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BINDING LIS" 1 AUG 1 1922 



MEMOIRS 



THE BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM 



OF 



POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY 



AND 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



VOLUME I, 




HONOLULU, H. I.: 

BISHOP MUSEUM PRESS, 
1899-1903, 







GN 
670 



v. 



TABLB OK CONTBNTS. 



I. Hawaiian Feather Work: By William T. Brigham. Issued September, 1899. 

II. Index to the Islands of the Pacific: By William T. Brigham. Issued December, 1900. 

III. Key to the Birds of the Hawaiian Islands : By William Alansou Bryan. Issued 1901. 

IV. Ancient Hawaiian Stone Implements: By William T. Brigham. Issued April, 1902. 

V. Supplementary Notes to Hawaiian Feather Work: By William T. Brigham. Issued January, 

1903. 



LIST OF PLATES IN THIS VOLUME. 



I. HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



FACING PACK 

I Helmet of Kauniualii, King of Kauai 

Colored frontispiece 

II Tahitian Gorget 2 

III Hawaiian with Cloak and Helmet- . . 6 

IV Small Kahili 7 

V Tropic Bird and young 10 

VI Feather Mats in British Museum ... 36 

VII Helmets in the Museum at Madrid 44 

VIII Hawaiian Chiefs Boki and Liliha-. 48 



FACING PAGi: 

IX Network used in Feather Cloaks. ... 50 

X Cloak of Kiwalao 58 

XI Network of the Cloak of Kiwalao.. . 54 

XII Ahuula in the Boston Art Museum. . 72 

XIII Her Majesty Victoria's Feather 

Cloaks in Windsor Castle- 64 

XIV Feather Capes in Windsor Castle.. . 78 

XV Colored plate of Cape in Bishop 

Museum Knd o. 



II. INDEX TO THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC. 
Outline Maps-. 



FACING PAGE 



1 Hawaiian Islands (Main) Title ^ 

2 Hawaiian Islands (Western) 89 

3 Caroline Islands (Western) 92 

4 Caroline Islands (Middle) 100 

5 Caroline Islands (Eastern) 108 

6 Marshall Islands 1 16 

7 Gilbert Islands 1 24 

8 New Guinea Coast Islands 132 

9 Louisiade Archipelago 139 

10 Bismarck Archipelago 147 

1 1 Solomon Islands 156 

1 2 New Hebrides 164 



IVL'ING P.U1J-; 



13 New Caledonia and Loyalty Groups. . 172 

14 Viti or Fiji Archipelago 180 

15 Samoan Islands and Niue 188 

1 6 Ellice Group 196 

17 Phoenix and Union Islands 204 

1 8 Tongan Islands 212 

19 Line Islands and Tongareva 220 

20 Society Islands 228 

21 Paumotu Archipelago (West) 236 

22 Paumotu Archipelago (East) 244 

23 Marquesas and Hervey Islands 248 

24 Index Chart 256 



III. KEY TO THE BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 
Plates at the end of Memoir. t'W^t 



XVI Sterna fuliginosa, Anous stolidus. 

XVII Microanous hawaiiensis, Gygis alba 

kittlitzi, Anous stolidus. 

XVIII Diomedea nigripes, Diomedea immu- 

tabilis. 

XIX Priofinus cuneatus, Bulweria bulweri, 

vEstrelata hypoleuca, Puffinus new- 
elli, Puffinus nativitatis. 

XX Phaethon lepturus, Phaethon rubri- 

cauda. 



XXI Sula piscator, Sula cyanops, Sula sula. 

XXII Anas wyvilliana, Anas laysauensis. 

XXIII Nycticorax nycticorax usevius. 

XXIV Gallinula sandvicensis, Porzauula 

palmeri, Fulica alai. 

XXV Heteractitis incanus, Arenaria inter- 

pres, Himantopus knudseni, Cha- 
radrius dominicus fulvus, Nume- 
uius tahitiensis. 



(v) 



VI 



List of Plate*. 



XXVI Buteo solitarius, Corvus hawaiicnsis, 
Asio accipitrinus sandviccnsis. 

XX\'II Chasitmpis gayi, C. sclateri, C. sand- 
vicensis, Phaeornis myadestina, P. 
obscura, P. lanaiensis, P. palmeri, 
Drepanorhainphus funerea, Acro- 
cephalus familiaris. 

XXVII I Vestiaria coccinea, Himatione san- 
guinea, Oreomyza flammea, Lox- 
ops ochracea, L. coccinea, Palmeria 
dolei. 



XXIX Rhodacanthis palmeri, Hemignathus 

procerus, Psittacirostris psittacea, 
Telespiza cantans, Hemignathus 
obscurus, Loxops caeruleirostris, 
Oreomyza mana, O. newtoni, O. 
bairdi, Heterorhynchus wilsoui, H. 
hanapepe, H. affinis, Pseudonestor 
xaiithrophrys, Chlorodrepanis par- 
va, C. Stejnegeri, Moho nobilis, M. 
braccatus. 

XXX Chaetoptila angustipluma. 



XXXI 

XXXII-V 

XXXVI-IX 

XL 

XLI 

XUI 

XLIII 

XLIV 

XLV 
XLVI 

XLVII. 



IV. ANCIENT HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 
/- - Plates at the end of Memoir. ' {(f*r~f \jf* *] 



Hawaiian Slingstones. 
Polishing Stones. 
Squid Hook Sinkers. 
Hawaiian Stone Clubs. 
Hawaiian Stone Pestles. 
Hawaiian Stone Pestles. 
Hawaiian Mortars. 
Stirrup Poi Pounders. 
Ring Poi Pounders. 
Ring Poi Pounders. 
Stone Cups. 



XLVIII-LII Hawaiian Stone Lamps. 

LIII-VII Hawaiian Adzes. 

LVIII Fragments from a Workshop. 

LIX Maori Adzes. 

LX Hawaiian Adzes mounted. 

LXI Ceremonial Adzes from Duau. 

LXII Necker Island Images. 

LXIII Moriori Clubs. 

LXIV Hawaiian Idol. 

LXV Phallic Emblems. 



V. ADDITIONAL NOTES ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 
Plates at the end of Memoir. ji$i* fv -f 



LXVI Helmets, Norwich Castle. 

LXV 1 1 Norwich Castle Cape, etc. 



LXVIII 'Clark Cape. 

LXIX Santa Cruz Feather Money 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



MEMOIR I. 



1 Cook's Feather Cape : now in Austral- 

ian Museum 4 

2 Helmet taken to England by Vancou- 

ver : now in the Bishop Museum.. . 5 

3 Bone Handles of Kahili in the Bishop 

Museum 7 

4 liwi, Ou and Apapane : from mounted 

specimens in the Bishop Museum. . . 8 

5 Oo and Mamo : from mounted speci- 

mens in the Bishop Museum 9 

6 Pueo, Hawaiian Owl 12 

7 Feathers as brought in by the Hunter. . 13 

8 Kahili 15 

9 Stem of Ki ( Cordyline terminalis) 16 

10 Princess Nahienaena in 1825 17 

11 Kahili handles left unfinished by Paki 18 

1 2 Branches of a Kahili 19 

13 Hulumanu of a Kahili 19 

14 Portion of the funeral procession of 

Kamehameha III in 1855 20 

15 Kahili made of sugarcane in place of 

feathers 24 

1 6 Small hand Kahili 25 

1 7 The growing end of a feather Lei 26 

18 Hawaiian Feather Lei 27 

19 Hawaiian Feather Lei 29 

20 Feather Model of an Anuu : Cook col- 

lection in Vienna 30 

21 Kukailimoku engraved from a photo- 

graph taken by the author in 1864- . 31 

22 Kukailimoku, war god of Kameha- 

meha : now in Bishop Museum 32 

23 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 32 

24 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 33 

25 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 33 

26 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 34 



27 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 35 

28 Kukailimoku : now in British Museum 36 

29 Diagram to show method of attaching 

eyes to Kukailimoku 36 

30 Kukailimoku figured in Cook's Voyage 38 

31 Mask and Head-dress from New Guinea 40 

32 Portrait of Hawaiian Warrior : given 

by Cook 41 

33 Mahiole or Helmet: from Cook's col- 

lection in Vienna 42 

34 Mahiole or Helmet : from Cook's col- 

lection in Vienna 42 

35 Mahiole or Helmet : from Cook's col- 

lection in Vienna 42 

36 Outlines of Mahiole in Berlin Museum 43 

37 Helmet of wickerwork with projections: 

in Berlin Museum 44 

38 Helmet without feathers, Cook collec- 

tion : in Australian Museum 44 

39 Helmet of wickerwork with five pro- 

jections : from Freycinet 44 

40-1 Helmets in the British Museum 46-7 

42 Small feather cape 49 

43 Hawaiian scraping Olona : from a pho- 

tograph taken on Molokai 50 

44 Hawaiian spinning Olona on his thigh 51 

45 Diagram to show the method of attach- 

ing the feathers to the network 51 

46 Knotting of feathers on a cape 52 

47 Cape in Bishop Museum 53 

48 Back of the cloak of Kiwalao, to show 

patchwork 54 

49 Diagram of colors used in the figures 

of Ahuula 5 8 

49-115 Figures to indicate the patterns 

and colors of Ahuula 59-8 1 



MEMOIR II. 



1 Butaritari, Palmyra and Matuku, to 

show forms of Islands 98 

2 Diagram of Isochrymes between which 

coral reefs occur 100 



Butaritari of the Gilbert Group 132 

Fanning Island 146 

Malekula of the New Hebrides: from 

British Admiralty Chart 179 

(Vli) 



via 

6 

7 

8 
9 



List of Illustrations, 



PAOB 

Marianas or Ladrone Islands 183 

Maluku in Fiji: from Challenger re- 
port 186 

New Zealand : from Government map 201 
Palmyra : from U. S. chart 211 



PAGE 

10 Peru : from U. S. chart 214 

1 1 Rapanui or Easter Island : Map by 

Thompson, U. S. N 220 

12 Washington: from U. S. chart 251 



MEMOIR III. 



Chasiempis sandvicensis 292 

Drepanorhamphus funerea 298 

Vestiaria coccinea 296 

Palmeria dolei 299 

Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Himatione 
sanguinea, Chlorodrepanis parva and 

Oreomyza bairdi 299 

Loxops coccinea 304 

I lemignathus obscurus 306 

Heterorhynchus affinis 307 



9 Heterorhynchus wilsoni 307 

10 Pseudonestor xanthophrys 309 

1 1 Psittacirostra psittacea 309 

12 Telespiza cantans 310 

13 Rhodacanthis palmeri 311 

1 4 Chloridops kona 312 

15 Moho nobilis 312 

16 Acrocephalus familiaris 314 

17 Phaeornis obscura 315 



MKMOIR IV. 



1 Hawaiian Stone Hammers 

2 Australian and Maori Stone Hammers 

3 Hawaiian Canoe-breakers 

4 Canoe-breaker in Munich Museum. . 

5 Obsidian Dagger and Dagger-heads. . . 

6 Slingstones from New Caledonia and 

Guam 

7 Hawaiian Sling and Slingstones 

8 .Stone Anchor of a Kamehameha canoe 

9 Hawaiian Grindstones 

i ii Stone Balls used in games 

1 1 Hath Rubbers of cellular lava 

12 Stone Files for making and sharpening 

fishhooks 

1 3 Hawaiian Door Stone 

14 Squid hook used by Hawaiians 

1 5 Stone Knife 

16 Moriori Stone Flensing Knives 

17 Compound Hawaiian Club : from Read 

is Hawaiian Club heads of basalt 

i >j 1 1 awaiian Stone weapons 

20 Clubs of New Guinea and the Bis- 

marck Archipelago 

21 Ancient Mawri Clubs 

22 Maori 1'aoi and Club 

23 Hawaiian Stone Pestles 

24 Hawaiian Pestles 

25 Hawaiian Pestles 

26 Hawaiian Stone Mullers 

27 View of Kaulananahoa on Molokai... 



338 -28 Hawaiian Stone Mortars of cylindrical 

339 form 366 

340 29 Mortar broken in the making 367 

341 30 Stone Cups used for grinding 368 

342 31 Hawaiian Poi Board and Pounders. .. 369 
32 Tahitian Poi Pounders 370 

343 3-3 Marquesan Poi Pounders 371 

344 34 Ancient Marquesan Poi Pounder 371 

346 35 Coral rock Pounders : from Ruk, Caro- 

347 line Islands 372 

348 36 Wood and Stone Pounders : from the 

349 Caroline Islands 373 

37 Hawaiian Muller : of coral rock 374 

350 38 Ancient Hawaiian Poi Pounder 375 

351 39 Hawaiians making Poi Pounders 375 

352 40 Unfinished Poi Pounders 376 

353 41 Ancient form of Hawaiian Poi Pounders 377 

354 42 Group of Hawaiian Poi Pounders 378 

355 43 Group of Hawaiian Poi Pounders 371) 

356 . 44 Group of Hawaiian Poi Pounders 380 

357 45 Position of holding Ring Pounders for 

pounding (A), or grinding (is) 381 

358 46 Stone Pounders of uncertain use 381 

359 47 Hawaiian stone implement of ancient 

360 but unknown use 382 

361 48 Kapa Pressers 383 

362 49 Rude Hawaiian Stone Dish 384 

363 50 Hawaiian Dish of coral sandstone 385 

364 51 Hawaiian Stone Dish 386 

365 52 Stone Offertorium : from Molokai 386 



List of Illustrations. 



IX 



53 Stone Bowl from Necker Island 387 

54 Stone Bowl from Nihoa Island 387 

55 Hawaiian Stone Dish 388 

56 Hawaiian Stone Cups 389 

57 Kapuahi kuni anaana : Cups for burn- 

ing souls 390 

58 Stone Salt Pans from Kailua, Hawaii- 391 

59 Lamp from a lava bubble 392 

60 Lamps made from broken pounders- 393 

6 1 Rude forms of Hawaiian Lamps 394 

62 Large Stone Lamps from Molokai.... 394 

63 Cylindrical Hawaiian Stone Lamps. .. 395 

64 Fishing Lamp 396 

65 Tahitian Sorcery Lamp 397 

66 Hawaiian Stone Mirrors 399 

67 Hawaiian Maika Stones, of good form 400 

68 Hawaiian Maika Stones, of good form 401 

69 Pile of Maika Stones to show varying 

thickness 403 

70 Rings of limestone and shell from the 

western Pacific 404 

71 Method of boring Shell Rings 405 

72 Hawaiian Fishing Stones 406 

73 Hawaiian Stone Axe 407 

74 Cutting edges of Hawaiian Adzes 408 



75 Hawaiian Ad/.es, 3122, 3140 and 3150. pg 

76 Hawaiian Adzes, 3137, 3152 and 3121. . 410 

77 Hawaiian Ad/.e with oblique blade. ... 411 

78 Hawaiian Stone Adzes 412 

79 Hawaiian Stone Adzes 413 

80-1 Solomon Island Adzes of greenstone.. 416 

82 Southern Pacific Adzes 417 

83 Moriori Adzes from Chatham Islands. . 419 

84 Moriori Adzes from Chatham Islands. . 420 

85 Handles of Adzes from New Guinea 

and Micronesia 420 

86 Various Adze handles from the Pacific 421 

87 Gilbert Islands Adzes with handles. . . 422 

88 Maori Adzes with ornamented handles 422 

89 Ceremonial Adzes from Mangaia 423 

90 Maori carved Adze handle 424 

91 Fine Stone Chisel 425 

92 Stone Gouge 425 

93 Stone images of Fish gods 426 

94 Image from Manoa Valley, Oahu 427 

95 Necker Island Image in profile 428 

96 Miscellaneous Stone objects 429 

97 Teetotum Stones 430 

98 Pile of Hawaiian Stone Adzes 433 



MEMOIR V. 



i 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



Under side of Feather Mat ........... 438 n 

Kukailimoku, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. . 439 12 

Kukailimoku, Oxford Museum ....... 440 13 

Eye of shell and feathers ............ 441 14 

Wicker Helmet from Maui ........... 443 15 

Helmet, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ....... 444 16 

Helmet, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ....... 445 17 

Helmet in Oxford Museum .......... 446 18 

Helmet at Berne .................... 447 r 9 

Helmets in Peabody Museum ........ 447 20 



Marquesan headband 448 

Color Diagram Berne Cloak 449 

Cambridge Cape 449 

Cape, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 450 

Edge-Partingtoa Cape 450 

Burned Cloak, Honolulu 451 

Dover Cloak 451 

Cape 45 1 

Norwich Cape 45 1 

Coil of Feather Money 452 



INDEX TO VOLUME I. 



- : ' : - . '. : -. 



mwra3UMuAllULT* TVS 



OF TSEE V(X.rMF WHO. SC flUJJU* AT TVS BOTTOM Or TVS P. 



.1 

-. : - 

Acrooephalus familiaris ...... 

ilococos, see Moho 

- 

. . - 

A<.:.-r handles 

Adzes, Gilbert Islands 

Hawaiian 

Manga ia -. 

Maori 

fctkroaesBBB 

;.:-.-. I-"...: .- 







- I - 












> - "-. :: ".-:..-.. !- 

Aeo, H imantopus- 

-data hypoteuea 

lencocephala 

: ::.v : fgia 

sand wieensis 

Agassiz on Coral- 

Ahnnla. or Feather Cloaks 50, 

List of 

-k 

Baidwell 



: ". .'.'.".. ......................... 

: '.::-. ............................ 

Brassev ........................... 

British Museum .................. 64 

J .-.::-.' r: \.-. M.i ............. .... 

^ ..'.".-. ' .:: ....................... 

Cnaptaan .......................... 

........................... 

........................... 

^ _..:, ............................ 



4-- 

--- 
416 

; - 
IOI 

447 

; 

61 

- 

' 
90 



__ " 



)^ ^J| HliMMrgK>Ml . . . . 

Dovci 

Edge-Partingtoa 



;an 



.. "~ A 

-_" 

60 



Ahuula, Gottmjrer. ...................... yt5 

Haaletea ..................... . - - 

Ipswich 

Joy 

Judd 



- - 

^ 



7i 

- 

- 

74 

79 

7i 

451 
7i 

~ : 



Kamehameha 

Kearny 

Kelley 

Kiwalao 

Lee 

Leiden 

Leihula 

Lucas 

Lunalilo 

Mackintosh 

Maidstone 

Munich 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Xorwich 

Paris 

Panafai 60 

Perth 448 

:-.:-f.,: . ^ 

Pomane ~i 

Reis 

Saffron Walden 

Starbuck So 

Sydney | 

n^ 

na - ; 

Waber 64.444 



451 



Bag 

York 
Akakane 
Akapane 

Akeake 



; 






Akepa ................................ 

Akialoa ................................ 

Akihiy>c>lena ........................... . 



xn 



Indr.v. 



Akikihi 

Alae 

Alala, or Crow 

Alanda arvensis, Lark 

Albatross 

Alexander helmet 

Ainakilii 

Anas 



PAGE 

303 

280 

12, 291 

291 

266 

443 

300 

272-4 

Anchors of Stone 34 6 

Anoiis 261, 265 

Anser hawaiiensis 276 

Alison's Voyage 91 

Anuu or Oracle 29, 30 

Apapane 10, 299 

AjK.-keix.-kf .292 

Ardea, Heron 277 

Arenaria interpres 285 

Asio accipitrinus 289 

Atagen aqnila 271 

Auku, Heron 278 

Aulick cloak 68 

Halboa discovers the Pacific 89 

Balls of Stone 348 

Hard well cape ' 6 1 

Hath rubbers 349 

Beechev's Voyage 93 

Belcher's Voyage 93 

Bellingshausen's Voyage 93 

Berlin ca]x.-s and cloaks 69 

Bernicla sandvicensis 276 

Bingham cape 68 

Bird -lime for catching birds 3 

Birds furnishing feathers for cloaks 9 

Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, Key to 259 

Bligh's Voyage of the Bounty 92 

Bolton cloak 68 

Booby, Blue-faced 271 

Bougainville's Voyage ' 91 

Bowls of Stone 385 

Brachyotus galapagoensis, Owl 289 

Brant, Black 275 

Kr.i-.M-v cloak 71 

Brigham on Hawaiian Feather Work i 

Index to the Islands of the Pacific 85 
Ancient Hawaiian Stone Implements. . 333 
Supplementary Notes on Feather Work 437 

British Museum cloaks and capes 64,90 

Bryan on Hawaiian Birds 259 

Bulweria bulweri 268 

Bnteo solitarius. Hawk 289 

Byron's Voyage of the Blonde 91 



Calidris arenaria 284 

Callipela californica 286 

Cannibalism in the Pacific 108 

Canoe-breakers of Stone 341 

Capes and cloaks, Ahmila 50 

List of 56 

Market value of 55 

Carpodacus, Rice-bird 295 

Carteret's Voyage 91 

Chsetoptila angustiplutna 314 

Challenger, Voyage of 93 

Chapman cloak 68 

Charadrius 284 

Cliasiempis 292 

Chen hyperboreus 275 

Chisels of Stone 423 

Chloridops kona 312 

Chlorodrepanis 297-302 

Christy cloak 71 

Chrysomitridops caeruleirostris 305 

Circus hudsonius 289 

Ciridops anna 300 

Clark Cape 448 

Climate of Pacific ocean 98 

Cloak burned, Honolulu 449 

Clubs, Maori 359 

New Guinea 358 

Stone 387 

Colgate Ahuula 80, 447 

Colors of feathers 9 

of kahili 17 

Cook's Voyages 92 

Coot, Hawaiian 280 

Copenhagen Ahuula 70 

Coral Islands 100 

Corvus hawaiiensis . 29 1 , 437 

Crake, Laysan 280 

Crow. Hawaiian 291 

Cunningham cloak 74 

Cups of Stone 387 

Curlew 284 

Currents of the Pacific 95 

Dafila acuta 274 

Darwin on Coral growth 101 

I )emiegretta sacra 277 

D'Kntrecasteaux Voyage 92 

Depth of the Pacific 94 

I )esigns of Ahuula 52 

Diomedea immutabilis 266 

Dishes of Stone 383 

Door Stone 350 



Index. 



xni 



PAGE 
287 

450 
90 
297 
298 



Dove, Chinese 

Dover Museum Cloak 

Drake's Voyage 

Drepanis 

Drepauorhamphus 

Duck, Hawaiian 273 

Duperrey's Voyage 93 

D'Urville's Voyage 93 

Dyed Feathers 12 

Dysporus, see Sula 270 

Edwards' Voyage 93 

Elepaio 292 

Ellis' Account of Feather work 6 

Emma, Queen, Capes 60 

Eye of shell and feathers 442 

Fauna of the Pacific region 105 

Feather Money, Santa Cruz 452 

Feather Work of the Hawaiians 1-81, 437 

Figure carving in Stone 424 

Files of Stone 350 

Finch , House ' 295 

Laysan 310 

Scarlet 305 

Fish gods of Stone 426 

Fishing Stones 405 

Fitzroy's Voyage 93 

Flora of the Pacific region 103 

Florence Ahuula 75 

Forms of Islands 99 

Fregata aquila 271 

Freycinet's Voyage 93 

Fulica alai 280 

Gallinule, Hawaiian 280 

Ganuet 271 

Giglioli, Voyage of the Magenta 93 

Gill, E. Leonard, letter 440 

Gilman Cape 6 1 

God wit, Pacific 284 

Gottingen Cape 76 

Golegole Club 355 

Goose, Hawaiian 276 

Gouges, Stone 423 

Greenstone described 355 

Grinding Stones 346 

Gulls 262 

Gygis alba 265 

Haalelea Capes 62, 77, 78 

Hammers of Stone 340 

Handles of human bone for kahili 16 

Handling of Adzes 418 

Hawk, Hawaiian 289 



Helmet from Cook 41 

Helmet covered with human hair 48 

Helmet from New Ireland 40 

Helmets in Berlin 43 

British Museum 46, 47 

Oxford 443 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 443 

Paris 45 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge 48 

Vienna 42 

Helmets, List of 42 

Hemignathus 306-9 

Heron, Auku 277 

Heteractitis 283 

Heterorhynchus 307-9 

Himantopus, Stilt 282 

Himatione 299 

liwi 9, 299 

Image from Manoa Valley 427 

Images from Necker Island. 427 

Inhabitants of the Pacific 106 

Inscriptions, Hawaiian 431 

Ipswich cape 74 

Iwa u, 271 

Jade, Manufactures of 355 

Joy Cloaks 72 

Judd Cape 62 

Kahili branches 19 

Kahili, List of 21 

Kahili of sugarcane 24 

Kalanikauikalaueo cloak 59 

Kamehameha cloak of mamo 58 

Kapu in the Pacific 112 

Kapa pressers of stone 383 

Kapuahi kuni anaana 389 

Kauila handles of kahili 16 

Kaulunanahoa on Molokai 365 

Kearuy cloak 72 

Kelley cloak 71 

Ki stem 16 

Kiwala6 cloak 58 

Knives of stone 351 

Koae 11,270 

Kolea, Plover 28^ 

Koloa, Hawaiian Duck 273 

Kotzebue's Voyage 93 

Krusenstern's Voyage 93 

Kua feathers 446 

Kukailimoku 31-39,440 

Kukuluaeo, Stilt 282 

Kuro siwa Current 95 



XIV 



Lamp, Fishing 

Lump of stone 

Lump. Tahitian Sorcery 

Languages of the Pacific 

Lurk, Sky 

I.arus, Gull 

Lee Cape 

Leiden Cloak 

Leihula Cape 

Lei, List of 

I.emaire's Voyage 

Lophortyx californica 

Loxioides 

I.oxops 

Lucas Cloak 

Liitke's Voyage 

Lunalilo Cloak ' 

Mackintosh Cape 

Magalhaes' Voyage 

Mahiole or Helmet 40, 

Maidstone Cape 

Maika, Game of 

Malo of feathers 81, 

Malo of the Raiatean Kings 

Mamo 9, 

Marquesan head baud 

Mats of feathers 36, 67, 

Mendana's Voyage 

Menezes the Portuguese 

Merganser 

Microanous hawaiiensis 

Miiia, False ( Acridotheres tristis) 

M irrors of stone 

M issious in the Pacific 

Moriori stone knives 

Mortars of stone 

Munich Cape 

M lid -hen 

Munia uisoria 

Murray theory of coral growth 

Moho ( Acrulocercus) 

Nahiciiaena, Princess 

Xeiie. Hawaiian Goose 

Nesochen saudvicensis 

Nits fur liirds 

Noio. Hawaiian Tern 

Norwich Castle Museum Capes 

Numenius tahitieiisis. Curlew 

Nyi ticorax 

( )l)sidiaii for cutting 

inodroiiia cryptoleucura 



I'M. I 
396 
391 

397 

109 

291 

262 

76 

74 

79 

27 

9i 

286 



34 

7i 

93 

63 

45 1 

89 

443 

71 

399 

446 

446 

298 

445 

437 

90 

90 

273 

265 

294 

398 

1 1 1 

354 

364 

75 

280 

295 

101 

312 

17 

276 

276 

n t 

265 

4.5 i 
284 



269 



CEstrelata 

Offertoriuni from Molokai. 

Olona cord and netting 

Oo, Moho nobilis 

Oreomyza 

Otus brachyotus 

Ou (Psittacirostra psittacea) 



PAGE 
.. 267 

.. 3 86 
.. 5 

' 313 

302-4 

.. 289 

8, 310 



Owl, Hawaiian ............. ........ 12, 289 

Pacific Ocean, Index to Islands .......... 89 

Palila (Loxioides bailleui) .............. 310 

Palmeria dolei ......................... 299 

Pandion solitarius ...................... 289 

Papainu for Konane .................... 405 

Paris Cloak ............................ 73 

Partition of the Pacific .................. 112 

Partridge, Califoniiaii ................... 286 

Passer domesticus, English Sparrow ...... 294 

Pa'u of Nahienaena ................ .... 59 

Pauahi Cape ........................... 60 

Penguin, Voyage of ..................... 94 

Pennula ecaudata ....................... 279 

Perouse, Voyage of .................. ... 92 

Pestles of stone ...... , .................. 352 

Petrels ................................ 268 

Phseornis ........................... 315-17 

Phaethon ......................... 270, 437 

Phalacrocorax plagicus ................. 269 

Phalaropus lobatus ..................... 281 

Phallic emblems ........................ 363 

Phasianus torquatus .................... 286 



287 

69 

276 

368 

375 

371 

372 

370 

71 



versicolor 
Pittsfield Cape 
Plegadis guarauna, Ibis 
Poi pounders, Hawaiian 

Making 

Marquesan ...... . 

Micronesian 

Tahitian 

Pomare Cloak (Brassey) 
Porphyrio melanotus .................... 280 

Portlock and Dixon account of feather work 7 
Por/.anula palmeri ...................... 279 

Pounders, Stone ........................ 381 

Priofi mis cuneatus ...................... 268 

Procellaria ............................ 268 

Pseiidoncstor xamhophrys .............. 309 

Psittacirostra psittacea .................. 310 

Pueo, Hawaiian Owl ................ 12,289 

Puffinus ............................. 268-9 

Quail, California Valley ................. 2 86 

Quarries of Clinkstone ................... 407 



Index. 



xv 



PAGE 

Queen's Cloak < i i < . 58 

Querquedula circia 274 

Quiros, Voyage of 91 

Raiatean Malo 446 

Rail, Laysan, Sandwich, Wingless 279 

Reis Cape 80, 8 1 

Religions in the Pacific Ocean no 

Rhodacanthis 311 

Rice Bird 295 

Ring-cutting in shell or stone 404 

Roggewein's Voyage 91 

Ross, Sir James, Voyage of 93 

Rothschildia parva . , 302 

Saffron Walden Cloak 73 

Salt pans of stone 391 

Sanderling 284 

Sandpiper 283 

Scherzer, Voyage of the Novara 93 

Schouten and Lemaire, Voyage of 91 

Shearwater 269 

Sinkers, Squid-hook 351 

Skylark 291 

Slingstones 344 

Snipe, Ash-colored 283 

Sorcery Cups 390 

Sorcery Lamp from Tahiti 397 

Sparrow, Chinese 295 

European House 294 

Spatula clypeata, Shoveller 274 

Squid-hook Sinkers 35 1 

Star Club heads 355 

Starbuck Cape 80 

Sterna, various species 263-5 

Stewart's description of feather work 19 

Stilt, Hawaiian (Himantopus) 182 

Stone Implements of Hawaii 337 

Storm Petrel, Hawaiian 296 



Strepsilas interpres 285 

Sula, Booby 271 

Sydney Cape 4,76 

Tachypetes=Fregata 271 

Tahitian Poi pounders 370 

Sorcery Lamp 397 

Tasman's Voyage 91 

Tatler , Wandering 283 

Teal, Laysan 274 

Teetotum Stones 430 

Telespiza cantans 310 

Temple Oracle, Model of 30 

Tern, various species 264-5 

Torches, Hawaiian 391 

Tortoise-shell handles of kahili 16 

Totauus=Heteractitis 283 

Tringa acuminata, Sandpiper 283 

Tropic Bird ( Phaethon ) 270 

Turtur chinensis, Dove 287 

Uluaihawane, Ciridops anna 300 

Ulumaika Stones 399 

Vancouver on feather work 7 

Vancouver's Voyage 93 

Vestiaria eoccinea 299 

Victorian Ahuula 63, 78, 79 

Vienna Ahuula 75 

Viridouia sagittirostris 302 

Volcanic Systems of Pacific 99 

Voyages, in Pacific Ocean 89 

Waber Cloak at Berne 64, 444 

Wallis, Voyage of 91 

Welling Cloak 68 

Whaling, Industry in Pacific 105 

Wilkes Expedition 93 

Wilson's Voyage in the Duff 93 

Winds of the Pacific Ocean 90 



Ml MCIIK- Ill-Hill' Ml-SKUM, VlM I 



PLATE I. 










HKI.MKT OF KAUMUALII, KING OF KAUAI. 







HAWAIIAN 



r 




y^^"* 1 <NE ** 

FEAT 




\ , 

* 



WORK 



BY 



WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM. 

A.M.(Harv.), A.A.S.(i867.) 

Correspondent of the Berlin Gesellscliaft 
fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologic and 
Urgeschichte ; the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences ; the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. 

Member of tlie Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society; and of the Vienna 
Antliropologischcn Gesellscliaft. 



HONOLULU, H. I. 
BISHOP MU8KTJM I J HE8S. 



l8 99 . 




EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



I. Helmet of Kaumualii, King of Kauai. Printed in colors by Lowy, of Vienna, from a 
negative by the author. 

II. Tahitian gorget or portion of a dress of ceremony. From a photograph sent from Sydney 
by R. Etheridge, Jr., Esq. 

III. Hawaiian with cloak (N6. 5) and helmet (No. 2). Photographed by the Director. 

IV. Small kahili in the Bishop Museum. Photographed by the author. 

V. Tropic bird (No. 7463) and young (No. 7464). Photographed by the Director from 
mounted specimens in the Bishop Museum. 

VI. Feather mats in the British Museum. Photographed by Mr. Heury Oldland for this use. 

VII. Helmets in the Spanish National Museum at Madrid. From a lithographed plate 
kindly furnished by Stewart Culin, Esq., of Philadelphia. . 

VIII. Boki and L,iliha. From the colored lithograph of a painting by John Hayter, published 
in September, 1824. The copy in the Picture Gallery of the Bishop Museum was given to Queen 
Emma in 1885 by the Bishop of Rochester. I do not know where the original painting is. Boki, 
who was Governor of Oahu, wears a feather cloak and helmet. Liliha wears a lei of feathers, a niho 
palaoa of human hair about her neck, and the/>a' or usual female dress of kapa. 

IX. Network used in feather cloaks. The upper figure shows three grades of olona net, the 
middle one a long malo; the lower figure shows the back of a cloak where, from the looseness of the 
netting, the feathers have worked through. 

X. Cloak of Kiwalao (No. 2); in modern times styled the "Queen's cloak." 

XI. Network of the cloak of Kiwalao to show the piecing. 

XII. Ahuula in the Boston Art Museum (Nos. 58 and 59). 

XIII. Cloaks in the Museum of Her Majesty Victoria at Windsor Castle (Nos. 19 and 20). 
Photographed by Russell & Co. 

XIV. Capes in Her Majesty's collection at Windsor Castle (Nos. a = 2i, =87, f=86, ^=85). 
Photographed by Russell & Co. 

XV. Cape in the Bishop Museum (No. 7). Printed in colors by Lowy, of Vienna, from a 
negative by the Director. The central crescent should be black instead of red. 



HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

An Essay on ainicnt Hawaiian Feather decoration, u'itli a List of the more 
By William T. Brigham, A.M., Direflor of the 
Be mice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 



THE love of personal decoration appears very early in the history of the 
human race. When the fierce struggle for existence and the pursuit of food and shel- 
ter allowed time for the consideration of family, the keen hunters must have learned 
many a lesson from the beasts of the field and forest, not less from the birds of the air, 
of the processes of Nature which Mr. Darwin has called sexual seleftion. That any 
savage ever reasons out these processes cannot be believed, but the sharp eye trained in 
daily hunts could not be blind to the patent fact that so many birds have plumage 
evidently intended for attractive decoration, and that it answers this purpose. Savage 
man at first put on the adornments in which he saw the male of so many birds and beasts 
was resplendent, and not until many ages after was the woman allowed to appropriate 
to her own use what in early tribal life was the exclusive property of the male. 

The lion's mane, the tiger's skin, the eagle's feather were man's earliest adorn- 
ment, and it is not improbable that woman in humble emulation of her lord made for 
herself clusters and bands of flowers or fruits, while the dwellers on the ocean shores 
soon took the sea-shells cast on the sandy beach. 

The warrior of the far North has the eagle and hawk from which to borrow, and 
the ancient war dress of a Mandan chief was decorated with spoil of these and other 
birds; but in the warmer regions of the earth, where Nature puts forth all her powers, 
and birds and insects vie in coloring with the most brilliant flowers, uncivilized man 
has wantoned in the prodigality and fashioned for himself a gorgeous decoration taken 
from the captives of his bow, net, or blow-gun. 

India still, through all the years of her changing civilization, has preserved the 
traces of early work in bird feathers in the superb punkas where the showy feathers of 
the peacock and pheasant have replaced the smaller and more beautiful feathers of 
earlier days. The rock-cut temples record on the effigies of gods and heroes that line 
the walls or cluster about the columns the use of feather decoration both in civil 
and martial guise; a tale of very remote times. Eastward through the Siamese penin- 
sula, northward through China, the use of feather decoration extended, and in the latter 

MKMOJRS OF TIIK BKKNICK PATAUI BISHOP MUSKUM. VOL, I, ( i ) 



2 BRIGHAM ON HAWAIIAN FEA'l HER WORK. 

empire, where are seen in the glimpses we obtain of their remote history, so many 
.uerms of what we fondly consider our own inventions, feather mosaics are even at the 
present day made in abundance. I have seen in China the simple process of cement- 
ing the bright-colored feathers to metal surfaces in a form of jewelry most popular 

with the middle classes. 

It was in the midst of the American continent that feather work in ancient times 
reached its best estate. In Brazil along the banks of the Amazon, in Venezuela on the 
Orinoco, where it is difficult to decide whether birds outnumber the flowers or the flowers 
are brighter in color than the birds that fly among them, the strings and plumes of 
bright feathers were not merely decorations: they were, and are, often symbols of 
chieftainship, and feather sceptres are found in most large museums of Ethnology, 
especially in Rome, Vienna and Berlin. 

In Central America the wonderful monoliths buried in the forests of Guatemala 
and Honduras bear the feather plumes of Quetzalcoatl, and at Qnirigua I have seen 
these plumes sculptured with rare fidelity. The Maya picture writings that escaped 
the destroying hand of the bigoted Spanish priests, show feather standards, head- 
dresses and other ornaments, but when we follow the Conquistadores northward through 
many a league of unbroken forest, we come in Mexico to the royal domain of the "Ars 
/>lit Maria." Here feather work was most admirable at the time of the Conquest and 
we have still preserved the grand tiara of Montezuma and a superb fan of the same 
period in the royal Museum at Vienna. These although differing from the class of 
work we are at present to consider, deserve a passing notice for their wonderful beauty 
not only of material but of artistic arrangement as well. Baron Ferdinand von Hoch- 
stetter has well described the first 1 , and Dr. Franz Heger 2 the second. The plumes of 
the Quetzal {Pliaromacrus mocinno) and the vivid turquoise blue of the Xiuhtototl 
(Coiinga cinfla or ccemlea} are prominent among charming spoils of less known birds. 
The Ara (Psittacus macao} furnished brilliant plumage as do scores of other parrots, 
and the Mexican of today continues the pretty art bequeathed him by remote ancestors. 
Whichever way then the ancient inhabitants of the Polynesian groups entered 
the Pacific Ocean they must have brought some knowledge of feather decoration. 
Central Asia has now little enough of this work, but the southern and eastern shores of 
Asia furnished and still furnish abundant illustration. New Guinea, the halting 
place for the east-bound, has among others the feathers of the Birds of Paradise and 
the helmets and diadems are no mean objects among the manufactures of a remarkably 
decorative people. If the immigrants came from the American shore and journeyed 
with the "Trades" they had no inferior preceptor in the people of Greater Mexico. 

On the comparatively barren islands the new comers found few birds of brilliant 
plumage. Two shades of yellow, two of red, a green, black and white exhausted the 



''" *'/// i/v; ,;i/.i ,/,, Sfil M,,,,l,-:um a -> n, df> 2. (///, ,,;/., A', //;, ; .. 

SauimluHx < ,/,- />,!.->,/,,, /!, ,/,, /,/,,/,/>/,,/,. Annalcn ,ln t. k. natitrhhtin -ischfn llt mita-uni*. \Vi< -n.i 895. 

tuiviluli ,U,i,i,m,.- :!,; ;, 
((/,. I!.!. XXXV |, 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE II. 




! 



TAHITIAN GORGET. 



B RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 3 

palette, for the forests were not extensive, nor fruits abundant as in the East Indies or 
in Mexico. 

In Viti the red feathers of the Lorius solttaritts and in Samoa those of the 
Coryphilus fringillaceus were used to decorate choice mats, and feathers of the former 
were much sought in Tonga. In the Society Islands stiff gorgets were made of 
feathers and shark teeth (PI. II.) and ceremonial dresses or masks of pearl shell and 
feathers one of which is still preserved in the British Museum and another, less per- 
fect, in Florence. 

All these uses of feathers in a permanent form are crude and primitive: all yield 
to the beautiful and far more durable work of the Hawaiians which it is the object of 
this essay to illustrate. Hawaiian feather work seen in its remains which have come 
down to us consists, first, in Lets or strings of feathers worn in the hair, or, in later 
times, about the neck; Kahilis or plumes of feathers used as royal insignia; Ahuula 
cloaks or capes worn on state occasions by chiefs and nobility ; Mahiole or helmets 
designed for protection as well as ornament; images of the god Kukailimoku the chosen 
war-god of Kamehameha I.; and finally a few other things, as a model of a temple oracle 
given to Captain Cook, and certain mat-like objects now in the British Museum, of 
which the probable use will be discussed in order. ' 

The birds which supplied the feathers, at least the choicer yellow, red and green, 
were inhabitants of the mountain regions into which as the abode of evil spirits the 
Hawaiian did not like to go. His home was on the shore where the fish were at hand, 
or in the well-watered valleys where he could grow his kalo (Caladium esculentum). 
Hence a caste arose of hardy venturesome men, the bird-hunters, poe liahai manu, 
who endured cold and privations in their hunt for the precious feathers which were 
indeed the gold currency in which tribute might be paid or by which coveted goods 
might be obtained. The old Hawaiian was a close observer of nature. Having neither 
books nor the modern curse of newspapers, his memory was strengthened and his eye 
sharpened. He had a name for every tree and plant and not less for every bird. It is 
true that he did not always conjoin the two sexes when they, as is not infrequently 
the case, differ great!)- in coloration ; but ornithologists of education have failed in the 
same way. The hunters knew well enough the haunts of the birds they sought and 
the seasons when the plumage was at its best. They knew the habits of the birds, 
their food and other matters that might facilitate their quest. For example, they recog- 
nized the curiosity of the birds and planted strange trees in the open places in the 
forests, and in these new trees placed the sticks smeared with bird-lime which would 
entangle the prying birds. Bows and arrows would have been of no avail, if they had 
possessed them, for the rarer birds were seldom killed but captured alive and when the 
few feathers desired were plucked, released to renew their plumage at the next moult- 
ing. When bird-lime made of the viscid juice of the "papala" (Pisonin inn be Hi/era} 



4 BRIGHAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

could be obtained it was preferred, although other kinds were known and snares and 
throwing nets were frequently used. The common sorts were often killed and eaten, 
and the oo could hardly have survived the loss of nearly its entire plumage. 

It will be well to look at the description the early voyagers give of this feather 
work at a time when it was in perfeftion, bearing in mind that in fifty years from the 
earliest account the making of feather cloaks had practically ceased, although the con- 
struction of kahilis and the plaiting of leis continues to the present day. These latter 
works, however, require no especial skill and draw upon very miscellaneous material. 




FIG. i. COOK'S CAPK: NOW IN AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

When Cook anchored off Waimea, Kauai, in 1778, on his first discovery of the 
Hawaiian Group, he and his officers at once noticed the feather robes and helmets, and 
the artist Waber | not Webber] in the capital drawing made of the scene on shore 
delineates a chief wearing the mahiole and ahuula. The account is as follows : 

"Amongst the articles which they brought to barter this day [Jan. 21, 1778] we could not help 
taking notice of a particular sort of cloak and cap, which, even in countries where dress is more 
particularly attended to, might be reckoned elegant. The first are nearly of the size and shape of the 
short cloaks worn by the women in England, and by the men of Spain, reaching to the middle of the 
back and tied loosely before. The ground of them is a net-work, upon which the most beautiful red 
and yellow feathers arc M> closely fixed, that the surface might be compared to the thickest and richest 
velvet , which they resemble, both as to feel and glossy appearance. 

"The manner of varying the mixture is very different, some having triangular spaces of red 
and yellow alternately ; others a kind of crescent, and some that were entirely red, had a yellow border 
which made them ap]>ear. at some distance, exactly like a scarlet cloak edged with gold lace. The 
brilliant colours of the feathers, in those that happened to be new, added not a little to their fine 



FEATHER WORK IN COOK'S VOYAGES. 



P~ 



appearance, and we found that they were in high estimation with their owners, for they would not, at 
first part with one of them for anything we offered, asking no less a price than a musket. However 
some were afterward purchased for very large nails. Some of them as were of the best sort, were 
scarce, and it would seem that they are only used on the occasion of some particular ceremony or 
diversion, for the people who had them always made some gesticulations which we had seen used 
before by those who sung. 

"The cap is made almost exactly like a helmet, with the middle part, or crest, sometimes of a 
hand's breadth ; and it fits very close upon the head having notches to admit the ears. It is a frame 
of twigs and osiers, covered with a net-work, into which are wrought feathers, in the same manner 
as upon the cloaks, though rather closer and 
less diversified ; the greater part being red 
with some black, yellow or green stripes on 
the sides following the curve direction of the 
crest. These probably complete the dress 
with the cloaks, for the natives sometimes 
appeared in both together. 

"We were at a loss to guess from 
whence they could get such a quantity of these 
beautiful feathers ; but were soon informed as 
to one sort for they afterward brought great 
numbers of skins of small red birds \iiwi\ for 
sale, which were often tied up in bunches of 
twenty or more, or had a small wooden 
skewer run through their nostrils. At the 
first those that were brought consisted only 
of the skin from behind the nostrils forward, 
but we afterward got many with the hind 
part including the tail and feet The first 
however struck us at once with the origin of 
the fable formerly adopted, of the birds of 
paradise (Paradisca apoda} wanting legs ; and 
sufficiently explained that circumstance. 
Probably the people of the islands east of 
the Moluccas, from whence the skins of the 
birds of paradise are brought, cut off their 
feet, for the very reason assigned by the peo- 
ple of Atooi [Kauai] for the like practice, 
which was, that they hereby can preserve 
them with greater ease, without losing any 
part of which they reckon valuable. The red bird of our island was judged by Mr. Anderson to 
be a species of merops, about the size of a sparrow ; of a beautiful scarlet colour, with a black tail and 
wings ; and an arched bill twice the length of the head, which with the feet was also a beautiful red- 
dish colour. The contents of the head were taken out, as in the birds of paradise, but it did not appear 
that they used any other method to preserve them than by simple drying ; for the skins, though moist, 
had neither taste nor smell that could give room to suspect the use of anti-putrescent substances. 3 

"They have another [dress] appropriated to their Chiefs, and used on ceremonious occasions, 
consisting of a feathered cloak and helmet, which in point of beauty and magnificence, is perhaps 
nearly equal to that of any nation in the world. As this dress has been already described with great 
accuracy and minuteness, I have only to add that these cloaks are made of different length in propor- 
tion to the rank of the wearer, some of them reaching no lower than the middle, others trailing on the 
ground. The inferior chiefs have also a short cloak, resembling the former, made of the long tail 
feathers of the cock, the tropic and man-of-war birds, with a broad border of the small red and yellow 

iCoot's Voyages, guarto Hd., 1784, II., p. 206, 




FIG. 2. HELMET TAKEN TO ENGLAND BY VAN- 
COUVER : NOW IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM. 



6 liRHillAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

feathers, and a collar of the same. Others again are made of feathers entirely white with variegated 
borders. The helmet has a strong lining of wicker-work, capable of breaking the blow of any war- 
like instrument and seems evidently designed for that purpose. Fig. 2. 

These feathered dresses seemed to be exceedingly scarce, appropriated to persons of the 
highest rank and worn by the men only. During the whole time we lay in Karakakooa Bay [Keala- 
keakua], we never saw them used but on three occasions : in the curious ceremony of Terreeoboo's 
[Kalaniopuu] first visit to the ships; by some chiefs who were seen among the crowd on shore when 
Captain Cook was killed ; and afterward, when Eappo [?] brought his bones to us. 

"The exact resemblance between this habit and the cloak and helmet formerly worn by the 
Spaniards was too striking not to excite our curiosity to inquire whether there were any probable 
grounds for supposing it to have been borrowed from them. After exerting every means in our power 
of obtaining information on the subject, we found they had no immediate knowledge of any other 
nation whatever ; nor any tradition remaining among them of these islands having been ever visited 
before by such ships as ours. But notwithstanding the result of these inquiries, the uncommon form 
of this habit appears to me a sufficient proof of its European origin, especially when added to another 
circumstance, that it is a singular deviation from the general resemblance in dress which prevails 
amongst all the branches of this tribe dispersed through the South Sea. We were driven indeed by 
this conclusion to a supposition of the shipwreck of some Buccaneer, or Spanish ship, in the neigh- 
borhood of these islands. But when it is recollected that the course of the Spanish trade from Aca- 
pulco to the Manilas is but a few degrees to the Southward of the Sandwich Islands in their passage out, 
and to the Northward on their return, this supposition will not appear in the least improbable." 4 

To Captain King's account must be added that of the surgeon of the fleet, 
William Ellis, who was both a ready writer and a good draughtsman. His relation of 
the last voyage of Cook, now a rare book, adds much to the information given in the 
official account. 

"The principal ornaments of the men are the feather caps and cloaks ; some of the latter reach 
down to their heels, and have a most magnificent appearance. They are made for the most part of 
red and yellow feathers, which are tied upon fine net work ; the caps are composed of the same kind 
of feathers which are sometimes intermixed with black ; they are secured upon a kind of basket work 
made in the form of a helmet. Both caps and cloaks are made of various patterns and sizes. The 
cloaks are not all composed of the same kind of feathers, but are sometimes varied with the long tail 
feathers of the cock, with a border of yellow or red, and sometimes with those of the tropick bird. 
Both caps and cloaks, however, are only to be seen in the possession of the principal people. They 
have also a kind of fly-flap, made of a bunch of feathers fixed to the end of a thin piece of smooth and 
polished wood : they are generally made of the tail feathers of the cock, but the better sort of people 
have them of the tropick bird's feathers, or those belonging to a black and yellow bird called mo-ho 
[Oo]. The handle is very frequently made of one of the bones of the arm or leg of those whom they 
have killed in battle, curiously inlaid with tortoise shell : these they deem very valuable, and will not 
part with them under a great price. This ornament is common to the superiors of both sexes. 

"The women too have their share in the ornamental way : that which they value most is the 
erai [/]. This is a kind of ruff or necklace made of red, green, black, and yellow feathers, curi- 
ously put together, and in most elegant patterns, which really do honor to the fancy of the ladies, 
whose business it is to make them. They never think themselves dressed without one or two of these 
round their necks, and those who can afford it wear many. "5 

'Journal of Captain King; <Wj I'oyagts, III., p. 138. The sup- Kcnliiokaloa. In 1555 Juan Gaetano discovered these islands when 

position that the Spaniards had preceded them was indeed cor- sailing from New Spain to the Moluccas. 

u-ct. Cook had doubtless read Anson's Voyage, which was pub- MM authentic uaiiatii-e nj a :-<m;i,v peif,nmcd by Captain Crmk 

lished the year he sailed from Kngland, and in which was a copy and Captain Clcrke. in hi* nni/.^fy'^ >lnfi.\ KcMiliftittn and />/s,x:vrv 

of the Spanish chart captured on the galleon June 20. 1743. on the iluiiui; the \nirs ij-jf,, 7777. /;;,v, i--t/ and i-jXii ; in search <if a nmtli- 

voyage from Acapulco to Manila. On this chart arc laid down a west faaafl het;,-re>i the ointments of Asia and America. Incl,idin K 

group "'.as Mesas" in nearly the latitude of the Hawaiian Islands, <i jaithtnl ac,nunt / all tln-ii ,tis,;,srrie>. unit /lie unj'nituuatr death 

though some fifteen degrees out of the correct longitude, not an ../ Captain C,i.>k . Hy w. Kllis, assistant surgeon to both vessels 

unusual error at that time. In November. 1527. shipwrecked Span- London. i;xj. Vol. II., p. 155. 
iard* arrived at Keei, near Kealakcakua Hawaii, in the reign of 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE HI. 



/ 




HAWAIIAN WITH CLOAK (5) AND HELMET (2). 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE IV. 




SMALL KAHILI. 



FEATHER WORK IN EARLY VOYAGES. ? 

In the voyages of Captains Portlock and Dixon in 1786 we read- 

e caps and cloaks wore by the men are still superior in beauty and elegance 

are in genera, about the size of those wore by the Spaniards; the ground is netwTk Tnd 

are sewed on in alternate squares or triangular forms of red and yellow 
*h have a most brilliant appearance. The ground of the caps is 
wicker work, in the form of a helmet; the elevated part from the fore- 
head to the hind part of the neck, is about a hand's breadth and gen- 
erally covered with yellow feathers, the sides of the cap with red This 
cap, together with the cloak, has an appearance equally splendid, if 
not superior to any scarlet and gold whatever. 

"These truly elegant ornaments are scarce, and only possessed 
by Chiefs of the highest rank, who wear them on extraordinary occa- 
sions. There are cloaks of an inferior kind, which have only a narrow 
border of red and yellow feathers, the rest being covered with feathers 
of the tropic and man-of-war bird." 6 

Vancouver returning to Kealakeakua Bay in 1792 met 
Kamehameha I. and he describes the dress of the young 
king as follows : 

"The largest canoe was rowed by eighteen paddles on each side ; 
in this was his Hawaiian majesty, dressed in a printed linen gown, 
that Captain Cook had given to Kalaniopuu ; and the most elegant 
feather cloak I had yet seen, composed principally of beautiful bright 
yellow feathers and reaching from his shoulders to the ground on which 
it trailed. On his head he wore a very handsome helmet, and made 
altogether a very handsome appearance." 7 

During that visit the king presented Vancouver with 
four very handsome feathered helmets 8 (one of these, Fig. 2, is 
now in the Bishop Museum, No. 322); and later, when coming 
to see his good friend, 

"Kamehameha conceiving this might be his last visit, presented 
me with a handsome cloak formed of red and yellow feathers, with a 
small collection of other native curiosities ; and at the same time delivered 
into my charge the superb cloak that he had worn on his formal visit on 
our arrival. This cloak was very neatly made of yellow feathers ; after 
he had displayed its beauty and had shewn me the two holes made in 
^^ different parts of it by the enemy's spears the first day he wore it, in his 

last battle for the sovereignty of this island, he very carefully folded it up, 
and desired that on my arrival in England, I would present it in his name 
to H. M. King George ; IJ and as it had never been worn by any person but 
himself, he strictly enjoined me not to permit any person whatever to 
throw it over their shoulders, saying it was the most valuable in the island of Hawaii, and for that 
reason he had sent it to so great a monarch, and so good a friend, as he considered the King of England. 




I 

I 



FIG. 3. BONE HANDLES OF 
KAHILIS: B. P. H. M. 



6 / j'rt.V>' round the u'otld, bitt more particularly to the JVorf/itt'nt 
coast of America, performed in 77X5-,%'. London, 1789. 4to, p. 271. 

7 A Tin-age <>J discovery to the .\'rlh I'acific Ocean and round tin' 
world, undertaken hy ///.<, Ma jetty' A command* />' indpally with a vit'u> to 
a. \ct-rta in tin- ,-.\ i.^/t'ii,-' <>J aitv iniri^ahle communication between the 
.\nitl, racifn and .\orlh Atlantic Oceans, and pcijmmcd in the yean 



1790-95, under the command of Cafiltiht d't'oitfc I \mcon rcr. I.ondon, 
1798. Vol. II., p. 126. 

8 /.or. cit., p. 127. These are now. with the exception mentioned, 
in the liritish Museum. 

9/,w. dt., p. 159. This cloak is ntpposed to be one of those now 
at WinttfCT Castle. It might be identified by the holes made by 



8 



BR/C.HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER U'ORK. 



"This donation I am well ]x_-rsuaded was directed by his own grateful heart, without having 
received the least hint or advice from any person whatever, and was the effect of principles, highly 
honorable to more civili/.ed minds. The cloak I received and gave him the most positive assurance 
of adling agreeably with his directions." 

I have given the extracts from these early voyagers in full for it is the only 
authentic information that we have from foreigners: that from native sources is very 
meagre and indefinite. Even in recent times we can learn nothing very exactly about 
these ancient cloaks: for example when King Lunalilo was buried, his father Kanaina 
insisted upon putting the fine feather cloak which had been laid over the remains, into 
the coffin with him. This was in 1874, and hundreds must have seen this cloak as the 




a b i d 

FIG. 4. nwi, ou AND APAPANE: SPECIMENS IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM. 

royal corpse was exposed to the view of the people ; I have questioned many most in- 
telligent foreigners and natives with the result that one saw the cloak and only 
remembers that it was yellow and large : another says it was not all yellow but had 
some other color, but whether red or black he cannot say : another is sure it had some 
pattern but whether crescents or triangles could not say : still another is under the 
impression that the cloak was entirely red ! The most trustworthy testimony places a 
green crescent in the middle. Little of a more definite nature is to be gathered from 
native song and tradition, although both cloaks and kahilis are mentioned and the 
royal birds play a conspicuous part in man}- a fine old niclc. Then the absurd stories 
repeated in almost every new book written about these islands, although false, seem 
immortal. How often is the statement repeated in book and on label that the bird of 

the upear, hut at the time of my last vi-.il to KiiKland the Windsor private museum in tin- castle. All of these Her Majesty lias gra- 

cluaks had "been sent to the furrier for repairs.' since my visit cionsly allowed me to have photographed and they will he described 

renewed search has In in made lor this cloak at Windsor, hut without in due order. The cloak Vancouver so carefully carried to his sov- 

guccesft. Other cloaks and capes were found and are now in the ereign has probably perished. 



OF THE HAWAIIAN BIRDS. 9 

yellow feathers has but two of the precious decorations -the fact being that the Oo has 
in each axil a tuft of from fifteen to twenty feathers, and the Mamo has quite as many 
m the dorso-caudal region. But it is time lost to repeat the many wanderings from 
the truth that these mysterious birds have caused, and we may turn at once to a con- 
sideration of the birds that furnished the feathers for the old Hawaiians." 

BIRDS FURNISHING FEATHERS. 

liwi. First the liwi ( Vestiaria coccinea, Reichenbach), Fig. 4, , the bright red 
bird, found all over the group, today as in former times the most abundant native bird, 
although, like all other natives disappearing. I have seen it in my garden in Nuuanu' 




abed 

FIG. 5. oo AND MAMO: SPECIMENS IN BISHOP MUSEUM. 

Valley about 120 feet above the sea, in fair weather, and it is often driven down to the 
shore from the mountain ridges, which are its usual haunt, by severe storms. It is a 
honey-sucker and frequents the arborescent Lobeliaceae so noticeable a feature of the 
Hawaiian flora. The adult female is of a darker vermilion than the male, and her 
feathers are easily mistaken for those of the faded apapane. Total length, 5.75 inches. 
The breast furnishes the main supply of feathers. 

That there may be something more definite than the mere terms red, yellow, 
orange applied to these feathers, I have compared unfaded specimens with the color 
illustrations given in M. Leon Lefevre's Trait i' dcs Matiercs coloranlcx artifidelles, 
Paris, 1896, and the fresh feathers of the iiwi correspond to the rouge d'alizarine SX 

IO For the measureme nts and ornithological names I am indebted tors, has trusted too much to the modern native, who neither remem- 

chiefly to Mr. Scott U. Wilson, whose AITS //au'tiHt'itse* . fimfs of hers nor cures for the ancient lore of the islands, but will not confess 

the Sandii'iifi l^hiHtls is replete with careful observation and much his ignorance, passing upon the unsuspecting stranger it may be the 

study. In the case of native names. Mr. Wilson, as most other collec- name r.i i. fish or flower, if the true name is forgotten. 



io BRH;ilA.M ON IIAWAII.IX FEATHER U'ORK. 

stir soie 25% pate a 20% given on page 1402 of that great work. When the feather 
fades it assumes a yellow tone, and the color of these as of the oo and mamo fades 
quickly in alcohol. Kept in the dark, as the ahuula were most of the time, the tint 
seems very durable, some old leis and capes showing as bright as the freshly plucked 
feathers. 

Oo. Next to this the Oo (Acnilo<r>rns nobilis, Wilson), Fig. 5, ? , /; 6* , is 
abundant, but confined to the island of Hawaii. Other species are found on Kauai, 
Maui and Molokai, but none of them have the bright axillary tufts. Like the iiwi it 
is a honey-sucker, but I have fed them successfully in captivity on the juice of sugar 
cane. The general color is a brilliant black which brings the yellow tufts into fine 
contrast. All the black figures and lines in the feather work are of this plumage, and 
it was largely used in the grand kahilis. As the bird was a favorite article of food, 
and as the larder of the hunters in the mountains was poorly stocked, it seldom 
survived capture, and yet this bird has remained in comparative abundance while the 
mamo, whose orange feathers alone were taken, has become extinct. The name is 
onomatopoeic, the note closely resembling o-o. Total length of adult male, 12.5 inches; 
adult female, 9.5 inches. The curled tail which gives the bird its generic name is 
confined to the male of the nobilis. The yellow of the axillary tufts is nearly repre- 
sented by the citronine sur soie shown on p. 449 of Lefevre. In mounting these 
feathers, which are rather thin at the top and black at the base, iiwi short feathers 
are often added to the base to give a warm tint to the pale yellow and to approximate 
it to the mamo. This addition is called /v/V (waist-cloth). 

Ou. The On ( Psittacirostra psittacea, Temminck), Fig. 4, b ? , c $ , has a range 
throughout the group, feeding largely on the ripe fruits of the ie-ie (Freycinetia 
arhorea, Gaudichaud). The green color varies considerably; only that on the head is 
brilliant while the body plumage is dull, and was not much used ; only three or four 
capes and as many helmets showing these have survived. Adult, 6.3 inches long. 
Other greens might have been obtained from the genus Hemignatkus or Heterorhyri- 
c/iits, but this seems to have been rare anciently as well as at present. 

Apapane. The Apapane (Hinntlioiic su>iiii>i<'ti, Cabanis), Fig. 4, <Y? , ranges 
all over the islands, feeding on honey. Not much used in feather work ; the dark crim- 
son feathers being inconspicuous at a distance. The color is croceine sur laine 2%, 
p. 461 of Lefevre, shaded with primuline-|-/3 napthol, p. 596. Adult length, 5.25 inches. 
A fragment of a cape (Cat. No. 40) made largely of these fine feathers is now in Hono- 
lulu, and several leis where they appear mixed with other feathers are in this Museum. 

Mamo. The beautiful Mamo (Drepants pactfica, Temminck) is rare in col- 
lections, the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum having only four specimens, two of those 
in the Mills collection having been given by Mr. Chas. R. Bishop to Mr. Scott B. 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 




TROPIC BIRD AND YOUNG. 



OF THE HAWAIIAN BIRDS. n 

Wilson. It is probably nearly extinct, collectors of late years having failed to find it. 
In 1890 I saw three in a sandal-wood tree under which I was camping on the slopes of 
Mauna Hualalai on Hawaii (to which island the species is confined) at an elevation of 
yooozb feet. The Mills specimens were obtained, so Mr. Mills informed me in 1864, 
near Olaa in Puna. The Kamehameha cloak in the Bishop Museum (No. i of the 
catalogue given below) is composed wholly of these feathers ; so also is a fine lei in 
the same collection. The bird is about 8 inches long. Fig. 5, c, d. The general 
plumage is not of so rich a black as the oo, while the lower part of the body, the rump, 
thighs, anterior margin of wings and tail coverts are of a rich orange. Among 
Hawaiian birds the mamo is facile princeps. Its name has been applied to all royal 
war-cloaks very mch as "beaver" has clung to a soft hat no longer made of the fur of 
the Castor fiber. The principal color of the orange feather seems to be represented 
by the jaune metanile sur laine, 2% shown on p. 446 of Lefevre's work. To distin- 
guish these feathers when faded from the oo is not always easy, but the orange of the 
former is separated from the black base by a marked white space, and the tips of the 
oo feathers are thinner and larger. 

Koae. The Tropic bird (Phacthon cethereus, Bloxam), Boatswain bird, Paille- 
en-queue, Pylstaart, is shown in PI. V. with its young. It breeds among the loose 
rocks of the bird islands or on ledges of almost inaccessible cliffs on Oahu and other 
inhabited islands, where its white form hovering like a kite in the air against the 
green palis is often seen late in the afternoon. The long tail-feathers of the adult 
and the mottled plumage of the young were used to some extent in the fabrication of 
kahilis, but by no means so frequently as the feathers of the next species. 

Koae ula. At present the Red-tailed Tropic bird (Phacthon Rubricauda, 
Salvin), while found occasionally on Niihau and the outlying islets is abundant on 
Nihoa and Necker Islands. On the latter island I have pulled the red tail feathers 
from the sitting bird who did not seem to greatly resent the outrage ; perhaps at that 
season the feathers are more loosely attached, preparatory to moulting. While these 
two feathers forming the important part, were greatly sought and highly valued, the 
satiny white of the body plumage was also much in demand for capes, although little 
of this white work is extant in museums : the only two specimens I have found are at 
Florence ; Nos. 66 and 67 in the List of Ahuula. 

I wa . The Frigate bird (Fregata aquila, Gould), also called the Man-of-war 
hawk, was hunted for its long black metalic-tinted feathers, both for cloaks and for 
kahilis. Common in the nesting season on Necker Island. In ancient days fishermen 
made frequent excursions to Nihoa and Necker Islands. The landing places (only 
one on each island) were so situated that landing was possible on one or the other 
island in whatever wind. On the latter island, which is the narrow rim of a ruined 



12 



BRIG HAM OX HAWAIIAN FEATHI-R II'ORK. 



crater, are many stone constructions used in worship or in the propitiation of the 
deities of sea, wind, fishing and hunting, as both fishers and hunters had their peculiar 
gods, images of which were found there a few years ago broken to fragments. 

Pueo. The Hawaiian owl (As/a ,/,Y //>////// //A, Gurney) was worshipped as a 
god, but Davida Malo says in his so-called Hawaiian Antiquities, but which is really 
a compilation of native schoolboys' compositions, that the feathers were used for 
kahilis, the bird being caught in snares placed near its burrows. 



... 




FIG. 6. PUEO, HAWAIIAN OWL. 

Alala. The Crow (Corpus tropicus, Gmelin) is found only in the southwest 
part of Hawaii. It was caught in snares. I have known one to be knocked down by 
a stick, caught and kept eighteen months in captivity. The black feathers were used 
for kahilis and for dressing idols much in the way common in New Guinea. 

The feathers of the barnyard fowl and of the gamecock were largely used for 
common capes or cloaks, as were those of the duck, and in recent times those of the 
latter were sometimes dyed red or yellow. Kahilis of such dyed feathers are in the 
Bishop Museum from the collection of Queen Emma." Dyed feathers have been much 
used for leis and for ahuula as well, so that it is very necessary to examine specimens 

1! Thesc dyed feathers are far from permanent in color, and in except on the two exhibition days each week qnite in the dark, 

the past eijthl : these kahili.-, which were placed out.sidr Two placed within tin- almost air-tiivht rases have preserved their 

Hi. L..UI lasesinthe Kahili roo m at the Mils, u'n have lost much of color liellii. 
their color although ?ie\ .1 expose.] to the <liiert rays of the sun and 



COLLECTING THE FEATHERS. 



of feather work with care for this counterfeit. Fortunately both of the precious 
yellow feathers have black bases not present of course in the dyed specimens. Dr. 
Serrurier tells (Aarddrijkskundig Weekblad, 1881, No. 19) an amusing story of dyed 
feathers as quoted by Director Schmeltz: 12 '"ie .ftihltgcn bet Snnbtmrf) ^nfcln fmtbte 
emeu fotdien Mantel und) irgenb enter SBeftauftettung unb (teff ifin bed groffen SSkrtfyes 
fjalbcn fitr cine b,ob,e Summe uerftdjcrn. Xns lidjtff (itt Srfjiffbvuch,, abet nncb, cinigcr 
3cit nntrbc bte tabling cmfgaftfd)t uub bcr IHantcl fnm luieber 511111 ^orfdjciu, inbcff oon 
bov gelben $nrbe bet $ebevn mar md)te ntefjr iibrig; bet TOantel runt gefnrbt geroefen." 
Now even the old natives 
were aware of the action of 
salt water on the genuine 
feathers and took great pre- 
caution when carrying their 
precious robes on canoe voy- 
ages. Surely the prolonged 
saturation of a shipwreck 
would account for any loss 
of color. I have, however, 
soaked both niamo and iiwi 
feathers in a saturated solu- 
tion of common salt for six 
months with but little loss of 
color. The story, although 
probably apocryphal, has 
served its purpose. It is FIG. 7. FEATHERS FROM THE HUNTER. 

unnecessary to more than 

mention the leis and capes made in recent times of the feathers of the peacock and 
pheasant, many of which were in the possession of Kalakaua and his sister; they were 
poor substitutes for the genuine Hawaiian feathers. 

Besides the method of capturing with bird-lime, nets of light thread and wide 
mesh were skilfully thrown over the flying bird, and sticks and stones were also re- 
sorted to with the larger birds. Peheapueo was a snare used especially for owls. One 
of the ancient nets for bird-catching is in this Museum (No. 138), and I have suc- 
ceeded without difficulty in capturing with it the so-called "mina" (Pastor Iristis) a 
bird about the si/e of the oo. This net is of considerable size and the mesh stick 
would be five inches wide. In whatever way the birds were caught the feathers when 
plucked were tied to a thin but strong fibre and made up into small parcels as shown 
Fig. 7. The hunters often padded the main feather with the small down (pa'ti) to 




in 



i 2 Arrfiivfs 



nalc* D'El&ne&mfi&u, I- 



i 4 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHKR WORK. 

make the parcel appear well. The feathers from under the wings were called ee, those 
over the rump />///, while the tail feathers were ////>//. 

The use of feathers as currency was common throughout Polynesia, as shell 
money was with the Papuans. In New Zealand, while cloaks of large size were made 
of the feathers of the Kiwi (Apteryx mantel Hi, etc.), the fine black feathers of the 
Huia ( Hctn-oloclia acntirostn's, Gould) were used in the Polynesian way for barter as 
well as for cloak making. 



FEATHER KAHILIS. 

THE name kahili is derived from the root verb /////, to braid or tie on, as feathers 
to a stem, or stone adzes to a handle : with the article it becomes ka-hili, the plaited 
thing. -The kahili in its greatest development consisted of a pole sometimes twenty 
feet high, to the upper end of which was attached the hnhi or cluster of feathers. 
This was sometimes of great extent; the Rev. C. S. Stewart, who was at the Islands 
when Lord Byron brought home the bodies of Liholiho and Kamamalu (in 1825), saw 
poles near thirty feet high with Intlnmanu forming cylinders fifteen to eighteen inches 
in diameter and twelve to fourteen feet long.' 3 The largest in the Bishop Museum is 
thirty inches in diameter and four feet long. Neither Cook nor Vancouver mention 
these immense kahilis, for they never saw them, no royal funeral occurring during 
their stay, and usually the poles were stripped of feathers when occasion passed, and 
the feathers were preserved in calabashes until again required. 

It is probable that a bunch of feathers used as a fly-flap was the primal form of 
feather work. Flies (nalo) were here though not in such abundance as found by early 
explorers on other islands of the Pacific ; but even for this useful purpose the bunch of 
feathers was no doubt preceded by a bunch of leaves, and the prototype of the kahili 
seems to have been a stem of that most useful plant the ki (Cordyline terminates, 
Kunth). Fig. 9, p. 16. On many of the islands of the Pacific a branch of ki was the 
symbol of peace, and on the Hawaiian Islands it shared in early times with a coconut leaf 
the representation of high rank. Its utility has survived its symbolism : and the native 
obtains food and drink from the large saccharine root. At first he made a kind of fer- 
miMited beer, then taught by vicious whites the Hawaiian distilled this fermenting mass 
making a smoky whiskey called in the vernacular, from the name of the rude iron still, 
okolt'hao. The tough leaf is still the favorite wrapper for fish, and I have seen an unclothed 
and so pocketless native carry a score of oranges, each fruit wrapped neatly in one of the 
leaves still attached to the stem. These leaves are also acceptable fodder for animals. 

Very early the hand plumes became symbols of rank and on all public occasions 
kahili bearers (IKI lawekakili} attended a chief, or while he ate or slept a haakiti 

"/><.//, /,>!,;/ /,, // /!,,,/>, <>cf an and residence at the Sandwifh filamii, in the wars 1812-25. By C.S.Stewart. New 

P. 10. See extract below. 



FEATHER KAHfUS. I5 

brushed away with smaller ones all troublesome insets. In public they were tokens- 
in private fly-flaps. The picture of Nahienaena, sister of Kauikeaouli, shows one in 
her hand. Fig. 10, p. 17. When oil portraits were introduced those of chiefs often had 
small kahilis attached to the side of the frame. The small kahilis were easily made 
and became very common ; were used as presents and so fell into the hands of others 




FIG. 8. KAHILIS. 

than the nobility, thus losing much of their meaning. The late royal family, however, 
retained them to the end of the monarchy, and royal personages had them at their side 
at feasts or public receptions. 

Of these small kahilis the Bishop Museum has four score, and examples are 
found in most museums. The large kahilis used only on solemn occasions are now 
limited in number, all the important historic ones are in this Museum and no more 
will ever legitimately be made. I know of none in any foreign museum. 

The pole, at first a mere support or stem, became from the force of circum- 
stances the impersonation of the whole kahili in this way : a kahili was made for a 
chief, was named, and, when the occasion for its use had passed, its feathers were taken 
off and stored away ; the form was dissolved and only the name remained to the pole 
which might when the next need arose be again clothed with the same or other 
feathers, and in similar or quite different form. Often the pole was a spear (po/o/n 
kaiiila), or a stick of well rounded koa {Acacia Xw, Gray), and in later times cabinet 



i6 



URIC, HAM OX HAWAIIAN /'/:'. 1 THI-R WORK. 









makers formed the stems of alternating native woods. Many of these last, both large 
and small, are in this Museum but were unknown to the ancient Hawaiian. The old 
native had, however, a very elaborate form of handle made by stringing disks of tor- 
toise-shell on a tough but slender core of kauila wood {Alphitonia c.vcclsa, Reissek), 
or in the small ones of whalebone. The tortoise-shell was either used alone or alter- 
nating with bone or ivory. Making these handles was amusement as well as work for 
chiefs, and two that the high chief Paki, father of Mrs. Bishop, left unfinished at his 
death in June, 1855, are in the Bishop Museum and show well the method of construc- 
tion : Fig. 1 1 . On the whalebone core 
were strung twenty or more disks of 
the outer shell of the sea turtle, 
square or approximately rounded, 
then a ring of bone was pressed tight- 
ly down on the parcel of disks and the 
whole filed into shape and polished. 
This is precisely the process used in 
the manufacture of shell money once 
the common currency of the people 
of the western Pacific, though not 
generally among Polynesians. In 
the large kahilis the bone is often 
omitted and the whole series pressed 
closely together apparently without 
cement. Such handles are of great 
weight but always of elegant form 
and perfect finish. How early this 
manufacture began we have no means 
of knowing: the same work is shown 
in a fan handle once belonging to 
Kalaniopuu the King of Hawaii at 
the time of Cook's visit [ B. M. No. 
5011], and from the finish it can 
hardly have been a new process. Probably, as the turtle were abundant and the shell 
easily worked, the manufacture is of considerable antiquity. 

The bone alternating with the tortoise-shell is often human, as described by the 
early voyagers, and a good example is shown in Fig. 3, p. 7 | B. M. No. 24 |. The "kinnu 
or principal bone is the right shin bone of Kaneoneo, a noted chief of Kauai who came 
to Oahu to fight for the religion of his fathers as well as for the independence of the 
Hand threatened by Kamehameha, and who fell in the battle of Nuuanu [1795]. The 
other bones, each from a different man, are of the brave chiefs who perished in the same 




FIG. 9. STKM OF KI. 



FEATHER KAHILIS. 



battle and were thus honored by the conqueror.' 4 It was an old Hawaiian custom to 
outrage the memory of an enemy by placing bits of his skeleton or teeth in some vessel 
of dishonor, or by making fishhooks or arrow points' 5 of them; hence the care taken to 
hide the bones of prominent chiefs. On the other hand it was honorable to have one's 
bones placed on a kahili handle or inlaid in a pot umekc. The old men a generation 
ago knew the names of the chiefs whose bony relics are preserved in these kahilis while 
the rest of their anatomy has long been dust, but probably no one can now tell the tale. 
When a chief is at the point of death these bones are supposed to rattle, but as the 
chiefs are all dead they seem now to have abandoned their heraldic vocation. Another 
similar handle, but without feathers [B. M. No. 117], shown in the same illustration, 
was given by Paki nearly half a century ago to Gorham D. Oilman to whom he told 
all the names of the bones in order; but when Mr. Oilman gave the handle to the 
Museum he had long since forgotten the interesting list. 

The feathers (Imlnmami} were of every variety known to the Hawaiians, includ- 
ing such foreign ones as ostrich and peacock ; but the old ones were of the tropic-bird, 
oo (both yellow and black), frigate-bird, pueo, iiwi and the barnyard fowl. In later 
degenerate times dyed duck feathers were 
used. The method of the modern florist 
who fastens his short-stemmed flowers to 
wires that they may have due prominence 
in his bouquet was practised by the isl- 
ander of olden time, but as he had no wire 
he pressed into service the tough, slim 
midrib of the coconut leaf. Several of 
these, or of other stiff fibres, he bound 
together with the thread of olona, attach- 
ing by the same thread the feathers to 
the separated ends of the main stem in a 
way shown more clearly in Fig. 12, p. 19. 
These feathered branches are tied together 
in small bundles and kept in quantity for 
use. How they were finally fastened to 
the kahili pole is shown in Fig. 13, p. 19. 

I believe that anciently, before 
white influence was felt, no thought was 
given to fitness of color to occasion, and it was only by foreign teaching that reds and 
yellows were reserved for coronations or general state funaions, while black and the 
sombre colors were appropriated to funerals. At the funeral of the Princess Pauahi 




FIG. 10. NAHIENAENA, IN 1825. 



'* Doubtless hones of Kaiana, a chief of distinction, and of Kalani- 
Icupule. the last king of Oahu, are among these trophies. 
MEMOIRS B. Pr B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. i. a. 



15 The only arrows used bv the Hawaiians were directed solely 
gainst mice. 






1 8 



HRH;ilAM OX HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



the kahilis made especially for the funeral were of pure white as in keeping with her 
character. No such distinction held in the olden time. I do not forget that in the case 
of cloaks, and to a less degree with kahilis, yellow was a royal color as with so many 
oriental nations ; possibly, as has been suggested, from gold the king of metals, but 
most likely from the sun the ruler of earthly life. The yellow robes of China, the yel- 
low umbrellas of the East Indies, the 
golden disks of Peru, and we might go 
back to the life-giving orb of the Egyp- 
tian Ra, all proclaim the regal essence 
of yellow. 

Formerly the base of the Intliiniaun 
or cylinder of feathers was closed or ter- 
minated at the base by an inverted cone 
of feathers kept in place by bands of kapa. 
This simple form gave way to rather 
tawdry sleeves of silk bound with long 
ribbon streamers of the gaudy colors dear 
to the colored races. 

The very grand effect of the kahilis 
carried in a funeral procession will not 
easily be forgotten by those who have been 
present at such functions. From every 
side they present the same aspect, and 
the graceful forms add dignity to the 
stream of humanity almost as palms do 
to a tropical sunset. Nor alone in pro- 
cession, grouped about a throne or a bier 
they both decorate and add dignity to 
the place. The funeral of Kauikeaouli 
(Kamehameha III.), in January, 1855, 
was sketched by a Swiss artist, Paul 
Emmert, and from his drawing the illus- 
tration, Fig. 14, p. 20, is given. The pall 
upon the coffin was the royal robe of his 
sister Nahienaena, and many of the 

kahilis used on that occasion are now in the Bishop Museum. The officer in charge 
of the kahili was called Paakuhili. 

Before leaving the subject of kahilis we may recall the description given by 
Rev. C. S. Richards, in his Journal, of a celebration given in May, 1822, in memory of 
Kamehameha the Great. The American Mission had been on the Islands but two 




II. UNHXISHKI) KAHILI HANDLES. 



KAHILIS IN PROCESSIONS. 



years and native customs had not been greatly modified, at least by the missionaries. 
It was on the last day of a long revel : 

" Tameha-maru [Kamamalu, the favorite queen of Liholiho] on this day was, as usual, a con- 
spicuous object. The car of state in which she joined the processions passing in different directions 
consisted of an elegantly modelled whaleboat fastened firmly to a platform of wicker work thirty feet 
long by twelve wide, and borne on the heads of 
seventy men. The boat was lined, and the whole 
platform covered, first with imported broad- 
cloth, and then with beautiful patterns of tapa 
or native cloth of a variety of figures and rich 
colours. The men supporting the whole were 
formed into a solid body so that the outer rows 





FIG. 13. HULUMANU OF A KAHILI. 

only at the sides and ends were seen ; and all forming 
these wore the splendid scarlet and yellow feather 
cloaks and helmets of which you have read accounts; 
and than which, scarce anything can appear more 
superb. The only dress of the queen was a scarlet 
silk/>' or native petticoat, and a coronet of feathers. She was seated in the middle of the boat 
and screened from the sun by an immense Chinese umbrella of scarlet damask [B. M. No. 5152] 
richly ornamented with gilding, fringe and tassels, and sup] rted by a chief standing behind her, in 
a scarlet male or girdle and feather helmet. On one quarter of the boat stood Karimoku [Kalaimoku] 



FIG. 12. BRANCHES OF A KAHILI. 



H RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

the Prime Minister, and on the other Xaihe, the national orator, both also in malos of scarlet silk and 
helmets of feathers, and each bearing a kahili or feathered staff of state near thirty feet in height. 
The upper parts of these kahilis were of scarlet feathers so ingeniously and beautifully arranged on 
artificial branches attached to the staff as to form cylinders fifteen or eighteen inches in diameter, and 
twelve or fourteen feet long ; the lower parts or handles were covered with alternate rings of tortoise 
shell and ivory of the neatest workmanship and highest polish. 

" Imperfect as the image may be which my description will convey to your mind of this 
pageant of royal device and exhibition, I think you will not altogether condemn the epithet I use 
when I say it was splendid. So far as the feather mantles, helmets, coronets and kahilis had an effect 
I am not fearful of extravagance in the use of the epithet. I doubt whether there is a nation in 
Christendom which at the time letters and Christianity were introduced, could have presented a 




FIG. 14. PORTION OK THE FUNERAL PROCESSION OF KAMEHAMEHA III. 

court dress and insignia of rank so magnificent as these : and they were found here, in all their rich- 
ness, when the Islands were discovered by Cook. -There is something approaching the sublime in the 
lofty noddings of the kahilis of state as they tower far above the heads of the group whose distinction 
they proclaim : something conveying to the mind impressions of greater majesty than the gleamings 
of the most splendid banners I ever saw unfurled." l6 

Not in the least does the excellent missionary exaggerate in his eulogy on the 
grand kahilis. Those of us who, in these latter days of the degeneration of all good 
native works and customs, have seen the kahilis wave above royalty, however faded, 
the finely built and naked bronze statues that bore the kahilis replaced by clumsy, ill- 
dressed, commonplace bearers of neither rank nor dignity, even the withered rose, 
most of its fragrance gone, has yet appealed strongly to our admiration and sympathy. 
The powerfully built chiefs, head and shoulders above the common crowd, free from 
all sartorial disfigurements, sustained easily the great weight of these towering plumes; 
but the modern bearer, stranger alike to the strength and virtues of his predecessors, 
has to call in the aid of stout straps of imported leather to bear the much smaller 
kahilis of the modern cirilizcd days.' 7 

It was a notable gathering of chiefs. Kamamalu was a daughter of Kameha- 
meha I. by Kaheiheimalie (afterwards Hoapiliwahine), and as the wife of Liholiho 
went with him to England where she died July 8, 1824. Kalaimoku or Kalanimoku, 
sometimes called Pitt, was a chief, not of the highest rank, but was a valued counsellor 
of Kamehameha during his wars, and of considerable ability, energy and honesty, a 

Jitiiinal ,,f a / ~ina K f I,: Hi, /,//;, < hfaii ami Knnlfiiff al times have heen much longer on the march than in the early (lays 

', - , ]|y C. S. when streets wide el.m. K h for such displays were lion existent, the 

New York i^v p. 109. town was small, and the passage from the palace to the royal tnau- 

t is hut fair to state that the funeral processions of modern soleum but a few rods long. 



LIST OF LARGE KAHILIS. 



21 



combination of qualities useful, if rare, in the office of Prime Minister which he held 
during the regency of Kaahumanu. He died February 8, 1827. Naihe, called the 
national orator, was husband of Kapiolani, the enlightened alii who braved the goddess 
Pele in her very den Kilauea. He died in 1831. The grand old chiefs have passed 
away and not one descendant remains. With them have passed the gigantic kahilis of 
which the much smaller successors remain, no longer useful except as relics of the past. 
Of the large kahilis in the Bishop Museum the following list will show the 
variety. The group of most of these, Fig. 8, p. 15, well exhibits the variation in form. 

LIST OF LARGE KAHILIS IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM. 

1. Ash pole ii feet high. Hulumanu 50 inches high, 24 inches in diameter; 
of black oo feathers ; branches bound with black but attached to the pole with white 
cord. Used at the funerals of H. R. H. Keelikolani and of Mrs. Bishop. Black and 
white silk trimmings. 

2. Kauila spear 12 feet long. Hulumanu of blue peacock feathers arranged in 
globular form, 22 inches in diameter, with feather base. It belonged to Queen Emma. 
The name Noel .... is partly obliterated. Orange trimmings. 

3. Koa pole 10 feet high. Hulumanu of peculiar form, only 4 inches high and 
34 inches in diameter; of peacock feathers. The conical silk base is 2 feet long. Pink 
and orange trimmings. A striking form, especially when alternating with the more 
common kind. 

4. Kauila spear 12 feet long, with carved end. Hulumanu of green peacock 
feathers arranged in globular form, 22 inches in diameter; base of feathers. Kamaka- 
mao was the name of this kahili. Trimmings orange. 

5. Koa pole 10 feet long. Hulumanu 4 inches high, 22 inches in diameter; of 
small black and white feathers. Princess Pauahi. Purple and lavender trimmings. 

6. Painted pole (to imitate tortoise-shell and ivory) 14 feet high. Hulumanu 
34 inches high, 26 inches in diameter; of black and white feathers. It was in the pos- 
session of Queen Emma and was named Laielohelohe. Purple and white trimmings. 

7. Painted pole 13 feet high. Hulumanu globular, 13 inches in diameter; of 
duck feathers dyed red. Blue, white and cherry trimmings. 

8. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu globular, 15 inches in diameter; of 
soft grey and white feathers. It belonged to Queen Emma and bears the label, 
" Kalelehoano he inoa no ia no ka Moiwahine Ema, o keia na kahili oputi i ukali 
i ko ka Moiwahine hoolewaia ana." Cherry and terra cotta trimmings. 

9. Kaulahoanalani, a metal-sheathed pole 9^ feet high; the alternate sections 
to represent gold and silver. Hulumanu 40 inches high, 15 inches in diameter; of soft 



22 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

grey and white feathers in a close cylinder with red feather base. Given by the half- 
castes to the Prince of Hawaii, son of Kamehameha IV. Cherry and white trimmings. 

10. Painted pole 14^ feet high. Hulumann 15 inches high and 30 inches in 
diameter; of loose gre}' feathers mixed with the red tail feathers of the tropic-bird. 
The name was Kamakaalaneo. Cherry and lavender trimmings. 

11. Kauila spear 10 feet long. Hulumanu 42 inches high and 18 inches in 
diameter; of peacock feathers. Blue and orange trimmings. 

12. Painted pole 14^ feet high. Hnlumanu 24 inches high, 30 inches in 
diameter; of dark fluffy ostrich (?) feathers. The inscription is, " Kaleoaloha, he 
makana wale ia mai ka hulu ; he inoa keia mawaena o ke alii a me kona hakn 
kahili." Figured purple and plain orange base, purple and orange trimmings. 

13. Ash pole ii feet high. Hnlumanu 30 inches high, 18 inches in diameter; 
of black oo feathers. " Kumaka he inoa ia o kona kupunawahine oia ka makuahine 
o Kamalalawalu moi o Maui." Buff and black trimmings. 

14. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 24 inches high, 18 inches in diam- 
eter; of black oo feathers. 

15. Pole wound spirally with blue and white, 10 feet high. Hulumanu 30 
inches high, 10 inches in diameter; of white feathers. Made by H. R. H. Liliuokalani 
for the Princess Pauahi's funeral. Pale blue trimmings. 

16. Heavy kauila pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 30 inches high, and 24 inches 
in diameter; of large feathers dyed red. " Leleoili he inoa keia no Kekelaokalani ko ka 
Moiwahine makuahine; he elua laua nei ma keia inoa." Orange and cherry trimmings. 

17. Ash pole 10 feet high (cut down). Hulumanu 30 inches high, 26 inches 
in diameter; of iwa (Frigate-bird) feathers from the guano islands. H. R. H. Ruta 
Keelikolani. Cherry and orange trimmings. 

18. Pole of inlaid native woods 13 feet high. Hulumanu 36 inches high, 34 
inches in diameter; of tail feathers of the Phacthon rtibricanda. As there are but two 
feathers in the tail many hundred birds must have contributed to this kahili. Princess 
Pauahi. Cherry and white trimmings. 

19. Tortoise-shell and ivory pole, slender and only 8 feet high. Hulumanu 
24 inches high, 24 inches diameter; of yellow oo feathers; with its mate, No. 22, 
perhaps the most brilliant in the collection. H. R. H. Princess Victoria Kamamalu. 
Blue and yellow trimmings to a black feather base. 

20. Kauila spear, turned, 12 feet long. Hnlumanu 38 inches high, 36 inches 
in diameter; yellow oo feathers and red tail feathers of the tropic-bird; black feather 
base. As the tail feathers project 6-8 inches beyond the cylinder of oo feathers they 
are often neatly spliced to eke out the length. Black and orange trimmings. 

21. Ash pole 12 feet high. Hulumanu 30 inches high, 26 inches in diameter; 
of large white feathers. Made for Mrs. Bishop's funeral. Light blue and white trim- 
mings. 



LIST OF LARGE KAHILIS. 23 

22. Tortoise-shell and ivory pole 12 feet high. Hulumanu 38 inches high and 
36 inches in diameter; of yellow oo and the red tail feathers of the tropic bird; black 
feather base. Named Malulani. Mate to No. 20. Black and orange trimmings. 

23. Pole of native inlaid woods 13 feet high. Hulumanu 36 inches high, 34 
inches in diameter; of the red tail feathers of the tropic-bird. Mate to No. 18. Cherry 
and white trimmings. 

24. Tortoise-shell and human bone pole 7 feet high. There are 12 pieces of 
bone representing that number of chiefs of renown, and the humu or principal bone is 
the left shin bone of Kaneoneo, chief of Kauai. Hulumanu 24 inches high and 12 
inches in diameter; grey, white-tipped feathers of the koae; black feather base. Black 
and white trimmings. See Fig. 3, p. 7. 

25. Stained wood pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 30 inches high and 24 inches 
in diameter; of large feathers dyed red. Mate to No. 16. 

26. Tortoise-shell pole 9^ feet high. Hulumanu very old, 24 inches high, 12 
inches in diameter; of red and yellow feathers (oo and iiwi), and black base. Black 
and orange trimmings. 

27. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 36 inches high, 22 inches in diameter; 
of black oo feathers. " Kekuaipoiwa he inoa keia o ke kupunawahine oia ka makua- 
hine o Kamehameha a me Keliimaikai." 

28. Ash pole ii feet high. Hulumanu 36 inches high, 30 inches in diameter; 
of peacock feathers. Princess Pauahi. Pink and yellow trimmings. 

29. Painted pole 14^ feet high. Hulumanu 15 inches high and 30 inches in 
diameter; of loose grey feathers with red tail feathers of the tropic-bird. Mate to No. 10. 

30. Tortoise-shell and ivory pole 9^ feet high. Hulumanu 50 inches high, 
22 inches in diameter; of black ostrich feathers, grey and white tropic -bird base. 
Black and white trimmings. 

31. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 12 inches high, 24 inches in diam- 
eter; of fluffy ostrich feathers. Mate to No. 12. 

32. Tortoise-shell and ivory pole 10 feet high. Hulumanu 27 inches high, 12 
inches in diameter; of red apapane feathers with base of grey and white tropic-bird 
feathers. Cherry and white trimmings. 

33. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 10 inches high, 12 inches in diam- 
eter; grey and white feathers in globular form. Mate to No. 8. 

34. Koa pole n feet high. Hulumanu in globular form 18 inches in diameter; 
of duck feathers dyed red. Light blue and white trimmings. 

35. Painted pole 14 feet high. Hulumanu 28 inches high, 24 inches in diam- 
eter; of grey tropic-bird and green-black iwa feathers. " Keaka he inoa keia no kona 
kupuna a o ka hooholo loa ana o Keakamaha, a ua hea ia i keia kahili." Purple and 
white trimmings. 

36. Koa pole, turned, 10 feet high. Hrlumanu 6 inches high, 24 inches in 



n RIG I I AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 






diameter; of small stiff black and white feathers. Princess Pauahi. Pale blue, pur- 
ple and white trimmings. 

37. Painted pole 14 feet high, with the imposing name Kalanikaumakamana. 
Hulumanu 15 inches high and 30 inches in diameter; of blue peacock feathers. 

Purple and yellow trimmings. 

38. Koa pole, turned, 10 feet high. Hulumanu 8 
inches high, 33 inches in diameter; of peacock feathers. 
Pink silk base, cherry and yellow trimmings. 

39. Painted pole 13 feet high. Hulumanu 36 inches 
high, 24 inches in diameter; of black iwa feathers. "Kawao 
he inoa ia o kekahi kupuna ona; oia ke alii i ana maia i na 
makaainana kona kupapau a puni na moku o Maui ; he alii 
aloha oia i na makaainana, a he aloha na makaainana iaia." 
Orange and black trimmings. 

40-43. Kauila poles, 9^ feet high. Hulumanu 24 
inches high and wide ; of duck feathers dyed red. These four 
kahilis are inscribed as follows: "Pilialoha o na kahili pili 
eha keia ma ka aoao o ka pahu o Kekelaokalani i kona 
hoolewa ia ana, a oia no na pili o ka pahu o ko ka Moi- 
wahine hoolewa ia ana." Cherry ribbons are attached. 
From the inscription it is seen that these four kahilis of dyed 
red feathers which were imported in quantity for hat orna- 
ments, stood at the four corners of the stand on which 
reposed the remains of the mother of Queen Emma, 
Fanny Young. And when Emma, the grand-daughter of 
John Young, an English seaman and friend of Kameha- 
meha L, adopted daughter of Dr. T. C. B. Rooke an English 

physician, wife of Alexander Liholiho (Kamehameha IV.), in turn was gathered to her 

ancestors, these four emblems of royalty, and also of the foreign element so interwoven 

in her life, were held by bearers over her mortal remains as they reposed in state in 

the old Kawaiahao church. 

That kahilis were not always made with feathers is shown by the interesting 

pair in the Bishop Museum which were presented to Queen Emma January 2, 1883, as 

a birthday offering from the women of Wailuku, Maui. Fig. 15. 

44-45. Poles of plain wood 12 feet high. The body of irregular form, made 

from the tips of sugar cane. See the one on the extreme right in the group of 

kahilis. Fig. 8, p. 15. 

The tops of these interesting kahilis are shown more clearl}- in Fig. 15, where they 

remind one of the results of topiarian art seen formerly in old English gardens. The 




FIG. 15. KAHILI OF 
SUGAR CANE. 



SMALL KAHILIS. 25 

measurements given are approximate, as the kahilis are enclosed in sealed cases, but 
they are nearly correct. Notice is taken of the unornamental trimmings, but these 
are not the same the kahilis wore at their last public appearance, for they were 
redecorated by native women immediately before they were brought to their present 
cases and the Director is not responsible for the strange effects presented. 

A kahili handle [B. M. 117] is shown in Fig. 3. It is made of tortoise-shell and 
human bone (those of Kaneoneo, Kalanikupule, Kaiana and other chiefs who perished 
in the battle of Nuuanu in 1795), was given by Paki to Gorham D. Gilman many 
years ago, and by him to the Bishop Museum. Many other handles of tortoise-shell 
and ivory are in the Museum collection and some of them are doubtless handles of 
those kahilis described by the Rev. C. S. Stewart in the account of Kamamalu's 
pageant just quoted. 

No attempt is made to describe the many small kahilis in this Museum ; speci- 
mens are found in most museums ; and here, while they are in great number and variety, 
and often of considerable beauty, they are generally quite modern and made of foreign 
feathers. Sufficient illustration is given in Figs. 8 and 16, and Plate IV. 




FIG. l6. SMALL KAHILIS. 






FEATHER LEIS. 

A lei was a very primitive form of personal decoration. Among the Hawaiians 
the favorite form was a necklace of the fragrant fruits of the screw pine, the lci/ia/a 
" he leihala oe ma ka ai o ka poe naauao thou art a hala necklace about the neck of 
the wise," well expressed the native estimation of this ornament. When made of 
feathers the name could hardly be translated necklace, for the lei of feathers was as 
often worn in the hair and about the head as about the neck : or the longer ones were 
thrown over the shoulder precisely as the long strings of flowers called lei at the present 

day are usually worn. It is best then to adopt the 

Hawaiian word without "doing it into English." 

^ 

rNo feather work required less labor or 
skill than tying feathers around a core (usually 
of several strings of olona or, in modern times, 
of cotton or woolen cord), but unless the work 
was thoroughly done there was danger of disso- 
lution, and in case the lei came apart in windy 
weather the constituent feathers might be harder 
to retrieve than were the gold beads of our great- 
grandmothers when the retaining string acci- 
dentally parted. 

The illustration, Fig. 17, will show how 
the feathers were tied (//<?/(), and while the 

result was rather stiff, there was ample opportunity for display of taste in the ar- 
rangement of feathers both in colors and size. The long feathers, such as were used 
in cloaks and capes were sometimes used, but generally the smaller feathers were re- 
served for this purpose. Large feathers made a very hot ornament ; several strands 
of a smaller diameter were cooler. When not in use the joint of a bambu made a con- 
venient and safe receptacle. Leis of mamo and oo are highly valued at the present da}'. 
A superb one of mamo, an heirloom of the Kamehamehas [B. M. No. 2800] is valued at 
$1000, and another of oo quite as large [B. M. No. 2801] is believed to be worth $800. 
Small ones of oo not more than three-quarters of an inch in diameter and long enough 
to go around the neck ( 18 to 20 inches long) are now valued at more than $200. Of 
these smaller ones the leis of malvaceous flowers (Sirfa fallax} strung and sold in the 
streets of Honolulu are, so far as color goes, a very good imitation. 

The flat bauds of peacock or pheasant, or even of dyed feathers, are of course 
modern, often poorly made by sewing the feathers to a strip of cotton cloth, and used 
by natives and others for hat bands. 




FIG. 17. 



THE GROWING END OF 
A LEI. 



FEATHER LEIS. 



27 



The true feather leis are generally of uniform cylindrical section and either 
monochromatic (especially in the case of the more costly feathers) or made up of alter- 
nating bands or spirals of mixed colors. In some cases leis have longer feathers 
inserted at regular intervals giving a pleasing variety of form. Figs. 18 and 19 will 
show some of the leis in this Museum. 





FIG. l8. HAWAIIAN FEATHER LEIS. 



LIST OF FEATHER LEIS IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM. 

[The numbers are those the specimens bear in the Museum Catalogue.] 

2800. Mamo feathers of the choicest quality ; made from three ancient leis be- 
longing to the Kamehameha family ; 3 inches in diameter, 24 inches long. 

2801. Oo feathers, large and of brilliant yellow. While the property of the 
Government it was sent to an exposition in Paris and there ruined by the upsetting of 
a bottle of ink ; the stains cannot be removed by any ordinary washing. This lei is 
with the preceding the largest I have seen either in museums or private hands; 
24 inches long. 

2802. Mamo under feathers, medium si/e, down}'; 22 inches long. 

2803. Mamo of even size; 24 inches loii", 



2 8 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

2804. Mamo, small ; three-quarters of an inch by 20 inches long. 

2805. Mamo, medium size with long narrow inserts; 22 inches long. 

2806. Mamo, similar to the last ; 25 inches long. 

2807. Mamo, of medium size; 21 inches long. 

2808. Apparently dyed to imitate mamo ; 1 8 inches long. 

2809. Mamo, close and stiff, few long exserts ; 19 inches long. 

2810. Mamo, with three short spirals of black oo and apapane; very elegant; 
21 inches long. 

2811. Mamo and iiwi, narrow spiral ; 26 inches long. 

2812. Oo and apapane in narrow spirals; 23 inches long. 

2813. Mamo and iiwi, three sections of each, medium size; 19 inches long. 

2814. Oo and apapane, four sections each; 21 inches long. 

2815. Mamo and ou, six sections each, orange and dark green; 17 inches long. 

2816. Mamo and black oo, five sections each, with long exserts, elegant; 
24 inches long. 

2817. j Oo, long feathers; 20 inches long. 

2818. I Oo, mate to the last; 19 inches long. 

2819. ( Oo and trimmed green feathers ( ?), three sections of each ; 25 inches long. 

2820. I Like the last; 23 inches long. 

2821. Yellow, dyed, with long crimson exserts, medium size; 24 inches long. 

2822. Mamo and ou, three sections of each; 23 inches long. 

2823. Mamo and oo, three sections each; 24 inches long. 

2824. J Oo and ou (pauku), three sections of each; 25 inches long. 

2825. t Mate to the last, but 23 inches long. 

2826. In sections arranged mamo, ou, mamo, apapane, mamo, ou ; 24 inches long. 

2827. Oo and apapane, three sections each ; 19 inches long. 

2828. J Oo and iiwi, three sections each; 17 inches long. 

2829. ( Mate to the last, but 20 inches long. 

2830. Oo and iiwi ; 23 inches long. 

2831. Mamo and iiwi, fifteen sections each; 24 inches long. 

2832. Mamo and iiwi, sixteen sections each; 23 inches long. 

2833. Oo and iiwi, sixteen sections each; 24 inches long. 

2834. ( Oo and apapane, four sections each, very small and stiff; 21 inches long. 

2835. I Mate to the last, but 23 inches long. 



Three crimson and three green (dyed?) sections, long open feathers; 

23 inches long. 
Three green, two crimson sections (unfinished), mate to the last; 



2836. 

2837. | 

15 inches long. 
6727. Oo and iiwi, three sections; 24 inches long. 



MODEL OF ANUU. 



29 



6728. Mamo, long open feathers with a few tinged with black; 23 inches long. 

6729. Mamo and apapane, four sections each with long exserts ; 21 inches long. 

It will be noticed in this list that leis are often made in pairs, but one slightly 
longer than the other, the longer one being twisted around the other when worn in 
the hair. 




FIG. 19. HAWAIIAN FEATHER LEIS. 



TEMPLE ORACLE: ANUU. 

A MOST interesting relic of Captain Cook's visit to Kealakekua and his deifica- 
tion there is preserved with other objects from that voyage in the Hofmuseum at 
Vienna, where Dr. Heger kindly allowed me to examine it. Cook, it will be remem- 
bered, was regarded by the Hawaiians as superhuman and the apokatastasis of Lono, 
a deified chief of former days. The account of his worship is given at length in 
Cook's Voyages, and the rather nauseating details need not be repeated here. The 
heiau or temple in which the Cook apotheosis took place is still extant, although ruinous, 
but the frail edifice that in outer appearance took the place of a church steeple has of 
course disappeared ; and although I have often searched on this and other heiaus for 
traces of its location the general surface of all these is now so disturbed that no signs 
remain. Fortunately Cook gives some details both as to structure and appearance and 
his account of the first landing on Kauai may be quoted : 

"As we ranged down the coast from the East, in the ships, we had observed at every village 
one or more elevated white objects, like pyramids or rather obelisks : and one of these which I 
guessed to be at least fifty feet high, was very conspicuous from the ships' anchoring station, and 
seemed to be at no great distance up this valley [ Waimea] . To have a nearer inspection of it was 
the principal object of my walk. Our guide perfectly understood that we wished to be conducted to 
it, but it happened to be so placed that we could not get at it, being separated from us by the pool of 
water. However there being another of the same kin j within our reach about half a mile off, upon 



HRK.HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



our side of the valley, we set out to visit that. The moment we got to it we saw that it stood in a 
burying ground or morai : the resemblance of which in many respecls to those we were so well ac- 
quainted with at other islands in this ocean, and particularly Otaheite [Tahiti], could not but strike 
us. and we also soon found that the several parts that compose it were called by the same names. It 
was an oblong space, of considerable extent, surrounded by a wall of stone about four feet high. The 
space enclosed was loosely paved with smaller stones ; and at one end of it stood what I called the 
pvramid, but in the language of the island, is named liana iianoo \_hc a>ntu~\ t which appeared evidently 

to be an exact model of the larger one observed by us from the ships. 
It was about four feet square at the base and about twenty feet 
high. The four sides were composed of small poles interwoven 
with twigs and branches, thus forming an indifferent wickerwork 
hollow or open within from bottom to top. It seemed to be in rather 
a ruinous state, but there were sufficient remaining marks to show 
that it had originally been covered with a thin light gray cloth [kapa] 
which these people, it would seem, consecrate to religious purposes; 
as we could see a good deal of it hanging in different parts of the 
morai, and some of it had been forced upon me when I first landed. 
On each side of the pyramid were long pieces of wickerwork." l8 

This obelisk-like structure was an important part of 
all large heiaus, although not found in small private temples 
dedicated to. personal gods, and was generally built of 
bambu to a height of twenty feet or more and covered with 
kapa. Its plan was rectangle but not a square. A single 
door in one of the longer sides, closed with a curtain, admitted 
the priest or chief to the interior where the voice of the god 
of the temple (luakini) was supposed to be audible. Cook 
entered one of these and with the priest climbed some dis- 
tance up the frail staging. The priests of Cook's heiau 
(at Kealakekua on Hawaii) were well-to-do and influential 
men, were his friends to the last, although he destroyed their 
houses and goods and wantonly pillaged the temple, in his 
MODEL OK AN desire for firewood removing the sacred fence, and it is 
probable that they had made for him this unique model of 

the abode of the god-head. We have no other history of this model before it arrived in 
Europe. It was sold with other of the curiosities brought home by the expedition and 
passed to Austria, finally finding a home in the beautiful Hofmuseum. 

It is neatly made of basket work covered with red feathers of the iiwi and trim- 
med on the vertical edges with the yellow oo. The doorway on one of the wider sides 
is cased with tortoise-shell to which time has given the coloration of rusty iron. The 
total height is t \\x-nty-three and a half inches. In the picture given by Cook's artist, 
Wiiber, of a temple on Kauai the frame of a similar structure is shown. As the cov- 
ering was very perishable, it is probable that it was renewed whenever the oracle was con- 
sulted, generally at the time of human sacrifices. With the Hawaiian collection at Vienna 
is a low-crowned, broad-brimmed hat of European form, once covered with feathers 

"Coofi Thud (V;v,uv. i;s. ): II., joo. 




FIG. 20. 




various 



FIG. 21. KU- 
KAILIMOKU. 



KUKAILIMOKU. 

THE Polynesian trinity of Kane, Ku and Lono, worshipped with 

attributes and together or individually, developed on the Hawaiian Group 
a number of variations from the Polynesian originals (as indeed was the 
case elsewhere), and from Ku was derived (not descended) the war-like 
deity especially honored by the great Umi,' 9 and later by Kamehameha 
who in other things as in parity of religion resembled his renowned prede- 
cessor. One recalls with Mr. Ellis 20 that Taire [Kaili] was a famous war 
god of Tahiti. Kuakimotumotu is the Maori name of a cluster of stars 
placed on the breast of Rangi [Lani, the heavens] by his son Tane 
[Kane]. Kamehameha was a religious man and from his war-like youth 
to the last scenes in his very active life Kukailimoku was the god to whom due rites 
were always paid. Hence it is not surprising that a number of effigies of this god, 
made in the most costly way known to the Hawaiians, of feather work should have 
survived the general destruction of idols after the accession of Liholiho. 

It can hardly be out of place to trace briefly the conquest of the Group since 
Kukailimoku was considered the directing deity. On the death of Kalaniopuu, King 
of Hawaii at the time of Cook's visit, the kingdom was left to Kiwalao, his son by 
Kalola, and to his foster son Kamehameha jointly, although the son was to be moi in 
chief. This was at the beginning of 1782 and before the year was half gone Kameha- 
meha had slain his foster brother in the battle of Mokuohai. When Cook landed 
Kalaniopuu was king of all Hawaii and of East Maui, Kahekili of West Maui, Kuma- 
koa of Molokai, Keliiaa of Lanai, Kahahana of Oahu, and Keawe of Kauai. By the 
death of Kiwalao Kamehameha became nominal king of Hawaii, but by this time 
Kahekili had extended his power all over Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Oahu, and his 
brother Kaeo was king of Kauai. All this change was not effected without great loss 
of life, and part of the great decrease of population noticed by Vancouver in the four- 
teen years since his visit as sub-officer of Cook was due to these wars, which if not 
always very bloody certainly at times kept the average a high one. After the con- 
quest of Oahu Kahekili avenged a conspiracy against his rule by so bloody a punish- 
ment that the Ka-po-luku or night of slaughter is said to have choked with the bodies 
of the slain the stream of Niuhelewai, just west of Honolulu; and at Moanalua a house 
was built of the bones of the victims. Another terrible slaughter was at the hill of Kau- 
wiki in Hana, East Maui, the result of which was to make Kahekili master of all Maui. 
When Kamehameha heard of the capture of East Maui he at once prepared to 
reconquer it and collected a considerable fleet of canoes at Kamilo in sight of the oppo- 

'JTmi was the son of Uloa, King of Hawaii. For his romantic Contributions of a venerable savage In tin- and:-,,/ hislwryof Hit Hawaiian 
story see Ricits d'un I'ieu.r Sauvage pour servir A I'histoiir aucifnnt dc Islands; />'</", 1868: by the present author. 
Hawaii, pat Jules Rem\ ; or a translation of th$ same work entitled " /'alvtienan Racaiches, I., 276. 

(3O 



3 2 URIC, 1 1 AM ON HAWAIIAN 1-l-A'H I KR WORK. 

site shore and under the shadow of Haleakala, the " House of the Sun," that vast vol- 
cano that forms East Maui. To the invader Kahekili sent his younger brother Alapai 
with this remarkable message: "Say to him 'wait until the black kapa [shroud] cover 
me and my funeral rites shall be performed then come and receive your kingdom with- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ out the peril of war' for indeed he is my son and 

from me he received his name after that of my 

elder brother." 21 

Even Hawaii was not to become one king- 

dom without many a struggle. Keawemauhili, 

uncle of Kiwalao, had been the chief adviser in the 

course which led 

to the disaffec- 

tion and death 

of his nephew, 

and after that 

event he held 

court in the dis- 

trict of Hilo, 

while Keoua- 

kuahuula, half- 

brother of Kiwa- 

lao, ruled Kau, 

both disputing 

the authority of 

Kamehameha. 

A long and 

bloody war resulted in the submission of the king of 
Hilo who assisted Kamehameha in his attack on Ka- 
hekili, a proceeding which roused the ire of Keoua who 
immediately marched against his former ally and 
killed him in the battle of Alae. In the year 1790 
Kamehameha invaded Maui and defeated Kalaniku- 
pule, son of Kahekili with great slaughter in the battle of lao. While this was going on 
in Maui, Keoua, hot with the victory over Keawemauhili, marched into the district of 
Hamakua, Kamehameha's territory. This hastened the return of Kamehameha and 
after several battles, in which gunpowder was used on both sides, Keoua retreated to Hilo. 
While marching thence to renew the contest his army passing by the volcano of Kilauea 
was partly destroyed by the last explosive eruption recorded from that crater. 22 

Ml i- K<-n-i:illy l.elu-ve.l that Kenuakalanikiipuapaikaliinimii, < a full account of that eruption and the destruaion of Keoua's 

nephew .jf Alapainui. \va> the father of Kamehameha. lmt of this no force.- -<< .\',,t,'> on thr I W,i/,v> f Ih,- Hawaiian Inlands. : II 'Mi a ///.>. 

man can know. The practice of adoption still farther complicated Am ,,/' t/ifii !</</ AV/v/v. Hy William T. Brigham. Boston, 1868 , 

genealogies. j n tn( . .v,-wi';-.i ,<f ihf Il<>*.tu,, Sn,-i,-h- ,if .\alm-al Hilary, I., 404. 




FIG. 22. 




2 'i 



KUKAILIMOKU. 



33 



In the meantime Kamehameha was residing at Kawaihae and a priestly oracle 
had declared that a temple built on the hill Punokohala in that place would avert the 
perils of war and insure the final conquest of the group. The king built the heiau 
called from the name of the hill, and as each part was finished bathed it with the blood 
of many human sacrifices offered to Kukailimoku. 23 
From the dedication of this heiau his star was in the 
ascendant. 

Kahekili and his brother Keawe from Kauai 
fought the naval battle of Kepuwahaulaula off the 
coast of Hamakua, near Waimanu, and were decis- 
ively routed by Ka- 
mehameha. The 
aged Kahekili re- 
treated to Oahu 
where he died in 
July, 1 794, leaving 
the remains of his 
kingdom to his son 
Kalaiiikupule. Be- 
fore the end of 1791 
Keoua Kuahuula 
was treacherously 
slain at Kawaihae 
by Keeaumokupa- 
paiaaheaheand his 
body offered on the 
altar of Puukohala 

to Kukailimoku. After more than nine years of 
almost constant warfare Kamehameha was at last in 
fact king of Hawaii. 

In the spring of 1795 Kamehameha invaded 
Oahu and in the battle of Nuuanu defeated Kalani- 
kupule and his allies : the king fled to the mountains 
but was captured and his body offered to Kukailimoku. Kaiana, who had attained feme 
prominence by a voyage to China with Captain Meares, and who had deserted Kameha- 
meha while on this expedition to Oahu, was also slain, and the bones of these two warriors 
are believed to be among those decorating the kahili handles now in the Bishop Mufcum. 
Fig. 3, p. 7. In 1800 Kaumualii, king of Kauai, came to Kamehameha at Waikiki and 

2 3 For a good account of the building of this last great temple of tnigralmHs, mnl ih<- .1 it, r< -at llislm \ </ //// /A?;, uti'tiit [>,,</>!, /,< tli. tin:. * 

the old worship, and the same method was always used, so far as we of Kamfhawilia /. I!y Abraham l-'ol namlcr. London, isSn. II.. j.';. 
are informed, see An Amount </ ///- I'nh'in^Uiti AV/.v. /A origin and 
MKMOIHS B. I'. B. MI-SKVM, VOL. I., No. i. 3. 





FIG. 25. 



24. 



34 



/>' A' /(,//. \M ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



arranged for the posthumous cession of his kingdom, and thus the sovereignty of the 
whole group came to the foster son of Kalaniopuu. After suppressing an insurrection 
on Hawaii peace came at last to the chief, and he devoted his energies to promoting the 
comfort of his people: he was also friendly to foreigners and protected their commerce. 
Among his orders was one to the bird-catchers: "When you take a bird do not strangle 
it, but having plucked the few feathers for which it was sought, set it free that others 
may grow in their place." They inquired, "Who will possess the bird set free ? You 

are an old man." He added, "My sons will possess 
the birds hereafter." 2 < 

As death drew near and the priests could not 
heal the increasing infirmity of the king, a special 
house was built for Kukailimoku at Kailua, on Ha- 
waii, where the king was living at the time, and 
human sacrifices were proposed, but the dying king 
declared, "The men are sacred to the king" (his son 
Liholiho). And so the head of network covered with 
red feathers which had been his deity, and the object 
of all his prayers and .offering, was held to still as 
Kamehameha went to his grave. There is little 
doubt that the image once in the cabinet of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions in Boston, and now in the Bishop Museum 
[No. 7855] was the particular one to which the 
dying king turned for unavailing help. Certainly 
those carried away by Cook's officers and by Van- 
couver, and now in London and Vienna could not 
have been, and it is improbable that the idol of the 
founder of the family would have been destroyed in 
the general destruction of the temples and gods in the 
beginning of the reign of Liholiho. 

And how is it that we have still extant a number of these feather-covered heads 
of varied form and more or less repulsive features ? I do not know that there are more 
than those now stored in the museums of Vienna, London and Honolulu, but it is 
quite possible that others were hidden in caves at the time of the overthrow of the an- 
cient Hawaiian religious system, as tradition claims. It must be remembered that 
although to the present generation Kukailimoku is known as Kamehameha's war-god, 
the deity had been the object of an ancient cult, 25 and many images may have been made 
in various parts of Hawaii, and the process of manufacture, as will be seen below, lent 

*///i/rv "/ Ihr Saniln-iih Island*. My Sheldon nibble. I,ahaina- Many authorities claim that this god idea was not anterior to the time 

of I'mi, :m<l was naturally adopted by the ambitious young Kamrha- 
Knk:iili iin.Vii in Hawaiian imans-Ru that seizes tin- islands. llicha as a suitable prnnmtor of his designs. 




i-ic,. 26. 



KUKAILIMOKU. 



35 



itself readily to individual variation. How did Cook and Vancouver obtain possession 
of these images ? In Cook's case it is not improbable that his supposed divinity would 
influence the aged king Kalaniopuu to present an image of a brother god ; or it is not 
at all inconsistent with known facts that the image may have been stolen, for the 
morality of those times seemed to permit "the spoiling of the Egyptians" while abusing 
the latter as arrant thieves. This image, now at Vienna, is certainly the most kindly 
looking of its congeners, not at all war-like or repulsive. 

When Vancouver returned to Hawaii Kalaniopuu had gone to his long rest and 
the young Kamehameha was reigning over the por- 
tion of the island at which he touched, and the wily 
king may have been quite willing to have rival im- : 
ages well out of the way ; and certainly after Van- 
couver's visit no more of these god-heads appeared, 
while the particular one entrusted by the dying 
Kalaniopuu to his foster son and successor in the 
priestly office was more assiduously worshipped than 
ever. Kamehameha's god was removed from vulgar 
sight soon after Liholiho's defiance to the priesthood 
and the kapu, and from the cave where it was hidden 
it only emerged to go to the cabinet of the American 
Board of Commissioners for foreign Missions. It is 
unfortunate that so little is known of the personality 
of these Hawaiian deities, but so great was the shame 
for all these native customs instilled into the minds 
of the early converts by the American missionaries 
that it was almost impossible, even a generation ago, 
to get details of worship or ritual from Hawaiiaus, 
they had made a business of forgetting; it was 
"no mi ricordo" to all questions in that direction. L 
I have frequently conversed with old Hawaiians, both 
on Hawaii and on Molokai, who had been familiar with 

the rites of the ancient cult, but they always showed restraint when speaking of them. 
They described the processions and positions of priests and idols, but passed over the 

human sacrifices briefly. 

The structure of these peculiar images is simple. A wickerwork, neatly made 
of the long and very durable aerial roots of the ie-ie (Freycinetia arborea) in such a way 
as to show the general form and features, is strongly braced by hoops or ribs within, and 
then covered with a tightly fitting net of olona to which feathers were attached, as in 
the feather cloaks which will be described later. R/>c! iiwi was the basis to which yellow 
and black oo was added for embellishment or to demark features. In some cases human 




KIG. 27. 



I1RH.HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATII1-.R 1 1 'OX A'. 



liair crowned the head, in others the mahiole or crest. The eyes were of pearl shell, 
and in those in the Bishop Museum are attached in two ways by carved knobs of dark 
wood representing pupils. Fig. 29. In one (A) the stem of the knob is perforated by 
conical holes whose apices meet, and through the hole thus formed a cord of coconut fibre 
makes fast the whole pseudo optical device. In the other (B) the end of the stem is 
left somewhat larger than the rest to hold in a cord of sinnet. One or the other of these 
methods prevail, I believe in all cases, except the one called Vancouver's, Fig. 24, where 
there is no pupil. The teeth were those of dogs saved from the priestly feasts. Ears 
were represented by small patches of black or yellow, sometimes by both colors united. 

These gods were carried in battle on kauila 
poles, most of them having no other sufficient sup- 
port, and being also too small to be placed over the 
head of a priest, as has been suggested. 2 '' An inspec- 
tion of the illustrations will make this plain. 

The details of the worship, so far as they are 
known, need not be entered into here ; but it may be 
stated that human sacrifices 
were a sad adjunct to all im- 
portant rites. Many hun- 
dred victims are reported, 
although the true number 
cannot now be determined. 
I am inclined to connect 
with the worship of Kuka- 

ilimoku the two curious mats now in the British 
Museum and shown in PL VI. I cannot claim any 
satisfactory authority for the opinion, but I have 
endeavored to find some use for these elaborate mat- 
like objects, on the supposition that they are of 
Hawaiian origin, and cannot find that any of the 
suggested uses are allowable, whether dress, orna- 
ment or armor, standard or insignia. They are flat, stiff, not very solidly bound to- 
gether, and the patterns quite unlike those used in the feather cloaks: there are, more- 
over, no signs of attaching cords or braids by which they might be joined to other 
objects. Now it was the custom in worship to place the image of a god, unless of too 
large size, on a mat of pandanus covered with red kapa, and on the same mat the offer- 
ings were made. This custom has been retained to the present day in the poor rem- 
nants of heathen worship that appear sporadically among the people. We have in the 

recent i>ul.!i, -ati.ni ..n Hawaiian feather work it has been were not such as would re<|iiir< masks of any kind, kast of all til..-, 
.1:il, .1 ih.-il Hi. I, :iil,, i , on ,, ,1 heads an dam-inn masks." I do will] repulsive features. The Iliads in ,,m stion could not have l.ceii 
not know any anthoiitv f,,r Hi, statement. The Hawaiian dances used (or any such purpose. 





Me,. 29. 



28. 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE VI. 








FEATHER MATS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



LIST OF KUKAILIMOKU. 37 

Bishop Museum all the paraphernalia of an offering to a rude stone god, and the mat 
is covered with Turkey-red cotton, on one end of which the god stands flanked by a 
bottle of whiskey and one of gin, while offerings of awa root with fern and dracsena 
leaves are before him, and intermingled are various ancient relics to bring to the mod- 
ern kahuna all the influence or mana of the ancient days. Is it unreasonable to sup- 
pose that a god, distinguished by the material always used in his construction, should 
be placed on a mat of the same costly feather work, either when deposited in the 
sanctuary or when used as the object of prayers and supplications ? Until I can see 
some better use for these mats I must be allowed to appropriate them to the worship 
of Kukailimoku. 

