I have confidence that 
the same providence, who has so wonderfully protected them hitherto, 
will also care for them in the future. 

I remain, etc., 


New York, December 8, 1779. 

On my arrival here, the 29th of November, I was so fortunate as to 
receive two letters from your highness ; one, dated November 23d, 
1778, and the other, February 11th, 1779. These are the first letters I 
have received since your highness learned of the unfortunate capitula- 
tion at Saratoga. I thank you for the sympathy you manifest, and for 
the assurance of your favor, which is dearer to me than all else. 

You tell me, that one must have firmness under misfortune. I 
have endeavored to keep up good heart in the presence of the public 
and the troops, as though I had forgotten our misfortune ; but grief 
has taken deep root in my heart, and it is altogether impossible for 
me to forget this calamity. My constitution has entirely changed, 
and I have scarcely seen a well day since the event. 

I do not understand why the plans have not been transmitted to 
your highness as I requested. If Gerlach can gather anything from his 
Bruillions, the same plans shall be finished again during this winter. 
I will send them' myself to you, when completed. 

You will wonder at receiving this letter from New York, dated in 
the month of September.* While I was in the back settlements at a 
watering place, General Phillips wrote me by an express messenger, 
that it was the desire of Sir Henry Clinton, that he and I should go to 
New York upon parole. We hastily entered upon our journey and 
are now here, without knowing definitely w^hat is to be done with 
me, or whether my gracious master will consent to my absence from 
the troops. Time and circumstances will enlighten me in regard to 
everything, which is now a mystery. 

The opening of the campaign in this quarter was nothing less than 
brilliant.' Sir Henry Clinton made an offfensive movement across the 

^ Probably a miBpiint for Decetnber, the month in which this letter is dated.— 
'^ Ironical (?).— Translator. 


Nortli river. The two surprises at Stony-point and Pauli-Uook, 
although of little importance, have caused the lunie of the army to be 
considerably diminished, and has inspired the Americans with fresh 
zeal. The capture of St Vincents in Grenada, and the defeat of 
Byron's fleet in the West Indies, have so elated Count D'Estaing, that 
he undertook an attack upon Savanna in Georgia. Nor does he 
confine himself to this alone, hut already speculates upon an attack 
on New York, after his iii'st plan shall have been successful. Hav- 
ing united with General Washington, he began his i)reparations. 
Savanna was in great danger. Sir llenr}' Clinton made a retrograde 
movement for the purpose of concentrating his forces in the vicinity 
of New York ; and every measure for defense is now being taken 
against this combined attack. 

General Prescott has repulsed three attacks of Count D'Estaing 
and the American general, Lincoln. The former was twice wounded. 
He reembarked, and left the coast. Lincoln also fell back with the 
loss of Charlestown in South Carolina. Sir Ryde Parker, in the 
West Indies, has captured eighteen French ships, and from thirty to 
fifty Tdisaeaux^ la<len with i)rovisions, ammunition, and other neces- 
saries for the fleet of Count D'Estaing. 

Ten thousand men are now being embarked here for some import- 
ant destination, where, no one knows. It seems, however, as though 
fortune was again inclining toward us, and the cloud now hanging 
over our horizon would soon lift. God grant it ! 

In case I receive permission from Washington (our parole extends 
only to America), I will send my adjutant. Lieutenant Cleve, to 
Brunswick, to bring me the wishes of my gracious master, in regard 
to myself and troops, and that he may report orally, since it is 
impossible to intrust more to paper in my present situation. He will 
deliver to you the journal from the time I was no longer able to 
send it. He will also be able to answer all questions, which you may 
ask him in regard to it. He has orders to tell you everything that 
he and I know anything about. 

My wife desires to be remembered to your highness. Sir Henry 
Clinton, to whom I mentioned the fact of my writing to you, desires 
me to give you his humblest respects. 

I remain, etc. 


New York, March 25, 1780. 

I hope these lines will meet with better luck than all the letters, 
which I wrote your highness in the \x»svr 1779, and which, apparently, 


have never reacliecl their destination, since Privy Councillor Ferronce 
tells me, in his letter of the 30th of October, that no other letters had 
been received from me at that time, but those written before my 
departure from Cambridge. Yet I have written five letters to you 
between the time of my arrival in Virginia and the middle of the 
month of June. All of these arrived in New York, and were thence 
dispat(;hed to Europe. 

Lieutenant Cleve, my adjutant, is the fortunate bearer of this letter 
to you. He is ordered to tell your highness everything that has 
occurred not only where we are, but in the whole of America. He 
is instructed in regard to all matters, and, indexed, knows every- 
thing that I know myself I have instructed him to tell you every- 
thing without reserve, and to entirely pour out his heart to you, and 
ask your advice upon several matters while he remains in Brunswick. 
I also take the liberty to recommend him to the consideration of 
your highness. He is a very good officer, bears an excellent cha- 
racter, and has rendered important services during my sojourn 
in tliis part of the world, especially since my health has been so poor 
as to unfit me to attend to my usual business. I will not enter upon 
tlie news here in detail, since Cleve can report it verbally and more 
explicitly. He will deliver over to you the journal, and will be able 
to answer any questions you may ask him. 

Captain Gerlach, whom I intrusted with the making of the plans 
for you (which plans, by a misunderstanding were not transmitted 
to you by Mr. Ferronce), has requested me now to send them to 
you by this favorable opportunity. They are not all finished, but he 
will send those that are not yet done by the next opportunity. I 
think it will not be longer than fourteen days. 

I have the pleasure of informing your highness that my wife, who 
sends her humble respects, was delivered of a daughter on the 8th 
of this month. Mother and child are both enjoying good health. 

I remain, etc., 


New York, May 14, 1780.* 

I avail myself of tlie departure of Captain Geismar of the Hesse 
Hanau regiment, who has J)een exchanged, to pay my respects to 
your highness in another letter. I hope Lieutenant Cleve has 
brought you my last letter of March. I am still in the same uncer- 
tainty as regards my own movements ; being here, in consequence 

1 Received June 28, 1780 ; answered July 1, 1780. 



of orders from the comnmndcr in chief, without knowing the reason. 
Neither am I as yet a(!(iiiainte(l with the wishes of the ^Uike, and 
know not, therefore, what to ask of the commander in chief, or what 
to refuse?. I hope tliat ever^'thing will be made clear to me after the 
return of Sir Henry Clinton, and upon receiving the orders of my 
gracious master by Cleve. 

On the 24th of April we receivetl news from Charlestown, which 
leads me to believe that the cit}' and the rebel army will be in our 
power in a few days. It is nevertheless true, however, that since 
th(?n we have not heard a word from th(un, which causes us to feel 
somewhat uneasy. We hear from England that a French fleet 
intends to pay either New York, Charleston or Canada a visit ; and 
since ^larquise Lafayette has arrived with important matters for 
congress, it is not to be doubted that France is about firing a large 
bomb-shell, but it is yet uncertain where it will burst. All necessary 
measures are being taken for the defense of this island ; reenforcements 
amounting to 1,000 men, have been sent to Canada; and I trust that 
Sir Ilcnry will soon succeed in capturing Charlestown. 

Th(i populace of Philadelphia are so enraged against the Marquise 
de Luceran, the French minister, that he was obliged to flee in the 
night to Washington's head quarters ; and matters are at present sb 
mixed, that it may reasonably be expected that the revolution will 
terminate, unless France achieves some success, and thus cheer up 
those who are downcast. The English flag still maintains the supre- 
macy on the West India islands, notwithstanding the arrival of 
French reenforcements. 

I think I shall be able to communicate to you more interesting 
news in the course of four or six weeks, which I both believe and 
flatter myself will be good. For the present, I can only solicit your 
favor for myself and family, and remain, etc., 


New Yokk, June 28, 1780. 

I have good reason to fear that your highness has not received my 
several letters which I sent you, viz : three from Virginia in May, 
June and July. My adjutant was the bearer of the first one. Since 
my arrival here, I have written you in December ; a second time in 
February; a third time in March by my adjutant; a fourth time by 
the Brigantine Le Flay ; a fifth time by Captain Geismar of the Hesse 
Hanau troops, and a sixth time in May. Captain Gerlach had the 
good fortune to receive two letters from your highness since then, 
which confirms me in my doubts that you have never received mine. 


I liave heard with sorrow of your grief upon the death of your 
most ilhistrious brother, my gracious duke and master. Allow me 
to present my condolence on this sad event. This loss adds to my 
melancholy feelings ; for in losing my most gracious duke, who has 
always acted toward me and my family, like a father, I lose a pro- 
tector. My gratitude and affection he will have through all eternity. 
It is fortunate for me that he still lives, who is the founder of that 
liapi)iness, which I enjoy in his service by giving me his support 
during the first reverses in military life. 

By th^ surrender of Charlestown we are filled with fresh hope of 
liberation. Seven generals, about tliree hundred officers, and almost 
four thousand prisoners of war are in the hands of Sir Henry. There 
is now ample inducement for the exchange of the convention troops, 
and our prisoners of war, and we will even then have a considerable 
balance in our favor. General Lincoln, who has asked permission 
of Chnton to visit congress for two months to work for the exchange 
of his garrison, has arrived in Philadelphia. Our destiny depends 
on his negotiation. Should he succeed in inducing congress to take the 
initiatory step in asking for an exchange. Sir Henry will not hesitate 
in holding out his hand to such a desirable project ; and I shall then 
have the pleasure of again bringing together all the troops of my 
gracious sovereign . 

General Clinton is at present encamped at Philipsburg, on the 
White Plains, for the purpose of guarding against a French fleet 
which is expected. If Admiral Graves comes up in time this attempt 
will be in vain. If not, even then, it may yet be confidently 
expected the genius of the general, and the bravery of his army will 
make this the complement of Savannah. It is said that Sir Henry 
is in despair because this watching hinders him from following up 
his advantage by another expediticm into Virginia. 

I hope my adjutant. Lieutenant Cleve, has delivered to you my 
dispatches, and proved himself worthy of your favor. It was truly 
fortunate that providence should have caused me to send him just at 
the change in the administration. He will assuredly bring me the 
commands of my new master ; and I will then not be in danger of 
erring from ignorance of the will of my sovereign. 

I remain, etc., 


1 The dnke wrote on this letter : " I was perfectly convinced that I had answered 
all the letters I have received. It may be that he had not received my letters." 


New Yokk, Peirt. 8, 1780. 

AVill your highness i)('rniit luo to rt*turii you my sinccrcst thunks 
for the kinthicsft you have shown to my adjutant, Captain Cleve,* 
who n'tJirncd here on tlio 2d of S<'i)tcmber ; also for the kind letter 
which you had tlic goodness to write me. 

No news whati'ver has occnirrcd since my last letter. The two 
French armies remahi perfectly inactive, notwithstanding reenforce- 

1 have? been very ill and my recovery was doubted. I now begin 
topiin a little, but am still very weak, and my physician forbids my 
writing. 1 am thus forced to shorten my letter agjiinst my will ; 
but I hope to gain sufTicient strength soon to write you, and give 
more news and details in regard to our preeent situation. 

meanwhile, etc., 


New Yokk, I^^piein1>cr 28, 1780. 

Believing that your highness is interested in every fortunate that 
happens to me, I have the honor of communicating to you, that an 
exchange has been finally signed after a captivity of three years and 
nine months. The negotiations are not yet finished, but I flatter 
myself that this exchange will be extended to all prisoners of war, 
and a portion of the convention officers. Washington, however, will 
will not be in favor of an exchange of all the troops. I am at present 
entirely at the disposal of Sir Henry ; and my departure for Canada 
and entire fate depends on him. As yet he has not informed me what 
his intentions in regard to me are. 

Lieutenant Ilerstal has sent to me the two kind letters of your 
highness. Upon Captain Cleve communicating to me the opinions 
of your highness, I sent the proper orders to Virginia for the return 
of young Schuler and Brigadier Specht. As soon as he arrives here, I 
will do my best to send him to Europe, according to your wishes. 

Since my last letter of last month, nothing has occurred here w^oithy 
of mention. Sir Henry had a beautiful project for taking West-point 
by treason, by which he would have become master of the North river 
as far as Albany. There was an understanding with General Arnold, 
who was in command of this fortified place, and who now serves as 
brigadier general in our army. 

Unfortunately, Major Andre, adjutant of Sir Henry, who had been 

lie had gone over to Germany as a lieutenant. 


dispatclied in disguise to arrange the plan with Arnold and inspect 
the place, was captured. The project was thus discovered, and poor 
Andre fell a sacrifice to the intrigue. Every one feels sorry for the 
poor man ; and Sir Henry was more in despair at losing him than at 
the failure of the undertaking.* 

A corps of 0,000 men, under General Leslie, started on an expedi- 
tion fourteen days ago. Its destination is believed to be south, but 
no one knows anything about it. It is hoped that we shall hear good 
news from it soon. The rebels are much alarmed at it. We captured, 
a few days since, a courier on his way from Washington's army to 
Boston. I send to you a few of the letters which were taken from 
him, and which were printed by order of Sir Henry. The reading of 
these letters will prove to you what cannibals the rebels are, and what 
dissatisfaction and uneasiness exists among their army throughout the 
whole continent. They also do not show that they have any too 
nmch confidence in their new allies. 

There is talk of a second embarkation, and that Sir Henry intends 
to strike a grand blow ; also that Sir George Rodney designs attack- 
ing the French fleet in New York harbor with the cooperation of Sir 
Henry from the land. The future will show how much truth there is 
in these reports. 

Medical advice obliges me to close this letter against my will. 

Believe me, etc., 


New York, Noxeniber 10, 1780.'* 

Hoping that your highness has received the letter which I sent 
fourteen days since by the packet Roebuck, Captain Bournabe, I 
embrace the opportunity, caused by the departure of my adjutant, 
Captain Willoe, for England, to report as follows : Sir Henry, in 
pursuance of your request, has arranged for the exchange of Ensign 
Bode of the regiment Rhetz. Colonel Specht, Captain Cleve, and 
Lieutenant Burgsdorf are exchanged, and I expect them here every 
moment. I hope Colonel Specht will bring with him young Schuler. 
I have requested him to do so in three successive letters. 

Nothing new has occurred since my last, except that we hear that 
General Leslie disembarked on the James river in Virginia, and 

1 In several historical works it is stated that Andrd went in aniform to Arnold, 
but put on a disguise before returning by the advice of the latter. This statement 
secmt* to be erroneous. 

2 Received January 17, 1781. 


captured a considerable magazine at Petersburgh, wliich the rebels 
had erected there for the army of General Gates in Nortli Carolina. 

It seems that this expedition of Leslie is part of the plan wliich 
Cornwallis intends to carry out against the army of General Gates, 
and thus extend his lines in the southern part of the continent. Time 
will show whether the project results well. Your letter to Cornwallis 
has been sent by IVIujor General Von Bose of the Hessians, by the 
way of Charlestown. 

Admiral Rodney will sail with his fleet from Lund}', and go firet 
to the West Indies. Admiral Arbuthnot is still near the French 
fleet in the harbor of the Rhode island. Our fleet from Cork, with 
provisions, etc., whicli is so much looked for, has not yet arrived. 
The army of Sir Henry Clinton has gone into winter quarters, and 
Washington keeps very quiet. 

General Phillips, after his exchange, was placed in command of 
the grenadiers, the light infantry and the 42d British regiment. 
This is the elite corps of the army. He is full of joy, and requests me 
to remember him to your highness. 

I remain, etc., 

RiEDESEL, Major General.* 

BuooKLYN, Jan. 26, 1780.* 

I hope the bearer of this letter wdl have the honor of waiting upon 
you in person. I confess I envy him his good fortune, for I would 
consider myself the luckiest of mortals, could I have this pleasure 
once more in my life. 

Lieutenant Von Meyer of the grenadiers, Ensigns Bode and Fleischer 
of the regiment Rhetz, have, according to the wishes of your high- 
ness, been exchanged ; and you may be assured that the carrying 
out of your orders is my most pleasant duty. 

Nothing worthy of note has occurred since my last, which left on 
the packet, except a mutiny in the' camp of the rebels New Year's 
night. The Continental troops destroyed the park of artillery and 
deserted Washington. Thereupon, Sir Henry, thinking they would 
join him, made a movement with a portion of the army, but these 
gentlemen were neither inclined toward one side or the other. They 

1 It may seem strange to the reader that Riedesel signs himself major general, 
having received the title of licntenant general from General Clinton. This rank, 
however, was only given by Clinton, out of courtesy to the German general, while 
having an English command. It amounted to nothing in Brunswick, and Riedesel « 
therefore, signed himself as usual, mi^or general. 

a Received April 2.3, 1781. 


merely asked for some provisions and the privilege of passing by 
him. It is said that congress has succeeded in quelling this mutiny 
by making promises which it is not able to fulfill. But even if it 
could fulfill them, the rest of the army would demand the same thing. 

At the very moment I am writing this line, news arrives of a 
second mutiny in Washington's army ; the troops having heard 
that the Continental troops from Jersey, who have revolted, have 
offered their services to Sir Henry. Take it altogether, the rebels 
never have been in such a miserable situation as at present ; and unless 
France sends soon considerable support. I firmly believe that this 
war will soon terminate. 

The command here on Long island, affords me plenty of exercise ; 
but although the physician tells me that exercise is the only means 
by which I can recover my health, I feel no especial benefit result- 
ing from it. My headache still continues ; my mind is feeble and 
unable to work ; and a genuine hypochondria causes me to spend 
my days in sadness. 

A part of our convention oflScers and a portion of our prisoners 

from Rutland have arrived here ; and I am making preparations to go 

to Canada with these small reenforcements to assume the command 

there just as soon as the season of the year and Sir Henry allow me 

to do so. 

I remain, 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

Brooklyn, February 19, 1781. 

I hope your highness has received the letters I wrote you last year, 
and that Colonel Specht has handed you my last, written in the 
beginning of this year. I also trust that young Schuler has had the 
pleasure of expressing to you his thanks for the kindness you have 
shown him. I have the honor of forwarding you a letter from Lord 
Comwallis which he sent me with the request to send it to you. Sir 
Henry, also, has especially Instructed me to present your highness 
his best respects. 

I wish that the state of my health was such as to allow me to write 
longer letters to you, especially since the state of affairs here furnish 
me with plenty of matter. The season of the year, which has put a 
stop to all military operations, prevents my sending you new^s which 
Avould gladden your heart. Sir Henry hopes for ample reenforce- 
ments from England ; and the rebels expect the aid of 16,000 French 
troops. The result of this next campaign, therefore, will be in favor 
of that side whose expectations are realized. 


Congrcfts has found nicaiis to suppress tlic two mutinies in its 
anny; but a tliird revolt may be exjwcted (in consequence of its 
inability to keep its i)romises), whicli will be of a more serious nature 
than the previous ones. Arnold, who has marchwl almost 200 miles 
into the interior of Virginia has met with more success than was 
expected, having gained a foothold near Portsmouth at the mouth of 
the James river. 

The noted Carleton * has Ikk-'u Iwaten in the south. I hope it will 
not result badly for the cause as a whole, nor embarrass Lord 

An army cori)s here, (consisting of the flower of the army, has 
received orders to embark. Its destination is not known. I should 
not be surprised if Sir Henry commands them in person. 

I am making preparations for my journej' to Canada, and I believe 
that Sir Henry will fix the time for my departure, as soon as the 
weather will permit. I hope the climate there will be more favorable 
to my health than the climate here, and that I shall then regain the 
health of which I have been deprived for over two years. Otherwise, 
I shall not be able to attend to the work which my duty demands 
of me. 

Sir Henry has had the kindness to allow me to take young 
Beckwith as supernumerary adjutant. I hope that in this I have done 
a favor to his father whom I respect and very much love, and also 
that the chief magistrate of Westphalia will rejoice at it. He is a 
good looking young man, of good talents and character. If he is like 
his brother, the adjutant of General Kniphausen, he will be to me a 
valuable acquisition. I remain, 

RiEDESETi, Major General. 

Brooki.yn, June 13, 1781. 

I was delighted to receive your two letters, one dated November 
14th, at Gottorf, and the other, December, at Brunswick, upon your 
return from Copenhagen, 

A few days since I was again visited by an attack of fever which 
hinders me from making this a long letter. I have had the operations 
of this campaign drawn up by Cleve, and now inclose it. 

The time for my departure for Canada has not yet been designated. 
The admiral refuses to furnish a convoy, but Sir Henry has written 
General Hamilton to send him two frigates, and I hope therefore that 
we shall leave as soon as the ships arrive. 

Probably Tarlcton.— Tramlator. 


Comwallis has again advanced on the road to victory; and if La- 
fayette in any way keeps step with him, it is very likely he may win 
another battle. 

You will, I know, graciously pardon the shortness of this letter, 
but my head is so weak, I cannot write longer. 

I remain, 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

SoRELL, «7i/7^8,1782.' 

Your two letters of May 7th, 1781, and February 11th, 1783, were 
received a week since by the English fleet, and have given me great 
pleasure. The assurance of your favor was a good medicine for my 
poor health. 

I recognize in it my old benefactor * * * 

Nothing of note has occurred in this province since my arrival. The 
misfortune which has befallen Lord Comwallis alarmed us extremely 
last winter ; and all the news we have since received confirms us in 
the belief that we will be attacked both from the sea side and the 
colonies. The change in the ministry has caused a different system 
to be pursued ; and, unless one is a prophet, no one can at present 
foretell what events may take place. We are comforted with the 
rumors of peace. I wish it were so with all my heart, for my health 
fails me more and more every day ; and it only with great difficulty 
that I can attend to the duties of my office. What joy it would be 
if the time had come when I could pay my respects to you in 
person. Until that time arrives, I must be content to do it by letter. 

I remain, 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

Quebec, October 20, 1782. 

I have had the pleasure to receive two letters from your highness, 
one in the French and the other in the German language. 

Although the climate in Canada is more congenial to me than that 
of the south, and although I feel better able to attend to my duties 
since my arrival here, yet I suffer from constant headache, and do 
not enjoy good health for a week at a time. 

Hitherto the situation in Canada has been very peaceable. I am 
busy in reforming the Brunswick regiments, and am in command 
near Wvi border of the colonies. During the summer I encamped with 

1 Kcccived October 19, 1782. 



eight re^iinontrt on the Isle aux Noir, whcrr a fortification has l)een 
laid out, whi(;li is to Ik» stroiijirly Imilt of Htoiu* by our engineer, 
Captain Twiss, and command the district in wliicli it is erected. 

It wems to me useless to send you a Journal of this year's ope- 
rations, since everything we hear is so old that you must have heard 
it long ago !)y way of England. I fear we are on the point of eva- 
cuating New York, and tliat we shall Im? unable to keep anything but 
Canada and Xova S<-otia. Under the last supposition the scene of 
action will be shitled from th(f southwest hen», in which ease we 
might easily Im* attacked next spring. I hope we shall give a good 
account of ourselves. 

Captain Urban (^leve has not yet arrived here, having been sent 
to Halifax, and thence to Penok^tcot; and although I have moved 
heaven and earth to have him come to me at cmcc, I doubt if I shall 
sec him l)efore spring. 

Your obedient servant, etc., 


SoREL, July 2, 1783.' 

I have had the honor of receiving your highnesses two favors of 
dates respectively, October 27, and Januar}' 17. * * * 

We have received orders to l)e ready to embark. This gives me 
a sure hope of lM*ing able soon to pay my respects to your highness 
personally, and I long for the moment to come. 

My health is'of the same vacillating character; now bad and now 
tolerable. My sole hope rests, at present, on the climate. My return 
to the fatherland may again restore my strength, for there I shall 
be exposed neither to extreme heat or severe cold. It is these 
changes that so weaken my nervous system. 

