Skip to main content

Full text of "Memoirs and proceedings of the Manchester literary & philosophical society. (Manchester memoirs.)"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 







J 



MEMOIRS AND PROCEEDINGS 



THE MANCHESTER 

LITERARY & PHILOSOPHICAL 
SOCIETY. 

(MANCHESTER MEMOIRS,) 



Volume XLV. (1900-1901). 



MANCHESTER : 

36, GEORGE STREET, 

1901. 



NOTE, 

The authors of the several papers contained in this 
volume are themselves accountable for all the statements 
and reasonings which they have offered. In these par- 
ticulars the Society must not be considered as in any 
way responsible. 



135391 



CONTENTS. 



MEMOIRS. 

I. Plumbism in Pottery Workers. By William Burton, 

F.C.S ... pp. 1—9 

II. The Solubility of certain Lead Glasses or Fritts used in the 
Preparation of Pottery Glazes. By William Jackson, 
A.R.C.S., and Edmund M. Rich, B.Sc. ... "... pp. i — 15 

III. The Thermod)niamical Properties of Superheated Steam, and 

the Dr3niess of Saturated Steam. By J. H. Grindley, 
M.Sc .. ... pp. I — II 

IV. Note on D'Orbigny's figure of Onychoteuthis dussumieri. By 

W. E. HoYLE, M.A., F.R.S.E pp. 1—3 

V. Surla Flore da Corps Humain. (The Wilde Lecture.) By 

Dr. 6lie Metchnikoff, For. Mem. R.S pp. 1—38 

VI. On a New Species of Sepia and other Shells collected by 
Dr. R. Koettlitz in Somaliland. By W. E. gOYLE and 
R. Stan den. Plate i. pp. 1—6 

VII. On the Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron, By 

F. E. ^eiss, B.Sc., F.L.S. Plates 2 and 3. ... pp. 1—22 

VIII Selections from the Correspondence of Lieutenant- Colonel 
John Leigh Philips, of Mayfield, Manchester. Part III. 
By W. Barnard Faraday, LL.B pp. i — 59 

IX. On the Generic Names Octopus^ Eledone., and Histiopsu, 

ByW. E. Hoyle pp. 1—7 

X. On the Construction of Entropy Diagrams from Steam Engine 
Indicator Diagrams. By George Wilson, D.Sc, and 
H. Noble, B.Sc. pp. i — 12 

XI. The Representation on a Conical Mantle of the Areas on a 

Sphere. By C. E. Strom eyer, M.Inst. C.E. ... pp. 1—3 

XII. The Macro- Lepidoptera of Sherwood Forest. By J. Ray 

Hardy pp. i — 5 



VI CONTENTS. 

XIII. A Collection of Polychaeta from the Falkland Islands. 

By Edith M. Pratt, M.Sc. Plate 4 pp. i— 18 

XIV. Some Notes on the Bipolar Theory of the Distribution of 

Marine Organisms. By Edith M. Pratt, M.Sc. ... pp. i— 21 

XV. The Influence of Grinding upon the Solubility of the Lead in 
LeadFritts. By T. E. Thorpe, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 
and Charles SiMMONDS, B.Sc pp. i— 13 



PROCEEDINGS. 

Allen, J. F. — On the uses and manufacture of certain metals ... xxxi 

Bailey, Charles, F.L.S. — On Ranunculus Bachuj Wirtgen, as 

2i{otTCi o{ Ranunculus Jluiians,ljamV. ... xvii 

Exhibit of a rare mint, Mentha gent His ^ L.,var. Hachenbruchii^ 

Briq ... ... .. ... xxxi 

Bo YD, John.— On the anatomy of feathers xv 

Broadbent, G. H., M.R.C.S. — On plant remains found beneath 

Hanging Bridge xvi 

Burton, W., F.C.S.— Discussion on the influence of grinding upon 

the solubility of the lead in lead fritts xxviii 

Cameron, Peter. — Exhibit of a collection of insects illustrating 

insect parasitism xvi 

Exhibit, and notes on the habits, of Sphex flavo-vestita and 

Chlorion lobatum ... xxxi 

Dixon, H. B,, M.A., F.R.S.— On the reversal of the lithium line ... iv 

On the formation of hydrogen peroxide in several cases of 

combustion .. v 

Dixon, H. B., M.A., F.R.S., andRixON, F. W., B.Sc— Results of 

experiments on the specific heat of gases at high temperatures ii 

Faraday, F. J., F.L.S.— On the supposed relation between the 

changes of the moon and the changes of the weather ... vi 

Exhibit of a copy of Dibdin's "Musical Tour" 1788 xxi 

On the danger attending the fall of the counterpoise of an 

electric lamp xxvii 

Flux, A. W., M.A. — On a recent American report on water, gas, 

and electricity undertakings xiii 



CONTENTS. Vll 

HoYLE, W. E., M.A., F.R.S.E.— Exhibitor John Dalton*s ''English 

Grammar " (1801) xxi 

Exhibit of an old form of dial xxiv 

Exhibit of a silhouette portrait of Dr. Thomas Percival ... xxiv 

HuTTON, R. S., M.Sc. — Exhibit of a reproduction of Moissan*s electric 

furnace .«. xx 

Hyde, H. — Exhibit of a portion of sunflower in fruit xv 

Exhibit of leaves mounted for art teaching xxx 

'K^iSaihii oi Sagiiiarta lancifolia 2iTiA Gasionta palmata xxxi 

Jackson, W., A.R.C.S. — Discussion on the influence of grinding 

upon the solubility of the lead in lead fritts xxviii 

Johnson, W. H., B.Sc. — On the method of navigation employed by 

the Norsemen ix 

Jones, Francis, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.— Demonstration of the methods 
of Marsh, Reinsch, and Gutzeit, for the detection of small 
quantities of arsenic x 

Lamb, Horace, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.— Numerical illustrations of the 

diffraction of sound xxiv 

Lees, Charles H., D.Sc. — On a formula for the circumference of an 

ellipse whose semi-axes are known iv 

On a compact formula for the circumference of an ellipse ... xi 

Melvill, J. Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S.— Exhibit of a rare Tasmanian 

alga, Claudea elegans^ Lam xxxi 

Morris, E. F., M. A, — Exhibition of, and notes on, some sketches of 

recent excavations in the Roman forum xxii 

Mullen, John. — Presentation of a second series of rock sections to 

the Natural History Section xv 

Reynolds, Osborne, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.— On a curious solar 

phenomenon ... iii 

Rogers, Thomas. —Exhibit of Australian shells xv 

Exhibit of a collection of Hymenophyllums and Trichomanes 

from Jamaica ... ... .,, ... ... ... ... xxix 

Exhibit of some curious pupa-cases, belonging to the Lepidop- 

terous group Psychaidse, from Natal xxx 

Exhibit of examples of the shaddock xxx 

Exhibit of fossil ferns and mosses found in the debris of Roman 

Manchester xxxiii 



VUl CONTENTS. 

Stirrup, Mark, F.G.S. — Examples of the genua Cerithium from the 

tertiary deposits of the Paris basin xv 

On the mistletoe xvi 

Exhibit of fossil insects from Commentry, France xxx 

On eocene shells from Grignon, near Versailles xxx 

Stromeyer, C. E., M.InstC.E.— On the results of a study of tidal 

waves xxi 

On the convergence of the sun's rays ... xxiv 

Sykes, Mark, F.R.M.S.— On the arrangement and cataloguing of 
the slides of microscopic objects belonging to the Natural 
History Section xxix 

Taylor, R. L., F.CS. — On the occurrence of arsenic in green tapers x 

Thorp, Thomas. — On a method of producing a spectrum-like band 

from a bolometric curve i 

- — On a method of silvering diffraction films iv 

On the explosion of a bottle containing silvering solution ... vii 

— ^ Exhibit of photographs of the spectrum of the new star in Perseus xxiii 

Wilson, George, D.Sc. — On the bursting of gauge-glasses on the 

experimental engines at Owens College vi 

General Meeting i 

Special Meeting for the presentation of the Wilde Medal and the 

delivery of the Wilde Lecture xxv 

Annual General Meeting .. xxvi 

Meetings of the Microscopical and Natural History Section : — 

Ordinary ... ... .. xv, xvi, xxix-xxxi 

Annual xxxii 

Report of Council, 1900, with Obituary Notices of Lord Armstrong, 
Charles Hermite, Sir William Cunliffe Brooks, Dr. Richard 
Copley Christie, Dr. Daniel John Leech, and Sir John 

William Maclure xxxiv-xliii 

Treasurer's Accounts xliv-xlvi 

List of the Council and Members of the Society xlvii-lxi 

List of the Awards of the Wilde and Dal ton Medals and of the Premium Ixii 
List of the Wilde Lectures Ixiii 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1900), No, 1. 



L Plumbism in Pottery Workers. 

By William Burton, F.C.S. 

Received November loih. Read October 2nd^ igoo. 

It is a truism to say that plumbism occurs among 
pottery workers because lead compounds are used in the 
manufacture of pottery. It becomes necessary, therefore, 
to explain, how and why lead compounds are so used, 
and to enquire as to the possibility of dispensing with 
their use entirely, or, in the alternative, reducing by every 
known means the risks run by the workers in handling 
them. 

Lead compounds are used, and have long been used, 

in the manufacture of pottery, for three distinct purposes. 

First : As a very important constituent of the glaze or 

glass with which most pottery is coated. 
Second : As an important constituent of the flux, or 
binding material, by which on-the-glaze colours 
are attached to the surface of the previously 
fused glaze. 
Third : As actual colouring matters in the form of 
pigments such as Naples Yellow, which is a 
crude antimoniate of lead. 
The third group covers such a small number of 
substances that it will only be necessary now to direct 
attention to the use of lead compounds in glazes and in 
the fluxes of on-the-glaze (enamel) colours. 

In dealing with the use of lead compounds in glazes, 
it would be well to mention the different kinds of glazed 
pottery that are largely made. All glazed pottery is 

March nth, igoi. 



2 Burton, Plumbism in Pottery Workers, 

composed of a body or clay substance, which may 
be a natural clay, of no matter what kind, mixed with 
varying proportions of fusible substances such as felspar, 
or with hardening and infusible substances such as 
ground sand or flint. The exact composition of this 
body or paste, together with the nature of the actual 
ingredients used to arrive at the required chemical 
composition, determines the nature of all the manufacturing 
processes through which the material passes in becoming 
finished pottery. For instance, in the most highly 
developed form of pottery known, /.^., Hard-paste porcelain, 
familar to everyone in the form of Chinese vases and 
Berlin porcelain basins and crucibles, the body or paste 
is a mixture, principally, of china clay and felspar, while 
the glaze is, practically, pure felspar. It is evident that 
the temperature required to melt a felspar so that it will 
uniformly glaze a piece of pottery must be exceedingly 
high, indeed it is generally estimated at about 1500^0. 
In other forms of pottery, where the firing temperature 
can be carried to the point of incipient fusion of the clay- 
substance without bending the pieces, a glaze is obtained 
by flooding the kiln, at that high temperature, with 
vapours of common salt. A reaction takes place 
between the vapours of common salt, the water vapour 
always present in the kiln gases, and the free silica in 
the body of the ware, resulting in the formation of a thin 
glassy coating on the ware, known as salt-glaze, and the 
liberation of hydrochloric acid. Here again the firing 
temperature must be very high, though inferior to that at 
which hard-paste porcelain is produced. With wares such 
as these, whether hard porcelain, such as is largely made 
on the Continent, or salt-glazed stonewares (made as 
largely in our own country as in any continental one), it 
is perfectly possible to use glazes free from lead, so that, 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1900), No, 1. 3 

so far as the glaze itself is concerned, no cases of plumbism 
can arise in their manufacture. 

A very different set of conditions regulates the manu- 
facture of the greater portion of the pottery produced in 
England. English earthenware is made from clay mix- 
tures possessing great plasticity. A working mass is 
made containing 50 to 60 per cent, of various native clays, 
with variable proportions of ground siliceous and felspathic 
minerals. In English china, the materials used for hard- 
paste porcelain are mixed with a large proportion of bone- 
ash, so that the mixture will vitrify at a much lower 
temperature. With a vessel made of either earthenware 
or bone china, the highest temperature at which it can be 
fired up, and yet retain its shape, is far below either the 
melting point of felspar or the temperature of the salt- 
glazing kiln, and in effect English potters are limited to the 
use of glazes which will melt perfectly, and flow easily and 
evenly over the surface of the pottery, at temperatures 
ranging from 1000^ to iioo^C. In order to obtain glazes 
suitable for this lower range of temperatures it is necessary 
to combine the felspar, which still forms the basis of the 
glaze, with silicates of the alkalies and alkaline earths, or 
with their borates. Glazes can be made in this way, per- 
fectly free from lead, and melting at the required 
temperature, but in actual work on the commercial scale, 
they are very partially successful, as they are subject to 
serious defects, which render their extended use, in the 
present state of our knowledge, impossible. It will be 
readily understood that one of the conditions governing 
the employment of any substance or process commer- 
cially, is the certainty of its results. The making of 
pottery is in any case attended with great risk from 
many causes, of which the chief is the impossibility of 
controlling the temperature of every part of the kiln to 



4 Burton, Plumbism in Pottery Workers. 

within 50^ to loo^C. Leadless glazes of the kind under 
discussion are unduly sensitive in this respect, and appear to 
have a very limited range of temperatures within which 
they can be depended on to come clear, bright and glossy.* 
Again, leadless glazes do not flow very easily, but mani- 
fest a great tendency to draw back from sharp edges or 
surfaces, and in extreme cases they often ** ruckle** all 
over or draw up into beads. They frequently exhibit a 
tendency to become " opaline," especially when they con- 
tain a considerable proportion of lime or barium. These 
defects, and many others which are of too technical a 
nature to be diccussed here, have always stood in the way 
of their general adoption. 

The common experience of potters for centuries has 
proved that, of all glazes fired at comparatively low tem- 
peratures, those containing lead compounds are by far the 
simplest in use, and the most reliable in practice. Many 
instances might be given, some of them dating from remote 
centuries, to prove that leadless glazes have been often 
abandoned for those containing lead ; so that when, in the 
last century, England became a great pottery-producing 
country, the use of glazes containing lead was already firmly 
established in Europe. The use of lead glazes is therefore 
not a question of the ignorance or obstinacy of English 
manufacturers, as we are sometimes given to understand ; 
nor is it because we lack technical knowledge possessed 
by our German or French rivals. English domestic 
pottery is admittedly the best in the world. The varieties of 
earthenware and china made in this country were invented 
and have been perfected here, and differ fundamentally 
from the indigenous products of other countries. In fact, in 
discovering English earthenware and English china, the 
English potter produced species of pottery more easy to 
• Samples of tiles and pottery were shewn to illustrate this point. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1900), No, 1. 5 

manipulate and more perfectly fulfilling ordinary require- 
ments than anything known before. The present tendency 
in all foreign countries is more and more to make wares 
on English lines and by English methods. In France and 
Germany the manufacture of earthenware and bone china 
is spreading, and in the United States no hard-paste 
porcelain is manufactured at all, but plenty of earthen- 
ware on English lines. 

Assuming, then, that lead compounds must be used 
in the preparation of English pottery glazes, what steps 
can be taken to diminish the risks attending their use at 
present? In order to arrive at sound conclusions on this 
point we must first consider, exactly, what the risks are 
that a pottery worker runs in dealing with glazes and 
colours, seeing that these are the only substances he has 
to handle which contain lead at all. There has long been 
an idea current among pottery workers that the lead 
compounds used, which are either carbonate, oxide, or 
boro-silicate, were absorbed by the skin, so that a worker 
engaged, say, in dipping the articles of pottery into the 
glaze mixture must inevitably contract plumbism, because 
his hands were continually being: immersed in glaze. 
Unfortunately this idea was reiterated in the famous report 
of Professors Thorpe and Oliver, issued by the Home 
Office. Unfortunately ! for two reasons ; first, because it 
is held by the leading medical authorities to be quite 
erroneous, and also because, so long as this notion was 
prevalent, it was difficult to persuade a man to avoid the 
dust of lead glazes when he supposed he was inevitably 
absorbing the poison through the skin of his hands. 

The real source of danger has been proved conclusively 
to lie in the taking in of lead-containing dust at the 
mouth or nostrils. Once in contact with the mucus 
membranes, white lead, or any similarly soluble compound. 



6 Burton, Plumbism in Pottery Workers. 

is readily converted into soluble and assimilable com- 
pounds which can be absorbed by the living tissues of the 
body, and so set up a dangerous disturbance of the system. 
The one point to guard against, therefore, is the creation of 
dust, or, if that be impossible, the breathing or swallowing 
of this dust by the workers. It will be readily understood 
that the various processes in use for applying glaze or 
colour to pottery will differ greatly in their liability to 
create dust. In some of them, as in the dusting of colour, 
for instance, the use of dust is a necessary part of the 
process ; in others, the only dust created is due to the 
slovenly or careless habits of the workpeople themselves. 
It is possible to deal with the dust, however created, by 
careful arrangements, involving, in extreme cases, the use 
of fans where dust is created in some quantity. Safe- 
guards such as these, which may be called mechanical 
safeguards, together with the provision of adequate and 
convenient washing appliances, and the careful and 
systematic washing of the floors, benches, and walls of 
workshops, will undoubtedly do much for the prevention 
of plumbism. 

An additional protection, which may be called " the 
medical safeguard," is also of considerable value. It has 
long been known to medical men that plumbism is 
generally a somewhat slow form of poisoning, and that 
persons of certain idiosyncrasy are more than normally 
susceptible to its influence. Cleanliness, and care of the 
person, of the general health, of food, &c., are also factors 
of importance. It has therefore been considered advisable 
that all persons whose occupation in pottery works brings 
them in contact with lead, shall be examined once a 
month by the certifying surgeon for the district, who has 
power to suspend them from work, on the appearance of 
signs of plumbism, until, after a further examination, he 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1900), No. 1. 7 

finds the symptoms have disappeared. Further, if the 
certifying surgeon is of opinion that any of these workers 
are constitutionally unfit to follow such employment 
without running grave risks, he can interdict their further 
employment in the lead processes. 

These two sets of safeguards, the mechanical and the 
medical, have been now pretty generally adopted in all 
pottery works in this country, under special rules from the 
Home Office. The question of credit for the adoption of 
these rules does not concern us here, though there is a 
great deal more due to the manufacturers than is generally 
supposed. That they have been of very great service is 
shewn by the fact that although they have not been in 
operation yet for quite two years, the number of plumbic 
cases, due to the pottery industry, during the year 1900, 
will be fewer by nearly one-half than they were in 
1898. 

Quite recently a third and most important precau- 
tion has been proposed by Dr. Thorpe, as an outcome of 
the investigations he has conducted on behalf of the Home 
Office during the last two years. Dr. Thorpe points out 
that it has been found possible by certain manufacturers, 
•especially on the Continent, to reduce the lead used in 
their glazes to a form in which it is far less readily 
attacked by dilute hydrochloric acid (and presumably 
also by the gastric juice), than the white lead or red lead 
in general use in this country. This result is attained by 
first of all fusing the lead oxide necessary, along with 
some siliceous and aluminous substances, so as to make 
a lead glass, known technically as " fritted lead." * Much 
depends on the chemical composition of the fritt, and on 
its perfect preparation, but it is possible, with care, to 
make fritted lead compounds which yield up to dilute 

• Samples were shewn of a number of these substances. 



8 Burton, Plumbism in Pottery Workers, 

hydrochloric acid (of about the strength normally found 
in gastric juice) only a small percentage of the lead they 
contain. Dr. Thorpe argues, and I believe rightly argues, 
that if these compounds are used as a means of intro- 
ducing the lead into glazes, then whatever glaze is 
accidentally taken into the system, must have its 
poisonous effects greatly minimised, as only a small 
percentage of the lead present could pass into solu- 
tion in the body, whereas at present practically the 
whole of the lead would be dissolved and absorbed, 
under similar conditions. The preparation and the 
general use of fritts of low solubility such as those 
described are attended with many practical difficulties 
which seem to me to have been insufficiently considered 
by Dr. Thorpe and the Home Office. Speaking from 
practical experience of a number of such fritts, it seems 
impossible to prepare them under such constant conditions 
as will ensure the same degree of insolubility. Moreover, 
the fritts of lowest solubility that we have been able to 
prepare on the commercial scale are more infusible, and 
cover the ware less readily, than fritts of somewhat higher 
solubility. It seems very doubtful if the use of fritts 
possessing as low a solubility as 2 per cent, which is the 
standard now proposed by the Home Office, can ever 
come into practical operation ; nor am I convinced that 
such a low standard is even necessary, when it is to be 
combined with the safeguards previously mentioned which 
are now in operation. Neither has it been shown that 
such a stringent standard is necessary, or that it obtains, 
in those continental works where plumbism has practically 
disappeared. That a low standard of solubility should be 
set up certainly appears advisable, and it is sincerely to 
be hoped that, by mutual agreement between manu- 
facturers and the Home Office, a standard which 



Manchester Memoirs, VoL xlv, (1900), No, 1. 9 

manufacturers can work under, and which shall be low 
enough to be effective, may be adopted with as little delay 
as possible. To sum up, I have claimed that, for the manu- 
facture of English pottery, lead is an essential ingredient of 
the glaze. To dispense with the use of lead would cause 
such an alteration of the manufacturing conditions 
that English pottery, as we know it, would cease to exist. 
I contend, further, that, retaining the use of lead, it is still 
possible to diminish the plumbism to the vanishing point 
by due attention to the safeguards I have mentioned. 
While the partial operation of the mechanical and medical 
safeguards has done a great deal, we must adopt, in 
addition, and make imperative, the general use of lead 
compounds of lower solubility than those in general use at 
present ; and then we may hope to turn the last page in 
this painful and troublesome chapter of industrial disease. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1900), No, 2. 



II. The Solubility of certain Lead Glasses or Fritts 
used in the Preparation of Pottery Glazes. 

By William Jackson, A.R.C.S., 

AND 

Edmund Milton Rich, B.Sc. 

[^Communicated by William Burton, F.C.S.^ 
Received and read October soth^ igoo. 

By the term "Lead Fritt" is usually meant the glassy 

compound produced by fusing together a mixture of 

various silicates, silica and bases, of which last lead oxide 

is one. The following recipe is typical : — 

Red lead .. 227 parts by weight. 

Whiting 100 „ „ 

China clay 65 „ „ 

Soda ash 53 

Flint 270 

This may be expressed in chemical language thus : — 

04 PbO ) 

0-4 CaO Voi AlaOs 2 SiOa 

0-2 (NaK)aOJ 

the coefficients referring to strict molecular weights. 

In manufacturing a fritt, the constituents are carefully 
weighed, thoroughly mixed, and then fused completely in 
a reverberatory furnace. The glassy substance thus pro- 
duced is mixed with the other constituents of the glaze, 
and ground with water on a mill. When it is reduced to 
a smooth cream it is ready for use. 

During the past few years, as is well known, the 
question of the solubility of such lead glazes in dilute acid, 
of a strength approximating to that of the gastric juice, 

March nth, igoi. 



2 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses. 

has received a great amount of attention ; and much 
experimental work has been carried out, with the view to 
reduce the solubility to such a degree that the glazes 
should be innocuous to the workers coming in contact 
with them. 

According to Zulkowski a glass which shall be capable 
of resisting chemical agents must approach a trisilicate ; 
and the insolubility appears to be developed by the 
presence of dibasic oxides, and may be due to the coupling 
of two polysilicates by a dyad metal as 

^O.Si.O.O.SiO.O.Si.O.O.R' 
^O.SiO.O.Si.O.O.Si.O.O.R' 
R0.6Si02.R2'0. 
The use of a trisilicate for Pottery purposes is, for 
practical reasons, impossible ; hence it appeared important 
to determine the solubility of certain compound disilicates, 
which it is proposed to employ. 

It appeared to us necessary to determine whether 
there exist factors, other than the chemical composition, 
which may influence the solubility of lead fritts in dilute 
acid, and also to examine the extent of the action of any 
such factors. The following is an account of experimental 
work carried out with these ends in view. 

I. The Effect of Fineness on the Solubility of Lead Fritts, 

In the first place, solution being possible only from 
the surfaces of non-porous particles, it seemed that the 
solubility might be affected by the extent of surface 
exposed to the solvent, or in other words, by the degree of 
fineness ; for it can be readily shown that the surface of 
unit mass of spherical particles varies inversely as their 
mean diameter, and we may consider that the glaze 
particles are, or approximate to, spheres. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1900), No. % 3 

In no published work have we been able to discover 
any mention of the part which fineness plays in connection 
with the solubility of fritts. 




Fig, I. 

At the outset of the work our attention was called 
to the possible influence of surface by the following 
circumstance. A fritt was ground in an agate mortar 



4 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses. 

and was then found to give up an amount of lead oxide 
equal to 075 per cent, of its dry weight when shaken for 
one hour with 1000 times its weight of a 0*25 per cent, 
solution of HCI ; on the other hand, when ground in a 
mill, as before described, the solubilit}' was found to be 
7*02 per cent, that is the solubility was increased nearly 
ten times. 

Another fritt, when exceedingly finely ground by 
hand, showed a solubility of 3 per cent. ; while when mill- 
ground this was increased to 4*4 per cent. 

We then proceeded to a systematic examination of 
the question, using Schone's elutriation apparatus (see 
Fig, i). The method adopted was the following: — The 
former of the two fritts before mentioned was well ground 
in an agate mortar and the lighter particles washed 
out with water into the apparatus. This operation was 
continually repeated on the coarse residue in the mortar 
until all was removed. When water flows steadily through 
the apparatus, as the water rises in the conical part, its 
velocity diminishes regularly until the cylindrical portion 
is reached, when it is a minimum. All particles which 
have been carried into the cylindrical region will, by the 
same current of water, be eventually carried out of the 
apparatus. Hence, by means of definite successive increases 
in the velocity of the water in this part of the apparatus, 
it is possible to separate a powdered material into a 
number of fractions of constantly increasing coarseness. 
The velocity of the water current is determined by the 
height of the water in the piezometer, each instrument 
having been calibrated. 

The material was thus separated into various fractions 
by subjecting it to the action of currents of water of 
definite velocities, these being regulated by the height of 
the water column in the piezometer. The whole of the 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1900), No. %. 5 

material which it was possible to bring over at any par- 
ticular velocity was collected in a large cylinder. On 
standing, the solid matter was allowed to settle, the 
accompanying water was then decanted and the residue 
dried at lOO^C. 

0'2 gram of each fraction was weighed, shaken for 
one hour with 200 cc. of a 0*25 per cent, solution of 
hydrochloric acid, allowed to settle for one hour and then 
filtered. Sulphuretted hydrogen was passed through 
100 cc of the filtrate, and the lead sulphide which 
separated was filtered off, ignited with a drop of nitric 
and sulphuric acids, and weighed as lead sulphate. 

The results obtained with this fritt are indicated under 
the heading A in the table, and are accompanied by a 
second series of results obtained in the same manner from 
another fritt B, supplied to us, already ground, by Mr. W. 
Burton, and the solubility of which, as determined by the 
Home Office, was 5 06 per cent. 



Height in 
Piezometer. 


Weight of PbSO^ 
from •! gram. Fritt. 


%ofPbO 
dissolved, calcu- 
lated on weight 
of Fritt used. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


I cm. 


7 


cm. 


23*4 mgms. 


20*4 mgms. 


X7-5 


15-2 


5 » 


1*5 




117 n 


9*8 „ 


87 


7*3 


' ' >• 


3 




8*8 „ 


6-8 „ 


6-6 


51 


35 » 


[2 




6-2 „ 


4'0 „ 


4-6 


3*o 


50 » 


20 




5*4 » 3*2 „ 


4-0 


2*4 


75 » 


40 




32 „ 


2-2 „ 


2 '4 


1-6 


100 „ 


75 




2*0 „ 


1*6 „ 


1-5 


1*2 



6 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses. 



These numbers when plotted as curves appear as in 
the accompanying Figure. 



Fineness- Solubility Curves, 



\ 




"^O 30 ^ 50 60 T0~ 

Height in Piezometer ( cms, ). 

Now since the finest material is carried over by the 
slowest current of water, or when the water is at the least 
height in the piezometer, it is clear from the above results 
that there exists an undoubted connection between the 
amount of surface exposed to the solvent, and the solu- 
bility. At first sight it might appear that the solubility 
should vary directly as the original surface of the particles ; 
but our numbers do. not support this conjecture. This 
we consider can be explained by the hypothesis that the 
action is more complex than a mere surface action of the 
acid on the fritt, />., that by the friction of the particles, 
during the hour's shaking, fresh surfaces are to some 
extent exposed to action and so more material is dissolved 
than is demanded by the simpler supposition of surface 
action only. 

Having found that solubility in dilute acid is greatly 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1900), No, % 7 

influenced by the degree of fineness to which the particles 
have been ground, we next enquired if there exists any 
recognised standard of fineness for the grinding of glazes. 
It is a matter of common knowledge that the fineness of 
a glaze is intentionally varied according to the purpose 
for which the glaze is required; but even in the case 
where it is desired to obtain the same degree of fineness, 
when we considered the means adopted by the mill-man 
to test the fineness, it seemed to us that great variations 
must be expected. We therefore collected seven repre- 
sentative finished glazes, and subjected them to elutriation, 
by which means the fineness of each was determined. 
The results obtained are set out in the following table : 



Velocity of 
water-current. 


Percentage proportions of Glaze carried over. 


mm. per sec. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


o-i8 
070 

1*50 
residue 


42*6 
29-0 
l8-o 
10*4 


42-4 

32-0 

17*6 

8-0 


44*6 

35-6 

9*4 
io*4 


8o-o 

13*4 

3*4 

32 


35-4 

58-0 

4-0 

2-6 


41-4 
42-0 

5*6 
no 


26-8 
7-6 
72 

58-4 


Surface* \ 
Factor/ 


1811 


1836 


1901 


2814 


1773 


1836 


1066 



^is f<&\ «-" ■'«■ 

These figures for surface give the relative areas of 
equal masses of the different glazes. 

It is therefore clear that great differences exist in the 
degrees of fineness to which glazes are reduced by various 
manufacturers. 

* In computing the relative surface of glaze-particles, it has been assumed 
that the surface-area of unit mass varies inversely as the mean diameter of 
the particles (cf. Pottery Gazette, Oct., 1900.). 



8 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses, 

Since we have shown that solubility in weak acid and 
fineness are intimately connected, it is essential that details 
of the solubility of a glaze or fritt should be accompanied 
by particulars enabling a judgment to be formed as to its 
fineness. 

II. The Fortnation of an insoluble Coating on Particles of a 
Lead Fritt during the action of dilute Hydrochloric 
Acid. 

That an apparently maximum solubility is always 
reached after shaking a lead fritt with acid a short time, 
points to the existence of a factor, other than fineness of 
the particles, affecting the action ; and this may be the 
formation of an insoluble layer of silica or other compounds 
on the surface of the particles. 

Dr. Thorpe states that a fritt by treatment for one 
hour with dilute hydrochloric acid yields to the solvent 
the whole of its soluble lead oxide, with the exception of 
the merest trace, approximately o*i per cent. \Blue Booky 
*' Lead Compounds in Pottery," 1899, page 32]. Again in 
the lecture entitled " Pottery and Plumbism," delivered at 
the Royal Institution, on May 4th, 1900, Dr. Thorpe 
gave other instances to the same effect, which are in- 
corporated in the accompanying table : — 



No. of Fritt. 


Sol. of Fritt on 
1st Extraction. 


Sol. of Fritt on 
2nd Extraction. 


2 


2 


0-4 


3 


1-5 


0*2 


lOI 


0-6 


02 


102 


0-8 


0'2 


f03 


0*7 


0*2 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv. (1900), No. 2. 9 

Dr. Thorpe, both in the Blue Book and in the Lecture, 
surmises that this circumstance is due to the existence of 
at least two dififerent lead compounds, one of which is 
easily soluble in dilute acid and is easily extracted in one 
hour, and the other practically insoluble. 

If the latter surmise is correct it would appear that 
the statement of Zulkowski,* to the effect that insolubility 
only occurs in trisilicates, is incorrect. 

We are of opinion that Dr. Thorpe has in his surmise 
overlooked a very important fact, namely, that on the 
surfaces of the solid non-porous particles an insoluble 
coating of oxides or salts is left, which at once puts a stop 
to further action by the solvent. Hence it is at once 
evident that until this coating is removed no further 
solution is possible, that is, maximum solubility has been 
attained, notwithstanding that the interior portions of the 
particles have never been brought under the influence of 
the solvent The existence of this coating and its nature 
may be deduced from figures to be found on page 32 of 
the Blue Book. Three grams of a fritt lost 3 02 per cent, 
of its weight in dilute acid and the remainder on further 
treatment with acid was found to be insoluble. The table 
on the following page shows the nature of the material 
dissolved. 

From this it is seen that all the bases and the boracic 
acid are dissolved in practically the same proportion, but 
the quantity of silica dissolved is remarkably small, 
namely, about -^-^ of the proportion in which the bases 
and boracic acid are dissolved. We must, therefore, con- 
clude that nearly all the silica separated from combina- 
tion remains undissolved and will be found deposited, in 
a great measure, at the place of its liberation, that is, on 
the particles themselves ; unless, indeed, the bases exist in 
• Chem. Ind., 1899, 22,280 ; 1900, 23,108 ; Chem, Ztg. Repert, 1900, 24,98. 



10 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses, 

the free condition, or a glassy compound possessing the 
composition of the dissolved material is present. The 
formula for such a compound would contain 3 molecules 
of basic oxides to i of acid oxides, whereas, according to 
Benrath, a normal glass is taken to possess exactly the 
reverse proportion between bases and acids. 

Then again, in the case of a compound showing so high 
a solubility as 8*24 per cent, (the solubility of di-silicate of 
lead as mentioned later) one would expect that, if the 
soluble matter is extracted from the whole mass of the 





Composition 
of Fritt. 


% amount 
dissolved. 


Fraction of each 
constituent dissolved. 


SiOj 


52-94 


0-I5 


1 


PbO 


22-44 


127 


tV 


A1.0. 


762 


0*41 


1 


CaO 


8-82 


o'54 


1 


MgO 


0*I2 


trace 


— 


(NaK)20 


3*99 


0-30 


1 


B,0. 


4-07 


o'35 


^ 



compound, and not from its surface only, there would 
occur some change in its physical condition. The par- 
ticles would either become porous or they would be 
disintegrated. Neither of these effects was apparent after 
the action of the acid on the compound, which remained^ 
in these respects, unaltered. 

We therefore submitted the idea of the existence of 
this insoluble siliceous coating to the test of experiment. 
Two lines of attack suggested themselves to us 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1900), No, 2, 1 1 

{a) a chemical method in which the layer would be 
removed by solution, 

(^) a mechanical method in which it would be removed 
by friction. 

In each case the removal of the layer would be 
followed by treatment with hydrochloric acid. 

{A) CHEMICAL METHOD, 

Since dilute caustic soda solution readily dissolves 
amorphous silica, we prepared a 5 per cent solution with 
which we treated a fritt after extraction with hydrochloric 
acid. We found that an amount of silica passed into 
solution and the fritt became again soluble in hydrochloric 
acid. We found, however, that even the fresh fritt yielded 
silica to the soda — though less in amount than after acid 
extraction — and the solubility of the lead oxide in the 
fritt was at the same time increased. It appeared that 
the soda had a decomposing action on the fritt, and hence 
a 10 per cent solution was adopted. This we found did 
not take up silica from the fresh fritt, though an amount 
was extracted from the fritt after treatment with hydro- 
chloric acid. But even in this case, with i per cent solution, 
there was a slight increase of the solubility of the fresh 
fritt after treatment with the soda. 

The results are tabulated below. 

Action of 5 per cent, NaOH Solution. 

a, I gram fritt + HO - r8 mg. PbO extrd. 

b, Residue from « + 5% NaOH soln. 10*3 mg. SiOg „ 

c, „ „ ^ + HC1 4*8 mg. PbO „ 



I gr. fresh fritt + 5% NaOH soln. S'l mg. SiO. 
.'. Layer of Silica = 10*3 - 8*i ==2*2 mg. 



12 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses. 
Action of I per cent, NaOH Solution. 

a. I gr, fritt + HCl 2*2 mg. PbO extrd. 

b. Residue from a+i% NaOH solut'n. 1*3 mg. SiOg „ 

c. „ „ ^ + HC1 2img. PbO „ 



d. I gram fresh fritt + 1% NaOH sol'n. No SiO, 

.*. layer of silica = i '3 mg. 



e. Residue from ^+HC1 3*3 mg. PbO „ 

Seeing that even i per cent, solution caustic soda 
caused an increase in the solubility of the lead oxide in a 
fresh fritt, we considered the method to be unsatisfactory 
and it was abandoned in favour of 



(B) MECHANICAL METHOD. 

A fritt which had been shaken with hydrochloric acid 
until no more lead oxide was dissolved, the amount 
obtained being 7 per cent, was lightly rubbed in an agate 
mortar and once more shaken with acid. Lead oxide 
was found to have passed into solution. This led us to 
examine the matter systematically. 

Five grams of a glaze containing about 18 per cent, 
lead oxide were placed in an Alsing cylinder with 2,000 cc. 
dilute (0'25 per cent) hydrochloric acid and a quantity of 
clean flint pebbles. The cylinder was rotated for various 
lengths of time, after the expiration of which the dissolved 
lead oxide in 50 cc. was determined. 

It was thought that, by the friction of the contents of 
the cylinder, the insoluble siliceous layer would be rubbed 
off" continuously as it was produced, and so the action of 
the acid would not be interfered with, and the amount of 
lead oxide dissolved should be found to continually 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1900), No, 2. 13 

increase. This was found to be the case, as is seen in the 
following table : — 



Hours action. 


PbSO^ from 

0*125 gm. glaze 

m.g. 


%PbO dissolved 
(calculated on 
material taken). 


i 


3-8 


228 


4 


7-8 


4-68 


2 


11*3 


678 


6 


12-8 


7-68 


8 


^5*5 


9-30 


12 


186 


ii*i6 


t6 


2ro 


i2-6o 


22 


22*2 


1332 



These numbers give the accompanying curve. 




Fig. 3. Time-Solubility Curve, 



10 15 

Time (hours). 



14 Jackson and Rich, Solubility of Lead Glasses. 

In the foregoing experiments we have dealt with a 
compound di-silicate. It appeared to us the action of 
HCl must be simpler in the case of di-silicate of lead, 
Pb0.2SiO , in which the supposed insoluble pellicle must 
be composed of silica. A piece of such a fritt was placed 
in dilute HCl, and after a short time a white layer was 
distinctly visible which was insoluble in the acid. We 
also submitted a sample of commercial di-silicate to exami- 
nation, by treating it with pebbles, in the manner already 
described. The results are put out in the table below. 



Solubility before action. 


8-24 % on 


material taken. 


„ after \ hour's action. 


8-58 




„ . 4 „ 


9*36 




M I n 


1 2-^6 , 




,» 3 


15-90 




,, 6 


22*56 , 




» 12 


28-8 




„ 17 


31-68 





These are quite in accordance with our previous 
results. 

It had, however, repeatedly occurred to us that the 
increase in solubility in all the before-mentioned experi- 
ments might be entirely due to the increased fineness 
caused by the grinding, as we have shewn in Part I. of 
this paper that increase in fineness and of solubility go 
hand in hand. 

With the apparatus at our disposal it was impossible 
to directly test this, but it seemed most unlikely, considering 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv. (1900), No. % 15 

that we were dealing with 5 grms. only of solid in 2,000 of 
liquid, that any great grinding efficiency could be obtained, 
and hence the very large increase in solubility observed 
could not be due entirely to increased fineness. On the 
other hand any insoluble pellicle formed would be soft 
and easily removed even in a suspension of such small 
solid contents. We intend to pursue this point further, 
but the results of our experiments tend to show that the 
apparent insolubility of a fritt after extraction with 
hydrochloric acid is not due to its actual insolubility as a 
whole, but rather to the formation of a protective insoluble 
layer of silica on the surface of the particles. 

Our thanks are due to the Technical Instruction 
Committee of the Staffordshire County Council in whose 
Pottery Laboratory the work has been conducted. 

Victoria Institute, Tunstall, Staffs. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (igoi) No. 3. 



III. The Thermodynamical Properties of Superheated 
Steam, and the Dryness of Saturated Steam. 

By J. H. Grindley, M.Sc. 

Received January 8th, rgoi. Read December iith^ igoo. 

I. The total heat of formation of Superheated Steam. 

In a previous paper* by the author on the subject of 
superheated steam, a description is given of some 
experiments on the cooh'ng effects produced by the free 
expansion of steam obtained by the evaporation of water 
in an ordinary Lancashire or locomotive boiler. As 
regards its dryness, the condition of the steam used in 
the experiments was, as far as could be arranged, the 
same as that on which Regnault made his experiments 
on the latent and total heats of evaporation of saturated 
steam, as it was intended to use his results in the deduction 
of the properties of superheated steam. 

Since writing this paper, the author has been consider- 
ing his experimental results, and, in the light of further 
evidence by other experimenters, he has been led to 
calculations the results of which may be of use and 
interest. 

In the first place, the author's own experimental 
results enable a table, of the total heats of formation of 
superheated steam at various temperatures and pressures, 
to be made, which will be of use. This table is compiled 
by calculations of a nature described in the above paper, 
and it contains values of the total heat of formation of 
superheated steam from water at 32^F. in B.T.U.'s, for 
every 5 lbs. pressure per square inch, and every 5°F., over 

•/%i7. Trans., Vol. 194 (1900), pp. 1—36. 
March iith^ 1901, 



2 Grindley, Thermodynamics of Superheated Steam. 

the same range of pressure and temperature as that 
covered in the actual experiments. 

It must, however, be understood that this table is to be 
considered as a useful auxiliary to the usual tables of the 
properties of saturated steam compiled from Regnault's 
experimental data, as the figures in it are deduced by a 
previous knowledge of the properties of saturated steam, 
and are therefore subject to the same errors, though it is 
not likely these will be very appreciable. 

In the following section I propose to shew the kind of 
results to which we are led when we rigidly adhere to the 
data given by Regnault and the laws deduced by him for 
the saturated condition of steam. 



II. On the specific heat at constant pressure (Kp) in 
Superheated Steam. 

The most popular method, up to the present, of 
deducing the value of Kp for superheated steam is that of 
wiredrawing by free expansion saturated steam in a 
known initial condition, the total heat of formation of the 
steam in that condition being assumed to be that given by 
steam tables founded on Regnault's experiments. 

What is really required, however, for the purpose of 
determining the value of Kp by this method, is a know- 
ledge, not of the actual total heat of the steam in any dry 
saturated condition, but of the rate of variation of this 

quantity with temperature. 

The law of variation given by Regnault, for the total 

heat of formation of dry saturated steam, is the linear one 

B=- 10917 + •305((^ - 32) B.T.U*s. 

the variation being assumed to be linear and to have the 

constant value -305. Now, from the data obtained by the 

author in his paper already mentioned, determinations of 



formation of Su^ 



30 


35 










— 






1161*5 

1 163-9 

1166-4 
II690 
ii7r6 


1162-5 
11650 
1167*6 
1 170-2 




1174-4 

1177-3 
1 180 2 
1 183-2 
1186-3 


1 1 73-0 

1175*9 
1178-8 
ii8i-8 
1184*9 

1187-9 
1191-1 

1194*3 
1197-6 
1200-9 




1189-3 
1192-5 

U957 
11990 
1202-3 


1] 
I] 




1204-3 


iJ 









*.ated 



The total heat of formation of Su 



e-F 


5lbs. 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 




2IO 

215 
220 
225 


1 149*6 
1151-5 
1153-5 
1155-5 


1150-1 
1152-1 
"54-1 


1148-7 
1150-7 
1 152-7 


— 










230 

235 
240 

250 


1157-5 
^159-5 
ii6i*6 

1163-8 
ii66*i 


1156*1 
1158 I 
ii6o-2 
1162-4 
1164-7 


1 1547 
11567 
1158-8 
11610 
1163-3 


1153*3 
1155-3 
1157-4 
1159-6 
1161-9 


1 156-0 

ii5»-2 
1 160-5 


— 






255 
260 
265 
270 
275 


1168-5 
1170-9 

1*73*4 
1176*0 

11787 

1181-5 
II 84-4 
1 187-3 
11903 
1193-4 


1167-1 
1169-5 
11720 
1 1 74-6 
1177-3 


1165*7 
11681 
1170-6 
1173-2 
1175-9 

11787 
1181-6 
1184-5 
1187-5 
1 190-6 


11643 
ii66*7 
1 169-2 
1171-8 
1174-5 


1162-9 
1165*3 
1167-8 
1170*4 
1173*0 


ii6i*5 
1163-9 
1 166-4 
11690 
1171*6 


1162*5 
11650 
1167*6 
1170-2 


I 
I 


280 
285 

290 

295 
300 


1180-1 
1183-0 
1185-9 
11889 
1192*0 


1177-3 
11801 
1 183-0 
11860 
11891 


1175-8 
11787 
ii8i-6 
1 1 84-6 
11877 


1 1 74*4 

1177-3 
1180 2 
1183-2 
1 186-3 


1173-0 

1175-9 
1178*8 
ii8i*8 
11849 

1187-9 
1191-1 

1194-3 
11976 
1200-9 


i; 
I 

1 : 
II 

11 


305 
310 

315 
320 

325 


1196-5 
1199-7 
1203-0 


ii95'i 
1 198-4 
1201-6 
1205-0 


1193-7 
11970 
1200-2 
1203*5 


1 192*2 

1 195-5 
11987 
12020 


1 1907 
11940 
1 197-2 

I200*5 

1203*8 


1189-3 
11925 

1195-7 
IT990 
12023 


I] 
11 
I] 
11 
I] 


330 

335 
340 
345 
350 










1 




1204-3 


12 


355 
360 

365 
370 










1 

1 
1 









Manchester Memoirs, VoL xlv. (1901), No, 3. 3 

the value of Kp were made for superheated steam at 
various pressures and temperatures, and it was essayed to 
express the results in a formula which would represent the 
variation of Kp with the temperature, there being no 
variation of Kp with pressure shewn. The formula best 
representing the results of the calculations was the foUow- 
simple one, 

K.-A-f, (.) 

where A=i'o6gy i?= 151 x 10® and r is absolute tempera- 
ture Fahrenheit, the range of temperature represented by 
the expression being from 220^ to 320°F. This formula 
is very interesting, as it would appear that at the tempera- 
ture 1 52^F., which occurs when 



"~VA' 



p 



the specific heat Kp vanishes. It may be that the formula 
does not actually represent what would be the results 
given by wiredrawing experiments below the range of 
temperature mentioned, but the rate of variation of Kj 
actually shewn between the experimental limits of 
temperature leads to the conclusion that, if Regnaulfs 
linear law is true, then Kp will vanish at a temperature 
not far removed from I52°F. 

That Kp does actually vanish for any temperature so 
high as 152** F. is very improbable, and the only conclusion 
which can be arrived at is that the value '305 of the 

variation — is not sufficiently accurate to enable the value 

of Kp to be deduced from it, and it may be pointed out 

that Griffiths' value for the variation -,~ below atmospheric 

at/ 

pressure is nearly 30 per cent, higher than the value '305. 
It does not appear probable, however, that the value 



4 Grindley, Thermodynamics of Superheated Steam, 

•305 is far removed from the mean value of -^ between 

the range of temperatures given in Table I., and a small 
alteration in its value would make no appreciable difference 
to the figures in the table. 

For further evidence on the value of Kp, the author 
has taken the results of Ramsey and Young's experiments* 
on the densities of superheated steam, and from them has 

obtained values of i^rj in superheated steam at various 

pressures. This, however, was only possible when dealing 
with steam not near the saturated condition, as near that 
condition the results were interfered with by surface 
condensation. 

Assuming that the values of (-y-) , obtained for 

superheated steam, could be taken with very little variation 
to hold near the saturated condition, various values of 

\'d'f) ^^^^^ obtained and used in the formulaf 

---^-(asL •■•<■> 

to determine the values of Kp in superheated steam near 
the saturated condition. The number 1438 in the formula 

presumes an accurate knowledge of ~-j-, and is obtained 

uu 

by assuming Regnault's linear law ; it is therefore liable 
to the same source of error as in the previous determina- 
tions of Kp, 

The values so obtained are given in the following 
table, along with values obtained from the equation (i). 

*0n the properties of Water and Steam. Phii, Trans. (1892), p. 117. 
t For proof, see Perry's " Steam Engine," p. 580. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 3. 5 

Table II. 
Table of Specific Heats Kp in Superheated Steam, 



Temp. 


Kp 


Temp. 
Fahrenheit. 


Kp 


Fahrenheit. 


from eq. (2) 


fromeq. (i) 


from eq. (2) 


fromeq. (i) 


290-3^ 


•560 


-595 


386-8^ 


-694 


•777 


309*5 


•573 


•641 


394*3 


•694 


•787 


325-1 


•531 


-674 


401-4 


•706 


•796 


338-5 


•594 


-699 


407-9 


•71 1 


•804 


350-1 


•641 


•720 


414-2 


-700 


•812 


360-6 


-734 


•737 


420-4 


•686 


•819 


370-I 


•744 


-753 


4265 


-756 


•826 


378-8 


710 


•766 









It will be noticed that the variation of Kp given by 
equation (2) is of the same nature as, but slightly less in 
amount than, that given by equation (i). This difference 
would have been reduced if a slight variation had been 

allowed in the value of (^j as we approach saturation. 

Recently, however, determinations have been made of 
the value of Kp by an absolute method,* and, from the 
few figures published, it appears that the results confirm 
the statement made above, viz., that Regnault's linear law 
of variation of total heat with temperature is incorrect. 

III. On the equation of adiabatic expansion in Superheated 

Steam, 
From the knowledge of the total heats of formation 
of superheated steam, given in the first part of this paper, 
it is possible to utilise the results of Ramsey and Young's 
experiments on the densities of superheated steam to 
determine whether the adiabatic law of expansion in 
superheated steam could be expressed in the form 

/z;" = constant, 

the data in the superheated condition being given by the 

• Callendar, Proc, Roy, Soc, Vol. 67 (1900), p. 279. 



6 Grindley, Thermodynamics of Superheated Steam, 

entropy determinecj from the author's experiments, the 
density being given by Ramsey and Young's results, and 
that for the saturated condition by Regnault's results 
solely. 

The calculations already made shew that, from i to 5 
atmospheres pressure and between temperatures 2io^F. 
and 330^F., which is as far as they have been carried, the 
mean value of the index n was r286, a value not far 
removed from the theoretical ratio of the specific heats in 
a gas composed of triatomic molecules. 

IV, On the value of t/ie product CKp. 
In the remarks on the specific heat Kp, it was stated 
that the values of Kp thus deduced from Regnault's results 
did not vary with the pressure, and from this circumstance 
the author was led to make further calculations on the 
values of the product CKp, where C is the cooling efifect, 

-J . produced, by free expansion, in superheated steam. 
Thus it was found* that a particular relation existed 

between the variations oi Kp, C, and {-ji) ^ namely 

|w=-,(|5)--i(CA-,) ... (3) 

and, assuming Regnault s law, the first and last of these 
three expressions was found to be zero. 

For independent evidence as to the value of -j^ 
the author examined the results of Ramsey and 
Young's experiments on the densities of superheated 
steam. The results have been rather surprising, as 
Messrs. Ramsey and Young had already announced as 
one of the results of their researches that (t^) vanishes. 
Carl Barusf, however, found that this relation did not 

• Phil. Trans., 1900, Vol. 194, p. 31. 
t Phil. Mag., Vol. 30, 1890, p. 358. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 3, 7 

hold for steam, and an examination of Ramsey and 
Young's results showed that the relation was only an 
approximate one. 

When, however, various values of the specific volume 
V are taken, at different temperatures but under constant 
pressure, from the curves obtained by Ramsey and Youngs 
and plotted on a volume-temperature diagram as curves 
of constant pressure, these curves are found to be almost 
exactly straight lines wlien considering superheated steam 
not near the saturated condition. It is impossible from 
the diagram to distinguish any marked deviation of the 
results from the linear relation z; = ^.r — « at constant 
pressure. 

The values of ( j- ) obtained from this diagram have 

already been used on p. 4 to obtain the values of the 
specific heat K^. 

In the author's experiments the product CKp at a 
pressure of 2olbs. per square inch was found to be 1*525 
and within a short range of pressure practically uniform 
(the units being lbs., feet and degrees Fah.). As Ramsey 
and Young's results related to a wide range of pressures, 
they were examined to see if any great variation of CK^ 
existed, with results given in Table III., the units of CKp 
being as above. 

It will be seen that the values of CK^ above three 
metres pressure are practically continuous with those 
obtained by the author at roi4 metres or 2olbs. per square 
inch pressure, and, on plotting these results, the variation 
of CKp with pressure is expressed by a formula of type 

CK.= ^ (4) 

where D and a are constants. If / is in lbs. per square 
foot jD =1-625 and log a =0000101. 



8 Grindley, Thermodynamiis of Superheated Steam, 

Table III. 
Values of the product CKp. 





CK 


p 


i 
Pressures 


CKp 


Pressures 


From 




From 




in metres 


Ramsey and 


From 


in metres 


Ramsey ind 


From 


of Ilg. 


Young's 
experiments. 


formula (4). 


of Hg. 


Young's 
experiments. 


formula (4). 


(1-014) 


(l 525) 


1*523 


10 


0806 


0857 


3 


1*426 


1*341 


II 


0-769 


0*805 


4 


i-i86 


1*258 


12 


0*718 


0754 


5 


i*i6i 


i-iSo 


13 


0*697 


0*707 


6 


0*864 


1*107 


14 


0*622 


0*663 


7 


0*908 


T038 


15 


0614 


0622 


8 


I -088 


0*974 


16 


0559 


0582 


9 


I 01 1 


0*913 


17 


0*654 


0*546 



Formula (4) is really a very important one, as it 
represents the value of the product of the cooling effect 
and the specific heat in superheated steam not near satura- 
tion point, and cannot, from the mode of its deduction, be 
much in error, the only equation required in the process 
being the thermodynamically correct one 



■-m. 



(5) 



and hence equation (4) will undoubtedly prove useful in 
checking any values of the cooling effects C and specific 
heats Kp found for superheated steam not near saturation. 

V. On the densities of Saturated Steam, 

It appears, from the data already existing on the 
density of dry saturated steam at any pressure, that we 
must either rely for the determination of these densities 
on Regnault's latent heats, to which the densities are 
inversely proportional, or obtain them by deduction from 
the properties of superheated steam. 

The first method is the one usually adopted, and, if it 
can be shewn that the latent heats determined by Reg- 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 3. 9 

nault are not in appreciable error, no objection can be 
taken to its continued use. Now, for that condition of 
saturated steam obtained by the evaporation of water in a 
closed boiler, the steam being relieved of suspended 
moisture as far as possible by gravitational methods only, 
if we accept the values of the latent heat given by 
Regnault as correct, the author's own experiments shew 
that such steam requires very slight heating to become 
superheated, an addition of 005 per cent, of the latent 
heat of steam at atmospheric pressure being sufficient to 
superheat it. 

Suppose, however, that, instead of using Regnault's 
latent heats, we take Ramsey and Young's experimental 
results on the densities of superheated steam, and, taking 
the law of expansion in the steam under constant pressure 
given by these results, and assuming this law to hold to 
the saturation temperature, make use of equation (5) to 
determine the specific volume of steam at the saturation 

temperature. As [-j\ is practically constant and has 
been already found for various pressures, 

will give the specific volume v at saturation. 

Now the value of the specific volume at saturation so 
obtained is in every case greater than that obtained from 
Regnault's latent heats, the percentage difference increas- 
ing as the pressure rises, and the only feasible explanation 
of the difference, if we do not admit serious error in 
Regnault's latent heats, appears to be that, near the 
saturated condition, the law of expansion in the super- 
heated steam differs considerably from that in highly 
superheated steam, the alteration being probably due to 
a change in the ultimate homogeneity in the superheated 
steam as saturation is approached. 



lo Grindley, Thermodynamics of Superheated Steam, 

The results recently published by Callendar, and briefly 
referred to previously, appear to be of similar character 
to those obtained by the above process from Ramsey and 
Young's experiments, and in his paper it appears that 
his results on the specific volumes of saturated steam have 
been obtained by a deduction from some of the properties 
of superheated steam, and, therefore, by a process similar to 
that just adopted vi^ith the results of Ramsey and Young's 
experiments. The main difference is that in Callendar's 
paper the deduction was made from a knowledge of the 
cooling effects and specific heats Kp in superheated steam, 
while in the other case the deduction was made from a 
knowledge of the densities of superheated steam. 

To see whether there was any agreement between 

the results so obtained by these two processes a few values 

found for the specific volumes of saturated steam deduced 

from Ramsey and Young's results, have been placed in 

the following table with a few of Callendar's results, and 

with the specific volumes determined from Regnault's 

latent heats. 

Table IV. 

Specific volumes of dry saturated steam. 





Sp. volumes in c.c. 


Percentage 
excess of 
(I) or (2) 
over (3). 


Pressure 

lbs. per sq. 

inch. 


Deduced from 

R. & Y.'s 

experiments. 

(I) 


Given by 
Callendar. 

(2) 


Deduced from 

Regnault's 

L.Hs. 

(3) 


147 
28-83 

52*52 
5803 

88-35 
225-9 

290-13 
30947 


461-13 
354*48 

103-67 
97*29 


1672-5 
8906 
508-4 

307-1 
129*6 


1650-5 
876*3 
499'4 
454*o 
346-0 
300-7 
126-8 
100-4 
94*2 


1*33 
r6i 
I -80 
1-60 
2-30 

2-IO 
2*IO 

3*30 
3-20 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol xlv. (1901), No. 3. 11 

An examination of this table shews that both 
Callendar's results and those deduced from Ramsey and 
Young's experiments, give practically identical differences 
with the results of calculations from Regnault*s latent 
heats, the percentage difference of either from Regnault 
being given in the last column. Now we have seen that 
the kind of steam used by Regnault requires but little 
addition of heat in order to superheat it, and hence we 
are forced to the conclusion that, if we accept the deduc- 
tions from the superheated conditions as correct, Regnault's 
latent heats must be too small by amounts varying from 
I '33 to 3*4 per cent. It should be observed, however, 
that the difference, between the specific volumes of saturated 
steam given by Callendar, or those obtained by deduction 
from Ramsey and Young's experiments, and those given 
by Regnault's latent heats, may be due entirely to the 
method of deduction adopted in the determination of 
these volumes in the first two instances, viz., by assuming 
the data in the superheated condition to hold down to the 
saturated condition. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 4. 

IV. Note on d'Orbigny's figure of Onychoteuthis dussumieru 
By Wm. E. Hoyle. 

Received and read January Sth, igoi. 

In the year 1895 Professor Joubin (95, p. 1172) 
described a remarkable cephalopod taken from the 
stomach of a sperm-whale, taken in the neighbourhood of 
the Azores by His Serene Highness the Prince oi Monaco, 
the most striking characteristic of which was that it 
appeared to be covered with scales of a subquadrangular 
form and arranged with great regularity. Such an 
arrangement was, of course, quite novel in the order, 
and excited no little interest, but as the specimen was 
unique and only consisted of the partially digested trunk, 
without head, arms or suckers, no opinion as to its system- 
atic position could be offered. A few years later Dr. Einar 
Lonnberg (98, p. 55) noticed a similar appearance in a 
specimen of Onychoteuthis ingens obtained by the Swedish 
Expedition to Magellans Straits. This he found to be 
due not to the presence of scales, but to the raising of the 
skin by numerous subcutaneous papillae in consequence 
of the maceration it had undergone. 

During a visit to Hamburg last summer, my friend, 
Dr. Pfeffer, of the Natural History Museum in that city, 
showed me a squid, which had similarly been obtained 
from the stomach of a cetacean, and was covered over the 
greater part of the mantle with small shining convex 
bodies, about half a millimetre across, and presenting an 
appearance like fine-grained shagreen. 

March iith^ igoi. 



2 HOYLE, (TOrbigny's figure of Onychoteuthis dussumieri. 

Dr. Pfeffer had been struck with the idea that this 
specimen might probably throw light on the true nature 
of Lepidoteuthis^ and I pointed out to him the similarity 
of his conclusion to that reached by Lonnberg. In fact, 
as Dr. Pfeffer observed — it seemed as though it might be 
possible by partial digestion to convert genera of various 
families into Lepidoteuthis, 

Not long afterwards, on looking over the atlas to 
F^russac and d'Orbigny's great work (35), I was struck 
by the figure of Onychoteuthis dussumieri {PL 13), the 
mantle of which is studded over with small tubercles, to 
all appearance of a precisely similar character. In fact, 
it would be difficult to describe Dr. PfefTer's squid more 
appropriately than in the words used by the French 
writers regarding their species — " corps finement chagrin^ 
par de tr^s-petits tubercules ^gaux, tres-rapproch^s les 
uns des autres.'' 

Gray (49, p. 56) placed this species in his genus 
Ancistroteuthis, on account of the form of the pen, but it 
does not appear that he had any specimen for examination, 
basing his conclusion merely on the published figures. 
No example other than this type has ever, to my know- 
ledge, been recorded. 

D'Orbigny's statement (35, p. 335) that the drawing 
is " d'apr^s nature sur un individu d^color^" and his 
description of the tentacular clubs as " paraissant avoir ^t^ 
couverts d'au moins trente crochets sur deux lignes 
alternes " show that post-mortem changes had taken place 
in his specimen. Hence it seems to me extremely likely 
that the tubercular appearance is an artificial, not a natural 
character, and if this be the case it adds a little to the 
presumption in favour of the accuracy of Dr. Lonnberg's 
explanation of the constitution of Lepidoteuthis. 



MancJtester Memoirs, VoL xlv. (1901), No, 4. 3 

Postscript. — Since the above paper was in type I have 
received a letter from Dr. Pfeffer, in which he tells me that since my 
visit to Hamburg he has dissected out and examined the gladius 
of the squid in question. He finds it to agree exactly with the 
figure given by d'Orbigny, and has, therefore, no doubt that its 
resemblance to O. dussumieri is to be explained by its being a 
second example of the same species ! The type specimen of 
the Onychoteuthis ingens in the British Museum unfortunately 
has no body, so that I have been unable to see how far it agreed 
with Lonnberg's description. The exact nature of Lepidoteuthis 
is still a matter of uncertainty, and we look with interest to 
Professor Joubin's further account of it in the memoir on the 
cephalopods collected by the Prince of Monaco. 



WORKS REFERRED TO, 

35. FjSrussac & d'Orbigny. "Histoire naturelle generale 
et particuli^re des cephalopodes acetabuliferes, vivants 
et fossiles." Paris, 1835-48. 

49. Gray, J. E. " Catalogue of the MoUusca in the British 
Museum. — I. Cephalopoda Antepedia." London, 
1849. 

95. JouBiN, L. ** Cephalopodes recueillis dans Testomac d'un 
Cachalot, capture aux lies Azores." Comptes rendus, 
vol. 121, p. 1172-1174, 1895. 

98. LoNNBERG, E. "On the Cephalopods collected by the 
Swedish Expedition to Tierra del Fuego, 1895-96. 
Wiss, Beobachtungen d. schwedischen Exptd, Magellans- 
Idndern, 1895-97. Stockholm, 1898. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv. (1901), No. 5. 

The Wilde Lecture. 
Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

Par M. Elie Metchnikoff, For. Mem. R.S. 

Delivered April 22ndy igor. 

En m'annongant que vous m'aviez d^cern^ la m^daille 
de Wilde, votre President a exprimd le ddsir que je fasse 
une conference devant vous. Je me suis empress^ de 
saisir cette occasion de vous dire de vive voix toute ma 
reconnaissance pour le grand honneur que vous m'avez 
fait. 

Je voudrais bien vous prouver que je m^rite une si haute 
distinction, en vous apportant quelque chose de nouveau, 
mais en science le neuf est tres rare et je n'ai pas 
d'autre pretention que de vous montrer toute la sinc^rit^ 
de ma gratitude. La lettre de votre estim^ President m'a 
trouve absorb^ par des etudes entreprises dans le but de 
dresser une sorte de programme de recherches nouvelles. 
Les savants, comme vous le savez bien, sont hant^s 
par des id^es fixes et il leur est impossible de parler 
d'autre chose que du sujet qui les preoccupe pour le 
moment. 

Je me suis done decide, au lieu de vous exposer des 
resultats definitifs, i vous presenter un simple programme 
de recherches deji commencdes dans mon laboratoire de 
rinstitut Pasteur de Paris. Je desire vous entretenir des 
microbes qui vivent dans le corps humain, dans le but de 
vous d6montrer que les deux grandes theories biologiques 
du XIX"®* siecle, celle de revolution des esp^ces de votre 
illustre compatriote Darwin, et la th^orie microbienne des 
fermentations et des maladies, formulae par Pasteur, sont 

May 28 th^ jgoi. 



2 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Huniain. 

comme des phares lumineux dans la recherche des pro- 
blimes compliqu^s et difficiles dont la solution incombe 
au si^cle qui vient de commencer. 

II y a d^ji plus de 200 ans, aussitdt apr^s Tinvention 
du microscope, qu'on a trouv^ de petits ^tres puUulant en 
grande quantity dans le corps humain. Leeuwenhoek 
exprime son ^tonnement en constatant que la bouche et 
rintestin de Thomme sont peupl^s d'une quantity 
d'organismes microsjcopiques, dont beaucoup manifestent 
des mouvements tr^s actifs et se pr^sentent comme de tout 
petits animalcules. 

Cette d^couverte a 6te confirm^ 4 maintes reprises 
dans les deux derniers si^cles, mais vous serez ^tonn^s de 
constater le peu de precision de nos connaissances sur la 
flore de notre corps. 

Les animalcules de Leeuwenhoek, les microbes, comme 
on dit aujourd*hui, qui pour la plupart sont des plantes 
inf^rieures et microscopiques, existent en tr^s grand 
nombre sur la surface et dans Tintdrieur du corps humain. 

L*homme natt sans microbes. II n'a aucune flore 
microbienne ni i la surface ni a Tint^rieur de son corps. 
Quelquefois, en sortant du sein de la m^re, alors m6me 
que celle-ci et Tenfant sont tous deux bien portants, 
la conjonctive du nouveau-nd est contamin^e par un petit 
bacille, tr^s semblable cl celui de la dipht^rie. Cependant, 
comme il est 4 peu pr^s inoffensif pour Thomme, on Pa 
rang<J dans le groupe des bacilles pseudodiphteriques. Ce 
microbe est le premier qui s'installe pour vegdter sur le 
corps humain.^ 

Aussitdt apr^s la naissance, la surface de la peau et 

^ V. Halli^. Rtikertkts sur /« hacUrioi^U du canal gMtal dt iafimmu^ 
Paris, 1S9S, p. 22, Note 3. Le de\-eloppement pr^coce da bacille 
pseudo>dipht<^rique sur la conjonctive du nouveau-ne a Ae observe par 
M. Morax, dont je tiens le fiut. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol xlv, (1901), No, 5. 3 

•des muqueuses se peuple de microbes ; au bout de quel- 
ques jours, ils sont nombreux et varies. La semence de 
ces microbes provient de Tair ou de Teau qui sert it laver 
J'enfant En ^t^, la flore se d^veloppe plus vite qu'en 
liiver et quelquefois, A€yk 4 heures aprfes la naissance, on 
trouve dans le contenu de Tintestin, le meconium, plu- 
sieures especes de bact^ries. Le plus souvent Tapparition 
de la flore dans ce milieu a €\£ observ^e entre la dixifeme 
^t la dix-septi^me heure aprfes la naissance.^ 

II n'entre pas dans mon plan de vous ennuyer par la 
description minutieuse et d^taill^e de tous les microbes 
qui s*6tablissent ainsi dans le corps de Thomme sain. Du 
reste il serait impossible de bien difiF(6rencier ces espfeces 
microbiennes, car les caracteres sp^cifiques des bact^ries 
sont extr^mement variables et difficiles i pr^ciser. On 
peut dire que la bact^riologie a presque toujours affaire i 
des " mauvaises especes/' d'apr^s la langage des taxono- 
mistes. 

La flore microbienne du corps humain it T^tat normal 
est constitute en grande partie par des bact^ries ; les 
champignons inf(6rieurs, comme les levures, ou blasto- 
mycfetes, n'y figurent qu'en tres faible minority. Parmi les 
bact^ries, ce sont surtout des formes rondes, des micro- 
coques, qui peuplent notre peau. On en distingue 
plusieures espfeces, ou vari^t^s, parmi lesquelles une est 
surtout remarquable par une coloration orange qu'elle 
prend dans les cultures sur les diff^rents milieux. Ce 
microbe, connu sous le nom de staphylocoque dor^ est 
moins r^pandu sur la peau de Thomme sain que deux 
vari^tds incolores; et cependant il est encore assez frequent 
et se retrouve, de mfime que ses cong^neres, dans beau- 
coup d'autres regions du corps humain. Les microcoques 

^ V. Schild. Das Auftreten von Bakterien im Darminhalte Neuge- 
borener. Zeitschrifl fur Hygiene ^ Bd. 19, 1895, p, II3. 



4 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

en forme de chapelets de grains sont plus rares que les 
staphylocoques. 