The two mats are made of very short red, yellow and black feathers attached to 
rods which are bound together not unlike the structure of some of the helmets. The 
ornamentation is in transverse bands of various widths, either plain or elaborately 
figured as may best be seen in the photographs which Mr. H. Oldland, of the British 
Museum has kindly made for me. The loose cords attached rather irregularly to each 
end are not of sufficient strength to be used as fastenings. The length of the larger 
one is 22^ inches, the breadth 14^ inches; while the other is 22 inches long and 
12 inches wide. The design seems much more Mexican than Hawaiian. 

LIST OF KUKAILIMOKU. 

i. First I place the probable god of Kamehameha. This is 27 inches high over 
all, while the crest is 4^2 inches, and the diameter of the base of neck 9 inches; weight, 
3 Ibs. i oz. The frame is a compact basket work of ie-ie roots made in one piece and 
strengthened by four hoops. This is closely covered with a net of olona, to which are 
attached red feathers of the iiwi, except on the top of the crest and the base of the neck, 
which are yellow oo, and the eyebrows, nostrils and two small square spots two inches 
behind the eyes (intended to mark ears), which are black oo. It is in good preserva- 
tion except at the base of the neck. The dog teeth number 94, 49 in the upper jaw 
and 45 in the lower; the open space between is filled by a red feather tongue. The 
teeth are broken at the base and bound in place by a firm cord about the middle, but 
the points are intact. This head was hidden in a cave in Kona for many years, and at 
last as its hold on the superstition of its kahu or keeper weakened under the influence 
of the new religion, it was brought as an offering to the missionary of the station, and 
through him transferred in 1850 to the museum of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions in Boston: from this collection it came to the Bishop 
Museum by purchase. The eyes are thick pieces of pearl shell pierced through the 
middle where a round knob of black wood is inserted in the manner shown in Fig. 
29, H. Fig. 22, p. 32. 

2. A smaller head, shown in Fig. 21, which was engraved from a photograph 
taken by the author in 1865 when the idol was in the cabinet of Oahu College at 



BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



Punahou. It was then in fair condition, but now is greatly dilapidated. The height 
is 22 inches. Instead of a crest there is a wig of human hair of a reddish tone, and 
the mahiole is long and curly. The substructure is of the usual form and material, 
and the olona net is now much torn and loosened from the wicker work ; while the 
feathers, which were originally red, have mostly disappeared. The eyebrows were 

black and the base of the neck yellow. Eyes as in 
the previous description, but the pupil fastened in 
in the way shown in Fig. 29, A. There are 74 dog 
teeth, 40 in the upper and 34 in the lower jaw; 
these are all filed at the points, or perhaps worn. 
The base is broken and without trace of feathers. 
Given to the Bishop Museum by the trustees of 
' Oahu College. 

3. A head originally in the Cook collec- 
tion, now in the kairserlich-kouiglich naturhis- 
torische Hofmuseum at Vienna. Of all known 
Kukailimoku this has the most benignant expres- 
sion, if such a quality can be predicated of an 
object so removed from correct human form. It is 
in good order and quite like No. i in construction. 
Red, with yellow trimmings and black eyebrows. 

Fig- 23- 

4. A curious variation, Fig. 24, originally 
in the collection of Mr. Geo. Goodman Hewitt, 
surgeon's first mate on Vancouver's ship. It re- 
mained in the possession of his family until 1890, 
when the collection of which it was a part was 
purchased by the late Sir A. Wollaston Franks, 

and by him presented to the British Museum. The frame is 39 inches high, covered 
with neatly-fitting olona net, to which are attached in the usual way red iiwi for the 
principal covering, the crest and base of neck being of the usual yellow oo. A yellow 
and black square marks the place for the ears, and there is a narrow black line of oo 
on each side of the curious projection beneath the crest. The right eye alone remains, 
a crescent of pearl shell not perforated as in all the other examples, and so having no 
black pupil, but now cracked across the middle. The teeth are from dogs, and there 
is a very prominent "Adam's apple" on the long neck. Mr. Dalton, of the British 
Museum, has given a colored figure of this curious variety. 27 




>, an Klhn,, K ,,it>lii,al COtltCtim }'"" ""' " '' ' "</ '!/" 
.\../M .-ttnnifa (/,,. rs/viial/r California), Hawaii ami Tahiti, 
l,:,n,,;i ,l,i,n, K Ihf \ ;!;, ../ (',(/./,/, 1,1,1,1,1,-.',,, ipft-i-if,, ami now 



'" '* Urili^h .l/v/<,. Ily (). M. Dalton 
If l:llino^,aphic, X., PI. XVI. 



Inln iiuti,mai,'* 



LIST OF KUKAILIMOKU. 39 

5. Head with human hair braided in the centre of the forehead. Red, with 
broad, yellow base to the short neck. As may be seen in Fig. 26, it has a very ex- 
pressive countenance. Height, 24 inches. The eyes have very large pupils of wood. 
British Museum. 

6. Image with low forehead and very prominent black eyebrows; base of neck, 
as usual, yellow. Height, 32 inches. Eyes very large, with wooden knobs; the pearl- 
shell of the right eye is broken through the middle. British Museum. Fig. 25. 

7. Very long, slim neck, adding greatly to the height (41 inches), and giving 
a snake-like physiognomy. Yellow covers the crest and sides, extending to the neck. 
British Museum. Fig. 28. 

8. Long neck and extensive crest. Great development of the head immedi- 
ately under the crest accompanied by an atrophy of the lower portion. The eyes are 
long and narrow pearl-shells, the right one in two portions. Covering mainly of red. 
From the London Missionary Society; deposited in the British Museum. Fig. 27. 

9. To these may be added the one figured in Cook's Voyages, which differs 
from any of the others in the hollow head and horizontal eye. It is not known what 
became of this. It resembles No. 4. Fig. 30. 




\ 



M AH HUE OR HELMETS. 



IN every day life the ancient Hawaiian trusted to the protection of his thick, 
coarse hair and wore no hat. When the conch-shell trumpet called to battle, however, 
the chiefs donned a head-covering both ornamental and useful. While it was firm 
and thick enough to resist a severe blow, it was remarkable for beauty of form. So 
graceful were its lines that writers have likened it to the helmets of the Greeks and 
wondered at the connection. Did the Hawaiians borrow the form from the Spaniards 

or other Europeans ? To this we must answer 
decidedly no. Neither Spaniards nor other 
Europeans wore Greek helmets at the time 
when intercourse would have been possible ; nor 
is it probable that any of these voyagers knew 
anything about Greek helmets. It would be 
more reasonable to look in the opposite direc- 
tion, to New Guinea, where the forms of head- 
covering varied greatly it is true, but often pre- 
sented a form far more analagous to the Ha- 
waiian mahiole than anything we find on Greek 
medals, coins or sculptures. Figure 31 will 
show the connection. It came from the north- 
ern coast of New Ireland [B. M 1664], a region 
where many Polynesian colonies are found. 
Dr. von Luschan has figured another from the 
same locality in his interesting essay on the 
influence of foreign art on African productions. 28 
Indeed caps with crests are common enough all over the world, but the old 
Hawaiian had another excuse for the form of his head covering. It was a custom to 
cut the hair close at the sides of the head leaving a ridge of stiff, erect hair, like a 
mane on the top of the scalp, and this mane-like ridge was called mahiole, the same 
name that was given to a helmet. Originally this personal decoration was a mark of 
rank, but like all such exclusive tokens was in course of time seized by the aspiring 
democracy. At the period when feather helmets were in vogue the mahiole was a token 
of chieftainship, and if covered by any cap, the latter would repeat the token. Hence the 
skullcap was supplemented by a ridge which often, as will be seen in the illustrations, 
became an imposing crest. Cook and his companions were much impressed by the 
beauty of this helmet and the accompanying feather cloak; the picture given in his 

Waterman* ///,/,-,/, i, fu ,, t i,,;, Umatihtfttn, Sffemier, i 




KIG. 31. 



/.>,,,/,., /.:,//,, , .I 



,.,.|i.x v,m i 



FEATHER M AH/OLE OR HELMETS. 41 

Voyages, Fig. 32, shows well a good specimen, which, by the way, closely resembles 
one now in the British Museum. 

The structure was in general of wicker work made of ie-ie or other material, 
often beautifully plaited, as will be seen in the illustrations given. Over this was 
neatly fitted a net of olona to which feathers were attached, usually red with crest of 
yellow and lines of black or green. In many of the helmets that have survived this 




FIG. 32. HAWAIIAN WARRIOR, COOK S VOYAGE. 

net has gone as well as the feathers, and no traces are left of the once splendid cover- 
ing. The remaining frame is so well made in many instances that I was once per- 
suaded that the specimens in question were never intended to be covered with feathers, 
but I am now convinced that all were covered with feathers or human hair. In some 
cases the crest is partly detached from the cap and held in place by spurs; and in several 
the crest has been so modified that only a row of knobs remains: several of this latter 
form are in European museums, but none have the feathers left; so I am unable to verify 
my opinion that these knobs were really the base or support of feather plumes. It is 



42 



B RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



remarkable that so many helmets remain, as they were not so easily preserved or 
hidden from an enemy as were the feather cloaks, but it will be seen by the following 
list that many are still preserved in museums, while doubtless some few are still in 
private hands. 

LIST OF HELMETS OR MAHIOLE. 

i. Mahiole of Kaumualii, King of Kauai, who died May 26, 1822. This is the 
only helmet whose former owner is definitely known, and it is in most perfect preserva- 
tion, in fact it is precisely in the same condition as when last worn. It was given, with two 
feather capes (Nos. 14 and 78 of the list) to the Rev. Samuel Whitney, one of the first 
company of American missionaries, by Kaumualii when he was taken a state prisoner 
to Honolulu. Mr. Whitney, whose station was at Waimea, Kauai, was skilled in the 




FIG. 33. 



FIG. 34. 



FIG. 35. 



healing art and had been of considerable service to the king in that way, and the royal 
prisoner, who supposed he was going to his death, expressed his acknowledgment by 
this offering of what was perhaps his most valuable personal property. Preserved in 
the Whitney home for half a century, it was sold on the death of Mrs. Whitney, in 
1872, Hon. Chas. R. Bishop, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, purchasing it and giving 
it to the Government Museum, from which collection it came to the Bishop Museum 
after having been exhibited at the Paris Exposition in 1889, and in other places. The 
wicker work is finely made and very substantial although light (it weighs 14 ounces); 
the body and sides of the crest are covered with red iiwi feathers, the top of the crest 
is of yellow oo, and there are small patches of black oo on the front edge and a yellow 
spot over each ear: these last do not show in the figure, Plate I., which was made by 
Lowy in Vienna from a negative by the author. The extreme height, as shown in 
the plate, is 15^ inches; width, 6^. inches, and depth 10 inches. Museum No. 959. 
The feathers are attached dire&ly to the frame without the usual nac. 



LIST OF HELMETS. 



43 



2. Mahiole from the Vancouver collection given by the trustees of the British 
Museum in exchange. Its form is quite different from the last, as may be seen in 
Fig. 2, p. 5. Bands of red iiwi, green ou and yellow oo, nearly obliterated by long 
neglect, must have made this a very conspicuous ornament of some Hawaiian warrior. 
The double plaited crest would have resisted a powerful blow. Height, 1 1 inches; 
width, 7^4 inches; depth, 9 inches. Museum No. 958. The attachment of the feathers 
is directly to rods, on one side of which they are bound much in the way feathers are 
bound to leis. The frame of the helmet is as usual of ie-ie basket work, and to the top 
of the crest no less than eighteen of the rods are fastened, while the sides of the crest 
have twelve : on the body of the helmet the varying curvature is followed by long or 
short rods. The succession of colors from the front is red, green, red, black, yellow. 
A narrow border of black and yellow follows the edge. 




FIG. 36. OUTLINES OF HELMETS IN THE BERLIN MUSEUM. 

3. Mahiole from Cook's collection, now in the k. k. naturhistorische Hofmu- 
seum, Vienna: red, with yellow crest; few feathers remaining. The front of the crest 
is set rather farther back than usual. Fig. 33. 

4. Mahiole from the same collection and now in the same depositary. The 
body is green and the crest red and yellow, although few feathers remain. Fig. 34. 

5. Mahiole also from Cook collection and with the others at Vienna. No 
feathers now remain, although originally it was covered in the manner of No. 2. The 
disposition of the covering rods is shown in the illustration, Fig. 35. 

6. Mahiole of red, except the yellow top of crest and a narrow black and yellow 
line at the juncture of the body and crest and along the border. This helmet is rather 
soiled, but in a good state of preservation. Nationalmuseet, den Ethnografiske Sam- 
ling, Copenhagen. ("Fjerkappe og Hjoelm" on the label.) The statement in the 
excellent handbook, which is in Danish, that the "Kongens Kappe var forabejdet alene 



44 



BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 





af gule Fjer," the King's helmet is all of yellow feathers, while those of the upper 
chiefs are of red with a yellow border, is without foundation. 

7. Mahiole of red, with the usual yellow crest, with one black stripe on the 
right side at base of crest, and two on the left side. 

Feathers mostly gone. The form is shown in A 
of Fig. 36. Now in the museum fur Volkerkunde, 
Berlin/ 9 

8. Mahiole with traces of feathers in the 
same collection. Fig. 36, B. In both this and 
the next the rod structure was used, and it is so 
general that I am inclined to think that .when the 
net or nac was used it was because of a plentiful 
supply of torn or otherwise disfigured capes. 

9. Mahiole of the rod structure and traces 
of feathers. Fig. 36, c. Also in the Berlin Museum. 

10. Mahiole of most interesting structure, 
but showing no traces of feathers at present. The 

usual plaited 
cap of ie-ie is 
surmounted, in 
place of the com- 
mon crest, by 

seven neatly plaited projections like rude umbrellas 
with tops some two inches across. These are shown 
in Fig. 37, and I suppose them -to have been the 
base of plumes. 

n. Mahiole without feathers; in the Cook 
collection of the Australian Mu- 
seum in Sydney. This was in 
the collection of relics of the 
great explorer purchased by the 
New South Wales Government 
from the family of Cook. The 
structure differs from those be- 
fore noted and is a braid in three 
sections. An illustration, Fig. 
38, I owe to the kindness of 

Ktlieridge, Jr., the distinguished Director of the Australian Museum. 
Mahiole of the ordinary form; red, with yellow crest; feathers well pre- 

:m.| tin- tliri-r f,,llowiii K linv, l.eeii figured l.y Dr. vmi MiM-han in l-'trmd,;- /:///. , .1/riA-a, already quoted and from that 
pill, li< an, ,.i (he* "iitlm, , Inivi Inn ei.pied. 



FIG. 37. 



HELMET IN BERLIN 
MUSEUM. 




FIG. 38. 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATK VII. 




HELMETS IN THE SPANISH NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



LIST OF HELMETS. 45 

served. Given to Berne by Waber, the Bernese artist of Cook's last voyage; now in 
the Municipal Museum of that city. 

13. Mahiole; black, with yellow crest, on a figure supposed to represent a 
Hawaiian in the Musee d'Artillerie, Galerie d'Ethnographie at the Hotel des Invalides, 
Paris. If I am rightly informed, this figure is a ripliquc of one in the Jardin des 
Plantes, but at my last visit to that wonderful collection the ethnological specimens 
were being rearranged in new galleries and I was unable to see them. 

14. Mahiole supposed to be in the Jardin des Plantes. 

15. Mahiole without feathers, but with five pins of the same class as 
already seen in No. 10. This is figured in the Voyage of Freycinet, 30 Plate 90. 
Guimard. Fig. 39. 

1 6. Mahiole of red feathers, with a yellow crest raised from the cap by 
interlacing arms. Attributed to Legoarand; now in the Musee de Marine at the 
Louvre, Paris. 

17. Mahiole of similar structure to the last. 

1 8. Mahiole figured in Freycinet, PI. 90. 

19. Mahiole without feathers, but woven in a very neat and ornamental man- 
ner, quite as if no feathers were to cover it. This is in the Army and Navy Museum 
in the old Whitehall Palace in London, where I was kindly allowed to examine and 
photograph it. In the character of the weaving it differs from any I have seen. 

20. Mahiole with a detached crest supported on four arms and joined to the cap 
at the base. The first and third arms are of different finish from the others, which 
with the cap and crest were covered with feathers on rods: none are now visible. 
This, with the four following, is in the Museo Arqueologico Nacional at Madrid, and 
shown in PI. VII., Fig. i, which I have copied, with correction of positions (which 
were all incorrect in the original plate) from a sheet sent me by Stewart Culin, Esq., 
of Philadelphia. 

21. Mahiole of ordinary form, partly covered with red, black and yellow 
feathers. Fig. 2, PI. VII. Madrid. 

22. Mahiole with heavy crest and constructed with ornamented braid, but 
showing (in the plate) no signs of feathers. On the sides of the crest are three black 
and yellow stripes, and on the cap six of similar braid. Fig. 5, PI. VII. Madrid. 

23. Mahiole of ordinary form; once covered, apparently, with red feathers on 
net work. Fig. 3, PI. VII. Madrid. 

24. Mahiole with an immense, high and projecting crest. The cap is covered 
with the rod structure, while the crest seems to have been covered with feathers at- 
tached to a net. As I have not been able to examine personally any of these helmets 
in the Spanish museum, I am dependent on the drawings of Senor Teruel, which, 
although apparently exact, do not indicate color. Fig. 4, PI. VII. Madrid. 

w'veyage ai,/,,n> ,tu in,nnl,- fail pat- in-ill,- it it AW mi /,-* at tttta ilf .S. .I/. I a ii if ft l,i /ii.nifi.-uiif. ffilaiil /.' aiinf-rs. /,v/,--/.t.i. 1'ai M, 
l.iiiu\ it,- l-'i-,-\-t in, I . 



4 6 



n RIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



25. Mahiole of ordinary form, but with curious projections over the ears not 
seen in any other. No feathers left. Height, 13 inches; depth, 8 inches. From the 
Vancouver collection now in the British Museum. Fig. 40, a. 

26. Mahiole of rather coarse wicker work, with detached crest supported by 
five round, plaited bars. The ear holes are angular instead of, as usual, rounded. No 
feathers. Height, 18 inches; depth, 12 inches. Vancouver collection, British Museum. 
Fig. 40, b. 




vie,. 40. 



b <: 

HELMETS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



27. Mahiole of ordinary form and close woven structure. Height, 13 inches; 
depth, 12 inches. Vancouver collection, British Museum. Fig. 40, . 

28. Mahiole in good preservation; feathers in concentric baud of red, black 
and yellow; yellow crest with prominent feathers, much resembling the one figured in 
Cook's Voyage, Fig. 32. It is the best one in the British Museum. Fig. 41, a. 

29. Mahiole of form somewhat resembling No. 2. Red, with yellow crest and 
border. British Museum. Fig. 41, b. 

30. Mahiole of form similar to No. i. Red, with yellow crest, and black and 
yellow border. In good condition. British Museum. Fig. 41, t. 



LIST OF HELMETS. 47 

31. Mahiole of red feathers and yellow crest attached to a net over a well-made 
ie-ie frame. The feathers on the body have suffered much, but the crest is in better 
condition. British Museum. Fig. 41, d. 

32. Mahiole of rather small size. Red, with yellow top to crest in good con- 
dition. British Museum. Fig. 41, e. 

The last five helmets range in height from n to 15 inches. All those in the 
British Museum were photographed for me by Mr. Henry Oldland, of the Museum 







a b i d e 

FIG. 41. HELMETS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

staff. One or two of the last five were in the Meyrick collection, but I am unable to 
identify them from my notes. 

33. Mahiole with detached crest supported by two circular rods. Red, with 
yellow top to crest, which is edged with black, and with yellow bands around the sup- 
porting rods and a border of the same color. This was taken to England by Boki, 
who accompanied the King and Queen in 1824, but whether left there or brought 
home and since destroyed is not known. It is well shown in Plate VIII. 

34. Mahiole, of which only the wicker work remains in a damaged condition. 
In the possession of a doctor in Honolulu. A request to be allowed to examine and 
photograph it was denied. 



4 8 HKH;ilAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

35. Mahiole of wicker work covered with a net of olona. To this were origi- 
nally attached red feathers, those on the crest being yellow, and on the edge black. 
This, with the next one, was for years attached to the wall in the exhibition hall of 
the Real Mnseo in via Roinana, and it is not strange that they have little to indicate 
the color. Dr. Giglioli, who has described them, 3 ' was able by the use of a lens to 
make out the remains of color. He says: "Dopo minuzioso esame e coll' aiuto di una 
buona lente, ho potuto constatare, scoprendone gli avan/.i, che il corpo di questo 
mahiole era in origine coperto di penne rosse della iiwi, mentre la cresta lo era colle 
penne gialle dell'oo ; lo spa/io intoruo alle intaccature per le orecchie era coperto di 
penne nere, pure tolte all'oo; mentre 1'orlo intorno all'apertura dell'elmo era guernita 
di penile rosse, gialle e nere." 

36. Mahiole without feathers, in form of No. 2, and like that, covered with 
rods to which are still attached the olona threads that held the feathers. This and 
the preceding are in the Real Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale at Florence. 

37. Mahiole like those covered with feathers, but in this human hair covers 
the wicker work frame in the guise of a wig. The crest (mahiole) is of bleached and 
longer hair, while the rest is of a brownish hue. This was used in war, possibly a 
trophy from some vanquished enemy, and belonged to the mother of Queen Emma. 
It is now in the Bishop Museum. | B. M. No. 124.] It should certainly be noted that 
this helmet of human hair was not of so strong and firm a wicker work as most of 
those to which feathers were added, and they seem more for ornament (or disguise) 
than for protection. 

I have not been able to trace other helmets adorned with human hair, although 
assured by old natives that the fashion was genuine Hawaiian. It was customary in 
the southern islands, especially Fiji, to wear a wig made of the hair of an enemy, es- 
pecially if that enemy had been eaten; and one of these from a man who was eaten in 
1862 is in the Bishop Museum. [ B. M. No. 2026.] 

38-41. Since the above was in type word has come that four mahiole, two of 
them with feathers, formerly in the Boston Museum, have been given to the Peabody 
Museum of American Archaeology at Cambridge, Mass. It is well that they have 
ceased to be mere curiosities, and have become objects of ethnological interest. 

Here then are more than forty of the fine Hawaiian helmets still preserved in 
museums, and it is not improbable that a few more are in private collections unknown 
to me. Of all these the one in best condition and exhibiting the full splendor of its 
original state is the Kaumualii helmet in the Bishop Museum, which I have placed 
at the head of the list. There is many an imposing, panoply in the royal armories of 
Kurope. I have seen them at Vienna, Turin and elsewhere, but the Hawaiian warrior 
clad in the superb bone and flesh of the olden day and decorated with the helmet and 

1 Aftpttnti intt'tii" tnl n,ni Cnl!,-,n,' t ln,'i: nifini /tittti tlumittf il Dolt. Kiirico Hillyrr C.i^lioli. l-'ii rti/c. iS<js. In this valuable ss;t> 
* .ni,i MI, ,l,,/l:, in,,- dfl .,,;, ,/,i i,,. ; .w, ,/ A'. Dr. ('.itflioli ilcsiTilies many other Hawaiian specimens, and it will 
Mii'.iil, An;, a , ,s/..i /,/ \aturulrilt /;/, ,. p. 79. stmlid ili-l I'rof. IIKJIIII In- referred to when treating of the Hawaiian feather cloaks. 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE VIII. 




BOKI AND LILIHA. 



LIST OF HELMETS. 



49 



cloak, not of steel from the earth but of the plumage of the birds of the air, was quite 
the equal in imposing majesty of any knight of the Holy Roman Empire that ever 
wielded lance. 

But to return to a matter that this fine helmet suggests. It was the cherished 
armor of a king as noble as any of the Hawaiian line, and yet it is not all yellow, as 
one or two authors claim that the helmet of a king should always be : it is of red, as 
are the most of those which retain any of their original feathers, and not a single one 
of all is exclusively yellow. 




FIG. 42. SMALL FEATHER CAPE. 



MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. i. 4- 









AHUULA OR FEATHER CLOAKS AND CAPES. 

OF all the Hawaiian feather work that has come down to us that comprised 
under the above heading is not only the most abundant but also the most beautiful. 
It is durable, of comparatively small bulk, and easily cared for, while its decorative 
character has caused it to be sought for by the foreigners who have visited Hawaii. 
The generous Hawaiian chiefs often made ahuula a token of their friendship, and so 
feather capes or cloaks have made their way to America and Europe, and have been 
gradually gathered into museums until there is not a large ethnological museum that 
cannot show a specimen of some quality. It will be seen from the list subjoined from 
how many localities the information has been gathered, and although the number is 
great, I cannot believe that I have been able to track all that still exist. It is hoped 
that the publication of this list, even incomplete, will lead to the discovery of more 
that may be hidden in private cabinets or in the museums of small towns. 

Olona is so universally the basis of Hawaiian feather cloaks, that feathers 
mounted on any other substance would be at once classed as foreign to the group. 
This fibre comes from Touchardia latifolia, a Hawaiian genus of a single species dis- 
covered by Gaudichaud. This genus of Urticacse is closely allied to the better known 

ramie (JBcehmeria nh'ca) , but is even more 
tenacious and durable. Although not 
abundant, it is found in deep ravines and 
well-watered mountain slopes all over the 
group, and formerly it was cultivated for 
its fibre much in the same way and 
places as the fibre plants used for kapa 
or bark -cloth. 

The stripped bark is soaked and 
then scraped on a long, narrow board 
(/aau kaJii olona}, with a scraper (/// 
kalii olotia) made of turtle bone (kna- 
FIC. 43. SCRAPING OLONA. /lonn) or of pearl shell (papaiia = Mele- 

agrina margaritifera) . The hank of fibre 

is made fast to the small end of the board and the operator places himself over it as 
shown in Fig. 43. The fibre is easily scraped out, and the spinner then twists it on 
the thigh using no spindle. Fig. 44. The cord or thread varies greatly in the net 
used for cloaks, of which specimens are shown in Plates IX. and XL The Hawaiians, 
as was the case with other Polynesians, had no looms, 32 even of the rudest sort, and the 

: Tht rude apparatus of tin- Maoii i- tin in-au-st approach to a from tin- Caroline Islanders, or perhaps been evolved from the 
loom thnt I can re-call ; and that seems to have either been borrowed needs of the flax used by the Maori for clothing 
(.W) 




MKMOIKS liisunp MISKIM, Vol.. I. 





NET WORK tISP;D IN FIvATHKK CI.OAKS. 



FEATHER CLOAKS AND CAPES. 51 

net or nae was formed with a netting needle (Hia a/io ka upena) of the form common 
to most peoples and found among the relics of the ancient Egyptians as well as in the 
grass huts of Hawaii. The fineness of the net varies as does the size of the thread, 
nor can I find that any particular fineness was peculiar to any time or place; in the 
same cloak may be found pieces of very varying degrees. The same netted fabric that 
was used in the making of feather cloaks also served for the mala or waistband of 
chiefs; and one of these very durable 
dresses, fringed with human teeth (much 
decayed) is to be seen in the Bishop 
Museum. | B. M. No. 6921.] 

It was common custom to net bands 
of a width from 8 to 12 inches, and this 
was cut and joined as the rolls of modern 
cloth would be used by the shaper. In 
the cloak of Kiwalao (PL XL) there are 
more than thirty irregular pieces thus 
joined, and in the covering of the Ku- 
kailimoku even more cutting and fitting 
was required. 

To fasten the feathers to this net 
much finer thread, often single fibres, was 
used and the feather was bound by two 
or three turns of the thread in the way 
shown in Fig. 45. The shaft of the 
feather was bound by one turn, then bent at a and the end b bound, by another turn 
of the thread, to the same or the next lower mesh. This was a very secure method, 
and the feather could be broken but not pulled out whole. One 
skilful in attaching the feathers could easily arrange the petit of 
the bunch so as to completely conceal the uniting thread which 
often was of considerable length and passed unbroken down the 
rows. On the reverse the feathers did not show at all and the 
thread being of the same material is hardly visible; only when the 
cloak is much worn, and the net originally of open texture, do the 
feathers show through, as is the case in PI. IX., lower figure. 
When the cloak has been mended in modern times cotton thread 
is generally used and is very conspicuous. It was generally, if not always, the custom 
to arrange the feathers in direct rows, and where unevennes is found it is either the 
result of careless workmanship or of the displacement of the net by age or rough 
usage. It was important to prevent vertical breaks between rows, while horizontal 
divisions were desirable for due flexibility, and so the horizontal rows were arranged 




FIG. 44. SPINNING OLONA. 




FIG. 45. 







52 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

quincuncially. In many cloaks the feather tufts are so close that it is very difficult to 
distinguish the knottings, but if placed one-sixth of an inch apart the surface is beauti- 
fully covered, and they are sometimes a quarter of an inch apart without breaks in 
the surface. In some cases the yellow feathers have worn down to the extent of show- 
ing the red feathers used for the pa'u, and even then the knotting is hardly visible. 

It is often stated that a cape in time becomes a cloak as the owner's means or 
rank increase; that is, strips of network are added by a sort of exogenous growth; but 
I have not found this to be the case. The garment seems to be designed originally for 

a certain size which cannot be greatly in- 
creased without disturbing the balance. 
And this brings us to a consideration of the 
usual patterns. No great originality has 
been shown, and the elements are generally 
triangles and crescents which in a flat de- 
sign seem rather commonplace, but when 
it is remembered that the folds of the cloak 
when worn greatly modify the geometrical 
arrangement of the triangles, whether plain 
or spherical, it must be admitted that the 
simple designs are admirably adapted to 
the purpose of decoration. An inspection 
of the diagrams in the following list of 
(i/ntnla will show that, while there is no 
great variety, no two were exactly alike : it 
is only in the modern copies made of dyed 
feathers, or even of suitably colored cloths, 
that repetition occurs. 

I have been told by aged Hawaiians 
that the pattern was sketched on white kapa, cords of olona or coconut fibre serving as 
radii of the curves which are generally arcs of circles, but I have never seen any of 
these kapa patterns; and indeed as they were never duplicated they would not be pre- 
served. There does not seem to have been much freehand sketching in this feather 
composition, and although in several designs irregularities appear these are due 
probably to careless following of the pattern and not to artistic freedom on the part of 
the designer. 

There is nothing of the delicate variety and minute figures of the Mexican 
mosaics; the figures were all broad and even coarse, but in that were all the better 
suited to the purpose intended, for it must be borne in mind that the primary use of the 
Hawaiian feather cloaks was war-like decoration. They were a refined "war-paint." As 
in medieval Europe the vanquished knight was despoiled of his armor by the victor, 




FIG. 46. KNOTTING OP A CAl'K. 



FEATHER CLOAKS AND CAPES. 



53 



so the chief who killed or captured his enemy took as spoils his feather cloak, helmet 
or lei. It then became a trophy and a thing to be displayed on public occasions to the 
conqueror's fellows, and this use is still retained, in a modified form, among the 
Hawaiians. In the latest royal funeral, that of the lamented Kapiolani, widow of 
Kalakaua, feather capes were displayed to mark rank, if not a more bloody conquest. 




P 



FIG. 47. FEATHER CAPE. 

Few of the ahuula still extant but have passed from owner to owner by violence in the 
olden time, by the generosity for which the Hawaiian is noted in the days succeeding 
the conquest of the Islands and the cessation of wars. 

In wearing cloak or cape the usual fastening was a firmly braided collar of olona 
fibre continued at the upper corners of the garment into cords of square braid long 
enough to tie securely, or to make into such a knot as to readily permit escape, if exi- 
gencies required, at the cost of the cloak. In a few cases tags of feather work were 



5 4 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

attached at intervals to the front edges to wrap the cloak closer to the body, but usually, 
as the wearer required free exercise of his arms, the attachment around the neck was 
the only one. In modern times silk ribbons have been substituted for the original cord 
in many cases. A feather cloak was very warm, but as it was worn without under- 
clothing of any sort, in -battle ancient Hawaiians generally omitted even the malo or 
waistcloth, it was possible to avoid overheating. The weight of the large cloaks was 
considerable owing to the firm netting of the substructure. 

The impression is prevalent in foreign countries that a register was kept by the 
chiefs, and later by the Government, of all royal feather robes. This was not the case. 



A 






FIG. 48. THE BACK OF THE CAPE OF KIWALAO. 

Not only did the Hawaiians have no written language until in 1820 the American 
missionaries introduced letters and adapted them to the sounds of the spoken language, 
but there were no known traditions referring to any particular ahuula in other than 
the most general terms. 

The list that follows this brief description is the only one that has ever been 
compiled, and although efforts have been unsparing to make it as complete as possible, 
other ahuula are known to exist here whose owners are not willing to have them seen, 
still less examined or figured. In pleasant contrast is the kind assistance rendered by 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE XI. 




NET WORK OF THE CLOAK OF KIWALAO. 



FEATHER CLOAKS AND CAPES. 55 

many friends abroad who have photographed or made sketches in color of specimens 
I have been unable personally to examine, or have put me in communication with 
owners of specimens not in public museums. 

It may seem strange that articles so highly valued should have so little history 
connected with them. To most of us it would add greatly to the interest which must 
ever attach to these beautiful examples of patient and long-continued work by a primi- 
tive people if we knew what chief first ordered the construction, how long the hunters 
collected, how many years the deft fingers of the high chiefesses plaited the precious 
feathers into the network, what rejoicings at the completion of the long task, in what 
battle it first was worn, and then the changing ownership when murder, fraud, or theft 
transferred the garment ; or when, in rarer cases, the owner gave the rich gift to a well- 
loved friend ; or, dying, left the ahuula to his heirs. But the native meles and kaaos, 
while attesting the antiquity of the manufacture, are not explicit enough to permit the 
identification of any one specimen ; as to the pattern and size, "aole i oleloia ma na kaao 
kahiko o ko o nei poe kanaka it is not told in the ancient legends of this people." 

Imagination and arithmetic are not usual yoke-fellows, but one can count the 
number of feathers to the square inch and multiply by the area of the cloak, then 
divide by the average number of the feathers from each bird : imagination must then 
compute the time taken to ensnare a bird and the farther time to attach the feathers 
to the cloak. There are those who are amused with such calculations, and they have 
stated that in the case of the great mama cloak of Kamehameha (the first in the follow- 
ing list), if paid for at the rate of wages ruling at the end of this nineteenth century, 
a million dollars would hardly pay the bills for the work done by the makers of that 
cloak at the beginning of the eighteenth century. I have not repeated their figuring 
and I cannot adopt the result as my own, but imagination may be trusted when it tells 
us that the time was great and the labor enormous before the predecessors of Kameha- 
meha could display this cloak on their broad shoulders. I do not care to reduce the 
result of so much good work to mere dollars and cents. In the march of time and 
civilization they have become to most men mere curiosities, while to a few they are 
precious documents telling most honorable stories of a time and civilization long past. 
As curiosities the market for Hawaiian feather work shows curious fluctuations. 
I have been asked $10,000 for a cloak of no extraordinary beauty or condition: the 
Hawaiian Government purchased a larger and finer one at auction for $1200: and 
another of the same size was bought in London for #125. A small cape, from its per- 
fection of workmanship and complete preservation, I have valued at $600. It is safe to 
say that the prices asked for the few specimens now in private hands are preposterous. 



BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



1. Mamo of Kamehanieha. 

2. Cloak of Kiwala6. Photograph. 

3. Cloak of Kalanikauikalaueo. 

4. . Pa'u of Nahienaena. 

5. Cloak with no history. Photograph. 

6. Cloak with no history. 

7. Cape, Peterson family. 

8. Cape, Princess Pauahi. 

9. Cape, Queen Emma. 

10. Cape, Queen Emma. 

11. Cape, Oilman. 

12. Cape, A. B. C. F. M. 

13. Cape, Boston. 

14. Cape, Judd. 

15. Cape, Haalelea. 

16. Cloak, Kapiolani. 

17. Cloak, Lunalilo. 

18. Cloak, Queen Victoria. Photograph. 

19. Cloak, Queen Victoria. 

20. Cloak, Queen Victoria. 

21. Cape, Queen Victoria. 

22. Cloak, Waber. Sketch. 

23. Cloak. Water-color. 

24. Cloak. 

25. Cloak, cock's feathers. 

26. Gape. 

27. Cape. 

28. Cape. 

29. Cape. 

30. Cape. 

31. Cape, Vancouver. 

32. Cape, cock's feathers. 

33. Cape, cock's feathers. 

34- Cape. 

35- Cape. 

36. Cape. 

37. Cape. Sketch. 

38. Prayer carpet(?). Photograph. 

39. Prayer carpet(?). 

40. Cape, Bingham. 

41. Cloak, Aulick. Water-color. 

42. Cape, Bolton. " 

43. Cape, Welling. " 

44. Cloak, Chapman. " 

45. Cape. Sketch. 

46. Cloak. 

47. Cape. 

48. Cape. 

49. Cloak. 

50. Cape. " 
51- Cape. Sketch. 



LIST OF HAWAIIAN AHUULA. 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 



Honolulu. 



Chief Justice A. F. Judd. 
Mrs. Haalelea. 
Heirs of Kapiolani(?). 
Luualilo Mausoleum. 
Windsor Castle. 



Municipal Museum. 
British Museum. 



Bingham family. 

U. S. National Museum. 



Public Library. 
Ethnological Museum. 



National Museum. 

. 11 

National Museum. 



Windsor. 



Berne. 
London. 



Honolulu. 
Washington. 



Philadelphia. 

Pitsfielcl, Mass. 

Berlin. 



Copenhagen . 

( < 

Copenhagen. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



52. 


Cloak, Lucas. 


Photograph. 


53- 


Cape, Christy. 


" 


54- 


Cloak, Kelley. 


1 1 


55- 


Cape. 




56. 


Cloak, Pomare. 




57- 


Cloak, Kearny. 


Photograph. 


58. 


Cloak, Joy. 


1 1 


59- 


Cape, Joy. 


i i 


60. 


Cloak. 




61. 


Cloak. 


Photograph. 


62. 


Cloak. 




63- 


Cloak. 


Sketch. 


64. 


Cape. 


" 


65- 


Cloak, Cunningham. 


Photograph. 


66. 


Cape, Cook. 


* * 


67. 


Cape, Cook. 


i < 


68. 


Cape. 




69. 


Cape, Cook. 


Sketch. 


70. 


Cape. 


i < 


7i- 


Cape. 


( ( 


72. 


Cape. 


Photograph. 


73- 


Cape, Cook. 


i < 


74- 


Cloak [in rags] . 




75- 


Cape, Lee. 


Photograph. 


76. 


Cloak. 


Sketch. 


77- 


Cloak, Robeson. 




78. 


Cape, Whitney. 




79- 


Cloak. 




80. 


Cape. 


Photograph. 


81. 


Cape. 


< 


82. 


Cape [net only] . 


< t 


83- 


Cloak. 




84. 


Cape. 




85. 


Cape, Queen Victoria. 


Photograph. 


86. 


Cape, Queen Victoria. 


< 


87. 


Cape, Queen Victoria. 


i ( 


88. 


Cape, Kapena. 


( ( 


89- 


Cape. 


( ( 


90. 


Cape. 


Sketch. 


9i- 


Cape, Starbuck. 


Photograph . 


92. 


Cape. 


1 1 


93- 


Cloak. 


< 


94- 


Cape. 




95- 


Cape. 




96. 


Cape. 




97- 


Cape. 




98. 


Cape. 




99- 


Malo. 




IOO. 


Cape. 





British Museum. 

Public Museum. 
Brassy Museum. 
Kearny family. 

Art Museum. 

< i < ( 

Musee d'Artillerie. 
Public Museum. 

Ethnological Museum. 

< * i i 

Mrs. Curran. 
Royal Museum. 

Ethnological Museum. 
Austrian Hof museum. 



University Museum. 
Australian Museum. 

Private hands. 



Heirs of Kapiolani ( ? ). 
National Museum. 
Mrs. Haalelea. 



Private hands. 



Windsor Castle. 



Leihula. 

Mrs. Manuel Reis. 
British Museum. 
Miss Starbuck. 



Colgate. 



57 



London . 



Maidstone, England. 

London. 

New York. 

Boston. 

* < 

Paris. 

Saffron Walden, Eng. 

Ipswich, Eng. 

Leiden. 

Englevvood, N. J. 

Florence, Italy. 

it i * 

Munich. 
Vienna. 



Gottingen. 
Sydney, N. S. W. 

New York. 

< t 

New Zealand. 
United States. 

Honolulu. 
Lisbon . 

Honolulu. 



London . 



Windsor. 



Honolulu. 

London. 
Bath, Eng. 



Kent Lodge, Eastbourne, Eng. 



Peabody Museum. 

S. Parker. 

Heirs of Kapiolani ( ? ) 



Cambridge, Mass. 

Honolulu. 

i 1 

Elgin, Eng. 
York, Eng. 

Liliuokalani. Honolulu. 

Cambridge, Eng. 

[In the compilation of this catalogue the author desires to state that he was first assisted by 
his friend Professor Otis T. Mason, of the United States National Museum, who kindly placed at his 
disposal all the material he had himself collected, including -vater-color drawings of the specimens in 
his charge. Acknowledgments are also due to his friend Mr. J. Edge-Partingtou for capital water- 



58 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

color drawings and measurements of the cloaks and capes in the British Museum. And to many 
other friends, Directors and Curators of museums are thanks due for hearty and substantial aid in 
gathering together the scattered remains of the patient and toilsome work of the ancient Hawaiians. 
In the diagrams of the ahuula given below the three colors yellow, red and green are represented 
conventionally, the two colored plates giving the tone, which is the same in all except the mamo. 
The key to these colors is found in Fig. 49. The drawings have been made from the actual specimens 
during a hurried visit to the Ethnological museums of Europe and America, or from photographs sent 
from private collections or museums not visited, and they will at least serve to identify the specimens.] 



YELLOW 



~t f, fr ** *1*.* * *" *+"*"-< *>*-*"* t*V* *^ 4.* ***i_ 

#J#:>G R E E N & 

.*WVWj >.,. %>+*., ,%.*. n-.n- 



FIG. 49. DIAGRAM OF COLORS. 

1. This magnificent cloak, made entirely of the feathers of the mamo (JDrepanis 
pactfica}, may well be placed at the head of the list, as it is not only in superb condition 
but, so far as is known, is the only one of its kind in existence. It is the historical 
cloak once belonging to the great Kamehameha, and to the last days of the Hawaiian 
monarchy it was used to decorate the throne on public occasions, long ofter it ceased 
to be worn as a robe of honor. When its fabrication began neither records nor tradition 
clearly tell, but there can be little doubt that some of its feathers were plucked during 
the seventeenth century and the unfinished work ceased in the last quarter of the suc- 
ceeding century. It is believed to have belonged to the ancestors of the king Kalaniopuu 
who was king of Western Hawaii during Cook's visit, and from him the young 
Kamehameha inherited the insignia with his portion of the kingdom. The late J. J. 
Jarves, Historian and Art Critic, in describing this cloak" says : 

"His Majesty Kauikeaouli has still in his possession the mamo or feather war-cloak of his 
father the celebrated Kamehameha. It was not completed until his reign, having occupied eight 

preceding ones it its fabrication A piece of nankeen, valued at one dollar and and a half, was 

formerly the price of five feathers of this kind. By this estimate the value of the cloak would equal 
that of the purest diamonds in the several European regalia, and including the price of the feathers, 
not less than a million of dollars worth of labor was expended upon it at the present rate of com- 
puting wages." 

On the neck border are a few iiwi feathers, and the present border of purple velvet 
dates from the reign of Kalakaua. The length is 56 inches ; front edges, 46 inches ; 
width at base, 148 inches; weight, 6 pounds. The nae or net of olona is close, uniform, 
of a dozen horizontal strips with several triangular pieces, and in perfect condition. 
Given to the Bishop Museum by Legislative enactment. No. 6828. 

2. Cloak of oo (Acrulocercus nobilis) decorated with triangles of iiwi ( Vestiaria 
coccinea). Plate X. This is of the same age as the preceding and belonged to 
Kiwalao, son of a Kalaniopuu, and a brave warrior, slain by Kamehameha who thus 
obtained the cloak. In late years it has been called "the Queen's Cloak" and has been 

"Hawaiian Spfrlutor, II., 364 [July, 1839]. 



MKMOIRS BISHOP MIISKUM, VOL. I 



PLATE X. 




CLOAK OF KIWALAO, 



LIST OF AUULA. 



59 



placed over the Queen's throne on public occasions. Length, 60 inches; width at 
base, 144 inches ; front edges, 50.7 inches. The nae is composed of more than thirty 
pieces, of irregular form and varying fineness, Fig. 48, and the cloak seems to have 
been made up of the ruins of many other fabrics much as the choice produces of 
Kashmir are fitted piece to piece of many an ancient shawl. The network is shown on 
a larger scale in Plate XI. At the fall of the Hawaiian Monarchy this, with Nos. i, 
3 and 4, came to the Bishop Museum where it is numbered 6829. 

3. Cloak of iiwi with border, diamonds and triangles of oo. It formerly be- 
longed to the chief Kalanikauikalaneo, from whom it came to the chief Charles 
Kanaina, father of King Lunalilo, and after the death of Kanaina in 1878 it was 
purchased by the Government for $1200. Length, 54.5 inches; front, 45 inches; 
width at base, 148 inches. No. 6830, B. P. B. M. Fig. 49. 





49. FIG. 50. 

4. Pa'u of oo, with small triangles of red and black at the ends. This, the 
only known example of a feather robe made for a woman, 3 ' 1 belonged to Nahienaena 
the beloved sister of Kauikeaouli [Kamehameha III.], a princess well deserving such a 
decoration. It is related that at a reception given to Lord Byron, H. B. M. N., in 1825, 
the Princess was urged to wear this pa'u and at first refused on the ground that such 
robes belonged to the heathen times. She was then a girl of ten years and would have 
been almost concealed in this immense garment, which was 20 feet 8 inches long and 
30 inches wide. Since the death of the Princess, in 1836, this pa'u, cut in two and re- 
united lengthwise, has been used as a royal pall, last over the coffin of Kalakaua. 
No. 6831, B. P. B. M. 

5. Cloak of oo and iiwi, from London, without history. Length, 46 inches; 
front, 40 inches; neck, 26 inches; base, 72 inches. No. 323, B. P. B. M. Fig. 50. 

6. Cloak of oo with perhaps half of its surface covered with iiwi : not in perfect 
preservation. Purchased in London for ^25. History unknown. Length, 48.5 inches; 
front, 47 inches; base, 168 inches. No. 958, B. P. B. M. Fig. 51. 

7. Cape of oo and iiwi, dating from the time of Kamehameha I. Plate XV. 

3<It perhaps marks the transition from a war-robe, suitable only for wcrriors, to a state decoration and mark of high rank which the 
feather garments assumed in later days. 



60 B RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

Formerly owned by the Peterson family in Honolulu. Length, 15.7 inches; front, 
10 inches; base, 64 inches. In splendid preservation. Fig. 52. 

8. Cape of oo and iiwi ; the central crescent half red and half black [oo] . Once 
the property of Princess Pauahi [Mrs. Bishop] and worn by her when a child. The net 
is neatly made of nine irregular pieces, as shown in Fig. 54. Length, 14.5 inches; 
front, 9.5 inches; width, 28.5 inches. No. 955 in the Bishop Museum. Fig. 53. 





FIG. 51. FIG. 52. 

9. Cape of oo and iiwi ; once the property of Queen Emma. Length, 12.5 inche?; 
front, 8 inches; base, 66 inches. No. 956 in the Bishop Museum. Fig. 55. 

10. Cape of oo and iiwi ; worn by Queen Emma when a child at the Royal 
School. I find from the private journal of Mr. Cook, the master of that remarkable 





FIG. 53. FIG. 54. 

school for young chiefs, that it was customary to send for the Princes Lot and Alex- 
ander with Bernice Pauahi and Emma to attend the king, Kamehameha III., at state 
functions, or when officers of war vessels or other distinguished visitors were received 
at the palace. Length, 15 inches; front, 8 inches; base, 66 inches. Feathers some- 
what worn. No. 957 in the Bishop Museum. Fig. 56. 

n. Cape of oo and iiwi, in fairly good condition. Carried to Boston about 
1835. The owner died, and his sou, in straightened circumstances, offered it to his 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



61 



landlady in payment of a bill of fifty dollars. From her it was purchased by Gorham 
D. Oilman, Hawaiian Consul General in Boston, who presented it to the Bishop 
Museum [No. 6841]. Length, n inches; front, 6.5 inches; circumference on neck, 
14 inches; on the base, 49 inches. Fig. 57. Shown also in Fig. 42. 




m. 




FIG- 55- 



FIG. 56. 



12. Cape of oo and iiwi; formerly in the cabinet of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions in Boston, whence it was purchased for the 
Bishop Museum [No. 7766]. Length, 28.5 inches; front, n inches; base, 72 inches. 
This, when received at this Museum, was very much discolored, and the yellow oo 
little more than a brown dust color; the skilful hands of a native lady restored the 
original color, nearly if not quite, by careful washing. Fig. 58. 





FIG. 57. 



FIG. 58. 



13. Cape of oo and iiwi ; purchased in Boston for $100. Pattern almost identi- 
cal with that of No. 10. Net in five pieces of fine texture. Length, 13 inches; front, 
10 inches. No. 8075 in the Bishop Museum. Fig. 59. The modern history of the 
cape is contained in the following note which came with the specimen : 



62 



BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



BOSTON, JANUARY n, 1897. 
Mv DEAR MR. GILMAN: 

The latter part of the year 1833 Mr. and Mrs. Rufus Perkins left Boston on their way to 

China where Mr. Perkins was engaged in business Some matters required Mr. Perkins to 

remain in Honolulu some little time. King Kamehameha, surnamed "the good," gave them one of 
his grass cottages at the head of Nuuanu Valley for a residence. There, April, 1834, their daughter 
Mary, who became my mother, was born. She was of the same age as the heir to the throne, 35 and 
the king gave her this feather cape as a token. Very truly yours, 

B. B. BARUWELL. 








FIG. 59. FIG. 60. 

14. Cape of oo and iiwi ; once the property of Kaumualii, King of Kauai, and 
by him given to Mr. Whitney of the newly established Mission at Waimea. After the 
death of Mrs. Whitney it was purchased by Hon. A. F. Judd. It is in good condition. 
Length, 14.5 inches; front, 9.5 and 10 inches; base, 64 inches. Fig. 60. 





FIG. 61. 



FIG. 62. 



15. Cape of oo with a central crescent half red, half black; red and black 
triangles on front, and black and red border on neck and front. Property of Mrs. 
Haalelea. Length, 14.5 inches; front, 9.7 and 10 inches. In good condition and the 
feathers very thick. Fig. 61. 

"Alexander I.iholiho [ Kamrhamtha IV.| was born February 9, iS34.-Clias. K. Bishop. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



1 6. Cloak purchased in England for $600. Her Majesty the late Kapiolani 
was the owner of this cloak which I have not seen for several years. There was, if 
my memory serves, nothing remarkable about it, and it is reported buried with its 
former owner. 

17. Cloak belonging to the ancestors of Kekauluohe, the mother of King 
Lunalilo, and by order of his father Kanaina buried in the coffin of the king. It was 





FIG. 63. FIG. 64. 

large, of oo with more or less green ou. One person remembers that there was a 
green crescent on the back ; another that it was all green ! 

1 8. Cloak of iiwi with oo decorations; collar red and black; feather tab on the 
right side; length, about 57 inches. In the collection of Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
at Windsor Castle. This, with the others described below [19, 20, 21, 85, 86, 87] was 





FIG. 65. FIG. 66. 

found carefully packed away in the round tower at the castle while search was being 
made for the royal cloak sent by Kamehameha to King George. Fig. 62. 

19. Cloak of iiwi with figures of oo. A narrow black and yellow band around 
the neck was accidentally omitted from the diagram. Fig. 63. The shape is rather 
unusual. Length, 57 inches. Windsor Castle collection. Upper figure in Plate XIII. 



6 4 



B RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



20. Cloak of iiwi; five yellow triangles at the neck, four concentric bands of 
six lozenges each, and a yellow band at the base; narrow red and black border at the 
front edges. A magnificent cloak but badly preserved; as will be seen by the Plate, 
XIII., the net is visible in many places. Fig. 64. Windsor Castle collection. Length, 
68 inches; base, 160 inches. 

21. Cape of iiwi with basal border of oo and seven crescents in two rows on the 
back ; on each front a yellow triangle between two of black oo. This is large for a 
cape and small for a cloak. Fig. 65. Plate XIV., a. Windsor Castle collection. 

22. Cloak of iiwi with bands and triangles of oo. About 60 inches long and 
quite narrow; apparently to cover only the back and sides of the wearer. Waber 
[anglice Webber] , the artist of Cook's third voyage, brought this home and gave it 
with other things to Berne, his native town, where it is preserved in fair condition in a 





KIG. 67. 



FIG. 68. 



sealed glass case in the fine new Municipal Museum. The diagram, Fig. 66, is from 
a sketch by the author, as it was difficult to photograph it in its double case. 

23. Cloak of iiwi with bands, triangles and circles of oo. Feather tabs on the 
front edges. Length, 70 inches; front, 50 inches; base, 116 inches. A remarkably 
showy pattern. From a water-color sketch by J. Edge-Partiugton, Esq. In the British 
Museum, without history of ancient ownership. Fig. 67. 

24. Cloak of iiwi with rhombs of oo and a basal border of the same. Neck, 
29 inches; length, 64 inches; front, 54 inches; width, 102 inches. British Museum. 
Its resemblance to the Windsor cloak, Plate XIII., will be noticed. This, with most of 
the others in the British national collection has been figured from Mr. Partington's 
water-color sketches made for the author. Fig. 68. 

25. Cloak of cock's feathers with neck and front border of alternate triangles 
of iiwi and oo. Length, 70 inches; front, 36 inches; neck, 29 inches; width, 69 inches. 
One of the long, narrow cloaks, and of a construction often repeated [32, 33, 34, 64, 
etc.J. While the addition of the feathers of the common fowl must be regarded as a 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. t. 



I'I.ATI: XIII. 








HER MAJESTY VICTORIA'S CLOAKS IN WINDSOR CASTLE. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



cheap substitute for the far more precious oo and iiwi, these cloaks were not without a 
special grace of their own. It may be noted that the barnyard fowl was brought to 
these islands by the early Polynesian immigrants, and they were common enough at 
the time of Cook. While these birds have not run wild like the turkeys, I once found 
a hen sitting in the midst of a bird's nest fern [Asplenium nidus] growing on the 
horizontal branch of a tree some twenty feet from the ground, and at least four miles 
removed from any human habitation. British Museum. Fig. 69. 

26. Cape or tippet of iiwi with oo ornaments, one small crescent and two semi- 
crescents extending the width of the cape and united by the apices. Length, about 
16 inches; neck, 26 inches; front, 8.5 and 9.5 inches. Fig. 70. British Museum. 
This looks like the beginning of a larger cape, and in this and the next specimen there 
is no basal border. 





FIG. 69. 



FIG. 70. 



27. Cape of yellow oo with a narrow cervical and frontal border of black oo. 
Length, 11.5 inches; neck, 14 inches diameter; front, 7.7 and 7.2 inches. British 
Museum. According to Scott Wilson the yellow feathers of this cape are mamo, and 
he is probably right. The cape looks like the beginning of a royal robe. Fig. 71. 

28. Cape of oo and iiwi, the latter dotted through the yellow as well as arranged 
in a central spherical triangle, and two small triangles on each front edge. Length, 
12.5 inches; front, 8.5 inches. British Museum. [Christy Coll., 5769. | Fig. 72. 

29. Cape of iiwi and oo feathers, the latter in two unusual loops. Neck, 31 
inches; front, 8.5 and 10.5 inches. British Museum. Fig. 73. 

30. Cape of iiwi with two large triangles, a central lozenge and basal border 
of oo. A narrow neck baud of yellow, red and black. The olona net is especially 
good. Length, 11.5 inches; front, 7.2 and 7.5 inches; neck, 15 inches; width, 29.5 
inches. British Museum. Fig. 74. 

31. Cape of iiwi with two bands of oo. Length, 15.5 inches; front, 9 inches; 

MEMOIRS I!, I'. 1>. MrSKl.M. VOL. I., NO. I. 5. 



66 



BRIG HAM ON PI AW All AN FEATHER WORK. 



neck, 12.5 inches. Vancouver colle&ion ; now with Christy Collection in the British 

Museum. Fig. 75. 

32. Cape of cock's feathers with cervical border of red, black and yellow. 

Length, 22 inches; front, 9 and 10.5 inches; neck, 13 inches. British Museum. Fig. 76. 




FIG. 71. 




'::'-;' : \;$$ !'>;;:,: c -A ^-/*- ' t,'\.^:^. 

y ^ ;: -'- : ^^:^WSS ;? :>^ 



FIG. 73. 





FIG. 72. 




FIG. 74. 




FIG. 75. FIG. 76. 

33. Cape of cock's feathers with a cervical and frontal border of red and yellow. 
Open olona net. Length, 15 inches; front, 8 inches; neck, 21 inches; width, 34.5 
inches. British Museum. Fig. 77. 

34. Cape of black and white fowl feathers with a band of red around neck and on 
upper third of front; base of game cock feathers. Length, 15 inches; front, 8 inches; 
neck, 14 inches; width, 29 inches. Mounted on olona net. British Museum. Fig. 78. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



67 



35. Cape [?] of unusual shape; more suitable for waistband or petticoat. The 
base is a net of olona with large meshes. A band of red and yellow feathers comes 
first on the upper part, then white fowl feathers edged top and bottom with black 
cock's feathers, and at side with game .cock feathers. The lower corners have loops, 
the upper corners the usual strings. Length, 18 inches; top, 30.7 inches; bottom, 
48.5 inches. British. Museum. Fig. 79. 





FIG. 78. 

36. Curious apron-like structure of cock's feathers 40 inches long, 24 inches 
wide, narrowing at the top to 10 inches. Perhaps a dress for an idol. British Museum. 

37. Cape of iiwi, oo and black oo. Length, 14 inches; front, 7.7 and 7.2 inches. 
Christy Coll., 5897. British Museum. Fig. 80. From a photograph. 





FIG. 79. 



FIG. 80. 



38. Mat of rods covered with feathers of various colors arranged as shown in 
Plate VI. There are five bands of unequal width and of design much more varied than 
usual in Hawaiian feather work, and the narrower edges are fringed with sparse cords 
about six inches long. The structure is by no means neat or strong. It has already 
been stated that the probable use was in conjunction with the feather war god. 
British Museum. 

39. Mat similar to the last and shown with it on Plate VI. I know of nothing 



68 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

similar in any other collection, and it is very unfortunate that the history of these 
strange objects is lost. British Museum. 

40. Fragment of a fine cape. The net is of well twisted, closely netted olona : 
neck border and cords of the usual square braid : front edges finished with a flat braid. 
Feathers are inserted in rows one-half to five-eighths of an inch apart with two olona 
threads loosely twisted but fastened in three turns around each bunch of feathers. 
Black and yellow oo, the crimson of very long apapane feathers: the only ahuula I 
have found with these feathers. It belonged to the early missionary Rev. Hiram 
Bingham : perhaps given to him by his friend Kalaimoku, the Prime Minister, It was 
carried to the United States in 1840, and when lent to a friend was mutilated by a negro 
servant in the household. Length, 24 inches; front, 12 inches. Now in possession of 







FIG. 81. 



FIG. 82. 



the Bingham family in Honolulu. Fig. 81. The portion to the left of the irregular 
black line is now extant. 

41. Cloak of oo and iiwi. Given to Commander J. H. Aulick, U. S. Navy, by 
Kamehameha III. in 1841. Cervical border (23 inches) of black and yellow oo; front 
edges red, black and yellow. Length, 48 inches; base, 138 inches. United States 
National Museum, Washington, 79,180. Fig. 82. 

42. Cape of oo with crescents and semicrescents of iiwi, and a central crescent 
of black oo. Cervical and frontal border of red, black and yellow. Length, 16 inches; 
neck, 16 inches; base, 66 inches. Obtained by Commander William Compton Boltoii 
in 1841. United States National Museum, 3574. Fig. 83. 

43. Cape of iiwi with basal border of oo and five crescents of the same. Cervi- 
cal and dorsal border of black and red. Length, 15 inches. Deposited in the United 
States National Museum by Mrs. J. C. Welling and Miss Dixon. Fig. 84. 

44. Cape of iiwi with basal border and figure of oo of remarkable design. 
Property of Henry Chapman, Esq., of Philadelphia, Penn. Length, 56 inches; front, 
44 inches; greatest breadth, 96 inches. These measurements are plotted from a water 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



69 



color sketch kindly given me by Prof. Benjamin Sharp and may not be exact. Fig. 85 
shows the pattern and also three holes, perhaps made by some weapon during battle. 

45. Cape of iiwi with basal border an inch wide, crescent and two semicrescents 
of oo ; two larger semicrescents of black oo. Cervical and frontal border of red, black 
and yellow. Length, 9.2 inches; front, 7.7 and 7.2 inches. Given by Miss Bissell to the 





FIG. 83. 



FIG. 84. 



Berkshire Athenaeum at Pittsfield, Mass., and preserved in the library in a glass frame. 
The feathers are somewhat worn in several places. Fig. 86. 

46. Cloak of iiwi, 51.5 inches long, with figures of oo. Of the long and narrow 
class. From a sketch by the author. In the Museum fur Volkerkunde, Berlin [1825 |. 
Fig. 87. 





FIG. 85. 



FIG. 86. 



47. Cape of oo with two triangles and two semicrescents of iiwi ; neck and front 
edges of red, black and yellow. Length, 14 inches. Museum fiir Volkerkunde, 
Berlin. Fig. 88. From sketch by author. 

48. Cape of iiwi with border at base, two crescents in the middle, and a triangle 
on each front edge of yellow oo, the latter with a smaller insert of black oo, and two 



70 HR mil AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

bits of the same black on the neck. Length, 16.5 inches. Museum fur Volkerkunde, 
Berlin. Fig. 89. Sketch by author. 

49. Cloak of iiwi, 57.5 inches long, with crescents and triangles of oo and basal 
border of the same. Rather dirty and poor. It was so arranged in the case that I 
could not see the back of the cloak, hence my sketch, Fig. 90, is fragmentary. The 





FIG. 87. FIG. 88. 

late Dr. Bahnson offered to open the case, but was prevented during my short visit by 
other callers. Nationalmuseet, den Ethnografiske Samling, Copenhagen. 

50. Cape of oo with a spherical triangle in middle and two semicrescents on 
each border ; front edge of dark green ou feathers ; spots of iiwi are on neck and edges. 








FIG. 89. FIG. 90. 

In fine condition and a splendid specimen. I was unable to measure this and the suc- 
ceeding specimen, which is a little smaller, for the reason given above. National- 
museet, den Ethnografiske Samling, Copenhagen. Fig. 91. Sketch by author. 

51. Cape of iiwi with three crescents in the middle, two triangles on each 
front edge, and five on the neck, with basal border of oo: the neck border of iiwi 



LIST OF AHUULA. 71 

and black oo. Nationalmuseet, den Ethnografiske Samling, Copenhagen. Fig. 92. 
Sketched by author. 

52. Cloak of iiwi with triangles and border of oo as shown in Fig. 93. From 
a photograph sent to me by Miller Christy, Esq., of Chelmsford, England. It is the 
property of Mr. Lucas, of London. 

53. Cloak of ou, iiwi and oo, brought to London at the beginning of the century. 
As will be seen in Fig. 94, which is from a photograph kindly sent me by the owner, 





FIG. 91. 



FIG. 92. 



the main portion is of green ou interspersed with yellow oo. The olona net is firm and 
heavy. Length, 48 inches; front, 30 inches; neck, 36 inches; base, 126 inches. The 
property of Miller Christy, Esq. Deposited in the British Museum. 





FIG. 93. 



FIG. 94. 



54. Cloak of iiwi and oo, in the possession of Mr. Kelly, of London. I have 

neither picture nor description. 

55. Cape at Maidstone, England; said to be in a very damaged condition, but 

I have no particulars. 

56. Cloak of iiwi with lozenge figures of oo. It appears to have been made 
in strips and the net is thin and light. This cloak is in Lord Brassey's museum 



72 />> A' /(,//.!.}/ ON HAll'AlfAN FEATHER II'OA'A'. 

in Park Lane, London, and the account given in the catalogue of the museum is as 

follows : 

"The Royal Feather Cloak, one of the great attractions of the Exibition [159], is made 
from the feathers of the oo and mamo birds, 1 '" local names given to the rare birds from which these 
feathers are procured. It measures 5 feet in length, 2 feet 4 inches at the neck, and 12 feet at the 
skirt. There are only a few specimens known, which were brought over by Captain Cook from 
Owhyhee" and which are now in the British Museum. The manufacture was a work of years, and 
the art is now believed to be obsolete. They are woven with great skill into, as it were, a string. 
Each cloak has its own history, which is inscribed in the archives of the Hawaiian Islands. King 
Kalakaua, during his visit to this country in 1881, when at Normanhurst Court, expressed his sur- 
prise at discovering such a rarity so far away from his dominions, and promised that the history of 
this cloak should be copied from the ancient "Meles" or records, and sent to Lady Brassey. King 
Kalakaua was at that time endeavoring to form a collection of feathers to make a new royal robe for 
the Queen Kapiolani, for which purpose he had offered a dollar for every single feather. Some idea 
of the extraordinary intrinsic value of this cloak may be formed from the above statement. It was 
connected with the first pretended cession of .Tahiti, Tamu and the Society Islands to the French in 
1843. In that year Sir Thomas Trigge Thompson [then Captain Thompson] was in command of 
H. M. S. Talbot in the South Seas. The French, partly by promises, partly by threats, had ex- 
torted from Queen Pomare a cession of her kingdom to their nation, but she, who had never willingly 
consented, appealed to the British commander for protection. Her pathetic letters to the Queen of 
England are recorded. Captain Thompson would not recognize the newly-constituted authority, and 
persisted in saluting the old national flag, and refusing any honor to that hoisted by the French 
officials. It is unnecessary to record the history of the events connected with this incident, but it 
may be confidently surmised that Queen Pomare was not wanting in gratitude toward the British 
commander who stood by her and upheld her rights. The above royal precious feather cloak was 
received as a present by Captain Thompson in recognition of his services." 

Kamehameha III. received a present of a carriage from Pomare, and it may be 
that the cloak was sent in return. In ancient days intercourse was more common 
between the Hawaiian and Society Groups than at present, and at one time in modern 
history a project was formed for uniting the two royal families by marriage. 

57. Cloak of iiwi with basal border, two spherical triangles and four semi- 
crescents of oo; narrow frontal border of oo, and cervical border of yellow, red and 
black. Length, 48.5 inches; front, 43, 'inches; base, 144 inches. Given to the late 
Commodore Lawrence Kearny, U. S. N., by Kamehameha III. on the occasion of the 
Commodore's visit to Honolulu in 1843 on a diplomatic errand from the United States 
Government. It is now in possession of the Commodore's son. The yellow feathers 
are somewhat damaged, but the red are nearly intact. Fig. 95. From a photograph. 

58. Cloak of iiwi with a basal border, three cervical semicircles, three frontal 
triangles on each side, and twenty-two circles of oo, some of the latter interspersed with 
a few mamo. Brought to Boston by the ship Columbia, Captain John Hendrick, which 
sailed from that port September 30, 1787, visited the Hawaiian Islands between the 
visits of Cook and Vancouver, and returned to Boston August 10, 1790, having carried 
the United States flag for the first time round the world. The subsequent history of 
this cloak is unknown until it came into the possession of the Joy family of Boston. 

J'Tht name mamo is a mistake for iiwi. 

< 7 Unfortunately Captain Cook never returned from Hawaii (Owhyhec). 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. 1. 



PLATE Jill. 




r 




AHUULA IN THE BOSTON ART MUSEUM. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



73 



It is lined with a woolen fabric which renders it difficult to examine the net. Length, 
66 inches; neck line, 34 inches; basal line, 156 inches. Deposited in the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. PI. XII., lower figure. The photograph was kindly sent 
by the Director, Charles G. Loring, Esq. 

59. Cape of iiwi and oo, the main portion occupied by spherical triangles of 
longer feathers. Lined with a woolen fabric in recent times. It has been used as a 
sleigh robe. It belongs to the Joy family and is deposited in the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston. Upper figure in PI. XII. and Fig. 96. Length, 34.2 inches; width, 89.5 
inches. Photographed by the kindness of the Director, Charles G. Loring, Esq. 

60. Cloak of iiwi and oo, in too dilapidated a state to clearly demark the pat- 
tern ; about 60 inches long. It is on a figure intended to represent a Hawaiian warrior 
in the Musee d'Artillerie Galerie d'Ethnographie at the H6tel des Invalides at Paris. 





FIG. 95. 



FIG. 96. 



61. Cloak of oo figured with three crescents of differing shapes, and four 
rhombs, all of iiwi. It is in the Museum at Saffron Waldeu, Essex, England, and the 
modern history is interesting. I give it as kindly furnished by the Curator, Mr. G. N. 
Maynard. It came to the museum in 1838 with this letter: 

" SIR : Understanding that the Directors of the Saffron Walden Museum are collecting and 
receiving curiosities of every description, I beg you will present to them in my name the accompany- 
ing article which I think may be deemed worthy a place in their collection, and which apparently 
tho' a trifle may be of enhanced value when considered as to the circumstances under which it 
reached this country. The article iu question is a Feather Cloak of ceremony and did belong to 
Rhio Rhio [Liholiho], King of the Sandwich Islands, and was presented by him to my brother-in-law 
the Honourable Frederick Byng, who had been appointed by Mr. Canning as chief attendant to their 
Sandwich Majesties King Rhio Rhio and Queen Kamehamano [Kamamalu] when they visited this 
country in 1824. I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient and humble servant, 

"Widdington Rectory, yth August, 1838. COLLIN CAMI-BKI.I.. 

"To JOSHUA CLARKE, ESQ., Curator of the Museum Saffron Walden." 

Mr. Maynard adds: "In September of the year 1865 Queen Emma, widow of 
King Kamehameha IV., was on a visit to this country, at which time she was a guest 
of Lord Charles Hervey, near here. She then paid this town a visit, being received by 
the Corporation in state. Among the various objects of interest in the town visited by 



74 



B RICH AM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



her was the Museum, when this cloak particularly attracted her attention, and she ex- 
pressed her surprise at finding such a treasure here, and at the same time begged of 
the trustees of the Museum the loan of the garment for the purpose of exhibiting at 
Paris at an exhibition which was then being held there. Upon the return of the cloak 
the Queen made several presents to this Museum which are now to be seen there." 
Length, 50.5 inches; front, 45 inches; across neck, 27 inches; base, 132 inches. Fig. 97. 

62. Cloak of iiwi with yellow oo rhombs like No. 24. Length, 48 inches; base, 
138 inches. This is in the Museum at Ipswich, and although I have been promised a 
photograph by the Curator this has not yet arrived. 

63. Cloak of oo with eight triangles of iiwi almost equalling the surface of 
the oo. The neck is occupied by three equilateral triangles, the apices downward, and 
each side by two similar triangles in reverse position : a larger red triangle occupies 
the centre, and beneath its point a red crescent stretches from side to side. This, with 





FIG. 97. FIG. 98. 

the following one, was once in the collection of J. Th. Royer, Chef of the Department 
of Art and Science in the Hague, and until 1795 an officer of the Dutch Judicial Court. 
He died in 1808 and his collection was left to the Dutch Government, in whose 
"Kabinet van Zeldzaamheden" it bore the number 492. The two specimens were long 
forgotten and suffered greatly by the neglect. Herr J. D. E. Schnieltz, Director of the 
Leiden Ethnological Museum, has described these ahuula, 3 * which are in his charge, 
but the colored figure which he gives is completely restored and shows nothing of the 
ravages of time. He does not give the dimensions, but as I remember it, it is of 
medium size, not exceeding 44 inches in length. Fig. 98. 

64. Cape of the long green feathers of the Frigate bird, with a narrow cervical 
and frontal border of alternating triangles of oo and iiwi much eaten. From the Royer 
Coll., No. 493, its history is identical with that of the preceding specimen. Herr 
Schnieltz has also described this. 39 Length, 24 inches; breadth, 54 inches. The m<n 
feathers are often supposed to be the tail feathers of the cock. Fig. 99. 

65. Cloak of iiwi with basal border, eight crescents and six triangles of oo. 
It was brought to the United States by Captain William Cunningham, of Cambridge, 

M.v Taf. VIII. 



* HtnfitHlftmanlll ;., dm Saml-i,li I,,-,,-!,,, hil.i nali.nial. -A Ai,hr,-fi,r 
*9/r. fit., p. 145. 



11(1. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 75 

Mass. He died in the early part of this century from exposure following shipwreck, 
leaving no record of where he obtained the cloak. It now belongs to Mrs. L. P. M. 
Curran, of Englewood, New Jersey. Length, 43 inches; front, 34 inches; neck, 22 
inches; base, 114 inches; breadth, 82 inches; lower border, 4 inches. In good condi- 
tion, but with a hole perhaps made by a spear. Fig. 100. 

66. Cape of unusual form ; at present consisting of a nae of olona with braided 
cord on top and sides : to this are still attached some white feathers of the koae ula 
\Pliactlion rubricauda\. Length, 22.8 inches; neck, 30.7 inches; breadth, 55.2 inches. 
Supposed to have come from Cook's third voyage, and for many years exposed to the 
ravages of light, dust and insects on a wall in the Florentine Anatomical Museum. 
Dr. Giglioli has described the remains. 40 The capes made from these most brilliant 
white feathers must have been very splendid, but this is the only one whose remains 
I have tracked. The plumage is far more satiny than that of P. eethereiis. 





FIG. 99. FIG. 100. 

67. Cape, or rather the net of what was once a cape, on which traces of red 
and yellow feathers may be seen by help of a lens. Of course no pattern can be made 
out. The upper margin is 33 inches; the base, 54.2 inches; length, 15.7 inches. Sup- 
posed to have been brought to Europe on Cook's third voyage, and, like the preceding, 
was many years attached to the walls of the old museum in Florence, where it lost all 
its feathers/ 1 Both of these capes are now fully appreciated and well cared for in the 
Florence Ethnological Museum. 

68. Cape of iiwi with a narrow band of oo: apparently a fragment. In the 
Ethnological Museum at Munich. 

69. Cape of oo and iiwi : extreme width, 35 inches. As will be seen in the 
figure, the pattern is peculiar. This and the two following numbers were among the 
things brought from the Pacific by Cook's companions, and they were bought in 
London in 1806, by the order of the Emperor Francis II., from the Parkinson and 
Leverian collections. Sydney Parkinson was artist to Sir Joseph Banks during Cook's 
first voyage, and his interest in the portions of Oceania then visited led him to collect 

v>At>t>UHti ,;,/<'> ad una c,,U,-z\,m f di Cook. Archive for /' Aullin^.lxxia < I' l:tm,l f : K ia. 



' See Giglioli, IM(. fit. 



7 6 BRIG HAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

from the treasures brought home in succeeding voyages. Although by the kindness 
of my friend Dr. Fran/ Heger I was enabled to examine the original inventories of 
this purchase no information of any special interest was obtained; in those days these 
articles were simple curiosities for the imperial cabinet. Now in the kaiserlich-koniglich 
naturhistorische Hofmnseum in Vienna. Fig. 101. 

70. Cape : body of white (Phaetkon rubricauda f) with a narrow border of black 
cock's feathers. Extreme width is 40 inches. At the top is a section of open olona 
net. In the same museum and with the same history as the last. 

71. Cape of mixed feathers, mostly the domestic fowl, with a few oo. This, 
like the two preceding, is in the Hofmuseum at Vienna. 

72. Cape of iiwi with figures of oo. It has loops at the lower corners as well 
as the usual strings at the neck. By the kindness of Mr. Marshal B. Evans and 
Prof. M. L. Perrin I obtained a photograph of this cape which is No. 904 in the 





FIG. 101. 



FIG. IO2. 



museum of the Georgia Augusta University at Gottingen. The label reads, "Ein 
Federmantel eines Oberhauptes aus Owaihi aus einem Netz bestehend, worauf Federn 
befestigt sind. Die rothen sind von der Certhia coccinia, die gelben von der Stacula 
longirostra." Brought to Gottingen at the end of the last century. Fig. 102. 

73. Cape composed mainly of long feathers, with a frontal and cervical border 
of alternating triangles of oo and iiwi : a figure has already been given on page 4. 
This with other relics of Captain Cook was exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition at 
London a few years ago, by the representative of Cook's family, and purchased by the 
Premier of New South Wales for the Australian Museum in Sydney. 

74. Cloak now in New York: brought from India early in this century; previ- 
ous history lost. Said to be of fine workmanship, but faded and in rags. 

75. Cape of oo with a crescent of iiwi in the center and a neck border of red, 
black and yellow. Many years ago Kamehameha III. gave this fine cape to William 
L. Lee, the first Chief Justice of these Islands. October i2th, 1846, Mr. Lee arrived 
on his way to Oregon, and fortunately was persuaded to remain and assume the duties 
of a judge in a country where there were no courts worthy the name. I quote from 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



77 



Professor Wm. D. Alexander's very admirable History : - 12 " To say that he was the right 
man in the right place gives but a faint idea of his eminent services to the country. 
He organized the courts of justice, and so conducted the highest tribunal that it soon 
acquired universal confidence and respect, and, instead of being a source of weakness, be- 
came the strongest pillar of the government. As president of the Board of Land Com- 
missioners he performed a most arduous and responsible task. Although he was not the 
originator of that great reform, his was the guiding mind in carrying it on." Judge 
Lee died May a8th, 1857. In the days when there were no Hawaiian decorations this 
cape of royal color and material may well have marked a monarch's appreciation of his 
services to his adopted country. The cape is now in possession of Mr. B. F. Wake- 
man, of New York, who kindly sent a photograph and measurements. Fig. 103. 

76. Cloak of the long, narrow pattern, which my friend J. Edge-Partington, 
Esq., found in private hands in New Zealand, and to him I am indebted for the sketch 





FIG. 103. FIG. 104. 

which is the base of Fig. 104. The material is iiwi with a large proportion of oo. 
Unfortunately I have not the measurements. 

77. Cloak of which I have been unable to obtain any particulars, except that 
it is still believed to be in the possession of the Robeson family in the United States. 

78. Cape of oo and iiwi given to Rev. Samuel Whitney, of Waimea, Kauai, 
by Kaumualii or his wife Kapule. At the Whitney sale it was purchased by Mr. 
Henry Reimenschneider. It afterward came into the hands of Kalakaua, but its pres- 
ent possessor is unknown. 

79. Cloak of oo in the government museum at Lisbon, but no particulars 

are at hand. 

80. Cape of oo with black oo crescent, four semicrescents and two cordate 

figures of iiwi. Length, 16 inches; front, 10 inches. Frontal and cervical edging of 
red, black and yellow. This cape belonged to Honorable Levi Haalelea and was worn 

VA Brief History of the Hawaiian I'fuple, p. 2.SS, 



7 8 BRfGHAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 

by him when on a mission to Europe. It is in fine preservation and is remarkable as 
the only piece of feather work from Hawaiian hands that bears any design similar to 
the hearts shown in the figure. This, with the two succeeding numbers, is in the pos- 
session of Mrs. A. A. Haalelea, of Honolulu, who kindly placed them at my disposal 
for examination and photographing. Fig. 105. 





FIG. 105. 



FIG. 106. 



81. Cape of mamo with narrow cervical and frontal border and two frontal 
triangles of iiwi. Net entire. Length, 15.5 inches; front, 9.2 inches. Mrs. A. A. 
Haalelea. Fig. 106. 





'' 



FIG. 107. 



FIG. 108. 



82. Cape, of which only the net remains, with traces of red and yellow feathers. 
Length, 11.5 inches; front, 8 inches. Mrs. A. A. Haalelea. 

83. Cloak of iiwi with oo figures. Said to have been given to Mr. Geo. Hill 
by King Liholiho in 1824. It sold for seventy guineas in 1898, but I have not any 
description or figure of it. 

84. Cape, said to be in London, but the owner is still incognito. 

85. Cape of iiwi with six triangles of oo, points outward; above these a crescent 
of oo, the lower half black, the upper yellow, and a basal border of black oo. A remark- 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PI.ATK XIV. 




CAPES IN WINDSOR CASTLE. 
a 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



79 



ably attractive pattern ; now in Her Majesty's collection at Windsor Castle. Plate 
XIV., d. Also Fig. 107. 

86. Cape of iiwi with three rhombs of yellow and black oo, a small crescent of 
oo and eight small semicrescents of black oo. In Her Majesty's collection at Windsor 
Castle. Plate XIV., c. Also Fig. 108. 





FIG. 109. FIG. 1 10. 

87. Cape of iiwi with yellow basal border, two yellow and four black semi- 
crescents on front and a central crescent with the lower half yellow and the upper 
black. In Her Majesty's collection at Windsor Castle. Plate XIV., b. Also Fig. 109. 
The last three capes seem to belong together in style and in the union of black and 





FIG. III. FIG. 112. 

yellow oo. It will be noticed how difficult it is to distinguish on the photograph 

black from red. 

88. Cape of oo, figures of iiwi and black oo. This formerly belonged to John 
Kapena, Minister of Finance under Kalakaua, and now belongs to his daughter Lei- 
hula. The net is in three pieces and of good quality. Length, 11.5 inches; front, 
7.2 inches; width, 27 inches. Fig. no. 

89. Cape of iiwi, with crescents and triangles of yellow and black oo : cervical 
and frontal border of red and yellow. Length, 11.5 inches; front, 9 inches; width, 27 



8o 



BRIGHAM ON HAWAIIAN FEATHER WORK. 



inches; width of black double crescent, 12.5 inches. The net is of fine texture in ten 
pieces. This came from Hawaii through the grandmother of Mrs. Manuel Reis, who 
is the present owner. The cape is in good order, the feathers very short. Fig. in. 

90. Cape of oo, with large central crescent of iiwi and four small frontal semi- 
crescents of the same. Cervical and frontal border of red, yellow and black. Length, 
16 inches; width, 22 inches. Added to the collection in the British Museum in 1898. 

Fig. 112. 

91. Cape which was brought to England on the ship L'Aigle, Captain Valen- 
tine Starbuck, March 17, 1824. On this ship arrived Kamehameha II. and his Queen; a 
member of his suite, the notorious John Rives, procured this cape for Samuel Starbuck, 
of Milford Haven, South Wales. His grand-daughter, Miss Lucretia Starbuck, is the 
present owner. Length, 16.5 inches; front, 14.5 inches; neck, 21.5 inches; base, 85 
inches. Fig. 113. 





FIG. 113. 



FIG. 114. 



92. Cape of oo, with a central crescent of iiwi and a lozenge immediately above 
it of black oo and two semicrescents of iiwi on each front. Length, 10 inches; front, 
6 inches; around base, 45 inches. This, with the cloak following, belonged to H. 
Colgate, Esq., of Kent Lodge, Eastbourne, England, but I am informed the cloak has 
been recently sold. Fig. 114. 

93. Cloak f)i iiwi, with crescents and semicrescents of iiwi in almost equal 
quantity. Length, 51 inches; front, 49 inches; circumference of neck, 22 inches; of 
base, 132 inches. The front edges have a border of soft, fluffy feathers. Mr. Colgate 
has recently sold this cloak to some person unknown. Fig. 115. 

94. Cape formerly exhibited in the Hall of Curiosities in the Boston Museum 
on Tremont street, and recently given to the Peabody Museum of American Archae- 
ology at Cambridge, Mass. I have no particulars of the cape. 

95. Cape belonging to Mr. Samuel Parker of Honolulu. I have not seen this 
cape, which Mr. Parker tells me is not in good condition. 

96. Cape of black feathers with red spots. Seen at the funeral of Queen 
Kapiolani and supposed to be the one formerly belonging to Mrs. Manuel Reis. 



LIST OF AHUULA. 



81 



97. Cape, said to be at Elgin, Scotland. I have not been able to obtain any 
description. 

98. Cape, in York, England, but beyond this I know nothing of it. 

99. Malo of oo feathers ; used as a model for the one so fantastically arranged 
on the statue of Kamehameha the Great which stands before the Judiciary building in 
Honolulu. This is the only feather malo or waistband that has come to my notice. 
There is a photograph of this malo, but taken in such a way as to give little idea of 
its size or pattern. According to native testimony it is of oo with a border of iiwi, and 
the decoration of human molar teeth at the ends. The length is about three fathoms, 
or about a third longer than the ordinary kapa malo. Where it is at present, unless 
in the possession of Liliuokalani, I do not know. 

100. Cape, at St. Augustins, Cambridge, England. Several persons have 
reported this, but no one has been able to give me more definite information. 




FIG. 115. 



September, 1899. 



MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSF.UM, VOL. I., No. i. 6. * 



INDEX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS ARE PRINTED IN ITALICS. 



Ahuula 


PAOE 

- 50 


Anuu - 29 


PAGE 
. 30 


* * 


List of 


56 


Apapane 


IO 


I i 


Aulick 


- 68 


Aulick cloak 


68 


11 


Bardwell 


61 


Bardwell cape 


61 


t t 


Berlin 


69 


Berlin capes and cloak 


69 


* * 


Bingham 


68 


Bingham cape 


68 


1 i 


Bolton 


- 68 


Bird - lime 


3 


( t 


Brassey 


71 


Birds furnishing feathers 


9 


i ( 


British Museum 


64, 90 


Bolton cloak 


68 


" 


Chapman 


68 


Brassey cloak 


71 


i ( 


Christy 


71 


British Museum cloaks and capes 64, 


90 


( 4 


Colgate 


80 


Capes and cloaks 


50 


t 1 


Copenhagen 


70 


" List of 


56 


t i 


Cunningham 


74 


" Market value 


55 


i t 


Emma, Queen 


- 60 


Chapman cloak 


68 


41 


Florence 


75 


Christy cloak 


71 


" t 


Oilman 


61 


Cloaks and capes, see Capes and cloaks. 




t ( 


Gottingen 


76 


Colgate ahuula 


80 


t t 


Haalelea 


62, 77, 78 


Colors of feathers 


9 


" 


Ipswich 


74 


" kahilis 


17 


t 


Joy 


72 


Cook's cape 


4 


" 


Judd 


62 


Copenhagen ahuula 


70 


" 


Kalanikauikalaueo - 


59 


Cunningham cloak 


74 


" 


Kamehameha 


58 


Designs of ahuula 


52 


" 


Kearny - 


72 


Dyed feathers 


12 


" 


Kelley 


71 


Ellis' account of feather work 


6 


" 


Kiwalao 


58 


Emma, Queen, capes 


60 


1 1 


Lee 


76 


Feathers from the hunter 


13 


1 1 


Leiden 


74 


Florence ahuula 


75 


" 


Leihula 


79 


Oilman cape 


61 


t i 


Lucas 


71 


Gottingen cape 


76 


t i 


Lunalilo 


63 


Haalelea capes 62, 77, 


78 


" 


Maidstone 


71 


Handles of human bone 


16 


t i 


Munich 


75 


" " kauila 


16 


" 


Paris 


73 


" tortoise-shell 


16 


" 


Pauahi 


60 


Handles, unfinished 


18 





Pittsfield 


69 


Helmet from Cook 


41 


" 


Pomare 


7 1 


Helmet covered with human hair 


48 





Reis 


80, 8 1 


" New Ireland 


40 


t i 


vSaffron Walden 


73 


Helmets in Berlin 


43 


4 I 


Starbuck 


- 80 


" British Museum 46, 


47 


I I 


Sydney 


76 


" Paris 


44 


" 


Victoria 


63, 78, 79 


' " Vienna 


42 


" 


Vienna 


75 


Helmets, List of 


42 


" 


Waber 


64 


liwi 


9 





Welling 


68 


Ipswich cape 


74 


Uald 


_ 


- ?2 


I\\;' 


1 1 



11 



Joy ahuula 
Judd cape 
Kahili branches 

" of sugar cane 
Kahilis 
Kahilis^ group of 

in procession 
Kahilis, List of 
Kalanikauikalaneo cloak 
Kamehameha cloak of mamo 
Kauila handles - 
Kearny cloak 
Kelley cloak 
Ki stem 
Kiwala6 cloak 
Koae 

Kukailimoku 
Kukailimoku, List of 
Lee cape 
Leiden ahuula 
Leihula cape 
Lei end 
Lei's 

Leis, List of 
Lucas cloak 
Lunalilo cloak 
Mahiole or Helmet 
Maidstone cape 
Malo 
Mamo ... 



INDEX. 

PAOB 

72 Mats 

62 Munich cape 

19 Nahicnacna 
24 Nets for birds 

7, 14, 15 Olona 

15 Olond scrap ing 

20 " spinning - 

21 "Only two feathers" 

59 Oo ( Acrulocerctis nobilis) 

58 f^w ( Psittacirostra psittacea) 

1 6 Paris cloak 

72 Pa'u of Nahienaena 

71 Pauahi cap>e 

1 6 Pittsfield cape 

58 Pomare cloak (Brassey) 

1 1 Portlock and Dixon account 

31-36, 38 Pueo (Asia accipitrirtus ) 

37 Queen's cloak 

76 Reis cape 

74 Saffron Walden cloak 

70 Starbuck cape 

26 Stewart's description 

27, 29 Sydney cape 

- 27 Temple oracle, Model of 

71 Tortoise-shell handles 

63 Vancouver account 
40 Victorian ahuula 
71 Vienna ahuula 

8 r Waber cloak 

9 Welling cloak 



F&OE 

- 36, 67 

- 75 
'7 
13 

5 

- 50 
5i 

- 8 

9 
8 

73 
59 
60 

- 69 
7i 

- 7 

12 

- 58 

- 80, 81 

73 
80 

19 

4. 76 
30 
16 

7 

63, 78, 79 
75 
64 

- 68 




MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE XV. 







CAPE IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM (NO. 7). 



IT- 









1 







AN 



INDEX 



TO THK 



ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN: 



A HANDBOOK TO THE CHART ON THE WALLS OF 

THE BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM OF 

POLYNESIAN ETHNOLOGY AND 

NATURAL HISTORY. 



BY 



WILLIAM T. BRIQHAM, A.M. 



HONOLULU, H. I.: 

BISHOP MI'S HUM PRESS. 

1900. 



(J 



rSSUKD AT THE INSTANCE OF THE TRUSTEES 
OF THE MUSEUM. 



PREFACE. 

IN arranging the Ethnological collections in the Bishop Museum the difficulty presented 
itself at the outset of a very extensive synonomy of the islands comprised in the region of the Pacific 
from which these collections are drawn. The orthography was largely undetermined, native names 
of islands had generally given place to the names of saints or of the vessels which carried their sup- 
posed discoverers, and as determinations of longitude are, even at the present day, very uncertain in 
this ocean, islands were discovered, lost and rediscovered, as the Solomon Islands were lost for 
two centuries and the rediscoverer renamed the bit of land or rock that he found seemingly adrift 
in the mighty waste of waters. 

To show the true relation of the various groups and solitary islands in the Pacific the Director 
constructed with great care upon the wall of the Polynesian Hall of the Museum a chart extending 
from 130 East to no West longitude, and from the Tropic of Cancer to 45 South in latitude, occu- 
pying a wall space eleven feet by twenty. The names given to the islands there represented were in 
all cases the native names where such were known to exist; where there were no aboriginal inhabi- 
tants (as at Wake Island), or where the aborigines had disappeared (as at Pitcairn Island), the 
name imposed by the first discoverer was preferred. This led to some difficulty as names familiar to 
some were replaced by less familiar terms: Penrhyn became again the original Tongareva; one Pes- 
cadores became Bikini, another Rongelab; Sandwich Island returned to its aboriginal Vate. As it 
was impracticable to cover the chart with synonyms the best way seemed to be to print a list of all 
the names generally applied in charts or voyages in the form of an index, that not only the student 
might understand the labels attached to the ethnological specimens and groups, but the general visitor 
to the Museum be able to find an island appearing on the chart under an unfamiliar name. 

This course appeared convenient, if not necessary, for those who had the arrangement of the 
Museum in charge that there should be no confusion or variation in the nomenclature of localities; 
that consistency, at least, if not absolute accuracy might prevail. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the geography of the Pacific Ocean, it is not possible 
to place accurately the position of the known islands of this ocean, still less is it possible to go beyond 
conjecture in the identification of many of the discoveries of the earlier voyagers. It has not been 
possible to obtain the true native name in all cases, and indeed in some of the larger islands, as 
New Guinea, there seems to have been no collective name for the numerous districts comprising the 
island, and doubtless in a few cases the name of a portion has been applied to the whole. Especially 
is this the case in the ' 'ring-atolls' ' where the name of a prominent islet sometimes stands for the whole 
group. As to the orthography, even the missionaries who have acquired more or less knowledge of the 
vernacular, do not always agree as in the case of Jaluit which some spell Jaluij. Hut if one were to 
wait for perfect knowledge before coming to the public there would be little enough printed, and it 
has seemed best to print the following pages with all their imperfections, trusting that the better 

[8 7 ] 



v rrticf. 

knowledge of others to whose notice they may come will assist in correcting the existing mistakes. 
Those in charge of this Museum will welcome any addition to their information in these matters. 

Although the modem war vessel is sadly unfit for the pur)>oses of scientific exploration, it is 
hoped that England, America, Germany or France may ere long find national ships to survey the 
Pacific anew and accurately. The life that Magellan, Mendana, Cook, Vancouver, and even Wilkes 
found has almost disappeared; a new and far less interesting order has replaced it. Even the out- 
lines of the coral islets have changed, and in the volcanic region the very bottom of the bays in 
which the great explorers anchored has sunk or risen as the submarine forces have acted. Europe 
and America have divided the islands among them, let them now, like wise proprietors, carefully 
survey and study their new possessions. Here in the midst of the Pacific Ocean we would store for 
common use all that we may gather from the vast extent of the "Great Ocean". 

WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM. 

Direflor of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 
[88] 



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THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 



FOR the purpose of this Index the Pacific Ocean will no longer extend from 
Bering's Strait to the Antarctic circle and from Kamchatka, Japan, China, the 

Philippines, Moluccas and Australia to the American coast: the Aleutian and 
continental islands, the Galapagos and Juan Fernandez on the East with Kurile, 
Philippine and the archipelago north-west of Australia belong ethnologically if not 
geographically to another region, and hence the bounds of the Pacific which shall in- 
clude all Oceanica (except Malaysia) will be on the North the Hawaiian and Bonin 
Islands, 3ON.; on the East Rapanui or Easter Island, 105 W.; on the South New 
Zealand and its islets, 55 S.; and on the West New Guinea and the larger portion of 
Australia, 130 E. Thus defined all minor divisions of this vast expanse of water are 
eliminated, except the Coral Sea. Shorn of its fringe of seas, gulfs and bays it is still an 
immense area extending through eighty-five degrees of latitude from north to south and 
through one hundred and twenty-five degrees of longitude from east to west. We may 
glance at its history both natural and political, beginning with the latter as best known. 

Although the Portuguese followed Vasco de Gama by the Cape of Good Hope 
and far beyond the Moluccas into what is now known as the Pacific Ocean, it was left 
to their neighbors and only rivals in discovery, the Spaniards, in the person of the 
brilliant and ill-fated Vasco Nunez de Balboa, to reach its eastern shores. September 
29, 1513, the brave conquistador, after a terrible journey through Darien, saw the new 
ocean, and as it was the Michaelmas season, in the custom of those days named it 
Golfo de San Miguel; then marching into its clear and placid waters took possession 
in the name of His Majesty of Spain. Balboa died soon after (1517), murdered by 
his father-in-law Pedro Arias d'Avila, and his great discovery profited him little if 
indeed it was not indirectly the cause of his untimely death. 

Another grand man, in many ways not unlike Balboa, Fernao de Magalha.es, 
possessed with the conviction that the continent of America did not, as it seemed to all 
others, absolutely bar the path to far Cathay, but that there must be a way around if 
only one could sail far enough to the southward, pushed on with the spirit of Columbus 
against storms and storm-like men, sailed through the strait which still bears his 
name, and on November 2cS, 1520, passed into the wide ocean which iu contrast to the 
rough Atlantic he named Mcr I \icijico. We know now that storms on this ocean are 

as formidable as on the Atlantic, but his experience was all the other way and for 

[89] 



6 /.V/Vf.V TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

three months and twenty days he sailed with favoring winds north, then north-west, 
and finally west, suffering bitterly from scurvy and privation until on March 6, 1521, 
the green shores of the islands which his sailors called from the misconduct of the 
natives "Ladrones" were seen, but not until ten days later were the sufferings of the 
company relieved when they came to the important group since called the Philippines. 
Then persuaded to aid the petty chief of Zebu in his wars Magalhaes fell miserably on 
the island Macftan, and his comrades had not even the melancholly privilege of burying 
his remains. The survivors completed the first circumnavigation of the globe but 
strangely missed all the islands of the central Pacific and added only the islands of the 
Marianas to the map of Balboa's ocean. 

Next from the west came the Portuguese Jorge Menezes and discovered New 
Guinea, which only a few months later was rediscovered by the Spaniard Alvaro de 
Saavedra sent by Hernan Cortez from Mexico to the Moluccas. Saavedra on his re- 
turn saw islands of the Caroline Group, and in 1542 Ruiz Lopez de Villalobos on a 
voyage from Mexico to colonize the Philippines saw others of the same group but 
neither could sufficiently determine the position for identification. 

In 1567 Alvaro Mendana de Neyra discovered the important group which he 
called Islas de Salomon and in 1594 Philip II. gave him a commission as Adelantado. 
In April, 1595, Mendana sailed from Callao "para ir a pacijica y pohlar las is/as occi- 
dcnlalcs del mar del sur." Although he never again saw the Solomon Islands, he dis- 
covered and named the Marquesas Group and came at last to the island of Nitendi or 
Santa Cruz where he attempted to colonize but died and his survivors quarrelled with 
the natives until his widow sailed with his remains and what was left of the colon}- to 
Manila, where she married the Governor. Not long after the ship of the expedition 
which carried the corpse of the Adelantado, and which had been driven from the 
squadron by a storm, followed her to the island of Luzon where it ran ashore, sails all 
set and rotten, and all hands dead on board, another tragical ending for a discoverer in 
the Pacific! One of the ships of this expedition disappeared mysteriously in a slight 
squall one evening and it was supposed that tired of the infelicities of the ill-fated 
colony her company had deserted and taken the northern route back to Callao. If they 
tried this long and perilous way, in a ship insufficiently provisioned, they never reached 
their goal, and as the Hawaiian Group was not far from their probable track, it may 
have been from this ship that the survivors were thrown on the shore of Hawaii, as 
told in the native legends. 

Francis Drake had in the meantime crossed the Pacific in the ^(inlden I find" 
the first English warship to circumnavigate the globe. He left Ehigland December 
T 3) r 577> entering the Pacific in September of the following year, and early in Novem- 
ber, 1580, arrived at Plymouth; but his mission was not to discover new lauds but 
rather to vex the Spaniard. 



EARLY DISCOVERIES. 7 

In 1606 Luis Vaez de Torres, a. companion of Quiros, coasted the southeastern 
part of New Guinea and discovered the strait separating that island from Australia 
which still bears his name. At the same time the more distinguished Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros, who had been pilot with Mendana, discovered the New Hebrides and other 
islands, among them Sagittaria which Espinosa and others identify with Tahiti. Abel 
Janszen Tasman sailed by order of the Governor Van Diemen from Batavia in August, 
1642, to explore Australia, and in November discovered Tasmania (which he named 
Van Diemen's Land), in December New Zealand, and in 1643 a part of the Tongan 
Group. Other Dutch vessels from Batavia made various discoveries along the coast of 
Australia, and in 1699 the English freebooter Captain William Dampier explored the 
coast of Australia and New Guinea, leaving memorials of his voyaging in Dampier 
Archipelago, Dampier Island and Dampier Strait. Jacob Lemaire and Jan Schouten 
had in 1615 discovered the Strait of Lemaire and Cape Horn (which Schouten named 
in honor of his native town, Horn). March i, 1616, they sighted Juan Fernandez and 
then crossed the ocean to the northern coast of New Guinea. 

The eighteenth century was destined to reveal more accurately the secrets of 
the "Great Ocean". In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was sent across the Pacific by the 
Dutch East India Company and he discovered Rapanui or Easter Island. Lord 
Anson's voyage (1740-1744) was of a war-like nature, but in capturing the Spanish 
galleon he captured also the Spanish chart on which were "Las Mesas", a group 
of islands which Cook searched for on his way north from Tahiti and found in the 
designated latitude the group which he called Sandwich in honor of his patron, a 
Lord of the Admiralty. Alison's voyage had a far greater effect than Drake's in turn- 
ing the attention of the English to the Pacific, and in 1764 Commodore Byron, the grand- 
father of the poet, crossed it on his voyage around the world, and on his return in 1766 
a more formal exploring expedition was fitted out with Captain Wallis in the Dolphin 
and Captain Philip Carteret in the Sn<allow. Wallis first determined longitudes in this 
ocean by lunar distances and thus corrected the charts, which hitherto had but little im- 
proved on the early Spanish in that measurement. He rediscovered Tahiti June 19, 
1767, and discovered Sir Charles Saunders Island (Tapamanu ) in the. same group. His 
colleague Carteret discovered Pitcairn's Island July 2, 1767, and a number of islands of 
the Low Archipelago. About the same time the French sent Louis Antone de Bou- 
gainville on his memorable voyage around the world. He passed the Strait of Magel- 
lan and touched at Tahiti eight months after .Wallis. He was a distinguished navi- 
gator and mathematician, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the honor of first 
carrying the French flag around the world, but his surveys and charts were sadly 

inaccurate. 

All these advance scouts had prepared the way for a series of voyages unsur- 
passed in the history of maritime discovery : voyages whose record translated into all 

[91] 



8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

the principal languages of Europe were the most popular reading of the period, and to 
this day they are a mine of information concerning the people then dwelling in the 
islands of the great Pacific Ocean. The transit of Venus excited the greatest interest 
among the astronomers of that day and the Royal Society prevailed upon the Govern- 
ment to send an expedition to the "South Sea" to make suitable observations. Tahiti 
was selected as the most desirable place, and a young lieutenant, James Cook, who had 
distinguished himself at Quebec and in the service generally, was put in command of 
the Endeavor and sailed for the little known island. After exploring the group, which 
he named "Society Islands" in honor of the Royal Society, he surveyed New Zealand 
and the east coast of Australia with an accuracy which left little for his successors, 
then sailed for home through Torres Strait. Brief must be the account in this place 
of Cook's voyages, but it may be stated that on the second, when the main object was 
to explore the antarctic region, he sailed in the Resolution (460 tons) and discovered 
New Caledonia and several islands of the New Hebrides. This time he sailed as Cap- 

I 

tain, and on his return he was appointed Captain of Greenwich hospital with the rank of 
post-captain. This honorable sinecure he left to command the Resolution and Dis- 
covery on a voyage to discover the "Northwest Passage". Wintering in the Friendly 
Islands, he discovered the Hervey Group, often called Cook's Islands, and on his way 
north found the Sandwich Islands, which his countrymen have hardly yet learned to 
call Hawaiian. It was on his return from an unsuccessful search for the passage be- 
tween the Pacific and Atlantic that he died at the hands of the Hawaiians at Keala- 
kekua Bay. 

Cook's example stimulated the French to renewed efforts, and the accomplished 
Jean Franois Galaup de la Perouse was sent in 1785 to search for the delusive passage. 
He was in command of the Boiissole and, with his assistant De Langle on the Astrolabe, 
sailed to the coast of Alaska. The same icy wall blocked their way that had turned Cook 
back, but on the north-east coast of Asia they made some discoveries. In December, 
1788, De Langle, Lamonon the naturalist, and ten of the crew of the Astrolabe were 
massacred on Tutuila of the Samoan Group (named Navigator Islands by Bougain- 
ville), but the rest of the expedition reached Botany Bay in Januan-, 1788, and was 
not heard from after leaving that port. 

In 1791 D'Entrecasteaux was sent in search of La Perouse. He surveyed the 
Louisiade Archipelago and made some interesting discoveries in that region but died 
on board July 20, 1793, still ignorant -of the fate of his countrymen. Only in 1828 
Peter Dillon found the remains of the wrecked vessels on the island of Vanikoro in 
the New Hebrides. 

Lieutenant Bligh, in the bounty, was at Tahiti in 1788, and six months after 
the famous mutiny broke out and the commander was set adrift in an open boat. In 
this he made his adventurous voyage to Timor discovering the Banks Islands on the 

[92] 



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COOK AND LA PEROUSE. 9 

way. Captain Edwards, who was sent in the Pandora to search for the Bounty, dis- 
covered Anuda and Fataka Islands, but his ship was wrecked on a reef (Pandora Reef) 
in Torres Strait. 

In 1796-97 Captain Wilson, during the missionary voyage in the Duff, dis- 
covered the Gambier Islands and rediscovered the Duff Group. In the latter year there 
was great activity in the Australian region when George Bass discovered Bass' Strait, 
and with Matthew Flinders surveyed the east coast of Tasmania. Captain Flinders 
continued this work in the Investigator but was captured by the French in 1804 and 
kept a prisoner for six years. 

George Vancouver, another great Englishman who had been with Cook in his 
last two voyages, explored the Pacific (1792-1795), especially on the north-west coast 
of America, and had much to do with the conquest of the Hawaiian Group by Kameha- 
nieha. Only his untimely death soon after his return to England in 1795 prevented 
his return to the Pacific for farther exploration. 

The Russians now took up the task and in 1804 Admiral Krusenstern sailed 
around the world. From 1815 to 1818 Otto von Kotzebue followed in the Rurick dis- 
covering a number of low islands in the Paumotus and farther north ; while in 1828 
Liitke, in the Seniavine, surveyed the Carolines. To this nation also belongs the voy- 
age of Bellingshausen in 1819-21. 

England continued the work with Captain William Beechey in the Blossom, 
1825-28; Sir Edward Belcher in the Sulphur, 1836-42; Captain Fitzroy (with whom 
was Charles Darwin) from 1832 to 1836; and Sir James Ross with the Erebus and 
Terror, 1841-43; all of the voyages adding largely to the knowledge of the Pacific. 

In 1838 the United States Government entrusted to Lieutenant (afterwards 
Admiral ) Charles Wilkes the command of its first and greatest exploring expedition, and 
under his direction surveys were made of the Hawaiian, Fiji, Samoan, Paumotu and other 
groups, while the results to Natural Science were even greater than to geography. 

The French had not been idle, and mention should be made of the following 
government voyages in addition to those already noticed. Louis de Freycinet with 
the Uranie and Physicicnne, 1817-20; Duperrey on the Coquille, 1822-25; Dumont 
d'Urville on the Astrolabe, 1826-29; and du Petit Thouars on the \'cnns, 1836-39, 
made some geographical discoveries and corrected many mistakes of their predeces- 
sors, but perhaps their harvest was rather in the realm of Natural History, and 
indeed with these voyages the discover}- of new lands ceased and the efforts of suc- 
ceeding explorers were directed mainly to investigation of natural phenomena, as in 
the Austrian voyage of the Novara, 1857-59, of which the naturalist Dr. Karl von 
Scherzer was historian; and the Italian voyage of the Magenta, 1865-68, whose story 
was so well told by another naturalist, Dr. Enrico Hillyer Giglioli. The greatest of 

these scientific voyages was that of the English in the Challenger, 1872-76. The 

[93] 



io INDEX TO 'J HE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

depths of the ocean were studied in this long voyage and at the same time (1873-76) 
the United States sent the Tuscarora in command of Belknap, Erben and Miller, to 
take soundings for a submarine cable across the Pacific. The British ship Gazelle 
took many soundings in the South Pacific, and the British ship Penguin under Com- 
mander Balfour has the distinction of reaching the greatest depth in this ocean in 
1895, when in latitude 3O28'S. and longitude 176 39' W. 5107 fathoms were meas- 
ured. The United States surveying vessel Albatross has made no slight contribution 
to the knowledge of this ocean and its inhabitants of the lower forms of animal life. 
Before we leave the story of the discoveries in this ocean tribute should be paid to the 
hard}- American whalers who discovered many islands and have left the name of their 
ship, sometimes indeed their whole ship on the islands they discovered. 

The activity at the present time in the examination of the oceanic depths due 
to the various schemes for laying telegraphic cables will no doubt result in considera- 
ble increase of our knowledge of the bottom, and it seems probable that in the next 
few years the map will -be something more than a mere outline. 

The story of the great discoverers is a tragic one, as nearly all met a violent 
death, from Balboa to Dumont D'Urville, and every islet has its romance although 
often untold by mortal tongue: Defoe did not tell of all the Robinson Crusoes, nor 
Melville all about Typee. Islands have been found and lost again, men and ships 
have been lost and never found again ; and from the time when the early whalers were 
said to have hung their consciences upon Cape Horn as the}- entered the Pacific 
Ocean, to the later days when the labor pirates disposed of theirs in some equally con- 
venient way, there has been great crime and great cruelty through the islands of this fair 
ocean. Those usually considered of a higher race who have voyaged through the 
Pacific have not always been missionaries, nor have they always been true to the tra- 
ditions of their race. How often have they expressed the utmost horror of the poor 
untaught cannibals while themselves devouring the souls and lives of those they pre- 
tended to detest ! 

Glancing but briefly at the results of all these discoveries in the province of 
Natural History we find certain facts that will be a foundation for many theories as to 
the origin of both animal and vegetable life on the land found here and there amid the 
waste of waters. First of the great earth cup that contains this greatest of oceans, an 
expanse of water extending 10,000 miles from Quito to the Moluccas and covering 
nearly 70,000,000 square miles of the earth's surface. 

Depth of the Ocean. Modern deep-sea soundings have established the fact 
that the average depth of the Pacific Ocean is greater than that of the Atlantic, and 
that in it are found the greatest depths yet reached in any ocean. The average height 
of the continents bounding this ocean is 800 feet, while the average depth of the Pacific 

is 2500 fathoms, or about three miles below the average continental level. 

[94] 



CURRENTS OF THE PACIFIC. u 

If an imaginary line be drawn from Honolulu to Tahiti the portion of the Pacific 
to the east of this line is of comparatively even and moderate depth and there are few 
islands. West of this line island groups are abundant and the bottom presents great 
irregularities. Abysmal holes abound and submarine peaks arise in some cases many 
thousand feet from a depressed plateau. Shallow tracts are said to extend from Pata- 
gonia to Japan, and parallel to this occur the wrinkle-like elevations of the bottom on 
which occur the many groups of islands. The seas that fringe the western boundary 
of this ocean are separated from the main basin by plateaus of considerable height, 
although still submarine, and this feature has furnished rather insecure foundation 
(in our present knowledge) for many theories of animal and vegetable distribution. 
A matter of considerable interest is the occurrence of deep holes such as that the 
Challenger found between the Caroline and Marianas Groups where the soundings indi- 
cated 4475 fathoms, or about five miles and a quarter. Another occurs east of Tonga ; one 
has just been found near Midway Island, and the "deep" along the eastern coast of Japan 
from 20 N. to 50 N. seems like a long narrow crack in the sea bottom. Other deeps have 
been charted and the number which bear distinctive names is already considerable, but 
they can best be studied in the Challenger reports and on the more recent hydrographic 
charts. The shoals seem even more important as they may be inchoate islands. 

Currents of the Pacific. It is certainly known that the vast body of water 
of this ocean is in a constant state of circulation, and in a way partly independent of 
the prevailing winds, although, as we shall see below, the winds vary with the seasons 
as do the main channels of circulation. In this place it is sufficient to mention the 
great streams or arteries which flow in tolerably determined bounds and in constant 
direction while we must pass by the less definite currents which are modified by lands, 
by shoals, or by the winds, currents which in meeting do not mingle, but the denser or 
cooler current sinks below and passes beneath its lighter antagonist. 

Bering Strait is but a little gateway and admits no important current from the 
Arctic seas, but on the south from the Antarctic regions a strong current flows north 
to New Zealand where it is turned eastward to the coast of Patagonia, a branch con- 
tinuing east past Cape Horn, while the main stream, called in honor of its discoverer 
Humboldt, passes up the coast of South America until the isthmus of Panama deflects 
it to the west. As it meets the coast of Formosa it also encounters and travels with a 
stream analogous to the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic, the Kuro siwa of the Japanese, 
so called from its dark blue color. Merged with this it flows northeast then east until 
the Alaskan shores divert it to the south and west. The Kuro siwa has an average 
maximum temperature of 86 F., or about 12 greater than that of the waters of the 
ocean through which it passes. Narrow near Formosa, it gradually broadens until 
north of the Bonin Group it is 500 miles wide. Between the two great equatorial cur- 
rents flowing westward on either side of the equator is a narrow counter-equatorial 

[95] 



12 



1XDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



current flowing to the east. Still farther observations on the currents are needed, for 
their influence, although of less interest to navigators in these days of steam-propelled 
vessels has most important bearing on the peopling of the different groups. 

The cases of Japanese junks recorded as drifting to the Hawaiian Islands and 
to the north-west coast of America have often been referred to, and it is well known 
that the inhabitants of the Alaskan Islands obtain much of their fuel as driftwood 
from the Asiatic coast: it should also be noted that many of the largest and most 
famous double canoes of the Hawaiians were hewn from logs of Oregon pine brought 
to the shores of Niihau and Kauai by the waves. I myself saw dozens of such logs 
in 1864, some of great size, some bored by Teredo, others covered with barnacles, along 
the shores of Niihau. To the same shores are brought lumps of fine pumice which 
the ancient Hawaiians freely used to polish their canoes and wooden dishes. 

Winds of the Pacific. In some considerable measure accelerators if not 
originators of oceanic currents are the prevailing winds. The two agencies combined 
have had a large part in the distribution of animal and vegetable life through this 
ocean. In the eastern half of the Pacific, which is comparatively free from land, the 
north-east trade winds blow with marked regularity as far south as the equatorial belt 
of calms which encircles the globe nearly parallel with the equator, and in the southern 
hemisphere the south-east trade winds blow as regularly to the same belt where they 
rise and return in the upper regions to the polar seas whence they came. Such is in 
general the plan of air currents in the open ocean of the eastern half, but the north 
and south limit of each of these trade winds varies with the season, and wherever isl- 
ands occur a variation results not always easy to explain : even the very low coral 
islands are quite sufficient to change the force and direction of the trade winds, substi- 
tuting a land and sea breeze system. The following table, taken from Kerhallet, will 
show clearly the variation of the "Trades": 

A TABI.K OK THE LIMITS OK THE "TRADES" AS AKKECTED BY CHANGE OK SEASONS. 



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The division of the trades on the belt of the "Doldrums" is always to the north 
of the equator, perhaps owing to the unequal distribution of land and water in the two 

hemispheres, for representing land by 100 the proportion of water in the north hemi- 

L96] 



WINDS OF 7 HE PACIFIC. 13 

sphere is 150 while in the south it is 628. Over the doldrums, at a great height, 
hangs a belt of cloud formed by the opposing currents of different temperatures. 

Formerly it was believed that the trade winds extended over the entire breadth 
of the Pacific, but although additional data are needed, enough are at hand to show 
that this is true only of the region extending between the Galapagos and the Paumotus, 
or from 90" to 150 west longitude, less than half its extent so far as the SE. trade winds 
are concerned : the NE. trades blow as far west as the Mariannes. We fortunately 
have tables of wind observation from two points in the western course of the northern 
belt of wind. At Jaluit in the Marshall Group (169 E.) Dr. Steinbach has made the 
observations given in the following table : 

TABLE OF THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND AT JALUIT, MARSHALL ISLANDS, FOR THE THREE 
YEARS 1892-1894 AS OBSERVED BY DR. STEINBACH. 

(The ftKuren are percentages. ) 



X. NNE. 


NE. 


ENK. 


E. 


ESE. 


SE. 


88K. 


s. 


sw. 


\vs\v. 


1 

NAV. N.\\V. 


CALM. 












































































































































































13 










































J 




October 1 




















j 






























46 















































At Ponape in the Caroline Group (158 E.) Mrs. L. H. Gulick, of the American 
Mission, kept a meteorological record for several years. From this the winds for the 
year 1854 are shown as follows: 



MONTHS 


HAVS OF 
Tit A UK WIMI. 


DAYS OF 

VAKIABI.K WIXD. 




MONTHH. 


DAYS OF 
TRADE WIND. 


DAY8 OF 
VARIABLE WIND. 


DAYS OF CALM. 




so 


' o 




.Tnlv 


11 


11 






88 
















23 
















IB 


1 






(} 






\IV . 


90 
















:,:, 


s I 




T) -Miihpr 

























Among the islands between the Australian coast and the Paumotu Group the 
SE. trade winds are only felt during the winter or between March and October. In 
the belt of calms storms and abundant rains are not uncommon. South of the Tropic 
of Capricorn are found the anti-trades blowing from the NW. or W. with considerable 
regularity, and north of the Tropic of Cancer blows the SW. anti-trade. This SW. 
wind coming over the vast area of northern Asia is a cold dry wind, but when it crosses 
the warm stream of the Japanese current it condenses the tropical vapors brought by that 
stream from the south and thus causes almost perpetual fog: as it strikes the Alaskan 
shores it is a warmer rain-bearing wind. In the western Pacific monsoons take the place 
of the trade winds, blowing half of the year in one direction but reversing the direction 

during the other half. The change of monsoons is much dreaded asprolific of storms. 

[97] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Hurricanes seldom occur in the open Pacific, but in the region of Samoa and Fiji 
and farther to the west are far from uncommon. The whole of the north-west portion 
between 20 and 45 N. is subject to cyclonic storms called typhoons. A capital review 
"bf these storms, both hurricanes and typhoons, is to be found in Segelhandbuck far den 
Stillen Ozcan of the German Hydrographic Board, Hamburg, 1897. 

Climate. From the great range in elevation from the coral islet over which 
the storm waves break to the heights of the island of Hawaii where the volcanic peaks 
closely approach the line of 14,000 feet ; from the winds of constant direction in the 
eastern half to the fickle airs of the Solomon Islands: there is even in the main portion 
of Oceania which is within the tropics a great variety of climate. In the trade wind 
regions the moisture brought in the breezes is mainly precipitated on the windward 



MATUKU 




PALMYRA ib. '^ 

CORAL ISLANDS. 






-^ ^ WoSfc&- =:*\ **?# ^ 

r/}raMra^^- 




FIG. I. 



HIGH ISLAND. 



side of high islands leaving the lee side often dry and desert-like, while where the 
monsoons prevail both sides get a share of the rain and the vegetation is more luxuri- 
ant and uniform. Indeed the rain is often superabundant on some groups of the 
western Pacific, as the early Spanish navigators found to their disgust, for in those 
days the seamen had no proper shelter and had to cook their food on the open deck. 
The dry climate of the Hawaiian Islands where the natives could wear bark cloth had 
its counterpart in the cool and wet New Zealand where the same Polynesian had to 
make his garments of the warmer and more durable flax which he ingeniously made 

water-proof. New Zealand and its dependencies alone extend beyond the tropics, and 

[98] 



VOLCANOES AND CORAL ISLANDS. 15 

in the southern part of that noble group the southern Alps vie in beauty and majesty 
with the better known Swiss mountains. Perhaps nowhere in the world outside of the 
Pacific can so great a variety of climate be found. Tables of rainfall, maps of isother- 
mic lines can be given of some parts of the Pacific region, but the record is too imper- 
fect and as yet covers too narrow a territory to make it worth while to reproduce here. 

Island Forms. A marked difference exists between islands in our region : some 
rise high above the ocean presenting conical peaks more or less eroded into radial val- 
leys ; the peaks and slopes generally, at least on the windward side, covered with dense 
vegetation ; while the second class consists of a low sand bank not more than a dozen 
feet above the ocean and only visible to the approaching vessel by the lofty coconut trees. 
Of the former class are the Hawaiian, Samoan, Society Groups, and most of the western 
islands, while to the latter class belong the Paumotus, Gilbert and Marshall Groups : the 
two forms are sometimes combined as at the Fijian Group. So far as known all the 
high islands of the central Pacific and most of those in the west are volcanic. 

Volcanic Systems. All along the shores of the Pacific are active volcanoes. 
Commencing with the little known volcanoes of the Antarctic region, of which we may 
hope to learn more in view of the present interest in Antarctic exploration, the Andes 
continue the line with some of the loftiest in the world near the equator. Central 
America presents volcanoes of great variety and interest, mostly detached and not in 
mountain chains. Mexico with her Coseguina and others less active in modern times, 
while Shasta, Ranier and Baker carry the line northward until it takes to the water in 
the Alaskan Islands and crosses to the fine ranges of Kamchatka, then through Japan, 
the Philippines to Java and Sumatra where it leaves this region. With such a wall of 
fiery sentinels it is not surprising that the enclosed space should bristle with similar 
volcanic and seismic phenomena. Hawaii on the north-east seems to be a prolongation 
of the Mexican line which is marked by Colima, Popocatepetl and Orizaba. It is a 
line of volcanic action extending nearly a thousand miles, although the portion to the 
north-west has long been extinct. At the extreme southwest is the largest active crater 
in the world, Kilauea, which has given its name to a remarkable type of pit crater. 
The Marquesas, although volcanic, present no craters and have long been extinct : and 
this is true of the Society Islands, but their near neighbor the Tongan Group is still 
active and submarine volcanoes break out, form islands of loose cinders, and soon are 
converted to shoals by the waves. New Zealand contains several grand volcanoes and 
its volcanic phenomena in the way of hot springs are noteworthy. The "Terraces" 
on the North island were the most beautiful in the world until destroyed by the erup- 
tion of Tarawera (in June, 1886). In the New Hebrides are several smaller active 
vents; one of them, on Tanna, has been constantly active, like Stromboli, at least since 
the time of Cook. The Solomon Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago are fully vol- 

[99] 



i6 



INDEX TO Till-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



canic, eruptions frequently occurring in some part of that territory. A region of such 
marked volcanic character might be expected to exhibit the concomitant phenomena of 
earth movements, both earthquakes and the grander if less obtrusive movements of 
elevation and depression, and it was the latter change in level that gave Darwin the 
foundation of his ingenious theory of the formation of 

Coral Islands. Most important, both from a geological and a zoological 
standpoint are the buildings of the coral-forming polyp. Throughout the portion of the 
Pacific between the dotted lines on the diagram of this ocean ( Fig. 2) this minute animal 
has by the force of numbers greatly increased the area of habitable land, made harbors 




FIG. 2. DIAGRAM OF ISOCHRYMES BKTWKKN WHICH RKKF-CORALS OCCUR. 

possible, and changed if not created currents in the equatorial sea. This is not a work 
now complete or of paroxysmal or intermitent nature, but it is a work of the present 
day, like the seolic erosion of valleys and shows no sign of diminution. 