I will not speak to you of the peace which has been made, since 
it costs me considerable to confess the disadvantages connected witli 
it. We must hope that that part of the nation, through whose influ- 
ence peace was made, will also find means to counterbalance 
its evils. The Americans are at present apparently haughty and 
drunk with joy ; but they are candid, they talk sensibly and know 
the real resources of their enemies. At such times they speak diflTer- 
ently and foresee the clouds which are hanging over them. 

Sixteen piasters for each man, and four shillings on every pound 
sterling for beer, are the taxes which have been made, and which do 
not at all harmonize with the prosperity which the inhabitants have 

1 Received October 4, 1783. 


in other respects enjoyed under the British government. The province 
of Canada, also, is too much endangered by this peace ; and I fear this 
has been brouglit about by a false knowledge of her position. The 
English ministry have agreed to give the Americans more territory 
than they really asked for. General Ilaldimand is consequently 
placed in a bad predicament, for he does not know how to satisfy 
the demands of the Indians, nor how to protect the commerce of the 
Highlands. But without being aware of it, I have gone into matters 
which I can state more satisfactorily to your highness when I have 
the honor of waiting on you in person. 

I have had the misfortune to lose in the month of March, my 
youngest daughter, who was born on the Ist of November of last 
year. But, thank God, my wife is very well, and both herself and 
the children desire to be remembered. 

Captain Wolzegen, who arrived here last fall, has gained the 
respect of all. He served with great distinction in New York, and 
gave great satisfaction to Sir Henr}'^ Clinton. Even on a march, he 
has the reputation of being a good economist. 

I remain, etc., 




New York, March 8, 1780. 

I had the honor of receiving at Elizabethtown, your letter of the 
15tli of November, 1779, with the inclosures from Colonel Ross, deputy 
quarter master general at Lancaster, relative to a sum of seven hun- 
dred and twenty pounds overpaid for transporting my baggage from 
Lancaster to Bethlehem, which letter I have not had it in my power 
to answer till now, for want of a proper opportunity to send one to 

Colonel Ross seems to put the fault on Captain Gerlach, my 
deputy quarter master general, as if he had made a particular con- 
tract with tlie drivers without the quarter master general's department 
of your army having taken any part in it. To clear up the real 
fact, I desu-ed a report of the whole transaction of this affair to be 
made to me by Deputy Quarter Master General Captain Gerlach, 
and which I have the honor of communicating to you. 

It is quite clear that Colonel Ross promised to me that the wagons 
for the transportation of my baggage should be given over immedi- 
ately on its arrival at the rate of twelve pounds, each, per day ; and 


that CajHnin (fi'ilach liad to wait five ilayswith(HitlK.*ingili8patch(jd; 
that at last Colonel Itoss ^avo three wagons at thirt}' pounds each 
per day; and that Captain Gerlaeh accepted them at price, see- 
ing there was no other means of jmrsning his route ; that he paid 
the sum of money into the hands of Colonel Ross's clerk, as api)ear8 
b}' his receii)t; that the wagons did not perform more than half the 
journey, or were more than half the number of da^'S out, nor could 
it be my fault that myself, consequently ni}' baggage, by order of 
congress was stopjx'd half way ; therefore, sir, having given you in 
detail the circumstances, 1 leave the whole to your just and equitable 
decisicm, and shall not reply another word if 3'ou believe, according 
to the circumstances, that I should lose the sum I took the liberty 
to demand of quarter master general's department in my former 

letter to you, sir. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

KiED£S£L, Major General. 



New York, March 7, 1780. 
Hir : 

I have read the letters from Major General Greene, and Deputy 
Quarter Master General Ross, and have the honor of reporting to you 
the whole of the transaction for the wagons, which I received 
through means of Colonel Ross. 

The 4th of October, 1779, I arrived at Lancaster : the first thing I 
did there was to wait on C'olonel Ross, requesting him to procure me 
three wagons to trausi)ort the baggage to Elizabeth Town. Four 
days after I again went to Colonel Ross, who had not yet been able 
to procure the wagons. At last I proposed to pay something more 
than what Colonel Ross had promised to get them for General Ried- 
esel, which was at £13 each per day. At length, on the 8th of 
October, Colonel Ross let me know he had sent an express for three 
wagons, and that they were just arrived; on which I went to 
Cohmcl Ross's oflice to settle for the said wagons, and his clerk, 
Mr. Brandon, informed me, that they came to thirty pounds, each, per 
diem ; I therefore found myself necessitated to pay that sum, which 
I did into the hands of his clerk, according to receipt in my posses- 
sion ; but I never made any particular agreement with Andrew More- 
land or David Ilayes. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

J. D. GEiiLACir, Deputy Quarter Master General. 



Most Illustrious, Most Gracious Prince and Master, Hereditary- 
Prince : 

Due devotion to the person of your highness, and my adverse fate, 
are the barriers which have prevented my infoimiug your highness of 
my good fortune in having under me your regiment. It is worthy of all 
praise, and, without gainsay, is the finest body of troops in America. 
The same thing may be said of the company of artillery, which has 
been attached to it since the army has been divided. I sincerely 
wish that I had had something to do in carrying out the plan of 
operations that I might have made the fate of these fine and brave 
troops more pleasant than that w^hich they have had to share with 
the northern soldiers since the convention of Saratoga. 

Real attachment to the troops, and a desire to have justice done 
them, are the reasons for my troubling you with these lines. I am 
anxious, also, to give my testimony to the courage and good feeling 
which the officers and men have shown on aU occasions. I com- 
mend them to the favor of your highness. 

I have made it a point not only always to see to it, that these troops 
received their just dues, the same as those of my own sovereign, 
under my special command ; but when individual soldiers have been 
separated from their regiments, I have given them food and charged 
it to the credit of the Brunswick military fund. Thus, those Hessians, 
who have escaped from their captivity, have been furnished by me 
with pay and clothes, and sent by my order to Canada. Inasmuch as 
I have acted thus from devotion to yourself, as well as a sense of 
duty, it would be pleasing to know that it meets with your approval. 

I consider it also a duty for me to recommend to your gracious 
favor the bearer of this. Captain Von Geismar, who has the consent 
of Brigadier Gall to go to Hanau. He has not only attended to his 
own duties with the greatest diligence, but, with the permission of 
his chief. Brigadier General Gall (under whom he served as brigade 
major), he has sought all possible opportunities to distinguish him- 
self, and manifest his zeal for the service. On one occasion, for in- 

* This draft is without date or place. Very likely it was written from New York, 
May 14, during the year 1780. 


Btancc, a liorsu was shot under him on the 19th of September, 1777, 
during the engagement near Freeman's farm, at which time he served 
with me as a volunteer. 

SoUciting the kind favor, etc., 


Ansieer to tlie ahore, 

IIanau, Sept 5, 1780. 
Sir — Especially dear Lieutenant General : 

Captain Geismar handed me, on his arrival here the 18th of last 
July, your kind letter of the 14th of May. 1 rejoice at its contents, 
and am pleased at having an opportunity to render you (as I have 
long been desirous of doing), my gratitude for the manifold care and 
attention which you have shown my infantry regiment, and the 
artillery company attached to it, as long as they were under your 
command. Colonel Von Gall has repeatedly mentioned to me the 
many kind actions which were shown to him and his men by you; 
and Captain Spangenberg confirmed this when he was here last 
year. I render you, therefore, with sincere pleasure, my true thanks. 
I should feel very thankful to a Hessian for doing this ; how much 
more so then, to a man whose name reminds me of the many services 
his ancestors have rendered to my house. I shall appreciate them 
at all times, and will endeavor to show you the esteem and true 
friendship which I shall always cherish for you. 

I remain, lieutenant general, your humble servant, 

William, Hereditary Prince of Hessia. 
To Lieutenant General Baron Von Riedesel, of the Princely House of 

Brunswick and Wolfenbtittel. 

Hanau, Dec, 31, 1780. 
My Noble and very dear Lieutenant General : 

I received by yesterday's mail your kind letter dated at New York, 
the 1st of November last, and observe with great pleasure that you 
were exclianged the 26th of last October, and have received orders 
to go to Canada. But as much as I rejoice at this, it was very un- 
pleasant to learn that my colonel, Gall, has left the regiment without 
my permission and knowledge. I send under this date the order for 
him to go with you to Canada, as soon as the season of the year 
will allow it, and take there the command of my regiment. He 
must not dare come to Europe. 

I commend him, nevertheless, to your care, and request you at the 


same time to take the necessary steps with the authorities. Also, do 
me the favor to ask General Phillips, in my name, not to allow any 
of my officers (who have been captured) to k^ave tlie regiment unless 
a written permission signed by me is shown him. I would again 
earnestly thank you for the kindness shown to my men, and com- 
mend them all (includuig those in Canada), to your kindness in the 

I trust you have received my letter of the 5th of last September, 
and remain with esteem and sincere friendship, 

William, Hereditary Prince of Hessia, 
To Lieutenant General Von Riedesel of Brunswick. 

Hanau, August 26, 1781. 
Especially dear Major General : 

Your letters of the 20th of February, 28th of April, and 9th of May, 
were all handed me nearly at the same time. 

I thank you very much for the news they contain, but especially 
for the care shown my troops, and your devotion for that nation 
from which your whole race has sprung. From this view I estimate 
more highly your exertions, being convinced that personal devotion 
to me, and an earnest Hessian heart, are at the bottom of it. 

Judging by your last letters that you will go to Canada in the 
course of this fall, I send this letter tliither. 

I hope I will soon receive the information for which I asked you 
in my last letter (one copy of which I sent to New York, and one to 
Canada), in regard to Colonel Gall who has been dismissed. I depend 
on your integrity not to hide anything from me ; for I have resolved 
to go to the bottom of this cutting down of the officers* rations in 
Canada, and, for this reason, have instituted the strictest investigation. 

I was not a little surprised at the intelligence yon gave me of the 
unexpected arrival of Lieutenant Thomas with the transport of 
recruits. They left here in the spring of 1780, and I had hoped that 
they were long since in Canada. I hope the troops have departed 
with you for that province and will safely anive there, and that 
Lieutenant Thomas has again started from New York for Europe. 

It has been very unpleasant for me to learn of the measures 
adopted by the rebels in regard to the convention troops, in separating 
and exchanging the officers. I pity the poor prisoners with all my 
heart; and fear, with you, that this separation will have many sad 
results. Yet I flatter myself that, before your departure from New 
York, you did everything in your power for them all, and especially 


for those that belong to me. I commend my troops in America to 
your care in the future. 

I remain, with sentiments, etc., 

William, Ilereditar}* Prince of Ilessia. 
To Major General Von Riedesel. 

P.S. — Just as I was closing this letter, I received yours of the 6th 
of last July, by which I see that you had not yet left for Canada, and 
that the time for your departure was not yet fixed. 

In regard to the dismissal of Colonel Van Gall, I know that lie 
himself requested his exchange, and it was, therefore, his duty (the 
same as other ofticers of my regiment), to have remained in New 
York until he could have accompanied you to Canada. I cannot 
therefore, m}- dear general, blame you in the least ; but, on the contrary, 
must thank you for your readiness in obliging Colonel Gall, as you 
of course, could not but suppose that his journe}' hither was under- 
taken with my consent. In respect to the future exchange of several 
oflicers of my regiment, and in regard, also, to the measures that were 
taken for the convention troops, let me say that I shall have to be 
satisfied with them, since they were ordered by the king. Neither 
will I be the cause of further alterations.* 

Hanau, March 26, 1782. 
Sir — Very dear Major General: 

Lieutenant Thomas handed me, on his return, your letter, dated 
on Long island, July 21st, 1781. I thank you for the good advice 
given by you to this officer, to return to Europe ; for his journey to 
Canada would have been altogether unnecessary under the altered 
condition of affairs. Afterwards, in fact, only a few weeks since, I 
received your other letter, dated at Quebec, October 20th, 1781. By 
this, I perceive that you have safely arrived in Canada with the meu 
whom you took with you to New York, and that, after your arrival, 
the command of all the German troops was given you by General 
Haldimand. This makes the knowledge of your safe arrival in 
Canada the pleasanter to me, since I know that my troops there are 
again under your command. I commend them to your best care and 
strict supervision ; and I beg you not to overlook the least irregularity : 
but, on the contrary, to hold my staff and other officers to a strict 

1 The hereditary prince, according to this postscript, did not receive this letter, 
containing his justification of Gall, nntil the letter was finished. He had been 
dismissed for returning to Europe without the consent of the hereditary prince. 


porfonnance of their duty. You will, tlierefore, oblige me very imich, 
if you will see not only that the service of the king does not suffer, 
but that everything that is due my troops be given them, both of 
money and of rations. But if, notwithstanding your preeautions, an 
officer is guilty in this respect, I expect of you as a native Hessian, 
and a good countryman, to inform me at once that Hessian honor may 
be preserved. I shall be especially grateful to you for pursuing this 

As I have introduced the Brunswick method of paying the first 
battalion of my regiment which is in Canada, but have not been able 
to obtain a correct idea of the nwdus operandi^ I request j'ou to send 
me a detailed account by the first opportunity. 

I am under infinite obligations for the news contained in your 
favors. I inclose a copy of my letter sent you on the 26th of August, 
1781, in case you may not have received it. 

Please inform my staff officers of the time of the sailing of the 
packets that they may wTite me. 

Lieutenant Le Blanc, who is destined for my corps of yagers, and 
who comes with sixty-two recruits for said corps, will hand you this 
letter. I hope it will find you well, and I remain, etc., 

William, Hereditary Prince at Hessia. 

WiLHELMSBAD, Octobev 27, 1782, 

Sir — Very dear Lieutenant General : 

Your letter of July 8th, with the inclosed documents, I received 
on the 21st of October, this month. 

You have given me great pleasure in sending these papers, and 
the interesting news concerning my troops. I ask that you will, as a 
special mark of friendship, keep a strict watch over my officers that no 
excesses be committed. If any such however, do occur against my 
express wishes, kindly inform me at once that they may be stopped and 
order once more restored. I shall consider this an act of particular 
friendship, and a great attention to the Hessian service. 

You will have the goodness to forward the inclosed letters to their 
proper destination. 

I will endeavor to repay these kindnesses whenever an opportunity 
occurs, and remain 

Your earnest and well disposed friend, 

William, Hereditary Prince at Hessia. 




Tlie staff and other officers of the Ist battalion of the Ileasia Hanau 
rcn^inient, Erhprince, and artillery, are hereby ordered to go by the 
first oi)i)ortunity after their exchange, with the knowledge and consent 
of the commanding anny of Great Britain, to the detachment of the 
Ilesst? Hanaii regiment, Erhprince, and artillery, now in Canada. 
They are to carry out this order fully, unless infomieil by the 
generals, that the subaltern officers and privati^s, still in captivity, 
will also soon be exchanged. In this latter case, they are to remain 
in New York without our special order ; but under no consideration 
are they to return to Euroi)e. 

William, Hereditary Prince at Hanaa. 

Hanau, January 28, 1781. 



Quebec, January 7, 1782. 
Bear General : 

I was pleased at receiving your " last letter. I have had an oppor- 
tunity of speaking with the premier ' in regard to your coming here. 
He said that the roads would be good toward March, when it would 
be pleasant to travel, and he hoped to see you here, etc , etc. But 
keep this dark. Your wife, whom every one loves, will be a thousand 
times welcome here. I would strew her road with flowers, if there 
were any. I intend setting out on my pilgrimage on the 25th or 26th 
instant. As for the rest, everything is quiet. Next Wednesday, we 
are to have a ball ; and the day following, a concert. The whole price 
of admission is twelve and a half piasters. 

1 The Hessian major general, Von Loos, distinguished himself several times 
during the American war. The reader must excuse us for giving passages (which 
are occasionally somewhat coarse), as they are in the original. Had we omitted 
these passages, the letters would have lost much of their originality. Through all 
this coarseness, however, shines the earnest, honest, and open soul of a blu£f, old 
soldier. Riedcsel, for these qualities, numbered him among his most intimate 
Mends. It seems that while in Canada, the old bachelor, notwithstanding his old 
age and sickness, was captured by the beauty of a young lady, and had in his head 
an idea of marriage. 

^ The word here used in the original is the second person singular. Thy {deine)^ 
an expression of familiaritv and intimate friendship. — Translator. 

^ The Canadian governor. 


Next Saturday is a conversation,. We plji}^ and at Icn o'clock a 
side-table is set out with cold, fried meat, ham and cake, and each 
one eats on bis own hook.* Besides the regular members, there are 
invited guests. Eight days since it was held at Cochrane's, and day 
before yesterday at Murray's, who, with Calwell, has the gout The 
next one will be at Launandiere. 

There is no news here; most everything jogs along at the old 
gait. I wish you health and good weather for your journey. I feel 
this miserable weather in my stomach and nerves. My Ritter' is 
sick, and I fear he will have the consumption. 

By the way, it is said that there will be a ball at the premier's; 
The people here kill themselves with eating. Clarke intends visiting 
the country in February, and you will then have a new guest. 
Whether he will travel as one who knows the country, and return 
a learned man, time must show. 

My regards to Lady Fritz and the dear children. 


Quebec, Feb. 14, 1783. 
Dear General : • 

Although my stomach is again all right, my mind is still dark. I 
can, therefore, only report briefly that Mardy Oras has been cele- 
brated as usual, but sans souper f 

General Clarke left here last Monday with Tistal. 

The concerts still continue, but on the 37th will take place— N. B, — 
a heretic ball; and week after next, one for the ladies at the 
premier's. * * * * * ** * 

Be sure and not forget to inform me at once when Clarke starts 
from Sorel to Camaraska, in order that I may go on the frozen rivers 
in my sleigh ; otherwise, I may be prevented by the season of the 

Now ask Lady Fritz what they say of me ? 

Everything that is good. 

Do they miss our company ? 

Yes, very much. 

Do they love our children ? 

Who would not love them. 

Do they miss Cordelia ? ' 

1 Literally " out of Mb own flst,^^ an idiomatic expression answering to the one in 
the text.— Translator. 

' A Hessian brigadier major, and adjutant to General Loos. 

3 A young and amiable Canadian lady who frequently visited the Riedesels. 


Ah, yes! Ah, yes!* 

And one sin^ the air, 

Cordelia ! Cordelia ! 

I would that 3'ou were here. 

I know nothing morQ to write to day, except my respects. More 

in the future. 

Your servant, 


P. S. By the way, has the handkerchief of Dame Jeanette been of 
any service to you ? She wants you to send her in place of it, a cast 
off cape of your wife. 

St. Acjnace, Feb, 17, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I received your letter on my return from Camaraska. It is easy 
for you to laugh at the trouble I have in regard to the Brigadier 
tracta?n^nt, for if it does not continue, then the war will begin afresh, 
as the pay rolls are to be handed in anew. Then, in case the pre- 
mier strikes off the pay, I can claim no more than the pay of a major 
general and refuse the pay of a brigadier ; and, inasmuch as I desire 
to be on good tenns with the old fellow, this cUi capo of a misunder- 
standing (aside from the loss) would be very unpleasant. 

I have much trouble with the dmnken capers of Peusch. I shall 
go there the beginning of March. We have no bridges this year, 
and on a canoe I am a poltroon even when there is no danger. 

The Zerbstans I found in very good order, and in fact am particu- 
larly pleased with them. Fountain river is a little Eden. It has a 
splendid location and very pretty houses. Thank you heartily for 
the news, only let the news of peace continue. How is Monsieur 
McLean ? Give the old Foie-spitter my respects. How is Bamer, 
who is with St. Leger, Madame Johnson and Cammel ? and, finally, 
Ui belle CoriHtance a perdu son inorceau de puceUa^e. 

And now you are once more in possession of our dear Cordelia. 
Kiss her fifteen times in my name. I heartily rejoice to hear that 
your dearest Lady Fritz is getting better. No one can be more 
interested in her welfare than I am, although every one honors her, 
and she deserves it. 

I cannot brag over my health. I have little sleep, and no appetite, 
although I ride in a sleigh from three to four hours every day. 
With this object, I have bought me the third light bay horse. By 
the bye, do, I beg, take pity on my poor beard and my blood-letting, 
for I have not a single army surgeon who understands it. Have you, 
among your recruits or privates, one who is an expeil; at this business ? 


If you Imve, I will iiiako liim an army surgeon and give you a for- 
eigner in exchange. Kessler, whom I promoted to corporal in con- 
sequence of your recommendations, says there are some anu)ng your 

Adieu, dear friend. One thousand compliments to your whole 
house from the roof to the cellar. 


La Praikik, }f<irch 1«, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I arrived here yesterday in fifty minutes, and went at once with 
Kreusburg to the Indian village of Chachenuagua. Dined well at 
noon ; listened to a duet of Bockerini in the afternoon ; played whist ; 
souped d la Bichamel; went to bed at ten o'clock ; got up at seven ; 
drank tea ; and at nine shall start for St. Johns. Thence to-morrow 
for Sorel, and so on, when I shall be rid of all manifestations of 
kindness and friendship. 

I suppose that Lady Fritz is now in Montreal. Pray give her my 
respects, as also, la belle Cordelid and the children. Kreusburg 
desires to be remembered, and I am, dear general. 

Votre obeismntf 


My regards to friend Specht. 

Quebec, March 38, 1783. 
Dear General : 

You have my humblest thanks for all the military honors shown 
me. I pray you to hand to Chamberlain Von Poellnitz this golden 
souvenir set with brilliants, also my portrait surrounded with rubies. 
All joking apart, Poellnitz is a " tip top " man ; and if I were as 
rich as my sovereign I would — well — 

I arrived here last Sunday, the 34th, about six o'clock. The roads 
were very bad, especially the passage over St. Anna, where I came 
very near drowning. 

I was overrun at St. Johns with marks of politeness ; and, so far as 
the weather allowed, every attention was shown me, so that I can 
mention exactly every tavern ; for I visited them all with General 
Clarke, in his covered carriole, at Montreal, St. John, etc. 

How is Lady Fritz ?^ Deposit my thanks and respects on her 

> Mrs. General Riedceel. 


corns. La belle Cordelia, eu couleur de rose, m'occupe jour et nuit. 
Le diable emporte ce 59 ; s'il j'etoit 39. Allons, un enlevement pour- 
vit arriver. Mille conipliin. k la belle, comme aussi k votre chere 
quadrille et suite. 

The conversations will soon be again all the rage. On the 6th of 
April, there will be a grand asacmhUe at my house; and on the 9th 
all the bachelors will give a ball at Fitzgerald's. Cossane has 
entered a monastery, and will be a Franciscan monk in six months. 

Praetorius must drill diligently. I constantly hold up to him your 
two regiments. IIow is our premier? when will he come? How 
are you all? An answer to all this is expected by 

Your faithful 


Quebec, April 3, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I have just received your dear letter, and attended to the one 
inclosed. I am very sorry that Poellnitz lost his bet. How could 
the crazy devil ever get it into his head to reckon on my generosity, 
when I have not a drop of that quality in my veins? If Lady Fritz 
had her dozen tea-cups again, instead of the broken ones, she might 
thank Grod. 

Every body here wants either a peace or an armistice ; but your 
letter foreshadows important summer events. If you anticipate any- 
thing certain in regard to a siege, tell me mhrosa; for I have 9,000 
thalers in cash with me, which I should like to place in a safe place. 

The people here give their bread with more grace and good will 
than those of Montreal. I like Quebec a thousand times better. 
What say you and Lady Fritz ? 

Cochrane {mais entre nous), not to have much money in the fund 
though he has some with the merchants. In case of a siege, however, 
the latter will not *' shell out." He tries to borrow money, but may the 
devil trust him. He tells me that if the city is besieged, I am an 
undone man. This, however, is entirely between us. 