Les formes bacillaires sont moins nombreuses sur la 
peau normale que les cocci. On en trouve une toute- 
petite, d^crite sous le nom de microbacille de la sdborrh^e- 
et une bactdrie tres bizarre, ddsign^e par Unna, un derma-^ 
tologiste allemand bien connu, sous le nom de Bacille- 
bouteille (Flaschenbacillus). Ce microbe si particulier se 
rencontre constamment dans les pellicules qui se d^tachent 
SI facilement du cuir chevelu. Mais le lieu de pre- 
dilection de nos microbes cutan^s est incontestablement 
le follicule pileux. II constitue une sorte d'^tui profond 
qui s'enfonce dans la peau et sert k la formation du poil. 
Son canal prdsente des conditions tr^s favorables pour le 
ddveloppement des etres microscopiques et aussi, le plus, 
souvent, il est envahi par les staphylocoques qui y forment 
des amas solidement et profond^ment ^tablisA 

Les muqueuses, avec leurs surfaces toujours humides 
et recouvertes de substances qui alimentent facilement 
les microbes, accusent une flore gen^ralement plus riche 
que celle de la peau. Cependant, la conjonctive de Toeil,, 
gr^ce au lavage continuel par les larmes, se d^barrasse de 
la plupart des microbes qui y pen^trent soit avec les fines 
poussi^res de Tair, soit par le contact avec les doigts ou les 
autres parties du corps. 

La flore de la conjonctive, comme celle de la peau, est 
plus riche en cocci qu'en bacilles. Quelques auteurs ont 
signale la presence de staphylocoques, dor^s et incolores, 
pareils k ceux de la peau. Les bacilles pseudo-dipht^riques- 
ont €t6 trouv^s par plusieurs observateurs." 

La muqueuse du nez est ^galement peuplee de mi- 

^ Sabouraud, La pratique dermatologique. T. I., p. 701. 
^Axenfeld, Berliner klinische Wochenschrift^ 1898. Bach, ArchivfUr- 
Ophthalmologies Bd. 40, p. 130. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 5 

crobes, parmi lesquels on a souvent reconnu les staphy- 
locoques, les streptocoques et quelques bacilles. 

II est incontestable que les microbes p^netrent dans 
les voies respiratoires de Thomme, m^me les plus pro- 
fondes. Seulement il est tres difficile de se rendre compte 
d'une fagon precise de la flore microbienne de la tractive, 
<^es bronches et du poumon de Thomme a T^tat normal. La 
constatation des bact^ries dans ces organes sur le cadavre 
ne peut ^tre consid^rte comme une preuve suffisante de 
leur presence chez le vivant, et pourrait s'expliquer par la 
penetration post-mortem des microbes des organes voisins. 
Dans tous les cas, la flore des voies respiratoires profondes 
ne doit jamais etre riche chez Thomme sain. 

Ce sont les organes de la digestion qui prdsentent la 
plus grande richesse en fait de flore microbienne. Le 
Docteur Miller de Berlin^ a reuni en un volume une 
grande quantity d'observations et d^crit plus de trente 
especes qui habitent la cavit^ buccale de Thomme. Parmi 
ces microbes, il y en a qui se trouvent egalement sur la 
peau humaine ; mais en outre il existe autour des dents 
plusieurs formes bact^riennes bien distinctes qui sont 
caract^ristiques de la flore buccale et ne se rencontrent 
nulle part ailleurs, comme les leptothrix et les spirochaetae 
de la bouche. La flore de la cavity buccale est au 
moins aussi riche en bacilles qu'en microcoques, parmi les- 
quels se trouvent tr^s fr^quemment les staphylocoques, 
dords et incolores, les streptocoques et les pneumocoques. 

Plusieurs repr^sentants de la flore de la bouche de- 
scendent dans les voies digestives profondes et se retrou- 
vent dans Testomac et les intestins. Le premier de ces 
organes, caract^ris^ par Tacidit^ de son contenu, pr^sente 
des conditions tout-i-fait particuli^res pour le d^velop- 
pement des plantes microscopiques. Beaucoup de bact^ries 

'^Die Mikroorganismen der Mundhohle^ 2® Auflage. 1892. 



6 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

en effet ne supportent pas un milieu acide, tandis que 
quelques levures et leurs congdn^res de la classe des 
champignons tol^rent beaucoup mieux Taciditd du sue 
gastrique. Eh bien, malgr^ ces conditions ddfavorables, 
la flore bactdrienne stomacale de Thomme est encore assez 
riche. M. Coyon,^ qui n*a ^tudi^ que les microbes de 
Testomac qui croissent en cultures aerobies, mentionne 3a 
esp^ces diff(6rentes, parmi lesquelles la plupart ne se 
rencontrent pas dans les autres parties du tube digestif. 

Depuis longtemps, on a trouv^ des microbes tout-i- 
fait caracteristiques dans le contenu stomacal de Thomme. 
Ce sont des cocci, rdunis en gros paquets et ddcrits sous 
le nom de sarcines. lis sont aussi typiques pour la flore 
stomacale que le spirochaete pour la flore de la bouche. 
Mais en dehors de ces sarcines, il n y a que peu de cocci 
dans Testomac humain, et ce sont surtout les bacilles et 
aussi les levures qui constituent la majority des microbes 
gastriques. 

Cette predominance des bacilles est encore plus mar- 
quee dans la flore de I'intestin grele. La principale 
source de nos connaissances sur cette flore est un m^moire 
de MM. Macfadyen, Nencki, et Madame Sieber^ qui ont 
eu la chance d*6tudier pendant plusieurs mois le contenu 
intestinal qui s*ecoulait d*une fistule, consecutive a une 
operation d'hernie ^tranglde. lis ont isole de ce liquide^ 
provenant de Tintestin grele, quatorze formes microbiennes^ 
parmi lesquelles les levures et les moisissures ^taient rares ; 
les bact^ries rondes, entre autres deux formes de strep« 
tocoques, etaient plus frdquentes. Mais la grande majority 
de la flore de Tintestin grele etait representee par les 
differents bacilles, parmi lesquels les plus constants 
etaient le colibacille, h6te commun du tube digestif de 

* Hot't microbiennt de ttstomac. Paris, 1900. 
^Anhivfur tsperimttiUlU lathdo^ie, Bd. 28, 1890, p. 31 1 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 7 

rhomme et d'une quantity d'animaux, et le bacille du lait 
aigri. 

Les auteurs que je viens de citer ont constat^ que la 
flore de rintestin grele changeait avec la nourriture que 
prenait leur malade. Le regime carne et ralimentation 
vdgdtarienne provoquaient le developpement de formes 
bact^riennes particuli^res. M^me avec un regime con- 
stant, lis ont pu observer des variations notables dans la 
population microbienne. 

De rintestin grele, les microbes passent dans le gros 
intestin, oil s'associent a eux un grand nombre de formes 
nouvelles. De toutes les parties du corps humain, c*est 
sans doute le gros intestin qui renferme la v^g^tation 
microbienne la plus riche. Cette flore a d^j^ toute une 
littdrature. Celle-ci nous apprend que le contenu du gros 
intestin de Thomme est peupl^ d*environ 45 esp^ces micro* 
biennes. Les levures y sont plus rares que dans Testomac 
et m^me dans Tintestin grele. La flore du gros intestin 
renferme principalement des bact^ries, parmi lesqueltes 
les bacilles sont de beaucoup les plus nombreux. Nous 
retrouvons dans le contenu de cette partie du tube digestif 
beaucoup de microbes qui ont ^t^ mentionnds comme 
habitant la cavit^ buccale, Testomac et I'intestin grele. 
Parmi les formes propres au gros intestin, un grand 
nombre n'ont jamais pu ^tre cultivdes en dehors de 
Torganisme, ce qui explique la grande imperfection de nos 
connaissances sur ce chapitre. 

Le gros intestin commence k se peupler presque aussi- 
t6t apr^s la naissance. D^ja dans la premiere journde, c'est 
a dire avant que Tcnfant ait pris une nourriture quelconque, 
dans le meconium, ou contenu du gros intestin, on trouve 
une flore microbienne assez variee. A c6td de plusieures 
bact^ries sphdriques, ou microcoques, apparaissent des 
formes allong^es, parmi lesquelles on reconnait surtout le 



8 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain, 

colibacille, d^ji mentionnd comme h6te de rintestin grele. 

L'alimentation par le lait maternel change bientdt la 
flore du gros intestin. Elle devient plus uniforme et 
renferme surtout, quelquefois presque exclusivement, un 
petit bacille mince qui ne se developpe en dehors de Tor- 
ganisme que difficilement et seulement a Tabri de lair. 
M. Tissier/ qui a d^couvert cette espece, Ta ddsignde sous 
le nom de Bacillus bifidus, 

Chez les enfants, nourris au biberon avec du lait de 
vache, ce meme bacille se retrouve aussi, mais en moindre 
quantity. La flore du gros intestin de ces enfants est 
beaucoup plus riche en formes microbiennes, parmi 
lesquelles on retrouve les colibacilles, les streptocoques, 
les staphylocoques, les bacilles du lait aigri, les sarcines et 
encore une sdrie d*autres bacteries. Les bacilles sont 
prddominants, mais les formes rondes et les spirilles sont 
aussi largement repr^sentds. 

Les enfants, soumis au regime lact^, nourris avec du 
lait de vache cru ou st^rilis^, renferment, comme vous 
voyez, d^ji une flore du gros intestin assez riche. Mais, a 
partir du moment ou la nourriture est plus vari^e, apr^s 
le sevrage, cette flore devient encore beaucoup plus abon- 
dante. Ce caractere persiste chez Padulte. D'apr^s les 
donndes rdunies par Vignal et Suckdorf ^ on peut ^valuer 
qu'un homme rejette de 30 a 50 milliards de microbes 
par jour. Beaucoup d'entre eux n'ont jamais pu ^tre 
cultiv^s en dehors de Torganisme et sont encore fort peu 
connus. 

Dans r^tat actuel de la science, il est impossible 
d'evaluer le nombre d'especes microbiennes qui constituent 
la flore de I'homme sain. Ce n'est qu' a titre provisoire 
et purement approximatif que nous pouvons Testimer 

}\Kecherches sur lajiore intestinale des nourrissons, Paris, 19CX). 
2 Archivjiir Hygiene^ Bd. 4, 1886. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 5. 9 

-comme se trouvant entre 60 et 70. Ces microbes, comme 
vous I'avez d^ji vu, sont r^partis d'une fagon tres inegale. 
La peau en renferme le moins, le gros intestin en contient 
le plus. 

Que peut-on dire du role de cette flore si vari^e? 
L'homme n'est pas le seul ^tre qui soit contamin^ par une 
multitude de plantes infdrieures. La peau et les cavit^s 
•de beaucoup d'animaux renferment aussi des flores plus 
ou moins riches. Parmi les Invert^brds, il y en a qui 
sont recouverts d'une vegetation beaucoup plus abondante 
•que celle qui se trouve sur la peau humaine. Parmi les 
crabes, il y a une espece, tres abondante sur les c6tes 
meridionales et occidentales de TAngleterre, connue sous 
le nom d'araign^e de mer, ou la Maya {Maia squinado). 
Sa carapace ^pineuse est le plus souvent recouverte d'une 
quantity d'algues qui s'^levent a une hauteur considerable 
et poussent de tous cdtds. L'utilit^ de cette flore est 
incontestable et ^vidente. Les algues dissimulent le crabe 
sur les fonds herbeux et le cachent aux regards de ses 
'cnnemis et des animaux qu'il poursuit pour en faire sa 
nourriture. La flore de la peau humaine n'a aucun but 
semblable k remplir et son utility ne peut ^tre aucune- 
ment ddmontrde. 

Par contre, la flore de la cavite buccale peut rendre 
•des services k Thomme. Tout le monde a remarque que 
les plaies de la bouche gudrissent beaucoup plus vite que 
celles de la peau. Humectdes par la salive, les plaies 
restent au contact des microbes et de leurs produits 
solubles qui stimulent notablement la reaction de 
Torganisme. Les secretions microbiennes attirent une 
grande quantity de globules blancs, ou leucocytes, et ces 
•cellules nettoient la plaie, la d^barassent des microbes et 
des parties mortifides, favorisant ainsi la reparation 
<iefinitive. 



lO Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Carps Humain. 

Dans les parlies plus profondes du tube digestif, ce- 
r61e des microbes est moins important, car les lesions de la 
muqueuse y sont beaucoup plus rares. Mais 11 est tres 
probable que les acides, que beaucoup de bacteries 
sdcretent dans Tintestin gr^le, rendent un service r^el en 
emp^chant le d^veloppement de certains autres microbes 
qui pourraient gener la digestion normale. Cette action 
empechante se manifeste m^me dans la lutte de Torganisme 
contre des microbes tres dangereux. On a observe 
souvent que des hommes peuvent impun^ment ing^rer une 
grande quantity de vibrions qui, chez d'autres individus, 
occasionnent le vrai cholera asiatique. On est en droit de 
supposer que cette immunity est due k la presence des 
microbes intestinaux qui genent le vibrion cholerique dans 
son action pathog^ne. Un argument en faveur de cette 
hypothese nous est fourni par les experiences sur les tres 
jeunes lapins. Tant que ces animaux se nourrissent 
exclusivement de lait maternel, lorsque leur flore intestinale 
est encore peu vari^e, Tingestion du vibrion cholerique leur 
donne le cholera mortel. Mais k partir du moment ou ils 
comniencent k se nourrir de v^g^taux et ou leur flore 
intestinale devient beaucoup plus riche, m^me de grandes 
quantit^s de vibrions choldriques ing^r^s ne provoquent 
plus aucun trouble. 

M. Bienstock^ suppose que certains microbes de notre 
flore intestinale normale, notamment le colibacille ct le 
bacille du lait aigri, empechent Tinvasion du tube digestif 
par des microbes de la putrefaction, s*appuyant sur ce fait 
que le lait cru, qui renfermeles deux especes mentionn^es,. 
n'entre pas en putrefaction. 

Bien que ce rdle cmpechant des microbes intestinaux 
n'ait jamais pu dtre bien prouve, il est neanmoins tr^s 
probable. Mais on a suppose encore une autre actioa 

'^Archiv fur Hygiene, Bd. 39, 1901, . 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 11 

utile de notre flore intestinale. A propos d'une communi- 
cation de M. Duclaux a TAcaddmie des Sciences de Paris^ 
Pasteur a 6nonc6 cette hypothfese que les microbes du 
tube digestif jouent un rdle important dans la digestion 
des aliments et que, sans leur concours, Tutilisation de la 
nourriture par Torganisme animal serait impossible. En 
raison des grandes diflScult^s pratiques pour la realisation 
des experiences, tendant a rdsoudre ce probleme, ce n'est 
que dans ces dernieres annees que Pon s*est mis a les 
exdcuter d*une fagon precise. Nuttall et Thierfelder^ ont 
essay^ d'^lever de jeunes cobayes a I'abri des microbes et 
Schottelius^ a tente de faire vivre de jeunes poussins dans 
des conditions d'asepsie complete. 

Les deux premiers observateurs ont reussi a elever 
des cobayes, extraits par operation c^sarienne, jusqu' a 
13 jours. lis les ont, pendant tout ce temps, gardes dans 
un espace rigoureusement priv6 de microbes et les ont 
nourris avec du lait de vache et des cakes stdrilis^s. Les 
cobayes ont bien support^ ce regime, ont augment^ de 
poids pendant leur captivit(J (quoique a un degre moindre 
que les cobayes temoins, dlev^s dans des conditions 
normales) et, k Tautopsie, se sont montr^s totalement 
ddpourvus de microbes. Nuttall et Thierfelder concluent 
done a la possibility pour un jeune mammifere de vivre et 
d'utiliser les matiferes alimentaires sans aucun concours de 
microbes, uniquement gr^ce a ses propres sues digestifs. 

Schottelius est arrive a un r^sultat diamdtralement 
opposd. Les petits poussins qu'il faisait ^clore dans un 
espace priv^ de germes et spdcialement appropri^ pour 
Televage de ces oiseaux, nourris avec des aliments st^riles> 
ont vdcu pendant 17 jours. Seulement, au lieu d'augmenter 
de poids, comme leurs tdmoins, gardes en liberte, ils ont 

'^Zeitschriftfur physiologische Chemie, Bd. 21, 1895, P« I09' 
^ Arc hiv fur Hygiene y Bd. 34, 1899, p. 210. 



12 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

tellement maigri et leur faiblesse est devenue si grande que 
Schottelius a dSx interrompre ses experiences. Les poussins 
sacrifids se sont montrds compl^tement priv^s de microbes 
et c*est justement i leur absence dans le tube digestif qu'il 
attribue Tdtat lamentable dans lequel se sont trouv^s les 
jeunes oiseaux, abandonnes uniquement a leurs propres 
ressources digestives. 

Comme vous voyez, malheureusement, les deux series 
•d'expdriences ont donn^ des r^sultats si contradictoires 
<iu'il devient impossible d'en tirer une conclusion definitive. 
II est done indispensable de continuer les recherches dans 
le but d'aplanir ces contradictions. Du reste, Schottelius 
lui meme ne considere ses tentatives que comme un premier 
pas vers la solution du probleme. On peut lui reprocher 
que, dans son appareil pour T^levage des poussins, il a 
introduit trop de matieres antiseptiques qui pouvaient 
nuire au developpement normal des jeunes oiseaux. II 
commengait par laver les oeufs pondus avec une solution 
de sublime assez forte (s pour looo) et ceci i deux 
reprises. Ce traitement, sans ^tre mortel pour les embryons, 
pouvait diminuer leur resistance vitale. 

En dehors des faits observes, Schottelius invoque en 
faveur de la ndcessite absolue du concours microbien pour 
la digestion chez les animaux, des considerations generales, 
basees sur la grande theorie Darwinienne. Comme, d' 
apr^s lui, "il n'existe pas d*animal sans qu'il renferme 
-constamment dans son canal intestinal des quantites 
^normes de bacteries," il lui semble impossible que la 
selection naturelle n'eiit pas eiimine depuis longtemps 
-cette flore si elle ne remplissait quelque role utile. D'abord 
cette th^se que tous les animaux renferment une flore 
intestinale a Tetat normal ne peut pas ^tre soutenue. II 
-existe un nombre considerable d'esp^ces animates, chez 
lesquelles le tube digestif ne contient pas du tout ou 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 5. i J 

presque pas de microbes. Comme exemple, je peux citer 
le scorpion, dont Pintestin se montre toujours complete* 
ment sterile. Mais, m'objectera-t-on, il s'agit ici d'un 
etre qui se nourrit du sang des petits animaux. Or 
le sang est un aliment qui se dig^re tr^s facilement 
et qui dans la plupart des cas ne renferme pas de 
microbes. Le scorpion pourrait ^tre consid^r^ comme 
une sorte de "parasite libre." Eh bien, lesexemples neman- 
quent pas o\x les animaux, destines a se nourrir avec des 
aliments tr^s difficiles i dig^rer, sont cependant complete^ 
ment d^pourvus de flore intestinale. On en trouve 
beaucoup parmi les larves d'insectes. A cot^ du ver a soie 
ou des vers blancs qui renferment beaucoup de bact^ries 
dans leurs intestins,nous pouvons citer les larves de di verses 
mites. Ces insectes vivent dans des tissus poussidreux,, 
dans des amas de graines, oil la pcussifere et les microbes 
ne manquent pas, et cependant leur tube intestinal,, 
examine i maintes reprises, s'est montrd le plus souvent 
completement priv^ de microbes, Quelquefois on trouve 
de rares bactdries, dissdmin^es dans Tintestin de ces larves^ 
qui ^videmment ne peuvent jouer aucun role important. 
Dans ces exemples, que je pourrais multiplier a volont^ les 
sues digestifs des insectes suffisent non seulement a eux 
seuls pour dig^rer des aliments aussi difficiles a solubiliser 
que la laine et les graines, mais peuvent meme tuer et 
dig^rer les microbes. La larve de la mite de la cire qui vit 
en parasite dans les ruches des abeilles, possfede une force 
digestive tellement puissante qu'elle est capable d'attaquer 
avec ses ferments intestinaux les bact^ries les plus resis- 
tantes, comme le bacille de la tuberculosa On cssaie 
m^me d'utiliser cette propri^t^ remarquable dans la lutte 
contre ce bacille. 

Parmi les vers intestinaux, on en rencontre quelques 
uns, comme les ascarides, qui vivent dans un milieu rempli 



14 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Hutnain, 

de microbes. Lorsqu'on compare la richesse en bact^ries 
<lu tube digestif de Tascaris du cheval et de Tintestin 
grdle du cheval m^me, habits par ce parasite, on est 
surpris de la grande difiF<6rence. Tandis que le premier ne 
renferme que quelques rares microbes, le second en 
contient une veritable pur^e. 

II n'y a pas de doute. Uorganisme animal peut se 
passer du concours des microbes pour digdrer la nourri- 
ture qui est n^^cessaire i son entretien. Seulement, les 
animaux prdsentent une si grande difiF(6rence sous tous 
les rapports, qu'il est impossible d'appliquer les r^sultats, 
obtenus avec les scorpions, les insectes, ou les vers intesti- 
naux, it Thomme, Tespfece qui nous int^resse surtout En 
nous pla^ant sur ce terrain, il faut bien dire que le cobaye 
qui, d'aprfes les recherches de Nuttall et Thierfelder peut 
se suffire avec ses sues digestifs, meme aussitdt aprfes sa 
naissance, est plus rapprochd de I'homme que le poussin 
nouveau-nd ou Ag^ de quelques jours. Si Ton acceptesans 
critique les rdsultats de Schottelius, on ne peut que 
formuler cette conclusion que des oiseaux en bas ^e ne 
peuvent pas se passer, pour dig^rer leurs aliments, de 
Vaide des infiniment petits, comme le peuvent certains 
mammifbres. 

Uexamen du pouvoir digestif des ferments intestinaux 
de rhomme et des mammif^res d^montre qu'il est tr^s 
puissant et capable de dig^rer la plupart des substances 
alimentaires. Autrefois, on ne tenait pas compte de 
rintervention microbienne dans les experiences sur la 
digestion par des sues digestifs, extraits i des animaux. 
Mais, depuis que le r61e des microbes dans les fermenta- 
tions a <St<S bien tStabli, on a eu soin d'ajouter des anti- 
scptiques aux ballons, dans lesquels on mettait des 
substances alimentaires en contact avec les sues digestifs. 
Eh bien, malgre r^limination des microbes, la digestion se 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol xlv, (1901), No, 5. 15 

faisait tres bien par Paction seule des ferments contenus 
<lans ces sues. Les substances albuminoYdes, beaucoup 
•de substances hydrocarbondes et de graisses, sont facile- 
ment digdr^es par les ferments du tube digestif des 
animaux. II n'y a que la cellulose pour laquelle on n'ait 
pas trouvd de ferment animal correspondant. M. Duclaux 
en conclut que si Pintervention des microbes pour la 
digestion est reellement n^cessaire, cette collaboration 
serait utile siirtout pour les especes herbivores. Pour 
Phomme, elle ne doit pas jouer un r6le tant soit peu 
•considerable. 

Depuis longtemps d^ja, Nencki soutient cette these, 
que les microbes intestinaux chez Phomme sont loin 
•d'etre n^cessaires pour la digestion normale. Dans son 
travail, fait en collaboration avec Macfadyen et Mme Sieber, 
il a etudi^ la flore intestinale de la femme, op^ree d'une 
hernie ^trangl^e, et a cherch6 ^ determiner par des re- 
cherches precises le r61e des microbes. Ces observateurs ont 
pu constater que les substances albuminoYdes ^taient 
•diger^es, chez la malade opdr^e, par ses propres ferments, 
sans aucun concours appreciable de la part des bact^ries 
assez nombreuses qu'ils avaient isoldes. Ces microbes ont 
iXk incapables de decomposer les substances albuminoYdes, 
mais agissaient energiquement sur les mati^res hydro- 
carbonees. Seulement, les produits de leur activite, 
notamment Palcool et les acides lactique et acetique, se 
sont montres inutiles pour la nutrition de Phomme. 

Beaucoup de donnees conduisent done ^ ce resultat 
general que la flore intestinale de Phomme n'est nullement 
necessaire pour sa digestion normale. 

Essayons maintenant d*etablir si les microbes du 
corps humain peuvent ^tre nuisibles ^ sa sante. Nous 
avons vu que la peau de Phomme et surtout les canaux des 
follicules pileux renferment une flore bacterienne assez 



i6 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

abondante, parmi laquelle figurent surtout des formes^ 
rondes, comme des staphylocoques et des streptocoques. II 
est incontestable que ces microbes saisissent chaque con- 
dition favorable pour se reproduire en grande quantite* 
Lorsque les forces defensives de Torganisme fl^chissent 
pour une raison quelconque/ les microbes de la peau 
commencent a puUuler et k deverser dans les tissus et le^ 
sang leurs produits nuisibles. 

Les chirurgiens et les accoucheurs qui se lavent les 
mains avec des antiseptiques voient souvent se d^velopper 
des eruptions dans lesquelles on trouve des quantitds de 
microbes. Ceux-ci n'ont pas certainement pen^tr^ du 
dehors, justement a cause de Tantisepsie, mais ils sont venus 
de la peau m^me, dont les cellules defensives ont 6X,& 
beaucoup plus touch^es que les microbes par les substances 
antiseptiques. 

Chez des diabdtiques ou d'autres personnes atteintes de 
maladies gen^rales, se d^veloppent souvent des furoncles 
et des anthrax, quelquefois tres graves. Mais leur cause 
ne reside pas, comme dans Tanthrax charbonneux, dans 
rimportation du dehors du germe morbide. Ce sont les 
staphylocoques de la peau normale de Thomme qui, 
profitant de Taffaiblissement des cellules defensives, se 
multiplient abondamment et provoquent les anthrax et 
les furoncles. Tres souvent ceux-ci se succedent pendant 
un temps tres long, ce qui amfene un affaiblissement encore 
plus considerable des malades. 

Non seulement les staphylocoques, jaunes et incolores, 
de la peau normale peuvent devenir tres nuisibles, mais 
encore d'autres microbes de la flore cutande peuvent 
egalement provoquer des maladies plus ou moins s^rieuses. 

Les antiseptiques avails ou employes pour gargariser 
la bouche peuvent rdveiller aussi Tactivit^ des microbes de 
la flore buccale et provoquer des ulc^res. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xiv. (1901), No, 5. 17 

Mais ce sont surtout les microbes de Testomac et des 
intestins dont le r61e nuisible est tres considerable. Depuis 
tr^s longtemps, on avait la conviction que beaucoup de 
maladies humaines viennent du tube digestif, mais on 
n'avait k ce sujet que des notions tres peu precises. On 
savait bien que la perforation de Tintestin amenait des 
consequences tr^s graves qui le plus souvent aboutissaient 
k la mort. Plus tard, on a reconnu que ce sont les 
microbes de la flore intestinale qui, apres leur passage 
dans le pdritoine, y provoquent une inflammation tres 
dangereuse. On a souvent retrouvd dans ces p^ritonites 
des quantit^s de colibacilles, ou bien des staphylocoques 
dords ; dans d*autres cas, on a reconnu plusieurs bact^ries 
de la flore intestinale (aerobies et anaerobies), associ^es 
dans leur oeuvre n^faste. M^me sans perforation prdal- 
able, les microbes peuvent p^n^trer de I'intestin dans la 
cavity pdritondale, comme dans les cas de hernies 
^trangl^es ou dans Tocclusion intestinale. 

Chez certains animaux (chien, cheval) on a constat^ 
m^me la penetration des microbes de la flore normale des 
organes digestifs dans le sang d'une fagon assez rdguliere 
(Porchet et Desoubry^). II est probable que Thomme est 
^galement sujet k cette penetration. Seulement les 
conditions precises de son accomplissement ne sont pas 
encore suffisamment connues. 

Ueffet nuisible des microbes de la flore humaine ne se 
borne pas seulement au cas oii ces organismes p^nfetrent 
directement dans les organes et le sang de Phomme. Les 
microbes produisent des substances solubles qui peuvent 
^tre rdsorbees par la parol intestinale et pdn^trer dans la 
circulation. Or, parmi ces excretions, il en existe de tr^s 
nuisibles pour la sant^. 

* Porchet et Desoubry. Comptes rettdus de la SocUU de Biologie, i895» 



1 8 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

Le fait que les produits microbiens sont r^ellement 
absorb^s dans le sang ne peut ^tre mis en doute. Depuis 
assez longtemps on a trouv^ dans I'urine de Thomme et des 
animaux toute une s^rie de substances, comme les d^rivds 
du phenol, cr^sol, indol, skatol, pyrrhokatechine, etc. 
dont on soupgonnait Torigine microbienne. Baumann, qui 
s'est beaucoup occupe de la question, a fourni un grand 
nombre d'arguments, appuy^s sur des experiences qui 
plaident en faveur de cette hypoth^se. Ewald Ta confirmee 
par des faits d'un autre genre et tr^s d^monstratifs. II 
a trouv^ occasion d'^tudier une personne chez laquelle, 
i la suite d'une hernie ^trangl^e, on a dA dtablir 
une fistule intestinale. Pendant tout le temps oil le 
gros intestin ne fonctionna plus, le liquide intestinal et 
Purine ne renfermaient ni phenol, ni indol. Mais aussit6t 
que la fistule fut ferm^e et la communication avec le gros 
intestin r^tablie, le phenol et Tindican apparurent dans les 
excreta. Ewald en conclut que ces deux substances ont 
leur source dans le gros intestin. Nencki a ^galement 
soutenu cette these, et le cas de la fistule de Til^on, dont 
nous avons d^ja parl^ lui en a fourni une nouvelle preuve. 
II a en outre d^montr^ que Thydrogene sulfur^ et le 
mercaptan sont ^galement des produits des microbes de 
la flore du gros intestin. 

Les experiences si interessantes de Nuttall et Thier- 
felder, que nous avons relat^es, renferment aussi des 
donn^es importantes sur ce sujet. Leurs cobayes, eiev^s 
sans rintervention des microbes, ne produisaient ni de 
Tindol, ni du skatol, ni aucun des autres corps analogues 
(phenol, cr^sol, pyrrhocatechine), de sorte que leur origine 
microbienne peut etre consid^r^e comme d^finitivement 
prouvde. 

Les microbes de notre flore intestinale s&rfetent done 
r^ellement toute une s^rie de substances qui sont r^sorb^es 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol xlv. (1901), No, 5. 19 

•dans le sang et de la dlimin^es par les ^monctoires. 
Plusieurs de ces substances ont une action plus ou moins 
toxique, comme les acides gras, le phenol, les combinaisons 
ammoniacales, etc. On a m^me trouv^ quelquefois des 
ptomatnes, dont Taction nuisible ne peut etre mise en doute. 
II est tr^s probable que beaucoup de ces produits toxiques 
•de notre flore intestinale sont encore inconnus et parmi eux 
la plupart des toxines proprement dites. 

Malgrd cet ^tat imparfait de rios connaissances, on a 
le droit d'affirmer avec la plus grande conviction que les 
poisons des microbes intestinaux jouent un r61e consider- 
able comme cause de maladies nombreuses et varices. 
M. Bouchard^ a depuis plus de quinze ans d^velopp^ sa 
thtorie des auto-intoxications, dans laquelle Tempoisonne- 
ment par les produits de la flore intestinale occupe une 
place pr^pond^rante. Avec plusieurs de ses ^l^ves, il a 
<:herch^ k r^unir a Tappui de sa mani^re de voir des 
arguments probants. Dans ces dernieres ann^es, cette 
•question des auto-intoxications a passd k Tordre du jour 
et on s'en occupe beaucoup dans les reunions des clini- 
<;iens. En 1898 notamment, elle a fait le sujet de dis- 
cussions tres int^ressantes au Congr^s de M^decine Interne, 
tenu k Wiesbaden,^ auquel ont pris part les savants alle- 
mands les plus comp^tents. Malgrd une critique tr^s 
5^vfere, k laquelle on avait soumis les auto-intoxica- 
tions intestinales, tout le monde a AiX reconnaitre leur 
r^alit^ et leur grande importance. Un des rapporteurs, 
Miiller, qui avait manifest^ le plus de reserve et de 
)5cepticisme k ce sujet, est cependant arrivd k cette 
conclusion " que dans une s^rie de maladies le lien causal 
avec les ph^nomenes de decomposition anormale dans les 
intestins pourrait difficilement etre ni^." II cite les maux de 

"^LefOfts sur les auto-intoxications. Paris, 1886. 

* Verhandlunqen. des XVI. Congresses fUr innere Medicin^ 1898. 



20 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

t^te, la fatigue, T^tat neurasth^nique et autres. M^me dans 
certaines formes d'dpilepsie, il attribue un r6le considerable 
aux produits toxiques, venant du tube digestif. Le second 
rapporteur, Brieger, y ajoute encore Tasthme dyspepsique et 
plusieurs maladies de la peau, comme le prurit, Terythfeme 
toxiquejTacn^, etc. Les dermatologistes ont reconnu depuis 
longtemps que, dans certaines maladies de la peau, le 
traitement doit ^tre dirig^ plutot vers le tube intestinal 
que contre Taffection locale m^me. La recherche des 
poisons eiabor^s par les microbes intestinaux leur fournit 
des renseignements precieux,^et lorsqu'un malade, atteint 
de s^borrh^e ou d'acn^, excrete une quantity exag^rte 
d'indican, on le soumet a un regime appropri^ et on t^che 
de d^barrasser ses intestins autant que possible de leur 
flore. II est de toute Evidence que dans Tacn^ ce sont les 
staphylocoques de la flore normale de la peau qui com- 
mencent a pulluler et k produire leur effet nuisible sous 
rinfluence des poisons s^cr^t^s par les microbes intesti- 
naux. Ces secretions empoisonnent les cellules defensives 
de Torganisme et renforcent ainsi les representants de la 
flore cutanee. Nous voyons ici un exemple, ou les 
microbes, eioignes entre eux et dont les uns habitent la 
peau et les autres les intestins, unissent leurs actions 
pour nuire k Torganisme humain. 

Le r61e des poisons de la flore intestinale dans la 
neurasthenie, cette maladie si importante et si repandue, 
devient de plus en plus evident et tout recemment encore,, 
dans la discussion qui a ete soulevee k la Societe de Thera- 
peutique de Paris, MM. Robin et Huchard ont avec 
beaucoup de succ^s soutenu cette th^se. M^me dans les 
maladies mentales, Timportance de Tauto-intoxication 
intestinale ne peut plus ^tre niee, quoiqu'on soit encore 

^ Saalfeld, Allgemeine Therapie der Hautkrankheiten, Berliner 
klinische Wochenschrift^ Nn. I, 2, 1901. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 5. 21 

loin d'etre d'accord sur son r61e,fondamental ou secondaire, 
dans ces affections. Dans les maladies atrophiques des 
organes nobles, comme le cerveau, le coeur, les reins, le 
foie, les poisons de la flore intestinale occupent une place 
notable. Chez les animaux, on a pu produire une veritable 
cirrhose du foie k Taide des acides butyrique et ac6tique, 
ces produits constants de nos microbes intestinaux. 

M^me dans la sclerose des arteres, qui joue un role 
si considerable pour abr^ger notre existence, on a le droit 
d'incriminer la flore intestinale. On sait d'une fagon 
pr&ise que des maladies infectieuses d'origine microbienne 
avdrde, coiume I'influenza, le paludisme, la diphtdrie, la 
fi^vre typhotde et autres peuvent amener rart^riosclerose. 
Parmi les maladies infectieuses chroniques, il y en a une 
(syphilis) qui est la cause la plus fr^quente de cette 
alteration des arteres. Et cependant il est encore 
un grand nombre de cas ou cette affection vasculaire 
ne peut ^tre expliqude par aucune des causes que je viens de 
citer. Les poisons des microbes intestinaux qui provoquent 
la sclerose du foie ou des reins doivent ^tre capables 
de produire la sclerose dans d'autres organes et aussi dans 
les arteres. II est difficile d'appuyer pour le moment cette 
these par des arguments directs. Mais il y a des faits 
bien ^tablis qui plaident en sa faveur. II existe dans la 
R^publique Argentine une maladie des veaux qui est 
accompagnee d'une inflammation aigiie des intestins. 
Ligni^res, qui a ^tudi^ cette dpizootie avec beaucoup de 
soin et de science, en a ^tabli comme cause un tout petit 
microbe, un coccobacille qu'il d^signe sous le nom de 
Pasteurelle bovine.^ Cette bact^rie se d^veloppe surtout 
dans Tintestin et provoque une entente des veaux, 
assez souvent mortelle. La grande majority (4/S) de ces 

* Contribution h Vittide de la diarrhie desjeuv.es bovid^s, Buenos Aires, 1898. 



22 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

animaux gu^rissent cependant. Seulement, au bout d'un 
temps plus ou moins long, apres des mois et m^me des 
anndes, les boeufs tombent dans un 6tat de faiblesse extra- 
ordinaire et meurent d'une maladie bizarre, connue dans le 
pays sous le nom d' " enteke." A Tautopsie, on constate 
une art^rioscl6rose tr^s intense des grosses arteres et une 
calcification du parenchyme pulmonaire. Ces lesions 
definitives sont pr^ced^es d'inflammation chronique des 
arteres qui a pu ^tre reproduite artificiellement a Taide 
d'injections du microbe du cholera des veaux. Nocard,^ 
v^t^rinaire et bact^riologiste, dont la grande competence 
est reconnue universellement, confirme de tous points 
cette importante d^couverte de Lignieres. 

Dans Pexemple de cette art^rioscl^rose infectieuse, il 
s'agit d'un microbe pathogene qui n'est pas connu jusqu* i 
present comme habitant normalement Tintestin des veaux. 
II ne peut done pas ^tre cit6 comme argument en faveur 
de ce que rart^rioscl^rose chronique humaine soit due i 
la flore normale du tube digestif de Thomme. Cet 
exemple a pour nous une grande importance seulement 
comme le premier cas d'art^rioscl^rose chronique 
d'origine microbienne, d6montr6 par la methode exp^ri- 
mentale. 

Quant a la question de la flore microbienne normale 
et pathologique, elle est beaucoup plus compliqu^e qu'eile 
ne parait de prime abord. Nous avons d6j^ cit6 plusieurs 
exemples de bactdries qui vivent normalement ^ la surface 
ou dans Tint^rieur du corps humain et qui, sous Tinfluence 
de certaines circonstances, peuvent devenir pathog^nes. 
Nous avons dgalement mentionn6 comme tres probable que 
certains microbes peuvent p^n^trer et vivre dans Tintestin 
de Thomme, sans produire de maladie, parce qu'ils sont 
g^n^sdans leur action pathogene par leurs voisins de la flore 

^ Les maladies itifectieuses du bitail argentin, Paris, 1899. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol xlv, (1901), No. 5. 23 

normale. Pendant les dpid^mies de cholera, on a i maintes 
reprises retrouvd le vibrion choldrique dans le contenu 
intestinal normal de personnes bien portantes. Ces 
exemples nous ont fourni m^me une indication de Taction 
utile de certains repr^sentants de notre flore. Seulement, 
k c6t6 de ces microbes bienfaisants et avec une proba- 
bility encore plus grande, il faut admettre Texistence 
d'autres microbes du tube digestif qui, sans ^tre nuisibles 
par eux m^mes, peuvent faciliter le r61e ndfaste des bac- 
tdries pathog^nes. Ainsi ce m^me vibrion chol^rique qui 
est emp^chd dans certains cas, est favorisd dans d'autres 
par le voisinage des blastomyc^tes ou des sarcines qui 
appartiennent a la flore normale de notre canal gastro- 
intestinal. Cette action favorisante des microbes a pu 
m^me ^tre d^montr^e par voie exp^rimentale sur des 
petits lapins. Ainsi des vibrions chol6riques, trop faibles 
pour provoquer seuls la maladie chez ces animaux, leur 
donnent le cholera intestinal morte), si on les associe avec 
des torulas et des sarcines, provenant de Testomac humain. 

Malgrd toute Timperfection de nos connaissances, 
il faut bien reconnaitre que la flore de notre corps 
renferme des reprdsentants qui, k chaque moment, peuvent 
devenir infectieux ou bien qui sont nuisibles en favorisant 
Taction pathog^ne de microbes accidentels et en sdcr^tant 
des poisons plus ou moins dangereux. 

Lors de la discussion au Congr^s de Wiesbaden, que 
nous avons mentionnde, Miiller a dnonc^ cette id^e que 
notre corps doit ^tre Ai]k suffisamment immunise contre 
les microbes de notre flore, ainsi que contre leurs poisons. 
C'est pour cela, pense-t-il, que leur effet est si souvent sans 
gravity pour notre sant6. L'examen plus d^tailld de cette 
question doit conduire k un r^sultat tout oppos^. 
L'organisme humain reste tout le temps tr^s sensible au 
staphylocoque pyog^ne qui cependant constitue une esp^ce 



24 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Huntain. 

des plus banales de notre flore. Sous rinfluence de facteurs 
favorisants, ces bactdries produisent des acnds,des furoncles, 
des anthrax et des suppurations encore plus graves. La 
furonculose peut r^cidiver pendant une pdriode de temps 
tr^s longue, et la pyemic devient facilement chronique. 
Uhomme n'est done pas immunisd contre son staphy- 
locoque et cependant la vaccination artificielle des ani- 
maux vis-a-vis du m^me microbe est chose realisable. La 
pratique des vaccinations preventives, dtablie par Pasteur 
et ses collaborateurs Chamberland et Roux, nous montre 
suffisamment que, pour aboutir k un rdsultat efficace,il faut 
suivre une m^thode delicate et compliqu^e. On prepare 
des virus attdnuds k des degr^s determines, on les adapte 
k des esp^ces ou k des races animales et on les introduit 
dans des conditions particuli^res. Tout ceci ne peut etre 
facilement atteint par les moyens naturels seuls. Voila 
pourquoi notre organisme n'est immunise ni contre les 
staphylocoques, ni contre beaucoup d'autres microbes de 
notre flore (streptocoques, colibacilles, etc.). 

Sans compter sur cette vaccination spontanee et natu- 
relle, Tart medical a mis beaucoup de soins pour eviter 
Taction nuisible des microbes de notre flore. Dans ce but, 
il a largement applique la desinfection de la peau pour 
emp^cher leur penetration dans Torganisme. En chirurgie, 
on cherche a desinfecter la peau du malade et celle de 
Toperateur. Les ophtalmologistes essaient de desinfecter 
la conjonctive. On tente la desinfection de la cavite 
buccale et m^me celle de Testomac et des intestins. 
Au debut de cette periode d'antisepsie, on avait les plus 
grandes esperances dans son efficacite ; mais plus on 
etudiait et approfondissait la question, plus il devenait 
clair que la destruction des microbes si nombreux de 
notre flore est chose tr^s difficile, sinon impossible. 
Meme pour desinfecter la peau de nos mains qui est si 



Manchester Memoirs^ VoL xlv. (1901), No, 5. 25 

accessible a rinfluence des antiseptiques, on a rencontrd 
•des difficultds extraordinaires. Les microbes adherents k 
la surface peuvent ^tre elimin^s sans difficult^ ; mais 
ceux qui se sont accroch^s aux canaux des follicules 
pileux ne se laissent pas facilement atteindre. Les 
chirurgiens ont beaucoup discut^ dans ces derni^res 
ann^es la question de la disinfection de notre peau et sont 
pour la plupart arrives a la conclusion que ce but ne peut 
-^tre atteint que d'une fagon imparfaite.^ 

Bien plus difficile encore est la destruction des 
microbes sur les muqueuses qui sont elles m^mes beau- 
coup plus sensibles a Taction nuisible des antiseptiques 
que la peau et les microbes. Beaucoup de mddecins ont 
reconnu toute Tinutilit^ de Pemploi des antiseptiques 
intestinaux et y ont renonc^ plus ou moins compl^tement. 
Miiller resume une opinion sur Tantisepsie intestinale, 
partag^e par un grand nombre de ses confreres, lorsqu'il 
dit que " les antiseptiques ont souvent ^t^ non seulement 
d'utilit^ nulle, mais ont m^me ^t^ nuisibles, en diminuant 
par leurs propridt& toxiques la reaction salutaire des 
cellules vivantes.'' Stern^, k Breslau, a beaucoup dtudid 
cette question, en se servant des m^thodes bacteriologiques. 
II a trouv^, entre autres faits ndgatifs, que de fortes doses 
de /3-Naphtol, consid^rd comme le meilleur antiseptique 
intestinal, administr^es pendant 12 jours, n'ont pas €t€ en 
^tat de diminuer la quantity des microbes du tube digestif. 
II exprime a la fin de son rapport Tesp^rance que peut- 
-^tre plus tard on trouvera quelque moyen meilleur pour 
arriver au but 

Renongant plus ou moins compl^tement k Temploi 
des antiseptiques, on recourt de plus en plus aux proc^d^s 

^ Qu^nu, Bulletin et Mimoires de la SacUti de Chirurgie de Paris^ 1900. 
^Verhandlungen d. XVI, Congresses fur inner e Medicin^ 1898, 
p. 198. 



26 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain, 

mdcaniques pour Eloigner les microbes de notre corps. 
Le lavage prolong^ des mains par les liquides qui 
n'abtment pas les cellules vivantes de notre peau, les 
irrigations de la conjonctive des yeux et d'autres muqueuses 
avec des liquides indiffdrents, comme la solution physio- 
logique du sel marin ou Teau bouillie, sont entres gdndrale- 
ment dans la pratique. Le meilleur moyen d'antisepsie 
intestinale, quoique relative, est reconnu dans Temploi des 
medicaments qui produisent une Evacuation frequente et 
abondante de Tintestin. On obtient encore un certain 
r^sultat en modifiant Palimentation et en prescrivant le 
regime lacte qui, d'apr^s les recherches de MM. Gilbert et 
Dominici,^ diminue le nombre des microbes intestinaux. 

Les tentatives si nombreuses, dirigdes contre la flore 
de notre corps, indiquent bien le danger dont nous 
menacent beaucoup de microbes qui la constituent. S'il 
est possible d*accepter quelque action utile de certains de 
ses repr^sentants, il est encore plus certain qu*un grand 
nombre de microbes de cette flore ont une influence 
nuisiblc sur la santd Mais comment concilier ce rdsultat 
avec Topinion, citde plus haut, que si notre flore est 
rdellement dangereuse, elle devrait depuis longtemps d^ja 
^tre dlimin^e par le fonctionnement unique de la selection 
naturelle ? Cette selection, qui n'est autre chose que la 
survivance des organismes adapt^s aux conditions de leur 
existence et la disparition de ceux qui ne leur sont pas 
adapt^s, doit se manifester chez Thomme et chez les etres 
supErieurs tout aussi bien que chez n'importe quel animal 
ou plante. Or, nous observons constamment que, non 
seulement les propri^tEs nuisibles pour la vie, mais m^me 
les organes, devenus simplement inutiles, disparaissent 
plus ou moins totalement. Sous la terre, dans les cavernes 

^ Comptes rendus de la SociJtJ de Biologie de Paris^ 1 894* 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 27 

et les souterrains, ou la lumi^re ne pdn^tre pas, les yeux 
ne peuvent servir k rien et nous les voyons rdguH^rement 
s'atrophier chez des animaux tr^s divers, comme la taupe, 
les poissons, les crustacds, vers et autres. 

Pour faire ressortir encore davantage ce c6t^ paradoxal 
de la conservation de notre flore, dont la majority des 
reprdsentants est, non seulement inutile, mais incontesta- 
blement nuisible, je vous signalerai ce fait que m^me les 
organes du corps humain qui nourrissent cette flore, sont 
pour la plupart, eux aussi, inutiles ou nuisibles pour notre 
sante et notre existence. 

Vous vous rappelez que les canaux des foUicules pileux 
sont le sifege d'une v^g^tation microbienne, dans laquelle se 
trouvent quantite de staphylocoques capables de produire 
beaucoup de maladies, plus ou moins graves. Eh bien, 
ces follicules pileux sont des organes inutiles et ne repr^- 
sentent que des restes des poils qui recouvraient la peau 
des animaux — nos anc^tres. Autrefois ils etaient tres 
utiles pour prot^ger la peau de ces anthropoldes contre le 
froid ; pour Phomme, ils ne sont rien moins que n^cessaires. 

Dans le tube digestif de Thomme qui renferme la 
flore la plus riche, nous rencontrons aussi des parties au 
moins inutiles. Les conditions de Talimentatlon de 
rhomme, surtout de Phomme civilis6, sont tout autres que 
celles des animaux. Mais,' m^me avant d'etre arriv^ k ce 
degr6 de perfection, Phomme a accus^ d^j^ une tendance 
vers la disparition de certaines parties de son intestin. 
Ainsi Pappendice vermiforme du caecum constitue le reste 
d'un organe qui 6tait plus d^veloppd chez ses anc^tres- 
animaux. Chez les singes anthropoldes, on trouve A€]k 
cette m^me reduction du caecum sous forme d'appendice, 
tres semblable k celui de Phomme. 

Mais m^me Pestomac, cet organe qui peut paraitre si 
indispensable pour la digestion et la vie normale de 



28 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

rhomme, n'est en rdalit6 qu'un grand reservoir d'aliments, 
dont on peut se passer sans grands inconvdnients. On a 
commence par Tenlever a des chiens et comme ces 
animaux supporterent bien Top^ration, on s'est d^cidd a 
la pratiquer chez Thomme, atteint de tumeurs cancdreuses. 
Le premier cas de resection totale de Testomac a et^ 
ex6cut^ en 1897 par Schlatter k Zurich. Le rdsultat 
favorable de cette operation a encourage d'autres chirur- 
giens a suivre cette voie et actuellement il y a d6ja 4 
personnes qui vivent sans estomac^ et fournissent ainsi un 
argument important en faveur de Pinutilit^ de cet 
organe. Avec I'estomac, a €\jk, 61oignee aussi sa flore, dont 
Tabsence n'a i\.€ nullement ressentie par les op^rds. 

De toutes les parties de notre tube digestif, c'est 
certainement Tintestin gr^le qui est le seul organe in- 
dispensable a la vie. Et encore chez I'homme qui peut 
se nourrir avec des aliments facilement digestibles, Tintestin 
gr^le est ddmesur^ment d^veloppe. Au lieu d'avoir d'une 
longueur de 5^ a 6^ metres, I'homme pourrait se con- 
tenter d'un tiers. Roux, le chirurgien Suisse bien connu, a 
d^clar^, lors de la discussion de la chirurgie intestinale 
au dernier Congr^s international a Paris, que Thomme 
peut tr^s bien vivre avec un metre et demi de j^junum.^ 
Aussi Kukula® rapporte un cas, ou il a supprimd ^ peu 
pr^s deux tiers d'intestin gr^le avec le plus grand profit 
pour son malade. Ce chirurgien ajoute a sa communication 
cette reflexion que le gros intestin peut ^tre supprimd m^me 
dans toute sa longueur. Et en effet, depuis que la chirurgie 
intestinale s'est si largement d^veloppde pendant ces 
derni^res anndes, on a obtenu des r^sultats remarquables 
sur r Elimination du gros intestin. Ainsi dans un cas, 

* BuUetin de V Acadimie de Midecinede PariSy 1901, N<»- 1, p. 17. 
« Berliner klinische Wcchenschrift^ 1900, N«- 38, p. 855. 
' Archivfur klinische Chirurgie^ Bd. 60, 1900, N«« 4. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 29 

Korte^ a enlevd, avec une partie de Pintestin grele, la plus 
grande portion du gros intestin, dont il n'est rest6 que le 
segment terminal. Le malade qui a subi huit operations 
intestinales cons^cutives, a fini par gu^rir completement. 
Chez un autre malade, op^r6 par Wiesinger,^ il a €i€ 
elimin^ k peu pres deux tiers du gros intestin ulcer^, Le 
Crecum et le colon ascendant ont €t€ soudes avec le 
rectum, tandis que les colons transverse et descendant 
ont €t6 sdpards et ouverts du c6t6 droit du ventre. 

Je pourrais citer d'autres exemples d'op^rations chirur^ 
gicales, couronndes de succ^s, pour prouver Tinutilit^ du 
gros intestin pour Thomme. Mais, sans vouloir abuser de 
votre patience, je ne peux me dispenser de vous mentionner 
un fait qui confirme mieux que n'importe quelle operation 
chirurgicale la these que je defends. II s'agit® d'une 
vieille femme qui, depuis 37 ans, a une fistule intestinale,. 
par laquelle s'^vacuent les d^chets de sa digestion. La 
fistule s'est ouverte spontan^ment k la suite d'un abces au 
c6te droit du ventre. Cette infirmity ne Ta pas empechee 
cependant de se marier,d'avoir trois enfants et de gagner sa 
vie par un travail p^nible. 35 ans apres la formation de la 
fistule la personne en question fut examinee par un 
chirurgien qui lui proposa de lui faire une operation, afin 
de la remettre k T^tat normal. La femme consentit. Mais^ 
apr^s Touverture du ventre, on constata que le gros intestin 
^tait atrophia dans toute sa longueur, depuis le caecum 
jusqu'a son bout terminal ; Touverture de la fistule se 
trouvait au dessus du caecum et conduisait directement dans 
rintestin gr^le. Dans ces conditions, il dtait impossible de 
fermer la fistule, de sorte que le chirurgien, M. Ciechomski,^ 
a dix renfermer le ventre et abandonner la patiente k son 

^ Archivfiir klinische Chirurgien Bd. 48, 1894, p. 715. 

2 Miittchener medicinische WocJunschrift^ 1898. 

^ Archivfiir klinische Chirurgie^ Bd. 48, 1894, p. 136. 



30 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

sort. Celle-ci guerit promptement et continua i vivre 
comme avant ropcration. Voil^ done un cas ou Tabsence 
complete de tout le gros intestin a pu ^tre tr^s bien 
supportee par une personne qui vivait dans des conditions 
assez difficiles. 

II r^sulte de tout ceci que nous possddons un organe 
volumineux et tr^s developpe, le gros intestin, qui, ne 
remplissant aucune fonction utile, h^berge une flore tr^s 
abondante et variee, toute une masse de microbes, capables 
de nous nuire par leurs poisons. 

En presence de ce fait il y a lieu de se demander ce 
que c'est que le gros intestin, quelle est son origine et sa 
raison d'etre ? Les follicules pileux qui servent de refuge 
aux microbes de la peau sont dgalement des organes 
inutiles ; mais leur histoire est plus simple, car ce sont 
des restes de poils qui prot^geaient les mammifbres, dont 
descend Phomme, contre le froid. Le gros intestin au con- 
traire, loin de se presenter comme un simple reste, est un 
organe largement developpd 

Eh bien, malgr£* cela il faut le considdrer aussi comme 
un heritage inutile de nos anc^tres zoologiques qui, il n'y a 
pas a en douter, tiraient quelque b^ndfice de sa possession. 
Uanatomie compar^e nous enseigne que, de tous les 
vertebras, il n'y a que les mammiferes qui soient munis 
d'un gros intestin proprement dit. Les oiseaux, les 
reptiles et les autres vert^brds inf^rieurs n'en poss^dent 
point. II y a bien des appendices chez certains poissons et 
des caecums chez beaucoup dWseaux, mais ces organes 
ne correspondent pas au colon de Fhomme et des 
mammiferes. Ces derniers sont des animaux, pour la 
plupart terrestres, qui trouvent leur nourriture, animale ou 
v^g^tale, i la surface du sol. II est possible que quelques 
mammifbres herbivores aient besoin du caecum et 
du gros intestin pour Tutilisation de leur nourriture 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol xlv, (1901), No. 5. 31 

peu digestible. Dans ces cas, la presence d'une quantite 
de microbes pourrait aussi leur ^tre utile, notamment 
pour la digestion de la cellulose. D'un autre c6t^, il 
est probable que le ddveloppement du gros intestin 
servait comme reservoir pour les ddchets de la digestion. 
Les mammiferes qui devaient courir tr^s vite, soit pour 
^chapper a leurs ennemis, soit pour attraper leur proie, 
^taient g^n^s pour vider leurs intestins. Un gros intestin 
■devait dans ces conditions ^tre d'une grande utility. Aussi 
nous voyons que les mammiferes qui courent le plus 
rapidement, comme le cheval et le li^vre, ont le gros 
intestin et le caecum le plus d^velopp^s. II est remarquable 
•que, parmi les oiseaux, les coureurs, comme les autruches et 
les casoars, ont acquis ^galement un gros intestin assez long 
•et que leurs caecums sont les plus d^velopp^s de toute la 
s^rie des ^tres ^ plumes. Ce sont done les exigences de la 
lutte pour la vie qui ont amen^ la formation du gros intestin 
chez les vert^br^s. Le d^veloppement de cet organe, qui 
servait comme reservoir pour les r^sidus de la nourriture, 
a d^termin^ i son tour le ddveloppement d'une flore 
microbienne tr^s riche. Pour la plupart des mammifbres, 
les avantages de cette acquisition devaient compenser les 
inconvenients qu'elle entratnait. Les mammifbres ont 
une vie plus courte que les oiseaux et les vert^br^s 
inf^rieurs en g^n^ral. Les amateurs de b^tes savent bien 
que, des animaux que Ton peut garder dans les apparte- 
ments, comme souris, petits oiseaux, tortues et poissons 
dor^s, ce sont les souris qui meurent les premieres. 
Elles ne vivent qu'un petit nombre d'annees, 3, 4 tout 
au plus. Les petits oiseaux, comme les canaris, vivent 
en moyenne 16 ans et peuvent dans de bonnes conditions 
atteindre 20 ans et m^me davantage. Les poissons dor^s 
ont i peu pr^s la m^me long^vitd que les petits oiseaux, 
tandis que les tortues ont une vie encore plus longue. Eh 



30 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

sort. Celle-ci gudrit promptement et continua a vivre 
<;omme avant rop^ration. Voili done un cas ou Tabsence 
complete de tout le gros intestin a pu ^tre tr^s bien 
supportee par une personne qui vivait dans des conditions 
assez difficiles. 

II r^sulte de tout ceci que nous poss^dons un organe 
volumineux et tres ddvelopp^, le gros intestin, qui, ne 
remplissant aucune fonction utile, h^berge une flore tr^s 
abondante et varide, toute une masse de microbes, capables 
de nous nuire par leurs poisons. 

En presence de ce fait il y a lieu de se demander ce 
que c'est que le gros intestin, quelle est son origine et sa 
raison d'etre ? Les follicules pileux qui servent de refuge 
aux microbes de la peau sont egalement des organes 
inutiles ; mais leur histoire est plus simple, car ce sont 
des restes de polls qui prot^geaient les mammifbres, dont 
descend Phomme, contre le froid. Le gros intestin au con- 
traire, loin de se presenter comme un simple reste, est un 
organe largement ddvelopp^. 

Eh bien, malgrd cela il faut le consid^rer aussi comme 
un heritage inutile de nos ancdtres zoologiques qui, il n'y a 
pas a en douter, tiraient quelque b^n^fice de sa possession. 
L'anatomie compar^e nous enseigne que, de tous les 
vert^br^s, il n'y a que les mammifbres qui soient munis 
d'un gros intestin proprement dit. Les oiseaux, les 
reptiles et les autres vertebras inferieurs n'en possedent 
point. II y a bien des appendices chez certains poissons et 
des caecums chez beaucoup d'oiseaux, mais ces organes 
ne correspondent pas au colon de Thomme et des 
mammiferes. Ces derniers sont des animaux, pour la 
plupart terrestres, qui trouvent leur nourriture, animale ou 
v^g^tale, a la surface du sol. II est possible que quelques 
mammiferes herbivores aient besoin du ca;cum et 
du gros intestin pour Tutilisation de leur nourriture 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 5. 31 

peu digestible. Dans ces cas, la presence d'une quantite 
de microbes pourrait aussi leur ^tre utile, notamment 
pour la digestion de la cellulose. D'un autre c6td, il 
est probable que le ddveloppement du gros intestin 
servait comme reservoir pour les ddchets de la digestion. 
Les mammiferes qui devaient courir tres vite, soit pour 
"^chapper ^ leurs ennemis, soit pour attraper leur proie, 
^taient g^nds pour vider leurs intestins. Un gros intestin 
•devait dans ces conditions ^tre d'une grande utility. Aussi 
nous voyons que les mammiferes qui courent le plus 
rapidement, comme le cheval et le li^vre, ont le gros 
intestin et le caecum le plus ddveloppds. II est remarquable 
<iue, parmi les oiseaux, les coureurs, comme les autruches et 
les casoars, ont acquis dgalement un gros intestin assez long 
•et que leurs caecums sont les plus d^veloppds de toute la 
serie des dtres ^ plumes. Ce sont done les exigences de la 
lutte pour la vie qui ont amen^ la formation du gros intestin 
chez les vertdbrds. Le d^veloppement de cet organe, qui 
servait comme reservoir pour les rdsidus de la nourriture, 
a determine k son tour le d^veloppement d'une flore 
microbienne tr^s riche. Pour la plupart des mammifbres, 
les avantages de cette acquisition devaient compenser les 
inconvdnients qu'elle entratnait Les mammifbres ont 
line vie plus courte que les oiseaux et les vertdbrds 
inf^rieurs en gdndral Les amateurs de b^tes savent bien 
que, des animaux que Ton peut garder dans les apparte- 
tnents, comme souris, petits oiseaux, tortues et poissons 
dores, ce sont les souris qui meurent les premieres. 
Elles ne vivent qu'un petit nombre d'annees, 3, 4 tout 
au plus. Les petits oiseaux, comme les canaris, vivent 
en moyenne 16 ans et peuvent dans de bonnes conditions 
atteindre 20 ans et m^me davantage. Les poissons dords 
ont ^ peu pr^s la m^me longdvit^ que les petits oiseaux, 
tandis que les tortues ont une vie encore plus longue. Eh 



32 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps Humain. 

bien, dans cette petite collection de b^tes vivantes, il n'y a 
que la souris qui possede un gros intestin veritable. La 
meme regie se confirme d'une fagon g^ndrale. II y a bien 
quelques mammiferes qui vivent longtemps, comme 
r^lephant qui peut atteindre T^ge de 120 ans. Mais ce 
cas est plut6t exceptionnel. Les grands mammifbres, le 
cheval par exemple, vivent difficilement plus de vingt ans. 
Des chevaux, ^g^s de plus de 30 ans, sont tres rares, et 
des exemples, comme le poney de Shetland qui a 
vdcu 42 ans ou un poney du pays de Galles qui a atteint 
soixante ans, sont tout-a-fait exceptionnels. Les mammi- 
feres de taille moyenne ou petite vivent encore moins 
longtemps, tandis que, dans le monde des oiseaux, les cas 
de long^vite sont frequents. II y a m^me des oiseaux de 
taille moyenne ou petite, comme les perroquets, les grands- 
dues {Bubo maximus\ les corbeaux, qui peuvent vivre 60 
a 100 ans. Chez les reptiles, la longdvit^ est quelquefois 
encore plus grande et on cite des tortues ayant vdcu plus 
de 250 ans. 

On peut dire en gdndral que la vie des vert^brds qui 
n'ont pas de gros intestin et qui ne poss^dent qu'une flore 
intestinale pauvre est plus longue que celle des mammi- 
feres avec leur gros intestin fortement ddveloppd et leur 
flore intestinale tres abondante. On est presque tent^ 
d'^riger en loi que plus le gros intestin est long, plus la 
vie est courte. II y a certainment quelques exceptions a 
cette r^gle. Mais aussi il y a beaucoup de cas qui la 
confirment. Parmi les oiseaux, ce ne sont pas du tout 
les plus grands, comme les autruches ou les casoars, qui 
vivent le plus longtemps. M. Riviere qui s'occupe de 
r^levage des autruches en Algdrie, estime la vie de cet 
oiseau a 35 ans, ainsi qu'il rdsulte d'une lettre qu'il a bien 
voulu m'envoyer. On a signal^ un casoar Emu d'Australie 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 5. 33 

qui a vecu au Jardin des Plantes de Paris pendant 23 ans/ 
mais on ne connait pas chez ces oiseaux de long^vitd aussi 
grande que chez les perroquets, les oies, les cygnes et 
autres de taille beaucoup plus petite. Eh bien, les 
autruches et les casoars se distinguent par un grand 
ddveloppement de leur gros intestin et des caecums, tandis 
que les oiseaux a longue vie n'ont le plus souvent aucun 
de ces organes ou bien n'ont que des caecums peu 
ddveloppes. 

Lorsqu^on compare la flore microbienne de Tintestin 
terminal chez des oiseaux, chez des mammiftres et chez 
Phomme,on est frapp^ de la faible quantity de microbes chez 
les premiers. Les oiseaux, ne possddant pas de gros intestin, 
ne peuvent pas accumuler de grandes quantitds de ddchets 
qui se peuplent de myriades de bacteries. lis doivent pour 
cette raison evacuer tres souvent leur tube digestif, ce qui 
est, comme vous vous rappelez, le meilleur procddd d'anti- 
sepsie intestinale. D'une fa^on naturelle et inconsciente, 
les oiseaux sont arrives sous ce rapport au meme rdsultat 
que celui qui avait etd si nettement formula au Congres de 
Medecine Interne a Wiesbaden. 

N'ayant besoin du gros intestin et de sa flore ni 
pour digerer la cellulose, ni pour garder pendant longtemps 
les residus de la digestion, Thomme ne tire aucun profit 
de cet organe. Par contre, il en dprouve tous les incon- 
v^nients. II est soumis ^ Tinfluence des sdcrdtions 
continues des nombreux microbes abritds par le gros 
intestin. A cot^ des poisons, qui favorisent Taction 
nuisible de la flore cutande, il en existe bien d'autres qui 
empoisonnent a la longue les dldments les plus precieux 
et les plus nobles de notre organisme, amenant ainsi un 
vieillissement prdcoce de nos organes et tissus. II faut 
ajouter encore les maladies nombreuses du gros intestin et 

^ Oustalet, La Nature ^ Paris, 190a. 



34 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore du Corps ffumain. 

de ses annexes, comme les appendicites, les coHtes, la 
dysenteric et surtout le cancer, dont le gros intestin est un 
des sieges favoris.^ 

On conceit comment un organe, devenu inutile, con- 
tribue a abreger notre existence. Et cependant, I'instinct 
de rhomme lui dit d'une fagon dloquente que sa vie n'est 
pas assez longue, qu'elle s'arr^te avant d' aboutir a son 
terme normal. Depuis longtemps, les poetes et les 
philosophes ont eu le sentiment de quelque chose de 
contradictoire dans notre nature, ce qui les a amends k 
voir notre existence d'une fagon tres pessimiste. Votre 
grand poete. Lord Byron, a exprimd d€]k cette pensee. 

Ah ! Ce monde visible, en lui meme et ses lois, 

Comme il est beau! mais nous, qui nous nommons ses rois, 

Moitie dieux, moiti^ boue, k descendre indociles, 

Impuissants a monter, creatures mobiles, 

Notre nature mixte et d'el^ments divers. 

Trouble^ de ses combats, la paix de Tunivers.— 

{Manfred, Chap. II.) 

Mais pourquoi done la selection naturelle n'a-t-elle pas 
rdgl^ cette absence d'harmonie entre nos instincts et les 
d^fauts de notre organisme qui entravent leur realisation ? 
Ou bien cette selection, qui a amend tant de belles 
adaptations dans le monde animal et vdgdtal, serait-elle 
impuissante, lorsqu'il s'agit de Tappliquer a Thomme ? 

On compare souvent les organismes, au sujet desquels 
la selection naturelle a dit presque son dernier mot, avec 
rhomme ou cette selection est encore en pleine activite. 
Lorsqu'on songe qu'un quart des enfants qui naissent 

■^ Ainsi de 343 cancers intestinaux, relev^s h. Tautopsie k ThSpital de Vienne 
pendant 24 ann^es, 164 se sont produits sur le colon, tandis que 17 seule- 
ment se sont developpes dans Tintestin grele. Nothnagel, Die Erkrankungen 
des Dorms ^ 1898, p. 220. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), A^^. 5. 35 

n'atteignent pas leur deuxifeme ann6e^ ; que sur ICXD 
hommes, 57 meurent avant T^ge de 50 ans ; que sur i,cxx) 
individus, 67 seulement arrivent a T^ge de 90 ans, qui ne 
doit pas encore ^tre considdrd comme le terme final de la 
vie normale de Thomme, on verra bien que la selection 
naturelle ^limine un trop grand nombre de victimes. 

La selection naturelle agit continuellement sur 
Phomme ; seulement ses r^sultats ne s'acqui^rent qu'au 
bout d'un temps tr^s long. Pour se rendre compte de 
cette lenteur de la selection naturelle, il ny a qu* ^ jeter un 
coup d'oeil sur son activity dans la sdrie animale. On 
voit bien que, chez la plupart des oiseaux, les appendices 
caecaux sont des organes inutiles, comme notre gros 
intestin. Chez certaines esp^ces ils ont compl^tement 
disparu ; chez d'autres, ils se trouvent sous forme de petits 
rudiments, incapables de servir a la digestion ou comme 
receptacles de ddchets; mais chez un grand nombre 
d'oiseaux, on rencontre encore des caecums plus ou moins 
bien d^velopp^s. 