While the other great agency in the formation of the intra-Pacific lands, vulcan- 
ism, seems to be diminishing from Hawaii to the Solomon Islands, the coral polyp, all 
unconscious, it may be, as the volcano of its mighty work, goes on building up reefs 
which in time become habitable islands. 

As a certain degree of warmth is needed for the life as well as growth of reef- 
forming corals, and not all corals come into this class, the boundaries of the coral 
region both north and south of the equator will be determined by the isocrvnir (or line 
of equal cold) of 68 F., colder water preventing their growth, and their activity in- 
creasing with the mean temperature. In the hotter water under the equator the tem- 

[100] 



' 



'* 



to 

o 

10 



_ 
o 

>0 



fe 




a 
o 



* 

o 
O 




3 






25 - 






O 

d 

< 

K 



j 

o 

< 



< 

1 






a 





(f) 

a 

z 



VX (d 

S 

t- 



o 


O 



I 



CO 

W r~ 

OS - 



CO ' 

o 
J 



^ 

o 













LJ 









> 



CORAL REEFS. iy 

perature is 85 F., or two degrees higher than in the Atlantic. The mean temperature 
for the year is, in the North Pacific 73.5 F.; in the South Pacific, 70 F. Where the 
temperature of the surface is never below 70 F. during the year, that is within I5-2O 
of the equator, the reef corals abound both in species and individuals, as at the Fiji 
Group, which is one of the most remarkable coral gardens of the ocean. The Hawaiian 
Islands are near the northern limit of subtorrid warmth and only the hardier forms are 
found (as Porites and Pocillopora) and their growth is not so luxuriant: the beautiful 
Madrepora of the southern groups is wholly wanting. This brief reference must 
suffice to indicate the important factor that temperature makes in the distribution 
of reefs. Corals will not grow in muddy water, or when the percentage of salt falls 
below a certain point, hence their absence opposite the discharge of rivers. In 
depth the living corals (reef-building) do not extend beyond twenty-five fathoms 
or 150 feet (Dana). 

The Hawaiian Islands are well provided with fringing reefs but have no 
barrier reefs, and these two forms are thus distinguished : the former is a fringe or ex- 
tension around or on certain coasts of a high island, presenting a tolerably flat surface 
at low tide, interrupted by wells and channels; the latter is detached from the shore 
by a channel of greater or less width, and may form a wing encircling the island, or it 
may extend along a coast as the Great Barrier Reef of the east coast of Australia 
which extends parallel with that coast some 1250 miles. What is the explanation of 
these detached reefs ? It is not so difficult to understand the growth from a shore 
as the polyp grows, comes too near the surface, is exposed too long at low tide, dies 
and its successors have to push seaward. On most fringing reefs the dead far out- 
numbers the living coral. If coral, probably from a deficiency of light, cannot grow 
at a depth below twenty-five fathoms, how could a detached mass start from the bottom 
of an ocean which in the immediate vicinity of most coral islands presents a much 
greater depth ? Charles Darwin explained this in a very simple way and his conclu- 
sions, with all their consequences, were accepted as satisfactory for many years. It is 
well known that changes of level take place in "solid" land. On the Hawaiian island 
Oahu the ancient coral reef is now from two to three fathoms above the level at which 
it was formed not many ages ago, and other regions have as evidently subsided. In 
this subsidence Mr. Darwin finds the key to the formation of barrier reefs. Granted 
the subsidence this theory capitally explains all the phenomena of reef formation. 
Agassiz, Dr. Murray and Professor Alexander Agassiz (feeling that the subsidence 
theory was not proven for all localities) base their explanation of the barrier reef 
on the growth of the coral on the rim of a volcanic crater at a suitable depth. There 
is this difficulty that some of the atolls in the Indian Ocean would presuppose a crater 
thirty miles in diameter, a size which has no parallel on the earth's surface. Interest 
has lately been excited in this question by the borings on the coral island of Funafuti, 

MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 2. 2. L 1< - >1 J 



i8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

and by the renewed explorations of Alexander Agassiz, but at the present writing the 
evidence is not conclusive on either side. 

Without adopting either theory we may state that coral islands have a fringing 
reef more or less interrupted, sometimes a barrier reef, while the island in many cases 
becomes simply a ring of circular or irregular form, and the enclosed space is called a 
lagoon in the atoll. An opening into this lagoon may convert it into a good boat 
harbor, or the continuity of the ring and the growth of coral or the wash of sand and 
debris may fill the lagoon converting it into a simple coral island with a fringing reef. 
Many islands have simply a depression in the centre marking the former lagoon. 
Atolls have often many islets inhabited on the ring, while other islets rise from the 
shallow lagoon. 

From the organic nature of the reefs they are constantly changing, and the 
change is generally a growth : hence channels become shallower and unless kept open 
by some fresh water stream finally close ; lagoons which have served for harbor to ves- 
sels of light draft become dry land. Coral rock is easily cut and artificial channels 
can often be cut to good harbors, and the apparent scarcity of such havens in the cen- 
tral Pacific may be remedied. The growth of coral patches off harbors and in channels 
is a serious danger to navigation and requires frequent surveys. The rate of growth 
of coral reefs is not yet satisfactorily determined. Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle, and 
Dana's Corals and Coral Islands may be consulted for farther information as to the 
growth of corals. In regard to the geographical distribution of reefs it may be briefly- 
stated that there are no reefs on the South American coast, and only detached corals in 
the Panama region. Easter Island is without reefs, so is Pitcairn, although there are 
some growing corals about the latter, while the neighboring Paumotus consist of eighty 
coral islands, nearly all with lagoons; the Marquesas have little coral about them; 
the Society Islands and Fiji abound in reefs. The Samoan and Tongan are well pro- 
vided with reefs, although in the former group Tutuila has less coral than Upolu. Of 
the Hawaiian Islands Kauai, Oahu and Molokai have extensive reefs, while Maui and 
Hawaii have very little except detached corals; Necker and Nihoa have none, but 
farther toward the west are many reefs. The Gilbert, Marshal and Caroline Islands 
are almost entirely coral. The Marianas are actively volcanic in the northern por- 
tion where there are no reefs, but the southernmost Guam has extensive reefs ; so have 
Yap and the Pelews. The New Hebrides again are actively volcanic and have few 
reefs, while New Caledonia abounds in them. The Coral Sea and Great Barrier reef 
continue the line southward. The Louisiade Group and the Admiralty Islands have 
barrier and fringing reefs, while the north coast of New Guinea which is fringed with 
volcanic islands has no reefs. Of the Solomon Group only the western portion has 
extensive fringing reefs. As to the extent of all the reefs in the western Pacific there 
is great lack of trustworthy information. 

[102] 



FLORA OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 19 

Flora. On the shores of nearly all the islands in our region are found a few 
plants common to all tropical countries, and which are easily dispersed by currents. 
They belong to the families Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanacese and Leguminosse, 
and are of little interest. This association of plants is often called the madreporic 
flora. In the low islands of the Pacific there is little else for the botanist ; add the 
ubiquitous pandanus, coconut and mangrove and the tale is told. In the high islands 
the interesting and peculiar flora begins at the height of about 1200 feet, and it is this 
flora that contains all the species peculiar to the islands. 

In the many shaded and moist valleys of Polynesia ferns find a congenial home, 
and from the lightness of their spores are easily distributed ; hence the Polynesian 
flora presents 15% of ferns. Other predominant plants are provided with especially 
light seeds as in the families Urticaceae, Rubiaceae, Lobeliaceae and Orchidacae. The 
last family counts many species in Fiji and the Society Islands as well as in Australia, 
while on the Hawaiian Group only three small species are found. On the other hand, of 
the Lobeliacese none are found in Fiji, three only in the Society Islands, while on the 
Hawaiian Islands are found more than fifty species. Most of the Polynesian vegetation 
is woody; annuals form only i%, and most of these are strangers confined to the shores. 

The question of the origin of the plants on isolated groups is of great interest, 
but its discussion would carry us far beyond the limits of this introductory chapter. 
It will be found, however, that the widely disseminated plants are either provided with 
wings or other suitable appendages for the wind-borne journey, or are attractive food 
for birds of passage. In the stomachs of pigeons killed in Micronesia have been found 
the seeds of Fijian plants. The lantana (L. camara) was cultivated for years in gar- 
dens in the Hawaiian Islands but it showed no tendency to spread until the so-called 
mina (Acridotheres tristis) was introduced, when the berry became its favorite food 
and the indigestible seed was scattered everywhere. Cosmopolitan species are intro- 
duced by winds and currents, hence a study of these will explain many cases. Rare 
American plants are almost confined to the Hawaiian Group, the nearest to that con- 
tinent and in the line of the NE. trade winds. 

Of the flowering plants the proportion to the whole flora is in south-eastern 
Polynesia 20%; in Fiji, 40%; and in the Hawaiian Islands, 80%. The affinities of the 
plants in each group are instructive. About 500 species are common to Asia and 
tropical Australia. Some 220 species are common to New Zealand and Australia. 
Of the two species of Ranunculus found on the Hawaiian Islands, one resembles 
R. sericeus of Mauritius ; the other, R. rcpcns of America. Fiji has one species each 
of three Asiatic genera, Ternstroemia, Saurauja and Eurya. Hawaii and the Mar- 
quesas have each a species of the distinctively American genus Walthcria. 

If we look rapidly at a few of the more important families we shall find that the 

Leguminosse are not common in Polynesia; of the genus Acacia all the species peculiar 

['03] 



20 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



to this region are phyllodineons and the rest of this peculiar group is Australian. 
Among Rosacese the genus Acacna has one species peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands 
while some thirty other species are South American. Of Pittosporaceae the genus 
I'ittosponini, which is Australian in large part, has twelve species in New Zealand, ten 
in the Hawaiian Islands, six in Fiji, and one in Southeastern Polynesia. The family 
Rubiacese contains 7% of the flowering plants peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands, 14% 
of those peculiar to Fiji, and in New Caledonia some two hundred species are reported. 
In all the islands there are three hundred species, while Australia has scarce one 
hundred. There are several curious Composite in the Hawaiian Islands, Wilkesia, 
Argyroxiphium and Remya. The genus Lipochceta has one species in the Galapagos 
while twelve are Hawaiian. Of the Campanulacese, besides five species of Lobelia, 
there are five genera, Brighamia, Delissea, Rollandia, Clermontia, and Cyanea peculiar 
to the Hawaiian Islands, and another Apetahia peculiar to the Society Islands : the 
family is not found beyond those two groups in Polynesia : the centre of the Lobeliaceae 
is American. Of the Urticaceae the genus Ficus has a dozen species peculiar to Fiji, 
twenty-three (all but six peculiar) in New Caledonia. The Palms are all related to 
the Malaysian flora. In the Filices the relationship is w r ell shown in the following 
table taken from Drake del Castillo: 



TYPE. 


mi. 


C'K.NTKAL AND EAHT 
POLYNESIA. 


HAWAII. 


ALL OCEANIA. 


AHintic ... 


5ft p. c. 
8 
3 
9 
26 


BO p. c. 

2 
20 
26 


13 p. c. 

4 
28 

a 


32 p. C. 

2 

1 

IK 

44 













The paucity of edible fruits is a feature of the Polynesian flora as is also the 
absence of poisonous plants on most of the islands. Although not rivaling the Ameri- 
can economic woods in variety or beauty, there are nevertheless many choice timber 
woods in the Pacific Region. The koa of Hawaii, the kauri of New Zealand, the kou 
and kamani of the southern islands, and the eucalypti of Australia are both beautiful 
and valuable, although many are fast disappearing and I know of no serious attempt 
to cultivate them. 

Throughout Polynesia proper the Kalo (Coladium cscit leu hint) was the staple 
vegetable food, varied, in the southern islands with the Breadfruit (Artocarpus iucisa), 
and to the west, especially on sand islands and in Micronesia, the fruit of the I\uidaniis 
odonitissimus is an important addition to the dietary. Bananas, yams, sugar-cane, 
kukui nuts, Canarium nuts, the fruits of some Myrtacese and Vaccinieae were the prin- 
cipal fruits of the ancient Pacific-islander: all the fruits that now abound in the gar- 
dens and orchards have been brought since the time of Cook. 

For farther information on the Flora one may consult Rcmarqiics stir la Florc 

dc la r<>Iyn!'sic par E. Drake del Castillo, Paris, 1890; A Left tin- on Insular 

[104] 



FAUNA. 



21 



J. D. Hooker, London, 1868; also Dr. Hooker's admirable Nciv Zealand Flora; Mann's 
Enumeration of Hawaiian Plants; Die Vegetation dcr Krdc, by A. H. R. Grisebach ; 
Introduttion to the Botany of the Challenger Expedition, by W. B. Helmsley. 

I^and Fauna. In eastern Polynesia rats and mice were the only indigenous 
mammals, bnt to the west the wonderful Marsupials of Australia and New Guinea, the 
fruit-eating bats and some small and comparatively unimportant mammals extend the 
list slightly. Reptiles are not more abundant. New Zealand and the Hawaiian 
Islands have no snakes. Samoa, Fiji and Micronesia have a few harmless forms; 
while Australia has numerous deadly species. Crocodiles are found in Queensland 
and on some of the islands not far distant, and th'e lizards of Australia are of many 
species and sometimes of considerable size. New Zealand has the curious Tuatara 
(Hatteria punctata, Gray), but as we go eastward the species and individuals diminish 
until on the Hawaiian Group there are but six small species of lizard, and these are 
disappearing before the introduced mongoos. Of the birds New Guinea has the re- 
markable Birds of Paradise, and Australia has many and most interesting species. 
New Zealand has the Kiwi, a remnant of some of the most wonderful birds, now ex- 
tinct, that have ever lived. Samoa has another survival in the Didunculus, but again 
as we go east the birds grow scarce. In insect life the rule holds good and the fine 
butterflies and gigantic beetles of New Guinea give place to one or two diurnal lepi- 
doptera on Hawaii, where the insect fauna has been well worked and although of great 
interest to the entomologist has little to interest by size or beauty of form. 

The marine fauna is indeed as rich as the land fauna is poor, and the low coral 
islands of the central Pacific swarm with fishes which have always been the principal 
food of the inhabitants. These fishes are closely connected with East Indian forms. 
The great mammals of this ocean are far more important than those of the land and 
deserve far more notice than can be given in this sketch. 

Whales and the Whaling Industry. I place the whales and their pursuit 
together, for no other animals have caused such changes to the primitive inhabitants 
and no study of the ethnology of the Pacific can omit or fail to give its proper promi- 
nence to the whalers and their intercourse with the islanders of this ocean. The days 
are gone when fifty or more American whalers wintered or refitted in the harbors of the 
Hawaiian Group, but the effects of this intercourse will only cease when the weaker 
race has wholly succumbed to the advance of the white race. It is pleasanter to look for 
a moment at the whales than to consider the acts of their hunters. The polar whale 
(Balezna mysticetus) conies only into the most northern part of our region, but another 
species (B.japonica) is found from continent to continent nearly as far south as the 
Tropic of Cancer. Still another species is common south of Australia, around the 
South American continent, and to some extent between these points (B. antipodmi:}. 

[105] 



22 



/.\7)/-:.\' TO Till-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



The Sperm whale (Phvseter macrocephalus) is found between Australia and New 
Zealand, in Micronesia and around certain groups as the Hawaiian, Marquesas, Fiji 
and Society Islands. It is much more tropical than the Balsenas, and while the latter 
prefer the cold polar waters and seldom go beyond the cooler currents of the Pacific, 
the cachelot is found especially in the tropical region and serves to employ the ardlic 
whalers during the off season in the northern seas. Besides these "nobility" of the 
whale kind there are lesser lights hunted in the Pacific as in the Atlantic. The 
humpback (Megaptera boops) is found all along the American coast, at many of the 
central island groups in the tropics, and off the shores of New Zealand, New Cale- 
donia and Australia. The Sulphurbottom (Sibbaldia sulphureus), Gray whale (Rha- 
chianectes glaucus), Pacific finback (Balfenoptera velifera) and Rorqual (^B. daridsoni) 
are found off Japan, in Bering Sea and off the American coast. 

The pursuit of these great mammals employed many men and much capital as is 
well known. When in full force in 1846 there were 735 American vessels with an aggre- 
gate tonnage of 233,133 tons. It may perhaps be forgotten that a whale ship, from the 
length and hardship of the voyage was regarded as a sort of reform school for rather 
hardened young offenders who were not amenable to the good influences on land. Hence 
it happened that many of these quasi convicts escaped to the island Edens and played 
the part of the serpent. But with these important exceptions I believe the influence 
of the whaling industry was not one of preponderant evil. Many natives went as 
sailors on these ships and learned to work as they would never have learned in the 
dolce far niente of their homes, and it was often the advice of these travelled country- 
men that opened the door to the white missionary. It is impossible to believe that 
the influence of the sturdy men who sailed from New Bedford and Nantucket \vas very 
bad. Have we not known them in their homes and shaken hands with their worthy 
descendants? Of the literature on this subject may be mentioned, F. D. Bennett, 
Whaling Voyage Round the Globe, fSjj-j6; Beale, The Sperm Whale and its Captors, 
1839; United States Fish Commission Report, 187^; Scammon, Mammalia of North- 
western America, 1884. 

Inhabitants and Their Origin. In no part of the primitive world has 
there been more confusion of races, more difficulty in exact classification, and, it must 
be added, more ignorance of people than in the Pacific. We have prehistoric remains 
in Easter Island, in Tongatabu, in Ponape and in the Marianas of which Ethnologists 
know no certain origin. The great leaders of Ethnology have measured a few skulls 
(too often labelled "South Seas") and have compared imperfect vocabularies, and then, 
with some hesitation it is true, have made family arrangements in which they do not 
agree among themselves, and which farther knowledge may modify or replace. But 

this is not the place to enter into a discussion of the different systems, nor to follow 

[106] 



INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS. 23 

that fascinating because so difficult quest for the origin of the peoples we now find 
on the islands of the Pacific. All admit they are not autocthonous, but theories of 
their origin start both from the East and from the West. One claims that the Poly- 
nesians, to take one of the more evident divisions of the islanders, came from the great 
Malayan islands and worked eastward ; another contends that they had their origin in 
South or Central America and were dispersed through the great ocean by the Trades ; 
while another, admitting their Asiatic birth, claims that they not only crossed the 
Pacific and peopled it, but continued their planting to the American continent. Let 
the theories await more complete knowledge: in the meantime all theorists in this 
domain are helping towards a final solution. 

We may, to save repetition in the list of island names of which this is an ex- 
tended introduction, adopt the most common and perhaps most correct classification 
into three main divisions without going beyond our region for relationships. These 
are Papuan, Micronesian and Polynesian. With the first we place Australians and 
the people of New Guinea, Pelew Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, 
New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands and Fiji. The Australians are strongly 
differentiated from the others in mental if not in physical traits, and the Vitians are 
strongly tinctured with Polynesian blood, but on 'the whole the islanders mentioned 
agree in the following important matters; flat and abundant hair on both head and 
body ; skin dark almost black in Australia, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, 
chocolate-colored in New Guinea, yellowish (from Malay admixture) in the Pelew Isl- 
ands ; scar or paint the body, but do not tatu ; do not circumcise except in Australia, 
Fiji and some islands of the New Hebrides; heads dolichocephalic, prognathous and 
phanerozygomatic ; nose broad and hooked ; lips intumescent but not so full as in the 
negro ; height medium ; chew betel rather than awa ; have artistic feeling in decora- 
tion (especially in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago); cook in earthen 
vessels; are cannibals (except Australians and the Pelew Islanders); are noisy and 
restless, decidedly democratic, have no kings nor hereditary chiefs; show no sentiment 
in favor of clothes ; are irreligious and exhibit great diversity of dialects. 

The Micronesian division includes the Marianas, Caroline, Marshall and Gilbert 
groups. It is a debatable ground between the first and last divisions. The people are 
a plainly mixed race of Papuan and Polynesian ancestry with considerable Malay ad- 
mixture at the western end. They are less democratic than the Papuans, more so than 
the Polynesians; use looms (as do also the New Hebrideans); are good navigators; 
tatu to some extent (Carolines); considerable diversity of dialects with many Polyne- 
sian roots. 

In the Polynesian Group are the Hawaiians, Samoans, Tahitians, Marquesans, 
Tongans, Paumotuans and Maoris. They have long, black, cylindrical hair, little of 

it on body, hence addicted to tattling in which they excel ; brachycephalic, and not 

[107] 



24 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

very prognathous; fairly large stature; light-colored; very large dark eyes; practise 
circumcision; are not cannibals (except Marquesans and Maoris); caste institutions 
with kings and chiefs; are very religious; kapu system in full force; use awa, never 
betel ; no looms, no earthen vessels ; cook in earth ovens and with hot stones ; make 
kapa or bark cloth (as do also the Solomon Islanders and some tribes of New Guinea); 
have a strong sentiment of dress ; have a common language from Hawaii to New Zeal- 
and; are good seamen and fishermen. In ancient times were good navigators journey- 
ing in their canoes to almost incredible distances as seen in the ancient voyages of the 
Hawaiian s to Tahiti. 

In every generalization there must be many exceptions, but the characters here 
given are very general. The hybrids are very numerous and most difficult to place 
when met casually. The Papuan -)- Polynesian hybrid is much more homogeneous, 
that is, more difficult to pick out traits of either parent, than is the mixture of 
Chinese -f- Polynesian, where the Mongolian predominates but the Polynesian is still 
in evidence. Otherwise half-breeds in the Pacific are much as half-breeds are every- 
where else. 

Cannibalism. This custom which arouses a curious horror in most civilized 
people, although man is a carnivorous animal and human flesh is not unwholesome, 
was once prevalent in the Marquesas, Fiji and New Zealand, and is now in full force 
in the Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, Bismarck archipelago and parts of New 
Guinea. Elsewhere in the Pacific it has never existed or has yielded to the pressure 
of civilization. The origin of this curious habit has been ascribed to various causes, 
as for instance, piety the nearest relative devouring the remains of a dear corpse to 
place them nearest the seat of the affections and to protect them from outrage by the 
enemy. Such disposal has occurred on groups not otherwise anthropophagic. To 
absorb the qualities of another is, I believe, the most orthodox application of cannibalism. 
Brave and tried warriors were eaten, never women or children, and the true cannibal 
never allowed a woman to eat a man! Certainly the portions in which the desired 
qualities were supposed to reside were most sought, the hand, the heart, the testes. 
This effect of food is, perhaps iinconsciously, recognized in the navy of a great nation 
where mutton is never eaten lest the marines become sheepish. It is worthy of note 
that the worst cannibals in the Pacific were also the most skilled producers. Maori 
and Marquesan carvings, Solomon Island canoes, New Hebridean mats are all in evi- 
dence. Revenge ; that sweet passion in the savage thought, to cook an enemy like a 
dog or pig, to drink his blood, is world-wide in desire if not in full execution, and Kali 
the bloodthirsty wife of Shiva in the Hindu pantheon -is not the only primitive deity 
in which this passion is personified. Needed food: man, although carnivorous, did not 
suffer from famine on the Pacific Islands, at least on those where anthropophagy pre- 
vailed, but it has been suggested that in the long voyages food may have failed as it 

[108] 



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LANGUAGE. 25 

has too often in the voyages of civilized men, and the weakest has been sacrificed to 
save life. The strong persistence of the habit once acquired is fully recognized. This 
might explain the prevalence of the custom among Maoris and Marquesans at opposite 
ends of the Polynesian domain. Cakobau used to boast that he had eaten one hundred 
and seventy-five of his fellow Vitians, and a New Hebridean belt in the Bishop Museum 
is hung with one hundred and thirty-five incisors, the tally of so many victims of its 
chiefly owner; but the commoner got little of this rich food, and now it has come that 
under British rule the last vestiges of this custom have been wiped out in the two 
South Pacific strongholds, New Zealand and Fiji. Even the trophies of cannibalism, 
arm and leg bones inserted in the stem of a growing tree, are more common in museums 
than in the Fijian archipelago. Evidently in the Pacific it will soon be only a matter 
of history. 

I/anguages. While among the Polynesian islanders there is an unmistakable 
relationship of language, in the Melanesian the confusion of Babel seems to rule 
supreme. On not a few small islands of Micronesia several mutually unintelligible 
tongues are found, and it would require much imagination to trace any connection. 
The languages of New Guinea are so little known that no comparisons can be drawn 
between them and the Melanesian, nor can it be stated with authority whether the 
Malay element is more preponderant there than in the tongues farther east. Codring- 
ton (in the work mentioned below) seems to regard the Melanesian as superior to the 
Polynesian. The languages of Australia offer other differences and still less relation- 
ship to the Malay. Even where certain common words are selected and compared in 
the forty or fifty dialects of which vocabularies are accessible, the result is by no means 
satisfactory, and to classify one must have recourse not to roots but to grammatical 
structure, of which not enough is at present known to warrant any definite scheme. 
To enter into the peculiarities of even the best known would require not only much 
space but a knowledge beyond the reach of the present writer, and the subject will be 
left with a few examples of the languages of the Pacific as they have been printed. 
Those who are curious to know more may consult the works of which a list is appended. 
The similarity between the Polynesian dialects is so great that a native of one group 
finds little difficulty in making himself understood in any other. Codrington, R. H., 
The Melanesian Languages, Oxford, 1885 ; Gabelentz, H. C. von de, die Melanesischen 
Sprachcn, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1860-73; Humboldt, Wm. von, Ucbcr die Kaivi Spradic 
auj der Inseljava, 3 vols., Berlin, 1836-38; Hale, Horatio, Ethnography and Philology 
of the U. S. Ex. Ex., Philadelphia, 1846; Inglis, J., Grammar and Diflionary of the 
Aneityumese Language, London, 1882 ; Grezel, Pere, Diclioiniaire Fi(liiinen-Franc.ais, 
Paris (?), n. d.; Tregear, E., Maori- Polynesian Comparative Diclionary, Wellington, N. 
Z., 1891; Andrews, L. A., Diclionary of the Hawaiian Language, Honolulu, 1865; 

Pratt, G., Grammar and Diclionary of the Samoan Language, ad ed., London, 1891; 

[109] 



26 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Macdonald, D., The Asiatic origin of the Oceanic languages ; Etymological DiFtio nary 
of tlic language of Efate, London, 1894; Hazlewood, D., A Fcejccan and English Dic- 
tionary^ Vewa, Fiji, 1850; Cowie, Andson, English -Snlu- Malay Vocabulary, London, 
1893 ; Williams, W. L., A Dictionary of the New Zealand Language, 4th ed., Auck- 
land, 1892; Crawfurd, J., A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, Lon- 
don, 1852; Gaussin, Dialect de Tahiti, de cehii des lies Marquises, et en general de la 
langue Polynesienne, Paris, 1853; Bopp, F, Verwandschaft der malayische-polynesische 
Sprachen mit den indisch-eitropaischen, Berlin, 1840. 

The illustrative sentence I have chosen is the invocation of the Lord's prayer, 
"Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name." Matthew vi, 9. 

Hawaiian E ko makou Makua iloko o ka lani, i hoanoia kou inoa. 
Maori E to matou Matua i te rangi, kia tapu tou ingoa. 
Tahitian E to matou Metua i te ao ra, ia raa to oe i'oa. 
Tongan Ko e man Tamai oku i he lagi, ke tabuha ho huafa. 
Rarotongati E to matou Metua i te ao ra, Kia tapu toou ingoa. 
Samoan Lo matou Tama e o i le lagi, ia paia lou suafa. 
Rapanui To matou Matua noho rangi e, ka tapu to koe ingoa. 

Fiji Tama i keimami mai lomalagi Me vakarokorokotaki na yacamu. 

Aneitcum Ak Etamama an nohatag, Etmu itaup nidam. 

Erromanga Itemen e kam unpokop, eti tumpora nin enugkik. 

Uea Kamomun etho nyi drany, E so e kap iam. 

Marc Cecewangoiehnij'ile ri awe ke! Hmijocengo ko re acekiwangoieni buango. 

Lifu Tetetro i anganyihunieti e kohoti hnengodrai, jiniati e hmitote la atesiwa i enetilai. 

Motu Ai Tamamai guba ai noho, oi ladamu baine ahelagaia. 

Gilbert Islands Tamara are i karawa, E na tabuaki aram. 

Mortlock le ojon ami au pue iotok : Jam at me nono Ian. 

Rotuma Ko otomis Oifa tae e lagi, La re titiaki se ou asa. 

Kusaie Papa tumus su in kosao, E'los oal payi. 

Ebon Jememuij i Ion, En kwojarjar Etom. 

Ponapc Jam at me kotikot naloh, mwar omwi en kakanaki er. (Old version.) 

Ponapc Jam at me kotikot nalan, Mmar omui en Jaraui ta. ( New version.) 

Religion. As has already been said the Polynesians were a religious people 
and their theogony was much the same on all the groups. The attributes of the gods 
differed widely, and the forms of worship as well. On the Hawaiian Group Maui, 
Kane and Lono were the great trinity while their subordinates were reckoned by the 
40,000 and the 400,000. Images were in demand and an odd beach-worn pebble would 

serve where the more elaborate carvings could not easily be obtained. Every guild 

[no] 



WORSHIP AND MISSIONS. 27 

had its deity, and the man often had a god distinct from that of his wife. In New 
Zealand divine images were rare and a very few of inferior workmanship have come to 
us. It is remarkable that when the Maoris excelled in wood-carving their skill was 
expended on other than divine images. So it was to even a greater extent with the 
Fijians and Samoans. Of the Society Islands idols of most complicated form and 
good workmanship are to be seen in the British Museum, but nowhere else. In Tonga 
images and bundles of sticks alike served to fix the wandering prayers of the people. 
Human sacrifices were most common on the Hawaiian Islands where cannibalism did 
not exist, least common among the anthropophagovis Vitians. 

In the western Pacific the objects of worship were generally departed spirits, 
and a refined form of this ancestor worship is seen in the curious custom of Korowars 
in New Guinea which recalls the image always provided for the ka of the ancient 
Egyptian. The idols of the Marquesan at one end of the Pacific and of the New 
Hebridean at the other were elaborately cut from wood or stone. The temples of east- 
ern Polynesia were biiilt of stone in substantial manner, while in the west the Mela- 
nesian erected ephemeral structures of cane or palm leaves, and the Fijian built with 
sinnet the hardly more durable "Devil Houses" of his cult. Had not the Hawaiian 
temples been destroyed by the hand of man they would have lasted for many centu- 
ries ; this is also true of the morais of the Tahitians. 

Throughout the Pacific there was an unseen world recognized by all. Good 
spirits and bad, white spirits and black were everywhere and were generally objects 
of dread and propitiation. Night was especially the time when the spirits drew near 
to human beings, and even when Christianity has replaced many of the ancient beliefs 
a Pacific islander does not like to travel alone in the dark. 

Missions. This is not the place to speak at length of the great work the 
devoted bands of missionaries have been doing for the last eighty years in the Pacific 
region. All sects, from the Buddhist and Mahometan on the west to the Protestant, 
Catholic and Mormon on the east have earnestly ploughed some portion of the field, 
and the harvest has in many cases been good. With the religious Polynesians the 
work was not so difficult, and in turn the Tongan, Samoan and Hawaiian converts 
became earnest and successful helpers in the missions to the other groups. In the 
Marquesas faithful Hawaiian missionaries have labored for many years, and so have 
they done in Micronesia. The Melanesian Mission has also made good use of native 
converts in reclaiming the heathen. The whalers made it possible for the mission- 
aries to land on many islands, and the missionaries have in turn made it possible and 
pleasant for other civilized people to dwell where formerly paganism and cannibalism 

were supreme. 

[in] 



2 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Kapu System. The early voyagers found almost everywhere on the islands 
at which they touched a system of which the name has become a common English 
word. The}- recognized it as a method of prohibition against which they were con- 
stantly striking, but to the present day no one has fully treated of the wonderful politi- 
cal and religious engine by which the Potynesian first, the Melanesian in imitation 
controlled the wishes and acts of the common people. It was a mighty power in the 
hands of the ruler, whether priest or chief, and it might be exemplified in the strip of 
white kapa that, bound around a coconut tree, preserved the fruit from all marauders ; 
or the tuft of the same fragile material at the end of a slender wand which placed in 
the path would turn an army aside into the jungle. It might be temporary, as the 
order of silence which at stated times fell on all the land and not even a dog might 
bark or a cock crow while the kapu lasted, or it might be the lasting prohibition which 
denied to woman certain choice articles of food which man was free to eat. 

The origin of kapu is unknown but it must have been remote, so elaborate had 
the system become. It had grown until it became so complicated that the tinderstand- 
ing of the common people could not compass it, and even to the chiefs its restrictions 
grew unbearable until in the Hawaiian Islands, where it reached its most perfect 
development, a great uprising swept it away and left a clear field for the introduction 
of Christianity. 

My knowledge is not sufficient to permit me to decide which was the greatest 
achievement of the Polynesian mind, the Kapu or the system of water rights. Both 
are admirable and should sometime receive the attention they deserve in the thought 
of scholars. For information on these subjects consult: Grey's Polynesian Mythology, 
London, 1855; Codrington, R. H., The Melanesians; Studies in their Anthropology 
and Folk-lore, Oxford, 1891 ; Gill, W., Myths and Songs of the South Pacific, London, 
1876; Stair, J. B., Old Samoa, London, 1897; Ellis, W., Polynesian Researches, Lon- 
don, 1830, 2 vols.; Bastian, A., Znr Kenntniss Hawaii^s, Berlin, 1883; Fornander, A., 
The Polynesian Race, 3 vols., London, 1878-85; Remy, J., Recifs d'uii r/c/t.r sanvage 
pour servir a riiistoirc ancienne dc Haraii, Chalons-sur-Marne, 1859. 

The Partition of the Pacific. Unlike the partition of the African conti- 
nent, the appropriation of the islands of the Pacific has led to no important wars or 
diplomatic difficulties, and the division is now nearly complete. Foreign nations have 
not quarrelled over the spoil and the natives have generally acquiesced in a change of 
sovereignty which they could not well prevent. In New Zealand the Maoris made a 
fierce resistance to the invaders, but this did not last long. France found some fight- 
ing before she could control all the south-eastern portion of the Pacific, and Spain 
found some energetic protests to her work in the Marianas. Elsewhere it was "Good 
God, good devil" to the natives so long as they had their accustomed food and were 
not compelled to work. 

[112] 



PARTITION OF THE ISLANDS. 29 

Among the powers there was slight friction at times. The Hawaiian Islands 
were seized by England (Lord George Paulet) but relinquished, threatened by France 
(La Place) and Japan until the United States put an end to all claims by annexation. 
In Micronesia Germany's claim to a part of the Carolines was adjudicated by the Pope, 
and now Spain has sold all of that extensive archipelago as well as the part claimed, and 
thrown in the remnant of the Marianas to boot to Germany. The tripartite attempt 
to govern Samoa threatened to make trouble, but this was happily averted by the 
withdrawal of Great Britain and the amicable division of the group by Germany and 
the United States. When by the fortune of war the United States acquired Guam and 
the Philippines, Spain ceased to be an important owner of Pacific territory, and Eng- 
land, the United States, Germany, France and Japan control the entire region. 

When the question of a trans-Pacific telegraphic cable arose there was active 
annexation by Great Britain of all islands, islets or rocks that happened to be in any 
of the tracks proposed, and Japan seized Marcus Island in imitation of more important 
powers. In the hurry some islands were taken that had already been appropriated by 
another government, but the real value of these bits of sand and rock is not sufficient 
to make trouble in these days of wiser arbitration. 

The colonization of these islands, some of them without inhabitants, others with 
a dying population, but many of them most attractive in scenery and climate, has not 
yet progressed far except on the Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand and Australia. 
Germany has an elaborate official organization in her colonial islands, but officials 
alone will not bring prosperity to a colony. France has some choice islands, but for 
some reason immigrants do not increase there. Will the United States be as success- 
ful as England in her new colonial experience? 

In Conclusion. A few words of more formal introduction may lead the reader 
to the geographical material to which this long chapter is the preface. The maps 
have been constructed from the best government charts, although they are copies of 
no one chart; neither are they, like the composite photograph, a combination of many. 
Selection has been made, but no serious attempt has been made to produce a finished 
chart ; it would be useless in the present state of our knowledge of the Pacific islands, 
and it would not greatly surprise the author should the exact surveys that must be 
made in the near future, expose great inaccuracies, nay, even render the present maps 
quite unrecognizable as delineations of the same island or group. But they will have 
served their modest purpose : the Primer must come before the Reader, and if they will 
in any way clear the path of the future geographer of the Pacific by giving ground for 
just criticism, they will not have been offered in vain. 

The needs of the administration of a museum like this that bears the honored 
name of Mrs. Bishop, have compelled much reading of voyages and descriptive accounts 

of the Pacific region, and notes have been made for years and arranged alphabetically 

[113] 



3 o INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

on uniform slips, which now number nearly 4000, and the convenience for reference 
has been so great that these notes have been made the basis of the list of islands 
here given. 

I am sorry that I am not so familiar with many of the dialects of the Pacific as 
to be always sure of the orthography, or even of the meaning of names, but I have con- 
sulted the best authorities within my reach. In some cases I may seem to have wilfully 
left the right and chosen the wrong, as in the case of the name Paumotn which I have 
retained as the best known throughout this region, although the form Tuamotn adopted 
by the French may be more correct. The first word of the compound is usually 
dropped among traders and navigators in the south Pacific and Motu alone used. 

As to the heights given I have met with difficulty. Findlay's Directory may 
state the height of an island as 3000 feet, a later chart will put it at 2100, while a still 
later Hydrographic report will call it 1200, not one of these important publications 
giving the authority. An ordinary estimate should not vary so much, and I was in- 
clined to omit all heights as well as population, but finally have given them as merely 
approximate and the reader can attach his own value. 

To supplement the meagre information given in the Index authorities have 
been sometimes appended to the text, and the following list will assist some perhaps 
to follow more closely the information attainable. It does not of course pretend to be 
even a partial Bibliography, but simply a list of some of the more important works 
used in the compilation of this Index. 

The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the first Circumnavigation of the Globe, 1480-1521. By F. H. 

H. Guillemard. London, 1891. 
Pigafetta, Antonio, Primo Viaggio intorno al Globo Terracqueo, ossia ragguaglio della navigazione 

fatta sulla squadra del Capit. Magaglianes 1519-22, publicado per la prima volta da Carlo Amo- 

retti. Milano, 1800. 
Historia del Descubrimiento de las regiones austriales hecho por el general Pedro Fernandez de 

Quir6s. Publicado por Don Justo Zaragoza. Madrid, 1876-80, 2 vols. 
Schouten (Willem Cornelissen) and Jacques Lemaire. Novi Freti a parte meridional] Freti Magel- 

lanici, in Magnum Mare Australe detedlio ; facia laboriosissimo et periculosissimo itinere a 

Guilielmo Cornelii Schoutenio Hornano annis 1615, 1616, et 1617 totuin Orbem terrarum circum- 

navigata. Amstelodami, 1619. Also in Dutch, 1618. Lemaire published his narrative of the 

same voyage in 1622. 

Anson's Voyage round the World, 1740-44. By R. Walter. London, 1767. 
Cook, Captain James. Journal during his first voyage round the world made in H. M. bark 

"Endeavor," 1768-71. A literal transcription of the original MSS. with notes and introduction. 

Edited by Captain W. J. L. Wharton. London, 1893. 

Second Voyage toward the South Pole and round the World, performed in the "Resolution" 

and "Adventure," 1772-75. London, 1777, 2 vols. 
-A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by command of His Majesty, for making discov- 



eries in the northern hemisphere : performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke and 
Gore, on H. M. S. "Resolution" and "Discovery," 1776-80. London, 1781, 3 vols. 
Bougainville's voyage round the World, 1765-69. Translated by J. R. Forster. London, 1772. 

[114] 



LIST OF BOOKS. 31 

Forrest, Capt. Thomas. Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas from Balambangan, 1774-76, 
with a Vocabulary of the Magindano Tongue. London, 1779. 

Wilson, H. Account of the Pelew Islands in the west Pacific. By George Keate. London, 1788. 

Portlock, Capt. Nat. Voyage round the World, more particularly to the Northwest coast of America, 
1785-88, in the "King George" and "Queen Charlotte." Captains Portlock and Dixon. Lon- 
don, 1789. Dixon also published an account written by W. Bere.sford. 

La Perouse, J. F. G. de. Voyage autour du inonde pendant les annees 1785-88, redige et publiee 
par M. L. A. Millet-Mureau. Paris, 1797, 4 vols. and atlas. 

Labillardiere. An account of a voyage in search of La Perouse, undertaken by order of the Con- 
stituent Assembly of France, and performed in the year 1791-94 in the "Recherche" and 
"Esperance," ships of war under command of Rear-Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux. London, 
1802, 2 vols. 

Marchand. Voyage round the World, 1790-92. By Etienne Marchand, 2 vols. London, 1801. 

Vancouver, George. A voyage of discovery to the north Pacific ocean and round the world 

in the years 1790-95. London, 1798, 3 vols. and atlas. 

Wilson, Capt. J. Missionary voyage to the south Pacific ocean in the ship "Duff," 1796-98. 
London, 1799. 

PeYon, F. Voyage aux Terres Australes, 1800-04. Paris, 1807-16. 

Flinders, M. Voyage to Terra Australis, 1801-3. London, 1814, 2 vols. 

Kotzebue, Otto von. Entdeckungs-Reise in der Sud see und nach der Behring's Strasse, in den 
Jahren 1815-18. Weimar, 1821, 3 vols. 

Krusenstern, Adam John von. Reise um die Welt in den -Jahren 1803-6, auf befehl seiner kaiser- 
lichen Majestat Alexander des Erster auf den Schriffen Nadeshda und Neva, 3 vols. St. Peters- 
burg, 1810. 

Byron, Capt. Lord G. A. Voyage of H. M. S. "Blonde" to the Sandwich Islands in the year 1824-5. 
London, 1826. 

Freycinet, L. de. Voyage autour du Monde sur les Corvettes 1'Uranie et la Physicienne pendant 
les annees 1817 a 1820. Paris, 1824-44, 8 vols. 4to., 4 vols. fol. 

D'Urville, J. Duniont. Voyage de Decouvertes de 1' Astrolabe. Paris, 1830-33. 

Stokes, J. L. Discoveries explored during the voyage of H. M. S. "Beagle" in 1837-43. London, 
1846. 

Jukes, J. Beete. Surveying voyage of H. M. S. "Fly" in Torres Strait, New Guinea, etc. London, 
1847. 

Wilkes, Charles. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-42. Philadelphia, 
1845. 5 vols. 

Hochstetter, F. von. New Zealand; its physical geography, geography and Natural History. 
Translated by Edw. Sauter. Stuttgart, 1867. 

Moresby, John. Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea and the D'Entrecasteaux islands. Lon- 
don, 1876. 

Thomson, J. P. British New Guinea. London, 1892. 

Bevan, T. F. Toil, Travel and Discovery in British New Guinea. London, 1890. 

Chalmers, J. and Gill, W. W. Work and Adventure in New Guinea. London, 1885. 

Romilly, H. H. The western Pacific and New Guinea. London, 1887. 

Smith, R. B. The Aborigines of Victoria. Melbourne, 1878, 2 vols. 

Spencer, B. and Gillen, F. J. The native tribes of central Australia. London, 1899. 

Codrington, R. H. The Melanesians. Oxford, 1891. 

Heeres, J. E. The part borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia, 1606-1765. Leiden, 1899. 

["5] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Rosenberg, C. B. H. von. Reistochten naar de Geelvinkbaai op Nieuw Guinea in den jareu 1869 
en 1870. 'S Gravenhage, 1875. 

Abel Janszoon Taxman's Journal. Amsterdam, 1898. 

West, T. Ten years in south-central Polynesia (Tonga). London, 1865. 

Mariner, \V. An Account of the Natives of the Tonga islands. London, 1817, 2 vols. 

Williams, T. Fiji and the Fijians. London, 1858, 2 vols. 

Waterhouse, J. King and people of Fiji. London, 1866. 

Turner, George. Nineteen years in Polynesia. London, 1861. 

Samoa a hundred years ago and long before. London, 1884. 

Lang, J. D. Origin and migrations of the Polynesian nation. 2d edn. Sydney, 1877. 
Guppy, H. B. The Solomon islands and their natives. London, 1887. 

Woodford, C. M. A Naturalist among the Head-Hunters (Solomon Islands). Melbourne, 1890. 
Brenchley, J. Cruise of the "Cura9oa" among the South Sea islands during 1865. London, 1873. 
Vincendon-Dumoulin. Isles Marquises ou Nouka-Hiva. Paris, 1843. 
Museum Godeffroy. Journal. Hamburg. 

Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay (Journals of Shortland, Marshall and others). London. 
Taylor, R. Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its inhabitants. London, 1870. 
Fiudlay, A. G. Directory for the Navigation of the North Pacific Ocean. 30!. edn. London, 1886. 

Directory for the Navigation of the South Pacific Ocean. 5th edn. London, i886(?). 
British Admiralty Reports and Sailing Directions to date. 



LIST OF MAPS. 



1. Hawaiian Islands (Main). 

2. Hawaiian Islands (Western). 

3. Caroline Islands (Western). 

4. Caroline Islands (Middle). 

5. Caroline Islands (Eastern). 

6. Marshall Islands. 

7. Gilbert Islands. 

8. New Guinea Coast Islands. 

9. Louisiade Archipelago. 
10. Bismarck Archipelago, 
n. Solomon Islands. 

12. New Hebrides. 



13. New Caledonia and Loyalty. 

14. Fiji. 

15. Samoan Islands and Niiie. 

16. Ellice Group. 

17. Phoenix and Union Islands. 

1 8. Tongan Group. 

19. Line Islands and Tongareva. 

20. Society Islands. 

21. Paumotu Archipelago (West). 

22. Paumotu Archipelago (East). 

23. Marquesas and Hervey Islands. 

24. Index Chart. 



Butaritari. 
Fanning. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



Malekula. 
Marianas. 
Matuku. 



New Zealand. 
Palmyra. 
Peru. 
[116] 



Rapanui. 
Washington. 



170 



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6N. 



AN INDEX TO THE NAMES OF THE ISLANDS OF OCEANIA. 



AaSU, or Paris, on the north coast of New Guinea, 3 22' S., 143 25' E. Thickly 

wooded and inhabited. On the same reef is the islet Unei. 
Aatao, one of the many names given to Angatau, Paumotu islands. 31.* 
Ababa, see Torres islands. Also called Baba. 

Aba evara, the western islet of the Basses group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Abaga gaheia, or Abagaheia, eastward of Pana trusima (Earle) in the Louisiade 

archipelago. 1.7 m. long, 585 ft. high. 

Abau, in Cloudy bay on the south coast of New Guinea. 10 13' S., 148 42' E. 
Abaura, or Midge islands, three low and wooded islets near Fly river, south coast of 

New Guinea. 8 29' S., 143 39' E. 

Abavi, in Cloudy bay on the south coast of New Guinea. 10 15' s., 148 44' E. 
Abgarris, also called Faed islands, in the Bismarck archipelago. A chain of low 

islands, of which Goodman is the southernmost, extending 30 m. NW-SE. North 

point 3 09' s., 154 22' E. Discovered by Captain Renneck of the Lyra. IO. 
Abian, a form of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 

Abingdon, of the Galapagos. o 34' 25" N. 1950 ft. high. Resort of the Buccaneers. 
Abo, on the coast of New Guinea. 8 22' S., 143 07' E. 
Abtlda, within Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 18 56' s., 181 26' 30" E. 
Abtltolema, without Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 18 53' 30" s., 181 24' E. 60 ft. 

high. 

Ablltuena, Angasa reef of the Fiji group. 
Achir = Uea of the Loyalty group. 13. 
Actaeon, or Amphitrite islands in the Paumotu group were discovered in 1833 by T. 

Ebrill in the Tahitian trader Ampliitrite. The names are much mixed on charts. 

Maturei vavao, Tenarunga, Vehanga and Tenararo. 2,2,. 
Adabadatia Kawa, of the Talbot group on the coast of New Guinea, between Kawa 

and Mata Kawa. 9 17' s., 142 n' E. 
Adams, southernmost of the Auckland islands, belonging to New Zealand. 2000 ft. 

high. 

Adams (Ingraham), see Huapu of the Marquesas. 33. 
Adams (Roberts), see Nukuhiva of the Marquesas. 23. 
Adele, easternmost of the Louisiade archipelago, only 500-600 yards in diameter. 

11 29' 50" s., 154 26' 10" E. Discovered by Captain Coutance. 
Adi, on the coast of New Guinea. 4 05' S., 133 30' 30" E. 
Admiralty Islands were discovered by Schouten and Lemaire in July, 1616. The 

group consists of one large and many small islands. Carteret visited it in 1767. 

Admiralty, the largest, was described by D'Entrecasteaux in 1792. It is 50 m. 

*Names considered more correct an- printed -in heavier-faced type. The number at the end of the paragraph indicates the map on 
which the island will be found. 

MEMOIRS B. p, B, Mi'SKi'ia, VOL. I., No. 2. 3. [ 1 1 ?1 



34 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

E-w.Xi5 ni. N-S. 3000 ft. high. Challenger visited the group and named after 
the officers nearly every bay, point or rock. Jesus Maria, La Vandola, Elisabeth, 
Sugar-loaf, Western, Wild, Suhm, and many mere rocks compose this interesting 
group now included in the Bismarck archipelago. The inhabitants are not very 
dark, often dye their black hair red ; wear little clothing the men, as their sole 
garment, a white cowry shell ; use splints of obsidian for knives and spear points ; 
carve fine circular bowls often of great size ; principal food, sago. Centre of prin- 
cipal island about 2 10' S., 147 oo' E. IO. 

Admiralty Islets, a small group a mile and a half from north end of Lord Howe 
island. 

Adventure, see Motutunga of the Paumotu islands. 21. 

Adventurer Islands are two islands about half a mile in extent, low, wooded, and 
connected by a reef. Reported in 1877 by Mr. Ebury, master of the Adventurer. 
Existence is doubted. 

Agaga*= Anganga of the Fiji group. 

Agakanitai, an islet of Mangareva. 

Agata, south of Yasawa towards Naviti, Fiji. Is it confounded with Agate ? 

Agate, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, near Naviti. Small, rock}', high. 17 n' 30" s., 
177 08' 10" E. Named for one of the artists of the United States Exploring 
Expedition. 14. 

Agonies Hermit islands in the Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

Agrigan, of the Marianas. A volcanic island 6 m. long by 2 m. broad, and 2000 ft. 
high. 18 48' N., 145 40' E. In 1810 Captain Brown and other Americans with 
several families of Hawaiians formed a colony on this island, but it was broken up 
by the Spaniards who destroyed the plantations and carried off the Hawaiians to 
slavery and they were never again heard from. See Chamisso in Kotzebue's 
voyage. For map of the group see Marianas. 

Aguari, see Santa Catalina, Solomon islands. II. 

Ague, islet of the Harcourt group on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Aguijan, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magelhaes March 6, 1521, in 14 51' x., 
145 30' E. It is 3 m. long by 2 m. wide and uninhabited. 

Ahangatou = Angatou of the Paumotu group. 21. 

Ahii, or Peacock, is low, coral, inhabited, and about 13 m. long. The east end is 
14 27' 20" S., 146 13' 24" E. 2O. 

Ahunui, also called Fangataufa and Cockburn, of the Paumotu group, was discovered 
by Captain Beechey in 1826 and named after the Comptroller of the Navy. It is 
a closed lagoon island nearly 4 m. in diameter and the southwest end is in 
22 17' S., 138 39' 53" w. 

Aidoumea, or Aidoema, on the south coast of New Guinea. 3 58' S., 134 oo' K. 
Called formerly Isla del Capitano Luis Vaes de Torres from its discoverer. 

Ailinginse, or Remski-Korsakoff of the Marshall islands is 12 m. southwest from 
Rongerik. It is 15 m. K-W. and 4 m. N-S.; uninhabited. It was discovered by 
Kotzebue, and the southwest point is 11 08' N., 166 20' K. 

*Although this is the correct form it has s'-enifd tic^t in Kivin.n the Vitian names to adopt the phonetic spelling: g is pronounced npr. 
c is th. and b is rnh. Thus Cakol>.iu in pronounced Thakombau: Hajra, Mlmnga. etc. 

[US] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 35 

Ailingiappel, islet of Mentschikow or Kwadjelin in the Marshall islands. 
Ailinglablab, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Bond in December, 
1792. It is 36 m. long and composed of many islets on the ring encircling in a 
very irregular way a lagoon. The northwest end is 8 n' N., 167 58' E. 
Ailuk, also Tindal, Watts or Krusenstern of the Marshall islands, was discovered by 
Captain Marshall in 1788, and is 20 m. long and 5-8 m. wide. 10 30' N., 170 04' E. 
Ain, wooded islet of Mengalia reef on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Ainioro, one of the Amazon islands on the south coast of New Guinea. 10 21' S., 

149 17' E. 

Aiona, islet of Murua or Woodlark in the Trobriand group. 9 13' s., 152 49' E. 
Aiou = Yowl, west from the New Gtiinea coast. 
Aipere, a name sometimes given to Tanna of the New Hebrides. 
Airik, islet of Maloelab in the Marshall islands. 8 31' N., 171 10' 30" E. 
Aitutaki, of the Hervey group, was discovered April n, 1789, by Captain Bligh of 
the Bounty a few days before the mutiny broke out. It is high and 18 m. in 
circumference, with a reef on the southwest coast. Population about 1500. 
The finest tatuing I have ever seen was on two Aitutakian sailors. 18 54' s., 
159 41' w. 33. 

Aiva, is a double islet, Aiva-va and Aiva-thaki, between Lakemba and Oneata of the 
Fiji group; low, not exceeding 30 ft.; uninhabited; 9 m. X 3-5 m. 18 21' S., 
181 17' E. 14. 

Aivei, islet on the coast of New Guinea. 7 50' s., 145 10' E. 
Aivo, or Renny, is on the east side of Malaita, Solomon islands, low and wooded ; 

less than a mile NW-SE. 8 58' S. 

Akahaina, or Fakaina, or Predpriatie, of the Paumotu group was discovered by Kotze- 
bue in 1824. It is low, inhabited, about 4 m. long. The centre is in 15 58' s., 
140 n' 30" w. 21. 

Akatnartl, or Wainwright, is an islet of Mangareva of the Paumotu group. 2,2,. 
Akamokum, islet of Peleliu of the Pelew or Palao islands. 
Akani, a group of islets in the Bismarck archipelago. 3 20' s., 154 36' E. 
Akiaki, or Thrum Cap of the Paumotu group was discovered by Bougainville in 1768 
and by him called Les Lanciers ; inhabited, though a low coral bank less than a 
mile in diameter. 19 17' 40" S., 138 42' W.O 2,2,. 

Akoo, islet of Ontong Java, Solomon islands. 5 37' S., 159 34' E. II. 
Alapawa, in Cook strait, New Zealand. 41 12' S., 174 20' E. 
Alau, islet off the east coast of Maui, Hawaiian group. 20 43' 50" N., 155 58' w. 
Albany, on the coast of Australia. 10 43' S., 142 36' E. 
Albatross, islet at the mouth of Saluafata harbor on Upolu, Samoan group, 9 m. east 

of Apia. 
Albemarle, of the Galapagos, 60 X 15 m., 4000 ft. high; six volcanoes; largest of 

the group. 
Alcester, a group of three islands of the Trobriand group extending about 3 m. ENE- 

wsw. The natives are most skilful canoe builders. 9 29' S., 152 30' 45" E. 
Alcmene, an islet 3 m. southeast from Isle of Pines, Loyalty group. 22 40' s., 167 29' E. 
Alden, of the Hudson group, Fiji. High and rocky. 17 37' 20" S., 177 oo' E. 

[119] 



3 6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Alefa, of the Tongan group is in 20 oo' s., 174 30' w. 

Aleford, group of four small and reefed islets at the head of Milne bay at the south- 
east end of New Guinea. 10 22' S., 150 20' E. 

Alele, coastal islet of New Guinea. 7 52' S., 145 13' E. 

Alet, islet of Enderby, Caroline islands. At the east of the fringing reef which ex- 
tends 5.5 m. E-w. and 3 m. N-S. is Pozoat. 17 19' 25" N., 149 15' E. 

Alewa kalotl, Awakalo or Round, an uninhabited rocky islet of Fiji, 5ood= ft. high. 
16 40' S., 177 46' E. 

Algrail, islet of Wolea, Caroline islands. 

Alita, southernmost of the Trois Sceurs, Solomon islands. II. 

Allen, one of the Wellesley group in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Allison, is between L'Echiquier and Duroxir in the Bismarck archipelago. Dis- 
covered by Captain Allison in 1885. 2-3 m. NW-SE., 100-150 ft. high, covered with 
trees. i 25' S., 143 26' E. 

Allufatti = Alofa, Home islands. 

Almagan, an active volcano of the Marianas. It is 2.2 m. N-S. by 1.5 E-w., and 2316 
ft. high. 17 36' N., 145 50' E. See map under Marianas. 

Alofa, one of the Home islands southeast from Fotuna. It is 6 m. E-w. by 3 m., and 
1 200 ft. high; volcanic. 10 16' s., 178 oo' w. 18. 

Alii, a wooded coral island 150 ft. high at the east end of Shortland island, Solomon 
islands. It is well cultivated, and surrounded, except on the northwest side, with 
a fringing reef. 7 08' S., 155 50' E. II. 

Amanu, or Moller, of the Paumotu group was discovered by Captain Bellingshausen 
in 1829. It is 18 m. NE-SW. and 8 m. wide. Inhabited and abounds in pearl oys- 
ters. The northeast point is 17 43' S., 140 39' w. 

Amat, Isla d'. In 1774 Spanish priests gave this name to Tahiti. 

Amazon Islands, two small islands in Amazon bay on the south coast of New 
Guinea. They are called Ainioro and Laraoro. When, some years ago, natives 
attacked H. M. S. Bramble a canoe filled with female warriors accompanied the 
party, hence the name of both bay and islands. 

Anibatiki, of the Fiji group, is nearly an equilateral triangle of 2 in. on a side and sur- 
rounded by a reef. It is 750 ft. high, and inhabited. 17 47' s., 179 10' 30" E. 14. 

Ambau, see Mbau of the Fiji group. 14. 

Ambryttl, of the New Hebrides, was discovered by Cook in 1773. It is volcanic, Mt. 
Marum having had an eruption in 1888, and is 22 m. E-w. and 17 m. x-s.; about 
3000 ft. high; population dense. 16 10' s., 168 05' E. 12. 

Amedee, islet of New Caledonia, is ro m. off Noumea in 22 28' 44" s., 166 28' 40" E. 
On it is a fine lighthouse 174 ft. high. 

Amere, islet on the southeast reef of New Caledonia. 

Amesse, islet of Namoluk of the Caroline islands. 5 45' 15" N., 153 i6'3o"E. 4. 

Amicitia, an island perhaps identical with Oraluk of the Carolines. 4. 

Amota, one of the Hermit islands, in i" 32' S., 144 55' E. 8. 

Amphlett Islands are northeast of Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group, about 
9 20' s., 150 48' E. There are eight or more small islands, wooded and of mod- 
erate height, forming a broken chain parallel to the coast. 9. 

[120] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 37 

Amsterdam, islet on the coast of New Guinea. o 20' s., 132 08' K. 

Amsterdam (New), a name given by Tasman, in 1643, to Tongatabu. 

Amytideu, an islet of Namonuito of the Carolines. 4. 

Anaa, or Chain of the Paumotus, was discovered by Cook in 1769. The northwest 
point is in 17 23' S., 145 38' 30" w. In 1874 there were 1500 inhabitants and 
7,000,000 coconut trees. Inhabitants formerly war-like, good sailors, and canni- 
bals ; obtained control of many of the neighboring islands. 2,1. 

Anabadibadila, islet of the Dumoulin group on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
It is 17 ft. high. 

Anacoretas, called also Hermit, Monk's, Anchorite, were discovered by Bougainville, 
August 7, 1768. There are five or six islets covering a space 2.5 m. long. The 
inhabitants are said to resemble Chinese. o 50' s., 145 35' E. 8. 

AnagUSa, or Bentley of the Louisiade archipelago, in 10 43' s., 150 43' E., is 1.2 m. 
E-w. and half a mile broad; inhabited; 350 ft. high. 

Anakarukania, one of the Dumoulin group on the coast of New Guinea. 225 ft. high. 

Anaugai, see Wolea, Caroline islands. 

Anataxan, or Anatajan, of the Marianas, is 5 m. E-w. and 1.5 N-S., about 1200 ft. high; 
volcanic. 16 19' N., 145 35' E. See map under Marianas. 

Anattmga, islet on the north coast of Vanua levti, Fiji, north of the entrance to the 
Lekutu river. 

Anchor, low, small, wooded on northeast of East cape of New Guinea. 

Anchorage, or Pass at the mouth of the lagoon of Taka or Suvarov. 13 13' s., 
163 09' 15" w. 

Anchorage, islet of Stewart island, New Zealand. 

Anchorite, see Anacoretas. 

Andatavie, marks the north limit of Ngaloa harbor, Fiji. It is 165 ft. high. 

Andema, or Ant, of the Carolines, was discovered by Liitke and is about eight miles 
west of Ponape. It consists of a dozen coral islets and is not permanently in- 
habited ; belongs to a chief of Ponape, and is resorted to for fish and turtle. 
The name has been explained to mean Ant over there. 6 45' N., 158 E. 5. 

Andiwathe, islet 250 ft. high, off the west coast of Vanua mbalavti, Fiji. 14. 

Andrew, near the centre of Hercules bay, low and wooded, on the northeast coast of 
New Guinea. 

Androna, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, extends 3 m. by 1.2 and is 900 ft. high. The 
north point is in 16 52' S., 177 24' 30" E. 14. 

Anegada, La. Quiros discovered January 26, 1606, an island which he called Luna 
puesta ; Gaspar Gonzales de Leza called it La Anegada, and Jose Espinosa named 
it Encarnacion. 

Aneitetim, was discovered by Cook in 1773 in his passage through the New Hebrides. 
It is 10 m. E-w. and 6 m. N-S., 2788 ft. high, and has 1500 inhabitants. Southwest 
point is in 20 15' 17" S., 169 44' E. In control of the Presbyterian Mission. 

Anganga (Agaga), high, uninhabited island of Fiji. The east end is in 16 34'3o"s., 

r* o rt f ff 

178 38 20 E. 

Angasa is 150 ft. high and has three islets within the same reef in Fiji. 18 55' s., 
181 28' E. 

[121] 



38 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Angatatl, also called Arackcheeff or Araktchev and Ahangatin, is a low island of the 
Pan mot u group, discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820; 200 inhabitants. i55a's., 
140 52' w. 21. * 

Angaur, see N'yaur, of the Palao or Pelew islands. 

AngerimilS Islands, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 2 50' s., 
135 oo' E. 

Angriffe, or Attack, is connected with New Ireland by a reef. It was called by the 
second name from a war-like attempt on a boat of the German war ship Gazelle. 
255's., 151 08' E. 

Anhar, see Anaa or Chain, in the Paumotu archipelago. 

Anil, islet of Namu, Marshall islands. 

Aniwa, or Immer or Nina, of the New Hebrides, is about 2 m. long. It is a station 
of the Presbyterian Mission. 19 18' s., 169 38' E. 

Anna, or Current, was discovered in 1761 ; it is low, half a mile in diameter, and in- 
habited. 4 39' N., 132 04' E. 

Annan Islands, three in number, off the north end of Viti levu, Fiji. The group 
extends 4 m. by 0.7 m., and rises to a height of 610 ft. North point, 17 3C/4o"s., 
178 12' E. 

Annamokka, or Rotterdam, Tasman's name for Namuka of the Tongan group. 

Annatam, a form of Aneiteum, of the New Hebrides. 

Anne, islet in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 57' s., 151 12' E. 

Annula, see Anuda. 

Anologo, one of the Matema islands, Santa Cruz group. 10 07' s., 165 38' E. It 
extends i m. E-w., and is 120 ft. high; w. ^ S., 17 m. from Nukapu. British pro- 
tectorate August 1 8, 1898.* 

Anonima, see Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Anser, or Glennie, a small group west of Wilson point, south coast of Australia in 
Bass strait. 

Anson, 13 o' N., 141 35' E., is of doubtful report. A name of Buka in the Solomon 
group. 

Ant, of Andema group, Caroline islands. 6 44' N., 157 53' 30" E. 

Antipodes, rocky, uninhabited group, noo ft. high. 40 40' 53" S., 178 43' E. Not 
exactly the antipodes of London. Belongs to New Zealand. Called also Penan- 
tipode. 

Anuanuraro, of the Paumotu archipelago, is a lagoon island named by Quiros, in 
1606, San Miguel Archangel. 20 24' 57" S., 143 31' 12" w.O 21. 

Anuanurunga, of the Paumotu archipelago, also called Four Crowns and Cuatro 
Coronadas, was discovered by Quiros in 1606. 20 38' s., 143 19' w. 21. 

Anuda, or Cherry, was discovered in 1791 by Captain Edwards in the Pandora. It is 
1.5 m. in diameter and 325 ft. high. The inhabitants are Polynesian, make neat 
canoes, chew betel, and the men have an average height of 5 ft. 1 1 in. British 
protectorate declared Oct. i, 1898. 11 40' S., 169 40' E. 12. 

Antltunga, low islet near Ngaloa bay on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
1 6 37' s., 178 40' E. Inhabited. 14. 

*Kor the official notices of these Protectorates I am indebted to H. B. M. Consul in Honolulu, W. K. Hoarc Ksq. 

[122] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



39 



Anuu, islet, 65 ft. high, east of Tutuila, Samoan islands. 14 18' 40" s., 170 30' 40" w. 

Belongs to the United States. 15. 
Aoba, Omba or Leper, of the New Hebrides, was named by Bougainville Isle des 

Lepreux under a mistaken diagnosis. It is 17 m. long, 3000-4000 ft. high, and 

inhabited. 15 15' s., 167 50' E. 12. 
Acre, islet off the southeast coast of Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides. The 

.natives of this region are all cannibals. 
Aotira, islet of Mokil in the Caroline archipelago. 
Apaiang, or Charlotte, in the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captain Marshall in 

the Charlotte. It extends 16 m. by 6 m. and consists of six islets on a high reef. 

Population in 1886, 1300. The islets are Terio or Marshall, Allen, Gillespy, 

Clerk, Smith and Armstrong. Southeast point is in i 43' 25" N., 173 06' 45" E. 7. 
Apamama, Hopper or Roger Simpson, in the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captains 

Marshall and Gilbert in 1788. It extends about 12 by 5 m. and the islets are about 5 

ft. above the sea. Population, 650. Northwest point o 30' N., 173 53' 35" E. 7. 
Apapa, or Cabras, on the west coast of Guam, Marianas. 

Apataki, or Hagemeister atoll, in the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Cap- 
tain Hagemeister in 1830. It extends 17 m. N-s.; is a low coral atoll and in- 
habited. The northwest point is in 15 14' s., 146 32' w. 2O. 
Api, called also Tasiko and Volcano, in the New Hebrides, extends about 25 m. NW-SE., 

and is 6-10 m. wide ; fertile, well wooded, densely peopled ; 2800 ft. high. 16 38' s., 

168 12' E. 12. 

Apia, a name of Apaiang, Gilbert group. 
Aplin, see Idika, New Guinea. 
Apolima, of the Samoan Group, is an extinct volcano, 547 ft. high, and five sea miles 

from Savaii. It covers 1.8 sq. m. 13 49' 30" S., 172 03' w. 15. 
Ara, of the New Hebrides, is a wooded islet on the fringing reef of Valua, off the 

southwest point. It has perhaps 100 inhabitants. 
Arabi, or Hat, of the New Hebrides, is an islet off Tangoa on the south coast of 

Espiritu Santo. 
Arag, of the New Hebrides, called also Pentecost, Whitsuntide, Bougainville, is 38 m. 

long, and 2000 ft. high. Its inhabitants are noted for their large canoes. North 

end is in 15 25' S., 168 07' E. 12. 

Araktcheeff, an islet of Maloelab in the Marshall group. 
Araktcheeff, or Araktchev, see Angatau, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Arantika, or Henderville, of the Gilbert group, was discovered by Captains Marshall 

and Gilbert ; is 6.5 by 5.5 m. The northeast point is in o 13' 25" N., 173 41' E. 7. 
Aratika, or Carlshov, of the Paumotus, was discovered b'y Roggewein in 1722, and 

named Carlshov by Kotzebue. It is 20 m. west from Kawehe, and is 8 X 5 m.; 

wooded and inhabited. The west point is in 15 33' 25" s., 145 39' w. 21. 
Arayonset, of the Pelew group, lies south of Kayangle with Carapellas and Korack 

on a reef extending 4.5 m. N-S., 5 m. E-w. 
Arch, two islets on a reef nearly three miles in circumference, in 10 47' s., 150 46' E. 

The highest is 360 ft.; they are variously called Nasa peipei, Nasa ruarua and 

Koia reibareiba, Ilei. 

[123] 



40 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Archangel, see Anuanuraro of the Paumotus. 21. 

Archipel dti Saint Esprit, a name given "by De Fleurieu to the New Hebrides. 

Arden, islet in Torres strait. 9 54' s., 142 57' K. 

Arecifos, see Udjelong in the Marshall group. 6. 

Arimoa, three islets on the north coast of New Guinea, 500 ft. high, wooded and in- 
habited. i 45' S., 138 45' E. 

Aris, a volcanic island on the north coast of New Guinea, twx> miles northwest from 
Vulcan; about 700 ft. high. 4 oo' S., 144 56' K. 8. 

Arnavon, islet off Choiseul, Solomon group. 7 25' S., 158 oo' E. II. 

Arno, of the Marshall group, is also called Arhno, Daniel or Pedder. It is the largest 
reef, or at least has the most land, of any in the Ratak chain, as it is more than 
300 m. in circumference. The islets, among them Tagelib, High and Ine, are not 
more than 6-8 ft. above the sea but support a population of 3000 (in 1882). Islets 
at the north and south extremes are often at war with each other. Northeast 
point, 7 30' N., 171 55' E. 6. 

Aro, islet east of Tabutha, Fiji. 17 42' 30" s., 181 22' w. 14. 

Arorai, or Hurd of the Gilbert group, was discovered from the brig Elisabeth about 
1809, and was named Hope; changed to Hurd by Purdy. A well wooded atoll 
6-7 m. NW-SE., a mile and a half wide. Population in 1883, 1200. 2 39' s., 
177 01' E. 7. 

Arossi, see San Cristobal of the Solomon group. II. 

Arova, or Rossel, see Roua of the Louisiade archipelago. 9. 

Arrecifos, of Villalobos (1545), are the Pelew islands. 

Arrowsmith, see Majuro of the Marshall group. 6. 

Arsacides, Terre de, a name given in 1769 by Surville to Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Art, largest of the Belep group, northwest of New Caledonia. It is 1 1 m. NW-SE. 13. 

Arteck, islet off north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 

Arthur, islet of Eniwetok of the Marshall group. n 40' N., 162 15' E. 

Aril, two islets on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Arutua, of the Paumotu archipelago, the Rtirick of Kotzebue, is a lagoon atoll 20 ft. 
high. The natives are of Tahitian origin. The northwest point is in 15 10' s., 
146 49' 20" w. 2O. 

Ar^obispo, one of the Volcano group south of the Bonin islands. 

Asaua, or Asawa, see Yasawa, Fiji. 

Ascension, see Ponape, Caroline archipelago. 

Asia, islets east from Gilolo; low, wooded. i oo' N., 131 17' E. Another group with 
same name off coast of Peru. 

Asore, see Tanna, New Hebrides. 

Asouni, islet in Makira bay of San Cristobal, Solomon islands. 

Asuncion, or Assumption, in the Marianas, 19 45' N., 145 29' E. A volcanic cone 
about a mile in diameter and 2800 ft.i high, 54 m. x. by w. from Agrigan. The 
west side is covered with vegetation. Discovered by La Perouse Dec. 14, 1786. 

Ata, or Pylstaart (Tropic-bird) in the Tongan group, was discovered by Tasman in 
1643. Island northeast from Tongatabu; 3 in. long, 1165 ft. high, uninhabited. 

22 20' S., 176 12' 30" W. l8. 



175 



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INDEX TO 7 HE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 41 

Atafu, or Oatafu, a closed coral lagoon of the Union group, discovered by Byron in 
1765. Also called Duke of York. It is 3 in. E-W., 2.5 in. N-S., 8-10 ft. high. There 
are said to be 63 islets covered with pandanus and coconut trees. Some 260 in- 
habitants; subject to Fakaafo. 8 39' 40" s., 172 28' 10" w. British protectorate 
proclaimed June 22, 1889. 17. 

Atana, a chain of islets lying northwest from Rotuma. The eastern is Wea (Emery); 
the western, Athaluna. 

Atangota, islet northwest from Rotuma. 12 30' s., 177 14' E. 

Atata, islet northwest from Tongatabu, Tongan group. 21 03' s., 175 15' w. 

Athaluna, one of the Atana chain, northwest of Rotuma. 

Atit, is a low, wooded islet in Tuo passage on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Atiu, of the Hervey group, was discovered by Cook March 31, 1777; called by him 
Wateeoo. It is 100 m. north from Mangaia, 20 m. in circumference, of uplifted 
coral, 394 ft. high. 19 59' s., 158 06' w. 23. 

AtO, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji, between Matathoni and Yangati. 16 59' 30" s., 
177 18' 25" K. 14. 

Attack, see Angriffe, Bismarck archipelago. IO. 

Attack, islet in delta of the Fly river, New Guinea. 

Auckland, an uninhabited group belonging to New Zealand, discovered in 1806. 
Northeast cape, 50 30' 25" S., 166 19' 12" E. 

Aukena, islet of Mangareva. Also called Elson. 

Aulong, see Orolong of the Pelew group. 

AuotU, of the Hervey group, was discovered by Cook in 1773. It is a twin islet with 
Manuae enclosed by one reef, barren, with few inhabitants. 19 i4's., 158 58' w. 24. 

Aura, or Duperrey, is an islet of Mokil in the Carolines. 6 40' N., 159 53' E. 5. 

Aura, see Kaukura in the Paumotu archipelago. 15 41' s., 146 50' 30" w. 

Aureed, islet in Torres strait. 9 57' S., 143 17' E. 

Aurh, Ibbetson or Traversey of the Marshall islands, is 15 m. long and from 4 to 9 m. 
wide. The lagoon is deep and surrounded with 32 islets. The northeast point 
is in 8 18' N., 171 12' E. 

Aurobu, islet 150 ft. high on the south side of Bagaman in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Aurora, see Maiwo of the New Hebrides. 

Aurora, see Makatea of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Austral, or Tubuai group, a name given by Mr. Williams in his "Missionary Enter- 
prises in the South Seas" to a group of very little known islands in the southeast 
Pacific. They belong to France. Population, 1875, according to French reports. 
Of the group Vavitao is 100 ft. high, and was discovered by Broughton in 1791 ; 
Tubuai discovered by Cook 1777; Rtirutu, discovered by Cook in 1769, is 1300 ft. 
high ; Rimatera, discovered by Henry and Norurotu, Hull, Maria and Sands, dis- 
covered by J. R. Sands in 1845, complete the list. 

Autano, an islet of Fakaafo, of the Union group. 9 24' 55" S., 171 12' w. 

Avea, of the Exploring group, Fiji, is a small island northeast from Vanua mbalavu, 
3 in. in circumference and 600 ft. high. Population, 40. 17 10' 30" S., i8io6'E. 

Awakalo, see Alewakalou, Fiji. 

[125] 



42 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Baba, see Torres islands. 

Babagarai, or Smith islet on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Babeltop, of the Pelew group, is also spelled Baobeltaob, etc. It is of irregular shape, 

20 m. N-S. Mt. Aremolunguj is 2000 ft. high. Northeast end, 7 40' 30" x., 

134 38' 45" E. 
Bacon, Fiji, is a white rock 60 ft. high covered with guano within Argo reefs. I7o4's., 

*"O / 

178 25 w. 

Badeneu, see Moali, Loyalty archipelago. 
Badila beddabedda bonarua, westernmost and largest of the Brunier group on the 

coast of New Guinea, in 10 45' 24" S., 150 23' 03" E. It is 2.5 m. long, half a 

mile wide and 670 ft. high. 
Bagabag, or Rich, the Sir R. Rich of Dampier, is 4 m. in circumference and 1500 ft. 

high. It is in 4 50' S., 140 12' E. IO. 
Bagaimotll, islet of the Tongan group. 
Baganian, or Stanton of the Louisiade archipelago is 2.5 m. E-w. by 1.7 m., and 720 

ft. high. 11 08' S., 152 40' E. 

Bagamoti, islet southeast coast of New Guinea, near Sideia; 115 ft. high. 
Bagavirana, of the Conflict group, Louisiade archipelago. An atoll 10 m. E-w. by 

5 m. N-S. Ten islets uninhabited; covered with Casuarina trees. Visited by H. 

M. S. Conflict in 1880. 10 46' s., 151 46' E. 
Bagga, islet in bight on west side of Vella Lavella, Solomon islands. 7 47' S., 

156 30' E. 
Bagiagia, or Markham of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is an islet in Moresby strait 

between Dauila and Moratau. 9 25' S., 150 25' E. 
Baibara, islet on coast of New Guinea. 10 20' s., 149 36' E. 
Baibesika, islet on southeast coast of New Guinea, a mile east of Suau, 1.5 m. by 

0.5 m., 560 ft. high ; cultivated. 
Baiiri, largest of the Dumoulin group ; 365 ft. high, with few inhabitants. io54'i7"s., 

Q f ft 

> 150 44 52 E. 

Baiwa, with Pana wadi and Pana roran in the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Baker, or New Nantucket, was discovered by Captain H. Foster of the barque Jamaica. 

Taken by the United States in 1857. A guano island i m. E-w., 0.7 m. wide, 20 ft. 

high. o 13' 30" N., 176 29' 30" w. 
Balabio, off the northwest point of New Caledonia. 

Baldwin, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 26' 50" s., 177 oo' 45" E. 14. 
Ballale, islet northeast of Shortland, Solomon islands. 6 58' S., 155 52' E. 
Bampton, see Parama, coast of New Guinea. 
Banabana, or Grange, on the coast of New Guinea, is low and wooded. 10 22' s., 

148 54 ' E. 

Banepe, see Panavi, Santa Cruz group. 
Banga Netepa, see Panavi, Santa Cruz group. 
Banganeda, see Matema. 12. 

Banks, in Torres strait. 10 12' S., 142 15' E. 8. 
Banks, in Spencer gulf, South Australia. 34 30' S., 136 20' E. 

[126] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 43 

Banks group was discovered by Quiros and visited by Bligh in May, 1789. It con- 
sists of Vanua Lava, Gaua, Mota, Valna, Ureparapara, with twelve islets. An- 
nexed by Great Britain August 18, 1898. 13. 

BaranagO, islet 120 ft. high in Utuha passage, south coast of Florida, Solomon islands. 

Barclay de Tolly, see Raroia of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Barena, of the Stewart islands or Sikaiana. n. 

Baring, see Namorik of the Marshall group. 6. 

Barn, off Australian coast. 10 49' s., 142 18' E. 

Barnard, N., coast of Australia. 17 41' s., 146 12' E. 

Barnard, S., coast of Australia. 17 52' s., 146 u' E. 

Barr, islet on the north side of Mille, Marshall group, east'side of entrance to lagoon. 
6 14' N., 171 46' E. 6. 

Barren (Cape), northeast from Tasmania, east entrance to Banks strait; 2300 ft. 
high. Another island of the same name is in the Hunter group northwest of 
Tasmania. 40 25' and 40 32' S. 

Barrier (Great), in Hauraki gulf, New Zealand, also called Otea, is 21 m. by 10 m., 
and 2130 ft. high. In the same gulf is Little Barrier, 9 m. west from Great 
Barrier. Also called Houtourou. 4 m. N-s., 3.7 m. E-W.; 2400 ft. high. 

Barrier islands, in the channel between Dauila and Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux 
group. 9 24' S., 150 25' E. 9. 

Barrington, of the Galapagos, was named by Colnett. o 50' 30" s., 90 10' w. 

Barrow, see Vanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bartlett, islet of Tutuila, Samoan islands, off Massefau bay. 

Barwell, see Tucopia. 13. 

Basilaki, or Moresby, is a well wooded, densely populated island noted for the careful 
cultivation of kalo, sago, betelnut, sugar, indian corn, etc. It is 10 m. E-w. by 3.5 
m.; 1326 ft. high. 10 37' s., 151 oo' 35" E. 9. 

Basilisk, see Sideia, New Guinea. 

BaSS, islet of Taumaco group. 12. 

Bass islands, or Maretiri, are 46 m. E. by S. from Rapa. Four islets, 346 ft. high, 
discovered by Captain Bass who first sailed through the strait, which bears his 
name, between Australia and Tasmania. 27 55' 30" s., 143 28' 20" w. 

Bassakanna, a circular islet off the northwest coast of Malaita, Solomon group. 
8 22' S., 1 60 29' E. 

Basses, are low coral islands in the Louisiade archipelago. 10 58' s., 152 45' E. 
Gumaian is the largest and easternmost, Abaevara is at the other extreme, and 
Leiga with Isurauaraua complete the gnntp. 

BaSS, reef-tied islet of Maloelab, Marshall group. 6. 

Bat, the westernmost of the Purdy group, discovered by Captain Bristow in 1817, con- 
sists of two flat islands and islet covered with coconut trees and enclosed by reef 
close to which no bottom at 20 fathoms. 2 51' s., 146 12' E. IO. 

Batanta, a long, narrow and mountainous island on the coast of New Guinea. 

Bateman, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17 40' 30" S., 177 14' 20" E. 

Batiki, or Mbatiki, Fiji, is near the centre of the group; is 2 m. in diameter and 609 

ft. high. Population in 1880, 342. 17 46' S., 179 10' E. 

[127] 



44 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Ban, see Mbau, Fiji. 

Baudissin, is at the northwest end of New Ireland, Bismarck archipelago, and ex- 
tends 7 m. E-w. 2 46' s., 150 40' E. 
Banro, see San Cristobal, Solomon islands. II. 
Banx, see Nuknhiva, Marquesas group. 33. 

Bavo, islet 3 m. E. from Idiha on the Southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Baxo trista, islet on southeast end of Oraluk reef, Caroline group, 50 ft. high. 

7 27' N., 155 24' E. 4. 
Bayonnaise, islet at south entrance to Kuto bay, Isle of Pines. Named from French 

ship. 

Beacon, islet of Australia. 12 48' S., 143 36' E. 
Beagle, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. II. 
Beaupre, or Eo of the Loyalty group, northwest of Uea, was discovered in 1782 by 

D'Entrecasteaux. Covered with coconut trees; inhabited. 20 20' s. Named for 

the Geographical Engineer of the Recherche. 

Beautiful, a group in the Gulf of Carpentaria, north coast of Australia. 
Bedford, see Vehanga of the Adlaeon group. 22. 
Bee, on the south shore of Huon gulf. 7 30' s., 147 27' E. 

Beechey, islands of the Bonin group. 27 08' N., 142 15' E. Annexed by Japan. 
Beika, on the southeast coast of New Guinea, east of Sariba; 130 ft. high; densely 

wooded. 

Belcher = Taravai, islet of Mangareva. 

Belep, five islets and a number of rocks northwest from New Caledonia. 13. 
Bellevtie, group on the coast of New Guinea. Jervis island is the principal. 956's., 

142 09' E. 
Bellingshausen, Society group, was discovered by Kotzebue in 1824. It is low 

and uninhabited. Named for the distinguished Russian navigator. 15 48' s., 

154 30' w. 20. 
Bellona, of the Solomon group, was discovered by Captain Wilkinson in the fiictis- 

pensable, 1790. It is small, 400 ft. high, and uninhabited. August 18, 1898, it 

was declared a part of the British Solomon islands Protectorate. 11 25' S., 

1.59 45' E. II. 

Bentinck, one of the Wellesley group in the gulf of Carpentaria. 
Bentley, see Anagusa, Louisiade archipelago. 
Bega, see Mbenga of Fiji. 
Berriberrije, or Slade, Louisiade archipelago, is the northwest and most conspicuous 

of the Engineer group, 1.7 m. NW-SE., half a mile wide, 596 ft. high. 10 37' s., 

151 16' E. 
Bertrand, on the north coast of New Guinea. 3 n's., 143 10' E. Low and wooded, 

near Schouten. 

Berry, islet 60 ft. high, of the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. 
Berud, see Kuria of the Gilbert islands. 
Bet, see Burrar in Torres strait. 

Beverley, a group off the east coast of Queensland, Australia. 21 30' s., 149 45' E. 

[128] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 45 

Biak, is separated from Korrido by a narrow channel, the two forming the Schonten 
islands. i s., 136 02' E. Little known. 

Bickerton, see Late, in the Tongan group. 18. 

Bigali, see Pikelot, Caroline islands. 

Bigar, another form of Bikar, Marshall islands. 

Bigedj, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall islands. 

Bigini, see Bikini, Marshall islands. 

Biguela, see Pikelot, Caroline islands. 

Bikar, or Dawson, consists of three islets on the east side of the atoll in the Marshall 
islands. According to Kotzebue the centre of the group is in 11 48' N., 170 E. 

Bikerei, islet of Maiana, Gilbert group. i oo' 20" N., 173 oo' 45" E. 7. 

Bikini, or Eschscholtz, was discovered by Kotzebue in Oct. 1825. Marshall group, 
18 m. N-S. South point is, according to Brown, 11 33' N., 165 37' E. 6. 

Bilibili, in Astrolabe bay, New Guinea. 5 20' s., 145 46' E. Natives are enterpris- 
ing traders and make excellent pottery. 

Bindloe, of the Galapagos, is 800 ft. high. o 18' 50" N. 

Bio, 2 m. northwest from Ugi, Solomon islands; coral islet 100 ft. high, uninhabited. 

Birara, a name of a district of New Guinea, sometimes incorrectly applied to the whole 
island. 

Bird, islet on east coast of Admiralty. 2 08' S., 147 14' E. 

Bird, islet in passage between Mbenga and Viti levu, Fiji. 18 i9'2o"s., 177 58' 15" E. 

Bird, islet of Palmyra. 

Bird, see Farallon de Medinilla of the Marianas. 

Bird, see Nihoa of the Hawaiian group. 

Bird, see Reitoru of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bird, a name given by Cook to Hikueru, Paumotu archipelago. 

Bird, a small group off the Australian coast. 11 47' S., 143 06' E. 

Birnie, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Captain Emment. It is a mile long 
and not more than 6 ft. above the sea. 3 34' 15" S., 171 42' w. British protec- 
torate July 10, 1889. 

Bishop, see Nonuti, Gilbert group. Also Tapituea of the same group. 

Bishop and his Clerk, rocky islets south from Macquarie. 55 15' S., 160 10' E. 

Bishop Junction, see Erikub, Marshall islands. 

BitlltU, islet of Tarawa, Gilbert group. 120 33' N., 172 55' 30" E. 

Bill, islet 2 m. northwest from Ugi, Solomon group. 1.5 m. long, 240 ft. high. 
10 n' S., 161 38' E. 

Biva, a low, coconut-covered, inhabited islet a mile in length, 10 m. west from Yasawa 
group, Fiji. 17 08' 30" s., 176 52' 30" E. 

Blackney, or Blakeney, a low, wooded island in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Blair, Fiji. 18 30' 10" s., 177 36' E. 

Blake, see Motuiti of the Marquesas. 

Blunt, Fiji. 1 8 52' s., 178 24' 40" K. 

Blanchard, of D'Entrecasteaux, is the island known as Doini. 10 42' s., 150 40' E. 

Blanche, islet 280 ft. high, on the north coast of Rendova, Solomon islands. 

Blaney, see Nonuti of the Gilbert group. 

[129] 



46 INDEX TO THE PACIFC ISLANDS. 

Blelatsch, islet of Yap, Caroline archipelago. 9 30' 10" N., 138 04' 42" K. 

Bligh, see Mematangi of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Bligh, Ureparapara of the Banks group. There is a Bligh island in Nootka sound, 
and another off the coast of Alaska. The name recalls the commander of the 
Bounty. 

Blosseville, a high, steep, wooded crater with several villages on the crater edge. 
3 36' S., 144 32' K. 8. 

Blunt, see Mbulia, Fiji. 

Bobo, or Bristow, a low, mangrove-covered island, 11-12 m. in circumference on the 
coast of New Guinea. 9 08' S., 143 14' E. 

Bobo eina, or Huxley of the Louisiade archipelago, is 800 ft. high and thickly wooded. 

Bobu, islet on the north coast of Murua or Woodlark island. 8 58' s., 152 46' E. 

Boiaboiawagga, islet in the Louisiade archipelago a quarter-mile long E-w., densely 
wooded. 

Bock, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall group. Another of the same name is an islet of 
Udjae. 

Bogen, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 

Boh, islet in Tanle bay on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

BoigU, or Paigo, a low, swampy island 6 in. E-w., 2 m. N-s., near the mouth of the 
Mai Kassa river on the south coast of New Guinea. 9 20' s., 142 15' E. 

Boimagi, of the Kiriwina or Trobriand group. 8 31' s., 150 52' E. 

Boirama, a grassy islet 290 ft. high, northeast from Nukata in the Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 

Bolabola, or Borabora of the Society group, is mountainous and picturesque, rising in 
Mt. Pahia to 2165 ft. Large population. North end is in i622's., i5i4o'w. 2O. 

Bolang, on the coast of New Guinea. 2 03' s., 131 56' E. 

Bonabe, Panopea, Baanopa, or Ocean, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered in 1804 
from the ship Ocean. It is 10-11 m. in circumference. o 52' 02" S., 169 35' E. 

Bonabona = Torlesse, islets in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Bonham, see Jaluit of the Marshall islands. 

Bonin, Bonin-sima, a chain extending almost N-s. from 27 45' to 26 32' N., divided 
into four small groups, Parry, Kater, Peel and Coffin. They are high and vol- 
canic; except a small colony on Peel the}- are uninhabited. Probably discovered 
by Japanese fishermen about 1675, they were unknown to the world till 1823 
when Captain Coffin, an American whaler, discovered and took possession of the 
southern group. In 1824 John Ebbets, another American, discovered the central 
since called Peel. Visited by Ltitke 1828, Beechey 1827, Collinson 1853, and by 
Commodore Perry. Claimed by Japan. 

Bonnawan, a grassy islet a mile N-s., and 335 ft. high, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Bonvouloir, a group in the Louisiade archipelago seen by D'Entrecasteaux. It ex- 
tends in a slight curve about 20 m. NW-SE. Inhabitants are Papuans. East islet 
is 500 ft., Hastings 10 m. to wxw. is 400 ft. high. Five miles beyond there are 
3-4 islets on the same reef. Centre 10 20' s., 151 56' K. Bonvouloir was an 
officer on the AVv/vvr/v. 

Booby, a bare, uninhabited rock 35 ft. high in Torres strait. 10 36'o5"s., i4i54'45" E. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 47 

Bordelaise, see Oraluk of the Caroline islands. 

Borne, islet 50 ft. high off Hanaiapa bay on Hivaoa, Marquesas islands. 

Bory, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 14' N., 151 39' 37" E. 

Boscawen, see Tafahi of the Tongan islands. 18. 

Botany Isles of Cook are between New Caledonia and Isle of Pines. 

Boucher, see Tiger of the Loyalty group. 

Boudeuse, low, uninhabited island, shaped like a horseshoe open to the west. Dis- 
covered by Bougainville August 9, 1768, and named after his ship. i 25' S., 
144 32' E. 

Bougainville is the largest of the Solomon islands; extends no m. NW-SE., and is 
30 m. wide; very mountainous, with volcanic peaks reaching nearly 10,000 ft. 
Bagana, in the centre, is active. Owing to the ferocity of its inhabitants little is 
known of the interior. Cannibals all. The north point is in 5 24' S., 154 38' E. II. 

Bouka, or Buka of the Solomon islands, is much lower than Bougainville, more fer- 
tile and more populous. Natives said to have the finest physique in the group ; 
they are active and daring cannibals. The north point is in 5 s., 154 35' E. II. 

Bounty, a group of 24 islets and rocks, inhabited and belonging to New Zealand. 
Discovered by Captain Bligh of the Bounty, Sept. 19, 1788. 47 50' s. 

Bourke, islet in Torres strait. 9 52' S., 143 22' E. 

Bouro, see San Cristobal, Solomon islands. 

Bow, see Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Bowditch, see Fakaafo of the Union group. 17. 

Bowerick, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. i 47' 40" s., 175 35' 20" E. 7. 

Brackenridge, low, i m. long, off Vanua levu, Fiji. i633's., 178 47' 20" E. Named 
for the botanist of the United States Exploring Expedition iinder Wilkes. 

Bramble Cay, see Massaramcoer. Sand islet at northeast boundary of Queensland 
colony. 

Brampton, see Parama, New Guinea coast. 

Brander, islet of Rahiroa of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Brattle, islet of Albemarle in the Galapagos. 

Brewer, islet in China strait. 10 34' 30" S., 150 43' 45" E. 

Brierly, see Daddahai in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Bristow, see Bobo on the New Guinea coast. 9 08' s., 143 14' E. 

Britannia, another name of Mare, Loyalty group. 

Broadmead, one of the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. 

Brocke, see Jarvis. 

Brongniart, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 33' 30" N., 151 47' 02" E. 

Brooker, see Utian of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Brown, same as Bikini of the Marshall group. 

Brown, see Eniwetok of the Marshall islands. 

Brown, see Lae of the Marshall islands. Named for Captain J. \V. Brown who dis- 
covered it. 

Brown, islet in Henry Reid bay on the east side of New Britain. 

Browne is low, wooded, on the same reef with Carpenter and Tracey in Nares harbor, 

Admiralty group. 

[131] 



48 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Brumer, see Tassai, coast of New Guinea. 

Brumer group consists of six small basaltic islands; largest and westernmost 2.5 m. 
by 0.5 m., 665 ft. high, inhabited. 10 46' s., 150 22' E. People use canoes with 
outrigger and double mat sails. The other islands are Badila beddabedda bonarua, 
Harikoa, Gobi gobi, Bugomaki and Abana. 

Buchanan, in the Admiralty group. i 56' s., 146 28' E. 

Blldd, an extinct volcano, 800 ft. high, in the Ring-gold group, Fiji. 17 26' 30" s., 
1 80 23' E. 

Buen viage (Isla de), discovered by Quiros July 8, 1606. Probably one of the Gilbert 
islands. Quiros says: "Este dia se vio una isla de hasta seis leguas de boj ; 
y porque hasta aqui no se habia encontrado tierra alguna ni bajo, ni otra cosa que 
impidien nuestro camino, se le puso por nombre Buen Viage: su altura son tres 
grades y medio parte del Norte. .Acordose de no ir a ella por no ser ya a pro- 
posito y por el riesgo de ser baja." Viages dc Quiros, /., J5<?. This day was seen 
an island about six leagues in circuit; and because thus far we had encountered 
neither land nor shoal, nor other thing which might impede our way, we bestowed 
the name Good Voyage. Its latitude is three and a half degrees North. It was 
determined not to land as it was not convenient and there was risk of reefs. 

Buena Vista, or Yatilau of the Solomon islands, is 1050 ft. high. 8 53' 30" s., 

159 59' 3o" E. II. 

Bugomaki, one of the Brumer group, 220 ft. high. 

Bugotu, the native name (of a part) of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

Buhi, islet on northwest extreme of the Tongan group, on the same reef with 
Ofolanka. 

Bukalau, low islet of Fiji. East point, 16 12' 20" S., 179 45' 50" E. 

Bulia, see Mbulia in the Kandavu group, Fiji. 

Bull, islet of St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. 

Bultig, or Hump islet, in Geelvink bay, New Guinea; 10-12 m. X 4 na. 

Bunatik, islet on the southeast coast of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Buninga, southwesternmost island of the Shepherd group, New Hebrides. Three- 
quarters of a mile NE-SW. 723 ft. high. A hundred inhabitants, all Christian. 

Bunker, another name of Jarvis. 

Bunkey, see Namonuito of the Caroline islands. 4. 

Buraku, or Murray, an uninhabited volcanic peak, 1000 ft. high, northwest from 
Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 8 59' s., 158 35' E. 

Buriwadi, islet of the Kiriwina or Trobriand group. 8 32' S., 150 52' E. 

Burke, islet on the coast of New Guinea. 10 10' s., 142 30' E. 

Burnett, see Noina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Burrar, or Bet, of the Three Sisters (Bet, Sue, Poll) in Torres strait. 10 10' S., 
142 50' E. 

Burrh, islet at the entrance of Port Rhin on Lukunor, Marshall islands. 6 14' N., 

O s> 

171 46 E. 

Burrows ( 1842), see Mare, Loyalty group. 
Burwan, inhabited islet in Malo pass, off Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Bushy, islet off Australian coast. 10 s., 142 58' E. 

[132] 



COMERSON 
J 

ANACORETAS 




NEW GUINEA 





108. 




\\ 



,-0 



146 C 



E. 



CORAL SEA 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



49 




FIG. 3. 



Butaritari or Touching in the Gilbert group, is an atoll of triangular form, about 
14 m. on a side. As shown in the figure, most of the land is on the south side 
of the lagoon and there are the principal villages. Namaka, Nakudi, Pikhat, 
Ourik and Napuni are the main islets. The entrances to the lagoon are on the 
west side. The northwest point is in 3 14' x., 172 39' 50" E. In 1886 the popu- 
lation was 3000, all protestants. The American Board has a station here. The 
south side is a continuous grove of coconut and pandanus, and a large amount of 
copra is exported annually. 7. 

Butchart, or Dekatua, is an islet of the 
Engineer group, Louisiade archipel- 
ago, 350 ft. high, covered with coconut 
trees. 

Button is a low islet in Shallow bay of 
Admiralty island. 

Button, a grassy islet in China strait. 
10 34' S., 150 44' E. 

Button, see Utirik, of the Marshall islands. 

Byam, see NGanati, Paumotu archipelago. 

Byam Martin, an old name of Vairaatea, 
Paumotu archipelago. 

Byer, see Patrocinio of the Hawaiian group. 

Byron, island in Engineer group of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Byron, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; forms a triangle with Grant and 
Shortland. 

Byron, see Nukunau, Gilbert islands. 7. 

Cabeva, islet of Fiji. 16 n' 20" s., 179 34' 45" E. 

Cabras, see Apapa on the west coast of Guam, Marianas. 

Cadmus, a name of Morane of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Cairncross, a group on the Australian coast. 11 15' S., 143 E. 

Calalin, islet of Majuro, Marshall islands. ' 7 09' N., 171 13' E. 

Calvados Chain, Louisiade archipelago ; a series of high islands extending 45 m. 
from Panasia. The villages are generally on the northern sides of the densely 
wooded islands. The canoes are large and fitted with oval mat sails. The in- 
habited islands are : Pana varavara, Utian, Panaudiudi, Toloi awa, Gulewa, Ulu- 
lina, Moturina, Panarora, Paba baga, Pana numara, Panantinian and Panawina. 

Calvert, see Maloelab of the Marshall group. 

Campbell, an uninhabited group 30 m. in circumference; discovered in 1810 by Cap- 
tain Hazelburgh and named for the owner of the brig in which he sailed. Dent 
lies to the northwest, Jacquemart to the south. The highest hill is 1500 ft. high. 
52 33' 44" S., 169 09' 09" E. 

Campbell, islet in Torres strait. 9 33 08" s., 143 29' E. 

Candelaria Shoals, of Mendana, now called Roncador. II. 

Cannae, a rock 200-250 ft. high, 9 m. west from Laughlan. Discovered by Dumont 
D'Urville. 9 18' s., 153 27' K. . 

MKMOIRS I). P. B. MUSKUM, VOL. I., No. 2. 4. [ *3 2 j 



50 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Canton, Mary Halcout or Swallow, in the Phoenix group, is a low, sandy island ir m. 

long, 50-500 ft. wide and 10-18 ft. high. 2" 44' 35" s., 171 42' w. 17. 
Cap, islet between Gibba and Turtlebacked, off New Guinea. g 49' s., 142 42' K. 
Cap, see Tabutha, Fiji. 14. 

Capeniur, islet of Ailuk, Marshall islands. 10 17' 25" x., 169 59' 20" K. 8. 
Carapellas is south of Kayangle, Pelew islands, with Arayonzet and Korack on a 

reef 4.5 m. N-s., 5 m. K-w. 
Carlshoff, see Aratika, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS. 



NATIVE NAME. 


CHART NAME. 


DISCOVERER. 


LATITUDE 
NORTH. 


LONGITUDE 
EAST. 


AUTHORITY. 


POPULATION. 


Western Group: 














NOoli. 


Matelotas (Spenser). 


Vlllalobos, 1643. 


8" 17' 0" 


137 33' 0" 


Cheyne. 


100 




l,;i ninliork. L'lu. 










Yap. 


Onap. 


Hunter. 1791. 


9 37 


138 08 


D'Urville. 2000 


Uluthi. 


Mackenzie. 


Hunter, 1781. 


10 06 


139 50 


Lutke. 


200 


Keys. 


Tromelin, Fais. 


Tronieliu, 1828(7). 


9 4 


138 16 




: 


Sorol. 


Philip. 


Hunter, 1791. 


8 06 


140 03 


' 


20 


Central Group: 














Eurupift. 


Kama. 


Hmit.-r, 1791. 


6 40 


143 10 


I.iitke. 


50 


Woleu. 


Ulle. Thirteen Ids. 


Wilson, 1793. 


7 23 30 


143 57 




600 


Ifalik. 


Wilson. 


Wilson, 1793. 


7 14 


144 31 





200 


Faraulep. 


Gardner. 


Liitke, 1828. 


8 36 


144 36 


1 


Uninhabited. 


Olimario. 




Liilke, 1828. 


7 43 


145 56 




200 


<i rimes. 


H1*h. 


i 'apt. (irimes, 1841. 15 146 :i:i 






Elato. 


Haweis. 


Wilson, 17itt. 7 :t(l 146 19 





300 


Lamotrek. 


Swede. 


\\'ils.>n, 1793. 7 27 146 30 


' 


200 


Fain. West. 


Wett. 


l/iitke, 1S2S. 


8 03 14ti 50 




1 nillhaliil, .1. 


Satawal. 


Tucker. 


Wilson, 1793. 


7 L 1 -' 147 06 


Dqpomy. 


200 


1'ikela. 


L.v.lm. 


ItmrKo'ita. 1801. 


s :;v 147 IS 




rnjnliublted. 


Pikelot. 


Ooquille, Hittali. 


Duperrey, 1824. 


8 09 147 42 


" 


1 Ililllialiilcil. 


Silk. 


Ibarttoita. 


IbuTKoi'ta, 17i)il. 


C. I 1 * 149 30 


Kri'vcini-t. 100 


Poloat. 


Enderby, Kata. 


Ibantoita, 1S01. 


7 19 IB 149 IS 


100 


Tamatani. 


Lou Martircs. 


Ibargoita, 1801. 


7 27 149 28 


Duporrc.v. 200 


Namonuito. 


Anonima, Bunker. 












LiviiiKston. 


IbarKoitn, 1SU1. 


9 00 


149 47 


Liitkc. 50 


Fai'n, Kant. 


LUtke. 


l.iitkc. I--L"-. 8 33 20 151 26 


50 


Namoliplafane. 


Fananou. 


Hull, iM't. 8 25 30 151 49 15 


50 


Morileu. 


Hall. 


Hall, 1824. 8 41 162 25 


100 


Kak. 


HoRoleu, Truk. 


Duperrey, 1825. 


7 43 1B1 4I> 


D'Urvillp. MIOO 


Losap. 


Dnperrmr. 


Liitkc. lsi'4. 


6 53 152 42 20 


Diiperrey. 200 


Nauia. 


irirville. 


DupHiTi'.v, 1825. 


8 69 152 :CI 


FiM.lla.v. 


Natnoluk. 




Liitkc, 1828. 


5 45 In 15:1 IB 311 


Liitkc. :K) 


Etal. ) 




I Mortlock, 1793. 


5 :ir> 153 43 Chcyne. 20(1 


Luknnor. 


Murtlock Island*. 


! Mortlock, 1793. 5 29 18 153 68 Lutkc. 200 


SilMiin. ) 




( Mortlock. 179:i. f, 17 153 46 500 


Nnknor. 


Monteverdo, Dun kill. 


Montcv.Tde. IMI.;. :i :,; 15.1 66 Fin.llav. :,IHI 


Oralnk. 


liordelaise, San Atfostino 


Tompson, 1773. 7 :]s IBS oil I'liiiiliahitnl. 


Kastern Group: 








NGatik. 


Los ValienteN, llaven. 


Tompson, 1773. 


6 47 30 ir,7 :I2 Filidlav. :10 


Piikin. 


PeKueneina. 


l.iilk.-. ISL'S. 


7 112 ; 167 47 30 Chcviii'. r>o 


Andenia. 


Am. 


Frascr. |.s:!L'. 


li 4r, 158 00 rniiiliabiti'd. 


PonaM. 


Ascension, Pu.vnipet. 


l.iitki-. 1^.^. 


cl IN 15x 07 I.iitke. 5000 


Mnkil. 


linpcnv.v, WclliiiKton. 


llnpi-rri'V. IS'-M. 


i: :ni 


ir.il .->.'! Diipi-rrev. 80 


I'iiiK. Inji. 


Musifrave, McAskill. 


MnHfrravu, 1793. 


6 12 


160 53 McAHkill. 


300 


Kusale. 


Ualan, Strong. 


frozi-r, 1804. 


B IB 


163 06 


Liitkc. 


71X1 



Caroline Islands extend from the Pelew group to Ualan, and from 2 to 12 N 7 ., and 
with the Marshall and Gilbert groups are comprised in that portion of the Pacific 
usually called Micronesia. The name conies from that given by the Spanish 
Admiral Don Francisco Lexcano to a large island in the group not now identified. 
Duperrey and Liitke made the group known geographically, and to Dr. Luther 
Halsey Gulick, an American missionary, we are indebted for much information on 
both islands and inhabitants. The earliest account is by a Jesuit missionary, 
Juan Antonio Cantova, who visited portions of the group in 1721 and was killed 
at Mogmog ten years later. There are perhaps 877 square miles distributed over 
nearly fifty groups, most of them atolls. The table will show the distribution 

[i33] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 51 

more clearly, but the population there given is only approximate. In 1885 the 
German gunboat Iltis took Yap, which Spain at once claimed and her claim was 
sustained by the Pope, acting as arbitrator. After the war with the United States, 
and the loss of Guam and the Philippines, Spain sold the entire group to Germany 
for $4,000,000. 

Caroline, or Thornton, a group of low coral islands on one reef 7 m. long, i in. wide. 
Taken by England July 9, 1868. 10 o' 01" S., 150 14' 30" w. 

Carpenter, islet on the same reef with Browne and Tracey in Nares harbor, of 
Admiralty island. 

Carr, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. North point in i735's., i77oi'3o"E. 

Carry, crescent-shaped, uninhabited island in Fortescue strait, southeast coast of New 
Guinea, i m. NE-SW., 300 ft. high. 10 34' 45" s., 150 54' 45" E. 

Carteret, a group of six islets on a circular reef 10 m. diameter, all inhabited and 
thickly wooded. Discovered by Captain Carteret in 1767. 4 45' S., 155 20' E. 

Carysfort, see Tureia, Paumotu archipelago. 

Case, a high island of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 37' 30" s., 177 03' 30" K. 

Casey, islet i m. north from Montravel, New Caledonia. 

CaStori, a high, rocky group on the southeast point of New Guinea. 10 47' S., 
150 38' E. 9. 

Catherine, islet off Cape Ducie on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 

Catherine, see Ujae, Marshall group. 

Catto, islet 2 m. off southwest end of Eua, Tongan group. Discovered by Tasnian in 
1643. 21 29' S., 174 50' 30" w. 

Cerisy, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 n' 05" N., 151 51' 36" E. 

Cette, another name for Eunauro on coast of New Guinea. 

Chabral, see Lifu of the Loyalty group. 

Chain, a low, wooded islet northeast of East cape, New Guinea. 

Chain, see Anaa, Paumotu archipelago. 

Chamisso, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 16' 48" N., 151 47' 42" E. 

Champignon, islet in St. Vincent bay on southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Chanal, of Marchand, is Hatutu of the Marquesas group. 

Chanter, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec group. 29 i5'3o"s., 177 54'o2"\v. 

Chard, islet 4.7 m. long, 100 ft. high, off the coast of New Britain. 5 27's., i5o58'E. 

Charles, of the Galapagos is 24 m. in circumference; once settled, now deserted. 
1780 ft. high. 

Charles Hardy, see Nissan of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Charlotte, another name for Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 

Chas, see Wari, New Guinea. 

Chase, see Tamana, Gilbert islands. 

Chassant = Salat, of the Caroline islands. 

Chatham, a group belonging to New Zealand and situated in 43 48' 59" s., 1 76 39' 50" \v. 
It was discovered by Captain Broughton of the armed tender Chatham attached to 
Vancouver's expedition in 1791. At the time of the discover}- there were some 
1200 natives of a race resembling the Maori and called Moriori. They were a 
cheerful and healthy people dressed in seal skins, but when, in 1840, Dr. Dieffenbach 



52 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

visited the group, only 90 survived. In 1830 there had been an importation of 800 
Maoris, and the present population is a very motley one. The largest island, 
Chatham or Warekauri, extends on the north coast 31 m., on the south arxmt half 
that distance. Pitt or Rangihaute is 1 1 in. from Chatham and 8 in. long. A mile 
off the southeast end of Pitt is Rangatira or Southeast, and still farther to the 
southeast is Tarakoikoia or the Pyramid, a bare rock 566 ft. high. In 1868 this 
group was surveyed by the New Zealand Surveyor General, S. Percy Smith. 
Both the geological formation and the flora connect the Chatham islands with 
New Zealand. 

Chatham, of the Galapagos, 19 m. NE-SW. by 8 m., 1650 ft. high. Only island of the 
group where water is always found. 

Chaumont, see Hui-wadiamo of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Cherry, see Anuda. 12. 

Chicayana, a spelling of Sikaiana or Stewart. 

Chikuru, a name of the islet Pingelap, Caroline islands, usually called Tugulu on the 
charts. 

Chissy, islet on the Maclay coast of New Guinea. 6 02' S., 147 32' E. 

Choiseill, of the Solomon islands, was discovered in April, 1568, by Pedro de Ortega 
Valencia and Hernan Gallego, Mendaiia's pilot. The present name commemo- 
rates the distinguished minister of Louis XV. In extent, 83X20 m., and 2000 ft. 
high; mountainous and wooded. The north point is in 6 37' s., 156 27' E. II. 

Christina (Cristina), the old name of Tahuata, of the Marquesas islands. 

Christmas, a low, lagoon island extending 44 m. K-w. Discovered by Cook December 
24, 1777. The water of the lagoon is said to be remarkably salt. Annexed by 
Great Britain March 17, 1888. i 59' N., 157 32' w. 

Church, islet on south side of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 

Cicia, see Thithia, Fiji. 

Cicobia, see Thikombia, Fiji. 

Clarence (Duke of), see Nukunono, of the Union group. 17. 

Clark, a low island of the Fiji group. 16 22' 24" S., 179 n' 32" E. 

Clarke, island on the north side of Banks strait. 

Clerk, see Onoatoa of the Gilbert islands. 

Clerke, see Tekokoto of the Panmotu archipelago. 

Clermont de Tonnerre, see Reao, Paumotu archipelago. Named for the French Min- 
ister of Marine. 

Cliff, islet of the Australian coast. 14 13' S., 143 48' E. 

Cliff, two islets off the coast of New Guinea. 9 26' s., 146 56' E. 

Cliffy = Ikaika Keino of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Chokach, an islet within the reef of Ponape, Caroline islands, on the north side. 

Clipperton, a lagoon island, uninhabited; discovered by Captain Clipperton in 1705. 
There is a deep hole in the lagoon, and trachytic rocks on the outer ring. 
Claimed by France. 10 17' X., 109 13' \v. 

Clock, islet on the Australian coast. 14 04' S., 144 17' E. 

Cloquet, a name of Gicquel which was formerly described as an island on the north 
coast of New Britain ; now known to be a peninsula. IO. 

[i35] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 53 

Close, islet in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 57' s., 151 18' K. 

Clute, see Hiti, Paumotu archipelago. 

Coast, island off New Guinea, 300 ft. high, well-wooded, and with a fringing reef. 

I0 35' 25" S., 150 40' 20" E. 

Cockatoo, islet in Thousand Ships bay, Solomon islands. 8 33' s., 159 37' E. 
Cockburn, group off coast of Australia. 11 51' s., 143 18' E. 
Cockburn, see Ahunui, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Coconut, in the Bismarck archipelago, with Leigh and the coast of New Ireland forms 

Carteret harbor. Inhabitants cannibals. 4 42' S., 152 42' E. 
Coconut, islet on the New Guinea coast. 10 04' S., 143 03' E. 
COCOS, island known to Wafer, Dampier and other early navigators, 4.5 m. NE-SW., 

very high. 5 32' 57" N., 88 02' 10" w. Northeast from the Galapagos. 
Cocos, a name given in 1790 by Captain Wilkinson to the group discovered by Lemaire 

and Schouten, and by them called Marqueen. 

Codfish, islet off the west coast of Stewart, New Zealand, 3 m. NW-SE., 2 m. wide. 
Coffin, group of the Bonin islands. 26 38' N., 142 15' E. 
Collis a name of Kamaka, an islet of Mangareva. 

Colutnb, a coral islet, wooded and inhabited, in Astrolabe bay, New Guinea. 
Colvocoressrs, see Draviuni, Fiji. 
Commerson, or Comerson, two low islands discovered by Bougainville in 1768. 

o 40' S., 145 17' E. 
Conflict, group of more than 22 islets in the Louisiade archipelago. io46's., 151 46' E. 

Named for H. B. M. S. Conflict in 1880. 
Connor, see Katai in the New Guinea region. 
Constantin, see Greenwich of the Caroline group. 
Contrariete, the old Spanish name of Ulava, Solomon islands. 
Contrariete islet = Porondu, New Caledonia. 
Conversion de San Pablo (La), supposed to be Britomart, of Duperrey. Discovered by 

Quiros February 10, 1606. See Quiros Viajes, /., 256; //., 7, 92. 
Cook, islet at entrance to Christmas island lagoon. i 57' 16" N., 157 27' 45" w. 
Cook, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Cook, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides. 
Cook Islands, a portion of the Hervey group, often so-called. 
Coquille, see Pikelot of the Caroline islands. 
Cornwallis, another name for Johnston. 
Coronados, see Anuanurunga, Paumotu archipelago. 
CosiSSipe, island in the Hermit group. It abounds in pigeons. 
Count Heiden == Likieb, Marshall group. 
Coutance, a well-wooded islet of New Guinea, half a mile long and a quarter broad. 

10 13' S., 148 07' K. 

Covell, a name for Ebon, Marshall islands. 

Crab, islet on the northwest coast of York peninsula, Australia. 10 58' s., 142 56' E. 
Craven, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 39' S., 177 pi' 30" E. 
Credner, or Pigeon group, lies between Duke of York and New Britain ; low and thickly 

wooded islands, each with a separate reef with deep water between. 4 is's., 152 19' E. 

[136] 



54 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Crescent, see Timoe, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Cretin, see Tami, east coast of New Guinea. 6 45' S., 147 49' K. Named for Lieu- 
tenant Cretin of the Rcclicrclic. 

Croker, see Heraiki, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Crouy islet is in Dumbea passage, entrance to Noumea roadstead, New Caledonia. 

Crown is 7 m. northwest from Long on the coast of New Guinea. It was discovered 
by Dampier; is 4-5 m. in circumference, and 2000 ft. high. 5o8's., 146 56' R. 

Culpepper is the most northerly of the Galapagos, very barren, 550 ft. high. 

T 39' 3" N -> 92 03' w. 

Cumberland, see Manuhangi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Cumberland, an extensive group off the east coast of Queensland, Australia, reach- 
ing to 21 S. 

dimming, low islet of Fiji. 16 21' 4o".s., 179 08' 47" E. 

Cuop, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Cure, a name of Ocean in the Hawaiian group. 

Current, see Pulo Anna, Caroline islands. 

Curtis, two rocks in the Kermadec group, 500 ft. high. Said to emit hot water and 
steam. 30 36' s., 179 14' w. 

Cyclades ( Les) of Bougainville = New Hebrides. 

Cyprian Bridge, the easternmost island on the west side of Bougainville strait, Solo- 
mon group, 377 ft. high, dome-shaped. 

Daddahai, or Brierly, in the Louisiade archipelago; about a mile in circuit, 380 ft. 

high, wooded and inhabited. 11 18' S., 153 08' E. 

Dageraad = Aurora or Makatea of the Paumotus. Discovered by Roggewein in 1712. 
Daiwari, or Gibbons, islet of Nuakata, Louisiade archipelago; 290 ft. high, clothed 

with grass, uninhabited. 

Dalrymple, in Torres strait. 9 37' s., 143 18' E. 
Dambach, a small cluster on the east coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 5 4i's., 

155 07' E. 
Dampier, or Karkar, is 6-7 m. northeast of Cape Croisilles on the coast of New 

Guinea; volcanic, and about 5000 ft. high, 36-40 m. in circumference. 4 42' .s., 

145 58' E. 10. 

Danger, see Pukapuka, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Danger group consists of three islands, Pukapuka, Motukoe and Motukavata on a 

reef 8 m. E-W. and 4 m. N-s. Discovered by Byron June 21, 1765. Lagoon closed, 

landing dangerous. 10 53' s., 165 45' 30" w. 
Danger, islands of New Guinea. o 15' S., 135 05' E. 
Dangerous Archipelago, a name of the Paumotu group. 
Daniel, see Arno of the Marshall group. 
Dao Balayet, a sand islet marking Estrees passage on the northwest coast of New 

Caledonia. 

Daos islets form the south part of Belep group, New Caledonia. 13. 
Daomboni, islet on the north coast of New Caledonia. 
Darnley, a name of Erub on the New Guinea coast. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 55 

Daru, or Yaru, at the mouth of the Oriomo (Tait) river, north of Bobo and between 
Bristow and the mainland. Fertile, fine timber, not many natives. 9 05' S., 
143 12' E. 

Dalian, islet off the west side of Saibai on the South coast of New Guinea. 9 25' S., 
142 32' E. 

Dauar, or Dowar, islet within the same reef with Mer and Waier of the Murray isl- 
ands; Papuan inhabitants. 9 54' s., 144 02' E. 

Datlgae, islet on the reef at the north extreme of New Caledonia. 

DatlgO, the highest of the Fishermen islands off Port Moresby on the south coast of 
of New Guinea. Natives numerous, dark copper color ; they have large canoes 
with four mat sails. 9 32' S., 147 04' E. 

Dauila, or Goodenough, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is 21 m. NW-SE. A mountain 
range, of which the highest peak reaches 8500 ft., extends throughout. Well 
peopled and cultivated to some extent. 9 31' S., 150 20' E. 

DatlSSy, islet in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Davis, a high island in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 27' 40" s., 177 oo' 30" E. 

Davis, see Rapanui or Easter. 

Dawhaida, see Marokau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Dawson, largest of the Laseinie group in the Lonisiade archipelago, 0.7 m. NW-SE., 
450 ft. high, uninhabited. 

Dawson, a very small reefed islet in the D'Entrecasteaux group. 10 2i's., 151 25' E. 

Dawson, see Bikar, Marshall islands. 6. 

Day, one of the Tiri islets off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 24' 14" S., 179 09' 20" E. Low 
coral. 

Dayman, islet in Torres strait. 10 45' S., 142 21' E. 

Dayrell, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

Deal, island of Kent group in Bass strait. 39 30' S., 147 18' E. 

Deans is one of the names of Rahiroa, also called Vliegen and Nairsa, Paumotu archi- 
pelago. 

Death, islet in St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Deblois, islet of New Guinea. 3 22' S., 144 09' E. 

Deboyne, group in the Louisia.de archipelago is 6 m. from St. Aignan, a high 
(1500 ft.), wooded cluster, of which Panniet is the largest; Rara at the southeast 
extreme. Nivan, Panapompon, Nibub, Mabui, Redlick and Torlesse complete 
the list. 

Deboyne, see Panniet of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Debrtin, islet near Noumea on the south side of New Caledonia. 

Ducena = Maitea in the Espinosa chart. Discovered by Quiros February 12, 1606. 

Deception = Moso, New Hebrides. 

DeedeS, two islets 0.7 m. apart in the Engineer group. 10 32' S., 151 16' E. 

Degtiala, one of the Pleiades group northwest of Uea, Loyalty g ro "P- 

De Haven, a high island of the Ringgold group, Fiji. 16 30' 20" s., 180 21' 30" E. 

Deirina, islet of New Guinea, 0.7X0.5 m., 280 ft. high, inhabited. 

Dekatua, or Butchart, islet of the Engineer group, 350 ft. high, covered with coco- 
nut palms. 

[138] 



56 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Delami = Roporopo in Orangerie bay, southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Deliverance islet, a point in the north boundary of Queensland colony. 9 34' s., 
141 45' K. 

Denham, islet at west end of Kandavu, Fiji. 

Deni is the native name of Nitendi or Santa Cruz in the New Hebrides, according to 
Codrington. 

Dent, island in Northwest bay, Campbell island, New Zealand. 

D'Bntrecasteaux group was seen from a distance by the French navigator from whom 
it is named. Captain Moresby examined the islands in 1874. The group con- 
sists of Duau (Normanby), Moratau (Fergusson), Dauila (Goodenough), Rapu- 
tata Sanaroa (Welle), Dobu (Goulvain), all of them high and fine islands, well 
peopled. 9. 

D'ljntrecasteaux, inhabited islet half a mile long in the Admiralty group. i53's., 
1 46 30' E. 

De Peyster, see Nukufetau of the Ellice group. 16. 

D'Haussez, see Mercury, New Zealand. 

Des l/acs, one of the French group, 1550 ft. high, inhabited. 4 38'$., i4933'E. IO. 