Holland went to Montreal this morning. He is reported to liHve 
betrayed some state secrets. He is very likely afraid of the whip, 
and will try to make it all right with the premier by denying it. 
He is — well, you know him. 

Here is a bill of fare for Lady Fritz's scrutiny. I recommend both 
it and myself to her. 

J'aurois souhaite de tout mon coeur que sa presence auroit embell^e 
ou illustr^e ma fete, et que la belle Couleur de Rose auroit mise tout 


le coeur en contributions comme elle a a Montreal et Sorel Cordclie 

tons les etre masculin. 

My respects to the dear children and suit, especially to my detir 

Chamberlin. Willoe shall return the bet if ever I become lieutenant 

general. Borrowing is not giving. 

I am, as always, 

Votre fidele serviteur, 

I have over thirty ladies. Oh dear I 

Quebec, April 11, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I thank you for your last letter. The first leaf was torn off and 
thrown into the fire out of joy. ***** 

Entertaining, as I do at present, thirty ladies and eighty gentlemen, 
you will excuse me for finding them a little hors la saiaon. What a 
pleasure there is in being able haughtily to say to an ungrateful and 
imfeeliug ruler and to my overbearing minister, " I will not serve you 
any longer." 

Now let us speak of la chere Couleur de Rose. Le cMur commence d 
battre. Had I but seen her twenty years ago ! But it is now too 
late, and I will therefore bid adieu to all ideas of marriage. Jeanette * 
" don't see it," and declines with thanks ; and, knowing me, exclaims, 
" Well, brigadier, what would you do with the young and lovely girl? 
The prudent, good and dear General Riedesel is smarter than you I " 
A glass of Madeira being on the table just then, I drank your health. 

But as the messenger has arrived and intends returning at once, I 

must close. My respects to Lady Fritz, et d ma trea chkre et belle 



Quebec, May 2, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I hope my last letter has safely reached you. There is no news 
except we are expecting the ships hourly. 

I see that you are often engaged in fishing. Here there are no fish 
whatever. Catch me two or three gold fish and pack them up for me. 
If they cost anything, I will pay it ; if not, so much the better. Li any 
case they shall be eaten to your health. 

The premier is daily expected. He is said to be extremely 
attentive to the French in Montreal, which greatly pleases the English. 

1 Looses boiiBekeeper. 


Quebec, May 20, 1782. 
Dear General: 

A ship from Liverpool arrived at Pic on the 18th inst., bearing a 
dispatch to General Ilaldimand. A merchant, by the name of Shaw 
reached here yesterday. You will see that a new ministry has been 
formed. The commons and the people have done it! When the 
news of the loss of St. Kiffs arrived there, everybody was excited and 
exclaimed, " Another ministry or no king ! " This helped. Sir Guy 
Carleton has been appointed commander in chief, and takes Clinton's 
plivce. Major Williams is in command of the artillery in New York. 
Thus, Mr. Bean remains here. 

At the time of Shaw's departure it was rumored that some diffi- 
culty had arisen between Sir Guy and the ministry, and that the 
former had refused to accept the command. Si fabuUi 'cera est 
Minorca is lost ! Oh dear ! New York, it is said, will be the place 
d^anms; and everything is on the defensive. The English are about 
to leave the islands. Many transports are coming from England to 
New York and this place. What say you to all this ? CuttiwvLS 
notrejardin ! 

During the last four days I have been very sick with fever. I had 
forty passages in sixteen hours I but Dr. Berens has made me better. 
How is Lady Fritz ? God preserve you both and your dear family. 

*** * * * « * * 

Have you heard anything of the German or Hanoverian troops 
coming over here ? Write me about it. Now don't misunderstand 
me. I mean to say, that Haldimand is so in love with his Quebec 
garden and Montmorency, that I am surprised at his long stay in 

It is said that several English ships are at Gueph. I mistrust 
I shall have to go to New York with my three companies. Victory ! 
There are three hundred pipes of Madeira at Gueph. It'll be cheap 
now ! Give Murray the commission : he understands it. 

I kiss the hand of Lady Fritz, and the underlip of Bella Rosa. A 
thousand compliments to your children and Major Dore (Cleve). 


Quebec, May 27, 1782. 

Dear General : 

* * * The ship Bellona, on which were letters and 

silver for me from London, ran on a rock near St. Roc, twenty 

leagues from here, and sunk in five minutes. Six sailors were 


drowned ; the rest saved themselves the best they could. It is hoped 
the letters and several other things will be saved. Five more ships 
from Europe will arrive here this day. The Pandora^ which accom- 
panies (C transport with German troops, soon after leaving Halifax, 
met a ship of twenty-two guns, attacked and captured it. She 
returns with the transport for repairs, and will probably, therefore, 
not be here before June. An express messenger from Halifax 
brought this news to us to-day. Now tell me, are these German 
troops from Brunswick? Perhaps they are my two companies, 
which are expected. If this is the case, they must, in pursuance of 
orders from the premier, go to Sorel without stopping here, I have 
protested against it. The regiment ought not to be divided in this 

I hope, with you, that we shall be at home in a year. 

Your faithful 


P. S. — Who gives the dinner on the fourth of June * at Quebec ? 

Quebec, June 13, 1782. 
Dear General : 

* * * The premier went to Montmorenci this 

afternoon. The city was illuminated in the evening,'* on which 
occasion the sailors threw stones in the windows of the French 
whose houses were not lighted up. 

I am anxiously awaiting your arrival on the 19th instant ; and I 

offer you my quarters during your soldier's tour. I shall consider it 

the greatest honor if my friend will accept of them. My respects to 

Lady Fritz, and the rest of your dear ones, Cordelia, of course, 



In Camp near Point Levi, July 13, 1782. 
Glier ami : 

Your dear letter of the 8th reached me only Thursday morning. 
I inclose a copy of my letter to the premier, and expect from you 
either approbation or censure. It is already mailed, but as yet I have 
received no answer. 

I am contented in my camp. I have in a farm house, besides a 
good view, a nice room, bedroom, kitchen and stable. But no one 

» The king's birthday. 

2 Probably in honor of the victory of Rodney and Hood over Admiral Grasse. 



gets anything to eat. Bankruptcy is declared. The dear God keep 
every one from becoming a major general in Canada ! Unless the 
premier conies first, I shan't call on him, even if I should stay here 
six hundred thousand years. A bad quarrel, however, for a courtier. 
Your auditor has a droll way of getting a wufe ! Adieu. 


P. S. — Kreuzburg will tell you the news regarding the ten thalers 
per deserter ; both auditors of the different nationalities will have 
trouble. We, however, have nothing to do with it. Those two and 
our sovereigns must settle it between them. 

Point Levi, Sept. 26, 1782. 
Cher ami : 

I thank you very much for the news, but I still believe we shall 
have peace. 

The firing of the pelotons ought most certainly to have been 
stopped at once ; but the terrain was too small, and I was obliged 
to give liauschenblatt time to retreat, and it was therefore necessary 
that the firing on that spot should not be interrupted. The main 
thing in executing such manoeuvres, are quick evolutions, rapid 
movements, good positions, turnings, strategy, aUignements, and 
marching. Firing makes only noise, and amuses the unmilitary 
spectators. I have another manoeuvre which I intend showing to 
the premier, who, by the way, to the astonishment of every body, 
is polite, when he comes here. I will send it to you when finished. 
The growler, however, will not allow us to have huts, but the com- 
manders will send in a remonstrance which I will hand him with my 
remarks. Only think, of having tents which have already served 
three summers, no straw, a little wood, and no blankets ! Camaraska, 
will, in all probability, be my winter quarters. 

What is ydifr opinion in regard to your light and fuel in winter? 
Can I not demand a proper house suitable to my rank ? I perfectly 
agree with you on the matter of subordination, and I rejoice we think 
so much alike. 


.19 October, 
Clier ami: 

My oxen, sheep, cattle, pigs, capons, and ducks were killed for 

breakfast, on Thursday. It was good weather. The guests — but 

read the text in the Bible. I cannot make any manoeuvres at present, 


as the territory is all under water. 1 inuHt have a Iiouhc rorrcspoiul- 
ing with my rank; otherwise, I shall forelbly take one and ^ot 
myself again into trouble. 


P. S. — Answer me. It is damnable that the old fellow * should 
make a secret of the winter (juarters. This eauscvs me a loss of sixty 
piasters, which I have to pay to Madame Lanandlere, ae(!ordlng to 
contract, for house hire per quarter. Dukcj Fcirdlnand had secrets, 
too, but he furnished free quarters. It is ejisy for you to laugh : you 
live in your manor house at Sorel, free and ea<y 11 k(? a * * * 

Capk 8t. Ionack, Novefnf}er 4, 1783. 
Clier ami : 

I will briefly inform you that I am in (puirtcu's here ; also, that to 
my sorrow, all my most valuable effcjcts wcjre covcjn^d with sand and 
mud during the last storm between the first and second. The ship 
stranded; and I have now no dry bed, clothing or shirts. All my 
winter supplies are destroyed, and I have, therefore, nothing to eat. 
My sugar, tea and cotfee are also entirely destroyed. Hitter and 
Jeannette sit naked near the stove. 

This is all on account of the premier, who, without rainon (le 
guersj sends the troops into winter quarters. Not a single year has 
passed that the soldiers have not lost their baggage. If there were 
any necessity for it, or if the war, or other circumstances, demanded it, 
d la bonne Iieure; but to imitate the German Frederick in Canada, is 
not only ridiculous but cruel. Who pays the poor subaltern for his 
losses? The farmers howl, too, because, owing to the terrible roads, 
their horses, harnesses, carts and everything else go to the devil. It 
cannot be on account of economy, for the government has to pay for 
the stranded vessels. For the regiment of Lossberg, alone, it must 
pay for two, to say nothing of the regiments Zerbst and Hanau, nor 
of the expenses for wood consumed at the camp at this late season of 
the year. 

I am melancholy, and gaze with sad eyes at my once beautiful 
things. I have nothing to eat either, at least not much. My respects 
to Lady Fritz. I hope her confinement will terminate happily with a 
son. To the children one hundred thousand compliments. 

Loosius, Misantropos. 

1 The premier, Haldimand, also called by our friend Loos, " the growler."— 


St. IdNACK, November 10, 1782. 
My dearest Friend : 

I liavc only to-day received your dear letter of the 4th inst. I 
congratulate you, with all my heart, on the happy confinement of 
d(?ar Lady Fritz. 1 should have given a great deal for the honor of 
being able to name a male heir, and to have had him renounce the 
devil and his crew through me. * * * », How much 
would I not enjoy the honor of paying you a visit ; but the dreadfully 
bad roads and a hundred other circumstances will not permit me this 
pleasure. I take the liberty, therefore, to request my chamberlain, 
Captain Von Poellnitz, to represent me on the occasion. My name 
is Joliann August. You have an Augusta. IIow would the name 
of Jeannette or Lozina answer V Choose one of the two. 

Want of time will prevent my w^riting to Poellnitz myself. This 

letter must suflBce. My express has no time to lose, as the mail goes 

to-morrow. I close, lioping tliat motlier and daughter are doing wxU, 

and are favorably inclined toward their servant. I will attend to my 

godchild, and will not forget the little ring. I trust she will be as 

pure and virtuous as her father. 

God be with you. 


St. Ignace, N<yo. 24, 1782. 
Dearest Friend : 

I have received your dear godfather letter. I thank you very 
much for this honor ; and since you are the executor of my will, you 
may know that I have willed to my godchild, one hundred Louis 
d'or for a ring or earrings. I say expressly a ring as a lasting keep- 
sake, for it does not break easily, and, in case of necessity, can be 
pawned to Jew or Christian. I hope you and Lady Fritz will not 
think badly of me for not making the sum more. But since every 
one is bound to cut me down, I must cut down too. 

Pastor Mylius,^ also, is too good an apostle to take more than his 
sainted colleague, J ohn. He took for each baptism wild honey and 
locusts, and I will send him (Mylius), the same next spring. Ad in- 
terim^ give him a piece of fried veal, for I owe it to him. Dear 
Miss Augusta as godmother, shall have from Caldwell's garden the 
little flower, forget-me-not^ for which she is to give me a powder bag 
of drap d^irgens embroidered w ith gold. Midwives, and all servant 
girls in certain delicate situations, shall receive salt provisions for 

1 General Rlcdcsers family chaplaiu. —^'an«/a/or. 

TO QEN. riedesf:vs CAMPAiay. 231 

five days, through my scale master, for which tlicy sluill pay the 
customary price ; and thus, every body is attended to, and my gene- 
rosity is established. 

What is the news from the enemy V Answer soon. 

Tout d i\puH^ 


St. I(iNA('K, Dtc 2, 17HJJ. 
Dear General : 

I am dry. My sourkrout, cabbage, sugar, cotlee, etc., are all gone 
to the devil. I presume you have rec(;ived my last hotter. 

Here is a list of the officers at the time of their being in camp 
near Winchester, and while in quarters at Andover. It has occupied 
me six hours ; and I am certain it is correct, unless I have made* a 
mistake about your troops; the Uttle Schimmel and Miss Dans eon- 
fused me. Do not fail to inform me how the dispute termlnateH. 

From the bottom of my soul I wish Lady Fritz a speedy recovery. 
I send her and Miss godmother my best respects. IJut what have 
I done to my beautiful Fritz that she does not speak of nu» V 



If any of you doubt the correctness of the list I will bet him what 
he likes ; but Kospath and Mandorf will explain it. 

The Capk, Afarch 37, 17HJI. 
Dear General : 

I received your letter of the 9th instant, on my return ft'om my 
tour to the Hanau regiment. I would have undertaken a journey 
from Laubisniere over Platon to Quebec, or any other place desig- 
nated by you, but think of the awful bother * of a week ago Wednes- 
day, the 19th ; it not only destroyed the bridge, but overtook me 
between St. Croix and Laubinier, so that I arrived Jft SchttUe half 
dead. Tunderfeld reported to me on my return, the news in regard to 
peace. This is very desirable news ; but of what use is it, if the king 
of England wishes for it, and the other party [side] does not V * 

1 The meaning of this word is not clear. Probably it refers to the breaking up 
of the ice, or some similar catastrophe. 

^ From this remark, as well as many others of a similar import in Riedcscrs cor- 
respondence, it cannot but be observed that the Americans do not appear to have 
been exhausted by their seven years' war for independence. On the contrary, the 
opinion of their enemies seems to have been that they were still fresh and perfectly 
willing to continue the war unless brought to a close on their own terms. 


I am not well, but feel badly all over. Send me your plan of opera- 
tions, and do not forget to answer the points in my last letter. I am 
very sorry for your own ill health, and hope you may soon recover, 
and with Lady Fritz, and your servant, may long enjoy ourselves in 

I hear of nothing new in my desert ; if you hear of anything let 

me know. But once more, send me your plan of operations without 


Jeannette and Ritter send their respects. 

Cape St. Ionace, April 1, 1783. 
Dearest Friend : 

The inclosed is a request by the granting of which you may earn 
an armchair, or, at least, a bench in Ueaven, and by which, also, you 
will very much oblige Monseigneur and the whole theological faculty 
in Canada. Grant the petition if possible. There are a great many 
Thomases here, who doubt that peace is at hand, and call the speech 
of the king bogus. What do you think of it ? 



[Prom the Jottmal.] 

The American papers finally furnish us with a narrative of the 
splendid retreat of Sir Henry Clinton from Philadelphia to New 
York. General Washington and all Americans already believed 
that they had " Burgoynized " this army (as they are in the habit of 
expressing thefiiselves in their public journals), and they filled their 
glasses with bumpers on account of the anticipated surrender of 
Clinton*s army. They boasted of their laurels, and congress in its 
resolution of the 7th of July, cannot sufficiently praise the bravery 
and activity of General Washington at the important victory over the 
English near Monmouth Court House, But the retreat of General 
Clinton was really great, and resulted happily with little loss ; while 
the Americans, on the other hand, do not themselves know which 
of their commanders did his duty. The court martial, however, 
which afterwards sat upon the American major general, Lee, soon 
placed the matter in a brighter light ; and confusion, equivocal con- 


duct, irresolution and a manoeuvering without purpose were shown to 
have characterized the conduct of most of the American commanders, 
for all of which Major General Lee had to pay with his honor by 
being suspended from his conunand for a whole year. 


I take the liberty of going beyond the limits, allowed me by your 
lordship, to publicly acknowledge in my report, the good conduct of 
the German troops (under the command of Major General Von Ried- 
esel), in the service of his majesty. The conduct of the officers and 
soldiers was exemplary, and they are to be respected as faithful com- 
panions, in misfortune, of their comrades, the English soldiers, during 
the manifold changes in their unfortunate situation. I have found in 
General Riedesel the greatest possible attention to the duties of his 
position. He was always the same in his care for his German troops, 
in maintaining order, and in keeping up harmony and good fellow- 
ship between the English and German troops. In short, he was 
thoroughly imbued with the duties of his majesty's service. 



Morris House, Dec, 3, 1780. 

Your honor's letter reached me safely yesterday ; and I herewith 
tender you my sincere thanks for the intelligence which you have so 
kindly communicated to me. According to the news here. General 
Washington has left his head quarters at Totowa, and the rebel army 
its camp between the Passaic and the Hackinsack rivers, and have 
marched «even miles over West Point into winter quarters, where 
the army is to build huts in the mountains between Newburgh and 
Wilmanton. The head quarters are at Windsor. 

I have not as yet been able to obtain any reliable information of 
the corps of General Stark, whether it has gone baek-to West Point, 
or whether part of it is still at Fishkill. But this much is certain, 
that no portion of this corps is now in our vicinity. According to 
intelligence received here day before yesterday from Horse-neck, 
there are not more than one hundred and fifty militia at that place. 


who are commanded by a certain Colonel Wels, a shoemaker. 
Colonel Shelton, however, has no deflnite place for his head quarters. 
At times he is with a detachment, and again all of his men are at 
Points Bridge, North Castle, Belford, Kingstreet, and Horse-neck, 
which forms, as it were, the junction of the North and East rivers. 
Occasionally, also, his patrols come as far as East Chester. I shall 
consider it a pleasure to communicate to your honor every item of 
news which reaches me, that I may at the same time, manifest the 
high esteem, etc. 



Brooklyn, Marcti 26, 1781. 

* * * I believe, also, that four battalions could be 

obtained from Mechlenberg-Schwerin and one from Strelitz with 
which to recnforce the troops in America ; and the war might then 
be contiimed here in the way which I proposed to you in my memoir 
rom Cambridge. That is, to establish three or four posts in such a 
manner tliat the Americans — who from lack of knowledge and the 
necessary material cannot undertake a regular siege — will be power- 
less to capture them. They must, moreover, be constantly annoyed 
by successive expeditions, and not be permitted to establish fastnesses 
in the interior of the country. Such a warfare would force the rebels 
to have armies all over ; their expenses would be increased ; their 
resources would come to an end ; discontent would increase in pro- 
portion to want ; and, seeing that they were the dupes of the Euro- 
pean powers, their eyes would open, and they would rather rest 
satisfied with an unfavorable result than be the foot-ball of ambitious 
powers who are only looking after their own interests. 

But to make this plan successful, new arrangements would have 
to be instituted in Canada. The different posts on the lakes, Niagara, 
etc., would have to be reenforced by at least two thousand men, and 
detachments of from five to six hundred men, under thoroughly 
competent leadei*s, would have to be stationed on the Ohio. Indians 
also, would have to be added to these detachments, to whom should 
be given a airie bUinche^ without restrictions, to do whatever they 
pleased in the rear of the colonies, throughout Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania. This plan, although it may seem cruel, will nevertheless 

TO OKN. JiiEi)h'sh:i:s (AMrAiax. 21)5 

have to be carried out in tlic prosrnt situation. I*anit' would tlius \\v 
increased amon<j^ tlie r('l)els; tliev would leave tliose je«;:ions, and 
their beautiful settlements woidd be destroyed. Their aruiv Nxoidd 
soon be in want of subsistence, and with their front harrassed by our 

' ft 

troops from the sea side, and their rear exposed to tlie ineursions of 
the savages, no otlier course would be letl to them than to submit to 
the victors. I sincerely trust the Indians will not be obli^jed to fi.iiht, 
for whenever the rebels shall oppose them with any force they will 
all run away, and fall back on the rci^ulars behind tlu'm. These 
wild men love this kind of warfare, for so Ion;; as their natural <'oarse 
tastes arc satisfied they care little for anything else. Tlu'V will 
soon enrich themselves with booty, and regain the respect which 
they enjoyed during the rule of the French. 1 well know that a 
warfare of this kind seems cruel, but it is to be excused by the fact 
that order and the public weal will thereby be established. It will 
also be necessary to rally all the Indians from the interior of Canada, 
and undertake a grand expedition ui the direction of Ticonderoga 
during harvesting. A portion of the expedition must be puslu'd 
down as far as the German Flats to destroy the crops, grain, provi- 
sions, cattle and the mills; for it is notorious that Washington's army 
draws a large part of its subsistence from this section. These detach- 
ments must always be recalled into Canada in the winter. 

Let the militia take care of Great J^ritain; let your tlcets act 
prudently; maintain a defensive and judicious warfare in America 
for a few successive years, and by all means avoid a defeat, and you 
shall see that the rebels will soon give up such a burdcnsonu' war, 
and come to an advantageous peace. You, it is true, shall gain 
nothing but lasting glory, dearly bought by the backwardness. Inde- 
cision and want of harmony of your ministers, and by the bad man- 
agement of the troops which were intrustcul to geiu*rals who wen* 
not fitted for such an exalted position, either by their merits or 
experience, but obtained it solely by influences at home. 

Should America see that firmness on the part of England — for 
which she was formerly characterized — she, of all the powers now 
engaged in war, would soonest make peace; or, in case her stubborn- 
ness has taken too deep root, she would herself fall, atler all the, others 
had settled their quarrels. 

You will have perceived by my sentiments that I disapproves of all 
the lengthy and extensive movements of Lord Cornwallis. Our army 
is too weak to hold so large a tract of land ; and we are thus forced 
to scatter ourselves too widely whenever we go into the intc^rior of 
the country. The consequence is, that we hazard and receive defeats, 
without obtaining a recompense for our losses. The moment the 



enemy attempts anything in one direction, we should fall back and 
strike another coup in another quarter. 

The post at Portsmoutli is well selected, and is necessary ; but it 
should l>e placed in a condition strong enough to withstand an attack 
without needing support from the water, while, at the same time, our 
fleet should also be of sufficient strength to frustrate all attempts 
upon our posts from the sea. I should like to propose the placing 
of another post at Falmouth, which has a splendid harbor, and lies 
between Boston and Penobscot. From this place you could fit out 
expeditions against the provinces of Hampshire and Massachu- 
setts; and wc could then, also, endeavor to retake Rhode island 
as soon as reenforcements arrived from Europe. Nor will this be 
impossible when the French fleet shall have sailed thence, and our own 
fleet becomes stronger. 

You may laugh at my views, but you yourself desired that I should 

communicate them to you ; and I have now fulfilled the wishes of 

a friend, who, I am convinced, will not make an improper use of 


I am, etc., 




General Riedesel to General Washington, 

Cambridge, Jan. 11, 1778. 

Major General Gates, having, at the request of his excellency, 
Lieutenant General Burgoyne, exchanged a certain number of pri- 
soners of war for an equal number of the Continental army, and 
being farther required to exchange a proportionable number of Ger- 
man officers, who were made prisoners of war, said, "he could rwt 
enter upon any exchange of the German troops, without an express 
order from congress." 