En dehors de sa grande lenteur, la selection naturelle 
chez Phomme 6prouve encore des perturbations k la suite 
de Pingdrence de Part humain. Voici par exemple Pappen- 
dice vermiforme de Pintestin qui est nuisible k Phomme. 
La selection naturelle am^ne la survivance des individus 
chez qui cet appendice est le plus atrophia. Les personnes 
au contraire qui poss^dent un gros appendice avec un 
canal qui peut s'infecter, gr^ce k la penetration des para- 
sites et des corps Strangers, devraient ^tre dlimindes par 
la selection naturelle. Mais ici intervient Part mddical. 
II gudrit Pappendicite ou enl^ve cet organe par voie 
chirurgicale. Les descendants de la personne gu^rie ont 
la plus grande chance d'hdriter d*elle Pappendice aussi peu 
atrophia et aussi ddfectueux. 

' Wappaeus. Allgemeine BevQlkerungs-statistih, 1859. 



36 Metchnikoff, Sur la Flore dm Corps Hi 



II est de toute evidence que lliomine ne peat pas 
abandonner son sort a la selection natorelleL Poor 
Televage des animaux domestiques oo la caltme des 
plantes, il a invent^ la selecticHi artificielle, de m^me, pour 
sa propre espece, fl doit par des moyens artifices airiver 
a mettre en harmonie ses instincts avec les proprietes de 
son oi^anisme. 

Four la question qui nous interesse d'une Eicon 
particuliere, dest-a-dire la flore de notre corps. Tart hmnain 
a un champ d'activit6 tres vaste. Comme les elements 
nobles sont ceux qui souffrent le plus des poisons micio- 
biens de cette flore, il y a lieu de les renforcer dans leor 
rt^sistance. Dans ce but, peuvent etre d'une grande otilite 
les substances sp^cifiques, capables d'augmenter Tactivite 
de la plupart des cellules de nos organes. Par one serie 
de recherches, poursuivies durant ces trois demises 
annees, on a ^tabli qu'il est facile de preparer des poisons 
particuliers qui, a fortes doses, d^truisent ks elements 
divers. Ces m^mes poisons, ou cytotoxines^ appliques en 
faible dose, agissent au contraire d'une 61900 sttmohnte 
sur les cellules sp^cifiques. On a d^ji obleoo dies poisons 
vis-ii-vis des globules rouges et blancs^descidMtoIte$i«taiesv 
h^patiques, nerveuses, etc. Chacun de oes peaseoi^ jsomnrait 
fitre employ^ pour augmenter Tactrntfee «fi« (Si&iieoit? 
correspondants. 

Mais on peut lutter non seulement <3Cffiji»<e Q^ifl^iftO^s^ 
ment des cellules nobles, indispensable^ "p&tsc tmto^ ^i^ 
normale, mais encore contre les microbes <fie ttwisi^ f&n^ 
mgme. L'antisepsie en g6n6ral et Tantisejiiae Sitejtfttate 
en particulier n'ont pas donn6 de r^sultsdt^ :stl;S$Si&Qini:s;. 
Mais cette voie ne doit pas pour cda ^tre abttiiAmttutb. DH jr 
a lieu de chercher des antiseptiques sp^dau^c ^ jttttil^^toi^ 
pourront ^tre utilises pour la destnictioo de^ «iQttaiQh^. 
Nous avons vu plus haut des larves de miles ^q^ai di^j^fitastt 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 5. 37 

des bactdries. Les ferments digestifs de ces insectes 
pourraient etre employes pour nous debarrasser des 
microbes nuisibles de notre flore. J'ai cru un moment 
que les insectes qui se nourrissent avec des mati^res 
putrdfides, comme les larves des mouches et les staphylins, 
devraient produire dans leur tube digestif beaucoup de ces 
ferments bactericides. Je dois avouer que jusqu' a present 
mes tentatives n'ont pas dtd couronn^es de succ^s, ce qui 
n'emp^che nullement de continuer des recherches dans 
cette voie. 

II existe aussi des ferments qui ddtruisent les microbes, 
ferments qu'on obtient avec des scrums d'animaux immu- 
nises contre des bact^ries donndes. Ainsi, on prepare 
des sdrums qui ddtruisent le vibrion choldrique, d'autres qui 
attaquent les bacilles typhiques et ainsi de suite. On ne 
connait pas encore d*une fagon suffisante tous les reprdsen- 
tants de notre flore, mais on est d€]k en bonne voie pour 
rdsoudre cette question. On pourra d^s lors preparer des 
scrums microbicides contre les esp^ces nuisibles qui 
habitent dans notre corps. On peut 6galement obtenir 
des scrums contre certains poisons microbiens, notamment 
contre les toxines. 

Les mdthodes microbiologiques peuvent done ^tre 
largement appliqudes par Tart humain pour arriver au 
rdsultat qui n'a pas it€ rdalis^ par la selection naturelle. 
II faut espdrer que ces mdthodes suffiront pour arriver au 
but et qu'il ne faudra point recourir, comme "ultima 
ratio,'* k Tintervention chirurgicale Tout le monde 
est tdmoin des progr^s extraordinaires, rdalisds par 
la chirurgie, depuis que Lord Lister, inspird par les dd- 
couvertes de Pasteur, a compl^tement rdvolutionnd cet 
art. Qui pouvait soup^onner, il y a encore peu d'anndes, 
qu'on arriverait k enlever Testomac et k diminer presque 
tout le gros intestin et une grande partie de Pintestin 



2 HOVLE AND Standex, New species of Sepia. 

and ending in a point The chitinaus margin is narrow 
on the ventral surface, broader on the dorsal, being about 
one-twelfth of the breadth of the shell in the middle, 
broader in front and narrower behind. 

The dorsal surface (Fig. 3) is rugose, finely in front, 
more coarsely behind ; along the middle line there passes a 
slightly elevated longitudinal rib, narrow behind, gradually 
widening as it passes forwards ; on either side of it is a 
shallow groove, the remainder of the surface being evenly 
convex. 

The ventral surface, is but little elevated, the thickness 
of the shell being greatest about one-fourth back from the 
anterior extremity ; the last loculus has an index of about 
24 ; it has a shallow depression along the centre, and its 
posterior boundary is deeply emarginate, the two limbs 
being inclined to each other at an average angle of about 
60' ; the two limbs start from a sharp curve in the middle, 
diverge at first rather rapidly, then more gradually until, 
where they reach the margin, they become slightly con- 
vergent. The striated area is deeply grooved along the 
centre, with a prominent rounded elevation on either side. 
The inner cone is a broad flattened horny callus, coming 
to a point behind, excavated in front, the two limbs 
extending as narrow fillets along the sides of the striated 
area for about half the length of the shell. The spine is 
of medium size and curves slightly upwards. 



mm. 



Dimensions. 


Koettlitz 


Brit. Mus. 




Specimen. 


Specimen. 


Length (of the broken shell) ... . 


.. 105 


"3 


„ (restored) 


.. IIS 


117 


„ of last loculus (restored) 


.. 25 


30 


Breadth 


•• 37 


42 


Length of inner cone 


10 


10 


>i spine 


4 


— 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 6. 



VI. On a New Species of Sepia and other Shells 
collected by Dr. R. Koettlitz in Somaliland. 

By W. E. HOYLE and R. Standen. 

/deceived and read December nth, igoo. 

In the year 1898, Dr. Reginald Koettlitz joined an 
expedition which passed through Somaliland from Ber- 
bera to the Blue Nile. He gave an account of the journey 
to the Geographical Society of this city, which has 
appeared in its Proceedings {Journ. Manch, Geogr, Soc.^ol, 
16, Nos. I — 3, 1900). The collecting of mollusca was not 
one of the definite aims of the expedition, but a good 
many were obtained, partly on the shore before the party 
left for the interior and partly during the trip. All the 
marine forms are from Zeila, nearly opposite Aden, and 
were gathered on the beach, and hence many of them are 
not in good condition. The material was handed over to 
the staff of the Manchester Museum for examination and 
description, and the results seemed worthy of being laid 
before this Society. We have thought it well to indicate 
by our initials those portions of the paper for which we 
are severally responsible. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Sepia koettlitziy n. sp. (Plate I.) 

The soft parts are unknown. 

The Shell* {PL I., Bigs, i, 3) has a narrow elongated 
oval outline^ narrowing to a blunt termination in front, 
tapering at first gradually, then more rapidly backwards, 

• The terminology is that adopted in the " Report on the Cephalopoda 
collected by the * Challenger^ Expedition (1886), p. 123. 

July lOth, I ^01. 



2 HOYLE AND Standen, New species of Sepia, 

and ending in a point. The chitinous margin is narrow 
on the ventral surface, broader on the dorsal, being about 
one-twelfth of the breadth of the shell in the middle, 
broader in front and narrower behind. 

The dorsal surface {Fig. 3) is rugose, finely in front, 
more coarsely behind ; along the middle line there passes a 
slightly elevated longitudinal rib, narrow behind, gradually 
widening as it passes forwards ; on either side of it is a 
shallow groove, the remainder of the surface being evenly 
convex. 

The ventral surface, is but little elevated, the thickness 
of the shell being greatest about one-fourth back from the 
anterior extremity ; the last loculus has an index of about 
24 ; it has a shallow depression along the centre, and its 
posterior boundary is deeply emarginate, the two limbs 
being inclined to each other at an average angle of about 
60** ; the two limbs start from a sharp curve in the middle, 
diverge at first rather rapidly, then more gradually until, 
where they reach the margin, they become slightly con- 
vergent. The striated area is deeply grooved along the 
centre, with a prominent rounded elevation on either side. 
The inner cone is a broad flattened horny callus, coming 
to a point behind, excavated in front, the two limbs 
extending as narrow fillets along the sides of the striated 
area for about half the length of the shell. The spine is 
of medium size and curves slightly upwards. 



mm. 



Dimensions. 


Koettlitz 
Specimen. 


BricMus. 
SpecimeD. 


Length (of the broken shell) . . . 


.. 105 


"3 


„ (restored) 


.. IIS 


117 


„ of last loculus (restored) 


.. 25 


30 


Breadth 


•• 37 


42 


Length of inner cone 


10 


10 


spine 


4 


— 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 6. 3 

The above description is taken from the example col- 
lected by Dr. Koettlitz. There is a shell in the British 
Museum (Natural History), [Reg. No., 69. 6. 14. i] in the 
McAndrew collection from the Red Sea, which clearly 
belongs to the same species {PL I, Fig, 2). 

It differs from the shell just described in the following 
points : — 

1. The shell is more elliptical and not so oblong in 

outline. 

2. The striated area is not so deeply channelled in the 

middle line, and the rounded swellings on either 
side are not so prominent. This may perhaps be 
due to the specimen having been much rubbed. 

3. The hinder portion of the shell in front of the inn er 

cone is more deeply concaved. 
These characters do not seem to me of specific value but 
rather to indicate that Dr. Koettlitz's specimen is a male, 
the other a female. 

This species apparently comes nearest to Sepia singa- 
lensis Goodrich {Trans, Linn, Soc, (2), Vol. 7, p. 3, 1896), 
but differs in that (i) the chitinous margin on the dorsal 
surface is much narrower, and (2), the inner cone is 
flattened, and, if anything, rather concave and not convex 
as indicated in Goodrich's figure ; it also approaches 
Sepia aculeata van Hasselt, which, however, also has the 
inner cone strongly convex, and the outline of the shell 
broader and more evenly oval. Sepia zanzibarica Pfefifer 
is another allied form, but here again the inner cone is 
elevated instead of flat. 

W. E. H. 



4 HOYLF AND Standen, New species of Sepia, 

GASTROPODA. 
PULMONATA. 

Buliminus {Zebrina) albatiis F^r. 

Lake Hanamaga. 
Buliminus (JZebrind) revoili Brgt. 

Dabus and Arabayo. 
Burtoa nilotica Pfr. 

Mendi. 
Liinicolaria caillaudi Pfr. 

Mendi, and Beni Spongul country 'on west side 
of Dabus River. 
Limicolaria flammea Miill. 

West side of River Dabus, and east of Lapa 
Martin Camp. 

OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

Bulla ampulla L. 
Atys naucum L. 

PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Terebra (^Subula) duplicata Lam. 

Conus betulinus L, 

Pyrula {Melongena) paradisiaca Mart. 

Fasciolaria trapezium L. 

Oliva {Strepliona) inflata L. 

Nassa arailaria L. 

Nassa coronata Lam. 

Murex tribulus L. 

Murex {Phyllonotus) anguliferus Lam. 

Murex {C/iicoreus) ramosus L. 



MancJiester Memoirs^ Vol xlv. (1901), No, 6. S 

Purpura {Stramonitd) hcemastoma L. 

„ „ var. bicostalis Lam. 

Aquillus pilearis L. 
Aquillus {Guttemium) gallinago Rve. 
Cassis {Semicassis) bisulcata Schub. 
Cyprcea erosa L., var. nebrites Melv. 
Cyprcea arabica L. 
Cyprcea turdus Lam. 
Sirombus {Canariuni) floridus Lam. 
Strombus {Canafiuni) gibberulus L. 
Strombus tricomis Lam. 
Cerithium columna Sow. 
Cerithium cceruleum Sow. 
Cerithium erythrceense Lam. 
Cerithium petrosum Wood. 
Modulus tectum Gmel. 
Turritella bicingulata Lam. 
Melania tuberculata Miill. 
Cleopatra bulimoides OHv. 

Blue Nile, Khartoum. 
Ampullaria cf, revoili Bill. 

Blue Nile, Khartoum. 
Otopoma poirieri Brgt. 

Dabus and Arabayo. 
Natica {Mamma) mamilla L. 
Nerita {Thelicostyla) albicilla L. 
Phasianella {Eutropia) nivosa Rve. 
Turbo {Sennectus) radiatus Gmel. 
Turbo {Marmorostomd) coronatus Gmel. 
Pyramidea dentata Forsk. 
Euchelus tricarinatus L. 

PELECYPODA. 
Spondylus gcederopus L. 



6 HOYLE AND Standen, New Species of Sepia, 

Anomalocardia uropygnielana Bory. 

Cardium ( Trachycardiiini) rubicundum Rve. 

Cardium {Bucardiian) lima Gmel. 

Chama rueppelli Rve. 

Crista pectinata L. 

Tapes {Hemitapes) pinguis Ch. 

Paphia glabrata Desh. 

Vene^upis dereltcta Desh. 
Corbicula fluminalis Miill. 
Blue Nile, Khartoum. 
Asaphis deflorata L. 
Mactra olorina Phil. 

Tellina {Tellinelld) rugosa Born. 

R.S. 



Explanation of Plate I. 

SEPIA KOETTLITZL 

Fig. I. Dorsal view of the specimen collected by Dr. Koettlitz. 

„ 2. Ventral view of the specimen in the Mc Andrew col- 
lection, British Museum (Natural History). 

„ 3. Ventral view of the specimen collected by Dr. Koettlitz. 

(The figures are about one-tenth less than the actual specimens.) 



Manchester Memoirs, Voi. XLV. 



Plate I. 





SEPIA KOETTLITZI. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 1. 



VII. On the Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepido- 

dendron. 

By Professor F. E. WEISS, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

Received and read October 30th y igoo. 

The structure of the phloem in the genus Lepidophloios 
and in the nearly allied genus Lepidodendron has been 
the subject of much discussion and of considerable differ- 
ence of opinion. This is mainly due to the fact that its 
delicate tissues are rarely found in a good state of pre- 
servation. For, while the dead and lignified elements of 
the wood are not liable to much injury, the phloem, 
composed as it is, in all plants, largely of delicate living 
cells, is much more subject to speedy decay on the death 
of the plant, and is therefore less commonly met with in 
the fossil condition in a good state of preservation. In 
the two genera referred to above it is often not preserved 
at all. 

Examining, as I have done, a very large number of 
specimens of Lepidophloios and of Lepidodendron in the 
Cash, Hick, and Wild Collections of Coal Measure fossils 
in the Manchester Museum, I have found only a very few 
specimens in which the tissues of the phloem region were 
moderately well preserved, even when such delicate cells 
as those of the mid-cortex and of the cambium were fairly 
perfect. 

The sections of Lepidophloios fuliginosus figured by 
Williamson under the name of Lepidodendron Harcourtii 
in his Xlth Memoir on the Organisation of the Fossil 
Plants of the Coal-Measures^ show the details of most 

1 Williamson W. C, Phil, Trans,, Part II., 1881. 
July loth, igor. 



2 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophlotos and Lepidodendton. 

of the tissues very clearly, but are defective with regard to 
a portion of the phloem. 

In Fig. 1 1 o{ Plate 49 it can be seen to consist of small- 
celled parenchyma with " large isolated cells." Even in 
the excellent preparations in the Binney Collection of 
Coal Measure Plants now at Cambridge, which have 
recently been described by Seward (I.y the phloem region 
is only partially preserved. From an examination 
of these preparations Seward concludes that the large 
clear spaces which form so prominent a feature of Lepido- 
phlotos " cannot be satisfactorily explained as the result 
of decay previous to mineralisation." He considers that their 
appearance is suggestive of sacs or spaces formed, for the 
most part during the life of the plant, by the separation 
and partial disorganisation of thin-walled cells. "The 
constant occurrence of patches of dark brown substance in 
this zone " seems to him to point to a secretory nature of 
the tissue, and hence he terms the phloem region the 
secretory zone. This explanation is also advanced by 
Seward (11.)^ for the appearance of similar large spaces in a 
''Lepidodendroid stem from the calciferous sandstone of 
Dalmeny, possibly identical with Lepidophloios Harcourtii 
(Witham)." 

Among the specimens of Lepidophloios fuligtnosus 
in the Manchester Museum I have come across three 
preparations, in the Cash Collection of Coal Measure 
Plants, which throw a little further light upon the structure 
of the phloem, by the excellent state of preservation of its 
tissues. The three preparations (No. 409, 645 A, 645 B) 
are all transverse sections cut from the same stem, 

1 Seward, A. C. (I.). Proc, Camb, Phih Soc., Vol. X., Part III., 
1900. 

« Seward, A. C. (II.). Trans, Roy. Soc. Edinb., Vol. XXXIX., 
Part IX., No. 31, 1900. 



Manchester Mefnoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 1. 3 

which was about three inches in diameter, and very finely 
ground by Mr. James Binns. The original block was 
from the Halifax Hard Bed, and Mr. Cash is under the 
impression that he collected it at the Cinder Hill Pit, near 
Halifax. 

A cursory examination of the preparations would not 
lead one to expect a very good state of preservation, as 
only a portion of the stem is preserved. But, as will be 
seen on closer examination, all its tissues are most wonder- 
fully intact. The presence in the mid-cortex of innumerable 
well-preserved fungal filaments might seem hardly in 
accord with the undamaged condition of the tissues, but 
the fact that the delicate cells of this cortical region are 
practically uninjured leads me to suppose that the fungus 
was a parasitic and not a saprophytic form. 

Fig. I {Plate i) shows a portion of section No. 645 A, 
which, being very thinly ground at this point, shows 
very clearly the excellent preservation of the tissues. In 
the bottom left hand corner is seen a portion of the 
primary wood, with the smaller protoxylem elements near 
the periphery. Separated from this by a crack is the 
secondary tissue, consisting of more or less regular rows 
of apparently parenchymatous cells, an appearance very 
typical of Lepidophloios fuliginosus. The presence of this 
secondary tissue shows that the stem had arrived at some 
state of maturity. A number of leaftrace bundles pass 
through the secondary tissue, which is bounded on the 
outside by a very clear and sharply defined layer of cells 
which have generally been indentified as a secondary 
meristem, though differing in many respects from the 
cambium of recent plants and also from the cambium 
of other fossil cryptogams. This clearly defined layer 
of cells is not infrequently well preserved in this species, 
and gives us very distinctly the inner boundary of the 



4 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 

phloem region which stretches from here to the some- 
what dark band forming the boundary between the central 
vascular cylinder and the cortical region. The phloem 
which, as stated above, is usually very defective in Lepido- 
phloios^ sometimes indeed entirely disorganised, is here, 
as can be readily seen from Fig. i, completely preserved, 
though its tissues are somewhat confused in the thicker 
portions of the section. It will be noticed at once that 
it is not characterised by those large spaces figured by 
Williamson' and which Seward regards as secretory 
sacs. The largest cells in the phloem are not as large as 
the cells of the cortex, while the so-called secretory sacs of 
the less well-preserved specimens are far larger than the 
cortical cells, as large indeed as the larger vessels of the 
primary wood. We can therefore only conclude that when 
such large spaces occur they are due to the decay, 
previous to mineralisation, of whole groups of cells. The 
only other alternative, namely, that the tissue was not yet 
fully mature, seems precluded by the presence of so large 
an amount of secondary tissue. 

On closer examination of the phloem it will be 
observed, as is perhaps better seen in a more enlarged 
view {Fig, 2) of the thinnest portion of Fig, i, that the 
largest cells of this tissue are generally surrounded by a 
somewhat regular and star-shaped group of cells. Two 
such groups are well seen towards the right-hand side 
of the phloem in Fig, i and on a larger scale in Fig, 2. 
Separating such groups are cells of various sizes some- 
what irregularly placed. 

Another enlarged view of the phloem from a very 
thin portion not included in Fig. i is represented in 
Fig. 3. Though the tissues in this portion of the phloem 
region seem somewhat confused, one or two groups 

1 Williamson, W. C, loc. cit. Plate 49, Fig. ii. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 1. 5 

stand out clearly and are of special interest. They lie 
near the middle of the section and show a more definite 
arrangement of cells than is shown by the rest of the 
tissue. One of these groups is still further enlarged^in 
Fig. 4 {Plate II.) This group has a clear-cut oval out- 
line, formed by a darker cell-wall surrounding a group 
of six or seven cells. One can clearly distinguish a 
central cell surrounded by five or six peripheral cells. 
There seems to me little doubt that such a group of cells 
corresponds to one of the large spaces usually met with 
in the phloem region of this fossil, and this identification 
is rendered all the more probable from Mr. Seward's 
observation in Binney's slides of "The occurrence of a 
few smaller elements enclosed by the thin membranes 
which mark the outlines of the sacs." ^ These he figures 
in Fig 3 and they are also seen in the oblique section 
of a leaf-trace in Fig. 5 on Plate III. The very 
definite oval outline of the group of cells before us in 
Fig. 4 of the present communication would lead us to 
suppose that it had arisen from the sub-division of a 
single cell, in which a central and a number of peripheral 
cells had been cut off, very much as the nodal cell of 
Chara divides into a central and peripheral cells. Another 
and perhaps a more useful comparison might be made 
with the separation of a number of companion cells from 
a central sieve tube. I have examined the sections 
under consideration very carefully, to obtain, if 
possible, earlier stages of division than that shown 
in Figs. 3 and 4, and have been able to find a 
number of phloem cells divided by delicate walls 
into two, three, or more cells, but it was impossible to 
decide definitely whether these stages were preparatory to 
further division as illustrated in the special group referred 
^ Vtde Seward, /oc. cit. (I. ), p. 147, 



6 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 

to. It would, of course, be quite possible for the divisions 
to stop at this stage so that we should not obtain a 
definite central cell. There were, however, other groups 
of cells showing the same state of things as in the group 
in Fig. 4, but a little less clearly. The number of cells 
was not always the same. Sometimes as few as four 
were noted, and then, usually, no central cell occurred. 
Generally, however, they were more numerous, and in a 
specimen of Lepidophloios I have just received from my 
friend, Mr. William Cash, in which there are a great 
number of these divided large cells, the number of 
divisions is often very great, both the central and the 
peripheral cells having divided up into smaller cells. 
Indeed, the whole of the phloem region seems to have an 
active meristematic condition and to be undergoing con- 
siderable change, and the tissues have thereby become so 
irregular that they differ a good deal from the prepara- 
tions figured in this paper. As the secondary thickening 
is only just commencing in the preparation lent me by 
Mr. Cash, it must be considered as younger in age than 
in the specimens from the Manchester Museum in which 
such division stages are much less numerous and the 
star-shaped arrangement more common. The increased 
number of groups of cells of this latter category in the 
older specimen suggests that after the subdivision of the 
cells the star-shaped appearance has been produced by an 
enlargement of the central cell and by further growth of 
the peripheral cells of a subdivided phloem cell, such as is 
figured in Fig, 4. 

These star-.shaped groups resemble very closely the 
sieve tubes, surrounded by small parenchymatous cells, as 
described and figured by Hovelacque^ for Lepidodendron 

^ Hovelacque. "Recherches sur le Lepidodendron selaginoides." 
Mini. Soc. Linn. Normandtey xvii™« Vol., I«'fas., 1892, pp. 49—50 ^^^ 
Fig. II. 



Munc/iester Memoirs,' Vol. xlv. (igoi)y IVo. 7- 7 

selaginoides. Whether such star-shaped groups can be 
derived from the divided phloem cells cannot, of course, 
be determined in the case of a plant known to us only in 
the fossil condition ; but there seems a considerable degree 
of probability of such a development in the numbers of 
groups of cells showing an intermediate condition between 
the two groups of cells. The preponderance of the divided 
phloem cells in the younger, and of the star-shaped groups 
in the older specimen, as stated above, also favours 
this hypothesis. But whatever be the relationship of 
these different groups of cells, they both make up part of 
the phloem region of Lepidophloios, and the excellent state 
of preservation of these preparations shows us that, in the 
living condition, this phloem region was not occupied by 
large lysigenous secretory sacs, as seemed possible from 
less well-preserved specimens, but consisted of a definite 
tissue, which has much of the appearance of a true 
phloem, as indeed Seward^ admits in his description 
of Binney's specimens. It bears a very marked re- 
semblance to the phloem, consisting of sieve tubes 
and companion cells, in some aquatic stems such as 
Potamogeton or Elodea^, and is very similar to the 
phloem figured by Bower®, around the central stem of 
Psilotum with which member of the living Lycopodiacea 
he considers the Lepidodendra have the greatest anatomical ' 
resemblance. There is no evidence of the partial 
disorganisation of the cell walls during the life of the 
plant, the probability of which has been suggested by 
Seward, and we must therefore consider such appearances 
as he describes in the case of the specimens in the Binney 

1 Seward, A. C. (II.), p. 155. 

' c.p. Schenck, H. VergUichende Anatomic der submersen Gewdchse. 
Bibliotheca Botanica, No. i, 1886. 

» Bower, F. O. Annals of Bot. Vol. vii., 1893. 



8 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 

Collection, and as occur in most other preparations of 
Lepidophloios^ as due to decay after the death of the plant 
and previous to its mineralisation. It might be argued 
that even if we have not in our specimens any evidence 
of a lysigenous formation of glandular tissue as has been 
suggested, yet some of the star-shaped groups of cells 
may be of the nature of schizogenous ducts or passages. 
To this it may be answered that the central space in such 
star-shaped groups is cellular, and not intercellular, as can 
be seen from the occurrence in many groups of transverse 
walls in all respects like those of other cells {see Fig. 2). 
Nor is there in most cases any appearance of an accumula- 
tion of secretion such as one would expect to find in a 
tissue with a secretory function. 

It is a pity that we have no longitudinal sections 
taken from this well-preserved block, for it would be most 
interesting to ascertain the length and the course of the 
larger sub-divided cells described above or of the central 
cell of the star shaped groups. In less well preserved 
specimens of Lepidophloios the large lacunae in the 
phloem region run for some considerable distance, as 
figured by Seward, and certainly have there the appearance 
of secretory sacs. But in all probability a number of 
transverse walls have become absorbed away, and in 
a specimen of Lepidophloios in my possession septa are 
seen at intervals either transverse or slightly oblique, and 
indicating probably the boundary of the elements which, 
in the imperfectly preserved specimens, have formed large 
spaces by absorption of their walls. These septa are seen 
in Fig, 5, where they are indicated by an asterisk. 

The breadth of these septa indicates that they ran 
across the whole of one of the large lacunae, and as these 
lacunae are not represented in size by any single elements, 
we must assume that they corresponded, as I have in- 



Manchester Memoirs y VoLxlv. (1901), No, 7. 9 

dicated before, and as is seen from the preparations in the 
Binney Collection, described by Seward,^ to a group of 
cells. Now since these large spaces are very numerous, 
and since the large subdivided cells are infrequent, it 
seems to me that both these latter and other groups of 
cells, probably the star-shaped groups, have become dis- 
organised to form the large lacunae region. Moreover, 
as the septa indicate, these groups of more elongated cells 
would follow each other in vertical series for some distance, 
and thus afford a tissue well adapted for conducting 
purposes. These groups of cells were closely set together, 
as can be seen both in the perfectly preserved specimens 
under consideration and also from those in which the 
lacunae take the place of these groups of cells {see Plate 
III., Fig. 3, in Seward's paper on Lepidophloios). Thus, 
though we do not get a complete vertical continuity, yet, 
by lateral passage of adjoining groups of conducting cells, 
continuous conduction would be possible. It seems to 
me, therefore, that the tissue occupying the phloem area 
of Lepidophloios would satisfy all the conditions of a 
conducting tissue and might be dignified by the name of 
phloem. It would consist of groups of more elongated 
cells, arranged for certain distances in vertical series. 
These groups consisted, as far as we can see from transverse 
sections, of a larger central and smaller peripheral cells, 
each group either oval or star-shaped in outline, and would 
seem by their mode of origin to correspond to the sieve 
tubes and companion cells of the higher plants. Besides 
these there were numerous short parenchymatous cells 
which surrounded the groups of conducting cells (the 
lacunae in the defective specimens) and these short 
parenchymatous cells seem to have been more resistant, 

^ Seward, he, cit. Fig, 5, p. 151. 



10 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron, 

and are generally better preserved, than the conducting 
elements. 

We have, of course, no proof that the conducting cells 
were actually sieve tubes, but we must remember that 
sieve tubes are not demonstrated to exist in all living 
LycopodiacecB. According to De Bary^ " In the larger 
indigenous Lycopodia {L. clavatum and annotiniutn) there 
occur in the vascular bundles of the stem, organs which, in 
their position and width, have great similarity to members 
of the sieve tubes." But the sieve plates are, usually, so 
faint that neither he nor Hegelmaier* could find the sieve 
plates which had been described by Dippel*. Campbell*, 
too, describes the sieve plates as poorly developed and 
difficult to demonstrate. 

This absence of the sieve plates in some forms and 
their want of distinctness in other cases must, I think, be 
considered in connection with the chemical and physical 
constitution of the cell wall, of the phloem elements in the 
Lycopodia, As is known, the cell wall of the phloem 
elements is, in these plants, not composed of cellulose but 
of amyloid. This substance is described by Cross and 
Bevan^ as a semi-hydrate of cellulose with the formula 
^(CiaHaaOii) and as allied to mucilage. It is, therefore, in 
all probability, more readily permeable than cellulose, for 
though it has been asserted by some botanists that a 
mucilaginous layer impedes the passage of dissolved food 
material, Pringsheim^ states definitely that the result of 

^ De Bary. Comparative Anatomy ^ p. i8i. 
' Hegelmaier. Bot, Zeitung^ 1872. 

' Dippel. Ber,dery). Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher zu Giessettf 
1864. 

* Campbell. Mosses and Ferns, 1895, P* 473- 

• Cross and Bevan. Cellulose, an Outline of the Chemistry of the 
Strtutural Elements of Plants, 1895, P* S3 ^^^ P- 224. 

« Pringsheim. JahrbuchfUr wiss, Bot,, 1895, Bd. 28, p. 33. 



MancJuster Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 1. 1 1 

experimental researches has established that the diffusion 
of salts takes place as rapidly in gelatinous masses as in 
water. A more readily permeable cell wall might very 
easily account for the greater simplicity of the phloem 
cells and for the reduction of the sieve plates. 

Now, in view of the relationship of the Lepidodendrace<B 
with the existing Lycopodiacece, it seems not unlikely that 
the fossil ancestors or allies of this group of plants 
had phloem elements with walls of the same amyloid 
substance, and this must, I think, be taken as the cause 
of the great difficulty of preservation of this tissue and 
the frequent absence of all structure from the phloem 
region even when such delicate tissues as the cambium 
and the mid cortex were preserved. 

For amyloid, such as it exists in the seeds of some 
l^uminous plants, is of so mucilaginous a nature that it 
dissolves in boiling water and is partly soluble in cold. 
In the case of the Lycopodia though I could not get any 
solution of the cell walls in hot water, yet they swelled 
up considerably, so that we are dealing probably with a 
more resistant variety of this substance though one which 
is much more readily acted upon than cellulose.^ 

Gilson,2 in his memoir on the chemical composition of 
the vegetable cell wall shows that probably there are two 
such varieties of amyloid, one more easily soluble in water 
and the other not readily soluble. Probably amyloid stored 
as food material is of the former category, while amyloid 
forming the cell walls of conducting cells is of the second 
category. Still even this more resistant variety would be 
more yielding than a cellulose wall, and if in breaking 
down it formed mucilage, as seems likely, it would swell 
up with water, and this might account for the fact that the 

* Cross and Bevan. Cellulose, p. 224. 

« Gilson E. La Cellule IX, 2« fascicule, 1893. 



12 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron, 

groups of phloem cells in Lepidophloios which become 
disorganised are not generally compressed by the firmer 
tissues or by pressure during mineralization, but form wide 
and rounded passages, often compressing the surrounding 
tissues and showing that a force has been exerted from 
within the lacunae A similar phenomenon may be noted 
where the phloem groups have become partially or entirely 
disorganised in Lepidodendron selaginoides^ as can be seen 
from Hovelacque^s Figs, i and 2 on Plate II, of his memoir 
on this plant. 

One further point arises in connection with the phloem 
of the stem, and that is, the question whether any part of 
it is of a secondary origin. The cell divisions seen in 
the cambial layer tend to show that it does add a little 
to the phloem. Fig, 2 seems to show in the case 
of some cells towards the left hand side that they have 
been derived from the cambium. While some of the 
phloem elements near the outside seem to be compressed 
very much in the same way as in dicotyledonous plants 
with secondary thickening, where they ultimately form 
hardened masses of tissue described as keratenchyma by 
Tschirch.^ It seems to me very likely that it is elements 
of this kind which have been described in the Lepidodendra 
sometimes as bast fibres, sometimes as by Bertrand' and 
Hovelacque^ as latex cells. They may be readily seen on 
the outside of the phloem in Psilotutn^ and one would 
expect them even more naturally in a stem in which 
secondary thickening has taken place. Should they be 
cells of this nature it would be more easy to explain their 
absence, or the uncertainty of their presence, in certain 

• Tschirch A. Angewandte Pflanzenanatomie^ 1889. 

• Bertrand. ** Remarques sur le Lepidodendron Harcourtii de Witham," 
Trav. et Mem, des Facultis de Lille ^ 1891% 

• Hovelacque M., loc, cit. 



Manchestet Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 1. 13 

specimens, for such obliterated cells are very irregular in 
their appearance^ 

So far I have been dealing with the phloem as seen in 
the central vascular cylinder or stele of the stem. I pass 
now to a consideration of the phloem of the leaf trace 
bundles. These, as is well known, in passing outward 
through the phloem region, retain on the outer surface a 
certain amount of the tissues belonging to this region. 
The best preserved specimen of these cells accompanying 
the leaf trace are figured by Seward from the specimens 
in the Binney Collection. Was Fig, i on Plate 1 1 1.'-^ shows 
the tissues not only well preserved but extremely thinly 
ground. In this figure the tissue has an appearance not 
unlike that just described for the stem of Lepidophloios 
from Cash's specimens, and the appearance is not to 
my mind very suggestive of a secretory tissue, but much 
more of phloem cells. The cell walls are very distinct, 
and there is no appearance of lysigenous degeneration 
nor of any large amount of substance which could be 
looked upon as secretion. The account of these cells as 
seen in longitudinal section, and the figure he gives of 
them Fig, 2, Plate IV., is not against their being true 
phloem elements and concerned in conduction rather than 
in secretion. They are at any rate very different from 
the less well preserved tissue of the main axis, and 
approach more closely well preserved cells of the Cash 
specimens. 

In Cash's specimens, however, the phloem of the leaf 
trace bundles does not present so clear an appearance as 

* A good account of these cells (cellules nacres) in both Phanerogams 
and Cryptogams will be found in Perrot's Tissue cribl^, 1899, based chiefly 
on the work of Jules Leger*s * Recherches sur Torigine et les transformations 
des ^l^ments liberiens.' {Mim, Soc, Linn, Normandie,) 

f Seward, loc, cit, Plate, 3, Fig, I. See also Binney. Trans. 
Palaontograph, Soc,, 1872. 



14 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 

in the Binney preparations. This is due partly to the 
bundles being cut somewhat obliquely, and partly to the 
greater thickness of the section at those points where the 
leaf traces are cut as nearly transversely as possible, i.e., 
in the region of the inner cortex. In the mid-cortex 
the leaf trace bundles run almost horizontally in typical 
specimens of this species, but in the inner cortex they are 
sufficiently nearly vertical to be approximately transversely 
cut in a transverse section. Two such sections across the 
leaf trace bundles are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and they 
both show the same features as regards the structure of 
the phloem, and this is shown in the case of other bundles 
not figured. It will be seen that the phloem consists of 
some three rows of large-spaced elements somewhat 
irregular in outline though with some regularity in their 
arrangement. These large cells are apparently not 
separated by smaller elements but adjoin each other, and 
in this respect the phloem resembles the arrangement of 
the tissue in the stems of many of the living Lycopods, 
where single rows of large sieve tubes adjoining each other, 
and with only a row of small elements at the top and 
bottom, run in between the xylem groups. 

Whether this appearance was the actual condition of 
the living tissue is difficult to say in view of the difference 
between our figures and those of Binney and of Seward, and 
though the appearance does not seem to warrant it, a disor- 
ganisation of the tissue may already have set in in the leaf 
trace bundles. If, however, that is not the case, we have an 
interesting feature in the absence of the numerous small 
cells which separated the larger elements of the stem. If the 
smaller elements have the same function as the companion 
cells or of the phloem parenchyma of Angiosperms their 
absence or reduction in the leaf trace bundles should not 
surprise us ; for they have been looked upon as collecting 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol, xlv. (1901), No, T. 15 

from the sieve tubes and storing for the use of the cambium 
or of the developing wood cells, the food material which 
passes down the sieve tubes. Frank^ and Blass^ indeed 
consider the function of the phloem as a whole is more 
nutritive than conducting, but at any rate we should 
expect to find in the leaf trace bundles the conducting 
function outweighing the storage or nutritive function. 

The difference in the aspect of the phloem in the 
figures of Binney and Seward as compared with those 
given in this paper, if not due to differences in the 
preservation, may be due to the fact that the bundles 
represented in the two cases are from different parts of 
their course. 

The bundle figured by Seward and Binney is at the 
level of its passage through the mid-cortex, while the 
figures in the present paper are of bundles passing through 
the closer cells of the inner cortex. This may very possibly 
account for the difference in structure, for Bertrand has 
stated' that in the case of the nearly related Lepidodendron 
the so-called laticiferous cells increase greatly as the leaf 
trace bundle passes outwards from the central cylinder. 
Such an increased complexity might therefore also occur 
in Lepidophloios. 

I will now discuss briefly the phloem of Lepidodendron^ 
basing my remarks chiefly on the examination of a very 
perfect specimen o{ Lepidodendron selaginoides, the species 
so admirably described by Hovelacque.* As mentioned 
above, the phloem region in Lepidodendron appears 
generally even more defective than in Lepidophloios^ and 
in most cases the phloem region is represented by large 

1 Frank A. B. Lehrbuch der Botanik, 1892, p. 184. 

* Blass Dr. "Die Physiologische Bedeutung des Siebteils der Gefassbundel. 
Jahrb,f, wiss, Bot. xxii., 1 891. 

'Bertrand, ioc, cit., p. 142. 

* Hovelacque, M., he, cit. 



1 6 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Leptdodendron. 

and extensive lacunae reaching from one leaf trace bundle 
to the next, these latter forming more solid bridges of 
tissue uniting the woody tissues with the hard inner cortex 
which is generally well preserved. Where the phloem 
tissues are present as in the case of some of the prepara- 
tions examined by Hovelacque, its appearance as figured 
by him is not unlike that shown for Lepidophloios in 
Plate I, of this paper, and Hovelacque identifies the 
alternating larger and smaller elements as sieve tubes and 
companion cells. This interpretation is, I think, perfectly 
correct. 

The specimen of this Leptdodendron in the Manchester 
Museum which shows the best preserved phloem, is a 
preparation in the cabinet of the late Thomas Hick 
(No. 6y), It was labelled by him "standard," and a 
comparison of this slide with the figures of a specimen of 
Lepidodendron selaginoides reproduced by Williamson in 
his Xlth Memoir,^ shows that it is a section from the same 
stem which Williamson, and no doubt Hick, too, obtained 
from their mutual friend, Mr. William Cash, of Halifax. 

A portion of this transverse section is reproduced in 
Fig, 8, and represents one bay of the phloem region with the 
adjoining tissues. Here too, as in the previous preparations 
described, a crack separates the primary wood from the 
remainder of the tissues, and it will be noted in this speci- 
men there has not yet been any secondary wood formed. 
Thus the phloem region begins here a few cells from the 
crack, and can be seen to consist of a very definite group 
of larger elements, with only a few smaller ones, stretching 
out to the tangentially elongated cells forming probably the 
pericycle and endodermis. The smaller elements are often 
arranged around, or partially around, the larger elements of 
the phloem, but as these former are much fewer in number 

1 Williamson, W. C, PhiL Trans,, i88i, Plate 51, Fig. 2. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 1. 17 

than in Lepidophloios, the large elements are often con- 
tiguous, an appearance suggestive of the arrangement of 
the sieve tubes in living Lycopods. Within the outer and 
distinct band of phloem elements, and separated by a dark 
band of tissue, are seen some smaller groups of soft bast 
cells, similar in structure to those nearer the outside, but 
less regular in arrangement. Besides these there are also 
two groups of smaller and harder elements which appear 
to be the commencement of leaf traces, one already partly 
imbedded in the phloem region. In other parts of the 
section can be seen the early stages of disorganisation of 
the phloem elements by a breaking away of the cell walls 
separating adjoining sieve tubes. This process, as has 
been stated above, results in this species of Lepidodendron 
in the complete disappearance of the phloem elements. 

The phloem of the leaf traces is not sufficiently 
preserved in this specimen to enable me to ascertain the 
presence of what Hovelacque^ described as laticiferous 
cells which occur more particularly in the phloem of the 
leaf trace bundles. They appear according to this author 
to be very variable in their number, and sometimes, as he 
says in his note on page 51. "II faut m^me ^tre pr^venu 
qu'il peut y en avoir pour les d^couvrir." I have mentioned 
in a previous part of the paper what I consider to be the 
possible nature of such cells as seem to occur in the stem 
and leaf traces of various Lepidodendra, 

Summary. 

Having now examined the cells making up the phloem 
region of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron respectively in 
two of the best preserved specimens, I think we cannot 
but conclude that the arrangement of its cells, as seen at 

^ Hovelacque, loc cit. 



1 8 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron, 

least in transverse section, does not only not preclude 
them from being of the nature of true phloem elements, 
but makes it very probable that the function of this tissue 
was that of a normal phloem. In both cases we have the 
larger and smaller elements so characteristic of phloem 
and similarly arranged, the proportion of the two kinds 
of cells varying in the two genera, Lepidophloios having a 
greater number of the smaller elements. 

It would be highly desirable to examine longitudinal 
sections of equally well-preserved specimens, so as to 
determine the suitability of the phloem elements for 
purposes of conduction of organic material ; but we can 
see from the less well-preserved specimens {Fig. s) that 
they occur in considerable vertical series, and as they are 
often contiguous, the vertical passage might be helped on 
by lateral diffusion. Phloem appearing in longitudinal 
section of the normal type has been shown by Maslen^ to 
exist in the sporophylls of Lepidostrobus^ and the trans- 
verse sections of similar leaf traces in the excellently 
preserved Lepidostrobus Brownii^ shows that in this 
species the cells had the same arrangement as has been 
figured by Hovelacque for Lepidodendron selaginoides^ so 
that here, too, we might suppose that a good longitudinal 
section might show the same arrangement as described by 
Maslen for Lepidostrobus, 

In the vegetative axis showing secondary thickening 
we should expect a phloem of even greater complexity, as 
the requirements of organic food material would here be 
greater, and, as has been often pointed out, the phloem of 
Dicotyledons generally develops phloem-parenchyma ® for 

* Maslen, A. J. "The Structure of Lepidostrobus. Trans. Linn. Soc, 
Lond., Vol. v., PI. II., 1899. 

2 Bower, F. O., loc. cit.. Fig. 4A, PI. XVI. 

* c.p. Vines, S. Text-hook of Botany y 181. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 1. 19 

the purpose of storing food material to meet the require- 
ments of cambial activity. Such elements we have seen 
occur in considerable numbers in the specimen of Lepido- 
phloios in which secondary thickening was taking place, 
and might be more numerous in a specimen of Lepido- 
dendron provided with an active cambial layer. This view 
is also supported by the great meristematic activity 
displayed by the phloem in the specimen of Lepidophloios 
recently sent me by Mr. Cash, in which secondary growth 
is just commencing. 

Until it is disproved that the cells of this phloem 
region are of such a nature as not to be able to effectively 
conduct and store organic material for the use of the 
secondary meristem we must look upon it as functionally 
representing the phloem, though it may differ from it in 
construction. But as a matter of fact it does not seem to 
differ materially from the phloem of recent Lycopodiacecs 
except in such particulars as are probably connected with 
the absence of secondary thickening in recent Lycopods 
and the consequent diminished need of storing organic 
material within the stele. 

That some of the elements of the phloem region may 
have been of the nature of laticiferous cells or may have 
united to form mucilage ducts is, of course, quite con- 
ceivable, even when the bulk of the elements made up a 
true phloem. There seems to me, however, to be no 
evidence of such secretory tissue in this region in well 
preserved specimens of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 
In the outer cortical tissue, however, in both genera just 
inside the periderm there can always be seen true 
lysigenous glandular patches. These have been figured 
by Seward for Lepidophloios^ by Bertrand in Lepidodendron 
Harcourtii^ and they are also clearly visible in the section 
of Lepidodendron selaginoides^ from which the phloem 



20 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. 

has been described in this communication. (Hick Collec- 
tion No. 67), The character of this outer secretory zone is 
very distinct and different from the tissues I have described 
as phloem. These latter are much more in agreement 
with the tissues of a normal phloem, so that we can, I 
think, agree with the statement made by Dr. Scott^ in his 
recently published Studies in Fossil Botany^ that we are 
not justified in supposing that there was any fundamental 
difference in the structure of the phloem between the 
Lepidodendra and their recent allies. 



Scott, D. H. Studies in Fossil Botany, 1900. p. 142 and 143. 



Munches tet Memoirs, VoL xlv. (1901), No. T. 2i 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
PLATE IL 

Lepidophloios fuligznosus (Williamson). 
Slide No. 645 A of Cash Collection in the Manchester Museum. 

Fig. I. A portion of the transverse section of the stem to 
illustrate the general arrangement of the tissues. 
ph = phloem region, cb = cambium, xy^ = secondary 
tissue mostly parenchymatous. ;cy^ = primary 
xylem. 

Fig. 2. A portion of section enlarged 60 diameters to show the 
phloem region in detail. 

Fig. 3. Another portion of section showing the divided phloem 
cells. Two groups near the centre are particularly 
noticeable. 

PLATE IIL 

Figs, 4, 6, and 7 from same slide as Fi^s. i, 2, and 3. 

Fig. 4. Showing very much enlarged the peculiar dividing of the 
phloem cells. 

Fig. 5. A longitudinal section from a less well-preserved specimen 
of Lepidophloios fiiUginosus, showing the remains of 
transverse and oblique septa across the large spaces 
so frequently found in the phloem region of this 
fossil. The septa are indicated by an asterisk (*). 

Fig, 6. Transverse section of a leaf-trace when passing through 
the inner cortex, showing the arrangement of the 



22 Weiss, Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron, 

large cells of phloem at this point of leaf trace. 
This is an enlarged view of the leaf trace near the 
left-hand edge of Fig, i. /^ = ploem, jcy = xylem. 

Fig, 7. A similar leaf trace bundle as the one shown in Fig, 6, 
with a similararrangement of the phloem cells {ph^. 

Fig 8. Portion of transverse section of Lepidodendron selaginoides 
(Hick Collection No. 67) showing one of the bays 
of phloem and the adjacent tissues. The smaller 
elements on the inside of the phloem are leaf 
traces. /^ = phloem, ^cy = xylem. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. XL V. 



Plate 2. 




Manchester Memoirs. Vol. XLV. 



Plate 3. 




"■.il ■•.••«■:•.• . 



:;*^-;, 







^ 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 8 



VIII. Selections from the Correspondence of 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Leigh Philips, of 
Mayfield, Manchester. Part III. 

By W. Barnard Faraday, LL.B., 
Barrister-at-Law, 

Read November 2jth, igoo. Received in its present form lamiaty i^th^ igor. 

The letters comprised in the present series, which are 
those written by Captain Samuel Cable, R.N., to Lieut- 
Colonel Leigh Philips, while they can scarcely be claimed 
to possess the definite historic importance which attached 
to those of Mr. Thos. Taylor, are nevertheless interesting 
and valuable, as showing, in the minutest detail, the 
conditions of life prevailing in the Isle of Man, and the 
relations between that island and the other parts of the 
British realm at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Apart from this, it may be claimed for the following 
letters that, being the composition of a humorous and 
well-informed man, they are in many cases intrinsically 
amusing and graphic in their account of current events, 
and that, being in large measure the life story of a 
character whose personality and situation were alike 
interesting, they form a " human document " of con- 
siderable attractiveness and some pathos. 

The Isle of Man, at the period when these letters were 
written, was a place very different from that with which 
the holiday-makers of the present time are so familiar. 
It was, over its greater extent, very thinly peopled, the 
total population being only about thirty thousand, and 

July loih^ igoi. 



2 Faraday, Correspondence of LieuL-CoL Philips. 

the manners of the inhabitants were extremely primitive. 
A considerable proportion of the people used the 
Manx language, a Celtic tongue strongly engrafted with 
Norse ; and they were purely an agricultural and fishing 
population, with hardly any amusements but sport, and 
no literature. The better educated classes, who were few 
in number, were centred in and about Douglas, at that 
time a tou^n with about 3,000 inhabitants, which possessed a 
weekly newspaper — the Manx Weekly Mercury, 

The Isle of Man was originally a feudatory kingdom, 
granted by Henr>' IV. to the Stanley famih-, which 
retained many proofs of regalit>'' until 1726. In that year 
an Act ii^-as passed prohibiting the import of goods into 
Great Britain from the Island. In the meantime, the 
Lordship of Man passed b>- descent to Lady Mary 
Sophia^ j-oungest daughter of the seventh Earl of Derby, 
and wife of J(An, Marquis of Adic^ Her grandson, the 
second Duke of Atfaoll, died in 1764. Durii^ his reign 
as Lord of Man. the Island was made a base for tiie 
smugglii^ trade, and the British Govenunent, alarmed at 
the progress of this tttidt cocnmeTce. made attempts to 
pctrchase the r^jhts of Lofdship. bat were evaded. His 
daughter. Lad\* ClurloCte. married her coa§zn John, who 
became third Duke of AthoiL and m ir^> anax^ements 
were made by the British Goverttmesxt fc*c die poichase 
cf the Lordship of the I^iauxL b%^ wfeadt ^ JoferL Dake of 
Athoi and Chaurlocte hts wife. RttccKSS^ Scrangc;* and 
thetr Trxistees agirse to scrteoicer Sbr Ae sitnt ot iTroxxx) 
aZ ±efr rightrs ta the ^ Islawi CaK^tTe. F^Ie. wc LoKfc*q> rf 
Man. ar^i aul the Uarx& ar^ Lori&sfcit^ ^^ At :s»il^and 
of iLxi appert^ciog^^ v^>«t{^r;$l^J j*kJ ^irsitfirf ix the 
letters v ateet ot Hwr y t V arni r^uw^ t t^ ^^^M^ *tohc 
vestsc inalietta^Y ir K:$>l4^?$5>\ !h:5.!h^r$:4fHi$ajx«sofs.' 
It 3iaY be >aic tb^i: th«r Ah^ s^f tr^^t^rwrc ^«aftii tfcc 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No. 8. 3 

Revesting Act) which brought about this result, only 
deprived the Dukes of Atholl of their political dominion 
over the Island, and left them their manorial rights. 
It has often been said that for many years this measure 
did more harm than good to the people of the Island, 
at all events there was much dissatisfaction. In 1793 
this was to some degree alleviated, when the then Duke 
was made Governor, for, in spite of several tiffs with the 
House of Keys, he was very popular throughout the 
Island. Much of the trouble arose through the question 
of the Customs. The Royal Commission appointed to 
enquire into the matter before the passing of the " Revesting 
Act," reported that " vast quantities of foreign goods were 
continually imported into the Isle of Man, and from 
thence clandestinely brought into Great Britain.'* These 
goods included brandy, wine. East India goods, cambrics 
and lawns, tobacco, wool, rum, and coffee. It will be seen, 
then, that the Island was a very real thorn in the side of 
the Government, and its purchase was a necessity. Most 
readers of Scott will recall Dirck Hatteraick, whose name 
in real life was Captain Yawkins, and who was a typical 
Manx smuggler, with his headquarters at Ramsey. It 
goes without saying, that this curtailment of their privileges 
of " fair-trading,*' as they called it, was a great grievance 
to the Manx. Customs regulations, extending to the 
Isle of Man, were passed shortly after the purchase of 
the Island, and, after numerous experiments, a fairly 
satisfactory arrangement was made. In 1792 a com- 
mission was appointed to enquire into grievances alleged 
by the Duke, and in 1825 the remaining property, and 
the manorial and ecclesiastical rights of the Atholl family 
in the Isle of Man, were sold to the Crown by the fourth 
Duke for ;^4i7,i44. 

One of our main sources of information respecting 



Manchester Memoirs. Vol. XLV. 



Plate 3. 




Manchester Memoirs, VoL xlv, (1901), No. 8 



VIII. Selections from the Correspondence of 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Leigh Philips, of 
Mayfield, Manchester. Part III. 

By W. Barnard Faraday, LL.B., 
Barrister-at-Law. 

Read November 2jth, igoo. Received in its present form fanuaty i^th^ igor. 

The letters comprised in the present series, which are 
those written by Captain Samuel Cable, R.N., to Lieut- 
Colonel Leigh Philips, while they can scarcely be claimed 
to possess the definite historic importance which attached 
to those of Mr. Thos. Taylor, are nevertheless interesting 
and valuable, as showing, in the minutest detail, the 
conditions of life prevailing in the Isle of Man, and the 
relations between that island and the other parts of the 
British realm at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Apart from this, it may be claimed for the following 
letters that, being the composition of a humorous and 
well-informed man, they are in many cases intrinsically 
amusing and graphic in their account of current events, 
and that, being in large measure the life story of a 
character whose personality and situation were alike 
interesting, they form a " human document " of con- 
siderable attractiveness and some pathos. 

The Isle of Man, at the period when these letters were 
written, was a place very different from that with which 
the holiday-makers of the present time are so familiar. 
It was, over its greater extent, very thinly peopled, the 
total population being only about thirty thousand, and 

July loih^ igoi. 



2 Faraday, Correspondence of LietiL-CoL Philips, 

the manners of the inhabitants were extremely primitive. 
A considerable proportion of the people used the 
Manx language, a Celtic tongue strongly engrafted with 
Norse ; and they were purely an agricultural and fishing 
population, with hardly any amusements but sport, and 
no literature. The better educated classes, who were few 
in number, were centred in and about Douglas, at that 
time a town with about 3,000 inhabitants, which possessed a 
weekly newspaper — the Manx Weekly Mercury, 

The Isle of Man was originally a feudatory kingdom, 
granted by Henry IV. to the Stanley famil}-, which 
retained many proofs of regality until 1726. In that year 
an Act was passed prohibiting the import of goods into 
Great Britain from the Island. In the meantime, the 
Lordship of Man passed by descent to Lady Mary 
Sophia, youngest daughter of the seventh Earl of Derby, 
and wife of John, Marquis of Atholl. Her grandson, the 
second Duke of Atholl, died in 1764. During his reign 
as Lord of Man, the Island was made a base for the 
smuggling trade, and the British Government, alarmed at 
the progress of this illicit commerce, made attempts to 
purchase the rights of Lordship, but were evaded. His 
daughter. Lady Charlotte, married her cousin John, who 
became third Duke of Atholl, and, in 1765, arrangements 
were made by the British Government for the purchase 
of the Lordship of the Island, by which "John, Duke of 
Atholl, and Charlotte his wife, Baroness Strange,'* and 
their Trustees agree to surrender for the sum of ;^7o,ooo 
all their rights in the " Island, Castle, Pele, and Lordship of 
Man, and all the Islands and Lordships to the said Island 
of Man appertaining," comprised and granted in the 
letters patent of Henry IV. and James I. The same "to be 
vested inalienably in His Majesty, his heirs and successors." 
It may be said that the Act of Parliament (called the 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 8. 3 

Revesting Act) which brought about this result, only 
deprived the Dukes of Atholl of their political dominion 
over the Island, and left them their manorial rights. 
It has often been said that for many years this measure 
did more harm than good to the people of the Island, 
at all events there was much dissatisfaction. In 1793 
this was to some degree alleviated, when the then Duke 
was made Governor, for, in spite of several tiffs with the 
House of Keys, he was very popular throughout the 
Island. Much of the trouble arose through the question 
of the Customs. The Royal Commission appointed to 
enquire into the matter before the passing of the " Revesting 
Act," reported that " vast quantities of foreign goods were 
continually imported into the Isle of Man, and from 
thence clandestinely brought into Great Britain.*' These 
goods included brandy, wine. East India goods, cambrics 
and lawns, tobacco, wool, rum, and coffee. It will be seen, 
then, that the Island was a very real thorn in the side of 
the Government, and its purchase was a necessity. Most 
readers of Scott will recall Dirck Hatteraick, whose name 
in real life was Captain Yawkins, and who was a typical 
Manx smuggler, with his headquarters at Ramsey. It 
goes without saying, that this curtailment of their privileges 
of " fair-trading,'' as they called it, was a great grievance 
to the Manx. Customs regulations, extending to the 
Isle of Man, were passed shortly after the purchase of 
the Island, and, after numerous experiments, a fairly 
satisfactory arrangement was made. In 1792 a com- 
mission was appointed to enquire into grievances alleged 
by the Duke, and in 1825 the remaining property, and 
the manorial and ecclesiastical rights of the Atholl family 
in the Isle of Man, were sold to the Crown by the fourth 
Duke for ;^4I7,I44. 

One of our main sources of information respecting 



4 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieui.-Coi. Philips. 

the social life in the Isle of Man is found in Colonel 
Richard Townley's Journal in the Isle of Man, 
Colonel Townley, who was a member of the well-known 
Lancashire family of that name, lived at Belfield Hall, 
and was in 1752 High Sheriff of the county. He married, 
first. Miss Ann Weston, of Liverpool, second, Mary, the 
daughter of Mr. James Penny, of Penny Bridge. He says 
that in the Isle of Man the people of the higher classes 
were, in the main, civil and attentive to strangers, while 
the ladies were " exceedingly affable, civil, and polite ; 
very sprightly in conversation, and uncommonly neat and 
smart in their dress." He adds that many of the Manx 
women were very pretty and some very accomplished. 
The middle class people, " when they are sober and cool, 
are decently civil." The lowest class, however, were 
"rude, ungovernable, and uncivilized, far beyond the 
common people in any country " he had had occasion to 
visit. This, however, applied only to Douglas, the 
country people being " as civil and obsequious as could be 
wished." That Manxmen at this time suffered from a 
confirmed laziness and were grossly intemperate, is an 
opinion echoed by nearly every contemporary writer on 
the Island. The houses in which the majority of the 
people lived were of the most wretched description, being 
one-roomed hovels constructed of sods, the walls six or 
seven feet high, the one window only about a foot square, 
the chimney a clay-daubed barrel, and the roof rudely 
thatched. The clergy, though in the main they seem to 
have been well-educated men, were almost equally poor, 
the usual yearly income among them being only some 
fifty or sixty pounds. 

Much of the interest in the following letters arises 
from the curious relations then existing between the Isle 
of Man and the countries surrounding it. As a place 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 8. 5 

somewhat difficult of access, and existing under a distinct 
government, it seems to have been regarded as a harbour 
of refuge for suspicious characters from the four points of 
the compass. Scotch adventurers, English defaulters, 
and Irish bankrupts thronged the place from year's end 
to year's end, and contributed an unrest to the local 
society which was much disliked by the more permanent 
residents. The state of war, in which the kingdom then 
existed, and the general turbulence of the times, made the 
Isle of Man in reality a kind of No-man's Land, a scene 
of periodical turmoil and constant hostility. 

It must be remembered, in reading these letters, that 
we are dealing with a place of not much more than 
parochial importance, and that, as is the case to-day in small 
country towns of the same population, both quarrels and 
scandal were magnified to an absurd extent Local society 
had not that wise guidance which made Manchester, Liver- 
pool,and Norwich at the same period such notable examples 
of public spirit and elegant culture. The consequence 
was that the Manx people and their " foreign '* residents 
concentrated most of their attention in quarrelling, and in 
making each other's weak points the targets for shafts of 
slander. The author* of the Itinerant describes the Manx 
character as unamiable, " they are unfriendly, cunning, and 
avaricious ; yet with all this very devout in their way ; 
before they go to sea on the most trifling excursion, you 
see them laid upon their oars, with their hats ofF, making 
a long prayer. To finish their character, they are deplor- 
ably ignorant, ridiculously superstitious, and believers in 
fairies and second sight." He continues : " The inhabi- 
tants of Mona are very backward in noticing strangers, 
yet this can scarcely be called a fault, when we consider 
the number of unprincipled refugees who fly to the island 
• S. W. Ryley, the Actor, see Part I. of these Selections, 



6 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieiit.-Col, Philips, 

as a place of sanctuary. Of this description were several 
of the most dashing inhabitants at this period, who lived 
in stile upon the means that ought in justice to have been 
appropriated to their creditors." Indeed, the state of the 
Island, socially and otherwise, was just what might have 
been expected ; the long wars waged against England 
ended in the retardation of the development of the more 
remote parts of the United Kingdom, and the Manx 
people, indolent in themselves, and deprived of that incen- 
tive to improvement which we possessed in Lancashire, 
seem to have drifted into a condition of apathetic poverty 
and vulgar self-conceit. The advantage which Lancashire 
possessed was, that her population, by nature energetic, 
found an outlet for their talents in laying the foundations 
of the vast cotton industry, and, in truth, footing the war- 
bill for the rest of England. A passage from Mr. Rolt 
might be added to this ; " the Manxmen had a natural 
respect for the people of Lancashire, in which county the 
Earls of Derby had their usual residence, and from thence 
were principally supplied with their principal officers of 
government." 

Still, the foreign element was very undesirable, and, 
in 1 8 14, the Manx Legislature passed a law providing 
that debtors of this class, who had fled to the Island for 
Sanctuary, who took up their abode in the Island during 
and after that year, might be prosecuted for the liabilities 
they had incurred elsewhere. Of course this had a great 
effect upon the influx, and for several years there was a 
decline in the population. The end of the Napoleonic 
wars, however, threw a large number of naval and military 
officers out of employment, and many of these, finding the 
Island a cheap and tolerably pleasant abode, took up their 
residence there. 

Very little information respecting Captain Cable him- 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 8. 7 

self remains extant. We first hear of him as one of the 
Burgesses of Clitheroe in 1790. Mr. Eastham, the present 
Town Clerk of Clitheroe, has very kindly provided me 
with particulars of Cable's connection with that town. He 
finds that in the year 1790 Samuel Cable, described as an 
Esquire, was admitted a burgess under a conveyance from 
Assheton Curzon of the free Borough Croft called Major 
Parrock. Then in 1791 he was elected the Out Bailiff. 
" This," says Mr. Eastham, " may be taken to mean that 
he was a supporter of the Curzons, and held a sort of 
faggot vote at their command. The Out Bailiff was 
elected from outside burgesses, and it may, therefore, be 
inferred that Cable did not reside in Clitheroe at all, and 
possibly lived in Preston, where the agent for the Curzons 
then resided." Following these dates there is a long gap 
in Cable's history, and then his name appears in a list 
of a meeting of the leading inhabitants of Liverpool on 
February 9th, 1795, so he appears to have had some con- 
nection with that town. It is possible, indeed, that Cable 
Street is called after some member of his family, though 
in that case the connection with the town must date back a 
long way, as Cable Street was known by that name at all 
events as early as 1700. On May i8th, 1795, the Liverpool 
Advertiser has the following notice : " Mr. Samuel Cable, 
lieutenant in the Navy, to be master and commander." I 
can find no account of Cable in the Naval Chronicle. 
On receipt of his promotion he repaired to Douglas, 
Isle of Man, where he was in charge of the Naval 
Station maintained there during the War. He seems 
to have had many friends in North Lancashire, and 
to have had good family connections. Unfortunately, 
however, he never alludes to the latter by name, so 
that it is well nigh impossible to trace him, as he 
does not appear to have borne arms. A Mr. C. P. Cable- 



8 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-Col. Philips, 

midshipman on board the Orion^ was wounded at 
Trafalgar; it is possible he was connected with the Captain. 
Captain Cable was apparently a friend of Mr. John Philips, 
of Bank (the Colonel's father), and from this, and other 
evidence in the letters themselves, we should infer that 
he was considerably older than Colonel Leigh Philips. 
Captain Cable lived on the Island during the whole of the 
period covered by the letters (1795 — 1803). The last few 
letters record the progress of the disease which at last 
terminated fatally. He was married, and had one 
daughter, Miss Sarah Cable, a young girl some twelve 
years of age at the time the letters begin. Captain Cable 
seems to have seen some active service before going to 
the Island. The meeting of Liverpool citizens alluded to 
above is rather interesting. Towards the end of 1794, the 
disastrous condition of the French Army was patent to 
all the enemies of that country, and there was a strong 
movement in France in favour of peace.* The British 
Government, however, resolved to continue hostilities, 
deeming it better to seize the opportunity, and annihilate 
the traditional enemy. Accordingly in several places 
what may be termed a " Stop the War " movement was 
inaugurated. In Manchester, several persons petitioned 
the Borough-reeve and Constables, and in Liverpool 
others petitioned the Mayor and Corporation, to call 
a Town's Meeting to protest against the continuance 
of the War. In each case the town authorities 
refused. Counter-petitions were published, of a v^ry much 
more influential nature, urging the continuance of the war 
and promising support to the Government. Among the 

* A statement, published in the press at the time, of the French Army 
during the period Jan. 2, 1792— Jan. I, 1795, is :— " Slain and Prisoners, 
610,000; Died in Military Hospitals, 177,000; Requisition Men, did not 
join, 119,000; Deserted, 53,000; Remaining Force, 841,000; Total, 
1,800,000." 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 8. 9 

War-party in Manchester we find John Leigh Philips, 
Francis Philips, Charles Lawson, the Rev. John Radcliffe, 
and the Rev. John Clowes ; while, in Liverpool, we find 
Samuel Cable, Samuel Newton (Philips' agent), James 
Penny (Philips' father-in-law ?), Clayton Tarleton, and 
many other well-known names. Messrs. Wakefield and 
Okell* were in favour of peace. 

Although our knowledge of Cable is very meagre, yet 
in his own letters he gives us such a graphic picture of his 
life and habits, and lays bare his character so completely, 
that it is almost possible to say that no further details are 
necessary. His chief amusements appear to have been 
fishing, shooting and riding, varied by whist and reading. 
He was undoubtedly a man of very active mind and much 
originality, and he must have been a most interesting and 
entertaining friend. 

The first letter is dated October 9th, 1795, and begins 
with some references to the visit made by Col. Philips to 
the Isle of Man that summer : — 

Douglas, Octr 9th 1795 
My dear Sir, 

I reed your Letter yesterday by the Duke of Atholl, together with a 
Shrimp Net, Rose Tree and Burton. A. curious Cargo. I began to be 
uneasy at not hearing from you sooner, as several Vessels had arrived from 
Liverpool in the course of the preceding Week ; but I imagine your letter 
was put on board Brew the day after it was wrote of course it was not likely 
to find its way hither untill he arrived. He came in eight hours from the 
N. W. Buoy. I was disappointed in finding you did not get in the Night you 
sail'd ; though I was rather apprehensive that the wind wou*d fail you in 
the Offing. However, upon the whole, you wound up the excursion very well ; 
and I feel much flattered that your stay in the Island proved pleasant to the 
whole party. If we live to put our Scheme to the Hebrides in execution I 
make no doubt but we shall find it equally pleasant. I assure you I look 
forward to it with great pleasure. You know you are to form the party ; I 
am to take care of the Navigation, Provisions, etc. 

The Monday after you left the Island Riley again exhibited his Brooms, 
which produced him about seven pounds more. He pleased the People of 
Douglas greatly by making Gobbock rhime to Havock, and introducing their 

• Vide Part II. 



10 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-Col, Philips. 

other favourite, Herring. He talks of making another Sweep at Christmas, 
which, I hope, will prove as productive as the last. He, & his Rib, spent 
the evening with us the day we lost you. Indeed I know no other company 
that I cou'd have put up with on that day ; but his knowledge of, and his 
respect for, you rendered him quite agreeable. He was, as usual, quite 
pleasant & quite unaffected. 