Des Lanciers, a name given by Bougainville to Akiaki or Thrum Cap of the Paumotu 
islands. 

Devarenne, islet in St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Deverd, islet off Chasseloup bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Didigili, wooded islet, 150 ft. high, with fringing reef on the southeast coast of New 
Guinea. 

Didot, islet in Mueo passage near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Didymus, see Ito, islet on the New Guinea coast. 

Dieterici, a small group on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 
6o8's., 155 23' E. 

Digaragara, islet at west opening of the outer ring of Egum atoll in the Kiriwina 
group. 9 22' 30" s., 151 53' K. 9. 

Dingen, small island in Dampier strait. 

Dinner, see Samarai on the coast of New Guinea. 

Direction = Manevai, Santa Cruz islands. 

Direction, see Namena, Fiji. 

Disappointment islands (of Byron), in the Paumotu archipelago, were discovered by 
Byron June 17, 1765. 14 09' s., 141 14' w. Consist of atoll Napuka or Why- 
toohee and Tepoto or Otooho. 31. 

Disappointment, off the west coast of the Auckland islands, New Zealand. 

Disappointment, one of the Taumaco group. 

Disappointment, is the largest of the Duff group, 1200 ft. high. Natives are Poly- 
nesian, number about 350, thin and ugly, armed with bows and poisoned arrows. 

Disappointment, see Rosario of the Bonin islands. 

Dobu, or Goulvain, is at the entrance to Dawson strait in the D'Entrecasteaux group, 
2 m. x-S., 2.2 m. K-\v.; inhabited by Papuans. 9 46' s., 150 52' E. 9. 

Dodogessa, islet off Dauila in the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Dog, see Nonuti of the Gilbert group. 

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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 57 

Dog, see Pukapuka of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Dogigi and Rikarika compose the Lebrun group of the Louisiade archipelago. The 

former is 165 ft. high. 

Doi, or Konaoe is one of the Ono i lau group, Fiji. 
Doini, the Blanchard of D'Entrecasteaux on the southeast coast of New Guinea, is 

2 m. ENE-WSW., half a mile wide, 510 ft. high, and well cultivated. 10 42' S., 

150 40' E. 

Dominica, the Spanish name of Hivaoa, Marquesas islands. 23. 
Dongaloa, a group of low islets off Viti levu, Fiji. 17 24' S., 177 39' 30" E. 
Dot, islet in Huon gulf on the east coast of New Guinea. 7 05' s., 147 08' E. 
Double, on the Australian coast. 16 44' s., 145 44' E. 
Double, islet in Torres strait. 10 27' S., 142 25' E. 
Double, see Nemu, New Caledonia. 
Doubtful, an islet of Beaupre, Loyalty group. 
Doubtful, see Tekokoto, of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Dougherty, seen by Captain Dougherty in 1841 from whaler Ja mcs Stewart. Seen 

again in 1859. 59 21' S., 119 07' w. 
Dove, islet in Torres strait., 10 04' s., 142 57' E. 

Dover, two islets on the south coast of Admiralty. 2 16' s., 147 13' E. 
Dowar, see Dauar in Torres strait. 
DowSett Reef is 13 m. south from Malo reef in the Hawaiian group. It extends 

8 m. X 4 m- 25 13' N., 170 38' w. On July 4, 1872, the whaling brig Kamelia- 

meha, Captain Dowsett, struck on this reef which is awash in some parts. 
Dowsett, see Bikini of the Marshall group. 

Drala, see Ndrala, Fiji; islet 80 ft. high, off the east coast of Viti levu. 
Dramai, islet on the New Guinea coast. 4 06' s., 134 10' E. 
Draviuni, see Ndraviuni, Fiji. 
Druadrua, see Ndruandrua, Fiji. 
Druau, see Ndruandrua, Fiji. 

Drtimmond, a name of Tapituea of the Gilbert islands. 
Du ami and Du ana, islets in Kutu bay, Isle of Pines. 
Duau, or Normamby, of the D'Fntrecasteaux group, is 39 m. long, mountainous, 

rising to an height of 3374 ft., and inhabited. The southeast cape is in 10 10' S., 

151 14' E. 

Dublon, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 22' 15" N., 151 55' 22" E. 
Dubouzet, or Nu islet, bears a lighthouse at the entrance to Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Dubuaru, islet on the New Guinea coast. 9 08' s., 142 58' E. 
Duchateau, three low, wooded islets, Pana bobai ana, Pana rurawara; and Kukulub, 

of the Louisiade archipelago. n 16' s., 152 22' E. 
Duchess, see Uruma of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9. 

Ducie was discovered by Captain Edwards in H. M. S. Pandora in 1791. A low, un- 
inhabited lagoon island 1.7 m. XE-SW., and i m. wide in 24 40' S., 124 48' w. 
DUCOS, islet in St. Vincent bay on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Dudemaine, islet on the north coast of New Guinea, 100-200 ft. high. 3 08' S., 

142 20' E. 

[140] 



5 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Dufaure, on the north side of New Britain, is 7 m. long. 5 06' s., 150 14' K. 

Dufanre, see Mngula on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 9. 

Duff, group in the Santa Cruz islands, was discovered by Quiros and Torres in 1606, 
and again by Captain Wilson, in the Duff, September 25, 1797. Consists of ten 
small islands extending SE-NW. 17 m. Inhabitants largely Polynesian. British 
protectorate declared October i, 1898. 9 48' s., 167 10' E.O 12. 

Dugong, islet on the New Guinea coast. 10 31' s., 143 03' E. 

Dugumenu, a low, coral island 0.5 m. in diameter, of the Trobriand group. 

Dllipoi, islet of Mahabarina, of the Killerton group, off the north shore of Milne bay, 
New Guinea. 

Duke of Clarence, see Nukunono of the Union group. 17. 

Duke of Gloucester, a group of three atolls n^med by Carteret in 1767. Nuku- 
tapipi or Margaret, Anuanurunga, Coronados or Four Crowns, and Anuanuraro 
or Archangel, in the Paumotu archipelago. 2,1. 

Duke of York, a group of 13 islets, of which this is the largest, Bismarck archi- 
pelago, between New Britain and New Ireland. It is 5 m. E-w., 3.5 m. N-S. 
Makada and Uluare are the only others of any size, but all except Ulu are in- 
habited by cannibals. 4 09' s., 152 28' E. IO. 

Duke of York, see Atafu or Oatafu of the Union group. 17. 

Duke of York, see Moorea, Society islands. Name given by Wallis July 27, 1767. 2O. 

Dumoulin, group of four islets and two detached rocks, Baiiri, Ana karukarua, 
Ana badi badila, Uarama kiukiu. The first is 365 ft. high and inhabited. io55's., 
1 50 43' E. 

Dumplings, a group of three islets from 180-250 ft. high on the northeast coast of 
New Guinea. 

Duncan, a group of islets in Torres strait. 10 16' s., 142 06' E. 

Duncan, of the Galapagos. 

Dundas, on the northeast coast of Auckland islands, New Zealand. 

Dundas, see Apamama, Gilbert islands. 7. 

Dungeness, islet on the south coast of New Guinea near Tut. 9 51' s., 142 55' E. 

Dunk, islet of the Australian coast. 17 58' s., 146 u' E. 

Dunkin, see Nukuor, Caroline archipelago. 4. 

Duperre, a group of five wooded islets on a reef in the Lonisiade archipelago. 11 i2's., 
152 E. ' 

Duperrey, a low, wooded, inhabited island in Humboldt bay on the north coast of 
New Guinea. 

Duperrey, see Aura, an islet of Mokil, Caroline islands. This name is applied to 
Mokil, also. 

Duportail, a group on the north side of New Britain, 5 m. by 2.7 m. There is an 
active volcano near the southwest end. 4 55' s., 151 21' E. Named for Lieu- 
tenant Duportail of the Espcnuicc. 10. 

Duroc, islet in Alcmene passage, Isle of Pines. 

Durour, a flat islet on the coast of New Guinea, discovered by Carteret September 19, 

!7 6 7- ! 3.V s., 143 "' K. 
D'Urville, in west end of Cook strait, New Zealand. 



INDEX TO THE PACfEIC ISLANDS. 59 

D'Urville, see Kairu, New Guinea. 

D'Urville, see Nama islet of Losap, Caroline islands. 4. 

Dyar, islet on the New Guinea coast. i 37' s., 131 45' E. 

Eap, an old spelling of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Ear, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 

Earl Dalhotisie Shoal, Caroline islands. 8 N., 145 09' E. 

Earle = Pana krusima of the Louisiade archipelago. 

East Faill or Ltitke, a low coral island 0.7 m. long, with fringing reef, uninhabited. 
Caroline islands. 8 33' N., 151 26' E. 

East, see Waremata of the Louisiade archipelago. 

East, a group of four islets off the north coast of New Hanover, the easternmost being 
the largest. 

East, islet 60 ft. high off Florida, Solomon islands. 

East, islet off Kandavu, Fiji; rocky, 69 ft. high. 

East, islet of Wari or Teste, New Guinea, 100 ft. high. 

Easter, see Rapanui. 

Eastern, islet of Midway islands, Hawaiian group, 1.2 m. long, 6-15 ft. high, covered 
with coarse grass and small shrubs; sand dazzling. 28 12' 22" N., 177 22' w. 

Ebadon, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 9 22' N., 166 53' E. 

Ebon, called also Boston and Covel, of the Marshall group, consists of 2 1 well wooded 
islets on a reef 25 m. in circumference. Discovered May 25, 1824, by Captain 
Ray, an American. 4 48' N., 168 45' w. The islets of importance are called 
Jurijer, Enijarmek, Ebon, Dereg, Enijadok, Giiamaguamlap, Euer, Munjak, Taka, 
Enilo, Jio, Met. Ebon islet forms the south and southeast side of the atoll; 5 m. long; 
is the largest and most important of the group. American mission station. 6. 

Ebuma, islet 80 ft. high, near Samarai on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Eddystone, see Panarora of the Louisiade archipelago. It is 540 ft. high and inhabited. 

Eddystone, see Narovo, Solomon islands. II. 

Edgecombe, see Tupua, of the Santa Cruz group. 

Edigen, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall group. 

Efate = Fate or Vate or Sandwich, of the New Hebrides. 

Egerup, see Erikub of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Egg, see Nui of the Ellice group. 18. 

Egg, see Lehua, Hawaiian group. 

Egmont, see Vairaatea, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Egmont of Carteret is Santa Cruz, or Deni (Nitendi). 

Egum, atoll in the Trobriand group, is 13 m. in diameter, the encircling reef opening 
only on the NW. and NE., having six islets on the north portion, Degargara, 
Yanaba, Wiakou, Napasa, Tabunagora, Nagian ; while in the centre of the lagoon 
are Fandaio, Simlakita, Kadais Mua and Egum in one group to the north, and 
Nasakor consisting of four islets to the south. 9 26' s., 151 58' E. 9. 

Ehiki, islet of Panasia, Louisiade archipelago. 

Eiao, called also Masse, Knox, Hiaou, of the Marquesas group, is 6 m. XK-SW., 2000 ft. 
high, well wooded, but uninhabited. 8 02' s., 140 41' w. 23. 

[142] 



60 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Eil, Malk or Irakong, of the Pelew islands, is rocky and well-wooded. 10 n' 30" N., 

134 27' 30" E. 

Eimeo, see Moorea, Societ}' islands. 3O. 
Einmlap, islet of Udjelong, Marshall islands. 
Eirek, islet of Wotto, Marshall islands. 

Eject, islet in Majuro lagoon, 9.5 m. from from the entrance, Marshall islands. 
Ekolo, islet of Ontong Java. 5 38' s., 159 34' E. n. 
ElatO, or Haweis, Caroline group, consists of the islets Falifi, Toass, Namoliaur. 

7 30' N., 146 24' E. 
Eld, a small, high island near Naviti, Yasawa group, Fiji. Of triangular form, i m. 

long. The north point is in 17 09' 40" S., 177 10' 10" E. Named for Henry Eld 

of the United States Exploring Expedition. 
Elephant, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 
Elisabeth, one of the Admiralty group; a low coral island 1.2 m. N-S, by 0.2 m. wide; 

inhabited. 2 55' S., 147 03' E. 
Elisabeth, near Mbenga, Fiji. 

Elisabeth, see Henderson of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Elisabeth, see Toau of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Elisabeth, see Manoba of the Solomon islands. 
Eliza, see Tepoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Eliza, see Onoatoa of the Gilbert group. 
Eliza, see Peru of the Gilbert group. 
Ella, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 
EHice group. Consists of nine low atolls of which eight are inhabited; extends 

x\v. by N.-SE. by s. about 360 m.; peopled from Samoa, except Nui whose inhabitants 

came from the Gilbert islands. Visited by Maurelle in 1781, and by Captain 

de Peyster in 1819. The atolls are Nurakita or Sophia, Nukulaelae or Mitchell, 

Fangawa, Funafuti or Ellice, Funafana, Nukufetau or De Peyster, Vaitupu or 

Tracy, Nui or Netherland or Egg, Niutao or Speiden or Lynx, Navomana or 

Hudson, and Nanomea or St. Augustine. 16. 
Ellice, see Funafuti. 

Elliott, island of Fiji, named for the Chaplain of Wilkes' ship. 18 51' s., 178 24' E. 
Elmore, islet of Odia atoll, Marshall group. 
Elson is the same as Aukena of Mangareva. 

Emery, or Wea of the Atana group, northwest from Rotuma; 700 ft. high. 
Enimons, islet of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 38' 20" s., 177 06' E. A high islet 

named for Lieut. Geo. F. Emmons of the Wilkes Expedition. 
Encarnacion of Quiros (1606) \vas placed in about 24 50' s., 137 42' w., but there is 

no land near that position. As Quiros estimated the distance from the American 

coast at 1500 //<; tins it would be difficult to identify his island, which he describes 

as nearly level with the water. 
Enderbliry, a guano island of the Phoenix group, 3 m. by 2.5 m., and 23 ft. high. 

The north point is in 3 06' 35" s., 171 14' 25" \v. 17. 
Enderby, islet on the northeast coast of Auckland island, New Zealand. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 6r 

Bnderby, one of the Tamatam or Los Martires group in the Carolines, discovered by 

Ibargoitia in 1799. It consists of Alet and Poloat with a fringing reef 5.5 m. E-w. 

and 3 m. x-s. 7 19' 25" N., 149 15' E. 4. 
Bnear, islet of Ebon, Marshall islands. 

Engebi, islet on the north side of Eniwetok, Marshall islands. 
Engineer, see Tubutubu, New Guinea. 
Engineer group, in 10 37' S., 151 16' E., consists of four islands, Berri berrije or 

Slade, Nara nara wai or Skelton, Kuriva or Watts, and Dekatua or Butchart. 9. 
Engnoch, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 
Eniwetok, or Brown of the Marshall group, was discovered by Captain Thomas 

Butler, December 13, 1794. Consists of 30 islets on a reef 29 m. in diameter. 

The north point is in 11 40' N., 162 15' E. 6. 
Enkaba, islet of Fiji, 2 m. by i m., well wooded, and inhabited. The north end is in 

18 50' s., 181 06' 30" E. 

Entrance, islet east of Prince of Wales in Torres strait. 10 42' s., 142 17' E. 
Entrance, at the mouth of Aird river, New Guinea. 
Entrance, islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 
Entry, see Kapiti, New Zealand. 
Enybarbar, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands. 
Enyebing, islet of Ailinglap, Marshall islands. 
Enylamiej, north islet of Udjae; one of the finest in the Marshall islands. 9 21' N., 

165 36' E. 

Enyvertok, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands. 11 16' N., 167 43' E. 
Eo, another name for Beaupre, Loyalty group. 13. 
Eori, an uninhabited islet of the Manianutha ira group, Fiji. 
Epi, see Api of the New Hebrides. 

Epoko, the westernmost islet of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Eraniau, at the entrance to Erakor lagoon, Fate or Sandwich island, New Hebrides. 

Headquarters of the Presbyterian mission. 
Erikub, or Bishop Junction or Egerup, is an uninhabited island of -the Marshall 

islands, 25 m. by 6-n m. The southeast point is in 9 06' N., 170 04' E., accord- 
ing to Kotzebue. 
Eromanga, a high and rocky island of the New Hebrides, 30 m. by 32 m. Five 

missionaries have been murdered here. 12. 
Erradika, or Hat islet at the entrance to Havannah harbor in Fate, New Hebrides, 

contains a coral mound 345 ft. high rising from a low island. 
Erronan, see Futuna, New Hebrides. 
Eru, islet of Kwadjelin, Marshall group. 
Erub, or Darnley in Torres strait, is a volcanic island 5 in. in circumference and 610 ft. 

high. 9 35' 20" s., 143 45' E. 

Eruption, see Misima in the Louisiade archipelago. 
Eschscholtz, a name given to Bikini by Kotzebue in honor of Johann D. Eschscholtz, 

who was naturalist on both of Kotzebue's expeditions. 5. 
Espirittl SantO, New Hebrides, called Australia del Espiritu Santo by Quiros in 

April, 1606, and by the settlers and traders plain Santo, Marina of the natives, is 

[144] 



62 IXDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

a high volcanic island 75X40 m. in extent, and 4000 ft. high. Inhabitants were, 

and to some extent still are cannibals. The southwest point is in 15 38' 08" s., 

1 66 46' 30" K. 

Estancelin, see Matnrei Vavao in the Aclaeon group, Paumotn archipelago. 
Etal, of the Carolines, is 12 m. in circumference and has some 400 inhabitants. Fine 

breadfruit trees here are said to measure 60 ft. to the first limb. 5 35' N., 

153 43' E. 5- 

Ethel, islet at the head of Port Moresby, south coast of New Guinea. 
Eua, of the Tongan group, was discovered by Tasman in January, 1643, who called it 

Middleburg. It is 10 m. southeast from Tongatabu, is 30 m. in circumference, 

and 1078 ft. high. 21 20' 30" s., 175 02' w. About 300 inhabitants. 18. 
Euaiga, see Euaiki of the Tongan group. 

Etiaiki, islet of Tongatabu, much higher than the others. 2iO7'3o"s., i7455'w. 18. 
Eugene, islet on the southwest coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 17' S., 159 i I'E. II. 
Eugenie, islet in Cloudy bay on the coast of New Guinea. 
Eunauro (Euna), or Cette, is on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 10 25' S., 

149 26' E. Rocky, thickly inhabited by savages who have large canoes and fight 

chiefly with spears. 
Eumpig or Kama, Caroline archipelago, consists of two islets on a reef 2.5 m. long. 

Population, 50. 6 40' N., 143 10' E. 3. 

Evans, of the Louisiade archipelago, was discovered in 1841. 9 10' s., 151 55' E. 
Evans, islet of Sugar-loaf, is in Cook strait, New Zealand. 
Ewing, islet on the northeast coast of Auckland islands, New Zealand. 
Ewose, near Tonga in the New Hebrides, is 1.2 m. NW-SE., and 1076 ft. high. About 

30 inhabitants. 

Exchequer, see L'Echiquier. 8. 
Exploring islands, a name given by Wilkes in 1840 to an important group in Fiji 

enclosed by a reef 77 m. in circumference, which has a sloping edge to windward. 

The islets are Munia, Malatta, Osubu, Vanua mbalavu, Avia, and Susui. 
Eyo, islet in Makira harbor of San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Faaite, or Miloradowitch of the Paumotu islands, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 

1819. It is 15 m. long and 5 m. wide. The west end is in 16 43' s., 145 19' 30" w. 21. 
Fabre, a guano island of the Huon group. 
Faed, see Abgarris of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Fafa, islet of Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 21 05' s., 175 08' w. 18. 
Faiava or Wasau islet of Uea, Loyalty group. 
Faioa, islet of Uvea or Wallis. It is covered with coconuts. 
Fais, see Feys, Caroline archipelago. 
Faitruk, a group in the west part of Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. Consists of Tol, 

Fanup, Fanupenges, Remalum, Oni, Utet, Jawt, etc. Population not less than 

8000; fierce, untamed heathen. 
Faiu (east) or Liitke, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke, and is a low 

coral island 0.7 m. long; uninhabited. 8 33' 20" N., 151 26' E. 4. 

[145] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 63 

Faill (west), low, wooded, coral islet, 300 yards in diameter and uninhabited. 8O3'N., 
146 50' E. 3. 

Faguin, see Rowland. 

Fakaafo or Bowditch, in the Union group, was discovered by Captain Hudson of the 
United States Exploring Expedition. A British protectorate was proclaimed June 
20, 1889. A triangular coral island 8 m. N-S., 4 m. E-w.; population about 250. South 
point is in 9 26' 40" s., 171 03' 15" w. Sixty-two islets. Also written Fakaofu. 16. 



FANNING ID. 




FIG. 4. 

Fakaina, see Akahaina of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Fakarawa, or Wittgenstein, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1829. A lagoon 
atoll 32 m. by 10 m. Station of the French Resident for the Paumotu archi- 
pelago. Northeast point is in 16 05' s., 145 33' w. 

Falalep, islet of Uluthi of the Caroline archipelago. 

Falalis, islet of Wolea, of the Caroline archipelago. Population, 600 (Gulick). 

Falang, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 21' 22" N., 151' 52' 57" E. 

Falcon, Tongan group. 20 21' S., 175 23' w. First seen as a breaking reef from 
H M S. Falcon in 1885. An eruption of that year left it 2 m. long and 250 ft. 

[146] 






64 INDEX TO Till- PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

high, according to a survey in 1889. Ten years later Captain Field, in H. M. S. 
I'cngitin^ found nothing but a breaking shoal. 

Faleii, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Falevai, islet in the Tongan group. 

Falifi, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 

Fallafagea, a form of Kelifijia in the Tongan group. 

False, islet on the northeast coast of New Guinea, near Huon gulf. 

False, see Thikorabia, Fiji. 

Falulap, islet of Wolea, Caroline archipelago. 

Fanadik, central islet of Tamatam or Los Martires, Caroline archipelago. 

Fananu, islet of Namolipiafane, Caroline islands. 

Fandaio, islet in the lagoon of Egum, atoll of the Kiriwina group. 925's., 151 57'*:. 

Fangataufa, see Ahunii, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fangawa, westernmost islet of Nukulaelae, Ellice group. 922's., 179 50' E. 16. 

Fanning was discovered in 1798 by Captain Edmund Fanning, an American, in the 
ship Betsy. Annexed by England March 15, 1888; 9.5 m. NW-SK., 27 m. in cir- 
cumference ; very fertile ; English harbor on the west side is within an opening 
to the lagoon, and the principal houses are south of this. 35i'25"N., I5922'w. 

FanuatapU, high, rocky islet, east coast of Upolu, Samoan islands. 

Fanuatapu, inhabited islet on the southwest side of Nui, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fanup, islet of Ruk lagoon, Caroline archipelago. 

FanupengCS, islet of Ruk lagoon, Caroline archipelago, 3 m. east from Tol. 

Faore is the second in size of the Stewart islands at the northwest end of the reef. 

Fapula, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 19' S., 159 42' K. II. 

Fara, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 09' s., 159 35' E. II. 

Faraguet, a low, wooded islet of Sans Souci group, New Guinea. 3 08' S., 142 24' E. 

Farailes, islet of Wolea, Caroline archipelago. 

Farallon de Medinilla or Bird Island, of the Marianas. Volcanic, 2 m. NE-SW., 50 ft. 
high. 16 30' x., 146' E. See map of Marianas under that name. Farallon is the 
common Spanish term for an isolated high rock. 

Farallon de Pajaros, in the Marianas, is an active volcano 1039 ft. high ; in eruption in 
1877. Discovered by Douglas Sept. 12, 1789; 1.2 m. in diameter. 20 36'x., 144 55'E. 

Farallon de Torres, in the Marianas. Formerly pinnacled rocks, but now reduced 
by the action of the waves or volcanic forces to rocks awash. Named for a former 
governor of Guam. 16 51' N., 145 50' E. 

Fararik, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 

Faraulep or Gardner, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke, March 28, 
1818. There are three islets on a reef 4 m. in circumference. 8 36' N., 144 36' E. 

Fataka, or Mitre, was discovered by Captain Edwards, in 1791, while searching for 
the mutineers of the Bounty. It is uninhabited; 2 m. Nw-SE. A British pro- 
tectorate was proclaimed October i, 1898. 11 55' S., 170 10' K. 12. 

Fate, the correct form of Vate or Sandwich, as v does not occur in the alphabet of that 
island. Also called Efate and Efat. Is considered the finest island of the New 
Hebrides; 20 m. K-\V. i74o's., i682o'E. The natives have more Polynesian blood 
than their neighbors, and there are main- Samoan words in their language. 12. 

[H7] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 65 

Fatuba, one of the Pleiades group, northwest from Uea of the Loyalty islands. 

FatufatU, a rocky islet of Tahaa, Society islands. 2O. 

Fatuhiva or Magdalena of the Marquesas group. Discovered by Alvaro de Mendana, 

July 21, 1595. It is 8 m. x-s., 4 m. K-W., and 3675 ft. high. The west end is in 

10 24' s., 138 40' w. 
Fatuhuku or Hood of the Marquesas group. An uninhabited island, 1180 ft. high; 

discovered in 1774 by one of Cook's midshipmen who afterwards became Lord 

Hood. 9 26' s., 138 56' w. 

Fatumanga, the southwesternmost islet of the Vavau group, Tongan islands. 
Fauna, islet in the northeast part of Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. Population, 150. 
Fail.ro, volcanic island n m. N-S., and 1925 ft. high, in the Solomon group. 6 56' S., 

156 04' K. 

Fawsawn, islet of Ruk, Caroline archipelago. 
Fead, see Abgarris in the Bismarck archipelago. 
Fedarb, a group of three thickh' wooded islets in the Admiralty islands. The eastern 

one has a conical peak 250 ft. high. 2 22' S., 147 26' K. 
Fearn, or Hunter, was discovered by Captain Fearn in the Hunter in 1798. It is a 

volcano 974 ft. high, wooded on the slopes; sulphurous vapors escape. 22 24' S., 

172 05' E. 

Federal, or Ingraham, is Nukuhiva of the Marquesas .islands. 
Fefau, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 
Fenuafu, islet of Uvea or Wallis. 
Fenua iti, see Takutea of the Hervey group. 
Fenualoa, of the Santa Cm/ group, is 4.5 m. N-S. by 0.7 m.; 100-200 ft. high. 

Extensive reefs. 
Fenua ura, or Scilly of the. Society group, was discovered by Wallis in 1767. It is a 

circular reef 6-7 m. in diameter with a closed lagoon; inhabited. 16 31' S., 

154 43' w. 

Fenua ino, a wooded islet of Tahiti opposite Tomotai valley. 
Ferguson, islet in Shallow bay of Admiralty island. 
Ferguson, island in Marau sound east of Guadalcanar of the Solomon islands. 

O / // s~ O (~)f >r 

9 50 30 s., 1 60 48 45 E. 

Fergusson, see Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Ferneaux, see Marutea, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Fetohotigo, a spelling of Fatuhuku of the Marquesas group. 

Fetouhouhou, see Hatutu of the Marquesas group. 

Fetuku, see Fatuhuku of the Marquesas group. 23. 

FeyS, or Tromelin of the Caroline archipelago, was discovered by Captain Tromelin 
in 1828. 2.6 m. in circumference and 30 ft. high; of coral rock, but has no lagoon 
or fringing reef. When discovered had 300 inhabitants. 9 46' N., 140 35' E. 3. 

Fiji or Viti. An important group of the central Pacific comprising 155 islands, 100 
of which are inhabited, as many more islets and reefs. The total area is not less 
than 7500 square miles, extending in longitude from 175" E. to 177 w., and in 
latitude from 15 S. to 22 S. The formation is both coral and volcanic, although 
there are no active volcanoes. Coral formations may be studied here to great ad- 

MKMOIKS H. 1'. I!. Mrsi;r.M, Vol.. I., No. 2. 5. "^ 1 ^ 



66 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC /S/.A.\'/)S. 

vantage. The highest peak rises to a height of 5000 ft. In 1889 the population, 
including Rotuma, was 124,010, of which 122,012 were native Fijians. These are 
a fine race, all nominally Christian, although within the memory of man, can- 
nibals. The language is a branch of the same stock whence the Polynesian lan- 
guages have been derived, and is not difficult to acquire bv English-speaking people. 
As the consonants have a different pronunciation from that of the English language 
the printed page seems far more remote from the Polynesian dialecls than it 
really is. The names of islands, for example, spelled in the form adopted by the 
missionaries are quite different from the colloquial. The pronunciation is as 
follows: b = mb, c = th, d = nd, g = ng, q = nqorngg, p = v, vu = b. The 
vowels nearly as in Italian. Dialects occur in several parts of the group, but not 
at all to the extent found in the islands of the western Pacific. The group was 
discovered by Tasman February 6, 1643, and by him named Prince William Isl- 
ands. D'Urville made the first chart of the group, and in 1840 Wilkes spent six 
months surveying the entire archipelago. In 1875 (September i) Fiji was for- 
mally proclaimed a British colon} 1 . Thakombau, like Kamehameha on Hawaii, 
brought some order out of the devastating civil wars between petty chiefs, and 
during the last years of his life his supremacy was fully recognized by all the 
other chiefs. After the annexation the seat of the colonial government was at 
Levuka on Ovalan, but since*i882 this has been transferred to Suva on Yiti leva. 
The foreign government seems wisely administered and is acceptable to the 
natives. In February and March the rainfall reaches its maximum. During 
the hot months, from December to April, cyclones often of great severity occur. 
The temperature in the shade during the hot season ranges from 66 to 88. From 
April to November, the fine weather season, the average daily temperature in the 
shade is about 78. In 1876 the rainfall for the year at Levuka was 108.05 inches; 
rain fell on 162 days, the greatest fall for one day being 5.6 inches. Produces of 
the group are copra, sugar, cotton, fruit, peanuts, fibre and pearl shell. Fiji is the 
form of the name in the windward portion of the group, Yiti in the leeward. 
Among the best books to be consulted for information on Fiji are Nai-nitn'c of t lie 
United States Exploring Expedition 18^8-18^.2, by Wilkes ; Fiji and the Fijians, 
i8<$8, by Rev. Thomas Williams; A Mission to /'///, by B. Seemann; A'/)/;' and 
People of Fiji, by Waterhouse. 

Fila, a raised coral and wooded islet on the southwest side of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Firth, apparently a misprint for Frith. See Ilamu of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Fischel, islet in Astrolabe bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Fischer, see Visschers of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Fishermen, a low, sandy group off the coast of Motn, surrounded by reef. So named 
because the canoe which came off to the Branihlc had long seines fitted like Eng- 
lish nets. Natives of a dark copper color and numerous. 93o's., I47O2'K. 

FitZ, island 100 ft. high off the coast of New Britain. 4 52' S., 150 31' K. 

Fitsroy, island off Cape Grafton, Australia. 16 56' s., 146 02' K. 

Flat, islet of thejjHaszard group, New Guinea. 

Flat, see Hemenahai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Flat, islet on the south coast of Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

[50] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 67 

Fliegen, on the New Guinea coast. 7 20' s., 147 23' K. 

Flinders, or Great, on the north side of Banks strait, 2550 ft. high. 

Flinders, group on the Australian coast. 14 n' s., 144 17' E. Named for Captain 

Matthew Flinders. 
Flint, a low, guano, uninhabited island belonging to Great Britain. It was discovered 

in 1801. 2.5 m. long, and 0.5 m. wide. 11 25' 43" S., 151 48' w.O 
Florida, one of the Solomon group. The name was given by the discoverer, Mendana. 

The native name is said to be Ngela, but others declare this is only the name of a 

district. It is 1500 ft. high and populous. There are several stations of the 

Melanesia!! mission on the coast. 9 02' S., 160 20' E. 

Fly, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides; low, covered with trees. 
Fly, two islets off Death Adder bay on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 
Folger, one of the Magellan islands whose existence is doubtful. 
FollenillS, islet on the north coast of New Guinea. 
Fonuafala, see Fakaafo. 9 22' S., 171 17' w. 
Fonualei, Amargura or Gardner of the Tongan group, in 18 02' S., 174 24' w., was 

destroyed by an eruption in August, 1847. Ashes were thrown in large quantities 

011 passing ships 500-600 m. to the northeast. 
Fonualoa, see Fakaafo. 9 27' s., 171 14' w. 
Fontialoa, Tongan group. 

Forbes, group on the Australian coast. 12 18' S., 143 24' E. 
Forfano, see San Alessandro, Volcano islands. 
Forsyth, one of the Wellesley group in the gulf of Carpentaria. 
Fortuna, 360 m. northeast of Fiji. Same as Fotuna below. 
Fotllhaa, islet of the Tongan group. 
Fotuna, with Alofa the Home islands. 8.2 m. by 5.2 m. Mt. Schouten is 2500 ft. 

high. 10 14' 15" S., 178 10' w. 18. 

Four Crowns, see Anuanurunga of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Four Facardins, see Vahitahi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Fox, island 2 m. long, near Naviti in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 n's., i77O9'3o"E. 
Fox, see Renard of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Francis, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Frankland, group on the coast of Australia. 17 15' S., 146 15' E. 
Franklin (of Ingraham), see Motuiti, Marquesas islands. 
Fraser, or Great Sandy, on the east coast of Queensland. 24 42' S., 153 n' E. 

North end. 

Fraxer, see Andema of the Carolines. 
Freemantle (of Roberts), see Eiao, Marquesas islands. 
Freewill, see Pegan. o 57' N., 134 21' E. 
French, islet in Laurie harbor, Enderby island. 
French, group discovered by D'Entrecasteaux and named lies Frangaises. They are 

all high and adjacent to New Britain. IO. 
French Frigates, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by La Perouse November 

6, 1786. He gave the name Basse des Fregates Frangaises. It is usual to make 

the mistake in translating to print in the singular, but the name was given for 



68 INDEX TO THI-: PACIFIC FSLANDS. 

the two frigates of the expedition. A picturesque rock, very difficult of ascent, 
rises 120 ft. from the lagoon, and around are reefs and sand banks. Coarse grass 
and some small shrubs compose the vegetation. The lagoon and outer shores 
abound in sharks. 23 46' 30" x., 166 16' \v. 2. 

Freycinet, in Dumbea passage, New Caledonia. Round, moderately high, wooded. 

Friday, north from Prince of Wales in Torres strait. 10 35' s., 142 09' H. 

Friendly, the name given by Cook to the Tongan group. 

Frith, in the southwest part of Moresby strait, D'Entrecasteaux group. 2 m. K-\V., 
1.2 m. x-s.; 50oi ft. high; many inhabitants. Wallaby abound. 

Flia, islet of Hapai, Tongan islands. 

Fulanga, Fiji group. The west bluff is 150 ft. high. Inhabited. Fine timber. 
19 04' 30" S., 181 19' 40" E. East end. 

Fulatutasi, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 24' S., 171 13' w. 

Funafana, southernmost island of the Ellice islands. 

Funafuti, or Ellice, was discovered by Captain de Peyster March 18, 1819. A lagoon 
atoll 13 m. by 7.2 m. There are some 30 islets; principal one long but very 
narrow. Of recent interest as the scene of a boring into the coral reef, and of /o<>- 
logical investigations, which have been published by the Australian Museum.* 
8 35' 50" s., 179 10' 40" E. 16. 

Fungalei, islet of Uvea or Wallis; about 200 ft. high. 

Furneatix, a group in Bass strait composed of Clarke, Cape Barren and Flinders. 

Futuna, or Erronan of the New Hebrides, is about 15 m. in circumference and 1931 ft. 
high. There are 900 inhabitants; of Tongan origin. 

Gabagabawa, islet northwest from Duan, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 44' s., 150 53' K. 

Gabba, islet on south coast of New Guinea. 9 45' s., 142 37' K. 

Gadogadoa, prominent islet, 315 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Gagan, islet of Kwadjelin of the Marshall islands. 

Galapagos. This group, on some accounts one of the most interesting in the Pacific 
region, lies on the equator some 600 miles from Equador, to which it belongs. It' 
extends 1 30' both north and south of the equator, and the centre of the group is 
in longitude 90 30' w. Dampier, who visited these islands in May, 1684, gave a 
quaint account of their inhabitants: "The Spaniards, when they first discovered 
these islands, found multitudes of guanoes (iguanas) and land-turtle or tortoise, 
and named them the Galapagos (tortoise) islands. I do believe there is no place 
in the world that is so plentifully stored with these animals. The guanos here 
are fat and large as any that I ever saw; they are so tame that a man may knock 
down 20 in an hour's time with a club. The laud-turtle are here so numerous 
that 500 or 600 men might subsist on them alone for several months without any 
other sort of provision ; the}' are extraordinary large and fat, and so sweet that no 
pullet eats more pleasantly." All the early visitors speak of the abundance of 
this nutritious food; the buccaneers made good use of it, and in 1813 Porter, near 

"Taking this island as a typical Central Pacific atoll, we may note the fauna as Riven by Iledlcy in the Memoirs of the Australian Museum, 
iii.. ivjg. No other portion of this Central Pacific fauna has brru so well studied. It is composed of . Mammals, 15 Hirds. 5 Reptiles. 
7.} I-'ishcs, 2 Knteropiieusts. s; Crustaceans, 27 Arachnids, 5 Myriopcxls. ,j.- Insects. u<> Molluscs, i Hrachiopod 98 Krhinodcrms. 5 Annelids. 
12 Gephyrean worms, 16 Sponges, sllvdro/oa. 2 Scypho/oa, and 120 Aetino/oa. 



INDEX. TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 69 

a bay on the northeast part of James island, took on board about 500 individuals, 
or nearly 14 tons: Journal of a Cmisc made to the I'acijic Ocean, New York, 1822, 
2 vols. 8vo. The tortoise are now nearly extinct, and some species (there are dis- 
tinct ones on different islands) have wholly disappeared. See Catalogue of the 
gigantic Laud Tortoises in I lie British Museum, by Giinther, London, 1877. There 
are six principal islands, nine islets, and man}- mere rocks. All are volcanic, and 
Darwin (\ 7 olcauic Islands) estimated the number of extinct craters at 2000. The 
largest island, Albemarle, is 60X15 m., and 4700 ft. high. The other islands are 
Narborough, Culpepper, Wenman, Abingdon, Bindloe, Tower, James, Jarvis, 
Duncan, Indefatigable, Barrington, Charles, Hood and Chatham. See Proceed- 
ings of (lie Royal Geographical Society ^ 1880, pp. 742-755. 

Galera (La), discovered April, 1568, by Pedro de Ortega Valencia and Hernan Gallego 
of Mendana's expedition. Solomon islands. 

Galoa, see Ngaloa, Fiji. 

Gambier, see Mangareva in the Paumotu archipelago. Discovered by Captain Wilson 
in the Duff and named for Admiral Lord Gambier. 22. 

Ganges, nothing certain known of this island or reef reported in 39 47' x., 154 15' E. 

Gannet, see Karewha, New Zealand. 

Garahi, islet of Sariba, southeast coast of New Guinea; 355 ft. high. 

Garden, see lyin of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Gardenijs was named by Tasman for a member of Council for India. Tasman calls 
it Gerrit de Nijs and Gardeiiys on the same page of his journal (p. 42 of transla- 
tion), 1643. About 20 m. off the northeast coast of New Ireland; i6oo ft. high. 
The north end is in 3 04' S., 152 38' E. 

Gardner, of the Bismarck archipelago, is about 29 m. WNW. from Gardenijs, and more 
than 1600 ft. high. The north point is in 2 45' S., 151 55' E. 

Gardner, see Faraulep of the Caroline archipelago. 

Gardner, of the Hawaiian group, is a rock 200 yards in diameter, and 170 ft. high. 
It was discovered by the captain of the American whaler Ma to, June 2, 1820. 
25 oo' 40" N., 167 59' 05" w. 

Gardner, or Kemins, is the southwestern island of the Phoenix group. 4 37' 42" S., 
174 40' 1 8" w.O 

Gardner, see Fonualei, Tongan islands. 

Garnot, a volcanic cone in the Schouten group on the north coast of New Guinea. 
3 31' s., 144 34' K. 

Garrick, on the New Guinea coast. 7 48' s., 144 52' E. 

Caspar Rico, a name of Taongi, Marshall islands. 

Gau, see Ngau, Fiji. 

Gaiia, Gog or Santa Maria of the Banks group, is 10 in. in diameter and 2200 ft. high. 
It has about 2000 inhabitants. 14 15' S., 167 28' E. 

Gaudichaud, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 32' 35" N., 150 59' 32" K. 

Gavotu, islet of Solomon islands. 

Gawa, an island of curious structure in the Trobriand group. It is 2 m. in diameter, 
and a coral wall rises 400 ft., within which is a plateau 100 ft. lower. Population, 

5 oo. 8- 3 's. 



7 o 



INDEX 70 777/i PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Gela, see Florida, Solomon islands. 

Geloon, or Gel un, one of the Hermit islands. Inhabited, i" 32' S., 145 H. 

Gente Hermosa, or Swain, was discovered by Quiros March 2, 1606, and by him 
named La Peregrina. Espinosa called it Isla de Gente Hermosa, from the beauty 
of the inhabitants. It is 7-8 m. in circumference, and 15-25 ft. above the sea; 
lagoon closed. At the time of the Wilkes expedition it was well wooded, but now 
the island is occupied by an American, Jennings, who has 800 acres planted with 
coconuts. 11 05' s., 170 55' 15" w. 15. 

Georgian, name given by Cook to Tahiti and the southeast group; the northwest he 
called Society, for the Royal Society. 

Gera, inhabited islet off the northeast coast of Gnadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Gero, islet in Uarai bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Gerrit Denys, see Gardenijs of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Gesira, islet 220 ft. high on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Gibbons, see Daiwari of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Gicqnel, a volcanic island on the north side of New Britain. Found by late surveys to 
be a portion of the main island. West end, 4 57' S., 149 52' E. Named for one 
of the pilots of the Recherche. IO. 

Gie or Pine islet off Isle of Pines. 13. 

Gigila, islet 420 ft. high, wooded ; connected with Abaga gaheia by reef on the south- 
east. Louisiade archipelago. 

Gikuo, islet of Ontong Java. 5 19' s., 159 46' K. II. 

Gilbert, islet, low and wooded, near Schouten islands on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Gilbert, see Maiana of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

GILBERT ISLANDS. 



XATIVK NAH. 


< HAKT XAUR. 

. 


DlMTOVKKKH. 


I.ATITIMIK 
NORTH. 


LiiMilTniK 

KAHT. 


SyrAHK Mil is. 


I'nri l.ATIOX. 


SrarlMtrougli <iroui>: 






















Makin. 


Pitt. 


Mal'sli;,! 


A (iilticrt. 17W 3 I'll' 45" 


in 


K 


45 


., 


51 HI 


Itutaritari. 


Touching. 




;] 


11 


171' 


i'l 




U. 


1 500 


Marnki. 


Matthew. 


Marshal 


A (iillicit I7N-S. _> 


ii 


173 


1'5 




9. 


9000 


AjiaianK- 


Charlotte, 


Marshal 


* (iillii-rl I7NS. 1 


5s 


ITS 




30 


15. 


BOOB 


Tarawa. 


Knov. Took. 


Marshal 


* (iillii-rt 17v-. 1 


3'.l .'.-, 


173 


li" 




15. 


BCOO 


Maiana. 


(lilln-rt, Hull. 


M;n>liall A- (iilh.-rt 17sv i 


55 30 


173 


03 


45 1 1 . 


not 


Kurin. 


Wfici.ll... 


Marshal 


* liillwrt 17^s. li 


13 173 


> 


30 5 


IBM 


Aranuka. 


II.' rv Xanki. 


Marshal 


& (illlMTt II 


13 1'5 173 


41 


t 


1 IHHI 


A]ialiiaillll. 


Hopper. Ito>rer. Simpson 


Marshal 


A- lillln>rt 17S.V (I 


3:i 173 


M 




::I!IHI 



KiMU-'MllI t.f..,,,. 




















Nonovtt 


S\ ,i.-n h;i in. 







30 


18 


171 


I'.l 111 


11. 


BOM 


Tapltenea 


Druuntiuiicl. Itishop. 


' ;ipi . Dnniiinoiid. 


1 


OK 


45 


174 


45 


'.1 


gooo 


Pern. 


FrnnriH. 


( ',| pi ( '||.j-k ]s"7 


1 


17 


30 


175 


."ili "5 


13 


KOO 


Nikinmii. 


Byron. 


livmn. l~l'" 


1 


U 




178 




it. 


MOO 


< iiidiitoii. 


ch-rk. onutu. 




1 


V 




175 


M 






Taaana. 


Hotelier, I'tlirhr 




1 


!' 




175 


55 


4 


BOOO 


\rnriii. 


Hop*-. Hiinl. AKITI-. 


l:l,Mh,-lh. I**,- 


- 


311 




177 


01 


11.5 


IBM 



Gilbert Islands, so named by Krusenstern for the captain of the C 'harloiic, consist of 
16 islands not more than 20 ft. above the sea. The area of dry land is not more 
than 150 sq. m. Population, 50,000. They belong to Great Britain. The inhabi- 
tants have been christianized by the missionaries of the American and Hawaiian 
Boards and the Bible has been translated into the language of the group by Rev. 
Hiram Bingham, D.D, In former days the people were noted for the manufacture 

[154] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 71 

of armor from coconut fibre, and spears and knives armed with shark's teeth. 

Having no stone their ad/es and axes were made from the hard shell of the 

Tridacna gigas. 

Gilia, islet 200 ft. high, between Bagaman and Bobo eina, Lonisiade archipelago. 
Gilua, of the Kiriwina group. 8 37' 30" S., 150 50' E. 

Gitiara, islet on the south coast Murua, Kiriwina group. 9 07' s., 152 28' E. 
Gingala, group of six large and two smaller islands off Cape Cretin, northeast coast 

of New Guinea. Mostly connected with each other and the coast by reef. 
GippS, one of the French islands, 3 m. in circumference, thickly populated. Geysers 

on the southeast shore. 4 32' S., 149 06' E. 

Givry, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 08' 55" x., 151 52' 07" E. 
Gi^O, of the Solomon islands, is 300-400 ft. high and has a fringe of reef and islets. 

8 01' s., 156 48' E. 

Glen, islet 30 ft. high off Cape Vogel, New Guinea. 9 45' S., 150 05' E. 
Glennie, see Anser. 

Glenton, or Kato katoa, is 3 m. in circumference and 400 ft. high. io4o's., i5iO4'E. 
Gloucester, on the Australian coast. 20 S., 148 27' E. 
Gloucester, see Paraoa of the Paumotu archipelago. 2,1. 
Goat, islet off Pangopango harbor, Tutuila, Samoan islands. 

Goat, islet 90 ft. high, off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, at entrance to Wailea bay. 
Goat, fourth islet from the westward in Wotje atoll, Marshall islands. 
Goat, see Korolib, Fiji. 
Goat, see Santa Clara. 

Gobigobi, rock}' islet 330 ft. high, Brumer islands. 
Gog, see Gaua or Santa Maria, Banks islands. 
Gogan, islet of Rongerik, Marshall islands. 
Goodenough, see Dauila of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 
Goodhope, see Rekareka of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Goodhope of Schouten is probably Niuafoou of the Tongan group. 18. 
Goodman, see Nugarba of the Bismarck archipelago. 10. 
Goold, on the Australian coast. 18 10' s., 146 12' E. 
Goro, better Koro, Fiji. Fertile, 9.5 m. by 4.5 m.. South point is in 17 23' S., 

179 25' 50" K. 14. 

Goulou, old spelling of Ngoli, Caroline islands. 
Goulvain, see Dobu of the D'Entrecasteaux group. Goulvain was boatswain of the 

Recherche. 
Gower, of the Solomon islands, was named by Carteret in 1767. It is the Inattendue 

of Surville (1769). 7 55' S., 160 30' E. 

Gowland, off the south shore of Collingwood bay, New Guinea. 9 30' s., 149 19' E. 
Grace, one of the Bonvouloir islands in the Lotiisiade archipelago. 10 i8's., i5io8'E. 
Gracious, a group named by D'Urville Les lies Gracieuses. Bismarck archipelago. 

6 09' s., 148 57' E. 

Gran Cocal, see Nanomanga of the Ellice islands. 
Grand Duke Alexander, a name given by Bellingshausen in 1820 to Rakaanga or 

Reirson. 

[i55] 



7 



INDEX JO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Gela, see Florida, Solomon islands. 

Geloon, or Gel mi, one of the Hermit islands. Inhabited. i 32' s., 145 K. 

Gente Hermosa, or Swain, was discovered by Quiros March 2, 1606, and by him 
named La Peregrina. Espinosa called it Isla de Gente Hermosa, from the beanty 
of the inhabitants. It is 7-8 in. in circumference, and 15-25 ft. above the sea; 
lagoon closed. At the time of the Wilkes expedition it was well wooded, but now 
the island is occupied by an American, Jennings, who has Soo acres planted with 
coconuts. n 05' S., 170 55' 15" w. 15. 

Georgian, name given by Cook to Tahiti and the southeast group ; the northwest he 
called Society, for the Royal Society. 

Gera, inhabited islet off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Gero, islet in Uarai bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Gerrit Denys, see Gardenijs of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Gesira, islet 220 ft. high on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Gibbons, see Daiwari of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Gicquel, a volcanic island on the north side of New Britain. Found by late surveys to 
be a portion of the main island. West end, 4 57' s., 149 52' E. Named for one 
of the pilots of the Recherche. IO. 

Gie or Pine islet off Isle of Pines. 13. 

Gigila, islet 420 ft. high, wooded ; connected with Abaga gaheia by reef on the south- 
east. Louisiade archipelago. 

Gikuo, islet of Ontong Java. 5 19' s., 159 46' K. II. 

Gilbert, islet, low and wooded, near Schouten islands on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Gilbert, see Maiana of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

GILBERT ISLANDS. 



NATIVK NAME. 


CHART NAME. 


UlWOVERKR. 


LATITUDE 
NORTH. 


I.OMilTUIIE 
KVST. 


Stjl-AKK MII.KS. 


POPULATION. 


SearlMiroiiKh Group: 














Makin. 


Pitt. 


Marshall & (iilbert, 17SH. 


3 2(1' 45" 


172 >' 45" 


2.7 


500 


Ilataritari. 


TourhillK. 




3 11 


172 21 


11.5 


i.-oo 


Maraki. 


Matthew. 


Marshall & (iilbert. 17NN. 


2 


173 26 


11.7 


8000 


Apaialifr. 


Charlotte. 


Marshall A (iilbert. I7sx. 


1 .> 


172 Ss :::l 


16.8 


8000 


Tarawa. 


Knov. Cook. 


Marshall A Gilbert, 17SN. 


1 :w 05 


173 02 


1B.5 


'.', (HI 


Maialia. 


Gilbert. Hall. 


Marshall >V (il rt. 17NX. 


i) .-,:. :tn 


17:i n:i 45 11.5 


1000 


SilllpKOll (. 1 oilp: 










Kurta. 


Woinlle. 


Marshall A Gilbert. 17?-s. 1.1 


17:1 2x :to 5 


l.MIO 


Araiillka. 


llfinl.-rville. Ntnikl. 


Marshall & Gilbert. (1 13 25 


17:! 41 (i 


1000 


Apainaiaa. 


Hopper. Rower. Simiison 


Marshall * (iilbert. 17x,v II :i!l 


173 5:1 35 ii..'i 


."000 


Noliouti. 


S.vtlenham. 




30 45 


174 111 in 11.5 


BOM 


Tapitrne.-i. 


llriiniiaoml. Bishop. 


dipt, liriiiiiinund. 


1 (IN 45 


174 45 11.7 


sooo 


Peru. 


FranetH. 


dipt. Clerk. ls:>7. 


1 17 30 


175 ii 25 13.5 


1000 


Niikiiimii. 


Byron. 


I'.vron. I7i:."i. 


1 23 


17li 34 il.7 


.-,CIIII 


OnontoH. 


Clerk. Illllllll. 


1 at 


175 :]0 '.1.7 


8000 


Tain an a. 


lioleher. Pllil'be. 




- :tL' 


175 55 4 


MOO 


Arorai. 


Hope. Unrd. Arore. 


r ''' *"'"'"'' """ 


- :l!l 


177 01 11.5 


MM 



Gilbert Islands, so named by Krusenstern for the captain of the C 'harlottc, consist of 
1 6 islands not more than 20 ft. above the sea. The area of dry land is not more 
than 150 sq. m. Population, 50,000. They belong to Great Britain. The inhabi- 
tants have been christianized by the missionaries of the American and Hawaiian 
Boards and the Bible has been translated into the language of the group by Rev. 
Hiram Bingham, D.D, In former days the people were noted for the manufacture 

[154] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 71 

of armor from coconut fibre, and spears and knives armed with shark's teeth. 

Having no stone their adzes and axes were made from the hard shell of the 

Tridaciia gig as. 

Gilia, islet 200 ft. high, between Bagaman and Bobo eina, Louisiade archipelago. 
Gilua, of the Kiriwina group. 8 37' 30" s., 150 50' E. 

Ginara, islet on the south coast Murua, Kiriwina group. 9 07' s., 152 28' K. 
Gingala, group of six large and two smaller islands off Cape Cretin, northeast coast 

of New Guinea. Mostly connected with each other and the coast by reef. 
Gipps, one of the French islands, 3 m. in circumference, thickly populated. Geysers 

on the southeast shore. 4 32' s., 149 06' E. 

Givry, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 08' 55" N., 151 52' 07" E. 
Gi^O, of the Solomon islands, is 300-400 ft. high and has a fringe of reef and islets. 

8O / fO (-/ 

01 S., 156 48 E. 

Glen, islet 30 ft. high off Cape Vogel, New Guinea. 9 45' s., 150 05' E. 

Glennie, see Anser. 

Glenton, or Kato katoa, is 3 in. in circumference and 400 ft. high. io4o's., 151 04' E. 

Gloucester, on the Australian coast. 20 s., 148 27' E. 

Gloucester, see Paraoa of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Goat, islet off Pangopango harbor, Tutuila, Samoan islands. 

Goat, islet 90 ft. high, off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, at entrance to Wailea bay. 

Goat, fourth islet from the westward in Wotje atoll, Marshall islands. 

Goat, see Korolib, Fiji. 

Goat, see Santa Clara. 

Gobigobi, rock}- islet 330 ft. high, Brumer islands. 

Gog, see Gatia or Santa Maria, Banks islands. 

Gogan, islet of Rongerik, Marshall islands. 

Goodenough, see Dauila of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Goodhope, see Rekareka of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Goodhope of Schouten is probably Niuafoou of the Toiigan group. 18. 

Goodman, see Nugarba of the Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

Goold, on the Australian coast. 18 10' s., 146 12' E. 

Goto, better Koro, Fiji. Fertile, 9.5 m. by 4.5 m.. South point is in 17 23' s., 

179 25' 50" E. 14. 

Goulou, old spelling of Ngoli, Caroline islands. 
Goulvain, see Dobu of the D'Entrecasteaux group. Goulvain was boatswain of the 

Recherche. 
Gower, of the Solomon islands, was named by Carteret in 1767. It is the Inattendue 

of Surville (1769). 7 55' S., 160 30' E. 

Gowland, off the south shore of Collingwood bay, New Guinea. 9 30' s., 149 19' E. 
Grace, one of the Bonvouloir islands in the Louisiade archipelago. 10 i8's., 151 08' E. 
Gracious, a group named by D'Urville Les lies Gracieuses. Bismarck archipelago. 

60 ' ro f 

09 s., 148 57 E. 

Gran Cocal, see Nanomanga of the Ellice islands. 

Grand Duke Alexander, a name given by Bellingshausen in 1820 to Rakaanga or 
Reirson. 

[i55] 



72 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Grandes Cyclades, a name given by Bougainville to the New Hebrides. 

Grange, see Banabana, New Guinea. 

Grant, a low coral islet near the north point of Basilaki, southeast coast of New 

Guinea. 10 32' 45" s., 151 02' 50" E. 

Grass, or Wanim, islet of the Louisiade archipelago, is 390 ft. high. 
Green, islet on the Australian coast. 16 15' S., 146 01' E. 
Green, islet of the south coast of Admiralty. The Groene Eylanden of Tasman. 

2 15' s., 147 05' K. 

Green, islet on northeast coast of Auckland. 

Green, one of the low Tiri islands of Vanua levu, Fiji. i624' r 4"s., I79O5'27"E-O 
Green, islet in the southeast corner of the lagoon on Ocean, of the Hawaiian group. 
Named for W. L. Green, Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 2825'N., 178 29' \v. 2. 
Green, islet of Volcano island in Blanche bay, New Britain. 
Green, islet in Port Preslin, New Ireland. 
Green, east of New Ireland, 300 ft. high,' densely wooded. 
Green, see Pinipel, Bismarck archipelago. 
Greenwich, Constantin or Kapinga marangi, Caroline islands, consists of 28 islets on 

a reef 14 m. N-s., 8-9 m. E-w. Discovered in 1825; 150 inhabitants. i 04' x., 

154 45' E. 

Greig, see Niau, in the Paumotu archipelago. 

Grenville, a name of Rotuma. 

Gressien, see Muschu in the New Guinea region. 

Griesbach, on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands, is a group of 
small islands. 6 n' S., 155 44' K. 

Griffith, near New Guinea. Southwest end 7 43' s., 144 35' E. 

Grimes or High, Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain Grimes in 1841. It is 
6 m. in circumference, wooded. 9 15' N., 145 33' E. 

Grimoult = Kiamu, New Caledonia. 

Gronemann, islet in Astrolabe bay, north coast of New Guinea. Small and uninhabited. 

Gros, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 27' 02" N., 151 53' 50" E. 

Guadalcanar, the Guadalcanal of Gallego and Mendana who discovered it in April, 
1568. One of the larger of the Solomon islands. Native name Guambata. 80 m. 
by 25 m. and 8000 ft. high. Northwest point is in 9 15' S., 159 40' E.; east point, 
9 5 o's., i6o47'E. II. 

Guadaloupe (IsTa de), in the Solomon islands. Discovered in April, 1568, by Men- 
daiia's expedition in latitude 9 30' s. 

Guahan, a spelling of Guam, Marianas group. Guajan is another form. 

Gualito, see Ngualito, Fiji. 

Guam or Guajan of the Marianas or Ladrones. On this island, in 1668, the Span- 
iards founded a mission under the direction of Padre de Sanvitores who declares 
that during the first year he baptized 13,000 people and converted 20,000. His 
conversions were so very thorough that when Dumpier visited the islands in 1686 
there were but 400 alive! Kot/ebue, in 1817, found a single couple of the in- 
digenes surviving. The population in 1873 amounted to about 7000, imported from 
the Philippines and the Carolines. Guam is 29 m, long. As a result of the 

[156] 









S 









INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 73 

Spanish-American war this island became the property of the United States. See map 

under Marianas. IJ^O'N,, 144 55' K., north point; 13 15' N., 144 47' K., south point. 
Guap, see Yap, Caroline islands. 
Guap, islet in Dallmann harbor on the north coast of New Guinea, is inhabited by 

peaceable Papuans. 

Glldin, on the New Guinea coast. 3 28' s., 132 30' K. 
Gue, islet near Coetlogon passage, Uea, Loyalty group. 
Guetche, islet on the same reef with the preceding. 

Guguan, an inaccessible rock 2.5 m. by i m. in the Marianas. 17 19' N., 145 49' E. 
Gllilbert, on the New Guinea coast. 3 12' S., 143 15' E. 
Gulewa, in the Louisiade archipelago, i m. east from Pana udiudi; 0.7 m. long, 315 

ft. high ; inhabited. 

Gumaian, eastern and largest of the Basses islands, Louisiade archipelago. 
Gumoti, islet near Roux group on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Gunner's Quoin, or He Plate, islet on the south side of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 
Guppy, a small, wooded island in Choiseul bay on the west side of Choiseul island, 

Solomon islands. Named for Dr. H. B. Guppy, who has written much on the 

Solomon islands. 

Haafeva, islet of the Tongan group. 

Haaio, islet on the south coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Haane, islet on the south coast of Huahuna, Marquesas islands. 

Haaono, islet of the Hapai group, Tonga islands. 

Hack, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. i 54' 30" S., 175 39' E. 

Hacq, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Hagemeister, see Apatiki of the Paumotu archipelago. 20. 

Haggerstone, on the Australian coast. 12 02' s., 143 18' E. 

Haidana, off Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea. 9 27' S., 147 02' E. 

Haines, near James bay on the southeast coast of New Guinea; i m. long, 0.2 m. 
wide, 250 ft. high. 10 41' 10" s., 151 03' 40" E. 

Hairiri, see Paraoa of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Hakelaki, on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7 53' s., 159 22' E. 

Halelei, islet on east side of Maramasiki, Solomon islands, inhabited by wild and 
treacherous natives. 

Half-way, islet in Torres strait. 10 08' s., 143 17' E. 

Halgan, see Uea, Loyalty group. 13. 

Hall, see Maiana, Gilbert islands. 7. 

Hall, see Morileu, Caroline islands. 4. 

Hamelin, or Leliogat; low and wooded. Loyalty group. 

Hamilton, on the Australian coast. 20 22' S., 149 E. 

Hammond, on the New Guinea coast, 3.5 in. by 1.5 m., 600 ft. high. 10 30' s., 
142 13' E. 

Hammond, see Rendova, Solomon islands. 

Hanakubakuba, one of the Obstruction group, so called because they block the pas- 
sage betreen Nuakata island and East cape of New Guinea. It is 270 ft. high. 

[i57] 



74 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Hancock of Roberts is Hatutu, Marquesas islands. 33. 

Hannam, island on the east side of Willaume/c peninsula, New Britain. 

Hannibal, on the Australian coast. 11 37' S., 142 56' K. 

Hansa, see Vulcan, New Guinea. 

Hanudamava, islet 273 ft. high, near Port Moresby on the southeast coast of New 
Guinea. 

Hao, see Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Hapai, group of the Tongan islands, is composed of many small islands on a reef 
40X23 m., of which little is known. 

Harcourt, group consisting of Karu and Ague, north from Ugue bay on the north- 
east coast of New Caledonia. 

Hardman, group of two islets, low and wooded, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Hardy, north of Collingwood bay on the coast of New Guinea. 9 n' s., 149 21' E. 

Hardy = He St. Ignace, Loyalty islands. 

Harikoia, second in size of the Brumer group, New Guinea; 520 ft. high; inhabited. 

Harowani is the east of the Killerton group in Milne bay, on the east coast of New 
Guinea. A station of the London Missionary Society. 

Harp, see Hau in the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Harper, on the coast of New Guinea. 8 04' s., 148 09' K. 

Harris, or Mewadi, is off the coast of Normanby (Dnau), D'Entrecasteaux group. 
9 52' s., 150 57' E. 

Hash, see Mokor of the Caroline islands. Said not to exist. 

Hastings, in the Bonvouloir group, Louisiade archipelago; 400 ft. high. 10 20' s., 
151 52' E. 

Haszard, two islands in the Engineer group. The southern one is about a mile long, 
200 ft. high, with a reef encircling. 10 38' s., 151 22' K. 

Hat, see Vatu vara, Fiji group. 

Hat, see Teauaua of the Marquesas group. 

Hat, see Arabi of the New Hebrides. 

Hat, islet in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Hat, islet at entrance to Havannah harbor, of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Hatutu, or Chanal of the Marquesas group, is 4 m. by i m., and 1380 ft. high. 
Perhaps the Nexsen of Captain Fanning, 1798. Marchand called it Chanal; 
Ingraham christened it Hancock, and Roberts named it Langdon. 7 57' s., 
140 34' w. 23. 

Hau, Bow, or Harp, was discovered by Bougainville in 1768. Cook visited it the 
next year and called it Bow. It is 30 m. long and 5 m. wide. 18 03' 38" s., 
140 59' 15" w. 21. 

Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian group, was called by Cook Owhyhee, misunder- 
standing the article O Hawaii. The island is wholly volcanic, composed of lava 
emitted from Kea, Loa, Hualalai and Kilauea. Of these volcanoes Kea has at- 
tained the height of 13,825 ft.; Loa, 13,675 ft.; and Hualalai, 8275. The area of 
the island is 4015 sq. m. While a large part of the surface is barren lava, along 
the shores and in the valleys on the north and east sides much sugar is produced, 
and on the west side the best coffee of the group is found. 

' 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 75 

Hawaiian Group. Called by Cook Sandwich islands in honor of his patron the 
Earl of Sandwich, a cordial hater of Americans. The group was discovered by 
the Spaniard Juan de Gaetaiio in 1555, and again by Cook January 18, 1778. 
They were annexed to the United States July 7, 1898.* The group consists of 
eight principal islands and a long range of uninhabited rocks extending mail}' de- 
grees to the northwest. Perhaps more books have been written about the Hawaiian 
islands than about any other group in the Pacific. The Geology has been pub- 
lished by Dana, the present writer and others; the Botany by Mann and Hille- 
brand ; the Ornithology by Wilson, Rothschild, Dole and Bryan ; the Entomology 
by Perkins and others ; Herpetology by Stejneger. Other departments of Nat- 
ural History have not been adequately studied. Historical books, apart from the 
Voyages, are by Dibble, Bingham, Fornander and Alexander. A grammar of the 
language and a dictionary were published by Andrews, and the translation of the 
Bible by the American missionaries preserves the Hawaiian language in its purity, 
while in common use it has become very corrupt. A very competent government 
survey, under the charge of Professor W. D. Alexander, has measured and mapped 
the topography. In 1898 the imports amounted to $10,368,815.09; the exports, 
$17,346,744.79; Custom House receipts, $896,975.70. 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

AKKA IN S<ir.utK MILKS. , ACRKS. HKKIHT IN FKKT. POPULATION IN IS'.H;. 



Hawaii 4,015 2.570,000 l:t,X23 

Mail! 7L's 466,000 lll.Offi 17.72H 

Oilhn 600 :!X4.000 



Kanai 540 

Molofcul 21 

l.niiMi 135 

Xiihini 8" 

!\"ah<M)l,-i ur HO 



:14K.OOO 
167.000 

Mi.noo 



4,030 40.20. r i 

4..XIHP |.-,.22:> 

4,.v> _',:;(I7 

:i.40o lor> 

62,000 NC1I Ki4 

44,i:illl 1,427 



Kailla. Lftiila. Nilma. NVrki-r. Fn-nrh Friffntes, UariliiHT. Laysari. [Jsiaiisky, Midway, ami Ocean aiv rocks. Qntabablted save by th*> ferer 
luitnra*. 

Haweis, see Elato of the Caroline islands. 

Hawkesbliry, islet in Torres strait. 10 22 S., 142 07' E. 

Hayman, northwest of Hook on the Australian coast. 20 03' s., 148 56' H. 

Haj'ter, see Sariba on the New Guinea coast. 

Head, high, wooded island in China strait. 10 34' 35" s., 150 44' 40" E. 

Heath, 200 ft. high, off the coast of New Britain. 4 51' s., 151 32' E. 

Heath, see Rogeia, New Guinea. 

Height, see Hemeni of the Marquesas. 

Hemenahei, or Flat is the easternmost of the Calvados chain in the Louisiade archi- 
pelago; 2.5 m. E-w. by 1.2 m.: cultivated, but not inhabited because considered 
unhealthy. 11 n's., 153 05' E. 

Henderson, or Elisabeth of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by a boat's crew 
from the whaler Tissc.r, in 1820, and named for Captain Henderson ; 5 m. by 2.5 m., 
80 ft. high ; of raised coral, much undermined b}' waves. Cliffs are perpendicular, 
except on the north side. Uninhabited. 24 25' S., 128 19' w. 

"June 14, ixyX, the New-lands annexation resolution passed the House of Representatives : July 6th the Senate confirmed the same ; July 
7th the President signed the joint resolution ; August I2th the t'nited States flag was raised, am) President Dole transferred the jurisdiction 
to the United States ; but it was June 14, lyoo, when annexation went fully into effect. 

[159] 



7 6 INDEX TO '////: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Henderville, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Hennake (Henuake of Wilkes), see Pukapuka, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Henry, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17 41' 30" s., 177 17' 30" K.O 

Heraiki, Croker or St. Quentin, was discovered by Bonecheo in 1772; 4 m. XW-SK.; 
uninhabited. 17 28' s., 143 23' 42" w.O 21. 

Hereheretui, Bligh or San Pablo, was discovered by Quiros in 1606. It is low, un- 
inhabited, and has a closed lagoon; about 3 m. in diameter. 2i4o's., i4o38'\v.O 

Hergest, see Marquesas islands. 

Hergest Rock, see Motuiti of the Marquesas islands. 

Hermit, Los Eremitanos, Agonies, a group of 17 islets, of which only Loof and Geloon 
are inhabited, extending 10 m. N-s., 13 m. E-w. i 36' s., 145 E. 8. 

Heron, or Ola, is northeast from Roua, Louisiade archipelago. 10 18' s., 154" 16' K. 

Hervey, a name given by Cook September 23, 1773, for Captain Hervey, afterwards 
Earl of Bristol, Lord of the Admiralty. It applies properly to the two northern 
islands. In 1777 Cook discovered Mangaia, Aitutaki and others. Krusenstern 
proposed the name of Cook for the southern group, but there seems no geographi- 
cal division and Cook's name should hold. 

Hetau, islet of Bouka, Solomon islands. Small but thickly populated by men of 
powerful build and thorough cannibals. 

Hetchin, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides. Inhabited and cultivated ; natives have 
war canoes large enough to carry fifty men. 

Heuschober, of the Admiralty group. 2 44' S., 147 18' E. 

Hevaisi, islet of Panatinani, Louisiade archipelago, 275 ft. high. 

Heyn, small, wooded, 95 ft. high; 30 m. northwest from Rook or Umboi in the Bis- 
marck archipelago. 5 25' S., 147 44' E. 

Heyou, of Beechey, is Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Hiaou, a spelling of Eiao, Marquesas islands. 

Hibwa, a small, sandy islet 60 ft. high, northwest from Nuakata, Louisiade archipelago. 

Hieh, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

High, on the Australian coast. 17 09' s., 146 03' E. 

High, on the Australian coast. 10 43' S., 142 24' E. 

High, islet on the northeast coast of Eromanga, New Hebrides. 18 40' s.. 169 20' E. 

High, islet in Bismarck archipelago. 4 48' s., 150 03' E. 

High, islet of Arno, Marshall islands. 

High, see Grimes of the Caroline islands. 

High, see Wuli of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Higham, islet in Shallow bay, Admiralty island. 

Hikueril, or Melville, was discovered by Cook and called Bird, April 6, 1769. Un- 
inhabited atoll of the Paumotus, well wooded. The lagoon has a boat entrance. 
17 35' S., 142 39' w. 21. 

Hilap, islet of Caroline islands. 

Hillsborotlgh, of the Beechey group of the Bonin islands. 27" 08' N., 142 15' E. 

Hinchinbrook, on the Australian coast. 18 23' s., 146 15' K.O 

Hinchinbrook or Man, see Vele, New Hebrides. 

Hitchin, islet on south coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 12. 

[160] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 77 

Hiti, or Eli/a, one of the Raeffsky group in the Paumotus. Uninhabited. 16 42' S., 

144 09' \v. Also called Ohiti and Clnte. 21. 
Hivaoa or Dominica, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendana 21-22 July, 

1595. Dumont D'Urville calls it Oniva-Hoa. 22 m. by 6 m., 2820 ft. high. The 

most fertile and populous of the group. Population in 1880, 2500^- The east 

end is in 9 47' s., 138 47' \v. 23. 
Hiw, the largest of the Torres group in the New Hebrides, is 6.5 m. X 3-5 m., and 

1200 ft. high. 13 04' s., 166 30' K. 
Hogoleu, see Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Holborne, on the Australian coast. 19 42' S., 148 21' K. 

Holeva, islet 2.5 m. long, on the same reef with Lefuka, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 
Holland, see Howland. 

Holt, see Taenga of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Home, group on the Australian coast. 11 57' s., 143 17' K. 
Honden, see Pukapuka, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Honegueneck, one of the Pleiades group northwest of Uea, Loyalty islands. 
Honni, see One, Gilbert islands. 

Hood, of the Galapagos, is the southernmost of the group ; 640 ft. high. 
Hood, see Fatuhuku, Marquesas islands. 
Hook, on the coast of Australia. 20 07' s., 148 57' E. 
Hope, islet on the Great Barrier reef. 
Hope, see Arorai, Gilbert islands. 

Hope (Captain Charles Hope) see Niuafou, Tonga islands. 
Hopper, see Apamama of the Gilbert islands. 

Horea, islet on the north side of Tiano pass, west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 
Horn, between Torres and Endeavor straits. 10 36' s., 142 16' K. 
Home, group discovered by Le Maire and Schouten May 19, 1616. Consists of Fotnna 

and Alofa. Under French protectorate. 
Homo, of the Admiralty group. 2 n' S., 147 46' E. 
Hosken, small, wooded, 150 ft. high. 7 36' s., 147 37' E. 
Houaf, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 39' 05" N., 151 43' 42" E. 
Houahouna, a chart form of Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 
Houtourou, the native name for Little Barrier in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 
Howe (Lord), see Mopiha, Society islands. 
Howick, group on the Australian coast. 14 30' s., 145 E. 
Howison, in the Fiji group; 36 ft. high. 18 51' S., 178 25' 30" E.O 
Howland was discovered by the American Captain Netcher, September 9, 1842. 

2 m. X 0.5 m., 20 ft. high. A guano island now claimed by Great Britain. 

o 49' N., 176 40' w. 
Huaheine, easternmost of the Leeward group of the Society islands, discovered by 

Cook July, 1769; 20 m. in circumference; divided at high water into Huaheine nui 

and Huaheine iti. Population, noo. 16 42' 30" S., 159 01' 15" \v. 2O. 
Huahuna, of the Marquesas islands. 8 55' S., 139 34' \v. 
HuapU, or Adams of the Marquesas group is a bold and rocky island rising to a 

height of 4042 ft., and covering about 45 sq. m. 9" 24' S., 140 05' w. 23. 

[161] 



7 8 fN/)/-.\ TO THE PACIFIC ISI.AXDS. 

Hudson, of the Fiji group, was named for Captain W. L. Hudson of the United States 
Exploring Expedition. 18 52' ,S., 178 26' E.O 

Hudson, see Nanomanga of the Ellice group. 16. 

Hudson, see Mamanutha, Fiji. 

Hudson Group, Fiji, comprises Carr, Walker, Johnson, Case, Enimons, Alden, Craven, 
Perry, Malolo, Malolo lailai, Soni, Palmer, Waldron, and Spieden, all named for 
members of the Wilkes Expedition. It is the extreme southwest group of Fiji. 

Huga, islet of the Tongan group. Also Huga Haabai and Huga Toga. 

Hueguenee, or Pine islet of Uea, Loyalty group. 

Huerta ( Garden ) , the Spanish name of the island called Trevanion by Carteret, now 
known by the native name Temotu. It is off the northwest end of Santa Cruz in 
the New Hebrides, about a mile from shore. Roughly triangular; 2.5 m. on a side. 

Hugon, islet in Uitoe bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Huhunati, one of the Abgarris group, Bismarck archipelago. 3 25' S., 154 37' E. 

Hui-wadiamo, or Chaumont, lies directly south of Panaman, Louisiade archipelago. 
n34's, 153 08' E. 

Hull, a very small, reefed islet of the Bonvouloir islands, 0.5 m. NW-SE. 10 23' S., 
151 10' E. 

Hull, of the Phrenix group, was discovered by Wilkes August 26, 1840. A British 
protectorate was proclaimed July n, 1889. The south point is in 4 31' 25" S., 
172 18' 15" w. 17. 

Hull, see Sands of the Austral group. 

Humphrey, see Manihiki. 19. 

Hunter, of the New Hebrides, is a volcano 0.5 m. in diameter and 974 ft. high, dis- 
covered by Captain Fearn of the Hunter in 1798. Sulphurous vapor issues from 
the wooded sides. 22 24' 02" S., 172 05' 15" E. 

Hunter, see Fearn on southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Hunter, see Kili of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Hunter, group off coast of Tasmania. 

Huon, group northwest from New Caledonia, was discovered by the D'Entrecasteaux 
expedition and named for Captain Huon de Kermadec. Consists of North Huon, 
Lelei/.our, Fabre, and Surprise; the last in 18 31' s., 163 08' E. 13. 

Hurd, see Arorai of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Huxley, see Bobo eina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

L'lbama, islet in the Louisiade archipelago, 220 ft. high; wooded and cultivated, be- 
tween Nuakata and East cape. 

lakuilau, a low coral and sand islet on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

lambu, a rock, densely wooded, 370 ft. high, west from Yanutha, Ringgold group, Fiji. 

lataui, the western islet of the Montemont group, Louisiade archipelago; 40 ft. high. 

Ibargoita, see Suk of the Caroline islands. 

Ibbetson or Ibbetsen, see Aurh of the Marshall islands. 

Ich-Higen, islet of Port Puebo on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Idaha or Aplin, a low, uninhabited islet at the northwest end of the visible Great 
Barrier reef. 9 24' S., 146 51' E. 

[,62] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 79 

le, islet of Port Mueo on the southwest side of Xe\v Caledonia. 

lehgabate, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

lehhingen, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

lenga, islet near Port Yengen on the northeast side of New Caledonia. 

leroni, see Maitre, New Caledonia. 

Ifalik or Wilson, of the Caroline islands was discovered by Captain Wilson in the 
Duff in 1793. It consists of four islets about a lagoon reef 5 m. in circumference. 
Ifalik, Moai, Ella and Fararik. 7 14' N., 144 31' E. 3. 

Iguari, East and West, two islands in the east side of China strait, the first 400 ft. 
high, the other about 200 ft. high ; cultivated and wooded. 

Igurin, islet on the south side of Eniwetok, Marshall islands. 

Ikara is on the north side of Yasaiosa bay, New Guinea. 9 39' s., 150 02' E. 

Ikaika, Keino or Cliffy, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 250 ft. high off west side of Wari. 

Ikop, eastern islet of Namolipiafane, Caroline islands. 4. 

Ikll, or Lone Tree islet in Bingham channel, Apaiang, Gilbert islands. 7. 

Ilamti or Frith, west islet in Moresby strait between Dauila and Moratau of the 
D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 26' s., 150 24' E. 

lie Bou/et, see He Nou. 

He Nou, a convict station near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

He Plate, or Gunner's Quoin in the Marquesas islands. 

Ilei, one of the Arch group; 0.3 m. x\v-SE.; 270 ft. high. New Guinea. 

lies du Golfe = Ugi and Bin of the Solomon islands. 

Illasasa, of the Kiriwina group. 8 37' S., 151 02 E. 

Illina, a peak 615 ft. high, between Bougainville and Fauro of the Solomon islands. 

Imbert, a reef islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 11 02' S., 151 17' E. 

Inimer, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Impakel, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Itnsa, islet in Orangerie bay, south coast of New Guinea. 10 24' S., 149 34' E. 

Inattendue of Surville is Gower of Carteret. Solomon islands. 

Indefatigable, of the Galapagos, also called Duke of Norfolk; 24 m. E-w., 17 m. N-s. 

Independence, a name given in 1860 to Maiden. 

Independence, see Sophia of the Ellice group. 

Indispensable, of the Solomon islands. 12 30' s., 160 15' E.O 

Ine, islet on the south side of the lagoon of Arno, Marshall islands. A trading sta- 
tion there. 

Infernal, see Nokue, Isle of Pines. 

Inueki, islet on the south coast of Korido, Schouten islands. o 55' S., 135 30' E. 

Inyeug, islet of Aneiteum, New Hebrides. 20 15' 17" S., 169 44' 44" E. 

IpOtet, a rocky islet off Cape Vogel on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 

Irakong, or Eil Malk of the Pelew group. 10 n' 30" N., 134 27' 30" E. 

Iririki, islet with a beacon in Fila harbor on the southwest side of Fate. New 
Hebrides. 187 ft. high. 

Iriru, islet on the south side of the entrance to Faaroa bay, Raiatea, Society islands. 

Isenay or La Baleine, one of the Pleiades group northwest from Uea, Loyalty islands. 

Isie, islet of vSt. Vincent bav on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 



8o /N/>/-:.\ TO Tit I- PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Islas dc los velas latinas = Southern Marianas. 

Islas de los Reyes, name given by Saavedra in 1528 to a part of the Caroline islands 

supposed to be Uluthi. 

Isubobo, islet off the southeast coast of Xe\v Guinea, near Sideia island; 115 ft. high. 
Itai, islet in Xandi waters on the west coast of Yiti levn, Fiji. 
Itamati, islet on the reef of Pavuvn or Russell islands, Solomon group. 
Itapa, see Santa Ana, Solomon islands. 

Itiahi. islet at the entrance to Maupiti lagoon, Society islands. 
ItO or Didymus, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 1.2 m.Xo.5 in.; 500 ft. high; 

uninhabited. 10 33' 50" s., 150 46' 25" K. 
Iwa, see Jouveney of the Kiriwina group. 

lyin, or Garden, is south of Tagula of Louisiade archipelago; 170 ft. high ; cultivated. 
lyoh, islet on the coast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Jabbering, group of four islets in Ward 'Hunt strait. 9 38' s., 149 53' E. 

Jabeia, islet between Yasawa and Naviti, Fiji. 

Jabor, islet of Jalnit, Marshall islands. 5 55' N., 169 39' K. 

Jabwat, of the Marshall islands; 0.7 m. X 0.2 m. 7 43' N., 169 05' K. 6. 

Jacob, islet on the New Guinea coast. 3 07' s., 132 27' K. 

Jacquemart, off the south coast of Campbell island, New Zealand. 

Jacquinot, a conical island off the north coast of New Guinea. 3 25' S., 144 22' K. 

Jaluit or Bonham, of the Marshall islands, was discovered in 1809 from the brig 
fclisabcth. It is an atoll with 50 islets on a reef 32 m. N-s., and from 7 to 20 in. 
wide. In 1882 the population was 700. The lagoon has a depth of 25-30 fathoms. 
Now the seat of the German Government in the Marshall group. The north point, 
according to Captain Brown, is in 6 22' N., 169 22' E. 6. 

James, of the Galapagos, is 1200 ft. high. o 15' 20" s. 

Jumna, on the north coast of New Guinea. The natives superior to those farther east. 

Jane, islet in the Caroline islands. 

Jane, islet, 600 ft. high, at the head of Port Moresby, New Gitinea. 

Jappen, see Jobi, New Guinea. 

Jardines (Los), a name given by the Spanish navigators to some garden-like islands 
eastward of the Marianas. Krusenstern thinks Namonuito in the Carolines. 
Mt'inoirrx hydrographiques, p. 16. 

Jarrad, group on the south shore of Collingwood bay, New Guinea. 934's., 149 30' K. 

Jarvis or Bunker was discovered by Captain Brown in the English sliip-V/:^ I'*nutcis 
August 21, 1821. A raised coral island 10-12 ft. above the sea, of triangular out- 
line; 1.7 m. E-w., i in. N-S. No trees, and little grass; mostly guano. Annexed 
to Great Britain June 3, 1889. o 22' 33" s., 159 54' n" \v. 19. 

Jarvis, 525 ft. high, 36 m. from the coast of New Guinea. 9 55' s., 142 E. 

Jawt, islet of Rnk lagoon, Caroline islands. 4. 

Jekoits, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. An irregular triangle, 1.5 m.jz on a side, 
looo ft. high. 5. 

Jemo, Temo or Steep-to was seen from the Xunliltts in 1799. It is 0.7 in. in diameter. 

10 oo' 45" x., 169" 42' K. Marshall islands. 6. 

[164] 



165 1 
15 I 


E 

DUFF GROUP 

"\**i 
1 " ^ > 

SB 


12 

15 S 




wupam, Nukapu 
ANAUOOO Q ' MATEMA GROUP 






Tinakula o '"""Nimanu 






NlTENDI Q/ I 




- 


SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS 






TAPOUA "^ 






AMUOA 






-jXVffl 1 






VANJKORO \V^) 


FATAKA 


. 


TUCOPIA 


i? 




t? 






BANKS i ISLANDS 






TORRES ISLANDS 


. 




Alaba* VATU RHANDI 






VAUJA 






VANUA LAVU J\~ MOTA 

V 


. 




GAUAC-^J 
U-* OJferigi 






'Meralaba 






b, 




20{ 




20 S 




^ I) 

Vx v 






A 

1 \ ARACA 




,, 


/ VOrumbau \ I 







^y\ CL ^) AMBRVM 






MALEKULA\ \^ vPaama 






(^^^ fi f' Lopcvi 

'*An)\ 
- ^_O Tongoa 






NEW HEBRIDES Mai^. M ; gariki 




165 


E. 170 


E 



IH 












SUHD ATVL 



W31 



-3! 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 81 

Jenkins, 3 m. long, off the coast of New Britain, Bismarck archipelago. 5 15' s., 

e J 50 39' K. 

Jeridy, islet at the east end of Majuro lagoon, Marshall islands. 7o4'x., 171 24' 30" K. 
Jermaeloff or Yermaloff of Bellingshausen is Taenga of the Panraotn archipelago. 
Jervis is the largest of the Bellevne group in Torres strait. 9 07' S., 142 TI' K. 
Jervis, an island of the Galapagos. 
JeSU Maria, of the Admiralty group, is 600-800 ft. high, 7-8 m. long, inhabited. 

2 20' S., 147 40' K. 
Jesus (Isla de), discovered by Alvaro de Mendaiia January 15, 1568. Perhaps Nano- 

mea, Ellice group. 

Jih, north islet of Odia atoll of the Marshall islands. 
Joannet, see Panatinani of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Jobenor, islet of Lukunor, Marshall islands. 
Jobi or Jappen, a large island at the entrance to Geelvink bay on the New Guinea coast. 

no m. E-w., 10-15 m - wide, 2500 ft. high. Inhabited by Papuans on the lowlands, 

but on the mountains a more savage tribe is in constant hostilities with the 

dwellers on the shore. Belongs to the Sultan of Tidore and is under Dutch rule. 

The east end is in i 46' s., 136 52' E. 
Johnson, one of the Hudson group, Fiji; 70 ft. high. 17 36' 30" S., 177 oo' 20" E.O 

Named for Lieutenant R. E. Johnson of the Wilkes Expedition. 
Johnston group consists of three thickly wooded islets, about 70 ft. high, in the 

Admiralty islands. 2 25' S., 147 06' K. 
Johnston or Cornwallis was discovered December 14, 1807, by Captain Johnston of 

H. M. S. Cornwallis. Examined in 1859 by Lieutenant J. M. Brooks of U. S. 

schooner Fennimore Cooper. It is a lagoon island 3.5 by 3.2 m. and affords 

guano. Claimed by the American Guano Company of San Francisco. 16 45' N., 

169 39' w. 
Jomard, low group consisting of Panawaipona and Panarairai and a few islets in the 

Louisiade archipelago. n 15' s., 152 09' E. 

Jombombo, islet in Astrolabe bay, northeast coast of New Guinea. 
Jouvency or Iwa, 24 m. east from Kitava in the Kiriwina group, a mile in diameter, 

consisting of coral terraces and precipices, thickly wooded. Ascent from the sea 

by ladders. Ebony in quantity. A finer people than on New Guinea. 8 44' s., 

i5i44'E. Jouvency was Geographical Engineer on the Esperaiice. In the latest 

publication of the Admiralty Hydrographic Bureau this island is called Jouveney 

and is so printed on charts. 
Juan Fernandez, or Mas-a-tierra, was named for a Spaniard voyaging from Lima to 

Valdivia in 1563. It is a volcanic island 12X4 m -> 3000 ft. high, 360 m. west from 

Valparaiso. For three years the residence of Alexander Selkirk, the prototype of 

the immortal Robinson Crusoe. 13 37' 45" s., 78 13' w. 
Judge and his Clerk, 24 m. x., 20 K. true from the north end of Macquarie island. 

54' 22' s., 158' 46' E. 

Jurien, see Kitava of the Kiriwina group. Jurieu was a volunteer on the Esperancc. 
Jurij, islet on the west coast of Ebon, Marshall islands. 4 36' 33" N., 168 41' 35" E. 

MKMOIKS I!. 1>. II. MI-SKI-M. Vol.. I., No. 2. 6. 



8 2 INni-X TO ////: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Kaafa, see Pylstaart or Ata of the Tongan islands. 

Kuan, a group of eight islets discovered by Tasinan in 1643 and by him named 
Anthony Caens after a member of the Council for India. They are due north 
from the northeast point of New Ireland. 3 30' s., 153 28 K. The people arc 
described as naked, ferocious and armed \vith spears. 10. 

Kabara, see Kambara, Fiji. 

Kahoolawe, of the Hawaiian group, is a rather barren looking sheep pasture south- 
west of Maui. It has an extent of 44,0x50 acres, and is 1427 ft. high. i. 

Kadais, islet in the lagoon of Egum atoll in the Kiriwina group. g 26' s., 151 57' K. 

Kaboer, islet in Geelvink bay, on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Kadavu, see Kandavu, Fiji. 

Kahalape, islet of Andema, Caroline islands. 

Kaiari, islet of Jobi, New Guinea. 

Kaileuna, of the Kiriwina group. 8 35' s., 150 55' K. 

Kaimbo, islet of volcanic and coral formation off east point of Yathata in the Lau 
group, Fiji. 1.5 m. long, 150 ft. high, cultivated. 

Kairu or D'Urville. Natives wear little clothing, are small (5 ft. high ) and active; wear 
hair projecting behind in a conical case 18 in. long. West end, 3 20' s., 143 26' K. 

Kajangle, group of four small islands surrounded by a reef in the Pelew group. The 
largest is 4 m. in circumference. 8 03' N., 134 39' K. 

Kakea, islet of Port Patteson, Vanua Lava, New Hebrides. 

Kaknla, of the New Hebrides, is a low, tree-covered islet on the reef which extends a 
mile from the north shore of Fate. It is inhabited. 

Kalan, islet of Ontong Java. 5 30' S., 159 15' K. 

Kalap, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Kalau, islet on the southwest side of Eua, Tongan group. 

Kalo, islet at west end of Udjelong, Marshall islands. 

Kaluma, a name of Pauawina of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Kama, see Eurupig, Caroline islands. 3. 

Kamac or Table islet in Infernet passage on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Kamako or Collie, an islet of Mangareva. 

Kambara, Fiji, 3.5 m. by 2 m.; of rectangular form, fertile and well wooded; 350 ft. high 
on the northwest side where there is no reef. South end, 18 58' 13" s., 181 03' K. 

Kanathia, Fiji, 5 m. west from Valua valavo, is 3 in. N-S., 2.5 m. K-\v., 830 ft. high. 
The peak is in 17 16' 30" s., 180 53' K. 14. 

Kandavu (Kadavu), Fiji, was discovered by Bligh and called Mywoolla. It is 32 m. 
ENE-wsw., and from half to eight miles wide. Buke levu or Mount Washington 
is 2750 ft. high. Population, about 7000. The peak is in 19 05' s., 177 58' K. 

Kandavu, islet in Nandi waters on the west coast of Yiti levu. 

Kandomo, an uninhabited islet of Mamanutlia ira group, Fiji. 

Kao, a conical rock, 3030 ft. high, northeast from Tofua, Tongan group. 19^41' 35"$., 

174 59' 5o" \v. 

Kapeniur, islet of Ailuk, Marshall islands. At the north end; 4 in. in circumference. 

Kapenmailang, a small group near Xukuor, Caroline islands, on which a pure Poly- 
nesian dialect is spoken. 

[166] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 83 

Kapenoar, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7 40' 40" N., 157 44' ]:. 5. 

Kapenor, islet of Likieb on the west side, Marshall islands. 6. 

Kapinga marangi, a name of Greenwich, Caroline islands. 

Kapiti or Entry, New Zealand. 40 50' s., 174 35' K. 

Kaptlttia, islet in South bay of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Karajiu, Solomon islands. 8 38' s., 158 10' K. 

Karajiu geta, Solomon islands. 8 30' s., 158 07' K. 

Karajiu miki, Solomon islands. 8 27' s., 158 05' K. 

Karewha, in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 37 29' s., 176 10' K. 

Kar-Kar or Dampier, a high volcanic peak, 5000 ft. highi; 36-40 in. in circumfer- 
ence. 4 42' S., 145 58' K. 

Karkone, one of the Hermit islands. i 32' s., 145 01' K. 

Karlshoff, see Aratika of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Karobailo Kawa, islet of the Talbot group between Kawa and Mata Kawa at the 
month of the Wassi Kussa river, New Guinea. 9" 16' s., 142 n' K. 

Karoni, high islet within the reef of Mothe, Fiji. i8 J 40' s., 181 28' 40" K. 

Karil, islet of the Harcourt group, north from Ugue bay on the northeast coast U 
New Caledonia. 

KaSSa, New Guinea coast. 9 15' s., 142 19' K. 

Kata, see Enderby, Caroline islands. 4. 

Katafanga, Fiji, a small island inhabited only during the turtle season. It is the 
property of an European. East point is in 17 30' 30" s., 181'"' 19' 30" K. 

Katai or Connor, is triangular, each side 1.5 m., 430 ft. high, well wooded. io"4o'3o"s., 
15 1 05' 30" E. 

Katelma, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7 02' N., 157 47' 30" K. 

Kater, one of the Benin group, 160 ft. high. 27 30' \., 142 16' K. 

Katharine, see Udjae, Marshall islands. 

Katiu or Saken, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 
1822. The southeast point is in 16 31' s., 144 12' 10" w. 21. 

Kato katoa, see Glenton, New Guinea. 

KattOU, islet off the north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 

Kau, uninhabited island on the coast of New Guinea. 

Kauai, of the Hawaiian group. Here Cook first landed. It is the fourth in si/.e and 
perhaps the most beautiful of the group. Area, 348,000 acres. Population, 15,228 
in 1896. Volcanic action seems first to have ceased at this end of the chain. 
Atooi of Cook. 28 m. E-w. by 23 m. N-s. I. 

Kauehi, see Kawehe of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Kaukura or Aura, of the Paumotu archipelago, is about 24 m. long, wooded and in- 
habited. 15 43' S., 146 50' 36" w. 2O. 

Kaula, a red volcanic islet off Niihau of the Hawaiian group; 17 m. s\v. from Niihau. 

Kaven, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands; 2.2 m. by 0.7 m. X 51' N., 170 49' K. 

Kaveva, islet in Sausau passage on the north coast of Yanua levu, Fiji. 

Kawa, westernmost of the Talbot group, New Guinea. 9 16' s., 142 09' K. 

Kawau, in Auckland bay, New Zealand. 

Kawehe or Kauehi, the Vincennes of Wilkes, in the Paumotu archipelago, was dis- 



84 /N/)/:.\' TO Till- PACIFIC 7.SV .. I. YDS. 

covered by Captain Fit/roy in H. M. S. Hcaglc in 1X35. It is 12 in. x-s., open 
lagoon with 15 fathoms. South point is in 15 59' 48" s., 145 09' 30" \v. 21. 
Kayatlgle or Moore of the Pelew islands; 1.5 in. long. S 02' 30" X., 134 38' 30" K. 

Hetter spelling is Ka jangle. 
Kayser, off west coast of Bonka, Solomon islands. 5 31' S., 154 36' K. 

Kea, an inhabited islet, 570 ft. high, near Yanua levn, Fiji. 16 39' S., 179 57' 20" K. 
Keaba, islet of Ysabel, Solomon islands. Sometimes spelled Keahn. 8s., 159 28'?;. 

Keai, near Port Chalmers, New Guinea. 8 10' s., 146 06' K. 
KeatS, in Torres strait. 9" 41' s., 143 25' K. 

Kelifijia or Falafagea, of the Tongan islands. 28 31' s., 175 18' \v. 

Keluna, islet off north coast of New Guinea, near Cape King William. A German station. 

Keinin, see Gardner of the Phoenix group. 17. 

Kempe, group of two small islands connected by reef i .5 m. north from Goulvain or Dobu. 

Kemtai, islet 20 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Kendec, wooded islet in Kumak passage on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Kennedy, see Motuiti of the Santa Cruz islands. 

Kent, group in Bass strait between Flinders and Cape Wilson. See F. Nixon, Xurru- 
tii'c of a I'isit to tlic islands in tlic Bass's Straits, London, 1857, 8vo. 

Kepara, or Two Brothers, was discovered by D'Urville. It is west from Bultig, New 
Guinea. 

Keppel, see Niuatobutabu of the Tongan islands. 18. 

Kerakera, islet on the bordering reef of Wari, Louisiade archipelago; 60 ft. high 
and grassy. 

Kerawarra in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 17' s., 152 25' K. 

Kermadec group. Named by D'Entrecasteaux for the commander of i: /-".spcnnur, 
Huon de Kermadec. The group is 500 m. KNK. from the north cape of New- 
Zealand, and extends 140 m. NNE-SSW. There are four islands: the largest, Raonl, 
was named by D'Entrecasteaux for the officer who first saw it; the south one for 
his ship, L'Esperance. Lieutenant Watts, in 1788, discovered Curtis and Macau- 
ley. Group annexed to Great Britain in 1886 and now a part of the colony of 
New Zealand. 

Kerne, see Squally, of the Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

Kewley, see Udjelong of the Caroline islands. 5. 

Kia, islet 780 ft. high, north of Vanua levn, Fiji, and just within the north point of 
the Great Sea Reef. 16 14' S., 179 06' E. 14. 

Kiamu or Grimoult, islet in Mueo bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Kiangle, see Kajangle, Pelew islands. 

Kibll, of the Kiriwina group. 8 40' s., 150 48' H. 

Kie, islet 760 ft. high, off Muthuata on the north side of Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 l3 / 54 / 's., 
170 05' K. 

Kie, islet on the southeast reef of New Caledonia. 

Kilagen, islet north side of Udjeloug, Marshall islands. 

Kilap, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 

Kill or Hunter group. Discovered by Captain Dennett; in the Marshall group; 2.5 m. 

in diameter, uninhabited. 5 40' x., 169 15' E.O 

[168] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 85 

Killerton, group of small islands on the coast of New Guinea : Harowani, inhabited ; 
Mahabarina, Waga tumaiawa on the southwest, and four smaller islets. io23's., 
150 38' K. 

Kimbombo, three islets within a reef 12 m. in circumference; south and largest 
densely wooded, 190 ft. high; middle one coral and sand, 120 ft. high; northern- 
most and smallest also coral and sand, 100 ft. high. Fiji. 

Kimuta, westernmost and largest of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago; 3.2 m. 
long. Villages on the north side. 

Kinamue, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Kinde, islet north from Nemmene peninsula, southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

King, off northwest point of Tasmania. 

King George group, name given by Byron in 1765 to two atolls, Takapoto and 
Takaroa of the Patimotu archipelago. 21. 

King George, Wallis' name for Tahiti, Society islands. 

King, see Taiaro, of the Paumotus. 

Kingsmill, a name of a portion of the Gilbert islands, sometimes applied to the whole 
group. 

Kioa, in Somosomo .strait, east of Vanua levu, Fiji ; 5 m. NE-SW., 920 ft. high, un- 
inhabited. 

Kiriwina or Trobriand. Names applied both to the principal island and to the whole 
group of low coral but fertile islands. The population is more than 18,000 of 
Polynesian, and a mixture of Papuan, Polynesian and Malay. 9. 

Kitava or Jurien, of the Kiriwina group, is an elevated atoll 300-400 ft. high, with 
an area of 5-6 sq. m. There are 13 villages in the depression which marks the 
old lagoon. This is surrounded by a wooded coral wall 50-100 ft. high. Inhabi- 
tants are peaceful, industrious and fond of wood carving. The}- make wide- 
mouthed earthen pots for cooking, and have remarkable dances, using a sort of 
double shield in that amusement. 8 40' S., 151 24' K. 

Killp, islet of Makin, Gilbert islands. 3 17' N., 172 56' 20" E. 

Kitisick, in the Yasawa group, Fiji; 40 ft. high. 16 41' S., 177 33' E.O 

Kivave, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' 20" s., 171 12' w. 

Kiwai, a long and populous island at the mouth of the Fly river on the south coast of 
New Guinea; 37 m. long. South point in 8 54' S., 143 36' E. 

Knox, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. Also islet of this atoll. nO5'N., 166 35' E. 

Knox, see Eiao, Marquesas islands. 

Knox, a common misprint for Knoy, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Knox, islet 47 ft. high, in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 26' s., 177 02' E.O 

Knox group, ten islets 5 m. w. by N-E. by S.; 3 m. sw. from Mille, Marshall islands. 

Knoy, see Tarawa, Gilbert islands. 

Kobiloko or Yam, islet of Pavuvu or Russell group, Solomon islands. 9 02' S., 

159 5' K. 

Kodokupuei, islet of Sansoral. 5 20' N., 132 20' E. 
Koikoi, on the New Guinea coast. 10 17' s., 149 21' E. 
Koliviu, a mangrove-covered islet of the Maskelyne group, New Hebrides. 

Komachu, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

[169] 



86 INDEX TO Till- PACIFIC /S/..l.\'PS. 

Komo levu, island north of Ularua, Fiji; 1.5 in. by 0.5 in., and 270 ft. high', in- 
habited. iS 37' 30" s., iSi 20 E. 

Komo ndriti, dark, rocky companion to the last; levu == large, ndriti -- small. 
t.S 38' S., iSi iS' 30" K. 

Konaoe doi, islet of Ono i Ian, Fiji. 

Kondogi, islet of Muendo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Konduyo, islet in Isie passage, New Caledonia. 21 52' S., 165 47' K. 

Koniene, has two curious peaks, in Kataviti bay on the northwest side of New Caledonia. 

Konig islet is north from Bilibili on north coast of New Guinea. 

Kora, islet east from Kia, Fiji. 

Korak, south of Kajangle, with Arayon/cet and Carapellas on a reef 4.5 in. x-s., 
5 in. K-W. Pelew islands. 

Kordinkoff, a name given by Kotzebue in 1824 to Rose island of the Manna group 
(Samoan). 

Korido or Korrido, of the Schouten group, is little known. o 45' S., 135 35' K. 

Koro or Goro, Fiji, is 10 m. x-s., 4.5 m. K-w., 1840 ft. high; wooded, many coconuts. 
Population about 1000. North point is in 17 13' 30" S., 179 26' 30" K. 

Korolib or Goat, Fiji, wooded islet 320X200 yards. 16 46' 20" s., 180 01' 40" K. 

Korotima, Fiji, small, fertile, inhabited. 16 04' s., 180 37' 30" E. 

Korror, the seat of government of the Pelew islands; 3.5 m. by 2.5 m. 

Korsakoff, see Ailinginae of the Marshall islands. Usually Remski-Korsakoff. 

Kosmann or Maragili, of the Louisiada archipelago; uninhabited. no6's., 151 30' K. 

KotU, group of small islands at the southwest part of the Hapai groiip, Tongan isl- 
ands. Principal islands, Oua and Lnanamo. 

Kotllho, Fiji. 16 48' 50" s., 179 25' 30" K.O 

Koulo, islet of the Tongan group. 

Koutousoff of Bellingshausen (1820) is Makemo, Paiimotn archipelago. 

Kowata, islet 570 ft. high off west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Krudu, see Quoy, New Guinea. 

Krusenstern, see Tikahan of the Panmotu archipelago. 2O. 

Kubokonilick, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 13' s., 152 23' E. 

Kuebtmi, islet north from Port Goro, southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Kuiao, islet of the Kiriwina group. 8 38' 30" s., 150 51' E. 

Kuku, islet 87 ft. high on the southwest side of Malolo, Hudson group, Fiji. i747's., 
177 07' K. 

Kukuluba, islet 65 ft. high, east of the Duchatean group, Louisiade archipelago, 
ii 1 6' s., 152 21' 45" E. 

Ktllambatlgara or Kulambangra, of the Solomon islands, is 16 m. N-s., 13 in. K-\v.; 
5cxx> ft. high. 7 58' s., 157 05' E. 

Kumbara, on northeast coast of Guadalcanal-, Solomon islands. 9 31' io"s., 160 29' E. 

Kumi, islet of Rongelab, Marshall islands, i i 26' 35" X., 167 10' E. 6. 

Kunie, see Isle of Pines. 13. 

Kurateke, see Yanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 2,2. 

Kuria or W.oodle, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captains Marshall and 
Gilbert in 1788; s i- by 2.S m. o' J 13' X., 173 28' 30" E. 7. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 87 

Kurimarail, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

Kuriva is southeastern most of the Engineer group, Lonisiades; 2 m. K-\v., 400 ft. high. 

Large village on the south side. 

Kurudu is 3 m. east from Jappen on the north coast of New Guinea. It is 8 m. E-w. 
Kusaie, Ualan or Strong, of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1804 by Captain 

Crozer, who named it for Caleb Strong, the Governor of Massachusetts; 8.5 m. 

K-w., 7.7 m. x-s.; 24 m. in circumference; volcanic. Mt. Crozer is 2152 ft. high. 

Population about 400. 5 19' x., 163 06' K. 5. 

Kussa, of the Talbot group, north of Boigu, New Guinea. 9 16' s., 142 21' K. 
Kuthiu, a form of Kusaie, Caroline islands. 
KutOttlO or Lesser Isle of Pines, a portion separated from the main island by a narrow 

channel. 

KlltU, islet of Satoan, Caroline islands. 4. 
Kutusow, see Utirik of the Marshall islands. 6. 
Kuvyo, islet of Maskelyne group, New Hebrides. 
Kwadelen or Kwajalong, see Kwadjalin. 
Kwadjalin, of the Marshall islands, consists of man}- islets about a lagoon, of which 

the west side is 58 m. long. The north islet is in 9 14' N., 167 02' E. Mentschi- 

kow group of map No. 6. 

Kwaiatabu, a name of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 
Kwaiawata, of the Kiriwina group, is nearly 2 m. in diameter. The lagoon has a 

high, wooded, coral wall around, and the whole indications are of a raised island. 

About 400 inhabitants. 
Kwaiope, islet southeast from Moratau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 43' S., 

150 54' E. 
Kwataua, small island north from Rogeia, on the southeast coast of New Guinea, 

belonging to the London Missionary Society. 
KwewatO, a coral island, densely peopled, in the Kiriwina group. 8 30' s., 151 E 

Labi, of the Kiriwina group. 8 36' s., 150 50' E. 

Laciba, see Lathiba, a small, low island off Ngau, Fiji. 

La Desgraciada, a name on the Spanish chart captured by Anson and supposed to 
apply to one of the Hawaiian islands. 

Ladrone, a name given to the Marianas by some of the Spanish sailors of Magalhaes, 
who fancied the indigenes were great thieves. As they were not more so than 
other islanders, or perhaps than the sailors who named them, it seems a pity to 
attach the stigma of such a name to the group, especially as all the original in- 
habitants have been "converted" into the grave. 

Lae or Brown, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain J. W. Brown in 
December, 1858. It is a group of 14 islets on a reef 6 m. in diameter. About 250 
inhabitants. 9 N., 166 20' K. 

Lagoon of Cook is Vahitahi of the Paumotu archipelago. Lagoon of Bligh is Tema- 
tangi of the same group. 

Lagrandiere, of the Kiriwina group. Named for Lieutenant Lagrandiere of the 

Espcrancc. 8 52' S., 151 12 K.O 

[171] 



ss INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Lagrimas de San Pedro- a discovery of Quiros, April 27, 1606, was perhaps the Banks 

islands. 
Laignel, northeast from Moratau, was named for Ensign Laignel, one of D'Entre- 

casteanx' officers. It is in 9 18' S., 150 55' K. 
Laika is nearly 2 in. north from Tongoa of the New Hebrides and is not permanently 

inhabited. 

Lain, in Geelvink bay, northwest coast of New Guinea. o 56' s., 135 30' K. 
Laing, islet in Hansa bay, north coast of New Guinea. 4 12' S., 144 52' K. 
Laine or Uo, is north from Mare of the Loyalty group. It is low and covered with 

pine trees. 

Lakahia, of the New Guinea region. 4 06' s., 138 28' K. 
Lakeba, see Lakemba, Fiji. 
Lakemba, a fertile island 5 in. K-\v., 3 m. x-s.; 720 ft. high. It has an extensive reef. 

Population has a large mixture of Tongan. Lakemba was the first Yitian island 

christianized by the English Mission in 1835. Northeast point is in 18 13' s., 

181 12 K. 14.' 

Lakena, islet of Nanomea, Ellice group. 16. 

La Madalena, a name given by Mendana to Fatuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 
La Menu, islet on the northwest coast of Api, New Hebrides. 16 33' s., 168 06' K. 
La Mesa, a name on the Spanish chart captured by Anson, supposed to apply to Hawaii. 
Lamoliork, see Ngoli of the Caroline archipelago. 
Lamotrek or Swede, a triangular reef about 6 m. WNW-ESH. There are several islets 

on the border of the lagoon which are inhabited. 7 24' N., 146 30' K. 
Lamut, islet off the southwest coast of Yanua levn, Fiji. 
Lanai, an island in the central portion of the main Hawaiian group containing 

86,000 acres; 3400 ft. high, with a population of no. I. 
Lancier, see Akiaki of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Langdon of Roberts is Hatutu of the Marquesas islands. 
I/araoro, New Guinea. 10 23' S., 149 20' E. 
Larkin, of the Caroline islands. 

Laseinie, a group of six islets in the Lonisiade archipelago. 
Laskar, see Lisiansky of the Hawaiian group. 2. 
Lassion, another form of Lisiansky. 
Las Tres Marias, see Three Sisters, Solomon islands. 
Late i Tonga, Late i Viti and Booby, three islets in the lagoon of Reid reef in the 

Lan group, Fiji. 17 54' s., 178 23' w.O 
Late or Lette, a volcanic island of the Tongau group, 6-7 m. in circumference and 

1790 ft. high. 1 8 52' S., 174 37' w. 
Lathiba, small, low island off Ngan, Fiji. 

La Tortile, one of the Pleiades group, northwest from Uea of the Loyalty islands. 
La Tregnada, see Ulava, Solomon islands. 
Lancala, see Lanthala, Fiji. 
Laughlan, a group around a lagoon 5 in. K-W., discovered by Captain Langhlan in the 

Mary, 1812. The ten islets are Wabomat, Budehm, Wasimu, Oburak, Bukulan, 

[172] 



INDEX TO THE 1'ACIFfC ISLANDS. 89 

Ozareo, Sureb, Kuneotu, Bvvanibwani, Tamaris. The group is also called Nada. 
There are about 170 inhabitants a colony from Mnrea. 9 18' s., 153 38' K. 

I/auru, on the New Guinea coast. o 31' s., 134 K. 

I/ausancay, a group of low islands extending some 20 in. along a reef; between 
8 25' .s., 150 20 K. and 8' J 31' s., 150 26' K. 9. 

I/authala (Laucala), Fiji, is 4 m. long and 880 ft. high. The peak is in 16 47' s., 
1 80 23' K. 

I/auvergne, islet of Ruk, of the Caroline archipelago. 

La Vandola, the easternmost of the Admiralty group ; nearly circular, about 600 ft. 
high, well peopled. 2 15' S., 148 n' K. 

Lavao, see Yule. 

Layard, two low, small islands on the New Guinea coast. 7 35' s., 147 32' K. 

Layrle, islet at the north side of St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Laysatl or Moller, of the Hawaiian group, is an American discovery. Captain Stani- 
kowitch, in 1828, named it after his vessel. It extends 2 m. by 1.5 m. and is per- 
haps 25 ft. high. For some years it has been leased by the Hawaiian Government 
to parties who export guano. 25 47' 47" N., 171 53' w. 2. 

La/aroff or Lazarev, see Matahiva of the Paumotu archipelago. 2O. 

LeatlSan or Protection, on the northwest side of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Lebris, a high islet in Uarai passage on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Lebrutl group, northwest from Wari, consists of Hikarika and Dodigi, two conical 
islands extending K-w. 10 52' S., 150 57' K. 

I/Kchiqtder group was discovered by Bougainville and named from a fancied resem- 
blance to a checkerboard. There are 53 islets, with some 800 inhabitants of a dark 
copper color and with long, stringy hair. The northeast point is in io6's., 144 30' K. 

Lefuka, a form of Lifuka found on old charts. 

Legoaratlt group, two small islands off the north coast of New Guinea, 3 m. from 
shore and half a mile apart. 5 08' S., 145 K. 

Lehua, a small, volcanic island about a mile from the north end of Niihau of the 
Hawaiian group. The channel between is very shallow. I. 

Leiga, islet of the Basses islands in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Leigh, islet off Port Carteret on the coast of New Ireland. 

Leili is large, low, of horseshoe shape, in Sio bay of Malaita, Solomon islands. 
8 48' S., 160 53' E. 

I/ejeune, a wooded islet on the north edge of a long reef in the Louisiade archipelago. 
11 12' S., 151 50' K. 

Lekeleka, islet on Barrier reef, 5 m. southeast from Oua, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

Lekin, islet in form of a cube, between Uea and Moali, Loyalty group. 

Leku, low islet off Viti levu, Fiji. 18 04' s., 177 16' K.O 

Lele, islet of Kiisaie, Caroline islands. According to Liitke the natives pronounce 
the name Leila. 5 20' N., 163 09' K. 

Leleigana, one of the Obstruction islands, Louisiade archipelago; 325 ft. high, 
wooded and inhabited. 

Leleizour, one of the Huon group. It has guano worked by a French establish- 
ment. 18 18' s. 

[i73] 



90 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

I/eleppa or Protection, New Hebrides; 2.5 in. XXW-SSK., 1.5 m. wide, 637 ft. high; in- 
habited. Off the northwest coast of Fate, forming the west side of Havannah 
harbor. 

I/eligoat or Hamelin, a low and wooded islet of the Loyalty group. 

is south from Moturiki, Fiji; low and covered with coconut walks. 1 7 48' 30" s., 
178 46' K. 

, islet of Ailinglablab of the Marshall islands. 

I/eocadie group, two islets off the New Guinea coast. 

I/eotlidas, low islet 0.7 in. in circumference, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 39' 24" S., 
i 7 8 3 6'5o"E.O 

Leper, see Aoba (Omba), New Hebrides. 

I/eru, islet of Pavnvu, Solomon islands. 

I/eSSOn, an active volcano (May 20, 1874) on the north coast of New Guinea; 3.5 in. 
in circumference, 2200 ft. high. The- natives wear their hair in bundles enclosed 
in basket work and often projecting a foot behind. 3 35' s., 144 47' K. 8. 

Lette, see Late, Tongan islands. 

I/euen, south island of Namu atoll of the Marshall islands. 8 14' N., 168 03' K. 

Leuneuwa, islet of Ontong Java. 5 28' s., 159 44' K. 

I/evalea, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

I/ewis, islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 28' 40" s., 177 oo' 10" E.O 

I^ib, of the Marshall islands ; 2.2 m. E-w. 8 2C/N., i673o'E. (Captain Dennett. ) 6. 

I/ifu, raised coral, 100-250 ft. high, in the Loyalty group. Population, 7oood=. 
Formerly cannibals. 20 36' s., 167 06' E. 13. 

I/ifllka, low, 5 m. by 2 m., in the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 19 49' S., 175 41' w. 18. 

I/ikieb, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Kotzebue November 5, 1817. It 
consists of 44 islets on an atoll 27 m. long and from 7-12 in. wide. 9 48' x., 
169 21' E. 

I/ikuri, a sand islet off west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Lileb, see Kwadjalin of the Marshall islands. 

I/ily, on the New Guinea coast. 9 25' .s., 147 02' E. 

I/imtl, islet in the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

Lina, of the Solomon islands. 7 15' s., 157 32' E. 

Linthicum, in the Underwood group, Fiji; low and wooded. i744's., 177 15' IO"E.O 

I/isiansky, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Lisiansky in the AVrw, 
October 15, 1805. It is 3 m. by 2 m., and 40 ft. high. 26 N., 173 57' w. 2. 

Livingston, see Namonuito of the Caroline islands. 4. 

I/izard, islet of Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

Lizard, islet on the Australian coast. 14 40' s., 145 28' E. 

I/loyd, on the Australian coast. 12 46' s., 143 26' K. 

I/O or Saddle, Torres islands; 3.5 m. x-s. by 2 m. E-w., 500 ft. high. Natives quiet 
and friendly. 13 20' s., 166 35' E. 

I/Oa (Observatory of Wilkes), is northeast from Oneata to which it is connected by a 
sunken reef; 140 ft. high. 18 24' 40" s., 181 28' E.O 

I/oangi, a mile long, off Yanua levu, P A iji. 

l/och, Xew Guinea region. 7 45' s., 144 12' E. 

['74] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 91 

IvOCOl, islet at the head of Port Moresby, New Guinea. 

I/ofaga, of the Tongan islands. 19 51' s., 175 30' \v. 

I/Ogea, in China strait, New Guinea. 10 39' s., 150 38' K. 

Loliwari, a name of Ambrym, New Hebrides. 

Lolo or Roro, forms of the native name of Yule. See Roro. 

Loloata with Lolorua, on east side of Port Moresby; 130 ft. high. 933'vS., 147 17'?;. 

I/omlottl or Nevelo, of the Matema islands, is 5 m. by 1.5 m., and 200 ft. high. Brit- 
ish protectorate was proclaimed August 28, 1898. 

Lone Tree, see Iku of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. Another of the same name on the 
north reef of Tarawa. 

Long, volcanic island 2000 ft. high, north from Vitiez strait, north coast of New 
Guinea. North point is in 5 14' s., 147 07' K. 

I/Otlg, in Torres strait. 10 02' S., 142 50' E. 

I/ong, islet in South bay, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

I/Otlgatana, islet of Fakaafo, Union group. 9 24' 40" s., 171 12' w. 17. 

I/onguerue, group in the southwest part of Huon gulf; islands are small, wooded and 
rocky, but Saddle island is 2.5 m. long and 700 ft. high. Named for Midshipman 
Longuerue on the Reclicrchc. j 20 S., 147 16' K. 

Lonkahll, islet of Tatafa of the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/OOf (Leaf) is the central island of the Hermit group; 500 ft. high. i 28' s., 
145 05' K. 8. 

l/opevi, a volcano of the New Hebrides, 4714 ft. high, active, occasionally ejecting 
ashes. Few inhabitants along the shore. 16 28' s., 168 18' K. 12. 

Lord Hood, see Marutea of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

I/Ofd Howe was discovered February 17, 1778, by Lieutenant Ball. Volcanic and 
mountainous, Mt. Gower at the southern end being 2840 ft. high; about 5.5 m. 
long. On the west side are extensive qoral reefs. Population, in 1880, 65. Belongs 
to New South Wales. 31 36' 30" s., 159 05' 10" K. See J. B. Wilson's Report, 
Sydney, 1882 ; also a paper by Mr. Corrie, Proceedings Royal Geographical 
Society, 1878, pp. 136-143. 

Lord Howe, islet off the southeast end of Santa Crux. A British protectorate was 
proclaimed August 18, 1898. 

Lord Howe, see Mopeha, Society islands. 

Lord Howe, see Ontong Java, Solomon islands. 

Lord North, see Tobi. 

I/ord Salisbury, islet on the New Guinea coast. 7 52' s., 144 28'. K. 

I/OSap, of the Caroline islands was discovered by Duperrey. It has about 300 in- 
habitants. Peace islet, in the same lagoon, has a population of 200. 6 53' N., 
152 42' 20" E. 

Los Eremitanos, see Hermit. 8. 

Los Magos, Los Monjes, nanles on the Spanish chart captured by Lord Anson ; sup- 
posed to apply to the Hawaiian islands.' 

Los Martires, see Tamatam, Caroline islands. 

I/OS Negros, islets of Admiralty island. i 55' S., 147 16' E. 

[175] 



92 INDEX TO Till- />. \CfFfC ISLANDS. 

I/OS Reyes are two small, wooded islands about 500 ft. long. They are 15 m. north- 
west from La Yandola in the Admiralty group. 2 s., 148 03' K. 

L'Ostange of Duperrey is Nengonengo of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Los Valientes of Don Felipe Tompson is Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 5. 

I/ottin is a nearly circular volcanic cone, 5200 ft. high.; 12.5 ni. x\v. Ijy x. from Cape 
King of New Britain. 5 18' s., 147 35' K. IO. 

Lot's Wife, see Rica de Oro. 

l/ouisiade archipelago is an extensive range of islands situated southeast from 
Xt-w Guinea, between 10 io'-n5o's. and 154 30'-! 50 55' K. Probably seen by 
Torres in 1606, but named by Bougainville in 1793. Surveyed by D'Urville in 
1840. There is gold on Tagula (Sud-est), and although many portions of the 
group are still unknown it is thought to be rich in vegetable productions. There 
are more than So islands besides many rocks and reefs. Inhabitants are of a 
dark copper color, with Papuan hair; cartilages of nose and ears much distended. 
Cannibals on occasion. Named for Louis XV. of France. 9. 

I/OuntaSS, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 50' S., 150 51' K. 

l/ovuka, a small, sandy islet in Nandi waters off the west coast of Yiti levu, Fiji. 

Low, see Siassi on the east coast of New Guinea. IO. 

Low archipelago, see Paumotu archipelago. 

Lowendahl, see Nui of the Ellice group. 16. 

I/oyalty group, discovered by Captain Butler in the Walfwlc in 1800, or in the 
Britannia in 1803. The group runs parallel to the coast of New Caledonia at a 
distance of 50-60 m. Consists of Mare or Nengone, Lifu, Uea, with five islets 
between the first two. 13. 

Luanamo, one of the Koto islands, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

Ltiard islets are in Hercules bay on the New Guinea coast; six in number, low 
(40-70 ft.), and covered with trees. 7 40' s., 147 42' K. 

Liitke, see East Fain, Caroline islands. 

I/llhuga, islet of Hapai group, Tongan islands. 

I/uktinor, of the Caroline islands, has been called the gem of Micronesia. It was dis- 
covered in 1793 by Captain J. Mortlock ; 18-20 m. in circumference. Population 
about 850. It is not more than seven feet above the sea. 5 29' 18" N., 153 58' K. 4. 

I/tlktinor, islet off the southeast extreme of Mille, Marshall islands. 

I/tmgur, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

I/USancay, reefs in the Kiriwina group, named for a lieutenant on the ES/H'TUIICC. 

Lydia, see Pikela, Caroline islands. 

Lydia, see Nuakata near East cape of New Guinea. 

Lydia, see Udjae, Marshall islands. 

Lynx, see Niutao of the Ellice group. 16. 

Maabunghi, islet at the mouth of Tanle bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Maben, low and wooded, a mile KXK. from Kitai, New Guinea. 

Mabneian, a small, wooded island 0.7 m. long on the north edge of a long reef, 
Louisiade archipelago. 

[176] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 93 

Mabui, an islet of Misima, Louisiade archipelago ; small, wooded, 90 ft. high. 10 56' s., 

152 36' K. 