I have too high an opinion of your excellency's justice, to believe 
you would make any distinction between the troops of different 
nations engaged in the same cause, and I am persuaded you will 
grant the same indulgence to the prisoners of war of one party, 
which you do to the other, in every respect ; but, particularly, in that 
of a fair and equal exchange. I therefore request that you will allow 
a number of the German officers of General Burgoyne*s army, pri- 


Boncrs of war, to 1)0 cxduin^^d in proportion to the numlM»rorHritish 
officers exciiiuii^cd by (reuerul (}atc»s; and as the ortlccrs ot* (ifncral 
Burgoyno'H family, and tlio»e of (Jmoral Phillips liavt' l)('<*n exchanged, 
tliough included in the convention, I rciiuestthut the sanKundul^ence 
may be granted to my suite. A return of their nanx's, and of the 
officers made prisoners of war during the campaign is inclosed 

I liave the honor, etc., 

liiEDEHKL, Major Oeneral. 

General Wdaliingtoa to General liiedescl. 

Head Quarters, Valley Forge, March 31, 1778. 

It is some time since I was honored with yours of the 11th of Janu- 
ary, to wliicli I should have replied sooner, had I not been obliged to 
wait for an answ^er from General Gates upon the subject of your 
letter. He says you never applied directly to him for the exchange 
of yourself or any German officers, either of your family or the corps; 
but that he was told in Albany, that you and Major General Phillips 
had separately applied to Sir William Howe to be exchanged for 
General Lee, and had been answered, that as General Prescott had 
been first taken, he must be first exchanged. I imagine, from the 
foregoing, that General Gates must have misunderstood you, as he 
says he should have had no objection to exchange the foreign as well 
as the British officers. 

Commissioners from me are now negotiating a general exchange 

of prisoners with commissioners from Sir William Howe. If they 

agree upon terms, I shall not have the least objection to exchange a 

proportion of foreign as well as British officers. But you will please 

to observe that this is a matter which depends solely upon Sir William 

Howe's pleasure ; as he has a right to demand such officers as he 

thinks proper, for an equal number of equal rank. I should suppose, 

however, that justice to his allies would point out the equity of an 

impartial exchange. 

I am, etc., 

Geo. Washington. 


General liu'(ki*el to Major General Gates. 

Cambuidge, Nov. 21, 1778. 

Having flattered myself from day to day that I should have the 
pleasure of seeing you at Cambridge, I have deferred writing you 
to felicitate j'ou on your safe arrival at Boston ; and I should not 
have failed of seizing the first opportunity of waiting upon you, had 
I not been prevented by an order, which has been in force ever since 
we have l>een here, that no officer of the convention sliould be allowed 
to go into Boston. 

As the affairs in relation to money, which have detained me here, 
are now settled, and as I intend to set out in a few days, I request 
the favor of being allowed with Madame liiedesel, to go to Boston 
to take leave of you and IVIrs. Gates, and to return you many thanks 
for the civilities you have shown mo ever since I had the pleasure of 
making your acquaintance. 

I must once more have recourse to your goodness, by requesting 
your assistance in making the long journey we are to undertake as 
easy to Madame Riedesel, myself and family, as possible. 

I take the liberty of requesting an officer to conduct Madame 
Riedesel upon the road, and a guard to escort my baggage, and that 
of the persons belonging to the general staff of those Brunswick 
troops who are still here, and are to accompany me. I beg of you 
to give a written requisition to the officer, in order that we may be 
supplied with good quarters on the road, and may receive provisions 
at the places where they were issued to the troops upon their march. 

You will know how far this officer and escort can accompany us ; 
and I beg of you to write to the next governor or commander, where 
this officer will be relieved, requesting him to grant me another, as 
well as carts ; and that I may meet with the same accommodations, as 
those which you arc so good as to allow me. 

You will judge whether I shall longer require a passport, signed 
with your name. 

When I left Albany, you were so obliging as to give us a Colonel 
Sprout, who accompanied Madame Riedesel a little way, and showed 
her every possible attention ; and I should consider myself under 
double obligations to you, sir, if you would send an officer with 
Madame Riedesel, whose behavior and sentiments shall correspond 
with those of Colonel Sprout. 

Major Hopkins, deputy quarter master general, acquainted me 
before his departure, that Squire Watson of Cambridge, had orders 
to furnish me with carts, and that the number was fixed by Major 


General Heath ])ef()re your arrival. I will, tlu'relbn*, not trouble you 
on this point. 

As all my business is settled, I intend, if you liav<' no objeetion, 
to set out henee on Friday next, the '^(llh inst., and ariive the same 
day at Worcester. I purpose sending away my ba^^raire on Wednes- 
day, which can easily reach Worc(!ster in tiiree days. From Wor- 
cester I shall continue my journey, retaining the ba^^a^e constantly 
by me, I should be particularly obliged, if you would allow the 
officer who conducts Madame Kiedesel, and the guard tor the 
baggage, to be here by Tuesday evening or Wednesday morning. 

Madame Riedesel desires to join with me in compliments to Mrs. 

Gates and yourself. 

1 have the honor, etc., 

UiEDKSKL, Major General. 

General lliedesel to Major General Gatex. 

Essex Coukt House, January 3, 1771). 

After innumerable difficulties and fatigues, 1 arrived here yesterday 
with Madame Riedesel and our little family in good health. Colonel 
Troup leaves me here, and proceeds to Morristown. General Lord 
Stirling, who commands at Middle-Brook, in the absence of his excel- 
lency. General Washington, has been so obliging as to send me a 
Captain Browne, who is to accompany me to Virginia. 

Allow me, sir, to return you once more my most sincere thanks 
for your kindness, in sending Colonel Troup with me. I cannot 
sufficiently speak of the politeness and attention he has shown 
Madame Riedesel and myself on the journey, and the trouble he gave 
himself to alleviate the difficulties, which naturally and unavoidably 
occur upon such a long journey. 

Madame Riedesel begs leave to join me in offering her best com- 
pliments to Mrs. Gates, and in wishing her and you all possible health 

and happiness. 

I have etc., 

Riedesel, Major General. 

General Kiedesel to General Wasliington. 

CoLLE, near Charlottesville, Februai^ 16, 1779. 

The great obligations which I am under to Captain Browne, who 

will have the honor of delivering this letter to your excellency, is the 


occasion of my taking the liberty to recommend him to your excel- 
lency. This officer was appointed by Lord Stirling to accompany 
myself and family to the place of our destination in Virginia. The 
great care he took in procuring us the best accommodations and 
conveniences upon the road, and his attention and endeavors to 
render the long journey as little trying as possible to Madame Ried- 
esel and to me, call for my highest acknowledgments ; and although 
the recommendation of an officer, by one who is engaged on the 
opposite side of the great cause in dispute, ought to have no weight, 
yet the well known sentiments of generosity and humanity, which 
your excellency has testified on so many occasions, encourage me to 
recommend Captain Browne to your excellency's notice and pro- 

Captain Browne can acquaint your excellency with the various 
difficulties we encountered, the scarcity of everything upon the road, 
the enormous price of every article, and the ungenerous and inhuman 
sentiments of people at different places. 

Captain Browne can likewise inform your excellency of the present 
melancholy situation of the convention troops ; which, however, was 
much worse upon their first arrival at this place. When they first 
reached here, they found a few buildings, barracks in nanie^ but, in fact, 
nothing but some logs laid one upon another, without any covering, 
and the snow three feet deep on the ground. The troops have nobly 
borne their distress, and are now employed in building their own 
barracks, which would have been finished long since had there not 
been such a scarcity of tools. I must confess that, according to the 
description which we had given us before our departure from Cam- 
bridge, I expected to have found a more plentiful country, and one 
better able to maintain such a number of troops. But I am far from 
wishing to trouble your excellency with complaints, as I am fully 
sensible that we are not in this situation by your excellency's orders. 

Your excellency will allow me to assure you of the respectful sen- 
timents with which I have the honor of being your excellency's 
most obedient and most humble servant. 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

General Biedesel to General Waahington. 

Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, Oct. 12, 1779. 

Your excellency, I hope, will have the goodness to excuse my 
troubling you with this letter. I do it from motives of justice to Mr- 
Randolph, the gentleman who will have the honor of delivering it to 

TO a EX. iiiKDEsKi:s CAM r Aid y. 241 

you. I ])0g to r(»roinni('n(l liiin to tlio kiiowlrdp' of your cxcrllcnry, 
ns the porsoii to wIkmu (-oloiiH Hliind.thccomiiiiiixliint utCliarlottoH- 
villc, fpiv(* tlKM'oininissioii of* eoiKluctiii^ tlu> oH^'crs aiul lm^^a;;(' of 
my fniiiily to KlizalM'thtown, I liavin^r, as yon, sir, innst liavr Imm'Ii 
apprised, taken the route Ix'fon*, in conipanv with Major (icncral 

The great care which Mr. Kundol[>h has taken to render the journey 
as pleasant as possible to the oflUrers of my suite, the politeness he has 
shown to them, and tlu; exactness with which h<> has executed his 
orders, call for my iMist acknowledgments, and have induced me to 
mention this gentleman to your excellency. 

I will not enter upon the subject of my detention, as Major General 
Phillipshas written to your excellency, and must have fully explained, 
with his own, my sentiments uiM)n that affair ; but the pleasin/^ pro- 
spect I had of going to New York was heightened, from it becoming in 
a manner necessary to my health (whic^h has lately been d(>clining 
under a slow fever), which change of climates alone will cure. My 
disappointment is in proportion to the flattering prospect I had of 
visitmg my friends. Your excellency may therefore j udge how severely 
I must feel ui>on returning, in my present state of health, to Virginia, 
where I am certain my health must suffer from the climate. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest personal respect, etc., 

RiKDESEL, Major General. 

General Wa8?iin{fton to General liiedesel. 

Head Quarters, West Point, Oct. 28, 1779. 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 12th by Mr. Ran- 

It gives me pleasure to learn that this young gentleman's attentions, 
during your journey, has been such as to deserve your approbation. 
I beg leave to refer you to my letter to Major General Phillips for 
my answer to his request in your favor. I sympathize with your 
poor state of health, and very sincerely wish an alteration for the 
better, which I hope will result from your change of situation. 

I am, etc., 

Geo. Washington. 


General Riedesel to Oeneral Washingtan. 

BETiiiiEUEM, Oct 29, 1779. 

Yesterday evening I was honored with your excellency's hitter of 
the 23d of October, in answer to mine sent by Mr. Randolph ; and 
Major G<meral Phillips has communicated to me that part of 
your letter to him which concerns me. I return your excellency my 
warmest thanks for the interest you take in my indisposition, and 
am pei*suaded that whenever my disagreeable situation can be 
changed, everything will be done by you to forward it. 

Your excellency mentions, in Major General Phillips's letter, that 
I might represent the ill state of my health to the American congress ; 
but when I consider that the sole motive which determined me to 
undertake the very long journe}- from Charlottesville to Eliza- 
bethtown, was a letter from your excellency to Colonel Bland — 
the contents of which he communicated to me — I place my whole 
confidence and dependence entirely upon your excellency, under 
whose immediate directions I conceive myself to be. These reasons, 
also, were my inducements to take the liberty of giving you a faithful 
description of the total change in my health ; and I am convinced 
that whenever your excellency may think proper to make a repre- 
sentation of these facts to the American congress, setting forth the 
circumstances which I have mentioned, it would have much greater 
weight, and, indeed, could not fail of success, than any address from an 
individual to the American congress, a body to whom I am unknown. 

It is through your excellency's kind intentions that I am in this 
place, and as the very impaired state of my health is now known to 
to you, I cannot, sir, doubt your generous sentiments in procuring 
me permission to go into New York, at least for so long a time as 
may be necessary to reestablish my health ; for which I sliall always 
consider myself under great obligations to your excellency. 

I have, etc., 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

Oeneral Eiedesd to General Washington. 

Brooklyn, April, 1781. 

Several German officers of the Saratoga convention, having applied 

to me to be exchanged on account of their particular private affairs, 

I made a requisition, accordingly, upon Miijor General Phillips to 

propose such a thing to your excellency. In answer to my request, 


General Phillip8 commiinicatnl to ww. y<mr IcIUt of tli(^ 25tli of* 
January, to his excellency, Sir llriiry Clinton, in wliicli the |>ropose(l 
change made by Major (Jencral Piiillips to you, Mr, on the '^iJd of 
December last, is a«^reetl to, and, eonscMpuntly, involves in it those 
German offleers who were included in proposition, thou;^h not nonii- 
nateil at that time. 

In consequence of your excellency's accpiiescence in this measure, 
I delivered to Major General Phillips a list of those olliciTs for whom 
I begged the exchange?, which, he assures me, has been forwarded 
in his last proposals nnide between the British and American com- 
missary generals of prisoners on the 'M\ of Mar(rh. 

As all the British officers, for whom Major (General Phillips aeked 
an exchange, have already arrived witliout one German ollicer being 
included in their number, I presume the before mentioned list has 
not reached your ex(rellen(;y ; for I am (convinced that you, sir, 
would be guided by the sjime impartiality toward one nation as 
another. I therefore lake the lil)erty of repeating Major General 
Phillips's request, that you would have the goodness to exchange the 
German officers mentioned in said list (a copy of which I herewith 
inclose), and to give your orders for those gentlemen to be sent to 
New York. 

Major Meibom, of my dragoon regiment, and Ensign Meibom, of 
my infantry regiment, belonging to the troops of his serene highness, 
the duke of Brunswick, having been made prisoners of war a few 
days since on Long island, I shall attribute it all to your excellency's 
kindness, if these two officers are permitted to come to New York 
on parole. The infirm state of Major Meibom's health claims parti- 
cular attention, and I shall make use of eveiy interest in my power, 
with his excellency general. Sir Henry Clinton, to procure the per- 
mission for their exchange, if your excellency will please give your 


I am, etc., 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

Gefwral Washington to General Miedesel. 

Head Quarters, New Windsor, May 11, 1781. 

I have been honored with your favor of April, with no particular 

date. Either you must have been misinformed as to the letters, 

whicli passed from General Phillips to me, of the 23d December, and 

from me to Sir Henry Clinton, on the 25th of Januaiy , in answer, or 

you must have misunderstood them. You will observe that I acceded 



only to the exchange of the British officers, particularly named in 
General Phillips^s letter. I refused his proposal of permitting an inde- 
tenninate number of British or German officers to be sent to New 
York at the discretion of Brigadier General Ilamihon. 

Some time after, projwsals for a further exchange, bearing date the 
3d of March, and in which are included the Gennan officers, whose 
names you mention, were communicated to me by commissary 
general of prisoners, to which 1 did not think proper to accede, as I 
conceived the exchange of Lieutenant General Burgoyne was unrea- 
sonably delayed. My answer and instructions upon this head have 
been communicated in full to Mr. Loring by Mr. Skinner. 

Were I inclined to partiality in favor of the British officers, I have 
no power to exercise it, as the choice of the objects of exchange does 
not lie with me. 

At your particular request, I have given orders to have Major and 
Ensign Meiborn sent into New York upon parole. 

I am, etc., 

Geo. Washington. 

General Riedesel to General Washington. 

SoREL, June 21, 1783. 

I beg leave, herewith, to introduce Lieutenant Danier, of the 
Brunswick troops, and to reciuest your excellency will permit him to 
have passports to go to New York by land and return by the same 
route, on business which concerns only the interior and particular 
economy of the troops I have the honor to command. The pacific 
situation of affairs emboldens me to prefer this request, and I suspend 
farther apology that I may seize the occasion, before leaving this con- 
tinent, of congratulating your excellency on the blessed return of 
peace, and of wishing perfect union and prosperity to the two coun- 
tries, and to you, sir, every pei*sonal happiness and domestic happiness 

it can produce. 

I have, etc., 

RiEDESEL, Major General. 

General Washington to General Riedead. 

Head Quarters, July 14, 1783. 

I had the satisfaction of receiving your polite letter of the 21st June 

by Lieutenant Danier, and the particular pleasure of complying with 


your rcqucHt, by f;rantin^ the imsHports yoii mcntiontHl for that 
gentleman to pnKicwl to New York and return a^ain to Canaila. 

Had this rc<|ucst need<Ml any apoloiry, whu'li 1 be^ you to believe 
it did not, your very agreeable (congratulations on the happy return of 
peace, with the benevolent wishes which you are jileased to exi>ress 
for the future friendly union and intercourse of the two coiuitritrs, and 
for my own personal happiness and (h>niesti(; enjoyment, would have 
formed a most pleasing one. 1 i)ray you, sir, to believe that my best 
and most devout wishes for your saf<i^ return to 3'our own country, 
attend you, as well as for your future happiness, prosperity and glory. 

The Baron Steuben will do me the favor to place this in your hand. 
This gentleman is instructed by me to form some arrangements with 
General Ilaldimand, respecting the execution of the seventh article of 
the provisional treaty, and receiving i)ossession of the posts, now 
under his direction, and in the occupation of the British troops, which 
are ceded by treaty to the United States. 

As an officer of distinction and reputation, as a foreigner, and as a 
gentleman of agreeable and polished manners, 1 beg leave to ixK-om- 
mend the baron to your i)articular attention and civilities, believing 
that your goodness will extend to him every aid in the prosecution 
of his tour, and the execution of his commission, that shall lie within 
your power. 

I am, etc., 

Geo. WASiriNOTON. 


A Letter of General Bledesel to tlie Ilessian Mcajor EwcM? 

Brooklyn, e/w^y 4, 1781. 

Your honor's letter of June Btli besides the news it gives me re- 
specting the operations of the army, causes me to rejoice greatly, since 
it tells me of your improved health and the healing of your wound. 

The French troops, in connection with Washington, show symptoms 
of attacking New York. Lieutenant Colonel Von Wurmb went day 
before yesterday on a reconnoitering expedition. In the course of it, 
he was attacked, and the brave Captain Von Rau dangerously 

1 Major Ewald was one of the best Hessian officers. He subsequently entered the 
Danish service, and became comuiaudor in chief of the Danish army. He is also 
known as a military author. 


wounded in the breast. Yesterday tlie lieutenant colonel was again 

attacked, but he firmly resisted the onset of the enemy. I do not, as 

yet, know the extent of his losses. 

If it be possible for your honor to ascertain where our German 

troops of the Saratoga convention are at present, you will greatly 

oblige me by informing of it. 

With constant esteem, etc., 


Letter of tJie Ilessian General Von LoHsberg to General Von Biedesd. 

I had the honor 3'esterday to receive your honor's letter, for which, 
as also the congratulations you therein express on my promotion, I 
sincerely thank you. 

A corps of General Washington, of about 4,000 men, and, according 
to some reports, still stronger, yesterday approached the lines of 
Lieutenant Colonel Von Wurmb, with the corps of yagers, and 
attacked the pickets between Cortlandt's house and Fort Inde- 
pendence. The rebels, although reenforced, retreated into the woods, 
and the yagers occupied an advantageous position that had been 
intrusted to the former. They lost three in killed. One officer and 
twenty-five of their privates were also wounded. 

According to intelligence just received. General Washington 
marched this morning with his army (which is stated to number at 
present between seven and eight thousand men), to White Plains. 
Several of the farmers say that the principal portion of this corps was 
composed of Frenchmen. It seems most likely to be the legion alone. 

I have, etc., 


Major Ewald to General Riedesel. The engagement at Jamestoion. 

Suffolk, July 20, 1781. 
Dear Major General : 

I yesterday received your kind letters of June 23d and July 5th, 
and thank you for your remembrance. 

Notwithstanding every one expected that my Lord Cornwallis 
would wait in Williamsburg until the great heat had passed, the 
army left its camp on the 4th of July, crossed the James river near 
Jamestown, and marched on Sutfolk where the army now is. Mon- 
sieur Lc Marquise received on the Oth the false news, that my Lord 
Cornwallis had crossed the James river, with the largest portion 
of his army, with the intention of catching up with rear guard. 


Monsieur, tlierciipon, took five? tlioiisaiul men and six field pieces, 
and, in tlie afternoon, attaekt»d tlie advanced po8t« of tlie anny at 
Jamestown. Lord Cornwallls allowed the enemy to ai>i)roaeh close 
to his lines, when he marched out with the li^ht infantry and the 
80th, 70lh and A\V\ regiments, heat him, captured three c^innon, and 
recrossed the river (m the 7th. 

The enemy's sick and wounded nuist amount to several hundred, 
while our loss is not above eighty. 

The enemy have not yet crossed the James. It is expected that it 
will unite with the army of (General Green who has been so often 
whipped. On our side, it is thought that so many men will be taken 
from Coniwallis (probably for the defense of New York) that we can 
no longer act on the olfensive. The army of Marquise de Lafayette 
numbers nine thousand men ; and if a junction should be formed 
between the French and Washington, and the fact become known to 
the Americans, a great increase of the rebel army would be the 
result. May Heaven protect us against an additional force of the 

I am sincerely sorry for the severe wound of Captain Rau, and for 
the other brave men who fell in the two engagements. I contributed 
largely on my part, for I have now only seventy-six men left. 

It is thought that this army will leave its camp and march to 
Portsmouth, a very unpleasant place. I should greatly dread an 
attack there on account of its miserable location. Should a French 
fleet meditate an attack upon the place, it would certainl}'^ disembark 
troops at Lynhaven bay, occupy the county of Princess Anna, and 
cannonade Portsmouth from the rear, where it is greatly exposed. 
And just as sure as New York would be lost by the capture of 
Brooklyn, consequent upon the French becoming masters of the 
sound, just so certainly would Portsmouth be lost by a landing at 
Princess Anna. Should anything else worthy of mention occur 
here I will not fail to acquaint you with it. 



Quebec, Sept. 29, 1781. 

I have the honor to announce to you my safe arrival here on the 
12th of September. We had a long and unpleasant voyage ; and the 
last of our ships have but just reached here. 

General Haldimand readily acquiesces in sending part of your regi- 
ment to New York, though he regrets to part with a portion of the 


Hessians and their commander Colonel Von Bork, with both of whom 
he is so well satisfied. 

It is said that during the entire stay of the Hessians here, not a single 
instance of discord has been known between them and the diflferent 
nationalities, and the inhabitants. General Loos, who commands in 
the lower Canada under Haldimand, has gained the entire confidence 
of both the latter and the Englishmen. The Hessians love him equally 

General Haldimand has divided all the troops here into two divisions." 
The right, or the English wing, has been given to General Clarke, and 
the left, or the German, to me. Brigadier Loos commands, under me, 
the Gennan troops at Quebec, and Brigadier Specht those of the Ger- 
mans that are in the vicinity of Montreal. 

Lieutenant Ritter of your excellency's regiment, who acts as 
brigadier major to Brigadier Loos, is almost indispensable both on 
account of his versatility in the English language, and his own good 
compactement in commanding the regiments of the different nation- 
alities. Haldimand is desirous of having Loos help him. I am con- 
vinced your excellency will not take offense at the detention of this 

Hoping that the army will have the good fortune to serve your 
excellency another year in America, I again recommend to your 
protection the convention troops, and trust that you will, through 
your influence with Sir Henry Clinton, bring about a partial if not a 
complete change in their condition. Without the aid of your ex- 
cellency, these poor men are entirely forsaken. 

My wife, who will never lose her high regard for your excellency, 
desires, with my entire family and godchild, to be remembered. 

I am, etc., 



Extract from a Letter of tJie Hessian Colonel Von Bomrodfrom 

New York to Oeneral Biedesel, 

Lord Comwallis arrived here on the 19th of November, and shortly 
after continued his journey to England. Since the unfortunate 
surrender of his post a large portion of the hostile army have been 
detached to the south. General Leslie and the skillful engineer 
artillery major, Moncrief, were ordered to proceed to Charleston and 


place that post in a better defensive condition. But up to this time 
nothing of any account has been attempted against it. 