I have not yet been able to procure such a Poney as I cou'd wish. I 
have seen several, but none of them answered : they have either been too 
large, or not handsome. In the course of the Winter I dare say I shall 
get one. 

The Weather has been so very bad since the Shrimp Net arrived that 
we have not been able to try it ; but you may be sure I shall take the earliest 
opportunity of doing it. Owing to the same cause (bad Weather) I have not 
been able to get any Rock Cod : the first I propose, if an opportunity offers, 
I shall send to Wakefield, whom I seem to look upon as an old friend 
although I never saw him in my life. 

Mrs. Cable and Sarah unite with me in most friendly and sincere wishes 
for the health and happiness of yourself, Mrs Philips, and every branch of 
your family. Accept my best thanks for your kind presents, & believe me to 
be, with great esteem, your sincere & faithful friend 

SAM CABLE 

The " Riley " mentioned in this letter is S. W. Ryley,* 
the Actor. In his Itinerant Ryley describes at some 
length his adventures in the Isle of Man, and throws some 
light upon the doings of some of the people mentioned in 
these letters. His mother was a schoolfellow of Lady 
Jane Stanley, who was for many years his patroness, and 
who seems to have been distantly related to his wife, with 
whom, by the way, he eloped when she was a schoolgirl 
of sixteen, and married at Gretna Green. Ryley was well 
acquainted with Leigh Philips, and from him received 
many introductions to well-known people in the Isle of 
Man, and the appearance of whom on the quay to 
welcome him on his landing at Douglas in September, 
1795, he records with gratitude. Ryley had a " lecture 
or entertainment " entitled, " New Brooms, Narrative, 
History, Satire, and Sentiment, occasionally interspersed 
with songs.'' It is mentioned in the letter, and the 

* Vide Itinerant, Vol. III. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 8. n 

Liverpool papers of the time speak of it in terms of 
praise. " Gobbock " was the dog-fish, which Manx people, 
with somewhat singular taste, at this time preferred to 
any other form of food. The theatre at Douglas is said 
to have been a pretty little building, and was originally 
intended for private amusement. The proprietor was Mrs. 
T n, "a charming lively widow." 

The trip to the Hebrides, of which mention is made in 
the letter, was never made. It was the intention of Philips 
and his friend to take a prolonged excursion among the 
islands, to study the Natural History of them. Circum- 
stances, however, prevented the execution of the proposal. 

On December 23rd, Cable writes : — 

Douglas. 
My dear Sir, 

Yours of the 23rd ult. I reed last week by Mr. Brew, together with 
the specimens of swivels etc. for which I thank you. I think, with you, that 
the Iron wire will be good enough to fit up a Long line and I shall be much 
obliged to you if you will promise me ten dozen of them. If our intended 
excursion takes place we shall find plenty of use for it, as well as for Nets, 
and other fishing gear, which Major Taubman promises to furnish. He 
seems very desirous to be of the party, & I think he will be a proper subject ; 
for he is very fond of fishing, is very civil, and plays a tolerable game at 
Whist. From the present appearance of things in the political horizon, I 
really believe that a very few months will determine whether our excursion 
will take place or not. I am inclined to think that we shall certainly have 
peace before Summer. If this is the case we may turn our broad Swords 
into Ploughshares, 'fe our Small Swords into fishing hooks. Can they be 
applied to a better purpose do you think ? 

I was yesterday favoured with the company of Mr. and Mrs. Riley ; 
they are going to England, as soon as the weather will permit, to buy 
furniture to fit up a large house at Peel in which they are to enact the parts 
of Landlord and Hostess. In other words they are going to open an Hotel. 
It is one of her wild schemes, and she is as sanguine about the success of it 
as if she was endowed with Prophetic knowledge. As for poor Riley he 
seems to be quite passive, and rather desponding. He has lived so long at 
Peel, without Society, that the Blue Devils have got compleat hold of him. 
I hope they will meet with some friends in England to persuade them off 
this project. I shall return your Burton by him. I assure you I have been 
much entertained by it. It is not a book that one cou'd sit down to read 
quite through, but there are such gleams of wit scattered up & down the 
work that it is impossible to avoid being pleased and diverted by it. 



14 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut.-CoL Philips, 

[Appended.^ 
Mr. Livesey was invited to dine with Col. Dawson at Strangford, where 
he met Ld. Henry Murray, Mr. Stuart, Capt. Cable, & Mr. Jno. Backhouse, 
we pass'd a very pleasant day, in the course of which a song was proposed, 
Capt. Cible was ask*d to sing, & I among the rest solicited him, but he 
declin'd, Col. Dawson & Ld. H. Murray each sung a song as an example, 
and then Capt. Cable began a song but did not finish it, I press'd him much 
to continue, & said to him in joke (as I solemnly declare I had no intention 
of giving him offence) now don't be conceited, but sing, or something to the 
same purpose. — We continued at our wine some time after, and a little 
before we parted. Cap" Cable said I had used him very ill, in which he was 
join'd by Mr. Backhouse, (both Capn Cable «fe Mr Backhouse were very much 
in Liquor) I immediately applied to Col. Dawson (as Master of the House) 
Lord H. Murray, & Mr. Stuart, to know in what I cou'd have given offence 
to Capn Cable ; they all agreed that I had not said anything that he cou'd 
possibly be offended at. — some words afterwards passed between Mr 
Backhouse & myself during which he said as much as amounted to a 
challenge, which I immediately accepted ; Lord H. Murray told him he had 
behaved very ill, & that if he expected him (Ld. H. M.) to go out with him 
he shou'd not ; Mr Backhouse replied he did not want him, or Words to that 
purpose— Cap" Cable & Mr Backhouse left the room, in their absence, I 
said I was a stranger in the island, & had no one, that I cou'd ask to attend 
me ; Col. Dawson very politely & friendly said I shou'd not want a second, 
for he would go out with me. Some time after Mr Backhouse return'd to 
the Dining Parlour, & put a Note into my hands, which I put into my 
Pocket without opening, & soon after took my leave of Col. D. 
etc. when Mr. Stuart & I return'd to Douglas. — on opening Mr. B.'s 
note, I found it an appointment to meet at 6. o'clock the Morn* 
follows behind the Church ; as I was uncertain which Church it 
was (after having settled a few affairs) I return'd to Col. Dawson's 
to show him the Note, & consult with him. — I then left the Coll to 
retire to rest ; I awoke at half past 4 o'clock, it at 5 o'clock I call'd up Col. 
Dawson & ordered the Chaise to take us to the ground ; we arrived there a 
few minutes before 6 o'clock & found Capn Cable & Mr Backhouse ; after 
the salutation of Good Morrow Col. Dawson showed Mr Backhouse the note 
he had given me, & ask'd him if it was his writing, «fe what commands he had 
with me, to which Mr Backhouse replied, it was. — A conversation then 
ensued, in which Mr Backhouse left the Business entirely to my Second 
CoU Dawson to settle, who said that whatever had happen'd, cou'd only 
have originated from a great deal of Wine being drank, & that we shou'd say 
we were sorry for what had pass'd & shake hands ; to which neither Mr. 
Backhouse nor myself objected ; Mr Backhouse said as he was the younger 
man he shou'd first say he was sorry, & step'd forward to shake me by the 
hand, I met him, we shook Hands ; and here the matter ended, returning to 
Douglas & breakfasting together. 

Signed 
Douglas Deer 20th 1795. THOS. DAWSON 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 8. 15 

Mr. John Livesey, of the well-known Blackburn family of 
that name, was living in Douglas at this time. He is 
somewhat ill-naturedly alluded to by Colonel Townley : — * 

'* I saw that very extraordinary personage Mr. John Livesey, of Black- 
burn, on the opposite side of the harbour, near the Douglas head coffee-house, 
where he resides ; (& has resided for a considerable time) under the name of 
Warren ; but I find most people here know his real name, as well as his real 
character. He gave a dinner, yesterday, to a party of gentlemen. " 

There were two main factions in Isle of Man society at 
this time, and as the Island was a favourite subject for 
" book-makers," it was the object of each side to capture 
one of these peripatetic critics as he arrived, and so lead 
him to endorse their views and actions. Speaking 
candidly, Colonel Townley seems to have fallen into the 
hands of the Philistines, at least as viewed by Captain 
Cable and his friends ; consequently, they make extremely 
different estimates of the same people. It is gratifying 
to find that the statements of our hero, Captain Cable, 
have been endorsed by a subsequent and authorita- 
tive writer, who says of Townley's Journal (the chronicle 
of the opposite faction), that it is a " trivial record 
of little things,*' and that " it is difficult to make 
out why it was ever written.'' The friendship between 
Cable and Philips and Livesey endured for many years, 
as will subsequently be seen. Livesey belonged to the 
family of Liveseys who took such a notable part in the 
history of calico printing in Lancashire. I learn from 
Abram's History of Blackburn that they were a collateral 
branch of the Liveseys, of Livesey, a territorial family 
known in Lancashire in the thirteenth century, who held 
land by grant of Henry III. Mr. John Livesey, like his 
brother Thomas, began trading at Blackburn, and in 1780, 
founded the firm of Livesey, Hargreaves, Anstie, Smith, 
and Hall, and started a print works at Mosney. The 

• Tour in the Isle of Man, 



14 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut. -CoL Philips, 

[Appended.^ 
Mr. Livesey was invited to dine with Col. Dawson at Strangford, where 
he met Ld. Henry Murray, Mr. Stuart, Capt. Cable, & Mr. Jno. Backhouse, 
we pass'd a very pleasant day, in the course of which a song was proposed, 
Capt. Cible was ask'd to sing, & I among the rest solicited him, but he 
declin'd, Col. Dawson & Ld. H. Murray each sung a song as an example, 
and then Capt. Cable began a song but did not finish it, I press'd him much 
to continue, & said to him in joke (as I solemnly declare I had no intention 
of giving him offence) now don't be conceited, but sing, or something to the 
same purpose. — We continued at our wine some time after, and a little 
before we parted. Cap" Cable said I had used him very ill, in which he was 
join'd by Mr. Backhouse, (both Capn Cable & Mr Backhouse were very much 
in Liquor) I immediately applied to Col. Dawson (as Master of the House) 
Lord H. Murray, & Mr. Stuart, to know in what I cou'd have given offence 
to Capn Cable ; ihey all agreed that I had not said anything that he cou'd 
possibly be offended at. — some words afterwards passed between Mr 
Backhouse & myself during which he said as much as amounted to a 
challenge, which I immediately accepted ; Lord H. Murray told him he had 
behaved very ill, & that if he expected him (Ld. H. M.) to go out with him 
he shou'd not ; Mr Backhouse replied he did not want him, or Words to that 
purpose— Capn Cable & Mr Backhouse left the room, in their absence, I 
said I was a stranger in the island, & had no one, that I cou'd ask to attend 
me ; Col. Dawson very politely & friendly said I shou'd not want a second, 
for he would go out with me. Some time after Mr Backhouse returned to 
the Dining Parlour, & put a Note into my hands, which I put into my 
Pocket without opening, «fe soon after took my leave of Col. D. 
etc. when Mr. Stuart & I return'd to Douglas. — on opening Mr. B.'s 
note, I found it an appointment to meet at 6. o'clock the Morn* 
follows behind the Church ; as I was uncertain which Church it 
was (after having settled a few affairs) I return'd to Col. Dawson's 
to show him the Note, & consult with him. — I then left the Coll to 
retire to rest ; I awoke at half past 4 o'clock, ife at 5 o'clock I call'd up Col. 
Dawson & ordered the Chaise to take us to the ground ; we arrived there a 
few minutes before 6 o'clock & found Capn Cable & Mr Backhouse ; after 
the salutation of Good Morrow Col. Dawson showed Mr Backhouse the note 
he had given me, & ask'd him if it was his writing, «fe what commands he had 
with me, to which Mr Backhouse replied, it was. — A conversation then 
ensued, in which Mr Backhouse left the Business entirely to my Second 
CoU Dawson to settle, who said that whatever had happen'd, cou'd only 
have originated from a great deal of Wine being drank, & that we shou'd say 
we were sorry for what had pass'd & shake hands ; to which neither Mr. 
Backhouse nor myself objected ; Mr Backhouse said as he was the younger 
man he shou'd first say he was sorry, & step'd forward to shake me by the 
hand, I met him, we shook Hands ; and here the matter ended, returning to 
Douglas & breakfasting together. 

Signed 
Douglas Deer 20th 1795. THOS. DAWSON 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No. 8. 15 

Mr. John Livesey, of the well-known Blackburn family of 
that name, was living in Douglas at this time. He is 
somewhat ill-naturedly alluded to by Colonel Townley : — * 

'* I saw that very extraordinary personage Mr. John Livesey, of Black- 
burn, on the opposite side of the harbour, near the Douglas head coffee-house, 
where he resides ; (& has resided for a considerable time) under the name of 
Warren ; but I find most people here know his real name, as well as his real 
character. He gave a dinner, yesterday, to a party of gentlemen. '* 

There were two main factions in Isle of Man society at 
this time, and as the Island was a favourite subject for 
*' book-makers," it was the object of each side to capture 
one of these peripatetic critics as he arrived, and so lead 
him to endorse their views and actions. Speaking 
candidly, Colonel Townley seems to have fallen into the 
hands of the Philistines, at least as viewed by Captain 
Cable and his friends ; consequently, they make extremely 
different estimates of the same people. It is gratifying 
to find that the statements of our hero. Captain Cable, 
have been endorsed by a subsequent and authorita- 
tive writer, who says of Townley's Journal (the chronicle 
of the opposite faction), that it is a " trivial record 
of little things,*' and that "it is difficult to make 
out why it was ever written.*' The friendship between 
Cable and Philips and Livesey endured for many years, 
as will subsequently be seen. Livesey belonged to the 
family of Liveseys who took such a notable part in the 
history of calico printing in Lancashire. I learn from 
Abram's History of Blackburn that they were a collateral 
branch of the Liveseys, of Livesey, a territorial family 
known in Lancashire in the thirteenth century, who held 
land by grant of Henry III. Mr. John Livesey, like his 
brother Thomas, began trading at Blackburn, and in 1780, 
founded the firm of Livesey, Hargreaves, Anstie, Smith, 
and Hall, and started a print works at Mosney. The 

• Tour in the Isle of Man. 



1 6 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut. -Col. Philips. 

manager was Mr. Thomas Bell, a Scotchman, the original 
inventor and patentee of the cylinder calico printing 
process, the patent being dated November 17th, 1783. 
Mr. Livesey, therefore, whose capital was instrumental in 
founding this great industry in Lancashire, is entitled to 
the regard of posterity, the more so as his venture, in the 
end, turned out badly for himself. At first the Mosney 
firm rapidly extended their works, and for some years 
they did a flourishing trade, but a series of pecuniary 
losses shook their credit, and in 1788 they became 
bankrupt. John Livesey married Mary, the daughter of 
Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Hali, Manchester, in 1772, 
and had three sons and three daughters. Thomas Livesey 
married, first, Miss Elizabeth Livesey, of Manchester, a 
kinswoman, second. Miss Lydia Bancroft of the same 
place. His sister, Alice, married in 1763, Mr. Henry 
Sudell, of Blackburn. 

The Mosney Works was purchased by William 
Assheton, of Cuerdale Hall, in 1792, and he sold it 
to Richard Colrow, who built his house at Walton Lodge 
from the bricks of the old building. The Liveseys had 
bleach works at Bamber Bridge and a cotton mill at 
Higher Walton. As a trader, it should be noted that 
Mr. John Livesey had benefit of even the imperfect 
bankruptcy law of that time, and his residence in the Isle 
of Man should not be attributed, as Colonel Townley 
said it must, to inability to pay his debts. Mr. Livesey 
probably lived at Douglas for the same reason that Captain 
Cable did — lack of sufficient means to live elsewhere. 
There is little doubt that the aspersions upon his character 
are foundationless, and viewed from this distance of time 
he seems an attractive and simple-minded man. It should 
not be forgotten that his venture at Mosney gained him 
many enemies, especially among the more unprogressive 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv. (1901), No, 8. 17 

part of the population, and that upon his failure the 
chorus of"l told you so*s" was very loud. His son, 
Lieutenant Thomas Livesey, R.N., died of yellow fever, in 
the West Indies, in September, 1803. 

Richard Dawson was Lieutenant Governor of the Isle 
of Man in 1776. His son, Colonel Thomas Dawson, of 
Strangford, is the gentleman alluded to in the letter. 

Lord Henry Murray, the fourth son of the third Duke of 
Atholl, at this time lived in the Isle of Man as his brother's 
agent. He died when quite a young man, as Ryley says 
in his Itinerant, "a martyr to dissipation" early in 1805. 
He was born in 1767. In 1786 he married Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Mr. Richard Kent, of Liverpool, by whom 
he had one son and five daughters. About the time of 
these letters. Lord Henry Murray was Colonel of the 
Second Royal Manx Fencibles, who were sent to Ireland 
during the disturbances which culminated in Vinegar Hill. 
Lord Henry Murray was the acknowledged leader of Manx 
society, and failed to injure his popularity even by a 
confirmed love of practical joking. 

Mr. John Backhouse was Lord Henry's brother-in- 
law, and his companion in the escapades he perpetrated 
at the expense of friend and stranger alike. Apart from 
this he was a kindly and well-meaning man, and like his 
intimate he died sooner than he should have done. 
Ryley's first performance at Douglas was interrupted by 
Mr. Backhouse in what we should consider a somewhat 
strongly flavoured manner. 

The Mr. Stuart mentioned is in all probability Captain 
Robert Stuart of the Second Royal Manks Fencibles. 

The next letter is dated February 2nd, 1796 : — 

It has been entirely owing to the late very heavy Gales of Wind, which 
has greatly interrupted the correspondence of this Island, that I have not 
before this acknowledged the receipt of your Letter which accompanied the 



1 8 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieiit.-CoL Philips. 

Swivells for fishing. Give me leave to thank you once for all for the Cheese, 
fishing Tackle, and the rest of your very friendly remembrances Sarah 
likewise begs I will return her best thanks to Mrs. Philips for a very elegant 
little Memorandum Book which she says she shall always set a high value 
on. 

I shall send this to Liverpool by Brew, who will sail the first fair wind, 
and I shall send you Burton by the same conveyance, directed to the care of 
your Agent, Sam. Newton who, I dare say, will take care to forward it to 
you. 1 wish I cou'd accompany it myself: but I fancy it wou'd not be right 
nor fitting for us to have everything we wish for, so I will endeavour to be a 
little bit of a Philosopher. 

Whitehurst has entirely lost my good opinion. For some time back he 
has evinced a disposition not at all consistent with my Ideas of a true Clerical 
Character, but of late there has happen'd a circumstance which has proved 
him to possess the most vindictive temper. A poor wretch of a Parson 
happened to say something about W. being a Republican, which according 
to the rule of Tittle Tattle was brought round to him. Our friend, thinking 
that this might possibly prevent his being invited to some houses, employed 
a Manx Lawyer to threaten him with a prosecution for Scandal, & talked of 
carrying it into the Consistory Court at York which, as most other Religious 
Courts do, abounds in terrible consequences to any unfortunate Wight 
who happens to fall into their Clutches. This language, together with 
a most ferocious deportment, and the words Base, Vilianous, Malicious, 
Infamous, &c. &c, &c, so terrified the poor wretch that, under the 
impression of terror, he was induced to sign a most ample recantation of 
his Errors, drawn up by Mr. W. on the spot, acknowledging himself Base, 
False, & Malicious. This paper has, according to the true spirit of forgive- 
ness which the Ministers of the Gospel preach, been most industriously 
circulated by his Revd Brother ; and I am glad to find that it has the effect 
which it deserves. People begin to enquire who Mr. W. is ? What brought 
him here ? and a number of other awkward questions, which nobody can 
answer except W. himself, who does not seem inclined to satisfy their 
enquiries. 

As to ^neas Anderson I have seen him often, & have been in his com- 
pany once. He is a very poor creature. Take my word for it he never 
wrote the Book in question. He is not capable. Perhaps he may have 
furnished the Matter, which has been worked up into its present appearance 
by some able Book-wright, a trade which flourishes greatly in London. This 
aforesaid ^neas has lately cut a conspicuous figure in the annals of Manx 
Scandal. 

I am sorry to add, by way of Postscript, that the Nunnery Mill was 
entirely destroyed by fire in one Night between last Thursday and Friday. 
It is not known how it happen'd, but, because Blundell was insured about 
;^200O some people, very charitably, suppose that it must have been done by 
design, although there is not the least probability of its being more than half 
the value. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 8. 19 

In another part of the letter there is a long story that 
-/Eneas Anderson had sold his wife for ;^5o to Caesar 
Tobin. This was a canard circulated by Lord Henry 
Murray, and it seems strange that it should have been 
believed, and that the victim should not have been liked 
by Captain Cable. iEneas Anderson, to whom Cable 
alludes as the Chinese Traveller, belonged to a well-known 
Manx family, and may be considered a clever and expe- 
rienced man. In the years 1792-4, he accompanied Earl 
Macartney, British Ambassador to China, and published 
a most interesting account of the Embassy, which, it may 
be noted, went to Pekin by way of the Pacific, and 
returned round the Cape of Good Hope, so that they 
completed the circuit of the globe. Anderson afterwards 
served under Sir Ralph Abercromby in the Mediterranean, 
at which time he was a lieutenant in the 40th Regiment. 
In 1802 he published an excellent "Journal of the Forces 
in Egypt under Sir Ralph Abercromby." Mr. Anderson 
afterwards resided in London, where it is to be hoped he 
found more congenial society, Caesar Tobin and Lord 
Henry Murray were respectively Captain and Colonel in 
the same Manx Regiment in which Anderson, at the date 
of these letters, also had a commission. The whole story, 
therefore, favours the idea of a messroom jest. It is suffi- 
ciently interesting as showing the boisterous mood of the 
period. The belief that the sale of a wife is a valid 
contract survives even to this day in certain remote 
quarters of the North of England, though, of course, there 
has never been any justification for the idea. 

On March 13th, Cable writes : — 

After a number of fruitless enquiries I have at last met with a little 
Poney, which I think will suit my friend John : and as Brew means to sail 
this day I shall put it on board his vessel, and consign it to the care of Mr 



20 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

Wakefield. It is a small Bay Mare, three years old next May, with a full Tail 
and Mane, & I believe (for I have not measured her) that she is ten hands 
in height. In short it is such a one as I have never before seen on this 
Island, and I flatter myself she will please both my young friend and his 
father. 

As there is at Present no signs of Peace I had almost given up all hopes 
of seeing you this year, but your last letter has renewed them again ; and I 
have, in consequence of it, enlarged my Boat considerably. I have added 
six feet to her keel & rais'd her near a foot, so that she is now a compleat 
four-oared Boat, & has good accommodation for five or six people. If the 
same party who accompanied you last year should repeat their visit this 
summer I flatter myself that I shall be able to make their Water Parties 
much pleasanter than I cou'd do before. If you come I must beg you will 
give me a little previous notice that I may have time to look out for 
Lodgings for you, in order to prevent your being turn'd out of doors as you 
was before. I have frequently indulged Twentyman by telling him how 
much money you paid Clague ; and, in order to please him more, nearly 
doubled the sum. He always seems devilish sore to think that he suffered 
so much to go by him ; «&, by way of excuse, he says it was a mistake. That 
he expected the Man in Black and his party wou*d have spent more money 
than you & your party cou'd do ; and I really believe was you to try him 
again he wou'd take you in. 

" Friend John " was, of course, Colonel Leigh Philips*^ 
son, afterwards Lieut. John Philips. R.N. Messrs. Clague 
and Twentyman were Manx houseowners, who were in 
the habit of letting their premises to visitors. 

On July 3rd, Cable writes : — 

I own I ought to be ashamed for not writing long e'er this, to thank 
you for the books that you was so good as to send me ; and likewise for the 
attention that you showed to Mr Farrill, my Midshipman, who call'd upon 
you sometime since at Manchester. He is a very worthy fellow, and I shou'd 
most certainly have given him a Letter of introduction to you had I known of 
his intention, to visit your town, sooner. He is now in England again, and 
perhaps may again call upon you ; and you possibly may think it strange that 
you have never heard his name mention'd by me. I know but little of his 
History ; what I do know has given me good impressions in his favour, & 
his behaviour in the station which he holds under my command has ever 
been perfectly correct. So much for Farrill. 

Do you know that I have a very great longing to see you again in 
Manxland ? I am become a very great Fisherman. Five or six days in the 
Week I am upon the Water. My Boat turns out to be a fine sea boat and 
my men are very fond of her, because they catch an amazing quantity of Fish 



Manchester Memoirs ^ Vol xlv, (1901), No, 8. 21 

in her. For this Month past Skate has been the order of the day. We have 
caught from twenty to thirty each day on the long line; besides Cod, 
Whiting, Pollock, and other Fish. The Whiting here are far superior to any 
that I have met with elsewhere. I have had several that weighed upwards 
of four pounds each and one that was near five pounds : and as these fish 
bite extremely free, the sport, of course, has been excellent. If you can 
possibly break loose, do let me see you this summer. I had hopes of seeing 
you in England before this time. A very excellent friend of mine had 
applied to Lord Spencer, in my behalf, for promotion ; and his Lordship had 
promised him that I should have a Ship and another step ; but the business 
is now over, and I am like to stay here during the War ; so, if we are to 
meet, you must come & see me, for I cannot leave my Station. 

For the last three months we have been greatly alive in Mona. The 
Duke and Duchess of Atholl & family have been here since the beginning 
of April : the consequence has been that we have danced like Devils, & 
drank like Fish ; Not to mention that we have been craming ourselves with 
eating. Noon & Night. I am heartily tired with the business, and am glad 
to hear that they lake their departure from hence in about a fortnight. 

The second Earl Spencer, on his return from his 
embassy to Vienna in 1794, was made First Lord of the 
Admiralty, an office he held for six years, in some respects 
the most remarkable period in our Naval history. At this 
time all promotion in the Navy was based upon influence 
at headquarters, hence Cable's anxiety to get a word or 
two privately into his Lordship's ear. 

Apparently Philips was unable to accept his friend's 
invitjation, as will be gathered from the next letter : — 

Douglas, Septr i8th, 1796. 

I reed Mrs Philips' kind present of Fruit by Brew. Except being rather 
too long on their Passage they arrived in good order : the Melons, only, had 
suffered damage ; and from what I could judge of them, even in that state, 
the Crimean Melon promises to be a valuable acquisition in Gardening. The 
Seeds were very fine, and I gave them to the Major's gardener who seemed 
extremely well pleased with them. They were enough to plant an Acre of 
Ground, of Course he will not want any more this Season. 

I hope you will have no great occasion to regret the loss of the 
Sisymbrium Monanx^ for I think I have got you an entire Plant, Root, 
Leaves, Seeds, & Flowers. I will send it by, the first opportunity. By the 
bye, Farrill is going to England soon, and as he talks of seeing Manchester I 
believe I shall send it by him. He seems extremely anxious to get forward 
in the World, & wants to borrow money upon his annuity. I have lent him 



22 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut.-CoL Philips, 

Thirty Pounds on his own Note, which even if I lose I shall not care much 
about, but I have no Idea of advancing him more. It is very probable that 
he may consult you on the subject, but I beg you will not let your friendship 
for me induce you to do anything in the business. I do not know him suffi- 
ciently to rely on him ; nor do I know how he has contrived to get rid of his 
fortune, which, I am told, was once very ample. All 1 know of him is that 
has behaved very well in his present situation, and that his manners are those 
of a Gentleman ; but as I have never had occasion to try his bottom I do not 
know whether it is good or bad. 

Mrs Cable & Sarah have been in the Country about ten days. I got 
them comfortable accommodations at Banks, with whom I am become very 
well acquainted. You have seen him, and must remember him to be a great 
oddity. Mrs C. continues extremely ill. I shall be much obliged to you if 
you will consult Ferriar in the Case, and give him a guinea if you think 
it enough. Be so good as to let me hear from you as soon as possible. 

The Sisymbrium Monanx is, Mr. Charles Bailey tells 
me, the Brassica Monencis^ or " Isle of Man Cabbage." It 
is now fairly common on the West Coast of Lancashire. 

On October 7th, 1796, Cable writes: — 

Your letters and kind presents have all arriv'd safe, except the Turtle, 
which stunk abominably. I sent it, by way of a Genteel Present to Major 
Taubman, the instant I got it on shore, without examining it, and the 
moment it was open'd they were obliged to throw it to the Dung-Hill. 
Grten Fat and all. I hope you will not attempt, in future to send any 
perishable commodities to this Place. The Passage,, you know, is very 
uncertain ; and the close hold of a Vessel has a great tendency to bring on 
putrefaction. I shall, however, be much obliged to you if you will execute, 
or cause to be executed, for me a small commission ; which is to send me a 
piece of Handkerchiefs, of the PuUicat kind, for the Pockett, tolerably 
coarse — a Bottle of James' Powder, and if you can spare me a piece of 
printed Callicoe for a Camp bed it will add to the obligation. The price 
about from 2/- to 2/4^- Sarah wishes it may have Men & Women on it. 
The Colour either Blue & White, or Purple & White, whichever is the 
most likely to Wash best. 

The suggested design for the calico was a very familiar 
one in times past. 

On November nth, Cable writes : — 

The Conjuror arrived in due time, and his abilities were tried the day 
he arrived. He performs to a miracle. I hope to give you various 
specimens of his talents the next Summer ; for I take it for granted you will 
repeat your visit to Mona, & that you will come in force. Indeed, unless 
you come in Person yon are not likely to get the small plant from Douglas 
head. There is such a multiplicity of these small leaved plants that I cannot 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 8. 23 

distinguish one from another. The Sisymbrium Monanx was of a different 
description and I could not well mistake it. 

The Flying Squirrel is perfectly alive, & a very great favourite with 
Sarah «fc the rest of us. She «fc I amuse ourselves most evenings with a 
Squirrel hunt which the little Animal seems to enjoy much, although he 
does not wag his little Tail. 

The Conjuror is a reference to a box of chemical and 
physical apparatus which Colonel Philips had sent to 
Cable, who was very fond of such scientific recreations. 

The next letter is dated December 4th : — 

Since I wrote to you last I have reed seven silk pocket handkerchiefs 
together with some strawberry plants for Major Taubman, and a most 
glorious Cheese for Messrs. Arthur Brew and Co., which has been divided 
among them to their entire satisfaction and astonishment. Poor Arthur 
was almost overcome with gratitude. Lewthwaite " grinned horribly a 
gastly smile." Corlett seem'd ready to guillotine anyone who seemed 
inclin'd to ravish the prize from him ; and Cantanhasons himself was much 
moved. In short they all entered into a Covenant to fish for you, and with 
you, as often as you desired. You know a Manx Man has not a single Idea 
void of Fish ; and of all Fish, Herring & Gobbock seem to have occupied 
most of their minds, so you may be assured they wish you plenty of both. 

We have had some very capital quarrelling lately between Mr Whaley's 
Vassall, and mine Ancient. It shou'd have terminated in a Duel, but 
Whaley k his slave made so much Noise about it, that Fleming was put 
under an arrest ; and I gave him orders not to leave the Island ; which by 
the bye, I do not believe he meant to do ; after which, the other party, very 
consistently, posted him for a Coward and a Scoundrel. In short it has been 
a true Irish business from first to last. An heap of Blunders, Noise, and 
inconsistence. Fleming has since published a state of facts between himself 
«fe Vassall. This is done in somewhat better a manner, it having been 
revised by a person of the name of Carr, whom you saw here under the name 
of Cooper. Besides this business there has been one or two bye battles. 
Midford versus the Bishop : & Midford & Whitehurst versus the same. 
An Anonymous Letter has been written to the Archbishop of York 
against our Right Reverend, & Midford & Whitehurst are grievously 
suspected to be the Authors. Lastly there has been a Copy of 
Verses handed about accusing Speed of Atheism ; and Livesey of 
Gluttony. If I can procure a Copy of them I will send them to 
you. You will find by the above that this Island is not entirely a scene of 
still life. Indeed it is far from being so. We have had a large importation 
of strangers since you left us, tfe they have introduced dissipation, <fe whatever 
else has a tendency to make the place unpleasant. As for my part I am only 
an indifferent Spectator ; and I have hitherto kept myself clear of their 
Society. I sometimes, though not often, see the \_Major\ He is by far the 



24 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut.-CoL Philips, 

best acquaintance I have. He is obliged to you for the Plants, & hopes 
to treat you with some of the fruit at some future period, I hope next Summer. 
The James's powder and Callicoe are not yet arrived. 

The Powder which your brother sent is most excellent. Pray to tell him 
that I am greatly obliged to him for it. It has kept my larder constantly 
furnished with Game. I have likewise enlarged my establishment by the 
addition of 12 Lobster pots, which perform to a miracle. 

Messrs. Arthur Brew, Lewthwaite, and Cantanhasons 
were connected with the Naval Service, and were serving 
under Captain Cable. Mr. Whaley, an Irishman, was a 
neighbouring landowner. Fleming seems to have been a 
kind of mixture— half clerk, half boatswain. Mr. Carr 
was, apparently, a schoolmaster at Peel, a "tall spare 
figure, dressed in a rusty black coat, and a woollen night- 
cap." Ryley, whose own favourite study at Peel was 
" Zimmerman on Solitude,'* further says that Carr was 
one of the most profound moralists and philosophers of 
the day. Carr used to instruct all the children in the 
neighbourhood for nothing, though his house is said to 
have been little better than a pigsty. Mr. Carr*s strong 
denial of the Athanasian Creed struck the Manxmen 
dumb with alarm, and till the day of his death they 
expected to see him carried off bodily by the powers of 
darkness. He was a vegetarian, at that time a great 
rarity, and among other accomplishments had considerable 
medical skill, wherewith he doctored the country people 
for nothing. The identity of this worthy with Philips' 
acquaintance is not clearly established, but for many 
reasons it is very probable. The Bishop at this time was 
Dr. Claudius Crigan, appointed in 1784. 

On January 7th, 1797, Cable writes an extremely 
pressing invitation, and continues : — 

We have been very busy here, for this Week past, in putting on our 
fighting face. I am entrusted \^ith the direction of the Batteries, and have 
got the old Fort, and the two guns in it, quite serviceable. I have likewise 
constructed a pretty little Battery of two 18 pounders just beyond Whaley's 



* Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 8. 25 

Garden. If I had but a Corporal Trim I could almost fancy myself an 
Uncle Toby. As it is I must content myself with an Arthur and a Luther, 

"Luther'' is Martin Luther, a man attached to Captain 
Cable's establishment The next letter explains the 
purpose of the batteries : — 

Douglas, March 9th, 1797. 
My dear Sir, 

Yours of the 14th Ult. found its way hither on the 28th. Pretty quick 
travelling, you will say : but as it had remained a week or more in Liverpool 
it may, in some measure, be accounted for. 

From the repeated visits of the French in this Neighbourhood I am not 
surprised at your account of the Arming, or armament, which appears in the 
Manufacturing parts of the Kingdom. Indeed it behoves every Man. at 
this time, to set his hand to the Plough ; or rather to change his Ploughshare 
into a Sword. From the knowledge \^ hich you have of the Apathy of Manx 
Men you will not expect great things from us. For my own part I expect 
nothing. To be sure I am not greatly apprehensive of a visit from the Goths 
& Vandals ; but shou'd such an event take place, I think our only defence 
wou'd be our long eighteen pounders, of which we have now six ready for 
use ; although I must confess there is one thing which prevents me from 
having any great reliance on them. The reason is trifling, to be sure ; but it 
is a reason. We have little or no powder here : and I have never heard 
that even a long eighteen pounder cou'd do any great damage without 
powder. It is true we have shot enough, & wads, but still a long eighteen 
pounder, even with the help of shot & wads, cannot do what it ought to 
do, without powder. However, as this is a Land of Genius's, some of them, 
perhaps, may strike out something new in that way, and shew us that Powder 
is absolutely needless. Great things, you know, have been found out by 
Great Genius's. I own my greatest reliance is in our own insignificance, 
k the situation of this Island ; I mean its Geographical situation which 
seems to be in the very bosom of the British Empire. You will give me 
credit, I daresay, when I tell you we have been sufficiently alarmed already. 
I have been in rather an awkward situation since I wrote to you last. The 
business is this. Somebody had written a letter in Joe Bacon's name, desiring 
to be employed ; an answer was reed from the Secretary to the Duke of York 
saying that his request shou'd be complied with. Bacon, knowing that he 
had not written himself, was, of course, very angry, and wrote to Colonel 
Browning stating the forgery, and requesting to have the Letter sent to him, 
which was done, <& being shewn to everyone who wish'd to see it, was among 
others, seen by Livesey, who produced a Letter of mine which bore a strong 
resemblance to the one in question. Th is, you may think, rais'd a loud 
Clamour against me, though I am sure you will acquit me of any such imper- 
tinence. This clamour continued until it was superseded by matters of as 
great consequence. But enough of this. 



26 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips. 

Pray do you know, or have you heard, of a Person of the name of 
Limburgh ? My reason for asking is this : A Woman came to Farril's house 
last Night who says her name is L. that she & her husband liv'd a little 
while since in, or near, Manchester, & that they have been unfortunate. 
She showed a letter to Farrill's Wife (for Farril himself has been in England 
7 or 8 weeks, God knows what about) directing her to come to Mr. Farril 
in the Isle of Man, & there wait the arrival of her Husband. This appears 
so very mysterious that Mrs. F. does not know What to do, having never 
heard her husband mention any person of the name. In short, she is at a 
loss how to act, her husband not having written to her these three weeks. 
If he shou'd chance to call upon you, pray endeavour to come at the bottom 
of it. 

Mrs. Cable & Sarah unite with me in every friendly wish for yourself, Mrs. 
Philips, Mrs. Potter (who we heartily wish may meet with pleasure in her 
London excursion) and every other part of your family to whom we are 
known. I am, my dear Sir, ever yours 

SAM. CABLE. 

I have hardly room left to acquaint you with the Melancholy account of 
the Death of our poor little Squirrel, which set out on a visit to its father about 
six weeks since. Sarah did not quite loose her senses on this occasion, 
although she was very near it. 

What do you think of Sir John Jervis's affairs; Is he not a noble 
fellow ? We were terribly alarmed last night by two of our Frigates, & a 
Sloop, which were off the Calf and Castletown. We all put on our fierce 
looks, but as the night was very cold it is not to be wonder'd at that some 
of the terrible ones shou'd shake a little. As for my own part, I have been 
confin'd this fortnight, I contented myself with giving orders from my Fire- 
side like a great commander. Adieu. 

The last attack made by the French upon the Island 
had been in the year 1 755- 

Banks's, May I2th, 1797. 
After being detained eight days at Liverpool by contrary winds, and 
two whole days and nights on my passage, I arrived here on Monday 
morning, much fatigued both in body & mind. 1 In Mind I say : for I cou'd 
not divest myself of the Idea of falling in with some of those Privateers which 
infest this Channel, One of which had taken, only two days before we left 
Liverpool, a Smack belonging to Peel on her Passage from Ireland to that 
place : and as our tract lay nearly across the place where the Privateer was 
left, there was, at least, a possibility of our sharing the same fate. For you 
know very well that the Nelly and Betty falls somewhat short of a line of 
Battle Ship in her appointments ; and she is not quite so fleet as Achilles in 
her going. Added to which, I was off my Station without leave, and had I 
been taken I do not know what the consequences mitjht have been. These 
Ideas, added to my bodily Infirmity, had a prodigious effect on my whole 
frame, and I wou'd not again undergo what I suffered during those two day 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 8. 27 

for more than I dare mention. I am happy to say that I found my two dear 
friends here as well as I could wish. To say, barely, that we were all glad 
to meet each other, wou'd very poorly express what we felt. The meeting 
was such as might naturally be expected between People who Love each 
other as we do. I believe we shall, neither of us, wish to leave the Island 
again until we can all do so together The truly friendly atten- 
tion I received from you both while I was under your Roof will be ever 
remember'd by me with the greatest pleasure and the warmest gratitude. 

From the above we gather that Captain Cable had 
made a stolen visit to his friends at Mayfield, and that he 
returned to the Island by the " Nelly and Betty," a cargo 
h&aX plying between Liverpool and Douglas, under the 
command of Captain Quayle. During the summer Cable 
was in the habit of leaving his house in Douglas and 
retiring into the country, a fact which accounts for the 
change of address. The next letter is a spirited account 
of various trivialities : — 

Balla-na-How, June 9'h 1797. 

I hasten to mention a business which we all have much at heart : I 
mean your Visit, this Summer, to Mona. The Town of Douglas is so full of 
Irish, & other Strangers that I believe there is scarce a Bed to be procured 
there. However I have made a sort of Conditional agreement with your old 
Landlord, Twenty man, who now lives at the Hague : he has three decent 
Bedrooms and a pretty Parlour, together with tolerable Garretts for Servants. 
He asks a guinea a week for these, & will either find you in Provisions, or you 
may find yourselves as you like best. He says the Cook which he has at 
present is not so good a one as he cou'd wish ; but in every other respect he 
will accommodate you on the same terms he did last year. Now as you 
do not want to come from home to see the beauties of Douglas ; and as the 
Hague has the advantage of good air, is in the neighbourhood of the Sea, 
and not more than three hundred yards from this said place of Balla-na-How 
(is it not a most unchristian-like, beastly name ?) I say for all these good reasons 
you will be infinitely better accommodated there, and much more in your own 
way, than you cou'd possibly be in Douglas. Besides, my Boat, the famous Mona 
of Douglas, comes uj) to Banks's Harbour every morning, and Messrs. Arthur, 
Luther & Co. will be happy to lend you all the services in their power to 
make a few weeks pass away agreeably. I have promised Twentyman to 
give him an answer as soon as possible, and in the meantime have agreed to 
pay him a Guinea for waiting until I have your Letter, as there are people 
continually coming here and, of course, wanting Lodgings. You will, 
therefore let me hear from you by return of Post. And if you shou'd agree 
to come soon, which, by the bye, I wou'd recommend, John Brew is now 



28 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut, -CoL Philips, 

in Liverpool and will waft you over, as you very well know, in the best stile. 
As for the French Privateer that took the Peel Smack, I find she was never 
within a hundred miles of this place. It was off Youghall bay, which is only 
about thirty miles to the northward of Cork. And in order to avoid the 
impossibility of any inconvenience on that head you may easily procure a 
Passport from Mr. Massey, certifying that you are a Citizen of America. 
But you may be assured that there has never been an enemy's vessel within 
a hundred miles of this place during the War. 

Sporting Intelligence. 

I hooked a monster of a Red Cod the day before yesterday, & after a 
a very severe battle my hook broke. N.B. it was one of the largest of those 
you gave me at Manchester. Mem, Gymp is an excellent Snood. 

The Hague is in Oncan parish, a mile or two north of 
Douglas, on the shore. Feltham mentions a Mr. James 
Bancks living at Houstrake, which is close by. A Captain 
Cook, who is mentioned also by the Duke of Rutland^ 
would seem to have been living at the Hague at this 
time. 

Colonel Philips accepted this invitation, and took his 

family for a stay of some weeks at the Island, as we see 

by the next letter : — 

Balla-na-How, Augst. 19th, 1797. 

My dear Sir, 

The Surrey arrived here last Monday, and brought me abundance of 
things from you, none of them more valuable than your Letter which gave 
me an account of your safe arrival at Liverpool. I rejoyce, most sincerely, my 
dear friend, to find that your excursion has terminated so favourably ; 
especially as I have, myself, experienced so many bad passages : and, I hope, 
both yourself, Mrs. Philips, and the Children, have laid in a sufficient store 
of health to carry you through the Winter. By this time, I suppose, you are 
comfortably fix*d in your own habitation ; and I flatter myself that you 
sometimes think of your friends in Mona. I am sure you have none in any 
other part of the World who are more sincerely so, or who are more interested 
in your welfare. Indeed, since you left us I feel as if I had lost a principal 
Limb ; and a Loss of that sort, you know, is not easily supplied. In this 
place, I need not say, there is no substitute. The Grapes you sent were 
excellent. I wish I had anything to send Wakefield in return ; but, unluckily, 
even the Herrings seeem to have forsaken us, there not having been even 
one tolerable Night this Season ; and, at present, the best Fishers say there is 
no Sign. If they (that is the Herrings) do not pay us another visit, you 
know, we must, of course, be all ruin'd. The Congers, however, are on this 
Coast in force. I took one, on the Long line, the day before yesterday, 
that weighed thirty two pounds ; and upwards of a dozen others of a smaller 



Manchester Memoirs Vol. xlv. (1901), No, 8. 29- 

size. It is the only time I could get bait since you left the Island. The 
Congers were, in general, Duplicates ; all the large ones having swallowed 
one of a less size. So much for Fishing. 

I want to know a great number of things. Is your Sister Potter 
married ! And. if she is, are they gone to Arley ? Is Bessy more kind to 
G. L. ? Is Rattcliffe got fix'd at Oxford ? And do you think that the Election 
for a Secretary to the Infirmary will terminate according to your wishes ? I 
must own I was pleas'd with the respect the Trustees paid you, in adjourning 
the Board. It was a proper compliment, but it will subject you to some incon- 
venience. But you know how to manage these matters as well as most 
folks ; and, I trust, you will see your way through. 

Mrs. Cable and Sarah unite with me in every kind, every friendly wish 
for the health & happiness of you all. That we may, at some future 
period, be settled somewhere in your Neighbourhood is the sincere wish of 
my heart. Adieu. Believe me most truly your friend 

S. CABLE. 

I forgot to say that the Money, Basketts etc, arrived safe and that I 
drew upon you in favour of 20 Man for 50 Guineas the day after you left us. 
Do let me hear from you soon. 

Colonel Leigh Philips' connection with the Manchester 
Infirmary was fully explained in Part I. of these 
" Selections." " Bessy," alluded to in the letter, was his 
younger sister Elizabeth, who in 1798 married her cousin, 
the Rev. George Leigh, A.M. 

There are a number of letters from Mr. John Radcliffe^ 
of Brasenose College, Oxford, preserved with Philips^ 
other correspondence. From these it appears he was on 
very intimate terms with Cable, and thought highly of 
him. From a letter from Radcliffe to Philips, dated July 
26th, we gather that he had been spending the summer at 
Douglas in 1797. The following letter, dated Aug. 24th, 
1797, tells of some characteristics of the Manx popula- 
tion : — 

Last Monday being the finest day we have had this Season, and Banks not 
having al)Ove six Acres of Hay cut, thought he cou'd not do better than 
go upon the Fish, he being, as he told me, as tired as a Dog with staying on 
shore ; he accordingly went out in the Cat. His sons being, I suppose, as 
tired as their father with doing nothing, and having nothing at all to do with 
the Hay, very properly took to the Mountains, the natural situation of Savages, 
and in the Evening retum'd with four brace and a half of Moor Game, three 



30 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

brace of which I got from them, and Mrs. Cable & Sarah have contriv*d to 
stuff them into two Pots along with Spices, Butter &c &c. Yesterday 
Lewthwaite had a whole day of Shooting. He brought home two Brace of 
Golden Plover, a Partridge, a Snipe, & a fine Rail. These I wou'd have 
ventured in their feathers along with the Moor Game but the Wind is come 
to the Southward this morning, and I am afraid Quayle will have a long 
Passage. However, upon second thoughts, I will send a Brace of Plover 
and the Land-Rail ; these, if pack'd in Straw, cannot harm the Moor and 
their feathers may be of use in fishing. 

And now to return to friend Banks's day's work. He returned in the 
Evening, with a small Rock-Cod which I gave him sixpence for, and a few 
Bollans ; these were the joint produce of himself & one of his best Haymakers. 
He is, indeed, a choice fellow. I asked him the other day what he was 
going to do that day ? *' Indeed, says he, '* there is no day lost here." If 
they are not lost I wonder what the devil he does with them. I fancy your 
friend Wakefield wou'd think his days lost were he to spend them like 
my landlord. 

The next letter (dated Sept. nth) refers to the death 
of Wright, the painter, of Derby : — 

The weather has been miserable ever since you left us. No Fish on 
the Coast, but most enormous long faces on shore. We certainly shall all 
be ruin'd, but that, you'll say, is a trifle, for if the whole Island was sunk it 
would be so much clear gain to England. 

With regard to Banks, I must inform you that he finished his Hay 
Harvest last Saturday; having begun it three Weeks before you left the 
Hague. He told me, the other day, ** Indeed ever3rthing is trouble." He 
meant about a farm ; for he certainly delights to go upon the Crab^ and the 
Cod, 

Alas ! poor Wright ! I have just been reading in Gore's Liverpool 
paper, the account of his death, drawn up, I believe, by you. I can say all 
impartial people will think the account perfectly fair. That he was the first 
of English Painters I most sincerely believe. Apropos I did not you say 
you wou'd send a i)rint of his Dead Soldier to Taubman ? You cou'd not 
send him a handsomer, or more proper, present. 

I have always suspected that I was not cut out for a conjuror. In my 
last essays I have had very bad luck. I have spoiled a ^^hole Well of water 
opposite our door with that damn'd vile liquid Phosphorous ; and almost 
blinded myself with those rascally Prince Ruperts Drops^ and what is worse 
I^have frightened Nobody but myself. 

The Herring is, of course, in most minds, inevitably 
associated with the Isle of Man, and even so long ago as 
the end of the last century, was a favourite subject for 
jesting ; the Manx, however, found in the fishery the 



MancJuster Memoirs^ VoL xlv. (1901), No, 8. 31 

source of their greatest profit, and they treated it 
with a solemnity quite as laughable as the jeers of their 
foreign visitors. 

The next letter is very quaint and gossipy : — 

Douglas, Octr. 13th, 1797. 

We have had a very bad Herring fishing indeed. Not a Fish cured for 
sale in the whole Island : but Gobbock have been, and still continue to l>e, 
in great force. Some of them are from six to seven feet long. They play 
the very Devil with the Herring Nets, generally making three very large 
holes, each of them. 

I have reed all your favours, the Lines included : they appear to be 
very good ; but the Weather has been so cold, and the Fish so very scarce, 
that I have not yet wetted them. My present amusement is riding. I have 
bought a very ugly, black, Irish Horse, with a bald Face. He carries me 
my pace (which is a Walk) very well, and, as he does not appear to have 
any of his countrymen's bad Tricks, I believe we shill agree very well. 

I have spoken to 20 about some Potatoes. He offers to lay them at 
Liverpool at 2/2<i a Bushel of 90 pounds weight. I told him it was too dear, 
but as I promised to write to you on the Subject, I could not avoid mention- 
ing it. I will make further inquiries, and let you know if I hear anything 
worth your notice. At present it is too early to dig them for winter store, so 
that there will be time enough to make enquiries. 

The person that 20 wrote to you about has, at length, made his appear- 
ance. He brought a Note from our friend G. Hulme, who I shall be 
extremely happy to oblige by showing Mr. Gatliff what little attentions I 
can. It seems he has brought his wife along with him. Her I have not yet 
seen. He appears to be rather eccentrick. I wish you wou'd take the 
trouble of letting me know something about him. I dare say that Mr. 
Hulme would not have given him an introduction without knowing him ; 
but as he does not say a word about a wife I don't know what to make of it ; 
especially as we have such a number of ripps and scamps here. This is 
only to yourself. 

Monsr Huquier has been making duplicates of myself, Mrs Cable, & 
Sarah. He intends being in Manchester e'er long, & will, I dare say, give 
you an early call. He appears to be an intelligent, facetious, old man. He 
has been very happy in his likenessess of Mrs. C. & Sarah ; and they say of 
me also. They wou'd not sit without I wou'd, & so they have persuaded 
me to be a fool once more. 

I shou'd have told you that I have broke up my Summer camp and am 
now in my Cottage in Town. We have been removed something more than 
a Week. You, I suppose, are taking the wiser measure of leaving the Town 
for the Country. I wish you every enjoyment in your new purchase. I only 
wish it had been somewhere in this Island. I wou'd most certainly have been 
your Neighbour. Here is a nice estate upon sale at present. I believe 



32 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

about 500 acres, it is called Balla-Fletcher. Kirk-Braddon is almost in the 
centre of it. It is to be sold either altogether or separately. I am told the 
whole has been offer'd for six thousand pounds. Unfortunately, like all 
other estates in this Island, there is no house on it. 



Heath's Engraving is arrived safe. The Major is very much obliged and 
I am the same. Wright^ Dead Soldier is Alive, 

" Mr. Gatliff " is the renowned Parson John Gatliffe, 
of the Collegiate Church, Manchester. Mrs. Linnaeus Banks 
says he was "a fine man, a polished gentleman, an 
eloquent preacher, but a bon vivant of whom many odd 
stories are told." He was appointed a Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, March 13th, 1798, in place of Dr. 
Maurice Griffiths, D.D., the rector of St. Mary's, and rural 
dean, who died on February 2Sth. 

Jacques Gabriel Huquier, the son of Gabriel Huquier, 
was born in Paris, in 1725, and received his art education 
in his father's studio. He afterwards came to England, 
and exhibited several times in the Royal Academy during 
the years 1771-86. He took portraits in crayons, and 
engraved large numbers of plates, some of them in 
conjunction with his father. He lived in London and 
Cambridge, and died at Shrewsbury in 1805. 

On November 3rd, Cable writes : — 

I shall send along some seeds of the Ornithopus & some Roots of that bold 
Purple flower which grew in my Garden, I don't know its name, but it is 
something like a Fox glove. You must find out yourself what it is good for. 

Yesterday I was honor'd with my quondam Landlord's Company at 
Dinner who, I thank God, had not lost his appetite, for I really believe he 
eat more than all my Family could eat in a Week, but he seems to differ in 
some respects from most other Savages for he is by no means so fond of 
Liquor as he is of meat. The Beef, the Fish, the Pudding, & the Tater 
seem to be more to his taste, and I think he had them all upon his plate at 
once. I told him that I had lately heard from you, & that you desired 
to be remembered to him. "He is welcome," was his answer. He is 
indeed a most curious Savage, and if you had him in Manchester I think you 
might make money of him. I am sure none of your Neighbours ever saw 
such a one. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 8. 33 

Mons. Huquier leaves this place to-morrow morning in the Duke of 
Atholl. He has taken three extreme good likenesses of Self & Co which 
were very near visiting Manchester, he not having any frames here ; but I 
talked of non payment until Delivery of Goods, so he contriv'd to procure 
Frames & Glasses. By the Bye, he turns out upon acquaintance to be a 
mere Frenchman. He is very forward ; and, I think, sometimes very rude. 
You will do well to keep him at Arm's length for he will intrude if you will 
let him. 

I am glad to find things stand so well at Arley. Indeed I never 
doubted but the Church wou'd gain a complete victory over the Presby- 
terians. To be sure our friend, George, is quite another sort of a Subject 
to what Mrs. H. has been used to. He has bottom. Potter was rather 
washy. I am heartily glad she has escaped the whole tribe. If we live to 
see the end of the War, we must certainly contrive to pay them a visit. I 
think it may be as amusing as our long talked of voyage to the Hebrides ; 
and as there is a Canal so near Arley we may possibly contrive to make our 
journey by Water. 

I have not seen Mr. Gatliff since I wrote to you ; he has taken Lodgings 
at Castletown, & has not been in Douglas since. I fancy retirement is his 
plan ; if so he may live as retired as he please there. 

You have never once mentioned whether Mr. Jervis has been with you. 

If he came I dare say you amused him much, either by a Tour of the Gardens, 

or by some other means. I was much diverted by the papers making Lord 

St. Vincent an Irishman, when all the world knows he was born in 

Staffordshire. 

• * # * # 

Huquier has certainly very Vagabond principles. 

I wonder whether little Natty was born when Wright painted his Dead 
Soldier. The Child is extremely like him. 

Mr. J. Jervis, of Darlaston, Stafifordshire, was an old 
friend of Colonel Leigh Philips ; they had probably 
become acquainted through the fact that the latter was 
himself a member of an old Staffordshire family. There 
are two letters from him in the present collection, the first 
of which, dated February i8th, 1783, is chiefly concerned 
with matters relating to the writer's garden. The other, 
dated May 23rd, 1785, relates to the subject of fruit 
culture. 

The next letter is dated December loth. 

Yours of the 14 Ultnao arrived here in about 17 days after it was wrote; 
and it was a great chance whether it ever arrived or not ; for our worthy friend, 
John Brew, had very nearly gone to Davy's Lacker, He was out two days 



34 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips. 

in the very worst weather we have had this Winter, and at last was driven 
on Shore in Derby Haven. Luckily his Vessel was a stout one <fc no lives 
were lost, and very little damage done the Duke. Farril was in her 
at the time, and arrived two days after I had got my orders to strike my 
Flag, <fe shut up my Rendezvous ; so he found himself out of Pay, after a 
very long absence from home. I fancy it is very low water Math him. How 
we shall manage about our Money, I can*t tell, but fear it will be long 
before he can make it convenient to pay. 

In my last I told you I was in Treaty for the purchase of a House : 
luckily I miss'd buying ; for as I am now quite out of employ, I possibly 
shou'd not have liked my bargain. I offered 350. The High Bailiff 
ask'd me 500 guineas. The price was exhorbitant. My offer was some- 
thing more than it is worth. Since then, Taubman has offer'd me a little 
estate of his, about a mile from Town ; and has promised to build a decent 
House upon it. If he is sincere I perhaps may take it : but I cannot depend 
upon him. How many times do you think we have been invited to his 
house since you left the Island ? not once. Upon our coming to town we 
took a very early opportunity of calling upon him, and inviting the Family 
to dine. They came and appeared very cheerful, but we were never invited 
again from that time to this. What a fine specimen of the Major's sincere 
Friendship ! 

As I have the house I at present live in until May next I shall not be in 
a hurry to come to any determination. It certainly will require much 
delibeiation, and I shall not, in haste, resolve to come to England. Mr. 
Pitt has quite alarmed me with his budgett. 

It was in Pitfs Budget of 1797, that the famous Triple 
Assessment was introduced. On Dec. i6th Cable writes : — 

I tell you, as a piece of News, that I have sold my Horse. I gave twelve 
Guineas for him, have kept him about a quarter of a year, rode him about 
twelve or fourteen times, & have sold him for ten, not guineas, but ten 
gallons of Rum, three gallons of Whiskey, and four dozen of White Wine, 
Have not I done well ? My Infantry being discharged it would have been 
wrong to have kept up my establishment of Cavalry. Besides, he had such 
a Devilish great Appetite. If he wou*d have liv'd without Hay indeed ! 
Good Night. The Packett will come in some of these days, and then we 
shall say something more. John Brew will sail when he is ready, and when 
he thinks the weather is settled good, and not a day before. Your Potatoes 
'are with him. 

2ist, The Packett has come in, and has brought yours of the 14th, but 
as my arrangements were previously made I shall not alter them. Your 
Potatoes will leave this place in a day or two. 

I have forgot to tell you that poor Whitehurst is dead. He died about 
3 Week's ago. As he left no money and was in debt, we buried him by 
subscription. I hope his obligations are buried with him. 



Manchester Memoirs^ VoL xlv. (1901), No. 8. 35 

24th. The Surrey is just come in. I have got your Pine Apple, which is 
Tery handsome, & which I thank you for. I shall astonish some of the 
Natives with it to-morrow. Sherman, Grice and his Wife (for he is married 
to a Miss Cribbin since you was here) dine with me to-morrow. I love to 
astonish People, and who does not. I believe there is another Parcel!, or 
Package, for me on board the Surry, but the first being the most perishable 
my anxiety has been greatest to get the Apple. 

The "Surrey" was a trading vessel of the island 
belonging to Captain Clegg. Mr. T. Sherman was the 
naval storekeeper at Douglas. On January 12th, 1798, 
Cable writes recommending " a sort of Clerk,'' who was 
among the other parts of his late establishment, and who 
wants employment in England ; and on March 29th, 
he says: — 

I hope you are by this time perfectly settled in your new habitation, 
where I wish you may enjoy every comfort and happiness. The removal of 
your Garden has, no doubt, been attended with great trouble ; but I must 
own I do not pity you, for I know you take great pleasure in such sort of 
trouble. Besides it will do you a great deal of good: you have plenty 
of confinement, and this must necessarily bring you much into the air, and 
give exercise both to the body and spirits. That is what it is good for, 
let George Ilulme say what he will 

It was only the other day that I was informed of Martin Luther being 
with you. If you can make him useful to you, well. But he has shewn himself 
«n ungrateful Vagabond to me since our party has been broke up ; and I am 
told has been very negligent of his family. He has killed a great deal of Game 
this Winter with my Gun, but I have never had the offer of more than one 
Hare, the rest have been taken to Farrer. I mention this only to shew you how 
much he is to be depended on ; and to shew you that he had not the sanction 
of my name when he applied to you, though it is possible he might have used 
it. The fellow, however, you know, can make himself useful on many 
occasions : only don't depend upon him. 

The reason why I have not written to you of late has been because I 
have alter'd my Nature. I have open'd a correspondence with no less than 
three Peers of the Realm, One Duke, one Earl, and one Baron. My Part, 
like that of the Lord High Treasurer in the Critick has been to Think. It 
is, however, a great Secret. Nobody has the least Idea of the Matter. I 
do not know whether I shall think to any purpose, but the business is simply 
this. I want to turn the Calf of Man into a place of confinement for Prisoners 
of War, and am at this time actually corresponding with the Duke of AthoU, 
the Earl Spencer, and Lord Curzon on this Subject. There is not, there 
-cannot be, any difficulty but one ; and that is a want of buildings to shelter 



36 Faraday, Correspondence of LieuL-CoL Philips, 

them from the Weather. Put twenty thousand on Shore there & I wou'd be 
bound to keep them there with a small, a very small force, indeed. I expect 
an Aye, or a No, by the next Packett. At present I need say no more than 
that it is a Real Secrett. You shall know the result a few days after I do. 

In a former letter you mentioned a list of Wright's works, which, by the 
bye, never arrived ; and a business of Colonel Drink water. If he is in your 
neighbourhood do the polite thing for me. I have got a most shining frame for 
the poor Soldier which cutts a great dash. 

The Lord Curzon mentioned in the letter was the first 
Viscount, father of the well-known traveller. He was the 
third son of Sir Nathaniel Curzon, M.P. for Derby (said 
to have been the only member of Parliament who dis- 
proved Sir Robert Walpole's theory that " every man has 
his price") and Mary, daughter of Sir Ralph Assheton, of 
Middleton, Lancashire. His elder brother John was 
created Lord Scarsdale in 1761, while Assheton Curzon, 
who was born in 1729, was Baron in 1794, and Viscount 
Curzon, in 1802. His son received the Howe peerage 
through his mother. 

The Colonel Drinkwater alluded to is apparently 
General Drinkwater (at the time of this letter Lieut- 
Colonel) the hero of Gibraltar, and author of the famous 
" History of the Siege." He afterwards assumed the 
name of Bethune. He was the eldest son of John 
Drinkwater, M.D., of Salford, and Elizabeth Andrews, his 
wife. It was he who erected the monument in Trinity 
Church, Salford, " to the memory of his brother Thomas 
Drinkwater, Major of His Majesty's 62nd Regiment of 
Foot, who perished at sea, on his return from the West 
Indies, the 23rd of April, 1797, aged 32 years." Dr. John 
Drinkwater, himself, who was one of the founders of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, died in 
March, 1797. 

On June 28th, Cable writes : — 

In my last I think I told you of my scheme for securing the French 
Prisoners. In consequence of my representation an Enquirer was sent 



Manchester Memoirs^ VoL xlv. (1901), No. 8. 37 

hither by the Admiralty who approved of the Place, but objected to it on 
account of the Expense of building Barracks for their Accommodation. This 
was what I had mentioned to Lord Spencer, who, I dare say was not 
displeas'd at me for the trouble I had given him, for, by the last Packett but 
one I reed orders again to procure Men. I have accordingly recommission'd 
the Mona of Douglas, and she now makes her appearance in the dress of a 
Dutch Scout ; commanded as before, and mann'd with her usual Crew, save 
& excepting Martin Luther who has betaken himself to a seafaring life, 
having entered on board an Irish Revenue Cutter where he receives the 
enormous sum of twenty six shillings per month. We have been much 
pester'd with a number of very suspicious looking Irish-folks, who have 
attempted to land on this Island, many of whom have been prevented 
coming on Shore, others have been reship'd & sent back again ; some how- 
ever have evaded the vigilance of the Guards a^d got nestled into the 
country. It is to be hoped that they will be discovered & routed, means 
being used to find them out by mustering the different Parishes, and taking 
an account of all strangers 

I am, at present, in treaty for Balla Broie, but I am afraid the Landlord 
will not put the premises into so good repair as I wish, & without which I 
will not go to it. I have a man there to-day surveying the wants & distresses 
of the "House, which are manifold, 

I have, along with this, returned your Bewick's Book of Birds. It has 
given me much amusement. It is the most beautiful thing of the sort I ever 
saw. The Tail pieces, in particular, are charmingly grouped ; and there is 
an appearance of a very sporting fancy throughout the whole. I mean to 
send along with it a book of a different description, being entirely Manx 
Manufacture. You will do me the favour to enrich your Library with it. It 
will, at least, be a curiosity to have a book that grew in the Isle of Man ; 
and if you study hard you may in time become an excellent Manx Lawyer. 
I heartily wish that our English Statute Book could be compressed to such a 
size, we shou'd much better understand what we were about. But this is no 
time for experiments. We have had a dreadful example of the consequences 
of it ; and when it will terminate fills one with awful suspense. 

I congratulate you on your Military promotion, and think that if you & 
your Battalion escape the Press Gangs, you may do well enough 

The Manx Statutes, at the time of these Letters, were 
easily contained in a single octavo volume of 500 pages. 
On September i6th, Cable writes : — 

In the first place I have to inform you that I am alive, which is what I 
cou'd not have promised you at this time a week ago, for at that time my life 
was threatened by more than one. In order that you may the better under- 
stand this business you are to know that some time since, my very good 
masters, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, sent a Vessel here for 
the purpose of Impressing a number of Men out of the Manx Herring Boats, 



38 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut, -CoL Philips, 

they having been inform'd by somebody, that several thousands were em- 
ployed in that Trade, and that there was no apparent reason why a Manx 
Fisherman shou'd not be as liable to the Impress as an English one. I 
suppose their Lordships were convinced by these arguments, for they ordered 
the Spider, Schooner, commanded by a Lieut. Harrison to proceed on this 
Station for the above purpose, and last Friday Night, but one (dreadful to 
relate) he carried their orders into effect by impressing about fifty of those 
sacred persons. Had an Earthquake happen'd or any other Convulsion of 
Nature, it cou'd not have had a more terrible effect on the Inhabitants of 
this Isle. That they were entirely ruin'd was past a doubt, and that this 
ruinous business was occasioned by Captain Cable was another truth which 
no one cou'd pretend to deny. His throat, of course, ought to be cut at 
least, and his House pulled about his ears. In the meantime he, honest 
man, showed no concern nor took any precautions about the matter. The 
bustle is now, I believe a little subsided, & there has been no throats cutt, 
nor any houses puU'd down. The Keys have, however, had a meeting 
about the business, and they have memorialised the Admiralty representing 
I suppose that the persons of their fishermen ought to be held sacred, and 
demanding that this terrible business shou'd be no more repeated. And 
now you have got a history of the most eventful circumstance that ever 
happened to the Isle of Man. 

The Press Gang was a grievance of long standing 
in the Isle of Man. In 1795, the Duke of Atholl, as 
Governor, added greatly to his popularity there by 
writing to the British Government, and inducing them to 
promise protection in the matter to the Manx fishermen. 
The result of this is seen in the letter. 

The next letter tells of the death of Mrs. Cable : — 

Douglas, Dec. 5th 1798. 
My dear friend, 

This will be the shortest, and the most melancholy Letter I ever wrote 
to you — Mrs. Cable is no more, she died last Wednesday after about three 
weeks illness, of a low Putrid Fever, from which I am but just recover'd. 
This Event will cause me to leave the Isle of Man : for as neither my dear 
Sarah nor myself have anyone to lean to except each other, the Survivor of 
us wou'd be in a dreadful situation upon the Death of either : an event 
which must necessarily happen some time or other. I mean to come to 
England in a very short time to consult yourself, and those few friends I have, 
about a Situation. As I hope to see you e'er long I shall say no more than 
that I am and shall ever remain, your, & Mrs. Philips's, most sincere & 
affectionate friend. 

Sam. Cable. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 8. 39 

Sarah begs I will make her most affectionate regards to you both. 
Farril is broke all to pieces. I am afraid your ;^50 and my £^o is 
entirely lost. He does not appear to me in a very favourable light. 

The postscript contains a very natural conclusion. 
The next letter is dated January ist, 1799 : — 

I this day reed your very friendly letter of the 28th Ult.m., and have 
taken the earliest opportunity of thanking you for it. When we are in 
trouble the Friendly Offices and expressions of those whom we Love & 
Esteem are doubly acceptable, and make the deepest impression ; and such 
an efifect has your kind letter had both upon Sarah and myself. She looks 
up to you & Mrs. Philips as to the two dearest friends she has in the World 
after me ; and begs that I will oflfer her sincere thanks to you both for your 
very friendly invitation, which, I hope, we shall be enabled to expect in the 
course of Next Summer ; when we flatter ourselves that we shall be lucky 
enough to persuade you both to accompany us back to the Island, where we 
can accommodate you perfectly well for a few weeks. I have got another 
Bed Chamber added to my House, and I can procure a Bed for any Servant 
you bring along with you close by. This is a measure that we have set our 
hearts upon, and shall be much disappointed if it is not carried into effect. 
I mean to put off my Voyage to England until May, when I purpose to bring 
Sarah along with me and to spend about a month or six weeks with my 
friends at Liverpool, Manchester, & Blackburn : at the end of that time I 
think it will be about your vacation, and you can return with us. The 
Season then will be at the best for your favourite amusement, & it will give 
us the greatest pleasure to have you and Mrs. Philips for our Guests. I 
assure you it has afiforded us great pleasure in talking of this scheme. Pray 
God nothing may happen to prevent its being carried into effect. 