Mabuiag, island in Torres strait. 

Macarthur, on the Australian coast. n 45' s., 143 K. 
Macaskill, see Pingelap of the Caroline islands. 
Macauley, of the Kermadec group, is 3 m. in circumference, 780 ft. high ; volcanic, 

uninhabited; surrounded by perpendicular cliffs 600 ft. high, but can be scaled by 

means of a lava stream on the north side. 30 16' s., 178 32' w. 
Mac Donald, in the Bismarck archipelago. 5 26' s., 150 43' K. 
Mackenzie, see Uluthi of the Caroline islands. 3. 
Madear, islet of the Admiralty group, 200 ft. high, 900 by 700 yards. i 55' S., 

146 32' K. 
Macquarie, in 5444's., i5949'E., is 1200-1500 ft. high. In the early part of this 

century it is said 80,000 seals were killed on it. Now inhabited by birds only. 
Madaamet, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. Sometimes spelled Madamett. 
Maer ( pronounced Mer} is the largest of the Murray group in Torres strait. On the 

same reef with Dauer and Waier. Population, 450. 9 55' .s., 144 02' E. 
Maewo, see Maiwo, New Hebrides. 

Magdalena, see Fatuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 33. 
Magellan, an old name of the Marianas. 
Maghyr or Magur, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. At extreme north of atoll. 

80 / ff o f ff 

59 45 N., 150 14 30 E. 

Maghyrarik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Magnetic, island of the Australian coast. 19 10' s., 146 51' E. 

Mago, see Mango, Fiji. 

Magone, islet on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Mahabarina, middle islet of the Killerton group off east coast of New Guinea; 

0.5 m. X 0.2 m. 

Mahea, islet at entrance to Hamene bay, Tahaa, Society islands. 20. 
Mahigi, see Ortega, Solomon islands. 
Mai or Mae is the name often given to Three Hills of the New Hebrides, but it is the 

name of the central district, not of the whole island. See Three Hills. 
Maia iti, see Tubuai manu of the Society group. 
Maiakei, a corrupt spelling of Maraki, Gilbert islands. 
Maiana or Hall, of the Gilbert islands, was called Gilbert by Captains Marshall and 

Gilbert in 1788; then called Hall by the Captain of the brig Elisabctli in 1809. 

It is 9 m. NE-SW. by 6 m. In 1886 the population was 1700. o 55' 30" N., 

Off 

173 03 45 K. 

Maioiti, see Tapamanu, Society islands. 
Maim, off the New Guinea coast. 10 25' S., 149 21' E. 
Maitea or Mehetia, is the easternmost of the Society group; 7 m. in diameter, 1597 ft. 

high. 17 53' S., 148 05' \v. 
Maitland, two islets remarkably alike, southwest from St. Andrew islands in the 

Admiralty group. 2 29' s., 147 18' E. 

[177] 



94 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Maitre, islet between Noumea and Uen island, New Caledonia. 

Maiwo or Mae\vo, also railed Aurora, is the northeast island of the New Hebrides. 

It is 30 m. x-s., and 2000 f,t. high. The north point is 14' 50' S., 168 05' K. 12. 
Majuro or Arrowsmith was discovered by Captains Marshall and Gilbert in 1788. 

It consists of 33 islets on a reef 30 by 10 in. Southeast point is in 7" 05' x., 

171 23' K. 

Makada is an inhabited islet of the Duke of York group in the Bismarck archipelago. 

1 06' S., 152 26' K. 

Makahaa, islet in the Biha channel leading to Tongatabu,Tongan islands. 2io6'4o"s., 
175 oS'w. 

Makamea, islet of Ontong Java. 5 36' s., 159 21' K. 

Makane, one of the Hermit islands. i 35' s., 144 57' E. 

Makapu, islet of Mangareva. 

Makaroa or Marsh, islet of Mangareva. 

Makatea, Metia or Aurora, of the Paumotti archipelago, the Recreation of Rogge- 
\vein who discovered it in 1712, is of uplifted coral, 230 ft. high. It is wooded, 
and inhabited by people who still make good kapa. North end is in 15 49' 35" s., 
148 13' 15" w. 2O. 

Makemo ( Makima of Wilkes), Phillips, Koutousoff (of Bellingshausen), was dis- 
covered from the Margaret in 1803. It is 40 in. wxw-KSK. The west end is in 

s Q s t Of? 

16 26 s., 143 56 \v. 

Makin or Pitt is the most northerly of the Gilbert islands, and is 6 m. long, and from 
a half to two miles wide. The northeast point is in 3 20' 45" N., i7258'45"K. 7. 

Makondratlga is i m. by 0.5 m., and half a mile northwest from Makongai, Fiji. 

Makongai is between Ovalau and Koro, Fiji. It is 2 m. by 1.5 m., and 876 ft. high. 
17 27' S., 179 02' w. 

Maktira, 4 m. southeast from Mai, New Hebrides; 991 ft. high; i in. xw-SK.; 120 
natives; all profess Christianity. 

Mala, see Malaita of the Solomon islands. 

Malaita, Solomon islands, the Mala of natives, Isla de Ramos of Gallego, Terre des 
Arsacides of Surville, was discovered by Hernando Enriquez of Mendana's expe- 
dition in 1568. It is 103 m. long and 4274 ft. high. The northwest point is in 
8 19' s., 160 30' K. The southeast point is in 9 45' s., 161 30' K. Natives are 
reputed treacherous. 

Malacan or Malacal, islet of Korror, Pelew islands. 7 19' N., 134 31' 45" K. 

Malaki is off the north side of Viti levti, Fiji. Of triangular form with sides about 

2 in. long, it is 755 ft. high, covered with grass and casuarina trees; inhabited. 
The northeast point is in 17 16' 10" s., 178 08' 40" K. 

Malamala, a sand islet in Nandi waters off the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Malapa, the largest island in Marau sound off Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 946's., 

1 60 48' K. 
Malatta, of the Exploring group, is joined to Vanua mbalavu by reef. It is 2 in. by 

0.3 in., and 420 ft. high. 17 20' 30" s., 181 01' K. 
Malaupaina, the southernmost of the Three Sisters, Solomon islands. The middle 

one is Malau lalo, the north one Malau. 

[178] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



95 



Maiden or Independence was discovered by Byron July 29, 1825, on the voyage on 
which he brought the remains of the King and Queen of the Hawaiian islands to 
Honolulu. It is 4 m. in diameter, and about 30 ft. high. There are traces of a 
former Polynesian population in curious stone structures. It is a British pos- 
session and is worked for gnano. No fresh water on the island. It was named 
for an officer of the Blonde. 4 05' S., 155 w. 

Malebu, islet off north coast of Yiti levu, Fiji. 

Malekula or Mallicolo, of the New Hebrides, extends 55 m. \w-SE. by 15 m. The 
inhabitants are warlike but small in stature. The southwest point is in 16 26' s., 
167 47' K. As will be seen 
by the map, the northeast and 
south shores are fringed by a 
mountain chain. 

Malema, see Matema or Swallow 
islands. 

Mali is off the north coast of Va- 
nua levu, Fiji; 350 ft. high; 
inhabited. i62o'54"s., 179 
19' 42" E. 

Malima, two islets (south one 
130 ft. high) in the centre of 
a lagoon 1.7 m. in diameter, 
6 m. N. by w. from Kanathia, 
Fiji. i7o8'3o"s.,i8o 5 o'K.O 

Malinoa, small, low, 50 ft. high. 
Tongan group. 

Maliu or Toulon is 6 m. off Ama- 
7.011 bay on the south coast of 
New Guinea. It is 3 m. in cir- 
cumference, and 300 ft. high ; 
covered with trees and grass. 
There is a large village. 

Mallicolo, see Malekula, New Hebrides. The former perhaps more common on charts. 

Malo or St. Bartholemew, islet off the southeast side of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 
Natives are small in stature, but vigorous eaters of human flesh. 

Maloelab, Calvert, Araktcheeff or Kaven of the Marshall islands, was discovered by 
Captain Gilbert June 29, 1788, and by him named Calvert. It consists of 64 islets 
on a reef extending 33 m. NW-SE, by 15 m. Kotzebue gives the southeast point as 

no / of /~ 

in 8 29 x., 171 ii E. 6. 

Malogi, islet near Tangoa anchorage, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 
Malolo islands, of the Hudson group, Fiji, extend over a triangle with sides of 2 m. 

They are inhabited and well cultivated. Malolo, Malololailai, Ngualito, Mathiu, 

Wadingi and Vatu mbulo, the last three mere rocks. i746'io"s., i77o8'4o"K.O 
Malololailai, islet southeast from Malolo, 30 ft. high. North point 17 46' 30" s., 

177 10' 30" E. 

[i79] 




FIG. 5. MALEKULA : FROM ADMIRALTY CHART. 



96 /.\7>/<:X TO Till- PACIFIC ISI.AM)S. 

Malpelo, a barren rock surrounded by many islets, seen by Colnett July 1793; 1200 ft. 

high. 4 03' \., Si ' 36' \v. 

Malukawa, north from Saibai, Xe\v Guinea. 9 18' s., 142 4<S' K. 
Malume group consists of Puna and Nugarba, Bismarck archipelago. 3 13' s., 

o ft 

154 20 K. 

Mamanutha, islands in the Hudson group, Fiji. 18 52' s., 178 26' K.O There are 
13 islands divided into two groups: M. i thake (windward), Mana, Matamanoa, 
Nautanivono, Tavua, inhabited. Mondriki, Monn, Yanua, Tokoriki, M. i ira (lee- 
\\ard), Yavurimba, Kandomo, Vanua levn, Na vandra, Eori, all uninhabited. 14. 

Mambualau, low islet on reef of Viti levu, Fiji. 17 57' 10" s., 178 48' 15" K.O 

Mamere, islet within N'Goe reef on the southeast side of New Caledonia. 

Man, see Uatoni, Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

Man-of-war Rock, see Gardner south of the Hawaiian islands. 

Mana, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i thake group, Fiji. 

Manahiki, a spelling of Monahiki or Humphrey. 19. 

Manaka, two groups in the Paumotu archipelago discovered by Cook in 1773. They 
each have lagoons and are very near each other. The north one is called 
Marokau, the south one Manaka. More than 20 islets. The south point is in 
18 13' 28" s., 142 10' w. 31. 

Manantia, islet on the southeast coast of New Guinea, 130 ft. high; east from Taurama. 

Manaswari, islet of Port Dorei on the north coast of New Guinea. There is a Mis- 
sion station here. o 55' S., 134 08' E. 

Mando or He aux Canards, islet at the south end of New Caledonia. . 

Mandoliana is south from Florida, Solomon islands. 9 n' 30" s., 160 15' 30" K. 

MandllilotO, one of the islets of Sikaiana or Stewart island. 8 23' S., 162 58' K. 

Manevai or Direction, islet of Yanikoro, New Hebrides; small, 250 ft. high. 

Mangaia, of the Hervey group, is 20 in. in circumference and 300 ft. above the sea. 
Discovered by Cook March 29, 1777. In 1885 it had a population of 4000 and is 
the centre of the Protestant Mission for the Central Pacific. The fringing reef 
has no entrance. The people were very skilful in carving paddles and handles of 
ceremonial adx.es, as shown by the specimens in every museum. 21 57's., i5iO7' w. 

Mangareva, Peard or Gambier, a coral reef with five small volcanic islands and many 
islets, discovered by Captain Wilson in the DnffMay 25, 1797. It was named for 
Admiral Lord Gambier. The group extends 4 m. NE-SW., and there are three 
passages into the lagoon. Mt. Duff is 1315 ft. high. In 1880 the population was 
about 1000. Mangareva, Akamaru or \Vainwright, Aukena or Elson, Taravai or 
Belcher, Agakanitai, Makaroa or Marsh, Kamaka or Collie, Manui, Makapu. 
Mangareva is an important station of the Roman Catholic Mission. 23 08' s., 
134 55' 3o" \v. 22. 

Mango ( Mago), Fiji, is 18 m. XNK. from Thithia, 3X2 m., and 670 ft. high ; water only 
from wells. It is the property of English colonists. i727'3o"s., iSo53'3o"K.O 

Mangorongoro, see Tongareva or Penrhyn. 

Mangrove, low island of Fiji. 17 50' 30" s., 177" 21' K.O 

Mangs or Manjas, see Urracas of the Marianas. 

Manicolo, a name of Yanikoro, New Hebrides. 12,. 

[i8q] 



CO 

o 

o 

O) 






s 



j 

* 









irf* 1 -'' & 



- 

2 



Q. 

D 
O 

Q: 




1 

3 
H 




Qt 
C 



w 

_o 

o 



CO 



w 





It' 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 97 

Manihi, of the Paumotu archipelago, is the Waterlandt of Lemaire and Schouten, 
1616; 13 m. NK-SVV. Inhabitants make curiously elaborate canoes. The east end 
is in 14 24' S., 145 52' w. 2I.C.2^ 

Manihiki, see Monahiki. 19. 

Manim, islet of Jobi, New Guinea. 

Manima, islet of Tongatabu. 

Matioba or Elisabeth, a thickly wooded island off the northeast point of Malaita, 
Solomon islands. 8 20' s., 160 43' K. 

Manono, of the Samoan islands, is on the reef of Upolu. It has a surface of 3.3 sq. m.- 
500 ft. high. 13 50' s., ij2oi'K. Formerly the political centre of the feudal aristo- 
cracy; at present a sort of naval dockyard where a large double war-canoe is kept. 15. 

Manor, of the Schouten islands. o 50' S., 136 E. 

Manose, one of the Hermit islands. i 34' s., 144 55' K. 8. 

Mantapeiti (leeward) and Mantapeitak (windward), islets of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Manton, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Manila, of the American part of the Samoan group, covers 20 sq. m. and rises to a height 
of 2500 ft. 14 15' S., 169 26'3o"w.O The traditionary cradle of the Samoan race. 

Mantiae, a barren islet on the same reef with Anotu ; few inhabitants. Discovered 
by Cook in 1773. Hervey group. 23. 

Manuatha, off the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 400 ft. high. 

Manubada, islet off Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea. 9 32' S., 147 IO'E. 

Manuhangi or Cumberland, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 
in 1767. It is low but inhabited. The west end is in 19 i2's., 141 I9'o6"w. 21. 

Manui, islet of Mangareva. 

Manumanu, at the mouth of the Vanapa river in Redscar bay, New Guinea. 9o9's., 
146 54' E. 

Maora, islet on the east reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Maoraha, islet of San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Map, islet on northern side of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Mapas, islet on the south coast of Murua, Kiriwina group. 9 09' s., 152 45' E. 

Mapeti, in Aifa pass on the coast of Tahiti, Society islands. 2O. 

Mapia, see Pegan. 

Mara, islet in Muendo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Maragili, a name of Kosmann islet in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Marai with Taliwewai forms Stuers islets ; low, wooded, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Maraki or Matthew, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captains Marshall and 
Gilbert in 1788; 5X2.5 m., the lagoon shores almost entirely covered with vegeta- 
tion. Population was 1900 in 1886. 2 N., 173 25' E. 7. 

Maratnasiki is southeast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 9 32' s., 161 25' E.O 

Marambo, a small, wooded island 7 m. E. by N. from the south point of Kambara, 
Fiji ; 160 ft. high. 

Marceau, islet in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Marchand, see Nukuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 23. 

Marcken, incorrectly on the charts as Marqueen, was named by Lemaire from a sup- 
posed resemblance to the island of that name in the Zuyder Zee. Captain Mort- 

MKMOIKS II. P. B. Mi'SKrM. VOL. I., No. 2. 7. 



9 S 



INDEX TO Tin-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



lock saw this group in 1795. It is supposed to be the Cocos of Wilkinson, 1790, 
and it lias been called Massacre because here a crew was cut off in 1830. There are 
13 low, coral islands on a reef 10 m. in diameter. The south islet is the largest 
and inhabited. 4 45' S., 157 K. 

Marcus, barren island in 23 10' x., 154 K. Seized by Japan in 1899 in anticipation 
of a cable station. 

Mare or Xengone, the Britannia of Burroughs (1842), was discovered by D'Urville 
June 15, 1827. It is the principal island of the Loyalty group, and has a popula- 
tion of about 2000. The northeast point is in 21 29' 30" s., 168 06' K. 

Maretiri, see Bass islands. 

Margaret, an inhabited island near Sideia on the southeast coast of New Guinea; 
1.5 m. K-W., 0.5 m. N-S.; 500 ft. high. 10 41' s., 150 54' E. 

Margaret, a name given to Nukutipipi by Turnbull from his ship Margaret. 

Margaretta, see Namo of the Marshall islands. 

Margaritana (La), an island discovered by Quiros April 26, 1606, 12 leagues from 
the San Marcos of de Leza. Perhaps one of the Banks islands. 13 s. 

Maria, see Mcerenhont of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Maria, an island on the east coast of Tasmania, 2750 ft. high, was a government re- 
serve for the last of the Tasmanians. 42 40' s., 148 E. 

Maria, see Peru or Francis of the Gilbert islands. 7. 

Marianas or Ladrone. Although Magalha.es first discovered this group March 6, 
1521, his name "Islas de las velas latinas" was soon superseded by that of Ladrones ; 
and in 1668 they were officially named Marianas in honor of Maria Anna of Aus- 
tria, widow of Philip IV. of Spain. The islands of the group arranged from south 
to north are as follows : 



NAMED. 


KXTKST. 


IlKKiHT. 


I'niTLATION. 


LATITI UK 

NOBTH. 


LoMilTI MK 

BAST. 
















1" bv "> " 












:t bv '2 






14 Y: B 






10 bv 4 .". 




' II 








1 1 MI IOIIK 


1 






































































' ' bv 1 1 


! 

















































































The primitive Chafnorros have left memorials in remarkable stone columns on 
Tinian and Guam. These are, according to Lieutenant Mortimer, 5 ft. 4 in. broad 
at the base, 14 ft. high, and surmounted by hemispheres of stone 5 ft. 10 in. in 
diameter. As the group is situated at about the place where the northeast trades 
cease and the monsoons meet the rainfall is almost continuous, and atmospheric 
disturbances attain to the force of hurricanes. Earthquakes, as might be expected 
in a country wholly volcanic, are common though not very severe. At the present 
writing it is understood that Spain has sold the group to Germany since the acqui- 
sition of Guam by the United States at the end of the Spanish-American war. 

[182] 



INDEX TO 'I HE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



99 



Mariere or Pulo Mariere, also called Warren Hastings, 
was discovered by Captain Hutchinson September, 
1761. It is 2 m. N-S. by i ni. K-w., and inhabited. 
5 45' s., 132" 28' K. 

Marina, a name of Espiritn Santo, New Hebrides, nsed by the 
Banks islanders. In Maewo and Oba it is called Marino. 

Marion, see Tupna of the Society islands. 

Marire, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Markham, see Bagiagia, a reef island in Moresby strait. 

Maro reef was discovered by Captain Allen of the Ameri- 
can whaler Malo in 1820. About 35 in. in circumfer- 
ence; no land; breakers only. Northwest point is in 
25 31' N., 170 37' 33" w. 

Marokatl, Dawhaida or Ravahere was discovered by Cap- 
tain Cook in 1773. There is great uncertainty about 
this group, not as to its existence, but whether there 
are not two distinct reefs, besides the neighboring one 
of Manaka. I have followed the charts, but the sailing 
directions contradict these and there is no competent 
exploration to determine. North point is in 17 55' s., 
142 17' w. 

Maronu, islets in Uailu passage on the northeast side of 
New Caledonia. 

Maroupo, a name of Angatau of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Marovo, New Georgia or Rubiana, of the Solomon islands, 
consists of three principal islands and many islets, all 
of recent volcanic origin, some rising to a height of 
2500 ft. Inhabitants are dark, sturdy cannibals. The 
northeast point is in 7 57' S., 157 31' K. 

Marqueen of the charts should be Marcken as named by 
Lemaire. 

Marquesas, Les Marquises, were discovered July 21, 1595, 
by Mendaiia so far as the southeast group is con- 
cerned. The northern group by Marchand in 1791, 
and by Ingraham about the same time. They were 
named in memory of Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, 
Marques de Caiiete, Viceroy of Peru and patron of 
Mendana's second voyage. They were taken by France 
in 1842. The native inhabitants have diminished from 
the supposed number of 75,000 to less than 3500. 
They were of beautiful form, finely tatued, and hun- 
gry cannibals. Now they are perishing with leprosy, 
syphilis and other evils. Devoted Hawaiian mission- 
aries have labored with them for forty years. The 
islands of the group may be tabulated as follows: 

[183] 



Pajaros 



Urracas 



Asuncion 



MARIANAS 

Agrigan 



Pagan ft 
Almagan ^ 

Cuguan 
Torres 



OR 



Sariguan 



Anatajan 



Medimll* 



Saipan 

strQ&b 

* W 

Tinian /} 



Aguijan 



LADRONE 



, Rot* 




GUAM 



FIG. 6. 



IOO 



INDEX TO TH1-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 



XATIVK NAMK. 


IHAKT NAMK. 

Katiiuliu, Hatirork. 
I'lianal. 
Lanffdon. 
NexwB. 

MI.-M: 
Knox. 
Km-mantlr. 
BobortB. 
NVw York. 
Franklin. 
Blake. 
Hfrgfst. Two Brothen. 
l-Vderal. 
Sir Ili-nrv Miirtiii. 
II.- Haux. 
AdaniH. 

Waaoinffton. 

MaHsarhiiHet is. 
Rlou. 
Ouahouka, Roahouga. 
Adams. 
Washington. 
Marchand. 
Ouapou, Roapoua. 

Hood. 
Fatou-houkou. 

Fetnku. 

l.:i 1 innihiii-ji. 

<>hiva-H<m. 
Snnta CristiiiH. 
San IVdrn. 
Motiotane. 
Santa Magdalina. 


DBOOYBBKB. 

1 ii^ralunn. 1 7!1 . 
M;irrli;Uld. 17 ( .H. 
KobertN, 17::t. 
FiiiiniiiK:, 17;'v 
Man-hand. 17!>1. 
Inrahain, 17nl. 
KnbtTts. 17'.t::. 

HtT^'t'st . I7!''J. 

Fanning. 179K. 

Iii^raham, 1791. 
KobtTts. 17:!. 

Ingraham. 17'.tl. 

M.TRI'St. 17!*-'. 

M/in-hand, 17H1. 
Roberts, 1793. 
Ingraham, 171H . 
Roberts, 179:t. 
Hergeet, 1782. 

Ingraham, 175*1. 
Roberts, 1793. 

Cook, 1774. 

Mendana, 15H5. 
D'Urville. 
Mendana, LV.tr>. 
Mendana. 1595. 

Mendana, 1595. 


KXTKXT IX IlKIIlHT IX LATITDIK 

\III.KS. ! KKT. SuI'TH. 


I.IIMilTI'IIK 

\VKST. 


U i-1.Mi U i..n <ir<Hi|>: 


4 b.v 1. l^-i 7 ."' Hit" 
(! b.v :t. -.Mitii s 1 1' 

Kork. 7-.M s 4:1 
14 b.v 1'.'. 4iHilt? N .M \K\ 

7.r> by ri. J4:i s :,:, 
9 by 5. 4042 9 24 

Rock. 1180 9 28 

22 by <!. 12M It 47 

H.5 bv 4. :t2M ii :, ; 
5 by 2. 1640 10 00 

8 by 4. S675 11- 24 


1 l.i :!4' (Hi" 
1411 4'.l 

14(1 :I7 
1411 ml 4<l 

l:et :14 
140 li:. 

138 50 

l:ls 47 

1 :'.'.! mi 
us rji 

i:is 411 


1- Ho .... 










Mendana Group: 












Marsh, see Makaroa, islet of Mangareva. 
Marshall, see Tarawa, of the Gilbert group. 

MARSHALL ISLANDS. 




NATIVE NAMK. 


CHART NAME. 


-,:;' r I>,COV K H EB . 


1 1 it t ark <*rou]>: 






h. 

ravt-rwey. 
i \ i'ii. Afjiktrhfcff. 
H-tion, KiiiTiip. 
*. 

(p-to. 

ills. 
w Year. 

Button. 

spilT- Kirn. 
Vt'll. 


10 

r.-i]Hain M.-irshMll. I7s. 
MnrKliiill A- (iillnTt. 
:i:i .Mtirslinll A- <;ill.rrt. 
T-> Kotzc-lnii'. 
l>4 

44 KotZfbin-. IS17. 
1 

Kinzi-biie. 1N17. 

-'1 (i. UM.V. 1N--4. 
:! I'.-iplnhi lldnil. 17(11'. 

1 C.-lpl.-lill 1 IrlllK'i . 

Ml 

a 

i 

C.-iIitiiin Hon<], 17il2. 
1 

14 ('MJIttllll lirilWII, IK.'iN. 

Captaiii Shiinz, Is:!',. 

riiptniii WnlliB. 17117 
is Kiitzchilc. 1M7. 
Ill 
I" i',i].t:iin T. llnlliT, 17114. 
13 


Mill,. 




\l nl urn v 






Dniiifl |v 


















Calvt-rt K 


Krikuti 












I ,ik Mi 




(V nut H -i 








Ailkt) 




Tindal \\' 


Miadi 




Medjit \f 


Taka 






| l jrik 


















Kili< k I.I...IP \\ . -i 










.. . 


Kill 






.lalult 


















iqnfflo, 

ff. 

rKakofr. Itadokaln. 
z. 

ruvideiirc. < UMObOfl. 








Lib 






1 j,,,. 






1 at- 






Kwadjiiliu 






Wottn . 






Ailinuiiuir 










I' li r 














Kniwftnk 






('Hong 













[184] 



INDEX TO l^HE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 101 

Marshall Islands, an extensive group between the Caroline and Gilbert islands, 
probably visited by Alvaro de Saavedra in 1529. Captain Wallis, in 1767, was 
at Rongerik, and in 1788 Captains Marshall and Gilbert explored this group 
more thoroughly than any previous navigators. In February, 1886, Germany 
annexed the group and has since endeavored to colonize it, but without much 
success. 

Marshall Bennett, three small, high, uninhabited islands discovered by Captain 
Hunter of the Marshall Bennett in 1836. 8 49' s., 151 56' E. 

Martin, on the northeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 6 n' s., 155 35' E. 

Martin, see Nganati of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Martin de Maj^orga, name given by Maurelle in 1781 to the Tongan group. 

Mania or Maupiti of the Society islands. It is 6 m. in circumference and surrounded 
by a reef on which are several palm-covered islets; volcanic, 800 ft. high. Popu- 
lation, 300. 16 26' s., 152 12' w.G 2O. 

Marutea or Lord Hood, in the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered in 1791 by Cap- 
tain Edwards in H. M. S. Pandora. The atoll extends 1 1 m. K-W., and 7 m. N-s., 
It is uninhabited and the lagoon is closed. 21 31' S., 135 38' w. 2,2,. 

Marutea or Furneaux, a low, inhabited atoll discovered by Cook in 1773. West end 
in 16 54' s., 143 20' w. 

Mary Balcout of Wilkes is Canton in the Phcenix group. 

MaS-a-fliera is 92 m. west from Juan Fernandez, 8 m. N-S., 5 m. E-w., 4000 ft. high. 
33 46' s., 80 46' w. 

Masamasa is 575 ft. high, in Bougainville strait, Solomon islands. 647's., i56O9'E. 

Mas-a-tierra, a name of Juan Fernandez. 

Maskelyne, group of low islands, thickly peopled, off the southeast coast of Malekula, 
New Hebrides. Sakau is the largest ; others are Kolivia and Kiwyo. 

Masmapi, islet in Dorei bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Massachusetts of Roberts is Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Massacre, a name given to Marcken of Lemaire. 

MaSSaramcoer or Bramble Cay, a sandbank 10 ft. high at the northeast boundary of 
Queensland Colony. 9 07' 50" s., 143 52' 10" E. 

Masse of Roberts is Eiao of the Marquesas islands. 

Matador, of the Caroline islands was discovered in 1876. It consists of 15 islets on 
an atoll, some of them inhabited. i 30' N., 157 05' E. 

Matahiva or Lazareff, of the Paumotu archipelago, a low, wooded island discovered 
by Bellingshausen in 1820. West end is in 14 53' 30" S., 148" 43' 30" w. 

Mataiwa, a form of Matahiva. 

Mata kawa, of the Talbot group is opposite the mouth of the Wassi kussa river of 
New Guinea. 9 16' s., 142 12' E. 

Matamanoa, uninhabited islet of the Mamanutha i thake group, Fiji. 

Matangi, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 22' S., 171 12' w. 

Matangi, a small, unhabited island, i m. long, crescent-shape. Fiji. 

Matamuku, islet south of Kandavu, Fiji; 700 ft. high. 19 10' 20" s., 178 06' 40" E. 

Mataou or East Sentinel, islet at entrance to Comptroller bay, Nukuhiva, Marquesas 

islands. 

[185] 



102 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



MATUKU 



Mataso or Two Hill of the New Hebrides, is about 19 m. north from Xguna; 1650 
ft. high. Natives friendly. Mission station. 17 18' s., 168 23' K. 

Matathoni levu, of Yasawa group, Fiji, 2 m. x-s. North point in 16 57's., 178 i8'45" K. 

Matelotas, see Ngoli of the Caroline islands. 

Matema, Swallow or Reef, comprise Lomlom, Nufiluli, Pileni, Nukapn, Anologo, 
Nibanga, Panavi, Nupani, Fenuloa. The group lies between ioo4'-io 22's., 
i6539'-i66 19' K. British protectorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. 12. 

Materbert, small, rocky, off Gazelle peninsula of New Britain, Bismarck archipelago. 

Materhert, of the Bismarck archipelago, is 0.2 in. long. 4 17' s., 151 32' K. 

Matthias, a mountainous and wooded islet 
northwest from New Hanover. i32's. 

Mathieu, islet of Malolo group, Fiji. 

Mathuata ( Macuata ) , off north coast of Va- 
nna levu, Fiji; 1.5 m.long, 5<x>ft. highi- 

Matilda, see Murtiroa of the Patimotu archi- 
pelago. 22. 

Matin, islet of Marovo or New Georgia, 
Solomon islands. 8 25' s., 158 05' K. 

MatO, islet 5 m. south from Uen island. 

Matthew, discovered by Captain Gilbert 
in 1788; 465 ft. high. 22 20' 12" s., 

o / n 

171 2O 30 K. 

Matthew, islet in Uitoe passage on the 
southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Matthew, a basaltic cone southeast from 
New Caledonia. 

Matthew, see Maraki of the Gilbert islands. 

Mattinson, see Sophia of the Ellice group 
(existence uncertain). 

Matty, or Maty, was discovered by Carteret September 19, 1767, and named for his 
friend Dr. Maty. It is 6 m. square, flat, and thickly peopled by a fine light col- 
ored race of uncertain relationship. Their implements are peculiar and exceed- 
ingly interesting. i45's., 142 47' K. Probably this is Tiger of the charts. 8. 

Matll avi, one of the Stewart group. 8 23' s., 162 58' K. 

Matukanaputa, small and rocky island off Gazelle peninsula of New Britain; 60 ft. 
high. 4 13' s., 151 32'' K. 

Matuku, in Fiji, is a good example of a high ( 1262 ft.) island with a fringing reef. 
The map is copied from the survey given in the Challenger Report. Matuku is 
4.5 m. N-S. Carr's harbor on the west side is the best in the group. The volcanic 
peaks add great beauty to the scenery. The south point is in 19 13' 30" S., 
179 44' K. Population in 1880 was 712. 

MatUpi, a small volcanic island in Blanche bay, New Britain. 4 13' s., 152 10' K. 

Maturei Vavao or Estancelin of the Paumotu archipelago, is the southeastern of the 

Aclaeon group. It is 6 m. \\v-SK. Northwest point is in 21 2/'s., 136 28' w. 22. 

[186] 







FIG. 7. 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 103 

Maty was discovered by Carteret September 19, 1767, and named for his friend Dr. 
Maty. It is 6 m. square, flat and thickly peopled by a fine light colored race of 
uncertain relationship. Their implements are peculiar and exceedingly interest- 
ing. i 45' s., 142 47' E. Probably this is Tiger of the charts. 8. 

Mail, Hinchinbrook or Vele of the New Hebrides, is a volcanic cone 2 m. in diameter, 
and 1493 ft. high. The crater is filled with vegetation. Natives peaceable. 

Maui, of the Hawaiian group, is the second in size, measuring 466,000 acres. It is 
43 m. long, divided by a low isthmus into East and West Maui. The former is the 
grand cone (10,032 ft. high) capped by the crater of Haleakala, which is more 
than 2000 ft. deep and 20 m. in circuit. The latter, also an ancient volcano, is 
lower (5820 ft.) and its flanks are deeply cut into picturesque valleys. Popula- 
tion in 1896 was 17,726. The north side of the isthmus is in 20 54' 15" N., 
156" 29' \v. I. 

Mailiki, of the Hervey group, is about 6 m. in circumference, fertile, has no lagoon 
nor any opening in the fringing reef. 20 07' S., 157 22' w. 33. 

Maupiti, see Marua of the Society islands. 

Mausoleum, a sugar-loaf-shaped hill 650 ft. high, between New Ireland and New 
Hanover in the Bismarck archipelago. 2 44' S., 150 32' E. 

Mauti of Byron is Mauiki of the Hervey group. 

Mavuva, islet of Mathuata on the north coast of Vanua leva, Fiji. 

Mawtu, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 25' 30" s., 171 12' 30" w. 

May, see Yakuve, Fiji. 18 51' 45" s., 178 27' K.O 

Mayon, see Marua or Woodlark. 

Mayor, see Tuhoua, New Zealand. 

Mba, islet of Uitoe passage, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbatiki (Batiki), Fiji, near the centre of the group, is 2 m. in diameter and 609 ft. 
high. Population in 1880, 342. 17 46' s., 179 10' E. 

Mbau (Bau), Fiji, small island east from Viti levu, 80 ft. high. 17 59' 16" s., 
178 39' 20" E. 

Mbe, islet in Port Uitoe, southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbenau, islet on the south coast of Vanua levu, Fiji, 100 yds. in diameter, covered 
with palms. 

Mbenga (Beqa), is 5X3 m. and rises to 1400 ft. 18 22' 15" S., 178 07' 30" E. 

Mboa, islet in Uitoe passage on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbu, islet in Port Uitoe, on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Mbua, islet 35 ft. high on the shore reef at the southeast end of Nananu i thake, Fiji. 

Mbuimbani, a conical island 430 ft. high in Nanuku passage, Fiji; planted with 
coconut trees. 

Mbulia (Bulia), 460 ft. high, inhabited, in Kandavu group, Fiji. i846's., 178 33' E. 

Mbulo, a small island off Cape Pitt of Marovo, Solomon islands; about 800 ft. high. 

8 45' -s, 158 15' K. 

McAskill, see Tugulu ; also Pingelap. 
McKeatl, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Wilkes in 1840. It is low, 

0.7X0.5 m. 3 36' s., 174 16' w.O 17. 
Meaburn. islet of Caroline islands. 

[187] 



io 4 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Meama, islet of the Tongan group. 

Meek, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 

Medjit, see Miadi of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Meduro, see Majuro of the Marshall islands. 

Mefur, a low, uninhabited island 10 m. long on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Mehetia, a form of Maitea of the Society islands. 2O. 

Meiwa, islet east from Yeina in the Louisiade archipelago. 11 22' S., 153 30' K. 

Mej, islet on the west coast of Ebon, Marshall islands. 4 36' 30" x., 168 41' 30" E. 

Mekinley, in China strait, 200 ft. high. 10 33' s., 150 43' 35" H. 

Mekundranga, a low island 1.2X0.2 m. Fiji. 17 24' 16" .s., 178 58' 50" K.O 

Melbourne, see Tenarunga, Paumotu archipelago. 21 22' S., 136 34' w. 

Meli, a low, inhabited islet of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Mellim, islet on the southeast coast of Marua of the Trobriand group. 9 09' s., 

I52 57' K. 

Mellu, islets of Kwadjalin of the Marshall islands. 
Melville, see Hikueru of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Mende, islet on the east side of Willaumez peninsula, New Britain. 
Mentschikow, see Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 
Menu (La), islet of Tasiko, New Hebrides. 

Meoko, better Mioko, inhabited islet of the Duke of York group, New Ireland. 
MeostUim, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea; 12-14 m. long, i m. 

wide. i 29' S., 135 14' E. 
Mer or Murray, with Dauer and Waier within one reef. Inhabitants Papuan. 954's., 

144 02' E. 

Meralaba, see Merlav of the New Hebrides. 
Merat, 3-4 m. in circumference, on the New Guinea coast. 
Mercury or D'Haussez, on the coast of New Zealand. 36 40' s., 175 45' E. 
Merig or St. Claire, is between Merlav and Gaua of the Banks islands ; 200 ft. high. 

Population, 15-20. 14 17' s., 167 50' E. 
Merite, of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago, is about 5 m. E-w by 4 in., and 

2150 ft. high; near New Britain. 4 56' s., 149 07' E. 
Merlav, Meralaba or Star Peak of the New Hebrides, is 2900 ft. high. Population 

about 700. A Mission station. 14 29' S., 167 59' E. 
Messum, a raised coral island of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Meta, islet on the north coast of New Guinea, which with Gressien forms Dallmann 

harbor. 

Metia, see Makatea, Paumotu archipelago. 2O. 
Metis, of the Tongan group, was first noticed in 1875 bv Metis 75 m. from Falcon 

island. It was 29 ft. high; after an eruption it rose to 150 ft.; now a shoal bank. 

19 n' s., 174 49' w. 
Metoma, between Middle and North of the Torres group, is about 450 ft. high. 

1.5 X 0.7 m. 

Mewadi, islet north from Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 50' s., 150 55' E. 
Mewstone, see Moturina of the Louisiade archipelago. 
Meyer, off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

[,8S] 



170 



Uente Hermosa 




SAVAII 




GERMAN AMERICAN 

UPOLU 

anono 

~^n* 

"anuatapn 

TUTUILA 
~h^) oAnuu 



Nuutele 



W. 



MANUA GROUP 



Rosa 
o 



SAMOAN ISLANDS 



170 



Nine 

O 



w. 






V1AOM/ 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 105 

Miadi, Medjit or New Year of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Kot/ebue, 

January i, 1817. The atoll is 3 m. N-S., and 0.7 m. wide. ioi7'3o"N., i7o55'E. 
Mibu, low, wooded, n m. in circumference, at the month of Fly river, separated by a 

narrow creek from the mainland. 8 43' s., 143 23' E. 
Michaelov, see Tnvana i ra, Fiji. 
Middle, see Tegtia in China strait. 

Middlebtirgh, on the New Guinea coast. o 24' S., 132 10' E. 
Middleburgh, a name given by Tasman in 1643 to Eua of the Tongan islands. 
Midge, see Abaura, New Guinea. 
Midway, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Brooks of the Gambia in 

1859. He took possession for the United States. It was surveyed by Captain 

W. Reynolds (afterwards Admiral) in U. S. S. Lackaiuanna in 1867. Reef is 18 in. 

in circumference, with an entrance to the lagoon on the west. There are two islets, 

Eastern and Sand. 28 12' 22" N., 177 22' 20" w. It has (1900) been carefully 

resurveyed by the officers and men of the U. S. Iroquois, and many soundings 

were made to facilitate its use as a cable station. 
Mille or Mulgrave, of the Marshall islands, is a chain of atolls 30 m. long; discovered 

by Captain Marshall in 1788. The southwest point is in 6 09' N., 171 30' E. 
Mills, one of the Tiri islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Milne, off southeast coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 
Miloradowitch, a name given by Bellingshausen in 1819 to Faaite of the Paumotu 

archipelago. 

Minerva, see Pukahuha, Paumotu archipelago. 

Miniminiahura is north of Saibai, New Guinea. 9 17' s., 142 45' E. 
Minto, see Tenarunga of the Actseon group. 
Mioko or Meoko, is an inhabited islet of the Duke of York group in the Bismarck 

archipelago, where the German protectorate was proclaimed November 3, 1884. 

4 13' S., 152 28' E. 

Mioskaroar, small, low, thickly wooded, on north coast of New Guinea. o i8's., I35O3'E. 
Misima or St. Aignan of the Louisiade archipelago, is 21.5 m. E-w., 3-4 m. N-S., and 

35OOzt ft. high. Population, in 1890, 3000; a mixture of Malay and Papuan 

stock; head-hunters, who have many canoes. Alluvial gold has been found. 

West cape 10 38' s., 152 31' E. 9. 
Misool is 50 m. north from Ceram; 50X20 m., mountainous and wooded. Interior 

people are Papuan, on the coast much mixed with Malay. Subject to Sultan of 

Tidore. 2 S., 130 E. 
Misore or Mysore, see Schouten islands. 
Mitchell, a name of Nukulaelae of the Ellice group. 16. 
Mitiero or Mitiaro, of the Hervey group, is 10 m. in circumference, very barren ; deep 

lagoon with no opening in the surrounding reef. Population about 275. i949's., 

157 43' w. 

Mitre, see Fataka in 11 55' s., 170 10' E. 
Moai, islet of Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 
Moala, high, volcanic island of Fiji; 5X7 i"-, and 1535 ft. high. Population about 

600. South point is in 18 41' s., 179 53' E. 

[189] 



io6 INDEX TO THI-: PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Moali, Mali or Badeneu, islet southwest of Uea, Loyalty islands. There is only a 

boat passage between Moali and Uea. 
Modti manu (for Moku HKJH/I), old spelling of the Hawaiian name of Nihoa or Bird 

island. 

Moe, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 
Moller, see Amanu of the Panmotu archipelago. 
Moller, see Laysan, Hawaiian islands. 2. 
Moerenhoilt or Maria, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Mr. Ebrill of 

the Ampltitrite in 1832. A lagoon in centre. 21 53' S., 136 20' w.O 2,2,. 
Mofia, on the north coast of New Guinea; half a mile x-s., 200 ft. high. o c 28' s,, 

135 13' E. 

Mogmog, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 10 06' N., 139 45' 30" E. 

MogOgha, islet off the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Moka, islet of Kia, Fiji. 

Mokaluva, islet at the entrance to Port Nukulau on the southeast coast of Viti levu, 
Fiji. 

Mokil or Duperrey or Wellington is 90 m. east from Ponape, Caroline islands. It was 
discovered June 18, 1824, by Duperrey. The reef is 3 m. in diameter and has 
three islets, Mokil, Aoura and Ongai (According to others the names are Urak, 
Manton and Kalap). About 175 inhabitants. South end is in 639'N., I5953'K. 

Moko, islet of Pavuvu of the Russell group, Solomon islands. 9 04' s., 159 07' E. 

Mokomok (Arrowroot), chief place of Uluthi or Mackenzie group, Caroline islands. 

Mokor, Caroline islands, a name in Dr. L. H. Gulick's list, in 5 41' N., 152 40' K. 
Said not to exist. 

Mokuhooniki, islet 198 ft. high, off east end of Molokai, Hawaiian group. 2io7'4o"x., 

S"Q f ff 

156 42 20 w. 

Moktllii, islet off north coast of Oahu, Hawaiian group. 

Mokungai, 10 m. from Ovalau, Fiji; 3 m. N-S., 1.5 m. H-\v. The north point is in 
17 24' 16" s., 179 01' E. 

Molahau, in Bismarck archipelago. 3 14' s., 152 28' E. 

Molard, see Ndundine, Loyalty islands. 

Mole, islet 0.7 m. long, in Purdy islands. 2 52' S., 146 18' E. 8. 

Molokai, of the Hawaiian islands, is a long, high island, 4958 ft. high, and covering 
167,000 acres. Population, 2307. On the middle of the north side a tongue runs 
northward from the base of high precipices, and here, walled by nature from the 
rest of the island, is the Government leper establishment. The east end is in 
21 09' 18' N., 156 42' 45" w.; the west end in 21 05' 50" N., 157 18' 45" w. I. 

Molokini, of the Hawaiian islands, is a small, extinct crater in the channel between 
Maui and Kahoolawe. Uninhabited. 

Monagim or Monagun, islet east of Misima, Louisiade archipelago. 10 42' s., 

153^' 53' K. 

Monahiki or Humphrey was discovered by Captain Patrickson in the Good Hope, 
1822. British protectorate declared August 9, 1889. It is a closed lagoon reef 
of triangular form with the apex to the north ; 6X5 ni. 10 2o'3o"s., 16101' i5"w. 

Population, 400-500. 19. 

[190] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 107 

Mondriki, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Money, islet of Pavuvu, Solomon islands. 

Monges (Monjes), see Anacoretas. 

Mono or Treasury is about .25 m. south from Bougainville of the Solomon islands ; 

6.5 m. E-\v., 4 m. N-S.; 1165 ft. high. 7 21' S., 155 32' K. 
Monofe, of the Hermit islands. i 29' s., 144 59' E. 8. 
Montague, see Muna, New Hebrides. 
Montemont, two islands, la taui and Pana bobo, in the Louisiade archipelago. 

11 i8's., 152 18' E. 
Monteverde, see Nukuor of the Caroline islands. Discovered by Juan B. Monteverde 

in 1806. 
Montgomery, Solomon islands, is about 15 m. E. bys.-w. by N.; uninhabited. 843's., 

157 29' E. 
Montravel is i m. E-W. at the west entrance to Praslin bay, New Caledonia. Named 

for Captain Tardy de Montravel. 

Monti, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Monuafe, islet of Tongatabu, opposite the entrance to harbor. 21 06' S., 175 07' w. 
Mooa, islet on the New Guinea coast. 
Moore, see Kayangle of the Pelew islands. 
Moorea or Eimeo of the Society islands, rises in Oroo peak to 4045 ft. The south 

end is in 17 34' 15" s., 150 oo' 30" w. 2O. 
Mopelia, see Mopeha of the Society islands. 2O. 
Mopeha, Lord Howe, Maura and Mobidie (of Turnbull), in the Society group, was 

discovered by Wallis in 1767; 10 m. N-S., 4 m. E-W. 16 52' S., 154 w. approx. 
Mor, 5 m. from Kutu, Caroline islands; 300 inhabitants. 

Moraniba, Fiji, 0.5 m. in diameter, is well wooded. 18 56' 30" S., 181 09' E.O 
Morane or Cadmus, in the Paumotu archipelago, is a closed lagoon reef with three 

inhabited islets; 5 m. by 2.5 m. 23 08' s., 137 20' w.O 2,2,. 
Morata, the name of a district of Dauila, D'Entrecasteaux group, often applied to the 

island. 
Moratau or Fergusson, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is 30 m. E-W. by 24 m. N-S. 

Mt. Kilkerran is 5000 ft. high. The island is cultivated and populous. 9. 
Moresby, see Basilaki. 

Moreton, off Moreton bay, Queensland ; 20X5 m. North point is in 27o6's., 153 i6'E. 
Moretiga, islet on the northwest coast of Isle of Pines. 

Morgusaia, islet on the south coast of Shortland, Solomon islands. 7 07'$., i5546'E. 
Morileu or Hall, discovered in 1824 by English Captain Hall. The group consists 

of Morileu, Rua, Namorousse and six islets. Population about 100. 8 41' N., 

152 25' E. 4. 

Moriltlg, coast of Australia. 10 39' S., 142 39' E. 
Morning Star, see Udjelong of the Marshall islands. 
Mornington or Wellesley, a group in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Seen by Tasman in 

1644, but supposed to be part of the mainland. Named for Lord Mornington, 

afterward Marquis of Wellesley. 

Moro, islet in Kuto bay, Isle of Pines. 

[191] 



io8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Morrell, reported by Captain Morrell in 1825 as of 29 57' N., 174 31' K.; but its exist- 
ence is doubtful, as it has not been seen for main- years. Now expunged from 
Admiralty charts (1900). 

Mortlock, a group of the Caroline islands discovered by Captain James Mortlock 
November 29, 1793. Consists of Lukunor, Satoan, Etal. Three long groups and 
nine islets; in all, 98 islands. 4* 

Mortlock, see Marcken. 

Moseley, islet in Nares harbor, Admiralty island. Named for Henry N. Moseley, of 
the Challenger expedition. 

MOSO, Deception or Verao, on the northwest side of Havannah harbor, Fate, New 
Hebrides. There are several villages on the island, of which Moso is one. Verao 
means long. 

Mosquito, a group on the north shore of Goodenough bay on the northeast coast of 
New Guinea. 9 46' s., 149 53' E. 

Mota, New Hebrides, was discovered by Quiros in 1606 and called Nostra (nuestra) 
Seiiora de la Luz. Bligh called it Sugar-loaf. There are two wooded peaks about 
1250 ft. high. Forty-two villages contain 2000 inhabitants, according to French 
authority. 13 48' S., 167 40' K. 12. 

Motane or San Pedro, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendana July 21, 
1595. Tessan calls it O-nateaya. 4.5 m. NNW-SSE; 1565 ft. high, sterile and un- 
inhabited. 10 s., 138 50' w. 23. 

Motea, islet at entrance to Hamene bay, Tahaa, Society islands. 

Mothe (Moce), Fiji. Wilkes calls it Motha. 2.2 m. in diameter, 590 ft. high; soil 
rich, island picturesque; inhabited. 18 36' 30" s., 181 26' K.G> 

Mottlhanua, islet to the eastward of Port Moresby, south coast of New Guinea. 

of o ,/-' ft 

9 32 s., 147 l6 3 K- 

Mottia, islet off the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Motuagea, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 22' 38" s., 171 13' w. 

Motuaini, islet in Styx passage, Loyalty islands. 

Motuiti, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' 45" S., 171 13' w. 

Motuiti (little island) or Franklin, sterile islet of the Marquesas. 8 43' S., 140 37' w. 

Motuiti or Kennedy, New Hebrides, was discovered by Captain Simpson in the 
Nautilus in 1801. Little is known of it. 8 36' s., 167 48' K. 

Motuiti, see Tubai, Society islands. 20. 

MotU Korea, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Motukavata, one of the Danger group; long, 125 ft. high, uninhabited. 10 58' s., 
165 15' w. 

Motukoe, one of the Danger group; uninhabited, iooift. high. io53's., i6545'3o"w. 

Motuloa, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 22' 26" s., 171 12' w. 

Motumau or Table, on the New Zealand coast. 43 04' s., 173 10' K. 

Motunangea, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 24' S., 171 13' \v. 

Motunui or West Sentinel, islet at the entrance to Taiohae harbor, Nukuhiva, Mar- 
quesas islands. 

MotU ora, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. Coconut island, in Hilo harbor, has 
the same name which signifies island of life. 

[192] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 109 

Motupatu, in Hanraki gulf near Waiheke, New Zealand. 

Moturiki is i m. s\v. from Ovalau, Fiji; 5X1 m.; abounds in coconuts. I7"47'o6"s., 

178 48' 25" K. (Peak.) 
Moturina or Mewstone, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 3 m. KSE-WNW. by 1.7 m.; 

nearly 1000 ft. high ; inhabited. 

Motlltulatula, islet of Fakaafo or Bowditch. 9 24' 45" s., 171 12' w. 
Motutunga or Adventure, atoll of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Cook 

in 1773. The lagoon has a boat entrance at the northwest side. Occasionally in- 
habited for collecting coconuts and pearl-shell. 17 04' s., 144 17' w.O 
Mouac, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Mougaone, Tongan islands. 
Moulin. 18 31' 10" s., 160 52' 14" E. Named for one of the sailors in D'Entre- 

casteaux expedition. 

Mound, on the Australian coast. 17 57' s., 146 09' K. 
Mourilyan, on the New Guinea coast. 

Mount AdolphuS, group in Torres strait. 10 38' s., 142 37' E. 
Mount Cornwallis, see Tauan on the southwest coast of New Guinea. 
Mouse, one of the Purdy islands. 2 55' S., 146 20' E. 
Mouse, islet in Fortescue strait, southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Mown, islet of Kiriwina group. 9. 

Mua, islet of Egum, Kiriwina group. 9 25' S., 151 58' E. 9. 
Mudge, see Narri of the Engineer group. 10 45' s., 150 18' E. 
Mugula or Dufaure is on the east side of Orangerie bay on the southeast coast of 

New Guinea; 3 m. N-S., 2 m. E-w.; 1662 ft. high; inhabited. io29's., 149 49' E. 
Muifuiva, islet near Namuka of the Tongan islands. 

Mukalau, low, 0.5 m. in circumference; off Viti levu, Fiji. 18 IT'S., 178 30' IO"E.O 
Mulgrave, in Torres strait. 10 07' s., 142 09' E.O 
Mulgrave, see Mille of the Marshall islands. 
Muli, see Moali of the Loyalty group. 

Mulifonua, islet of F'akaafo or Bowditch. 9 19' s., 171 13' w. 
Mumbualau, islet between Suva and Levuka, Fiji. 
Muna, Ngnua, Nuna or Montague, islet on the northeast coast of Fate, New Hebrides; 

1500 ft. high. 

Mungaiwa, islet of Yanutha of the Ringgold group, Fiji. 
Munia, of the Exploring islands, Fiji; 2X1 m., 1054 ft. high. i722's., i8io7'3o"E. 

Inhabited. 
Munia, southwest from Fauro, Solomon islands; 0.7 in. in diameter, 275 ft. high, 

wooded. 
Murray, islet in Nares harbor, Admiralty island. Named for Dr. John Murray of the 

Challenger. 
Murray, see Mer. 

Murray, 100 m. northeast from Cape York in Torres strait. ioo5's., 144 05' E. 
Murray, see Buraku, Solomon islands. 
Murua or Woodlark, in the Kiriwina group, was discovered by Captain Grimes of the 

Woodlark of Sydney before 1836; 40 m. E-w. Northwest point 8 54' s., 152 35' E. 9. 

[193] 



no INDEX TO TUX /'.K7/-7C ISLANDS. 

Mururoa, Osnuburgh or Matilda, was discovered by Carteret in 1767. It consists of 
1 8 low islands extending 14 m. The last name from the wreck of the whaler 
Matilda in 1792. East end in 21 50' S., 138 45' \v. Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

Muschu or Gressien, fertile and well peopled, on the north coast of New Guinea. 
3 24' S., 143 28' K. 

Museeket, islet of Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. 6. 

Muskillo, see Nemu, Caroline islands. 

Muswar, in Geelvink bay, north coast of New Guinea. 2 S., 134 25' K. 

Mutakaloch, islet off the Metalanim coast of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Muthuata, off Vanua leva, Fiji; 1.1X0.5 m., 1005 ft. high. East end in 16 25' s., 

179 03' 54" K. 

Mutok, islet on the south side of Ponape, Caroline islands. 
Mutokalpj, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 
Mutlirabu, islet of Tongatabn. 21 05', 30" s., 175 01' w. 
Muwo, of the Kiriwina group. 8 43' S., 150 58' E. 
Myet, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4 06' s., 152 27' K. 
Mysory, see Schouten. 
Manuna, islet east of Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea, g" 33' s., 

147 16' E. 
Mywoolla, see Kandavu, Fiji. 

Nada, see Laughlan. 

Nagian, on the north side of the northeast opening of Egum atoll. 923's., i52O3'E. 

NagO, islet at mouth of Nusa harbor of New Ireland. 

Naiabo, small coral island, 40 ft. high, with a barrier reef 3 in. in circumference, in 

the Lau group, Fiji. 

Naiau, 3.5X2 in., 500-600 ft. high, Fiji. About 230 inhabitants. 
Naingani ( Naigani), Fiji; 1X0.7 m., 420 ft. high. North point in 17 33' 40" s., 

^ 178 43' K. 

Nairai, 10 m. N. by E. from Ngan, Fiji; 4 m. x-s., 1.5-3 m - tt~ w - Needle peak 1078 ft. 
high. The north point in 17 45' s., 179 28' 30" E. In 1880 there were 612 in- 
habitants. 

Nairn, off the southwest coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7 40' s., 158 20' E. 

Xairsa, see Rangiroa (Rahiroa) of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Naitamba (Naitaba), Fiji; is high and rugged, triangular, 1.5 m. in diameter, 6ioft. 
high. Inhabited by Europeans.. 17 03' 30" s., 180 46' E.O 

Nakandra nui, islet on the north coast of Yanua levu, Fiji. 

Nakoga, see Anologo, Matema islands. 

Naklldi, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3 08' 25" x., 172 41' 15" E. 

Naktimblltha, small, rocky island off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 ' J 35'3o"s., i7S36'3o"E.O 

Nalap, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands, off Ronkiti river. 

Nalogo, a trader's name for Anologo. 

Nama or D'Urville (Peace?), of the Caroline islands, is small, without a lagoon, but 
higher than most of the group. 6 59' x., 152 33' E. 4. 

Namaka, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 311' 30" x., 172 54' E. 

[i94] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. ri'i 

Namatotte, off the New Guinea coast. 3 53' s., 133 49' H. 

Nambite, low, off Vantia levu, Fiji. North point in 16 27' 54" S., 178 50' E. 

Namena or Direction, Fiji; two high (320 ft.) hills covered with dense foliage; un- 
inhabited; 1X0.2 in. Namena reef encloses a lagoon 13 m. long and 2-3 m. wide, 
with an average depth of 16-20 fathoms. 17 06' s., 179 06' K. 

Namo or Margaretta of the Marshall islands. South point in 8 55' x., 167 42' K. 

Namoliaur, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 

Namolipiafane, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Hall in 1824. The reef is 
40 m. in circumference, encloses 13 islets, among them Ikop, Fananon, Namonine. 
8 25' 30" N., 151 49' 15" K. 4. 

Namoluk or Skiddy, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke in 1828. Reef 
is 15 m. in circumference, with five islets. 5 45' 15" N., 153 16' 30" K. 4. 

NamontlitO, Bunkey, Anonima, Livingstone, was discovered by Ibargoitia in 1801. 
Reef enclosing the group is 45 m. H-w. The islets are Amytideu, Maghyr, 
Maghyrarik, Ounalik, Onoup, Pilipal, Pizaras and Ulul. 8 33' N., 150 31' E. 

Namorik or Baring, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Bond Decem- 
ber 15, 1792. Two islands on a reef 5 m. in diameter. Population about 300. 
5 35' N., 168 1 8' E.O 6. 

Namoms or Namorousse, islet of Morileu, Caroline islands. 

Namotu, islet 300 yds. in diameter on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Namtuiroj, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 

Xamn, see Nemu. 

Namua, islet east from Upolu, Samoan islands. 

Namuine, islet of the Namolipiafane atoll in the Caroline islands. 8 25' 30" N., 

^i 49' 15" K- 
Namuka, see Nomuka, Tongan islands. 

Namuka is 7 m. west from Mbenga, Fiji, enclosed in the same reef; 1.7 m. N-S. by i m. 

o o ' ff o o ' ft f\ 

18 21 50 S., 177 58 50 E.O 
Namuka i latl (eastern), 15 m. north from Fulanga, Fiji; 4 m. E-w., 1.5 m. N-S.; 

260 ft. high; East point in 18 47' s., 181 21' 30" E. 

Namuka, islet 3 in. southwest from Suva harbor, inside the shore reef; inhabited. Fiji. 
Namuka, islet off centre of south side of Api, New Hebrides; 500 ft. high. i649's., 

1 68 19' E. 
Nananu group, Fiji, consists of Nananu ira and i thake (leeward and windward); 

230 ft. high. 

Na Ndongu or Tiri islands, off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nangatli, 5.5 m. northwest from Ovalau, Fiji; i in. x-s., 600 ft. high. 
Nangati, in Yasawa group, Fiji; i Xo_5 m., 930 ft. high ; inhabited. 16 57' 30" s., 

177 19' 40" E.O 

Nani, islet between Nekete and Lavaissiere bays on the southeast coast of New Cale- 
donia. 

Nanikirata, islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. r 54' x., 172 54' 30" E. 
Nanomanga or Hudson, of the Ellice group, is 1.5 m. x-s., i m. E-w.; lagoon closed. 

Population in 1886 was 320 protestants. 6 13' s., 176 16' 30" E. 16. 

[195] 



ii2 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nanomea, the San Augustine of Maurelle, 1781, was discovered by Maurelle. There 
are two islands on the reef within 3-4 m. of each other, the westerly called Lakenn, 
the other Nanomea. Supposed to be the Taswell and Sherson of the brig Elisabeth , 
1809. Nanomea is 4X1.5 m. Rev. J. S. Whitmee says the inhabitants are phys- 
ical!}' a remarkably fine race, numbering about 1000 ( 1870). This is the northern- 
most of the Ellice group. 5 36' 30" S., 176 10' K.O 

Nanouki, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Nanoulu, of the Kiriwina group, is in 8 46' s., 150 58' K. 

Nanouti, see Nonuti or Sydenham, Gilbert islands. 

Nantucket, see Baker. 

Nansouti, a wooded islet on the barrier reef of Tahiti, Society islands, go. 

Nanuia, high, inhabited islet, 0.7 m. in diameter; of the Yasawa group, Fiji. i658'3o"s., 



Natiuku, Fiji; 1.5X0.5 m. on a reef 14X8 m. 16 42' 30" s., 180 36' K.O 

Naonao, islet on the south reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Napasa, islet on northeast part of outer ring of Egum atoll. 9 20' 30" s., 152 K. 9. 

Napier, off northeast coast of Raoul, Kerniadec islands. 

Napuka or Whytoohee, in the Disappointment group of Byron, Paumbtu archipelago. 

Wooded islets connected by an irregular reef enclosing a lagoon. Inhabitants 

said to be a distinct race. The east end is in 14 10' 40" s., 141 12' 50" vv. 
Napuni, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3 10' 20" N., 172 41' 10" E. 
Naranarawai or Skelton, of the Louisiade archipelago, is an inhabited island 2 m. 

ESE-WNW. by half a mile wide, and 500 ft. high. 
Narancptlli, islet at the entrance to Port Lod on the southeast side of Ponape, Caro- 

line islands. 

Narangi or Narangai, high island of Fiji. 16 48' 30" s., 179 29' 20" K.O 
Narborough, of the Galapagos, is a volcano 3720 ft. high. 
Narcissus, see Tatakoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Nares, on -the Australian coast. 19 44' S., 148 21' K. Named for Captain G. S. 

Nares of the Challenger. 

Naria, in Cloudy bay, New Guinea. 10 14' s., 148 39' E. 
Narlap, islet with Narmaur forming the entrance to Kiti harbor on the southwest 

end of Ponape, Caroline islands 

Narmaur, at the mouth of Kiti harbor, Ponape, Caroline islands. 647'x., 158 08' K. 
Narovo or Eddystone, of the Solomon islands, is 4X1 ni.; volcanic, the activity con- 

fined at present to the south portion ; lagoon frequented by crocodiles. Natives 

friendly and good pilots. Eddystoue Rock and Simbo are islets on the reef of 

Narovo. 8 15' s., 156 28' K. 
Narri or Mudge, of the Louisiade archipelago, is a low, coral, uninhabited islet 0.7 m. 

NK-SW. 10 45' s., 150 18' K. 
Nasakor, one of the south group of islets in Egum atoll lagoon. 9 27' .s., 151 

5 8' 3 o"K. 9- 

Nassau, islet discovered in 1835 from the whaler Nassau; fringing reef. n33'2o"s., 
165 25' w. 

Nataka, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3 10' 10" N., 172 55' 10" K. 

[196] " 



5S. 



10S 



ISO 7 



16 



E 



NANOMEA 



NIUTAO 



NANOMANGA 



a) 



NUKUPETAU 



FUNAFUTI f<5 



NUKULAELAE 



ELLICE GROUP 



6S. 



10S 



175 



E. 



ROTUMA 



180 C 



E. 






A at 













.13: 












INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 113 

Nathula (Nacula), islet between Yasawa and Naviti, Fiji. 

Nail, on southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nauru, see Nawodo, Gilbert islands. 

Nailta, of the Kiriwina group. 8 37' s., 150 50' E. 

Nautilus, see Tapiteuea of the Gilbert islands. 

Nautaniwono, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i caki group, Fiji. 

Navandra, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha group, Fiji. 

Navini, sand islet in Nandi waters on the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Naviti, important island of the Yasawa group, Fiji; 8X3 m., 74O ft. high. I7o5's., 

177 14' E. 

Navill, on the New Guinea coast. 8 12' S., 143 36' E. 

Navumbalavil, islets 122 ft. high off Viti levu, Fiji. 17 37' 30" S., 178 37' E.O 
Navutuiloma, densely wooded; 210 ft. high; in the Yangasa cluster, Fiji. 
Navutuira, densely wooded; 270 ft. high, in the Yangasa cluster, Fiji. 
Nawi, islet 130 ft. high at the mouth of the Na Kama creek on the south coast of 

Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Nawi, islet of the Schouten group in Geelvink bay. 2 15' S., 136 18' E. 
Nawodo, Nauru, Shank or Pleasant of the Gilbert islands was discovered by Captain 

Fearn of the Hiinter in 1795-8; 15 m. in circumference, raised coral, 100 ft. high; 

in centre a fresh water lagoon. Population about 1200, a fine race. o 25' S., 

167 05' E. 
Nayau, Fiji, an inhabited island 4X2.5 m., 275 ft. high, with reef on one side only. 

Northwest point is in 17 57' 30" s., 180 58' E. 
Nda, on the great reef south from New Caledonia. 

Nde, islet on passage from Noumea to Uen island, south end of New Caledonia. 
Ndendi, a spelling of Nitendi or Santa Cruz, New Hebrides. 
Ndie, islet of the Great South Reef, New Caledonia. 

N'digoro, islet on the outer reef in Isie passage on the northwest side of New Caledonia. 
Ndrendre and Ndrendre lailai, islets with Thumbu on the north coast of Viti levu at 

the entrance to the Rakiraki river. 
Ndravtmi or Colvocoressis, Fiji; an inhabited island 1.2 m. N-s., 0.2 m. E-w.; 350 ft. 

high. 1 8 49 30" s., 178 25' 40" E.O 
Ndrtiandrtia, islet on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 156 ft. high. 16 12' 24" S., 

179 35' 20" E.O 

N'dakue, islet in Port Uitoe on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Ndundine, Ndundure or Molard, uninhabited island west from Mare, 3 m. in circum- 
ference. Loyalty islands. 

Nea, islet in Kuabuni opening on the southeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Neba, inhabited islet in Punie passage, northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Necker, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by La Perouse November i, 1786. 

Named for the great minister of Louis XVI. Rocky; 280 ft. high; volcanic, the 

remains of a crater with a shoal extending miles to the southward. 23 35' 18" N., 

164 39' w. 

Neckes, see Puketutu, New Zealand. 
Negeri, see Nihiru of the Paumotu archipelago. 

MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 2. 8. L*97J 



ii 4 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nekumara, islet between Dobu and Kwaiope, east from Dawson strait, D'Entrecas- 
teaux group. 9 44' s., 150 54' E. 

Nemu or Double, islet in Infernet passage on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Nemtl or Musquillo, atoll of the Marshall islands. The south point is in 8 14' x., 
1 68 03' E. 

Nendahande, islet south from Balabio on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nendiale, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Nengone, the native name of Mare or Britannia of the Loyalty islands. 

NengonengO or Prince William Henry of the Paumotu archipelago was discovered 
by Wallis in 1765; 5 m. E-w. North end is in 18 43' s., 141 40' w. 21. 

Neni, low and covered with coconut trees, on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nenon or Nenu, in Port Bouquet on the east coast of New Caledonia; 1.5 m. E. by 
N.-W. by S. 

Nepean, island with extensive reefs in Torres strait. 9 34' s., 143 38' E. 

Nepean, one of the Kermadec islands; 0.2 m. long, 50 ft. high. 29 04' s., 167 58' E. 

Netherland, see Nui of the Ellice islands. 

Neu Hannover, see New Hanover. 

Neu Lauenburg, German name for Duke of York islands. 

Neu Mecklenburg, German name for New Ireland. It seems unfortunate that in 
changing the well-known names of their new possessions the Germans should not 
have improved on the former rather unsuitable appellations. I cannot see that 
New Mecklenburg is any more appropriate than New Ireland. 

Neu Pommern, the German name for New Britain. 

Nevelo, see Lomlom, Santa Cruz. 

Nevil, see Tobi, Caroline- islands. 

New, island of the New Guinea region. 2 30' S., 131 34' E. 

New Amsterdam, the name given by Tasman to Tongatabu. 

New Britain (Neu Pommern of the Germans). Carteret, in 1767, found that what 
Dampier had supposed a bay when in 1700 he sailed through the strait that bears 
his name and proved that there was an island distinct from New Guinea, was 
really another strait, so he named the land to the east New Ireland, and the west- 
ern one New Britain. Little is known of New Britain, large as it is. There are 
many adlive volcanoes in the long and narrow island. Cannibals are numerous 
but in constant tribal warfare; 330 m. long, nowhere more than 50 m. wide. The 
north point is in 4 07' s., 152 10' E. IO. 

New Caledonia was partly discovered by Cook, but D'Entrecasteaux completed the 
work. Taken by France in 1853 it was made a penal settlement in 1883 in spite of 
the experience of England in her Australian penal stations, and the constant es- 
cape of convicts is a great damage to the neighboring colonies. New Caledonia is 
about 216 m. long, 30 m. broad. There are two parallel ranges of mountains ex- 
tending the whole length ; the eastern, about 2500 ft. high, has an even and regu- 
lar outline, while the western mountains are higher (2600-3600 ft.) and more 
irregular in form. Mt. Douit, over Cape Colnett, is 5570 ft. high. Among other 
minerals nickel is found here.* The native houses are generally conical. The 

*Heurteau Rapport sur la Constitution de la Nouvelle Caldonic. 1*76. Pelatnn I.cs Mints de la Nouvellc CaK'douie, 1892. 

[I 9 8] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 115 

natives use jade in weapons and ornaments. The winter season is from December 
15 to April 15. The north point is in 20 45' s. 13. 

New Georgia, see Rubiana of the Solomon islands. 

New Guinea was discovered by the Portuguese Jorge de Meneses in 1524; visited by 
Saavedra in 1528; Grijalva y Alvarado in 1537; Inigo Ortiz de Retes in 1545, and 
the last gave the name New Guinea. The history of the discovery of New Guinea 
is a most complicated one, each discoverer mapping but a small portion of the 
coast, and to this day the coast line is not well surveyed, while much of the in- 
terior remains unexplored. In 1705 a Dutch expedition explored the deep bay on 
the north coast which was named for one of the ships of the expedition Geelvink 
(yellow finch), and many other Dutch explorers were sent by the East India Com- 
pany from Batavia to this portion of New Guinea which was gradually claimed by 
Holland. The boundary of Dutch New Guinea on the east is a straight line 
drawn from Cape Bonpland on the east side of Humboldt bay, in 140 47' east 
longitude to 140 E. on the south coast. In 1885 the portion not claimed by the 
Dutch east of the i4ist meridian was divided between England and Germany, the 
former taking the south coast from the mouth of Bensbach river in latitude 
9 7' 35" s -> longitude 141 01' 48" E., this meridian forming the boundary till it 
meets the Fly river which becomes the boundary until it crosses the i4ist merid- 
ian ; also all the north coast from the east point to Mitre rock in latitude 8 S. 
April 4, 1883, the resident magistrate at Thursday island hoisted the British flag 
at Port Moresby and took possession of all between 141 and 155 E. And on Sep- 
tember 4, 1888, the Administrator proclaimed the annexation as a crown colony 
under the name of British New Guinea. 

In its greatest length WNW.-ESE. New Guinea extends 1306 m., and its area, 
including adjacent islands, is about 312,0x30 sq. m. The Owen Stanley range rises 
to a height of 13,205 ft. Many tribes are found, but the type is Papuan, and is 
found in purity on the northern portion. To the northeast Polynesian colonies 
have resulted in some mixture. On the south coast the natives are enterprising 
traders, making long voyages with the monsoons in their lakatois which are 
clumsy, compound boats with two masts and V-shaped sails. Sago and pottery 
are the principal cargo. Houses on the shore are built on piles, and farther in- 
land often in trees for safety. 

For further information as to the discovery see Bougainville, Edwards, Flin- 
ders, D'Entrecasteaux, Freycinet, D'Urville, Moresby, Owen Stanley. And for 
the geography and general description, see D'Albertis, Lawes, Chalmers, Powell, 
and the reports of the Administrator. 

New Hanover (Neu Hannover of the Germans) was discovered by Carteret. It is 
37 m. E-w., 20 m. N-S. Fertile and mountainous, rising to 2000 ft. 10. 

New Hebrides. Quiros was the first to discover any of the extensive group, or rather 
groups, which are now known by the collective name of New Hebrides. He saw but 
one island which he fondly imagined was part of the great southern continent, then 
the dream of navigators, and he called his discovery Australia del Espiritu Santo, 
a name since curtailed to Santo in the Trader's vernacular. Cook discovered most 
of the southern chain and he gave the name New Hebrides in 1773. The natives 



n6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

are of the black Papuan or Melanesian stock and have a reputation for cannibal- 
ism, treachery and uncertain temper. They have been outraged repeatedly by the 
labor pirates, and their hostility to the kind of white men who have principally 
reached their islands does not seem unreasonable. They are far from being an 
homogeneous population : Polynesian settlements exist throughout the group, and 
more than a score of languages are noted. The climate is not very well suited to 
white occupation, being damp and otherwise unwholesome. Although the group 
has not been well studied interesting particulars of portions of the islands have 
been published by the missionaries who have labored against great discouragement, 
and more especially by Commander Markham in his "Cruise of the Rosario," 1872. 
Walter Coote's "Wanderings, South and East," 1892 ; and Julius Brenchley's in- 
teresting "Cruise of the Cura9oa," 1865. 

Part of the group has already been annexed by Great Britain, and it is sup- 
posed that France has desires for the rest as contiguous to her New Caledonian 
colony. Several agricultural companies of each nation are attempting to develope 
the resources of the country. 12. 

New Ireland (Neu Mecklenburg) was supposed by Lemaire and Schouten to be a part 
of New Guinea. Dampier, in 1700, proved it to be a separate island, and sixty- 
seven years later Carteret demonstrated the strait between it and New Britain. 
240X15 ni., volcanic and rising to 70x20 ft. Papuans, physically inferior to those 
of the Solomon islands. Cannibals ; practise circumcision but not tattling. Coun- 
try not well known. 

New Jersey adjoins Santa Cruz. 

New Market, see Baker. 

New Nantucket, see Baker. 

New Philippines, a name once given to the Caroline islands. 

New Year, see Miadi of the Marshall islands. 

New York, see Washington. The same name was given by Fanning in 1798 to Eiao 
of the Marquesas. 

New Zealand. This important group lies between the parallels of 34 30' and 
47 3' south latitude and the meridians of 166 36' 30" and 178 36' 05" east longi- 
tude, being roughly the antipodes of Great Britain. The area is 104,403 sq. in. or 
nearly eqxial to that of the British islands. The three islands are variously styled, 
but the Maori names were Te ika a Maui (The fish of Maiii) for the northern one; 
Te wahi Pounamu (The place of Greenstone) for the middle; and Rakinra for 
Stewart island. These have given place to New Leinster, New Ulster and New 
Munster (of Governor Hobson), or more commonly Northern, Southern and Stewart. 
Tasman sighted the western coast December 13, 1642, but in sending a boat 
ashore the natives attacked and killed four of the crew. Tasman called the place 
Mordenaars (Murderers) bay and did not again attempt to land, but sailed to the 
extreme northern end, discovering Three Kings islands (on the eve of Epiphany) 
and thence sailed to the Tongan islands. Tasman's first name, Staatenland, he 
later changed to Nova Zeeland. Cook was the next European to reach these 

shores (Odlober 6, 1769) and in Mercury bay, on November n, he took formal 

[200] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



117 



NEW ZEALAND 



possession for King George III. Cook spent nearly a year (327 days) in the 
group and his surveys gave the first definite knowledge of the islands. 

As early as 1814 a Church mission was started and later other denominations 
followed. In 1840 both Wellington and Auckland were founded and colonists 
gathered until the natives were driven to exasperation and wars followed for many 
years. At present all is 
peace and by the wise 
system of the British the 
Maoris are segregated as 
much as possible, so that 
the traveller who merely 
visits the principal cities 
rarely sees a Maori. 
The census of 1881 gave 
44,099, a slight increase 
over the previous one. 
Yet, as the estimate in 
1840 was 107,000, the 
race is dying as all other 
inferior people must in 
the presence of the white 
intruders. 

The Maori race is 
supposed, mainly on the 
basis of their own tradi- 
tions, to have come to 
New Zealand in the 
fifteenth century from 
Hawaiki to the eastward. 
Their language closely 
resembles the Hawaiian, 
but these, whose tradi- 
tions go far beyond that 
date, have no remem- 
brance of such an emi- 
gration as told in the 
Maori traditions. When 

first discovered they were FIG g 

cannibals and particu- 
larly fierce, but like other cannibals they showed remarkable talent for fine work ; 
and to their intelligence is due the fact of their rapid conversion to Christianity 
and their comprehension of the advantages of civilization, which while removing 
them speedily from a world of trouble promised them a pleasanter one beyond the 

grave, "where the wicked cease from troubling." Maoris are a fine race of Poly- 

[201] 



HRISTCHURCH 





'GTON 



STEWART 



n8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

nesians, more manly and vigorous than the Hawaiian whom they closely resemble 

in outward form. 

The climate of New Zealand is not extreme but is subject to sudden changes, 

which do not increase the death rate which is very low. Volcanoes and snow-capped 

mountains add greatly to the beauty of the scenery, and also give variety to 

climatic effects. One thing is quickly noticed by the traveller, that the ruddy 

complexions of England are rather enhanced here while they soon disappear in 

the Australian colonies. 

Nexsen, a name given by Fanning, in 1798, to Hatutu of the Marquesas islands. 
Ngaloa (Galoa), of the Fiji group, is a small island which gives its name to the har- 
bor on the south side of Kandavu. 19 05' io"s., 178 II^C/'E. (^Challenger survey.) 
Ngaloa, on the north coast of Vanua levu, north of Lekutu river. Thickly peopled. 

16 37' 24" S., 178 41' 32" E.O I 4 . 
Ngamea (Qamea), northeast from Taviuni, Fiji; 5.7111. long E-W., 1000 ft. high ; 

about 500 inhabitants. 16 47' s., 179 44' w. 14. 
Nganati, Pinaki or Whitsunday of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 

in 1767. It is low and wooded. 19 40' 22" S., 140 22' 28" w. There is much 

confusion on the charts. 21. 

Ngasi mbali, a low, uninhabited islet off Kandavu, Fiji, 60 ft. high. 
Ngatik, or Raven islands, 50 m. sw. from Ponape; discovered in 1773 by Don Felipe 

Tompson; 22 m. in circumference, and there are n islets on the unbroken reef. 

There is a small lagoon. Much copra is exported. 5 47' 30" N., 157 32' E. 5. 
Ngau, the Angau of Wilkes, is 27 m. southeast from Ovalau, Fiji ; 1 1.2 X4 ni. On the 

west is a barrier reef 16 m. long. Dilathoa peak is 2345 ft. high, in 17 58' 30" S., 

181 33' 30" E. 

Nge, islet near Dumbea passage at the south end of New Caledonia. 
Ngea, islet in Bulari bay, New Caledonia. 

Ngele levtl, a coral reef i m. SE-NW. in the Ringgold group, Fiji. 
Ngoli, or Lamoliork, Caroline islands. The Matelotas of Villalobos in 1545 ; consists 

of five islets, the south one inhabited. 8 15' N., 137 35' E. 
NgualitO, islet of Malolo islands, Hudson group, Fiji. 
Nguna, see Muna of the New Hebrides. 
Niau, or Greig, a low, wooded island of the Paumotu archipelago, 4 in. in diameter, 

with a closed lagoon. The hurricane of 1878 almost depopulated this island. 

^O / fO t f~\ 

10 II S., 146 22 W.O 

Nibanga, the southeast island of the Matema group; small, round, 200 ft. high, in- 
habited. 10 21' S., 166 17' E. Santa Cruz islands. 

Nicholson, in the Tongan group, was first known as Beveridge reef, now a coral 
island 3X2 m.; an example of an island formed from a reef in recent times. 
20 02' S., 167 49' w. 

Nie, islet in Dumbea bay, north from Ducos peninsula on the southwest side of New 
Caledonia. 

Nielsen, islands off the north coast of New Guinea at the mouth of Prince Albrecht 
harbor. 

Nienane, a high, bare rock between Daos and Art islands, Belep group, New Caledonia. 

[202] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 119 

Nigeri, see Nihiru of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Nifilofi or Nifilole, of the New Hebrides, extends i m. NW-SE., and is 120 ft. high. 

Nifo, in the Yasawa group, Fiji, is between Matathoni levu and Yangati. 16 59' 30" s., 

o ' " f~\ 

177 19 10 E.O 

Night, a wooded island on the Australian coast. 13 n' s., 143 35' E. 

Nigahau, islet off the northwest point of Panatinani, Lonisiade archipelago. 

Niguna, see Muna, New Hebrides. 

Nihiru, Niheri or Nigeri, of the Paumotu archipelago, is a well wooded island with a 
lagoon opening on the south side. It is 7 m. in diameter. North point is in 
16 41' s., 142 53' w. 21. 

Nihoa or Bird, of the Hawaiian group, is a volcanic mass rising steep from the water 
to a height of 880 ft., the only landing place being on the south side. Discovered 
by Captain Douglas of the Iphigenia April 13, 1789. Modu manu of the old charts 
is a corruption of Moku manu=Bird island. 23 05' 50" N., 161 56' 30" w. I. 

Niihau, of the Hawaiian group, is the most westerly inhabited island of the group, 
with a superficies of 62,000 acres, and is about 16X6 m. and 800 ft. high. Used 
mainly as a sheep ranch. I. 

Nileuti, a wooded islet in Tohio passage, on the southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Nimantl is 25 m. northeast of Santa Cruz; 200 ft. high. 10 21' S., 166 17' E. 

Nimoa or Pig, of the Louisiade archipelago, is fertile, well wooded and inhabited ; the 
largest in Coral Haven 1.5 m. southeast from Panatinani; 455 ft. high. 

Nimrod islands were seen by Captain Eilbeck in the Nimrod in 1828. 56 20' S., 
158 30' w. Existence doubtful. 

Nina, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Ninepin, on the coast of New Guinea. 10 13' s., 142 40' E. 

Ninita, in the Louisiade archipelago. n 17' S., 153 15' E. 

Ninon, of the Louisiade archipelago, is northeast from Moturina. Half a mile long, 
175 ft. high. 

Ninuha, on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 7 54' S., 159 20' E. 

Nitendi, see Santa Cruz, of the New Hebrides. 12. 

Nina, see Aniwa, New Hebrides. 

Niuababll, islet of the Tongan group. 

Niuafoou, of the Tongan islands was discovered by Captain Edwards in H. M. S. 
Pandora August 3, 1791, and by him called Proby. It is an active volcano 3.5 m. 
N-S., 3 m. E-w. Was in eruption in 1853 when many lives were lost; April 12, 
1867, and again in 1886 and 1887. 15 34' S., 175 40' 40" w. 

Niliatobtltabu, of the Tongan group, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten May 
n, 1616. Named Keppel by Wallis in 1767. It is 2000 ft. high. 15 52' S., 
173 50' w. 18. 

Niiie or Savage. 19 s., 170 w. Is a coral island upheaved, 300 ft. high, and about 
30 m. in circumference. It was named by Cook (June 20, 1774) Savage because 
his boats were fiercely attacked when making a landing. Population in 1872, 
5,124; is increasing. Natives rather small and dark; have a language of their 
own closely resembling Samoan ; were not cannibals, did not offer human sacri- 
fices nor worship idols. Much of their work was quite distinct. 15. 

[203] 



120 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nine, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' 40" S., 171 13' w. 

Nitimano or Tasman atoll is the easternmost and largest of the Tasman group. 

4 35' S., 159 3o' E. 

Niutao, alias Lynx, Sepper, Speiden (Wilkes) of the Ellice islands, is 2.5X1-5 m., 
densely covered with coconut trees. Population, 417. 6 08' S., 177 22' E. 16. 

Nivani or Nivan, a small island southwest of Misima (St. Aignan) in the Louisiade 
archipelago. 

Nmara, a grassy, uninhabited islet 230 ft. high on Kandavu reef, Fiji. 

Nogahanghe, a rocky islet near Paaba island on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Noina or Burnett is small and wooded, 3.5 m. N. by E. from Panasia, Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 

Nokue or Infernal islet in Kuto bay, Isle of Pines. 13. 

Noma, islet in lagoon 9 m. from Losap, Caroline islands ; 200 inhabitants. 4. 

Nomuka, of the Tongan group, the Annamooka of Cook, is a triangular coral island, 
the sides 2 m. long. Peaks rise to a height of 166 ft. Closed salt lagoon 0.7 m. 
in diameter. 20 15' S., 174 50' w. 

Nono, islet of Pavuvu or Russell group, Solomon islands. 8 02' S., 159 05' E. 

Nonuti, Sydenham, Dog, Blaney, or Nanuti of the Gilbert islands, measures 19X8.5 m. 
The southeast point is in o 46' 05" s., 174 31' 30" E. 7. 

Norbarbar is the native name of Ureparapara or Bligh in the Banks group. 

Nord, see Gipps, Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

Norfolk, was discovered by Cook October 10, 1774. It is 5X2.5 m. and 1050 ft. high. 
The English frigate Sirius was wrecked here near the end of 1790. It belongs to 
New South Wales. This beautiful island was once a convict station, but this was 
given up in 1855 and the next year the Pitcairners were removed from the lonely 
island where they had vegetated for 67 years to this much finer island. Soon, how- 
ever, 40 of the 194 returned to their old home. Those on Norfolk island have 
doubled their number and are fairly prosperous. 29 01' s., 167 56' E. 

Normanby, a name of Duau of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 

Norsup, a low, wooded islet, uninhabited, near Port Stanley, Malekula, New Hebrides. 

North or High, Fiji. 16 28' 30" s., 180 20' 30" E.O 

North, see Hetau, Solomon islands. 8 50' S., 159 58' E. 

North, in Marau sound on the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 
9 44' s., 160 47' E. 

North, small island on the north side of the Trobriand reef. 8 25' S., 150 48' E. 9. 

North or Nord, see Gipps, Bismarck archipelago. 10. 

North, one of the Torres group, Banks islands; 1200 ft. high. 

North, group of islets off the north coast of New Hanover. 

Northumberland, an extensive group on the east coast of Queensland, Australia, 
reaching to 22 S. 

Norton, in the Bismarck archipelago. 5 24' S., 150 31' E. 

Nosoata, islet at the mouth of Rewa river, Viti levu, Fiji. 

Nouvelle Cy there (La), a name given to Tahiti by Bougainville in 1768. 

Nu, see Dubouzet islet, New Caledonia. 

[204] 



176 W. 



5s 



i7 



PHCENIX GROUP 



CAXTOM 



Me KEAV 



BlRNIE 



ENDERBURY 



PHCENIX 



SIDNEY 



GARDNER 



HULL 
O 



6S 



UNION GROUP 



OATXPO 



NUICUNOKO 



FAKAAFO 



176 



W. 






. 






HOIt' 








1 






INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 121 

Nuakata or Lydia, is east of the East cape of New Guinea; 1010 ft. high, thickly 
inhabited. 10 17' s., 151 E. 

Nuare, on the great South Reef of New Caledonia, 3.5 m. sw. by s. from Kie. 

Nubartl or Nubara, islet on the southeast coast of Murua. 9 10' s., 153 E. 

Nubiam, Trobriand group. 8 40' 30" s., 150 52' E. 

Nufiluli or Nufiloli, of the Matema group, is a mile long and 200 ft. high. British 
protectorate was declared August 18, 1898. 

Nugarba or Goodman, the southernmost of the Abgarris group, Bismarck archipelago. 
The north point is in 3 23' S., 154 41' E. 

Nugatobe, a group of three small islands, Fiji. 17 18' s., 180 29' E.O 

Nugent, islet off the east coast of Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

NugU consists of two islets, Pari sule and Pari pile, lying between Florida and Gua- 
dalcanar, Solomon islands. 9 18' s., 160 15' E. 

NugU, islet of Tongatabu on the northeast. 21 05' 30" s., 174 58' 30" w. 18. 

Nui, Netherland or Egg, was discovered in 1827. There are 8 islets on the east side 
of the reef. Although geographically of the Ellice group the people and language 
are derived from the Gilbert group. 7 13' 20" s., 177 14' 30" E. 

Nuimbua, a low, wooded islet in Tupeti passage on the southeast coast of New Cale- 
donia. 

Nukapu, of the Matema group, is a mile long and 100 ft. high. People Polynesian. 
This was the place of Bishop Patteson's murder. 

Nuku, islet of Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 18. 

Nuku akimoa or Sail-rock, islet of Uvea or Wallis; 15 ft. high. 

Nuku atea, islet of Uvea; 200 ft. high. 

Nukufetau or De Peyster group, Ellice islands, was discovered in 1819. 8-9 islets 
around a lagoon 7 in. in diameter, with an entrance on the northwest side. In 
1881 the population was 250. North point is in 7 56' s., 178 27' 30" E. 

Nukuhiva or Marchand is the principal island of the Marquesas; 14 m. E-W., 10 m. N-S. 
Lofty mountains and fertile valleys, but the population in 1880 had been reduced 
to 800; twenty years before it was over 2000. 8 57' s., 140 15' w. (West end.) 23. 

Nuku ira, one of the Tiri group on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Nukulaelae or Mitchell group, Ellice islands. A lagoon island 7 m. N-S., 2 m. E-w. 
14 islets; 150 inhabitants in 1886. 9 18' s., 179 48' E. 

Nukulakia, islet of Fakaafo. 9 25' S., 171 14' w. 

Nukulau, a low, sandy, well wooded islet 0.3X0.2 m.; off Viti levu, Fiji. 18 io'23"s., 
178 30' 30" E.O 

Nukulevu, Fiji, is small, fertile, inhabited. 17 41' 16" s., 178 39' 10" E.O 

Nukumanu, an inhabited island west from Nuku mbasanga, Fiji. 16 20' 30" s., 

o o .^ / // s~\ 

180 36 40 E.O 
Nukumanu, see Tasman. 

Nukumasanga, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 12" s., 171 12' w. 
Nuku mbasanga, one reef encloses this and Nuku mbalate; 10 m. north from 

Nanuku, Fiji. 16 19' s., 180 45' 20" E. 

NukumbatU, islet 80 ft. high, off the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Nukumbati, a low, mangrove islet 0.3 m. N-S., 400 yds. wide. i627'54"s., i79oo'45" E.O 

[205] 



122 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Nukunamtl, islet of the Tcmgan group. 

Nukimau or Byron, Gilbert islands, was discovered by Commodore Byron July 2, 
1765; 8Xi-5 m.; in 1872 population was 5000. i 23' S., 176 34' E. 

Ntlktmono or Duke of Clarence, in the Tokelau or Union group, was discovered by 
Captain Edwards in the Pandora in 1791; 7.2 m. N-S., 5 m. E-w.; of triangular 
form, with 93 islets on the reef. 9 05' s., 171 46' w. British protectorate de- 
clared June 21, 1889. 17. 

Nukuor, Monteverde or Dunkin of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1806 by 
Juan B. Monteverde; 12-14 m. in circumference. About 150 Polynesian inhabi- 
tants who hold to their primitive religion ; the language is said to be pure Maori. 
3 52' N., 154 56' E. 4. 

Ntlkusemanil, islet on the east side of the reef of the same name in the Ringgold 
group, Fiji. 

Nukusesuki, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 10" s., 171 12' w. 

Nuklltapipi or Margaret, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Turnbull 
March 6, 1803, and named for his ship. It is low, wooded, 2 m. in circumference. 

o / // O / nff /^\ 

20 42 21 S., 143 03 48 W.O 

Nuklltavake, Lagoon or Queen Charlotte, of the Paumotu archipelago, was dis- 
covered by Wallis in 1767. 18 43' 19" S., 138 47' 13" w.O 22. 

Nukutolu, three uninhabited islets 4 m. from Yathata in the Lau group, Fiji. 

Nuktlttl, islet off north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Numfoor. i 01' s., 134 45' E. 

Nunga, a rock, Fiji. 16 55' S., 177 20' 30" E.O 

Ntmgna, islet on Boussole reef southeast from Vanikoro, New Hebrides. 

Ntnman, islet of the Louisiade archipelago, 200 ft. high. 

Nuotaea, islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. i 53' N., 172 56' 10" E. 7. 

Nupani, one of the Matema islands. 10 04' s., 165 40' E. British protectorate de- 
clared August 1 8, 1898. 

Nura, islet in south part of Indispensable strait near Malaita, Solomon islands. 
9 33' S., 160 45' E. 

Nusa and Nusalik, islets off the coast of New Ireland, Bismarck archipelago. 

Nlltlltia, islet east of Upolu, Samoan islands; 120 ft. high. 

Nuutele, islet east of Upolu, Samoan islands; 200 ft. high. 

Ntivera, islet off Vanua levu, Fiji. North point in 16 28' 50" s., 178 48' 30" E. 

N'yaur or Angaur, southernmost of the Pelew islands ; 4.5 m. NE-SW. 6 50' N., 134 IO'E. 

Oafuna, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' 10" S., 171 i2'w. 

Oahe, a name of Manihi, Paumotu archipelago. 

Oahu, of the Hawaiian islands, the Wahoo of the old English charts, although not 
the largest is the principal island of the group. Its area is 384,000 acres; height 
at the Kaala mountains, 4030 ft.; and the population in 1896 was 40,205. On this 
is the capital city, Honolulu; also Pearl Lochs, an extensive harbor. I. 

Oaitupu, see Vaitupu of the Ellice group. 

Oandratl, low islet off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 34' 30" s., 178 47' E.O 

Oatafu, better Atafu of the Union group. 

[206] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 123 

Oatara, islet on extreme east of reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Oba or Lepers, New Hebrides. Often written Omba or, with the article, Aoba (b=mb) . 
About 17 m. long and 4000 ft. high. Natives have a good character, and there is 
a station of the Melanesian mission on the northern side. The name Leper was 
given under a mistaken diagnosis; inhabitants were not lepers. 12. 

Obelisk or Sugar-loaf, islet south of Huapu, Marquesas islands. 23. 

Obelisk, one of the Taumaco group. 

Obi, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Observation or Mono, Solomon islands.' 7 24' 30" s., 155 34' 01" E. 

Observation, on the north coast of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 43' 53" s., 
150 44' 43" E. 

Observation, on the north coast of New Guinea. 2 36' s., 140 42' n" E. 

Observatory, small, stony islet in Nares harbor, Admiralty island. i 55' 10" S., 
146 41' E. 

Observatory, at Balade, New Caledonia. See Puduie. 

Observatory, see Loa, Fiji. 

Obstruction, of the Louisiade archipelago, a group so named because the islands 
block the passage between Nuakata island and East cape. They are Hana kuba- 
kuba, Lelei gana, labama, Banibani siga. 

Obtlla, islet west of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 49' s., 150 46' E. 

Ocean or Cure, of the Hawaiian group, is an atoll 14.7 m. in circumference, 56 m. west 
from Midway island. There is one sand island 1.5X0.7 m.; another called Green, 
and two islets in the southeast corner. 28 25' 45" N., 178 29' 45" w. Taken pos- 
session of by the Hawaiian government during the reign of Kalakaua. 2. 

Ocean, see Bonabe, Gilbert islands. 

Ocheou of Belcher is Hau of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Odia, see Wotje of the Marshall islands. 

Odia, see Ailinglablab, Marshall islands. 

Oema, of the Solomon islands, is 10 m. NW. from Cyprian Bridge island, and about 
800 ft. high. 8 40' s., 156 05' E. Oema atoll is 2 m. north from Oema island. 
It has a lagoon and several islets. 

Oeno, low and uninhabited island 65 m. NW. by N. from Pitcairn. Discovered by Cap- 
tain Henderson of the Hercules. 24 oo' 30" S., 130 40' W. 

Ofalaga, islet of the Tongan group. 19 37' S., 175 34' w. 

Ofiti, see Tepoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Ofolanka, islet on the same reef with Buhi in the northwest part of the Tongan group. 

Ofu, of the Samoan islands, has an area of 9 sq. m., and is 1020 ft. high. By conven- 
tion proclaimed February 16, 1900, it came under the jurisdiction of the United 
States. The west point is in 14 n' s., 169 36' w. 15. 

Ofll, islet of the Tongan group. 

Ogasawara, see Bonin. 

Ogea, see Ongea, Fiji. 

Ogle, a low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17 40' s., 177 14' 30" E.O Named 
for Alexander Ogle, a marine of the United States Exploring Expedition who died 

at sea, August 12, 1839. 

[207] 



124 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Oheteroa, see Rurutu of the Austral islands. 

Ohiti, see Hiti. O is the article. 

Oidi islet is east from Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

Okimbo, Fiji, three islets on one reef, 4 m. E-w., 3 m. N-s.; desolate, uninhabited. 

17 03' S, 180 59' E.O 

Ola is the native name for Heron islet, Louisiade archipelago. 
Olenea, see Ularua, Fiji. 

Olevuga, islet northwest from Florida, Solomon islands. 9 s., 160 04' E. 
Olimarao or Olimario, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke in 1828. 

There are two islets on a reef 5-6 m. in circumference ; 200 inhabitants. 7 43' 30" N., 

145 56' 45" E. 3. 

Ollap, islet of Tamatam, Caroline islands. 7 38' N., 149 30' E. 4. 
Olo, one of the Pleiades group northwest from Uea, Loyalty group. 
Oloosinga of Wilkes is Olosenga, Samoan islands. 
Olorua, islet in the Lau group, Fiji; 250 ft. high. 
Olosenga, Samoan islands, has an area of 6 sq. m. and is 1500 ft. high. North point 

is in 14 n' s., 169 32' w. Manua group. Belongs to the United States. 
Olot, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8 46' N., 171 09' 42" E. 6. 
Olllksakel, islet of Korror, Pelew islands ; long, narrow and rocky. 
Oltl malau, Las Tres Marias, or Three Sisters, Solomon islands, were discovered by 

Hernando Enriquez of the Mendana expedition, May, 1568. The group lies north 

of San Cristobal, extends 10 m. NNW-SSE.; flat, uninhabited, coral, n. 
Omba, see Oba, New Hebrides. 

Ombelim, islet on west side of Wotto, Marshall islands. 10 10' N., 167 05' E. 6. 
Ombi, small, uninhabited island of the Yasawa group, Fiji. i73C/3o"s., I77O4'E.O 
Omene, low islet off Viti levu, Fiji. 16 45' 16' S., 178 38' E.O 
Onata, see Pegan. o 57' N., 134 21' E. 
Onavero, see Nawodo, Gilbert islands. 7. 

One or Honni, islet of Makin, Gilbert islands. 3 16' N., 172 54' 45" E. 
Oneaka, on the same reef with Kuria, Gilbert islands. o 16' N., 173 26' 30" E. 
Oneata, north from Mothe, 12 m. southeast from Lakemba, Fiji. Within a barrier 

reef 26 m. round, 2.5X0.5 m.; 160 ft. high. East point is in 18 24' 30" s., 

181 27' 30" E. 

Oneeheow, an old English name of Niihau, of the Hawaiian group. 
O'Neill, see Weitoa of the New Guinea region. 
Oneke is perhaps identical with Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 
Onemok, islet of Kwadjalin, of the Marshall islands. 

One Tree, a low islet of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 16 47' 09" s., 177 26' 08" E. 
Onevai, islet on north of Tongatabu. 21 05' S., 175 05' w. 
Ongai, islet of Mokil, Caroline islands. 
Ongea (Ogea), Fiji, consists of two islets, Ongea levu (large) and Ongea ndriti 

(small). The former is 4 m. long, 1-2 m. wide, 270 ft. high, densely wooded, has 

80 inhabitants. The latter is 1.7 m. E-w., i m. N-S., 300 ft. high, uninhabited. 

North end of levu is in 19 03' s., 181 30' E. The centre of ndriti is in 19 07' S., 

181 29' E. 

[208] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 125 

Ongombua, islet on the northeast coast of New Caledonia, containing about two acres 

of grass. 

Oniop, islet of Lukunor, Caroline islands; 300 inhabitants. 4. 
Ono is northeast from Kandavu, Fiji; 4.5X3.5 m. Peak Mbnalu, 1160 ft. high. 

Population in 1880 about 790. 
Ono i lau, Fiji, consists of six islands, 3 volcanic, 3 coral. Group extends 5 m. 

NH-SW., and is 4 m. wide; highest peak, 370 ft. Population about 450. 20 39' S. 
Onoatoa or Clerk of the Gilbert islands. i 51' s., 175 36' E. Described by Rev. H. 

Bingham as 12 m. long, having a lagoon bordered by a reef on the western side, 

with a good boat channel near the centre. Islets are Tanyah, Bowerick, Sand, 

Otoeie, Hack, Taburari, Onutu, Teumah. Population, 3000. 7. 
Onoune, islet of the Caroline islands. 
Onoup or Onupe, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 
Ontong Java. 5 25' S., 159 30' E. A reef 50 m. E-w., 20 m. N-S., with many densely 

peopled islets. Natives said to be of Polynesian origin. Only weapon a sling. 

Named by Tasman in 1643, afterwards identified with the Lord Howe of Captain 

Hunter, 1791. 

Ontia, islet off the north end of Alu, Solomon islands. 
OnutU, islet of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. 

Opea, islet near the Roux group on the south coast of New Guinea. 
Oparo, a name of Rapa. 

Oputotara, islet of Tahiti on the south end of the. barrier reef. 
Oraluk, Bordelaise or San Agostino of the Caroline islands, was discovered in 1826 

by Captain Saliz of Bordeaux. It is 2 m. long, 100 ft. high, coral. 7 38' N., 

155 09' E. 

Oreia, small, low and wooded island of the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Orlofe, islet, inhabited, off the north end of Alu, Solomon islands. 
Ormed, islet of Wotje, Marshall islands. 9 33' 16" N., 170 10' 58" E. 
Orokou, islet off the north point of Babeltop, Pelew islands. 
Orolong, 1.5 m. long, off northwest point of Uruktapi, Pelew islands. 7. 18' N., 

134 2 5 ' E. 

Ortega, islet of the Solomon islands. 833's., i5948'E. Named for Pedro de Ortega 
Valencia, an officer of the Mendaiia expedition of 1567. 

Ort^en, islet northwest from Cape Duperre on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Orumbau, islet off the northwest coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. i6O4's., i672i'E. 

Osasai, islet 225 ft. high, wooded, near Tagula in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Osnaburgh, a name given by Wallis to Mururoa, Paumotu archipelago. 

Osubu, a group of three islets, high and rocky, east from Avia in the Exploring isl- 
ands, Fiji. 17 10' s., 181 10' E.O 

Otafi, islet of Fakaafo. 9 23' S., 171 13' w. 

Otaheite is Tahiti with the article, O Tahiti. 

Otdia, a form of Odia, see Wotje. 

Otea, the Great Barrier of Cook, is about 21 m. long and 10 in its greatest breadth. 
Central Peak rises to 2130 ft. This the largest of the islands to seaward of the 

gulf of Hauraki, New Zealand. 

[209] 



i 2 6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Otoeie, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. 

Otooho, see Tetopoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Otovawa, islet 0.7X0.5 m. in the Yasawa group, Fiji. South point is in i656'4o"s., 

Off/ 

177 19 2O H. 

Otlltolu, islet of Tongan group. 
Oua, islet of Kotu, Hapai group, Tongan islands. 
Oua Houka, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 
Otiap, of the New Guinea coast. 3 24' S., 143 28' E. 
Ouap, see Yap of the Caroline islands. 
Ouapou, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 23. 
Oudot, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 24' 10" N., 151 44' 34" E. 
OllCSSant or Tariwerwi is low and wooded, south from Wari, in the New Guinea 

region. 11 10' S., 151 13' E. 

Ounalik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 4. 
Oura, see Takapoto, Paumotu archipelago. 

Outik, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3 n' 15" N., 172 41' E. 
Ovaka, islet of the Tongan group. 
Ovalau, Fiji, is 8 m. N-s., and 6 m. E-w.; 2089 ft. high. Levuka is the principal port. 

The observatory on the east side is in 17 40' 46" s., 178 52' 40" E. 
Ovalu or Passage, Fiji, is 0.5 m. long, 104 ft. high (Vatu i thake). 17 22' 30" S., 

178 48' E.O 
Ovatl is between Fauro and Bougainville, Solomon islands; 1340 ft. high. 8 48' S., 

156 E. 
Ovawo, near Yasawa, Fiji, is 1.5 in. in circumference, 40 ft. high. 16 47' 30" s., 

177 25' E.O 

Ove, islet south from Umboi in the Bismarck archipelago. Thickly populated. 
Ovolau, see Ovalau, Fiji. 
Oua raha is Santa Ana, Solomon islands. Owa riki is Santa Catalina. Natives are 

lighter colored and of finer physique than their neighbors. 
Owen Stanley is Sabari or Sabarai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Paaba is on the northwest coast of New Caledonia, 6 m. east from Tande. It is 5 m. 

N-s., and is inhabited by the Neneena tribe. 

Paaio, islet in Banare bay on the north west coast of New Caledonia. 
Paama is 3 m. from the northwest point of Api, New Hebrides; 5 m. N-S., 1.2 m. E-w.; 

about 1900 ft. high. 16 28' s., 168 12' E. 
Paanopa, a form of Bonabe. 

Pachiai, islet of Andema, Caroline islands, at the northeast point of the reef. 
Pacific is north of Ronongo, Solomon islands. 7 52' S., 156 30' E. II. 
Padeaids or Traitors, an extensive group of low islets, about 30 m. E-w., on the north 

coast of New Guinea. i 10' s., 136 45' E. 
Pagan, of the Marianas, is 8X2.5 m. and has three active volcanoes from 800-1000 

ft. high. 18 04' N., 145 42' E. See map under Marianas. 
Paguaiganique, islet on the southeast side of the reef of Andema, Caroline islands. 

Paguenema, see Pakin, Caroline islands. 

[210] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 127 

Pahare, islet on the eastern reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Paho, north of Saibai on the south coast of New Guinea. 9 18' s., 142 46' E. 

PaigO, see Boigu of the Talbot islands on the New Guinea coast. 9 20' s., 142 29' E. 

Pakin, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Liitke in 1828; 5 islets extending 
5 m. NW-SE., Katehna, Ta, Tagaik, Kapenoas. Called also Pakeen and Pegtie- 
nema. 7 02' N., 157 47' 30" E. 5. 

Palakurtl or Pigeon, near New Britain, in Bismarck archipelago. 4 i6's., 152 21' E. 

Palao, another form of Pelew. 

Palav, islet of Ontong, Java. 5 05' s., 159 20' E. 

Palea, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' S., 171 12' w. 

Palilug or Goode, is small, 250 ft. high, in Torres strait. 10 32' S., 142 09' E. 

Pallikulo, islet of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Palm, a large group in Halifax bay, on the Australian coast. 18 42' S., 146 43' E.O 

Palm, of the Solomon islands. 7 30' S., 157 47' E. 

Palmer, a high island in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 45' s., 177 07' E.O 

Palmerston, eight sandy islets on a reef enclosing a lagoon. Discovered by Cap- 
tain Cook June 16, 1774, and named for Lord Palmerston, then First Lord of 
the Admiralty. 18 04' S., 163 10' w. 

Palmyra or Samarang was discovered by 

Captain Sawle, of the American vessel **' '"X>^. .*> $v " \^\ ' ^f^'-'iiu 

\ ^> i /"* \ F""'*\ ^.'ipQ-* 



Palmyra, November 7, 1802. There are V%?> '<,. \, \ C| :>1 Vs 

*.? f^i. ' "J 4i%, ^*L*g& 



several islets not over six feet high fj Vv,,,,^ yVir i, /*># 




& 



r% 

if 



n*, 

<*n-(. 



extending over an area of 5.7 m. E-w., fc> ^gBj^^te V- * 

1.6 m. N-S. The position, according to ^vi^^^^^YRA^^^S^' ^' 

Captain Skerrett, is 5 49' 04" N., 162 

n' 29" w.; 50 islets. Taken for the 

Hawaiian Kingdom by Captain Zenas Bent, of Honolulu, in 1862. Annexed by 

Great Britain May 28, 1889. The proclamation, issued under Kamehameha IV., 

was as follows : 

"Whereas, on the fifteenth day of April, 1862, Palmyra island, in lat. 5 deg. somin. N. and 

long. 161 deg. 53 min. w. was taken possession of with the usual formalities by Capt. Zenas Bent, 

he being duly authorized to do so in the name of Kamehameha IV. King of the Hawaiian Islands. 

"Therefore, This is to give notice that the said island so taken possession of is henceforth 

to be considered and respedled as part of the domain of the King of the Hawaiian Islands. 

(Signed) L. KAMEHAMEHA. 
Department of Interior, June 18, 1862. Minister of the Interior." 

Pam, islet in Harcourt bay, New Caledonia. 

Panabahai or Peak is a grassy island 200 ft. high, off the southwest point of Panati- 
nani of the Louisiade archipelago. Pana is the native word for island. See 
Malay Pulo, Sulu Po. 

Panabobaiana, west of the Duchateau group, Louisiade archipelago; 0.7 m. in diam- 
eter; 75 ft. high. 11 16' 43" s., 152 21' 37" E. 

Panabobo, eastern islet of the Montemont group, Louisiade archipelago ; 50 ft. high. 

Panakrusima or Earle of the Louisiade archipelago; 360 ft. high. 

Panakllba, islet of Mabneian, Louisiade archipelago. 

[211] 



i 2 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Panaman or Woody, islet 200 ft. high, on Bagana reef, Louisiade archipelago. 
n 2 8's., 153 n'E. 

Panangaribll, islet near Pananumara, Louisiade archipelago. 

Panantinian or Sharpe is an inhabited islet of the Calvados group, Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 

Pananumara, in the Lonisiade archipelago, is 1.3 m. E. by N.-w. by S.; 425 ft. high. 

Panapompom, a wooded and inhabited island, 2 m. in diameter, 520 ft. high, 2 m. 
southeast from Panniet, Louisiade archipelago. 

Panarairai, the smaller of the Jomard group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Panaroran, with Baiwa and Panawadai in the Renard group, Louisiade archipelago. 
11 07' S., 152 30' E. Also called Eddystone; 540 ft. high. 

Panarurawara is the midmost of the Duchateau group, Louisiade archipelago; 75 ft. 
high. 11 16' S., 152 21' E. 

Panasia or Real, of the Louisiade archipelago, is uninhabited, 2 m. long and very 
narrow; 530 ft. high. n 09' s., 152 22' E. 

Panatinani or Joannet, of the Louisiade archipelago, is an inhabited island 10.5 m. 
long and mo ft. high. The northwest point is in 11 10' s., 153 06' E. 9. 

Panaudiudi is i m. long, 390 ft. high, northeast from Utian, Louisiade archipelago. 

Panavaravara, inhabited island on the Calvados chain. 

Panavi or Banepe -- Banga Netepa of the Matema islands. 10 17' S., 166 19' E. 
British protectorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. 

Panawadai, with Panaroran and Baiwa, in the Renard group. 

Panawaipona, the larger of the two islets of the Jomard group, 1X0.3 m. 11 15' S., 
152 09' E. 

Panawina, inhabited island of the Louisiade archipelago, 4 m. E-w., 945 ft. high. 
11 n' S., 153 E. 9. 

Panemote. 9 28' s., 151 58' E. 

Panemur, islet of Andema, Caroline islands, at the south end of the reef. 

Pangai, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 28" s., 171 12' w. 

PangaimotU or Pangimotu, islet of Tongatabu. 21 07' 30" s., 175 08' w. 

Paniau, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Panniet or Deboyne, of the Louisiade archipelago, has an area of 10 sq. m.; 2000 pop- 
ulation in 1890. 10 41' s., 152 23' E. The inhabitants make the best canoes and 
sell them for 10-50 stone adzes. (This is of former days.) 

Panopea, see Bonabe. 

Papakena, see Tureia of the Paumotu archipelago. 2,2,. 

Paples, on the New Guinea coast ; 250 ft. high, well wooded. io33 / 2O // s., i5O44'45"E. 

Parama or Bampton (Brampton), on south coast of New Guinea; 10-12 m. in circum- 
ference, inhabited 9 s., 143 22' E. Station of the London Missionary Society. 

Paraoa, Hariri or Gloucester was discovered by Wallis in 1767. It is low and at 
present uninhabited. There is a stone structure at the southeast point. I9o8's., 
140 40' w. Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Paraponpon, a small island a few miles south from Panniet of the Louisiade archi- 
pelago. 10 47' s., 152 24' E. 

Paris, see Aasu on the north coast of New Guinea. 

[212] 



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HORNE ISLANDS 

FOTUNA 
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15 S. 



W. 



18 



16 S. 



NlUAFOOU 



TAFEHI 
<d 

\t NlUATOBUTXBU 



FONUALEI 



TOKU 



VAVAU GROUP 



TONGAN ISLANDS 



KAO 



TOFUA 



ft. , 

HAANO ' .' 



KOTU * 4 .i>;^! HAPAI GROUP 



20 S. 



20 a. 



+ 



No lUKAo 



^*i EUAIKl 



TONCATABU 




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175 C 



KALLAV 



W. 






3QI/1AJSI MAQHOT 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 129 

Pari, two islands off the northeast coast of Guadalcanal", Solomon islands. 9 43' 30" s., 
1 60 46' E. Pari pile is smaller than Pari sule, which is about i m. E-w. by half a mile. 

Parivara, see Varivara, New Guinea. 

Pariwara, two islets near Redscar bay, New Guinea. 

Parry, a small group of the Bonin islands. 27 40' N., 142 14' E. 

Parry, islet of Eniwetok, Marshall islands. 11 21' N., 162 25' E. 

Parry, see Mauki of the Hervey islands. 

Parseval is at the entrance to Port St. Vincent, New Caledonia. 

Parum or Parram, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Pass, see Anchorage, Suvaroff group. 

Passage, in Choiseul bay, Solomon islands. 

Passage, see Ovalu, Fiji. 

Passage, see Vatu i thake, Fiji. 

Patik, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Patrocinio or Byer, of the Hawaiian group, was discovered by Captain Zipiani, of the 
Spanish stivp-Nuestra Seiiora del Pilar in 1799; 3 m. long, volcanic. Called Byer 
by Captain Morrell, July, 1825. Place doubtful. 28 30' N., 177 18' E. It has 
been expunged from the British Admiralty charts on perhaps insufficient grounds. 

PaumotU, Tuamotu or Low archipelago. Coral atolls extending over sixteen degrees 
of longitude. The native name means "Cloud (or bunch) of islands." Quiros, in 
1606, saw several islands of the group, but these cannot now be determined so 
great is the similarity among all these islands. Many of the great navigators ob- 
served several islands, but Wilkes (1841) gave more accurate details, and to his 
surveys the modern charts are chiefly indebted. The inhabitants vary from the 
Vitian to the Tahitian type. There are 78 atolls each numbering many islets; 18 
atolls are inhabited, the population being estimated at 8000, nearly all of them 
Protestants. Flies are very troublesome. Principal exports, copra and pearl shell, 
in the hands of American and British merchants of Tahiti. France took the 
archipelago in 1844 and the French Resident is stationed on Fakarava. The de- 
tached islands to the southeast, Ducie, Henderson, Pitcairn and Oeno are British 
possessions. From the structure of the atolls their form is continually changing, 
and occasionally in severe storms the sea breaks over them destroying the inhabi. 
tants and making radical changes in the geography. 2O, 21, 22. 

Pavuvu, see Russell, Solomon islands. 

Peacock, see Ahii of the Paumotu archipelago. 2O. 

Peak, see Panabahai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Peard, a name of Mangareva or Gambier. 22. 

Pearl and Hermes reef, Hawaiian islands. Discovered in 1822 by two whalers, 
Pearl and Hermes wrecked near the eastern end on the same night, within ten 
miles of each other. An atoll extending E-w. 16 m., N-s. 9 m., or 40 m. in circum- 
ference, with 12 islets, the southeast one in 27 47' 50" N., 175 51' w. 2. 

Peddlar, see Arno, Marshall islands. 

Peel, one of the Coffin group, Bonin islands. 27 08' N., 142 15' E. 

Pegan, St. David, Freewill or Onata. Reported by ship Wiuivick in 1761. Atoll 14 m. 
N-S., with 4 low islets; inhabited. Under the Dutch flag. o 57' N., 134 21' E. 

MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 2. 9. L 2I 3j 



130 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



Pegue, one of the Hermit islands. i 35' s., 144 58' E. 8. 

Peihi, islet on the west reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Peka, high island of Fiji. 16 52' 54" S., 177 26' 06" E.O 

Pele, northeast from Fate, New Hebrides; 2 m. long, 300 ft. high; Polynesian inhabitants. 

Pelelep, of Dnperrey is Pingelap, Caroline islands. 

Pelelill or Pililu, of the Pelew islands, extends 3 in. NE-SW. 6 58' N., 134 16' 15" E. 

Pelew or Palao, the Arrecifos of Villalobos, who discovered them in 1543, extend about 
85 m. N-S., while the greatest breadth does not exceed 7 m. A barrier reef with 
many passages extends the whole length of the group. The population in 1875 
was 10,000; less than a century before it was 40,000. No pestilence, no massacres, 
simply want of energy. Semper says: "The iron of the European followed too 
close upon the stone of the savage." The six principal islands are N'yaur on the 
south, Peleliu, Eil Malk or Irakong, Uruktapi, Korror (seat of government), and 
Babeltop, with many islets. 

Pelican, on the Australian coast. 13 53' s., 143 52' E. 

Pell, see Lisiansky of the Hawaiian group. 

Peme, the northeast islet of the Hermit group. i 29' S., 145 06' E. 








FIG. IO. PERU. 

Penantipode, a name sometimes given to Antipodes island, New Zealand. 

Pender, a circular islet of the Engineer group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Penrhyn, see Tongareva. 

Pentecost, see Arag of the New Hebrides. 

Percy, low and wooded, 2 m. long, in Cloudy bay, on southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Peregrina (La), see Gente Hermosa. 15. 

Peroat, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 

Perry, a high island of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 41' 30" s., 177 05' E.O 

Peru, Sunday, Maria, Eliza, Peroat or Francis, was discovered by Captain Clerk of the 

ship/<9// Palmer in 1827; n m. long, 6-8 ft. high. Population about 2000. 

Southeast point is in i 27' 35" S., 176 05' w. 
Pescado (Isla de), discovered by Quiros February 21, 1606. Perhaps the same as San 

Bernardo, or even Solitaria. 

Pescadores, see Bikini, Marshall group, or Rongelab. 

[214] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 131 

Petal, off west side of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5 09' s., 154 30' K. 
Philip, see Sorol of the Caroline islands. 

Philip, islet at the entrance of Makira harbor, San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 

Phillips, a name given to Makemo, Paumotu archipelago, by Trumbull in honor of Sir 
Richard Phillips, late Sheriff of London. 

Phoebe, see Baker, also Tamana, Gilbert islands. 

Phoenix, a group of 8 low, scattered islands. For position see the islands composing it, 
Gardner or Kemin, Hull, Sydney, Phceriix, Birnie, Enderbury, Canton, McKean. 17. 

Phoenix, the nomenclator of the previous group, is a mile long and half as broad, 
18-20 ft. high. Formerly had deposits of guano, but was worked out in 1871. 
British protectorate was proclaimed June 29, 1889. 3 47' s., 170 43' w.O 

Piano, one of the Hermit group. i 34' s., 144 56' E. 

Piedu, island 540 ft. high in Bougainville strait, Solomon islands. 652's., i56O9'E. 

Piele, near Nguna, New Hebrides; 2 m. long; inhabited. 

Pig, see Nimoa of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Pig, see Ulu of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pigen, islet of Aurh, Marshall islands. 

Pigeon, on the Australian coast. 12 31' S., 143 18' E. 

Pigeon, near Moresby island, New Guinea ; 60 ft. high. 

Pigeon, see Credner of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pigeon, see Palakurti of the Bismarck archipelago. 

Pikela or Lydia of the Caroline islands. 8 38' N., 147 13' E. Considered doubtful. 3. 

Pikelot or Coquille, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Duperrey July 3, 1824, 
and by him called Bigalli. It is but 300 yds. in diameter, low and uninhabited. 
Lutke places it in 8 09' N., 147 42' E. 3. 

Pikhat, islet of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 3 13' 10" N., 172 40' E. 

Pileni, inhabited island i m. NW-SE., 100 ft. high, in the Matenia group. British pro- 
tectorate declared August 18, 1898. 

Pililu, see Peleliu, Pelew islands. 

Pilipal, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Pilot, islet at the mouth of Requin bay, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Pinaki, a form of Nganati. 

Pine, see Hueguenee, Loyalty islands. 

Piner, a low island of the Tiri group, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 23'54"s., i79o8'25"E.O 

Pines (Isle of), lies southeast from New Caledonia and belongs to France; 11.5 m. 
NW-SE.; 880 ft. high. About 800 natives of Papuan stock and formerly cannibals. 
Here the French missionaries took refuge in 1847 when driven by the natives from 
Balade in New Caledonia. 22 39' 20" S., 167 28' E. 13. 

Pingelap, Musgrave or MacAskill, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain 
Musgrave in the Sugar Cane, 1793; and again by Captain MacAskill of the ship 
Lady Barlow in 1809. Three islands compose the group which is 2.5 m. in diam- 
eter; Pingelap is the southern and principal, Taka is small, and Tugulu (Chikuru) 
is the northern. They are well wooded and have about 900 inhabitants, of light 
color. 6 12' N., 160 53' E. 5. 

Pionne, islet of Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia, 

[215] 



1 32 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Piper, a group on the Australian coast. 12 15' S., 143 14' E. 

Pipoa, on the Australian coast. 14 07' S., 144 32' E. 

Piron or Yeina is n m. northwest of Tagula in the Louisiade archipelago. Inhab- 
itants warlike. 

Pise or Pis, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 42' 30" N., 151 46' E. 

Pisonia, one of the Wellesley group in the Gulf of Carpentaria, northeast from Morn- 
ington. 16 30' S., 139 32' 30" E. 

Pitcaittl was discovered by Carteret July 2, 1767. Supposed by some to be the Encar- 
nacion of Quiros; 2.2 m. E-W., i m. wide, 1000 ft. high. Named for a relative of 
the Major Pitcairn who fired the first shot in the American revolution. Most in- 
terest attaches to this island from the mutiny of the Bounty in 1789. These mu- 
tineers were not the first inhabitants, however, for skeletons buried with stone 
adzes and a pearl shell not found now on the island, have been unearthed in several 
places. British protectorate proclaimed August 18, 1898. Adamstown is, accord- 
ing to Beechey, in 25 03' 37" S., 130 08' 23" w. 