Contrary to all expectations, Lieutenant General Sir Guy Carleton 
arrived here on the 5th of May, to relieve Sir Henry Clinton of the 
command. Lieutenant General Von Kniphausen, also, after repeat- 
edly asking to be relieved, finally obtained permission to resign. A 
great dinner was thereupon given to these two generals by all the 
English staff officers, of which over two hundred persons partook. 
General Clinton having turned over his command to Carleton, and 
Kniphausen having resigned his to Lieutenant General Lossberg, the 
two generals embarked, on the 13th of May, on board the admiral's 
ship and the frigate Pearl amid the thunder of nineteen cannon. 
The embarkation took place at Fort George. The Fortieth regiment, 
at that time in garrison at New York, and three hundred Hessian 
grenadiers, under command of Lieutenant General Von Linsing, 
formed on this occasion two lines from the quarters of General Knip- 
hausen to the English head quarters where both generals entered the 

On the 20th the garrison of this island were reviewed by the new 
commander in chief. The garrison on Long island, also, underwent 
a review, on the 21st, between Brooklyn and Jamaica. Carleton 
expressed his satisfaction with both reviews. New York is now 
being fortified by batteries and works running from the East to the 
North river; and the work is so diligently pressed, that, including the 
militia, eight hundred men are daily employed. 

General Riedesel to Colonel Romrod. 

Quebec, October 16, 1782. 

I received the two letters of my best friend, dated respectively May 
29th and August 19th, a few days since by the fleet, containing our 
convention officers. The joy 1 had on receiving them, is indescribable. 

The prospects of peace are believed here almost as strongly as they 
are with you ; but within the last fourteen days we have heard the 
contrary by an express frigate with dispatches to General Haldimand, 
and I should not be in the least surprised at still seeing my dear 
friend Romrod in Canada. Time will show whether or not I am 
mistaken. We have spent this year very quietly here ; and, although 
I command the chain of outposts, I have seen no enemy save a few 
prisoners of war who were brought in from time to time by my 
scouts. I am at present in camp with eight regiments on the Isle 
aux Noix, were I am fortifying a very favorable position. General 
Loos, with three regiments, is on the other side of the St. Lawrence 



opposite Quebec. The other regiments of our army are distributed 
here and there in single posts and garrisons. Tlie troops, I presume, 
will go into winter quarters the beginning of next month, when I 
shall very probably take up my old quarters in Sorel, and command 
the same districts as last year. 

At Sorel, where my head quarters are, I have a good, comfortable 
house, which General Ilaldimand had prepared for me. I have 
laid out there myself a verj' large garden. This, with the adjoining 
land, furnishes me with sufficient pastime, as well as support for my 
family and cattle. In fact, I am as much of a farmer as my duties 
will allow me to be. 

My wife has been very well of late. She is in good spirits, and is 
near her confinement. May fortune grant that it may be a son ! 
Gusta is my milkmaid, and her sister does nothing but collect 
the news of which she keeps a diary. All the children, thanks to 
God, are well. 

I have come here for a few days to make some arrangements in 
regard to the officers and recruits who arrived from New York. 
My wife not knowing anything of my receiving a letter from you, 
has not asked me to send her compliments ; but I can safely do it in 
her name, as she, together with all my family, always remember your 
honor with a never ending friendship. 

I remain, etc., 



As there can be no doubt — judging by the news from Europe, 
and by intercepted letters from French officers, under Rochambeau, 
to the French consul in Philadelphia — that there is an intention, at 
the present time, to attack Canada, General Clinton hopes that Gene- 
ral Haldimand will be able to spare two thousand men for an expedi- 
tion from Niagara, Lake Erie and Presqu'isle, against Fort Pitt, the 
Ohio river, and the settlements in the rear of Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania. Such an undeitaking would greatly facilitate an expedition 
from the Chesapeake highlands, which, it is hoped, will be the more 
successful, from the supposed willingness of the settlers along the 
Ohio to submit to the government of Great Britain on the condition 


that they shall be entirely separated from Virginia and Pennsylvania 
and form a distinct province. 

All necessary magazines for provisions, artillery, baggage, etc., 
having been erected at Niagara, it is thought that the corps from 
Canada will be able to cross Lake Erie in vessels and occupy a 
strong position on Presqu'isle. Here, it could establish itself in such 
a manner, by fortifications, etc., that there would be no danger 
either of its being driven out by superior numbers or its retreat being 
cut off by water. 

And even if we should not succeed in capturing Presqu'isle by 
surprising Fort Pitt, we would soon ascertain the sentiments of the 
people along the Ohio. If they are found to be favorable to the king, 
and willing to defend the defiles in the Alleghany mountains and 
Blue Ridge, a foothold might be gained after a while at Fort Pitt, 
and two posts estabUshed at Shenango and Venango. Thus, com- 
munications would be kept up between Fort Pitt and Presqu'isle, 
a circumstance which would greatly facilitate the incursions of the 
savages in carrying destruction on the rear of Virginia and Pennsyl- 

K Fort Pitt could not be taken either by cunning or surprise, and 
we should find ourselves entirely deceived in regard to the sentiments 
of the people along the Ohio, we would have to be content with the 
capture of Presqu'isle. This post should then be made as strong as 
possible, while, at the same time, we could push forward and establish 
two posts at Shenango and Venango, protected by two redoubts, and 
thus preserve the water communication. The Indians would have 
to be sent to those posts in advance, with orders to dtjvastate the 
country as much as was consistent with prudence and caution. 

The officer, in command of the Canadian corps, must await in this 
position the result of the expedition undertaken from Chesapeake 
bay ; and, through messengers, he must be in constant communica- 
tion with the general in command. He must, also, do all in his power 
to afford him support, by a prudent cooperation. 

Sir Henry Clinton, in order to conceal the real intention of this ex- 
jMjdition, will pretend to start with a small corps from the Mohawk 
river to Oswego, as if for the purpose of capturing Fort Stanwix. 
This corps shall devastate the country as far as lies in their power, 
and shall return to Oswego after a certain time. 

If the fleet on Lake Champlain could, at the same time, with a few 
Canadian volunteers and rangers, make a few excursions to Ticonde- 
roga and Fort George and even beyond, this third expedition would, 
as a matter of course, confuse the enemy still more, especially when 




he found himself, in addition to all this, attacked simultaneously in 
(y^arolina, Virginia, and Mandand. 

General Sir Henry Clinton expects to be able to undertake his ex- 
pedition immediately upon the plan of Washington and Rochambeau 
being known. This will probably take place in the middle of winter 
or at the beginning of spring ; but the diversion from Canada must 
come off as near the same time as his as possible, since the nearer to- 
gether they are, the better results he expects from it. For he deems 
the surest method of putting an end to the revolution, to be in sepa- 
rating the inhabitants along the Ohio and Kentucky from the other 
revolted provinces. 


The army of Canada consists of the 8th, 29th, Slst, 34th, 44th, and 
the 53d regiments, one hundred and fifty men of the 47th, a battalion 
of the 84tlr, Sir John Johnson's regiment, Yessop's battalion of pro- 
vincials, six Brunswick battalions (which, on account of the smallness 
of their number, are formed into three), one battalion of Hanau yagers, 
one half a battalion ot Hanau infant rj-, one Hessian battalion, one 
battalion Anhalt Zerbst, and the dragoon regiment. The whole, with 
the exception of the 8th infantry, already destined for the defense of 
the upper lakes, if we count each battahon at four hundred men, 
amounts to six thousand troops. Suppose then, that we could spare 
two thousand five hundred regular troops during the season of the 
year, when a French invasion from the seaboard need not be feared, I 
would propose, since the fleets on the lakes ^ are amply sufficient to 
protect the frontiers of Canada in the direction of Albany, that four 
battalions of inlantry, three companies of yagers, and three com- 
panies of Canadians, with a proportionate amount of artillery, be sent 
to Niagara in vessels. Meanwhile, the officers of the 8th regiment, 
before setting out, should collect as many Indians as possible, and the 
war vessels should be rendezvoused at the mouth of Lake Erie, op- 
posite Niagara. 

It would be necessar}' also, to supply this corps not only with the 
guns necessary for battalions, but with cannon with which to mount 

Champlain and (Jcor^e. 


th(! torts that will liavc to \w (*sta))]isli<Ml for the ('oninnini<'ation with 
the lakes when this corps shall have a<lvan(*(>(l toward the Ohio. 

(.■orn'S|)oiHlin«^ preparations should likewise Ix; made for provisions, 
liospital supplies, ha<rK"^tN unnnunilion and the en«^int'er division ; 
And a talented and active man sent ahead to Niai^ara to make the 
nwessary arran^(>m(>nts as soon as the expedition shall have heen 
undertaken. All this crould he done under the i)retext, that an at- 
tempt aijainst Niagara was fean;d, and it was, therefore, necessary to 
l>e ]>l:iced in a thoroughly defensive condition. 

The tnK)ps ui)on arriving at Niagara, should locate a i)ost near the 
mouth of Lake Erie, and vessels, artillery, haggage and tents trans- 
ported to the tarrying place. AtU*r tliis is all accomplished, the 
troops must march to Lake Krie, emhark, and land on the east side 
of the lake at a given point, perhaps Prescpi'isle. The moment they 
arrive there, two detachments, composed of yagers, Canadians, and 
provincials, should he sent forward to get a footing at Shenango, 
and afterwards at Venango. The C-anadians are to operate in front 
of these detachments, while the major part of the expedition remains 
at Presqu'isle, to put it in a suitable condition for being the great 
rendezvous. An effort should also be made, if possible, to have tlie 
Indians, supported by tlie advance guard, (;apture Fort Pitt either 
by cunning or a surprise. This fort is said to be situated at a distance 
of ninety miles by land from the old French road. In this case the 
expediti(m should be undertaken as soon as there is a chance to 
march in the direction of Venango, wiiich can be done on vessels 
down the Alleghany river. A post, however, in a redoubt, must be 
left at Shenango. When we are masters of Fort Pitt, we shall soon 
see what are the sentiments of the inhabitants of that region. If they 
are willing to submit to the government of the king and defend 
themselves, I believe we risk nothing in occupying Fort Pitt with the 
yagers and one regiment of regulars, as it can be reenforced either 
by laud or water as is thought best. It will also be well, perhaps, to 
build a few gunboats to protect the navigation from one post to 
another. As soon as we have a foothold at Fort Pitt, the Indians 
can be sent into the Alleghany mountains, and thence still ftirther to 
the source of the Potomac, as far as the Cumberland and the Juniata 
river, which empties near Frankstown, into the Susquehannah river. 
If the settlers on the Ohio are willing to take up arms, or to place 
outposts in the front of Fort Pitt, between the Monongahela and the 
Bonykigany rivers to their left, then a post in the passes near Fort 
Ligonier and Conemak Oldtown can be established. As soon as the 
other or complementary expedition from the Chesapeake is on the 
way, the mana3uvres of both armies will become more in harmony 


with each other; and Inxlics of regular troops can, every little while, 
be sent out in advance from right to left, without much risk, until 
there is not a hostile post left this side of Fort Pitt. I believe that 
Fort Pitt is too far off to risk an engagement with the enemy — taking 
into view the distance for retreat in case of defeat — but I also believe 
that we may attack, and act on the defensive near Shenango and 
Venango (if the enemy ventures so far), as it would then be almost 
impossible for us to be cut off from the rendezvous at Presqu'isle, 
where we could take to our boats. If, however, the inhabitants 
should act with us, we could act more powerfully, and the rangers 
of the left wing might be sent on a raid into Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania. It would also be of great and important benefit, if Win- 
chester — a city of considerable importance on the main road from 
Philadelphia to Virginia — could be destroyed, and if incursions 
could be made upon what is called the great wagon road. Thus all 
communication between the northern and southeni provinces would 
be destroyed. But supposing that the enemy, which is not very likely, 
should rally a large force while the expedition was getting under 
way from the Chesapeake — and supposing again that it would be 
dangerous to support this expedition even as far as Venango — we 
could easily fall back on our rendezvous at Presqu'isle ; and as the 
enemy could not remain in this region, we could follow him every 
time he retreated. 

The rest of this expedition depends on local circumstances regarding 
which I can make no conjectures, not being acquainted with the 
country any further than what I have learned from the map. 

A corps constructed on similar principles to the above, might 
operate in the same manner in this section, until the French prepare 
for an invasion of Canada in earnest, in which case I think our troops 
could be back at Montreal in two months. 

For the purpose of deceiving the enemy in regard to the real object 
of this expedition, another corps, consisting of Mohawk Indians, 
one yliger compan}^ the regiment of Sir John Johnson, and supplied 
with vessels,artillery, etc., might proceed to Oswego, repair the fort 
in that place, and extend its operations as far as Fort Stanwix and 
the German Flats. This would greatly puzzle the rebels ; but in case 
of such an expedition being undertaken, we must not pretend to do it : 
the works of Fort Stanwix must actually be destroyed, and in case we 
are forced by a superior force of the enemy to fall back on Oswego, 
this post must be kept at all hazards until General Haldimand thinks 
it advisable to gather together all his forces into the interior. 

The entire fleet, also, must be sent from St. John to Crown point, 
as soon as the season of the year permits it. Major Carleton, with 


the rnngcrs, siiva^rs from the interior of Canada, and Canadian 
voluntc* rs, will Ik* of this party. They will then make raids upon 
Ticonderopi. Lake (Jeor^e and Alhany; hut this muHt be done with 
great caution, so as not to he surimsed, or injure the I lamshire grants 
called the i)rovinee of Vermont. Crown i)oint will always remain the 
rendezvous for the raideiv, and the fleet will always cover this post 
as long as the season of the year allows. I believe there is nothing 
to hinder this plan, except that it will \w. impossible to cross the upper 
St. Lawrence alter the numth of Octolwr ; that the tmnsportation of 
provisions and baggage from Montreal to Niagara, so late in the 
season, will be conne<'ted with difficulties; and that the Indians can 
only be rallied at a certain season of the year. I, however, also be- 
lieve that these impediments can easily be overcome. A certiun 
Captain Twiss, who was employed by General Phillips in the cam- 
paigns of 1776 and 1777, has solved questions which seemed impossible. 
He is now in Canada. 

I beg you will excuse it if the names of places and rivers are given 
incorrectly in this plan. I have had only a general map to assist me, 
which renders it impossible to give them with accuracy.* 


1st. A corps of the main army under the immediate command 
of the general in chief of North America, consisting of twenty-four 
battalions, two regiments of dragoons, with sufficient artillery at 
New York city. New York island. Long island, and Staten island ; 
a large, and carefully arranged fort on Long island, and on Staten 
island for the defense of the narrow passage of Sandy hook ; a well 
planned fort for the defense of the narrow channel between Jersey 
and Staten island ; another one on Long island for the defense of the 
narrows at Ilellgate, and to save troops as far as possible ; a naval 
force, under the chief admiral, consisting of four ships of the line and 

1 Although the plan, given by Clinton to Riedesel forllaldimand, is given first in 
the original, yet it seems altogether probable that this plan of General Riedesel 
was originated by him and given to Clinton, who, thereupon, incorporated its 
exact features, or rather reproduced it for Haldimand. This supposition, moreover, 
is rendered additionally probable by the fact that Riedesel sketched (see a few 
pages back) a very similar plan of operations in a letter to Phillips some time 
previously.— Translator. 


six frigates to protect the coast from all hostile attacks from the sea- 

2d. A corps of eight battalions with the proper artillery, and about 
eighty mounted yagers or volunteers on Rhode island. This island 
would have to be better fortified than at present ; and the city of 
Newport, or another better situated post also fortified that it could 
not be taken without a regular siege of two months. This latter 
post to be likewise protected by a fleet of one ship of the line and 
three frigates, under the command of a commodore. 

8d. To obtain possession of a post between Newport and Halifax, 
either in the vicinity of Portsmouth, not far from New Castle island, 
or in the Kasko or Kennebeck bay. The main thing in the selection 
of such a post is, a good safe harbor, and suitable ground on which 
to construct a fort sufficiently strong, not only to defend the harbor, 
but to resist for a time any assault by land. Four regiments, with 
proper artillery, and fifty volunteers or mounted dragoons, should be 
stationed in the fortificaticms. Three frigates, under a commodore, 
should also protect the harbor. 

4th. Halifax, the dock yard of North America, should be protected 
by four regiments, and ji fleet of four frigates and two ships of the 

5th. The two capes, south of New York, viz : Charles and Henry, 
should be fortified, or, still better, two strong forts further up the 
Chesapeake, in the vicinity of Gloucester or Hampton, should be 
built and fortified to withstand a siege. For this purpose ten regi- 
ments and one hundred horses, with proper artillery, will be required 
to cover these fortifications and keep the Chesapeake clear. Two 
ships of the line and six frigates will also be necessary. 

6th. To defend the coast completely, and before adopting this plan, 
Charleston, in South Carolina, must be taken by a well supported 
expedition. It should be well fortified, so that it can be held by a 
garrison of four regiments, fifty horse and proper artillery, until it 
can be supported fi-om another direction. A ship of the line and 
three frigates will cover the harbor and fortifications. 

7th. Savannah, or another post in Georgia, to be fortified and 
manned by thirty regiments, fifty horse and the proper artillery, and 
to be protected by one ship of the line and three frigates. 

8th. St. Augustina, in Florida, to be defended by two regiments 
with the proper artillery and two frigates. 

9th. A fleet of observation of four ships of the line and six frigates 
under an admiral, six regiments, one hundred horse and the proper 
artillery to be in constant readiness to undertake expeditions into 


or 7 

the BOiithcm portions of America, and n^cninrcf tliosc pimtH in chmi* 
of an hostile attack. 

10th. A similar fleet to operate a«^ainst the northern pn^vlnecM. 

The entire effective force in America, ixWvv miinniin; tlie above 
named places and fortifying them, would he mh follows : 



New York, 


Between Rhode Ir- 

land and Halifax, . 





Chesapeake Bay,.. 






St. Angnstina, 


Southern corps of 



Northern corps of 










I Aktil- 








Sunt* or ' 
TiiK Link. ' 












Three bodies of savages, Hupported hy rMiij[;:('rM and volnnlctM'M, niUMl 
constantly ravage and harniHS tlu^ frontierH of \\\o colonh's iVoni 
Niagara and Oswego, so tliat not oidy will the inhnhUaiitM of Ihiit 
fertile country be compelled to leave Ihclr i>lantMtlonH, ImiI tin* enemy 
will be forced to maintain an armv in <'verv provhu-e In addition to 
the large one operating against New York. The maintenance of thi«Me 
different corps will soon cause, in (^vcry province, KU<'h a want oran\ 
munition, provisions and money, that It will be Imposslbh* for tlieni 
either to send supplies to the main army or support their i'on\n\ou 
expenses by taxes. 

Expeditions, also, must at onc-e be scut into those porllons of the 
country where it is found that th(^ enemy are asle(«p (»r his ndlltia 
scattered; and stores, i)rovisions, cattle,and men lit for the service 
must be carried off. Thes(? expeditions must be pressed mttll the 
enemy is compelUnl to s(;nd troops from his nudn army whUe wv i\w 

The general, who connnands this expedition, unist posst'ss sound 
judgment. lie must never risk an rrZ/yr ; nc'lther shoiild he retivat 
until the object of the expedition is a(!Comi)lished. As soon, monM»v(»r, 
as the commanding general l(«arns that the troops, having accom- 
plished their object, are about to return, htMuust send out a n(»w ex- 
pedition in an opposite; direction, whi(^h must be carried out with the 
same (mergy. T believe that four su(^(TSsi ve exiuMlitions <'an be und(T- 


taken during a year, two in a northerly and two in a southeriy direction. 
As soon as the troops return from one expedition, tliey are to rephice 
those ganisons that have been weakened by furuisliing men for ex- 
peditions already out. The captured provisions, cattle, etc., are to 
furnish the garrisons with fresh supplies. 

In addition to these large expeditions planned by the commanding 
general, the officer in command of a post is to carry on a constant 
skirmishing warfare in his vicinity, send now small detachments 
and now large ones, surprise tlie enemy here and there, by day and 
night. He should, especially, profit by the rough season of the year 
and the winter, at whicli times the enemy generally becomes careless, 
lie should, also, make the most of the summer in harvesting time 
when the militia are forced to disperse to gather in their crops. 

By such a miniature warfare not only is the enemy compelled to 
keep a considerable corps of observation, but the garrisons have, at 
the same time, the advantage of being supplied with all kinds of fresh 
supplies. The inhabitants are likewise, by such a course, kej)t in con- 
stant fear and terror. Such little expeditions, also, would be greatly 
facilitated by having a certain number of cavalry added to each garri- 

Those inhabitants who, either by land or water, bring provisions 
to the garrisons, should be promptly and liberally paid in cash. Love 
of gain will therefore induce them to bring more supplies as well as 
news from the enemy, and the number of tories will also be increased. 
Such people, however, must never be allowed to enter the city, or go 
anywhere where they might discover the condition of the fort or 

But should all this fail to rouse Washington from his lethargy, 
and should it be his plan to have each province protect itself with its 
own militia, then we must prolong our expeditions and advance into 
the interior as far as the rivers will permit. We must then go into 
entrenched camps from which we can fit out new expeditions to devas- 
tate the level land as much as possible. This course not only will 
ruin the provinces, but the inhabitants will be very angry because 
Washington and congress refused to assist them ; yea, it will finally 
cause a separation of the confederate provinces. 

Should Washington, either of his own inclination, or by the com- 
mand of congress, at the request of the suffering provinces, make a 
general movement with his army and send out such strong detach- 
ments as to weaken him, then our main army might make itself 
master of the highlands, and thus bring about the long desired sepa- 
ration between the northern and southern provinces But such a 
movement should not be undertaken until Washington has shown 


his hand, mid liis troops arc too far away to support thr |H>st that is 
to h(? captured. 

Hut sliould it 1)0 Washinu:ton*H plan to allow our troops ti> proctHxl 
unnioIcsttMl on thrir (>xprdition, whiU*, at the sanio tinu', he attaoktM 
one of our posts, the latter (as we have hefore shown), would be t«H) 
well fortified to be taken by surprise, and could easily iiold out until 
we came to its reru'f. Havinj^ thus plactnl the iM'sieging army 
iK'tween two fires, w(? should either j^ain a (•onij>lete victory, or cap- 
ture the largest part of his heavy artillery and siege train. 

I lM?lieve, also, that it would be a good idea to keep an eye upon 
those Americans who enter into our servi(!e as tories. They should 
never be allowed to be in one (rorps by themselves, but should be in- 
corporated into the English regiments. These men would thus com- 
mand more respect by being in the comi)any of national troops, and 
would love their king and regiment better; but in case of desertions, 
an entire corps would not be ruined. Regimental oflices should also 
Imj given to Americans of distinction, for the sake of creating emula- 
tion. Such a course might induce many fnmi the provinces to join 
our arm}'. Indeed, I feel (confident that each infantry regiment, now 
serving in America, would tluireby be increased to two battalions in a 
short time. Thus, most of our recruits could be obtained in America, 
and our own army strengthened in proportion as that of the Americans 
were weakened. In pursuing this policy, however, care should be 
taken to have our northern regiments filled with Americans from the 
south, and our southern ones with recruits from the north. 

It must be added, as a necessary part of the above programme, that 
the ministry of Great Britain must watch the steps which France 
takes in regard to America, and must endeavor to prevent her sending 
reenforcements either for the army or navy. Should this, however, 
be impossible, then a force in proportion to that sent by France must 
be sent over at once to preserve the equilibrium of power. 