I thank you for your advice about remaining in the island during the 
War. It is exactly what Sarah & I thought wou*d be proper, and I am quite 
confirm'd in my opinion by your letter. Ten pr cent upon a small Income 
makes a very sensible difference, and must at least curtail some enjoyment 
or other. Besides it is possible that the Rendezvous may again be open*d 
this next Summer as it was the last and it is better to be upon the spot than 
to have the trouble and expense of removing. 

As you are among people of Letters I wish you wou*d get me a few 
lines compos'd, to be inscribed on Mrs. Cable's Tomb, stating her Conjugal 
afifection, her Sincerity as a Friend, her Indulgent kindness as a Mistress — 
Charity to the Poor, and above all as being a truly good Woman & a Real 
Christian. All which you know she was. I think Ferriar is an Elegant 
Poet & cou'd do it properly if he wou'd have the goodness to undertake it. 

After the failure of the Triple Assessment the Income 
Tax was introduced, and at the outset the rate was ten 
per cent, as referred to in the letter. Cable continues to 



40 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-Col. Philips. 

hope for a visit from his friend, and on March 1 5th, he 

writes : — 

As I have not lately been in the highest spirits, I have had the more 
time to think, the result of those Cogitations has confirmed me in my former 
opinions that England is not the place for a man of small Fortune, out of 
Trade, and of genteel Ideas. My Connexions and Friendships are, all of 
them, People of Large Fortunes, and I shou'd not perhaps be quite comfort- 
able always to feel my own insignificance. Here I am upon a quite different 
footing. I can live as I like, see either much company or none at all. Taxes 
we have none, or next to none, & living is certainly much cheaper than in any 
genteel town in England. If I was to come to England now I shou'd be 
almost starved ; for I have been so long used to Wine that I shou'd not be 
comfortable without it, and I cou'd hardly afford myself a Pint a day. 
Besides I am so fixed that a voyage to see my friends wou'd not be attended 
with much expense ; and I can afford to entertain any who will come & 
see me without any expense at all. Do once more let me beg you will come 
over if you possibly can, I will promise to return with you if that will be 
any inducement. You will please to understand that when I say you I mean 
the whole of you, that is yourself & Mrs. Philips ; without her I shou'd 
think I only saw half of you. 

On March 28th, Cable writes : — 

Since I wrote to you last we have had a week of dissipation. The 
Strangers here have got a touch of the Benevolent Mania. Two of them, a 
Mr. May (cher ami to the Bird of Paradise) and a Mr. Gooch (son of the 
celebrated Mr. Gooch) have been performing the parts of Lothario, & 
Horatio for the benefit of some distressed Actors & Actresses who have 
been left here in Pawn by their Party. The House was full, & the profits 
enabled the distressed wretches to have a Good Supper and leave the Island 
with Flying Colours. To-morrow there is to be two Theatrical Performances 
performed entirely by Gentlemen & Ladies for the benefit of a poor 
deserving English woman who has been deserted by a worthless Husband. 
High Life below Stairs, & the Prize, are got up, & I am told, will be 
presented in High Stile. The whole house is already taken. Sarah has made 
me promise to accompany her there. She is gone this Evening to an 
Assembly at my earnest request, for she is as great a Mope as myself, & 
wou'd continually stay at Home if I was not to invite her out. As for my 
own part, although that great Alleviator Time has much softened my Grief 
for the Loss of one of the best of women, yet I feel not the least inclination 
to partake of any Publick amusements. 

On May 7th, he writes : — 

As the Season is approaching for our intended excursion to England, I 
think it necessary to apprise you of it, and to enquire whether you can make 
it perfectly convenient to give Sarah & myself board & lodging for a short 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 8. 41 

time ; my reason for making these enquiries is owing to what you mention'd 
in a former Letter about Enlarging your Habitation, which if it is rather too 
confin'd for your own family, must of course be more so when you are 
encumber'd with additional Guests. As for Sarah, she will be happy to take 
Part of Miss Caroline's Bed if she can make it convenient to spare part of it, 
so that if I can find a Cabbin & Cot for myself I hope we may continue to 
do pretty well. It remains for you to say whether your avocations will 
answer to receive us sometime about the beginning, or middle, of June, at 
which time we think of being with you. Do let me hear from you on this 
Subject shortly. 

I am highly delighted with the account you give of the pleasing prospect 
your American Estate affords. I most sincerely wish these prospects may be 
realised. If your Masts are the Dimension you mention, and if you get 
them ship'd without too much expense, they will be invaluable, both to 
yourselves & to the Country. At all events your Brother James sets out 
well — may it continue. 

What do you think of Miss Jacobs having brought an action of breach 
of promise of marriage ? who do you think is the defendant ? as it is impossible 
you shou'd ever guess I must acquaint you : it is old Sherman, who has been 
extremely foolish on the occasion, & now is going to be held up to ridicule, 
as well as Miss & her Father. 

" Miss Caroline," mentioned in the letter, was Colonel 
Philips' only daughter. Strange to say, no account is 
given of her in Foster's Pedigrees. From a letter written 
by Sir Hungerford Hoskyns in 18 10, we gather that she 
had long been in failing health, while Meadows Taylor* 
leads one to understand the same by his phrase, "a happy 
release, but a sad life." She could not have been more than 
twenty when she died, towards the end of 181 2. In the 
summer of 1799, Captain Cable and his daughter take 
their long intended trip to see their friends in Lancashire. 

Blackburn, July 22nd 1799. 
I have been expecting an answer from Mr. Parker, the Bowbearer of 
Bowland forest, for some days past which has hitherto prevented me from 
writing to you. Yesterday I reed the enclosed from Mr. Wilson of Clitheroe, 
which I apprehend will answer your purpose. I have to add for your 
information that minnows abound both in the Hodder and in all the 
adjacent Brooks, so that you need not fear getting Bait. Mr. Cottam of 
Whalley informs me that he has had many days of good sport this Season, 

♦Part II., p. 49, 



42 Faraday, Correspondence of LieuL-CoL Philips, 

and that he has seldom, or never missed taking fish, let the water be ever 
so fine & small, with a scour'd Brandling. He says, likewise, that he 
shall be glad to attend you whenever you go to Whitewell if you will do him 
the favour of calling upon him as you go through Whalley. Mr. Wilson also- 
requested I wou'd make his compliments to you & hop*d to see you if you 
cou'd make it convenient to call upon him at Clitheroe. He has just 
returned from Liverpool, where he has been introduced to Roscoe, of whom 
he speaks in very high terms. 

The family of Parker, of Browsholme, in the Forest 
of Bowland, has been known in Lancashire since the 
beginning of the isth century, and the office of Bowbearer 
of the Forest seems to have been hereditary in the family 
for many generations. Mr. John Parker, Cablets friend, 
was born in 1755. ^^ was a Fellow Commoner of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, and sat as M.P. for the 
borough of Clitheroe, though his return as member was 
the subject of Parliamentary inquiry in 1780. He was 
married at Giggles wick, in 1778, to Beatrix, the daughter 
of Thomas Lister, of Gisburne Park, Yorkshire, and sister 
of the first Lord Ribblesdale. His father, Edward Parker^ 
married Barbara, the daughter of Sir William Flemings 
of Rydal Hall, Westmoreland. 

As to Mr. Wilson, we learn from the Liverpool 
Advertiser of January 6th, 1795, that the "Marine Society 
held their Anniversary, when the members went in 
procession, honoured by his Worshipful the Mayor, and 
his officers with the Regalia, to St. George's Church, 
where an excellent sermon was preached by the Rev. 
Mr. Wilson, of Clitheroe. The Society afterwards dined 
at the Exchange with great unanimity and happiness.'^ 
Thomas Wilson (who must be distinguished from 
Senhouse Wilson, the Isle of Man and Liverpool 
merchant), was born at Hutton in 1741, his father 
being a highly respected yeoman. Educated at Sed- 
bergh Grammar School, Wilson acted as Reader in 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No, 8. 45 

several neighbouring parishes, but never proceeded to 
the University. He was generally accounted a profound 
scholar. In 1771, he was ordained, and two years 
later was elected headmaster of Slaidburn Grammar 
School. In 177s, he became headmaster of Clitheroe 
Grammar School, a position he held for nearly forty years. 
Late in life he was presented to the living of Claughton. 
Wilson married Susannah Tetlow, the daughter of the 
Rector of Bolton-by-Bowland, and he died in 18 13. One 
fact of interest in his life is that in 1791, he was presented 
with a silver snuflF-box by the Corporation of Clitheroe. 
The inscription on the lid is signed by Samuel Cable and 
Henry Hayhurst, Bailiffs. Wilson wrote several poems. 
Mr. Cottam, of Whalley, I have had difficulty in tracing. 
The Cottams or Cothames, though never very numerous,, 
appear at intervals throughout Lancashire history, and 
the Cottams of Cottam, near Preston, though long extinct^ 
were a well-known family. At different times we find 
Cottams at Dilworth, Bilsborrow, Clitheroe, and Whalley. 
Thus, in 1642, William Cottam warned the borough of 
Clitheroe against an attack by Sir William Hoghton : this 
William seems to have been connected with Thomas 
Cottam, a Jesuit, who suffered for his religion in 1542. 
Mr. Wm. Cottam, of Burnley, died at Hardshaw Hall in 
1798. He was probably the father of Cable's friend, who 
was still living at Whalley in 1821. 
In the next letter Cable says : — 

Liverpool, July 25th 1799. 
We arrived here last night safe, & tolerably sound, though the roads 
were in many places extremely rough and uneasy. I find, upon enquiry this 
morning, that a Vessel will sail for our Island to-morrow or next day ; I 
write therefore to request you will have the goodness to order your Servant 
to forward Sarah's Box, which she left at Mayfield, as soon as he can make 
it convenient, as it contains all her Sea Wardrobe, & she will, of course, be 
rather incommoded without it. If Mrs. Philips will, at the same time> 
forward the other trifles Sarah will feel herself much obliged to her, as well 



44 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

as for the polite attention she experienced while under your roof. As for 
myself, I shall say but little about it, being a Man of Few Words, When 
you will give me an opportunity I will endeavour to settle the account as 
well as I can, but I am afraid it will be a running account with the Balance 
always against me. 

I forgot to mention, in my Note from Blackburn, that I had been at 
Mr. Sudell's place at Woodfold, I walked through his Garden & Hot- 
Houses. The quantity of fruits he has, in various stages, is really astonish- 
ing ; to give you an Idea of quantity respecting the Peaches Nectarines & 
Grapes I ought to make use of the terms Tons or Waggon Loads : and he 
has them in all their various stages from the first setting, to their being quite 
ready for the Table. In short it was a Glorious sight. There is, however, 
a much more glorious sight from this place at present — the homeward bound 
Jamaica fleet just coming up the River ; and I have just heard, as Glorious 
News, that there is a Gazette account of Buonaparte's Army, together with 
himself, being all sent to the Devil, where let him rest in peace if he can. May 
all the foes of Britain join him there ! 

The " Gazette " mentioned recorded the defeat 
sustained by the French under Buonaparte at the hands 
of Sir Sydney Smith, at St. Jean d'Acre, in June, 1799. 

The family of Sudell has been known for something 
like three centuries in the neighbourhood of Blackburn, 
where they have held considerable landed estates and also 
engaged in trade. Mr. Henry Sudell of Blackburn 
married Miss Alice Livesey. He died in 1764. His 
posthumous son Henry, who is the one mentioned in 
the letter, became a great merchant at Blackburn, 
married Maria, the daughter of Thomas Livesey, and 
purchased large estates in Mellor, Salmesbury, and 
Pleasington. In 1799 he enclosed Woodfold Park at 
Mellor and built the Hall, a large building in the 
architecture of the period. His affairs continued to 
prosper, and in 1820 he was accounted a millionaire. 
Then came his downfall. He lost heavily in German 
and American Speculations, and in 1827 (losses in 
American Speculations wei^e the proximate cause of the 
panic of 1825) suspended payment ; his large Lancashire 
estates were sold, and he went back to Blackburn, and, 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol xlv, (1901), No. 8. 45 

after getting the remnants of his fortune together, retired 
to Wiltshire. He survived until 1856, when he died, at 
the advanced age of 92, at Ashley House, Bath. He left 
several children. Thomas Livesey was eventually heir to 
a considerable estate and, unlike his kinsman and partner 
John, died fairly wealthy. Hermann Boaz, referred to in 
a short postscript to the letter, was also at times one of 
Philips' correspondents ; he was an actor. 

The next letter tells the result of the Breach of 
Promise " Tryal " : — 

Douglas, Oct. 19th 1799. 

The continued Rains & Wind have almost spoil'd the whole of the 
Com in this Island, and will cause everything eatable to be extremely dear. 
It has made me feel very comfortable that my situation has not been in the 
Country, which is nothing but a heap of Mud & Dirt ; and although you 
find Charms in the Country, that is in your Country, yet I fancy, was you 
obliged to live in this Island all the year round, you wou*d choose a Villa 
situated somewhere in the middle of Douglas. And even in your own 
country I do suppose you find an abundant quantity of the above mentioned 
articles Mud & Dirt. I will answer for it your fish pond has had regular 
supplies of water, without your being under the necessity of stopping up the 
Brook. For my own part I am so well satisfied with Douglas that I am 
upon the point of purchasing a House here and I believe I shall actually 
agree for it. The purchase money will be about four hundred pounds. Can 
you make it convenient to let me have that sum about next May? Perhaps 
it may not be quite so much : I am sure it will not be more. Pray let me 
here from you soon on this subject. 

The important Tryal between Miss Jacobs and Sherman is at length 
terminated, and has ended in a complete victory on the side of the Fair 
Lady : she has come off with Flying Colours, and Two Hundred pounds 
Brit. He attempted to set up a very ungallant defence, which, for the 
honour of Manx Land, wou*d not be admitted. It is said that a Mr. Archdale, 
formerly a lieutenant of mine had before paid his addresses to her. This the 
jury thought irrelevant & therefore refused to hear it. He now wanders 
about, generally alone, and looks like a hunted Devill. It touches him to 
the quick to part with his money. 

The Whaleys, the Daleys, & the rest of the vagabonds are continually 
quarrelling & Brawling, & afford constant subjects for conversation ; and 
which, as we have no matters of greater consequence to discuss, serve to 
pass away time. The rest of the people and places remain in much the same 
situation as when you left us, save & except that I have an elegant Villa 
building in the heart of Duke Street where I hope to see you & your Fair 



46 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

Dame next Summer. I shall just have one spare room which I assure you 
shall be comfortable. 

One cannot help feeling some sympathy with old 
Mr. Sherman, whose pay was only ;^ioo a year. It is 
somewhat difficult to understand the Captain's rather 
obscure hints about his new residence ; they appear to be 
contradictory. On January 27th, 1800, Cable writes : — 

I reed, a Letter by the last Packett from our friend Radcliffe, announcing 
the approach of a piece of Oxford Brawn, which is since arrived in great 
perfection, and which enabled me to send a handsome treat to his Grace of 
Atholl ; who, by the bye, has spent his Christmas here, and I understand 
does not leave the Island until March. While he has been here the 
Inhabitants of the Town have given him & his Family a Ball & Supper at 
which were assembled about 120 persons. The whole went off very well 
while their Graces & their Suite stayed, but after they were gone a parcel of 
vagabond Irish, who had contriv'd to be of the party, kick*d up a Row, in 
the manner of their Country, which has given some business to the Deemster. 
Luckily I was come home before the Uproar began. This, as you will easily 
imagine has afiforded great scope for conversation & scandal. Indeed, I 
don't know what we shou'd do for conversation in the absence of the Packett 
were it not for these Irish Emigrants. They are a precious Gang, that's for 
certain. 

As a piece of news I tell you that your unfortunate Townsman and I 
have made matters up. He din'd with me on New Year's Day, & we 
began the New Vear by drinking a Glass to Oblivion. As we shall never 
be upon so intimate a footing again as we have been, there is reason to hope 
we shall continue upon decent terms in future. 

On May Sth Cable writes : — 

We are just on the point of removing into a neat, snug, comfortable 
Box where I have a very good spare Bed Chamber, and where I can 
accomodate you and Mrs. Philips more conveniently than you have ever 
been lodged in this country, and where it will give me the greatest pleasure 
to see you whenever you can make it pleasant to take a trip to Douglas. 
My House I assure you, is finished in a manner far superior to any you have 
seen in this Island ; it being Stiled and Lath'd (as the workmen call it) from 
top to bottom throughout the whole House, which no other House that I 
know of in this Island has. Sarah begs me to say that if you can bring 
Miss Philips along with you she shall be extremely glad to see her, and will 
accomodate her with half of her Bed, & will endeavour to make the 
excursion as agreeable as possible. Therefore, if you can spare time from your 
more serious avocations of Trade <fe War, do, for God's sake, come 
see us this Summer. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol x/v. (1901), No. 8. 47 
The next letter treats of several interesting matters : — 

Douglas, July 25th 1800. 

I shou'd have written to you long e*er this, but have put it off from time 
to time in expectation of seeing you, for about a month ago I reed a Letter 
from the Transport Office saying thar Lord Spencer had nam'd me for an 
Agent of Transport, & requesting to know whether I had any objection to 
serve in that Capacity. I answer'd that I certainly cou'd have no objection 
to serve in any capacity his Lordship thought proper to appoint me to ; and 
I, of course, expected to be immediately called upon ; but last post brought 
me a very polite letter from Commissioner George, of the Transport Office 
saying that my remote situation prevented me from getting to London in 
time, as the emergency was very pressing ; and the troops at that time 
already embarked; & that the vacancy was obliged to be immediately 
filled up; but that if any other appointment under that board ofifered he 
wou'd take care to give me timely notice. And thus has ended the bustle 
which this Letter caused in our household. I don't know whether I am most 
pleased or displeased by this disappointment for there is much to be said on 
both sides. However, I am well pleased with one part of the business, & 
that is knowing that it originated with my good friend Lord Curzon, who has 
recommended me to Lord Spencer so that it is not improbable that I may 
yet be called once more into actual service. My way upon these occasions 
is to make myself perfectly easy, & say "whatever is r/^A/ is rtg/U, the Devil 
a bit further will I submit to. 

I wonder whether there is any chance of seeing you on this side the 
Herring Pond this year ? Your old friend Banks will add to your stock 
of information by reciting the adventures he has lately gone through in an 
enchanted Castle where he was convey'd by certain Magicians, in the Shape 
of Parsons. The truth is Mr Banks has a settled aversion to the Clergy as 
well as to every other of the Liberal professions, & he was indulging himself 
by giving vent to some of the bile which overloaded his stomach, in one of 
the Clergy Courts here, when the Vicar-General & his brethren caused him 
to be placed in Castle Rushen for a fortnight, & a penalty of Ten Pounds 
Brit : to be levied on his goods & chattel. I have not seen him since he 
came from Colledge, but I hear he is very amusing, & it is not impossible but 
he may get another journey thither if he is not a little more cautious in his 
expressions. There are various other scenes and stories for your recreation 
if you will but be at the pains of taking a trip to Mona to collect them. 

The fanciful way in which the arrest and imprisonment 
of Banks is described is due to the former Manx super- 
stition that Castle Rushen, which was the general prison 
of the Island, was originally built and inhabited by fairies. 
The Clergy in the Isle of Man had an even greater civil 



48 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

jurisdiction than they had in England, and Mr. Banks 
paid the penalty of his boldness in combining slander of 
the Church with Contempt of Court An Act of 
Tynwald of 1647, provides " Whosoever shall accuse or 
speak any scandalous speeches against any Chief Officer 
of this Isle, Spiritual or Temporal, .... and be not 
able to prove it, shall be fined for every time so offending 
Tenn Pounds, and their Ears to be cut off" for punishment 
besides." 

In addition to the ordinary ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
in Probate and Divorce, the Manx Religious Courts, for 
various offences, had the power, not only of inflicting 
Church censures, but also of detaining the offenders in the 
ecclesiastical prison, which, says Mr. Moore, " was a 
subterraneous vault in the Castle of Peel, in order, after 
an examination of a jury of six (whom they were 
authorised to impanel), to be delivered, if judged 
necessary, for further trial and punishment to the temporal 
power ; and not only did they commit to their dungeon 
for the purpose of such detention, but confinement there 
was sometimes ordered, by their definitive sentence, in 
affairs merely spiritual." The greater part of the Manx 
spiritual jurisdiction was swept away in 1884, and Castle 
Rushen was condemned as a prison in 1886. There were^ 
it should be said, three classes of Manx Ecclesiastical 
Courts, Summary, Chapter, and Consistory. Appeals lay 
to York. 

Evidently Colonel Philips was too busy to take a 
holiday, for on August 14th, Cable says : — 

I assure you I rejoyce sincerely in the prospect which appears opening 
upon you on the other side the Atlantic. I hope & trust you will in a 
short time draw a very fine Revenue from your estate at Philipsburg. The 
account you have reed from your brother James is very flattering & I have no 
doubt but the Navy Board will be glad to treat with you for all the Mast 
Timber you can supply them with. The means I wou'd advise you to use is 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 8. 49 

to go to London yourself and get introduced to Lord Spencer, which you 
may easily do either through the medium of your friend Mellish or by the 
introduction of Lord Grey or by either of the members for Lancashire. You 
might show Lord Spencer as much of your Brothet James's Letter as you 
think proper, and I doubt not but his Lordship will be much pleased with 
the prospect of such a supply of Masts, especially as the prospect of a supply 
from the North of Europe, at present, does not seem very flattering. The 
only difficulty that appears is the mode of conveying them to Europe ; for 
your brother says there are no ships large enough in America to take them 
on board. The main mast of one of our first rates is about no feet 
long, and there are few merchant ships, except East India Men, of 
that length. If some of our old 50 gun ships were fitted up for 
that purpose they might answer very well ; and by having their upper deck 
Guns on board they wou'd be able to fight a good battle if they were 
attacked, and this wou'd preclude the necessity of Convoys, especially if 
they had King's Officers put on board them. You might hint this mode of 
conveyance to Lord Spencer, who wou'd, in all probability, take it into 
consideration. And, if you possibly can, agree to deliver the Masts at 
Baltimore and let Government take what measures they think proper to get 
them from thence. In short, this seems a most favourable time to push the 
business, and one half hour's conversation with Lord Spencer may do more 
than half a year's writing cou'd. Before you wait upon Lord Spencer I 
would have you wait upon some principal ship builder & get information 
from them respecting the present value of masts, timbers, &c. I know very 
well, that previous to the present War the price of a 74 Gun Ship's Main 
Mast was upwards of ;^5oo, that is the whole expense of Timber, iron, work- 
manship, &c. But this you will be enabled to learn by being on the spot, 
much better than I can tell you. If, when you are in London, you do not 
agree with Government, I should recommend, as the next best market, the 
East India Company, and there I dare say your friend Mellish may be able 
to assist you greatly. At all events I think a trip to London may be of 
essential service, & I sincerely hope you will find it so 

Although I have only mentioned Lord Spencer above, yet I know very 
well that he will do nothing in this business by himself ; he will probably get 
some of the Commissioners of the Navy to treat with you ; or at least to be 
present at your conference, and I wou'd advise you to get introduced to that 
board previous to your seeing his Lordship. 

On December 6th Cable writes : — 

I am much obliged to you for your information about the best means of 
preserving eggs, which I dare say may be useful to those people who live in 
a country where they are to be had ; but that country is by no means the 
Isle of Man. An Egg, for sale, is here a natural curiosity. I have been 
told, by Old People, that such things were formerly to be bought ; but since 
the prodigious Influx of Strangers they have vanished and they are no more 
to be met with in the Markets. Indeed, the prospect of Starvation stares us 



50 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut.-CoL Philips, 

full in the face, and if I cou'd procure a sleeping dose that would last until 
next Summer, I think it wou'd be the best mode of passing the ensuing 
months. I detest Salt Meat, <fe yet I have this day bought a Quarter of Beef, 
to salt down for food after Christmas, without which I know not, seriously, 
how we shou'd live for I dare say we shall not be able to procure either 
Beef or Mutton after that season. You see that scarcity is not confin'd to 
your Neighbourhood ; we have plenty of it here. 

What you say about W. is, I believe, partly true. I mean that he is 
dead ; but I fancy the mode was not as you have been inform'd. He was 
very ill when he left this place, & was going to Bath, or Bristol, attended 
by his Wife for the recovery of his health, but was arrested by the Grim 
Tyrant in his passage at Knutsford. Still there are many people here who 
will not believe that he is dead. They say that he has played this trick 
several times before in order to elude his creditors, and that he is playing 
the same game over again. At the worst, if he is gone, the world will con- 
tinue to do special well without him. 

I have had the Devil to do since I wrote to you last. No less than 
Bullets, Powder, & Pistols. A Scoundrel was instigated by another greater 
Scoundrel to attack me one Night, on my returning home, with a large 
Bludgeon, & used me like a Ruffian. As there is no chance of Justice or 
Satisfaction in this Country, I had no other course but to call him out. He 
came attended by his second, but such was their eagerness for fighting I 
suppose that they loaded their Pistols with the Bullets which I lent them, 
for they had forgot to bring any along with them, and in their hurry forgot to 
put Powder into the Barrils ; or at least put the Bullets in before the Powder. 
The consequence was they burnt priming. T. M. was my antagonist & he 
was urged on by Speed who is too thoroughpaced a Coward to meet any 
Man in this way. 

In a letter dated July 20th, 1801, Cable says : — 

The Herrings have made their appearance this Year much earlier than 
usual, & the energies of the Manx men have been called forth and exercised 
in a most surprising manner. For this week or ten days past my senses have 
been constantly assailed by Herrings, and even at this present moment while 
I am writing the smell of them is rather too strong to be pleasant. It is 
really surprising to see the immense quantities of them that have been taken. 
Eighty, ninety, & even an hundred stones in a Boat ; & those, by far, 
the finest fish I ever saw. They have been sold at Peel, where the chief 
Fishing is at present, so low as eightpence a hundred ; this, together with an 
abundant supply of Potatoes, has caus'd an appearance, & indeed it is more 
than an appearance, it is in reality Plenty. I wish you cou'd contrive to 
come over & see a land of Plenty again. It is long since you saw such a 
sight. Quite a novel thing. As soon as the Red Herrings are cured I will 
take care to send you half a dozen kitts of them, and if you will let me know 
what quantity you shall want I will endeavour to engage them on the 
best terms I can. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), A^t? 8. 51 

And now we are upon business let me request you will have the 
goodness to procure me a piece of Cambrick muslin, a yard and a half wide, 
of about four shillings, or four & sixpence, a yard. I don't know what the 
length of the piece is but I suppose it to be from twelve to twenty yards, 
either will do. 

Since I wrote the above I have seen Mr. Leece, who is very deep in 
the Herring Line, he says that it will be a difficult thing to find an Honest 
Man in that department, but he will endeavour to act like one. I will send 
you some Herrings in Kitts for a sample as soon as they are fit to be pack'd, 
which will be in about lo days or a fortnight. 

This was Mr. William Leece, of Douglas, nephew of 
the senior partner of the firm of Leece and Drinkwater, 
of Liverpool. He married a Miss Callow, and died at 
Douglas, March ist, 1807. Mr. Drinkwater owned a 
pottery in Liverpool, and married Miss Leece, the daughter 
of Captain Leece, after whom Leece Street is called. 

On August 5 th, Cable writes : — 

I think I forgot to mention in my last that I have again had a prospect 
of being employ 'd, and have again been disappointed. My very good friend 
Lord Curzon applied to the Admiralty for me, and had as flattering an 
answer from Lord Spencer as I cou'd wish ; which Letter he transmitted to 
me, & I expected to have a call every post. This was so long ago as last 
Christmas ; but after waiting many months in vain, I found, at last, his 
veracious Lordship had resigned his office. So there is an end to all my 
hopes. I thought Lords had not told lies to Lords, however they might 
indulge in that laudable propensity to Commoners. I believe your friend 
Mr. Jervis is not upon terms with his relation. Lord St. Vincent, otherwise 
I might request your friendly offices with him, especially as I have something 
to offer to his Lordship's notice. An Improvement in Night Signals & one 
which I think may be of great consequence. But this, as I said before, can't 
be, as I know they are not upon friendly terms. 

Our Great Man has been in this Island lately. He left this place last 
Wednesday. Yesterday week we had a grand Drunken-party upon account 
of his laying the Foundation Stone of a new house for himself at the Lough 
House. It is very large, cS: is estimated by Stuart to cost ten thousand 
pounds, but if that estimate is like other estimates it will cost a great deal 
more ; and this is the opinion of all the Wise Men of Mona. 

Mr. Stewart, spelt by Cable ^ Stuart ' above, was also 
the architect of Douglas Pier. 

On January 25th, 1802, Cable writes: — 



52 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-Col. Philips. 

Livesey got back again to his Cottage the last week, after an absence of 
more than four months : he brought the Cambrick muslin with him, which 
Mrs. Philips was so obliging as to procure for Sarah, & for which she is 
much obliged to her. It is really very beautiful, & we think, very cheap. 
While our Manufacturers can work cotton so fine as this, & afford to sell 
it so cheap, there is no fear of the French rivalling them in this branch of 
trade ; whatever they may do in others. And now we are on this topic 
let us settle our accounts. 

£^ s. 

I think you say the Muslin Cost 5 . 15 5 • ^5 

Paid Leece & Bell for Red Herrings 2.5 2 . 10 

Do. for One Kitt white do. o . 5 ;^3 . 5 Dr to 

2 . 10 Mrs Philips. 

Here you have an account settled in a manner which you may not probably 
match in your Counting House. To go on by deducting the aforesaid 
£'^. 5s. from ;^42, the interest due to me, I find you are indebted to me 
£2fi. 15. for which sum I shall draw upon you to-morrow the 26tl», at 
Messrs. Mellish's in favour of Capt. Sam. Cable at a month's date. And so 
there's an end of business. 

And now pray how goes on your Mast Project ? Have you any arrivals 
yet ? Or do you expect any &c &c &c. I am afraid you started too late. 
The freight & other expences must eat all your profits ; added to which, 
the Russian Trade being thrown open again, <fc the Peace following so close 
upon it altogether seems to be against the scheme ; but as I know you are not 
very sanguine in your expectations of any thing which is only possible, I hope 
you will not feel any very great disappointment should it turn out a blank. 
Livesey told me likewise that there was a report about one Mr. Philips »of 
Manchester, who was just returned from America and who found his affairs 
in very great disorder when he arrived in England. My anxiety for what 
concerns your family leads me to fear that it may be your brother James who 
is implicated, as I know he was in America, Surely the American Air has 
something in it infectious to your family. In your next have the goodness to 
tell me if my suspicions are right or wrong. I should be most heartily glad 
to hear it was the latter. 

The Peace has not as yet had any effect on the Settlers in this Island, 
although many of them threatened to leave us whenever it took place. I 
fancy the one thing needful will be found wanting among them all ; which I 
wish they had, & that the whole of the new comers were on the move, for 
there has not one family settled here since I came that has in the least 
cimtrihutetl to the improvement of society — at least not of mine. 

On Thursday last we had a most tempestuous day, the Wind I think 
w»\s louder & stronger than I ever knew it on shore. Many houses were 
entirely unroofed & few escaped without some damage. A homeward bound 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 8. 53 

West Indikman belonging to Greenock was stranded at Kirk Michael, & a 
sloop with corn near Peel. As I have not been out of the house these ten 
days, I have not heard of any other damage done on this Island. I am afraid 
we shall hear of much damage on the Coast of England. 

If you have any quantity of Segars, I shall be much obliged to you for a 
few — via Sam Newton. 

Mention has already been made of one notable improve- 
ment in the Lancashire manufacture, and Cable's admira- 
tion of the muslin calls to mind the statement of Mr. 
Thomas Ellison, that the period with which we are dealing 
was the era of invention, and that improvements in every 
department of the cotton trade were being made almost 
every year. The " Segars '* are worthy of notice. 

Colonel Philips had several bi others. Francis was 
dealt with in Part I. Of the rest, Henry Philips, born in 
1767, lived at Philadelphia. He married Sophia, the 
daughter of Judge Chew, of the Court of Errors and 
Appeals in that city. He died in 1800, and his only 
daughter aud heiress, Sophia Philips, was married in New 
York. Another brother, Nathaniel George, was born in 
1770, and died at New York in 1793. James Philips was 
born in 1777, and died unmarried in 18 10. Thomas 
Philips was born in 1781, and died unmarried in 1806. 
Hardman Philips, of Philipsburg, Pennsylvania, was born 
in 1784, and in 1821 married a daughter of the Rev. Ed. 
Lloyd, of Fairfield. He died in 1854. The sisters, 
Elizabeth and Sarah, are mentioned elsewhere 

On March 29th, 1802, Cable writes: — 

It gave me great concern to find that my suspicions about your brother 
James were but too true for I know that such a business could not fail to 
give you all a great deal of concern & trouble, & nobody wou'd feel more 
than yourself. It is a great comfort however to find that he has come 
through with honour, & without having his character the least injured. 

About the middle of last month I rec^ your kind present of a cheese, 
part of which I hope you will eat in Mona in the course of the Summer. A 
little Sea Bathing will do Mrs Philips much good, & we have now two very 
decent bathing machines which makes bathing infinitely more commodious 
than it has ever yet been in this Island. Tell her this for her comfort. 



54 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut,-CoL Philips, 

I don't recollect whether I ever mentioned that my old friend, & landlord 
at Whalley Mr. Cottam, spent a few days with me the last Summer. He 
came in the course of the very fine weather in August, & returned in time to 
take the field the first of September. He promised to send you some game 
in the course of the Winter, but as you did not say anything about it, he 
possibly may have forgot, although he is not a man used to have forgot what 
he has promised. If you can spare a few days this Spring for fishing, I am 
sure he will accompany you with pleasure to Whitewell, where, I doubt not, 
you wou'd meet with excellent sport. And it is not impossible but I might 
be of the party in that case ; for you must know that I have been very 
unwell for more than two months, and the Doctor advises me to take a trip 
across the Channel when the weather is a little warmer. Which is as much 
as to say I am ill but he does not know what is to do with me. If I do go 
to England it will be about the latter end of April, and I shall spend a few 
days with my friend Cottam while there, so you see we may make Whalley 
the place of rendezvous. This is at present only in speculation. If I get 
better I will try to do without the journey. 

Poor Livesey too, has been extremely ill for near five weeks ; he was 
attacked with a violent inflamation of the lungs & has continued in a 
frightful condition. Appearances began to alter yesterday for the better & 
upon the whole he is much better to day, but he will require much attention 
still. If you cou'd, with any convenience to yourself, contrive to let his 
sister, Mrs. Clowes of Hunt's Bank, know how he is to-day, I make no 
doubt but it would give her great pleasure for this is the very latest account 
she can hear of him. 

The subsequent letters become far less interesting 
than those already given. Cable, to judge by the change 
in his handwriting, was evidently ageing rapidly, and his 
letters are, besides, querulous and trifling. He was 
undoubtedly extremely ill during the years 1802 — 1804, 
and, as has already been said, died in the latter year. A 
letter written on June 26th, 1802, tells of his return to 
Douglas, and contains a reference to Dr. Brandreth,* of 

• Dr. Joseph Brandreth was born at Ormskirk in 1746, and graduated 
M.D., Edinburgh, in 1770. He succeeded to the practice of Dr. Mathew 
Dobson, at Liverpool, and became eminently successful and popular. He 
established the Liverpool Dispensary in 1778, and paid great attention to the 
Infirmary. Like his neighbour. Dr. Currie, he was greatly interested in 
fevers, and was the author of a work "On the Advantages arising from a 
Topical Application of Cold Water and Vinegar in Typhus, and on the Use 
of Opium in Large Doses in Certain Cases. " He lived in School Lane, and 
died at Liverpool on April loth, 1 81 5. 



Manchester Memoirs^ VoL xlv, (1901), No. 8. 55 

LiverpooL On July 22nd he writes again, in reference to 
some commercial misfortune which Philips has suffered 
in his American enterprise ; and Cable, by way of comfort, 
gives Tim Bobbin's famous dictum — " Nowt that's owt con 
cum out when a mon has to do wie rascally Fowk." On 
August 1 6th he writes to ask if Mrs. Philips will get two 
white ostrich feathers for Sarah, who is going to a dance; 
they are to be a surprise for the yonng lady ; the price, he 
believes, will be from ten to fifteen shillings. The subse- 
quent letter, written on October 27th, is rather amusing. 
Mrs. Philips was evidently horrified at the idea of feathers 
at that price, for Cable says : — 

Sarah is much pleased with the feathers and both she and I are much 
obliged to Mrs Philips for the pains & trouble she has been about them. I 
have been perplexed, sometimes, since I first wrote about them for fear I 
should have tied Mrs Philips down by mentioning the price I did, which was 
entirely through mistake. I thought the price of these articles were like a 
sixpenny loaf, and I was sadly disappointed one day when I learnt by some- 
thing that Sarah said that there were Ostrich feathers as high as two Guineas 
or more. It is very fortunate that Mrs Philips knew what was proper for 
I look upon shabby finery as one of the most ridiculous things in the world. 

On October 14th, 1802, Cable writes : — 

Upon the whole I think I am rather better than I have been, but am 
still far, very far, from being well, and the approach of winter affords me 
but a dreary prospect. If I cou'd continue to get a few degrees further to 
the southward I fancy I shou'd find benefit from it, but this cannot be, the 
season is too far advanc'd to think of a removal, and there are many other 
obstacles in the way. I continue to use exercise on Horseback, which with 
small doses of calomel & moderate good diet, I hope will enable me to 
weather the Winter. 

From your long silence I am pretty certain you have been from home, 
and I am afraid you have found out some watering Place which you like 
better than the Isle of Man. If that is the case I shall not remain long here, 
for independent of the pleasure I received from seeing you here a few times, 
and the constant expectation of seeing you oftener, I do not know that I 
have one inducement to stay here. The society is of the very worst kind, 
and every necessary of life is almost as dear as it is with you, & by no means 
to compare with your provisions in goodness. But was I to leave the Isle of 
Man I certainly shou'd not think of fixing in a country so overrun with 
Cotton Manufactory as yours is — I would endeavour to find some pleasant 



S6 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips, 

village in the south of England, where no manufactures were carried on, and 
surely many such are to be found, where the soil and climate are infinitely 
better than what we have to boast of. The inundation of vagabonds which 
overspread the face of this Island is really astonishing, and adds greatly to 
the price of every necessary of life, for as they generally bring a little ready 
money with them, they spend it most wantonly while it lasts, and give 
extravagant prices to whatever they buy : the consequence of this is that the 
natives make the more sober sort of us pay as extravagantly for what we 
have had as the strangers have paid. Upon the whole, I am heartily tired 
of this Country, and I as heartily despise its inhabitants. You know I had 
a wretched Garden, for which I paid an extravagant price, but as it was near 
my house it was very convenient. A scoundrel Red Herring curer took this 
Garden over my head the other day and nobody thinks he has acted other- 
wise than they would have done themselves. My house was taken in the 
same manner a few years ago, and my servants are tamper'd with, every 
year, in order to induce them to leave me. In such a country, and among 
such a rascally set of inhabitants, who would live unless he was absolutely 
obliged to it ? But I will trouble you with no more of my complaints. 

On January 8th in the following year he writes : — 

I have been within an ace of breaking up my Camp here and removing 
to Whalley ; it was but yesterday that we came to the resolution of remaining 
where we are. You know that for the last year my health has been very 
bad & I have long thought this Climate does not agree with me. It is 
certainly too damp, «fe if I thought that I was to remove to a drier situation 
I should be better. The House which I formerly lived in becoming vacant 
& having had an offer of it, together with as much land as will keep a 
Horse <fr too Cows for Thirty guineas pr Ann. I was almost induced 
to accept it, but reflecting that it was in the heart of a manufacturing country, 
in the neighbourhood of Pendle Hill which in the winter generally furnishes 
plenty of Cold, added to which the dread of fellows with Ink bottles in their 
button holes, all these things consider'd frightened me, & made me resolve 
rather to bear the ills that I know, than fly to others that I know not of. It 
is true that if 1 had fix'd at Whalley I shou'd have been within thirty miles 
of you, & I shou'd probably have seen you sometimes, which I can hardly 
hope for while I remain here, and I shou'd likewise have been in a country 
I like, & among people that have always been friendly to me. But, on 
the other hand, the trouble fatigue & expense of removing, & the certainty 
of increase of expense of Living, & the mortification I shou'd feel on 
giving up my snug comfortable house to a Vagabond fellow, for such is my 
Landlord, altogether made us resolve to tarry here a little longer, & if we 
ever do remove, to go to the southward after a warmer Jk more genial climate. 

Writing from Douglas on May 4th Cable says : — 

If I had been well enough to have left home, a thing has oflfer'd that 
wou'd have suited me very well ; it was the offer of one of the Block Ships 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 8. 57 

that are to be stationed at the mouth of the Thames. It was offered through 
Lord Curzon but I found myself so very unfit to leave home that I declined it, 
k now I have given up all hopes of evermore applying for employ. 

On June 3rd, Cable writes again. He is a little better, 
he says, possibly "owing to the shift of my Doctor, 
which he is very ready to believe." 

On June 26th, he writes that he is worse in health than 
ever, and that he wishes to consult the surgeons at the 
Manchester Infirmary, " and particularly Symmons." He 
attributes his bad health to the effects of the typhus fever, 
which he had shortly after the death of Mrs. Cable. 
In the postscript Cable asks, " whether Philips* sister has 
yet become Lady Hungerford." Miss Sarah Philips, it 
may be mentioned, married Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, 
Bart., of Harewood, Herefordshire. She died in i860. 

Another letter is written on July i6th. It contains 
nothing of interest, and in the last letter, dated September 
8th, 1803. Cable announces that he is going to buy an 
annuity for Sarah, " I think if I sink about five hundred 
pounds it will leave her more independance." In this 
letter, too, he tells of the desperate condition of health 
he is in, and adds, " was it not for Sarah I should be 
quite adrift. She is my surgeon, my nurse, and my all.'' 
There is a touch, too, of the ruling spirit : " You know the 
Manxmen are not too fond of work, nor of anything that 
savours of enterprise. They are a set of lazy, idle, dogs 
enough." In the last paragraph he gives a list of recent 
deaths in the Island : Old Dr. Scott (the Manx regimental 
doctor). Captain Jacobs and his daughter, and Mr. 
Sherman (thus the hero and heroine of the Breach of 
Promise case died within a few days of each other). 
" Major Taubman, too, has lost his father and his mother, 
and his only son is following fast. He is in the last stage 
of consumption." 



58 Faraday, Correspondence of Lieut-CoL Philips. 

The last letter I give in the present series is one 
written by Livesey to Philips, telling of the death of their 
mutual friend. It shows very plainly the real characters 
of Livesey and Cable, and tells very clearly the relations 
between them. Both of them middle-aged, disappointed 
men, they had their quarrels, but were friends at heart ; — 

^Endorsed ^^ Account of Poor Cablets Death,^*'\ 
My dear Sir 

It is with real concern it falls to my lot to announce to you the 
melancholy intelligence of the death of our late mutual and very worthy 
friend Captn Cable who died last night between nine and ten o'clock, after a 
confinement of near six months to the house, a very great part of which time 
was passed in excruciating pain, increasing as the close of life drew nearer. 
If I had not been a witness of it I could not have thought human nature 
could have supported itself under such very severe sufferings, with such 
heroic patience & resignation, as our worthy did 

Our friend must naturally have had a very strong con- 
stitution as for the last sixteen or seventeen days he never put anything solid 
into his mouth and life was supported by opium and liquids. My dear 
young friend his amiable daughter desires me to make her very best regards 
to you, Mrs Philips and Family, wishing you and yours every good, she only 
received your last kind letter to her father the day he died, if she is able she 
will answer it by the next packet ; our packet was so long detained on your 
side the water that we had three mails due which makes an insular situation 
dis^reeable, particularly at this very momentous crisis. I shall feel a very 
severe loss by the death of my valuable friend, as will every one who had the 
pleasure of his acquaintance, nor will it ever be obliterated from my memory 
the very kind attention he showed me two years past. I then thought he 
would have had to have performed for me the last sad melancholy office I 
shall have to execute for him on Monday morning. I am with regard 

Dear Sir 
Yours very sincerely etc. 
Douglas, 28 Janry 1804. JNO. LIVESEY. 

On the 1 6th of October, 1809, Livesey again writes to 
Philips and invites him to the Island, saying that though 
he is not nearly so rich as he once was, he is yet able to 
entertain a friend. He then says : "If my dear friend 
Miss Cable is with you, I beg you will make my kindest 
regards to her." Captain Cable's daughter, then, after the 
death of her father, would appear to have crossed to Eng- 
land, and made her home, at all events for part of the time, 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1901), No, 8. 59 

with Colonel and Mrs. Philips. We may also infer that 
she was living, and unmarried, at the end of 1809. 
Livesey himself died Feb. 14th, 18 10, aged 64. He is 
buried in St. George's Churchyard, Douglas. 

No excuse is needed for rescuing the foregoing record 
from oblivion ; the letters from which it is made up are in 
themselves pleasant reading, and would have been of 
interest had they been penned from any locality, admittedly 
domestic and prolix though they may be. But the Isle of 
Man — before the days of steamships, lost in the fogs of 
the Irish Sea, cut off from all sources of external develop- 
ment, and, until very recent years, the scene of barbarism 
and ignorance — has few sources extant from which history, 
even so recent as that of the eighteenth century, can be 
gathered. Cable's letters throw a brilliant sidelight upon 
local society, and help to fill up the gaps in the other 
existing records. We may thus fairly claim that they are 
of value to the historian as well as to the student of human 
nature. Many characters appear and disappear in his 
pages, depicted writh realism, and stamped with life. 

The Captain has drawn his own picture, and any 
comment is superfluous. An intelligent, irascible man, 
constantly quarrelling and making friends again, loyally 
tender and affectionate to wife and daughter, open-hearted 
as a correspondent. He bore his frequent disappointments 
manfully, and to the last proved his contentment and his 
courage. Perhaps the keynote of his nature is his 
loyalty — especially to his native county of Lancaster. 
And so at the end he passed away, with his daughter and 
his oldest friend at his bedside. He was buried on 
January 30th, 1804, i" St. George's Churchyard, Douglas. 



Note. — I must express my thanks to Tom Garnett, Esq., of 
Radecliffe, Clitheroe, and John Eastham, Esq., of Clitheroe, 
for their kind assistance to me in unravelling the story of 
Captain Cable. W. B. F. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 9. 



IX. On the Generic Names Octopus, Eledone, and 
Histiopsis, 

By William E. Hoyle. 

Received and read March ^th^ igoi, 

I. Octopus and Eledone. 

The replacement of these time-honoured names in a 
recent list of British Marine Mollusca (^01) by the less 
familiar Polypus and Moscliites, demands a few words of 
explanation. 

In the Report on the " Challenger '* Cephalopoda 
(*86, p. 152), I called attention to the fact that by 
Jeffreys (*69, p. 130) the genus Loligo was attributed to 
Schneider and not, as usual, to Lamarck. No reference, 
nor even date, was given, and the only paper by that 
author then accessible to me contained nothing that could 
fairly be called a definition of the genus. Happening to 
mention this circumstance to my friend, Mr. C. Davies 
Sherborn, he very kindly offered to look up the question 
in the MS. of his forthcoming " Index Animalium," and a 
few days later sent me the proper title of the paper and 
an abstract of its contents. I have since been successful 
in procuring a copy of the work. The result to which it 
leads being subversive of two old-established names, it 
seems, therefore, worth while to place the facts before my 
fellow-naturalists. The full title of Schneider's paper will 
be found in the Bibliography at the end of this article 
(1T84), and as it is somewhat rare I extract here the more 
important passages. After criticising the definitions of 
the group of Cephalopoda^ for which he adopts the name 

July loth^ iQOi. 



2 HoYLE, Generic Names Octopus ^ Eledone^ and Histiopsis, 

OCTOPODIA, he characterises it as follows [p. io8] : — 
" Caput cum oailis inter pedes et ventrem, Os in mediis 
pedibus eminet rostro accipitrino. Pedes octoni vel deni os 
circumdantes, acetabulis interius asperi [? aspersi]. Venter 
vesica atramentifera instructus^ infra scissura transversa 
ad basin apertus^ supra quam fistula excretoria eminet P 

The subdivisions proposed by him are as follows : — 

"CLASSIS I. Pedes octoni breves^ promuscides binae; 
venter pinnatus, ossiculum dor si [p. jo8]. 
Sepia I. Ventre latissimo rotundato undique pinna 

cincto osse dorsali maximo [p. 109]. 
LOLIGO 11. Ventre stricto subulato^ pinna angular i 

media ^ osse dorsali penniformi [p. 1 10]. 
Teuthis III. Ventre dtpresso caudato ancipiti [p. 113]. 
Sepiola IV. Ventre parvo rotundo, pinnula rotunda 
ad later a^ dor so ex osse [p. 1 16]. 

CLASSIS II. Pedes octoni longi basi palmati^ absque 
promuscidibuSy pinnis et osse dorsali [p. 108]. 
Polypus V. Acetabulorum in interna pedum superficie 
ordine duplici, in basi singulis acetabulis^ paullatiin 
increscentibus [p. 1 16]. 
MOSCHITES VI. Pedibus longissimiSy unico acetabu- 
lorum ordine [p. 1 1 8]. 
Nautilus VII. Singulari acetabulorum^ ordine, testa 

inclusus [p. 120]. 
POMPILUS VIII. Pedibus lobatis seu digitatis absque 

acetabulis'' [p. 128]. 
With the diagnosis of the genus Polypus just quoted, 
it is interesting to compare that given by Lamarck (IT^) 
of the genus Octopus^ which is as follows : — 

" Corps charnu, obtus inf<§rieurement, contenu dans un 
sac d^pourvu d'ailes, et n'ayant dans son int^rieur ni os 
spongieux, ni lame corn^e. Bouche terminale, entour^e 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv. (1901), No. 9. 3 

de huit bras ^gaux, munis de ventouses sessiles et sans 
grimpes." 

It IS abundantly clear that Schneider's genera Polypus 
and Moschites are equivalent to Lamarck's Octopus : it is 
true ths former author does not enumerate any species, 
but his references to IJnn6 and older authors leave no 
doubt as to what he had in view. 

It is noteworthy also that the genus Loligo Lamarck 
includes no less than three genera of Schneider, namely — 
Loligo, Teuthis and Sepiola, Of these the second is almost 
invariably regarded by modern writers as included in the 
first, and in any case the name would be invalid, having 
been previously used by Linn^ for a fish. The first and 
last genera, however, are quite clearly characterised by 
Schneider and should be attributed to him. 

Of Schneider's two remaining genera, the first Nautilus 
is equivalent to Argonauta, and the second Pompilus to 
Nautilus, but as these had been previously named and 
characterised by Linnd, the commonly accepted nomen- 
clature will not be disturbed as regards them. 

It is very difficult to account for the neglect with 
which Schneider's contribution to knowledge has been 
treated. Partly it is due no doubt to its being included in 
a volume whose title gives no clear idea of its subject, and 
which has neither table of contents nor index ; it is, how- 
ever, included in the Bibliography given by Keferstein 
in his edition of Bronn's " Thierreich " (*66). Jeffrey's 
attribution of the genus Loligo to Schneider might seem to 
indicate that he was acquainted with it, but on that 
hypothesis it is difficult to explain why he quotes Sepiola 
as of Leach and is quite silent as to the prior names for 
Octopus and Eledone. 

Leach's treatment of the matter ('IT) is rather 
strange. He adopts the generic name Polypus, but quotes 



4 HOYLE, Generic Names Octopus^ Eledone^ and Histiopsis, 

It as "nOAY'nOYS antiquorum'' and "POLYPUS 
RondeletUr In a later work ('53) the word " antiquorum " 
appears as a specific name, giving colour to the supposi- 
tion that he looked back to Aristotle as the creator 
of the genus, which is rendered still more likely by his 
quoting Eledone as " 'EAEAO'NH Arisiotelis:' There is 
no evidence that he was acquainted with Schneider's 
work. 

Gray ('49), curiously enough, adopts the genus 
TeutkiSy and gives a correct reference to Schneider's work 
(except that the page should be 113 not 112); in the 
synonymy of the genus Sepiola, however, is an entry 
"Octopodia sp. Sckneid. SamtnL Verm, Abh, 116, 1784" : 
under Eledone we have " Moschites Schneider^ Samml. 
Verm, AbhandL 1835" and under Eledone moschatus we 
find " Moschites Schneider^ Collect de div. Dissertl' which 
suggests very strongly the idea that Gray was quoting at 
second hand. This is confirmed by finding a precisely 
similar form of reference in F^russac and d'Orbigny's 
monumental work ('35). We may therefore fairly con- 
clude that Gray knew nothing of Schneider's memoir, but 
merely filled up his pages with unverified references. 

In any case the fact remains that a serious contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of these animals has been most 
unaccountably neglected. In answer to the question 
" Why rake it up again ? " I can only say that there 
appears to me to be only one hope for deliverance from the 
Babel which now reigns in zoological nomenclature and 
that is a rigid application of the law of priority as far 
back as the tenth edition of Linn^'s "Systema naturae" 
(1758). There is only a limited amount of literature to 
be examined ; much of the work has been already done, 
and what remains will be greatly facilitated by the issue 
of Mr. Sherborn's invaluable index. Then we may hope 



Manchester Memoir Sy VoL xlv, (1901), No. 9. 5 

to have leisure from barren discussion of names to 
devote to more profitable investigation. 

II. HiSTlOPSlS. 

The name Histiopsis -which I proposed in 1885 ('85, 
p. 201) has recently (:00) been criticised by M. Maurice 
Cossmann in an article entitled " Rectifications de nomen- 
clature," in the following terms : — " M. W. Hoyle a d^crit, 
en 1885, parmi les C^phalopodes des dragages du 
" Challenger," un genre Histzopsis^ qui fait double emploi 
avec Histiops {Pet. Manim.^ 1869); je propose pour le 
C^phalopode, la denomination Hoylia nobisP 

M. Cossmann is so polite that it seems almost discour- 
teous in me to criticise his procedure ; but I trust he will 
forgive me if I point out that he has himself been guilty 
of just that sort of changing of names without adequate 
enquiry which causes such needless complication. When 
I proposed the name Histiopsis^ I was quite aware of the 
existence of Histiops : it is given in Scudder's " Nomen- 
clator" ('82) and no zoologist who wishes his generic 
names to have a chance of vitality will neglect to see 
whether they may not be already contained in that useful 
index. I was then (and am still) of opinion that the 
existence of Histiops does not invalidate Histiopsis. It is 
quite true that they are etymologically similar, but both 
forms are admissible, and they are not so much alike that 
there is any danger of confusion, particularly as one is 
a Mammal and the other a Mollusc. 

In any case M. Cossman's procedure does not mend 
matters, and greatly as I appreciate the compliment paid 
by his proposing to rename it after myself, I am con- 
strained to point out that, if he had looked in the indexes 
to the Zoological Record^ he would have found in the 
volume for 1885 the name Hoy lea de Rochebrune, and 



6 HoYLE, Generic Names Octopus^ Eledone^ and Histiopsis, 

certainly, whether or no Histiops invalidates Histiopsis^ 
there can be no doubt that Hoylia " fait double emploi 
avec" Hoy lea. 

There is, however, another reason why M. Cossmann 
would have done well to make further enquiries before 
burdening our lists with another name. It is probably 
not needed at all. The impression has been gradually 
growing in my mind that Histiopsis is merely a young 
form of Histioieuthis. The chief difference between the 
two forms is the varying extent of the web between the 
arms, and there seems reason to believe that this is a 
character which undergoes change as development pro- 
ceeds. From a conversation with my friend Dr. Pfeffer, 
I learn that he has independently come to the same 
conclusion. At present there is not sufficient published 
evidence to prove the identity of the two forms, though 
I notice that Dr. Pfeffer has reduced Histiopsis to the 
rank of a synonym in his recent revision of the CEgopsida 
{:00). 

WORKS REFERRED TO, 

1T84. Schneider, J. G, " Charateristik des ganzen Gesch- 
lechts und der einzelnen Arten von Blakfischen." 
SamtnL vermischt. AbhandL z, Aufkldrung d, ZooL 
p. 105-144. Berlin, 1784. 

1199- Lamarck, J. B. P. A. de. " Sur las genres de la S^che, 
du Calmar et du Poulpe." Mem, Soc. Hist, Nat. 
Paris. Vol. I. An I. [1799]. p. i — 25, 2 pi. 

'IT. Leach, W. E. ** Synopsis of the orders, families and 
genera of the Class Cephalopoda.^' ZooL Miscell.^ vol. 
IIL, p. 137-141, 1817. 

'35. F^RUSSAC, A. de & A. D'Orbigny. " Histoire naturelle 
g^nerale et particuli^re des C6phalopodes acetabuli- 
f^res, vivants et fossiles." Paris, 1835-48. 



Manchester Memoirs ^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No, J). 7 

'49. Gray, J. E. " Catalogue of the Mollusca in the collection 
of the British Museum. Part I. Cephalopoda 
antepedia." London, 1849. 

*53. Leach, W. E. ** Molluscorum Britannise Synopsis. A 

synopsis of the Mollusca of Great Britain." London, 

1852. 
*66. Keferstein, W. "Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und 

Ordnungen desThierreichs ; Weichthiere (Malacozoa)." 

Leipzig & Heidelberg, 1862-66. 

'69. Jeffreys, J. G. ''British Conchology ; or, an account of 
the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and 
the surrounding seas." Vol. 5. London, 1869. 

%%, ScuDDER, S. H. " Nomenclator Zoologicus. An alpha- 
betical list of all generic names that have been 
employed by naturalists for recent and fossil animals 
from the earliest times to the close of the year 1879." 
BulL U.S. Nat Mus. No. 19, 1882. 

*85 HoYLE, W. E. " Diagnoses of new Species of Cephalopoda 
collected during the Cruise of H.M.S. * Challenger.' 
IL The Decapoda." Ann, and Mag, Nat, Hist. (5). 
Vol. 16, pp. 181-203, 1885. 

*86 HoYLE, W. E. " Report on the Cephalopoda collected by 
H.M.S. 'Challenger' during the years 1873-76. 
246 pp., 33 pis. Zool, Chall, Exp, Vol. 16, Part 
44, 1886. 

:00. CossMANN, M. " Rectifications de nomenclature." Rev. 
crit, paleozool. Vol. 4, No. i, Jan. 1900, pp. 42-46. 

:00, Pfeffer, G. " Synopsis der oegopsiden Cephalopoden." 
2 Beiheft z, /ahrb, Hamb, Wissensch, Anstalien^ Vol. 
17, pp. 147-198, 1900- 

:01, "List of British Marine Mollusca and Brachiopoda," 
J, Conch,, Vol. 10, No. i, January, i9oi,pp, 9-26. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xiv. (1961), No. 10. 



X. On the Construction of Entropy Diagrams from 
Steam Engine Indicator Diagrams. 

By George Wilson, D.Sc, 

Demonstrator in the Whitivorth Engineering Laboratory^ Owens College^ 
Manchestery 

AND 

H. Noble, B.Sc., 

Whitworth Scholar , Owens College ^ Manchester. 
Received and read February ^thy igor. 

The examples of steam engine entropy diagrams which 
have appeared from time to time in the Proceedings of 
Engineering Institutions, and in the professional journals, 
are constructed, in each case, to represent the heat changes 
which take place, for the total amount of steam and water 
in the cylinder. This quantity usually varies for each 
cylinder in Compound, Triple or Quadruple Expansion 
Engines. It is therefore necessary, under this system, to use 
different scales of entropy for each diagram, if the same 
water and steam lines are to be utilised throughout. From 
this it follows that the relation of the combined area of 
the indicator diagrams, when converted in this manner 
into entropy diagrams, to the area which represents, in 
the same diagram, the total heat received, does not repre- 
sent the efficiency of the steam. In this respect also, 
therefore, the entropy diagram, as at present constructed, 
is at a disadvantage when compared with the reduced and 
combined p.v. diagrams for the same engines. 

That it would be an advantage to deal with the same 

September loth, rgoi. 



2 Wilson and Noble, Entropy Diagrams, 

quantity of mixture throughout the combined diagrams, 
instead of an amount which varies in different parts of the 
figure, will be generally admitted ; and, with respect to 
indicator diagrams, methods of eliminating the effect of 
clearance have been proposed a:nd used for many years 
by different engineers. In this connection, the construc- 
tions advocated by A. C. Kirk\ W. Schonheyder*, Professor 
Unwin*, and Prof Osborne Reynolds*, may all be men- 
tioned. In the case of entropy diagrams, the hypothetical 
diagram for one pound of steam was discussed by Willans,, 
but the authors have been unable to find any actual dia- 
grams in which any method of reduction was given, or in 
which any reductions of this nature have been made. 
Without laying down any opinion as to the practical 
utility of entropy diagrams, founded, as they are, upon 
assumptions which are regarded by many as questionable, 
it may, nevertheless, serve a useful purpose to call atten- 
tion to the above point, and to indicate a method whereby, 
without any serious amount of labour, this required 
reduction can be performed. The p.v, and entropy dia- 
grams will then represent the changes which take place 
in one pound of mixture passing through the engine, and 
hence admit of direct comparison with the diagrams 
obtained from any other engine in a manner which is not 
possible under the present system. 

It may here be recalled that, if the indicator card is to 
disclose anything relating to the quality of the mixture, 
it is necessary that its expansion line shall be placed in 
the correct position, with respect to the corresponding 
saturated steam curve for that quantity of steam and 

* Trans, Inst. Naval Architects, Vol. xxiii. (1882), p. 33. 

* Proc. Inst. C.E. Vol. xciii., p. 230. 
' „ ,, „ p. 208. 

* „ „ Vol. xc, p. 31. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 10. 3 

water in the cylinder. To do this, the dryness of the 
mixture must be known at some point during expansion 
or compression. In the absence of definite information, 
the usual practice seems to be that of assuming a certain 
value for the dryness fraction at the point of compression. 
From this assumption, the weight of clearance mixture 
shut in at compression can be obtained, and the indicator 
card then placed in its true position with respect to the 
saturation curve for the steam and water present in the 
cylinder. 

The method adopted by Professor Reynolds, which is 
fully explained in the paper to which reference has 
already been made, can be found in standard text- 
books on the steam engine. Shortly stated it is as follows. 
Through the compression-point in the diagram an ideal 
compression-curve is drawn for the clearance steam. 
The volumes obtained in this manner for the clearance 
steam are then deducted from the total volume of clearance 
and cylinder steam as shewn by the diagram, that is to 
say, the diagram is " set back " by these quantities. 

It would seem that the question is one of the relative 
conditions of clearance steam and cylinder steam during 
expansion, The experiments of Callendar and Nicolson* 
show that steam in holes and crannies of the cylinder 
may be superheated during most parts of the stroke. 
This would apply in particular to the ports, but how far 
it would affect the total clearance steam is doubtful. In 
the same experiments, temperature measurements made 
in the main body of the steam did not show this to nearly 
such a marked extent. At first sight it might appear 
that discussion of the point is immaterial, but quite 
appreciable differences in the dryness fraction will result 
according to the law of expansion assumed for the 
* Proc, Inst, C,E, Vol. cxxxi., p. 168. 



2 Stromeyer, Projection on a Conical Mantle. 

A 




to LiC and MN is normal to LiD, therefore the angle 
LiNM=^CLiD, and therefore the two triangles are similar. 

LiM^CD 
•• LiN CL,' 

From the pairs of similar triangles CAD, LiAF and 

CAB, LjAH, we find 

CD^AC 
LiF ALi* 

CB AC 



and 



L>2-^ "•^21 



But CB = CLi being radii of a sphere, and ALi= ALi 
being radii of a sphere. Substituting the values for CD 
and CLi, we have 



LiM AC.L,F 



ALa _LiF 



ALi UH.AC LjH 



Manchester Memoirsy Vol. xlv. {igoi), No. 11. 3 

but LiM = LjP, therefore 

LiN.L,F = L,P.L,H. 

Q.E.D. 

The above is the geometrical construction, giving a 

projection which has been long known in its analytical 

aspect. Professor Lamb has pointed out to me that the 

analytical solution is to be found in Craig's " Treatise on 

Projections," p. 1 12. The particular case when the vertical 

angle of the cone is a right angle has been called by 

Germain, " Lambert's isospherical stenoteric projection." 



6 Wilson and Noble, Entropy Diagrams, 

of volume and pressure respectively. K is the point of 
compression, and C that of release. R is the point where 
rK, which is drawn parallel to OX, meets ST. The 
dotted curve represents a saturation curve through K. It 
is then necessary to assume the quality of the steam at K, 
the customary procedure being to assume it dry at this 
point, i.e.y at the beginning of compression.* 

Then the weight of mixture shut in at compression is 

-^ pounds, and the total weight in the cylinder will be 

( ' "^ ^) P^""^^- 

The volume occupied by the clearance steam at any 
pressure PN during expansion will be 



rK 
rR 



rR 



X P« cubic feet, 



P« being the total volume occupied by the mixture at 
the pressure PN. 

Hence, in order to obtain the clearance steam expan- 
sion curve GHJ, it is only necessary to determine this 



* The error in assuming the steam dry at compression may be seen as 
follows : — 

Let the fraction of the clearance steam which is water at K be «. 
Then the percentage correction to be applied to the dryness fraction as 
formed above will be very approximately 

- iQOot— -% of the dryness fraction. 

rR + rK 

On the figure, if the error in assuming the dryness at K was io%, this 

would be 

-100x^^-15= -1-5% 

shewing how the error is reduced. Thus in Fig, 3, on this assumption, the 
dryness would be 57*5%, instead of 58*4%, which still leaves a difference of 
5% between the two methods. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1901), No. 10. 7 

rYL 
fraction -^^ ^ once. The volume occupied by the clear- 
ance steam at any pressure during expansion will then be 

rYL 
the total volume given by the card multiplied by —^ — g-- 

In this manner the expansion curve GHJ has been 
constructed down to J, at the pressure corresponding to 
release pressure. 

Between J and K the expansion line must be put in 
by guesswork. It may be somewhat as shewn by the thick 
line JK, or may proceed by expansion to I and evapora- 
tion at approximately constant pressure to K, or it may 
follow the expansion curve CD, thus necessitating com- 
pression back to the pressure of K before the re-evapora- 
tion at constant pressure takes place. In the diagram, 
the simplest line JK has been assumed to avoid compli- 
cating the figure, especially since, as previously explained, 
it does not affect those parts of the diagram from which 
information is required. Thus the clearance steam diagram 
is GHJKAG, and its area gives the net work done on 
the clearance steam per pound of cylinder feed, together 
with the loss due to partially resisted expansion of admis- 
sion steam if compression is not complete. 

If the compression is complete up to admission 
pressure, this latter loss is eliminated, but there is still a 
resultant transference of heat to the cylinder walls by 
means of the work done on the clearance steam, and this 
could only be zero if the dryness of the clearance steam 
during expansion and compression were the same at each 
stage ; that is to say, if the curves coincide. 

The elimination of the clearance steam is obtained by 
setting back each point P and / in Fig. i by the volume 
«H occupied by the clearance mixture at that pressure. 
The area of the indicator diagram is unaltered, and the 



8 Wilson and Noble, Entropy Diagrams. 

result is a diagram for one pound of mixture as in Fig. 2. 

X 




> o 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol. xlv. {i^i). No, 10. 9 

Here the shaded portion represents the net effect of the 

PH 
clearance steam, whilst the dryness fraction is tttt* The 

dotted curve represents the result of using a saturation 
curve for the expansion of the clearance steam. 

The cycle of changes may be considered as follows : 
heating of water from K to G ; evaporation from G to B, 
expansion from B to D, and condensation from D to K. 
The total amount of work obtained in that case is repre- 




sented by the area KGABCDK, whilst of this the work 
represented by KGA/K has to be deducted, as done upon 
clearance steam, and, although apparently lost, must 
finally partially reappear in its influence on the form of 
the expansion curve. 

In the case of two or more cylinders, if the variations 
of pressure and volume in the receiver are known, the 
complete cycle for the passage of the steam through the 



lo Wilson and Noble, Entropy Diagrams, 

-engines could be traced, and the various losses definitely 
analysed. 

Fig. 3 is an example of the mean diagrams from a 
Triple Expansion Engine trial compounded in this 
manner, the low-pressure diagram being uncompleted for 
reasons of economy of space. The dotted line shews the 
diagrams before setting back with the clearance expansion 
lines in position. Diagrams such as Fig. III. can be con- 
verted into entropy diagrams by the graphical method 
introduced by Professor Boulvin.* 

Fig. 4 is such a diagram from the mean cards of a 
set of diagrams taken from the engines of the steamship 
" Tartar," the trials of which were described in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for 
1890 and 1894. It will be noticed that the expansion 
lines of the diagrams by this method are roughly in coin- 
cidence with the adiabatic expansion line, thus shewing 
that the jackets were doing little more than preventing 
the conduction of heat away from the cylinders. Con- 
sidering the small ratio the jacket water bore to the 
cylinder feed (3*94%), this is only what might have been 
expected. 