Pitt, a small, low, wooded island on the New Guinea coast. io35'2o"s., i5iO2'5o"E. 

Pitt, see Makin of the Gilbert islands. 

Pitt, see Rangiauria, one of the Chatham islands. 

Pi^aras, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 8 34' 20" N., 150 32' 30" E. 4. 

Platform, islet in midst of reefs, Admiralty group. 2 44' S., 147 03' E. 

Pleasant, see Nawodo of the Gilbert islands. 

Pleiades, a group northwest from Uea, Loyalty islands. They are, beginning at the 
northeast end, North, Isenay or La Baleine, La Tortue, Fatouba, Hueguenee or 
Pine, Oidi, Deguala. 

Poanopa, a way of spelling Bonabe. 

Pollard Rock, a name of Gardner of the Hawaiian islands. 

Pole, in Torres strait. 10 12' S., 142 28' E. 

Poll, of the Three Sisters group in Torres strait. 10 15' s., 142 49' E. 

Poloa, islet of Tongatabu on the northwest. 20 05' 30" S., 175 14' 30" w. 18. 

Poloat or Enderby, of the Caroline islands. In 1799 Ibargoitia discovered an island 
which he called Kata. Freycinet found it was two distinct islands, one of which 
he called Alet, the other Poloat or Pozoat. They are on a reef 6 m. E-w. Popula- 
tion about 100. 7 19' 25" N., 149 15' E. The group is usually called Enderby, 
a name given by Captain Renneck in 1826 in honor of his employers, London 
merchants. 

Pomodedere, in Cloudy bay on the New Guinea coast. 10 17' s., 148 46' E. 

Pompom, islet off the south coast of Mnrua in the Kiriwina group. 9o7's., i523i'E. 

Ponafidin, one of the Bonin islands. 

Ponape or Ascension was discovered by Liitke January 2, 1828; 12 m. N-s., 14.5 m. 
E-w.; 2861 ft. high; coral reef 60 m. in circumference, on which are many basaltic 
rocks or islets. Metalanien harbor, which is in 6 51' N., 158 18' E., has on the 
shores very interesting ruins (see Geographical Journal, [899, p. 105 ; also, La Isla 
de Ponape, by Pereiro, 1895; both give maps of these ruins which were first 
noticed by Dr. L. H. Gulick of the American mission). Ponape is the largest and 

most important of the Caroline islands. Fanua pei = Land of the holy places. 5. 

[216] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 133 

Pones, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Ponui, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Poporang, islet of Shortland, Solomon islands, n. 

Porcupine, islet at base of Mont d'Or at the south end of New Caledonia; 300 ft. high, 

rocky and covered with fir trees. 
Porondu or Contrariete, islet on the southwest coast of New Caledonia ; low and 

wooded. 

Pororan, off the west coast of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5 15' s., 154 30' E. 
Portland, three low, wooded islands in the Bismarck archipelago, the eastern one the 

largest; 2.5 m. long, inhabited. 2 38' s., 149 40' E. 
Portland, see Waikawa, New Zealand. 
Portlock, in Torres strait. 10 07' S., 142 22' E. 

Possession, northeast from Banks in Torres strait. 10 05' S., 142 20' E. 
Possession, in Endeavor channel. io42's., 142 23' E. It seems probable that there 

is but one Possession island, but on the chart sometimes one, sometimes the other 

position is given. 

Pott, one of the Belep group northwest from New Caledonia ; 4 m. NW-SE. 
Powell, islet near Pender in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Po^oat or Poloat, eastern islet of Enderby group, Caroline islands. 72o'N., 149 iy'E. 
Predour (Le) islet off St. Vincent bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Predpriatie, see Akahaina, Paumotu archipelago. Named for Kotzebue's sloop of war. 
Prince Frederick Henry, a low, flat island, 90 m. long, on the southwest coast of 

New Guinea, north of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Prince of Wales, a group in Torres strait, comprising Thursday, Horn, Prince of 

Wales, Friday (Quarantine station), Goode and Hammond. io4o's., 142 n'E.O 
Prince William Henry, see Nengonengo of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Prince William Islands, Tasman's name for the Fijian group. 
Princessa, see Lib of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Proby, the name given by the discoverer, Captain Edwards, to Niuafoou, Tongan islands. 
Prospect, see Washington. 
Protection, see Leausan, off the northwest coast of Fate, New Hebrides. Leleppa, on 

the same coast, is also called Protection, or are they perhaps confounded? 
Providence, see Udjelong of the Marshall islands. 
Pudiue or Observatory, islet off the northeast coast of New Caledonia. Here was 

buried Huon de Kermadec, captain of the Esperance of D'Entrecasteaux' expe- 
dition. (Died May 7, 1792.) 
Ptien, islet, see Montravel, New Caledonia. 
Pugelug, islet of the Caroline islands. 

Pukapuka, a name given by traders to Tog in the Torres group. 
Pllkapllka, or Clerke, low, inhabited atoll of the Paumotu archipelago. i723's., 

138 35' w. 
Pukapuka, the north island of the Danger group, So ft. high. Population, 375; 

coconut trees abundant. 10 53' S., 165 45' 30" w. 
Pukapuka, Henuake, Honden or Dog, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten April 

10, 1616; 330 m. west from Manahiki, and consists of three islets around a fine 

[217] 



i 3 4 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

closed lagoon. The first John Williams was lost here in 1864. Uninhabited, but 

it is said that there are snakes there. 14 55' 40" S., 138 47' 36" w.O Must not 

be confounded with Danger island. 22. 
Pukararo (rww= leeward), one of the islets of Vairaatea, Paumotu archipelago. 

North end is in 19 18' s., 139 18' w. 22. 
Pukaruha, or Serle, was discovered by Captain Wilson in the DujfM.&y 28, 1797, 

who named it for the author of Hor& Solitaria ; 7.5X2.2 m., 12 ft. high, with 

closed lagoon ; 120 inhabitants. Southeast extreme is in i822'3o"s., i3658 / 3o"w. 

(Beechey.) 22. 
Ptlkarunga (runga=. windward), islet of Vairaatea, also called Egmont; discovered 

by Wallis in 1767. 19 18' S., 139 18' w. 22. 
PuketutU or Neckes, in Manukau harbor, New Zealand. 

Plllly, one of the Tiri group, off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 25' 24" S., 179 07' E.O 
Pulo Anna or Current, of the Pelew group, is half a mile long, low, inhabited. Pulo 

is the Malay for island. 4 38' N., 132 02' E. 
Pulo Mariere or Warren Hastings, Caroline islands, was discovered in 1761. Low, 

inhabited; natives resemble Malays. 1.5 m. N-S. 4 20' N., 132 28' E.(?) 
Pulo Suge or Pulusuk, see Suk of the Caroline islands. 4. 
Pulo Wat, see Fanadik, Caroline islands. 

Puna, northernmost of the Malume group, Bismarck archipelago. 3io's., 154 25' E. 
Punawan, largest of the Duperre group, Louisiade archipelago. 
Puramatara, islet off Cape Surville, San Cristoval, Solomon islands. 
Purdy, a group of which the islands were by Krusenstern named Bat, Mole and 

Mouse. 2 55' S., 146 28' E. The inhabitants resemble Admiralty islanders. 8. 
Puynipet, one of the many forms of Ponape. 

Pylstaart (Tropic Bird), see Ata of the Tongan islands. Tasman's name. 
Pyramid, islet of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Qakea, islet on the east coast of Vanua Lava, New Hebrides, at the south entrance to 

Port Patteson. Here the language of Mota is spoken. 
Qaniea, the Fijian orthography of Ngamea, Fiji. 
Queen Charlotte, see Akiaki, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Queen Charlotte, see Nukutavake, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Quernel, islet on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 
Quirosa, a name of Ponape, Caroline islands. 
Quoin, on the Australian coast. 12 25' s., 143 29' E. 

Quoin, rock islet a mile southeast from Mugula, south coast of New Guinea. 
Quoin or Tua, southeast from Orangerie bay, south coast of New Guinea. 
Quoy or Krudu, on the New .Guinea coast, extends 8 m. E-w., and is well wooded. 

Raberabe, low island of Fiji. 16 57' 25" s., 178 43' 20" E.O Also Rabi Rabi. 

Radogala, see Rongelab, Marshall islands. 

Raeffsky, a group of the Paumotu archipelago, discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 

Consists of Tepoto, Tuinaka and Hiti. 21. 
Rahiroa, see Rangiroa, Paumotu archipelago. 2O. 

[218] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 135 

Raiatea or Ulietea, of the Society islands, is about 30 m. in circumference, and the 
highest peak is 3389 ft. Population, 1400; all Protestants. Tahaa is within the 
same reef and there are many islets between them. 16 40' s., 154 40' w. 2O. 

Raine, in Torres strait. 11 35' 50" s., 144 02' 20" E. 

Rairoa, see Rangiroa, Paumotu archipelago. 30. 

Rakaanga or Reirson lies about 20 m. NNW. from Monahiki. Discovered by Bellings- 
hausen in 1820, who called it Grand Duke Alexander. Captain Patrickson called 
it Reirson in 1822. Population, about 350. No lagoon. ioO2's., i6iO5'3o"w. 
British protectorate declared August 9, 1889. 

Rakino, in Auckland bay, New Zealand. 

Raki Raki, high island off Viti levu, Fiji. 17 20 20" s., 177 59' 30" E.O 

Rakiura, the Maori name of Stewart island, New Zealand. 

Ralick, a name given to the western chain of the Marshall islands. 

Ratnbi (Rabi), high, inhabited island of Fiji; 8.7 m. NE-SW., 4.5 m. wide, 1550 ft. high. 
North point is in 16 24' 40" s., 180 08' E. 

Ramos (Los), a name given by both Gallego and Figueroa to Malaita, Solomon islands. 
8 19' s., 1 60 09' E. 

Ramung, islet on the northern side of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Ranai, a form of Lanai, Hawaiian islands. 

Rangiauria or Pitt, the southeastern of the Chatham islands, New Zealand. 

Rangiroa, Rahiroa, Vliegen, Deans or Nairsa, is an extensive atoll with many islets; 
66 m. long, inhabited. (Wilkes, I., 337.) 15 05' 15" s., 147 58' 34" w. 2O. 

Rangitoto, a volcanic island in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Rano, islet on the northeast coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 12. 

Raotll or Sunday was discovered by D'Entrecasteaux March 15, 1793; 12 m. in cir- 
cumference, 1627 ft. high. Of the Kermadec group, belonging to New Zealand. 
29 20' s., 178 10' w.O Joseph and Ange Raoul were pilots on the Recherche. 

Raoul was represented on former charts as an island of some size between Gicquel and 
Willaumez in the Bismarck archipelago. It is now found to be part of a moun- 
tainous peninsula of New Britain. 10. 

Rapa or Oparo was discovered by Vancouver December 22, 1791 ; about 20 m. in cir- 
cumference, and 2100 ft. high. Natives do not know the name Oparo, but call the 
island Lappa (Rapa). Climate delightful. When discovered population num- 
bered 1500 fine Polynesians resembling Maoris; February 23, 1882, there were but 
100 all told. On six hills there are stone fortifications like the Rapanui terraces. 
Natives make a thick, heavy kapa. French protectorate in 1844; island annexed 
to France February, 1882. See account by Captain Vine Hall, Proc. Roy. Geog. 
Soc., June, 1869. 27 36' s., 144 22' w. 

Rapaiti, islet of Rapa. 27 38' s., 144 15' w. 

Rapanili or Easter, said to have been seen by Davis in 1686. Admiral Roggewein 
saw it first on April 6, 1722 (Easter Sunday). Cook saw it in 1774. It is of tri- 
angular form, the longest side measuring 13 m. NE-SW. Volcanic with trachytic 
lava and obsidian. The inhabitants are Polynesian from Rapa, and they call 
their island "Te Pito o te honua," the navel of the earth. The most interesting 

remains on the island are the huge images so often described, and other relics of 

[219] 



136 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



ancient inhabitants. Rapanui was surveyed by Beechey in 1825, and by H. M. S. 
Topaze in November, 1868. For full account see Anuario Hidrografico dc la 
Marina dc Chili, /##/, pp. 164-190., Santiago.; Tour du Monde, XXXVI., 225. 
The best account is by W. J. Thompson, U. S. Navy, in the Report of the U. S. 
Nat. Museum, 1889, p. 447. From this the map is copied. 27o8's., 109 25' w. 

Raputata or Welle, also called Sanaroa, of the D'Entrecasteaux group, is low, 10 in. 
N-S., 8 m. E-w.. About 250 inhabitants. 9 38' s., 151 E. 9. 

Rara, western of Sloss group, Louisiade archipelago. 

Kara ni Tinka, a name of Tavuka, Fiji. 

Raraka, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered October i, 1831, by Captain 
Ireland of the brig Adhemar. It is triangular, 15 m. on a side. Lagoon has deep 
blue water. (Wilkes, I., 330.) Inhabited. West point is in i6o8's., i45oo'4o"w. 

Raroia or Barclay de Tolly 
was discovered by Bell- 
ingshausen in 1820; of 
the Paumotu archipel- 
ago; population, 75. The 
north point is in i556's., 
142 22' w. 

Rarotonga, a beautiful isl- 
and of the Hervey group, 
was discovered by John 
Williams in 1823; a t 
least he gave the first 
authentic report of it. 
It is about 30 m. in cir- 
cumference, volcanic, and 
very fertile. Mt. Ter- 
vanga is 2920 ft. high. 
Population, 2000. English protectorate declared in 1888. 21' 

Rat, in Fortescue strait, New Guinea. 10 36' 35" s., 150 54' E. 




RAPANUI OR EASTER ISLAND 



FIG. II. 



20' s., 160 w. 23. 



Ratack or Radack, the eastern chain of the Marshall islands. 

Rativa, islet on the coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 44' 20" s., 179 40' 30" E.O 

Raur, southeast islet of Wolea, Caroline islands ; inhabited. 72 i'3o"N., 1 43 57' 30" E. 3. 

Ravahere, see Manaka, Paumotu archipelago. Some refer it to Marakau or Dauahaida. 

Ravaivai, see Vavitao of the Austral islands. 

Raven, see Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 5. 

Ravenga, islet off Port Patteson, Vanua Lava, New Hebrides. 13 48' s., 167 30' E. 

Here the language of Motlav is spoken. 

Ravu ravu, off Vanua levu, Fiji; 1.5X0.701. Inhabited. i627'24"s.,i7856'io"E.O 
Rasor, two islets near Sideia, New Guinea ; 200 ft. high. 
Real, see Panasia, Louisiade archipelago. 
Reao or Clermont-Tonnere was discovered by Duperrey in 1822. A low, inhabited 

atoll, lo-ii m. long and very narrow. Paumotu archipelago. Northwest end is 

in 1 8 16' 50" s., 137 09' 06" w. 22. 

[220] 



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MONAHIKI fg* 

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i 


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1 1 1 - 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 137 

Recherche (He de la), name given by the French to Vanikoro, New Hebrides. 

Recreation, of Roggewein, is Makatea of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Red, on the Australian coast. 10 50' s., 142 20' E. 

Redika, a wooded islet on the Great South Reef of New Caledonia. 

Redlands, off Sandwich island, Bismarck archipelago. 3 s., 150 45' E. 

Redlick, a ring of low islands on a reef 4.5X2 m., with a closed lagoon, in the 
Louisiade archipelago. 10 50' S., 152 30' E. 

Redman, islet of Choiseul, Solomon islands. 

Reef, see Matema group, Santa Cruz islands. 

Refuge, islet of Bougainville, Solomon islands, near Cape Friendship. 

Reid, Fiji; high. 17 57' 20" s., 181 38' 30" E.O 

Reid, islet of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Reid, a name of Tuinaka, Raeffsky islands. 31. 

Reirson, name given to Rakaanga by Captain Patrickson in 1822. 

Reitoru, Hikuera or Bird, a low, uninhabited island of the Paumotu archipelago. 
17 48' 10" s., 143 04' 52" w. 31. 

Rekareka or Goodhope of the Paumotu archipelago; inhabited; 5 m. NE-SW. by 4 m. 
Boat entrance to lagoon. 16 48' S., 141 35' w.G 31. 

Remalum, islet of Faitruk group in Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. 

Remski Korsakow, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. Also Rimski-Korsakoff. 

Renard or Fox, Louisiade archipelago; n islets within reef. H. M. S. Renard, 1879. 
10 49' S., I 5 2 5 8' E. 

Renard, Solomon islands; 1.5 m. long, 220 ft. high. Named for British war vessel, 
Renard, 1880. 7 41' S., 156 32' E. II. 

Rendova, Solomon islands; volcanic, 2500 ft. high, densely wooded; 18 m. N-s., 8 m. 
E-w. North point is in 8 24' S., 157 15' E. II. 

Rennell, Solomon islands. Two islands, Mongiki = Bellona and Mongava = Rennell, 
discovered by Butler in 1794. Population said to be Polynesian. British pro- 
tectorate declared August 18, 1898. West end 11 40' s., 159 55' E. 

Rennell, in Torres strait. 9 45' s., 143 15' E. 

Renny, see Aivo, Solomon islands. 

Resolution, off southwest coast of Middle island, New Zealand. Named for Cook's ship. 

Resolution, see Tauere, Paumotu archipelago. 

Revolution (lies de la), a name given by Marchand to the northwest group of the 
Marquesas in 1791. 

Reynold, see Vanua kula, Fiji. 

Reynolds, of the Underwood group, Fiji. Named for William Reynolds (afterwards 
Admiral). 17 43' 10" s., i77 ? 12' 10" E.O 

Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata, two islands of the Bonin group. For years their 
fabled riches were an El Dorado to the Dutch navigators. 

Rich, see Bagabag in Astrolabe bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Riche, of D'Entrecasteaux, is not an island but a bluff in Holnicote bay on the north- 
east coast of New Guinea. Riche was one of the naturalists on the Esperance. 

Richmond, a low island of the Tiri group off Vauua levu, Fiji. 16 25' 24" S., 

O / If /-\ 

179 07 50 E.O 

[221] 



i 3 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Riff, north from Ronongo, Solomon islands. 7 49' s., 156 26' E. 

Rikarika, western and largest of the Lebrun group, Louisiade archipelago; 360 ft. 
high. 10 52' S., 150 57' E. 

Rimitara, Austral islands; 2-3 m. in diameter, 3i5ft. high; inhabited. 224o's., i5245'w. 

Rimski-Korsakoff, see Ailinginae, Marshall islands. 

Rimsky, a name of Rongelab, Marshall islands, on some charts. 

Ringgold, Fiji; a high, volcanic group, not inhabited, comprising Budd, Maury, 
North, Holmes, De Haven ; all named for officers of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Riou, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Roahouga, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 

Roapoua, an old chart name for Huapu, Marquesas islands. Also spelled Roapua. 

Robatu, see San Cristoval of the Solomon islands. 

Robbe (Seal), islet in Marau sound, east end of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 

Roberts (of Hergest) is Eiao of the Marquesas islands. 

Roberts Isles, a name given by the Daedalus to the Marquesan group. 

Rock, a low, inhabited island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 39'24"s., 178 39'E.O 

Rocky, a dark-colored rock with a scant covering of grass on the summit, on the 
southeast coast of New Guinea. 10 41' 25" S., 150 59' 45" E. 

Rocky, see Sophia of the EHice islands. 

Rocky, islet northwest from Mornington island in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 16 19' S., 
139 24' E. 

Rofei, islet off Fauro, Solomon islands; 0.3X0.5 m. 123 ft. high. 

Rogeia or Heath, off east end of New Guinea, 4 m. NW-SE.; i m. wide, 1215 ft. high; 
well wooded. 10 38' s., 150 38' E. 

Roger Simpson, a name of Apamama, Gilbert islands. 

Roi, islet of Kwadjalin, Marshall islands. 6. 

Roissy, off New Guinea. 3 15' s., 144 03' E. 

Rokahanga, a chart name of Rakaanga, Paumotu archipelago. 

Romanzoff, see Tikei of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Romanzoff, see Wotje, Marshall islands. 

Roncador or Candelaria reef, Solomon islands, was seen by the pilot Maurelle in 
1781. Passing it in the night the noise of the breakers suggested the name 
(Snorer). It is almost certain that it was the same reef seen by Mendana in 1567 
and called by him Baxos de Candelaria. It is 18 m. in circumference and has two 
openings on the southwest to a good lagoon. 6 15' s., 159 14' E. II. 

Rongelab or Bigini, of the Marshall islands, the Pescadores of ancient charts, was 
discovered by Wallis, September 3, 1767. A lagoon atoll 16 m. long. Gulick 
gives the population in 1860 at 120; Witte, in 1878, at 18. n 19' N., i6735'E.O 

Rongelapelap, islet of Rongerik, Marshall islands. n 14' 30" N., 166 59' E. 

Rongerik, Marshall islands. Discovered by Kotzebue ; 36 m. long, with a width from 
3-20 m. The population in 1860, according to Gulick, was 60; in 1878 Witte 
gives only 10. 11 14' N., 166 35' E.O 6. 

Ronhua, islet in Port Uitoe on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Ronongo, island south from Vella Lavella, Solomon islands, from which it is sepa- 
rated by Wilson strait. About 2000 ft. high. 8 s., 156 32' E. 

[222] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 139 

Rook, see Umboi, Bismarck archipelago. This name was given by Dampier for Sir 

George Rook. 
RoporopO, islet i m. southwest from Mugula in Orangerie bay, New Guinea. 10 3i's., 

149 47' 37" E. 
Roro or Yule, on the south coast of New Guinea, is 4X1.5 m., and 534 ft. high. 848's., 

146 32' H. A mission station. The name is sometimes writen Lolo. 
Rosario, of the Bonin islands, is 148 ft. high. 27 18' N., 140 50' E. 
Rose, a coral islet discovered by Freycinet ; named for his wife who accompanied him; 

70 sea miles east from Manna, Samoan islands. It is inhabited only by birds. By 

the treaty of 1899 it belongs to the United States. 14 31' 30" s., i68o8'3o"w. 15. 
RoSSC, northeast coast of Auckland islands, New Zealand. 

Rossel, see Roua of the Louisiade archipelago. Rossel was Lieutenant on the Recherche. 
Rota, Zarpane, Sarpan, or Luta, of the Marianas, is of calcareous rock, 12X5.5 m - an d 

800 ft. high. 14 08' N., 145 10' E. See map under Marianas. 
Rotch, see Oneke. 

Rotcher, see Tamana of the Gilbert islands. 
Rotterdam, Tasman's name for Namuka of the Tongan group. 
Rotuma, Rotuam or Grenville, was discovered by Captain Edwards in 1791 ; 8 m. E-w., 

2 m. N-S.; 800 ft. high. Islets on the south are Solnahou, Solkop; on the east, 

Afgaha; north, Hanoua; on the west, Ataou, Hofliona, Ouea. Population, 2500; 

all Christian. While the people are classed as Polynesian, their language belongs, 

according to Codrington, to the Melanesiaii group. 12 28' s., 177 E. 16. 
Roua, Rua or Rossel, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 18.5X6 m., 2750 ft. high, 

thickly wooded. Inhabitants, Papuan cannibals ; a short, robust race, sooty brown; 

their language bears no resemblance to any known New Guinea dialect. East 

point is in 11 23' S., 154 18' E. 9. 
Round, see Alewakalou, Fiji. 
Round, islet in Marau sound, Solomon islands. Another of this name off Ysabel in 

the same group. Still another in the Woodlark group. 
Roux, five islets covered with coconuts, off the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

10 39' s., 149 58' E. 

Rowa is the northernmost of the Reef group, Banks islands. It has a mission station. 
Royalist, a name sometimes given to the south group of Ruk, Caroline islands, com- 
prising South and Givry. 
Rua, islet of Morileu, Caroline islands. 

Ruac, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 41' N., 151 55' 22" E. 
Ruadika or Solitary of the Solomon islands. 8 45' s., 159 47' E. 
Ruapuke, at east entrance to Foveaux strait, New Zealand. 
Ruarua, a group of several islets off the east side of Yendua, Fiji. 
Rubiana, New Georgia or Marovo of the Solomon islands. 8 22' S., 157 17' K. II. 
Ruk, Truk or Hogoleti, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Duperrey June 

24, 1824. The largest grcmp in the Carolines, composed of ten high, basaltic 

islands in an immense lagoon, with numerous islets (about 60) on the outer reef. 

Some of these islands rise to a height of 1000 ft., and are 10-15 m - i n circumference. 

South, Givry, Hacq and Lauvergne are on a rectangular reef 12X5 m -> detached 

[223] 



140 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

from the main reef. Pis, Tsis, Tol, Woles, Salat or Chassant, Cuop, Faleii, Umol, 
Pones are some of the islands. Rev. F. M. Price, an American missionary sta- 
tioned on Rule, estimates the population at 15,000. The north end is in 7 42' 30" N., 
151 46' K. 4. 

Run, in Geelvink bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 2 30' S., 134 35' E. 

Rua kiki, off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 9 30' 05" s., 
160 37' K. 

Rua suli, off the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 93o's., i6o36'E. 

Rurick, see Arutua of the Paumotu archipelago. 

RurutU or Oheteroa, of the Austral group, was discovered by Cook, August 14, 1769; 
1350 ft. high. Population about 600, all Protestant, under the teaching of the 
London Missionary Society. Annexed by France in 1889. 2229's., i5i2o'25"w. 

Russell or Pavuvu, a group northwest from Guadalcanar, 20 m. E-W., 12 m. N-S.; 
largest island is 1600 ft. high. Natives peaceable, keen traders. 9o4's., 



Sabarai or Owen Stanley, of the Louisiade archipelago, is 4X0.3 m., low, thickly 

wooded; inhabited. 11 08' S., 153 06' E. Also spelled Sabari. 
Sable, south from Goodman in the Bismarck archipelago. 3 32' S., 154 36' E. 
Sabuda, on the New Guinea coast. 2 37' S., 131 38' E. 
Saddle, see Lo, New Hebrides. 
Saddle, in Torres strait. 10 10' s., 142 40' E. 
Sagitaria (La), an island discovered by Pedro Fernandez Quiros, 12-13 February, 1606. 

According to Espinosa this is Tahiti. 
Saibai, low, 12X4 m. on the south coast of New Guinea. Population, 100. East end 

is in 9 24' S., 142 47' E. 
Sainson, low, wooded island on the north coast of Humboldt bay, New Guinea. 

3 09' s., 142 24' E. 
Saint Aignan, see Misima, Louisiade archipelago. Saint Aignan was a Lieutenant on 

the Recherche. 
St. Ambrose is 4 m. in circumference, 720 ft. high (1500 ft. Maclear). 26 i9'45"s., 

79 49 45" w. 
St. Andre, see Sansoral. 

St. Andrew, a group of six islands near the Admiralty islands : Violet, Waikatu, 
Bull, Broadmead, Berry and a bushy islet. Natives seem to be a finer race than 
the New Irish or Solomon islanders. 2 26' s., 147 24' K. 

St. Augustine, see Nanomea, Ellice group. 16. 

St. Bartholomew, see Malo, New Hebrides. 

St. Bruno, an inhabited islet off the northeast point of Gardenijs, in the Bismarck 
archipelago. 

St. Claire, see Merigi of the New Hebrides. 

St. David, see Pegan. 

St. Felix is 9 m. west from St. Ambrose ; barren, volcanic. 26 16' 46" s., 80 oo' 15" w. 

St. George or San Jorge, see Tuilagi, Solomon islands. 

St. Ignace or Hardy, islet in Ugu6 bay on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

St. John, see Wonneram, Bismarck archipelago. 

[224] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 141 

St. Joseph, near Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; about 650 ft. high; inhabited. 

St. Matthias or San Matthias, of the Bismarck archipelago, was discovered by 
Dampier; 24 m. E-w., 15 m. N-S. i 40' s., 149 40' E.O IO. 

St. Patrick, of the Admiralty group. 2 32' S., 147 15' E. 

St. Peter, see Ponafidin of the Bonin islands. 

St. Phalle, island in Arembo bay on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

St. Phalle, islet on the west part of Balabio reef, New Caledonia. 

St. Simeon, see Tauere, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Saipan or Seypan, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magalha.es March 6, 1521. 
Volcanic; 14 m. long, 1345 ft. high (Marche). Once populous, but now depopu- 
lated by the Spaniards who also drove out an American colony in 1815. In 1877 
it was repeopled by importing 876 Chamorros and Caroline islanders. Saipan is 
the Serpana of Quiros, who visited it in 1596. 15 15' N., 145 44' E. See map 
under title Marianas. 

Sakau, islet off northeast point of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides; about 500 ft. high. 

Sakau, islet southeast from Malekula, New Hebrides; 1.7 m. NE-SW.; 340 ft. high. 

Sakea, islet of Fakaafo. 9 26' s., 171 13' w. 

Saken, see Katiu of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Salat or Chassant, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Sala y Gomez was discovered in 1793 by the Spanish commander of that name. 
Small, rocky; inhabited only by birds. 26 27' 41" S., 105 28' w. 

Saltoi, see Arorai of the Gilbert islands. 

Salwati, off the northwest coast of New Guinea. About 30 m. in diameter. Subject 
to the Sultan of Tidore. Papuan with admixture of Malay. Mohammedans. 
Wild tribes in the interior. i 15' s., 130 45' E. 

Sam, a low island of Fiji. 17 35' 30" S., 177 25' 20" E.O 

Samarai or Dinner, in China strait, New Guinea; 1.5 m. in circumference, 155 ft. high. 
From June to December not unhealthy. No good water. 10 37' s., 150 41' E. 

Samarang, a name of Palmyra. 

Samba, native name of Mendana's Santa Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

Samoan Islands lie between the parallels 13 30' -14 30' s. and the meridians 
i68-i73\v. Krusenstern believed them identical with the Bauman islands seen 
by Roggewein in 1721. So far as any certain knowledge of them was obtained we 
are indebted to Bougainville who, in 1768, touched there and called the group 
lies des Navigateurs. The Wilkes expedition, in 1839, surveyed them with some 
care. The group (with the exception of Rosa or Rose island) is volcanic, but 
without active craters ; although near Olosenga there was a submarine eruption 
in 1866. There are 13 islands generally surrounded by coral reefs, and there is 
but one good harbor in the group, that at Pangopango on Tutuila, for Apia on 
Upplu has only an open anchorage within the reef. The islands are, beginning 
at the west end, Savaii, Manono, Apolima, Upolu, Fanuatapu, Namua, Nuutele, 
Nuulua, belonging to Germany ; and Tutuila, Anuu, Ofu, Olosenga, Tau and 
Rose belonging to the United States. Civil wars have prevailed of late years and 
England, Germany and the United States undertook to establish peace and a gov- 

[225] 



i 4 a INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

eminent by a tripartite convention (1889) which was a miserable failure, and at 
last the group was divided, as shown on Map 15, between Germany and the United 
States. Proclaimed February 16, 1900. The area of the group is about 2650 
sq. m.; and the native population, which is gradually diminishing, is estimated at 
30,000. From December to April hurricanes may occur. The most complete ac- 
count of the geography of the Samoan islands will be found in the Journal of the 
Godeffroy Museum, Hamburg, 1873-5. 

San Alessandro or Forfano, one of the Volcano islands. 25 24' N., 141 15' E. 

San Antonio, islet off the northeast point of Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; well 
wooded; natives friendly. 3 07' S., 152 43' E. 

Sanaroa, one of the names of Raputata of Welle in the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9. 

San AugUStino, an islet of Oraluk, Caroline islands. 7 37' N., 155 09' E. 

San AugUStino, one of the Volcano islands; 623 ft. high. 24 14' N., 141 25' E. 

San Bartolomeo (Bajos e Islas de), islands in 30 N. seen by Quiros. 

San Bernardo (Islas de) , discovered by Mendana August 20, 1595, in 10 40' S. Danger 
islands (?). Perhaps the same that Gonzales called Isla de Pescado, February 
21, 1606. Quiros Viajes, I., 53, 260; II., 6, 7, 10, 55. 

San Bruno, of the Bismarck archipelago. 3 05' S., 152 42' E. 

San Cristobal, Arossi, Robatu, the Paubro of Gallego in the Solomon group, was 
discovered by Mendana in June, 1568; 76X23 m., 4100 ft. high. Northwest point 
is in 10 10' S., 161 20' E. 

Sand, the western islet of Midway atoll, Hawaiian islands; 1.5X0.7 m., 57 ft. high; 
little vegetation, sand glaring. 28 12' 22" N., 177 22' 20" w. 2. 

Sand, islet of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. i 49' s., 175 37' E. 

Sand islet, see Dao Balayet, New Caledonia. 

Sandford, high island of Fiji. 18 50' s., 178 24' E.O 

San Dimas, Solomon islands ; discovered by Pedro de Ortega Valencia, of Meudaiia's 
expedition, in April, 1568. 9 31' s. Quiros Viajes, I., 4; II, 4, 28, 37. 

Sands, group in Austral islands; discovered by J. R. Sands, in the whaler Benjamin 
Tucker, October 19, 1845. Examined in 1860 by Captain Lebleux, in the ship 
Railleur, who found a triangular reef, the longest side extending 3 m. NW-SE., with 
3 islands, a fourth one at the apex of the triangle 2 m. NE. from central island; 
highest point, 66 ft. above the sea. Hull, Maria, Sands, Nororutu. Northwest 
corner 21 49' S., 154 51' w. 

Sandwich, of the Bismarck archipelago, is 6-8 m. from the southwest coast of New 
Ireland; 10 m. E-w., 8 m. x-s.; 600 ft. high. North point is in 253's., 150 49' E. 

Sandwich, Cook's name for the Hawaiian islands. 

Sandwich, see Fate, New Hebrides. 

Sandy, one of the Belep islands, New Caledonia. 13. 

Sandy, on the Australian coast. 12 35' S., 143 31' E. 

San Francisco, the name given by Mendana to Wake island October 4, 1568. 

San Francisco, near Gardenijs, Bismarck archipelago; about 650 ft. high; thickly 
peopled. 2 50' S., 152 38' E. 

San Gabriel, of the Admiralty islands, is about 6 m. long; thickly peopled. 2o6's., 

147 37' E. 

[226] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 143 

San German (Isla de), discovered among the Solomon islands by Pedro de Ortega 

Valencia of the Mendana expedition, April 9, 1568, in 9 30' S. 
San Jeronimo (Isla de), Solomon islands; one of the discoveries of Pedro de Ortega 

Valencia. Perhaps the same as San Jorge. 
San Jorge (Isla de), Solomon islands, near Santa Ysabel. Natives called it Varnesta 

or Borne. Discovered April 23, 1568, by Ortega and Gallego of the Mendana 

expedition. 

San Jorge, of the Admiralty group. 2 22' S., 147 18' E. 
San Jose, between San Francisco and San Bruno, Bismarck archipelago. 2 59' S., 

152 39' E. 

San Juan, see Ugi, Solomon islands. 
San Juan Bautista, an unidentified discovery of Quiros, January 29, 1606, in 24 S., 

139 w. 

San Marcos, see Choiseul, Solomon islands. 
San Marcos, discovered by Quiros April 25, 1606, is, according to Espinosa, Pan de 

Azucar of the Banks islands. 

San Mateo (Bajos de) seen by Mendana, September 1568, in 8 30' N. 
San Miguel, discovered by Quiros February 9, 1606, in 19 s. The saints of the old 

Spanish voyagers are harder to find on the charts than saints in real life. 
San Miguel, of the Admiralty group. 2 17' S., 147 31' E. 
San Nicolas, another of the discoveries of Ortega and Gallego, April, 1568. "Noroeste 

de Santa Ysabel ;" but there are many islands in that position. II. 
San Pablo, see Hereheretui of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
San Pedro, see Motane of the Marquesas islands. 33. 
San Quentin, see Heraiki of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

San Rafael, of the Admiralty islands, is 3 m. long and very flat. 2 06' S., 147 45' E. 
Sansoral or St. Andre, discovered by Padilla in 1710, consists of two islands, Sansoral 

and Kodakopuei or Fauna; low, 350 inhabitants resembling the central Caro- 

lineans. 5 20' N., 132 20' E. Also spelled Sonsol, and incorrectly Sonsoral. 
Santa Ana, native Itapa, was discovered by Francisco Muiioz Rico, of the Men- 
dana expedition, July 4, 1568, in the Solomon group; 520 ft. high. 10 51' S., 

162 26' E. 
Santa Catalina, native Aguari, of the Solomon group, was discovered by Francisco 

Mufioz Rico and Hernan Gallego in July, 1568. It is 2 m. E-w., and 320 ft. high. 

10 54' s., 162 25' E. 

Santa Christina (Cristina), see Tahuata of the Marquesas islands. 
Santa Clara, a barren island 4-5 m. in diameter, southwest from Juan Fernandez. 

Also called Goat. 
Santa Cms Group, discovered by Mendana in 1595; again by Carteret in 1767. 

Examined by D'Entrecasteaux in 1793. There are seven larger islands, Vanikoro, 

Tapoua, etc. British protectorate declared August 18, 1898. 
Santa CtUZ, Egmont or Nitendi (Ndendi) was discovered by Mendana September 7, 

I 595! J 5 nl - l n S> with fringing reef. Carteret called it Egmont. Here Mendana 

died October 18, 1595. 10 40' s., 166 03' E. 13. 

[227] 



i 4 4 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sans-Souci, off Berlin harbor on the north coast of New Guinea, comprise Sainson 

and Faragtiet ; low, wooded. 
Santa Isabel, Solomon islands, see Ysabel. 
Santa Maria, see Gaua, New Hebrides. 
Santiago, north from San Cristobal, Solomon islands; discovered by Mendana May, 

1568. 
San Urban, close to Guadalcanar; discovered by Hernando Enriquez of the Mendana 

expedition. Perhaps San Juan. 
Sariba or Hayter, on the New Guinea coast; 5 m. ESE-WNW., 800 ft. high. Named 

for Lieutenant Hayter. 10 31' S., 150 45' E. 
Sariguan, of the Marianas, a volcanic cone 1.5 m. in diameter. Formerly inhabited, 

now deserted. 16 42' N., 145 43' E. See map under title Marianas. 
Sarpan, see Rota, Marianas. 

Satalo, islet on the south coast of Upolu, Samoan islands. 
Satawal or Tucker, of the Caroline islands ; discovered by Captain Wilson of the Duff, 

October 25, 1793; 2-3 m. in circumference; 200 inhabitants. 7 22' N., 147 06' E. 
Satoan, of the Mortlock group of the Caroline islands; 7X12 m.; 60 islets and less 

than 1000 inhabitants. Chickens, pigs, dogs and cats are all eaten here. The 

south end is in 5 17' N., 153 46' E. 4. 
Saumatafanga, islet of Fakaafo. 9 25' s., 171 12' w. 
Saunders, see Tapamanu, Society islands, 30. 

Sail Sau, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. i6i6'24"s., 179 25'2o"E.O 
Savage, see Niiie. 
Savaii, of the Samoan islands, is the largest of the group; 40X20 m., 5400 ft. high; 

shores low. South end in 13 48' 40" s., 172 17' 30" w. Belongs to Germany. 15. 
Savo, a volcano north of the west end of Guadalcanar; the Sesarga of Mendana. 

Discovered by Pedro de Ortega Valencia and Hernan Gallego, April, 1568. Sur- 

ville called it Isla de las Contrariedades. Nearly circular; 4 m. in diameter, 1800 

ft. high; At present emits steam. Inhabited. 9 08' S., 159 45' E. 
Scarborough, a name given to the north group of the Gilbert islands from the ship 

Scarborough, one of those commanded by Captains Gilbert and Marshall. 
Schanz, see Wotto of the Marshall islands. 
Schotlten, a group off the north coast of New Guinea consisting of Mysory, Korido 

and Biak. The last two may be one island. i S., 136 E. 
Schouten, another group, more to the eastward, consisting of Lesson, Garnot and 

Blosseville. 

Scilly, six islands 60 ft. high, wooded, in the Bismarck archipelago. 4o3's., 151 22' E. 
Scilly, see Fenuaura of the Society islands. 
Seagull, a name of the Raeffsky islands, Patimotu archipelago. 
Secretary, islet on the southwest coast of Middle island, New Zealand. 
SegU, on the New Guinea coast. 5 08' s., 145 50' E. 
Setliavina, Caroline islands; discovered by Liitke in 1828 and named after his vessel. 

Consist of Ponape, Ant and Pakin. 
Sentinel, East and West ; two high islands on either side of the entrance of Taiohae 

bay, south side of Nukuhiva, Marquesas islands. 

[228] 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 145 

Sepper, see Nuitao of the Ellice group. 16. 

Serapin, islet at entrance to Wanderer bay, on Guadalcanar, Solomon islands, where 
in 1851 Mr. Boyd, of the yacht Wanderer, was massacred. 9 41' s., 159 39' E. 

Serle, see Reao or Pukaruha of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Sesarga, Mendana's name for Savo, Solomon islands. 

Setovi or Selovi, a flat island 2 m. east from Aore, New Hebrides. 

Sell Sell, islet near Ronx group on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Seven Islands, a name of Ngatik of the Caroline islands. 

Sewell, in Cloudy bay, New Guinea. 

Shank, see Nawodo of the Gilbert islands. 

Shanz or Schanz, a name of Wotto, Marshall islands. 

Sharp, in the Trobriand group. 9 34' s., 151 39' E. 

Sharp, see Panantinian of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Shepherd, a group near Api in the New Hebrides, consisting of Tongoa, Tongariki, 
Buuinga, Valea, Ewose, Laika, Mai and Tevala. 

Sherrard, on the Australian coast. 12 58' S., 143 37' E. 

Shortland, of the Solomon islands, is n m. E. by N. -w. by S., 7 m. wide, 675 ft. high. 
7 03' S., 155 45' E. For Shortland's Journal see Philips' Voyage to Botany bay, 
ch. xviii. 

Shortland, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; 0.3 m. in diameter; 200 ft. high. 

Siande, islet; wooded, at entrance to Port Burai on the southwest side of New Cale- 
donia. 

Siaptltior, islet of Lukunor of the Caroline islands. 4. 

Siassi, a low archipelago off the east coast of New Guinea, near Umboi. 5 55' S., 

147 55' E. 

Sideia or Basilisk, on the New Guinea coast, forms three sides of a hollow square 
open to the west; 8.2 m. E-w., 7.5 m. N-S.; inhabited; 1330 ft. high. 10 34'2o"s., 

150 49 55" E. 

Sidney, see Sydney, a group on the New Guinea coast. 9 35' S., 149 49' E. 
Sidney, or Sydney, of the Phoenix group, was discovered by Captain Eminent ; 2 X i m.; 

20 ft. high. 4 25' 30" s., i7i2i'4o"w.O There are remains of stone buildings here. 
Sikaiana or Stewart, discovered by Captain Hunter, 1791. Fine robust race of light 

brown color. Formerly under the Hawaiian flag; British protectorate declared 

August 18, 1898; 1.2 m. long, 150 ft. high. 9 s., 163 E. Faore, Manduiloto, 

Barena, Matu avi are uninhabited islands of this group. 
Sikalai, islet of Fakaafo. 9 22' 25" S., 171 12' w. 
Silat, islet of Ruk of the Caroline islands. 
Simbo, see Marovo, Solomon islands. 

Simlakita, in the lagoon of Egum atoll. 9 26' s., 151 57' E. 9. 
Simonov, see Tuvana i tholo, Fiji. Named for the astronomer of Bellingshausen's 

expedition. 

Simpson, see Apamama of the Gilbert islands. 

Sinclair, small island near Naviti, Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 i2'3o"s., i77o8'3o"E.O 
Sinde, islet within N'Goe reef on the southeast coast of New Caledonia. Is it Siande? 
Single Tree Islet, on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

MEMOIRS B. r, B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 2. 10. L 22 9J 



i 4 6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sin Puerto (Isla), discovered by Quiros January 29, 1606, in 24 45' S.,= San Juan 
Bautista? Islands without port are not exceptional. 

Sir Charles Hardy lies to the east of New Ireland ; 300 ft, high ; wooded. 

Sir Charles Hardy, a group on the Australian coast. 11 54' S., 143 28' E. 

Sir Charles Saunders, a name given by Wallis to Tapamanu of the Society islands. 

Sir Edward Pellew, a group at the west side of the Gulf of Carpentaria ; 5 islets, of 
which Vanderlin is the largest. 

Sir Henry Martin, a name of Nukuhiva of the Marquesas islands. 23. 

Sisters, two small islands off the coast of Malaita, Solomon islands. 

Six Islands, see Apaiang of the Gilbert islands. 

Skelton, a name of Naranarawai of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Skiddy, see Namoluk, Caroline islands. 

Skobelev, islet in Friedrich Karl harbor on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Slade, see Berri Berrije in the Engineer group off New Guinea. 10 37' S., 151 16' E. 

S1OSS group, in the Louisiade archipelago, consists of Kara and Panaroba, both small 
and wooded. 

Small, an islet east from Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 10 06' s., 151 15' E. 

Smith, low islet of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17 43' S., 177 16' 20" E.O 

Smith = Babagarai near Glenton, New Guinea ; uninhabited. 

Smyth, see Taongi of the Marshall islands. 

Snares, a group of rocks 250 ft high, southwest from Stewart island, New Zealand. 

Sobareigi, north from Saibai, New Guinea. 9 22' S., 142 42' E. 

Sobasoba, islet of Duau, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 49' S., 150 48' E. 

Society Islands, so named by Cook, in 1769, in honor of the Royal Society, were 
first discovered by Quiros in 1606. Captain Wallis rediscovered the group June 
19, 1767, and knowing nothing of previous observations called it for his patron, 
George III., King George Islands. At that time Lieutenant Furneaux took for- 
mal possession. April 2, 1768, Bougainville arrived at Tahiti in the Boudeuse^ 
and after a short experience with the inhabitants called it La Nouvelle Cytrehe. 
The famous transit of Venus expedition, commanded by Lieutenant Cook, arrived 
April 12, 1769. After the observations were concluded Cook surveyed Tahiti 
(Otaheite) and discovered the northwestern group to which he gave the name 
Society, calling Tahiti and the neighboring islands Georgian, but his first name 
has been extended to the whole group. In 1772 Bonecheo was sent by the Span- 
ish government to these islands, and on his report he was again sent with the 
means of colonizing as then understood, in 1774. Cook twice again visited Tahiti. 
The next European to arrive was Lieutenant Bligh in the Bounty in 1788. Van- 
couver came in 1791. In 1842, on account of hostilities to French missionaries, 
Du Petit Thouars compelled Queen Pomare to sign a treaty in favor of French- 
men, and this was followed in 1844 by the forcible seizure of the island by Bruat 
in the name of Louis Philippe of France. In 1888 the entire group was declared 
under a French protectorate. 

While government accounts are kept in francs and centimes, the merchants 
all do business with the Chilean dollar. The principal exports are cotton, copra, 
coconuts, oranges, vanilla, lime juice and edible fungus. All tropical fruits grow 

[230] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 147 

well when introduced. The climate is hot and moist, causing rapid growth of all 
vegetation, but is healthy for Europeans. The islands are, from the southeast, 
Maitea, Tahiti, Tetuaroa, Moorea and Tapamanu for the windward group ; and 
Huaheine, Raiatea, Tahaa, Bolabola, Tubai, Marua, Mopiha and Bellingshausen 
for the leeward group. 230. 

Socorro (Nuestra Senora del), see Taumaco. 

Sogaura, an island north of Saipai on the New Guinea coast. 9 19' s., 142 44' E. 

Sola, see Pylstaart. 

Solander is west of Foveaux strait ; mountainous, 1075 ft. high. 46 32' S. Named 
for Dr. Solander, one of Cook's naturalists. 

Solia, islet of Kia, Fiji. 

Solitaria (La), discovered by Mendana August 29, 1595. Native name Tayti. io4o's. 

Solitary, in Huon gulf on the east coast of New Guinea. .7 10' S., 147 oo' E. 

Solitary, see Ruadika of the Solomon islands. 

Solomon Islands. A large group discovered by Mendana in 1567. This interest- 
ing Spaniard, in his anxiety to colonize and make his discoveries of use to his 
country, strove for many years to induce the authorities to send another expedi- 
tion; but it was not until 1595, when he was advanced in years, that his wishes 
bore fruit. He was not destined to again see the islands which had been named 
Islas de Salomon in hopes to attract colonists to this supposed Ophir. Mendana 
died at Santa Cruz, and the remains of his expedition sailed on to Manila. The 
narrative of Gallego, the pilot of the first expedition, had been suppressed, and 
that of Quiros, who held the same position in the second expedition, met the same 
fate. Drake had made his name terrible in the Pacific, and the jealousy of the 
Spaniards led to a studied concealment of their discoveries, and for two centuries 
the memory of this group was fading and passing into legend. So it was that the 
Spanish discoveries profited no one; and even when at last the suppressed journals 
were brought to light they afforded little new information, for the work of discovery 
had been done again in the meantime. In 1767 Carteret sighted outlying islands 
of the group (Gower), and also a part of Malaita, but he did not suspect that he 
had found the Solomon islands, although he had been looking for them. The next 
year Bougainville made more definite work, but the real discovery took many 
years, and to the present no sufficient survey has been made. Only the shores of the 
larger islands have been explored, and the outlines are very inexact on the charts. 
For more than thirty years the Melanesia!! Mission has braved the dangers 
of climate and savages and made it possible to land on many islands of the group. 
Dr. Guppy says truly that the only redeeming feature of the intercourse of the 
white man with these islanders is this grand mission. 

The group covers an area 600 m. in length NE-SW. Most of the islands are 
volcanic, some are calcareous, and some are both. The natives are Papuan, but 
show traces of Melanesian, Polynesian and Malay. They are of medium height, 
well-proportioned, but do not have attractive features. The scantiest clothing is 
worn, but ornaments are much in use, such as bracelets, anklets and nose pins. 
Cannibals generally, they yet make good servants. 

The principal islands are, beginning at the northwest, Bouka, Bougainville, 



i 4 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Shortland, Fauro, Choiseul, Ysabel, St. George, Gower in the German part ; and 
Mono, Vella Lavella, Ronongo, Narovo, New Georgia (Rubiana), Buena Vista, 
Florida, Guadalcanar, Malaita, Ulava, San Cristoval in the English portion. As 
the map (ia) does not give the line of demarcation between the portions allotted 
to Great Britain and to Germany, the official bounds may be given here. South- 
ward and eastward of a line joining the xindermentioned positions these islands 
belong to the former, northward and westward to Germany. 

A. Lat. 8 oo' s. Long. 154 oo' E. E. Lat. 8 50' s. Long. 159 50' E. 

B. " 7 15' s. " 155 25' E. F. " 6 oo' s. 173 30' E. 

C. " 7 i5' s. " 155 35' E. G. " 15 oo' s. 173 30' E. 

D. " 7 26' s. " 156 40' E. 

Since the above was written the Solomon islands have been repartitioned be- 
tween England and Germany as a part of the arrangement by which the former 
withdrew from the Samoan group. The convention was signed at London on the 
I4th November, 1899, but proclaimed by the High Commissioner for the Western 
Pacific at Suva, 6th October, 1900. It transfers from Germany to the Protectorate 
of the British Solomon islands the following: 

Choiseul, and the small islands depending thereon; Ysabel, and the small 
islands depending thereon, including Ramos and St. George; Shortland, with 
Morgusaia, Alu, Poporang, Faise, Onua and Ballale; Fauro, with Oema (island 
and atoll), Ovau, Asie, Illina, Nusave, Niellei, Nusakoa, Benana, Nufahana, 
Munia, Piedu, Masamasa and Cyprian Bridge; Tasman or Niumanu atoll, com- 
prising Niumanu, Loto and thirty-seven others; Ontongjava; El Roncador or 
Candelaria reef; Gower or Inattendue. 

SongO, a low coral islet at the entrance to Na Tandola harbor on the west coast of 
Viti levu, Fiji. 

Soni, a high island of the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 44' s., 177 07' 40" E.O 

Sonsol = Sansoral of the Pelew islands. Not Sonsoral. Sonsol with Fauna forms the 
group of St. Andre. 5 20' N., 132 20' E. 

Sophia, Mattinson, Independence or Rocky, of the Ellice group ; 2-3 m. in circumfer- 
ence; wooded. 10 46' s., 179 31' E. 16. 

Sorol or Philip, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain Hunter in 1791, 
who called it Philip. Consists of two small groups 5 m. apart; 20 inhabitants. 
8 06' N., 140 03' E. 

Sotoan, see Satoan, Caroline islands. 

South, islet Caroline atoll. 10 oo' 01" s., 150 14' 30" w. 

South, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 6 57' N., 151 57' 30" E. 

Sovu, three uninhabited rocks off the northeast coast of Vanua Mbalavu, Fiji. The 
most westerly has a peak 230 ft. high. 

Sowek, a small group on south coast of Korido, Schouten islands. o45's., 135 25' E. 

Spear, a group on the northeast coast of New Guinea. 8 58' 30" s., 149 10' E. 

Speiden, see Tavarua, Fiji. A name given by Wilkes for the purser of the Peacock, 

Speiden, see Nuitao of the Ellice group. Spelled also Spieden in Ex. Ex. 

Spencer Keys, see Ngoli, Caroline islands. 

[232] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 149 

Spike, low and wooded, i m. in diameter, near North Foreland, New Guinea. 

Spires, two small coral patches near Utian of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Squally, of Tasman, is the Kerue of Bougainville ; about 2 m. in diameter, low and 
wooded. i 40' S., 150 30' E. IO. 

Staateu Land, Tasman's name for New Zealand. 

Stacey, see Su-a-u, New Guinea. 10 43' 30" s., 150 14' E. 

Stalio, on the southeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 6 25' S., 155 56' E. 

Stanton, see Babaman of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Star or Star Peak, see Merlav, New Hebrides. 

Starbuck, or Volunteer, was discovered by Captain Starbuck of DAigle, whaler, in 
which the Hawaiian king, Liholiho, and suite went to England. Sighted by Lord 
Byron when he returned the bodies of the King and Queen. Taken by the British 
in December, 1866; 5 m. E-w., 1.5 m. N-s., 15 ft. high; a guano island. 5 38' s., 

i55 55' w. 

Starbuck, see Aranuka of the Gilbert islands. 

Staver, see Vostok. 

Steeple, see Jemo, Marshall islands. Properly Steep to. 

Stephen, see Ugar, Torres strait. 

Stewart, New Leinster or South Island (Rakiura), of New Zealand, was discovered 
by Cook in 1770. In 1809 it was explored and surveyed by Captain J. Chase in 
the Pegasus; named for W. Stewart, First Officer; then uninhabited. Population, 
in 1886, 200; mostly Maoris or half-breeds; 39 m. N-S., 20 m. E-w., 3200 ft. high, 
wooded. On the west coast are islets Long, Mogy and Codfish. Other islets are 
Bench, Weka, Breaksea, Entrance, Pearl, Anchorage, Noble, Wedge, Ernest and 
Raggedy. 

Stewart, see Sikaiana. Discovered by Captain Hunter in 1791. 

Stirling, south from Mono, Solomon islands, is a raised coral reef 200 ft. high ; 
3X0.5 m. 7 25' S., 155 31' E. 

Stobual, islet of Aurh of the Marshall islands. 8 18' 42" N., 171 12' E. 6. 

Storm, a high island of Fiji. 18 20' 20" s., 178 10' 15" E.O 

Strachan, a large interfluvial island on the south coast of New Guinea, between the 
Wassi Kussa and Mai Kussa rivers. 

Stradbroke, 33X6 m. off Moreton bay, Queensland. North point is in 27 23' S., 



Straggling, northeast of the east point of Deaf Adder bay, New Guinea; 2.2 m. off 

shore. 7 27' S., 147 27' E. 

Strait (E.), in Torres strait. 10 29' S., 142 26' E. 
Strawn, islet of Palmyra. 
Strong, see Kusaie, of the Caroline islands. 

Stuart, near Mbenga, Fiji; high, 1.5 m. in circumference. i824'2o"s., i78O5'25"E.O 
Stuers consists of Marai and Taliwewai in the Louisiade archipelago. 11 07' s., 

151 08' E. 
Su-a-U or Stacey was formerly supposed the south end of New Guinea; extends 2 m. 

NE-SW.; 787 ft. high. 10 43' s., 150 14' E. 
Suckling Reef, see Uluma of the Louisiade archipelago. 

[233] 



i 5 o INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Sudest, see Tagula of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Sue, of the Three Sisters in Torres strait; 15 m. from Warrior. 10 13' s., 142 49' E. 

Sugar-loaf, 13 m. south from Admiralty island; 4-5 m. in circumference; 800 ft. high. 

O / // jfQ f ft 

2 22 30 S., 146 49 15 E. 

Sugar-loaf, .see Obelisk of the Marquesas islands. 
Sugar-loaf, see Mota of the Banks islands. 
Suhm, of the Admiralty group; half a mile long; uninhabited. i 50' s., 146 33' E. 

Named for Rudolph von Willemoes Suhm, naturalist on the Challenger. 
Suk or Pulo Suk, of the Caroline archipelago, was discovered by Ibargoitia in 1799. 

Population, 100 Polynesian. 6 28' N., 149 30' E. 
Suk, see Supiori of the Schouten islands. 

Sule, islet on the east coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 05' s., 159 32' E. 
Sulphur, one of the Volcano islands. 24 50' N., 141 18' E. 

Sunday, islet north from Moratau, of the D'Entrecasteaux group. 9i6's., 150 30' E. 
Sunday, see Peru of the Gilbert islands. 
Sunday, see Raoul, Kermadec islands. 

Supiori or Suk, of the Schouten islands in Geelvink bay on north coast of New Guinea. 
Surprise, one of the Huon group, 2 m. E-w., i m. N-s. 18 31' S., 163 08' E. 13. 
Susui, of the Exploring islands, Fiji, is between Munia and Vanua valavo; cultivated. 

17 21' S., 181 03' E.O 
Suvarov, a group discovered by Lieutenant Lazarev in the Suvarov in 1814. A reef 

8 m. N-S., and nearly as broad, has several wooded islets mostly in the northern 

part. British protectorate declared April 22, 1889. 13 13' S., 163 09' 15" w. 
Suvarov, see Taka of the Marshall islands. 6. 
Suwarro, a low, wooded islet off Malekula, New Hebrides. 
Suwan, mangrove islet off Malekula, New Hebrides. 
Swain, see Gente Hermosa. 
Swallow, see Matema. 12. 
Swallow, see Canton, Phoenix group. 
Swede, see Lamotrek, Caroline islands. 
Sweers, a long, narrow island east from Bentinck, Wellesley islands, in the Gulf of 

Carpentaria. 17 05' s., 139 54' E. 
Sydenham, see Nonuti, Gilbert islands. 7. 
Sydney, Phoenix islands, was discovered by Captain Eminent. It is a coral reef with 

closed lagoon, 2X1.7 m. British protectorate declared June 26, 1889. West side 

is in 4 27' 22" s., 171 15' 09" w. 17. 
Sydney, a group in Ward Hunt strait, New Guinea. 9 35' s., 149 49' E. 

Ta, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 5. 

Taabame, islet on a reef of the same name on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Taanlai and Taanlo, islets near Paaba on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

TaarutO, on the northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 935's., i6o37'E. 

Tabal, islet of Aurh of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Tabanagore = Tabunagora. 

Table, see Kamac, New Caledonia. 

[234] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 151 

Table, see Motumau, New Zealand. 

Tabua, high islet off Viti levu, Fiji. West side is in 17 30' s., 177 30' 10" E. 

Tabunagora, an islet of the outer ring of Egum atoll at the northeast part, on the 
south side of the opening to the lagoon. 9 21' 30" S., 153 02' E. 

Taburari, islet of Oneatoa, Gilbert islands. i 54' 45" s., 175 47' 10" E. 

Tabutha or Cap, inhabited island of Fiji, 3X1.7 m., 350 ft. high. i74o's., i8ii2'E.O 

Taenga or Holt, discovered in the Margaret in 1803 and named Holt ; low, inhabited. 
Northwest point is in 16 18' s., 143 17' w. Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Tafahi or Boscawen, of the Tongan islands, was discovered by Lemaire and Schouten 
May n, 1616, and by them named Cocos. Wallis, in 1767, named it Boscawen; 
2000 ft. high; inhabited. 15 52' S., 173 50' w. 

Tafblaelo, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 50" s., 171 12' w. 

Tagaik, islet of Pakin, Caroline islands. 7 04' 04" N., 157 47' E. 

Tagllla or Sudest is the largest of the Louisiade archipelago, being 40X8 m., and 
2689 ft. high; wooded and inhabited. Northwest point is in 11 20' S., 153 n' E. 

Tahaa is within the same reef with Raiatea, Society islands; 1936 ft. high. Many 
islets on the reef. 16 35' s., 151 35' 06" w. 2O. 

Tahanea or Tchitschagof, of the Paumotu archipelago, a reef covered with wooded 
islets. Three good entrances to the lagoon. The west end is in 16 52' S., 
144 58' w. 21. 

Tahanlagh, islet off the north end of Balabio, New Caledonia. 13. 

Tahiti or Otaheite, of the Society islands, the Sagittaria of Quiros who discovered it 
February 10, 1606. Wallis rediscovered it in 1767. 17 38' 30" S., 149 30' w.O 
33 m. NW-SE.; divided into two parts by an isthmus about 1.2 m. wide, the smaller 
called Taiarapu. Orohena, the highest peak, is 7329 ft. Barrier reef surrounds 
the island at a distance of 1-2 m., within which are several good harbors, the 
principal being Papiete on the northwest. Here is the seat of Government. Point 
Venus, the place of Cook's observations, is on the north side. 2O. 

Tahuata or Santa Cristina, of the Marquesas islands, was discovered by Mendana 
21-22 July, 1595; 8.5 m. N-S., 1.2-5 m - E-w.; 3280 ft. high. Population, in 1888, 
was 408. 9 56' 21" S., 139 06' w. 23. 

Tahura, old chart name for Kaula of the Hawaiian islands. I. 

Tahurowa = Kahoolawe, Hawaiian islands. 

Taiahu, islet on the east reef of Huaheine. 

Taiaro or King, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Captain Fitzroy of 
H. M. S. Beagle in 1835. The lagoon is closed; islets wooded; few inhabitants. 
15 46' s., 144 37' w. 21. 

Taifaur, a grassy islet, 270 ft. high, northwest from Abaga gaheia in the Louisiade 
archipelago. 

Taii, islet of Tongatabu on the northeast. 21 01' s., 174 57' w. 18. 

Taitaka, islet in the centre of Port Stanley, Malekula, New Hebrides; 400X200 yds. 

Taka or Suvarov, atoll with closed lagoon and a few islets on the east reef. Popula- 
tion, 20 in 1860. Discovered in 1814 by Lieutenant Lazarev in the Surarov. 
Protectorate declared by Great Britain April 22, 1889. 13 15' s., 163 10' w. 

Takain, islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 5. 

[235] 



i 52 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

TakapotO (Oura of Cook), in the King George group, of the Paumotus. It is low, 
wooded, with closed lagoon and many islets. North point is in 14 32' 08" S., 
145 14' 30" w. 21. 

Takaroa (Tiokea of Cook), low, wooded atoll, open lagoon; with the preceding forms 
King George group. The north point is in 14 22' 10" S., 144 58' 30" w. 21. 

Taka, islet of Pingelap, Caroline islands. 5. 

Taki, a low island of Fiji. 17 07' 06" S., 176 52' 50" E.G 

Takoume = Takurea of the Paumotn archipelago. 21. 

Takurea, Wolkonski or Takoume, is an inhabited atoll with closed lagoon. North- 
east end is in 15 39' 30" s., 142 06' 15" w. 21. 

Taktltea or Feuua iti, of the Hervey islands, is 3 m. in circumference, uninhabited, 
well wooded. 19 49' S., 158 16' w. 23. 

Talbot, a small group on the south coast of New Guinea between 142 08'- 142 22' E. 
longitude and 9 15'- 9 2i's. latitude. Consists of Kawa, Mata kawa, Adabadana 
kawa, Karobailo kawa, Kussa and Boigu. 8. 

Taliwewai, a low coral island of the Stuers group, Louisiade archipelago. 9. 

Taloes, islet of Ruk, south side of east entrance to the lagoon. 

Tamami, see Tinakula of the New Hebrides. 12. 

Taman (Tomun or Tanman), islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tamana or Rotcher, of the Gilbert islands, is 3X0.7 m. Population, 500. 2 32' s., 

175 55' E. 

Tamatam or Los Martires, of the Caroline islands, consists of a reef n m. N-s., 6 m. 
E-w., with four islands: on the north, Ollap; in the centre, Fanadik; and at the 
south, two called Tamatam. About 200 inhabitants. East end is in 7 27' 30" N., 
149 28' E. 

Tamborua, islet 99 ft. high at the entrance to Wailea bay on the north coast of Vanua 
levu, Fiji. 14. 

Tami, native name of the Cretin islands on the New Guinea coast. Four low, well 
wooded and inhabited islands. 6 45' s., 147 54' E. 

Tanabuli, on the southeast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 27' S., 159 43' E. 

Tande, 1070 ft. high. 20 05' s., 163 46' E. 

Tandruku, islet 35 ft. high off the northeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Tangadio, islet on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Tangoa = Tanoa = Tongoa, New Hebrides. 

Tanle, islet at the mouth of Tanle bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Tanna or Aipere, of the New Hebrides, was discovered by Cook in 1774. An adlive 
volcano, Mt. Yasua, has been in continuous eruption since the time of Cook. In 
1878 there was a severe earthquake which altered the region about Port Resolu- 
tion. In the centre mountains rise to about 3000 ft. Some 8000 natives, formerly 
cannibals. 19 31' 17" s., 169 20' E. The size is given in one place at 30X10 m. 
In another, of equal authority, 18X10 m. And still another says 40X35 m. The 
reader may choose. Tanna = Honua = land. 12. 

Tannawa, islet of Viti levu, Fiji. 17 47' 16" s., 178 39' 10" E.O 

Tanyah, islet of Oueatoa of the Gilbert islands. i 47' s., 175 34' E. 7. 

Taongi, Caspar Rico or Smyth, a low atoll with closed lagoon. 14 45' N., 169 15' E. 

[236] 



145 



MANIHI 



W. 



21 



TAKAROA 



RAUMOTU GROUP 

[ WEST ] 



TIKE: 



15 S 



ARATZfcA 



TOAU 



f 



KAW 



\ FAKAF 



TAIARO 



TAKUREA 



ANCATAU 



RARAKA 



KATIU 



AKAHAINA' ~ 



MAKEMO 



ANAA 



MOTUTUNGA 



,& 

V 



f ~ 

TE ^ KOTO 

'--' HlKUBRU 



REITORU 



TAUERE 



AMANU 



NENGONENCO 



MANUHANCI 



PARAOA 



HEREHERETUI 

20 S. 



NGANATI 



Vffi 



ANUANURARO 



ANUANURUNCA 

NUKUTAPIPI 



TEMATANOI 



145 



W. 



L 









INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 153 

Taoru, islet of Raiatea, Society islands. 2,0. 

Taoui, one of the Admiralty islands. West end in 2 S., 146 32' E. IO. 

Tapak, islet on the northeast side of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tapamanu or Saunders, also called Maiaiti and Tubuai manu, of the Society islands, 
was discovered by Captain Wallis July 28, 1767; 6 m. long. Northeast point is in 
17 38' 41" s, 150 33' w. 

Tapelau, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Tapimoor, islet of Mille, Marshall islands. 

Tapiteuea or Drummond, of the Gilbert islands, was discovered by Captain Bishop 
of the Nautilus. It is 30 m. long and 0.5-0.7 m. wide. Population, 7000-8000. 
North point is in i 08' S., 174 37' 30" E. 

Tapitll, a form of Tapiteuea, Gilbert islands. 

Taptl, island in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Tapua, Utupua or Edgecumbe, in the Santa Cruz group, was discovered by Mendana 
in 1595. Carteret named it Edgecumbe in 1764. The west summit is in ui7'3o"s., 
i6632'i4"E., according to D'Urville. British protectorate declared August 18, 
1898. 12. 

Tapui, a conical islet in Ahurei bay, island of Rapa. 

Tarakoi, islet of Rapa. 27 35' s., 144 18' w. 

Taravai or Belcher, islet of the Mangareva group. 

Tarawa, Cook or Knoy (not Knox), of the Gilbert islands; 18 m. N-S., 13 m. E-w. 
North end is in i 39' 05" N., 173 02' E. 7. 

Tareti, a sandy island near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Taritari, a common form of Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 

Tariwerwi, see Ouessant, of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Tarrang, islet of Yap, Caroline islands. 

Tasiko, see Api, New Hebrides. 12. 

Tasman, atoll discovered by Tasman in 1700, and seen by Captain Welling in 1824. 
Some 40 islands on a reef encircling a lagoon; n m. E-w., 7 m. N-S. Inhabitants 
resemble Gilbert islanders. Niumano, the largest island, is on the east side in 
4 35' s -> T 59 3' E - British protectorate proclaimed October 6, 1900. 

Tassai or Brunier, New Guinea. 

Tastll, an inhabited island in Humboldt bay on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Tatafa, islet 3 m. southwest from Lefuka in the Hapai group of the Tongan isl- 
ands. 18. 

Tatakoto, called also Narcissus, Egniont and Clerke, of the Paumotu archipelago, 
was discovered by Bonecheo in 1774; 4X1111-; inhabited. 17 i8's., 138 ig'w. 22. 

Tatana, islet in Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Tail, the largest of the Manua group, Samoan islands, is 14 m. in circumference, 
2500 ft. high; well watered and fertile. Belongs to the United States. 

Tail, islet of Tongatabu. 18. 

Tana, islet east from Tangoa, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 12. 

Tauak, lagoon islet of Ponape, Caroline islands. 

Tauan or Mt. Cornwallis, is 9 m. in circumference and 795 ft. high. Inhabitants 
Negrito. Station of the London Missionary Society. 9 25' 30" s., 142 32' E. 

[237] 



i 5 4 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Tauata or Santa Cristina, of the Marquesas islands; 9 m. N-s., 5 m. E-w., 3280 ft. high. 

Population, 450 in 1880. South point is in 10 02' S., 139 09' w. 23. 
Tauere or Taueri, also St. Simeon, Resolution and Tandrec, of the Paumotu archi- 
pelago, was discovered by Bonecheo in 1772. Named by Cook in 1773 after 

his ship; 4 m. in circumference; two islands. West point is in 17 22' 21" S., 

141 29' 39" w. 21. 

Taulalia, islet in the Ringgold group, Fiji. 
Taumaco, discovered by Quiros, April 7, 1606, and named Nuestra Sefiora del Socorro, 

is, according to Espinosa, the Duff group. 12. 
Tauna, islet of Rapa. 27 36' s., 144 17' w. 

TautU, islet on the northwest of the outer reef of Tahaa, Society islands. 
Tauturau, islet of Rapa. 27 37' s., 144 16' w. 
Tavarua or Speiden island, off the west coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 17 52' S., 177 io'3o"E. 

Named Speiden by Wilkes after the Purser of the Peacock. 
Tavea, high island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji. Inhabitants make good pottery. 

16 38' 24" S., 178 43' 3o" w.O 
Taviuni or Vuna, Fiji; 23X8 m.; Ngalau peak, 4040 ft. high. Population, 2600 in 

1880. East point is in 16 48' 30" S., 180 14' E. 
Tavua, inhabited islet of Mamanutha i thaki group, Fiji. 

Tavuka or Rara ni Tinka, islet 150 ft. high, 2.2 m. south from Yanutha, Fiji. 
Tavunasithi, Fiji ; coral islet, half a mile in diameter, 200 ft. high ; uninhabited. 
Tchitschagoff or Tchitchagov, see Tahanea, Paumotu archipelago. 
Teapi, see Rapanui. 

Teauaua or Hat, islet in Shavay bay on the southeast side of Huahuna, Marquesas. 
Tebut, see Lib of the Marshall islands. 
Tegua, a circular island in the middle of Torres group, about 3.5 m. in diameter, 

nearly 600 ft. high; 2.5 m. southeast from Hiw or North island. 
Te Houra, see Waikawa, New Zealand. 

Teilatl, uninhabited islet 500X150 yds., on the southeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Tekareka, see Tekokoto, Paumotu archipelago. 
TekokotO, Tekareka or Doubtful, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by 

Cook, August 11, 1773. It is a circular reef a mile in diameter. 17 20' s., 

142 37' w.O 21. 

Teku, see Anuanurunga of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Teku, see Vanavana of the Paumotu archipelago. 22. 
Tematangi or Bligh lagoon, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Bligh in 

1792. It is 7 m. in diameter. Some of the inhabitants were removed to Tahiti in 

1858 on suspicion of having eaten a shipwrecked crew. North point is in 2i38's., 

140 40' w. 21. 

Temelflua, near Taumaco, the same as Tukopia. 
Temo, see Jemo of the Marshall islands. 
TemotU or Trevanion, Santa Cruz group, at the entrance of Trevanion lagoon, the 

Puerto graciosa of Mendana who named this island La Guerta. Carteret called 

it Trevanion. It is 10 m. in circuit. British protectorate declared October i, 1898. 

The north point is in 10 40' s., 165 41' 30" K. 12. 

[238] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 155 

Tenararo or Bedford island, in the Adlseon group of the Paumotu archipelago, is 2 m. 
in diameter, with a closed lagoon. About 20 inhabitants. 21 18' S., 136 42' w. 

Tenarunga or Minto, of the Aclseon group in the Paumotu archipelago, is 7 m. north- 
west from Maturei vavao. 21 22' S., 136 34' w. 22. 

Te Ndu encloses Port Laguerre on the west. On the southwest side of New Cale- 
donia; i m. N-S. 

Tenia, islet on the north side of St. Vincent passage, on the southwest side of New 
Caledonia. 

TepOtO or Ofiti (the Eliza of Maurttc) was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820. 
Of the Raeffsky group in the Paumotu archipelago. 16 48' s., 144 19' w. 21. 

Terio, islet of Apaiang, Gilbert islands. i 48' 30" N., 173 01' E. 

Tern, on the Australian coast. 11 s., 142 46' E. 

Testard, two islets on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Teste, see Wari on the New Guinea coast. 

Tetaro, islet on the northeast part of the outer reef of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Tetiaroa, a chart form of Tetuaroa, Society islands. 2O. 

Tetuaroa, of the Society islands, was discovered by Quiros, February, 1606. A reef 
with a dozen islets, wooded. East end is in 17 07' 15" s., 149 29' 30" w. 

Tetopoto (Disappointment islands of Byron), of the Paumotu archipelago, covers 
about 9 sq. m.; no lagoon; uninhabited (?); large trees. I4o8's., 141 i6'w. 21. 

Tetiatia, islet of Uapu in Shavay bay, Marquesas islands. 

Teumah, islet at the northwest extremity of Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. i 53' S., 
175 30' E. 

Tevai, within the reef of Vanikoro; 9 m. in circumference; high. 

Tevairoa, islet of Bolabola, Society islands. 

Tevala, one of the Shepherd islands, New Hebrides; small and almost inaccessible; 
324 ft. high at the west end. 

Thakaun drove, islet in Uaikava harbor on the south coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thakavi, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thangalai, south from Moturiki on the southeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 17 47' 46" s., 
178 46' 40" E. 

Thikombia (Cicobia), one of the Exploring islands, Fiji; 5 m. northeast from Munia; 
3 m. SE-NW.; 1.7 m. wide; north end is in 15 47' 40" S., 180 09' E. 14. 

Thithia (Cicia), a fertile, inhabited island 4X3 m., 300 ft. high. Northwest point is 
in 17 44' 30" s., 180 42' E. 14. 

Thombia, the highest of the Ringgold group, is the crater of an extinct volcano, in 
the centre of which is a lake 24 fathoms deep ; whole island not quite 2 m. in cir- 
cumference; 590 ft. high. 

Thompson, Fiji. 18 30' 45" s., 177 36' 45" E.O 

Thornton, see Caroline. 

Three Hills, of the New Hebrides, is 6 m. NE-SW., and 2.5 m. wide. Mae is the cen- 
tral district and is pure Polynesian, while the languages on the other side are 
Melanesian. The three hills are, from the east, 1850, 1450 and 1400 ft. high. 
17 05' S., 168 19' E. 13. 

Three Kings, group northwest from Cape Marie van Diemen, New Zealand. 

[239] 



i 5 6 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Three Sisters, rounded islets near east point of Bultig, New Guinea. 10 13' s., 

142 19' K. 
Three Sisters, Las Tres Marias or Olumalau of the Solomon islands. About 10 s., 

162 E.; 230-250 ft. high. The south island is named Malaupina, the north one 

Alita. 

Thrum Cap, see Akiaki of the Paumotu archipelago. 
Thukini, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

Thumbu, islet 100 ft. high at the mouth of Rakiraki river, north coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 
Thursday, see Waiben. Centre of Pearl and Trepang fisheries. 
Ti-a, islet at the north end of New Caledonia. 

Tiae, islet at the entrance to Tanle bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tiano, islet on west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 

Tidiaut, two islets off Cape Baye on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Tienghiene, islet at the mouth of Nehue bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tiere, wooded islet of Tahiti, opposite Tomotai valley. 
Tiga, Tika or Boucher, of the Loyalty group, 8-10 m. in circumference, 150 ft. high, 

with fringing reef. Used as a dump for the worst natives. 21 29'2o"s., 168 ly'E. 
Tiger, an island "inhabited by ferocious savages," discovered by Captain Bristow in 

1817; 6.7 m. E-w. i45's., 142 i8'E. Probably identical with Matty, which see. 8. 
Tikahau or Krusenstern, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Kotzebue in 

1815. A small, wooded island 10 m. in diameter, with a lagoon and inhabitants. 

The north point is in 14 52' S., 148 15' 15" w. 2O. 
Tikei or Romanzoff, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered April 20, 1815, by 

Otto von Kotzebue and named for Prince Romanzoff. 14 57' S., 144 35'3o"w.O 21. 
Timboor, of the Yasawa group, Fiji; high. 16 40' s., 177 30' 30" E.O 
Timoe or Crescent, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Captain Wilson in 

theZ?^~, in 1797; uninhabited. Northeast point is in 23 17' S., 134 34' io"w. 22. 
Tinakula or Tamani is a permanently active volcano 2200 ft. high, in the Santa Cruz 

group. British protectorate declared August 18, 1898. io23'3o"s., i6547'3o"E. 
Tindal, see Ailuk of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Tingolanu, a low island off Marovo, Solomon islands; 3-4 m. N-S. 843's., 158 15' E. 
Tinian, of the Marianas, was discovered by Magalhaes, March 6, 1521. He called it 

Bona Vista; 10 m. N-S., 4.5 m. E-w.; 234 inhabitants in 1887. 14 59' 22" N., 

145 33' E. Low, but volcanic. See map under Marianas. 
Tiokea, see Takaroa of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
Tioae, islets in bay of the same name near Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Tioki, islet of Fakaako. 9 24' 20" S., 171 12' w. 

Tipamau, islet at the entrance to Fairoa bay, Raiatea, Society islands. 
Tiri, a group of low, mangrove-covered islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. Consists of Wil- 
liams, Green, Mills, Piner, Pully, Richmond and Day. 
Tiritiri, in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. 

Tissot, see Baibesika, 3 m. east from South cape, of New Guinea. 
TistmgatU, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 35" S., 171 12' w. 
Tjan, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8 52' 39" N., 171 01' 31" E. 

Tnaguinui, islet of Nui, on the east side; inhabited. Ellice islands. 

[240] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 157 

Toahottl, islet off Tahaa, Society islands. 30. 

Toamaro, islet off west side of Raiatea, Society islands. 

ToaSS, islet of Elato, Caroline islands. 7 24' 30" N., 146 19' E. 

Toail or Elisabeth, of the Paumotu archipelago, lagoon atoll with many islets; 20 m. 
E-w. All the fish in the lagoon are said to be poisonous. The southeast point is 
in 15 58' S., 145 49' 30" w. ai. t* 

Tobi, Lord North or Neville, was discovered on the ship Lord North in 1781; 1.5 m. 
long, well wooded, inhabited. 3 03' N., 131 04' E. 

Tobin, in Torres strait. ioo6'3o"s., i422i'E. Tobin Cay is in 937's., 143 40' E. 

Tcemo, islet in Port Goro at the south end of New Caledonia. 

Toftia (whale in Tongan), a volcano 5 m. in diameter, 2800 ft. high. i945's., i75O3'w. 

Tog or South (called Pukapuka by the traders) is an inhabited island of the Torres 
group, 9 m. in circumference, and 600 ft. high. 

Tokelau, see Fakaafo. 

Tokelatl or Union group consists of Atafu with 63 islets, Nukunau with 93 islets, 
and Fakaafo with 62. 17. 

Tokikimoa, islet of Fakaafo. 9 24' 32" S., 171 12' w. 

Tokoeoa, islet on the north of Mille, Marshall islands, at the west side of the entrance 
to the lagoon. 

Tokoriki, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha i thaki group, Fiji. 

Tokowa, islet on the west side of the entrance to Port Rhin, Mille, Marshall islands. 

Toku, a low island, u m. ESE. from Amargura or Fonualei, Tongan islands. i8o8's., 
174 08' w. 18. 

Toktltia, Toguna or Alcester, 3 islets within one reef in the Trobriand group. 9 29' S., 
152 30' 45" E. The name seems to belong rather to the people than to the islands. 

Tol, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands ; 10 m. in circumference, 700 ft. high ; largest of 
the Faitruk group in the western part of the lagoon. 7 21' 08" N., i5i39'22"E. 

Tombarua, low island of Fiji. 17 59' 46" s., 178 45' 10" E.O 

Tomman or Uru, off the southwest coast of Malekula, New Hebrides; i m. NW-SE., 
260 ft. high. 

Tonga (Toga) or Friendly Islands, a group of 150 islands and islets occupied by 
some 22,000 inhabitants. It is essentially a volcanic group, although many of the 
islands are low. The group was discovered by Tasman in 1643. Tongatabu he 
called Amsterdam, Eua Middleburgh, and Namuka Rotterdam. Cook was there 
both on his second and third voyages, and gave the name Friendly. The Span- 
iard Maurelle discovered Vavau in 1781. The government is a limited monarchy, 
the seat of government at Nukualofa on Tongatabu. Now England controls the 
group.* The Wesleyan mission was established in 1826, and the inhabitants are 
all Christian. The group has not been fully surveyed. 18. 

Totlgaravil, islet 70 ft. high off the east coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

Tongareva or Penrhyn was discovered by Sever in the ship Lady Penrhyn. An atoll 
12X7 m -> an d 5 ft. high ; the lagoon is 9 m. across and contains 15 islets. In 1863 
it was almost depopulated by Peruvian t- ]avers. March 22, 1888, it was annexed 
to Great Britain. Tongareva means Tonga in the heavens. 9o6'25"s., i58O2'io"w. 

*A British protectorate over the entire group was proclaimed May 19, 1900. 

[241] 



i 5 8 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Tongariki, volcanic island in the New Hebrides. 17 ! s., i6836'E. 12. 
Tongatabtl or New Amsterdam was discovered by Tasman January 29, 1643 ; 27 m. 

E-w., 10 m. N-S., 60 ft. high. Composed entirely of coral rock. In places there 

are caves with fine stalactites. See Mariner's account. 21 07' s., 175 n' E. 
Tongoa, New Hebrides, the Shepherd islands of Cook, are off the south coast of 

Espiritu Santo. A Presbyterian mission here. 15 36' 12" S., 167 E. 
Topati, islet on the east reef of Huaheine, Society islands. 
Torea, islet on west coast of Raiatea, Society islands. 
Torlesse or Bonabonanga, low, wooded, uninhabited islets 8.5 m. southwest from 

Panniet in the Louisiade archipelago, on a reef 4 m. long. io48's., 152 13' E. 9. 
Torres (Ababa, Baba or Vava), a group of the Banks islands consisting of Hiw 

Metoma, Tegua, Lo, and Tog. They have little water and the natives depend on 

coconuts for drink. The north island is 1200 ft. high, the others much lower. 

Melanesian mission has a station here. 

Torres, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 7 20' N., 151 24' E. 
Tortoise, an islet of the Pleiades group, Loyalty islands. 13. 
Torua, islet of Maloelab, Marshall islands. 8 43' 10" N., 171 09' 35" E. 
Totoya, Fiji; 5 m. E-w., 3.5 m. N-S. Notch peak is 1200 ft. high in 18 56' 30" s., 

1 80 05' 30" E. 
Totten, a high island of the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 29' 30" S., 177 01' 15" E.Q 

Named for George M. Totten of the Wilkes expedition. 
Touching, see Butaritari, Gilbert islands. 
Toukoua, an islet of Ontong Java. With the rest of the group belongs to Great 

Britain. 

Toulon, see Maliu kolo, New Guinea. 

Toveru, islet on the west side of Buru bay on the northeast coast of New Caledonia. 
Tovu and Tovu lailai are both on the same reef on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji. 

The former is 250 ft. high. 

Tower, of the Galapagos, is 211 ft. high. o 20' N. 
Tracey, low, uninhabited island of the Admiralty group. 
Tracy, see Vaitapu, Ellice islands. 16. 
Traitor, a group of small and low islands north of Jobi in Geelvink bay, New Guinea. 

i 15' s., 136 31' E. 

Traitors or Padeaids on the north coast of New Guinea. 
Travers, in Torres strait. 10 23' s., 142 20' E. 
Traverse} 1 , see Aurh, Marshall islands. 
Treasurers, second in size of the Duff group. 
Treasury, see Mono, Solomon islands, n. 

Tree, 4X2 m. low and wooded, off Fly river, New Guinea. 8 41' s., 143 37' E. 
Tree, islet of Arova, Louisiade archipelago. 
Tree, islet of Florida, Solomon islands. 
Treguada (La), of the Solomon islands, was discovered by Mendana in May, 1568. 

Native name Braba or Vraba. Now Ulaua. 
Tres Marias, see Olu malau, Solomon islands. 
Trevanion, see Temotu of the Santa Cruz islands. 

[242] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 159 

Trevennen, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

Trio, islets on east side of Hugon island on the southwest coast of New Caledonia. 

Trobriand, see Kiriwina group. 

Troilem, islet of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 3. 

Trois Sceurs, of Surville = Tres Marias of Mendana = Olu malou. 

Tromelin, see Feys of the Caroline islands. 3. 

Truk, a form of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Tsis, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands; 0.7 m. in diameter. 7 18' 30" N., 151 48' 30" E. 

Tua, see Quoin, New Guinea. 

Tuamaco, a name given by Quiros to Disappointment island in the Duff or Wilson 

group. 

Tuamotu, the French form of Paumotu ; tua a bunch, and motu island. 
Tuanae, islet on northeast reef of Maupiti, Society islands. 
Tuanaki or Reid, atoll in the Raeffsky group, in the north, uninhabited. 16 41' So 

144 14' w. 

Tuatua, see Haszard islands, Lottisiade archipelago. 
Til-aye, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Tubai or Motuiti, uninhabited, lagoon island, Society islands. 16 15' S., 151 48' w. 30. 
Tubanaielli, west of Kambara, Fiji; uninhabited; 150 ft. high; with fringing reef. 

1 8 42' 30" S., 1 80 56' E.O 

Tubuai, of the Austral islands, has an encircling reef about a mile from shore. Popu- 
lation in 1881 was 343. 23 21' 45" S., 149 35' 35" w. 
Tubuai manu, see Tapamanu, Society islands. 

Tubuai, a name often given to the Austral islands from the principal island. 
Tllbtltubll or Engineer, in the New Guinea region. 
Tuck, one of the Magellan islands; existence doubtful. 
Tucker, see Satawal, Caroline islands. 3. 
Tucopia is 7 m. in circumference, and 3000 ft. high ; inhabited by mild and inoffensive 

Polynesians. British protectorate declared August 18, 1898. i22i's., i6843'E. 
Tuesday islands are in Torres strait. 10 32' S., 142 2i' E. 

Tufa, islet of Rongelab of the Marshall islands. 11 14' 35" N., 166 47' 40" E. 6. 
Tufaaga or Tufaka, islet on the northwest coast of Tongatabu. 2iO4's., I75i5'w. 18. 
Tugua, in the Tongan group. 18. 

Tugulu, the northern islet of Pingelap, Caroline islands. 6 14' N., i6o52'E. 5. 
Tuhoua or Mayor, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 
Tuilagi or St. George, uninhabited island southwest from Ysabel, Solomon islands. 

13 m. long. 8 30' s., 159 30' E. II. 
Tuinaka or Reid, of the Paumotu archipelago. Northwest point is in 16 37' 17" s., 

144 13' w. 

Tuki, a mile in diameter, off Viti levu, Fiji. 17 19' 40" s., 178 02' E.O 
Tukopia, see Tucopia; Temelflua of Quiros. 
Tukua, islet of Ontong Java. 5 34' S., 159 15' E. 
Tuma, in the Kiriwina group. 8 29' S., 150 52' E. 
Tumbu, on the New Guinea coast. 4 25' S., 133 35' E. 
Tuna, islet of Tiri group, 100 ft. high, on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

[243 : 



160 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Ttlpete, on the south coast of New Caledonia. 

Tupinier, in Dampier strait, Bismarck archipelago. Active volcano, in eruption in 
1877. 5 25' S., 148 08' E. 

Tupua or Marion, islet in Teavanui harbor, Borabora, Society islands. 2O. 

Turea, on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Ttireia, Carysfort or Papakena, was discovered by Captain Edwards in H. M. S.Pandora 
in 1791. Lagoon closed. East end is in 20 45' s., 138 30' w. 

Turn-again, on the south coast of New Guinea. 9 34' s., 142 16' E. 

Turtle, see Vatoa, Fiji. 

Turtle, islet in Malo pass, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. 

Turtle, islet in Port Powell, of New Britain. 

Turtle -backed, off the New Guinea coast. 9 54' s., 142 46' E. 

Tut or Warrior, an inhabited sandbank with an extensive reef. 9 48' s., 142 55' E. 

Tutuila, of the Samoan islands, is 17X5 m., high, volcanic. Mataafo peak is 2359 
ft. high. It has the fine harbor of Pangopango on the south coast, nearly bisecting 
the island. In Asu bay Comte de Langle, M. de Lamanon and a boat crew of 
La Perouse's fleet were massacred in 1787. The west cape is in 14 20' 40" s., 
170 48' 14" w. This with the Samoan islands to the eastward now belongs to the 
United States. 15. 

Tuvana i tholo or Simonov, and Tuvana ira or Michaelov, of Fiji, are each about half 
a mile in diameter. The surrounding reefs are circular, and the islets are nearer 
the north side. Named for the astronomer and artist of Bellingshausen, 1820. 
21 03' s., 178 50' 10" w. 

Tuvuna, islet east from Tongoa, New Hebrides. 

Tuvutha (Tuvuca), Fiji; a densely wooded and inhabited island, 800 ft. high, in 
17 40' s., 178 49' w. Palolo are caught off the eastern point. 

Tuyam, islet 0.3 m. long, 160 ft. high, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Two Brothers, see Kepara, New Guinea. 

Two Groups, see Manaka, of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Two Hills, see Mataso, New Hebrides. 17 18' s., 168 23' E. 

Ua Huka, see Huahuna of the Marquesas islands. 23. 

Ualan, a name of Kusaie or Strong island of the Caroline archipelago. 5. 

Ualeva, of the Tongan islands. 

Ualomo, islet of Ugo bay, Isle of Pines. 

Uanne, islet in Gazelle passage on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 13. 

Uap, see Yap of the western Caroline islands. 

Uapora, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

I'apu, see Huapu of the Marquesas islands. 

Uatom or Man, in the Bismarck archipelago, is in 4 07' s., 152 03' E. On the coast 
of New Britain. 

Udia-Milai, see Bikini of the Marshall islands. 

Udjae or Katherine, of the Marshall islands, is 22X6 m. Udjae or Ujae the southern 
islet, and Enylamiej the northern one, are considered the finest and most fertile 
of the group. The north point of Enylamiej is in 9 21' N., 165 36' E. 6. 

[244] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. i6oA 

Udjelong, of the Caroline group, also called Arecifos and Providence islands. There 
are thirteen islets occupying a space 24 m. long by 7-8 m. wide. 9 52' N., 
i6o 5 6'E. 5. 

Uea, Uvea or Halgan of the Loyalty group. This name sometimes extends to three 
adjoining islands formed by a narrow, interrupted strip of raised coral reef 23 m. 
SSW-NNE., with a mean breadth of 1.5 m., but at the north end this increases to 
7-8 m. 20 m. from Lifu. Two races inhabit the island ; the northern one is said 
to have come from Uvea or Wallis island. Fertile, but good water scarce. 13. 

Uemie, islet within NGoe reef on southeast coast of New Caledonia. 

Uen or Waima, off southwest point of New Caledonia. High and rugged ; 4.5 m. N-s. 
Named by Cook "Prince of Wales Foreland". 

Ugai is the northwest islet of Mokil, Caroline group. 6 39' N., 159 40' E. 

Ugar or Stephen, in Torres strait, is a mile long, fertile and inhabited. 9 30' s., 

^ 143 32' E. 
Ugi or San Juan, of the Solomon group, is 6 m. long; 670 ft. high. 10 15' s., 161 

43' K. II. 

UgO, a small islet, lies 2.7 m. s. by E. from Cape Ndua, New Caledonia. 
Uia, an islet of the Hapai group, Tongan islands. 
Uika, another form of Uia, Tongan islands. 
CJlakua, see Ulava, Solomon islands. 
Ulartia, small desolate island of Fiji; Olenea of Wilkes. 18 33' 30" s., 181 14' E. 

North end. 
Ulava or Contrariet6, of the Solomon group, is 27 m. northeast from Ugi; 8 m. N-S. 

by 3 m.; 1200 ft. high. Natives noted for making canoes for the neighborhood. 

9 47' s., 161 56' E. This is La Treguada of Gallego. II. 
Ulie, see Wolea, Caroline islands. 
Ulietea, see Raiatea. 

Ulikar is the eastern islet of Majuro, Marshall group. 

Ulilaba, an islet east from Tongoa, New Hebrides; 0.7 m. NE-SW.; 120 ft. high. 
Uliti, a spelling of Uluthi, Caroline islands. 
ITlu, an uninhabited islet of Duke of York islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4 13' s., 

152 25' K. 

Ulu, see NGoli, Caroline islands. 

Ulul, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 8 36' N., 149 47' 30" E. 
Ullllina, of the Louisiade archipelago, lies west from Moturina; 325 ft. high; few 

inhabitants. 

(Please insert this opposite page 160 of the INDEX TO THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 
A page of the manuscript was inadvertently omitted in printing.) 



15 S. * 



135 



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22 



AK.AK 






VAIRAATEA 



PAUMOTU GROUP 



[ EAST ] 



TATAKOTO 



REAO 



VAMITAHJ 
NUKUTAPIM 

W ',&(. NUKUTAVAKB 



PUKARUHA 



20 S. 



VANAVXNA TUREIA 



MURUROA 



VEHANCA 

^TE 
Maturti vavM 



MARUTEA 
igfc 



AHUNUI 



MORANK 



MANGAREVA 01 



GAWBIEK 



TlMOE 



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INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 161 

Ultima, or Suckling reef, is in the Louisiade archipelago. 

Ulimatl, in the Admiralty group, is in 2 06' s., 147 32' E. 

Ultlthi, Uluti or Mackenzie, of the Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain 
Mackenzie in 1823, but previously by the Spaniard Egoi. The islets Mogmog 
(on which Padre Cantova was killed when endeavoring to establish a Jesuit mis- 
sion), Falalep, Troilem, Ear and Kilap are the principal ones. 956'N., i395o'E. 3. 

Umaitia was Bougainville's name for Tetuaroa. 

Umboi or Rook is immediately west of New Britain; 28X16 m., 5000 ft. high, 
volcanic. 10. 

Umol, islet of Ruk in the Caroline islands. 

Umtlda, at the mouth of the Fly river, New Guinea. 8 28' S., 143 48' E. 

Unalik, see Ounalik, islet of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Undaga, one of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 438's., 149 12' E. IO. 

Underwood group, Fiji, consists of Bateman, Henry, Ljnthicum, Ogle, Reynolds, 
and Smith. 

Undui, islet of the Ono i lau group, Fiji. 14. 

Unei, on the north coast of New Guinea. 3 10' S., 143 2i' E. 

Unes, islet of Uea, Loyalty group; covered with many flat-topped hills. 

Uneyetlte, islet at the southeast end of Namonuito, Caroline islands. 

Union or Tokelau, group of low coral islands extending 180 m. NW-SE.: Gente Her- 
mosa, Fakaofu, Nukunono, Atafu. Belongs to Great Britain. 17. 

Uo, see Laine of the Loyalty group. 13. 

Upoltl, of the Samoan islands, is the second in size and contains the principal port, 
Apia, of the German portion of the group; 39.5 m. E-w., with an average width of 
8 m.; 3200 ft. high. Subject to hurricanes. 13 46' S., 171 20' w. 15. 

Ura, see Takapoto of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Urak, see Mokil, Caroline islands. 

Urara, of the Bismarck archipelago; i m. E-W. 4 17' S., 151 39' E. 

Uraura, islet in the harbor on the south side of Pallikulo, New Hebrides. 

Ureparapara or Bligh is 12 m. northwest from the north point of Vanua lava, New 
Hebrides; nearly circular; 12 m. in circumference, 2440 ft. high; volcanic; 300 
inhabitants. 13 35' s., 167 18' E. 12. 

Uri, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides; 1.5 m. WNW-ESE.; low, inhabited. 

Uripiv, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides, half a mile in diameter; 300-400 inhabitants. 
Natives are said to bury their old or sick people alive. Presbyterian mission station. 

Urombo, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides. 15 58' s. 

Urracas, of the Marianas, consists of three islands in a circle 2-3 m. in diameter; 
probably the remains of a sunken crater. 20 08' N., 145 19' E. See map under 
Marianas. 

Uru, see Tomman, New Hebrides. 

Urukiki, islet off Port Stanley, of Malekula, New Hebrides. 

Urtlktapi or Urukthopel, of the Pelew islands, is 5.5 m. long; uninhabited. South 
point is in 7 14' 30" N., 130 28' E. 

Uruma or Duchess, of D'Entrecasteaux group, is west from Duau. 957's., i5O5i'E. 

Useless, two small, wooded islands on the New Guinea coast. 10 35'45"s., 150 51' E. 

MEMOIRS B, P, B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 2. u. L 2 45 J 



X 62 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Utan, islet in Meoko harbor, Duke of York island, Bismarck archipelago. 

Uteroa, the northern islet of Tapiteuea, Gilbert islands. North end is in io8'2o"s., 
174 45' E.; south end i 29' 14" s., 175 n' 02" E. 7. 

Utet, islet in Faitruk group, Ruk lagoon, Caroline islands. 

Utian or Brooker, in the Louisiade archipelago. 11 03' S., 152 27' E. 9. 

Utilik, Button or Kutusow, Marshall islands, is 20X5 m. 11 20' N., 169 50' E.O 

Utupua, an old form of Tapoua or Edgecumbe of the Santa Cruz group. 

Uvea or Wallis was discovered by Maurelle in 1781, and again by Wallis in 1797. 
There are nine separate islands from i-io m. in circuit, and many islets or rocks 
enclosed within one reef, though there is a ship passage to the lagoon on the south. 
Uvea is 7 m. N-s., volcanic, 197 ft. high. Reef 14 m. N-s., 9 m. E-w. Came under 
French influence in 1842 ; at first attached to the jurisdiction of Tahiti; November 
27, 1887, it was, with Futuna, made part of New Caledonia. Population in 1880, 
5000 and increasing. On the south are Faiia, Nukuatea, Nukuafo, Nukufetao, 
Faioa, Akimoa or Sail-rock ; on the east, Nukulufala, Lonaniva, Fougalei ; on the 
north, Takuaviki, Nukuteatea, Nukuloa, and Nukufutu. The southwest point of 
Uvea is in 13 23' 35" S., 176 u' 47" w. 18. 

Uvea, a form of Uea, Loyalty group. 

Uyelang, islet of Udjelong, Marshall islands. Northeast end in 9 43' N., 161 19' E. 

Vaga, of the Kiriwina group. 8 44' S., 150 55' 30" E. 

Vahanga or Bedford, in the Aclaeon group; 5 m. west from Tenarunga, Paumotu 
archipelago. 22. 

Vahine, a form of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vahitahi or Cook's lagoon was discovered by Bougainville in 1768, and seen by Cook 
the next year; 3X1 m. Paumotu archipelago. 18 42' S., 138 50' w. 22. 

Vaiorea, islet on the west side of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vairaatea, Vairaotea or Egmont, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered by Wallis 
in 1767; consists of two islets, Pukararo (leeward), Tres Cocotiers of Mauruc, and 
Pukarunga (windward) or Egmont. 19 20' s., 139 18' w. 22. 

Vairaatea, see Mururoa, Paumotu archipelago. Often confounded with the preceding. 

VaitupU or Tracy, of the Ellice group, is of oval shape with fringing reef; 4 m. in 
diameter. Formerly spelled Oaitupu. 7 30' S., 178 41' E. 16. 

Vakuta, inhabited islet of the Kiriwina group. 8 47' s., 151 04' E. 

Valea, one of the Shepherd islands, New Hebrides ; uninhabited, narrow, almost in- 
accessible; 367 ft. high. Above the steep sides are coconut groves. 12. 

Valise, see Guilbert, New Guinea. 

Valtia, of the New Hebrides, extends 6 m. NE-SW.; 1400 ft. high. Fertile, with a pop- 
ulation of about 1000. A station of the Melanesian mission. 13 40' s., 167 38' E. 

Vambi, one of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4 40' S., 149 n' E. 

Vanama, south from Tagula, Louisiade archipelago. 11 38' s., 153 31' E. 

Vanavana, Kurateke, Barrow or Teku, of the Paumotu archipelago, was discovered 
by Beechey January 31, 1826. It is a narrow strip of sand surrounding a lagoon; 
1.2X1.7 m. 20 45' s., 139 03' w.O 22. 

Vanderford, of the Underwood group, Fiji. 17 38' s., 177 21' 30" E.Q 

[246] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 163 

Vanderlin, the largest of the Sir Edward Pelew group in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 
Named for one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company who was a great 
promotor of marine discoveries. 

Vangunu, a name of the island off the southeast end of New Georgia or Rubiana, 
Solomon islands. 

Vanikoro, of the Santa Cruz islands, is 30 m. in circumference and 3000 ft. high 
Densely wooded and only the coast inhabited. Tevai is on the same reef. As the 
scene of the loss of the two ships of L,a Perouse, in 1788, Vanikoro has a sad in- 
terest. British protectorate declared August 1 8, 1898. n4i'5o"s., i665i'E. 12. 

Vanua ktlla, an islet of Kandavu, Fiji, 250 ft. high. 18 48' s., 178 25' 10" E. 

Vanua lava or lavu, New Hebrides, the largest of the Banks group, 15 m. N-S., 10 m. 
E-w.; 3ooozb ft. high, active volcano on the ridge. i348's., 167 30' 30" E. 12. 

Vanua levu, Fiji; 100X25 m., 3200 ft. high, is the second in size of the Vitian group 
and mountainous and wooded, with many bays and harbors with entrances through 
openings in the barrier reef. The northeast point is in i6o6'3o"s., i8oO7'E. 14. 

Vanua masi, coral islet, 80 ft. high, within the Argo reef, Fiji. i8o5's., 178 27' w. 

Vanua mbalavu, Fiji, is 14X1 m.; Mt. Koro mbasanga is 930 ft. high. 17 13' s., 
178 58' w. 

Vanua vatU, Fiji, is 6 m. in circumference and 310 ft. high. Frequented by fisher- 
men. 1 8 22' S., 180 39' E.O 

Vao, islet of New Caledonia. 20 35' S. 

Vao, islet of Malekula, New Hebrides, off Port Stanley. 

Varivari, two islets on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Vate, see Fate, New Hebrides. 

Vatganai, islet in Banks group, New Hebrides. 13 12' S., 167 40' E. 

Vatia, islet on the north coast of Viti levu, Fiji, 600 ft. high. 17 20' s., 177 50' E. 

Vatia, small, high and rocky island off the north coast of Tutuila, Samoan islands. 15. 

Vatilau or Buena Vista, off the northwest coast of Florida, Solomon islands; 1950 ft. 
high. 8 53' 30" s., 159 59' 30" E. II. 

Vatiu, see Atiu, Hervey islands. 23. 

Vatoa or Turtle was the only one of the Fijian group seen by Cook in 1774. Coral, 
2X0.5 m., 209 ft. high. Population less than 100. i947's., i7i43'42"K. 14. 

VatU i thake, off Vanua levu, Fiji. North point is in 16 33' 24" S., 178 44' 30" E. 

VatU, a high island in the Yasawa group, Fiji. 17 16' S., 177 07' E.O 

VatU ira, islet 100 ft. high, off the northeast coast of Viti levu, Fiji; in the north 
part of the Vatu ira lagoon, which is 14X3 m. 17 19' S., 178 27' E. 

Vatuka, one of the Tiri group, off the west coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 

VatU lailai, islet at the mouth of the weather passage to Vatu leile, Fiji. 

VatU leile, Fiji, a well wooded, inhabited island, 6.7X1-7 m. and no ft. high. 

18 34' 3o" S, 177 36' 30" E. 
VatU levu, islet off Vatu leile, Fiji. 
VatU SavU, islet off Vatu leile, Fiji. 
VatU vara or Hat, Fiji; 1.2 m. in diameter, 1030 ft. high; coral, with steep cliffs on 

all sides; the property of an American who resides there. 17 25' S., 179 32' w. 
Vatu Rhandi, New Hebrides. 13 12' S., 167 40' E. The proper form is Vatganai. 

[247] 



1 64 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Vauvilliers, islet north from Mare, Loyalty islands. 

Vavara, islet on the east side of Huaheine, Society islands. 

Vavau or Vavao, Tongan islands, was first visited by Maurelle in 1781. Population in 

1891 was 5084. To the south and west are man}' islets. 18 38' 2o"s., I74oi' w. 18. 
Vavi ai, islet in Guasop harbor on the south side of Murua or Woodlark island, of 

the Louisiade archipelago. 9. 
Vavitao or Ravaivai, of the Austral islands, was discovered by Captain Broughton 

October 23, 1791; or, as some claim, by Bonecheo in 1772; 10 m. long; high. 

23 55' s., 147 48' w. 
Vehanga or Bedford, in the Actaeon group, Paumotu archipelago, uninhabited ; 2 m. 

in diameter. 21 20' s., 136 39' w. 22. 

Vehi, or Wedge, is half a mile wsw. from south cape of New Guinea. 
Vekai, low islet 6 m. from Tabutha, Fiji ; uninhabited but frequented by turtle hunters. 

17 33' s., 181 n'E.0 
Vela la Velha is southeast from Mono, Solomon islands; 2800 ft. high. Volcanic, 

with fumaroles and hot springs. 

Vele or Hinchinbrook, New Hebrides; northeast from Fate; 800 ft. high. See Mau. 
Velerara, low and sandy island, Fiji. 16 52' S., 181 oo' 45" E.O 
Velitoa, islet off Tongatabu, Tongan islands. 
Vella I/avella, Solomon islands; 23 m. long, mountainous, with several volcanoes 

more than 1000 ft. high. North point is in 7 32' S., 156 35' E. II. 
Venariwa, grassy islet 500 ft. high; 0.6X0.3 m. northwest from Moturina, Louisiade 

archipelago. 
Vendralala, a high island in Naloa bay, Vanua levu, Fiji; inhabited. 16 36' 54" s., 

178 42' 45" E.O 

Ventenat, see Digaragara, Louisiade archipelago. Named for Louis Ventenat, nat- 
uralist and chaplain of the Recherche. 9. 
Verao, see Moso, New Hebrides. 
Veriararu, islet of Tahiti, Society islands. 

Vesey is east from Commodore bay, New Britain. 5 27' S., 150 48' E. 
Viendrala, islet on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji; 99 ft. high, cultivated. 
Vicuna, low island of Fiji. 16 n' 35" s., 179 50' 25" E.O 
Village, an islet off the north coast of New Guinea, inhabited and connected to the 

mainland by a reef bare at low water. 
Vincennes, see Kawehe, Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Vingoru, one of the French islands, Bismarck archipelago. 4 36' s., 149 21' E. IO. 
Violet, islet 60 ft. high in the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. 
Visschers, said to be three islands in the Bismarck archipelago, 1000 ft. high, coast 

steep. Inhabitants naked, dye their hair and tatu to some extent. Their canoes 

are a single log with carved ends. 2 37' S., 151 58' E. IO. 
Viti, see Fiji. 

Vitora, on the southeast coast of Ysabel, Solomon islands. 8 37' s., 159 46' E. 
Viwa, in the bay of Mbau, Fiji; i Xo.3 m., i6o ft. high. 17 5^56" s., 178 39' 25" E.O 
Viwa, in the Mamanutha group, Fiji; looi ft. high. 17 08' s., 176 54' E. 

Vliegen, see Raugiroa, Palliser group, Paumotu archipelago. 22. 

[248] 



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1 1 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 165 

Volcano, in Anson archipelago. 22 30' N. 

Volcano, off the northeast point of Umboi, 3500 ft. high. Dampier saw an eruption 

in March, 1700. 5 32' S., 148 06' E. 

Volcano, on the west side of Blanche bay, New Britain, rose in February, 1878. 
Volcano, see Tinakula, New Hebrides. 
Volcano Islands, or Magellan archipelago, a small volcanic group south of the Benin 

islands. Annexed by Japan in 1891. Arzobispo, Santo Alessandro, Sulphur, 

Santo Agostino. Uninhabited. 
Volunteer, see Starbtick. 
Vomo, on the northwest coast of Viti levu, Fiji; 2 m. in circumference, 380 ft. high, 

flat-topped. The south point is in 17 30' S., 177 15' E. 

Vomo lailai, a rock 200 ft. high on the south side of Vomo, Fiji. i729's., 177 I3'E.O 
Vostok, Wostok or Staver, was discovered by Bellingshausen in 1820; about 0.3 m. 

in diameter. Low, sandy, thickly covered with trees. ioo6's., 152 23' w. British. 
Votia, low island, Fiji. 17 33' 30" s.,. 177 26' 20" E.O 
Vila, islet in the Mato passage, Great South reef of New Caledonia. 
Vlllan, New Guinea region. 3 57' S., 132 41' E. 
Vtllcan, a volcanic cone 12 m. in circumference, clothed with vegetation to a height 

of 3000 ft.; above that barren. Crater emits smoke. 4 10' s., 145 02' E. 
Vulelua, on northeast coast of Guadalcanar, Solomon islands. 929'i5"s., i6o28'E. II. 
Vuna, a common name of Taviuni, Fiji. 

Vtiro, islet on the northeast point of Ono, Fiji; 270 ft. high; uninhabited. 
Vuro lailai (Little Vuro), a rock 90 ft. high on the reef between Ono and Vuro. 

Wabuda, at the mouth of Fly river, New Guinea. 8 23' S., 143 45' E. 

Wagipa, islet southeast from Dauila, D'Entrecasteaux group. 9 32' S., 150 21' E. 

Waia, in the Yasawa group, Fiji; 3 m. in diameter; 1641 ft. high. North extreme 

17 16' s., 177 05' E. 

Waia lailai (Little Waia); 2X1.5 m. North point is in 17 19' 40" s., 177 06' E. 
Waia lailai thake, Fiji, in the Yasawa group; 1X0.5 m., 555 ft. high, inhabited. 

17 22' 20" s., 177 06' 10" E. Observatory Hill. 
Waiben or Thursday, in Torres strait. 10 36' S., 142 12' E. A port of call for steamers 

between Singapore and Brisbane ; in telegraphic connection with the latter. 
Waier or Wyer, within the same reef with Mer and Dauer, in Torres strait. 9 54' S., 

144 02' E. 
Waigitl, 80X20 m., rugged and hilly; Papuan, with wild tribes in the interior. East 

end is in o 20' s., 131 20' E. Subject to the Sultan of Tidore. 
Waiheke, in Auckland harbor, Hauraki gulf, New Zealand. 
Waihu, an old chart name for Rapanui or Easter island. 
WaikatU, the largest of the St. Andrew group, Admiralty islands. Inhabitants seem 

to be a superior race. 

Waikawa, Te Houra or Portland, in Hawke bay, New Zealand. 
Wailagilala, low islet of sand and coral in the Lau group, Fiji; 9X3 cables, at the 

northeast corner of a lagoon 9 m. in circumference. Also Weilangilala. 
Waima, see Uen, New Caledonia. 

[249] 



1 66 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Wainwright, see Akamaru, islet of Mangareva. 22. 

Wakaia or Wakaya, 10 m. east from Ovalau, Fiji; 4X1-5 ni., 595 ft. high. North 
point is in 17 35' 16" s., 179 02' E. 

Wake was discovered in 1796 from the Prince William Henry, but it is probably the 
San Francisco of Mendana ; 20-25 m. long, 8 ft. high. When I saw it from the 
masthead of the ship Oracle, in 1865, it was covered with a low and sparse vege- 
tation. 19 15' N., 166 30' E. Annexed by the United States in July, 1898. 

Waldron, a small island in the Hudson group, near Viti levu, Fiji. 17 51' s., 
177 09' 30" E.O Named for Purser R. R. Waldron of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Walibi, islet of Panatinani, Louisiade archipelago; 140 ft. high, grassy. 

Walker, in the Hudson group, Fiji. 17 34' 30" S., 177 03' 10" E.O Named for 
Lieutenant W. M. Walker of the Wilkes Expedition. 

Walker, discovered by Captain Walker in 1814. 3 34' N., 149 15' w. Existence doubtful. 

Wallis (Red), in Torres strait. 10 50' s., 142 02' E. 

Wallis (Woody), in Torres strait. 10 52' S., 142 02' E. 

Wallis, islet of Port Praslin, New Ireland. 4 48' S., 152 47' E. 

Wallis, see Uvea. 18. 

Walo, islet north of Port Stanley, on the coast of Malekula, New Hebrides. 

Walpole, Loyalty islands, was discovered November 17, 1794, by Captain Butler of 
the Walpole. 22 38' 07" S., 168 56' 45" E. 

Wanim or Grass, in the Louisiade archipelago; 1.5 m. N-s., 390 ft. high. 

Waremata or East, in the Bonvouloir group, Louisiade archipelago, is 500 ft. high, 
densely wooded. 10 26' s., 152 03' E. 

Wanawana, an extensive, low, densely wooded island off the west side of New Georgia 
(Marovo), Solomon islands. 8 12' S., 157 07' E. 

Waratap, on the east side of South bay of Fate, New Hebrides. 

Wari or Teste, between the Louisiades and New Guinea: called Teste by D'Urville; 
2.5 m. E-w., 0.2 m. wide; inhabited by uncouth natives who wear human jawbones 
as armlets. 10 57' 55" s., 151 03' 20" E. 9. 

Wariura, 8 22' s., 143 24' E. 

Warren Hastings, see Pulo Mariere, Caroline islands. 4 20' N., 132 28' E. 

Warrior, see Tut on the south coast of New Guinea. 

Wasau = Faiva, islet of Uea, Loyalty islands. 

Washington, New York or Prospect, was discovered by Captain. Fanning in 1798; 
3.2X1.2 m., 10 ft. above the sea ; covered with coconut and other trees. No lagoon, 
but a fresh water pond. 4 41' 35" N., 160 15' 37" w. (Fig. 12.) 

Washington, see Huahuna, Marquesas islands. 

Wasima, 175 ft. high, southeast from Dituna point, southeast coast of New Guinea. 

Wasp, islet near Layard islands on the north coast of New Guinea. 

Wateeoo = Atiu, Hervey islands. 

Waterlandt, of Schouten and Lemaire, is Manihi of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 

Watmoilgh, a low island off Viti levu, Fiji. 17 45' 50" S., 177 20' 40" E.Q 

Watson, islet off Blanche harbor, Mono, Solomon islands. 

Watts, see Ailuk of the Marshall islands. 6. 

Watts, see Kuriva in the Engineer group, Louisiade archipelago. 

[250] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 



167 




Wavi ai, see Vavi ai, Woodlark or Murua. 

Wea or Emery, of the Atana islands, northwest from Rotuma. 

Webb, 2-3 islets covered with coconut trees, near Roux islands, New Guinea. 

Also called Ulawabai. 

Wedge, islet of Stewart island, New Zealand. 
Wedge = Vehi, on the southeast coast of New Guinea. 
Wednesday, in Torres strait. 10 32' S., 142 18' E. 
Weeks was seen by Captain Gelett, of the Morning S/ar, in 24 04' N., 154 02' E., 

December 17, 1864. It had been previously reported. About 5 m. long, densely 

wooded with trees and shrubs ; a knoll in the centre rising 200 ft. above the sea. 

Uncertain on charts. 
Weitoa or O'Neill, on the southeast coast of New Guinea; nearly 2 m. NW-SE., and 

580 ft. high. 10 41' s., 150 56' E. 
Welle, see Raputata of 

the D'Entrecasteaux 

group. 9. 
Wellesley, group in the 

Gulf of Carpentaria, 

of which Mornington 

is the largest. The 

others are : Rocky, 

Pisonia, Beautiful, 

Forsyth, Bentinck, 

Allen, Sweers and 

Fowler. 
Wellington, see Alapawa, 

New Zealand. 
Wellington, see Mokil of 

Caroline islands. 5. 

Wenman, of the Galapagos, the fragment of a volcano now 830 ft. high. 
West, islet of Kandavu, Fiji ; 25 ft. high. 

West, islet of Niuatobutabu, Tongan islands ; 70 ft. high, 0.7 m. in diameter. 
West, in Torres strait. 10 33' 45" S., 150 48' 25" E. 
West, islet south side of Umboi, Bismarck archipelago; 150 ft. high. 
West, islet off Cape Queen Charlotte, west side of New Hanover; inhabited. 2 26' s., 

149 55' E. 

West Danger, of the Marshall islands. 

Western, a group of the Admiralty islands. 2 12' S., 148 oo' 40" E. IO. 
Whakari or White, in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. 

Whale (La Baleine), see Isenay of the Pleiades group, Loyalty islands. 13. 
White, see Whakari, New Zealand. 

Whitsunday, see Nganati of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 
Whitsunday, see Ntikutavake. 

Whitsunday, on the Australian coast. 20 15' S., 149 02' E. 
Whitsuntide, see Arag, New Hebrides. 

[251] 



FIG. 12. WASHINGTON ISLAND. 



r68 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 

Whittle, Fiji. 18 50' 30" s., 178 25' 30" E.O 

Whytohee, see Napuka of the Pauinotn archipelago. 31. 

Wiak, see Schouten. 

Wiakow, on the north part of the outer ring of Egum atoll, Trobriand group. 

O / -- // O tt f 

9 20 30 S., 151 58 E. 

Wild, of the Admiralty group; 0.7 m. long. Named for J. J. Wild, artist on the 
Challenger. i 55' 10" S., 146 40' 56" E. 

Willaumez, now ascertained to be a part of New Britain. Named for one of the officers 
of D'Entrecasteaux, Ensign on the Recherche. 

William IV., see Ant of the Andema group, Caroline islands. 

Williams, one of the Tiri islands off Vanua levu, Fiji. 16 24' 45" S., 179 06' 22" E.O 

Wilson, islet off Blanche harbor of Mono island, Solomon islands. 

Wilson, see Ifalik, Caroline islands. 3. 

Wilson, a name of the Duff islands, so called because seen by Captain Wilson, Sep- 
tember, 1797. 

Wilson, see Manihi of the Paumotu archipelago, ai. 

Wittgenstein, see Fakarawa of Paumotu archipelago. So named by Bellingshausen. 31. 

\Voahoo = Oahu, Hawaiian islands. Old English name found on charts with Owhyhee. 

Wolea or Ulie, Caroline islands, was discovered by Captain Wilson in the Dujf'm 
1793. Wooded and inhabited atoll 0.7 m. in diameter, with 22 islets. North end 
7 23' 30" N., 143 57' E. 3. 

Woles, islet of Ruk, Caroline islands. 

Wolkonski, see Takurea of the Paumotu archipelago. 31. 

Woodlark, see Murua, Kiriwina group. 

Woodle, see Kuria of the Gilbert islands. 

Woody, opposite Entrance island in Torres strait. 10 40' s., 142 20' E. 

Woody, islet in Arembo bay, on the southwest side of New Caledonia. 

Woody, see Panaman of the Louisiade archipelago. 

Wostok, a form of Vostok. 

Wotja, the westernmost islet of Odia atoll, Marshall islands. There is much con- 
fusion with a similar name in the Romanzow atoll. 

Wotje, Odia or Romanzow, of the Marshall islands, extends 29 m. E-W., with a width 
from 6-12 m. There are 65 islets on the reef. Christmas harbor, of Kotzebue, is 

* O r>' " O ./-/ ft f 

in 9 28 09 N., 170 io 05 E. 6. 
WottO, of the Marshall islands, was discovered by Captain Shanz of the Russian 

navy. It is 18 m. long and 4-12 m. wide. 10 05' N., 166 04' E.O 
Wrack, in the Bismarck archipelago. 3 15' s., 154 31' E. 
Wuli or High, on the northwest coast of Roua, Louisiade archipelago; 1.4 m. E-W., 

300 ft. high; inhabited and cultivated. 11 42' S., 154 02' E. 
Wyer, a form of Waier, Torres strait. 

Wytoohee, see Napuka, Paumotu archipelago. Disappointment islands of Byron. 
Yaba, islet in Banare bay, on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yabwat, see Jabwat, Marshall islands. 
Yaga, of the Kiriwina islands. 

Yakimoan, islet northwest from Panawiua, Louisiade archipelago. 

[252] 



INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 169 

Yalangalala, uninhabited islet, Fiji. 16 49' 30" S., 180 57' 20" E.O 

Yambu, uninhabited island, 170 ft. high near Vuro, off Kandavu, Fiji. 

Yamiga, islet on the southwest coast of New Guinea. 

Yande, 6 m. west from Paaba on the northwest coast of New Caledonia ; 1070 ft. high, 

inhabited and well cultivated. 
Yandua, high, inhabited island, 12 in. in circumference; Loto peak, 875 ft. high, is 

* X" O / <-O x'/ 

in 16 49 s., 178 16 E. 

Yanguel, see Kayangle of the Pelew islands. 