Judging by the knowledge of America I acquired in traveling 
through it, I believe that a war carried on in the way I have described, 
for two years, would so weaken the country, increase the war expenses, 
and make the farmer as well Jis the merchant so tired of it, that the 
Americans would surely accept the conditions otfered by the crown. 
In case they acknowledged their dependence on England, everything 
they asked for could be granted, with the exception that England 
should keep the forts on the coast and in the interior garrisoned and 
placed in a better condition of defense. A considerable English fleet 
would, also, have to be scattered near the different ports on the sea- 




Tlie a])ovc is and can be the onl}' means of keeping this wonderfully 
growing nation dependent on the king; otlierwise, it will outgrow 
tlie English nation during the next century. 


[The erasures were made by Oene- 
ral Burgoyne}^ 

Tlie object of your expetlition is 
to try the affections of the coun- 
try, to disconcert the councils of 
the enemy, to mount the Reidesers 
dragoons, to complete Peters's 
corps, and to obtain large supplies 
of cattle, horses and carriages. 

The several corps, of which the 
inclosed is a list, are to Ikj under 
your command. 

The troops must take no tents, 
and what little baggage is carried 
by officers must be on their own 
bat horses. 

You are to proceed by tJie route 
from Batten kill to Arlington, 
and take post there, so as to secure 
tlie pass from Maiidiester. You are 
to remain at Arlington till the de- 
tachment of the provincials, under 
the command of Captain Sher- 
wood, shall join you from the 

You are then to proceed to Man- 
chester, where you take post so as 
to secure the pass of the. moun- 
tains on the road from Manchester 
to Rockingham; hence you will 
detach the Indians and light troops 
to the northward, toward Otter 

Amendtnents made by General 

* This extract should be read in connection with note 2 on page 261 of vol. i. 
^ The erasures are printed in italics, and the amendments in the opposite column. 


creek. On their return, and also 
rec^eivin^ intelligence that no ene- 
my is in force in the neUjhhorliood 

of llockinghim^ (1) you will pro- (1) upon tJie CoriMcticut rieer. 
ceed by tiie road over the moun- 
tains to Rockingham, where you 
will take post. This will be the 
most distant part on the expedi- 
tion. (3) (2) And must he proceeded upon 

You are to remain there as long wWi caution^ as you will Iiave tJie 
as necessary to fulfill the intention of defile of the mountains behind you, 
the expedition from tlietice, (3) and which might make a retreat difficult; 
you are afterwards to descend by you must tJterefore emleavour to be 
the Connecticut river to Brattle- wellififo?'m€dof tlie force of the ene- 
bury, and from that place, by the my's militia in tJie neighboring 
quickest march, you are to return country. 
by the great road to Albany. S/iould you find it may withjwu- 

During your whole progress, dence be effected. 
your detachments are to have or- (3) while tlie Indians and light 
ders to bring in to you all horses troops are detoxified up the river, 
fit to mount the dragoons under 
your command, or to serve as bat 
horses to the. troops, th>ey are like- 
wise to bring in (4) saddles and (4) together with as mxiny. 
bridles as can be found. (5) (5) The nurnber of horses re- 

Your parties are likewise to quisite, besides those necessary for 
bring in wagons and other con- mx>unting the regiment of dragoons, 
venient carriages, with as many ought fo 6^1300. If you can bring 
draft oxen as will be necessary to more for the use of the army, it wiU 
draw them, and all cattle fit for be so much the better. 
slaughter (milch cows excepted), 
which are to be left for the use of 
the inhabitants. Regular receipts, 
in the form hereto subjoined, are 
to be given, in all places where 
any of the abovementioned articles 
are taken, to such persons as have 
remained in their habitations, and 
otherwise complied with the terms 
of General Burgoyne's manifesto ; 
but no receipts to be given to such 
as are known to be acting in the 
service of the rebels. (6) (6) As you will have with you 


pertiOTis perfectly (wquainted with 
Vie abilities of the country^ it may 
perhaps be advisable to tax tfie seve- 
ral districts with the jx>rtiofis of the 
several articles^ and limit tJie Iiours 
for i/ieir delivery; and, s/iould you 
find it necessary to move before such 
delivery can be made, hostages of the 
m/>st respectable ])eo2)le should be 
taken, to secure their fuUamng you 
the ensuing day. AUjyossible means 
are to be used to prevent plundering. 
As it is probable that Captain SJier- 
wood, irho is already detaclted to the 
southward and wiUjoin you at Ar- 
linfjton, will drive in a considerable 
quantity of cattle and lun'ses to you, 
you will tJierefore send in this cattle 
to the arrhy, with a proper detach- 
ment from Peters's corps to cover 
them, in order to disencumber your- 
self; but you must always keep the 
regitnents of dragoons compaxit. 

Tlie dragoons themselves must 
ride, and take care of the horses of 
the regiment. Those horses which 
are destined for the use of the army 
must be tied together by strings of 
ten each, in order that one man may 
lead ten horses. You wiU give tlie 
unarmed men of Peters's corps to 
conduct tliem, and inhabitants whom 
you can trust. You mvM always 
take your camps in good position; 
but at the same time wJiere there is 
pasture ; and you must have a chain 
of sentinels round your cattle and 
horses when grazing. 

Colonel Skeen^ will be with you 
as much as possible, in order to 
assist you with his advice, to help 
you to distinguish tJie good subjects 
from t/ie bad, to procure you the best 



You will use all possible means 
to make the country believe that 
the troops under your command 
are the advanced corps of the 
army, and that it is intended to 
pass the Connecticut on the road 
to Boston. You will likewise 
Jia'm it in^nuated, (7) that the main 
army from Albany is to be joined 
at Springfield by a corps of troops 
from Rhode island. 

You wiU sejid off occasionally 
catUe or cariHageSy to prevent being 
too much incumbei'ed; and will give 
me as frequent intelligence of your 
situation as possible. 

It is highly probable that the 
corps under Mr. Warner, now 
supposed to be at Manchester, 
will retreat before you ; but, should 
they, contrary to expectation, be 
able to collect in great force, and 
post themselves advantageously, 
it is left to your discretion to 
attack them or not; always 
bearing in mind, that your corps 

intdligcuee of the cneiny^ and to 
chnm' those 2>eoj)U^ who are to bring 
me the accounts ofyourprt/gress and 

When you find it necessary to halt 
for a day or two^ you must alicays 
entrench the camp of the regiment of 
dragoons^ in order twrer to risk an 
attack or affront from, the enemy. 

As you iriU return with the regi- 
ment of dragoons mounted^ you 
must always hare a detacliment of 
Captain Fraser^s or Peters^s corjM in 
front of tJui column, ami the same in 
the rear, in order to prevent your 
falling into an ambuscade tchenyoti 
march through the woods. 

(7) insinuate, 



Ib too valuable to let any consider- 
able loss be hazarded on this 

Should any corps be moved from 
Mr. Arnold's main army, in order 
to intercept your retreat, you are 
to take as strong a post as the 
country will afford, and send the 
quickest intelligence to me; and 
you may depend on my making 
such a movement as shall put the 
enemy between two fires, or other- 
wise effectually sustain you. 

It is imagined the progress of 
the whole of this expedition may 
be effected in about a fortnight; 
but every movement of it must 
depend upon your success in ob- 
taining such supply of provisions 
as will enable you to subsist till 
your return to the army, in case 
you can get no more. (8) (8) And^ slwuld not tlie army be 

All persons acting in commit- cUfle to reach Albany before your ex- 
tees, or any oflBlcers acting under pedition sliould be completed, ItciU 
the directions of congress, either find ^neans to send you notice of it, 
civil or military, are to be made and give your route anotlier direc- 
prisoners. tian. 

Batten Kill, August 13, 1777. 

I had the honor of acquainting your excellency, by a man sent 
yesterday evening by Colonel Skeenc to head quarters, of the several 
corps under my command being encamped at Saratoga, as well as of 
my intention to proceed the next morning at five o'clock ; the corps 
moved at that time, and marched a mile, when I received a letter from 
Brigadier General Fraser, signifying your excellency's order to post 
the corps advantageously on Batten kill, till I should receive fresh in- 
structions from your excellency : the corps is now encamped at that 
place, and wait your excellency's orders. I wilt not trouble you, sir, 
with the various reports which spread, as they seem rather to be 


founded on the different interests and feeling of tlie iuK)ple who 
occasion them. 

I have tlie honor to be, most respectfully, 

Your excellenc^y's most obedient 

and humble servant, 

F. Baumk. 
The reenforcement of flfly chasseurs, 
which your excellency was pleased 
to order, joined me last night at 
eleven o'clock. 

Oeneral Jhirgr^yne. 

AMERICA FROM 1776-1783. 

The Field Officers of the Corps. 

1. Major General (commander) Riedesel, Frederick Adolphus, died 
Jan. 6, 1800, as lieutenant general and commander of Bnmswick. 

3. Captain (General Quarter Master) Gerlach, Ileinrich Jan., died 
Sept. 39, 1798, as lieutenant colonel and commander of the artillery 
in Brunswick. 

3. Captain O'Connel, Laurentius, died in 1819, as a pensioned 
lieutenant colonel in Ireland. 

4. Lieutenant Cleve, Frederick Christian, died Jan. 0, 1830, as a 
pensioned major general at Brunswick. 

5. Keeper of the military chest, Godcck, Johann Conrad, died Dec. 
35th, 1783, in America. 

Dragoon Begimeni. 

1. Lieutenant Colonel Baum, Frederick, wounded in the hattle 
near Bennington, tlie IGth of August, 1777, and died two days after- 

3. Major Von Maibom, Just. Christoph, died Feb. 17th, 1804, as a 
pensioned major at WolfenbUttel. 

3. Captain of horse, Schlagenteuffel III, Carl, dismissed from the 
service in 1788. 

4. Captain of horse, Fricke, Heinrich Christian, died July 3, 1808, 
as a pensioned major. 

5. Captain of horse, Reinking, Carl Frederick, killed on tlie IGth of 
August, 1777, in the battle near Bennington. 


6. Captain of horse, Schlagenteuffel IV (Adoph), dismissed by re- 
quest from the army in 1783, as major. 

7. Lieutenant Breva, August Wilhelm, died the 16th August, 1790, 
as captain of the invalid company at Blankenburg. 

8. Lieutenant von Sommerlatte, Otto Arnold, became blind in 1783, 
and placed on the pension list. 

9. Lieutenant Reckrodt, Carl Friederick, deserted from WolfenbOttel 
the 13th August, 1784. 

10. Lieutenant von Bothmer, Friederich Wilhelm Dietrich, dis- 
missed, at his own request, in 1783, with the rank of master of horse. 

11. Lieutenant Borncmann, August Friedrich Heinrich, dismissed 
in 1788 ; entered the service of Holland, and died in India. 

12. Cornet Grafe, August Ludwig Lucas, remained in America in 
1783, by permission ; returned in the following year to Germany, and 
died as governor of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 

13. Cornet Stutzer, Johann Balthasar, died the 29th November, 
1821, as a pensioned lieutenant colonel in Brunswick. 

14 Comet SchSnewald, Johann Friedrich, died the 5th July, 1826, 
with the same rank. 

15. Chaplain Melsheimer, Carl, deserted from his regiment the 11th 
May, 1779. 

16. Auditor Thomas remained, in 1783, by permission in America. 

17. Regimental Chaplain Vorbrodt, pensioned in 1783. 

Orenadier Battalion. 

1. Lieutenant Colonel Breymann, Heinrich Christoph, killed the 
7th Oct., 1777, in the battle of Freeman's farm. 

2. Captain Bjirtling I, Ernst August, died Jan. 1, 1793, as lieu- 
tenant colonel and commander of a battalion in Maestricht. 

3. Captam Ldhneysen, Albrecht Daniel, died May 2, 1820, upon his 
estate at Nemlingen. 

4. Captain Schick, Gottlob Dietrich, killed August 16, 1777, in the 
battle near Bennington. 

5. Captain Hambach, August Wilhelm, dismissed in 1783. 

6. Lieutenant Uhlig, Heinrich Wilhelm, advanced to a captaincy 
and transferred to a land regiment in 1783. 

7. Lieutenant Gebhard, Theodore Friederich, died June 3, 1810, in 
Brunswick as a pensioned lieutenant colonel. 

8. Lieutenant Helmecke, August Wilhelm, dismissed in 17B3. 

9. Lieutenant Trott, Christian Wilhelm; likewise dismissed in 

10. Lieutenant Rudolphi, Otto Heinrich, died June 3, 1810, in Bruns- 
wick as a pensioned lieutenant colonel. 


11. Lioulonnnt Wnllmoden, Gebhard Thedel, Friedrich, died 2d 
Hept., 1807, jiH major, but out of the service. 

12. Lieutenant Muzell, Ludwi^ Caniinir, died July 28, 1814, aB a pen- 
Hioned colonel of the cavalry of his serene hif^hness, Prince George 
of Brunswick, at Glllcksburg. 

13. Lieutenant Meyer, Johann Andreas, unknown. 

14. Lieutenant Meyem, Johann Jacob, died July 3, 1802, as captain 
and chief of the invalid company at Blankenburg. 

15. Lieutenant D'Anniers II, Carl Franz, died in 1777, while a 
prisoner at Bennington. 

10. Lieutenant Winterschmidt, Gottfried Jul, deserted from his 
battalion in 1779. 

17. Lieutenant Balke, Johann Casper, died in America in 1777. 

18. Regimental Chaplain Ilenkel, died in America in 1778. 

Princ4} Fi'iednch\H Begiment, 

1. Lieutenant Colonel Pratorius, Christian Julius, died April 10, 
1794, as a pensioned lieutenant colonel at Holzminden. 

2. Major Hille, Freidrich Wilhelm, died April 29, 1805, as a major 
general, and named commandant of Wolfenbtittel near Brunswick. 

3. Captain Dietrich, Adolph Lorenz, died March 10, 1794, as 
lieutenant colonel at Wolfenbiittel. 

4. Captain Tunderfeld, Carl August Heinrich, died June 4, 1802, 
as chamberlain of Brunswick. 

5. Captain Sander, Jacob Christian, died March 14, 1799, as lieuten- 
ant colonel at Wolfenbuttel. 

6. Captain Rosenberg, Friedrich Albrecht, dismissed at his own 
request, in 1788, as major. 

7. Captain Zielberg, George Ernst, died out of service at Horter, 
Feb. 23, 1797, as captain. 

8. Lieutenant SchrSder, Ernst Christian, pensioned in 1783, and 
died the same year. 

9. Lieutenant Knesebeck, Friedrich, dismissed in 1783. 

10. Lieutenant Volkmar, Friedrich Wilhelm, dismissed in 1783. 

11. Lieutenant Harz, Johann Friedrich, succeeded in 1787, to the 
post of secretary of the monastic archives. 

12. Lieutenant Wolgart I, Johann Friedrich, died Oct. 2, 1825, as 
a pensioned lieutenant colonel at Brunswick. 

13. Lieutenant Reitzenstein, Gottlieb Christian, remained by per- 
mission, in 1783, in America. 

14. Lieutenant Burghoff, Johann Friedrich Heinrich, dismissed in 
1780, in America, and died the same year. 



15. Lieutenant du Roi, August Wilhelm, after serving the house of 
Bninswick faithfully for over fifty years, he drowned himself in a lit 
of melancholy, March 23, 1814. At the time of his death he was 
commissary general, and lieutenant colonel on the general staff. 

10. Lieutenant Wiesener, Christian Friedrich, discharged in 1783. 

17. Lieutenant von KOnig, Edmund Victor, remained, in 1783, by 
permission in America. 

18. Ensign Langerjahn, Siegfried Heinrich, remained, in 1783, by 
permission in America. 

19. Ensign Adelsheim, Carl Friedrich Christian, deserted from his 
regiment in 1780. 

20. Ensign Sternberg, Johann Christian, died Nov. 16, 1799, as 
secretary of supplies, at Wolfeubiittel. 

21. Ensign Reinerding, Carl Wilhelm, died March 14, 1815, as 
head chamberlain in the service at Blankenburg. 

22. Ensign Kolte, Friedrich, remained by permission, in America 
in 1783. 

23. Chaplain FOgerer, Friedrich August, dismissed in Oct., 1779. 

24. Chaplain Schrader, Friedrich Wilhelm Conrad, sent in April, 
1779, to America with the transport recruits ; died Dec. 19, 1792, as 
pastor at Beierstedt. 

25. Auditor Wolpers, Paul Gottfried Franz, died May 11, 1802, as 
chancery clerk at Wolfenbiittel. 

20. Regimental Chaplain Bernt, Johann August, died Feb. 27, 
1807, as city surgeon at Ilolzminden. 

Regiment Bhetz. 

1. Lieutenant Colonel Ehrenkrock, Johann Gustavus, died March 
22, 1783, at Three Rivers in Canada.^ 

2. Major Lucke, Balthasar Bogislaus, died as a pensioned major. 

3. Captain Schlagenteuffel I, Ludewig, placed on the pension list 
in 1783, and died the same year at CalvOrde. 

4. Captain Alers, Conrad Anton, died Oct. 17, 1810. as major (out 
of the service), at Brunswick. 

1 Lieutenant Papet II, referring to the death of Ehrenkrock, writes in his diary, as 
follows : " Lieutenant Von Ehrenkrock died at Three Rivers on the 22 of March, 1783, 
at eijrht in the morning, and was buried at one o'clock at noon of the 27th of the 
month, in the nsual bnrial place of the garrison, with military pomp, Chaplain 
Kohlc delivering an excellent funeral oration. The corpse was exposed on a bed 
of state on the 25th and 2()th ; and so well did it look that the Canadians firmly 
believed that it was painted," 


5. Captain Arond, George Pliilipp, died Dec. 10, 1803, as lieutenant 
colonel (though out of the service), and high bailiff at Kl. Biewende. 

6. Captain Cleve, Ileinrich Urban, died Jan. 2, 1808, as lieutenant 
colonel (out of the service), at Salzgitter. 

7. Captain Fredersdorff, Wilhelm Ludwig, wounded Oct. 7, 1777, in 
the battle of Freeman's farm, and died the year following in the city 
of Albany. 

8. Lieutenant Bodemeyer, George, died in 1793, at Maestricht, as 

9. Lieutenant Papet II, Friedrich Julius, died April 5, 1793, as 
captain, at Maestricht. 

10. Lieutenant Hessler, Curt, discharged in 1783, with the rank of 

11. Lieutenant Meyer, Friedrich Leopold Engelhard, died Dec. 6, 

1803, as inspector of excise at Seefen. 

12. Lieutenant Bielstein, Thedel Wilhelm, remained by permission 
in America in 1783. 

13. Lieutenant Conradi, Carl Friedrich, took his discharge in 1783, 
and went back to America. 

14. Lieutenant Dobeneck, Hans Philipp Heinrich, died in 1790, as 
captain of a land regiment at Holzminden. 

15. Lieutenant Petersen, Carl Ludwig, died May 7, 1814, as a civil 

16. Lieutenant Modrach, Christian Heinrich, died Aug. 18, 1803, as 
captain of a land regiment at Bevern. 

17. Lieutenant Unger I, Johann Ludwig, died May 2, 1805, as coun- 
sellor of mines at Salzliebenhalle. 

18. Lieutenant Feichel, Friedrich Wilhelm, died May 29, 1794, at 
Brunswick, as captain. 

19. Ensign Bandel, Friedrich, deserted from his regiment in 1779. 

20. Ensign Erich, Bernhard, received his discharge in 1783. 

21. Ensign Bode, Johann Friedrich, died Sept. 19, 1783, at Stade, 
while on his return from America. 

22. Ensign Gsdecke, Johann Heinrich, transferred to a regiment 
of the line in 1788. 

23. Chaplain T6gel, Christian Timotheus, died Oct. 1, 1797, as 
pastor at Great Twiilpstedt. * 

24. Auditor Schmidt, transferred in 1783 to the regiment Riedesel. 

25. Regimental Chaplain Schrader, Johann Friedrich, died Dec. 16, 

1804, at Brunswick. 


Itegimcnt lUnU'iki. 

I. Lieuteniint Colonel Speth, Ernst Ludewig Wilhelm, died Oct. 
27, 1800, as major general and commandant at Wolfenbilttel. 

3. Major Mengen, Otto Carl Anton, died May 18, 1797, as lieuten- 
ant colonel (out of service), at Lilneburg. 

3. Cai)tain POllnitz, Julius Ludwig August, died March 39, 1805, as 
major general and commandant at Wolfenbilttel. 

4. Captain Morgenstern, Carl Friedrich, received his discharge as 
major in 17 — . 

5. Captain Bartling II, Carl Friedrich, died in 1783, at Munster 
while on his return journey to Brunswick. 

0. Captain Ilarbord, GottUeb Benjamin, died as a jwnsioned cap- 
tain in . 

7. Captain Girsewald, Enist Heinrich Wilhelm, died Jan. 10, 1818, 
in time of peace as a major general at Brunswick. 

8. Lieutenant Iloyer, Wilhelm, died in 1783, in America. 

9. Lieutenant Morgenstern, Johann Carl, died Dec. 8, 1787, at 
Brunswick as captain. 

10. Lieutenant Reinking, Friedrich Carl, died as captain of a 
regiment of the line. 

II. Lieutenant Burgdorff, Ludwig Traugott, dismissed in 1786. 

13. Lieutenant Wolgart II, August Theodore Gottfried, died 
March 4, 1831, as a pensioned major at Brunswick. 

13. Lieutenant Freyenhagen, Heinrich Julius, died in 1777, in 

14. Lieutenant Pincier, Christian Theodore, received his discharge 
in 1784, and returned to America. 

15. Lieutenant Cramm, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried, died Feb. 3, 
1794, at Mastricht. 

16. Lieutenant Meyem, Ludwig Gottlieb, died 1781, in America. 

17. Ensign Brander, Ernst Christian Heinrich, dismissed in 1786. 

18. Ensign Unverzagt, Ludwig, died in 1776, in America. 

19. Ensign Maibom, Carl Christoph, died April 36, 1794, upon 
his return journey from Mastricht to Holzminden. 

30. Ensign Ilaberlin, Raimund Gottlieb, died Oct. 6, 1796, atHelm- 
stedt as captain. 

31. Ensign Andrce, Carl Conrad, died as a Ueutenant of a regi- 
ment of the line in . 

33. Ensign Denecke, Friedrich Ludwig, unknown.* 

33. Ensign Forstner, Heinrich Friedrich, dismissed in 1794. 

1 Dr. O'Callaglian, iu Burgoym's Orderly Book^ states that this ofllcer was, in 1778, 
residing at Westminster.— Translator. 


24. Chaplain Milius, Joliann August, died Jan. 17, 1810, as pastor 
at Haider. 

25. (Jeneral Field Auditor Zinken, Carl Friedricli WiUielm, died in 
the night of August 3, 1806, as aulic counsellor and mayor of t^fen. 

26. Regimental Chaplain Pralle, died as land surgeon at Jerrhelm. 

Regime fit Specht, 

1. Colonel Specht, Johann Friedrich, died June 24, 1787, at Bruns- 
wick as a pensioned colonel. 

2. Major Ehrenkrock, Carl Friedrich, died July 17, 1797, as a pen- 
sioned major in Brunswick. 

3. Captain Plessen, Leopold Franz Friedrich Balthasar, died Feb. 
6, 1808, as captain (out of the service), at Gandersheim. 

4. Captain Lutzow, August Conrad, died Nov. 26, 1799, at Bruns- 
wick as colonel. 

5. Captain Dahlstima, Bernhard Rich., wounded on the 7th Oct., 
1777, at the battle of Freeman's farm, and died the following year in 
the city of Albany. 