The position of the expansion line with regard to the 
adiabatic line also seems to corroborate the assumption, 
which was generally made, in the discussion of this trial, 
to explain the magnitude of the missing steam, viz., that 
there had been a large amount of priming. For, had 
initial condensation been the only factor, the expansion 
line ought to have left the adiabatic as the temperature 
fell, on account of the heat regained from the walls of the 
cylinder. 

Constant volume curves have been drawn in for the 
steam during expansion after release. In the low pressure 

* Engineerings 1896. 



Manchester Memoirs^ VoLxlv, (1901), No. 10. 11 

engine this corresponds with the actual line very fairly. 
In the intermediate and high-pressure diagrams this cor- 




—^^ futhipirs 



respondence is absent. This is due to the point of release 
for these cards being unknown, and, as the diagrams show 



12 Wilson and 'iHomjE, Entropy Diagrams. 

the point which was assumed has turned out to be too late 
in the stroke. The dotted curves shew the result ol 
taking an earlier release, with its corresponding alteration 
in the clearance work. 

The dryness fractions, as obtained from these dia- 
grams, agree very fairly with those calculated by Mr. 
Longridge. They do not, however, agree with those 
calculated by Captain Riall Sankey, probably because the 
latter gentleman assumed a quality for the steam at cut-off 
rather than at compression. On measurement, the area 
of the diagrams as drawn was found to agree with that 
given by the indicator cards within reasonable limits. 

Analysis of the heat losses has not been attempted, 
partly because of the uncertainty in the amount of the 
priming water, and the lack of information regarding the 
points of compression and release, but chiefly because it 
has been the intention of the authors to indicate the 
method of reduction rather than to investigate the per- 
formance of any particular set of engines. 



Manchester Memoirs, VoL xlv, (1901), No, 11. 



XL The Representation on a Conical Mantle of 
the Areas on a Sphere. 

By C. E. Stromeyer, M.Inst.C.E. 

Received and read February ^th, igoi. 

This problem is solved as soon as it is shewn how to 
project zones of latitude from a sphere on to a cone, so 
that the areas of the two zones are equal. 

Solution. — Place the conical mantle over the sphere 
so that the two touch each other tangentially : then the 
areas of two zones on the sphere and on the cone, produced 
by their intersection with two spherical surfaces whose 
common centre is at the apex of the cone, are equal. 

This can be proved when the difference of length of 
radii of the two intersecting spherical surfaces is infini- 
tesimally small, and by summation can be shewn to be 
true for wider zones. 

Let C be the centre of the sphere, while A is the apex 
of the conical mantle, which touches the sphere tangen- 
tially along the latitude BK. Let LiF be the radius of 
a zone whose width is LiN, being infinitesimally small. 
With A as centre, draw the arcs LiLg and NP, prolonging 
the latter to M, on AL produced. Also draw LiF and L2H 
normal to AC, then it is required to prove that 

LiN.LiF = L2P.L2H. 

To prove this, prolong ALj through M to D ; draw 
CD normal to ALD, and join LjC. 

Comparing the triangles LiMN and CDLi, we have 
the angle LjMN = LiDC, being right angles. LiN is normal 

September loth^ IQOI, 



2 Stromeyer, Projection on a Conical Mantle. 

A 




to LiC and MN is normal to LiD, therefore the angle 
LiNM=^CLiD, and therefore the two triangles are similar. 






CD 
CL,' 



From the pairs of similar triangles CAD, LiAF and 
CAB, LjAH, we find 

CD_AC 
LiF ALi' 

and — =:^. 

But CB = CLi being radii of a sphere, and ALi = ALj 
being radii of a sphere. Substituting the values for CD 
and CLi, we have 

LiM AC.LiF ALa ^ L^F 
LiN"" ALi ' UH.AC L,H 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 11, 3 

but LiM = LgP, therefore 

LiN.LiF = L2P.LaH. 

Q.E.D. 

The above is the geometrical construction, giving a 

projection which has been long known in its analytical 

aspect. Professor Lamb has pointed out to me that the 

analytical solution is to be found in Craig's " Treatise on 

Projections," p. 1 12. The particular case when the vertical 

angle of the cone is a right angle has been called by 

Germain, " Lambert's isospherical stenoteric projection." 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv, (1901), No, 12. 



XI I. The Macro-Lepidoptera of Sherwood Forest. 

By J. Ray Hardy. 

(Communicated ly W. E. Hoyle, M.A,, F.R.S.E,) 

Received and read March igth^ igoi. 

The following list of Macro-Lepidoptera (made out to 
the end of the Geometrina) does not profess to be any- 
thing like a complete summary of the species to be 
found in Sherwood Forest. It only contains my own 
captures, but is, nevertheless, a fairly satisfactory record 
of the results of many journeys from Manchester, and 
many days of keen and systematic collecting in each year 
from March, 1879, up to September, 190a As the species 
have been collected they have all been placed in the 
British cabinet at the Manchester Museum, Owens 
College. 

The district worked forms a triangle between Worksop, 
Edwinstowe, and Checkerhouse, and I invariably made 
Edwinstowe my headquarters. The fine old timber of 
the district, with its abundant cover, makes it an ideal 
collecting ground, and, as might be expected, some rate 
and local forms occur, e.g., Apatura iris and Triphcma 
subsequa. 

Rhopalocera. 

Pieris brassicce, L. Gonopteryx rhamni, L. 

Pieris rapce, L. Argynnis paphia, L. 

Pieris napi, L. Argynnis euphrosyne, L. 

Anthocharis cardamineSy L. Vanessa atalanta, L. 

Colias edusa, Fb. Vanessa io^ L. 

September roth, igoi. 



2 Hardy, Macro-Lepidoptera of Sherwood Forest, 



Vanessa polychloros, L. 
Vanessa urticce, L. 
Apatura iris, L. 
Pararge egeria, L. 
Pararge megcera, L. 
Epinephele ianira, L. 



Thecla betuke^ L. 
Tlucla quercus, L. 
Thecla rubi, L. 
Polyommatus phlaas^ L. 
Thanaos tageSy L. 
Hesperia thaumas, Hufn. 



C<Bnonympha pamphiluSy L. Hesperia sylvanus^ Esp. 

Heterocera. 
Acherontia atropos, L. Gnophria rubricollisy L. 



Chcerocampa porcellus, L. 
Chcerocampa elpenor, L. 
Smerinthus ocellatus, L. 
Smerinthus populi, L. 



Nudaria mundana^ L. 
Nudaria seneXy Hb. 
Arctia caja^ L. 
Phragmatobia fuliginosay L. 



Macroglossa stellatarum, L. Spilosoma menthastriy Esp. 
Trochilium apiformisy Clerck. Spilosoma lubricipeday Esp. 
5^j/<3: tipuliformiSy Clerck. Callimorpha jacobcecBy L. 



5^^/^ culiciformiSy L. 
/«^ staticeSy L. 
Zygcena filipendulcSy L. 
Centra furculay L. 
Cerura bifiday Hb. 
Cerura vinulay L. 
Notodonta dromedariuSy L. 
Notodonta ziczaCy L. 
Pterostoma palpinay L. 
Leiocampa dictceUy L. 
Leiocampa camelinay L. 
Pygcera bucephalay L. 
Orgyia antiquay L. 
Orgyia gonostigmay Fb. 
Porthesia chrysorrhcea, L. 
Lithosia complanay L. 
Lithosia complanulay Bdv. 



Lasiocampa rubiy L. 
Lasiocampa quercuSy L. 
Eriogaster lanesiriSy L. 
Odenestris, potatoriuy L. 
Saturnia pavonia-minory L. 
CV7/!ir spinuluy Schiflf. 
Drepana falcatariay L. 
Psyche nigricanSy Stt. 
Thyatira derasay L. 
Thyatira batiSy L. 
Cymatophora dilutay Fb. 
Cymatopliora flavicorniSy L. 
Bryophila perlay Fb. 
Acronycta tridensy Schiflf. 
Acronycta psiy L. 
Acronycta leporinay L. 
Acronycta megacephaluy Fb. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv. (19O1), No, \%. 



A crony eta ligustri^ Fb. 
Acronycta rumicis^ L. 
Acronycta menyantkidis^Yi^w. 
Leucania turca, L. 
Leucania lithargyria^ Esp. 
Leucania comma^ L. 
Leucania impura^ Hb. 
Leucania pallens^ L. 
N onagria fulva^ Hb. 
Nonagria typhcBy Esp. 
Gortyna flavagOy Esp. 
HydrcBcia mciitans, Bork. 
Hydrcecia micacea, Esp. 
Xylophasia rurea^ Fb. 
Xylophasia polyodon^ L. 
Xylophasia hepatica^ L. 
Neuria saponarice, Bork. 
Heliophobus popularis, Fb. 
Mamestra brassicce^ L. 
Mamestra persicarice, L. 
Apamea basilinea, Fb. 
Apamea connexa^ Bork. 
Apamea gemina^ Hb. 
Apamea oculea^ Gn. 
Miana strigilis, Clerck. 
Miana fasciuncula, Haw. 
Caradrina morpheus, Hufn. 
Caradrina cubicularis, Bork. 
Rusina tenebrosa, Hb. 
Agrotis suffusa, Hb. 
Agrotis segetuniy Schiff. 
Agrotis exclamationis L. 
Triphcena ianthina^ Esp. 
Tfiphcena fimbria^ L. 



Triphcena interjecta^ Hb. 
Triphcena subsequa^ Hb. 
Triphcena orbona^ Hufn. 
Triphcena pronubay L. 
Noctua augur^ Fb. 
Noctua plecta^ L. 
Noctua c, nigrum^ L. 
Noctua brunnea^ Fb. 
Noctua festiva, Hb. 
Noctua bajay Fb. 
Noctua xanthographa^ Fb. 
Panolis piniperda, Panz. 
Tceniocampa gothica^ L. 
Tceniocampa instibiliSy Esp. 
Tceniocampa gracilis^ Fb. 
Tceniocampa munda, Esp. 
Tceniocampa cruda^ Tr. 
Orthosia lota, Clerck. 
Orthosia macilenta, Hb. 
Anchocelis rufina, L. 
Anchocelis pistacinay Fb. 
Anchocelis litura, L. 
Cerastis vaccinii, L. 
Cerastis spadacea, Hb. 
Scopelosoma satellitia, L. 
Hoporina croceago, Fb. 
Xanthia cerago, Fb. 
Xanthia gilvago. Haw. 
Xanthia ferruginea, Esp. 
Tethea subtusa, Fb. 
Tethea retusa, L. 
Cosmia trapezina, L. 
Cosmia affiniSy L. 
Diant/ueda carpophaga^^ork. 



lu Pratt, PolychcBta from the Falkland Islands, 

The parapodia of the 28th segment of G, congoensis^ 
and G, hupferi correspond with the median parapodia 
(about 1 00th segment) in the species from the Falkland 
Islands and Norway, in that the notopodium is a well 
developed structure. 

The lower limb of the notopodium of this species diflfers 
markedly from that of the tropical G, congoensis^ in that in 
the latter the notopodium bears no capillary bristles, their 
place being taken by two fairly stout acicula which just 
appear above the surface. This form is like another tropical 
form, ? G, longicirrata^ in the presence of multi-acicula and 
the absence of capillary bristles in the notopodium. 

In the Falkland Islands specimen the lower limb of 
the notopodium does not appear until the S6th segment, 
when it has the form of a small finger-shaped process, 
devoid of bristles, which, however, as previously stated, 
are present on the succeeding segments. In a specimen 
of G, norvegica which I have examined, the lower limb of 
the notopodium appears on the 35th segment 

Throughout the Polychaeta, a typical parapodium 
consists of a notopodium and a neuropodium, each bearing, 
in addition to the ordinary bristles, a single aciculum. 
The extra-tropical species of Goniada have typical para- 
podia, but in two tropical forms (one of which, owing to 
the absence of characteristic features, Arwidsson doubt- 
fully places in this genus) the parapodia are modified, in 
that the notopodium is multi-aciculate and the ordinary 
bristles are absent Therefore we may assume that the 
form of parapodium possessed by extra-tropical forms is 
the primitive one, and that from it the modified form 
seen in some tropical species has been derived ; that is 
to say, the parapodium of extra-tropical forms has remained 
true, while that of tropical forms shows a tendency to 
variation. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1901), No. 13. ii 

The specimen from the Falkland Islands agrees with 
those from Norway in size, colour, and general confor- 
mation of the body, in the form and arrangement of the 
parapodia, and in the minute anatomy of the bristles. 
The proboscis, with surface papillae, ring of larger papillae 
at the tip, and the arrangement of the multi-cusped teeth 
are similar in both cases. 

The two points of difference — the number of teeth, 
and arrangement of papillae on the proboscis — between 
the Norwegian and Falkland Islands specimens, are not 
sufficient to necessitate the separation of the latter into a 
distinct species, for Darwin {Origin of Species, p. 169), on 
the authority of Bronn, states that " distinct species never 
differ from each other in single characters, but in many 
parts." Therefore we may assume that the two forms 
belong to one species, and that the variation has been 
brought about by a difference in the conditions of life, 
probably in the character of the food material. 

But even if we do not regard the two forms as 
belonging to one species, the fact still remains that the 
two extra-tropical forms are more closely related to each 
other than to any known intervening tropical form. 

Spionid^ 

Polydora polybranchia. Haswell ('85), p. 273. Carazzi 
C93),p. IS. Ehlers C96), p. 87. 

Found in a hollow root of Macrocystis from 3 fathoms, 
also removed from the bottom of a lighter beached for 
cleaning (the vessel had not left the harbour for many 
years) ; also from a small piece of water-logged timber 
at low water spring tides. 

Distribution. — Sts. of Magellan, Sydney, Naples. 
New to Falkland Islands, not taken within the tropics. 



4 Hardy, Macro- Lepidoptera of Sherwood Forest, 



DianthcBcia cucubali^ Fues. 
Polia cki, L. 
Miselia oxyacanthcBy L. 
Agriopis aprilina, L. 
Phlogophora meticulosa, L. 
Euplexia lucipara^ L. 
Aplecta herbida, Hb. 
Aplecta occulta^ L. 
Aplecta nebulosa^ Hufn. 
Aplecta tincta, Brahm. 
Aplecta advena, Fb. 
Hadena adtista, Esp. 
Hadena protea, Bork. 
Hadena dentin a, Esp. 
Hadena suasa, Bork. 
Hadena oleracea, L. 
Hadena pisi^ L. 



Hadena tkalassina^ Rott. 
Calocampa solidaginis^ Hb. 
Xylina petrificata, Fb. 
Cucullta ckamomillcBy Schiff. 
Cucullia umbraticay L. 
Anarta myrtilliy L. 
Brephos parthenias, L. 
Plusia chrysitiSy L. 
Plusia festuccBy L. 
Plusia iota, L. 
Plusia gamma^ L. 
Gonoptera libatrix, L. 
Amphipyra tragopogonis, L. 
Mania typica, L. 
Mania maura, L. 
Euclidia nii^ Clerck. 



Geometrina. 



Uropteryx sambuca^^ia, L. 
Epione apicaria, Schiff. 
Runiia cratcegata^ L. 
Venilia macula ta, Schiff. 
Angerona prunaria^ L. 
Selenia illunaria, Hb. 
Selenia iunaria, Schiff. 
Odontopera bidentata, Clerck. 
Crocallis elinguaria^ L. 
Efinomos tiliaria, Bork. 
Ennomos angularia, Bork. 
Himera pennaria, L. 
Pliigalia pilosaria. Hb. 
^ ffiphidasys prodromaria, 
Schiff 



Amphidasys betularia^ L. 
Boarmia repandata^ L. 
Boarmia rkomboidaria^ Hb. 
Boarmia roboraria^ Schiff. 
Tephrosia crepuscularia, Hb. 
Geometra papilonaria^ L. 
Hemithea thymiaria^ Gn. 
Ephyra porata^ Fb. 
Ephyra trilineariay Bork. 
Ephyra orbicularia^ Hb. 
Venusia cambrica^ Curt 
Aiidalia scutulata^ Bork. 
Acidalia bisetata^ Hufn. 
Acidalia imitaria^ Hb. 
Acidalia remutaria^ Hb. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 12. 5 



Acid alia aver sat a^ L. 
Acidalia emarginata^ L. 
Cabera pusaria^ L. 
Cabera rotundaria^ Haw. 
Cabera exanthemata^ Scop. 
Macaria alternata^ Curt. 
Macaria notata^ L. 
Halia wavaria^ Fb. 
Fidonia atomaria, L. 
Bupalis piniaria, L. 
Abraxas ulinata^ Fb. 
Abraxas grossulariatay L. 
Abraxas adustata^ Schiff. 
Abraxas marginata, L. 
Hybernia rupicapraria, Hb. 
Hybernia leucophearia^ Schiff. 
Hybernia progenunaria, Hb. 
Hybernia defoliaria^ Clerck. 
Anisopteryx cescularia^ Schiff. 
Clieimatobia brumata, L. 
Oporabia dilutata, Bork. 
Larentia didymata, L. 
Larentia miaria, Bork. 
Eupithecia venosata^ Fab. 
Eupithecta centaureata, Fb. 
Eupithecia castigata^ Hb. 
Eupithecia nanata, Hb. 
Eupithecia vulgata^ Haw. 



Eupithecia dodoneata^ Gn. 
Eupithecia rectangulata^ L. 
Thera variata^ Schiff. 
Hypsipetes elutata^ Hb. 
Melanthia ocellata^ L. 
Melanthia albicillata^ L. 
Melanippe hastata^ L. 
Melanippe rivata^ Hb. 
Melanippe 7nontanata, Bork. 
Melanippe fluctuata^ L. 
Anticlea rubidata, Fb. 
Anticlea badiata, Hb. 
Coremia propugnata^ Fb. 
Coremia ferrugata^ C lerck. 
Camptogramma bilineata, L. 
Cidaria miata, L. 
Cidaria corylata^ Thnb. 
Cidaria russata, Bork. 
Cidaria immanatay Haw. 
Cidaria snff'umatay Hb. 
Cidaria prunata, L. 
Cidaria testata, L. 
Cidaria fulvata^ Forst. 
Cidaria pyraliata, Fb. 
Eubolia mensuraria, Schiff. 
Eubolia bipunctaria, Schiff. 
Anaitis plagiatay L. 
Tanagra atrata^ L. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv. (1901), No, 13. 



XIII. A Collection of Polychsta from the Falkland 

Islands. 

By Edith M. Pratt, M.Sc (Vict), 

Honorary Research Fellow^ Owens College^ Manchester. 

(Communicated by Professor S./, Hickson^ M,A,^ F,R.S.) 

Received and read April 2jrd, igor. 

For this collection of Polychaeta, from the Falkland 
Islands, I am indebted to Mr. R. Vallentin, of New Quay, 
formerly of Falmouth, who made the collection towards 
the end of the year 1898 and in the beginning of 1899. 
It includes specimens of the following genera and species: 

APHRODITIDiE. 

Hermadion magalhcensis, Kinberg ('55). 
= //". kerguelensis, M*Intosh ('85). 
= -fir. longicirratum, Kinberg, Baird. 
^H, longicirraius. Kinberg, M*Intosh. 
Three specimens found living in a hollow root ot 
Macrocystis from 3^ fathoms. 

Distribution. — Sts. Meigellan, Kerguelen (numerous at 
60 fath.), Falkland Islands (3- f o fath.). The genus appears 
to be restricted to the southern hemisphere. 

PHYLLODOCIDiE. 

Eteone spathocephala, Ehlers ('96), p. 32. 

One specimen, bright green in colour when alive, 
without anal cirri, found under a stone at low water. 

Distribution. — Sts. Magellan. Newto Falkland Islands. 

Genus, Occurs in northern and southern temperate 
and cold waters, but up to the present has not been taken 
within the tropics. 

September loth^ igoi. 



2 Pratt, PolychcBta from the Falkland Islands, 

SYLLIDiE. 

Autolytus simplex, Ehlers (:00). 

Taken in tow-net at the surface and at a depth of 
l\ fathoms, also common on fronds of Macrocystis from 
2 fathoms. 

Distribution. — Sts. of Magellan. New to Falkland 
Islands. 

Genus, 1 1 species have been taken in temperate and 
cold waters of the northern and southern hemisphere, and 
one doubtful species has been taken in the Red Sea, so 
that the genus is almost exclusively extra-tropical. The 
occurrence of a doubtful species of this otherwise extra- 
tropical genus in the Red Sea leads one to believe that 
it is an escape from the Mediterranean, where the genus 
is well represented. Keller and Brandt have shown that 
. many Mediterranean forms have increased their range of 
distribution in that direction since the formation of the 
Suez Canal. 

NEREIDiE. 

Platy nereis magalhcensis. Kin berg ('65). 

= Platynereis antarctica, Kinberg ('65), p. 177. 
= » patagonica, „ 

= Nereis antarctica, Verrill C76). 
= „ eatoni, Mcintosh (76), p. 320. 
= „ magalhcensis, Ehlers ('96), p. 63. 
Two specimens found living in a hollow root of 
Macrocystis from 3^ fathoms, and two, with egg masses 
containing developing embryos, within folded fronds of 
Macrocystis from 2 fathoms in Stanley Harbour. 

Distribution. — Sts. Magellan, Kerguelen, Falkland 
Islands, Fernando Noronha, Marion Island. 
The genus is cosmopolitan. 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901) No, 13. 3 

GONIAD^. 

Goniada norvegica Orsted, van falklandica, Arwidsson 
C99)» P- 3^- (New variety). 

A single mature specimen, with ova, consisting of 
about 182 segments, found living in a hollow root of 
Macrocystis taken at a depth of 3 fathoms. The tail end 
missing in the preserved state. 

Length about 180 mm.; without proboscis, 140 mm. 
Breadth at the widest part, including parapodia, 10- 11 
mm. The breadth is greatest in the middle of the body, 
mainly due to the increase in size and development of the 
parapodia in this part of the body. 

Colour, The specimen was well preserved in formalin ; 
dorsal surface, greenish-brown ; ventral surface, brownish. 
The whole surface of the body, including proboscis, 
covered with a thin transparent cuticle having an 
iridescent metallic lustre. In these respects it closely 
resembles the Norwegian species. 

As this affords a good example of the same species 
occurring in the north and south temperate regions but not 
in the tropics, I have given a detailed examination of the 
form. Through the kindness of Dr. Appellof, of Bergen, 
I have been able to examine specimens of the species 
from Norway, and to compare them with the specimen 
from the Falkland Islands. It was important that an 
actual comparison of these forms should be made, for, in 
the discussions on the Bipolar Theory, there has been an 
uncertainty (due to the vagueness of the published accounts 
of species) as to the degree of resemblance between extra- 
tropical forms, and it was doubtful whether some should 
be classed as varieties or as individual species. 

Prostomium, Conical, nearly twice as long as broad, 
with 9 segments, the basal one being the largest ; at the 
tip are 4 small tentacles. In form the prostomium closely 



4 Pratt, Polychcetafrom the Falkland Islands, 

resembles that of the Norwegian specimens, but it is rather 
more broadly conical. 

Proboscis, Cylindrical, about 40 mm. in length, 
everted portion about 20 mm. The surface of the 
proboscis covered with an iridescent cuticle, is almost 
universally studded with small papillae, not quite so 
numerous near the base of the proboscis, and each of 
which appears to have a chitinous tip. 

Teeth, Four pairs of small, laterally placed, V-shaped 
teeth (see Fig, 2). At the tip of the proboscis there is a 
ring of 17 papillae, and below this, the multicusped teeth, 
characteristic of the genus, are arranged more or less in a 
circle. There are : — 15 dorsal micrognatha, 2 large mac- 
rognatha and 17 ventral micrognatha. Total = 34 (see 
Fig, 6). The everted proboscis is not so broad as 
that of a Norwegian specimen, from which it also differs 
in the arrangement of papillae. In the latter they are 
more numerous on the dorsal than on the ventral surface, 
while in the specimen from the Falkland Islands they 
are almost universally scattered over the surface of the 
proboscis. The ring of papillae at the tip of the proboscis, 
and the circle of multicusped teeth below this ring, are 
similar in arrangement to those of the Norwegian 
specimens (see Figs, 5 and 6). 

Ehlers records a new species, Goniada eximia^ from 
the Sts. of Magellan, which is like the Falkland Islands 
specimen in the possession of 4 pairs of V-shaped teeth, 
but differs from it in the number of multicusped teeth. 
The description of the species is not sufficiently definite to 
determine whether these two forms are identical in other 
respects. The most important point of difference between 
the specimen from the Falkland Islands and those from 
Norway is in the number of V-shaped teeth on the 
proboscis. The following table will show that it differs 
also from the tropical forms in this respect. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 13. 
Number of V-shaped Teeth. 



Falkland 
Islands. 


Norway. 


Tropical. 


G. Norvegica, 

var. 
falklandica. 


G. 

norvegica. 


G, 
congoensts. 


(7. 

hupferi. 


G, 

multi- 

dentata. 


G. 
pausidens. 


4 


17—18 


13 


14 


90 


^Z 



The Parapodia are large, well-marked structures, 
which, in the middle of the body, take up at least two- 
thirds of the breadth of the animal. In the anterior 
parapodia the notopodium is represented only by a 
curved dorsal cirrus ; the neuropodium is here a well- 
marked triramous structure with a lancet-shaped ventral 
cirrus. About the 56th segment a small finger-shaped pro- 
cess grows out below the dorsal cirrus ; on this segment the 
process is devoid of bristles, but on the following segment 
this portion of the notopodium bears a single capillary 
bristle. The parapodia continue to grow larger towards 
the middle of the body ; the notopodium becomes a well 
marked structure ; the dorsal cirrus becoming smaller in 
comparison with the increased size of the notopodium. 
The capillary bristles of the notopodium are quite distinct 
from the jointed bristles on the neuropodium, which also 
increase in size in this part of the body. 

Posteriorly the parapodia diminish in size, and there 
is a corresponding reduction in the number of bristles 
borne by the notopodia and neuropodia respectively. 
Throughout the whole length of the body the triramous 
neuropodium is a larger and more important structure 
than the notopodium. 

The most important feature of the parapodia is their 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 14. 



XIV. Some Notes on tbe Bipolar Theory of the Distri- 
bution of Marine Organisms, 

By Edith M. Pratt, M.Sc. (Vict), 

Honorary /Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester, 

(Communicated by Professor S.J, Hickson, M,A,, F,R,S,) 

Received and read April 2^rd, igoi, 

Th^el is supposed by many to be the first zoologist to 
notice the resemblance between the north and south polar 
faunas, but as early as 1847 Sir James Ross noted that 
several species which inhabit the Arctic occur also in 
Antarctic waters. Many years later Selenka ('83) and 
De Guerne (*88) observed that certain Gephyrea inhabiting 
the north polar seas are very nearly related to those in 
the south polar seas. In 1886 Thdel compared actual 
specimens of Holothurids from Arctic and Antarctic 
waters, and of them he says (p. 260) " It is a fact that, 
" with regard to Holothurids, several forms occur in the 
" Arctic sea which are most closely allied to those of the 
" Antarctic." 

In explanation of the curious similarity between the 
north and south polar faunas Pfeffer ('91) proposed the 
" Bipolar Theory,*' which maintains that the many points 
of resemblance existing between Arctic and Antarctic 
faunas are sufficient to indicate a nearer relationship of 
these faunas to one another than to the intervening 
tropical fauna. He also states that the littoral marine 
fauna is the primitive one, and from it the deep sea, 
brackish and fresh-water faunas are derived. 

In 1896 Sir J. Murray* investigated the distribution 

• A short abstract of Murray's paper is contained in my previous paper on 
the marine fauna of the Falkland Islands (Pratt, '98). 

September loth, igoi. 



2 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

of forms obtained by the Challenger expedition, and, by 
drawing up a long list of bipolar forms, supported Pfeffer's 
theory. Furthermore, by a consideration of former different 
climatic conditions affecting the nature of the surface of 
the earth, he shows how this relationship may have been 
brought about He maintains that if there were once a 
nearly universal climate over the whole of the ocean, then 
it is possible that there was a universal littoral marine 
fauna. The cooling of the earth at the poles would cause 
vast migrations of forms towards the tropics, where the 
struggle for existence would be extremely severe, and 
metabolism would be great. This would result in modi- 
fication of old, and rapid formation of new, species in the 
warmer waters. Many forms with free-swimming pelagic 
lar\'ae, by limiting their reproductive process to the summer 
season, would be able to live on in the temperate regions, 
where metabolism would be less than in the warmer waters, 
and would remain more or less true. Thus the likeness 
of many littoral, temperate, extra-tropical forms to each 
other would be explained. 

With the migration of forms from the poles, their 
place would be taken by organisms from the deeper 
mud-line, few of which have pelagic larva. This would 
explain the likeness between Arctic and Antarctic forms. 

The theory put forward by Pfeffer and strongly 
supported by Murray, met with considerable opposition 
from Ortmann, Professor D'Arcy Thompson, and others. 
In the following pages I have attempted to discuss briefly 
the evidence for and against the theory. 

Ortmann ('96-*99) contends that the cooling of the 
waters at the poles did not arrest metabolism, and main- 
tains that the tropical fauna has remained more or less 
true, while the temperate and polar forms are derivatives 
from ancestral forms. He maintains that the likeness 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv. (1901), No. 14. 3 

between extra-tropical forms does not indicate a common 
descent, but is in many cases a " secondary reappearance." 
He holds that an interchange of polar forms may take 
place through the deep sea, on the ground that among 
the Crustacea the cosmo]3olitan genus Pontqphilus shows a 
tendency to retire into deep water, and only occurs in the 
tropics in the deep sea. He suggests that many bipolar 
forms may occur in the tropics in deep water and have 
thus escaped extermination. 

This point, however, is by no means proved, for in the 
case of many littoral bipolar forms we have no evidence 
that they ever retire into deep water. 

In explanation of the distribution of such forms, he 
maintains that an interchange of supposed bipolar forms 
may take place through the tropics along the western 
shores of America, where, owing to cold ocean currents, 
etc., the temperature of the tropical waters is lowered. 
This would explain the occurrence of some, but not all, 
similar forms in the north and south temperate Pacific. 

On the ground that a variety of the European Maia 
squinado {M. squinado capensis) has been taken at the 
Cape of Good Hope, Ortmann further maintains that 
a similar interpassage of forms takes place along the 
western shores of Africa. This, however, is by no means 
proved, and it is within the province of this paper to show 
that a variety of a northern European species {Goniada 
7iorvegicdf may occur, in the south Atlantic (Falkland 
Islands), while the genus is represented in the tropics, />., 
along the western shores of Africa, by several distinct and 
modified species. 

That an interchange of extra-tropical forms takes 
place along the western shores of America and Africa is 
only proved for such forms as have actually been taken in 
♦ Manchester Memoirs, Vol. 4$, No. 13, p. 3. 



4 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

the warm waters of the Panama region and in the Gulf of 
Guinea, where the littoral fauna is of a distinctly tropical 
character. 

In a second paper ('99) in opposition to the theory, 
Ortmann gives a short extract from Buerger's paper on 
the Nemertines on the subject of bipolarity, with the 
following comments : — 

" As regards the genera, all Antarctic genera are also 
" found in the Arctic ; Buerger says that * a general 
^^ similarity of both Polar faunas is thus indicated^ but the 
"lack of 12 Arctic genera in the Antarctic does not 
** support this view, and since he says further that neither 
" of the faunas seems to possess very characteristic types, 
" as do {sic) the tropics, it is evident that these 9 genera, 
" common to both polar faunas, are also represented in the 
" tropics. There is one genus that seems to be bipolar : 
" Carinoma, which has been found on the west coast of 
" England {C, armandi\ and in the Straits of Magellan 
" {C, patagonicay 

We have no evidence in support of Ortmann's state- 
ment that " it is evident that these 9 genera, common to 
both polar faunas, are also represented in the tropics." 
When we consider how little is known of the Antarctic 
fauna, the fact that 1 2 Arctic genera have not yet been 
taken in Antarctic waters must not be regarded as an 
important piece of evidence against the bipolar theory. 

If there were once a universal fauna, modification and 
specialization, after the lapse of ages, would lead to the 
formation of species which would be more or less limited 
in their range of distribution ; some forms would survive 
and be prolific in species in the north, which in the south 
would become extinct or form only few species, or vice 
versa ; and, as a fact, at the present time, we have many 
species which are peculiar to the northern or to the 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1901), No. 14. S 

southern hemisphere. Yet, notwithstanding the changes 
through which species have passed, we should expect to 
find some forms, not very numerous perhaps, but still 
some forms, which have remained more or less true to 
their ancestral structure. Therefore, points of similarity 
in extra-tropical forms, which are not shared with tropical 
forms, have a most important bearing upon the " Bipolar 
Theory." It is but natural that the similarity would be 
more marked in some groups than in others. 

It is to be greatly deplored that, owing to a want of 
uniformity in the recognition of specific and even of 
generic characters on the part of authors, many forms 
have been regarded as new and distinct species or genera 
which further investigation has shown should have been 
included with previously described forms. Murray and 
other writers have shown this to be a great obstacle in 
the identification of many Challenger species. Therefore, 
in order that the relationship between extra- tropical forms 
may be ascertained, it is imperative that, wherever possible, 
an actual examination and comparison of these forms 
with tropical representatives — where they do occur — 
should be made. 

In a paper supporting Ortmann's view in opposing 
the theory. Professor D'Arcy Thompson (*97) states that 
many of the forms included in Sir John Murray's list of 
bipolar forms are recorded, not as identical, but as distinct 
varieties, and maintains that this fact weakens the evidence 
in support of that theory. 

It is admitted that the "Bipolar Theory" does not 
necessarily depend upon the specific identity of bipolar 
forms, but upon the relationship of these forms to each 
other. Therefore, the fact that Arctic and Antarctic 
specimens of the same species do show some constant 
variation from one another strengthens the evidence in 



6 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

support of the theory, for it shews that a species which is 
absent or modified beyond recognition in the tropics has 
remained ahuost true in extra-tropical waters. 

In an account of the Holothurians of the Straits of 
Magellan, Ludwig (*98) says " there are no bipolar species 
in the group." He calls attention to a certain general 
likeness of the faunas expressed by the mutual prevalence 
of certain genera and the mutual lack of others as com- 
pared with the tropical faunas. Ortmann does not regard 
this as being of any consequence, and states that it has no 
connection with the question under discussion. 

The similarity in character between the Arctic and 
Antarctic plankton, noted by Sir John Murray, is also 
commented upon by I. C. Thompson ('98) who records 
the following northern species of Copepoda from Antarctic 
waters: (i) Metridia longa ; (2) Oithona sptnifrons ; ^nd 
(3) Ectinosoma atlanticum. 

In the same paper he says : — 

*^ The well-known Calanus finmarchicus so commonly 
" distributed through our northern latitudes, appears to be 
"equally common about the Antarctic, and occurred in 16 
" of the gatherings.'' 

Prof D'Arcy W. Thompson states that Calanus hyper- 
" horeus is closely allied to, if not merely a large variety 
"of, C, finmarchicus, which is known to occur off the 
" Canaries in 30° N. lat., as well as off Australia in 37° S. 
"lat, and which, according to I. C. Thompson, is also 
"present in the Antarctic together with the species 
" hyperboreus ; it is therefore not * bipolar ' but * cosmo- 
"politan.'" 

Of this I. C. Thompson says : — " Associated with 
" C, finmarchicus y and fairly plentiful in some of the bottles, 
" was the large red Arctic species C hyperboreus^ formerly 
"passed over as a mere Arctic variety of C. finmarchicus^ 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 14. 7 

" but now separated by Giesbrecht as a distinct species. 
"Besides being of a uniformly larger size than C. 
^^finmatchicus, it differs from the latter in having lateral 
"nipple-shaped projections at the terminations to the 
" cephalothorax, in the large square-shaped first joint of 
" the abdomen, and in the form of the basal serratures of 
" the 5th pair of feet/' 

Even if this form be classed as a variety of C. fin- 
marchicusy the species cannot be called " cosmopolitan," 
for it has not been taken within the tropical belt. The 
close relationship between the two forms gives strong 
evidence in favour of Murray's bipolar hypothesis, for we 
have a single distinct species occurring in Arctic and 
Antarctic waters, which in the warmer waters approaching 
the tropics becomes so far modified as to form — on the 
authority of Giesbrecht — another species. We cannot 
consider the form inhabiting warmer waters to be the one 
from which the form occurring in Arctic and Antarctic 
waters has been derived, for, although modification might 
proceed on parallel lines in a form so widely separated, 
when subjected to similar conditions of temperature, etc., 
yet we could not expect it to lead to an identical result 
in the two cases. 

In a paper on the mutual relations of Arctic and 
Antarctic faunas, Pfeffer, ('99 and : oi) maintains that the 
relationship between extra-tropical forms is confirmed by 
palaeontological evidence. 

Of the fauna of the deep sea he says : " The peopling 
" of the deep sea from the polar zone has been an un- 
** interrupted process from the Mesozoic age until now." 
He holds that the migration of bipolar forms into the deep 
waters of the temperate zone is not recent, for at the 
present time, owing to sub-oceanic upheavals, " the polar 
" zone in the Pacific is absolutely, and in the Atlantic 



8 Pratt, Bipolar Theory. 

"almost entirely, shut off from the deep water of the 
"temperate zone." On p. 317 he says : "It would seem 
" that the time which has elapsed since the present surface- 
" water species of the higher north and south descended 
" to the depths has not sufficed for a migration beyond 
" the equator to the opposite hemisphere." 

For the littoral fauna he maintains that, although the 
connection of northern and southern faunas was con- 
tinuous through the tropics in mid-tertiary times, actual 
observations at the present time show that " littoral " 
species occurring in north and south higher latitudes have, 
in general, in the tropics, an interrupted discontinuous 
distribution. 

The fauna of the West Coast of America, from the 
temperate southern to the temperate northern zone, he 
states to be " of a nearly homogeneous character, inter- 
" rupted only in the narrow province of Panama, where 
" the littoral fauna is of a tropical character. In general 
" character it may be described as a cool water fauna, but 
" it has undergone quite remarkable local differentiation. 
"... This fauna springs apparently from the southern 
" hemisphere . . . and has crowded out, more or less, 
" the members of the universal fauna." The narrowness 
of the continental slope and the presence of the mouths of 
subterranean rivers would readily afford an opportunity 
for an interruption of faunal continuity. 

In conclusion he says (p. 322) : " Faunas of higher 
" latitudes represent the coeval relics of the almost uniformly 
"developed and almost universally distributed early- 
" tertiary faunas, as they have been evolved under the 
" influence of the cooling of the climate by a process of 
"separating out and selection. The similarity of the 
" operating causes secured that the same components of the 
" old fauna remained behind in both north and south, and 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlv, (1901), No, 14. 



Echiuriis chilensis. 

„ forcipatus. 
„ pallasii, 

„ unicinctus. 



" thus has arisen the great, and still well-marked, similarity 
" of the two faunas.'' 

In his revision of the Echiuridce, Shipley ('99. p. 355) 
gives a list of the species belonging to the genus Echiurus, 
showing their geographical distribution. In all, there are 
four species : — 

Punta Arenas. 
Straits of Magellan. 
Off the coast of Greenland. 
North Sea, N. Atlantic, and 
English Channel (in soft sand, 
mud, or clay). 
Japanese waters (in the mud 
near the shore). 
Shipley says " It is thus evident that this genus is a 
" denizen of the colder seas, and reaches from the Arctic 
" to the cooler waters of the temperate regions of both 
" hemispheres." 

Fischer (^'96, p. 7) has drawn up a table showing a 
comparison of sub-antarctic American Gephyrea with allied 
arctic forms, from which the following is derived: 

Antarctic. 
I. Phascolosoma margaritaceum, 

Sars. 
var. antarcticum, Mich. 

South Georgia. 



margarita 



fuscum, Mich. 

South Georgia. 
georgianum, Mich. 

South Georgia. 

capsiforme, Baird. 

Falkland Islands, Sts. 

of Magellan, Tierra 

del Fuego, Picton 

Isl. 



Arctic. 
. * Phascolosoma 
ceum, Sars. 

Greenland (?) North 
America, Spitz- 
bergen, Norway, 
North Sea. 
van papillosum, Thomps. 
Ireland. 



10 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

Antarctic. Arctic. 

2. Phascolion sp,} 2. ? 

Smyth Channel. 

3. Echiurus chilensisy Milll. 3. Echiurus unicinctus, von 

Sts. of Magellan. Drasche. 

Japan, Amurland. 

4. Priapulus caudatus. Lam. 4. Priapulus caudatus, Lam. 

var. antarctica, Mich. Arctic seas of North 
South Georgia, Tierra America, Green- 
del Fuego, Sts. of land, Iceland, 
Magellan, Falkland Norway, Baltic, 
Isl. North Sea. 

5. Priapuloides australis, De 5. Priapuloides typicus, Kor. 

Guerne. & Dan. 

Tierra del Fuego. Greenland, Iceland, 

Spitzbergen, Nor- 
way. 

Of five species of Gephyrea taken in southern waters, 
two {Phascolosoma margaritaceum'^ and Priapulus 
caudatus) occur also in northern seas ; two {Echiurus 
chilensis and Priapuloides australis) are represented in 
northern waters by the closely allied species Echiurus 
unicinctus and Priapuloides typicus ; whilst one southern 
form has not been taken in the northern hemisphere. 

In the distribution of these species of Gephyrea and 
the genus Echiurus^ which have not been taken in the 
tropics, we have no evidence of an interpassage of species 
along the western shores of America or Africa. 

An interesting list of nine extra-tropical species of 
Polychaeta from the Straits of Magellan is given by Ehlers 
C96, p. II). Of them, three occur also in Arctic waters : 

• Phascoiosoma margaritaceum was taken by Sars, presumably off 
Norway, at a depth of 300 fathoms, but it has not been taken at any depths 
at intermediate stations between Ireland and the Straits of Magellan, so we 
most regard it as extra-tropical. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlv. (1901), No, 14. 11 

Nephthys longisetosa, Orsted ; Notomastus laterzceus, Sars ; 
Scolecolepis vulgaris, Johnst. One, Glycera atnericana, 
Leidy, occurs on the east coast of North and South America. 
Five are common to north and south extra-tropical 
Atlantic, but have not been taken in the Pacific : Syllides 
longocirratus, Orsted ; Chcetopteriis variopedatus, Ren. ; 
Capitella capitata, Fabr. ; Terebellides stromii, S. ; Serpula 
vermicularisy L. (to 175 faths.). In addition to these 
species, there are three southern species which are very 
closely related to three northern species: (i) A new 
species of Arenicola (A. assimilis) from the Straits of 
Magellan, which Ehlers believes to be identical with a 
form taken on the Californian coast. It is very probable 
that A. assimilis will prove to be a variety of -4. marina 
or A. claparedii, both of which are European forms. The 
remarks on the distribution of A, claparedii {p, [5) would 
then also apply to this form. (2) Travisia kerguelensis, 
M*Intosh. This form closely resembles, if it is not entirely 
identical with, the European T, forbesL (3) Scoloplos 
kerguelensis, M*Intosh. Ehlers states that this is clearly 
very nearly related to 5. armiger. 

In describing a collection of forms from the Falkland 
Islands, Pratt (*98) notes four extra-tropical species : — 

(Polyzoa) Beania magellanica ; Cellepora pusitdata. 
(Porifera) Sycon ciliata. (Crustacea) Orchestia chilensis, 

(Gephyrea) Phascolosoma capsiforme has since been 
shown to be a variety of the northern P, margaritaceum, 
var. capsiforme, 

(Polychaeta) Lagisca magellanica has been shown to 
be a synonym of Harmothoe spinosa, which appears to 
differ from the northern H, imbricata only in the position 
of the eyes. 

I have shown that, in addition to Pfeffer and Murray, 
the following writers have noted the similarity between 



12 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

north and south extra-tropical forms : — Selenka,DeGuerne, 
Fischer, and Shipley, for the Gephyrea, Thtel for the 
Holothurids, Ehlers for the Polychaetes, I. C. Thompson 
for the Plankton, and Pratt for certain littoral forms. 
Giesbrecht has shown the bipolar Calanus hyperboreus to 
be distinct from the species inhabiting warmer seas 
{C, finmarckicus). Therefore, we cannot accept Ortmann's 
statement that " all the results of investigations in special 
" groups of animals tend to show that the theory held by 
"Pfeffer and Murray, that both polar faunas are more 
" closely related to each other than to any of the inter- 
" mediate ones, is without support." 

This appears to bring to an end the published evidence 
bearing upon the " bipolar " controversy. 



For the following account of the distribution of 
Scalibregma inflatum I am indebted to Dr. J. H. Ashworth, 
of Edinburgh. Further information on the subject will 
be found in his memoir on the " Anatomy of Scalibregma 
inflatumr Quart Journ, Micro, Science (in the press). 

Dr. Ashworth examined 40 specimens of Scalibregma 
inflatum^ 26 of which were from the United States 
National Museum, the remainder from the museums of 
Bergen and Stockholm. Those obtained from Scandinavia 
were collected chiefly on the Atlantic coast of that 
peninsula, the U.S. specimens along the east coast of the 
American continent, the most southerly station at which 
these were obtained being 40^ N. and the most northerly 
44^ 23' N. 

Distribution. Scalibregma occurs eastward as far as 
Cape Grebeni (the most southern point of Waigatsch 
Island), western shores of Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, 
western coast of Norway, and western coast of Sweden (in 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 14. 13 

Christiania and neighbouring fjords), N.E. and W. coasts 
of Scotland, the most southerly limit being Millport on 
the Clyde. It has also been taken on the other side of 
and the Atlantic, viz., on the western shores of Greenland, 
and along the eastern coast of the United States 
(previously mentioned). 

M'Intosh, in the Challenger Reports ('85, p. 359), 
states that his specimens are much smaller than the 
European examples, the largest measuring only 18 mm. 
Size is not a character of much importance in this con- 
nection, for 12 specimens from Norway and Sweden have 
the following approximate lengths: (i) 56 mm. (this is 
almost the largest recorded specimen); (2) 35 mm. ; (3) 
26 mm.; (4) 22 mm.; (5) 16 mm. ; (6-12) 7 specimens 
all of which are between 13 and 14*3 mm. long. 1 hus of 
12 European specimens, 8 are less than M'Intosh's 
Challenger specimens. M'Intosh states that the southern 
specimens have a more fusiform outline and are less 
inflated. This, again, is not a character of any constancy, 
for the shape varies enormously in a series of specimens 
from the same locality. 

He also states that there is a prominent and con- 
tinuous fold behind the head in British and Norwegian 
forms, but in the Challenger specimens the head has a 
greater antero-posterior diameter and there are two 
papillae. 

In Dr. Ashworth's opinion, this is due to the fact 
that, in the southern specimens, the musculature was 
comparatively relaxed at the time the animals died, and 
the head is therefore more completely expanded in those 
specimens. As far as he is able to judge without seeing 
the actual specimens, M'Intosh's southern forms agree 
with the northern forms in the sculpturing of body wall, 
peculiar furcate sitae (M'Intosh ("85), pi. xxii.A, fig. 21) 
head, parapodia, cirri, etc. 



14 Pratt, Bipolar Theory. 

Scalibregma has not been taken in tropical waters 
Off New Zealand it has been taken at a depth of 700 
fathoms, and may therefore be classed as a member oi 
the subsurface fauna. It is possible that it may pass 
through the tropics by means of the deep sea, but as it 
has not been taken at intermediate stations between the 
north and south extra-tropical waters, we must regard it 
as a " bipolar " form. 



The controversy on the " Bipolar Theory " has been 
limited, more or less, to a discussion of the distribution of 
forms known to occur in deep water. As the littoral 
marine fauna is supposed to be the most primitive, and 
therefore the one from which all other faunas are derived, 
it was thought that an investigation of the distribution 
of littoral forms would be interesting, in that it would 
increase the evidence for or against this theory. With 
this object I have studied the distribution of the Polychaeta 
from the shores of the Falkland Islands. 

The collection of Polychaeta from the Falkland Islands 
numbered 13 species ; of these : 

One is cosmopolitan : Spirorbis borealis^ Daud. 

Eight have been taken in the southern hemisphere : 
(Hermadion) magalhcensis, Thelepus spectabilis, AutolyUis 
simplex, Eteone spathocephalay Sabella ceratodUula, Promenia 
jucuiida^ Platynereis magalhcensiSy Sab ell aria macropalea. 

Four are represented in temperate waters of the 
northern hemisphere but have not up to the present been 
taken within the tropics : 

{}.) Goniada norvegica, var. falklandica. 
Common to Norway and the Falkland Islands. The 
genus is cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical waters, 
but has not been taken in very deep water. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 14. 15 

The similarity in general structure between the 
northern and southern specimens of Goniada^^XiA especially 
the remarkable resemblance in detail of the parapodia, 
proves that they had a common origin. The absence of 
a species showing the same details in the tropics makes it 
difficult to believe that a migration is taking place or can 
have taken place since the restriction of the tropical belt, 
either from north to south or from south to north. 

As the genus Goniada has not been taken in the deep 
sea, we have no evidence that a passage has been made 
through the tropics by this means. 

The evidence, with regard to the distribution of this 
genus, therefore, supports the Bipolar Theory for littoral 
temperate waters. 

(ii.) Arenicola claparedii. 

Distribution: Naples, California (Crescent City, 41° 
44' N. lat, marks its northern limit). Straits of Magellan(?). 
New to the Falkland Islands. The genus is cosmopolitan 
in shallow waters. 

The distribution of this shore-dwelling form is 
interesting. Its occurrence on the Californian coast and 
at the Falkland Islands seems to support Ortmann^s view 
that the existence of a passage of cool water along the 
western shores of America enables an interchange of 
northern and southern temperate forms to take place, but, 
as this form has not yet been taken in an intermediate 
locality, we have no proof of its transmission. Its 
occurrence at the Falkland Islands and in the 
Mediterranean cannot be explained by Ortmann's view 
that a similar interchange of forms takes place along the 
western shores of Africa, for it has not been taken on the 
west African shores. 

It is worthy of note that this species in the adult 
stage is a burrowing shore-dwelling form, therefore its 



2 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

ness of the lead glazes used by potters may be judged. 
The standard proposed is that the " solubility '' of the 
glaze as regards lead, determined under the conditions 
described in the foot-note (p. i), shall not be greater than 
two per cent. This limit is based upon a study of the 
quantity of lead yielded to dilute acid under the specified 
conditions by a number of lead fritts used in pottery 
manufacture both at home and abroad. 

Practical Bearing. — So far as the practical aspect of 
this question is concerned, the reply to Messrs. Jackson 
and Rich's contention is obvious. Suppose that workable 
glazes can be obtained, which, when ground to the degree 
of fineness necessary in practice, are within the selected 
limit of solubility. Then it is of no consequence that 
their solubility is smaller when the glazes are more 
coarsely ground. This is all that is involved in the point 
under discussion. 

Now, as a matter of fact, such glazes are in use. This 
is shown by the list given in certain Reports to the Home 
Secretary on the " Use of Lead in the Manufacture of 
Pottery" (Parliamentary paper No. Cd. 527, p. 10), which 
shows the solubility of the lead in a number of glazes 
together with the statements of the manufacturers regard- 
ing the degree of fineness in each case. 

It is true that this list may possibly not include 
examples of the most finely ground glazes ever employed 
by the potter, though it may do so. But it certainly 
includes some which are in at least an average condition 
of fineness ; and the difference between these and the 
most finely ground glazes can be but small. 

Influence of fineness a subordinate matter only, — As 
regards the more theoretical aspect of the matter, it is in 
the first place quite easy to show that the solubility of the 
lead in fritts does not depend merely, or even largely, 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlv, (1901), No. 14. 17 

The four cases are : — 

Two genera: (Crustacea) Crangon. (Nemertinea) 

Carinoma. 
Two species : (Annelida) Terebellides stromii 

(Moll usca) Janthina rotundata. 
From the references given in this paper, it is clear that 
there must be added to these the following : — 

(Crustacea) Calanus hyperboreuSy shown by Gies- 

brecht to be distinct from the tropical 

C. finmarchicus. 
Maia squinado. 

(Gephyrea.) Genus Echturus, (Shipley). 
Phascolosoma margaritaceum. (Fischer). 
Priapulus caudatus. 
The following species recorded by I. C. Thompson : — 
Metridia longa. 
Oithona sptnifrons. 
Ectinosoma atlanticuni. 
Polychaeta recorded by Ehlers. 
Neplithys longisetosa. 
Notomastus latericeus. 
Scolecolepis vulgaris. 
Glycera americana. 
Sy Hides longicirratus. 
CkcBtopterus variopedatus. 
Capitella capitata, 
Serpula vermicularis. 
Arenicola assimilis (probably A. ;;/<a:m/a) ; together 

with 
Scalibregma inflatuin. (Ashworth.) 
(Polyzoa) Beania magellanica, (Pratt.) 

Cellepora pustulata. „ 

(Porifera) Sycon ciliatum. „ 

(Crustacea) Orchestia chilensis, „ 



1 8 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

Further, Polychaeta, described in the preceding paper : 
Species : — 

Goniada norvegica, 
A renicola claparedii, 
Bispira marice^ and, 

doubtfully, Polydora polybranchia. 
Genera : — 
Eteone. 
Promenia, 

Polydora (species also extra-tropical). 
Bispira „ „ „ 

? Autolytus almost exclusively extra-tropical, but 
has been taken in the Red Sea — probably an 
escape from Mediterranean. 
The following northern species of Polychaeta are very 
nearly related to southern species. 

Southern. Northern. 

1. Travisia kerguelensis related to T, forbesi. 

2. Scoloplos kerguelensis „ „ 5. armiger. 
The following northern species of Gephyrea are very 

nearly related to southern species. 

Northern. Southern. 

3. Echiurus unicinctus related to E, chilensis, 

4. Priapulus typicus, „ „ -P. australis. 
To the "four littoral cases of bi polarity" acknowledged 

by Ortmann we must, then, add 28 cases — 22 of species, 
and 6 of genera — making a total of 32 littoral bipolar 
forms, or 19 of species and a total of 29 cases if we exclude 
the three species Polydora polybranchiay Scalibregma in- 
flatum and Phascolosotna margaritaceum. The two latter are 
typically littoral forms, but each has been once taken in 
sub-surface waters, Scalibregma off New Zealand in 700 
fathoms, and Phascolosotna off Norway in 300 fathoms. 



Manchester Mtmoirs^ Vol. xlv. (1901), No. 14. 19 

None of the species has been taken in the tropics in 
deep or shallow water. 

I have mentioned four cases in which southern species 
are very nearly related to northern species. 

In only two cases (Arenicola assimilis (?) and A. 
clapatedii) have we any evidence whatever of an inter- 
passage of forms along the western shores of America, 
and, as these forms have not been taken at intermediate 
stations along the Pacific coast between California and the 
Straits of Magellan, the generality of such transference is 
by no means proved. 

On the other hand, both these species occur on 
European shores, and, as I have previously stated, their 
free-swimming larval stage is limited to so short a period 
that it is impossible that they could cross the Atlantic. 
Moreover, as 41° N. appears to be the northern limit of 
the genus, it is impossible that these forms could find 
their way into the Atlantic along the northern shores of 
North America. 

In no case have we any evidence of an interchange 
of species along the western shores of Africa, and I have 
shown that, in the genus Goniada^ the same species may 
be present in the temperate north and south Atlantic, but 
along the tropical western shores of Africa the genus is 
represented by several distinct and modified species. 

These results, to my mind, increase the evidence in 
favour of the Pfeffer and Murray " Bipolar Theory " for 
the littoral fauna. 

The work in connection with these papers has been 
done in the zoological laboratories of the Owens College 
with the help of a grant from the Government Grant 
Committee of the Royal Society. My research has been 
supervised by Professor Hickson, to whom I am greatly 
indebted for much valuable assistance and advice. My 



20 Pratt, Bipolar Theory, 

thanks are also due to Dr. Gamble and Dr. Ashworth 
for information on Arentcola, and to the latter also 
for notes on the distribution of Scalibregma^ to Dr. 
Appellof, of Bergen, for the loan of specimens of Goniada 
norvegicuy and to Dr. Willey, who drew my attention to 
certain " bipolar " Polychaeta which I had overlooked. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 

'47. Ross, Sir James. " Voyage of the Erebus and Ferror." 

'83. Selenka. " Die Sipunculiden, eine systennatische Mono- 
graphie." Wiesbaden. 

'85. M'Intosh. " Polychaeta." Challenger Reports {Zoology), 
Vol xii. 

'86. Th^el. " Holothuroidea." Challenger Reports {Zoology), 
Vol. xiv. 

'88. GuERNE, J. DE. " Priapulides." Mission Scientifique du 
Cap Horn, 1882-3. Tome vL 

'91, Pfeffer. "Versuch iiber die erdgeschichtliche Ent- 
wickelung der jetzigen Verbreitungsverhaltnisse 
unserer Tierwelt." 1891. Hamburg. 

*96. Ortmann, a, E. " Bipolaritat " in der verbreitung 
Mariner Thiere. ZooLJahrb., Bd. 9. 

'96-9. Ehlers, E. " Polychseten." Hamburger Magal- 
hanische Sammelreise, 1896. 

Fischer, W. "Gephyreen." „ 1896. 

LuDWiG, H. " Holothurien." „ 1898. 

Buerger, O. " Nemertinen." „ 1899. 

'97. Pfeffer, G. " A. Ortmann und die arctisch-antarctische 
Fauna." ZooL Anz., Bd xx, p. 323, 

'98. Pratt, E. M, " Contributions to our knowledge of the 
Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands." Manchestir 
Memoirs. Vol. xlii. 



Manchester Mevtoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 14. 21 

•98 Thompson, I. C, ** Report on a collection of Antarctic 
plankton," Trans, Liverpool Biol. SoCy Vol. xii., 
p. 291, 

*98. Thompson, D'Arcy W, " On a supposed Resemblance 
between the Marine Faunas of the Arctic and 
Antarctic Regions." Proc, Roy, Soc, Edinb,^ Vol. xxii. 

'99 Ortmann, " On some new facts lately presented in 
opposition to the hypothesis of Bipolarity of Marine 
Faunas," Amer. Nat.y Vol. xxxiii. 

'99. Ortmann. "G. Pfeffer und die * Bipolaritat.' " Zool, 
Anz.y Bd. xxii. 

'99. Shipley, A. E. " On a collection of Echiurids from the 
Loyalty Islands, New Britain and China Straits, with 
an attempt to revise the group and to determine its 
geographical range." WilUfs ZooL Results ^ Part III. 

'99. Pfeffer, G. " Ueber die gegenseitigen Beziehungen der 
arktischen und antarktischen Fauna." Verh, Deutsch, 
Zool, Ges.y Bd. ix., pp. 266-287. 

:0I. Pfeffer G, [English translation of the above]. Ann, 
and Mag, Nat, Bist,, Ser. 7, Vol. vii. 

:0I. Ohlin. " On a new * Bipolar * Schizopod." Ann, and 
Mag, Nat, Hist, Ser. 7, Vol. vii. 



4 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

under closely similar conditions of fineness to that shown 
by the last three, yield to acids a relatively small propor- 
tion only of lead. These classes are sharply distinguished 
by differences of chemical composition, and it is this latter 
circumstance which is the primary factor determining the 
solubility. The effect of fineness is a matter apart from 
this, and altogether subordinate to it. 

Action not that of a solvent on a single substance, — It is 
tacitly assumed by the writers in question that the process 
of solution involved is one in which a single substance, 
one chemical individual, is attacked by a solvent acting at 
the surface only of the particles {Joe, cit,^ pp. 9, 10). 

If this were so, then, after a first treatment of a fritt 
with dilute acid, if the solvent be removed and the residue 
again treated with a fresh quantity of the solvent, the 
amount of lead dissolved should be practically the same as 
at first. 

Experiment shows that this is not the case. The 
quantity of lead extracted on the second treatment is only 
a fraction of that first yielded : — 



Silicate. 


Lead oxide 
present. 


Lead oxide dissolved. 


1st treatment. 


2nd treatment. 


No. I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 


"•4% 

190 „ 

S3'2 „ 
49'3 » 
24-5 >» 
41*4 » 
41*3 » 


07% 
I'2 » 
2-0„ 

1-5 », 
o-6„ 
0-8 „ 
07 »» 


Traces 

0-4% 

0-2 „ 
0-2„ 
0-2 „ 
0-2„ 



Manchester Memoirs, VoL xlv, (1901), No, 15. 



^' Protective Layer** Hypothesis, — Messrs. Jackson and 
Rich endeavour to explain this behaviour by supposing 
that an insoluble coating of silica is deposited upon the 
particles, and that this protects them from further action 
of the solvent (Joe, cit.^ pp. 9-15). 

Silica does not form a ^^ protective layer J* — Now, it is 
demonstrable that in many cases no such " protective " 
layer is formed. In these cases the lead is not " protected *' 
by the silica or any other compound : it is wholly, or 
almost wholly, removed on treatment with dilute acid. 
The following experiments prove this point : 



Fritt. 


Lead oxide 
present. 


Lead oxide dis- 
solved by -25% 
HCl. 


No. I 
2 

3 

4 
S 


71-2% 
70-4 » 
7o'3 » 
46-8 „ 

487 „ 


70-0% 
67 '3 » 
70-3 » 

39'5 » 
40-1 „ 



It is beyond question that in such cases as the above 
the silica does not form an effective protecting layer. It 
is difficult to see what reason can be adduced to show why 
silica should act differently in other cases. 

If it be said that the quantity of silica in the above 
fritts is too small to act as a protective layer, the reply is 
that some of them contain more silica than other fritts 
which have much smaller solubility. For instance : — 

SiOj PbO 

present. present. 

No. 5... 33-4 487 • 

6... 29*8 59*3 • 

Other examples are : — 

7... 357 45-8 . 

8... 349 573 • 



PbO 

dissolved. 
40*1 

10-8 
2-6 



6 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

And with nearly equal percentages of silica : — 

9-- 37*6 37*9 28*0 

10... 37*9 53-2 20 

Thus two fritts, A and B, may have the same quantity 
of silica, yet A is largely attacked and B but slightly 
(Nos. 9 and 10). Or A may have more silica than B, and 
still be unprotected (Nos. 5 and 6 ; also 7 and 8). Finally 
A may have less silica than B, and nevertheless be the 
more largely attacked (Nos. 5 and 10). It is difficult to 
give much credence to a theory of protective action which 
is certainly not exercised at all in many cases, and in 
others exhibits so much caprice as to render impossible a 
reliable forecast of its probable effect. 

Fritt not a single compound, — Underlying the whole 
of Messrs. Jackson and Rich's argument is the assumption 
that a fritt is a single chemical entity. There is evidence 
to show that this is probably an erroneous assumption. A 
fritt would appear, in fact, to be usually a mixture of at least 
two lead compounds. The proportion of one of these, how- 
ever, may be small compared with the main bulk of the fritt 

The considerations which suggest this are as follows : — 

I. Chemical — In so far as a fritt is attacked by a 
solvent, its soluble constituents, if the fritt is a single com- 
pound, will be found to bear the same proportion to one 
another in the solution as in the original fritt. Whether 
the silicic acid be dissolved or not, this relation will hold 
for the base-oxides. If, however, the bases in the 
dissolved portion be found to have a different proportion 
from one another than exists in the original fritt, then the 
result is evidence that the fritt was not a single compound. 
Applying this deduction to the case of seven specimens 
of fritts whose composition had been ascertained, together 
with that of the dissolved portion given on treating the 
fritts with excess of dilute hydrochloric acid, the following 
comparisons were obtained : — 



2 
o 

H 
0< 



O 



O 

u 



£ i 



•J 


H 


<: 


t3 


2: 


|j 


o 


^ 


0< 

O 


g 


2 


2 






C/2 


o 


ti 


^ 


ro 




< 


?2 


« 


< 




cw 



Ex 
O 

w 

o 

H 

0< 



O 
Pi 
Pui 

O 

? 
o 

CO 

•J 

< 



§ 



^ 
^ 

^ 






<3 

ii 



1 


^ 


to 


:^ 


ON 








ON 

VO 


b 


io 


00 vb 


8 


i. 












M 





ON 


N 00 





£ 




2- 


-^ 


N to 


8 


.2 












fO 





p 


N to 







VO 


bs 


vb 


b i^ 


8 


d 












^*: 


f^ 


00 


7t 


00 to 





■| 


to 


io 

M 


Vo 


N Vf 


b 



1 


p 


^ 


fO 


NO t^ 





«a;i 




N 


ON 


V 00 






d 














to 




to 
00 


to t^ 


p 



M 


i 












o 


00 


M 


M 


ON M 





4I 


^ 


V 


io 


Vf io 


b 



5' 1 












^a 


Tf 


vp 


P" 


ON N 





£ 


00 


i^ 


V 


b to 


b 


M 


G 












.2 


}o 





M 


\p 00 





«l 


b^ 


Vo 


Vf 


>b vb 


b 



4 












^5- 


10 

00 


to 


}0 


to '^ 
M to 




b 



1 












P 


.Tf 


r* 


vp 










r* 




vb 


8 















^£ 


.Tf 


t^ 


P 


ON 







vb 


ON 






M 


8 






p 


P 





"^ 




vb 


b 


N 


b 





r^ 


00 


VO 


to 


8 


1 


10 


r* 


b 


ON 


8 

*•* 




i 


•9 

< 


6 
c3 


9. d 





8 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts, 

These results show that in the soluble portion the 
constituents do not bear the same proportion to one 
another as obtained in the original fritt. The lime and 
alkalis are as a rule higher ; the lead oxide and alumina 
somewhat lower. Hence it would appear that some process 
of selective solution has occurred, and that the fritt was 
therefore not originally a single chemical body. 

II. Physical. — If a fritt consisted of only one chemical 
compound it could not by any process of grinding and 
levigation be separated into fractions having different 
densities. But there is experimental evidence to show 
that such fractions do result when some fritts are ground 
and elutriated. Thus determinations were made of the 
specific gravity of three elutriated fractions, a, /3, and 7, of 
the same fritt, the results being : — 

Specific Gravity (-^Trr)^^" 3*683 

» » », /3 3742 

>» n » y 3'6o6 

Had the fritt been a single compound the three results 
should have been the same, within the limits of experi- 
mental error. 

Thus the facts adduced, both chemical and physical, 
tend to show that, at least in some kinds of fritt, there is 
present a certain proportion — which, however, may be but 
small — of a readily-soluble lead compound in a state of 
admixture with the bulk of the fritt 

Explanation of Messrs, Jackson and RicKs elutriation 
experiments, — This consideration suggests the explanation 
of some results obtained by Messrs. Jackson and Rich, 
and displayed on the table on p. 5 (Joe, cit,). That table 
purports to show that a fritt " A '' has a solubility of i 5 
per cent, when in the condition of fineness corresponding 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 15. 9 

to a pressure of 100 cm., and that when reduced to the 
state of subdivision denoted by i cm. pressure the 
solubility is increased to 17*5 per cent 

But this conclusion is fallacious if the specimen is a 
mixture of two or more substances. The argument of the 
authors is based upon the assumption that they are dealing 
throughout with the same compound in different states of 
subdivision. It has no validity if more than one compound 
is present, since the solubilities found do not all relate to 
the same substance. 

Now, it is well known that the more soluble kinds of 
lead silicate are of softer texture than the more insoluble. 
In the process of grinding a fritt which contains a small 
admixture of such soluble silicate, this more soluble 
portion will on account of its softness be ground to finer 
dimensions than the bulk of the fritt. Consequently, when 
the powder is separated into finer and coarser fractions by 
elutriation, a great part of the soluble compound will be 
found concentrated in the finer portions. These finer 
portions will therefore show a solubility greater than the 
average for the whole fritt, while the coarser fractions will 
have a solubility less than the average ; which is precisely 
what is shown by the experiments adduced by Messrs. 
Jackson and Rich. 

Thus the experiments in question do not prove that 
the differences of solubility obtained are due to mere 
differences of dimensions of the particles. They can only 
do this if the various fractions are shown to have the 
same chemical composition, and on this point the authors 
offer no evidence whatever. 

In the concluding section of their paper (Joe, cit.^ pp. 
12-13) the writers describe an experiment in which a 
specimen of glaze was found to be continuously acted upon 
by acid when mixed with pebbles and rotated for 22 hours 



2 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

ness of the lead glazes used by potters may be judged. 
The standard proposed is that the " solubility " of the 
glaze as regards lead, determined under the conditions 
described in the foot-note (p. i), shall not be greater than 
two per cent. This limit is based upon a study of the 
quantity of lead yielded to dilute acid under the specified 
conditions by a number of lead fritts used in pottery 
manufacture both at home and abroad. 

Practical Bearing. — So far as the practical aspect of 
this question is concerned, the reply to Messrs. Jackson 
and Rich's contention is obvious. Suppose that workable 
glazes can be obtained, which, when ground to the degree 
of fineness necessary in practice, are within the selected 
limit of solubility. Then it is of no consequence that 
their solubility is smaller when the glazes are more 
coarsely ground. This is all that is involved in the point 
under discussion. 