Yanganga, islet 887 ft. high on the north coast of Vanua levu, Fiji. 
Yaniba, largest of the group on the north side of the outer ring of Egum atoll; 14 

islets, the highest 150 ft. Population 200. 9 20' 30" s., 151 55' E. 
Yanutha lailai and Yanutha levu, two islets between Ovalau and Moturiki, Fiji. 
Yanutha loa, off the west coast of Vanua mbalavu, Fiji; 160 ft. high. 
Yanuya, inhabited island of the Mamanutha i thake group, Fiji. 
Yanu yanu eloma, grassy islet 140 ft. high on the Kandavu reef, Fiji. 
Yanu yanu sau, islet 80 ft. high on the reef of Kandavu, Fiji. 
Yap or Ouap, of the Caroline islands, is on a reef 35X5 m. A volcanic peak 1170 ft. 

high. The north islet is in 9 37'N., i38o8'E. Population 8000, Malay with slight 

Polynesian admixture. The stone money of the group consists of wheels of aragon- 

ite from 6 in. to 12 ft. in diameter. See photograph in The Caroline Islands, by 

F. W. Christian, 1899, p. 236. 
Yaroua, islet of Tuvutha, Lau group, Fiji. 
Yarru, on the New Guinea coast. 9 07' s., 143 12' E. 

Yaruman, islet 285 ft. high, northeast from Pana numara, Louisiade archipelago. 
Yasau-i-lau, near Yasawa, Fiji; 0.5 m. long, 437 ft. high. i65i'4o"s., i7726 / 4o"E.O 
Yasawa group, Fiji, consists of Timboor, Kiusick, Yasawa, Asawa, Ovawa, Androna, 

Yasawailau, Otovawa, Nansia, Nangati, Matathoni levu, Yangati, Naviti, Eld, Fox, 

Agate, Sinclair, Waia, Waialailai, Waia lailai thake, Biwa, Knox, Ombi, Baldwin, 

Davis, Totten, Lewin, Vomo. 
Yasawa, inhabited island 8X2 m., 781 ft. high, in the group to which it gives name. 

The north point is in 16 43' s., 177 30' 05" E. 14. 
Yaukuve or May, islet of Ono, Fiji ; 400 ft. high. 
Yaukuve lailai, near by, is 200 ft. high. 
Yavurimba, uninhabited islet of Mamanutha ira group, Fiji. 
Yavutha, islet 240 ft. high, of the Angasa group, Fiji. 
Yeccla, islet of the Carteret group. Bismarck archipelago. 
Yeharnu, islet of the Carteret group. 

Yeina, north from Tagula, Louisiade archipelago. 11 20' s., 153 28' E. 
Yendua, see Yandua, Fiji. 

Yengiebane, islet near Paaba on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yenoe, islet in Banare bay on the northwest coast of New Caledonia. 
Yermaloff, of Bellingshausen, is Taenga of the Paumotu archipelago. 21. 
York, a group in Torres strait, 9 44' s., 143 z-,' E. This group is shown on the 

Surveyor-General's fine map of Queensland and British New Guinea, 1896, but I 

have been unable to find any description. 

[253] 



1 70 INDEX TO THE PACIFIC ISLANDS, 

York, Duke of, an interesting group, of volcanic origin, between New Ireland and 

New Britain in St. George channel. 
York, Duke of, see Atafu of the Union group. 17. Wallis gave this name to Eimeo, 

Society islands. 

Young, on the Australian coast. 12 07' s., 143 12' E. 
Yovo, islet of the Carteret group, Bismarck archipelago. 
Yowl, a group of 16 low islands on the west coast of New Guinea. o 25' N., i3ioo' E. 

Papuan. Group surrounded by a coral reef 60 m. in circumference. This belongs 

to the Moluccas and is not properly included in our region. 
Ysabel or Bogotu, the Camba of Mendana, Solomon islands. The full name was 

Santa Ysabel de la Estrella; 125 m. NW-SE. by 25 m., 3900 ft. high. The Mela- 

nesian mission has several stations here. The northeast point is in 7 18' s., 

158 08' E. 
Ythata, high, inhabited island north from Vaturera, Fiji; 2.5 m. E-w., i m. N-s. East 

point is in 17 17' s., 179 34' 30" E. 
Yule, see Roro. 

Zarpane is a name of Rota of the Marianas. 

2jet, islet off the north end of Loof, Hermit group. 8. 

eune, a small group on the southeast coast of Bougainville, Solomon islands. 

6 17' s., 155 48' E. 
Grille, islet in Dampier strait. 

Roller, off the southwest end of Bouka, Solomon islands. 5 25' S., 154 32' E. 
Sjuckerhut, of the Admiralty group. 2 24' S., 146 49' E. 

[254] 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Asie, Solomon islands. All the islets of the Solomon islands and of Ontong Java in 
this supplementary list were taken into British jurisdiction by treaty with Germany 
as mentioned under Solomon islands. 

Benana, Solomon islands. 

Dauahaida or Marokau, of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Engaulii, islet of Ontong Java. 

Faise, Solomon islands. 

Grampus islands are attributed to Captain Meares, April 4, 1788, in 25 15' N., 146 E. 
Two islands close together, another southwest from these. Perhaps the Sebastian 
Lopez of the Spanish charts. 

Lehuanu, islet of Ontong Java. 

Loto, Solomon islands. 

Malabrigos or Margaret, a group of three islands discovered by Captain Magee in 1773, 
in 27 20' N., 145 45' E. Perhaps the Malabrigos (bad shelter) of Torres in 1543, 
but the identification is uncertain. 

Marakau = Marokau, of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Margaret, see Malabrigos above. 

Mongava, a name of Rennel, Solomon islands. 

Mongiki, a name of Bellona, Solomon islands. 

Nee, islet of Ontong Java. 

Niellei, Solomon islands. 

Nieue = Niue or Savage. The Jurisdiction of Her Britannic Majesty's High Com- 
missioner's Court for the Western Pacific was extended to Niiie October 19, 1899. 

Nufahana, Solomon islands. 

Nusakoa, Solomon islands. 

Nusave, Solomon islands. 

Oikuo, islet of Ontong Java. 

Oku, islet of Ontong Java. 

Palav, islet of Ontong Java. 

Piedu, Solomon islands. 

Porporang, Solomon islands. 

Kalan, p. 82, should be Kalau. 
Leuneuwa, p. 90, should be Leueneuwa. 

Oua raha, p. 126, should be Owa raha. 

[255] (171) 



DIVISION OF THE PACIFIC AMONG THE NATIONS. 



THE present ownership of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, whether by outright 
annexation, purchase or protectorate, is as follows : 

Great Britain. Australia, Tasmania, islands of Torres strait, S. E. New Guinea, Lou- 
isiade archipelago, Solomon islands (except northwest corner), Santa Cruz, Lord 
Howe, Norfolk, Kermadec, Chatham, New Zealand, Fiji, Ellice, Gilbert, Phoenix, 
Union, Tonga, Niiie, Line islands, Hervey (Cook), Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie 
and Oeno of the Paumotu archipelago. 

Germany. N. E. New Guinea, Bismarck archipelago, N. W. Solomon islands, Pelew, 
Marianas (except Guam), Caroline archipelago, Marshall islands and Western 
Samoa. 

France. New Caledonia, Uvea, Society islands, Paumotu archipelago (except islands 
in the southeast extreme), and Marquesas islands. 

The New Hebrides are jointly watched or protected by Great Britain and France. 

United States. Hawaiian group, Wake, Guam and Eastern Samoan islands. 

Holland. Western New Guinea. 

Japan. Bonin and Marcus islands. 

Eqnador. Galapagos group. 

Chile. Rapanui or Easter island, Juan Fernandez group, and St. Felix islands. 



Issued December, 1900. 



KEY 



TO THE 



BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN 

GROUP. 



BY 



WILLIAM ALANSON BRYAN, 



CURATOR OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE MUSEUM. 



HONOLULU, H. I.: 

BISHOP MUSEUM PRESS. 

1901. 



FOREWORD. 



THE following preliminary key to the birds of the Hawaiian possessions is based on a study 
of the collection of birds in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, which institution now possesses the 
most representative collection of the Hawaiian avifauna extant. The collection at this time num- 
bers upwards of six hundred specimens, embracing the famous Mills collection, a series of skins 
collected by Mr. Palmer for the Rothschild museum, a valuable collection made by Mr. R. C. L. 
Perkins, together with collections by Messrs. W. H. Hall, F. Gay, A. F. Judd, and others. To the 
above collection almost daily additions are now being made through the efforts of the Museum's 
skilled collector, Mr. A. Scale. 

By the Hawaiian possessions it is intended to include' all of the chain composed of some twenty 
or more islands lying in the central North Pacific ocean, stretching over an area extending from about 
150 West Longitude to 175 East Longitude, and from 18 to 30" North Latitude. 

Though following the scheme usually adopted by systematic zoologists in the making of ana- 
lytical keys there is some slight difference in the arrangement of the text. Since it may be necessary 
for persons not entirely familiar with keys to make use of the following pages, it might be well to say 
that the fundamental characters are used for the separation and identification of species instead of 
lengthy and oftentimes misleading detailed descriptions. To facilitate this, dichotomous antithesis is 
strictly adhered to, so that there are but two alternatives ; the specimen must conform to the characters 
given, for example, under a, or the whole matter under a, that is, the sub-heads b, bb, C, CC, etc., 
(if there are any) must be passed over until aa is arrived at, whic.h is of equal value with and the only 
alternative of the division a. If it is settled that the specimen corresponds with the characters given 
under aa, the next step is to settle between the heads b and bb, then pass to C and CC, and so on, 
taking up the characters in their natural order until finally the reference page is given, where the 
key will be found continued. Thus the key to the higher orders will be found on the last pages of 
the Memoir, and will indicate the order to which the bird belongs and the page where the order is 
treated. Similarly the order will be broken up into families, the families into genera, and lastly the 
genera into species. The index letters are in bold type, and characters of equal value are placed 
immediately under each other, while the minor divisions are indented farther and farther to the right. 
Hence bb is found set in an equal distance from the left-hand margin as b; CC is still farther indented, 
but the same distance as c, while the body of the text extends the full distance across the page. 

The measurements are, for the most part, taken from specimens in the Bishop Museum, and 
are given in English inches and hundredths. The length of the wing is measured from the bend 
(i. c., the carpal joint) to the tip of the longest primary. The length of the tail is from the apparent 
base to the tip of longest feather. The length of the culmeii is the distance from the base of the 
upper mandible on top to the tip of the same in a straight line. This measurement, as well as all of 
the more exact ones, are best taken with the dividers. The depth of the bill is a vertical line from 

[259] 



iv Forcivord. 

the base of the upper mandible through both mandibles. The length of the tarsus is measured from 
the enlargement on the front outside of the tibio-tarsal ( /. c. , the "knee" ) joint to the more or less ol>vi 
ous beginning of the middle toe. The middle toe is measured in a straight line along the top from 
the last-mentioned point to the tip of the nail. 

In bringing together the key I have made free and frequent use of the catalogue of birds in the- 
British Museum, and Ridgway's Manual of North American Birds, together with the valuable con- 
tributions to our knowledge of the Hawaiian ornithology Aves Hawaiiensis, by Messrs. Wilson 
and Evans, and Avifauna of Laysan, etc. I have also had at hand the published notes of Messrs. 
Gadow, Dole, Perkins, Stejueger, and others. In addition to the above I have had the pleasure of 
examining the material in the National Museum at Washington, D. C., the Philadelphia Academy of 
Science, the British Museum, Tring Museum, and the Jardin des Plantes. To all of these sources 
of information I would make grateful acknowledgement of the service they have rendered. 

WM. ALANSON BRYAN. 



[260] 



BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



Order LONGIPENNES. Long-winged Swimmers.' 

Families. 

With the lower mandible not longer than the upper one and only moderately 
compressed, while the covering of the upper mandible is made up of one solid piece 
(Y. <'., with the seams fused together, no "nail" at the tip, etc.), through which the 
nostrils are pierced. 

FAMILY I/AR'ID^. GULLS AND TERNS. 

Genera. 

a. Bill rather short, and deeper at the angle than at the nasal openings ; the 
upper mandible longer and bent down over the lower one; tail usually even (Sub- 
family Larttuz); tarsus not roughened nor serrate behind; hind toe moderately well 
developed ; culmen more than two-thirds the length of tarsus ; nostrils linear or linear 

ovate (Page 6.) I/arus. 

aa. Bill slender with both mandibles about equal in length ; tail slightly or de- 
cidedly forked; angle of the lower mandible not prominent. (Sub-family Stcniince.} 
b. Tail more or less deeply forked ; head without plumes at the gape ; tar- 
sus shorter than the middle toe and claw ; outer tail feathers the longest, and pointed; 
tail generally more than half the length of the wing; bill compressed and slender; 
tarsus never exceeding and generally shorter than the middle toe and claw; depth of 

bill at base less than one-third the exposed culmen (Page 7-) Sterna. 

bb. Tail graduated, pointed; outer pair shorter than the next pair; middle 
toe shorter than the exposed culmen ; distance from the angle of the gonys to the tip 
of the bill less than to the gape. 

C. Tail feathers not all pure white. 

d. Fourth pair of tail feathers from the outside the longest; 

wing more than 9.50 ( Page 9. ) An'oiis. 

dd. Third pair of tail feathers from the outside the longest; 

wing less than 9.50 ( Page 9. ) Microan'oiis. 

CC. Tail feathers all pure white (Page 9. ) Gygis. 

' For the Key to the Higher Orders see last pages of the Memoir. [261] ( 5 ) 



BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



GENUS I/A'RUS 

a. Head entirely white in the summer adults. 

b. Primaries uniform pale grey, with no black, and fading gradually 
into white at the tips (larger, wing more than 16.00). Head, neck, tail and under 
parts white ; mantle grey ; the scapulars and secondaries white at their tips. Female 
smaller, often considerably so. Adult in winter: Mottled and streaked with pale 
brown on the head and neck; back and under parts also mottled. Immature: The 
mottling on the upper surface gradually disappears and for a short time the bird ap- 
pears to be a creamy white. Young: Both the upper and under surface streaked and 
mottled with ash-brown on a paler ground color; the feathers of the mantle margined 
with buffish white which produces a creamy appearance; upper and under coverts 
rather boldly marked with brown (Saunders). Length about 25.00-28.00, wing 16.25- 
18.00 (17.12), tail 7.00-7.50, culmen 2.30-2.70, tarsus 2.40-2.78 (2.57), middle toe 
with claw 2.35-2.75 (2.55). Hab. Bering Sea and adjacent waters northward to Point 
Barrow; southward in winter to Japan (Ridgway). Kauai, 2 Maui. 

i. I/, barrovianus 3 RIDGW. Point Barrow Gull. 

bb. Primaries marked with distinct white tips and dark (black) subtermi- 
nal spaces ; the two outer primaries with a distinct grey wedge on the inner web in 
the summer adults; depth of bill through the angle .50 or more; mantle blue-grey 
or dark pearl-grey in adults. 

C. Larger, length 20.00-23.00, culmen 1.65-2.15, mantle darker grey 
than in the following species ; scapulars and secondaries broadly tipped with white; 
the outer primary with a large portion of black; the first, chiefly black with about 
2.00 of the terminal portion white; the second, with a small grey wedge basally; 
the third, fourth and fifth, black with white tips and increasing grey wedges; bill, 
bright yellow with an irregularly shaped spot of intense carmine near the tip of the 
lower mandible, and a dark spot or bar usually anterior to this on one or both mandi- 
bles. Female smaller and duller in color. Adult in ivinter: Like the above but head 
and neck streaked with greyish brown. Immature: Autumn birds of the second year 
show grey on the mantle ; upper tail coverts begin to show grey at their bases ; tail 
feathers more uniform umber brown than before, though the coverts are whiter ; under 
parts whitish brown without distinct spots ; bill yellower at the base. Young: Much 
darker brown throughout; no signs of grey on the secondaries nor the basal portion 
of the inner primaries, the paler inner webs being nearly dull brown; tail coverts 

"The single specimen in the Museum collection is one of two taken on the island of Kauai liy Mr. Francis Gay. Both specimens were 
taken late in the autumn months. While neither specimen agrees as closely with the descriptions at hand as would be desirable, I have 
seen fit to refer them to forrw&mu, believing them to be immature birds of that form. This is probably the undetermined species mentioned 
by Kittlitz. The following measurements are taken from the Musi-inn specimen No. y.v>5 : Length 25-5. culmen 2.00, tail 6.50, tarsus 2.85, 
toe 2.75; locality, Kauai, H. I.; date, 1899, autumn. There is also a specimen in the cabinet of St. Louis College, Honolulu, taken on Maui 
by Brother Matthias. 

ilMt-usglaucus, Briinn, from Laysan (Dr. Schaniiulainl): Hawaii (Heushaw. in Auk, Vol. XVII., p. 201). 

[262] 



LARIDsE. 7 

broadly and closely barred; tail feathers umber brown with dull white tips; bill 
brownish basally, black terminally; tarsi and toes brown; wing 15.0016.75, depth 
of bill at the angle .6o-.75, tarsus 2.00-2.60, middle toe and claw about 2.10. Hab. 
Western North America, wintering on the Pacific coast. Hawaiian Islands (accidental; 

one specimen in St. Louis College cabinet). 

2. I/, californ'icus LAWR. California Gull. 

CC. Smaller, length 18.00-20.00; mantle lighter grey; bill with a black 
band in adult. Adult: Bill greenish yellow, crossed near the end by a distinct black 
band; tip sometimes orange; feet pale yellow. Immature: Head slightly streaked; 
mantle grey with a few brown feathers about the bend of the wing; outer primary without 
indication of a white spot ; tail feathers white with the remains of the broad dark subter- 
minal band. Young: Above brownish dusky varied with dull buffish white; quills black- 
ish, the shorter ones greyish basally with white tips; bill blackish, paler at the base; 
wing 13.25-15.25, culmen 1.55-1.75, depth of bill at angle .5O-.65. Hab. Whole of North 
America. Hawaiian Islands (accidental ; one specimen in St. Louis College cabinet). 

3. lv. delawaren'sis OKD. Ring-billed Gull. 

aa. Head uniform black or dusky in summer adults; lower parts, rump ai d 
tail pure white ; mantle grey ; tarsus not longer than the middle toe and claw; 
wing more than 10.00 (culmen more than i.oo); bill reddish brown, with a darker 
subterminal band ; head and upper part of the neck plumbeous black with a conspicu- 
ous elongated white patch both above and below the eye ; lower parts white with a rosy 
blush in freshly killed birds ; the secondaries broadly edged with white ; primaries all 
tipped with white and all bluish grey next the shafts on the upper part, except the 
outermost which has the outer web black and some white on the inner web, with a 
black subterminal bar. Female similar. Adult winter: Like above with the head white, 
spotted and mottled with blackish on the upper surface. Immature-: Similar, but with 
a larger proportion of black in the primaries. Length 13.50, tail 4.25, tarsus 1.47, toe 
with claw 1.50, culmen 1.25, depth of bill at gonys .32, wing 11.25. Hab. Interior of 
North America from Iowa northward, breeding ; south to Middle America and Western 

South America to Peru. Maui. 4 

4. I,, franklin'ii Sw. & RICH. Franklin's Gull. 

GENUS STERNA LINNAEUS. 

a. Crown black in the breeding plumage (more or less varied with white in 
winter); wings rarely over 12.00; both webs of the outer tail feathers white at the base. 
b. Mantle, back of neck, rump, upper tail coverts and all the tail feathers 
except the outer ones (streamers) uniform sooty black; forehead and superciliary stripe 
white; sitpcrciliary stripe not reaching back over the eye ; under parts white with a 
grejnsh tinge on the abdomen; bill and feet black. Winter adult: Like above except 

'The above description and measurements are based on the single -winter specimen in the cabinet of St. Louis College, Oahu. Thf 
specimen was taken by Hrother Matthias on Maiji, and is the first record of the species being taken here. 

[263] 



8 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

with white flecked through the black of lores and crown. Young:* Brownish black 

. above, darkest on the upper wing coverts ; outer tail feathers almost as sooty black as 

middle ones, except towards their tips. Half -fledged birds: Feathers of the mantle 

are blackish with broad white tips. Length 15.00-17.00, wings 11.75-12.00, tail 7.00- 

7.50 (forked for more than 3.00), tarsus .95-1.00, toe .99-1.05, culmen 1.80-1.85, depth 

of bill .45-48, gonys .85. Hab. Tropical and juxta-tropical seas. Hawaiian Islands. 

PI. XVI., 9153, 9155. 5. S. fuligino'sa GMEL. Sooty Tern. 

bb. Back, rump, tail coverts, wing coverts, outer edge of secondaries and 

tail feathers, except the outer pair, dark sooty grey ; crown, lores and nape black; 

primaries chiefly smoky grey with the white wedges on the inner webs ; wings never 

less than 10.00; under parts and forehead, white; white superciliary stripe extending 

back over the eye. Winter adult: Similar to the above, but showing more white in 

the forehead. Young: Mantle with more brownish tinge of grey ; head mottled black 

and white; wing 10.75, culmen 1.60, tarsus .85, toe 1.15. Hab. Central Pacific Ocean. 

Laysan, etc. 

6. S. luna'ta (PK.VI.K). Grey-backed Tern. 

aa. Crown always white, sometimes with a brownish tinge ; nape, orbit and 
ear coverts black; mantle pale grey; in front of the eye a black triangular patch, the 
point of which does not reach to the base of the bill ; from the eyes a black band ex- 
tending about the back of the head; band broadened and more or less prolonged down 
the back of the neck ; neck and under parts white ; mantle and rump pearl grey ; shafts 
of the primaries white; outer primary with the outer w y eb blackish, streak next the 
shaft on the inner web blackish or greyish black. Winter adult:'" Similar, with less 
black about the head. Immature: Similar to the above, but .there is a brownish tinge 
to the back of the nape, the wing coverts are ash-grey, and a dark line runs along 
the carpal joint (Saunders). Young: Forehead and crown buffish white with a black 
streak which becomes confluent on the nape; feathers of the mantle and tail grey, 
barred with ash-brown and tipped with buff. Length about 13.25-13.50, wing 
9.50-10.00, tail 3.90-4.40, bill 1.25-1.40, tarsus .75-.8o, toe .95-1.00. Hab. Southern 
and Western Pacific Ocean, north through Polynesia generally, the Philippine Islands 
and China. Its range appears to depend in a great measure upon the existence of 
coral islands of a certain size, and is probably still more extensive (Saunders). Kauai; 

accidental. 

7. S. melanau'chen TEMM. 

s A September bird from I,aysan Island has the head and neck dark sooty brown; lighter sooty brown below, extending back to the 
abdomen and over the flanks ; belly white ; tail uniform blackish brown, both inner and outer webs tipped with dirty white ; upper tail 
coverts, rump, and greater wing coverts uniform with the tail ; lesser wing coverts darker, edged with fulvous or whitish ; edge of wing 
white, under wing coverts stone-grey. Length about 14.75, wing 10.25, tail 5- 2 5, tarsus .90, toe 1.05, bill 1,25, gonys .45, depth of bill .35. As 
may be seen by the above the bill pattci n is totally different from adult /////V///'/.*,/ as well as some slight variation in all of the other measure- 
im-nts. It was with difficulty that the specimen was made out fulii; ni>^ti. 

6 The two specimens in the Museum were taken at Maua. Kau;ii. by Mr. A. !'. Judd during the winter of 1^2-3. Both have the white 
foreheads assumed by this spct-it-s, while the remainder of the plumage is badly worn. This seems to be the first record of this species 
being taken in the Hawaiian Islands. The above measurements are taken from these specimens. The .S. />,/:.'// of I>ole has never been 
noted from Hawaii since his early reference to it, /'/<v. /.'">/. Soc. \ut. ///>/.. 1869. p. 306. /1,'i^tt is, in general appearance, somewhat similar 
to wrliimiHctini , though the former is much the larger (length ,20-. 21. wing 14.25, bill 2,05). 

[264] 



LARID^E. 9 

GENUS ANGUS LEACH. 

Plumage uniform sooty brown, becoming hoary on the forehead and top of the 
head (larger, wing 10.30-11.00); crown and forehead lavender-grey. Summer adult: 
Forehead nearly white at the base of bill, passing to lavender-grey, which becomes lav- 
ender on the hind neck ; primaries and tail feathers nearly black. Adult female: Simi- 
lar, but a trifle smaller and with a weaker bill. Young similar. Length 13.00-16.25, 
wing 10.3011.00, culmen 1.701.75, tarsus .90 .93, tail 5.90-6.25, toe 1.52-1.55, depth 
of beak .40. Hab. Tropical and juxta-tropical seas, wide-ranging. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XVI., 7903, 9157; XVII., 7900. 8. A. stol'idus 7 (LINN.). Noddy. 

GENUS MICROANOUS SAUNDERS. 

Middle toe and claw shorter than the exposed culmen; bill slender and long ; the 
distance from the angle of the gonys to the tip of the bill greater than to that of the 
gape ; lores deep black ; cheeks decided plumbeous ; nape, shoulders and tail, dull lav- 
ender grey ; lower parts dark sooty brown ; forehead and crown dull greyish white in- 
clined to a silvery white. Young: Similar but browner. Length about 13.00, wing 
8.75-9.00, tail 5.25, tarsus .80, middle toe 1.30, culmen 1.50-1.85 (Laysan specimen 
with darker lores), depth of bill .32. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XVII., 9164, 9165. 9. M. hawaiien'sis ROTHS. Hawaiian Tern, Noi'o. 

GENUS GYGIS (Ji'jis) WAGLER. 

Middle toe and claw shorter than the exposed culmen ; bill black, stout at the 
base and sharply pointed ; pure white except a narrow ring about the eye which is 
black; toes slender, middle toe abnormally long, webs deeply excised (stouter, tail more 
pointed); shafts usually brownish. Young like above. Length 12.00-13.00, depth 
of bill .40, wing 9.50, tail 4.25-5.00, tarsus 45-.5O, middle toe with claw i.io, culmen 
1.80. Hab. Central Pacific generally. Laysan, etc. 
PI. XVII., 7892. 10. G. alba kittlitz'i HART. White Tern. 

7 A specimen of stolidus in the Museum series (Coll. No. 1309), which varies somewhat from the typical form, is minutely described by 
Mr. Sealc in his "Field Notes on the Birds of Oahu, H. I.," Occasional Papers of (he B. P. Bishop Museum, Vol. I., No. 2, p. 35. 

[265] ' 



io BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP, 



Order TUBIN ARES. Tube-nosed Swimmers. 

Families. 
Nostrils opening from the anterior end of horizontal nasal tubes. 

a. Tubes widely separated by the intervening culmen ; wings narrow and long; 
birds of large dimensions ............................. (Page io.) Diomedeidae. 

aa. Both nasal tubes united; no intervening culmen; birds of medium or 
small size ......................................... (Page io.) Procellariidae. 



FAMILY DIOMEDEID^. ALBATROSSES. 
Genus. 

Sides of the lower mandible without sulcus (a longitudinal groove); tail short 
and rounded and not more than one-third the length of the wing; base of upper division 
of the bill wide and closely joined by tlie lateral division ...... (Page io. ) Diomed'ea. 

GENUS DIOMEDEA LINNVBUS. 

Culmen slightly concave; bill somewhat compressed. Lateral division of the 
bill narrower at the base than in the middle. (Sub-genus Pluebastria, Reich.) 

a. Abdomen sooty brown (wings never more than 21.00, smaller and bill more 
slender) ; dark sooty brown above ; bill dark brown ; under wing coverts and auxilia- 
ries sooty brown; sexes similar. Young: Similar to adult, but with sides of head 
white; upper tail coverts whitish. Length about 29.00-36.00 (33.00), wing 19.50, tail 
5.60, bill 4.00, tarsus 3.40, toe 4.90. Hub. North Pacific Ocean. Laysan, etc. 

PI. XVIII., 8742. ii. D. nigripes AND. Black-footed Albatross. 

aa. Abdomen white (bill rather slender); upper tail coverts white; under wing 

coverts blackish brown and white mixed; wings and back blackish brown; tail brown. 

Female similar. Young similar to adult. Length about 32.00, wing 19.00, tail 6.00, 

culmen 4.50, tarsus 3.60, toe 4.75. Hab. Gardner, Lisianski and Laysan. 

PI. XVIII., 8746. 12. D. immutab'ilis ROTHS. Gooney. 

FAMILY PROCEU/ARIIDJJ. PETRELS. 

Genera. 

Common characters as above (with thirteen or more secondaries); bill shorter 
than tarsus; tail feathers 12 to 14 in number. 

a. Of medium or small size (wing less than 15.00); -a'iiig more than j.oo; cul- 

uien more than half as long as the middle toe and claw. (Sub-family Fulmaritue.) 

[266] 



PROCELLARIIDsE. n 

b. Partition between the nostrils very thin, i. e., narrower than the width of 
a single nostril and within the nasal tube; depth of the bill at the shallowest part more 
than one-fourth the length of the lower mandible measured along the side; tarsus not 
compressed. , 

C. Wing more than twice the length of the tail; tail moderate, rounded 
(12 feathers); nasal tubes directed straight forward (claw of hallux small, .10); nail 
of lower mandible making up more than one-third the length of the mandible measured 
along the side. Plumage and size differing among species. . (Page u.) ^Strela'ta. 

CC. Wing less than tiuice the length of the tail; tail of 12 feathers long 
and cuneate, being graduated for a third of its length ; nail of the lower mandible making 
up less than a third of the length of the mandible measured along the side ; plumage dark; 
nasal tubes fleshy at ends and directed forward and upward. . (Page 12.) Bulwer'ia. 
bb. Partition between the nostrils thick, i. e., thicker than the outer edge of 
one of the nostrils; the partition scarcely, if any, shorter than the outer edges of the 
tubes ; tarsus compressed and with a ridge on the front edge ; space between the end 
of the nasal tubes and the base of the unguis (nail on the tip of upper mandible) more 
than the length of the latter (nostrils at least partially visible from above; wings 
less than 15.00). 

d. Nostrils elevated above the line of the culmen when viewed from 
the side ; nasal tubes elevated and inflated anteriorly ; under wing coverts dusky; 

breast white (Page 12.) Prio'finus. 

dd. Nostrils not noticeably elevated above the line of the culmen 

when viewed from the side; compressed anteriorly and narrower than at the base; 
edge of nostrils entirely visible from above (under wing coverts white or else lower 

parts dusky) (Page 13.) Puff'imiS. 

aa. Wing less than j.oo; tarsus not perceptibly longer than middle toe and 
claw; tail forked, or at least emarginate (Page 13.) Oceano'droma. 

GENUS J5JSTREI/ATA BONAPARTE. 

Exposed portion of inner web of primaries beneath dark ; bill wide at the gape; 
under parts mostly white ; crown and back of the head dark ; upper tail coverts uniform 
with the back ; tail dusky (outer feathers sometimes mottled with white) ; auxilliaries 
and under wing coverts mostly white inwardly, margined with dark. 

a. Larger and darker above; under tail coverts greyish dusky, very abruptly 
white beneath the surface ; upper parts, including hind neck and upper tail coverts, 
uniform brownish slate, darker on the wings and tail, and nearly black on the head; 
the feathers of the hind neck and upper tail coverts (the latter very abruptly) white 
beneath the surface; forehead, lores, cheeks and entire lower parts white; the sides 

and longer tail coverts sometimes barred with dusky; wing 11.80-12.00, tail 5.50-5.75 

[267] 



12 BIRDS OF Till-: HAWAIIAN CROUP. 

(graduated for about 2.40), culmen 1.22, tarsus 1.40, middle toe with claw 1.78. Hab. 
Middle Pacific from Hawaiian Islands to Galapagos (Ridgway). (No specimen in 

Museum.) 

13. IS,, phaeopyg'ia SALV. Dark-rumped Petrel. 

aa. Smaller and paler above; upper tail coverts ashy-grey, much less abruptly 
white beneath the surface (bill stouter); larger; under wing coverts mostly dark; feathers 
of the back distinctly edged with grey ; under parts white, except along the sides of 
fore breast. Female similar. Young: Smaller, with the under tail coverts as long as or 
longer than the tail feathers; upper back and tail coverts much more broadly edged 
with blue-grey ; whole aspect of the back lighter ; less blue-grey on the sides of fore breast. 
Length ii. 15-14.00(12. 75), wing 7. 40-8.60, tail 3. 20-4. 70, culmen 1.02-1.10, tarsus i.io- 
1.15, middle toe 1.40-1.50, inner toe 1.15-1.20. Hab. North Pacific Ocean. Laysan, etc. 
The following table will show the variation in measurements of young fledged birds 

and adults : 

Juvenile (June ry). Adult (September). 

Male. Female. Male. Female. 

Length 

Wing 

Tail 

Culmen 1.08 

Tarsus 1.15 

Middle toe 1.50 

Inner toe 1.20 

PI. XIX., 7907, 7908. 

GENUS BUI/WE'RIA BONAPARTE. 

Plumage entirely dusky sooty brown, darker on the upper parts (smaller); 
under tail coverts falling short of the end of the tail by more than .50; the greater 
wing coverts lighter brown on I heir edges, forming a quite well defined patch ; quills 
nearly black. Doiuny young: uniform dark soot}' brown. Length about 10.00, wing 
7.75, tail 4.50, culmen .90, tarsus 1.20. Hab. North Pacific Ocean. Laysan, Kauai, 
French Frigates, Hawaii (Mills). 
PI. XIX., 8768. 15. B. bul'weri (JAKD. & SEUIY). Bulwer's Petrel. 

GENUS PRIO'FINUS HOMBR. & JACQ. 

Tail long, cnneatc; under surface of body white; feathers of the head and upper 
plumage not edged with white; back, greater wing coverts and primaries entirely deep 
sooty brown with slaty brown beneath; feathers of the back edged with paler brown; 
sides of the neck greyish, mottled; under tail coverts dusky; auxiliaries dusky. 
Length 6*17.50 $19.00, wing 11.25-12.00, tail 6.00, culmen 1.50-1.55, tarsus 1.75, 
middle toe 2.15-2.25. Hab. North Pacific Ocean. Laysan, Kauai, etc. 

PI. XIX., 7928. 16. P. cunea'tus (SALVIN). Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Unu kane. 

[268] 



i. 5 o 


11.15 


12.50 


i4.oo(? 


) 


7-50 


7.40 


8.60 


-75 




3-70 


3-20 


4-45 


4.70 




i. 08 


I .02 


.... I.IO 


I.IO 




1-15 


I-I5 


1.15 


1-15 




1.50 


I.4O 


i .40 


1.50 




1.20 


1-15 


1.15 


1-15 






14. 


35. hypoleu'ca 


SALV. 


Bonin Petrel 



PROCELLARIID^. 13 

GENUS PUFF'INUS BRISSON. 

a. Lower parts uniform dusky black (wing never over 10.00); bill deep black; 
under wing coverts deep sooty black (darker); primaries and tail feathers black. 
Length about 15.00, wing 9.10, tail 3.75, culmen 2.25, tarsus 1.70, middle toe 2.00. 
Hab. Central Pacific Ocean. French Frigates, Laysan. 

PI. XIX., 7942. 17. P. nativita'tis STREETS. Christmas Island Shearwater, 

aa. Lower parts uniform white including auxiliaries and the central under tail 
coverts ; primaries dark beneath ; head, neck and back, including wings and tail, a 
very uniform black ; the edge of the feathers sometimes brownish ; flanks and outer 
under tail coverts blackish ; border of under wing coverts blackish. Length 14.60, wing 
9.25, culmen 1.30, tail 3.45, tarsus 1.80, toe 2.20, depth of bill at base .50. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XIX., 9307. 18. P. new'elli* HENSHAW. 

GKNUS OCEANO'DROMA REICHENBACH. 

Plumage soot}' black ; upper tail coverts more or less ivhite; base of all the tail 
feathers white except the centre pair (tail not deeply forked ; longer of the upper tail 
coverts tipped with black. Length abcmt 8.75, wing 5.90, tail 2.75, tarsus .82, middle 
toe .95, tibia 1.60, culmen .58. 9 Hab. Central Pacific Ocean. Kauai, French Frigates, 

Niihau(?). 

19. O. cryptoleucu'ra.'" Hawaiian Storm Petrel, Oeoe. 



Order STEGANOPODES.-Totipalmate Swimmers. 

Families. 

a. Tail cuneate (or rounded); web between the toes only slightly emarginate; 
no terminal hook to the bill. 11 

b. Middle tail feathers greatly elongated ; whole head feathered; bill con- 
ical, compressed and pointed; nostrils plainly visible. .(Page 14.) Phaethon'tidae. 

8 The description is taken from a specimen given to the Museum by Mr. Francis Gay, April 17, 1900 (B. P. B. M. No. 9307). During the 
interval between the writing and the publication of the description Mr. Henshaw has described a specimen taken by Mr. M. Newell (Brother 
Matthias), which seems to be the same as the Kauai specimen in the Museum. I therefore withdraw my manuscript name (with due apology 
to Mr. Gay) in favor of Mr. Uenshaw's published name. See Auk (1900), Vol. XVJI., p. 246. The locality of Mr. Henshaw's type is at fault. 
It doubtless is a misprint and should be Waihu Valley, Island of Maui, in the place of "Waihu Valley, Island of Mani." 

9 Female in the collection taken by Mr. A. K. Judd on Kauai during the winter of 1892-93, from which the above measurements 
were taken. 

10 Dr. Schauinsland, in his list of the birds of Laysan Island, adds O. fuliginnsa (Gm.) to the Hawaiian fauna. It can be easily dis- 
tinguished from O. cryptoleitcura by its larger size (length .10, wing 7.50) and having the upper tail coverts the same color as the back. 

11 Since the preparation of the above I have a list of the birds obtained on Laysan by Dr. Schauinsland, Director Stadt. Museum, Bremen, 
in which he gives Phalacrocorax plagicns. Pall. The species may be identified by the following: The upper mandible terminating in a dis- 
tinct hook ; (arsus longer than the hind toe and claw; with a small, scarcely noticeable gular sac ; bill slender with outline straight ; tail much 
longer than the wing, graduated and composed of twelve feathers ; culmen less than 2.50 ; feathers on the lower jaw projecting forward be. 
yond the anterior angle of the eye ; head and neck rich glossy silky v : olet black ; more purplish towards the head, becoming silky dark 
green on the lower parts. Breeding plumage: ^Teck and rump ornamented with very narrow white feathers, young: ruiform brownish 
dusky. Length 25.00-29.00, wing 9.50-10.60. Hab. Coast of Asia from Kamschatka to South China, from Alaska to South Mexico(?). (Hawaiian 
Islands, Laysan. Dr. Schauinsland.} 

[269] 



I4 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROT I'. 

bb. Middle tail feathers not greatly produced ; no external nostrils ; head 
partly feathered; bill thick through the base ................. (Page 14.) Sulidse. 

aa. Tail deeply forked; webs between the toes'deeply emarginate; tarsus very 
short, not longer than the hind toe and claw ; wing and tail exceedingly long. 

(Page 15.) Fregat'idae. 

FAMILY PHAETHONTID^. TROPIC BIRDS. 

Genus. 
Characters the same as for the family ............... (Page 14.) Pha'ethon. 



GENUS PHA'ETHON 
Plumage very close and satiny; general color white, usually tinged with pink 
or salmon color, with some black on the upper parts. 

a. Outer web of primaries white to the base ; elongated tail feathers carmine with 
black shafts ; a black comma-shaped patch on the side of the head, starting at the cor- 
ner of the mouth and prolonged backward behind the eye ; inner secondaries with a black 
band down the middle; flank feathers with a greyish black shaft stripe; feet black; at 
the base of toes yellow; bill red. Female similar. Very young have the whole back, head 
and wings white barred with black. Length 30.00-36.00, culmen 3.50-3.70, depth of 
bill .85-1.05, wing 12.50-13.00, tail without middle feathers 5.00, with middle feathers 
16.50-20.00, tarsus 1.15-1.20. Hal). Central Pacific and Indian Ocean. Laysan, etc. 

PI. XX., 8554, 9715. ao. P. rubricaud'a BODD. Red-tailed Tropic Bird. 

aa. Outer primaries with the onto- web black for the greater portion of its 
length; elongated tail feathers white or apricot color; black on outer web of first pri- 
mary falling short of the tip by an inch or more; basal two-thirds of both mandibles 
more or less blackish horn color; black on the side of the head much as in P. nibri- 
cauda; a black band along the wing formed by the black tips of the median wing 
coverts; innermost secondaries and scapulars with a very broad oblique black band; 
shaft of long tail-feather black above, white below. Length 23.00-28.00, wing 10.50- 
11.00, culmen 2.00, depth of bill .70, tarsus .75, middle toe 1.40, tail without plume 
4.50, tail with long feathers 16.50-18.00. Hab. Inter-tropical seas. Hawaiian Islands. 

PI. XX., 9895, 9896, 7599. 21. P. leptu'rus LACEP. & DAUN. White-tailed Tropic Bird. 

FAMILY SULID.3J. GANNKTS. 
Genus. 

Characters the same as for the family .................... (Page 14.) Stlla. 

(KNTS SIII/A BKISSON. 

Bill sub-cylindrical and tapering to a point, the extremity of which is slightly 
curved; whole of lower jaw togetlicr ay'/// the throat and cliin naked. Young: Upper 

parts unicolor. (Sub-genus Sula.} 

[270 



FREGATID^. 15 

a. Plumage of the Iicad and neck, as well as most all of tlie upper parts, 
pure white. 

b. (Greater part of tail feathers brownish black; naked skin of the face and 
throat blackish (blueish in life); neck and body entirely white; primaries, secondaries 
together with most of the tail, brownish black ; wing coverts white. Young: Head, neck 
and upper parts plain dark brown ; part of the neck streaked with white. Nestlings 
covered with white down. Length 25.00-29.00, wing 15.00-17.00, tail 8.25-10.00, 
culmen 3.60-4.25, depth of bill 1.40-1.60, tarsus 2.25, middle toe 3.25. Hab. Central 
Pacific Ocean. Laysan, French Frigates, Midway, etc. 

PI. XXI., 7933. 22. S. cy'anops Suxn. Blue-faced Booby, 

bb. Tail pure white; outer web of primary feathers hoary grey ; outer webs 
of secondaries and their coverts hoary ; smaller wing coverts white like the rest of the 
body; all more or less rich white and tinged with buff; feet reddish. Young: Above 
sooty brown, hind neck and lower parts light smoky grey (plumage extremely variable). 
Length 23.00-27.00, wing 15.00, tail 6.75-7.25, culmen 3.40-3.50, depth of bill 1.40. 
Hab. Inter-tropical seas. Niihau, Oahu, Lisianski, Laysan, French Frigates, etc. 

PL XXI., 7933. 23. S. pisca'tor (LINN.). Red-footed Booby. 

aa. Plumage of llic upper parts uniform deep sooty brown; head, neck and chest 
deep sooty brown like the back; lower parts white; tail and wings uniform with the 
back. Young: Nearly uniform sooty brown, paler beneath. Length 30.00 31.00, wing 
15.50, tail 7.50, tarsus 1.80, culmen 4.00 (4.25 ? ). Hab. Tropical seas. Niihau, 
Laysan, etc. 
PI. XXI., 8752. 24. S. sula LINN. Booby. 

FAMILY FREGATID^S. MAN-O'-WAR BIRD. 

Genus. 
Characters for the genus same as for the family (Page 15.) Frega'ta. 

GENUS FREGATA CUVIKR. 

Culmen more than 4.25; bill long and strongly hooked at the extremity, both 
mandibles being curved downward. Male: Breast and sides sooty black and culmen 
strong; feathers of the head, back and scapulars elongated, pointed, and a glossy oil- 
green with a bronze sheen (no white on the flanks); gular pouch scarlet orange 
(fading). Female: Breast and sides white; culmen longer (5.00); head and neck not 
so glossy ; back of the neck, lesser and median wing coverts brown with paler margins. 
Young, both sexes: Head and neck as well as upper half of chest white with an occa- 
sional rusty feather about head and sides ; upper breast dark sooty brown ; otherwise 
as in the female. Length 37.50-41.00, wing 23.00-25.00, tail 15.00, tarsus .65. Hab. 
Tropical and sub-tropical seas. Hawaiian Islands. 

35. F. a'quila LINN. Man-o'-war Bird, Iwa. 
[271] 



16 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROC!'. 



Order ANSERES. Lamellirostral Swimmers. 

Family. 
Only one family. Characters same as for the order. . . .(Page 16.) Anatidae. 

FAMILY ANATID^. DUCKS, GEESE, ETC. 

Genera. 
a. Tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw. 

b. No trace of teeth (lamellae) along the side of lower mandible; distinct 
tooth serrations along the npper edge (Sub-family Merginc?}; ctilmen shorter than 

tarsus; bill narrow and peculiar (Page J 7-) Mergan'ser. 

bb. A very distinct row of teeth along the side of the lower mandible, in 
addition to the series along the upper edge. ( Sub-family Anatina.} 

C. Hind toe narrowly lobed; neck shorter than the body ; a colored 
speculum on the wing. 

d. Bill not spatulate ( upper wing coverts not blue, more usually 
dark grey;) tail feathers rather narrow and pointed at the tips. 

e. Tail moderate with the centre pair of feathers not very 
long and tail graduated for less than one-third its total length ; bill rather broad and 

about the length of the head (Page 17.) Anas. 

ee. Tail long, with the central pair of feathers very long and 
pointed; culmen longer than the middle toe (speculum broader than the light band at 

the tip of the secondaries) (Page 18.) Da'fila. 

dd. Bill spatulate, /. <"., broad at the end and narrower at the base; 
upper wing coverts blue (no soft membrane on the sides of the bill towards the tip). 

(Page 18.) Spat'tlla. 

CC. Hind toe a 1 //// a broad membranous lobe (Sub-family F*liguUnai)\ 
feathers on the lores not reaching beyond posterior border of nostrils ; graduation of 
the tail much more than the length of the bill from the nostrils; distance from anterior 
end of nostrils to tip of bill much greater than the same place to loral feathers. 

(Page 18.) Charitonet'ta. 

aa. Tarsus equal to or longer than the middle toe without the claw; neck mod- 
erately long, no cere on the bill. (Sub-family Ansertnee.) 

f. Serrations on Hie culling edge oj upper mandible risible 

jrom the outside for the greater portion of the length of the tomium ; bill very stout, 
its depth through the base more than equal to the length of the culmen ; color of adult 

either white or bluish with black primaries (Page J 9-) Chen. 

[272] 



ANATID--K. 1 7 

ff. Serrations on the cutting edge of upper mandible not visi- 
ble from tlie outside, except at the base; tomitim almost straight; bill moderate but strong. 

g. IVeb of feet not deeply excised, i. e., cut away 

from back along both sides of the middle toe ( Page 19.) Bratlta. 

gg. Web of the feet deeply excised. 

( Page 19. ) Nesochen. 

GENUS MERGANSER BRISSON. 

Distance between nostrils and nearest feathers on the sides of upper mandible 
decidedly less than the depth of the upper mandible at base ; feathering on sides of 
base of upper mandible projecting far forward, forming a very decided though obtuse 
angle. Adult male: Head dull greenish black, the occiput with a long pointed crest; 
neck and sides of chest dull brownish buff or light cinnamon streaked with black ; other 
lower parts mainly white, usually tinged with cream color (Ridgway). Female: Head 
and neck reddish brown, darkest on the crown ; back scapulars and small wing coverts 
umber brown ; edge of the feathers paler ; a white patch on the wing ; under parts white. 
Length 20.00-25.00, wing 8.60-9.00, culmen about 2.50, tarsus 1.80-1.90, middle toe 2.40. 
Hah. Northern portion of northern hemisphere, breeds northward. Hawaii, 12 Oahu. 

26. M. serra'tor (LINN*.). Red-breasted Merganser. 

GENUS A'NAS LINN^JUS. 

Culmen shorter than the middle toe; central tail feathers but slightly curled, 
some specimens not at all. 

a. No white ring around tlie eye;' 1 - speculum greenish blue; under tail coverts 
in fully fledged male(?) more or less blackish, edged and mixed with chestnut; rump 
blackish, with varying amount of chestnut; abdomen with pale greyish chestnut 
ground streaked and spotted with blackish ; neck and breast of the same chestnut as 
the under tail coverts, with oval blackish centres to the feathers of the chest, which 
become mere streaks on the neck, most numerous on the chin (one specimen with less 
black on the chin); lesser wing coverts dark grey, with some paler edges; under wing 
coverts white; feet orange; speculum edged with a band of black followed by a white 
one (variable in width in front), behind by a black band followed by a white one 
equal to or wider than the black. Female similar. Length $ about 18.50 (Scale), 
wing 9.10-9.50, tail 3.50, culmen 1.80, tarsus 1.35, middle toe 2.10, depth of bill 
.68-. 70; ? wing 8.50, tail 3.60, bill i. 80, tarsus 1.38, toe 2.00. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XXII., 9168, 9424. 27. A. wyvillia'na Sci.. Hawaiian Duck, Koloa maoli. 

aa. Ring of while feather* about the eye; centre pair of tail feathers but little 
curled at the tips. Male: General color of plumage rufescent; head and nape with a 

'-' Mr. Hcilshaw reports tin- taking c.f two spci -imcns near Hilo. November 1*1)9. See Auk. Vol. XVIII.. p. >>'-,. \ am also informed that 
H has been taken on Oahn. 

IJ I)r. Schauitisland's list adds .1. />".V</A. I,inn.. from Laysan. It is distinguished from otlur Hawaiian ducks by having no white rinj* 
about the eye, and with the speculum greenish blue. Length 24.1x1. It is hardly possible hat the Doctor has confused this with the much 
smaller form which is indigenous to I,aysan. 

MFMOIBS B. 1'. H. Mrsuru, Vol.. I., No. 3. 2. L 2 73] 



is AVAYAS- OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

greenish lustre, especially on the nape; throat mixed \vith a few white feathers; back, 
fore neck, breast and flanks with dark rnfescent markings, l-'emale: Similar, but differs 
in having more white on the chin; the upper throat much duller; some of the upper 
and under tail coverts paler rnfescent with dusky marks or bands; speculum blackish 
in female. Length ^16.00-16.50, wing 7.10-8.00, tail 3.30-3.50, tarsus 1.25-1.55, 
cnlmen 1.38-1.50, toe 1.80-2.00. Hah. Laysan Island. 

PI. XXII., 8745. 28. A. laysanen'sis 1 ' ROTHS. I,aysan Teal. 

GBNXJS SPATULA HOIK. 

Longer scapulars with a white band along the centre part; abdomen deep chest- 
nut; head and upper portion of the neck deep glossy green; lower neck, breast and 
outer scapulars white; rump and upper tail coverts dark glossy green with pale edges; 
upper icing <wv7'/.v and outer edge of I lie ln*o longest scapulars pale blue. Female: 
General color of upper parts brown, each feather edged with a broad reddish margin; 
throat reddish and unspotted. Young similar to adult female. Length 17.00-21.00, 
wing 9.00-10.00, culmen 2.60-2.90, width of bill at end 1.10-1.20, at base .60, tarsus 
1.40-1.50. Hah. Northern hemisphere. Hawaiian Islands. (No specimen in Museum.) 

29. S. clypea'ta (LINN.). Shoveller. 

OK NTS DAFTI,A STKIMIKNS. 

Tail feathers not barred across; centre tail feathers blackish, lateral ones grey 
with pale whitish margins; licad dark, hair broa'/i; a narrow band at the tip of the 
last row of wing coverts cinnamon (larger, culmen 1.85-2.25); anterior part of the 
sides of neck, breast and abdomen greyish white; the breast with very narrow, brown, 
zigzag bars; head and upper neck hair brown, with a faint gloss on the sides of the 
occiput. Male: Length 26.50-30.00, wing 11.10, tail 7.50-9.50, culmen 2.08, tarsus 
1.80. Female: Smaller; tail feathers blackish, barred irregularly across with whitish 
or ochraceons ; above greyish dusky varied with irregular bars of yellowish white or 
pale ochraceons, each feather, except on throat, streaked with blackish. Male in first 
breeding plumage has pale margin to the wing coverts, and most of the feathers of the 
rump are broadly barred. Young male similar to adult female, llah. Northern hemi- 
sphere southward. Hawaiian Islands. 

30. D. acu'ta LINN. Pintail, Koloa mapu. 

C.KNTS CHARITONET TA STKJNKC.KK. 

Head and upper half of the neck rich metallic green with a purplish gloss on the 
crown; with a patch of white extending from behind the eye across the occiput; lower 
neck, lower parts, secondaries and scapulars white; back and upper parts black. 
Female: Head and neck brown with faint gloss, a white patch on cheeks and ear 
coverts; upper parts blackish brown, darkest on rump; under parts white tinged more 

''Dr. Schaninshind s list i;ivrs A-///"" > ' i . u . I. inn., (Jn,-n/iinlnhi liiiia. (Uiui;iilii alhi-u/u. I, inn.. ;nid .!/<//>! <i i!>n,->imnti {Gmcl.}. from 
I.:i \ -an Island. Tlu *< nit i ' lu i - ;M t intrn stinj; additions to Ihr Hawaiian birds, and an of vahif in I lit- study of distrihntioii. 

[274] 



A NATIONS. 19 

or less with brownish grey. Length about 12.50, wing 6.25, tail 2,45, culmen 1.15, 
tarsus 1. 12, toe 2.00, depth of bill .60. Hah. North America. Maui.' 5 

31. C. albe'ola (LINN.). Buffle-head, 

GENUS CHEN (Ken) BOIE. 

Adult re//// tl/c whole head and at least part of the neck white as well as the re- 
mainder <>/ the plumage, except the primaries and their coverts; bill a deep purplish 
(in life) with a white nail; primaries black. Young: Head, neck and upper parts pale 
greyish, the feathers of the latter with whitish edges, and striped medianally with 
darker, especially wing coverts and tertiaries ; rump, tail coverts, tail and lower parts 
plain white. Length 23.00-28.00, wing 14.50-17.00 (16.36), culmen 2.55-2.70, tarsus 
2.80-3.25 (3.01), middle toe 2.00-2.50 (2.34). Hab. Western America, breeding in 
Alaska, migrating south. Hawaiian Islands. (No specimen in the Museum.) 

32. C. hyperbofe'us"' (P.u.i,.). I^esser Snow Goose. 

GENUS BRANTA SCOPOU. 

Bill and feet entirely black at all ages; tail coverts white; tail and quills uni- 
form black; upper parts brownish, the feathers with lighter tips. 

a. Pfcad partly while, a white triangular patch on the cheek usually meeting 
on the throat; lower parts deep brownish or brownish grey (often not much paler 
than the upper parts) abruptly defined against the white of anal region; (smaller size, 
<('/// less ///<ut 16.00, cuhnen less tlian f.2j;} tail feathers usually 14 to 16 in number. 
Length 23.00-25.00, wing 13.60-14.00, culmen .95-1.15, tarsus 2.40-2.75. Hab. Pacific 
coast of North America, breeding at Norton Sound, south in winter. Hawaiian Islands.' 7 

33. B. canaden'sis minima RIDGW. Cackling Goose. 

aa. Head entirely black; middle of the neck encircled bv a broad white collar, 
interrupted only behind; no chestnut on the breast; upper tail coverts very long; 
upper parts nearly uniform dark sooty brown; lower parts dark sooty slate, not dis- 
tinctly if at all contrasted with black of chest, but abruptly defined against white 
of anal region. Young: Similar to adult but collar indistinct or obsolete; the larger 
wing coverts broadly tipped with white. Length 22.00-29.00, wing 12.70-13.50, cul- 
men 1.20-1.35, tarsus 2.20-2.50. Hab. Western Arctic America, south in winter along 

the western Pacific coast. Maui. 1 " 

34. B. nigricans (LAWK.). Black Brant. 

OK NTS NES'OCHEN SAI.VAD. 

Head and lliroal black, which color extends a little bchra' the eve and down the 
neck ; side of neck tawny buff, becoming lighter towards the lower parts ; upper sur- 

" Tin.- specimen from which the above is taken is one in tile St. I.ouis College cabinet. Ilrolhcr Alfred, the curator, informs me it was 
taken on Maui liy llrother Matthias [luring his sojourn there. 

"Hon. Walter Rothschild (through 1'alnier) /;/ till.: also adds AltSfl albifrem inmihrli (llartl.) from Hawaii. 

'< Hon. Walter Kothschild. /;/ ////. Kanai. 

18 Specimen in St I ouis College cabinet taken on Mani by lirother Matthias; also Hon. Waller Roth-child, in lilt. 

[ 2 75] 



2 o /.VAVAV OF TIH-: HAWAIIAN (,ROIT. 

face dull dark umber, the feathers edged or barred with whitish ; rump dusky black; 
abdomen and under tail coverts white. Female: Black extends farther down on the 
side of the head and neck; bill and feet black. Length about 23.0x3, wing 15.00, bill 
1.75, tarsus 3.00, toe 3.25, tail 6.75. Hah. Hawaii. 

35. N. sandvicen'sis (Vi<;.). Hawaiian Goose, Nene. 



Order HERODIONES.-Herons, Ibises, Etc. 

Families. 

a. Bill much curved, long and with nasal groove, linear and produced almost to 
the tip of the bill. (Sub-order fbides.} Bill almost cylindrical, slender and narrower 
than deep towards the tip, and curved downward for nearly the whole length. 

(Page 20.) Ibid'idae. 

aa. Bill practically straight; sides of upper mandible without any groove ; hind 
toe inserted on a level with the anterior ones ; the middle toe with its claw pectinate 
(toothed) on the inner edge (Sub-order Hcrodii)', bill lance-shaped or compressed 
and pointed (Page 21.) Arde'idae. 

FAMILY IBID ID^. IBISES. 
Genus. 

Anterior aspect of the tarsus plated ; head never more than moderately crested 
and not very noticeable; chin, lores and base of cheeks bare, but the latter feathered to 
beyond the anterior line of the eye; claw of the middle toe nearly straight. Head of 
the adult wholly feathered except lores (Page 20.) Pleg'adis. 

GEM s PIvEG ADIS KAII- 

Adult with head, neck and lower portions uniformly chestnut; upper parts 
metallic green bronze and purple, most brilliant on upper surface of wings and tail; 
fores fake-red in fife, turning brown in skin, or somewhat reddish brown; feathers sur- 
rounding I lie hasc of the hill ichite. Young: With lower parts greyish brown. Length 
about 19.00-26.00, wing 9.30-10.80, culmen 3.75-6.00, tarsus 3.00-4.40, middle toe 
2.10-2.85. Hah. Tropical America in general, west coast from Lower California to 
Oregon. Hawaiian Islands. 1 ' (No specimen in Museum.) 

36. P. guarauna (I, INN.). White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

'' Professor Brilliant informs me that >p< -t inu n found mi Molokai. which the natives said was a 'malihini' or stranger, and portions of 

which were placed in the collection of the society " (Dole. Hawaiian Annual, iSjy. p. 41} was one taken by himself from a flock of live 

fluriiifc September or October, i^>5 The 'ftaKincnts ' were subsequently sent to Professor Itaird at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
1). C.. and have since been lost tiack of. Professor Krignatn has since satisfied himself that the specimen was /'ii-inidi*. This record, taken 
in connection with the immature, bird collected by Mr. Knudsen on Kauai in 1X72, srems t<> confirm Mr. Kidj^way's belief that /'. ami ran tut is 
an accidental visitor to the islands from the west coast of America. 

[276] 



ARDEID.E. 21 



FAMILY ARDE'ID^. HERONS. 
Genera, 

With the tail composed of 12 feathers; claws rather short and strongly curved 
(tail feathers stiffer than the coverts); (Sub-family Ardei'nce;) bill only moderate, 
never equal to the length of the middle toe and tarsus combined; bill without distinct 
serrations on the upper mandible; upper mandible with notch near the tip. 

a. Culmen longer than the tarsus, the latter longer than the middle toe. 

(Page 21.) Demiegret'ta. 

aa. Cnlmen shorter than middle toe and abotit equal to tarsus; plumage of young 
and old very different; bill thick, i.e., culmen rarely more than four times as long as 
the depth of bill at base ............................. (Page 21.) Nycti'corax. 

GENTS DEMIEGRETTA BI.VTH. 

General color above and below deep blackest slate, the feathers almost black; 
feathers of the upper breast elongated like those of the middle back, both paler slaty grey; 
abdomen and vent feathers tinged with ashy white ; a pure white streak down the centre 
of the throat. Female similar. Young: Paler and more sooty brown. White form: 
Exactly similar to the grey form, only white. Hab. Malay Peninsular and islands to 
Australia, Islands of the Pacific, Fiji, Samoa, etc., north to bay of Corea. Hawaiian 

Islands(?). 20 

37. D. sacra (GMEI..). Sacred Heron. 

GENTS NYCTI'CORAX STEPHENS. 

Prevailing color, bluish grev in adult, bnnvnisli and striped longitudinally with 
white in the voi/ng; gonys nearly straight; culmen and tarsus about equal (Sub-genus 
Nycticorax)\ base of forehead and eyebrow white; no chestnut on the back and tail; no 
white on the back ; under tail coverts white, as well as the under sides of the body, with a 
delicate shade of grey, especially on the neck and chest ; back and crown glossy black 
green; wings dove color; head with two or three long slender white plumes, in the 
breeding plumage. Female: Similar to adult male both summer and winter. Young: 
Light brown above, tinged with cinnamon, most marked on the wing quills; each 
feather of the body with a white tear-shaped shaft stripe; quills with small white 
tips; sides of head and neck and entire lower parts striped white and greyish brown; 
throat whitish. Length 23.00-26.00 (25.00), wing 11.60-12.50, tail 4.10-4.75, culmen 
2.70-3.35, tarsus 2.72-3.05, middle toe 3.10-3.45, deptli of beak .S5-.95. Hab. Wide- 

20 The reference which I'rcsideiit Dole makes ( Hawaiian Annual, i v , p. ,s-') lo this species is the only ncconnl of its ever bein^ seen in 
the Islands. Since he speaks of it as common all over the Jinnip." and "when in lull plumage the lotiK feathers of the cresl and back are 
blackish purple, and from the back of tin head three IOUK feathers of Ihe purest white hanjt." etc., it is <|uite probable that the bird de- 
^nil.ed is the common .\nkii. 

[277] 



22 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP, 

ranging form in suitable localities, North America southwards. Hawaiian Islands, 
The following table of measurements are from specimens in the Museum : 

Males. Females. 

Adult. Adult. Juvenile. Adult. Adult. Juvenile. 

Wing 12.50 12. 10 ii. 60 12.50 12. oo 11.50 

Tail 4.60 4.70 4.50 4.10 4.75 4.50 

Culmen 3.25 3.30 3.10 3.35 3.00 2.70 

Tarsus 2.95 3.05 2.85 .... 3.05 3.00 2.72 

Middle toe 3.45 3.45 3.20 3.40 3.40 

Depth of bill .85 .95 .85 .... .80 .95 .82 

38. N. nycticorax nsevius 2 ' (BODD.). Black-crowned Night Heron, Auku kohili. 
PI. XXIII., 5584, 9170. 



Order PALUDICOL^E.-Rails, Coots, Etc. 

Family, 

First primary longer than the seventh; wings less than 10 inches (except in 
Porphyrio); .toes very long and slender, with "scallops" along the side in J-'nliai; tail 
usually quite rudimentary . ...................... (Page 22.) RallidcC. 



FAMILY RALI/ID^B. RAILS, GALLINULKS AND COOTS. 

Genera. 

a. No enlarged shield-like process extending over the front part of the head; 
(Sub-family Ralliiue;) middle toe and claw exceeding the length of the tarsus; sec- 
ondaries practically equal to the primaries in length, or falling short of them by less 
than the length of the hind toe and claw. 

b. Tail feathers very soft and entirely hidden at the ends by the coverts 

(Hawaii). .(Page 23.) Pen'nula. 

bb. Tail feathers not decomposed but ordinary and evident with no white 

secondary quills, the inner toe without the claw longer than the culmen; plumage 

variegated; wings feebly developed and not as long as the tarsus and toes combined. 

(Page 23.) Porsanula. 
aa. An enlarged frontal shield. 

C. Toes without lobes or flaps. ( Sub-family Gnllinitliinc^ 

d. Nostrils oval, in a distinct nasal depression; frontal shield 

rounded; wings nearly three times the length of the tarsus. . (Page 23.) Gallin'ula. 
dd. Nostrils rounded; no nasal depression; plumage blue (wing 

coverts ordinary); primaries much longer than secondaries. . (Page 24.) Porphy'rio. 

Hawaiian .\nltn -cc ins ni,l to differ from the Amcliemi Mib Bpeciei b] am eon si ant character 

[278] 



23 

CC. Toes provided with conspicuous lateral lobes or flaps ; primaries 
about equal to secondaries. (Sub-family Fnlidna:.) (Page 24.) Ful'ica. 

GENUS PENNUI,A DOLE. 

General color above dark ruddy brown with darker centres to the feathers, pro- 
ducing a somewhat mottled appearance ; wing coverts like the back and very much 
elongated ; quills blackish with rusty brown outer edges ; tail feathers blackish, com- 
pletely hidden by the feathers of the rump; head more uniform brown with a ruddy 
tinge ; sides of the face like the top of the head ; throat and under surface of the body 
dark vinaceous ruddy, a trifle paler shade on the throat. (Measurements from the 
two mounted specimens in the Museum from Mills collection.) Length about 5.50, 
wing 2.70 do., tail .75 do., tarsus i.oo, 108, toe (?) .85, culmen -75-.76, depth of bill 
.30 do. 22 Hab. The uplands of Hawaii ; rare or extinct. 

39. P. ecauda'ta-' KINO. Sandwich Rail, Moho. 

GENTS POR2AN'UI,A FROIIAWK. 

Upper parts generally sandy brown with black centres to the feathers ; some- 
times white in the centre of the back or rump; wing coverts uniform with the back 
except for the black streaks; sides of the head, throat and breast dark ashy grey; flanks 
and under tail coverts sandy brown, like back, with occasional white spots ; under wing 
coverts sandy buff; wing and tail feathers brown with sandy margins. Length about 
6.00, wing 2.18-2.25, tail i.oo-i.io, culmen .65-.8o, middle toe 1.10-1.30. Hab. Laysau. 
PI. XXIV., 7911, 7912. 40. P. palm'eri FKOH. I^aysan Rail. 

GENUS GAI^INUIfA BRISSON. 

Uniform plumbeous, sides of body streaked with white; base of lower mandible 
red vermilion like shield ; bill tipped with greenish yellow. Male: General color of 
the back dark olive brown reflecting ruddy brown; head and neck blackish fading into 
slate-grey on the upper neck and under parts. Winter adult: Similar, but frontal shield 
smaller. Young: Sooty black more or less mixed with white below. Adults in the 

-- Mr. Wilson, doubtless in error, gives total length about 13.00, wing 6.00, tarsus 3.2.=;. middle toe with cl.iw just under 3.00, cuhneii .75. 

2 3 Mr. Scott If. Wilson, in discussing the genus Pennulu (Aves Hawaiiensis. p. I7I-I7X) finds grounds for the making of three species two 
s;n i ies in addition to the typical /'. i-candala. His description of I 1 . \</;/</r7<v-y/.w'.v (Gmel.) is based on the drawing executed by Mr. W. W. Mllis 
in 1779. to which Mr. Wilson appends Latham's description which is as follows : "Size small ; bill dusky ash color ; L;enci al color of the plum- 
age pale fei rug-nous ; the feathers on the upper parts darkest in the middle : tail short, hid by the upper coverts ; legs dusky flesh color. 
Inhabits .Sic/i/../; // /^l:".. Was also found on the island of Tatina; but the plumage is darker on the upper parts and the bill am! legs yellow- 
ish. Sir Joseph Hanks." The Kllis drawing is only the crudest suggestion of the general form of a /);/;////<;. while Latham's description i> 
very meagre; and since there seems not to be a single example in any museum, and "no example of the Sandwich Rail has been met \vilh 
within hnmaii memor\ .' it is quite possible that the drawings and description could have emanated from, and therefore should be referred t". 
the well known extinct and exceedingly rare a an data of King ( I7VO. 1',-nnnla ;<'//.wm/ is based "on the so-called 'Sandwich Rail' in the l,eiden 
Mn^'-nin " The original description by Dr. (). l-'insch is here appended. "Schlegel's type in the I,eiden Museum : 1'ppcr pans dark ruddy 
brown with blackish centres to the feathers of the back and wings, producing on these parts well marked longitudinal stripes : head and 
neck somewhat lighlrr and uniform ruddv brown like the sides of the head and neck ; under parts uniform rusty brown shading into vinous 
red. a little darker on the flanks; middle of chin somewhat lighter; anal region and lower tail coverts dark vinous red forming a well 
marked darker patch ; primaries blackish very narrowly margined with brown on the outer webs ; broad and lax upper tail coverts with 
v; rv narrow light rusty brown apical margins, showing as lighter nndni,i;ions ; bill and feet light horny brown (as far as can be judged 
greenish in life). .Vi and Imhilal unknown." Measurements (/. , . iMiisch) : Total length 150 mm., wing 73 mm., culmeil K.I mm., tarsus 
u mm., tibia 7 mm., middle toe and claw ;s mm. 

[2/9] 



2 4 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

autumn and winter have white on the abdomen and under wing coverts. Length about 
14.00, wing 6.75, tail 1.50, culmen and shield 2.00, tarsus 2.25-2.50, toe 3.00, hind toe 

1.25. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XXIV., 9745. 41. G. sandvicen'sis STREETS. Hawaiian Gallinule, Alae. 

GEMS PORPHYRIO BRISSON. 

Thighs purplish brown ; inner secondaries black (with no distinct patch of blue 
on the throat); under surface uniform bluish except the under tail coverts which are 
white ; general color of back black ; primaries black ; frontal plate, bill, legs and feet 
red. Length 17.25, wing 14.50, tail 4.00, culmen and shield 2.70, tarsus 3.35, toe 4.00. 
Hab. Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea. Oahu ; introduced. 

42. P. melano'tus X i:\vr. Alae awi. 

GENTS FUT/ICA Lixxvers. 

General color above and below slaty grey; under tail coverts black, the lateral ones 
white with the inner half of the feather black ; outer secondaries broadly tipped with 
white, one specimen with under parts suffused with whitish, and flank stripes wanting in 
all the specimens in the collection; quills blackish brown; back browner. Length 
16.25, T 5-6o, 16.25; wing 7.00, do., do.; tail 2.10, 2.20, 2.30; culmen including shield 
2.25, 2.05, 2.10; tarsus 2.25, 2.15, 2.20; toe 3.25, do., do. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XXIV., 9432. 43. F. alai PEALE. Hawaiian Coot,- 4 Alae keokeo. 



Order LJMICOIw.-Shore Birds. 

Families. 

a. Naked portion of the thigh much more than the length of the middle toe; 
tarsus more than twice the length of the middle toe; nasal groove not extending be- 
yond half the length of culmen (Page 26.) Recurviros'tridae. 

aa. Naked portiofi of thigh less than the length of middle toe; tarsus less than 
twice the length of the middle toe. 

b. Toes with distinctly scalloped web, and with a serration along the edge 

of the planta-tarsi as in the grebes (Page 25.) Phalaropo'didse. 

bb. Toes without scalloped webs and no serrated edge to the planta-tarsi; 
nasal groove extending along the greater part of the upper mandible. 

C. Front of tarsus covered with a continuous row of transverse scutulae. 
d. Bill slender; exposed culmen longer than middle toe without 
the claw ; end of bill with a more or less rounded or sometimes expanded tip. 

(Page 26. ) Scolopac'idae. 

2 A partial alliino (MUM.-UIII No. s;i^) was collected on Mani hy Mr. <'.. I'. Wilder. November 4. i^ri. 

[280] 



PHALAROPODID. /:'. 2 5 

dd. Bill stout and pointed, cnlmen arched toward the tip, very 
pointed and wedge-shaped at the tip; or, exposed culmen equal to or shorter than the 

middle toe without the claw (Page 29.) Aphriz'idae. 

CC. Front of tarsus covered with small irregular or hexagonal scales 
in front and behind, and \vith the dentrum or end of the upper mandible enlarged; bill 
shorter than the tarsus (Page 28.) Charadi'idae. 

FAMILY PHAI,AROPO DID^. PHALAROPES. 

Genera. 

a. Bill slender, almost cylindrical, not widening towards the end; nostrils sepa- 
rated from the loral feathers by a space equal to the depth of the upper mandible at 
the base (Page 25.) PhalaropUS. 

aa. Bill broad, flattened, somewhat widened toward the end; nostrils somewhat 
separated from the loral feathers by a space less than the depth of the upper mandible 
at the base (Page 25.) Crymo'philus. 

GENUS PHAI,AR'OPTJS -BRISSON. 

Web between middle and outer toes extending to or beyond the second joint of 
the latter; lateral membrane of all the toes distinctly scalloped. (Sub-genus Pliala- 
ropns.) Adult female in summer: Above dark plumbeous, the back striped with 
ochreous buff; wings dusk}-, the greater coverts broadly tipped with white; lower parts 
white; chest and sides of neck rufous. Adult male in summer : Similar to the female, 
but colors duller, the rufous confined to the sides of the neck and less distinct ; the 
chest chiefly mixed with white or greyish. Winter plumage : Forehead, supercilliary 
stripe, sides of head and neck with lower parts generally pure white; top of head grey- 
ish ; upper parts chiefly greyish ; under parts for the most part white. Length 7.00, wing 
4.10, tail 1.90, culmen .88, toe .90. Hab. Arctic regions; southward in winter. Kauai. 

44. P. loba'tus 25 (LINN.). Northern Phalerope. 

GENUS CRYMO PHII/US VIEILLOT. 

Summer female : Fore part of head deep plumbeous black; hind neck plain 
cinnamon and plumbeous; sides of head white; sides of neck and entire under parts 
vinous chestnut ; general color of back sandy buff, streaked with black centres to the 
feathers ; lesser wing coverts slaty blue with whitish edgings. Male : Similar to the 
female, but less brightly colored ; the head sandy brown streaked with blackish like 
the back ; a good deal of white on the under surface of the body and throat. Male in 
winter: Bluish grey above; wings more dusky than in summer, but still retain the 
white markings ; head, neck and lower parts pure white, with the occiput and space 
about the eye dark plumbeous. Young : Top of head, hind neck, back and scapulars 

The only specimen in the Museum was one shot by Mr A. I'. Judd on Kauai during the winter of 1892-93. This seems to lie the firs( 
record of P. luhtifu-; appearing in Hawaii 

[28l] 



26 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

dull black, the feathers edged with ochraceous; wing coverts, rump and upper tail 
coverts plumbeous. Length about 7.75, wing 5.00, tail 2.10, tarsus .80, culrnen .80, 
toe .82. Hab. Northern portions of northern hemisphere. Hawaii, Maui. 20 

45. Crymo'philus fuleca'rius (LINN.). Red Phalarope. 

FAMILY RECURVIROS TRID^. STILTS AND AVOCETS. 

Genus. 

With the hind toe absent ; toes with scarcely any web, and divided to the base; 
bill nearly straight .................................. (Page 26.) Himan'tOptlS. 

GENUS HIMAN'TOPUS BRISSON. 

Under surface of the body white; head and neck behind black, with no complete 
white collar on the latter; forehead white; ear coverts and sides of face black; back of 
neck and upper parts, including wings, black with a deep gloss; tail light grey tipped 
with black. Length about 15.00, wing 8.75-9.50, tail 3.25-3.30, culmen 2.80-3.10, 
tarsus 4.75, middle toe 1.80. I fab. Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XXV., 9429. 46. H. knud'seni STKJN. Hawaiian Stilt, Kukuluaeo. 



FAMILY SCOLOPAC ID^B. SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, ETC. 

Genera. 

a. Back of tarsus with continuous row of transverse scutulse ( /'. e., square plates >; 
bill straight. Ears situated decidedly posterior to the eye (not underneath it' 7 ); plum- 
age varying with the seasons. (Sub-family Tringinee,) 
b. Hind toe present. 

C. No web between the anterior toes ; bill but slightly if at all widened 
at the tip ; exposed culmen longer than the middle toe and claw .... (Page 27.) Trill ga. 

CC. Middle toe united to one or both of the lateral toes by a membrane; 
tail not more than half as long as the wing. 

d. Tail longer than the exposed culmen; wing more than 4.50; 
axillaries uniform greyish or dusky ; no web between the middle and inner toe. 

(Page 27.) Heteracti'tis. 

dd. Tail shorter than the exposed culmen; wing more than 7.00; 
terminal portion of both mandibles smooth and hard .......... (Page 27.) Limo'sa. 

bb. Hind toe absent ........................... (Page 28. ) Cal'idris. 

aa. Back of tarsus covered with hexagonal scales. (Sub-family Niniiiiia'. ) 

(Page 28.) Nume'nius. 

pecimen in tint- winter plumage i* in the collection made by Ill-other Matthias, on Muni. which is now in llu- St. I.ouis College 
L abiii<-L Honolulu, h'toni this specimen the above description and measurements are taken. (See a No Hctishaw. Auk, XVII., p. 20;,.) Pr 
-. hatlltialand lists this species from I.avxjin Island, 

-"Mi. Hetishaw udds G'til/tini^" d'itdltii (Ord.j, from Hawaii. 

[282] 



SCOLOPACID& 27 

GKXUS TRINGA LINNAEUS. 

Middle tail feathers longer and more pointed than the rest; tarsus longer 
than the middle toe and claw; exposed culmen not longer than the tarsus, and less 
than half as long as the tail (Sub-genus Acto dramas) ; wing more than 4.50; rump and 
tail coverts plain brownish black ; shaft of all the quills white for a portion of its 
length. Adult male: General color above sandy rufous streaked with black down the 
centre of the feathers ; lesser wing coverts dull brown ; primary coverts blackish; crown 
of head bright sandy rufous streaked with black ; lores and a distinct eyebrow white 
with a narrower streak of blackish ; under surface of body white ; the chin unspotted; 
the throat and fore neck tinged with rufous and minutely spotted. Female similar. 
Winter: Much browner than the summer plumage without the rufous except on the 
head Young: With more rufous on the upper parts than the old birds. Length 7.75, 
wing 5.10, tail 2.10, culmen .90, tarsus 1.20, middle toe i.io. Ha/). Far north, breed- 
ing in Alaska, migrating south. Oahu, js Maui, Lay sail. 

47. T. acumina'ta' 1 (Housi. ). Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

GBNUS HETERACTITIS STKJNKC.KK. 

General color ah;n<e uniform ash-greyish with slightly indicated lighter margins; 
nasal grooves more than half as long as the exposed culmen ; lower back, rump and 
upper tail coverts purer grey; wing coverts like the back; lores blackish. Winter: 
Under surface of the body white with ash-grey shade over the fore neck and chest ; sides 
of flanks and chest also ashy grey. Female similar. Summer: Above plain brownish 
gray varied with dusky ; lower parts white tinged with grayish on the fore neck ; fore 
neck streaked; rest of lower parts barred with dusky. Young: Above brownish grey, 
the feathers margined with buff or pale ochraceous and finely mottled transversely with 
greyish. Length 10.50-12.00, wing 6.40-6.75, tail 2.90-3.00, culmen 1.50-1.70, tarsus 
1.25-1.32, toes 1.25-1.30. Hab. Pacific coast of America, southward, wide-ranging. 

Hawaiian Islands. 
PI. XXV., 9159. 48. H. incanus (GMKI..). Wandering Taller, Ulili. 

GKNUS UMO'SA BKISSOX. 

Wing without white patch ; with the tail distinctly barred; upper tail coverts 
white with brownish or dusky markings; under parts, head and neck plain cinnamon 
color; general color over the back blackish mottled with chestnut red; wing cover) s 
greyish varied with dusky shaft streaks and whitish margins. Winter: Head, neck 
and lower parts whitish, darkest on the chest, streaked with dusky about the head and 
neck; breast and sides of body with a few shaft streaks and bars of brownish grey. 

"The Museum's specimen of T. acumhiala was taken by Mr. A. I-. Jndd ill Moanahia valley near Honolulu. I have examined a speeim, T, 
taken on Maui by Brother Matthias which is now in the St. I.oliis College cabinet. Dr. Schaninslaiid includes it in his list from I.aysan. 
29 Triii",! an'i,-i icana Cass is added by Dr. Sehauinsland's list of birds from I.aysali ; also T. niamla/a. Vieill, from Hawaii (Hensli.). 

[283] 



28 BIRDS OF Till-: II. -Ill' All AN GROl P. 

Female: Similar to male but larger. Young: Above, including wing coverts, buffy 
greyish or dull clay color irregularly varied with dusky ; lower parts dull buffy whitish 
shaded across chest with deeper greyish buff. Length 14.60-16.00, wing 8.25-9.15, 

culmen 3.17-4.70, tarsus 2.00-2.45, middle toe 1.10-1.33 Hub. Coasts of 

Eastern Asia and across to Alaska, migrating south in winter to New Zealand and 
Australia; Lower California, casual in winter (Ridgway). Kauai. 30 

49. I/, lappon'ica bau'eri (NAUM.). Pacific Godwit. 

GENUS CAI/IDRIS CUVIER. 

Winter: General color above light ashy grey with more or less distinct hoary 
edges to the feathers and blackish shaft stripes; under parts white. Summer: Differs 
from the winter in being mottled and not uniform ; greater wing coverts broadly tipped 
with white; above light rusty, mottled and spotted with blackish on the feathers; head, 
neck and chest light rusty. Spring: Above light greyish coarsely spotted with black, 
streaks of black on the neck. Young: Similar to winter adult but not so uniform 
above. Only seen in winter plumage in Hawaii (?). Length about 8.00, wing 4.80- 
4.90, tail 2.25-2.30, tarsus .95, middle toe .73, culmen .90-1.00. Hab. Nearly cosmo- 
politan. Hawaiian Islands. 

50. C. arena'ria (LINN.). Sanderling, Hunakai. 

GENUS NUME'NIUS BRISSON. 

Feathers of the thighs terminating in long bristle-like points; quills with whitish 
or rufous on the inner edge; a central longitudinal pale band down the crown, with 
the sides of the crown blackish brown forming a broad band down the sides of the 
latter; auxiliaries pale cinnamon barred with wide stripes of dark brown ; upper parts 
sooty brown and buff; tail coverts uniform cinnamon buff; lower parts dull buff; 
cheeks, neck and breast streaked with brown. Female similar. Length about 17.00, 
wing 9.00-9.25, tail 3.75, culmen 2.95-3.25, tarsus 2.15-2.35. Hab. Most of the islands 
of the Pacific. Hawaiian Islands. 

PI. XXV., 9752. 51. N. tahitien'sis <GMKL. ). Bristle -thighed Curlew, Kioea. 

FAMILY CHARADRIID^. PLOVERS. 

Genus. 

With no spur and no facial wattles; wing less than 8.00; plumage without 
metallic tint; head not crested; no hind toe (Page 28.) Char ad 'rill S. 

GENTS CHARAD RIUS LINNAEUS. 

No hind toe. Adult summer: General color above mottled with black, golden 
and ashy chin, throat and lower parts dull dusk}' black; a frontal band and long eye- 

30 The specimen from which the above description was taken is in the possession of Mr. Francis Gay and was secured by him on the 
island of K:ni;i The mcasurt-inents are, length 17.00. wing y.oo, tail 3.00. culmen 4.10, tarsus 2.25. middle toe 1.50 (?). A fine winter specimen 
is in St. Louis Collt/Kc cabinet, ]>r. Schauinsland also records I.hw^a tnir<r-:fiilntnlitr. Salv.. from I.aysan. 

[284] 



CHARADRHD&. 29 

brow white or buffy white; wing feathers black with white shafts. Adult winter: 
With no black on under parts, which are whitish on the throat and belly and light 
brownish streaked with grey elsewhere, more streaks on the chest ; usually less yellow 
above than in summer. Young: Similar to adults but with more golden above; crown 
blacker. Length 9.85-10.00, wing 6.35-6.65, tail 2.65-2.90, culmen .85-1.00, tarsus 
1.60-1.92 (1.70), toe 1.20-1.32, depth of bill .25. Hah. Breeding in Northern Asia 
and Alaska, southward to Polynesia. Hawaiian Islands. The following table of meas- 
urements is taken from specimens in the Museum series : 

Male. Male. Male. Male. Male. Female. Female. Female. 

Length 9-9Q 9-85 10.00 9-75 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 

Wing 6.65 6.40 6.50 6.55 6.35 6.45 6.75 6.50 

Tail 2.90 2.80 2.80 2.72 2.80 2.65 2.80 2.75 

Culmen .98 .98 i.oo .90 i .00 .85 .90 .97 

Tarsus 1.85 1.92 1.70 1.60 1.70 1.70 1.76 1.75 

Toe 1.25 1.30 1.25 i. 20 1.32 1.25 1.30 1.25 

Depth of bill .25 .26 .25 .25 .26 .25 .26 .26 

53. C. dominions fulvus 3 ' (GMEI,.). Pacific Golden Plover, Kolea. 
PI. XXV., 9397- 9897. 

FAMILY APHRI2J'ID^. SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. 

Genus. 

Nasal grooves not more than half the length of the upper mandible ; tail slightly 
rounded; terminal half of the bill pointed (Page 29.) Arena'ria. 

GENUS ARENA'RIA BRISSON. 

Head white and streaked with black, or head blackish brown ; throat white, 
followed by a broad black band. Fall adult male: General color above black mixed 
with chestnut or partly chestnut feathers ; entire rump pure white ; upper tail coverts 
black, longer ones white ; quills black with white shafts ; crown of head and hind neck 
white; lores white; sides of neck, fore neck and breast black; throat white; abdomen 
white. Female: Duller all over and with less chestnut. Winter: Above nearly uni- 
form dusky brown, edges of feathers ashy brown; head uniform brown like the back; 
hind neck and side of neck ashy mottled with dusky centres. Young: General color 
above dusky brown ; throat and under surface of body white. Length about 8.00, wing 
5.60-5.95, tail 2.40-2.50, culmen .88--9O, tarsus .95-1.05, toe 1.05, depth of beak .30. 
Hub. Cosmopolitan. Hawaiian Islands. 

PL XXV., 8726, 9174. 53. A. inter'pres 2 " (LINN.). Turnstone, Akekeke. 

3' Mr. Henshaw adds Sqnatarola sqna(awla (I,inii.) from Hawaii. (Auk, XVII., p. 202. 

3 2 It is probable that A. rnfrrfiirs (I, inn.) and A . nirhtit<nrf>/ialii (Vig~.) both visit the islands. However, I have seen no specimens of the 
latter that have been taken in the group. 

[285] 



30 IURDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



Order GALLING. Gallinaceous Birds. 

Families. 

Hind toe rather small and short, less than half the length of the outer toe and 
inserted above the level of the middle toe. (Sub-order P/iasiaui.) 

a. Head entirely feathered, tarsus without spur. . . .(Page 30.) Tetraotl'idae. 
aa. Head partly naked, tarsus with spur ( Page 30. ) Phasian idae. 

FAMILY TETRAONID^. Qt AILS, ETC. 
Genus. 

Tarsi and nasal fossae naked; wings less than 6.00 (Sub-family Pcrdin>i-)\ 
cutting edge of lower mandible somewhat serrate; first wing quill shorter than the 
seventh; tail shorter than the wing; wing not more than 5.50; plumage much varied; 
tail more than two-thirds the length of wing; crest lengthened and distinct from the 
feathers of the crown (Page 30.) I^Ophor'tyx. 

GKNTS I,OPHORTYX BONAPARTE. 

Crest black; throat uniform black in the adult males; flanks olive brown or 
greyish streaked with chestnut. Male: Belly with black scale-like markings and a 
central patch of chestnut. Female: Prevailing color smoky greyish or brownish. 
Young: Above finely mottled brownish; throat and abdomen dull whitish. Length 
about 9.50, wing 4.35-4.70, tail 4.10-4.70, tarsus 1.20-1.25. Hub. California and 

Oregon. Hawaiian Islands; introduced. 

54. I/, californ'ica (Sn\\\). California Partridge. 

FAMILY PHASIANlIXflJ. PHEASANTS. 
Genus, 

Head feathered except about the eyes ; tail lengthened and graduated, the 
feathers tapering to a point; sexes different. (Sub-family IViasinituc.} 

(Page 30. ) Phasia'nus. 

GBNUS PHASIA'NUS I.ixN.Krs. 

a. Under parts fiery copper chestnut. Male: A white ring about the middle of 
the neck; the neck metallic green; the breast with metallic coppery and purple reflec- 
tions. Female: With all the tail feathers barred with blackish and dirty white on a 
brownish ground. Length 20.00 in the female to 30.00 in the males; wing 8.50-10.50, 
tail ii.oo-2O.oo. Hal>. China. Hawaiian Islands; introduced. 

55. P. torqua'tus T.MKI.. Ring-neck Pheasant. 
[286] 



PERIS TERID^. 3 1 

aa. Under parts dark green ; no white ring about the neck ; throat and side of 
the neck with a purplish gloss ; top of the head bronze green ; the lower neck and 
mantle dark green varied with buff lines which follow the shape of the feathers; lesser 
wing coverts greenish slate; larger wing coverts as well as the lower feathers of the 
mantle with bright ferric ochraceous markings; rump greenish. Female: Feathers of 
the mantle almost entirely black in the middle, with sometimes a shaft stripe of rufous 
and green tip to the feathers ; feathers to the mantle and nape indistinctly tipped with 
dark green ; under parts light buff; all the feathers of the chest, breast, sides and flanks 
strongly marked with black. Length 24.00-29.00, wing 8.20-9.65, tail 10.00-14.00, 
tarsus 2.202.70, toe 2.50. Hah. Japanese Islands. Oahu; introduced. 

56. P. versi'color" YIKIU.. Japanese Pheasant. 



Order COLUMB^.-Pigeons. 

Family. 

Tarsus almost as long or longer than the middle toe ; tail feathers twelve or more. 

(Page 3 1.) Peristeridae. 

FAMILY PERISTERID^. GROUND PIGKONS, ETC. 

Gouts. 

Without metallic spots on the wings; tail rather broad; tarsus naked on the 
upper parts ; neck with a dark collar. ( Sub-famity Tur/iirirue. ) Same characters 
for the genus (Page 31.) Turtttr. 

Gr.Ni-s TURTUS. SKI.UY. 

Feathers of the hind neck bifurcated (forked at the tip); black with white ter- 
minal spots (Sub-genus Spilopelia}\ under tail coverts grey; upper parts, back, rump, 
etc., light brown edged with lighter brown; top of head blue grey; back of neck vin- 
ous ; lower parts rich vinous, lightest on the chin and abdomen ; outer wing coverts 
lead-grey; outer pair of tail feathers black tipped with broad white band. Female 
similar. Yoiiu^: Paler and duller all over. Length 12.50-13.00, wing 6.00-6.25, ta ^ 
5.00-5.50, tarsus .90-1.00, toe 1.20. Hah. China. Hawaiian Islands; introduced. 

57. T. chinen'sis (Scop.). Chinese Turtle Dove. 

33 Hybrids between the two specie-, of pheasants here given frequently occur. The numerous attempts to introduce name birds into the 
'shimK have met ilh varied SUCCega so that "wild" turkey, chickens, guinea fowls, pea fowls, etc.. are not infrequently met with. 

[287] 



32 IURDS 01' THE HAU'.lllAX (,'A'( )!'/>. 



Order RAPTORES.-Birds of Prey. 

Families. 

Head entirely feathered; no web between the inner and middle toe; hind toe 
with large sharp claw. 

a. Eyes lateral, not surrounded by disks of radiating feathers; outer toe not 
reversible. ( Sub-order Falcottcs. ) ( Page 32. ) Falcon'idae. 

aa. Eyes surrounded by disks of radiating feathers; both eyes directed forward; 
cere concealed by loral and frontal feathers (Sub-order Strigcs); facial disks distinct 
and extending as far above the eye as below it ; inner toe decidedly shorter than the 
outer one; first quill shorter than the third . ( Page 33. ) Bubon'idae. 

FAMILY FAI/CON'ID^. FALCONS, HAWKS, ETC. 

Genera. 

Nostrils not circular, nor linear and oblique ; with the upper end of the nasal 
opening the anterior one (Sub-family Accipitrin(e)\ tail not forked; front of tarsus 
covered with large transverse scntulae ; claws grooved beneath ; catting edge of tipper 
mandible not notched; tip of upper mandible produced into a conspicuous hook. 

a. Face encircled by a ruff of short stiffened feathers, as in the owls. 

(Page 32.) Circus. 

aa. Face not encircled by a ruff; tail not more than two-thirds the length of the 
wing ; primaries exceeding the secondaries by much more than the length of the tarsus 
in front; wings more than four times as long as the tarsus ( Page 33. ) Buteo. 

OKNTS CIRCUS LACEPKDK. 

Male: Above dull blue-grey, darker and inclined to brownish on the head, back 
and scapulars; the neck somewhat mottled with buffy white; facial ruff ashy grey; 
chin whitish ; throat, sides of neck and breast dull greyish ; rest of under parts white; 
tail bluish grey ; upper tail coverts white. Female: Above dusky brown ; head and 
neck streaked; the lesser wing coverts spotted; feathers of rump edged with rusty; 
facial ruff buffy white streaked with dark brown ; tail ashy grey with five bars of dark 
brown, the interspaces more or less rufous; under surface of body buffy white with 
broad streaks of brown on the breast, thighs and abdomen. Young; Above ashy brown 
or blackish brown with rufous margins to the feathers ; wing coverts spotted with deep 
rusty; ear coverts uniform bright dark brown; feathers of the disks browner; lower 

parts rich rusty ochraceous, paler posteriori}'. Length 19.50-24.0x5, wing 12.90-16.00, 

[288] 



BUBON/D^. 33 

tail 8.80-10.50, tarsus 2.85-3.25, middle toe 1.20-1.55. Hah. Whole of North America, 

southward ; accidental in Hawaiian Islands. ( No specimens in the Museum. ) 

58. C. hudson'ius (Lixx.). Marsh Hawk. 

GENTS BUTEO CrviKR. 

Upper parts, back, head and upper tail coverts blackish brown ; secondaries and 
wing coverts like the back ; all with paler margins, and with some tawny rusty ; throat 
white ; sides of breast brown mottled with white ; black shafts to all the dark feathers; 
abdomen, tibia and under tail coverts white with faint brownish markings; quills 
blackish above; from the notch to the base of inner web white with faint brownish bands 
varying in size and extent ; tail, general color brownish with bands of smoky brown and 
dull ash-grey. Female: Larger and similar (one specimen shows indistinct bands of 
brownish and tawny on the wing coverts and back). Young: Darker above, more rusty 
edgings to the feathers of the sides and back of the neck ; throat with narrow shaft 
stripes; breast and under parts with more brown than white; thighs brown with rusty; 
under tail coverts whitish with cross bars of brown slightly edged with ochraceous 
rust}-. Length about 15.50. Measurements taken from three specimens: Wing 9.50, 
10.60, 11.75; tail 5.50, 5.60, 6.40; tarsus 2.60, 2.30, 2.60; culmen i.io, 1.25, 1.30; toe 
1.90, 1.75, 2.10. (The last set of measurements are from the female.) Hab. Hawaii. 
PI. XXVI., 5521. 59. B. solita'rius 34 PEALE. Hawaiian Hawk, lo. 

FAMILY BUBONID^. OWLS. 

Genus. 
Characters as given for the family (Page 33.) Asio. 

GENUS A'SIO BRISSON. 

Light bands on quills less than ten in number; under surface of quills barred 
across with brown ; tips entirely brown ; face more or less fulvescent with brownish 
black ; ear tufts short ; ground color varying in individuals from tawny ochraceous to 
buffy white relieved by dark brown stripes; wings mottled with dusky and ochraceous; 
tail ochraceous and buffy ; outer feathers lighter. Young; Above dark sepia brown, the 
feathers broadly tipped with buff; face uniform brownish black; lower parts wholly 
plain dull buffy tinged with smoky greyish anteriorly. Hab. Hawaiian Islands. The 
following measurements seem to justify the separation sub-specifically of the Hawaiian 
form from the larger North American bird : 

B. P. B. Museum No. 9,835. 
No. 10,067. 
No. 1,284. 
No. 9,272. 

PI. XXVI., 9835. 60. A. accipitri'nus sandvicen'sis" (Br.ox.). Hawaiian Owl, Pueo. 

"There arc some uncertain references to "l-uiuUnn solitaries" which alt ith difficulty reconcile.! with the habits of the species jjiven 
above. A fish-hawk (I'liinlinii) may yet be taken in the group. 

To correspond with the form" usually adopted sandvnchemu is changed u> saxdvii fans. 

MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSKUM, Vol.. I., No. 3. 3. L 2 9j 



Sex. 


Length . 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Toe. 


L i/ 1 ii if, 


$ 


13-25 


11.15 


5-40 


i-35 


i. 60 


I.IO 


9 


14.00 


n.8o 


5-50 


i -35 


1-58 


1. 12 





14-25 


i r. 20 


5-55 


1.38 


i-55 


1. 08 


8 


14.00 


11.50 


5-45 


1.36 


1-55 


I .IO 



34 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



Order PASSERES.-Perching Birds. 

Families. 

Tarsus compressed behind, forming a comparatively sharp edge, or else hind 
claw longer than its digit and straight, the enveloping membrane (/.<"., tarsal sheath) 
divided into not more than three longitudinal segments which may be either cut up 
into transverse segments or fused into continuous plates. (Sub-order O seines ) 

a. Posterior half of the tarsus not compressed but rounded and divided into dis- 
tinct segments like the anterior half (Page 35-) Alau'didae. 

aa. Posterior half of the tarsus compressed with the lateral plates forming 
a sharp ridge. 

b. No bastard primary (i. e., the first primary obsolete), the outer primary 
falling short of the wing by less than the length of the hind toe without the claw; bill 
of various forms but with a well developed operculum ; tongue a more or less modified 
tubular brush. A very heterogeneous family embracing the greater part of the 

Hawaiian passerine avi-fauna ( Page 39.) Drepan'ididse. 

bb. Tenth or outer primary present, but varying in length. 

C. Primaries apparently only nine, the tenth being exceedingly rudi- 
mentary ; tip of the bill not hooked ; bill straight and cone-shaped. Bird sparrow-like. 
d. Wing less than 2.40; nostrils placed high on the bill nearer the 

culmen than the tomium (Page 39. ) Ploce'idae. 

dd. Wing more than 2.48; bill notched and with a few bristles 

at the gape; true sparrows , (Page 38.) Fringillidae. 

CC. Primaries obviously ten, or else the bill hooked; tarsus longer 
than the middle toe with claw. 

e. Tarsus more or less distinctly scutulate in front. 

f. Tail feathers normal, but not especially long; nasal 
feathers erect or inclined backward ; nasal bristles either present or wanting. 

g. No nasal bristles; nasal feathers inclined back- 
ward somewhat; first primary minute, not reaching to the tip of the wing coverts; 

white patch on the wing at base of primaries ( Page 37.) Stur'nidae. 

gg. Nasal bristles present. 

h. Large birds ; wing more than 4.00. 

(Page 35.) Cor'vidae. 
hh. Small birds; wing less than 4.00. 

i. First primary not over .30; bill slender 

and notched near the tip; nasal openings not pronounced. . . .(Page 58.) Sylvi'idae. 

[290] 



35 

ii. First primary more than a third the 
length of the second ; bill rather broad and flat ; nasal bristles extending forward for 

half the length of the cnlmen (Page 36.) Muscicap'idae. 

ff. Tail feathers long, graduated; tail longer than the 
wing; nostrils basal in an unossified groove; first primary about half the length of the 

second; with or without auxiliary plumes (Page 56.) Meliphag'idae. 

ee. Tarsi not divided into scutulse in front except at extreme 
lower portion ; with few rectal bristles. 

j. Wing less than 3.00; small brown 

birds; young not spotted (See i., page 34) (Page 58.) Sylvi'idse. 

jj. Wing more than 3.00; the young 
spotted ( Page 59. ) Tur'didse. 

FAMILY ALAUDID^. LARKS. 

Genus. 

Wing falling short of the tail by more than the length of the tarsus; hind claw 
very long; cnlmen shorter than the middle toe; first primary rudimentary; plumage 
mainly dull brownish , ' (Page 35.) Alau'da. 

GENUS AI/AU'DA LINNAEUS. 

The feathers with blackish centres, everywhere producing a streaked appear- 
ance; the scapulars and lower mantle with greyish edges to the feathers; chest tawny 
buff streaked with black ; outer tail feathers white with some dusky along the inner 
web. Winter: Plumage more tawny. Young; More tawny than the winter adtilts, 
with more white above and black streaks changing to subterminal spots of dark brown. 
Length about 7.50, wing 4.35-4.55, tail 2.90-3.05, culmen 45-.5O, tarsus .95. Hab. 

Europe and Asia. Hawaiian Islands; introduced. 

61. A. arven'sis LINN. Skylark. 

FAMILY COR'VID^. CROWS, ETC. 

Genus. 

Bill without a distinct subtermiual notch at the tip ; hind toe strong ; wing fall- 
ing short of the tip of the tail by less than the length of the tarsus ; nostrils concealed 
by bristles; first primary long as secondaries (Sub-family Corvince)\ tarsus longer 
than culmen ( Page 35. ) Cor'vtlS. 

GENUS COR'VUS LINN^US. 

Head deep brown or blackish; back lightest on the tertiaries and secondaries, 
and grey-brown on the primaries; rump and tail blackish brown uniform with 
mantle; primary shafts brown above, below more whitish brown. Length 18.00-20.00, 
wing 13.00, tail 7.75-8.50, culmen 2.20-2.40, depth of bill i.oo-i.io, tarsus 2.50-2.65, 

toe 2.10-2.30. Hab. Hawaii. 
PI. XXVI., 6599. 62. C. hawaiien'sis PKAI.K. Hawaiian Crow, Alala. 

[291] 



36 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

FAMILY MUSCICAP'ID^. FLY-CATCHERS. 

Genus. 

Bill broad, soft, rather flat, slightly hooked at the tip, and furnished with numer- 
ous rectal bristles which reach beyond the middle of culmen; c til men keeled; wing 
falling short of the end of the tail by about the length of the tarsus; wing longer than 
the tail ; bill at base not as broad as the length of the hind toe without the claw ; the 
second primary a half inch shorter than the third. Peculiar to the Hawaiian Islands. 

(Page 36. ) Chasiem'pis. 

GENUS CHASIEM'PIS CAUANIS. 




FIG. I. C. SANDVICENSIS. 

a. Young of all species: Wing coverts spotted with tawny ochraceous ; throat 
ochraceous; base of lower mandible lighter without black or white on the throat. 

b. Browner above, ochraceous of throat and tail coverts deeper; head not 
so ochraceous. (See description of adult C. sandvicensis.} 

bb. Lighter, more ochraceous above, throat and upper tail coverts rusty 
ochraceous. (See description of adult C.gayianA. C. sc/atcri.} 

aa. Adult of all species : Wing coverts spotted with white; black or white or 
both on the throat; lower mandible dark; tail coverts white. 

C. Above bluish grey. Adult: Above uniform dark smoky grey; up- 
per tail coverts pure white ; wing coverts blackish, with greater and lesser coverts 
tipped with white forming two fairly distinct bars across the wing; quills blackish 
with grayish fulvous edges tipped with white; lores and superciliary stripe whitish or 
buffy white ; centre of throat white surrounded by buff}- and bttffy grey feathers, form- 
ing a more or less distinct pectoral girdle; sides of the body greyish white with wash of 
rust}' ; abdomen and under tail coverts white ; white on outer web of tail feathers narrow 
and extending along the edge for the greater part of its length ; white tip about .35 broad. 
Young: Deep tawny buff or ochraceous about the rump, head and neck ; under tail 
coverts tawny; wing bands rusty. Length 5.25-5.50, wing 2.55-2.95, tail 2.35-2.60, 
culmen . 45-^0, depth of bill .16, width .22, tarsus .So-.Sg, toe .65. Hah. Kauai. 

PI. XXVII., 6657, 94 '- 63. C. scla'teri Rim;\v. Apekepeke. 

CC. Above brownish. 

d. White tips to the outer tail feathers, usually longer than .50; 

white tip and outer edging of the secondaries neither wide nor prolonged. Adull: 

[292] 



STURNID& 37 

Above brown tinged with rufous; upper tail coverts white; forehead, lores and super- 
ciliary stripe white; wing coverts black with white spots; primary coverts blackish; 
primaries brown with rusty or buffy white edges ; feathers of the throat black tipped 
with white, which is conspicuous in older birds ; chest and sides of the body reddish 
brown, sometimes with white tips ; abdomen and under tail coverts pure white ; outer 
edge of outer pair of tail feathers whitish for most of their length ; inner web white for 
at least .40. Intermediate plumage : Forehead, lores and superciliary stripe rusty 
white ; upper parts similar to adult, usually more rusty ; upper tail coverts white with 
ochraceous tinge; wings as above; throat white, followed by a sooty black patch, and 
this in turn by rufous brown as in adult ; rest of lower parts similar to adult. Young; 
Tawny ochraceous brown above ; head tawny with darker centres to the feathers ; upper 
tail coverts ochraceous; primaries and tail feathers showing ochraceous; wing coverts 
brown tipped with ochraceous; under parts rusty, buff and grey passing to whitish 
grey on the abdomen. Length 5.50-5.75, wing 2.70-2.75, tail 2.40-2.65, culmen -47-.53, 
depth of bill .20, width .18, tarsus .90, toe .63. Hab. Hawaii. 

PI. XXVII., 9923, 9924. 64. C. sandvicen'sis' 6 (GMEL.). Hawaii Elepaio. 

dd. White tips to outer pair of tail feathers usually less than .50; 

white tips and edgings to the secondaries quite pronounced ; above brownish (feathers 
with bluish bases) washed with tawny ochraceous, especially about the head; tail 
coverts white ; wing coverts brownish black forming a well defined bar ; lesser coverts 
tipped less regularly with white; primaries brown with buff edges; forehead rusty 
ochraceous ; lores and about the eyes white ; chin white ; throat black with more or less 
white tips (not so conspicuous as in sandvicensis}; breast with some reddish brown; ab- 
domen white. Intermediate plumage : Similar to young, but showing brownish black 
in the throat, and more or less white in the wing and tip of the tail. Young: Above, 
tawny ochraceous brown, most ochraceous on the sides and back of the neck; upper 
tail coverts tawny ochraceous; forehead, lores, chin, throat and chest tawny ochraceous; 
abdomen white ; under tail coverts tawny ; wing coverts and primaries brown with 
ochraceous edges, larger wing coverts sometimes showing white tips forming a less 
conspicuous bar than in adults. Length 5.50-6.00, wing 2.55-2.65, tail 2.50-2.55, 
culmen .4O-.45, tarsus .95-1.00, toe .60. Hab. Oahu. 

PI. XXVII., 9252, 9258, 9255, 9259, 9260, 9407. 65. C. gayi WILSON. Oahu Elepaio. 

FAMILY STURNID^. STARLINGS, MINAS, ETC. 

Genus. 

Hind claw stronger than the claw of the middle toe ; in prepared skins the feet 
reach almost to the end of the tail; bill somewhat curved; culmen less than the tarsus 
in length (Page 38.) Acridothe'res. 

> With the material at hand il i> impossible to separate the two forms which are supposed to occ.ur on the island of Hawaii. 

[293] 



38 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

GENTS ACRIDOTHERES VIEILLOT. 

With a bare patch of yellow skin below and behind the eye; lower mandible 
black at the base ; with white on the base of primaries forming a speculum ; no black 
on breast and abdomen; above vinous brown with an ashy shade, as is also the breast 
and sides of the body; abdomen and under tail coverts white; head and neck blackish. 
Female similar. Length 9.50, wing 5.50, tail 3.45, tarsus 1.40. Hab. Indian Penin- 
sula. Hawaiian Islands; introduced. 

66. A. tristis (LINN.). False Mina. 

FAMILY FRINGII/I/IDJE. SPARROWS, FINCHES, ETC. 

Genera. 

Depth of bill at base less than the length of hind toe with claw, and less than 
two-thirds the length of the tarsus. 

a. Gonys slightly convex; a light brownish spot on speculum at base of quills. 

(Page 38.) Passer. 

aa. Gonys not appreciably convex ; no light spot or speculum at base of quills; 
wing less than five times as long as the tarsus; first quill decidedly longer than the 
fourth ; depth of bill at base about equal to the length of culmen. 

(Page 38.) Carpod'acus. 

GENUS PASSER BRISSON. 

Brownish above; the back streaked with black; wing with two white bands; 
under parts pale greyish or greyish white. Male: With black throat continued over 
the chest ; ear coverts dull grey ; top of head greyish with a large patch of bright 
chestnut on the sides. Female: With the throat not black ; back streaked or mottled 
with blackish; a pale superciliary stripe; cheeks dingy brown like the ear coverts; 
browner than the male. Young: Both sexes resemble the adult female but are whiter 
below, especially on the throat. Length 5.50-6.25, wing 2.90-3.00, tail 2.45-2.50. 
//(i/>. Europe, America, etc. Hawaiian Islands; introduced; common. 

67. P. domesticus LINN. European House Sparrow. 

GI-M-S CARPODACUS K\n>. 

Sides of body streaked or always with well defined shaft lines of brown, and with 
a distinct eyebrow; tail not decidedly shorter than wing; not distinctly emarginated 
(Sub-genus Bnrrica)\ crown of head not broadly streaked; abdomen ashy white 
streaked with brown; general color above light ashy brown slightly streaked with 
darker brown. Male: Rump, lores, forehead, throat and breast crimson. Female: 
General color above brown slightly mottled with dusky centres to the feathers; upper 
tail coverts like the back ; crown similar and more or less mottled ; lores ashy white; 

under surface white broadly streaked with dusky brown. Length about 5.25-5.50, 

[294] 



PLOCEID^DREPANIDID^. 39 

wing 3.10, tail 2.35, culmen .40, depth of bill .30, tarsus .75, toe .50. Hab. Western 
part of North America. Hawaiian Islands ; introduced. 

68. C. mexica'nus obscu'rus MCCALL. House Finch, "Rice Bird." 



FAMILY PI^OCBID^. WEAVER BIRDS. 

Genus. 

The first primary short, not longer than the primary coverts (Sub-family 
Viduind); tail about equal to the wing; centre feathers somewhat produced and 
pointed, but the tail itself wedge-shaped and not greatly graduated; bill swollen and 
rounded ; culmen strongly arched ; tail moderately long, never exceeding the wing by 
as much as the tarsus with the middle toe and claw ............ (Page 39.) Mtl'nia. 

GENUS MTJ'NIA HODGSON. 

Legs dark; under tail coverts buffy white; throat deep chestnut; sides of body 
oculated with black and white spots; tail from above greyish olive yellow; rump 
feathers plain with lighter edges ; general color above warm chocolate brown with nar- 
row whitish shaft lines, the lower back waved with dusky brown cross bars ; quills 
dusky brown. Adult female similar to the male in color. Young: Nearly uniform 
reddish brown ; upper tail coverts more yellowish brown ; wing coverts like the back; 
crown of head and sides of face like the back ; under parts of the body deep sandy 
brown; feet and bill paler. Length 4.40-4.55, culmen .45, wing 2.15-2.30, tail 1.60- 
1.80, tarsus .60. Hab. Malayan Peninsula. Hawaii, Maui, Oahu; introduced. 

69. M. niso'ria (TEMM.). Chinese Sparrow. 

FAMILY DREPAN IDID^. HONEY-SUCKERS. 

Genera. 

a. Bill very strong, deep and hawfinch-like in form ; depth of bill at base about 
equal to (never less than) hind toe without the claw; culmen not longer than hind 
toe with the claw, and never shorter than .50. Length never less than 5.15. 

b. Upper mandible longer than the lower by at least .10; both gouys and 
culmen strongly curved ; plumage in adult males yellow on the throat. 

C. Wing not exceeding 3.10; culmen strongly curved (parrot-like) and 
exceeding the lower mandible by the length of the hind claw; yellow super-loral stripe. 

(Page 53.) Pseudones'tor. 

CC. Wing more than 3.10; culmen curved but not exceeding the lower 
mandible by more than the length of the hind claw (except rarely in Psittacirostra). 

d. Back without any back shaft streaks; head yellow; upper 

mandible light colored. 

e. Head, neck and chest bright gamboge yellow; primaries 

edged externally with yellow olive , , , , , .................. (Page 54-) l/oxioi'des. 

[295] 



40 BIRDS OP THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

ee. Head and neck in the male yellow, female olive green; 
edge of primaries slightly yellow olive; feet light brown (in the skin). 

(Page 53.) Psittaciros'tra. 

dd. Back with more or less distinct blackish or brownish shaft 
streaks; upper mandible horn-color; feet black or bluish black. 

(Page 54.) Telespi'sa. 

bb. Upper mandible exceeding the lower by not more than .10; bill very 
wide and deep; depth not less than .58, and width not less than .38. 

f. Wing more than 4.00; bill bluish grey; gonys 

straight or very slightly decurved (Page 55.) Rhodacan'this. 

ff. Wing less than 4.00; bill dull flesh color and very 

thick and clumsy ; gonys curved (Page 56.) Chlor'idopS. 

aa. Bill of various forms but never deeper nor broader than .30; or, if so, very 
long and much decurved. 

g. Culmen, cutting edge of mandibles and gonys 

all perceptibly decurved, except in Hcterorliyiichits u'ilsoni where the gonys is straight 
(where curve of bill is questionable, culmen more than .50). 

h. Culmen very long and remarkably curved; 
culmen never less (usually much more) than .70. 

i. Upper mandible at least one-third its 
length longer than the lower mandible; color never red or black. 

(Page 5 1.) Heterorhyn'chus. 
ii. Upper mandible not one-third longer 

than the lower mandible; tip of the wings falling short of the tip of the tail (in the 
skin) by less than the length of the tarsus. 

j. Bill light vermilion (becoming de- 
cidedly paler in old skins); primaries and tail feathers black. (Page 42.) Vestia'ria. 

jj. Bill for the most part black or 
blackish brown ; lores black or brownish black. 

k. Plumage chiefly olive; prima- 
ries never edged or tipped with whitish; bill sickle-like. (Page 50.) Hemigna thus. 

kk. Plumage chiefly black ; pri- 
maries edged or tipped with whitish. 

I. With yellow feathers over 
the rump in adults; under tail coverts elongated and loose-webbed; bill less curved. 

(Page 41.) Drep'anis. 

II. With no yellow in the plu- 
mage at any age; bill much stronger and much more curved; under tail coverts 

normal (Page 42.) Drepanoram'phus. 

[296] 



DREPANIDID^. 41 

hh. Citlmen not very long nor remarkably 
curved ; both of the mandibles of practically the same length. 

m. With a more or less 

prominent crest; length more than 6.50 (Page 43.) Palme'ria. 

mm. Without crest ; adult 
birds either crimson or yellowish olive; length less than 6.50. 

H. General color crim- 
son, or with more or less red cast to the plumage ; bill and feet black or blackish. 

(Page 43.) Himati'one. 
nn. General color yel- 
lowish olive or olive grey ; upper mandible brown or bluish slate at the base. 

O. The bill but slight- 
ly curved; culmen more than .75; wing more than 2.95; bill bluish slate. 

(Page 46.) Viridon'ia. 
OO. The bill curved ; 
culmen less than .75; wing less than 2.95; -upper mandible brown. 

(Page 44.) Chlorodrep'anis. 

gg. Bill practically straight, or where questionable 
less than .50; wing less than 3.40. 

p. Bill bluish horn 

at the base (finch-like), sometimes slightly crossed at the tip; feet black or blackish. 

q. Lores not black; 
neck above and below nearly uniform in color; crown never gamboge yellow. 

(Page 48.) I,ox'ops. 
qq. Lores black; 
color of neck above and below different ; crown gamboge yellow in adults. 

(Page 48.) Chrysomit'ridops. 37 
pp. Bills of various 
forms, but not bluish horn at the base; feet brown or pinkish in life. 

r. Breast, wings 

and tail black, with red on under parts; length 5.50 (Page 44.) Cir'idops. 

rr. The breast, 
wing and tail not black; no red in the plumage; length less than 5.50. 

S. Larger; the 
wing more than 2.30; outer primary (first primary wanting) as short or shorter than 

the fifth from the outer.' (Page 46.) OreomyZB.. 

SS. Smaller; 

wing less than 2.30; outer primary equal to the fifth from the outer; bill slender, very 
slightly decurved; never more than .55 (Page 46.) Rothschild'ia. s 

GENUS DREP'ANIS TEMMINCK. 

With yellow on the rump and upper tail coverts ; both mandibles practically the 
same length and strongly curved ; culmen more than equal to the tarsus in length; 

37 IiK-Ulded under the genus /M.\-I>/>^; see page 48. 

3 8 United with the genus C/tlonidrrpuHii, the single species thereby becoming C/i/<nv<lifpauii fari-a (Stejn.). 

[ 2 97] 



42 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

body, both above and below, fine deep black ; rump, upper tail coverts, under tail 
coverts, thighs, lesser wing coverts and margin of the wing fine rich yellow, "crocus 
yellow" (Wilson); primary coverts white; tail feathers blackish, showing a little dull 
white for .50 along the shaft of the outer pair; primaries black with the outer edge, for 
its distal third, white ; secondaries black tipped with white. Sexes and young: Length 
about 8.00, wing 4.00-4.15, tail 2.65-2.90, chord of culmen 1.62-1.70, depth of bill .30, 

width .30, tarsus 1.15, toe .75. Hab. Hawaii. 

70. D. paci'fica (GMEL.). Mamo. 

GENUS DREPANORHAM'PHUS ROTHSCHILD. 





FIG. 2. D. FUNEREA. 

With the upper and lower parts fine deep black, with^io yellow on the rump; 
base of the upper mandible yellow or whitish; tail and inner edge of primaries deep 
black ; outer edge of primaries smoky black at base, passing to whitish and forming a 
white conspicuous patch. Female: Similar, but with a shorter bill. Length about 
8.00, wing 3.90-4.00, tail 2.55-2.80, chord of culmen 1.85-2.15, depth .32, tarsus i.io- 

1.20, toe i.oo. Hab. Molokai. 
PI. XXVII., 6696. 71. D. fune'rea^ (NEWTON). Perkins' Mamo. 

GKNTS VESTIARIA FLEMING. 




!!(,. ;,. V. COCCINEA. 



Bill curved ; about the same length as head ; bill and feet vermilion in life, dry- 
ing whitish ; general color uniform scarlet vermilion including scapulars and lesser wing 

391 lake pleasure in adopting the new generic name for D. fuiinra (Newton) proposed l>y the Hon. Walter Rothschild in his "Avifauna 
of I,aysan, etc." (Part III., p. 163). While it is unfortunate that the single example of this genus i-ould not have been left as a species of the 
old and well known genus Drcfann. the facfts are the form differs from it sufficiently to warrant the change. 

[298] 



DREPANIDIDAl. 



43 



coverts ; tertiaries tipped With white ; wing and tail feathers deep black. Female similar. 
Young: All the vermilion parts grey, with some greenish and gallstone yellow ; feathers 
with black tips, and vermilion showing here and there. Length 6.00, wing 2.87, tail 2.00, 
tarsus 1.00-1.12, culmen .97-1.10. Hab. Hawaiian Islands, throughout the group. 
PI. XXVIII., 9792, 9342, 9338, 9333, 9340, 9348, 9899. 73. V. coccin'ea FORSTER. liwi. 

GENUS PAI,ME'RIA ROTHSCHILD. 




FIG. 4. P. DOLEI. 

Forehead and crown covered with long lanceolate feathers forming a linear 
crest which rolls forward over the base of the beak ; crest grey in front, darker on the 
crown ; occipital feathers lanceolate, elongated and tipped with bright scarlet orange; 
feathers of the back blackish with silvery shaft stripes and tipped with scarlet orange; 
tail and wing feathers black, the former tipped (?), the latter narrowly margined 
with whitish ; throat dirty silver grey ; breast like the back. Young: Brownish grey 
above, with some black feathers showing orange tips ; breast showing smoky grey; under 
tail coverts whitish. Length 6.50-6.75, wing 3.30-3.50, tail 2.65-2.80, culmen -7O-.75, 

depth of bill .25, tarsus 1.10-1.20, toe .80. Hab. Molokai, Maui. 
PI. XXVIII., 6595, 6596. 73. P. dolei 40 (WILSON). 

GENUS HIMATI'ONE CABANIS. 




FIG. 5. C. STEJNEGERI. H. SANGUINEA. C. PARVA. O. BAIRDI. 

a. General color above dark crimson (blood red), richest on the head and neck; 
primaries black, faintly edged with ashy ; secondaries with crimson buff ; tail feathers 
black; throat, breast and sides uniform with the back; abdomen white. Female: 
Slightly lighter than the male(?). Young: General color brown, washed with ful- 
vous or buff ; with buff y margins to the wing coverts ; lower parts similar to upper; 
with or without crimson feathers here and there, varying with age. Length 5.15-5.25, 
wing 2.70-3.00, tail 2.05-2.15, culmen .65--7O, depth of bill .15, tarsus -75-.8o, toe .70. 
Hab. Hawaiian Islands, throughout the group. 
PI. XXVIII., 7996, 9803, 9322, 9898, 9309, 9324. 74. H. sanguin'ea (GMEL.). Apapa'ne. 

4 The above species was named iu honor of Hon. S. B. Dole, and not a "wine jar" as the erroneous spelling dolii would make it. 

[299] 



44 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

aa. Head, throat and breast bright scarlet vermilion, richest on the head ; abdo- 
men grey-brown ; under tail coverts lighter brown ; upper tail coverts a lighter shade 
of vermilion than the head ; primaries brownish black edged with buffy ; secondaries 
brown edged with buffy and vermilion. Female: Similar, bnt paler. Young: Dull 
brown above and light ash on the under parts. Lighter than H. sanguined, and with 
a shorter bill. Length about 5.25, wing 2.48-2.65, tail 2.25-2.40, culmen -5O-.55, 
depth of bill .20, tarsus .8o-.85, toe .70. Hab. Laysan. 

75. H. freethi ROTHS. I<aysan Honey-eater. 

GENUS CIRTDOPS WILSON. 

Breast, wings, tail and forehead black; occiput and upper part of mantle silvery 
grey, shading into smoky grey-brown on the mantle; lower breast, rump, upper tail 
coverts and median wing coverts bright scarlet ; under tail coverts rich brown. Sexes 
and young unknown. Length about 5.50, wing 3.30, tail 2.20, culmen .40, tarsus .75, 

toe .70, hallux with claw .65. Hab. Hawaii. 

76. C. anna (DOLE). Ulaaihawane. 

GENUS Cm,ORODREP ANIS PERKINS. 