6. Captain von SchlagenteufFel II, George, died August 15, 1818, as 
high bailiff at Schftppenstedt. 

7. Captain Yager, Heinrich, died in 1782, in America. 

8. Lieutenant Meyer, Johann Heinrich, died Oct. 23, 1800, as post 
master of Uelmstedt. 

9. Lieutenant Hertel, Daniel Arnold, died August 1, 1799, as a 
pensioned lieutenant at KOnigslutte. 

10. Lieutenant Papet I, August Wilhelm, died July 25, 1808, at 
Brunswick as colonel. 

11. Lieutenant Dove, Heinrich Anton David, died in 1780, in 

12. Lieutenant Milkau, Christian Friedrich, discharged in 1783. 

13. Lieutenant Oldekopf, Friedrich Ernst, created secretary in the 
post office in 1784, and died while holding that position. 

14. Lieutenant Anniers I, Heinrich Daniel, discharged in 1783. 

15. Lieutenant Kellner, Johann Friedrich Julius, died November 
30, 1808, as commissioner of a monastery at Brunswick. 

16. Lieutenant Roi II, Anton Adolph Heinrich, died August 19, 
1823, at Brunswick, as a pensioned colonel. 

17. Lieutenant Unger II, Friedrich Bodo, died Nov. 11, 1819, as a 
magistrate of Salzgitter. 

18. Ensign Bernewitz, Johann Heinrich Carl, died Dec. 13, 1821, as 
lieutenant general and commandant of Brunswick. 

19. Ensign Redeken, Friedrich, died in 1777, in America. 


20. Ensign Fromme, Johann Edmund, died May 8, 1822, at Wolf- 
enbiittel, as a pensioned major. 

21. Ensign Ulmenstein, Samuel Jacob Anton, died July 9, 1793, a 
pensioned lieutenant. 

22. Ensign Grimpe, died as collector of the public gates of Bruns- 

23. Chaplain Kohle, unknown. 

24. Chaplain Miinchhoff, unknown. 

25. Auditor Bahr, unknown. 

26. Regimental Chaplain Bause, Johann Carl, died Dec. 15, 1814, at 
Brunswick, as general field surgeon, out of service. 

Tdger Battalion, known also as t?ie Battalion Barner, 

1. Major Barner, Ferdinand Albrecht, died Oct. 2, 1797, as a pen- 
sioned colonel. 

2. Captain Thoma, George Ludewig, died Jan. 10, 1800, at Wolfen- 
battcl, as captain, out of service. 

3. Captain Geyso, Carl, discharged in 1783, as major. 

4. Captain Dommes, August Friedrich, died in the night of Jan. 5, 
1802, as chief commissary at Blankenburg. 

5. Captain Schottelius, Maximilian Christoph Ludwig, died Dec. 3, 
1807, as post master at Holzmindcn. 

6. Captain Gleissenberg, Gottlief Joachim, died Feb. 20, 1801, as 
colonel and commandant at Wolfenbottel. 

7. Lieutenant Hannemann, Johann Caspar, died as an officer of 
the forest.* 

8. Lieutenant Cruse, Philipp Sigesmund, died as captain in the 

9. Lieutenant Kotte, Johann Gottfried, died in 1776, at Quebec. 

10. Lieutenant Rabc, Albrecht Christian, died Oct. 18, 1806, as a 
lieutenant at KcJnigslutter, out of service. 

11. Lieutenant Gladen, Johann Gottlieb, died Dec. 14, 1827, at Wolf- 
enbiittel as a pensioned major. 

12. Lieutenant Miihlenfeldt, Carl Anton Ludwig, killed Aug. 16, 
1777, in the engagement near Bennington. 

13. Lieutenant Pfliiger, Johann Friedrich, died in 1777, in America. 

14. Lieutenant Meyer, Andreas, died Dec. 7, 1795, at the ducal 
castle at Salzdahlum. 

15. Lieutenant Fricke, George Friedrich Gebhard, died Nov. 19, 
1807, as postmaster at Goslar. 

» I. e., a ranger.— Translator. 


10. Lieutenant Bode, Joliann Andreas, killed the 7th Oct., 1777, in 
the hatth^ of Freeman's farm. 

17. Lieutenant Rohr, Caspar Fricdrich, discharged in 1783. 

18. Ensi^ Rhenius, Wilhelm Lucas, died Sept. 30, 1783,atDrang- 
stedt, on his return home from America. 

10. JJnsign Specht, Johann Julius Anton, remained by permission 
in America, in 1783. 

20. Ensign Begert, Johann, drowned in 1777, in America. 

21. Ensign Ilagcmann, George Leopold, killed August 16, 1777, in 
the engagement near Bennington. 

22. Ensign Count von Rantzau, Ernst August, drowned in the 
Schoolkil, while in captivtiy. 

23. Regimental Chaplain Eunze, died as a pensioner. 



AlH'nakiR, 50. 

Acklaiid, Lady Harriet, 168. 

Ackland. Maj., 163, 205. 

Adelshcnm, Carl F. C, ii, 268. 

iE8oi)U8, 192. 

Albany, 83 ; ii, 155, 199. 

Alers, CV)nrad A., ii, 268. 

Amelin^hausen, 31. 

Amlieret, Gen., 84, ii, 198. 

Aniiere, Lt., 135. 

Anistruther, Col., 120, 138. 

Andree, Carl C, ii, 270. 

Andre, Maj., ii, 86, 206. 

Anne, Fort, 116, 122, 246 ; descrip- 
tion of, 295. 

Anniers, Carl F. D., ii, 267. 

Anniers, Heinricli D., ii, 271. 

Arbutlinot, Admiral, ii, 208. 

Arend, Geo. P., ii, 269. 

Armand, a French adventurer, ii, 

Arnold, Gen., 48, 71, 80, 125, 136, 
165, 238, 251 ; ii, 210. 

» Baertling, Capt. Von, ii, 47. 
Balir, Auditor, ii, 272. 
Baker's falls, 238. 
Balke, Joliann C, ii, 267. 
Balcarras, Lord, 163, 206. 
Baltimore, 85. 
Bancroft, George, 85. 
Bandel, Friedricli, ii, 269. 
Barlow, Lt. 0)1., 229. 
Earner, Lt. Col., 28, 131 ; ii, 110, 

114,183; ii,272. 
Barn(?r, regiment of, 122, 230. 
Barnes, Capt., ii, 138. 
Bartlinnr, Ernst A., ii, 266. 
Bartling, Carl F., ii, 270. 
Batt^aux, concealtjd, 285 
Battenkil, 128, 132, 162, 170. 


Baimi, Lt. Col., 28, 126, 129, 248 ; 

ii, 265. 
Baum, regiment of, ii, 81. 
Bause, Joliann C, ii, 272. 
Bc^gert, Joliann, ii, 273. 
Bell, Capt., 40. 
Belleville, 47, 57. 
Beloeil, 81 ; ii, 137. 
Bemis's heights, 165, 306. 
Bempaip creek, ii, 61. 
Bempaip Hunnert, ii, 61. 
Bennington, battle near, 127, 250, 

258, 299. 
Berkenhut, Dr., ii, 41. 
Bernewitz, Johann H. C, ii, 271. 
Bernt, Johann A., ii, 268. 
Berthier, ii, 103. 
Bethlehem, Pa., ii, 60 ; description 

of, ii, 75, 240. 
Bielstein, Thedel W., ii, 269. 
Biesenroth, Maj., 297. 
Bischhausen, Col. Von, 297. 
Bland, Gen., ii, 76, 242. 
Block, Lt. Col., 296, 297. 
Blonde, frigate, 39, 41. 
Bloomfield, Major, 147. 
Bode, Johann A, ii, 273. 
Bode, Johann F., ii, 269. 
Bodemeyer, George, ii, 269. 
Boerd, Lt., 135. 
Borbeck. Lt. (^ol. Von, 297. 
Borke, Col. Von, 297 ; ii, 248. 
Borke, Maj., 297. 

Bornemann, August F. H., ii, 266. 
Bose, Col. Von, 297. 
Bose, Maj. Gen., ii, 208. 
Boston, 216, 221 ; ii, 13. 
Bothmer, Friederich W. D. Von, 

ii, 266. 
Bomjuet river, 108. 
Brander, Ernst C. IL, ii, 270. 



Brandy wine river, ii, 59. 

Brant, Joseph, 94. 

Brethauer, Lt. CV)!., 297. 

Breva, Lt. A. W., ii, 41, 266. 

Breyniann, Lt. Col. Heinrich C, 26, 
74, 106, 111, 113, 131 ; death 
of, 165, 239 ; ii, 266. 

Briefstadt, 31. 

Brookfield, ii, 50. 

Brooklyn, 85 ; ii, 89. 

Brown, Lt., ii, 29, 35. 

Browne, Capt., ii, 239. 

Browne, Maj., ii, 79. 

Brudenel, Chaplain, 169. 

Brunswick, city of, 28. 

Brunswick, Duke of, ii, 36. 

Buena Ventura, 40. 

Bunau, Col. Von, 297. 

Burgdorif, Ludwig T., ii, 270. 

Burghoff, Johann F. H., ii, 267. 

Burgoyne, General, 39, 44, 57, 68, 
96, 106, 122, 124, 138, 143, 154, 
175; surrender of, 188, 202, 
229, 230. 237, 245. 289, 291 : ii, 
4; departs for England, 14, 
98, 197, 236. 

Calais, 36. 

Camaraska, ii, 110, 125. 
Cambridge, Mass., 216 ; ii, 11, 48, 

56, 238. 
Cambridge, N. Y., 249. 
Camden, ii, 194. 
Campbell, Capt., ii, 48, 152. 
Campbell, Gen., ii, 129. 
Campbell, Lt. Col., ii, 110. 
Campbell, Maj., 144. 
Carillon, Fort (Ticonderoga), 92, 

111, 238 ; description of, in 

1777, 293. 
Carleton, Capt., 65. 
Carleton, Col., ii, 114, 130. 
Carleton, Gen., 41, 47, 54, 57, 

75, 80, 82, 88, 230, 242, 289 ; 

ii, 43, 103, 126, 139, 141, 146, 

167, 226. 
Carleton island, ii, 160. 
Carleton, Lt. Col., 110. 
Carleton, Maj., 49. 
Carlisle, Commissioner, ii, 25, 40. 
Castleton river, 118. 
Castleton, town of, 113. 
Ceres, ship, 94. 

Hiambers, Capt., ii, 110. 
Chambers, Commodore^ ii, 113. 
Chambly, Fort, 45, 49, 54. 57, 102, 

Cliambly river (Richelieu), 75 ; ii, 

109, 139, 
Champlain, Lake, 43, 45, 49, 59, 
78, 97, 125; ii, 110,157,251. 
Charles, Duke of Brunswick, 26, 

29, 36. 
Charles Francis Ferdinand, Duko 
of Brunswick and Liineburg, 
ii, 78, 88, 185, 192. 
Charles William Ferdinand, Here- 
ditary Duke of Brunswick, 
Charleston, S. C. ii, 88. 
C^iarlottesville, Va., ii, 45. 
Chateau (iay (Chatauque), ii, 113. 
Chimney point (on Lake Cliam- 

plain) 109. 
Christie, Lt. Col., 49. 
Clark, Adj. Frank, 74. 
Clark, Commissary General, ii, 42. 
Clark, Maj. Gen., ii, 110, 121. 
Claus, Col. Daniel (nephew and 
son-in-law of Sir. Wm. John- 
son), ii, 110. 
Clavarac, ii, 120. 

Cleve, captain and adjutant to 
Gen. Riedesel, 34, 46, 102 ; ii, 
70, 84, 92, 151, 202, 265. 
Cleve, Capt. Heinrich Urban, ii, 

212, 269. 
Clinton, Sir Henrj', 44, 87, 126, 
154, 192, 197 ; ii, 31, 34, 43, 
53, 69, 86, 91, 99 ; takes leave 
of Riedesel, 106, 111, 181, 186, 
232, 243. 
Cod, Cape, 227. 
Cohoes falls, 137. 
Colle, Va., ii, 71, 84. 
CoUe, Riviere la, 66 ; ii, 144. 
Conemac, Old Town, ii, 253. 
Connecticut river, 126. 
Connecticut, state of, description 

by General Riedesel, ii, 55. 
Conradi, Carl F., ii, 269. 
Conway, Gen., ii, 181. 
Cornwallis, Gen., 87; ii, 89, 100, 

115, 193, 209, 235, 248. 
Coteau de Lac, ii, 133. 
Couderes, 54. 



CranuT, Iit.(V»l., ii, lol. i 

Cniinin. II.'iMrirh W. (i., ii. 270. \ 
('n»ton riv«T, ii, 11)5. 
('r.>\vii iH>iiit. .57, 72. US. 108: ii, i 

Oust-, Philipp S.. ii. 273. 
CimilMTlaiid lii'iul, 100. 
C'liiumin^rskil, 142. 

Dacnv, ('apt , 74. 

Dalilstirna, Bcrnliard K.. ii. 271. 

Dalryiiiph', C'ommodon', 227. 

l>alrymj>li', Capt., 89. 

Daiiier, Lt., ii, 244. 

D'AnniiTS, Lt.. 173. 

Dirlilow, Maj. Von, 297. 

D'Estain^r, Count, ii, ;J4, 37, 187. 

l);'la\varo river, 80, 127. 

Dt'Ud'ki', Friodricli L., ii, 270. 

Dt'ukers, or Anna Bai>ti8t, ii, 61. 

Diamond island (lake George), 184. 

Dietrich, Adolph L., ii, 207. 

Dobeneck, liana P. II., ii,269. 

Doniniea, Aujfust F., ii, 272. 

Donop, Col., 86. 

Douart's house, 129, 138. 

Doufiflass, Admiral, 38. 

I)ou<irlart.s, Maj., ii, 59. 

Dove, Heinrich A. D., ii, 271. 

Dove, Lt., ii, 80. 

Dovenet, Lt., ii, 122. 

Dover, 35. 

Dovo^at's house, 141. 

Dratjoon regiment, 122, 230 ; ii, 81, 

Dunmore, Lord, 241. 

D wight, Tlu^odore, letter of, to 
translator in relation to the 
battle of Bennington, 299. 

Dyk, Capt. Casten, ii, 113. 

East Spring, 215. 
Eden, Commissioner, ii, 25, 40. 
Edmonston, Capt., 39, 116. 
Edward, Fort, 122, 138, 201. 
Ehrenkrook, Col., 28, 82, 100, 210 ; 

ii, 110, 183, 268. 
Ehrenkrook, Maj., ii, 271. 
Elizabethtown, ii, 77. 
ElHtorf, Col., 32. 
Erich, Bernhard, ii, 269. 
Erie, Lake, ii, 140, 250. 

Faucit. (\>1.. William. 23. 31. 

Fav. Lt.. 73. 

Fiichel. Friedrich W.. ii. 269. 

Fenlinand, Duke. 30. 43, 45. 61. 
S:}. 92. 

Fernmce. U. R. de. Privv l\)unoil- 
lor, ;r) ; ii. 203. 

Fishkill (outlet of Saratoga lake), 
139. 170, 189. 200. 

Fishkill (im the Huds:m), ii, 53, 23:1 

Florida, N. Y., ii, 58. 

ForlK^8, Capt., ii. 111. 

Forstner. Heinrich F.. ii. 270. 

Fouquier Court nousi\ ii, 62. 

Foster, Major, 164. 

Foy, Capt., 34. 

Fnincis, Brig. Gen., 116. 

Frankfort. 50. 

Franklin, Benjamin, ii, 142. 

Fraser, C^apt., 68, 79, 82, HI, 166. 

Eraser, Gen., 46, 56, 61. 66, 108; 
occupies CariUon, 113, 123, 
127 ; death of, 164 : burial of, 
168; character of, as drawu 
by Mr. Bancroft, 168,244.249. 

Frederick SiHJond, 27. 

Frederick s[>ring, ii, 70. 

FrcHlersdorf, (^apt., 146, ii, 269. 

Frinnnan, Capt., ii, 156. 

Freeman fann, first battle of, 149. 

Freeman farm, second battle of 
(gen(^rally known as the Bat- 
tle of Bemis's heights), 162. 

Freeman farm, camp of General 
Burgoyne at 167. 

Freeman, Lt., ii, 70. 

Freyenhagen, Heinrich J., ii, 270. 

Friburg, Sa. 

Fricke, Capt. of Horso, 34 ; ii, 4, 41, 

Fricke, George F. G., ii, 272. 
Fromme, Johann E., ii, 272. 
Fuchs, Maj. Von, 296. 
Fugerer, Friedrich A., ii, 268. 

Gage, Chateau, 75. 

Gage, Fort, description in 1777, 

Gage, (Jen., 17, 35, 43, 221. 
Gall, Brig. (Jen. Vcm, ii, 9, 52, 91, 

(JalCcol. V(m, 39, 175, 210; ii, 




Gardonshcim, 93. 

(iaspe, CniKi, 40. 

(iateH,Gen. Horatio, 79. 135, 150, 

173 ; receives tlie sword of 

Gen. Burgovne, 189, 197, 319, 

229; ii, 4, 10,51,56, 03,236. 
Gebhard, Lt., 135; ii, 4, 41, 266. 
Geddes, Paymaster Gen., ii, 42, 69. 
George, Fort 135, 174 ; description 

of, in 1777, 295 ; ii, 251. 
George, Lake, 124, 201. 
Geisau, Capt., ii, 4. 
Geismar,Capt. Von, ii, 70, 87,203, 

Gerlach, Cajrt., and quarter master, 

34, 83, 132 ; ii, 93, 100, 143, 

204, 213, 265. 
Germain, Lord George, 213; ii, 

31,125, 198. 
Geyso, (^arl, ii, 272. 
Gibraltar, ii, 155. 
Giflf home, 30. 

Girsewald, Ernst H. W., ii, 270. 
Gladen, Joliann G., ii, 272. 
Gleissenberg, Gottleif J., ii, 272. 
Glover, Gen., 137,191,216. 
GlOckstadt, 36. 
Godecke, Johann H., ii, 46. 
Godecke, Paymaster Gen., 228, ii, 

46, 132, 265. 
Gordon, Brig. Gen., 56, 58, 244. 
Gordon house, 123, 124. 
Gosen, Col. Von, 297. 
Goshen town, ii, 58. 
Gowell, 47. 

Gra«f, Count Von, 135 ; ii, 129. 
Grafe, August L. L., ii, 266. 
Grand island, 45, 
Grasse, Count de, ii, 111. 
Graves, Admiral, ii, 104, 205. 
Gray, Capt., 193, 202. 
Great Harrington, 214. 
Greene, Gen. Nathanii^l, ii, 115,194. 
Greene island, 41. 
Greiff,Maj., 297. 
Grenadier regimc^nt, ii, 81. 
Grey's house, 215. 
Grimp(% Ensign, ii, 151, 272. 
Guilford, ii, 115. 

Haherlin, Raimund G., ii, 270. 
Hackenberg, Col. Von, 296. 
Hackensack river, ii, 233. 

Hackett's town, ii, 59. 
Hagennann, Ensign, 135; ii, 273. 
Ilaldimand, Gen., ii, 43, 85, 108, 

110, 117, 124, 125, 133, 139, 

143, 153, 163, 213, 247. 
Half Mo<m (the i)resent town of 

Crescent, N. Y.), 125, 239. 
Halifax, 43 ; ii, 107, 142. 
Hallerstadt, 43. 
Hambach, August W., ii, 266. 
Hamilton, Brig. Gen.. 144, 175, 

198, 230 ; ii, 30, 50, 97, 210, 

Hamilton, Col., 56. 
Hancock, Governor John, 226 ; ii, 

Hannemann, Johann C. ii, 272. 
HariK)rd, Gotlieb B., ii, 270. 
Harburg, 31. 
Hardy, Col., ii, 23. 
Hamach, Maj., 211. 
Hartford, 24, 120. 
Hartford, New, ii, 51. 
Harz, Johann F. ii, 267. 
Haukenbuttel, 30, 31. 
Haustein, Maj. Von, 296, 297. 
Hawley, Col., ii, 6, 11, 13. 
Heath, Gen., 216, 219 ; ii, 5, 11, 19, 

24, 27, 33, 42, 45, 48, 56. 
Heeringen, Col. Von, 297. 
Heimel, Lt. Col. 297. 
Helgoland, 37. 

Helmecke, August W., ii, 266. 
Henkel, Chaplain, ii, 267. 
Hengen's road, ii, 14^3. 
Herrenhiitters (Moraiians), 60. 
Herstal, Lt., ii, 206. 
Hertel, Daniel A., ii, 271. 
IIes8(5 Hanau Artillery Regiment, 

66; ii, 73,113. 
Hesse Hanau Infantry Regiment, 

231 ; ii, 73. 
Hessians, 86. 

Hessia, Landgrave of, 235. 
Hessler, Curt, ii, 269. 
Heusch, Ca])t., 34, 39. 
Hildebrandt, Maj., 297. 
Hill, Col., 118. 
Hill, Lt. Col., ii. 46, 68, 110. 
Hille, Lt. (bl., ii, 183, 267. 
Hiller, Maj. Von, 120. 
Hinthe, Maj., 297. 
Holland, Maj., ii. 160. 



Horn, (\)1. Von, 207. 

HoimI, Admiral, ii, 195. 

H<M»jM'. Col., ii. 1(K). 

lI«M>sic riviT, 12^. 

Hopkins, Maj., ii, 2J58. 

lIorl)orn(», i\A. (i)n)bablv Osborne), 


Ilotol Dieu, 57. 

Howard, (Jen., ii, 181. 

Housatonic river, ii, 52. 

Howe, Admiral, 219; ii, 10, 37, 

155, 237. 
Howe, (ien., 43, 57, 80, 94, 125, 

151,234; ii, 4, 16, 199. 
Hover, Wilhelm, ii, 270. 
Hubbardtown, battle of, 113. 
Hurons, 50. 
Hussar, fri^te, ii, 129. 
Huyne, Col. Von, 297. 

Independence, Fort, (at junction of 

Lakes George and Champlain, 

Inflexible, ship, 91 ; ii, 113. 
Irvine, Gen. William, ii, 140. 
Isle Aux Noix (island of Nuts), 5, 

80, 90, 99, 245 ; ii, 131, 144, 

Isle La Valeur, 70. 
Isle Orleans, 240 ; ii, 110. 
Isle of Jesus, 250. 
Isle Motte, 67. 
Isle Pic, 60 ; ii, 177. 
Isle of Wight, u, 179. 

Jackson, Col., ii, 13. 

James river, ii, 45. 

Jamestown, ii, 115. 

Jefferson, Gov. Thomas, ii, 100. 

Jersey, state of, ii, 57 ; description 

of, by Gen. lieidesel, 60. 
John, Fort St., 45, 57, 65, 235. 
John, River St., 45. 
John's farm (Reidesel encamps at), 

Johnson, English commissioner, ii, 

25, 40. 
Johnson, Sir John, 81. 
Johnson, Sir John, regiment of, ii, 

Johnson, Sir William, 135 ; ii, 11,0 

Jones, Capt., 196. 

' Juno, frigat(\ 39. 


i Kagnohangue, 50. 
; Keith, Adj. Gen., 225. 

K»»llner, Johann F. J., ii, 271. 

KennelK^c river, 91. 
, Kennedy, Dr. (liit^desc^l's family 
I physician), ii, 177. 

I KepiK'l, Admiral, ii, 13, 125. 

Kinderh(H)k, 214. 

Kingsbridgts 95 ; ii, 112, 190. 
j Knesebeck, Friedrich, ii, 267. 
, Kniphausen, Fort, 126. 