Now, as a matter of fact, such glazes are in use. This 
is shown by the list given in certain Reports to the Home 
Secretary on the " Use of Lead in the Manufacture of 
Pottery" (Parliamentary paper No. Cd. 527, p. 10), which 
shows the solubility of the lead in a number of glazes 
together with the statements of the manufacturers regard- 
ing the degree of fineness in each case. 

It is true that this list may possibly not include 
examples of the most finely ground glazes ever employed 
by the potter, though it may do so. But it certainly 
includes some which are in at least an average condition 
of fineness ; and the difference between these and the 
most finely ground glazes can be but small. 

Influence of fineness a subordinate matter only. — As 
regards the more theoretical aspect of the matter, it is in 
the first place quite easy to show that the solubility of the 
lead in fritts does not depend merely, or even largely, 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 15. 



XV. The Influence of Grinding upon the Solubility* of 
the Lead in Lead Fritts. 

By T. E. Thorpe, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

AND 

Charles Simmonds, B.Sc. 

Received May 13M, 1901. Read May 28M, 1901. 

A paper dealing with this subject was communicated 
to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society on 
October 30th last, by Messrs. Jackson and Rich, of the 
Victoria Institute, Tunstall. 

The main purport of the paper was to show that, in 
the case of lead fritts, " solubility in dilute acid is 
"greatly influenced by the degree of fineness to which 
" the particles have been ground." {^Manchester Memoirs^ 
vol. 45, part I., No. 2, pp. 6-7). Starting with the 
assumption that solution is possible only from the 
surface of the particles, the authors contend that, since the 
extent of surface of any given weight of fritt is increased 
by decreasing the size of the particles, the action of the 
solvent is also increased. They adduce certain experi- 
mental results which are . considered to support this 
contention. 

In connection with the matter under discussion it 
should be pointed out that the Home Office has recently 
suggested a criterion whereby the comparative harmless- 

* fhroughout this paper the term ** solubility " denotes the weight of lead, 
calculated as monoxide, dissolved from a powdered fritt or glaze when the 
fritt or glaze is shaken for an hour with looo times its weight of 0*25 per 
cent, hydrochloric acid and allowed to settle for a further hour before being 
filtered. 

September loth, igor. 



2 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

ness of the lead glazes used by potters may be judged. 
The standard proposed is that the " solubility *' of the 
glaze as regards lead, determined under the conditions 
described in the foot-note (p. i), shall not be greater than 
two per cent This limit is based upon a study of the 
quantity of lead yielded to dilute acid under the specified 
conditions by a number of lead fritts used in pottery 
manufacture both at home and abroad. 

Practical Bearing. — So far as the practical aspect of 
this question is concerned, the reply to Messrs. Jackson 
and Rich's contention is obvious. Suppose that workable 
glazes can be obtained, which, when ground to the degree 
of fineness necessary in practice, are within the selected 
limit of solubility. Then it is of no consequence that 
their solubility is smaller when the glazes are more 
coarsely ground. This is all that is involved in the point 
under discussion. 

Now, as a matter of fact, such glazes are in use. This 
is shown by the list given in certain Reports to the Home 
Secretary on the " Use of Lead in the Manufacture of 
Pottery" (Parliamentary paper No. Cd. 527, p. 10), which 
shows the solubility of the lead in a number of glazes 
together with the statements of the manufacturers regard- 
ing the degree of fineness in each case. 

It is true that this list may possibly not include 
examples of the most finely ground glazes ever employed 
by the potter, though it may do so. But it certainly 
includes some which are in at least an average condition 
of fineness ; and the difference between these and the 
most finely ground glazes can be but small. 

Influence of fineness a subordinate matter only, — As 
regards the more theoretical aspect of the matter, it is in 
the first place quite easy to show that the solubility of the 
lead in fritts does not depend merely, or even largely. 



Manchester Memoirs y Vol xlv. (1901), No, 15. 3 

upon the extent of surface exposed — that is, upon the 
fineness of the particles. 

The following specimens of fritts were all reduced to 
nearly impalpable powder in an agate mortar before being 
submitted to the action of the solvent. They were there- 
fore in closely similar, if not identical, conditions of 
fineness. Hence, if the solubility were merely a function 
of the extent of surface, the solubilities should all approxi- 
mate to the same value. If subdivision were even a 
considerable factor, there should be some approach to 
similarity in the results — they should be quantities of 
much the same order of magnitude. It will be seen that 
there is no suggestion of any such uniformity : — 



Fritt. 


Solubility of Lead. 
Percentage on Fritt. 


I 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 


07 

1*2 

21 

28-0 

40*1 

67-3 

70"o 



Thus the fineness alone of a fritt is not the chief 
factor in determining the solubility of the lead. The last 
three specimens belong, in fact, to a class of silicates 
which, whether ground moderately fine or extremely so, 
readily give up practically the whole of their lead to 
dilute acids. The first three belong to a class which, 



4 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts. 

under closely similar conditions of fineness to that shown 
by the last three, yield to acids a relatively small propor- 
tion only of lead. These classes are sharply distinguished 
by differences of chemical composition, and it is this latter 
circumstance which is the primary factor determining the 
solubility. The effect of fineness is a matter apart from 
this, and altogether subordinate to it. 

Action not that of a solvent on a single substance. — It is 
tacitly assumed by the writers in question that the process 
of solution involved is one in which a single substance, 
one chemical individual, is attacked by a solvent acting at 
the surface only of the particles {loc, city pp. 9, 10). 

If this were so, then, after a first treatment of a fritt 
with dilute acid, if the solvent be removed and the residue 
again treated with a fresh quantity of the solvent, the 
amount of lead dissolved should be practically the same as 
at first. 

Experiment shows that this is not the case. The 
quantity of lead extracted on the second treatment is only 
a fraction of that first yielded : — 



Silicate. 


Lead oxide 
present. 


Lead oxide dissolved. 


1st treatment. 


2nd treatment. 


No. I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 


-4% 
190 „ 

53'2 „ 
49*3 » 
24-5 u 
41-4 » 

41-3 yy 


07% 

2-0„ 

1-5.. 

06 „ 
08 „ 
07.. 


Traces 

o-4% 

0-2 „ 
0-2„ 
0-2 „ 
0-2„ 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No. 15. 



^' Protective Layer*' Hypothesis, — Messrs. Jackson and 
Rich endeavour to explain this behaviour by supposing 
that an insoluble coating of silica is deposited upon the 
particles, and that this protects them from further action 
of the solvent {loc, cit,, pp. 9-15). 

Silica does not form a ^^ protective layer'' — Now, it is 
demonstrable that in many cases no such " protective " 
layer is formed. In these cases the lead is not " protected *' 
by the silica or any other compound : it is wholly, or 
almost wholly, removed on treatment with dilute acid. 
The following experiments prove this point : . 



Fritt. 


Lead oxide 
present. 


Lead oxide dis- 
solved by -25% 
HCl. 


No. I 

2 

3 

4 
5 


71-2% 
70'4 .1 
7o"3 » 
46-8 ,. 
487 „ 


70-0 % 
67-3 » 
70-3 » 
39*5 » 
40-1 „ 



It is beyond question that in such cases as the above 
the silica does not form an effective protecting layer. It 
is difficult to see what reason can be adduced to show why 
silica should act differently in other cases. 

If it be said that the quantity of silica in the above 
fritts is too small to act as a protective layer, the reply is 
that some of them contain more silica than other fritts 
which have much smaller solubility. For instance : — 

SiOa PbO 

present. present. 

No. 5.., 33-4 487 . 

6... 29*8 59*3 • 

Other examples are : — 

7... 35*7 45*8 . 

8... 34'9 57*3 • 



PbO 

dissolved. 
40*1 

IO-8 
2-6 



6 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts, 

And with nearly equal percentages of silica : — 

9--- 37'6 37*9 28*0 

10... 37*9 53*2 20 

Thus two fritts, A and B, may have the same quantity 
of silica, yet A is largely attacked and B but slightly 
(Nos. 9 and 10). Or A may have more silica than B, and 
still be unprotected (Nos. 5 and 6 ; also 7 and 8). Finally 
A may have less silica than B, and nevertheless be the 
more largely attacked (Nos. 5 and 10). It is difficult to 
give much credence to a theory of protective action which 
is certainly not exercised at all in many cases, and in 
others exhibits so much caprice as to render impossible a 
reliable forecast of its probable effect. 

Fritt not a single compound, — Underlying the whole 
of Messrs. Jackson and Rich's argument is the assumption 
that a fritt is a single chemical entity. There is evidence 
to show that this is probably an erroneous assumption. A 
fritt would appear, in fact, to be usually a mixture of at least 
two lead compounds. The proportion of one of these, how- 
ever, may be small compared with the main bulk of the fritt. 

The considerations which suggest this are as follows : — 

I. Chemical — In so far as a fritt is attacked by a 
solvent, its soluble constituents, if the fritt is a single com- 
pound, will be found to bear the same proportion to one 
another in the solution as in the original fritt. Whether 
the silicic acid be dissolved or not, this relation will hold 
for the base-oxides. If, however, the bases in the 
dissolved portion be found to have a different proportion 
from one another than exists in the original fritt, then the 
result is evidence that the fritt was not a single compound. 
Applying this deduction to the case of seven specimens 
of fritts whose composition had been ascertained, together 
with that of the dissolved portion given on treating the 
fritts with excess of dilute hydrochloric acid, the following 
comparisons were obtained : — 



o 












H 






C< 






2 






o 






Oi 






Ol 






X 






H 












^ 






Q 




— \ 






1 


p< 






s 




k 


8 




1 














g 




§ 








0< 


§ 


% 






« 


iJ 


H 


> 


<; 


R 


« 


2 


Li 


?i 




o 


k 


o 


C/3 


< 


O 


y 


^ 


g 


2 


>J 


C/} 


O 


^ 


< 


g 


^ 




Ph 


c 


b 




^^ 


O 




«-» 


C/} 




•■§ 


o 




H 


H 




O 


0< 




^'> 


i 




1 


P< 






Ah 






O 






Z 












^ 






o 






w 






CO 






M 






-J 






PQ 






< 






H 







a 












o 












.a 


N* 


lO 


:^ 


r P^ 


p 


^ 


ON 


b 


io 


00 vb 


b 


t^S 


VO 








o 


6 












M 


o 


0^ 


N 00 


P 


•c 


in 


V 


-^ 


N eo 


o 


(zh 


«>. 











1 


P 


p 


p 


N lO 


o 


3 


r^ 


ON 


NO 


O i^ 





<rfS 


VO 








o 

M 


^- 












f^ 


00 


.-^ 


00 to 


o 


*c 


Vo 


io 


Vo 


*N '-t 


b 


(z< 


t^ 


" 






o 


1 












P 


M 


P 


SO t^ 


o 


^ 


vb 


^ 


ON 


Vt 00 


b 


.A.O 


"^ 


M 




M 


o 


u^C/3 










M 


d 












:5 J 


;^ 


^ 


to 


lo r^ 


P 


iS 


N 


t^ 


00 


i^ '-^ 


o 


(14 


in 


M 






o 


c 












.2 


00 


^ 


M 


pS M 


o 


9 


b 


'-^ 


io 


Tf io 


b 


."o 


00 








o 


-^c/j 










M 


o 1 












^£ 


."^ 


"P 


O 


ON N 


o 


•n 


Vo 


t-* 


Tf 


b to 


b 


(z< 


00 








o 


g 












.2 


lO 


c 


M 


vp 00 


o 


3 


b^ 


Vo 


*'«t 


vb vb 


b 


^"o 


t^ 








o 


cOc/3 










M 


a 












^ £ 


lO 


P 


lO 


to -"t 


o 


*c 


vb 


t^ 


IH 


M to 


b 


(K 


00 








o 


1 


P 


7t 


t^ 


vp 


o 


^ 


ro 


i^ 


N 


o 


b 


Nc2 


-^ 




N 


M 


o 


o 












^£ 


^t 


t^ 


P 


OS 


o 


*c 


\o 


bs 


N 


M 


b 


(z< 


^ 




N 


M 


o 




c 












c 


p 


o 


o 


P 


o 


. 3 


*N 


vb 


b 


W 


b 


•^ o 


U-) 




N 


►- 


o 


C^ 










^ 


;z; 










o 


^ 


p 


00 


VO 


to 


p 


.^ 


W 


t^ 


b 


OS 


b 


£ 


\n 


"■ 


N 


,-^> , 


o 




6 


o 


d 


4 d 






j3 




OJ 


J? 5^ 






Ah 


< 


u 


:z; fc^ 





8 Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts, 

These results show that in the soluble portion the 
constituents do not bear the same proportion to one 
another as obtained in the original fritt. The lime and 
alkalis are as a rule higher ; the lead oxide and alumina 
somewhat lower. Hence it would appear that some process 
of selective solution has occurred, and that the fritt was 
therefore not originally a single chemical body. 

II. Physical. — If a fritt consisted of only one chemical 
compound it could not by any process of grinding and 
levigation be separated into fractions having different 
densities. But there is experimental evidence to show 
that such fractions do result when some fritts are ground 
and elutriated. Thus determinations were made of the 
specific gravity of three elutriated fractions, a, /3, and 7, of 
the same fritt, the results being : — 

Specific Gravity j -Li J of a 3*683 

„ » » /3 3742 

n n n 7 3'6o6 

Had the fritt been a single compound the three results 
should have been the same, within the limits of experi- 
mental error. 

Thus the facts adduced, both chemical and physical, 
tend to show that, at least in some kinds of fritt, there is 
present a certain proportion — which, however, may be but 
small — of a readily-soluble lead compound in a state of 
admixture with the bulk of the fritt. 

Explanation of Messrs, Jackson and RicKs elutriation 
experiments, — This consideration suggests the explanation 
of some results obtained by Messrs. Jackson and Rich, 
and displayed on the table on p. 5 {loc, cit,). That table 
purports to show that a fritt " A " has a solubility of I 5 
per cent, when in the condition of fineness corresponding 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 15. 9 

to a pressure of 100 cm., and that when reduced to the 
state of subdivision denoted by i cm. pressure the 
solubility is increased to I7'5 per cent. 

But this conclusion is fallacious if the specimen is a 
mixture of two or more substances. The argument of the 
authors is based upon the assumption that they are dealing 
throughout with the same compound in different states of 
subdivision. It has no validity if more than one compound 
is present, since the solubilities found do not all relate to 
the same substance. 

Now, it is well known that the more soluble kinds of 
lead silicate are of softer texture than the more insoluble. 
In the process of grinding a fritt which contains a small 
admixture of such soluble silicate, this more soluble 
portion will on account of its softness be ground to finer 
dimensions than the bulk of the fritt. Consequently, when 
the powder is separated into finer and coarser fractions by 
elutriation, a great part of the soluble compound will be 
found concentrated in the finer portions. These finer 
portions will therefore show a solubility greater than the 
average for the whole fritt, while the coarser fractions will 
have a solubility less than the average ; which is precisely 
what is shown by the experiments adduced by Messrs. 
Jackson and Rich. 

Thus the experiments in question do not prove that 
the differences of solubility obtained are due to mere 
differences of dimensions of the particles. They can only 
do this if the various fractions are shown to have the 
same chemical composition, and on this point the authors 
offer no evidence whatever. 

In the concluding section of their paper {loc. cit.^ pp. 
12-13) the writers describe an experiment in which a 
specimen of glaze was found to be continuously acted upon 
by acid when mixed with pebbles and rotated for 22 hours 



lo Thorpe and Simmonds, Lead Fritts, 

in a cylinder. The quantity of lead oxide dissolved was 2*28 
per cent, of the weight of the glaze after a quarter of an 
hour's action, i I'i6 after twelve hours, and 13*32 at the end 
of the twenty-two hours. This is considered to support the 
hypothesis that silica forms a protective layer ; since the 
friction with the pebbles, it is argued, would continuously 
remove this layer and allow the acid to act without 
cessation upon the particles of fritt. 

The experiment as described is, however, of very doubt- 
ful value. No information is given as to the behaviour of the 
glaze under the same conditions but without the pebbles. 
Nor are details furnished of the composition of the glaze. 
Only two-fifths of the usual volume of acid was employed, 
and the strength of this small volume would be very con- 
siderably reduced by the acid-neutralising constituents of 
the glaze. It is quite possible that the acid thus weakened 
would act only slowly on certain kinds of fritts, altogether 
irrespective of any supposed layer of silica and its removal 
by pebbles. Moreover, if, as is commonly the case, the 
glaze contained calcium carbonate, the effect of this when 
the acid was very weak would be to render the action 
still slower by the tendency to form insoluble lead 
carbonate. Thus the gradual action of the acid described 
by the authors is explicable on quite other grounds than 
those alleged by them ; and in the absence of further data 
the experiment must be looked upon as inconclusive. 
Very similar objections may be urged also against the 
second experiment, with "commercial di-silicate," des- 
cribed on p. 14. 

Unsatisfactory fritts and glazes used in Jackson and 
Rich's experiments, — Finally, it is to be especially noted 
that the glaze experimented with was one which, from 
the figures given, would evidently if tested by the 
standard method have furnished a solubility-figure of at 



Manchester Memoirs^ Vol xlv. (1901), No, 15. n 

least 5 to 6 per cent, or about one-third of the whole 
quantity of lead present. Any argument legitimately 
derived from the behaviour of this glaze is thus an 
argument against the employment of glazes yielding a 
solubility-figure of so high a value as 5 or 6 per cent - But 
this argument has no necessary validity against glazes 
whose solubilities are less than 2 per cent, since the lead 
fritts used in the two cases must be of different chemical 
composition if the glazes have the same lead-content It 
is useless to base a contention against the 2 per cent 
limit upon the behaviour of a glaze which is obviously 
outside that limit 

In this connection it may be pointed out that the chief 
experiments upon which Messrs. Jackson and Rich rely 
are made with fritts having somewhat considerable initial 
solubilities. Thus the fritts A and B on p. 5, and the 
di-silicate of p. 14, have solubility-figures of 70 (mill- 
ground), 5*o, and 82 respectively. It would have been 
more to the point if the experiments had been carried out 
on fritts of low solubility — say i or 2 per cent. Even if 
it be admitted for a moment that the experiments are 
satisfactory, they only show that it is possible to select 
fritts of a certain character which shall behave in the 
manner indicated. They prove nothing, and they can 
prove nothing, with respect to the behaviour of fritts 
having lower solubility, and therefore different chemical 
composition. 

Effect of grinding of no importance, — Turning again to 
the practical side of the matter ; it has never been con- 
tended that fineness of sub-division is absolutely without 
effect upon the quantity of lead dissolved. It is a mere 
commonplace to admit that when solvent action occurs, 
it is exerted more readily upon an impalpable powder 
than upon the same substance in the form of coarse 
granules. 



12 Thorpe AND SiMMONDS, Z^«rf/^r///j. 

What IS maintained is, that within the limits of fine- 
ness occurring in actual practice the variation of solubility 
is too small to be of serious moment. This may be shown 
by reference to the following experiments, described on 
p. 9 of the Parliamentary Paper (Cd 527) " On the Use of 
Lead in the Manufacture of Pottery." 

Equal weights of six specimens of fritt, having solu- 
bilities ranging from ri to 3*2 per cent, were ground 
together for 24 hours in a hand-mill. The powder was 
then of fully an average working degree of fineness, and 
its solubility was 2*8 per cent. After being reduced to 
what must be regarded as a somewhat extreme state of 
sub-division, by further grinding for 12 hours, the solu- 
bility was 3'6 per cent. 

Now the percentage of lead oxide contained in the 
mixed fritts was 46*0. If, therefore, the mixture in the 
first state of division were used to supply the lead in a 
glaze containing 15 per cent of lead oxide, the solubility 
of this glaze would be 0*91 per cent. If it were used in 
the second or extremely fine state of sub-division, the solu- 
bility would be ri/ per cent. The difference is by no 
means an inappreciable one, but it is certainly not a 
matter of importance. Both figures, it will be seen, are 
much below the suggested limit of 2 per cent. 

Summary, — It has been shown : — 

(i) That a fallacy underlies Messrs. Jackson and Rich's 
conclusions, inasmuch as a fritt does not, as they assume, 
necessarily consist of a single chemical compound. 

(2) That the hypothesis of a protective layer of silica, 
essential for the authors' explanation of the observed 
behaviour of fritts, is not in accordance with certain 
easily-demonstrated facts. 

(3) That some of the authors' experiments are in- 



Manchester Memoirs, VoLxlv. (1901), No. 15. n 

least 5 to 6 per cent, or about one-third of the whole 
quantity of lead present. Any argument legitimately 
derived from the behaviour of this glaze is thus an 
argument against the employment of glazes yielding a 
solubility-figure of so high a value as 5 or 6 per cent. But 
this argument has no necessary validity against glazes 
whose solubilities are less than 2 per cent., since the lead 
fritts used in the two cases must be of different chemical 
composition if the glazes have the same lead-content. It 
is useless to base a contention against the 2 per cent, 
limit upon the behaviour of a glaze which is obviously 
outside that limit. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that the chief 
experiments upon which Messrs. Jackson and Rich rely 
are made with fritts having somewhat considerable initial 
solubilities. Thus the fritts A and B on p. 5, and the 
di-silicate of p. 14, have solubility-figures of 70 (mill- 
ground), S'O, and 8*2 respectively. It would have been 
more to the point if the experiments had been carried out 
on fritts of low solubility — say i or 2 per cent. Even if 
it be admitted for a moment that the experiments are 
satisfactory, they only show that it is possible to select 
fritts of a certain character which shall behave in the 
manner indicated. They prove nothing, and they can 
prove nothing, with respect to the behaviour of fritts 
having lower solubility, and therefore different chemical 
composition. 

Effect of grinding of no importance, — Turning again to 
the practical side of the matter ; it has never been con- 
tended that fineness of sub-division is absolutely without 
effect upon the quantity of lead dissolved. It is a mere 
(Commonplace to admit that when solvent action occurs, 
it is exerted more readily upon an impalpable powder 
than upon the same substance in the form of coarse 
granules. 



12 Thorpe AND SiMMOtJDSy Lead FriUs. 

What is maintained is, that within the limits of fine- 
ness occurring in actual practice the variation of solubility 
is too small to be of serious moment. This may be shown 
by reference to the following experiments, described on 
p. 9 of the Parliamentary Paper (Cd 527) " On the Use of 
Lead in the Manufacture of Pottery." 

Equal weights of six specimens of fritt, having solu- 
bilities ranging from i*i to 3*2 per cent, were ground 
together for 24 hours in a hand-mill. The powder was 
then of fully an average working degree of fineness, and 
its solubility was 2*8 per cent. After being reduced to 
what must be regarded as a somewhat extreme state of 
sub-division, by further grinding for 12 hours, the solu- 
bility was 3*6 per cent. 

Now the percentage of lead oxide contained in the 
mixed fritts was 46*0. If, therefore, the mixture in the 
first state of division were used to supply the lead in a 
glaze containing 15 per cent, of lead oxide, the solubility 
of this glaze would be 0*91 per cent If it were used in 
the second or extremely fine state of sub-division, the solu- 
bility would be ri7 per cent The difference is by no 
means an inappreciable one, but it is certainly not a 
matter of importance. Both figures, it will be seen, are 
much below the suggested limit of 2 per cent 

Summary, — It has been shown : — 

(i) That a fallacy underlies Messrs. Jackson and Rich's 
conclusions, inasmuch as a fritt does not, as they assume, 
necessarily consist of a single chemical compound. 

(2) That the hypothesis of a protective layer of silica, 
essential for the authors' explanation of the observed 
behaviour of fritts, is not in accordance with certain 
easily-demonstrated facts. 

(3) That some of the authors' experiments are in- 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlv, (1901), No, 15, 13 

conclusive, and do not necessarily bear the interpretation 
placed upon them. 

(4) That, even if Messrs. Jackson and Rich's con- 
clusions were established for the specimens dealt with, 
these specimens are mainly of somewhat high solubility, 
and arguments based on them would not of necessity, and 
do not as a fact, apply to fritts of lower solubility, since 
these have a different chemical composition. 

(5) That, granting a very fine powder to be somewhat 
more soluble than a very coarse one, the variations of 
solubility of slightly-soluble glazes, between the limits of 
fineness occurring in actual practice, are of inconsiderable 
magnitude and of only theoretical importance. 

(6) That, whether or not the solubility varies to some 
extent with the fineness, the matter is of no practical 
consequence, since glazes can be obtained, and are in use, 
which are of the fineness required in working, and which 
conform to the suggested limit of solubility. 



October 2nd, ipoo.] Proceedings. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE MANCHESTER LITERARY AND 
PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



Ordinary Meeting, October 2nd, 1900. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The nominations of the following gentlemen for membership in 
the Society were read: — Mr. J. H. Grindley and Mr. R. S. Hutton. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp described a method of producing a 
spectrum-like band from a bolometric curve by the use of a 
photographic camera with cylindrical lens, and also gave a brief 
account of the solar eclipse of May last, as seen in Algiers. 

Mr. William Burton, F.C.S., read a paper entitled 
" Plumbism in Pottery Workers." 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

The paper was illustrated by a number of articles of pottery 
and by specimens of lead fritts, and was followed by a discussion, 
in which the President, Dr. Dixon Mann, and others participated. 



General Meeting, October i6th, 1900. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. J. H. Grindley, M.Sc, Owens College, and Mr. R. S. 
Hutton, M.Sc, Owens College, were elected ordinary members 
of the Society. 



ii Proceedings. {October i6th, 1900, 

Ordinary Meeting, October i6th, 1900. 
Horace Lamb, M.A, LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., communicated a summary of 
the results of experiments, conducted in conjunction with 
Mr. F. W. Rixon, B.Sc. on the specific heat of gases at high 
temperatures. 

As part of a larger investigation, the authors have determined 
directly the specific heat of carbonic acid, up to 400^0., at 
constant volume. The gas is screwed up in a mild steel cylinder, 
which is heated in a gas oven running on rails. The oven and 
cylinder can thus be brought quickly over the calorimeter, into 
which the cylinder falls through trap doors forming the bottom 
of the oven. The transference is thus effected with a minimum 
loss of heat The difficulties arising from splashing and from 
escape of steam, are overcome by dropping the cylinder into a 
glass tube dipping some distance below the water. The glass 
tube breaks at a crack made in the neck, and thus ensures a 
complete immersion of the hot cylinder at a good depth in the 
water, which closes over the cylinder in a cataract. 

A similar experiment being performed with the empty 
cylinder, the difference gives the heating effect of the gas. 

The results given below for COg shew that the method, which 
it is hoped may still be improved, is a workable one. 



Initial Temp, 
of Gas. 


Final Temp. 


Mean Temp. 


Spec. Ileat. 

•200 
•211 
•288 
•356 


115 
192 

298 
398 


16 
16 
21 

21 


65-5 

104 

i59'5 
209-5 



The authors are now measuring the specific heat of nitrogen 
in the same way. 



October 30th, ipoo.] Proceedings. iii 

Ordinary Meeting, October 30th, 1900. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

A paper on " The Solubility of certain Lead Glasses 
or Fritts used in the Preparation of Pottery Glazes," 

by William Jackson, A.R.C.S., and Edmond M. Rich, B.Sc, 
was read by the latter. 

This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

The paper was illustrated by lantern slides, and was followed 
by a discussion, in which the President, Mr. William Burton, 
and Mr. T. Turner (organising secretary to the Technical 
Committee of the Staffordshire County Council) participated. 
The last-named stated that the paper represented the first- 
fruits of researches carried out at the laboratory at Stoke, 
recently established by the County Council. 

Professor F. E. Weiss, B.Sc, read a paper on "The 
Phloem of Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron^^ which was also 
illustrated by a series of lantern slides. 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 



Ordinary Meeting, November 13th, 1900. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Professor Osborne Reynolds mentioned a curious appear- 
ance which he had noticed on one occasion during the past 
summer, in the form of a narrow beam of light, proceeding vertically 
to a height of about 30 degrees from the setting sun. The beam 
remained visible for about half-an-hour after the sun had set. 
In the discussion as to the cause of the phenomenon, it was 
mentioned by Mr. Thorp that a similar appearance was seen by 
him when crossing the Mediterranean on returning from the 
observation of the solar eclipse in Algeria, on May 29th, 

There being no paper before the Society, Dr. C. H. Lees 



IV Proceedings. {November! jth^i goo. 

called attention to the following formula, due, apparently, to 
Schlomilch, which provides a useful and rapidly converging 
expression for the circumference of an ellipse whose semi-axes 
are known — 

perimeter = .(a + ^){i + l(|^J)\g^^(|^)%...}, 

where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse. No engineering 
text- book used in this country has included this formula, which 
is superior to those ordinarily employed for the purpose. The 
error of the first three terms of the series as above stated is 
found 

when b-'2a to be less than '05 per cent. 



>> 


b = 'ia 


» 


n 


>» 


» 


•2 


9} 


b = o 


j> 


i) 


'» 


i> 


•4 



Mr. Thorp described a method by which he has succeeded 
in silvering his diffraction films, the crucial point of which was 
the device adopted to agitate the silvering fluid in a closed and 
completely full vessel. The celluloid films having been obtained 
from plane gratings, were naturally not optically perfect when 
applied, as in the specimens exhibited, to curved surfaces. 
Mr. Thorp explained a device by which he expects to remedy 
this defect and to secure even films from concave surfaces, the 
surface from which the copies are taken being rotated while the 
celluloid is in process of solidification. He mentioned that he 
proposed to apply the designation prismatic to the gratings 
known as khelon gratings, as he considers that name more 
accurately descriptive of these gratings. 

Professor Dixon referred to the reversal of the lithium line 
observed by Professors Liveing and Dewar {Froc, Roy. Soc, 
Vol. 36 (1884), p. 472) when spectroscopically examining the 
light produced as an explosion-wave travelled towards the 
observer along a tube in which salts of lithium had been spread. 
The reversal of the line was taken by Professors Liveing and 
Dewar as showing that the front of the advancing wave was 
cooler than the following part. By photographing the explosion- 



November 13th, ipoo.] PROCEEDINGS. v 

wave on a very rapidly moving film, Professor Dixon has shown 

that the wave is reflected back from the end of the tube, this 

reflected wave being of great luminosity. The phenomenon 

observed by Professors Liveing and Dewar may therefore be due 

to the light of the retreating wave passing through (and suffering 

absorption in) the cooler gas in the rear of that wave. This is 

made probable by the fact that photographs of the advancing 

wave do not show any reversals of the calcium and other lines, 

when the end of the tube next the slit is open^ and when therefore 

no reflected wave is sent back. All the photographs of the 

ex plosion- wave show that the front of the wave is exceedingly 

sharp, and that the maximum brightness is reached immediately. 

Professor Dixon further referred to the formation of hydrogen 

peroxide in several cases of combustion, and discussed the 

bearing of the facts on Mendel^efs theory as to the nature of 

the action which takes place when hydrogen and oxygen combine. 

Mendeleefs idea is that gases combine primarily in equal 

volumes, so that in the case of hydrogen and oxygen the reaction 

first gives rise to HgOg, thus : — 

Ha + O2 = H2O2 
and subsequently the hydrogen and oxygen peroxide interact : — 

Ha+H20a = 2H20. 
If the gaseous products are quickly cooled by making the 
hydrogen flame play on to water or ice, then some of the peroxide 
escapes reduction and is found in the water. A second view is 
that the hydrogen molecules break up the oxygen molecules, 
liberating atoms of oxygen, some of which may combine with 
the steam forming hydrogen peroxide : — 
H2 +02 = H20 + 
HgO + O = H2O2. 
Professor Dixon made some suggestions for an experimental 
investigation of the question, and stated that he had begun some 
experiments with a view of deciding, if possible, between the two 
hypotheses. 



VI Proceedings. {November 27 th, igoo. 

Ordinary Meeting, November 27th, 1900. 

J. J. AsHWORTH, Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday referred to the popular belief of a relation 
between the changes of the moon and the changes of the 
weather. As illustrating the continued prevalence of the belief 
in question, he quoted a passage from the cotton circular 
of Messrs. Hubbard Bros. & Co., of New York, dated 
October 30th, 1900, in which they say : *' The trade watches 
for the time of full moon as the period most likely to bring 
colder weather, and therefore feels that we are apt to have 
a cold wave by November 6 to 8." It was a curious fact that 
November 8 was the date on which the first really cold weather 
was experienced on both sides of the Atlantic, and on which the 
first ** killing " frost in the cotton belt of the Southern States of 
the Union occurred. 

Some discussion followed. 

Reference was made by Mr. W. H. Johnson to the recent 
occurrence of numerous cases of arsenical poisoning among beer- 
drinkers in this neighbourhood, and some discussion took place 
as to the source of the poison. Mr. Taylor stated that though 
" commercial " sulphuric acid, manufactured from pyrites, is 
certainly cheaper than that prepared from Sicilian sulphur, the 
difference of price is quite trifling when considered in relation to 
the whole cost of brewing, since the amount used is small. 

Dr. G. Wilson mentioned a remarkable feature in connection 
with the bursting of gauge-glasses on the experimental engines 
in the laboratory of the Owens College. He had not personally 
verified it, but had been informed by one of the firemen that the 
final collapse of the tube is preceded by the appearance of a crack 
of two or three inches in length down the side of the tube. 
Steam may be seen to issue from this crack sufficiently long 
before the tube finally bursts to allow of turning off steam in the 
interval, and thus reducing the danger and inconvenience arising 



Decemberi ith, igoo?^ PROCEEDINGS. vii 

from the burst. Dr. Wilson inquired if this interval had been 
observed by others. It was suggested that the subject might be 
brought up again when some members possessing wide special 
experience might be present. No satisfactory explanation of the 
delay in the bursting was suggested. 

Mr. W. Barnard Faraday read a paper on *' Selections 
from the Correspondence of Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Leigh Philips, of May field, Manchester. Part IIL" 

The paper will be printed in the Memoirs, 



Ordinary Meeting, December nth, 1900. 

Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, in 

the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp mentioned a somewhat unpleasant 
experience he had had the previous day. Having prepared a 
quantity of silvering solution (nitrate of silver, potassa and 
ammonia) about a week before, but finding it not so good as 
usual, he had poured a small portion into a measuring glass with 
the intention of testing it to find out, if possible, the reason of 
its poor quality. The bottle was lightly corked and laid down 
on the bench, when, after about a couple of minutes, the 
contents exploded. On examining the glass of the bottle in 
question, a considerable portion was found to be pulverised, 
the rest being in more or less small pieces having a shattered 
appearance. No flash was seen, but apparently a misty aureola, 
whilst the glass and liquid were projected several yards away. 
Taken by itself the explosion was a puzzling one, but a similar 
event happened some months ago, only in this case the bottle 
containing the solution was in a cupboard, and the fact of an 
explosion having occurred was only discovered when the solu- 
tion was required ; in this case, also, the glass was pulverised. 
Mr. Thorp considered them to be instances of spontaneous 
explosion. 



January 8th, ipoi.] PROCEEDINGS. ix 

Ordinary Meeting, January 8th, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President announced that the Council had made the 
following awards : the Wilde medal for 1901 to Dr. Elie 
Metchnikoff, of Paris, for his researches in comparative embryo- 
logy, comparative anatomy, and the study of inflammation and 
phagocytosis ; the Wilde premium to Mr. Thomas Thorp for his 
paper on " Grating films and their application to colour photo- 
graphy " and other communications made to the Society. The 
Dalton medal for 1901 had not been awarded. The presentation 
ofthe Wilde medal and premium will take place on February 5 th, 
when Dr. Metchnikoff will deliver the Wilde lecture on "La flore 
microbienne du corps humain." 

The President also mentioned that it was proposed that 
the members of the Society should entertain the Wilde lecturer 
at dinner after the lecture. 

Reference was made to the loss the Society had sustained in 
tl e death of Lord Armstrong, one of its honorary members. 

Two portraits of former members, the Rev. William Johns 
aud the Rev. William Gaskell, which had been presented to the 
Society by Dr. Schunck, were exhibited. 

With reference to the explosion of silvering solution 
mentioned by Mr. T. Thorp at the previous meeting, Mr. R. L. 
Taylor stated that both Berthollet and Faraday had prepared 
an explosive compound of silver from a mixture similar to that 
employed by Mr. Thorp for photographic purposes. 

A discussion was introduced by Mr. W. H. Johnson upon 
the method of navigation employed by the Norsemen on their 
voyages between Northern Europe and Greenland and Iceland 
before the mariner's compass was known. 

Mr. W. E. HoYLE communicated a paper entitled " Note 
on D'Orbigny's figure of Onychoteuthis dussumieriy 
This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 



X Proceedings. [January 22nd^ iqoi. 

Ordinary Meeting, January 22 nd, 1901. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President referred to the loss sustained by the Society 
through the death of Professor Ch. Hermite, one of its honorary 
members since 1892. 

There being no paper before the Society, Mr. Francis Jones 
showed the mode of detecting small quantities of arsenic by 
Marsh's, Reinsch's, and Gutzeit's methods. He also showed 
the results obtained by the action of light on the hydrides of 
arsenic and antimony in contact with sulphur, constituting a 
further test of the presence of these metals. The mirror of 
arsenic obtained recently from a glass of beer by Marsh's test 
was also exhibited, together with a sample of invert sugar 
containing arsenic. 

Mr. R. L. Taylor referred to a subject to which, about the 
year 1882, he called attention by letters to the Manchester 
newspapers, namely, the occurrence of arsenic in large quantities 
in green tapers. The garlic-like odour of the tapers when 
burning or smouldering attracted his notice. Out of seven 
samples obtained from different shops, four contained arsenic. 
The amount in one taper he had found to be two-thirds of a 
grain of white arsenic, equal to 9 grains in one ounce of tapers. 

Mr. Taylor further said that in the course of the last week he 
obtained six samples of green tapers from Manchester and the 
immediate neighbourhood, and two of these were found to 
contain arsenic. The green tapers which are free from arsenic 
are bluish-green in colour and semi-transparent, while those 
containing arsenic are bright green and quite opaque. The 
amount of arsenic is quite as great as in those examined 
previously, and is probably present in the form of Scheele's 
green. When the tapers are burned the arsenic passes into the 
air in the form of the white oxide and would be inhaled by persons 



January 22nd, ipoi.] PROCEEDINGS. xi 

in the room. The danger from the use of such tapers might not 
be great, but opinions as to the effect of continued small doses 
of arsenic have lately been profoundly modified. 

The tapers were shewn and the presence of arsenic in them 
demonstrated, a piece not more than an inch long sufficing 
to give marked characteristic reactions. 

Dr. C, H. Lees mentioned a very compact formula for the 
circumference of an ellipse, viz. : — 

3 3 2 

perimeter = 2 ttI 1 

where a and d are the semi-axes of the elHpse. Dr. Lees stated 
that he had found the error of this formula to be as follows : — 
when d='4a less than 'i per cent. 



^= 


•3« 


a 


>» 


•2 


» 


d= 


'2a 


a 


>> 


•3 


>> 


b^ 


'la 


>> 


f) 


7 


» 



„ ^= O „ „ I'O „ 

the formula giving a result less than the true perimeter in each 
case. The formula, which was established in a communication 
to the Messenger of Mathematics in Feb. 1883, by Mr. Thomas 
Muir, is readily calculated with the aid of Barlow's tables. 



iv Proceedings. {November ijih^ igoo, 

called attention to the following formula, due, apparently, to 
Schlomilch, which provides a useful and rapidly converging 
expression for the circumference of an ellipse whose semi-axes 
are known — 

perimeter = .(a + ^){i + i(^^)\^(^)*+...}, 

where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse. No engineering 
text- book used in this country has included this formula, which 
is superior to those ordinarily employed for the purpose. The 
error of the first three terms of the series as above stated is 
found 

when b ~ '2a to be less than '05 per cent. 



>> 


b^'ia 


>i 


)) 


>» 


» 


•2 


» 


b^o 


>> 


>) 


»> 


i> 


•4 



Mr. Thorp described a method by which he has succeeded 
in silvering his diffraction films, the crucial point of which was 
the device adopted to agitate the silvering fluid in a closed and 
completely full vessel. The celluloid films having been obtained 
from plane gratings, were naturally not optically perfect when 
applied, as in the specimens exhibited, to curved surfaces, 
Mr. Thorp explained a device by which he expects to remedy 
this defect and to secure even films from concave surfaces, the 
surface from which the copies are taken being rotated while the 
celluloid is in process of solidification. He mentioned that he 
proposed to apply the designation prismatic to the gratings 
known as ichelon gratings, as he considers that name more 
accurately descriptive of these gratings. 

Professor Dixon referred to the reversal of the lithium line 
observed by Professors Liveing and Dewar (Froc, Roy. Soc, 
Vol. 36 (1884), p. 472) when spectroscopically examining the 
light produced as an explosion-wave travelled towards the 
observer along a tube in which salts of lithium had been spread. 
The reversal of the line was taken by Professors Liveing and 
Dewar as showing that the front of the advancing wave was 
cooler than the following part. By photographing the explosion- 



November ijth, ipoo.] PROCEEDINGS. v 

wave on a very rapidly moving film, Professor Dixon has shown 

that the wave is reflected back from the end of the tube, this 

reflected wave being of great luminosity. The phenomenon 

observed by Professors Liveing and Dewar may therefore be due 

to the light of the retreating wave passing through (and suffering 

absorption in) the cooler gas in the rear of that wave. This is 

made probable by the fact that photographs of the advancing 

wave do not show any reversals of the calcium and other lines, 

when the end of the tube next the slit is open, and when therefore 

no reflected wave is sent back. All the photographs of the 

explosion-wave show that the front of the wave is exceedingly 

sharp, and that the maximum brightness is reached immediately. 

Professor Dixon further referred to the formation of hydrogen 

peroxide in several cases of combustion, and discussed the 

bearing of the facts on Mendel^ef s theory as to the nature of 

the action which takes place when hydrogen and oxygen combine. 

Mendeleefs idea is that gases combine primarily in equal 

volumes, so that in the case of hydrogen and oxygen the reaction 

first gives rise to HgOg, thus : — 

Ha + O2 = H2O2 
and subsequently the hydrogen and oxygen peroxide interact ; — 

Ha+PIa02 = 2H20. 
If the gaseous products are quickly cooled by making the 
hydrogen flame play on to water or ice, then some of the peroxide 
escapes reduction and is found in the water. A second view is 
that the hydrogen molecules break up the oxygen molecules, 
liberating atoms of oxygen, some of which may combine with 
the steam forming hydrogen peroxide : — 
H2 + Oa = HaO + O 
H2O + O = HaOa. 
Professor Dixon made some suggestions for an experimental 
investigation of the question, and stated that he had begun some 
experiments with a view of deciding, if possible, between the two 
hypotheses. 



vi Proceedings. {November 27 th, i goo. 

Ordinary Meeting, November 27th, 1900. 

J. J. AsHWORTH, Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday referred to the popular belief of a relation 
between the changes of the moon and the changes of the 
weather. As illustrating the continued prevalence of the belief 
in question, he quoted a passage from the cotton circular 
of Messrs. Hubbard Bros. & Co., of New York, dated 
October 30th, 1900, in which they say : *' The trade watches 
for the time of full moon as the period most likely to bring 
colder weather, and therefore feels that we are apt to have 
a cold wave by November 6 to 8." It was a curious fact that 
November 8 was the date on which the first really cold weather 
was experienced on both sides of the Atlantic, and on which the 
first ** killing " frost in the cotton belt of the Southern States of 
the Union occurred. 

Some discussion followed. 

Reference was made by Mr. W. H. Johnson to the recent 
occurrence of numerous cases of arsenical poisoning among beer- 
drinkers in this neighbourhood, and some discussion took place 
as to the source of the poison. Mr. Taylor stated that though 
" commercial " sulphuric acid, manufactured from pyrites, is 
certainly cheaper than that prepared from Sicilian sulphur, the 
difference of price is quite trifling when considered in relation to 
the whole cost of brewing, since the amount used is small. 

Dr. G. Wilson mentioned a remarkable feature in connection 
with the bursting of gauge-glasses on the experimental engines 
in the laboratory of the Owens College. He had not personally 
verified it, but had been informed by one of the firemen that the 
final collapse of the tube is preceded by the appearance of a crack 
of two or three inches in length down the side of the tube. 
Steam may be seen to issue from this crack sufficiently long 
before the tube finally bursts to allow of turning off steam in the 
interval, and thus reducing the danger and inconvenience arising 



Decemberiitk, IQOO.'] PROCEEDINGS. vii 

from the burst. Dr. Wilson inquired if this interval had been 
observed by others. It was suggested that the subject might be 
brought up again when some members possessing wide special 
experience might be present. No satisfactory explanation of the 
delay in the bursting was suggested. 

Mr. W. Barnard Faraday read a paper on ** Selections 
from the Correspondence of Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Leigh Philips, of May field, Manchester. Part IIL" 

The paper will be printed in the Memoirs. 



Ordinary Meeting, December nth, 1900. 

Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, in 

the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp mentioned a somewhat unpleasant 
experience he had had the previous day. Having prepared a 
quantity of silvering solution (nitrate of silver, potassa and 
ammonia) about a week before, but finding it not so good as 
usual, he had poured a small portion into a measuring glass with 
the intention of testing it to find out, if possible, the reason of 
its poor quality. The bottle was lightly corked and laid down 
on the bench, when, after about a couple of minutes, the 
contents exploded. On examining the glass of the bottle in 
question, a considerable portion was found to be pulverised, 
the rest being in more or less small pieces having a shattered 
appearance. No flash was seen, but apparently a misty aureola, 
whilst the glass and liquid were projected several yards away. 
Taken by itself the explosion was a puzzling one, but a similar 
event happened some months ago, only in this case the bottle 
containing the solution was in a cupboard, and the fact of an 
explosion having occurred was only discovered when the solu- 
tion was required ; in this case, also, the glass was pulverised. 
Mr. Thorp considered them to be instances of spontaneous 
explosion. 



viii Proceedings. [December nth, igoo. 

Professor Dixon suggested that more precise information as 
to the conditions of the explosion was needed before the desired 
explanation could be given with certainty. 

Mr. Charles Bailey, F.L.S., having taken the Chair, 

Mr. J. H. Grindley, M.Sc, read a paper entitled "The 
Thermodynamical Properties of Superheated Steam 
and the Dryness of Saturated Steam." 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs, 

Several members contributed to the discussion which 
followed the reading of the paper. 

A paper on " A new species of Sepia and other shells 
collected by Dr. R. Koettlitz in Somaliland," by W. E. 
HoYLE, M.A., and R. Standen, was communicated by the 
former. 

This paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs, 



January 8th, igoi,] PROCEEDINGS. ix 

Ordinary Meeting, January 8th, 1901. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President announced that the Council had made the 
following awards : the Wilde medal for 1901 to Dr. Elie 
Metchnikoff, of Paris, for his researches in comparative embryo- 
logy, comparative anatomy, and the study of inflammation and 
phagocytosis ; the Wilde premium to Mr. Thomas Thorp for his 
paper on " Grating films and their application to colour photo- 
graphy " and other communications made to the Society. The 
Dalton medal for 1901 had not been awarded. The presentation 
ofthe Wilde medal and premium will take place on February 5th, 
when Dr. Metchnikoff will deliver the Wilde lecture on "La flore 
microbienne du corps humain." 

The President also mentioned that it was proposed that 
the members of the Society should entertain the Wilde lecturer 
at dinner after the lecture. 

Reference was made to the loss the Society had sustained in 
tl e death of Lord Armstrong, one of its honorary members. 

Two portraits of former members, the Rev. William Johns 
aud the Rev. William Gaskell, which had been presented to the 
Society by Dr. Schunck, were exhibited. 

With reference to the explosion of silvering solution 
mentioned by Mr. T. Thorp at the previous meeting, Mr. R. L. 
Taylor stated that both Berthollet and Faraday had prepared 
an explosive compound of silver from a mixture similar to that 
employed by Mr. Thorp for photographic purposes. 

A discussion was introduced by Mr. W. H. Johnson upon 
the method of navigation employed by the Norsemen on their 
voyages between Northern Europe and Greenland and Iceland 
before the mariner's compass was known. 

Mr. W. E. HoYLE communicated a paper entitled " Note 
on D'Orbigny's fig^ure of Onychoteuthis dussumieriy 
This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 



X Proceedings. {January 22nd, igoi. 

Ordinary Meeting, January 22nd, 1901. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL,D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President referred to the loss sustained by the Society 
through the death of Professor Ch. Hermite, one of its honorary 
members since 1892. 

There being no paper before the Society, Mr. Francis Jones 
showed the mode of detecting small quantities of arsenic by 
Marsh's, Reinsch's, and Gutzeit's methods. He also showed 
the results obtained by the action of light on the hydrides of 
arsenic and antimony in contact with sulphur, constituting a 
further test of the presence of these metals. The mirror of 
arsenic obtained recently from a glass of beer by Marsh's test 
was also exhibited, together with a sample of invert sugar 
containing arsenic. 

Mr. R. L. Taylor referred to a subject to which, about the 
year 1882, he called attention by letters to the Manchester 
newspapers, namely, the occurrence of arsenic in large quantities 
in green tapers. The garlic-like odour of the tapers when 
burning or smouldering attracted his notice. Out of seven 
samples obtained from different shops, four contained arsenic. 
The amount in one taper he had found to be two-thirds of a 
grain of white arsenic, equal to 9 grains in one ounce of tapers. 

Mr. Taylor further said that in the course of the last week he 
obtained six samples of green tapers from Manchester and the 
immediate neighbourhood, and two of these were found to 
contain arsenic. The green tapers which are free from arsenic 
are bluish-green in colour and semi-transparent, while those 
containing arsenic are bright green and quite opaque. The 
amount of arsenic is quite as great as in those examined 
previously, and is probably present in the form of Scheele's 
green. When the tapers are burned the arsenic passes into the 
air in the form of the white oxide and would be inhaled by persons 



January 22nd, ipoi,] PROCEEDINGS. xi 

in the room. The danger from the use of such tapers might not 
be great, but opinions as to the effect of continued small doses 
of arsenic have lately been profoundly modified. 

The tapers were shewn and the presence of arsenic in them 
demonstrated, a piece not more than an inch long sufficing 
to give marked characteristic reactions. 

Dr. C. H. Lees mentioned a very compact formula for the 
circumference of an ellipse, viz. : — 



S 3 2 

penmeter = 



where a and d are the semi-axes of the ellipse. Dr. Lees stated 
that he had found the error of this formula to be as follows : — 
when d='4a less than 'i per cent. 

,, ^ = *3fl „ „ '2 „ 

„ d = '2a „ „ '3 „ 

„ d='ia „ „ 7 „ 

„ If^ o „ „ I'o „ 
the formula giving a result less than the true perimeter in each 
case. The formula, which was established in a communication 
to the Messenger of Mathematics in Feb. 1883, by Mr. Thomas 
Muir, is readily calculated with the aid of Barlow's tables. 



xii Proceedings. [February sth^ igor. 



Ordinary Meeting, February 5th, 190 1. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Before proceeding to the ordinary business of the meeting, 
The President said : " It would, I think, hardly be conso- 
nant with the feelings of those present if some reference were not 
made to the matter which has occupied all our minds for the last 
fortnight. The death of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria occurred 
almost simultaneously with the last meeting of the Society. The 
days that have intervened have been marked by many striking 
tributes to her memory; I will not attempt, therefore, to say 
anything as to the personal qualities of the late Sovereign, or 
even as to the wider political aspects of her life which have 
nowhere, to my mind, found more eloquent appreciation than in 
the address of the Bishop at the Memorial Service in our 
Cathedral. But in a Society like this, which claims some 
antiquity among provincial learned societies, it may be 
excusable to dwell for a moment on the fact that the period 
of the late Queen^s reign has been a period also of great 
scientific discoveries, and (a matter in which we are no less 
interested) of remarkable developments in the application 
of science to practical uses. If we look at the records of the 
Society, we find that the Queen's accession took place during 
the long presidency of Dalton, whilst among his successors we 
note such names as those of Hodgkinson, Fairbairn, and Joule, 
as well as of Schunck and of others who happily are still active 
amongst us. It might perhaps be debated whether a period of 
profound internal peace, or one of revolutionary excitement, is 
more favourable to the birth of great scientific ideas ; history 
would doubtless furnish instances on both sides. But there can 
be no question as to wh ch conditions are more favourable to the 



February 5th, igoi,] PROCEEDINGS. xiii 

practical applications of science ; and from this point of view 
we must gratefully acknowledge that the immense progress of this 
kind which has marked the late Queen's reign would have been 
impossible except for the tranquil conditions which have obtained 
amongst us, largely in consequence of her own character and 
influence." 

The President referred also to the loss sustained by the 
Society in the deaths of two of its ordinary members. Mr. 
Richard Copley Christie had been a member since 1854 ; his 
munificent gifts for the encouragement of learning in this city 
were too recent and too well-known for further remark, but it 
was pleasant to the Society to recall that he had at one time 
held office as their Secretary. Sir John William Maclure was 
elected a member in 1859. 

The President nominated Mr. Thomas Thorp and Dr. C. 
H. Lees to be Auditors of the Society's accounts for the session 
1900-1901. 

Professor Flux referred to the records of a recent American 
report on water, gas, and electricity undertakings, so far as they 
showed the rate of return on the capital invested in each case. 
The rates were grouped most thickly about 3 to 3J per cent, for 
each class of enterprise, more closely in the case of water and 
(in a less degree) of gas than in the case of electricity. The 
total number of undertakings contributing to the result named 
was 1,351, and the lowness of the figure representing the most 
frequent rate seemed rather striking. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp mentioned that he had made further 
progress with an instrument designed to yield a pure mono- 
chromatic image of the sun, and had been able to obtain results of 
an encouraging nature. He hoped to be able to perfect the 
instrument in a short time and to exhibit it to the Society. 

Dr. George Wilson read a paper, prepared by himself and 
Mr. H. Noble, B.Sc, entitled " Note on the Construction 
of Entropy Diagrams from Steam-engine Indicator 
Diagrams." 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs, 



xiv Proceedings. [February 5th, igoi. 

Mr. C. E. Stromeyer read a paper on "The Repre- 
sentation on a Conical Mantle of the Areas on a 
Sphere." 

The paper will be printed in the Memoirs. 

The President announced at the close of the meeting that 
the date of the Wilde Lecture and presentation of the medal 
had, owing to the death of the Queen, been postponed until 
after Easter, and that April 22 had been provisionally fixed for 
the lecture. The dinner which had been arranged to follow the 
delivery of the lecture would be held on the same date. 



October 22nd, igoo,] Proceedings. xv 

[^Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 

Ordinary Meeting, October 22nd, 1900. 

Charles Bailey, F.L.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. H. Hyde exhibited a portion of a sunflower in fruit, and 
drew attention to the extreme symmetry and regularity of the 
seeds. Mr. Melvill mentioned the probability of the sunflower 
becoming of great economic value, owing to the seeds containing 
an oil, which may be used in the manufacture of soap, so that 
the cultivation of the sunflower on a large scale, for industrial 
purposes, may be one of the possibilities of the future. 

Mr. Rogers exhibited a collection of shells recently received 
from Australia. 

Mr. Stirrup read a paper entitled ** Examples of the genus 
Cerithium from the tertiary deposits of the Paris basin." 
Specimens of the genus, collected on a visit to Grignon 
arranged by the International Congress of Geology in the past 
summer, were shown, together with examples from numerous 
localities lent by Mr. Melvill. 



{Microscopical and Natural History Section!] 

Ordinary Meeting, November 19th, 1900. 

Charles Bailey, F.L.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. John Mullen presented the Section with a second 
series of rock sections for the cabinets, illustrating igneous rocks, 
limestones, and coal-measure plants. 

Mr. John Boyd contributed a paper on the anatomy of 
feathers, illustrated by diagrams and microscopic specimens. 



xvi Proceedings. December lyth, igoo. 



[^Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 
Ordinary Meeting, December 17th, 1900. 

Charles Bailey, F.L.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

A collection of insects illustrating insect parasitism, sent by 
Mr. Peter Cameron, was exhibited, and an explanatory note 
relating to the specimens was read. 

Mr. M. Stirrup read a paper on the mistletoe, mainly 
describing the experience and opinions of French botanists. 

Mr. Broadbent, M.R.C.S., drew attention to plant remains, 
found in the deep excavation below Hanging Bridge, which 
included several mosses, elderberry, gorse, birch, and numerous 
specimens of a perforated seed, oblong and pointed at each end. 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xliv. (1899- 1900). 



ADDENDA. 
Omitted from the List of Honorary Members : — 

1899, April 25. Palgrave, R. H. Inglis, F.R.S., F.S.S. Belton, Great 
Yarmouth. 

1899, April 25. Ramsay, William, Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry. 
12, Arundel Gardens^ Notttng Hill, Londony W. 



February igth^ igoi.] PROCEEDINGS. xvii 



Ordinary Meeting, February 19th, 1901. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. Charles Bailey made the following communication 
"On Ranunculus Bachii, Wirtgen, as a form of 
Ranunculus fluitans, Lamk." 

Ranunculus fluitans, Lamk., like all the members of the 
Batrachium section of the genus, is a very polymorphic aquatic 
plant, as is plainly to be seen from the series of British examples 
now exhibited. In the south of England, as in the Avon at 
Christchurch, the stout stems are several feet in length ; the 
leaves and peduncles are from six inches to a foot long ; and the 
flowers are as large as a shilling or a florin. It is a frequent 
plant in the Herefordshire Wye, and in the Severn ; but in our 
immediate neighbourhood I have gathered it in but one station, 
namely, in the Derbyshire Derwent, at WhatstandwelL The 
plant of the Derbyshire Wye, at Buxton, Miller's Dale, Lathkill 
Dale, &c., is another species — Ranunculus pseudofluitanSy 
" Bab.," Hiern. The R fluitans also occurs in canals and in 
swift running brooks, but its most congenial station is a well- 
filled river. It becomes less frequent in Great Britain as we 
ascend northwards, and it just manages to occupy a few of the 
southern counties of Scotland. 

In many of its stations there occur smaller examples to 
which the name of Ranunculus Bachii has been given ; in this 
state, as in some of the examples from the Severn and the Tweed, 
it occasionally produces small tripartite floating leaves. During 
a holiday in Berwickshire last July, I had a good opportunity of 
studying this small-flowered form, as the water-courses of that 



xviii Proceedings. [February igth, igoi. 

county produce it in abundance. In many places the streams in 
the flowering season are white over with its abundant flowers, as at 
the junction of the Blackadder Water with the Whiteadder Water, 
at AUanton. I also found it in plenty in the Eye Water, 
especially between East Renton and Ay ton. From the com- 
paratively small size of its flowers (not exceeding half an inch in 
diameter) the plant looked as if it might have been R. circinatus^ 
Sibth., or R, Droueiii^ Godron, rather than the robust plant of 
the south of England. The late Dr. George Johnston, in the 
Terra Lindisfarnensis : the Natural History of the Eastern 
Borders^ Vol. I., Botany^ page 26 (London, 1853), refers to this 
plant under the name of R, fluitans^ for this reduced form had 
not been recognised as British at the time he wrote ; he says 
that it is frequent in rapid streams in that district, " flowering 
throughout summer very frequently in some years, while in other 
seasons the plant is mostly barren." My visit to Berwickshire 
occurred, therefore, in one of these favourable seasons \ I saw, , 
however, no heads of mature fruits, although they were specially 
looked for. 

Dr. Ph. Wirtgen separated this small form from the type, as 

a species, under the name of Ranunculus Bachii^ in VerhandL 

des natur, Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande u?id West- 

phalens, Jahrg. II., p. 22 (Bonn 1845); but in his Flora der 

preussischen Rheinprovinz (Bonn 1857), pp, 15, 16, he 

reduced it to a variety, giving the type the name of R, Latnarckii^ 

Wtgn., and this smaller form, /3, the name of R. Bachi, Wtgn ; 

but he printed the name with one "i," not two as printed when he 

first described the plant, and as in the " London Catalogue," 

edition vi. (1867) and subsequent issues. It would appear to 

have been first recorded as a British plant in the third edition 

of English Botany, Vol. I., p. 18 (London, 1863), by Boswell 

Syme, but the reference which he cites " F. Schultz, Archives de 

FL, Vol. I., p. 292," is incorrect, as the plant is neither described 

nor named on the page stated. There is a casual reference to 

the plant on page 199 of the Archives^ but no description. Syme 

knew the Berwickshire plant, as he gives **the Whitadder in 



February igth, ipor,] PROCEEDINGS. xix 

Berwickshire," as the northern limit for this diminutive form of 
the type. Wirtgen describes it as occurring in the valley of the 
Sayn, and in the ditches which run into it, between Sayn and 
Isenberg, and also as not being scarce in the valley of the Alf. 
In the third edition of " W. D, J, Koch's Synopsis der deutschen 
und schweizer Flora^* Vol. I., p. 27 (Leipzig, 1890) it is reported 
as growing in the Rhine at Schaffhausen, Coblenz, Ladenburg, 
&c. 

My conclusions respecting this plant accord with Wirtgen's 
later view of it, namely, that the differences between it and the 
type are merely comparative. In the Eye Water at Ayton many 
of the stems of freely-flowering examples were from six to eighteen 
inches lon^, varying with the depth of the water in which they 
grew. At a point above the weir at Ayton Law, a water sluice 
runs from the river to feed the paper mill at Ayton, and in this 
sluice of swiftly-running water the plant, while still retaining its 
slender habit and small-sized flowers, produced leaves three to 
four inches, and stems five or six feet, in length. I gathered the 
same form, 17th July, 1900, but slightly more robust, in the 
River Tweed on the Northumberland side of the river, at Wark, 
opposite Coldstream ; and the range of examples now exhibited 
shews that there are all intermediates between the diminutive 
form collected at Ayton in the north, and the nine or ten feet 
plant of the New Forest in the south. 

The plants which Wirtgen distributed many years ago from 
the Rhine Provinces included examples of this plant, but in my 
set it was missing. By the kindness of Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill 
I am able to exhibit some sheets of Wirtgen's collecting, which 
were in Syme's herbarium of continental plants, now in Mr. 
MelvilFs possession. 

It may be as well to put on record that Mimulus luteus^ Linn., 
is established along the course of the Eye Water, and, although 
it is a poor bramble district, I added two species to the county 
during my visit, viz. : Rubus Rogersii^ Linton, and Rubus raduia, 
Weihe. 



XX Proceedings. [February igth^ igoi. 

A discussion followed, in which Messrs. Melvill, Weiss, and 
Nicholson took part. 

Mr. R. S. HuTTON exhibited an almost exact reproduction 
of Moissan's electric furnace, which has been set up at the 
Owens College. There it is possible, with a 50 h.p. engine, to 
produce a current of 700 amperes at 50 volts, and by that means 
it is anticipated that researches at the high temperatures thus 
available — viz., 3,500 deg. Centigrade or higher — will shortly be 
able to be carried out. Graphite prepared in electric furnaces 
was also shown, as well as specimens of various carbides, carbo- 
rundum, &c., from the Niagara works. Specimens of chromium 
and manganese were shown, illustrating the facility with which 
some of the rarer metals now become available. A modern 
form of the Lippmann electrometer was also exhibited by 
Mr. Hutton. 



March 5th, ipoi.'] PROCEEDINGS. xxi 

Ordinary Meeting, March 5th, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mention was made of the fact that the Society completed 
120 years of its existence on February 28th, and the first minute- 
book of the Society was handed round for inspection. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday exhibited a rare volume (from the Henry 
Watson musical library) printed at Sheffield in 1788. The work 
consists of a description by Dibdin of a musical tour in 1787-8, 
and extracts were read relating to the composer's experiences in 
Manchester, contrasting the people of Manchester very unfavour- 
ably with those of Liverpool. Messrs. Barnes, Nicholson, and 
W. B. Faraday joined in a discussion of the matters raised. 

Mr. W. E. HovLE called the attention of the members to an 
English Grammar published in 1801 by John Dalton, then 
Secretary to the Society, and presented by him to the Society. 
Mr. Hartog mentioned that Priestley also published an English 
Grammar before devoting himself to science. 

Mr. C. E. Stromeyer referred to the results of a study of 
tidal waves which he had published in *' Nature " in 1895, and 
which indicated that, in the majority of cases of which records 
were available, the tidal waves appeared to proceed from the 
Faraday Reef. Particulars of the tidal wave which recently 
struck the ** Teutonic " were not yet to hand for comparison with 
former records. 

Mr. W. E. HoYLE read a paper entitled " On the Generic 
Names Octopus, Eledone, and Histiopsis," 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs, 



xxii Proceedings. [March igth, 1901. 

Ordinary Meeting, March 19th, 1901, 
Charles Bailey, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair, 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. E. F. Morris exhibited some sketches of recent excava- 
tions in the Roman forum, and gave the following explanations 
and information in reference to them. One of them represented 
the rostra discovered in October, 1900, by Signor Boni, which 
belong to the last period of the Republic, and are stated to be 
those from which Antony delivered his famous speech. The 
monument hitherto believed to be the only rostra erected under 
Julius Caesar may now, probably, be assigned to about 
the period of the Flavians and Trajan. The newly-discovered 
rostra consist of five little vaulted rooms, exactly as seen on the 
well-known medal of Palikanus, built, in opus reiiculatum^ of tufa 
and concrete. 

Other sketches represented the shrine and fountain of 
Juturna. The former is an sedicula in brickwork, running in a 
North and South direction, its front decorated with two marble 
columns supporting an architrave on which is carved the name 
of the deity to which it was consecrated. In front of the shrine 
is a circular well with an elegant marble head, ornamented with 
a carved cornice on which is an inscription stating that the 
well was consecrated to Juturna by Marcus Barbatius Pollio. 
Professor Vaglieri affirms that this Pollio is the personage men- 
tioned by Cicero, who was quaestor of Lucius Antonius in 41 B.C. 
Before the well is a marble altar with a sculptured front on 
which are figures of Mars and of a female deity, Juno or Venus, 
Signor Boni is of opinion that the scene is taken from Virgil, 
and represents Juturna taking her final leave of her brother 
Turnus. 

The skill of Signor Boni in directing the excavations has also 



March igth, ipoi.] PROCEEDINGS. xxiii 

brought to light the celebrated Fountain of Juturna, so highly 
appreciated by the Romans for the salubrity of its waters. A 
spacious rectangular construction in tufa work (opus reticulatum) 
of the Republican epoch encloses the spring. The construction 
is internally covered with marble slabs. A short flight of steps, 
which leads to the spring, has been rebuilt at a much later date. 
The water gushes out abundantly at the present time, fresh and 
clear. The following interesting monuments were found in the 
room which encloses the spring : — (i) A marble altar the four 
faces of which bear sculptures of the Dioscuri, of Jupiter holding 
the sceptre and thunderbolts, of Leda with the swan, and 
of a feminine figure, probably Vesta or Diana Lucina, holding 
a long torch. The association of the fountain of Juturna 
with the sanctuary of the Vestals is a well-known fact. (2) A 
life-sized statue of -^sculapius in white marble (now standing at 
his shrine); this statue was placed there on account of the 
health-giving qualities of the waters of the fountain. (3) A white 
marble bust of Jupiter, very well preserved. (4) A splendid 
head and body of a horse in Pentelic marble, conjectured to be 
the work of a Greek artist of the fifth century B.C., and to have 
belonged to a group representing Castor and Pollux and their 
horses. (5) A torso of Apollo in Greek marble, archaic in style, 
but clearly a Roman imitation, perhaps of the time of Hadrian. 

Mr. Thomas Thorp exhibited photographs of the spectrum 
of the new star in Perseus, showing the bright lines very clearly, 
and he mentioned that the star has now faded to about the fifth 
magnitude. 

Mr. Thorp also described a variation in the ordinary arrange- 
ment of a star spectroscope, which he has devised. 

Mr. J. R. Hardy read a paper on " The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Sherwood Forest," which was communicated 
through Mr. Hoyle. 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs, 



xxiv Proceedings. [April 2nd, igoi. 

Ordinary Meeting, April 2nd, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. W. E. HoYLE exhibited an old form of dial, bearing the 
name "Nathaniell Jeynes," and the date " 1678," which had on 
one side a small circular rotating plate inscribed with the circum- 
polar constellations. 

Mr. HoYLE also showed a silhouette portrait of Dr. Thomas 
Percival, one of the founders of the Society. 

Mr. C. E. Stromeyer mentioned that on several occasions 
he had seen the sun*s rays converging to a point directly opposite 
to the sun. In one case, when the sun was very low on the 
western horizon, some very marked rays, caused by a low bank 
of clouds, converged towards a point above the eastern horizon. 

Mr. J. J. AsHWORTH (Treasurer) having taken the Chair, 

The President communicated some numerical illustrations 
of the Diffraction of Sound.* These were intended to show the 
extreme facility with which sounds of relatively large wave-length 
can make their way round obstacles or through apertures. Thus, 
with a wave-length of 4 feet, a wire ^ of an inch in diameter 
dissipates only the fraction 6*6 x 10"® of the energy which falls 
upon it ; a spherule of water yxnnr ^^ ^^ ^"^^ ^" diameter scatters 
only i'3xio"'®. Again, a perforated screen or grating may 
present hardly any obstacle to the transmission of sound, 
although the apertures occupy only a small proportion of the 
total area. Reference was made to the bearing of such results 
on the attempts made to improve the acoustic properties of 
buildings by hanging wires, and on current notions as to the 
possibility of the reflection of sound from clouds. 

A discussion ensued, in which Messrs. Barnes, Lees, 
Stromeyer, and others participated. 



April 22nd, ipoT.] Proceedings. xxv 

Special Meeting, April 22nd, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President in the Chair. 

The President, in making the presentation of the Wilde 
Medal and the Wilde Premium, said : — 

**The Wilde Medal for 1901 is awarded to Dr. tlie 
Metchnikoff, of the Pasteur Institut, Paris, for his services to 
zoological science (i.) in the field of comparative embryology, in 
which he was a distinguished pioneer ; (ii.) in the department 
of comparative anatomy; (iii.) in the study of inflammation 
and phagocytosis and of the pathology of infectious diseases 
generally. 

To him we are indebted for our first accurate knowledge of 
embryology in the case of many animal forms, such as sponges, 
various jelly fishes, marine worms, the scorpion and the book 
scorpions, various insects, crustaceans, starfishes, and ascidians, 
in fact, there is no important group of Invertebrata whose 
embryology has not been elucidated by his investigations. 

He has paid special attention to certain small forms of 
doubtful affinity which have been much neglected by other 
writers. One of the most important instances of the alternation 
of generations, a characteristic phenomenon of parasitic life, was 
first demonstrated by him, namely, the metamorphosis of the 
Ascaris of the frog's lung into a free-living worm of the genus 
Rhabditis, 

The importance of the results announced in his paper on the 
** Ancestral History of Inflammation," results both theoretical 
and practical, ranks it as one of the most brilliant contributions 
to science of modern days. It gave rise to the theory of phago- 
cytosis, which furnishes an explanation of many of the phenomena 
of inflammation, and of the immunity from bacterial diseases 
conferred by inoculation, and established a link between 
Virchow's cell theory of disease and the Darwinian principle of 



XXVI Proceedings. [April 23rd, igoi. 

natural selection. This theory has been the source of important 
controversies, which have led to the discovery of certain pro- 
tective properties of the blood which are now extensively used 
for the diagnosis and prevention of disease." 

"The Wilde Premium for 1901 is awarded to Mr. Thomas 
Thorp for his paper on * Grating Films and their Application to 
Colour Photography,' and other communications to the Society." 

The presentations were suitably acknowledged by Dr. 
MetchnikofF and Mr. Thorp. 

Dr. Metchnikoff then delivered the Wilde Lecture, " Sur 
la Flore du Corps Humain." 

The lecture is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

The lecturer was afterwards entertained at dinner by the 
members and friends. 



Annual General Meeting, April 23RD, 1901. 

Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. J^lie Metchnikoff, For. Mem. R.S., of the Pasteur 
Institute, Paris, was elected an honorary member. 

The Secretary announced, in accordance with Rule 22 of 
the Articles of Association, that the name of Samuel Joyce had 
been erased by the Council from the register in consequence of 
non-payment of his subscription. 

The Annual Report of the Council and the Statement of 
Accounts were presented, and it was moved by Professor S. J. 
HicKSON, seconded by Mr. R. F. Gwyther, and resolved: — 
"That the Annual Report, together with the Statement of 
Accounts, be adopted, and that they be printed in the Society's 
Proceedings^^ 

It was moved by Mr. Charles Bailey, seconded by Professor 
S. J. HiCKSON, and resolved : — " That the system of electing 
Associates of the Sections be continued during the ensuing 
session." 



April 23rd, ipoi,] Proceedings, xxvii 

The following members were elected officers of the Society 
and members of the Council for the ensuing year : — 

President: Charles Bailey, F,L.S, 

Vice-Presidents : Osborne Reynolds, M.A,, LL,D,, F.R.S, ; 
Horace Lamb, M.A„ LL,D,, F.R.S.; J, E, King, M.A. ; 
C. E. Stromeyer, M.InstC.E. 

Secretaries: Francis Jones, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.; A. W, Flux, 
M.A. 

Treasurer: J. J. Ashworth. 

Librarian: W. E. Hoyle, M.A., M.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

Other Members of Council: J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S 
H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S.; Francis Nicholson, F.Z.S, 
R. L. Taylor, F.C.S., F.I.C. ; F. J. Faraday, F.L.S., F,S.S, 
Charles H, Lees, D.Sc. 



Ordinary Meeting, April 23rd, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R,S,, President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President referred to the loss sustained by the Society 
through the death of Professor F, M, Raoult, of Grenoble, and 
of Professor H. A, Rowland, of Baltimore, U.S.A., two of the 
Society's honorary members. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday called attention to the danger which may 
arise from the fall of the counterpoise of an ordinary electric 
lamp, owing to the fusing of the conducting (and supporting) 
wires, due to a short circuit at the point of attachment to the 
lamp. The probable cause of the short circuiting, and the 
means of preventing such an accident, were discussed. 

Professor S. J. Hickson communicated two papers by 
Miss E. M. Pratt, M.Sc, on " A Collection of Polychxta 
from the Falkland Islands," and ''Some notes on 
the Bipolar Theory of the Distribution of Marine 
Organisms." 

Both papers are printed in full in the Memoirs. 



xxviii .Proceedings. [May 28th, igoi. 

Ordinary Meeting, May 28th, 1901. 
Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

A paper on "The Influence of Grinding upon the 
Solubility of the Lead in Lead Fritts," by T. E. Thorpe, 
C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., and Charles Simmonds, B.Sc, was, in 
in the absence of the authors, read by the Secretary. 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs, 

After the reading of the paper, 

Mr, Burton pointed out that, even if grinding be pro- 
ductive of variations in solubility of only about 50 per cent, 
of its amount, a fritt not far within any fixed standard 
limit would be dangerous or safe according to the fineness 
of its grinding. He denied that the more soluble fritts are 
the softer, stating that the contrary is the fact. He further 
referred to the danger of lead-poisoning from inhaled lead dust, 
a matter in which the imposition of a standard of solubility 
of the substance affords no safeguard, 

Mr, Jackson stated that the finer portions of the fritts dealt 
with by himself and Mr, Rich contained not more, but less, lead 
oxide than the coarser portions. He had himself determined the 
solubility of different grindings of the same fritt, a fritt which was 
passed as within the Home Ofl&ce standard, at amounts varying 
from below 2 per cent, to about 5 per cent. He exhibited some 
photographs showing the result of the action of hydrofluoric acid 
on glasses, which displayed crystalline forms suggestive of 
distinct heterogeneity, even in the clearest glass. He protested 
that he had not treated the fritts as single chemical substances. 

Professor Dixon and others joined in the discussion. 



January 1 4.tK ipoi,] PROCEEDINGS. xxix 

[Microscopical and Natural History Section.] 

Ordinary Meeting, January 14th, 1901. 

Charles Bailey, F.L,S,, President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr, John R. Ragdale, CC, was elected Treasurer in the 
place of Mr. Mark Sykes. A vote of thanks and regret was 
unanimously accorded to Mr. Sykes, 

Mr, Sykes described the work done by himself, in conjunc- 
tion with the Hon, Secretary, during the past eighteen months, 
in systematically arranging, labelling and cataloguing the slides 
of microscopical objects in the Section's two cabinets, which 
have been acquired since the formation of the Section in 1858. 
All the slides, numbering about 1,400, have now been arranged 
for reference and study. Every name has, as far as possible, 
been verified, and a MS. catalogue has been prepared and 
presented to the Section. Each slide bears an official label 
marked " A " or " B " for the cabinet, together with the number 
of the tray and a consecutive number for each tray. It will now 
be possible to keep the slides in order, and to replace in their 
proper position any that may be removed. 

The thanks of the Section were voted to Mr. Sykes and the 
Hon. Secretary for their joint labours, and it was resolved that 
the MS. catalogue be bound for ease of reference. 

Mr. Thomas Rogers exhibited a collection of Hymeno- 
phyllums and Trichomanes from the Blue Mountains, Jamaica. 



XXX Proceedings. {February nth, igoi. 

{Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 

Ordinary Meeting, February nth, 1901. 

Charlfs Bailey, F.L.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. Henry Hyde submitted some examples of leaves, 
mounted under glass, for the purposes of art teaching. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., exhibited a series of fossil 
insects from France, which he had obtained last year from the 
coal measures of Commentry, in the department of the Allien 

Some curious pupa-cases from Natal, belonging to the 
Lepidopterous group Psychaidse, were shown by Mr. Thomas 
Rogers. 

Mr. Charles Bailey made a communication on Ranunculus 
Bachiiy Wirtgen, as a form of Ranunculus fluitans, Lamk., and 
illustrated his remarks by a series of British examples linking 
the extreme forms of both plants. 



{Microscopical and Natural History Section,"] 

Ordinary Meeting, March nth, 1901. 

Charles Bailey, F.L S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., made some remarks upon a 
large series of eocene shells from the well known deposit at 
Grignon, near Versailles, which he had collected in that locality 
during the visit of the members of the International Geological 
Congress at Paris, in 1900, 

Some examples of the shaddock were exhibited by Mr. 
Thomas Rogers. 



March nth, ipoi.] PROCEEDINGS. xxxi 

Mr. Henry Hyde submitted specimens of Sagittaria 
lancifolia from the West Indies, and of Gastonia palmata from 
the East Indies. 

Mr. J. Fenwick Allen explained the uses and manufacture 
of the following metals, illustrating the same by examples, viz. : — 
silicon, metallic manganese, chromium, ferrotitan, and silicon 
copper containing 25 % of silicon. 

Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., exhibited Tastnanian 
examples of the rare and beautiful alga, Claudea ele^ans. Lam. 

Mr, Charles Bailey brought a series of examples of a 
somewhat rare mint, which he had had in cultivation for many 
years in his garden at Ashfield, Whalley Range, and which Dr. 
John Briquet, of Geneva, had recently identified as Mentha 
gentilis, L., var. Hachenbruchii, Briq, 

Mr. Peter Cameron sent specimens oi Sphex flavo vestita, 
from Borneo, illustrating its habits. He considered this insect 
to be but a form of the common Indian species Spliex aurulentus. 
All the species of Sphex have the same habits ; they feed their 
young with grasshoppers, which they store in their cell-shaped 
nests. The peculiarity of their method of providing food for 
their young consists in the fact that the grasshoppers are not 
killed, but merely benumbed and rendered motionless by three 
pricks of the ovipositor — one in the neck, one in the joint 
between the meso- and metathorax, and one in the base of the 
abdomen, the seat of the nerve ganglions. The consequence is 
that the grasshopper does not die and decay, but remains fresh 
for weeks until its time comes to be devoured by the larva of 
the Sphex. Three or four grasshoppers are put in each cell for 
one larva, and some species store up as many as 100 for their 
entire brood, the whole process taking about one month. 

Chlorion lobatum, of which specimens were also sent, has 
similar habits. 



xxxii Proceedings. {April 15th, igoi. 

[Microscopical and Natural History Section!] 
Annual Meeting, April 15th, 1901. 

Charles Bailey, F.L.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

The Council presented the following report of the Section 
for the session 1 900-1 901 : 

" Your Council, in presenting a report for the past session, 
has to record a slight reduction in the membership of the section, 
its numbers now amounting to 17 members and 11 associates, 
as against 17 and 13 respectively, at the corresponding period of 
the previous session. 

" The following is a list of the existing membership : — 

Members: — J. J. Ashworth, Charles Bailey, F.L.S., 
John Boyd, G. H. Broadbent, M.R.C.S., Henry Brogden, 
Dr. A. Brown, Edward Coward, R. E. Cunliffe, Hastings 
C. Dent, F.L.S., Dr. A. Hodgkinson, C. J. Heywood, W. E. 
Hoyle, M.A., F.R.S.E., J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., 
Francis Nicholson, F.Z.S., J. R. Ragdale, C. H. Schill, 
Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 

Associates: — J. F. Allen, Dr. Booth, Peter Cameron, 
Peter Cunliffe, L. W. Hunt, Henry Hyde, John Mullen, 
Thomas Rogers, Theodore Sington, William Stanley, 
John Watson. 

" The cash in the bank at the credit of the section at this 
date amounts to jQ2^, 5s. 5d., as will be seen from the Treasurer's 
account, as against the sum of £2/^. 1 2s, 3d, at the beginning of 
the session. 

" The usual meetings have been held regularly each month, 
and their interest has been fully maintained by the papers read 
and the objects exhibited. But your Council regrets to record 
that the attendance continues to slowly decline ; this must be 
attributed to the specialisation which has taken place in natural 
history and microscopical studies, each branch of science forming 
a separate organisation to foster its special pursuits. 



April isth, igoi:\ PROCEEDINGS. 



xxxm 



"Your Council is sorry to report the resignation of Mr, 
Theodore Sington as Honorary Secretary, an office which he 
has held for the last nine years, and the duties of which he has 
discharged with considerable zeal and efficiency," 

Treasurer's Statement of Accounts, 
Dr. Session 1900- 1901. Cr. 



I s. d. 
To Balance at Bankers and Cash 

in hand 34 X3 3 

„ Subscriptions and Arrears.. .. 10 5 o 

,, Bank Interest o 9 6 



£l5 6 9 



£ s. d. 
By Books and Periodicals 4 2 6 

., Tea, Coffee, &c., at Meetings 2 13 lo^ 

„ Printing and Stationery . . 

„ Postages, &c 

„ Balance, April isth, 1901 .. 



2 IX 

24 5 
lis 6 



Audited, April 15th, 1901. 

f JOHN BOYD. 
*^" iJ. FENWICK ALLEN. 

The Annual Report and Statement of Accounts were duly 
approved and passed, 

The following Members and Associates were appointed the 
Council for the ensuing year : — 

President - - - - Charles Bailey, F.L,S. 
Vice-Presidents - - John Boyd ; 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. : and 
Thomas Rogers, 
John R. Ragdale, C,C. 
J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 
J. Fenwick Allen ; 
R, E. Cunliffe; 
W. E. HOYLE, M.A., F.R.S.E. ; 
Henry Hyde; 

Francis Nicholson, F.Z.S.; and 
C. H. Schill. 
Mr. Thomas Rogers exhibited a number of fossil ferns and 
mosses which had been found in the debris of Roman Manchester 
during the excavations of recent years, and he described the 
localities where they were found and the conditions under which 
the plants must be assumed to have grown. 



Treasurer - - - . 
Honorary Secretary : 
Council 



xxxiv Annual Report of the CounciL 



MANCHESTER 
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



A nnual Report of the Council^ Aprils igoi. 

The Society began the session with an ordinary membership 
of 1 54. During the present session 3 new members have joined 
the Society; 10 resignations have been received, and the deaths 
have been 4, viz.: Sir William Cunliffe Brooks^ Bart., Mr. 
Richard Copley Christie, Professor Daniel John Leech, and 
Sir John William Maclure, Bart, whilst 4 members have 
been removed from the list for non-payment of their subscrip- 
tions. This leaves on the roll 139 ordinary members. The 
Society has also lost 2 honorary members by death, viz. : 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S., and Professor Ch. Hermite, 
For. Mem. R.S. Memorial notices of these gentlemen appear 
at the end of this report. 

The Treasurer commenced the year with a balance in 
favour of the Society of ;^ 15 3. is. 2d. (including jQi2^, 5s. iid. 
balance of the Wilde Endowment Fund), and reports that the 
total balance, exclusive of the amount still owing by the 
Natural History Fund, but including the Wilde and Joule 
Funds, at the bankers and in hand, at the close of the year, is 
;^ii9. 6s. 9d. 

The Council has to thank Dr. Wilde for proposing certain 
alterations in the Trust Deed of the Wilde Endowment Fund. 
These alterations, which give additional discretionary powers to 
the Council in the award of the Wilde Medal and Premium, and 
in the disposal of the balance of the Fund, have been embodied 



Annual Report of the Council, xxxv 

in a supplementary Deed which has been unanimously approved 
by the Council. 

The Council has also to record its thanks to Dr. Schunck 
for presenting to the Society portraits in water-colour of the 
Rev. William Johns, formerly Secretary of the Society, and the 
Rev. William Gaskell, formerly Vice-President. These have 
been framed and placed in the Council Room. 

The Librarian is pleased to report that the re-cataloguing 
of the Society's library is now practically completed. There yet 
remain a few volumes of tracts and the collection of dissertations, 
and these will be catalogued as opportunity offers. During the 
session, 1,594 volumes have been catalogued, stamped, and 
pressmarked, 792 of these being serials, and 802 separate works. 
There have been written 1,326 catalogue cards, 306 for serials, 
and 1,020 for separate works. The total number of volumes 
catalogued to date is 25,448 for which 8,381 cards have been 
written. 

Satisfactory use is made of the library for reference purposes, 
but the number of volumes consulted is not recorded. During 
the session, 195 volumes have been borrowed from the library, 
as compared with 205 volumes in the previous session; it is 
hoped that, as the card catalogue now affords every facility for 
quickly finding any work required, members will make further 
use of the valuable collection of books possessed by the Society. 

Attention has continued to be paid to the completion of sets, 
with the result that 49 volumes or parts have been obtained 
which render 17 sets complete, whilst 51 volumes have been 
acquired which partly complete 13 sets. These 100 volumes, 
with the exception of 6 purchased, were presented by the 
respective societies publishing them. Since the commencement 
of the re-cataloguing of the library, a total of 788 missing volumes 
has been obtained, resulting in the completion of 94 sets. 

Considerably more binding has been done than in the 
previous year, 612 volumes having been bound in 446, whilst 
several volumes have undergone repair. 



XXX vi Annual Report of the Council, 

A record of the accessions to the library shows that, from 
April, 1900, to March, 1901, 625 serials and 80 separate works 
were received, a total of 705 volumes. The donations during the 
session (exclusive of the usual exchanges) amount to 1 7 volumes 
and 127 dissertations ; 2 books have been purchased (in addition 
to the periodicals on the regular subscription list). 

During the past session the Society has arranged to exchange 
publications with the following : Western Society of Engineers, 
Chicago ; Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia 
Medica, Cincinnati ; Naturhistorisk Forening, Copenhagen ; 
University of Durham Philosophical Society, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

The University of Glasgow having requested the Society to 
appoint delegates to be present at the celebration of the Ninth 
Jubilee of the University, from June 12th to 14th, 1901, the 
Council has nominated Dr. Henry Wilde, F.R.S., and Professor 
Horace Lamb, LL.D., F.R.S., to represent the Society on the 
occasion. 

At the request of the Council, Professor A. Sheridan 
Delepine, M.B., B.Sc, and Mr. Alexander Hodgkinson, M.B., 
B.Sc, have agreed to act as delegates of the Society to the 
British Congress on Tuberculosis, to be held in London from 
July 22nd to 26th, 1 90 1. 

The Council has awarded : — 

The Wilde Medal for 1901 to Dr. ifclie Metchnikoff, for his 
researches in comparative embryology, comparative anatomy, 
and the study of inflammation and phagocytosis. 

The Wilde Premium for 1901 to Mr. Thomas Thorp, for his 
paper on "Grating Films and their application to colour 
photography," and other communications made to the Society. 

Dr, Metchnikoff was appointed to deliver the Wilde Lecture. 

The Council arranged for the Medal and Premium to be 
presented and the Wilde Lecture to be delivered on Monday, 
April 22nd, 1901. 



Annual Report of the Council, xxxvii 

William George Armstrong was born in Newcastle on 
November 26th, 1810, where his father was a well-to-do com 
merchant He was trained for the legal profession, and until 
1847 was partner with a firm of solicitors. Through his marriage 
with Margaret Ramshaw, he was brought into contact with 
engineers like her father, and he soon grew to be much interested 
in their many experiences and new problems, until at last, seeing 
sufficient prospect of success, he, in company with Potter, Donkin, 
Cruddas, and Lambert, founded what has grown to be the 
Elswick Works. His first attention was directed to hydraulic 
machinery, which he greatly improved, and to this day his firm 
has retained its early lead in the manufacture of these appliances. 
Shortly afterwards everybody's attention was riveted on our short- 
comings in the Crimean war, and Armstrong set about improving 
our artillery, which then consisted of bronze or cast-iron smooth- 
bore guns. He copied the sporting guns of the day, both as 
regards rifling and coiled construction, and added his well-known 
breech-loading device. His claims to the invention of this type 
of gun were strongly attacked at the time, until he made a 
present of it to the nation, for which act he was rewarded with a 
knighthood and appointed Director of Rifled Ordnance, with 
permission to remain partner in his own firm. This arrangement 
was also violently attacked, and in 1862 he voluntarily retired 
from the official position and devoted his time and energy to his 
own works and to scientific researches. He was a firm believer 
in the superiority of guns over armour, and increased their 
weight up to 110 tons. By that time, however, our naval and 
military departments had given up the Armstrong breech block, 
reverting to muzzleloaders, and about the same time mild steel 
had been invented, so that the coiling of wrought iron bars for 
gun barrels has now been quite given up, and thus two of the 
principal inventions with which Armstrong's name will always be 
associated are things of the past. 

The varied successes of Lord Armstrong were not due 
entirely to qualities which go to make a good business man, but 
partly also to a power which he possessed, in a marked degree. 



xxxviii Annual Report of the Council, 

of making himself acquainted with mechanical principles and 
details. In fact, he seems to have prepared himself for each 
invention by a careful study of the subject, both theoretically and 
experimentally ; it is therefore not surprising to find that, in spite 
of his busy life, he devoted much time to scientific researches. 
Even as far back as 1840, he experimented on the production of 
electricity by means of jets of steam, and made some interesting 
discoveries, which have, however, led to no commercial develop- 
ments. He received many honours, not only from our own 
learned societies, but also from foreign countries. 

In 1887 he was created Baron Armstrong of Cragside. He 
died 27th December, 1900. Lord Armstrong had been an 

honorary member of our Society since 1887. 

C. E. S. 

Charles Hermite was born in 182 1. Already, whilst a 
student at the !lfccole Polytechnique, he entered into a mathe- 
matical correspondence with the veteran Jacobi, and received 
from the latter the most flattering encouragement. His earlier 
researches had reference to the theory of algebraic forms, and he 
took part with Cay ley and Sylvester in the development of the 
theory of invariants ; he also occupied himself with the theory 
of elliptic and other cognate functions. He became a member 
of the Institut de France in 1856, and in 1862 was appointed 
Professor in the Ecole Normale. He subsequently occupied 
posts in the Ecole Polytechnique and in the Sorbonne; and 
greatly developed and modernised the teaching of advanced 
mathematics in these institutions. Among his later achieve- 
ments may be mentioned the proof that the number e is 
transcendental. That e is irrational had long been known ; but 
the definite proof that it is not an algebraical number at all, /.^., 
that it cannot be the root of any algebraic equation with integral 
co-efficients, was reserved for Hermite. This paved the way for 
Lindemann's demonstration of the transcendental nature of x, 
which appears to be the last word of mathematics on the secular 
problem of " squaring the circle." Hermite's scientific activity 



Annual Report of the Council, xxxix 

continued even in advanced age, and his personality and his 

example were held in peculiar veneration by the present brilliant 

school of French mathematicians. He was a foreign member of 

the Royal Society, and had been an honorary member of our 

own Society since 1892. 

H. L. 

Sir William Cunliffe Brooks was born on September 
30th, 18 1 9. He was educated at Rugby, under Dr. Arnold, and 
at St. John's College, Cambridge. He read for the Bar, and 
was called in 1847. Later in life he entered Parliament, repre- 
senting East Cheshire from 1869 till 1885, and North Cheshire 
from 1886 till 1890. In 1886 he was created a baronet, and, in 
addition, was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Lancashire, 
and a magistrate for Cheshire and for the city of Manchester. 
He became the first president of the Manchester Bankers' 
Institute on its foundation in 1895. The bank of which he was 
the head was then the only private bank surviving in Manchester, 
and, as is known, after three generations in private hands, it has 
since ceased to be privately owned. Sir William had been a 
member of the Literary and Philosophical Society sinde January 
23rd, 1844; and at the time of his death, on June 9th, 1900, 
shared with only two other ordinary members the distinction of a 
membership in the Society of over half a century. 

Richard Copley Christie, M.A.Oxon. (1855), Hon. LL.D. 
Vict. (1895), was a member of this Society from 1854 until his 
death, which occurred on January 9th, 1901. He was born at 
Lenton, near Nottingham, in 1830, was educated at Lincoln 
College, Oxford, where Mark Pattison was at the time tutor, a small 
college which has supplied Manchester with a Bishop, a Chan- 
cellor of the Diocese, a Principal of Owens College, and a 
Professor of Philosophy, and more than one High Master of the 
Grammar School. In 1853 Mr. Christie obtained a first class in 
Law and History, and the next year was appointed Professor of 
History in Owens College, to the duties of which post he shortly 



xl Annual Report of the Council. 

added those of Professor of Political Economy. His academic 
work was naturally much hindered hy the claims of a rapidly 
growing practice at the Chancery Bar; and it would be 
impossible to speak of his teaching as founding a school in 
either of his subjects, in the sense in which this might be said 
of his immediate successors, Dr. Ward and Professor Jevons, or 
of those who have followed them. But his lectures were 
thoroughly scholarly both in form and substance; he held up 
before his pupils a high standard of clearness, accuracy, and 
stimulating force. In 1886 he resigned the Professorship of 
History and Political Economy, and accepted that of Juris- 
prudence, in which he was, before long, succeeded by Professor 
Bryce. In his career as a Chancery barrister he was distinguished 
for his sensitive personal and professional honour, and was 
recognised for many years as one of the leaders ot the local bar. 
For twenty-one years, from 1872 onwards, Mr. Christie was 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Manchester, and was by common 
repute quite exceptionally fitted to discharge the delicate duties 
of the office. Much time was also devoted to the service of 
Owens College on its Council, and the institution of the 
body of associates was due to Mr. Christie's suggestion. 
After his removal to London he took an active interest in 
the Royal HoUoway College. As one of the three residuary 
legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, he took very great 
pains to expend the large sums placed at their disposal for the 
good of the community, and it would be difficult to draw up a 
complete list of their benefactions. In the same capacity he 
acted for ten years as the Chairman of Sir Joseph Whitworth 
and Co., Limited. But, apart from his professional work, Mr. 
Christie's taste turned mainly to bibliography. It was the 
accomplished printer as much as the religious reformer whom 
he honoured in his admirable work on Etienne Dolet, the Martyr 
of the Renaissance ; though not a few passages show that passion 
for freedom and justice breaking out, which was usually strictly 
repressed. The work, published in 1880, was translated into 
French, and re-edited with many additions in 1899. 



Annual Report of the Council, xli 

Mr. Christie was President of the Chetham Society from 
1884 till his death, of the Record Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire from 1883 to 1895, and of the Library Association in 
1889. 

Mr. Christie's own library was remarkably choice, containing 
many rarities, especially of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. By the generosity of Mrs. Christie this library, though 
left to her for her lifetime, will shortly be handed over to the 
Owens College, where it will be housed in the beautiful buildings 
due to Mr. Christie's munificence, and where it will be accessible 
to all serious students. A. S. W. 

Daniel John Leech, J.P., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.C.P., was the 
second son of the late Mr. Thomas Leech, of Manchester, and 
was born at Urmston in 1840. 

His early scientific tastes led him to choose medicine as a 
profession, and after the usual period of apprenticeship, and a 
distinguished career at the Chatham Street Medical School, he 
became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1861, 
when only 2 1 years of age. Further periods of clinical study were 
passed in Paris and London, and in 1862 he was appointed 
Demonstrator of Anatomy at the Manchester Medical School, 
then removed to Pine Street. 

After two years' work at anatomy. Dr. Leech settled down 
in general practice in Stretford Road, Manchester, first as 
partner, then as successor, to the late Mr. Richmond. In 1869 
he married the eldest daughter of the late Mr. James Maclaren, 
of Whalley Range. While immersed in the cares of a large 
general practice Dr. Leech found time and energy to engage 
successfully in further study, and in 1868 he obtained the 
degree of M.B. of the London University, with first-class honours. 
In 1876 he took the degree of M.D. ; in 1875 he was admitted 
a member, and in 1882 elected a Fellow, of the Royal College of 
Physicians of London. 

Dr. Leech was an active worker in connection with local 
medical institutions, and took a leading part in such societies as 



xlii Annual Report of the Council, 

the Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association. He produced 
several very able and valuable reports upon the health of 
Manchester and Salford, more especially in relation to the 
pollution of the rivers, the contamination of the air by smoke, 
the adulteration of food, and the housing of the working classes. 

In medical societies Dr. Leech took an active part, and 
especially in the British Medical Association and its Lancashire 
and Cheshire Branch. In 1877 he was one of the general^ 
secretaries for the annual meeting of the Association in 
Manchester, and was afterwards President of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Branch. In later years his interest was chiefly in 
the Pharmacological and Therapeutical Section, of which he was 
Vice-President in 1887, and President in 1897 at the annual 
meeting in Montreal, and for some years he was Chairman of 
the Therapeutic Committee. 

In 1884 he became a member of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society ; he was also a member of the Royal 
Medical and Chirurgical Society, of the London and Manchester 
Pathological Societies, and an Honorary Member of the 
Pharmaceutical Society, 

In 1897 Dr. Leech was appointed a justice of the peace 
for the city of Manchester. 

Much of Dr. Leech's time and energy was devoted to the 
Owens College and the Victoria University. Appointed at first 
Joint Lecturer in the Owens College in 1876, he became the 
first Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in 188 1, 
and rapidly organised one of the finest Museums of Materia 
Medica in this country, and introduced experimental Pharma- 
cology into his teaching at a time when the importance of that 
subject was but little recognised in our English Medical Schools. 
In the development of all departments of the Owens College 
he took a deep and often generous interest, as a member of the 
Senate, Council, or Court of Governors. 

In the formation of the Victoria University he bore a leading 
part, and especially in the organisation of the Medical Faculty. 
For many years a member of the Council and the Court, a 



Annual Report of the CoundL xliii 

chairman of Convocation, Pro-Vice-Chancellor and the repre- 
sentative of the University on the General Medical Council, 
he has had an influential voice in guiding the policy of the 
growing University and instituting a high standard for its degrees. 
In recognition of his services he received, in 1895, ^^ degree of 
D.Sc. of the Victoria University, honoris causd. 

As a member of the General Medical Council, his special 
knowledge was of the greatest value upon the Pharmacopoeia 
Committee, and he devoted much time and work to the revision 
of the " British Pharmacopoeia," the new edition of which, issued 
in 1898, owes much of its excellence to his care and judgment. 
The value of his work was soon recognised by his colleagues, by 
his appointment to the chairmanship of the Committee in 
succession to the late Sir Richard Quain. 

Dr. Leech contributed a large number of papers to medical 
literature, the most important being a series of papers upon the 
medicinal action and uses of the various Nitrites ^ upon this 
subject he delivered the Croonian Lectures, in 1893, before the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. 

His death took place on July 2nd, 1900. R.B.W. 

Sir John William Maclure was born on April 22nd, 
1835. From an early age he took part in the public life of 
Manchester, being a sidesman of the Cathedral at eighteen, and 
a member of the governing body of the Royal Infirmary at 
twenty-two. He acted as Secretary to the Relief Committee at 
the time of the Cotton Famine in Lancashire, due to the American 
Civil War, and, as is well-known, displayed conspicuous ability in 
that position. In later years he was concerned with numerous 
important business undertakings at home and abroad. He repre- 
sented the Stretford division of Lancashire in the House of 
Commons from 1886 till his death, which occurred on January 
28th, 1901. He assisted in the formation of the Manchester 
Natural History Society, since dissolved, and had been a member 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society from January 25th, 
1859. The distinction of a baronetcy was conferred upon him 
in 1897. 



xliv Treasurer's Accounts, 

MANCHESTER LITERARY ANE 

H)r. J* J* Ashworth^ Treasurer^ in Account with thx 

i;s.d. ;{;s. d 

To Cash m hand, April ist, 1900 a8 15 3 

To Members' Subscriptions : — 

Half Subscriptions, 1899-1900, 4 at ;Ci' IS, od. 440 

_», . . M 1900-01, 6 „ „ 660 

Subscriptions :— 1894-95, i at ;^2. as. od 320 

„ 1895.96, I „ „ 220 

„ 1896.97, 1 „ „ .. 220 

„ 1897-98, 2 „ „ 440 

,, 1898-99, 4 „ „ 880 

,, 1899-1900, 10 „ „ .. .. 21 O O 

„ 1900-01,113 „ „ 237 6 o 

n 1901-02, I „ ,, 220 

289 16 O 

To Transfers from the Wilde Endowment Fund 78 7 o 

To Sale of Publications is t6 8 

To Sale of Field's Card Catalogue of Zoological Literature, 1896-8 513 

To Dividends : — 

Natural History Fund 58 8 10 

Joule Memorial Fund 772 

To Income Tax Refunded :— 65 16 o 

Natural History Fund 2 5 it 

Joule Memorial Fund 064 

2 12 •: 



A86 4 5 
1901. — April I. To Cash in Williams Deacon's Bank, and in hand .. .. .. .. £-^ 5 i 

WILDE ENDOWMENT 
£ s. d. 

To Balance from 1899-1900 .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 124 5 11 

To Dividends on ^7,500 Gas Light and Coke Company's Ordinary Stock 314 17 6 

To Remission of Income Tax, 1900 13 o o 

To Bank Interest .. .. .. .. .. .. .. i 19 11 



190T. — April I. To Cash in Manchester and Liverpool District Bank >C85 i 8 

NATURAL HISTORV 

;^ S. d. 

To Dividends on ;Ci»225 Great Western Railway Company's Stock 58 8 10 

To Remission of Income Tax, 1900.. .. 2 5 ii 

To Balance against this Fund, April 1st, 1901 .. .. .. .. .. 58 2 9 

;gii8 17 6 

JOULE MEMORIAL 

j£ s. d. 

To Balance, April ist, 1900 31 a 8 

To Dividends on ^{^258 Loan to Manchester Corporation 772 

To Remission of Income lax, 1900 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 064 

;g38 16 8 



DALTON TOMB 

£ s. d. 

To Balance, April 1st, 1^00 3000 

I'o Donations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 121 

To Bank Interest 065 

lyi 8 6 



Treasurer's Accounts, xlv 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Society^ from tst Aprils igoo, to ^ist March, igoi, (Jr. 



. ^, ^ £ s. A, £ s. d. 

By Charges on Property :— 

Chief Rent (Income Tax deducted) 12 6 5 

Income Tax on Chief Rent o 12 11 

Insurance against Fire .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 17 6 

Repairs to Building, &c 4187 

By House Expenditure : — 31 15 5 

Coals, Gas, Electric Light, "Water, Wood, &c 24 10 3 

Tea, Coffee, &c,, at Meetings 14 10 3 

Cleaning, Sweeping Chimneys, &c 3 18 8J 

By Administrative Charges : — 42 19 2J 

Housekeeper . . .... . . . . . . 53 6 o 

Postages, and Carriage of Parcels and of " Memoirs " 35 IS 2 

Stationery, Cheques, Receipts, and Engrossing . . . . . . . . . . 6149^ 

Printing Circulars, Reports, &;c. 1839 

Miscellaneous Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2010 

By Publishing:— 116 o 6 J 

Honorarium for Editing the " Memoirs" (2nd moiety for 1 899-1900) .. 25 o o 

Printing ** Memoirs and Proceedings " (less amount charged to Joule Fund) . . 142 o o 

Illustrations for ** Memoirs and Proceedings" 11 19 o 

Binding "Memoirs" .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. 200 

By Library ;— 180 19 o 

Books and Periodicals (except on Natural History) 38 o 7 

Library Appliances (Catalogue Cards) 100 

By Natural History Fimd : — 39 o 7 

(Item shown in the Balance Sheet of this Fund) . . 36 5 7 

By Joule Memorial Fund :— 

(Item shown in the Balance Sheet of this Fund) 4190 

By Balance at Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5 i 

„ ,, in Treasurer's hands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 o o 

3+ 5 I 

;^486 4 5 

FUND, 1900— 1901. 

£ s. d. 

By Assistant Secretary's Salary, April, 1900, to March, 1901 . . 

By Maintenance of Society's Library :— 

Binding and Repairing Books 71 17 o 

Periodicals to complete sets .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 076 



By Decorating and Repairs to Society's Premises 
By Gold Medal and Engraving same . . 

By "Wilde Premium for Selected Memoir . . 

By Honorarium to Lecturer 

By Transfers to Society's Funds 

By Balance at Bank, April ist, 1901 



£ 
X38 


s. 



72 


4 


30 


T 


18 


19 


IS 


15 


IS 


IS 


78 


7 


8s 


1 



A54 



FUND, 1900— 1901. 

£ s. d. 

By Balance against, April I St, 1900 82 11 ti 

By Natural History Books and Periodicals 3^ S 7 



;gii8 17 6 



FUND, 1900— 1901. 



£ s. d. 



ay Printing J. H. Grindley's paper on ** The Thermodynamical Properties of Superheated 

Steam, and the Dryness of Saturated Steam " 419 

By Balance, April I St, 1 901 33 17 



FUND, 1900-1901. 

3y Printing and Postages 
3y Balance at Bank 



;£38 


16 


2 





31 


s. 

4 
3 


d. 
10 
8 


£2r 


8 


6 



xlvi Treasurer's Accounts, 



Note. — The Treasurer's Accounts of the Session 1900- 
190 1 of which the foregoing pages are summaries, 
have been endorsed as follows : 



April 17th, 1 90 1. Audited and found correct. 

We have also seen, at this date, the certificates of the following 
Stocks held in the name of the Society : — ;^i,225 Great Western Railway 
Company 5% Consolidated Preference Stock, Nos. 12,293, 12,294, and 12,323 ; 
£2.^% Twenty years' loan to the Manchester Corporation, redeemable 25th 
March, 1914 (No. 1564) ; ;^7,5oo Gas Light and Coke Company Ordinary 
Stock (No. 6389) ; and the deeds of the Natural History Fund, of the Wilde 
Endowment Fund, those conveying the land on which the Society's premises 
stand, and the Declaration of Trust. 



fCHARLES H. LEES. 
(Signed) \ 

(.THOMAS THORP. 



The Council xlvii 

THE COUNCIL 
AND MEMBERS 

OF THE 

MANCHESTER 
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

( Corrected to July 31st ^ igou) 



CHARLES BAILEY, F.L.S. 

OSBORNE REYNOLDS, M.A., LL.D.,.F.R.S. 

HORACE LAMB, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

J. E. KING, M.A. 

C. E. STROMEYER, M.Inst.CE. 

<§erretarie0. 

FRANCIS JONES, F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. W. FLUX, M.A. 

^rjeasuter. 

J. J. ASH WORTH. 

librarian. 

VV. E. HOYLE, M.A, M.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

Of ihz dctinril. 

J. COSMO MELVILL, M.A, F.L.S. 

HAROLD B. DIXON, M.A., F.R.S. 

FRANCIS NICHOLSON, F.Z.S. 

R. L. TAYLOR, F.C.S. 

F. J. FARADAY, F.L.S. 

CHARLES H. LEES, D.Sc. 



xlviii Ordinary Members, 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Date of Election. 

1870, Dec. 13. Angell, John, F.C.S., F.I. C. 6, Beaconsfield, Derby Roaa, 

WithingtoUi ManchesUr, 
1896, Jan. 31. Armstrong, Frank. The Rowans ^ Harbord' Grove y 

Harboro' Road^ A shton-on- Mersey ^ Cheshire. 
1895, Jan. 8. Armstrong, George B. Clarendon^ Sale, Cheshire. 

1887, Nov. 16. Ashworth, J. J. 47, Faulkner Street^ Manchester. 

1865, Nov. 14. Bailey, Charles, F.L.S. Ashfield, College Road, Whalley 
Range, Manchester, 

1888, Feb. 7. Bailey, Alderman Sir W. H. Sale Hall, Sale, Cheshire. 

1895, Jan. 8. Barnes, Charles L., M.A. 10, Nelson Street, Chorlton-on- 

Medlock, Manchester. 

1 894, Jan. 9. Beckett, J. Hampden, B. Sc. , F. C. S. Corbar Hall, Buxton. 

1896, April 14. Behrens, George B. The Acorns, 4, Oak Drive, Fallow- 

field, Manchester. 

1895, Mar. 5. Behrens, Gustav. Holly Royde, Withington, Manchester. 
1898, Nov. 29. Behrens, Walter L. 22, Oxford Street, Manchester. 
1868, Dec. 15. Bickham, Spencer H., F.L.S. Underdown, Ledbury. 

1896, April 14. Bindloss, James B. Elm Bank^ Eccles. Lanes. 
1896, April 28. Bolton, Herbert, P\R.S.E. The Museum. Bristol. 

1 86 1, Jan. 22. Bottomley, James, D.Sc, B.A., F,C.S. 220, Lower 

Broughton Road, Manchester,. 
1896, Oct. 6. Bowman, F. H., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. Mayfield, Knutsford, 

Cheshire, 
1896, Feb. 18. Bowman, George, M.D. S9A^Sl''etford Road, Old Traffbrd, 

Manchester. 
1875, Nov* ^6* Boyd, John. Barton House, Didsbury Parky Didsbury, 

Manchester. 

1889, Oct. 15. Bradley, Nathaniel, F.C.S. Sunnyside, Whalley Range, 

Manchester. 
1894, Mar. 6. Broadbent, G. H.,M. R.C.S. 8, Ardwick Green, Matte hester. 
1896, Nov. 17. Broderick, Lonsdale, F.C.A. Somerby, Wilmslow, 

Cheshire. 
1861, April 2. Brogden, Henry, F.G.S., M.I.Mech.E. Hale Lodge, 

Altrincham, Cheshire. 
1889, April 16. Brooks, Samuel Herbert. Slcuie House, Levenshulme, 

Manchester. 
i860, Jan. 24. Brothers, Alfred. \\T, Summerfield Crescent, Edgbastotiy 

Birmingham, 



Ordinary Members, xlix 

Date of Election. 

1886, April 6. Brown, Alfred, M.A., M.U. Sandycroft, Higher Brough- 

ton, Manchester. 
1846, Jan. 27. Browne, Henry, M.A. <Glas.), M.D. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. 

(Lond.), The Gahles^ Victoria Park, Manchester, 
1889, Jan. 8. Brownell, T. W., F.R.A.S. 64, Upper Brook Street, 

Manchester, 
1889, Oct. 15. Budenberg, C. F., M.Sc, M.I.Mech.E. Bowdon Lane, 

Marple, Cheshire, 
1872, Nov. 12. Burghardt, Charles Anthony, Ph.D. 35, Fountain Street, 

Manchester, 
1894, Nov. 13. Burton, William, F.C.S. The Hollies^ Clifton Junction. 

near Manchester, 



1899, Feb. 7. Chapman, D. L., B.A. Owens College^ Manchester, 

1895, April 30. Collett, Edward Pyemont. 7, Wilbraham Road, Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, Manchester, 

1884, Nov. 4. Corbett, Joseph. Town Hall, Salford, 

1895, April 30. Cornish, James Edward. Stone House, Alderley Edge, 
Cheshire, 

1859, Jan. 25. Coward, Edward, Assoc. Inst. C.E., M.I. Mech.E. Heather- 
lea, Bowdon y Cheshire, 

1899, Mar. 7. Crombie, Charles H., B.A. West Gate, Burford Road, 
Whalley Range, Manchester, 

1895, Nov. 12. Crossley, W. J., M.I.Mech.E. Openshaw, Manchester, 

1876, April 18. Cunliflfe, Robert Ellis. Croft, Ambleside, 



1853. April 19. Darbishire, Robert Dukinfield, B.A., F.S.A., i, St James* 
Square, Manchester. 

1895, April 9. Dawkins, W. Boyd, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of 
Geology. Owens College, Manchester, 

1894. Mar. 6. Del^pine, A. Sheridan, M.B,, B.Sc, Professor of Pathology. 
Owens College, Manchester. 

1887, Feb. 8. Dixon, Harold Bailey, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Che- 
mistry. Owens College, Manchester, 

1898, Oct. 18. Donovan, E. W., M.I.Mech.E. Hilton House, Prestwich, 
Lanes, 



1899, April II. Earle, Hardman A. 40, Oughton Road, Birkdale, Lanes, 



1883, Oct. 2. Faraday, F. J., F.L.S., F.S.S. Ramsay Lodge, Slade 
Lane, Levenshulme, Manchester, 



1 Ordinary Members, 

Date of Election. 

1900, April 24. Faiaday, Miss Lucy Winifred, M.A. Ramsay Lodge^ 

Slade LanCf Levenshulme^ Manchester. 
1897, Oct. 19. Faraday, W. Barnard, LL.B. Ramsay Lodge, Slade Lane, 

Levenshulmey Manchester. 
1900, Feb. 20. Flintoff, R. J. Haxby^ Crumpsall Lane, Crumpsall^ 

Manchester. 
1895, April 30. Flux, A. W., M.A., Professor of Political Economy. 

Owens College y Manchester. 
1897, Nov. 3a Freston, H. W. 6, 5/. Paul's Rocul, Kersal^ Manchester, 



1898, Nov. 29. Gamble, F. W., D.Sc. Owens College, Manchester. 
1900, Feb. 6. Goldthorpe, William. Brook House, Bumage Lane, 
Levenshulme, Manchester. 

1896, Nov. 17. Gordon, Rev. Alexander, M.A. Memorial Hall^ Albert 

Square, Manchester. 
1900, Oct. 16. Grindley, J. H., M.Sc. Owens College, Manchester. 

1897, Jan. 26. Grossmann, J., Ph.D. Harpurhey Chemical IVorks, 

Harpurhey, Manchester. 
1875, Feb. 9. Gwyther, Reginald F., M.A., Fielden Lecturer in Mathe- 
matics. Owens College, Manchester. 



1890, Feb. 18. Harker, Thomas. Brook House, Fallowfield, Manchester. 
1895, Nov. 12. Hartog, Philippe Joseph, B.Sc, F.C.S., Demonstrator in 

Chemistry. Owens College, Manchester. 
1890, Mar. 4. Henderson, H. A. Eastbourne House, Chorlton Rocui, 

Manchester. 
1889, Jan. 8. Hey wood, Charles J. Chaseley, Pendleton^ Manchester. 

1895, Mar. 5 Hickson, Sydney J., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of 

Zoology. Owens College, Manchester. 
1884, Jan. 8. ' Hodgkinson, Alexander, M.B., B.Sc. 1%, St. John Street, 
Manchester. 

1898, Nov. 29. Hopkinson, Alfred, K.C., M.A., LL.D., Principal of 

Owens College. Fairfield, Victoria Park, Manchester. 

1896, Nov. 3. Hopkinson, Edward, D.Sc, M.InstC.E. Oakleigh, 

Timperley, Cheshire. 
1889, Oct. 15. Hoyle, William Evans, M.A., F.R.S.E., Director of the 

Manchester Museum. Owens College, Manchester. 
1900, Oct. 16. Hutton, R. S., M.Sc. Owens College, Manchester. 

1899, Oct. 17. Huxley, George, M.LMech.E. 20, Mount Street, Man- 

chester. 

1899, Oct. 17, Ingleby, Joseph, M.LMech.E. Ingle side, Marple Bridge, 
near Stockport. 



Ordinary Members, H 

Date of Election. 

1870, Nov* I. Johnson, William H., B.Sc. 26, Lever Street^ Manchester, 
1896, Oct. 20. Jones, A. Emrys, M.D. 10, St, John Street^ Manchester, 
1878, Nov. 26. Jones, Francis, F.R.S.E., F.C.S. Manchester Grammar 
School, 



1886, Jan. 12. Kay, Thomas. Moorfield^ Stockport^ Cheshire, 

1891, Dec. I. King, John Edward, M,A., High Master, Manchester 

Grammar School, 
1895, Nov. 12. Kirkman, W. W. The Grange^ Timperley, Cheshire, 



1893, Nov. 14. Lamb, Horace, M.A,, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 6, Wilbraham Road, Fallowfield, Manchester. 
1899, Feb. 7. Lawrence, W.T., B. A., Ph.D. Ovtens College, Manchester, 
1895, Nov. 12. Lees, Charles Herbert, D.Sc. Demonstrator in Physics. 
Owens College, Manchester, 

1895, ^^^* S' Levinstein, Ivan. Hawkesmoor, Wilbraham Road, Fallow- 

field, Manchester, 
1857, Jan. 27. Longridge, Robert Bewick, M.LMech.E. Yew Tree House, 
Tabley, Knutsford, Cheshire, 

1896, Nov. 3. Lynde, James Henry, M.InstCE. Buckland, Ashfon-on- 

Mersey, Cheshire, 



1898, Nov. 29. McConnel, J. W., M.A. Wellbank, Prestwich, Lanes, 
1866, Nov. 13. McDougall, Arthur, B.Sc, Fallowfield House, Fallowfield, 

Manchester. 
1875, Jan. 26. Mann, J. Dixon, MD., F,R.C.P. (Lond.), Professor of 

Medical Jurisprudence at Owens College. 16, St. John 

Street, Manchester, 
1896, Oct. 20. Massey, Leonard F. Openshaw, Manchester, 
1864, Nov. I. Mather, William, M.P,, M.InstCE., M.LMech.E. Iron 

Works, Salford, 
1873, Mar. 18. Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S. Brook House^ 

Prestwich, Lanes, 
1896, Nov, 3. Milligan, William, M.D, Westboume, Wilmslow Road, 

Rusholme, Manchester, 
1881, Oct. 18. Mond, Ludwig, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.CS. Winningtoti Hall, 

Northwich, Cheshire, 
1894, Feb. 6. Mond, Robert Ludwig, M. A., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. Winning- 
ton Hall, Notthwich, Cheshire, 

1899, Mar. 7. Morris, Edgar F., M.A., F.CS. Grey House, Harrington 

Road, Altrincham, Cheshire, 



Hi Ordinary Members, 

Date o/Elictim, 

1873, Mar. 4. Nicholson, Francis, F.Z.S. 84, Major Street ^ Manchesler, 
1900, April 3. Nicolson, John T., D.Sc. 7, Athol Road, Alexandra Park^ 

Manchester, 
1889, April 16. Norbury, George. Hillside, Prestwich Park, Prestwich, 

Lanes. 



1884, April 15: Okell, Samuel, F.R.A.S. Overley, Langham Road, 

Bffivdon, Cheshire, 

1895, Nov. 12. Pennington, James Dixon, B.A., M.Sc, 254, Oxford Road, 

Manchester, 

1892, Nov. 15. Perkin, W. H., jun., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Organic 

Chemistry. Owens College, Manchester, 

1885, Nov. 17. Phillips, Henry Harcourt, F.CS. 9, Crawford Avenue, 

Bolton, Lanes, 

1900, Feb. 20. Ragdale, J. R. The Beeches, Whitefield, near Manchester, 
1888, Feb. 21. R^e, Alfred. Ph.D., F.CS. 15, Mauldeth Road, Withing- 

ton, Manchester, 
1869, Nov. 16. Reynolds, Osborne, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

Professor of Engineering, Owens College. 19, Lady barn 

Road, Failoivfield, Manchester, 
1880, Mar. 23. Roberts, D. Lloyd, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.C.P. (Lond.) 

Ravenswood, Broughton Park, Manchester, 
1864, Dec. 27. Robinson, John, M.Inst.CE., M.I.Mech.E. Westwood 

Hall, Leek, Staffs, 

1897, Oct. 19. Rothwell, William Thomas. HecUh Brewery, Newton 

Heath, near Manchester, 

1893, Mar. 21. Schill C H. 117, Portland Street, Manchester, 

1896, Nov. 17. Schmitz, Hermann Emil, B.A., B.Sc. Manchester Gram- 

mar School, 
1842, Jan. 25. Schunck, Edward, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.CS. JCersal, 

Manchester, 
1873, Nov. 18. Schuster, Arthur, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Professor of 

Physics. Kent House, Victoria Park, Manchester. 

1898, Jan. 25. Schwabe, Louis. Hart Hill, Eccles Old Road, Peudleton, 

Manchester, 

1895, Nov. 12. Shearer, Arthur. 36, Demesne Road, Alexandra Park, 
Manchester, 

1890, Nov. 4. Sidcbotham, Edward John, M. A., M.B., M.R.CS. -ffr^j- 
dene^ Bowdon, Cheshire, 

1890, Jan. 21. Sidebotham, James Nasmyth, Assoc. M.Inst. CE. Park- 
field, Groby Place, Altrincham, Cheshire. 



Ordinary Members, liii 

Date of Election, 

1895, Nov. 12. Southern, Frank, B.Sc. 6, Park Avenue, TimperUy, 

Cheshire, 

1896, Feb. 18. Spence, David PUu Ridge^ Buxton, 

1896, April 14. Stanton, Thomas E., M.Sc, Professor of Engineering. 

University College^ Bristol, 
1894, Jan. 9- Stevens, Marshall, F.S.S. \%, Exchange Street, Manchester, 
1894, Nov. 13. Stirrup, Mark, F.G.S. High Thorn, Stamford Road, 

Bowdon, Cheshire, 

1897, Nov. 30. Stromeyer, C. E., M.InstC.E. Steam Users* AssocicUion, 

9, Mount Street, Albert Square, Manchester. 



1895, April 9. Tatton, Reginald A., M.Inst.CE., Engineer to the 

Mersey and Irwell Joint Committee. 44, Mosley Street, 

Manchester, 
1893, Nov. 14. Taylor, R. L., F.C.S., F.I.C. Central School. Whitworth 

Street, Manchester, 
1873, April 15. Thomson, William, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., F.I.C. Royal 

Institution, Manchester, 

1896, Jan. 21. Thorburn, William, M.D., B.Sc. 2, St, Petet^s Square, 

Manchester, 
1896, Jan. 21. Thorp, Thomas. Moss Bank^Whitefield, near Manchester, 
1899, Oct. 31. Thorpe, Jocelyn F., Ph.D., Demonstrator in Organic 

Chemistry. Owens College, Manchester, 
1899, Oct. 17. Todd, W. H. Greenfield, Flixton, near Manchester, 



1873, Nov. 18. Waters, Arthur William, F.L.S., F.G.S. Sunny Lea, 
Davos Dorf, Switzerland, 

1892, Nov. 15. Weiss, F. Ernest, B.Sc, F.L.S., Professor of Botany, 
Owens College. 4, Clifton Avenue, Fallowfield, Man- 
chester, 

1895, April 9, Whitehead, James. Lindfield, Fulshaw Park, Wilms low, 

Cheshire, 
1859, Jan. 25. Wilde, Henry, D.Sc, F.R.S. The Hurst, Alder ley Edge, 

Cheshire, 
1859, April 19. Wilkinson, Thomas Read. Vale Bank, Knutsford, 

Cheshire, 

1888, April 17. Williams, Sir E. Leader, M.Inst.CE., M.I.Mech.E., 

Spring Gardens, Manchester, 

1896, Dec. I. Wilson, George, D.Sc. Owens College, Manchester, 

1889, April 16. Wilson, Thomas B. Holly Vale House, Mellor, near 

Marple, Cheshire, 
i860, April 17. WooUey, George Stephen. Victoria Bridge, Salford, 



liv Ordinary Members, 

Date of Election, 

1863, Nov. 17. Worthington, Samuel Barton, M.Inst..C.E., MJ.Mech.E. 

Mill Bank^ Bawdon, and 37, Princess Street, Manchester, 
1865, Feb. 21. Worthington, Thomas, F.R.I.B.A., 46, Brown Street, 

Manchester. 
1895, Jan. 8. Worthington, Wm. Barton, B.Sc.. M.Inst.CE. 2, Wilton 

Polygon, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, 
1897, Oct. 19. Wyatt, Charles H. Chelford, Cheshire, 



N.B, — Of the above list the following have compounded for their 
subscriptions, and are therefore life members : — 

Bailey, Charles, F.L.S. 
Bradley, Nathaniel, F.C.S. 
Brogden, Henry, F.G.S. 
Johnson, William H., B.Sc. 
Worthington, Wm. Barton, B.Sc. 



Honorary Members, Iv 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Date of Election. 

1892, April 26. Abney, Sir W. de W., K.C.B., D.Sc, F.R.S. Rathmore 

Lodge ^ Bolton Gardens South, South Kensington, London, 

S.W, 
1892, April 26. Amagat, E. H., For. Mem. R.S., Corn Memb. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Honorary Professor, Faculty des Sciences, 

Lyon. 34, Rue St. Lambert^ Paris, 
1894, April 17. Appell, Paul, Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor of Theoretical 

Mechanics. Faculti des Sciences, Paris,. 
1892, April 26. Ascherson, Paul F. Aug., Professor of Botany. Universitdt^ 

Berlin. 
1889, April 30. Avebury, John Lubbock, Lord, D.C.L. LL.D. F.R.S. 

High ElmSy Down, Kent, 



1892, April 26. Baeyer, Adolf von, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Chemistry. 

I, Arcisstrasse^ Munich. 
1896, Feb. 9. Baker, Sir Benjamin, K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S. 2, Queen 

Square Place^ Westminster, London, S. W. 
1886, Feb. 9. Baker, John Gilbert, F.R.S., F.L.S. 3, Cumberland 

Road, Kew, 
1895, April 30. Beilstein, F., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. 8th Line, 

N. 17, St. Petersburg, PV.O, 
1886, Feb. 9. Berthelot, Marcellin, For. Mem. R. S. , Membre de Tlnstitut, 

Professor of Chemistry,Secr^taire perp^tuel de 1* Academic 

des Sciences. Paris. 
1892, April 26. Boltzmann, Ludwig, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Physics. 

K K. C/m'versitdt,. Vienna* 
1886, Feb. 9. Buchan, Alexander, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

42, Heriot Row^ Edinburgh, 



1888, April 17. Cannizzaro, Stanislao, For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. 

Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Chemistry. Reaie 
Universithy Rome, 

1889, April 30. Carruthers, William, F.R.S., F.L.S. \^, Vermont Road, 

Norwood, London, SM, 



Ivi Honorary Members, 

Date of Election, 

1866, Oct. 30. Clifton, Robert Bellamy, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy. 3, Bardwell Road, 
Banbury Road^ Oxford, 

1887, April 19. Cornu, Marie Alfred, For. Mem. R.S., Membre de 
rinstitut. Professor of Physics, ^cole Poly technique^ 
Paris. 

1892, April 26. Curtius,TheoHor, Professor of Chemistry. Universitdt^KieL 



1892, April 26. Darboux, Gaston, Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor of 
Geometry, Faculty des Sciences, Secretaire perp^tuel de 
TAcad^mie des Sciences. 36, Rue Gay Lussac, Paris. 

1894, April 17. Debus, H., Ph.D., F.R.S. 4, Schlangenweg^ Cassel^ 

HesseUt Germany. 

1888, April 17. Dewalque, Gustave, Professor of Geology. Universiti^ 

Liige, 
1900, April 24. Dewar James, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Fullerian 

Professor of Chemistry. Royal Inslilution^ Albemarle 

Street^ London^ W, 
1892, April 26. Dohrn, Dr. Anton, For. Mem. R.S. Zoologische StUtton^ 

Naples. 
1892, April 26. Dyer, Sir W. T. Thistelton, K.C.M.G., CLE,, M.A., 

F.R.S., Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew^ 

1892, April 26. Edison, Thomas Alva. Orange, N.J.^ U.S.A. 

1895, April 30. Elster, Julius, Ph. D. 6, Lessingstrasse^ Wolfenbiitteh 
1900, April 24. Ewing, James Alfred, M.A. , F. R. S. , Professor of Mechanism 

and Applied Mechanics. Langdale Lodge y Cambridge, 

1889, April 30. Far low, W. G., Professor of Botany. Harvard College y 

Cambridge y Mass.^ U.S. A, 
1900, April 24. Forsyth, Andrew Russell, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., Sadler ian 

Professor of Pure Mathematics. Trinity College, Cam- 

bridge. 
1889, April 30. Foster, Sir Michael, K.C.B.. M.P., M.A , M.D., LL.D., 

Sec. R.S., Professor of Physiology Trinity College ^ 

Cambridge, 
1892, April 26. Fiirbringer, Max, Professor of Anatomy. Grossherz, 

Universitdtf Jena, 

1892, April 26. Gegenbaur, Carl, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Anatomy. 
57, Leopolds trasse J Heidelberg. 

1900, April 24. Geikie, James, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Murchison Pro- 
fessor of Geology and Mineralogy. Kilmoriey Colinton 
Road, Edinburgh. 



Honorary Members, Ivii 

Date of Election. * 

1895, April 30. Geitel, Hans. 6, Lessingstrassty Wolfenbuttel. 

1892, April 26. Gibbs, J. Willard, For. Mem, R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Professor of Mathematical Physics. Yale 

University i New Haven ^ U.S.A. 
1894, April 17. Glaisher, J. W. L., ScD., F.R.S., Lecturer in- Mathematics. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 
1894, April 17. Gouy, A., Professor of Physics. Faculty des Sciences y Lyons, 
1894, April 17. Guldberg, Cato M., Professor of Applied Mathematics. 

Christiania, Norway, 



1900, April 24. Haeckel, Ernst, Ph.D., Professor of Zoology. Zoologisches 

Institute Jena. 
1894, April 17. Harcourt, A. G. Vernon, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., 

Lee's Reader in Chemistry, Christ Church. Cowley 

Grange, Oxford, 
1894, April 17. Heaviside, Oliver, F.R.S. Bradley View, Newton Abbot, 

Devon, 
1892, April 26. Hill, G. W. West Nyack, N. V,, U.S.A. 
1888, April 17. Hittorf, Johann Wilhelm, Professor of Physics. Polytech- 

nicum, MUnster. 
1892, April 26. Hoff, J. van't, Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., Professor of 

. Chemistry. 2, Uhlandstrasse, Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
1892, April 26. Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, G.C.S.L, C.B., D.C.L., 

F.R.S.. Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). The Camp, 

Sunningdale, Berks. 
1869, Jan. 12. Huggins, Sir William, K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). 90, 

Upper Tulse Hill, Brixton, London, S. W. 
1851, April 29. Kelvin, William Thomson, Lord, G.C.V.O., M.A., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., For. Assoc. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.). Netherhall, Largs, Ayrshire. 
1892, April 26. Klein, Felix, Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Mathematics. 3, Wilhelm 

Weber Strasse^ Gottingen. 
1894, April 17. Konigsberger, Leo, Professor of Mathematics. Universitdt, 

Heidelberg. 



1895, April 30. Lacaze-Duthiers, F. J. Henri de. For. Mem. R.S., Membre 
de rinstitut, Professor of Zoolc^ and Comparative 
Anatomy. 7, Rue de I Estrapade, Paris, 

1892, April 26. Ladenburg, A., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. 3, Kaiser 
Wilhelm Strasse^ Bteslau, 



Iviii Honorary Members, 

Date of Election. 

1887, April 19, Langley, S. P., For. Mem. R.S. Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, U.S.A. 
1892, April 26. Liebermann, C, Professor of Chemistry. 29, Matthai- 

Kirch Strasse, Berlin. 
1887, April 19. Lockyer, Sir J. Norman, K.C.B., F.RS., Corr. Memb. 

Insi. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). Science School, Kensington, 

lAmdon, S.W. 
1900, April 24. Lorentz, Henrik Anton, Professor of Physics, Hooigrcuht, 

48, Leyden. 



1892, April 26. Marshall, Alfred, M.A., Professor of Political Economy. 

Balliol Croft, Madingley Rocul, Cambridge. 
1892, April 26. Mascart, E. E. N., For. Mem. R.S., Membre de I'lnstitut, 

Professor at the College de France. 176, Rue de 

r University, Paris. 
1889, April 30. Mendel^eff, D., Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., University, St. 

Petersburg. 
1895, April 30. Mittag-Leffler, Gosta, D.C.L. (Oxon.), For. Mem. R.S., 

Professor of Mathematics. Djursholm, Stockholm. 
1892, April 26. Moissan, H., Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor of the Faculty 

des Sciences ^ la Sorbonne. 7, Ktu Vauquelin, Paris. 
1894, April 17. Murray, Sir John, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Challenger Ij>dge, Wardie, Edinburgh, 



1894, April 17. Neumayer, Professor G., For. Mem. R.S., Director of the 

Seewarte. Hamburg, 
1887, April 19. Newcomb, Simon, For. Mem. R.S., For. Assoc. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci«), ProfcFsor of Mathematics and Astronomy. 

/ohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, U.S.A. 



1894, April 17. Ostwald, W., Professor of Chemistry, 2/3, Linnistras^e, 
Leipsic. 



1899, April 25. Palgrave, R. H. Inglis, F.R.S., F.S.S. Belton, Great 

Yarmouth. 
1892, April 26. Perkin, W. H., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S, The 

Chestnuts, Sudbury, Harrow. 
1894, April 17. Pfeffer, Wilhelm, For. Mem. K.S., Professor of Botany. 

Botanisches Institut, Leipsic. 
1892, April 26. Poincar^, H., For. Mem. R.S., Membre de I'lnstitut, 

Professor of Astronomy. 63, Rue Claude Bernard, Paris. 



Honorary Members. lix 

Date of Election. 

1892, April 26. Quincke, G. H., For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Physics. 
Universitdtj Heidelberg. 



1899, April 25. Ramsay, William, Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry. 

12, Arundel Gardens, Notting Hill, London^ W. 
1849, Jan. 23. Rawson, Robert, F.R.A.S. Havanty Hants, 
1886, Feb. 9. Rayleigh, John William Strutt, Lord, M.A., D.C.L. (Oxon.), 

LL.D. (Univ. McGill),F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Corr. Memb. 

Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). Terling Place, Wit ham , Essex, 

1900, April 24. Ridgway, Robert, Curator of the Department of Birds, U.S. 

National Museum. Brookland, District of Columbia, 

U.S. A, 
1897, April 27. Roscoe, Sir Henry Enfield, B. A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.C.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). 10, 

Bramham Gardens, EarVs Court, London, S. W. 
1889, April 30. Routh, Edward John, D.Sc, F,R.S. Newnham Cottage, 

QueetCs Road, Cambridge, 



1889, April 30. Salmon, Rev. George, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). Provosfs House, 
Trinity College, Dublin, 

1894, April 17. Sanderson, Sir J. S. Burdon, Bart., MA., M.D., F.R.S., 

Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Regius Professor of 

Medicine. University, Oxford, 
1892, April 26. Sharpe, R. Bowdler, LL.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S. British 

Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, 

S,W, 
1892, April 26. Solms, H. Graf zu, Professor of Botany. Universitdt, 

StrcLssburg, 
1869, Dec. 14. Sorby, Henry Clifton, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

Broomfield, Sheffield, 
1851, April 29. Stokes, Sir George Gabriel, Bart., M.A., LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), 

Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. Lensjield Cottage, 

Cambridge, 
1886, Feb. 9. Strasburger, Eduard, D.C.L., For. Mem. R.S., Professor 

of Botany. Universitdt, Bonn. 

1895, April 30. Suess, Eduard, Ph.D., For. Mem. K.S., For. Assoc. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Geology. 9, Africaner gasse, 
Vienna. 

1895, April 30. Thomson, Joseph John, M.A., ScD., F.R.S., Professor of 
Experimental Physics. 6, Sctope Terrace, Caml>ridge. 



Ix Honorary Members, 

Date of Election^ 

1894, April 17, Thorpe, T. E., C.B., Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., P.C.S., 

Government Laboratory^ Clements Inn Passage, Strand, 

London, W.C. 
1900, April 24. Tower, Beauchamp, M.Inst.C.E. War ley Mount, Brent- 

woody Essex. 
1894, April 17. Turner, Sir William, K.C.B., M.B., D.C.L.. F.R.S., 

F.R.S.E., Professor of Anatomy. 6, Eton Terrace, 

Edinburgh, 
1886, Feb. 9. Tylor, Edward Burnett, D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (St. And. 

and McGill Colls.), F.R.S., Professor of Anthropology, 

Museum House, Oxford, 



1894, April 17. Vines, Sidney Howard, M.A., D.Sc. F.R.S., Sherardian 
Professor of Botany. Headington Hill, Oxford, 



1894, April 17. Warburg, Emil, Professor of Ph3rsics. Physikalisches 
Institute Neue Wilhelmstrasse, Berlin. 

1894, April 17. Ward, H. Marshall, D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of Botany. 
Botanical Labor cUory, New Museums, Cambridge, 

1894, April 17. Weismann, August, Professor of Zoology. Universitdt, 
Freiburg i, Br, 

1889, April 30. Williamson, Alexander William, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.C.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). High 
Pitfold, Shottermilly Haslemere, Surrey, 



1886, Feb. 9. Young, Charles Augustus, Professor of Astronomy, 
Prirueton College, N,/,, U,S,A, 



1 888, April 1 7. Zirkel, Ferdinand, For. Mem. R. S. , Professor of Mineralc^. 

Ihralstrasse, 33, Leipsic* 
1895, April 20. Zittel, Carl Alfred von. Professor of Palaeontology and 

Geology. Universtdt, Munich, 



Corresponding Members, Ixi 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS, 

Date of Election- 
1850, April 30. Harley, Rev. Robert, Hon. M. A. (Oxon), F.R. S. , F. R. A.S. , 

Hon. Memb. R.S., Queensland. Kosslytty Westboume 

Road^ Forest Hilly London, S.E., and The Athenaum 

Club, London, S, W, 
1882, Nov. 14. Herford, Rev. Brooke, D.D. 91, Fitz;ohn*s Avenue^ 

Hampstead, London, N, W, 

1859, Jan. 25. Le Jolis, Auguste Fran9ois, Ph.D., Archiviste-perp^tuel, 
of the Soc. Nat. Sci. Cherbourg. Cherbourg,