Kni[)hausen, Gen. Von, 95, 297; 
ii, 48, 85, 104, 210, 249. 

Knowland's ferry, ii, 61. 

Kochenhausen, Lt. Col., 296. 

Kohle, Chaplain, ii, 272. 

Kohler, Lt. Col., 296, 297. 

Kolte, Friedrich, ii, 268. 

Kolte, Johann G., ii, 272. 

Konig, Edmund V. Von, ii, 268. 

Kospoth, Col. Von, 296. 

Kmize, Chaplain, ii, 273. 

Kurtz, Lt. Col., 297. 

La Baltrin, ii, 137. 

La Baye, ii, 138. 

La Cliine, 81. 

La Colle, 75. 

La Fouche, Capt., ii, 141. 

La Madelaine, 76. 

La Nome, ii, 137. 

La Prairie, 45, 60 ; ii, 110. 

Lady Mary, ship, 78. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, ii, 57, 115, 

Lancaster, ii, 63. 
Lancelot, 121. 

Landsdowne, Marquis de, ii, 137. 
Lange, Lt. Col., 297. 
Langerjahn, Siegfried H., ii, 268. 
Lanieres, M., 91. 
Lanodiere, Capt., 67. 
Latterlohe, Maj., ii, 198. 
Laurens, Henry, ii, 21. 
Lauterbach, ii, 169. 
L'Aigle, ship, ii. 141. 
Lee, Col., 225 ; ii, 13, 23. 
Lee, Major Gen., 44, 87 ; ii, 35, 

Leecock township, ii, 59. 
Leesburg hamlet, ii, 62. 



Leger, Col. St., 77, 98. 128, 136, 

158; ii, 111. 
Ix'iceskT, ii, 50. 
Ix'ngorke, Lt. Col. Von, 296. 
Leiisburff, ii, 128. 
Leslie, Gen., ii, 94, 207. 
Leutz, Col., 210, ii, 171. 
Ijexin^on, battle of, 17. 
Ligoniere bay, 108. 
Lincoln, Gen., 136, 157 ; ii, 89, 205. 
Linsing, Lt. (.V)l., 296. 
Little Deal, transiwrt, ii, 105. 
Lcilmeysen, Albrecht D., ii, 266. 
Long island, 45 ; ii, 89, 112. 
Loos, Maj. Gen., corresi)ond(*nce 

of, ii, 220. 
Lose, Col. Von, 297. 
Losl)erg, Gen., ii, 48, 246. 
Lossberg, Col. Von, 296. 
Loudon, Lord, ii, 125. 
Louis, Saut St., 50. 
Lovelace (the tory), skull of, 176. 
Lciwenstein, Maj. Von, 296. 
Luceran, Marcjuis de, ii, 204. 
Liicke, Major Von, 210 ; ii, 95, 110, 

183, 268. 
Ludridge, Col., 98. 
Ludwig, Duke, ii, 84. 
Liineburg, 61, 240. 
Lutzow, August C, ii, 271. 

Machaus, Major, 297. 
McLean, Col., 75, 237 ; ii, 148, 154. 
McKay, Capt., 92, 113, 154, 166. 
McKenzie, Col., 103. 
McCowen*s pass, ii, 112. 
Maestre, Maj., 46. 
Maibom, Carl C, u, 270. 
Maibom, Major, u, 41,95, 183, 243, 

Manakessi creek, ii, 61. 
Manatomie, ii, 13. 
Manchester, 120, 128. 
Marsh, Col., ii, 135, 148. 
Massachusetts, province of, ii, 17 ; 

description of, by General 

Masserow, Commissary General, 

ii, 11, 33. 
Mathew, Gen., ii, 191. 
Matliias, Maj., 297. 
Meclileuberg-Schweriu, ii, 234. 
Medford, 221 ; ii, 13. 

MelzlKMmer, Cliaplain, 135 ; ii, 266. 
Mengen, Maj. Von, 210; ii, 46, 99, 

150, 183, 208, 270. 
Mercurj", ship, ii, 135. 
Miyer, Andreas, ii, 272. 
Meyer, Friedricli L. E., ii, 269. 
Meyer, Johann A., ii, 267. 
Meyer, Johann H., ii, 271. 
Meyem, Johann J., ii, 267. 
Meycrn, Ludwig G., ii, 270. 
Milius, Johann A., ii, 271. 
Milkau, Christian F., ii, 271. 
Miller, Fort. 126, 127. 
Miller, Jonathan, 125. 
Miningerode, Lt. Col.Von, 296, 297. 
Modrach^ (■hristian II., ii, 269. 
Mohawks, ii, 110. 
Monge, Maj., 26. 
Montgomery, (ien., 43. 
Montgomery, Pa., ii, 59. 
Monongahela river, ii, 253. 
Montmorency falls, ii, 175. 
Montreal, 38, 42, 235 ; ii, 111. 
Morgenstem, Carl F., ii, 270. 
Morgenstem, Johann C, ii, 270. 
Morin, Capt., 82, 106. 
Mahlenf(?ldt, Carl A. L., ii, 272. 
Muchlenfield, Ensign, 135. 
Muerbach, Maj. Von, 297. 
Munchausen, Maj. Von, 297. 
Munchhoff, Chaplain, ii, 272. 
Muncy, Fort, ii, 140. 
Murray, Mr., ii, 157. 
Muzell, Ludwig C, ii, 267. 
Mylius, Chaplain, ii, 70, 177. 
Mystic (near Boston), 221 ; ii, 13, 


Nepissings, 50. 

Nem, Maj., ii, 114. 

Newburgh, th(} Convention troops 

cross the Hudson river at, ii, 

Newfoundland, 40. 
New Holland, ii, 119. 
Newport, 85, ii, 48. 
New Providence, ii, 59. 
New York citv, 83 ; fire at, ii, 43, 

48, 106, 126. 
New York state, description of, by 

(General Riedesel, ii, 56. 
New Windsor, ii, 125. 
Niagara, 95 ; ii, 140, 168, 250. 



Niprer, trijratc, 41. 
Nine Partiiern, ii, 54. 
Norfolk, ii, 51. 
Northunipton, 240. 
North, I^ml, ii, 174. 
Nova fck'otia, ii, 182. 

O'Coniiel, C'apt. and Adj., 06, 

ii, 428. 205. 
Oldckopf, Frit'drich E. ii, 271. 
Olera, Cai)t., ii, 138. 
Oranjye (Vnirt IIoiiBts ii, 62. 
Oswego, ii, 108, 251. 
Ottawa riv<'r, 51). 
Outaiiais, 50, 54. 

Pallas, sliij), 34. 

PahiuT, ii, 50. 

PajM't, AiijifUHt, ii, 271 ; Friwlrich 
J. ii, 209. 

Pater-Littl(s ii, 00. 

Patterson, (ilen., ii, 125, 141, 153. 

PaiU'H (PauluH) hook, ii, 100. 

Pausch, Capt., 148. 

Payno, Dr. Charles II., 130. 

Pennsylvania, state of, dt^scri])- 
tion by (:Jen., Kicdesel, ii, 00. 

Penobscot, ii, 120. 

Percv, Lord (Dnke of Northum- 
berland), 237. 

Peterson, Col., 137, 201, 209. 

Petite Marie, 112. 

Pllu^ror, Johann F., ii, 272. 

Philad(?lphia, 85. 

Phillips, Col., 240. 

Phillil)s, Gen., 39, 08, 109, 121, 
140, 195, 230 ; ii, 10, 10, 28, 
42,48, 50 ; order of, 07 ; clashes 
with Heath, 83, 93 ; death of, 
at Petersburg, Ya., 94,190, 201, 
237 242 

Pierre, Lac St., 89; ii, 117, 145. 

Pincier, (liristian T., ii, 270. 

Pitchard, Capt., ii, 101. 

Pitt, Fort, ii, 140, 250. 

Pittstown, ii, 59. 

Pless(;n, Ix^oi)old F. F. B., ii, 271. 

Plvniouth, 39. 

Poelnitz, Adj. Gen., ii, 34. 

Poelnitz, Capt., 228 ; ii, 25. 

Point Au Lac, ii, 137. 

Point Aux Fer, 45, 05, 90 ; ii, 121, 
134, 144. 

Point Oliver, parish of, ii, 112. 
Pollard, Lt. Col., ii, 30. 
Pollnitz, Julius L. A„ ii, 270. 
Portsmouth, 35 ; ii, 179. 
Potomac, ii, 01. 
Potter, Maj. Gen., ii, 140. 
Powell, Brij?. Gen., 57, 120. 
Praetorius, Lt. Col., 20, 77 ; ii, 109, 

Pralle, Chaplain, ii, 271. 
Prescott, Gen., ii, 10. 
Prevost, Gen., ii, 51, 183. 
Presqu' Isle, ii, 250. 
Prince FrtKlerick's re^ment, 122, 

230; ii, 81, 109, 139. 
Princet^m, 80. 
Prosjx^ct hill (Boston), ii, 0. 
Providencre, ii, 35, 187. 
Putnam, Gen., 95. 
Puy, Maj., 297. 

Quaker Sprinjys, villa^ of, 164. 
Quebec, 38, 39, 41, 80; ii, 108, 

Quebec, ship, ii, 178. 

Rabe, Albrecht C, ii, 272. 
Rail, Col., 80, 297. 
Randolph, Capt., ii, 70. 
Randol[)h, Mr., ii, 241. 
Rantzau, Ernst A. Von, ii, 273. 
Rappahannock river, ii, 02. 
Raritan river, 90 ; ii, 57. 
Rau, Capt. Von, ii, 245. 
Rawdcm, ii, 194. 
Read's house, ii, 02. 
, Reckrodt, Carl F., ii, 200, 
Rc^leken, Friedrich, ii, 271. 
Red house (Fort Edward), Gen. 

Riedesel occupies it as his 

head quarters, 133. 
Reid, (V)l., 192, 210. 
Reinerdin^r, Carl W., ii, 208. 
Reinkinjr, Capt., 135 ; ii, 265. 
Reinkin^, Friedrich C., 270. 
Reitzenstern, Gottlieb ( -., ii, 267. 
Reynolds, Madame, 21 1. 
Rheims, Lt., ii, 49. 
Rhenius, Wilhelm L., ii, 273. 
Rhetz, re^ment of, 76, 122, 230 ; 

ii, 40, 81, 87, 109, 122, 138. 
Richmond, ii, 71. 
Richolet. ii, 1^38. 



Riedesel, Gen. writes to Gen. 
Howe for assistance on behalf 
of the German troops, ii, 4 ; 
endeavors to promote disci- 
pline amonp^ the troops, 5 ; aj)- 
peals to Wasliington for an 
exchange, 10 ; i)etitions con- 
gress, 12 ; returns Burgoyne's 
thanks to 'the Brunswick 
troops, 14; endeavors to re- 
strain gambling, 16 ; and ])ro- 
mote cleanliness, 82 ; accom- 
panies the first division as far 
asWatertown <m their journey 
to Virginia, but returns for tlie 
present to Cambridge, 49 ; sets 
out with his family for Vir- 
ginia, 56 ; arrives at Fishkill, 
59 ; arrives in Virginia and 
hires a house in Colle, 65 ; 
plants a garden himself and 
Ills soldiers follow his exam- 
ple, 69 ; comes near losing liis 
life by a sun stroke, 70 ; forms 
the acquaintance of Washing- 
ton's family, 71 ; visits Fre- 
derick's spring, 72 ; sets out for 
New York but is obliged to 
return to Bethlehem, 74 ; ob- 
tains permission to go to New 
York, 76 ; arrives there, 77 ; suf- 
fers under severe mental and 
physical depression, 83 ; busies 
himself vdth the exchange of 
prisoners, 86 ; receives official 
news of th(} death of liis sove- 
reign, Duke Charles, 88 ; is 
given the command of Long 
island, 89 ; issues a general 
pardon to deserters, 92 ; corre- 
8[)ond8 with Washington, 96 ; 
departs with his family for 
Canada, 106 ; arrives in Que- 
bec, 108 ; assumes by direction 
of Haldimand the command 
of the troops in Canada, and 
takes up his quarters at Sorel, 
108 ; rej>orts from time to time 
to Haldimand, 110; superin- 
tends the fortifications of St. 
John, 118; general measures 
adopted by him for the safety 
of Canada. 117 ; 

Riedesel Gen., corre8])ondencc 
with Haldimand, 119-166; 
correspondence ^^^th Carleton, 
167 ; receives intelligence of 
the death of liis father, 
169; receives a letter from 
Jjord North, 178 ; visits 
Haldimand at Montmorency; 
175 ; sails for England, 177 , 
arrives in Limdon, 179 ; liis 
wife and himself take teA 
with the royal family, 180; 
writes from London to Duke 
Ferdinand amiouncing his 
nc^ar return, 181 ; reaches 
Wolfenbiittel, and issues a 
congratulatory circular to his 
officers, 182 ; arrives in Bruns- 
wick surrounded by an im- 
mense and joyous concourse of 
people, the duke rides out to 
meet liim and welcomes him 
back, 184. 

Riedesel, Mrs. Gen., 133, 138, 211, 
217 ; ii, 49 ; holds interview 
\vith Lafayette, 58 ; visits 
Frederick's spring, 71 ; starts 
for New York city, 76 ; visits 
at Clinton villa, 79 ; moves 
to Brooklyn, 94, 148 ; buries 
her little daughter Canada, at 
Sorel, 167 ; takes tea with the 
royal family in London, 180 ; 
arrives at Brimswick, 184. 

Riedesel, regiment of, 122, 230 ; ii, 
81, 110, 138, 265. 

Rippenhaus, ii, 114. 

Risboth, 46. 

Rittzbiittel, 37. 

Robertson, Gov., ii, 135, 148. 

Rochambeau, Count, ii. 111, 120. 

Roche Fendu, 72. 

Rodney, Sir Charles, ii, 207. 

Rohr, Casper F., ii, 278. 

Roi, Anton A. H. ii, 271. 

Roi, August W. Du, ii, 268. 

Romanzow, Field Marshal, 236. 

Romrod, Lt. Col. Von, 296 ; ii, 249. 

Rosenberg, Friedrich A., 267. 

Ross, Maj., ii, 161, 218. 

Rouge, Cape, 80. 

Royal George, ship, ii, 113. 

Royal Sauvage, shi]), 72. 



HiKlolphic, Otto II. ii, 2()0. 

Hutli. Lt., HW. 

Huthuid, 121 ; ii. 30, 43, 47, 123. 

SacTcmeiit Lac St. (Lake (Jcorgc;), 

St. A^naccs CajM', ii, 229. 
St. Antoine, 81 ; ii, 187. 
St. ClmrU'H, 57, 81. 
St. Croix, ii.231. 
St. DonuiR, 57, 81 ; ii, 134, 138. 
St. Francois, ii, 112, 114, 138. 
St. Jacob, 56. 
St. John, ii, 111 ; fortifications of, 

113, 121, 141, 143, 159. 
St. Lawrence bay, 41. 
St. Lawrence river, 50, 89 ; ii, 107, 

St. Luke, 121. 
St. Ours, 57 ; ii, 134. 
St. Paul's bay, ii, 110. 
St. Sulpice (Seminary of), 50, 95. 
St. Therese, 57, 99. 
St. Vincent's, ii, 202. 
Sander, Jacob C, ii, 267. 
Sandwich, Lord, ii, 125. 
Saratof^a heights, 171. 
Saratojra, treaty of, ii, 9, 40, 44, 

Saules, 54. 
Scaticoke, 192. 
Schaeffer, Lt. Col., 297. 
SchaefferMaj., 297. 
Schattelius, Max. C. L., ii, 272. 
Schcnck, Capt., 91, 154. 
Schick, Gottlob D., ii, 266. 
Schieck, Lt. Col. Von, 297. 
Schlagenteuffel, Adolph, ii, 266. 
Schlaorenteuffel, Capt., ii, 41, 49, 

Schla^enteufFel, Carl, ii, 265. 
Schla^enteufFel, George, ii, 271. 
Schlagenteufftil, Ludewig, ii, 268. 
Schlemmer, Lt. Col., 297. 
Schlieffen, Col. Von, 23. 
Schmid, Capt., ii, 123. 
Schmidt, Auditor, ii, 269. 
Schmidt, Maj. Gen., 296. 
Schonewald, Cornet, ii, 148, 153, 

158, 266. 
Schrader, Friedrich W. C, ii, 268. 
Schrader, Johann F., ii, 269. 
Schreiber, i\A., 296. 


Schnivvoj^el, Lt. (N)l.,297. 
Schn-kier, Ernst (\, ii, 267. 
Schuler, Lt. Col. Von, 297. 
Schuyler, Gen., 119, 212. 
S<?huyler'8 island, 125. 
Schuyler's mansion burned, by 

Burproyne, 170, 192. 
Schuyler's mills, 171. 
Schuylkill, ii, 59. 
Seits, Col. Von, 297. 
Shelborne, Lord, ii, 137. 
Skeene, Col. and Gov., 120, 131, 

Skcensborough (White Hall), 113, 

117, 123, 246. 
Skeensl)orough, Fort, description 

of, in 1777, 295. 
Sommerlatte, Otto A. Von, ii, 266. 
Sorel. 46, 77, 81, 101 ; ii, 108, 125, 

131, 138. 
Southerland, Lt. Col., 166, 208. 
Specht, Brig. Gen., ii, 47, 52, 

73, 100. 
Specht, Col. Von, 26, 60 ; ii, 4, 24, 

28, 40, 88, 184, 271, 273. 
Specht, regiment of, 122, 230 ; ii, 

81, 110, 138, 270. 
Speth, Brig. Gen., 100, 148, 164, 

210 ; ii, 270. 
Speth, Ensign, ii, 151. 
Speth, regiment of, 122 ; ii, 122, 270. 
Spithcad, 38. 
Springfield, 127. 
Sprout, Col., ii, 238. 
Stade, 32 ; ii, 180. 
Stanwix, Fort, 128 ; ii, 254. 
Stark, Gen., 137 ; ii, 233. 
Staten island, 95 ; ii, 74, 112, 190. 
Stein, Maj. Gen., 296. 
Sternberg, Johann C, ii, 268. 
Stillwater, 128, 164, 214, 251. 
StirUng, Lord, ii, 190, 240. 
Stockbridge Indians, 159, 192. 
Strover, Mr. George, 139, 176. 
Stutzer, Cornet, 135 ; ii, 266. 
Sudbury, ii, 49. 
Sullivan, 85 ; ii, 37, 42, 187. 
Sussex Court House, ii, 58. 

Tamelslohn, 31. 

Tartar, frigate, 51. 

Taylor's house, 145. 

Temple, Peace CVmimissioner, ii, 41 . 



Thomas, Capt., 103, 272. 
Thomas, Charles, secretary to 

Henry Laurens, ii, 21, 25, 44. 
Thomas, Lt. ii, 217, 266. 
Three Mile Post, 111. 
Three Rivers, 68, 90, 93, 99, 121 ; 

ii, 114. 
Ticondero^ (Carillon), 45, 97, 

121 ; ii, 251. 
Tinmouth, 121. 
Togel, CTiristian T., ii, 269. 
Tokeken river, ii, 59. 
Trenton, 86. 

Trinack, Maj. Gen. Von, 297. 
Trott, Cliristian W., ii, 266. 
Troupe, Col., ii, 57, 59, 239. 
Tryon, Gen., ii, 77, a5, 179. 
Tunderfeld, Carl A. H., ii, 267. 
Twiss, Capt., 94, 113 ; ii, 121, 132, 

158, 255. 

Ueltzen, ii, 182. 
Uhliff, Heinrich W., ii, 266. 
Ulmenstein, Samuel J. A., ii, 272. 
Un^er, Friedrich B., ii, 271. 
linger, Johann L., ii, 269. 
Unverzagt, Ludwig, ii, 270. 

Valency, Capt., 193, 227. 

Valley Forge, ii, 59. 

Venango, ii, 253. 

Verplank's point, ii, 141. 

ViUet, Col., ii, 161, 

Virginia, state of, description of, 

by Gen. Riedesel, ii, 66. 
Volkmar, Friedrich W., ii, 267. 
Vorstade, 31. 

Vorbrodt, Chaplain, ii, 266. 
Waldeck 61. 

Wallmoden, Gebhard T. F., ii, 267. 
Warner, Col., 120, 121. 
Warwick, N. Y., ii, 58. 
Washington, Gen., 43, 53, 85, 125, 

127, 191, 197; ii, 4, 36,44,53, 

57, 68, 91, 100, 125, 129, 190, 

202, 232, 237, 258. 
Washington, ship, 78, 90. 
Watertown (Mass.)> ^h 13, 49. 

Welanda, Capt., ii, 141. 

Welferd, Capt., 227. 

Wells, 121. 

Welsh, Alonzo, 139. 

Westminster, ii, 47. 

West Point, ii, 125. 

West Springfield, 215. 

Whipple, Gen., 137. 

White Plains, 85. 

Wiesener, Christian F., ii, 268. 

Wilbur's basin, 146, 167. 

Wilkinson, Gen., 156. 

William Henry, Fort, 92. 

William, Hereditary Prince of Hes- 
sia, ii, 98, 101, 215. 

Williams, Maj., 195. 

Williamstown, ii, 123. 

Willoe, Capt., 121, 147 ; ii, 137, 
141 148. 

Willford, Lt.*, 191. 

Winchester, ii, 100. 

Winter liill (Boston), the Conven- 
tion troops encamp on, 216. 

Winterscliimdt, Gottfried J., ii, 

Wolfe, Gen., 240. 

Wolfenbttttel, 32, 35. 

Wolfenbiittel, New, ii, 40. 

Wolgart, August T. G., ii, 270. 

Wolgart, Johann F., ii, 267. 

Wolpers, Paul G. F., ii, 268. 

Wood creek (inlet of Lake Cham- 
plain), 118, 124. 

Woifcester, 216 ; ii, 50. 

Wurmb, Col. Von, 296 ; ii, 85, 245. 

Wurmb, Maj. Von, 296. 

Yager, Heinrich, ii, 271. 

Yamaska, ii, 112, 114, 138. 

Yessop (probably Jesso]^), after 
whom Jessop's falls, N. Y., 
are named, Capt., 137, 154, 
253 ; ii, 144. 

Yorktown, ii, 71, 115. 

Zeilberg, George E., ii, 267. 
Zmken, Carl F. W., ii, 271. 


The reader will recall the circumstance of Burgoyno directing 
Riedesel (wliile the latter was at Fort Edward on liis way to join the 
commander in chief) to bury three large bateaux. A day or two 
since I found the sequel of this order in a very interesting narrative 
written by the late Jonathan E^tman of Concord, N. H., in regard to 
Burgoyue's campaign. This narrative is given at length in the 
Memoir of Oeneral Stark, published by Luther Robyal, at Concord, 
N. II., in 1881. Eastman says : 

"Just below Fort Edward, on the margin of a small brook falling 
into the Hudson, the Americans discovered three graves neatly turfed, 
having at the head, boards inscribed with the names of three British 
officers. In walking over them they sounded hollow, and upon digging, 
the soldiers discovered three fine bateaux, each capable of containing 
fifty men. They were well covered with boards, and wore intended 
by some of Burgoyne's party to aid a retreat." 

It will be seen, however, by referring to the letter of Burgoyno to 
Riedesel (in the appendix to vol. i), that Mr. Eastman is mistaken in 
supposing that the bateaux were designed to facilitate Burgoyne's 
retreat should that become necessary. The object of burying the 
boats (read Burgoyne's letter), was to aid St. Leger in crossing the 
Hudson in case of the failure of his expedition against Fort Stanwix. 

William L. Stone. 


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