Upper parts olive; lower parts more or less olive or yellow; bill curved; first 
primary wanting; second primary equal to or longer than the third and fourth; nasal 
opercula overhung at the base by a few weak bristles ; fifth quill equal to or longer 
than the first. Young: Duller and very similar in color, usually greyish olive on 
the back. 

a. Wing never less than 2.35, bill perceptibly decurved. 

b. Adults larger in size with stronger bills; beak not less than .60; wing 
in males not less than 2.55. 

C. With scarcely a trace of black on the chin at the base of the lower 
mandible; lores blackish with a yellowish super-loral stripe; scarcely a trace of black 
at base of upper mandible; upper parts olive green, yellowest on the rump; forehead 
yellower olive than the crown ; primary coverts, wing and tail feathers brown edged 
with olive; lower parts golden green, almost lemon yellow; bill strongest of the seven 
species. Female very similar. Length about 4.50-4.85, wing 2.62-2.70, tail 1.62-1.70, 
culmen .72-75, depth of bill .25, tarsus .92, toe .70. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXIX., 9396. 77. C. stejneg'eri (WILSON). Kauai Amakihi. 

CC. With a fairly distinct, narrow, ill-defined, blackish band about the 

base of the beak ; lores blackish ; yellow super-loral stripe not reaching quite to the 

base of the beak. 

d. Trifle larger; tarsus .S2--95 ; centre of breast yellower; upper 

parts dark olive green, yellowest on the rump, darkest on the head; lower parts fine 
.yellow, yellowest on the chest ; thighs grey ; wing coverts, wing and tail feathers 
brownish black edged with olive. Female: Above greyish olive, greyest on the head, 



DREPANIDID^. 45 

showing most yellow on the upper tail coverts and outer edge of primaries and tail 
feathers; with a whitish yellow super-loral stripe; lower parts grey washed with yel- 
low. Length 4.50-4.70, wing 2.45 ( ? wing 2.75?), tail 1.75-1.95, culmen .6070, depth 
of bill .16, tarsus .8o--95, toe .65. Hab. Mam. 

78. C. wilson'i ( ROTHS. ). Maui Amakihi. 

dd. Trifle smaller; tarsus .75-.S2; centre of breast more olive 
yellow. Length about 4.50, wing 2.40-2.60, tail 1.65-1.95, culmen -55-.65, depth of 

bill .16, toe .60. Hab. Molokai. 

79. C. kalaa'na ( WILSON )'. Molokai Amakihi. 

bb. Adults averaging smaller in size; with weaker bills; beak not more 
than .60; wing not more than 2.60. 

e. Above yellowish green, yellowest on the rump; bright 
yellow on the chest. 

f. Abdomen showing more white; rump not so decided 

yellowish olive; wing coverts, primaries and tail feathers edged with olive green; edge 
of wing yellowish ; under wing coverts white ; lores, together with a scarcely percepti- 
ble streak over the base of the upper mandible, blackish ; super-loral stripe indistinct 
yellow. Female: Grey olive green, greyest on the head; more tawny on the rump; 
wings and tail edged with olive ; secondaries outer edge at tip white ; median and 
greater wing coverts tipped with white or ochraceous white; greyish on the throat 
with more or less wash of yellow passing to tawny white on the breast, and fulvous 
on lower flanks. Voting males: Showing more yellow and olive on the under parts. 
Length 4.75-5.10, wing 2.45-2.60, tail 1.70-1.80, culmen .56-.6o, depth of bill .16, 

tarsus .80, toe .86. Hab. Oahu. 

80. C. chloris (CAB.). Oahu Amakihi. 

ff. Back olive yellow, becoming decided yellow olive on 

the rump ; less olive below ; lores greyish sooty ; super-loral stripe less strongly con- 
trasted with the adjacent parts. Female: Back quite olive grey, yellowest on the 
rump ; lores darkest ; super-loral stripe quite distinct ; lower parts yellowish grey with 
olive. Length 4.20-4.40, wing 2.35-2.50, tail 1.70-1.80, culmen .60, tarsus -75-.85, 

toe .65. Hab. Lanai. 

81. C. chloridoi'des 42 (WILSON). I^anai Amakihi. 

* r Differing but slightly from typical C. chloric and Mr. Wilson's proposed /Mttai species C. chloridoidts. Selected specimens from a -short 
senes of spring birds (May to June) show the following fairly constant differences. Males: Under parts of kalaana more olive and golden 
than in thliti -ittin'itrs, which in turn is less lemon yellow than in typical ilihuis; color of feet and beak similar; ktihiana duller olive yellow 
above than cfilut is, which is duller than rhloi iif<u'(tt:\ which is decidedly yellowish olive on the rump ; lores of kalauna blackest. < -him nt"iit> 1 * 
next, while t/ilm /i is decidedly greyish sooty ; super-loral stripe most extensive in kalaatia. brightest in c/ihn's, and least contrasted with the 
adjacent parts in chlm iduidt's. With the females kahiana is lightest olive grey above, quite light over the upper mantle and differing from 
t- It l'ii L\, which is deeper, and from chloi idoidcs in being less olive grey : rump :ind tail coverts of kalaana grey with but slight olive cast ; chloric 
is tawny olive, while ckloridoid?* is olive green ; lores of kalaana smoky grey, not differing from cliluris, but lighter than chlm iduides where 
t hey are sooty ; super-loral stripes in kaliunta yellower and more noticeable than in fhli i\. and less so than in {hliiriduitlf* which is quite a de- 
cided yellow ; below, kalaana greyish olive white with yellow wash ; fhlojh with more grey and less yellow ; chlnridnidt-s yellowish olive. 
Hence, male kaliuitui has the under parts more olive and golden, duller olive yellow above ; lores blackest ; super-loral stripe more extended; 
otherwise similar to ihloris. J-'i'male : Lighter olive grey above, quite light over the mantle; rump similar to upper mantle; lores smoky 
grey; super-loral stripe more noticeable than in chltn-is ; below, greyish olive nshed with yellow ; differing least from <7/Air;.s Iloth kataanu 
and chloridoides seem to be species of only sub-specific value. 

* 2 See note to C. knlaana. 

[301] 



46 1URDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

ee. Above yellowish olive with faint indication of orange(?) 

not noticeable on old faded specimens which is strongest on the rump; primaries 
and tail quills brownish edged with olive ; lores and a narrow line over the forehead 
blackish ; lower parts yellowish olive. Female: Duller than the male, with ashy cast 
to the upper parts; lower parts paler. Young: Similar to female. Length 4.40-4.60, 
wing 2.45-2.60, tail 1.65-1.80, culmen -5O--55, tarsus .8$-.c)O, toe .65. Hub. Hawaii. 

82. C. virens 41 (GMEI,.). Hawaii Amakihi. 

aa. Wing less than 2.30; bill but slightly decurved; smallest of the Hawaiian 
birds; bill more slender than in typical Chlorodrepanis ; upper parts more uniform 
yellow. Male: Above, head, mantle and outer edge of wing and tail quills yellowish, 
brighter than an olive yellow; rump yellowest; below uniform yellow with but slight 
greenish tint. Female: Similar in size but much greener both above and below, with 
the under parts much duller, fading into greyish olive on sides of the abdomen. 
Voting similar to female. Length 4.00-4.25, wing 2.20-2.30, tail 1.45-1.55, culmen 

5O--53, tarsus .75~.8o, toe .55. Hab. Kauai. 

83. C. parva 44 (STEJN.). 

GENUS VIRIDON'IA ROTHSCHILD. 

Bill straight or but slightly curved, high and strong at the base, more atten- 
uated towards the tip, and sharp ; fourth and fifth primaries about equal, second 
shorter than the seventh; tail rather short; sexes similar; above olive green, showing 
more yellow on the forehead, chin and upper tail coverts ; under parts more yellowish 
olive, greener than the upper parts and with a faint ochraceous cast; tail blackish 
brown with yellowish olive margins ; under surface of wing dark ash with dusky white 
quills. Wing 2.80-3.00, tail 1.70-1.75, culmen .70, tarsus .83~.86, toe . 73-75, depth 

of bill .23. Hab. Hawaii. 

84. V. sagittiros'tris ROTHS. 

GENUS OREOMY5JA STEJNEGER. 

Under mandible straight, or at least not perceptibly curved ; plumage soft and 
fluffy; tarsus covered in front with four, five or six scales; nasal operculum slightly 
overhung at the base by tiny feathers; tip of the wing formed by the third, fourth, 

*3Mr. Rothschild (Avifauna of Laysan, Part III., page 129) gives ( h,'<>rr:ti />*;/ ///.w" as a new species from Hawaii, describing it as fol- 
lows : "Adult malf : Above light olive green (Ridgway Noin. Colors, PI. X., No. 18), brighter on the rump ; quills black edged with oil green; 
below olive yellow ; vent greenish white ; thighs dirty white ; under wing coverts white with a yellow tinge ; lores black ; iris dark brown; 
legs and feet greyish brown ; soles of feet yellowish-flesh color ; upper mandible dark brown with paler base ; lower mandible grey. Total 
length about 5.5 inches ; wing 2.6, tail 1.7, tarsus 0.85, culmen 0.63. One male, Puulehua, Hawaii. September 25. 1891,'' In commenting on the 

specimen in the Tring Museum Mr. Rothschild states that the "remarkable specimen has a long but straight bill The coloration is 

that of Chlrmiti'piun^ 7-/; f v/.\ and that it might be a hybrid between t >/*"/ v.<; /,: H<I and <_ lilomiii ?f>unis ?/; **." The B. P. Bishop 

Museum series, embracing many recently collected spcc-inu-ns. show ,"/>>vn with beaks approaching the straight form, though none that are 
to be confounded with the Oirnmyza type ; while fine old males <>t < '/rv;//i .,/ nttinn are much more highly colored than has been usually sup- 
posed. The only character in Mr. Rothschild's description which set ms to be of specific value, when compared with the Museum series, is 
the length, which is given as almost an inch longer than the average of either tntimi or ;'/////>. since the author fails to call attention to this 
point it may possibly be a typographical error. Mr. Henshaw informs me he has taken nothing that conforms with the description, and as 
Mr. Perkins has not met with the bird the status ot the species is somewhat doubtful. 

**At the suggestion of my friend Professor H. \V. Henshaw we have made a careful study of the alcoholic material in the Museum, and 
find the tongue of fiai-Ta to be distinctly tubular in form ; a fact which alone would at once remove it from the genus Orcumvza, and which at 
the same time indicates its affinity with the tune-longed ( '/;/</*/;, /!<; group. .My observations of the bird alive, while collecting on Kauai, 
convince me that its habits are those of the ( 'hl<<nit,-f:{iiii*, rather than of (hnnirv <: . 

[302] 



DREPANIDID^. 47 

fifth, or by the fourth, fifth and sixth feathers, the second shorter than the sixth ; first 
primary obsolete. 

a. Plumage not red. 

b. Under parts not yellow or greenish yellow; culmen about .50, tail 
about 1.85. 

C. Bill light colored ; breast white or buffy white. Male: Above clear 
olive grey faintly washed with olive green, which is most marked on the rump ; nearly 
white on the chin, becoming olive buffy on the breast ; more yellowish on the abdomen, 
with the sides of the body light smoky olive grey ; lores and forehead buffy white. 
Female: Similar, but duller. Young: With forehead, lores, superciliary stripe and 
throat white. Length 4.40-4.65, wing 2.50-2.75, tail 1.75-1.85, culmen .42-. 50, depth 
of culmen .20, tarsus -78-.85, toe .55. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXIX., 9402. 85. O. bairdi STEJN. Akikihi. 

CC. Bill dark colored ; below, whitish buff on the throat, becoming 
greener and greyer on the lower breast ; lores sooty ; abdomen and under tail coverts 
white with a yellowish wash ; primaries and quills brownish. Female: Similar, but 
duller in color. Young: Similar, but showing more buffy white about the base of the 
bill and lores. Length 4.25-4.50, wing 2.60, tail 1.80-1.90, culmen .50, depth of bill 
.20, tarsus .85-.9O, toe .70. Hab. Hawaii. 

PL XXIX., 6664. 86. O. rnana'^ (WILSON). 

bb. Under parts, throat, etc., greener or yellower; bill and tail relatively 
longer. 

d. Yellowish olive green above ; yellow of the forehead extending 

farther back onto the crown ; crown and entire upper parts, including the edge of outer 
web of primaries and tail feathers, light yellowish green ; primaries and tail feathers 
brownish black ; lower parts, including edge of wings, lemon yellow ; sides of body 
yellowish olive. Female: Similar to adult male, but less bright yellow below (Roths- 
child). Quite young: Greyish olive above, tail showing the most olive shade; median 
and greater wing coverts tipped with buffy white, forming two distinct bands across 
the wing; below, greyish white showing some yellow. Length about 4.50, wing 2.30, 
tail 1.95, culmen -5O-.55, depth of bill .18, tarsus .92, toe .65. Hab. Lanai. 

87. O. monta'na (WILSON). Alauhiio. 
dd. Olive green above, yellow of the forehead more restricted. 

e. Broad dusky loral mark; bill stronger; color deeper olive 

brown; more golden beneath. Adult male: Somewhat similar to adult C. chloris, but 
with the olive upper plumage darker, though tinged with yellow; forehead brighter 
than the crown, and with an obvious though ill-defined yellowish streak over the 
eye ; lores brownish black ; chin, cheeks, auriculars and throat clear golden yellow, 
which color pervades the breast and belly, becoming very pale, almost white on the 

<5 See note following ClilwitdrrfHiin's Tirrns, page 46. 

[303] 



48 niRDS ()/ '11 II'. HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

abdomen ; lower tail coverts pale yellow ; wing coverts with distinct whitish marks of 
considerable size. Female: Very unlike the male above described ; streak over the 
eye and under parts yellowish white; sides of breast and flanks washed with olive grey; 
above, olive; the greater wing coverts with large greenish white tips. Young: Quite 
young birds and nestlings are much like the females, but are browner above and of a 
mottled appearance. Length 4.50-5.00, wing 2.60-2.81, tail 1.85-2.00, tarsus .8o-.86, 

culmeu.6o-.65 (Rothschild). Hah. Oahu. 

88. O. macula'ta CAIS. 

ee. Loral mark not so pronounced ; greener above and paler 

yellow below; bill a trifle slenderer; forehead, lores, cheeks, chin and under parts 
bright lemon yellow; upper parts olive green, yellowest on the upper tail coverts; 
sides of bod}' washed with olive; quills and tail feathers brown externally, edged with 
olive. Female: Similar to the male, but duller above and below. Young: Above grey 
with an olive tinge, more greenish grey on the rump; indistinct whitish super-loral 
stripe; throat and centre of body light buffy grey, greyer on the sides, with a faint 
wash of yellow ; a distinct whitish buff band formed by the tips of the greater wing 
coverts. Length 4.50-4.65, wing 2.40-2.50, culmen 45-.5O, depth of bill .15, tarsus 

.82-.S5, toe .65. Hah. Maui. 
PI. XXIX., 6684, 6685. 89. O. new'toni ( ROTHS. ). 

aa. Plumage rich scarlet; bill and feet light; head all round, back and lower 
parts bright rich scarlet, darkest on the back, purest scarlet on the throat ; upper man- 
dible brownish grey above, darkest near the tip; under mandible whitish yellow; tar- 
sus light brown in skins, pink in life. Female: Back and head brownish grey with a 
mixture of brownish dull scarlet, most apparent on the head and rump, outer edge of 
wing and tail feathers ; under parts greyish white tinged with salmon and dull scarlet. 
Young males have more or less strong mixture of ferruginous brown or rufous above, 
washed with deep brown along the sides of the body, more obvious in younger indi- 
viduals. Length 4.95-5.20, wing 2.60, tail 2.05-2.20, culmen -53-.55, depth of bill .17, 
tarsus .Ss-.go, toe .70. Hah. Molokai. 
PL XXVIII., 6681, 8089, 8088. 90. O. flam 'mea ( WILSON). Kakawahie. 

GEMS I^OXOPS CABANIS. 




FIG. 6. I,. COCCINKA. 

Bill short and finch-like; culmen much shorter than the tarsus; wing moderate 
length, falling considerably short of the tail, and not equal to the length of the tail 
and tarsus combined ; bill bluish grey. 

[304] 



DREPANIDID^. 49 

a. General color red, foxy or orange; no black on lores or forehead. 

b. General color above, scarlet orange, dullest on the mantle ; wing coverts, 
wing and tail feathers brownish black edged externally with dull scarlet orange ; below, 
uniform scarlet orange, brighter than the back. Female: Greyer on the crown ; loral 
region dusky whitish; back greyish with olive tinge, olive most pronounced on the 
rump and edge of wing and tail feathers ; chin grey ; breast greyish olive, greyer on 
the sides of body. Young: Similar to female; bill paler than in adults. Length 4.25- 
4.60, wing 2.40-2.50, tail 1.85-2.05, culmen .42, depth of bill .20, tarsus .77-79, toe .60. 
Hab. Hawaii. 

PL XXVIII., 6648, 6642. 91. I,. coccin'ea (GMEL.). Akep'a. 

bb. General color above, orange or foxy. 

C. Uniform orange, brightest on the breast ; more yellow orange on the 
rump; primaries and tail feathers blackish brown edged with orange, like the back. 
Female: Similar, but duller. Young: Back of head and mantle decided grey with 
slight olive tinge; rump and breast more olive; sides greyer olive, very similar to 
young of L. coccinea. Length about 4.50, wing 2.60, tail 2.00, culmen .40, depth of bill 
.20, tarsus .80, toe .67. Hab. Maui. 

PI. XXVIII., 6638. 92. I,. ochra'cea ROTHS. 

CC. Body, red foxy ; lores blackish ; wings and tail olive brown ; wing 
coverts, quills and tail red-edged ; inner edge of quills and under wing coverts white; 
bill short, triangular, conic; tip straight, acute, whitish; feet brown; tarsus nine 
lines (Grey's description). Gould says "that the whole of the plumage is rich rusty 
red deepening into brownish red on the back ........ Length 4 inches, bill ^g-, wing 2 J, 

tail f, tarsus f." Hab. Oahu. 

93. I,. rufa 46 (BLOX.). 

aa. With lores, a ring about the eye, and forehead smoky black ; crown gam- 
boge yellow fading into rich olive and passing into olive green on the mantle and wing 
coverts; rump, tail coverts and edge of tail feathers brighter yellowish olive; edge of 
primaries like the back; lower parts, including the sides of head, bright gamboge yel- 
low, passing to olive yellow on the sides of the body ; thighs smoky grey ; wings and 
tail blackish brown. Female: Similar, except more green in the yellow, and with 
loral region not as well defined. Young: Greyish green above, grey with a very faint 
yellowish green wash below ; sometimes smoky tips to the feathers ; lores and forehead 
not well defined ; bill lighter. Length 4.50-4.60, wing 2.40-2.50, tail 2.00-2.15, cul- 
men .43-45, depth of bill .20, tarsus .85, toe .60. Hab. Kauai. 
PI. XXIX., 9353, 9361. 94. I/, cseruleiros'tris 47 (WILSON). Ou holowai. 

<> 6 Since the above description was written I have had the pleasure of examining the fjmps in the British Museum collections and quite 
agree with Mr. Kothschild in separating the Oahu species; and with Mr. Wilson in placing wcsteiikoltnii, Roths., as a synonym of 1.. rufa 
(Blox.). 

' Should l>e held sub-getierically distinct from the other three members of the genus on account of the stronger bill, smoky loral patch 
and general color which is always different from typical l.n.i-t)f>s. 



MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, VOL. I., No. 3. 4. 



5 o BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

GENUS HEMIGNATHTJS LICHTENSTEIN. 




FIG. 7. H. OBSCURUS. 

Bill very long, slender and curved, with the tongue as long as the bill ; feet 
reaching to the tip of the tail (in the skin); tip of the wings falling short of the tip of 
the tail by less than the length of the hind toe and claw. 

a. Back dull olive green; species has very inconspicuous plumage; 

the whole upper surface and wing feathers on the outside are dull olive green, the 
inner webs of the flight feathers dull brown. The under surface is light but still dull; 
throat and centre of the abdomen, as well as the under tail coverts, pale buff. A bright 
yellow superciliary stripe is very conspicuous, especial^ as directly underneath it from 
the beak to the eye there is a dark brown streak. The bow-shaped, curved bill, which 
terminates in a very fine, almost hair-like point, is exactly half as long as the body, 
and the under mandible is three lines shorter than the upper. The whole length, from 
the point of the bill to the end of the tail is 7 inches, bill i%, tail ify, tarsus u lines, 
middle toe and claw 9 lines (Excerpt from Rothschild's translation of Lichtenstein's 
description). Hub. Oahu; rare or extinct. (No specimens in the Museum.) 

95. H. lichtensteini 48 WILSON. Kipi. 

aa. Yellowish olive green above ; under parts yellower. 

b. Smaller size ; bill shorter ; above all over a beautiful bright olive green 
with a yellowish cast, yellowest on the rump, and with a distinct yellow mark over the 
eye; throat, sides of face and breast duller olive green than the back, fading into dis- 
tinct whitish on the abdomen and under tail coverts, varied only with an olive wash; 
primaries and tail feathers brown with olive on the outer edges ; lores smoky black; 
wings falling short of the tip of the tail by less than .50 (in the skin). Female: Above, 
greyish olive green; more olive green on the rump; lores blackish, above which is a 
pale superciliary stripe; chin whitish or greyish white with a yellowish tinge, becom- 
ing yellower on the chest and under parts, with olive tinge along the sides. Young: 
Similar to female. Length 6.25-6.50, wing 3.00-3.15, tail 1.80-1.85, chord of culmen 
1.25-1.38, tarsus .Sy-.ga, toe .8o-.85, depth of bill .20, width of bill .25. Hab. Hawaii. 
PI. XXIX., 9421. 96. H. obscur'us (GMEL. ). Akialoa. 

* 8 Since the first reference in Gray's syiioiioiny (Cat. Birds Trop. Isds., p. 9) for Dr<>fninis (/frnii^naf/iii^} <-lli>ui>m is given "Ceil/iia oh^-m-a 
(nee Gniel.) Yieill. Ois. dor. t. .s;, ?". I prefer to consider that it is the- ii;f>-}Yti<r tu the exact place in the volume cited that Gray was in doubt 
about, and that he did not intend quo turning 1 the name ( 'ni/iiti nh^-nra. That being the case fh-e/xitu's (f/emigmithits) ellisianG will become a 
synonym of H<~>nii;nathu> <>h^ m u.\. Hence it seems that Mr. Wilson's name //. lichiensteitii should stand. 

[306] 




DREPANIDID^. 5 1 

bb. Larger size, bill and wing longer. 

C. Chord of culmen not less than 1.95, averaging 2.15 ; above, bright 
olive yellow, yellowest on the rump; on crown and forehead the feathers have dark 
centres with olive edges which give a "scaled" appearance to the region ; a distinct 
superciliary stripe ; under parts from chin to tail yellow with an olive tinge ; wings 
and tail brown edged with olive on the outer webs ; lores black. Female: Quite differ- 
ent from the male ; above, grey with an olive tinge ; rump yellowish olive ; head scaled 
as in the male; super-loral line dingy yellowish white; lores black; throat greyish 
white; breast yellowish white with an olive green wash. Young: Have less yellow 
below and over the eye, scarcely any olive on the back, which is greyish ; scales on the 
crown less noticeable. Length 7.00-7.50, wing 340-3.55, tail 2.10-2.25, chord of cul- 
men 1.95-2.35, tarsus 1.05-1.10, toe i.oo. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXIX., 8130. 97. H. pro'cerus CAB. Kauai Akialoa. 

CC. Chord of culmen not exceeding i.95(?). Above, yellowish olive 
green somewhat mixed with greyish brown on the head where the bases show through 
Quills dark brown edged with the color of the back ; rectrices the same. Below, 
yellowish olive green much less bright than on the back and with little yellow in it, 
shading into olive buff on the vent, and with. a brown pale shade on the throat, etc. 
Length 6.00 inches in the skin, wing 3.30, tail 2.10, tarsus 1.93, chord of culmen 1.90. 
Female: Smaller, more greenish olive, and less bright ; superciliary stripe faint and 
greenish. Chin, throat and middle of abdomen buffish yellow (From Rothschild's 

description). Hab. Lanai. 

98. H. lanaien'sis ROTHS. I/anai Akialoa. 

GENUS HETERORHYN CHUS ROTHSCHILD. 




t \ 

\ \ 

FIG. 8. H. AFFINIS. FIG. q. H. WILSONI. 

Upper mandible much longer than the lower; tongue not as long as the upper 
mandible. 

a. The under mandible curved ; smaller size. 

b. Head yellow ; no decided superciliary stripe. 

C. Color of the forehead bright deep gamboge yellow, not extending 
over the crown, sharply defined from the greyish olive of the neck and back; wings 
and tail blackish brown with olive outer edges to the feathers ; lores black, and cou- 

[307] 



52 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

ne&ed by a narrow black band across the forehead; throat and chest rich gamboge 
yellow; abdomen whitish with a yellowish cast; flanks olive grey ; edge of wing yel- 
lowish. Female: Above, olive green, a yellowish super-loral stripe; lores dusky grey; 
chin and throat yellow; centre of lower parts pale yellow; sides olive grey. Young: 
Similar to female. Length 5.00-5.25, wing 2.95-3.00, tail 1.80-1.95, chord of culmen 
.95-1.05, tarsus .Ss-.go, toe -75-.8o. Hab. Maui. 

PI. XXIX., 6620. 99. H. affi'nis ROTHS. 

CC. Gamboge yellow of the forehead more or less indefinable from the 
fine olive yellow of the back into which it gradually merges, olive yellow purest on the 
rump ; primaries and tail feathers brown edged with the olive of the back ; lores and a 
narrow line above the bill a deep black ; throat, breast and sides of the head a bright 
gamboge yellow, brighter than the forehead ; breast with a slight olive tinge ; abdomen 
and under tail coverts white. Female: Above, grey with an olive cast, most pro- 
nounced on the head and rump. Below, dusky white, greyest on the sides of the body 
and throat. Young: Similar to females, the males showing yellow on the throat at an 
early age. Length about 5.50, wing 2.85-3.20, tail 1.85-2.05, culmen .95-1.10, tarsus 
.90, toe .80. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXIX., 6633, 6636. 100. H. hanape'pe (WILSON). Nukupu'u. 

bb. Head green ; a very distinct superciliary stripe. Male specimen in 
Paris Museum: Above, olive green, darker and more olive on the back; lighter, more 
green on the head, wing and tail coverts; lores and line behind the eye brownish black. 
Across the forehead and above the eyes conspicuous orange yellow superciliary stripe; 
Quills deep brown, outer web edged with greenish yellow ; chin, throat and upper breast 
bright orange yellow; abdomen yellow and fading into pale greenish grey on the vent 
and under tail coverts. Adult female or immature male in the Frankfort Museum: 
Above, dull brownish olive tinged with greenish on the top of the head, rump and 
upper tail coverts and on the edge of the quills and tail feathers. Lores dusky ; a 
somewhat ill-defined but distinct superciliary stripe; sides of the head and throat 
yellowish. An immature male in the Leiden Museum is somewhat similar to the 
Frankfort specimen. Length 5.50, culmen i.io, wing 2.95, tarsus .76, tail 2-9(?). 
(Condensed from Rothschild's descriptions in Avifauna of Laysan, etc.) Huh. 

Oahu; extinct. 

101. H. lu'cidus ( LIGHT. ). 

aa. Gonys of under mandible straight and strong at the base; above, olive 
green, brightest on the rump, and yellowest on the head; lores black; below rich gam- 
boge yellow on the chin, gradually fading into olive yellow on the sides of the abdomen 
and under tail coverts; under wing coverts with yellowish shade of white; quills and pri- 
maries brown edged with olive. Female: Above, greenish olive grey, with olive bright- 
est on the rump; throat and breast pale yellow shading into greyish white, with olive 

[308^ 



DRFPANIDIJ). /. 



53 



infusion on the belly and flanks. Young duller and greyer. Length 5.50-5.75, \\irg 
3.20-3.35, tail 1.85-2.00, cnlmen .85-1.03, tarsus .go-.<)6, toe .85. Hah. Hawaii. 

PI. XXIX., 6632, 6630. 102. H. wil'soni- 1 " ROTHS. 

GKNUS PSEUDONES TOR ROTHSCHILD. 




FIG. IO. P. XANTHOPHRYS. 



Upper parts with grey bases to the feathers, and greenish olive ends, giving the 
back a somewhat greenish grey cast, more inclined to olive on the rump; broad super- 
loral stripe light yellow; lores dusky, extending backward through the eye; breast 
canary yellow ; abdomen yellowish white ; greyish olive on the flanks ; under tail coverts 
with a yellowish tinge ; upper mandible blackish ; lower mandible whitish ; bill strongly 
hooked ; gonys nuich curved. Female and young : Duller above ; yellow of throat not 
so pronounced. Length 5.15-5.50, wing 2.70-2.90, tail 1.75-1.90, culmen .65-.S5, 
depth of bill -55-.65, tarsus .S5-.87, toe .80. Hab. Maui. 

PI. XXIX., 6607. 103. P. xantho'phrys ROTHS. 

GENUS PSITTACIROS'TRA TKMMINCK. 




FIG. II. P. PSITTACEA. 

Head and upper neck, all around, a rich light gamboge yellow, sharply denned 
against the greenish grey of the mantle and olive grey of the chest; rump olive green; 
tail and primaries dusky brown edged with olive green ; olive on the sides and flanks; 
abdomen and under tail coverts whitish grey ; bill and feet pink ; upper mandible ex- 
ceeding the lower usually by about .15. Female: Upper parts, including head and 
neck, uniform olive green; greyish on the neck; under parts greyish white, washed 
with yellow ; under tail coverts white. Young: Similar to the female, but more uniform 
grey above and below, except the abdomen, which is whitish ; bill dark. Length 6.30- 

The above characters are sufficient to separate wikinii from its fellows, sub-generically at least, if not entitling it to generic rank. 

[309] 



54 niRDS (>/' ////: JIAU'AllAN CROUP. 

6.60, wing 3.80-4.00, tail 2.50-2.60, culmen .55-. 60, tarsus .Sy-^o, toe .90-. 95. Hub. 
Kauai, Alolokai, Lanai, Hawaii, Oahu/" 
PI. XXIX., 6612. 104. P. psitta'cea (C.MKi..). On'. 

GKNTS I/OXIOIDES OrSTAI.KT. 

Head and neck to the mantle, and breast to the middle of the body, uniform 
bright gamboge yellow; back and upper coverts ashy grey, decidedly ashy on the 
rump; wing coverts, primaries and tail feathers dusky brown or blackish edged with 
yellowish olive; abdomen and under tail coverts dusky whitish with a bluish cast. 
Female: Similar, but with the yellow showing a brownish wash ; with a greenish cast 
to the under parts. Length about 7.50, wing 3.55-3.75, tail 2.55-265, depth of bill 

.60, tarsus .95-1.00, toe .75. Hab. Hawaii. 

105. I/, bailleu'i Oi ST. Pali'la. 

GENTS TEWSSPI'SA WILSON. 




\ 

I-IG. 12. T. CANTANS. 

Head all around, neck and under parts to the middle of the abdomen bright 
yellow, brightest on the head; back bright olive yellow with varying blackish shaft 
streaks ; rump grey with some olive cast at times ; webs of primaries and tail feathers 
brown ; secondaries blackish edged with yellowish olive ; wing coverts deep brown 
broadly edged with yellowish olive; bill horn color. Immature: Feathers of the head 
deep brown with yellowish edges ; upper surface with centre of feathers deep brown or 
blackish edged with light brown ; rump uniform brown ; tail and primaries brown 
edged with olive yellow; throat and breast yellow with brown shaft stripes; centre of 
the abdomen white ; sides and under tail coverts brown, or olive brown, and with brown 
shaft stripes. Young: Similar to immature birds, except yellow reduced to the slight- 
est tinge about the head and wings. Length 6.25-6.50, wing 3.25-3.40, tail 2.55-2.60, 
culmen . 65-70, depth of bill 47-.5O, tarsus .95-1.00, toe .95. Hab:-' Laysan. 

PI. XXIX., 8731. 106. T. can'tans"' WILSON. I/aysan Finch. 

^ u In October, lS<^. I saw a specimen in the bushes up .Moanalua \alli-v which I believe to have been the above species, though of eourse 
I cannot be positive of tht identity. Since the preparation of the above. Mi- Rothschild (IJirtls of I.aysan. Part III.. pa_nc Kj.O has separated 
the Oahu form from the Hawaii binl, jiivhiK the prim ipal dilhrcntial charaetci as having the middle of the breast and belly, the feather^ 
of (he tibia and under tail coverts \vhitish ; whereas, the adult males of ttie Hawaii bird "have the undc T parts olive j^iei n mer^inij into whit- 
ish only in the middle of the lower al.dnnn -n ' The name >;iven to "the Honolulu ( >u" is l'*ittan>:ha o//rv<v</, Koths. 

*' With a tfood series of birds before me I am unable to separate .<;;//<; ;/s. Wilson, from //</r i^^nmi, Koths. The latter seems to be omy 
fully mature specimens of the former, and in a plumage which requires some time for the individual to assume. Director Win. T. Itrighain 
aUu informs me that spn imeiis brought troni I.aysan and kept in his aviary for a lon^ time passed through several of the intermediate stages 
on the way from , t inttin\ to fl t i: i*\r>mi before they were accidentally killed. 

"[310] 



DREPANIDIDJE. 



55 



GENUS RHODACAN'THIS ROTHSCHILD. 




FIG. 13. K. PALM EKI. 

a. Head, throat and under parts throughout rich scarlet orange ; breast purer 
orange tinge; under tail coverts and flanks showing some grey ; mantle brown ; rump 
orange brown ; tail and wing feathers brown, with some orange brown ; wing and tail 
feathers brown with orange brown edgings to the outer webs; bill bluish grey. 
l-'cntalc: Above, greenish olive with dark grey bases to the feathers ; more olive on the 
rump and upper tail coverts; tail and wing feathers with olive edges; breast showing 
grey as the under color, with yellowish olive edges, yellowest on chin and upper breast; 
centre of the breast whitish with but faint yellowish wash ; flanks greenish yellow. 
Young: Similar to females; young males brighter below. Length about 7.50, wing 
4.20-4.40, tail 2.903.00, culmen .8o-.85, depth of bill -58-.6i, tarsus 1.00-1.05, toe 
i.oo. Hah. Hawaii. 
PI. XXIX., 6603, 6601. 107. R. paltn'eri ROTIIS. 

aa. Head, neck and under parts generally apple yellow, brightest and richer 
on the head and neck, and greener on the under parts; upper parts ashy green, becom- 
ing bright green on the lower back, rump and upper tail coverts. Wings and tail dull 
blackish brown, feathers externally margined with green ; bill blue-brown ; legs grey; 
iris brown. Total length about 7.50, culmen .72, wings 3.80, tail 2.50, tarsus i.oo. 
Adult female : Differs from the male in being much greener and duller in color, only 
the forehead being yellow ; the crown similarly colored to the back ; under parts dull 
yellowish green. Palmer obtained a small series in the district of Kona at the same 
place where R. palmeri was first collected. The smaller sixe and yellow head of the 
adult male serves to distinguish this species very easily from the much larger R. pal men 
with its orange red head in the adult male. Neither Wilson nor Perkins met with this 
bird (Rothschild in Part III., Avifauna of Laysan, etc.). Hab. Hawaii. 

108. R. flav'iceps ROTHS. 



BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



GENUS CHWRIDOPS WILSON. 




FIG. 14. C. KONA. 

Female: Above, decided olive green, more olive on the upper tail coverts, and 
with dark centres to the feathers of the head, producing a scaled appearance; under 
parts of the abdomen and flanks yellowish olive; under tail coverts whitish ; quills and 
tail feathers brown with olive edgings on the outer web; bill extremel}' thick and 
clumsy. (Male probably brighter?) Length 6.00-6.50, wing 3.30-3.45, culmen .70, 

depth of bill .70, width of bill .60, tarsus .Ss-.go, toe .85. Hab. Hawaii. 

109. C. ko'na WILSON. 

FAMILY MEI/IPHAG ID^. HONEY-EATERS. 

Genera. 

With no white feathers about the eye; nostrils operculate; first primary about 

half the length of the second ; secondaries three-fourths the length of the wing ; tip of 

the wing formed by the fourth, fifth and sixth primaries. (Sub-family Meliphagina?) 

a. Smaller; wing less than 5.00; tail black or brownish black ; with or without 

pectoral tufts . (Page 56.) Moho. 5J 

aa. Larger; wing more than 5.00; tail brown or greenish brown. 

(Page 58.) Chaetop'tila. 
GENUS MOHO LESSON. 




KIO. 15. M. NOBII.IS. 

a. With no yellow pectoral tufts ; tail feathers uniform blackish without any 
trace of white on the outer pair ; crown black with a greyish cast ; upper surface brown 

> ! Since it is doubtful if Mnho should ever have been set aside, to accord with the Stricklandian code, and since it is certain that by the 
A. O. U. code M"h<' would stand against . \i i nlnn-rcns. it is preferable to use the former name for this pt-nus 

LSI 2] 



MELIPHA GID^. 5 7 

or brownish black with faint white shaft stripes on the mantle; upper tail coverts 
rusty brown ; wing and tail feathers blackish brown ; throat and neck to chest black with 
white shafts and bars ; under wing coverts mostly white ; thighs yellow ; breast uniform 
with the back ; sides of the body less rusty brown than the upper tail coverts ; bill and 
feet black. Female: Similar to male, but smaller. Young: Differing from the adult 
in having the tibise blackish instead of yellow, and with the greyish shaft stripe to the 
feathers of back and breast indistinct or wanting. Length 7.50-9.00 (according to 
tail), wing 3.70-4.00, tail 3.60-4.25, culmen 1.10-1.15, depth of bill .25, tarsus 1.25- 
1.35, toe .95. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXIX., 5463. no. M. bracca'tus (CASSIN). Oo aa. 

aa. With yellow pectoral tufts, and more or less white on the outer pair of 
tail feathers. 

b. With elongated yellow ear tufts, uniform in color with the few yellow 
feathers under the wing and the under tail coverts ; a faint edge of whitish on the outer 
margin of the outer pair of tail feathers ; remainder of tail uniform glossy black, like 
the primaries ; crown and rump black ; back, chest and abdomen black, with conspicu- 
ous white shafts to the feather ; throat black ; bill and feet black ; central tail feathers 
with weak shafts; long and plume-like. Female similar(?). Length about n.oo, 
wing 4.55-4.75, tail 5.00-6.25, culmen 1.32, depth of bill .30, tarsus 1.50-1.55, toe 1.05. 

Hab. Molokai. 

in. M. bish'opi (ROTHS.). 

bb. Without elongated yellow ear tufts ; tail with prominent white tips to 
the outer feathers. 

C. With only the two outer tail feathers with white tips ; head, rump, 
back, wing coverts and lower parts deep black with some gloss; upper mantle, lower 
part of the abdomen and inner edge of secondaries inclined to umber brown ; tufts 
under the wings and under tail coverts bright golden yellow; primaries and tail 
feathers black ; bill and feet black. Female: Similar, but smaller. Young: With no 
yellow beneath the wings. Length $ 12.50-10.50$ , wing 4.85-4.90, tail 7.50, culmen 
1.15, depth of bill .25, tarsus 1.40, toe i.oo. Hab. Hawaii. 
PI. XXIX., 5457. H2. M. nob'ilis (MERREM.). Oo. 

CC. All the tail feathers, except the middle pair, tipped with white. 
General color sooty black; tail brown, all tipped as above; centre pair somewhat nar- 
rower than the others and gradually diminishing to the apical third of their length 
into fine hair-like, or filamentous, upturned points; axillae or under surface of the 
shoulder white; flanks and tinder tail coverts bright yellow; bill and legs black. 
Total length 12 inches, bill 1^2, wing 4^, tail 6^4, tarsus iX (Gould). Hab. Oahu; 
rare or extinct. (No specimen in the Museum.) 

113. M. apica'lis GOULD. Yellow-tufted Honey-eater. 
[313] 



58 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

(ii-N-rs CH^TOPTII,A SCI.ATKK. 

Tail greenish brown; feathers of the forehead, crown and back of the neck, with 
whitish shaft stripe, blackish webs and tipped with olive black predominating on the 
crown most olive on the neck ; lores and ear coverts blackish ; an indistinct grey 
superciliary stripe; throat dusky white, washed with yellow; breast dingy white with 
black stripes; abdomen and under tail coverts with fewer stripes and more olive than 
the chest ; flanks and upper tail coverts ochraceons black with white shafts and termi- 
nal spots ; primaries and secondaries brown edged with olive ; under wing coverts 
brown. Length about 13.50, wing 5.75, tail 6.65, culmen 1.25, depth of bill .31, width 
.45, tarsus i. 60, toe 1.15, hallux with claw 1.02. Hub. Hawaii; rare or extinct. 

PI. XXX., Frontispiece. 114. C. angustipluina (PE.uj:). 

FAMILY SYI/VTID^. WARBLERS, ETC. 

Genus. 

Bill slender, but rather wide and depressed ; wing long and flat, about equal to 
the tail in length, with a very small bastard primary not extending beyond the wing 
coverts ; birds not migratory ; no white on the tail ( Sub-family Sylviiiue) ; rectal 
bristles fairly well developed; wing more than 2.70; second primary longer than the 
fifth ; upper parts brownish with greyish cast ; a faint buffy white super-loral stripe; 
outer tail feathers more than .25 shorter than the longest pair. 

(Page 58.) Acroceph'alus. 

GENUS ACROCEPH AI/US NAUMANN. 




FIG. l6. A. KAMII.IAKIS. 

Upper parts brownish with a greyish cast, greyest on the neck ; under parts 
buffy white including the edge of wing, and a super-loral stripe ; wing and tail feathers 
brownish ; feet black ; bill horn-brown ; nostrils rounded and exposed ; sexes similar. 
Yontig (?). Length about 5.65, wing 2.30-2.40, tail 2.30-2.40, culmen .60, tarsus .75- 
.90, toe .72, depth of bill .15. Hab. Laysan. 
PI. XXVII.. s 7 ;, 5 . 115. A. familia'ris ROTHS. Miller Bird. 



TURDID&. 



59 



FAMILY TURDID^. THRUSHES, ETC. 

Genus. 

The young different from the adults, having the under parts spotted; tarsus for 
the greater part of its length without transverse scutulse, being booted ; bill somewhat 
depressed, with a few rental bristles; gonys about one-third the length of the com- 
misure of the beak (Sub-family Myadestince); inner toe aboiit equal to the hind tee; 
nostrils exposed and not hidden by bristles, and situated in a wide oval groove ; culinen 
not longer than the hind claw ; second primary longer than the secondaries ; bill with 
a distinct sub-terminal notch (Page 59.) Phaeor'nis. 



GENUS PH^OR'NIS SCLATEK. 




FIG. 17. 



P. OBSCURA. 



a. Uniform in color above, brown or hair-brown, with faint olive wash. 
b. Very conspicuous buffy white mark on the outer tail feathers. 

C. Wing less than 4.00; feet light flesh-color; above, dull brown with 
an olive cast, most pronounced on the middle of the rump and mantle ; throat and lores 
bluish grey; chest bluish ash or grey, sometimes mottled with blackish; abdomen 
and under tail coverts buff-white ; outer web of primaries with very dull brown edge; 
inner web edged so as to form a dull buffy patch at base of feathers ; outer tail feathers 
edged with whitish or fulvous on the inner web ; ends of primary coverts blackish, 
forming a patch. Young: Feathers above, brown with broad blackish borders to the 
tip, and before this a creamy buff, more or less triangular spot ; feathers of lower parts 
ashy brown at the base, then lighter cream color and broadly bordered with blackish 
brown, these borders blackest and broadest on the breast (Rothschild). Length about 
6.15, wing 3.35, tail 2.45, culmen .70, depth of bill .20, width of bill .22, tarsus 1.30, 

toe .95, gonys .32. Hab. Kauai. 

PI. XXVII., 6693. 116. P. palm'eri ROTHS. Puaiohi. 



60 BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 

CC. Wing more than 4.00; feet dark colored; above, dull brown with 
a rusty olive tinge; sides of head and ear coverts tawny, always more or less mottled 
with rusty and grey; quills blackish, edged externally with rusty olive, which color 
forms a spot at the base of the inner primaries, below which the blackish tips of 
the greater wing coverts form a less pronounced spot; inner edge of the wing feathers 
without buffy patch; outer edge of each primary for almost its entire length rusty; 
lower parts dull smoky grey in appearance, shading into whitish on the abdomen ; tail 
feathers like back, outer three pairs tipped with white or buffy white, pronounced on 
the tips and gradually fading into the ground color of the web; feet dark brown. 
Female similar. Young: Similar to P. obscura, but can be distinguished by the mark- 
ings on the outer web of primaries, the white of the tail, and the broader bill. Length 
7.50-8.50, wing 4.05-4.18, tail 3.20-3.30, culmen -5O-.55, depth of bill .22, width of 
bill .40, tarsus 1.25-1.32, toe .95, gonys .25. Hab. Kauai. 
PI. XXVII., 9385. 117. P. myadesti'na STKJN. Kamau'. 

bb. With no conspicuous white markings on the outer tail feathers. 

d. Wing 3.50-3.75 ; color lighter below; a distinct black patch near 

the base of the outer web of inner primaries ; above, olive brown with a faint wash of 
greyish ; head darker ; primaries and tail feathers brown (quills and webs practically 
the same color), with the edge of the outer webs rusty or rusty brown; outer web of 
the inner primaries and the secondaries with a distinct black patch, bordered in front 
and behind by the rusty edges of the feather ; chin and throat pale grey, the grey pass- 
ing to white on the abdomen ; under tail coverts buffy white ; wing pattern on the 
inner web of primaries marked at all ages ; no white on outer tail feathers. Female 
similar. Young: Similar to allied species, but with the wing pattern on the inner web, 
no white on the tail, and with the black patch on the outer edge of inner primaries as 
in adults. Length aboiit 7.00-7.50, wing 3.50-3.75, tail 3.25-3.30, culmen .57-.6o, 
depth of bill .22, width of bill .30, tarsus 1.25-1.30, toe .95, gonys .27. Hab. Lanai, 

Molokai. 53 
PI. XXVII., 8094, 8096. 118. P. lanaien'sis WILSON. Olomau. 

dd. Wing not less than 3.90; color darker below; above, dusky 

olive brown (fading to hair-brown Mills specimens); forehead greyer; under parts 
ash-grey; white on the abdomen and under tail coverts; primaries and tail feathers 
brown, shaded with dusky olive; quills of tail feathers umber brown above; base of 
secondaries showing a rusty spot ; pattern on the inner web of quills scarcely discerni- 
ble; bill and feet blackish ; no white on the tail feathers. Female similar. Young: 
Spotted like young thrushes ; each feather above is bordered with blackish, and before 
the blackish border is a more or less triangular buff spot; the feathers below are buffy 
white and broadly bordered with blackish brown (Rothschild). 

53 The form from Molokai should probably be separated as a Mil >]>i rit s. Xo specimens from Molokai at hand. 

[316] 



6 1 

Length 6.90-8.00, wing 3.95-4.00, tail 2.85-2.95, culmen .55~.62, depth of bill .22-.25, 

width of bill -3O-.35, tarsus 1.22-1.30, toe .97, gonys .26. Hab. Hawaii. 

PI. XXVII., 6615, 9922, 9923. 119. P. obscu'ra (GMKL.). Oman. 

aa. Upper parts olive brown, extremities of the feathers much lighter color; 

tail and wings brown; bill bristled at the base; length 7.50 (Bloxham). Nothing 

farther is known of this evidently extinct species than is given above, and which is 

taken from Bloxham's account of the birds secured on the voyage of the Blonde, where 

it is given as "Tnrdus sandvicensis (var.), from Oahu." 

120. P. oahuen'sis WILSON & EVANS. 

[317] 



KEY TO THE HIGHER ORDERS. 



a. All four toes united by a web or membrane. . . .(Page 13.) Order StegatlOpodeS. 
aa. Hind toe, when present, not connected in any way with the other toes. 

b. Nostrils peculiarly tubular, and feet webbed .... (Page 10.) Order TllbinareS. 
bb. Nostrils not tubular, or feet not webbed. 

C. Feet webbed; cutting edge of the bill dentate; bill as in ducks, geese, etc. 

(Page 16.) Order AnsereS. 
CC. Cutting edge of the bill not fringed or dentate, or else feet not webbed. 

d. Toes distinctly webbed ; legs inserted well forward towards the middle of 

the body, which is held horizontal (Page 5-) Order 1/OHgipenneS. 

dd. Toes not distinctly webbed, or else tarsus longer than the tail. 

e. Lower portion of thigh naked, or else bill long and with grooves ex- 
tending along the sides. 

f. Lores naked; hind toe long and inserted on the same level with 

the middle toe (Page 20.) Order HerodiotlCS. 

ff. Lores feathered ; hind toe, when present, never exceeding the 
length of the lower mandible. 

g. Hind toe longer; inserted on a level with middle toe (when long 

as the under mandible head with frontal shield) (Page 22.) Order Paludicolse. 

gg. Hind toe shorter; if present, inserted more or less above the 

level of the middle toe ' (Page 24. ) Order I/imacolae. 

ee. Lower portion of the thighs feathered ; the bill, if lengthened, not 

grooved along the sides. 

h. Bill strongly hooked, with a distinct naked cere at base of 

upper mandible (Page 32. ) Order Raptores. 

hh. Bill not strongly hooked, and without naked cere at the 
base of upper mandible; or, if with a cere, it is soft and swollen in life. 

i. Hind toe small and elevated. 

(Page 30.) Order Gallinae. 

ii. Hind toe always well developed and on the same level 
with the middle one (mainly perching birds). 

j. With soft swollen cere at the base of upper mandible. 

(Page 31.) Order Columbse. 

jj. Without a soft swollen cere; toes, three in front, one 
behind, and on the same level ; not united by \veb, and tarsus equal to or longer than 

the hind toe with claw (Page 34. ) Order Passeres. 

[319] *) 



TABLE SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS 
IN THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



The o denotes its occurrence ; t rare or extinct ; ? uncertain or questionable record. 



NAME. 


Hawaii. 


"3 

OJ 




's 

3 
J 


Molokai. 


a 

d 

O 


Kauai. 


Niihau. 


Laysan. 


Ivisiansky. 


be 

1 

Tl w 

c 

a 

to 


Midway. 


Accidental or 
wide-ranging. 
















































































franklinii .... .... .... 


























Philadelphia 1 .... .... .... 


























Sterna fuliginosa . . .... .... 
lunata .... .... .... .... 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 





o 


o 


melanauchen . . .... .... 












o 












o 


Microanous hawaiiensis .... .... 









o 


O 





o 


o 





O 





Q 


Diomedea nigripes .... .... 















o 


o 





o 


o 





O 


^Estrelata phseopygia 3 .... .... 


? 










o 




o 


























o 








o 


Bulweria buhveri . . .... .... 
Priofinus cuneatus .... .... .... 


o 













o 




o 

o 


o 




o 






Puffinus nativitatis .... .... 
















o 




o 

































Oceanodroma castro 3 .... .... 













o 


J 





























o 








o 














o 


o 


o 




















o 


o 


o 










o 





















o 


o 


o 


o 



















o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




















o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 













































o 








o 








? 


> 


o 


o 






























o 


> 
























o 








o 


Onernnpflnln rirria 




























1 Since the foregoing pages were in print Mr. Rothschild has published a record of the taking of a single specimen of this small gnll at 
Poli-hula lake, on Kanai, on March 15, 1891. by Mr. Palmer. See Avifauna of I.avsan. etc.. Part III., p. 286. 

2 There .seems to be some reason for separating the Hawaiian fornv fm, i he C.alapagos form under the name .I'^trehitu f>h(fof>y^ia 
M/ >/*/?/< v;/.\/j>, Ridgway. More material is required to thoroughly establish the sub-species. 

^In the text this species is given as O. ,-rvfitolencnra. That name has been recently found to be a synonym for Own ni muni mstm 
( Hareourt). 

MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSEUM, Voi,. I., No. 3. 5. [3 2 l J 



66 



BIRDS OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP. 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. Continued. 



be 



X A M K . 



u 
~ 

II 



Charitonetta albeola .... .... 


: 

a 


d 


2 J2 

2 en 

J O 


2 2 

L^ SZ 


/) 


.2 
"35 


% li ? .2 Js 

5 ts "2 ? - 
E 53 ^ z 
U< 38 ^1 


o 
o 


. . 


o o 


. . 


o 
o 
o 













o 



o 
o 
o 



o 
o 



o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 




o 
o 






o 






o 




o 




o 







o 




. . 




Branta canadensis minima- 


p 


? 

o 







f t 


Nesochen sandvicensis .... .... 


Demiegretta sacra.. .... .... 
Nycticorax nycticorax naevius 
Pennula ecaudata- .... 






o 

t 


o 





o 


o 


o 




o 








Gallinula sandvicensis .... o o 
Porphvrio melanotis. ... .... 


? 


o 





o 
o 



o 


o 
o 


o 


Fulica alai .... .... .... o 


o 


? 


? 


Crymophilus fulicarius .... 
Himantopus knudseni-- 
Gallinago delicata 
Tringa acuminata 




o 


o 



o 


o 


o 







o 



o 










o 
o 

o 



o 



o 
o 
o 












Heteractitis incanus .... 
Limosa lapponica baueri 





o 
o 
o 


o 


o 

o 
o 
o 


o 

o 
o 
o 





o 
o 
o 





o 


o 
o 



o 




o 




o 




o 
o 




Charadrius dominicus fulvus '* 
vSquatarola squatarola . . 
Arenaria interpres .... 
Lophortyx californica . * 
Phasianus torquatus .... 


o 
o 





o 


o 

o 
o 



o 
o 

o 



o 



o 
o 




o 









o 





o 
















o 




o 

o 
o 
o 
o 

t 




o o o 

o o o 
o . o 



o 
o o o 
o o 


o 



o 















Asio accipitrinus sandvicensis . . 




Chasiempis sclateri .... .... 




Acridotheres tristis .... 
Passer domesticus . . . 
Carpodacus inexicanus obscnrus .... 




Drepanorhamphus funerea-. 





[322] 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. Continued. 



NAME, 


Hawaii. 


rt 

s 


*-l 



a 

3 


Molokai. 


d 

i 


r^ 

a 

3 
a 



Niihau. 


Laysan. 


Lisiansky . 


If. 

* ifi 

s ^ 

a 




Midway. 


Accidental or 
wide-ranging. 


Himatione sanguinea . 





o 


o 





o 









o 














t 










o 



o 

t 







o 
o 
o 

o 




Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri . 






o 








o 
o 











Viridonia sagittirostris . 












o 




o 






o 


o 


. . 










Hemignathus lichtensteini- - 


o 


. . 


o 




t 






Heterorhynchus affinis 




o 




o 


o 





' * 


t 

o 




Pseudonestor xanthophrys . . 


Psittacirostra olivacea 4 .... .... 


o 
o 


o 


? 







Telespiza cantans 
Rhodacanthis pahneri 


o 
o 
o 









t 













bisliopi 


o 






Chsetoptila angustipluma 






Phseornis palmeri 




. . 




o 




myadestina 


. . . . 

o 







t The addition of the new On to the list brings the total number of species of Hawaiian 

[323] 



birds up to W 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Accipitrinse .... .... .... 32 

Acridotheres 37, 

tristis 38 

Acrocephalus 

familiaris 
Acrulocercus apicalis 

bishopi .... 

braccatus .... .... 

niger 

nobilis .... 

Actitis incanus .... 

Actodromas .... 

Aeo 

^strelata 

hypoleuca 

leucocephala 

phseopygia 

sandwicensis .... 
Akaiearooa 50 

49 
.... 49 

43 

29 

29 

.... 29 
29 

49 

49 

.... 50 
51 
.... 51 



58 
58 

57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
27 

27 
26 
1 1 

12 

12 
12 
12 



Akakane 

Green 

Akapane . 
Akeake 
Akeka . 
Akekee 

Akekeke 

Akepa 
Akepeuie ... 
Akialoa 

Kauai 

Lanai 

Akihialoa ( Sp. indet.). 
Akihipolena 

Akikihi 

Alaalai ( Sp. indet. ). 
Alae 

awi 

keokeo 

ula 

Alala 

Alauda 

arvensis 
Alaudidae. 
Alauhiio 
Alamvahio 



43 

47 

24 

24 

24 

24 

35 

35 

35 

34. 

47 

46 

Alawi .... 46 

Albatross, Black-footed 10 

de la Chine . . . . 10 



xo. 


PAGE. 


Amakihi, Hawaii .... . . 


4 6 


5 intermediate 


45 


66 Kauai . 


44 


Lanai . . . 


45 


15 Maui 


45 


13 Molokai . 


45 


ii Oahu 


45 


10 ochraceous 


49 




49 


1 2 Amakika ( See Amakihi ) . 




48 Amaui 


61 


Anananii 


46 


4 6 Anas 


16, 17 


boscas ( See note ) 


17 


1 4 boschas . 


17 


1 3 clvpeata 


1 8 


1 3 laysanensis 


18 


1 3 sandvicensis .... 


17 


96 superciliosa 


17 


9i (var. ) 


J7 


94 ( var. a . , sandvicensis ) 


17 


74 wyvilliana 


17 


53 Anatidse 


16 


53 Anatinse . 


16 


53 Anauanii . 


46 


53 Anous 


5- 9 


fuliginosus. 


8 


hawaiiensis 


9 


melanogenys 


9 


niger 


9 


pileatus . 


9 


spadicia 


9 


stolidus 


9 


tenuirostris .... 


9 


(Also No. 8 in part.) 




A 2 Anser hauaiensis .... 


20 


^ hawaiensis 


2O 


^' r hawaiiensis 


20 


6 2 sandvicensis 


2O 


Anseres- 


16 


6 1 Anserinse 


16 


, Anthochsera angustipluma 


58 


87 Ao (Sp. indet. ). 




83 Apane 


43 


83 A p". pane 


43 


i r Apekepeke 


36 


1 1 Aphrizidae >> 


25. 29 


[325] 


(< 



82 

78 
77 
81 

78 
79 
80 
92 



119 

83 



27 
29 
28 
27 
27 
2 7 
27 
27 



5 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 

35 
35 
35 
35 



74 

74 
63 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



A idea ciufuk-a (var. y] .. 
exilis .... .... 



gnsea . . . 

(Herodias) sacra 

naevia 

nycticorax .... .... 

sacra . .... 

vulgaris .... .... 

Ardeidae . .... 

Ardeinae .... .... 

Arenaria 

interpres 
Asio 

accipitrinus .... .... 

accipitrinus sandvicensis- 

brachyotus .... .... 

sandvicensis. .... 

saiidvvichensis . 
Atagen aquila. .... 

aquilus . . 
Attagen aquila ... 

Aua 

Auku kohili .... .... 

Aukuu 

Bee-eater, Yellow-tufted... ... 

Bernicla sandvicensis 

sandwichensis 

Booby .... .... .... 

Blue-faced 

Red-footed 

Brachyotus gallapagoensis 

Brant, Black 

Branta 

canadensis minima 

(Leucopareia) sandwichensis . 
nigricans 

Bubonidae .... . 

Buffle-heacl 

Bulweria 

anjinho .... 

bulweri 

colutnbina 
macgillivrayi 

Burrica .... 

Buteo 

(Onychotes) solitarius 
solitarius 



21 

21 

22 

21 

23 

22 

21 

21 

2O, 

21 

29 

29 

33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
33 
15 
15 
15 
35 

22 
22 

57 

2O 
2O 

15 
15 
15 

33 
19 
17. 

20 

19 

32, 

19 
1 1 , 

12 
12 
12 
12 
38 
32, 

33 
33 



37 Certhia vestiaria 



Calidris 

arenaria 

Callipela californica 
Carduelis coccinea 
Carpodacus 

frontalis .... 

frontalis rhodocolpus. . 

mexicanus obscurus- 
Certhia coccinea. 

obscura 

pacifica . 

sanguinea .... 



21 



33 



12 



33 



26, 28 

28 

3 

49 

38 

39 

33 

39 

43 

50 

42 

43 



38 
37 
38 
38 
37 
37 



53 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
25 
25 
25 
62 

38 
38 



35 
35 
24 

22 

23 
60 

34 

33 
35 
34 



15 
15 



59 
59 



50 

54 



68 
68 
68 

72 
96 

70 
74 



vrtus ... .... 

Chaetoptila 
angustipluma 

Charadriidse .... .. 

Charadrius 

auratus orientalis 
dominicus fulvus 
fulvus 

glaucopus .... 

hiaticula 

"like C. hiaticula" 
pluvialis .... .. 

taitensis .... 

virginianus 

xanthocheitus 

Charitonetta 
albeola 

Chasiempis ---- 

dolei .... 



gay ........... 

ibidis .... .... .... 

ridgwayi 

sandvicensis 
(Also No. 65 in pt.) 

sandwichensis 

(Also Nos. 63 and 65 in pt.) 

sclateri ---- 
Chasiempsis obscura 

sandvicensis.. .... ... 

sandwichensis . 

Chen . . . 

hyperborboreus 

hyperborea 

hyperboreus ---- 
Chloridops 

kona 
Chlorodrepanis 

chloridoides ...... 

chloris 

kalaana 



rv.i 

43 
46 
58 

58 

25, 28 

28 

29 

29 

29 

29 

29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
16, 18 

19 
36 
36 
37 

37 
37 
36 

37 



36 
61 

37 
37 
16, 

19 

19 

19 

4. 

56 



parva 

stejnegeri .... 

virens ---- 

wilsoni 
Chrysomitridops . . 

caeruleirostris 
Cinclus interpres. 
Circus 

cyaneus liudsonius. 

tiudsonius ---- 
Ciridops 

anna- 



sp. 



Clangula albeola ( See note ) . . . . 
Cnipolegus sp. (?) .... 
Colluricincla ( ? ) sandvicensis . . 
Columbse 
Coot, Hawaiian 
Corethrura obscura 

sandwichensis 



45 
45 
45 
46 

44 

46 

45 
41, 

49 
29 

32 

33 

33 

4i, 

44 

44 

18 

37 
61 

3' 

24 
23 
23 



19 



56 



44 



48 



44 



So 

72 
83 



52 

52 
52 

52 
52 
52 
52 
52 
52 
52 

31 

62 

65 
6 4 
6 4 
6 4 

6 4 

63 

119 

6 4 

6 4 

32 
32 

32 

IO9 

8l 

80 

79 
83 

77 
82 

78 

94 

53 

58 
58 

76 
76 

64 
119 

43 
39 
39 



[326] 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Corvidae .... .... 

Corvinse .... .... .... 

Corvus 

hawaiiensis 

(Physocorax) hawaiiensis 
tropicus .... .... 

tropicus .... 

Cracticus ater .... .... 

Crake, Lay sail.... .... 

Creeper, Crimson .... .... 

Great Hook -billed 

Hook-billed Green .... 

Olive-green . . .... 

Red Hook -billed 

Crow, Hawaiian 

Tropic .... 

Crymophilus 

fulicarius 

Curlew, Bristle-thighed ... 

Otaheite .... .... 

Cymochorea cryptoleucura 



et 



34, 35 

35 
35 
35 

35 
35 
35 
24 
43 
42 
50 
46 

43 
35 
35 
25 
26 
28 
28 



Dysporus parvus 
piscator- 

sula- 



Dafila- 16, 18 

acuta 18 

caudacuta- .... 1 8 

Demiegretta 21 

sacra 21 

Diomedea 10 

immutabilis .... 10 

nigripes 1 1 

Diomedeidae . . . . 10 

Dove, Chinese Turtle. . .... 31 

Singapore .... . ....31 



Drepauididse- 

Drepanis 
aurea 
byronensis 



34, 

40, 

49 

43 

coccinea . . 50 

ellisiana .... 50 



flava 

funerea 

(Hemiguathus) ellisiana 
( ) lucida 

(Himatione) sanguinea. 
lucida .... .... 

obscura 



46 
42 
50 
52 
45 
52 
50 



olivacea .... .... .... 52 



pacifica 

rufa 

(Also No. 93 in pt.) 

sanguinea ... 

vestiaria 

(Vestiaria) coccinea 
Drepanorhamphus 

funerea 

Duck, Hawaiian .... 
Dysporus cyanopus .... 

dactylatra 

fiber .... .... 

hernandi/J .... 

leucogaster . . .... 



39 



42 

49 

43 
43 

43 
40, 

42 
17 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 



62 

62 
62 
62 
40 
74 
7 
96 
82 

72 
62 
62 

45 



19 



30 
30 

37 

12 

I I 

57 
57 



74 
96 
96 
82 

95 

101 

80 

101 

96 

101 

70 
91 

74 

72 



7 1 
2 7 
22 



Eee-eve- 
"Eine Art Ente" 
Eki-aki. ... 
Elepaio, Hawaii 



15 
15 
15 

43 
18 

9 
37 



Kauai .... .... .... 36 

Oahu .... .... 37 

Einberiga sandvicensis (Syn. indet. ). 

atricapilla (Syn. indet.). 

Entoiima (?) angustipluma .... 58 

Eopsaltria sandvicensis .... 37 

(Chasiempis) maculata .... 37 

obscura 6 1 

sandwichensis 36 

(Phaeornis) obscura 61 

Ewaewa .... .... .... 8 



Falcones .... .... 

Falconidse .... .... 

Finch, Crimson House . 

House . . .... .... 

Laysan .... .... 

scarlet .... .... 

Fish Hawk (See note) 

Fly -catcher, Dusky ... .... 

Sandwich .... .... 

Spotted-winged . . .... 

"Fou de Cayanne" ... 

Fregata 

aquila 

aquilus . . .... 

leucocephala .... 

leucocephalus, et palmerstoni 

minor .... .... 

strumosa .... 

Fregatidae .... .... 

Fregeta . .... 

aquila .... 
Frigate, Palmerstou . . .... 

White-headed .... 
Fringilla coccinea .... 
Fringillidae .... ... 

Fulica 

alai 

Fulicinae 

Fuligulinae 

Fulmarinse 



Gallinas- .... 

72 Gallinula 

chloropus .... 
galeata 
galeata saudvicensis 
sandvicensis 



sp. 



22 

24 Gallinule, Hawaiian 

22 Galliimlinse 

24 Gambetta fuliginosa 

[327] 



32 
32 
39 
39 
54 
49 
33 
61 

37 
37 
15 
15 
15 
i5 
15 
15 
15 
i5 

J 4> : 5 
15 

15 

15 

49 

34, 38 

23, 24 

24 

23 

16 

10 

30 

22, 23 

24 

24 

24 

24 

24 

24 

22 

27 



24 
23 
24 

72 
28 
10 
64 
63 
65 



114 
64 
64 

119 

63 
119 

5 



68 

68 

1 06 



119 
64 

64 
24 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



25 
25 
25 



43 



41 



48 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 





1>A(SK. 


NO. 




PAOB. 


Ganuet, Brown . . .... 


15 


24 


Himaiitopus 


26 


masked . .... .... 


15 


22 


candidus 


26 


Godwit, Pacific. 


28 


49 


kandseni 


26 


Goonev .... .... .... 


IO 


12 


knudseni 


26 




10 


I I 


nigricollis- ... .... 


26 


Goose, Cackling .... .... 


'9 


33 


Himatione 


4'. 43 


Hawaiian .... .... 


20 


35 


aurea .... .... 


49 


Lesser Snow 


19 


32 


chlordoides 


45 


Sandwich Island .... 


20 


35 


chloris .... .... 


45 


Gracula longirostra 


57 


I 12 


(Also No. 77 in pt.) 




nobilis .... 


57 


112 


dolei .... . 


43 


Grosbeak, Parrot-billed .... 


54 


104 


dolii 


46 


Gull, California .. . 


7 


2 


flava .... 


46 


Franklin's 


7 


4 


fraitliii .... 


44 


Point Barrow 


6 


I 


freethi .... 


44 


Ring-billed 


7 


3 


kalaana- .... .... 


45 


Gygis 


5, 9 




maculata .... 


48 


alba .... . 


9 


10 


mana 


47 


alba Candida 


9 


IO 


montana 


47 


alba kittlitei 


9 


IO 


iievvtoni. 


48 


Candida .... .... .... 


9 


IO 


parva 


46 








sangumea 


43 


Haakoae .... .... 


14 


21 


(Also No. 82 in pt.) 




Haliaeus aquilus . .... 


15 


25 


stejnegeri .... 


44 


Haliplana fuliginosa . 


8 


5 


virens . 


46 


luuata .... .... .... 


8 


6 


(Also Nos. 78, 80, 88 in pt.) 




Hawk, Brown .... .... 


33 


59 


wilsoni .... .... 


45 


Hawaiian 


33 


59 


Hirondelle de mer brune 


9 


Marsh .... .... .... 


33 


58 


Honey-eater, Hook-billed. 


50 


Hemignathus 


4. 50 




Laysan . . .... 


44 


affinis .... 


52 


99 


Yellow-tufted 


57 


(Also No. 102 in pt.) 






Hoo hoo 


42 


ellisianus .... .... .... 


50 


95 


Hunakai 


28 


hanapepe .... .... 


52 


IOO 


Hydrochelidon fuliginosum 


8 


lanaiensis 




98 


Hypoloxias aurea 


49 


lichtensteini . . . 


5 


95 


coccinea 


49 


lucidus .... . 


52 


101 






obscurus 


50 


96 


lawi .... 


43 


(Also Nos. 95, 97, 102 in pt.) 






Ibides 


20 


olivaceus .... 


50 


96 


Ibididse . . . 


20 


(Also No. 102 in pt.) 






Ibis, White-faced Glossv 


20 


procerus 


51 


97 


li 


43 


stejnegeri 


51 


97 


liwi .... 


43 


wilsoni .... 


53 


1 02 


liwipolena . 


43 


Herodii . . .... 


20 




lo 


33 


Herodiones .... 


20 




loa .... .... 


15 


Heron, Black-crowned Night 


22 


38 


Iwa- 


15 


Sacred . 


21 


37 


Iwi 


44 


Heteractitis 


26, 27 




Iwipolena 


43 


brevipes .... 


27 


48 


Iwipopolo 


43 


mcana 


27 


48 






incanus 


27 


48 


Kaao=Ao (Sp. indet.). 




Heterorhynchus 


40, 51 




Kaio 


33 


affinis 


52 


99 


(Also No. 60 in pt.) 




hanapepe 


.52 


IOO 


Kaka ( See note) 


17 


lucidus 


52 


101 


Kakawahie . .... 


48 


olivaceus .... .... 


52 


IOI 


Kala 


s 


wilsoni .... .... 


53 


IO2 


Kaniao .... .... 


60 


Heteroscutus brevipes 


27 


48 


Kamou 


60 


incanus .... 


27 


48 


Kanono (Sp. indet.). 





46 
46 
46 
46 

92 

Si 

80 

77 
72 

S2 

75 
75 

79 

8S 

86 

87 
89 

83 
74 

77 
82 

78 
8 

96 

75 

i '3 

70 

5 
5 

92 
9i 

74 



36 

74 
7 2 
74 
59 
25 
25 

77 
72 

72 



59 

27 
90 

5 
117 

"7 



[328] 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



73 



Keke 29 

Kioea 28 

Kiovvea 58 

Kipi 50 

Kleiner rother. ... .... 44 

Koae 14 

Koae ula - 14 

Kolea 29 

Koloa maoli .... 17 

mapu .... 1 8 

moha 1 8 

Kukuluaeo . . . 26 



La Mouette brune . 

La Paille-en-Queue a brins rouges 
de 1'isle de France 

Laridae 

Lark, Sky 

I/arus 

barrovianus 

californicus 

delawarensis 

franklinii 

glaucus .... 

niger(?) 

Philadelphia ( See note ) 
Lauwi 

Le Fou .- 

blanc- 

brun . 



5 

35 
5,6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
6 

57 
65 
46 



commune 

Limicoloe 

lyimosa 

lapponica baueri 
Linaria coccinea 

(Also No. 93 in pt. ) 
Longipennes . 

I/ophortyx 

californica 
Loxia pityopsittacus . 

psittacea 

lyoxioides 

bailleni 

bailleui 
I/oxops 

aurea ... 

(Also No. 91 in pt.) 

caeruleirostris 

(Chrysomitridops) caeruleirostris 

coccinea 



COCCllleUS 

flammea 
ochracea 



rosea 
rufa 

wolstenhohnei 



15 
15 
24 
26, 27 

28 

49 

5 

3 

30 

54 

54 

39, 54 

54 

54 

41. 48 

49 

49 

49 
49 

49 
48 

49 
43 
49 
49 



Mamo ... 42 

Perkins 42 

Man-o'-war Bird 15 

MKMOIKS Ii. !'. I!. MfSKfM, VOL. I., No. 3. 6. 



54 

51 

H4 

95 

75 

21 
20 
52 
27 
30 

29 
4 6 

8 

20 
2O 

61 
I 

2 

3 
4 
i 

112 

83 
24 
23 
23 
24 



49 



54 
104 

104 

105 

105 

92 

94 

94 



90 
92 

72 
93 
93 



25 



Manuku 

Mareca americana (See note)-. 

Megalopterus tenuirostris. . 

stolidus. . 

Meliphaga fasciculata .... 

Meliphagidse .... .... 

Melithreptes vestiaria 
Melithreptus obscurus .... 

pacificus . 

vestiarius .... 
(Also No. 96 in pt.) 

virens 
Mellisuga coccinea 
Merganser 

Red-breasted 

serrator 

M crops fasciculata. 

niger 

sp. .... 
Microanous 

hawaiiensis 

Miller Bird 

Mina 

False 

Moha 

Moho 

(Also No. 113 in pt.) 
Moho 

angustipluma .... 

apicalis 

atriceps 

bishopi 

braccata. 

niger .... 

nobilis 

(Also No. 113 in part.) 
Mohoa angustipluma 

apicalis 

braccata 

fasciculata 

(Also No. 112 in pt.) 

nobilis (in part) 
Mortis parvus 

piscator 

sula 

Mud hen 

(Also No. 41 in pt.) 
Munia 

nisoria 

nisoria punctata 
Muscicapa maculata 

obsctira 

sanduicensis . 
(Also No. 63 in pt.) 

sandvicensis. . 

sandwichensis . 

M uscicapidae . 

Mynah, House 

Myzomela nigrovtntris. . . . 

sanguinea 



3' 
18 

9 

9 
57 

35, 56 
43 
50 
42 
43 

46 

43 
16, 17 

17 

57 
57 
57 

5, 9 

9 
58 

38 
38 
18 

23 

.56 
58 

57 
58 
57 
57 
57 
57 

58 
57 
57 
57 

57 
15 
15 
16 

24 

39 
39 
39 
37 
61 

37 

37 

37 

35, 3 6 

38 

43 

43 



NO. 

57 

8 
8 

I 12 

7 2 
9 6 
7 

72 

82 
72 

26 

26 

I 12 

I 12 

I 12 



66 
66 

29 

39 

114 

114 
ii i 
no 

I 12 
I 12 

114 

110 
I 10 

I 10 

24 
23 
24 

43 



69 

69 

64 

119 

64 

64 
63 

66 
72 
74 



[329] 



74 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Nau kane .... ... 

Nectarinia byronensis 

coccinea .... ... 

flava .... .... 

lucida . ... 

niger . .... 

sanguinea ... 
Nene 
Nesochen 

sandvicensis 
Nettion crecca (See note) 
Noio .... 

Nukupuu 
Numenius 

australis .... .... .... 28 

femoralis .... .... 28 

phseopus .... .... .... 28 

tahitiensis 28 

taitensis .... .... .... 28 

Nycticorax 

griseus .... 

nycticorax .... 

nycticorax nsevius 
Oceanodroma 

castro 

cryptoleucura 

fuliginosa (See note). 
Oeoe .... .... 

CEstrelata bulweri 

hypoleuca .... 

phseopygia ....12 

sandwichensis .... 

Oio 

Olokele 

hokii .... .... 

popolo . . .... 

Olomao .... .... 

(Also No. 119 in pt.) 
Olomau .... .... 

Omao .... .... 

Onychoprion fuliginosa . . 

fuliginosus 



43 
43 
46 

52 
57 
43 

20 
2O 

18 
9 



26, 28 



lunatus .... .... .... 8 

8 

33 

33 
57 

57 



serratus. . . 
Onychotes gruberi 

solitarius . 

Oo 

Oo aa . 
Oreomysa 

bairdi 

flammea 

maculata 

man a .... 

tnontana 



newtoni .... .... .... 48 

(Rothschildia) parva 46 

wilsoni .... .... . . . . 47 



Ortygometra obscura . 
sandvicensis. 
sandwichensis 

Oscines. . .... 

Ospray (See note) 



19 



21 

22 

22 

22 

II, 13 

13 

13 

13 

12 
12 



12 

9 

43 
43 
43 
60 

60 
61 

8 
8 



47 
48 
48 
47 
47 



2 3 
23 
23 
34 
33 



16 Otus brachyotus. .... 

74 Ou . . 

72 (Also No. 117 in pt.) 

82 holowai .... .... 

101 Honolulu (See note) 

1 1 2 polapalapa .... 

74 Owholowai . . .... 

35 Owl, Short-eared .... 

Hawaiian .... 

35 Pakalakala .... 

Palila 

9 Palmeria 

loo dolei 

dolii .... .... 

51 mirabilis 

51 Paludicolae .... 

5 1 Pandion ( See note ) 
51 ( Polioaetus) solitarius 

5 1 solitarius .... 

Partridge, California .... 

38 Passer 
38 domesticus 

38 Passeres .... .... 

Pelecanus aquilus .... 

i 9 fiber .... .... 

i 9 leucocephalus .... 

leucogaster .... 

19 palmerstoni . . .... 

15 parva .... .... 

14 parvus ..... -. 

1 3 sula 

13 Pennula .... .... 

8 ecaudata 

72 miller .... .... 

72 inillsi .... 

72 palmeri .... .... 

118 sandvichensis 

sandwichensis 

1 1 8 wilsoni ( See note ) 

119 Peristeridse .... .... 

5 Petrel, Bonin .... 

5 Bulwer's .... .... 

6 Dark-rumped 

5 Hawaiian Storm .... 

59 Salvin's White-breasted 

59 Petrodroma sanguinea 

112 Phaebastria .... 

1 10 Phaenicurus rubricauda 

46 Phseornis 

85 lanaiensis 

90 myadestina 

88 myiadestina 

86 oahuensis 

87 oahunsis .... .... 

89 obscura 

83 palmeri .... .... 

85 Phaethon . . 

39 sethereus 
39 atherus 

39 lepturus 



phaenicurus 
rubricauda 



33 

54 

49 

54 
54 
49 
33 
33 
8 

54 

4i. 43 
43 
43 
43 

22 

33 
33 
33 
3 
38 
3 
34 
15 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 

22, 23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

31 

12 

12 

12 

13 
12 

43 
10 

H 
59 
60 
60 
60 
61 
61 
61 
59 
14 
H 
14 
H 
14 



NO. 

60 
IO4 

94 

104 

94 

60 

60 

6 

104 

73 
73 

73 



59 
59 

54 

67 

25 
23 
24 
24 
25 
24 
24 
24 

39 
39 
39 
40 

39 
39 



13 
19 
H 

74 

20 

118 
117 
117 
1 20 
i 20 
119 
116 

21 
21 
21 
2O 
2O 



[330] 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Phaethontidae . . .... ... 

Phaeton aethereus. ... .... 

(Also No. 20 in pt. ) 

Candidas .... .... ... 

phaenicurus .... .... 

rubricauda 

rubricaudata 

rubricaudatus ... 

rubricaudus 
Fhalacrocorax plagicus (See note). 
Phalarope, Northern . . .... 

Red.. 

Phalaropodidse 
Phalaropus 

lobatus 

Phasianidae 

Phasianus 

torquatus-- 

versicolor 

Pheasant, Japanese . 

Mongolian . .... 

Ring-necked . 

Phyllornis tonganensis .... 

virens 

Pintail 

Pipi 

Piscatrix Candida 

piscator .... 
Planetis guttatus 
Plegadis 

gTiarauna 

Ploceidse 

Plover, Pacific Golden 
Pluvialis fulvus . . 

longipes 

Polena .... .... 

Polioastus solitarius .... 

Porphyrio 

melanotus 

Porsanula 

palmeri 

Priofinus 

cuneatus 

Procellaria alba 

anjinho- . 

bulweri 

bulwerii- .... 

macgillivrayi 

Procellariidse 

Pseudonestor . 

xanthophrys 

Psittacina olivacea ( See note) 
Psittacirostra 

icterocephala 

olivacea ( See note ) 

psittacea 

Psittacopis psittacea 
Psittirostra icterocephala . 

psittacea 

sandvicensis 

Ptiloturus fasciculatns .... 
Pnaiohi. . . 



I'AGE. 

13, 
14 



'4 



4 
i3 

25 
26 

24, 

25 

25 

30 
3 
3 



30 
30 
46 
46 

18 
54 
15 
i.S 



39 



12 



2O 

2O 

34, 
29 
29 
29 
43 
33 

22, 

24 
22, 

23 

II, 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

IO 

39, 53 
53 

54 

40, 53 
54 

54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
57 
59 



21 

21 
2O 
20 
2O 
2O 
2O 

44 
45 



44 



55 
56 
56 
55 
55 
82 
82 
30 
104 

23 

23 

5 



52 
52 
52 
72 
59 

42 
40 

16 
13 
15 
15 
15 
15 



103 



104 

104 
104 
104 
104 
104 

112 

116 



Pueo .... 
Puffinus 

colnmbiamis 
cuneatus 



33 

1 1, 

12 
12 



knudseni .... .... . ... 12 

nativitatis 13 

n. sp. 13 

newelli 13 

Quail, California Valley .... 30 

Querquedula circia ( See note) . 18 

Rail, Laysan .... .... .... 23 

Sandwich .... .... 23 

Wingless . .... 23 

(Also No. 40 in pt.) 

Rallidse .... 22 

Rallus .... .... .... 22 

acaudata 23 

ecaudata 23 

obscura 23 

sanduicensis .... .... 23 

sandvicensis.. .... .... 23 



sandwichensis 
Raptores 
Raven .... 
Recurvirostridae 
Rhodacanthis 

flaviceps 

palmeri 

Rhynchaspis clypeata 
Rice Bird 



23 

32 

35 

24, 

40, 

55 

55 

18 

39 



parva 

Sanderling .... 

Sandpiper, Sharp-tailed 

Siberian Pectoral ( See note) . 

Scarlet Bird 

Scolopacidae 
Scolopax guarauna 

incana 

phaeopus(?) 



46 
28 
27 
27 
43 
24, 

20 

27 
28 



solitaris 27 



tahitiensis 

nndulata 
Shearwater, Black 

Christmas Island 

Knudsen's 

Wedge-tailed 
Shoveller . 
Sickle-bill, Green 
Sittacodes 

Skylark 

Snipe, Ash -colored. 
Sparrow, Chinese 

European House- 
Spatula 

clypeata 
Spilopelia 
Steganopodes 
Sterna 

alba 

bergii (See note) 

Candida 



28 
27 
13 
13 

12 
12 
18 

51 

54 

35 

27 

39 

38 

16, 

18 

3i 

13 

5- 

9 

8 

9 



26 

55 



36 Rothschildia 41 , 46 



26 



18 



75 

NO. 

60 

15 
16 
16 

'7 
17 
18 

54 

40 
39 
39 



39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 

62 



108 
107 

29 
68 

83 
5 

47 

72 

36 

48 

5i 
48 

5i 
48 

17 
17 
16 
16 
29 
97 
104 
61 
48 
69 



29 

10 
10 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Sterna fuliginosa 

fuscata . . .... .... 9 

gouldii .- . .... 8 

guttata 8 

infuscata .... 8 

luctuosa 8 

lunata 8 

melanauchen . . 

9 

8 
8 

9 
s 

8 



nivea . 
oahuensis 

(Onychoprion) serrata 
owhyhaensis .... 
panaya 
serratus- 



stolida 9 

unicolor .... 9 

Stilt, Hawaiian .. .... .... 26 

Storm Petrel, Hawaiian 13 

Strepsalis interpres . 29 

Strepsilas interpres 29 

Striges . . .... .... .... 32 

Strix delicatula 33 

sandwichensis .... .... 50 

Stryx accipitrina . 33 

Sturnidae 34, 37 

Sula 14 

bassaua 15 

brasiliensis .... 15 

cyanops 15 

dactylatra 15 

erythrorhyncha 15 

fiber .... .... 15 

fulica . 15 

f usca 15 

leucogaster . . ....15 

leucophsea 15 

melanops .... .... .... 15 

nigrodactyla 15 

parva . ... 15 

personata 15 

piscator 15 

piscatrix .... .... 15 

plumigula ....15 

rubripeda 15 

rubripes .... ....15 

sinicadvena 15 

sula 15 

Sulidae 14 

Sultana Bird .... 24 

Sylviidse 34, 35, 

Tachypetes aquila ....15 

aquilus . . .... 15 

leucocephalus .... .... 15 

palnierstoni .... .... 15 

Tsenioptera obscura .... 61 

Tatare familiaris .... 58 

otaitensis .... .... .... 6 1 

Taller, Wandering. ... .... 27 

Teal, Laysan 18 

Telespiza 40, 54 

cantans .... 54 

flavissima 54 



5 
8 

5 
5 
5 
5 
6 

7 
10 

5 
5 
8 

5 
5 

. 8 
8 

46 
19 
53 
53 

58 
96 
60 



22 

24 
22 
22 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
23 
22 
22 

24 
22 

23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 

42 



Tern, Grey-backed 8 

Hawaiian .... .... 9 

Noddy .... .... .... 9 

Peale's 8 

Sooty S 

White 9 

Tetraonidae .... .... .... 30 

Thalassidroma .... 13 

bulweri 12 



sp. (?) 

Totanus brevipes 

fuliginosus 

(Gambetta) incanus 

incanus .... 

oceanicus 

pedestris 

polynesiae 

solitarius 

unclulatus 
Tringa 

acuminata* 

aniericana (See note) 

interpres 

maculata (See note) 

oahuensis .... 
Tropic Bird, Red-tailed 

White-tailed 
Tubinares . 

Turdidae 

Turdus sandwichensis 

sandwichensis (var. ) . 

woahensis 
Turnstone . 
Turtur 

chinensis 
Tyrannula obscura 

Uau 

Ukaka .... 

Ukeke 

Ukekeke . 

Ula 

Vlaaihawane 

Ulala 

I'lili 

Uluaihawane 

Unu kane 



'3 

27 
2 7 

27 
27 

27 
27 

' 27 
27 
27 
26, 
27 
27 
29 
27 
29 
14 
'4 
10 

35, 

61 

61 

61 

29 

3' 

31 

61 

12 

54 
29 

29 

'4 
44 
35 
27 
44 

12 



Uwau .... 12 



Vestiaria 40, 

akrona . 50 

58 coccinea 43 

25 evi 43 

25 heterorhynchus 52 

25 hoho .... 42 

25 ViduinoL- 39 

1 1 9 Viridonia 41 , 

115 maculata 4* 

1 19 sagittirostris 4 6 

48 Weaver Bird 39 

28 Wideawake 8 

Grey 8 

106 Yellow head, Bird with .... 54 
106 Zapornia sandwichensis 23 

[332] 



27 



59 



46 



6 

9 
8 
6 

5 
10 

19 

15 
19 
48 

48 

48 

48 
48 

4 S 

48 
48 
48 

47 

53 

53 
20 

21 



119 
I 2O 
120 

53 

57 
119 

'3 
K 4 

53 

53 

20 

76 
62 

48 

7'' 
16 

13 

96 

72 

72 

101 

7 



88 
84 
69 

5 
6 

104 
39 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MUSEUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE XVI. 




.V;, liKi."', StriMii f 






71>o:t, AIHUIS 



HlSHUI' Ml SKl'M, VOL. I. 



1'I.ATK XVII. 






IO, Aliuus stoliilns. 



MKMIHIIS BISHOM MrsKi'M. VOL. I. 



Pl>ATK XVIII. 





S7-H1. Diiiiiicili-n liiiiiiniiiliiliH. 



P.rsiioi 1 MrsKi'M, VOL. I. 



PI.ATI; XIX. 



. 







! 




~->'2^. Prlolimis i 
^^71'^, Itulwvrin l 



its. 711117. .Kstiviaia hjrpojeaea. 



it:sn7. Piillinns Ti<>\villi. 
71*41', IMittlnuM uativitatm. 



.MKMOIUS KISIIOI* MISKIM. VOL. I. 



I'l.ATK X X. 




S7.V4. ItTlT), I'hiiettion 



MK.MOIRS Kisnor Mrsr.r.M, Vor,. I. 



1'I.ATH XXI. 












7!i:;:;. Suln f.v 



N7">-'. Sula 



MEMOIRS BISHOP MI-SKVM. VOL. I. 



PLATE XXII. 







N745, AIIMM IH,VS:I nciisis 



MI.MOIRS BISHOP Mrsi-.rM. \"<>i I 



IM.ATI: XXIII. 






'.'.Mljuv.i. '.HTiii .'). \.vi-liciirnx ii.vi-lii-iii-:ix 



MI:M<II<S Itisiiol- Mrsi:r.M, Vol.. I. 



I'I.ATIC XXIV. 





'.17-1.'., li.-lllilllllll MIMIllvilTIISis. 



7!ill, 7'.U--'. rm-ziiniilii iiiilniiTi. 



MEMOIRS BISHOP Mrsi;rM. Vol.. I. 



I'I.ATK XXV. 



. 




l .v.i, HctiTiK'titiB iiiraims. 
S72, 8174, Arenaria iuterpnv. 



'.i:l'.l7, ll.v.17, CliiiriiilrillH .liiuiiniriis fnlvus. 
9725, Nuini'iiiiis l;iliitii'iisis. 



!)4ai. Hi ntopus knuilKi'lii. 



MKMOIKS RISIIOP MUSKUM, Vol.. I. 



PLATE XXVI. 



BERNICE PAlI BISHOP MUSEUM. 




fjtWI, But*M) Holitfirius. 



(!(")!>!). f'orvus h;i waiicnsis. 



:r>. Asi<i 




_. I 



1 



II 



X 



ii 



All-MOIKS JS1S1HH' MrSlcriVf, VOL. I. 



PLATE XXVIII. 



HI BISHOP MUSEUM. 




9792, flM-', '.I:::IN, !i:!.". 



. Vestlarla cocdnea. 

7!i'.iii, ipsici. !i:f.'2. lls'.ls. '.KIIMI. '.i.,_'i Iliniatlone sanguini-a. 

(MM, SOS1I, suss, (Ireolii.vza tlllliilniMl. (KiJIS, Loxops oc-hrMirn : (HMS. 
li.'.'.ir,, 8WK), ralmeria dolc>i. 



roccint'M . 



MRMOIUS Rrsiror MT'SF.VM, Vol.. T. 



Pr.ATF. XXIX. 




i(i:l. mail. Ithiiilin-nnthlK palmcri. M::n. 



KHiitliiis pn>ii>rilH. (Mil:!. ['s;n,-iHmslHs psittari-a. S7:ll, TVlcspiza I-IIMIIIIIH. 

1(421. HfllliuM' ,1 'IS ol)S. -Ill-US. 

!t:ir:t, !:{(>!. Loxops cjfi-nlciroHtris. <;<;4. On-ftin.vxM innnn.. c.li:;!'. ii(i:t(), Hrl<Toi-h.\ m-hns \\ilsimi. (H>s4. (>li.s."i. o. ncwtoni. 
1140-.'. DriMiin.vzn liaircli. f,K:\:\. lilBlli. llctfi-oi -liyuclnis hiin:ipi>pi>. lilHIT. l'Bi'll(loni's1i>r xantlii-ipplir.vs. !i::Tn. Cliliiriiilri-piliiiN parva. 

cilijo. ll(>ti>riirli.vni'hi]H afflnlH. !i:lli, ('. sti-jiKwri. 
M.'iT. .Mnlui nohilis. Mli:!. Moll" lirai'i-alns. 



MEMOIRS KIHIIOI- MUHKUM, VOL. I. 



PLATE XXX. 




<'h ;i- top tila 



STONE IMPLEMENTS AND STONE WORK 



OF THE 



ANCIENT HAWAIIANS. 



BY WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM, A.M. 




Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 

VOL. I. No. 4. 



HONOLULU: 

BISHOP MUSEUM PRESS. 
1902. 



ORDERED PRINTED 1!Y THE TRUSTEES 
NOVEMHT'R 8, 



PREFACE. 



IN selecting the Stone Implements of the Ancient Hawaiians for the subject of the next chapter 
of what I had some years since intended should be a history of Hawaii, or rather of the Hawaiians 
before the advent of other and very different racial influences, it may be fair to explain to my 
readers, almost at the start, my method in this fragmentary edition of such information about old 
Hawaii and its customs as I have been able to gather during the past thirty-six years. And here 
I must be pardoned for thrusting a personality into what I greatly desire to make a clear and 
impersonal statement of facts. 

When I came to these islands a young man full of enthusiasm, fresh from the teachings of 
Agassiz, Gray, Wyman and Cooke, eager to study nature in all her aspects, unbiased by theory, 
only anxious to learn, I found a land where traces of a native civilization were not all effaced. The 
American Mission had labored a little more than forty years- and the results of their work were still 
vigorous: the missionary homes still existed, oases in the outlying districts, where I could talk 
with venerable men and women who had landed in 1820 when the young son and successor of 
Kamehameha had cast aside all that his ancestors had held sacred in religion, and was not yet ready 
to assume new responsibilities, indeed he hardly gave much thought to the great change that was 
impending. One era was at an end, another was on the threshold. Hitherto intercourse with for- 
eigners had but little modified the native ways of living. There had been no interruption of the ancient 
worship although it had been for years falling into mild decay. The admirable unwritten system 
of law regarding land tenure, water rights, fishing privileges, and the stern but generally beneficial 
kapu were almost unimpaired, and that little band of missionaries that went like Joshua's spies 
to view the land, and whose story is so charmingly told in Ellis' Tour of Hawaii, found people 
and things much the same as did the wrecked Spaniards when they knelt on the Hawaiian beach 
three centuries before. 

I never had the pleasure of meeting William Ellis, but I have corresponded with him. 
I have met and lived with most of the other early missionaries, and if they were perhaps more 
anxious to remove those obstacles to eternal health which threatened the interesting people they 
had come to save, than to study the past history and work connected so intimately with what 
they considered a fallen state, their desires were sincere and unselfish, and they were always ready 
to place their journals at my disposal and to answer questions which must at times have seemed to 
them almost idle. 

Other sources of information, now closed forever, were then open to the traveler among the 
Hawaiians. In the remote valleys the sound of the kapa beaters still echoed from the pali, and the 
ancient fabric was still worn to some extent. I have gone to rest in a grass house by the light of a 
stone lamp filled with kukui oil, after my native hosts and I had conversed by the light of the more 
primitive string of kukui nuts. I had for my guide on the island of Molokai a man who had officiated 
as priest in the native temple whose ruins he was explaining to me. Mateo Kekuanaoa, the father 
of two kings, and the most intelligent native I ever met; John li, Charles Kanaina (father of King 

[335] (3) 



iv Prejace. 

Lunalilo), King Kamehameha V., were all living and willing to contribute to the notebooks I was 
filling more with a desire of gaining and retaining information than with any view of future publica- 
tion. Many humbler contributors added to the store when in mountain journeys they wrote for me 
the names they all then knew of bird or plant or place. 

For years these notes were useless although they came back with me to these islands in 1888, 
but when a few years ago I expected to leave the Hawaiian group forever, I destroyed all that I could 
lay hand upon as useless baggage in my proposed wanderings. That any escaped was due to the 
change of plans before I had time to read them all through before consigning them to the fire. From 
this examination they are still fresh in my memory although it is quite possible that the details 
might have been more complete had the originals been still before me. 

From these sources more than from the voyagers, I shall draw in the proposed sketches of the 
Hawaiians. I have left untold the tiresome accounts of battles, and I have been so unorthodox an 
historian as to care very little for thronal succession, if this term can be used where the kings had not 
even a stool to sit upon, or for the genealogies, for I have seen them falsified to satisfy ambition. 
I have already published an account of the curious Feather Work of the Hawaiians and I now take 
up the Stone Work, intending to continue the series with Wood Work, Mats and Baskets, House 
Building, Food and Cookery, Games and Sports, Warfare, Dress and Ornament, Religion, Kapa 
Making, Cord and Netting, Fisheries, Canoes and Voyages, Medicine, Chronology, Water Rights, 
Land Tenure and Kapu. These chapters are partly in order and will be presented as material on 
hand seems sufficient, and not necessarily in the above sequence. 

In this chapter I have endeavored to illustrate all the genuine old Hawaiian implements, but 
constantly in the course of writing new examples have come to me and I cannot suppose that I have 
encompassed all within the limits of these few pages. It has been an object with me in all this work 
to present to those who cannot examine the collections in this Museum as clear an idea as possible of 
what they comprise, and as this must be rather in the nature of material for farther study and com- 
parison, I have not encumbered my pages with many references to other works or parallel examples, 
which might exhibit the number of books on kindred subjects I may have read, but would add little 
to a knowledge of these Hawaiian matters. Where the material exists in this Museum, or is familiar 
to me in other museums, for comparison between Hawaiian and other Polynesian examples I have 
briefly called attention to the divergence or parallelism, but I have refrained, as far as possible, from 
mere conjectural relationships as proving common derivation, preferring to reserve such discussion 
until all the evidence at my command in all the departments of this series has been fairly presented. 

ALAMAKANI, October 26, 1901. 

(336) 



STONE IMPLEMENTS OF THE ANCIENT 

HAWAIIANS. 

A chapter treating also of the ancient Stone Work, Sculpture and such remains as are 
at present known either in Museums abroad or on these islands by \Villiam 
X. Brigham, A.M., Director of the Bernice Fauahi Bishop Museum. 

IN the Pacific Region it is not necessary to discuss the tools of primitive man : the 
first known inhabitants of the Pacific islands were many thousand years removed 
from primitive man, and the delicate questions of tertiary or early quaternary 
remains may be wholly eliminated. We need not, even for convenience, divide the 
remains of tools used here into stone, bronze or iron periods. There were no such 
divisions. Neither iron, copper, nor tin was accessible to the islanders, and from the 
time they landed on the bits of land scattered through this ocean, whether it be five or 
twenty centuries ago, they used wood, stone, bone or shell for the purposes where modern 
civilized man uses the metals or pottery, and this use was universal until little more 
than a century ago when iron and foreign tools were introduced here and there among 
the islands. Even on the Hawaiian islands metal tools were far from common in the 
middle of the last century.* 

If in this region there was a counterpart to the fabled Atlantis of the lesser 
ocean, in the diluvium that removed its possible inhabitants all their work perished 
with them and the little islands which perchance serve as gravestones to the lost con- 
tinent are unmarked by any inscription. The architectural or sculptured remains 
today found on Rapanui, Tonga, the Marianas and elsewhere are the work of people 
not remote from the present or historic inhabitants. There are tools of rude form and 
careless workmanship from the Pacific islands; forms that unconnected with their 
more modern representatives would puzzle the antiquarian, but there is nothing truly 
in the nature of incunabula. 

If then the mystery of the birth of primitive implements is not to be approached 
on these islands; if the oldest of the tools cannot boast an age of more than twenty 
centuries, modern indeed in the history of the human race, what have we left ? Simply 
the rude implements of an intelligent people who had arrived at a certain stage of 
civilization when they left their home and sought another in the Pacific. What they 
had formerly must have been greatly modified by the new environment, but in their 

* In 1850 Rev. Mr. Forbes speaking of his district of Kealakeakua said. "Axes are very rare There is not a native carpenter who 

owns a set of tools, to my knowledge on this island [Hawaii], the population o' which is 30,000 or more. Here and there one owns a saw and 
an adze ; rarely any however except canoe diggers, and the tools they have usually belong to some chief for whom they work." Rev. H. T. 
Cheever Thr Island World of tke /'acifir, p. 221, New York, 1851. 

[337] (5 > 



6 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

rude tools and methods perhaps is hidden the most definite clue to the origin of the 
Pacific immigrants, but this will not here be discussed for the space at our disposal is 
otherwise bespoken. Of all that remains stone is the most durable material but with 
all its hardness it bears the imprint of human hands as the hard bone yields to the 
softer muscle, and some one may take these stone records, add to them the other works 
and customs of the ancient Hawaiians and perhaps solve the enigma of their origin. 




FIG. I. HAWAIIAN STONE HAMMERS. 



At present too little is known of the archaic languages as well as customs of the en- 
circling nations or peoples, at the time of the first irruption of the ancestors of the 
Pacific islanders, to study the problem with profit. 

How much memory of a previous civilization the Pacific immigrants brought 
with them we may never discover : certainly they could not have brought much in the 
way of household goods, and from what we know of their early voyages the bulk of 
their cargo must have been food. Tradition on all the groups points definitely to the 
arrival of the first settlers in canoes ; the more recent immigration to New Zealand 
even preserves the names of the canoes which were later transferred to the tribes 
springing from the crews. On landing, a waterworn log, such as may be found on 

most beaches, would perhaps be the first implement used in rolling the heavy canoe 

[338] 



STONE HAMMERS. 



ashore. The presence of a canoe argues the possession of cutting tools and of con- 
siderable skill in their use, but if any were brought with them these must in time have 
worn out, and new ones were to be provided if the newcomers were not to fall back in 
their civilization. Axes were perhaps the first tools needed for we may believe that 
there were no hostile tribes to drive from most of the islands, and we know that there 
were no dangerous animals to exterminate. Shelter and the simplest wants of camp 





FIG. 2. AUSTRALIAN (1922) AND MAORI (1539) HAMMERS. 

life require the axe and hammer. To make an axe a hammer is needed and a frag- 
ment of stone serves this purpose better than a more civilized man can understand 
xintil he has seen a pebble in a deft hand shape an axe, a pestle or a dish. One frag- 
ment is doubtless more convenient than another and a rounded form easily held in 
the hand has been selected by most primitive people. The Maori of New Zealand 
twisted a withe around the stone to make a handle (No. 1539, Fig. 2) and the Aus- 
tralian fastened the stone to a simple handle by means of a very tenacious gum (No. 
1922, Fig. 2), but the Hawaiian did very good work with the handle Nature has 
provided in his strong right arm. Now as the actual priority of many of the simple 
stone implements must be simply a matter of conjecture, I prefer to leave to everyone 
including myself, full liberty to arrange their inscriptions in the most convenient order 

without prejudice to any theory of sequence. 

[339] 



8 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



Hammers. Taking first then the hammers as the most simple, least artificial, 
and perhaps for that reason what we have fewest specimens of in our museums, we 
might perhaps with the conceit of modern civilization ask what people without nails 
needed hammers for. Perhaps, the earliest use was to drive a stake for which a smooth 
stone of rounded shape was more convenient than a rough fragment of stone, as any 
man who has ever camped out knows very well. Other stones must be split and chipped 



BERNICE Pf 







FIG. 3. HAWAIIAN CANOK BREAKERS. 

to form axes, and very early in the history of the human race it was found that a sea- 
worn pebble was a suitable tool to knap flint or chip clinkstone. Coconuts* in these 
tropical regions must be opened in the skilful way that every old native well knows 
lest the precious liquid be spilled; kukui nuts must be cracked without bruising the 
kernel which is to be used for a candle ; the bark of the shrubs used in making first 
strings, afterwards kapa or bark cloth must be beaten ;t then when the wooden bowls 
and dishes so common among the Hawaiians cracked or were broken, little pegs (which 
were indeed nails) must be carefully hammered into the breach; in the basket work 

* Coconuts (.V/w), the fruit of a palm whose home was on the isthmus of I>;ti ien. \vcrc probably introduced by the first comers. If planted 
immediately in this climate at least eight years would be required to reach the brarin^ age. Ocean waves would not bring these valuable 
nuts to the Hawaiian Islands which are washed by a northeastern current, and are on the extreme northern limit within which this palm 
flourishes. 

t Although in later days spccinli/.ed beaters were used for this purpose, as will be shown in the chapter on Kapa Making, at first simple 
stone hammers served the purpose as among the Maori and other Polynesian people- 

[340] 



CANOE BREAKERS STONE USED. 9 

successive loops or layers must be hammered iuto place ; the poi pounders were shaped 
as we shall see when we come to this indispensable implement, and in fine the uses of 
the simple pebbles with slightly flattened sides as shown in Fig. i (4468 and 4469) 
were even more general than those of the beautiful but specialized hammer of a modern 
tool chest. In the same figure No. 4482 represents a natural fragment of lava used as 
a hammer for general purposes in an Hawaiian family for several generations : it is a 
convenient tool and has the advantage of the shabby umbrella in being less in demand 
by the borrower. 

Canoe Breakers. In general no handle was used on Hawaii as by the Aus- 
tralians, Maori and so many primitive people, but in a certain modified form of hammer 
a flexible cord of coconut fibre was substituted for a handle precisely as the rope handle 
of the iron ball used at the present time in the athletic exercises of "throwing the 
hammer". Hawaiians used these large and heavy hammers in war 
to break canoes. They were also swung in the powerful grasp of the 
Hawaiian chief much like the "morning stars" of mediaeval warfare. 
In the specimen (7945) on the left of Fig. 3 the knobbed neck to which 
the rope was plaited has been broken off, but in the Munich museum 
there is a fine specimen, Fig. 4, with the rope attached. The right 
hand specimen (2975) had a groove for the encircling cord and it has 

also been used in later times as a pounder of roots both edible and 

FIG. 4. 
medicinal. And here let us remember that the simpler the tool the 

more varied its uses. This grooved pebble can be an active hammer or a passive sinker 
to a net ; a stone cup may be a lamp or a paint pot or even a chafing dish in which to 
burn souls, as will be described later when Hawaiian religion is considered. While it 
is certainly convenient to call or label a specimen by a definite name, another person 
may prefer another designation for what he considers the more important role the 
article may play. 

Stone Used. The materials used in fashioning the implements of the Pacific 
islanders may be enumerated here. The list is not a long one, if we eliminate intro- 
duced material, as for instance, granite brought as ballast from China and eagerly 
sought by the old Hawaiians for sinkers. Of simple minerals we have calcium car- 
bonate in the form of corals and of stalactite in the caves in raised coral reefs, and in a 
more compact variety resembling marble where lava streams have run over the raised 
and consolidated reef; Calcium sulphate or gypsum also found in caves or raised reefs 
and used for the shanks of fish hooks: red ferric oxide or hematite is found in masses 
of small size in Hawaiian lava flows and is used for clappers and sinkers. Of the rocks 
composed of several minerals the most common and important is basaltic lava in all its 
protean forms. From this are made the lamps, dishes, cups, balls, pestles, sinkers, 




IO 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



etc., and it is found in nearly all the high islands of the Pacific. Found with this is 
phonolite or clinkstone, invaluable for ad/es and grindstones; it is of a most compact 
structure, brown, gray, or even black in color and is a mixture of sanadine, felspar, 
nepheline, hornblend and nosean.* It is found with the older lavas, and on these 
islands generally at a considerable elevation; on Mauna Kea at 12,000 feet. As its 
name implies it has a very metallic clink, and old worked specimens often simulate 
cast steel. 

Obsidian or volcanic glass is not a product of the Hawaiian volcanoes but is 
found elsewhere in the Pacific and is important for the cutting qualities of its glass- 
like fractured edges. From Rapanui in the extreme east come the dagger heads, and 



BbRNICE PAUAH1 BISHOP MU 




FIG. 5. OBSIDIAN DAGGKR AND DAGGKK HEADS. 

from the Admiralty group at the western edge of the Pacific region come the spear 
heads and the capital daggers of which a specimen is shown in Fig. 5 (No. 1562). 
The Rapanui dagger heads, of which three are shown in the same figure, are of coarse, 
almost stony obsidian and when used are fastened to short wooden handles. Masses of 
clear obsidian from New Zealand but no objects made from it are in this Museum. 
In Mexico this volcanic glass was greatly used in olden times for inlaying as the Maori 
used paiia shell and also for the keen narrow knives used for circumcision and other 
surgical operations. 



gical operations. 

*The chemical composition of an average specimen is given as: Silica 57.7, Alumina 20.6, Potassa 6 
.langanese 3-S. Magnesia 0.5. Specific gravity about 2.58. 

[342] 



i.o. Soda 7.0, Lime 1.5, oxides of Iron 



STONE USED. 



ii 



Pumice (basic) is found as a froth of a greenish hue about the Hawaiian volcanic 
vents but owing to its extreme friability is not used as is the trachytic pumice drifted 
to the Hawaiian shores, perhaps from the Alaskan volcanoes ; this is found buried in 
the sand beaches on the windward side of Kauai, and has been used from the earliest 
times as a polishing material. 

Coral limestone is of considerable importance throughout the Pacific region and 
is often crystalline, hard and compact without much indication of its original structure; 
in this condition it is used for pestles, poi-pounders, dishes, weights, etc. Calcareous 
limestone is found compacted of the sand and debris of the reefs blown ashore and 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUShUM. 




FIG. 6. SLINGSTONES FROM NEW CALEDONIA AND GUAM. 

cemented by seolian influences, but it generally is not hard enough for making tools, 
although sometimes good as building stone. The coral reef rock was once used largely 
by foreigners for building purposes as it can be cut from the reef at low tide with an 
axe and on continued exposure to the air it hardens. The first church in Honolulu is 
entirely constructed of this material, but I do not know that the old natives made any 
extensive use of it in the construction of temple walls or even the walls of fish ponds. 
Where lava streams have flowed over the raised reef the limestone has almost the 
appearance of marble, although never in thick beds. In cases where it is granular, 
like coarse sandstone, it is frequently very hard and tenacious, making capital 
pounders (Figs. 35 and 37). With this material should be classed the shells so 
important on the atolls where no stone of any other nature occurs. The huge Tridacna 

[343] 



12 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



is a quarry for adzes which vie with those made from clinkstone in durability and 
the power of retaining a cutting edge. 

While in the eastern Pacific phonolite is the important material for adzes and 
chisels, in New Zealand, New Caledonia and other western islands greenstone* largely 
takes its place. Nephrite or Jade is frequently used for ornament or amulet and even 
for adzes, while an aluminous form, Jadeite, is used for the blades of ceremonial adzes 
or axes in many islands of the Bismarck archipelago (PI. LX.). 




FIG. 7. HAWAIIAN SLING AND SUNGSTONKS. 

SlingStones. A hammer with a detachable handle was widely used in Poly- 
nesia. Next to a club a stone seems a most handy weapon and is often nearer at hand 
than a stick. When in the olden time a Hawaiian was obliged to travel into the upper 
region of the mountains he was much in the habit of taking a stone in his hand for 
protection albeit no more substantial enemy was to be met than the aumakua or spirits 
whose domain he placed in the waste places above the forests. The smooth pebble 
from the brook with which the Jewish shepherd boy slew the Philistine giant was very 
primitive as a weapon beside the slingstones of the Pacific islanders. Where the im- 
proved form originated or who was the inventor may never be known ; certain it is that 
all through the Pacific an elongated form with conical terminals was in use. Far away 

* A fuller account of greenstone will be j*"iven below in the notice of the Maori implements and ornaments. 

[344] 



SUNGS7ONES. 



in the Mediterranean the Balearic islanders were scmght as the most skilful slingers in 
the Roman, Greek and Carthaginian armies, and the nux plumbed of the Romans was 
not unlike the stone projectile used by the Hawaiians. 

The New Caledonian on the west had the lightest and most acute slingstones 
while the Hawaiian in the east had the largest and heaviest, and in both cases, as may 
be seen from the illustrations (Figs. 6 and 7, and Plate XXXI.) the stones were almost 
always double cones. Rolled patiently between flat stones with motion from right to 
left as well as back and forth, the stone fragment gradually assumed the form best 
suited to insure directness of aim as the missile could be made to revolve on its axis, 
like a rifle ball, by the skill of the slinger. The average weight of the New Caledonian 
stones in this Museum is 1.56 oz., and their length is 1.75 in.; of the Hawaiian 4.73 oz. 
and 2.65 in. The material of the former is a sort of steatite, of the latter lava, and of 
those brought from Guam by Mr. A. Seale, stalactite. It will be noted that all these 
stones average lighter than cricket balls (5.5 oz.) or base balls (5.2 oz.). 

The collection of slingstones shown in Fig. 7 was found on the grounds sur- 
rounding the Bishop Museum beneath a large fragment of lava which was being removed 
for building purposes. This was near the ancient path from Waikiki to Ewa, on the 
top of the slight ascent from the marshes. Perhaps the warrior had here placed his 
ammunition to drive back some enemy using the trail and death had claimed him 
before his stones had all been slung. 

The following table will show the size and weight of the stones figured: 



PLATE XXXI. 



4822. 
4814. 
4818. 
4813. 
4820. 
4824. 
4826. 
4823. 
4821. 
4815. 
4828. 
4825. 
4830. 



4831. 
4832. 
4833. 
4834- 
4835. 
4836. 



Compact lava, 2.65X1.6X1.5 i".. 5 oz. 4829. 

Brown lava. 3X i.gX 1.7 in., 7 oz. 4816. 

Smooth finish, 2.85X1.7 in., 6 oz. 4812. 

Compact lava, 3.1X2.1 in., 10 oz. 4817. 

Lava, 3. 4X 1.9 in., 10 oz. 8051 
Grey, clay-like, 2.7X i.8X 1.7 in., 6.5 oz. 8049. 

Red, porous lava, 2.4X1.7 in., 5.2 oz. 7648. 

Clay (palolo), 2.6X1.5 in., 4 oz. 4 8l 9- 

Clay (palolo), 3X1.6X1.4"!., 4-5 oz - 8 4 8 - 

Rolled lava, 2.6X i.gX 1.7 in., 6.5 oz. 4827. 

Cellular lava, 2.4X 1.6 in., 5 oz. 7749- 

Clay like, 2.5X1.6X1.5 in., 4.5 oz. 4842. 
Cellular lava, 2.3X i.sX 1.4 in., 4 oz. 



FIGURE 7. 



Rolled lava, 2.35X1.9X1.8 in., 6.5 oz. 
Rolled lava, 2.iX 1.6 in., 4.5 oz. 
Rolled lava, 2.1X1.65 in., 4.5 oz. 
Cellular, 2.iX i-5X 1.4 in., 3.5 oz. 
2X I.&5X 1.5 in., 4 oz. 
Well-rolled, 2.2X1.55X1.45 in., 4 oz. 

Average 2.65X1.64X1.54 in., 4.73 m - 



4838- 
4839. 
4840. 
4841. 



Smooth, 2.4X i-4X 1.2 in., 3.2 oz. 
Rough rolled, 2.4X1.5 in., 3.7 oz. 
Brown, smooth, 2.4X1.8 in., 6 oz. 
Grey lava, 2.6X i.6X 1.4 in., 4.5 oz. 
Ground, 2.6X i.6X 1.5 in., 4.7 oz. 
Very irregular, 2.8X1.5X1.4 in., 5 oz. 
Rough, tufa-like, 2.3X i -7X 1.6 in., 5.2 oz. 
Lava, i.gX 1.65 in., 3.7 oz. 
Cellular lava, i.gX J-45X 1.2 in., 3 oz. 
Lava, 2X 1.5X1.3 in., 3 oz. 
Flattened, 2.1X1.5X1.1 in., 2.7 07.. 
Round, rough (Xoa?), 1.5 in., 3 oz. 



Cellular, 1.7X1.5 in., 3 oz. 
Defective, 2.4X i.6sX 1.5 in., 4.2 oz. 
Nearly round, 1.9X1.7 in., 4 oz. 
Cellular, 2.2X1.7X1.6 in., 4.7 oz. 
Cellular, 2.iX i-sX i -4 in., 3.2 oz. 



The heaviest weighs 10 oz., the lightest 2.7 oz. 

[345] 



14 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

The simple sling of pandanus was the most inartificial of any used in the Pacific. 
The Caroline islanders had a handsome sling of braided coconut fibre. The form of 
sling and their use in warfare does not concern us at present and we may pass to the 
next stone implement.* 

Anchors. Certainly the anchors used by the Hawaiians before the advent of 
iron were hardly manufactured. Often a mere stone to which a cord of coconut fibre 
could be attached served the purpose of holding the canoe temporarily on the shoals 
near shore. More commonly the canoe of a chief was provided with a stone through 








FIG. 8. HAWAIIAN ANCHOR BELONGING TO ONE OF KAMKHAMKHA'S CANOF.S. 

which was a natural hole (Fig. 8) a form not hard to find among volcanic rocks. 
When a convenient hole could not be fovind a strong net of olona was put around a 
stone of suitable size and the painter made fast in this way. In sea water abounding 
in marine worms canoes could not be left long at rest in the water but were drawn out 
on the beach, when not in actual use, so the need of an anchor was less; in fishing it 
was sometimes important. 

Grindstones. In New Zealand the presence of sandstone ledges brought 
together workmen of various tribes to grind or polish their adzes, etc. The same was 
the case in Australia, but the Hawaiian had no sandstone fit for the purpose and he 
used the flat slabs of phonolite which often present a parallel cleavage and so form 
plates sometimes thin enough to use as covering slates. The hardness sometimes 

The use of slings WHS general all over the world, and from the earliest times, and they were, before the invention of firearms, no 
contemptible weapon. In the chapter on Hawaiian warfare their effectiveness as well as their various forms will be considered. The battle 
of Nuuami (1795) was perhaps the last great conflict in which Hawaiians made use of slings. 

[346] 



GRINDSTONES. 15 

made the stone a whetstone rather than a grindstone and the labor must have been 
immense. In Fig. 9 may be seen examples of grindstones long used and now in the 
Bishop Museum. The illustrations are fair examples of the worn surfaces of Hawaiian 
grindstones. In all that have been observed there is an absence of grooves ; the 
abraded surface is always an even, shallow concave. 

C-rindstones are among the oldest of Hawaiian stone-working tools and their 
use (except for an occasional knife-sharpening) had ceased long before I had any 
knowledge of the islanders. That stone balls (Fig. 10) were formed by long-continued 




FIG. 9. HAWAIIAN GRINDSTONES. 

rolling between stones of this class is well known, and I am assured that two long narrow 
stones like the lower one in Fig. 9 were used for this purpose, a man squatting in the 
native manner at each end and communicating a reciprocating motion to the upper 
stone as in the operation of sawing. Without cutting sand the operation must have 
been a tedious one, yet the many specimens extant show that a great deal of this grind- 
ing must have been done. The finish is by no means the same on all, but the use to 
which the balls were put in the games required a fairly spherical periphery. Immense 
balls of a generally spherical form but rough surface are known as "puts" of some 
native Hercules, and these are generally unworked and often merely the residuary 
nucleus of a decomposing mass of lava. One very fine one once in a private collection 
on Molokai was fabled to have been rolled nearly the length of that island, destroying 
forests in its course. Another in the Bishop Museum more than a foot in its smaller 

[347] 



i6 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



diameter, and weighing eighty-seven pounds was used as a test of strength on Kauai. 
The largest in the illustration (No. 3588) was used as a bowl, is of good surface, weighs 
twenty-two pounds, and is seven and a half inches in diameter. 

Similar but flatter grinding stones were used on other groups, as the Solomon, 
Gilbert and Caroline islands, to grind the shell money of those places. In that opera- 
tion the fragments of sea shells or of coconut shells were roughly rounded by the 
hammer, drilled and strung on the midrib of palm leaflets, often a score or more at a 
time, and rolled until polished. Specimens in the Bishop Museum from all these 




FIG. 10. STONE BALLS USED IN GAMES. 



islands show great skill and a beautiful finish. The flat stones on which the Australian 
ground edible seeds and shaped adzes in turn must be classed with these Hawaiian 
grindstones. In no case have I seen any ornamentation or definite shaping such as 
the Mexican both in olden time and now gives to the metate ; all the grindstones of 
the Pacific islanders were strictly utilitarian. 

Polishing Stones. With the exception of adze-sharpening and ball-rolling, 
the large flat grindstones were not much in demand, the smaller stones, even round 
pebbles taking their place as more portable and more convenient of application to any 
surface however irregular. Here again the diversity of uses for the same simple tool 
is well seen, the pebblestone hammer being very generally, especially by the Maori, 

used for a polisher. 

[348] 



POLISHING STONES. 17 

For coarse abrasion of comparatively softer substances the cellular lava of the 
Hawaiian volcanoes affords a capital means. The hard, glassy, silicious crust on the 
flows is full of cells and generally occurs in very convenient tablets as may be seen in 
Plate XXXIV., No. 3053. When these are partly worn so as to open the first layer of 
subcuticular cells a most efficient rasp is at hand. This hard cellular lava also occurs 
in thicker layers and from these, besides a common rasp, a tool of very ancient applica- 
tion was made as shown in Fig. n. The Hawaiians were a race addicted to bodily 
cleanliness, and as they had neither soap nor a very suitable sand, this evenly rough 




KIO. II. HAWAIIAN BATH RUBBERS. 



stone was their best detergent much used in the olden days. The two specimens 
figured (4248 and 4249) were used by the Kamehameha family and the spherical cells 
are still blocked by the abraded royal cuticle. In the same connection pumice was used 
as a friclional depilatory, as well as to reduce callosities of the skin. Large blocks of 
pumice were used to remove the bristles from pigs before baking. Another convenient 
use of the flat plates of cellular lava was for files when broken into strips and rounded. 
The beautifully finished Hawaiian bone and shell fish hooks were wrought with these 
apparently clumsy implements which were also required to keep them sharp. The 
apuapu atiai niakaii or fish hook sharpeners (Fig. 12) were found all over the group, 
but from their small size and brittle nature not many are preserved in collections. 

As a rule the cellular lava served to do die rough work on the wooden bowls 

rather than the polishing proper, and the same may be said of the coral blocks which 

[349] 



MEMOIRS n. P. B. MUSKUM. VOL. I.. No. 4. 2. 



:8 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



came next in roughness. In fine work the usual succession was fine coral, or puna, 
/>o/iaku eleku a rather soft, brittle stone, rough pumice or ana oahi (baked pumice), 
olai, oio and lau ulu or dried leaves of the breadfruit tree. A large variety of polishing 
stones may be found on Plates XXXII.-XXXV. The oio was a stone used especially 
to polish canoes. It was early discovered that the shape of the polishing stone con- 
tributed to its efficiency and the smoother back and the raised knob, ridge or handle 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ soon followed. On the 

hard woods of Hawaii 
a long continued rub- 
bing was necessary. 
The glassy polish af- 
fected by the modern 
fanciers of Hawaiian 
bowls was, of course, 
never found on the old 
dishes or bowls. The 
polish given by the 
skilful old Hawaiian 
with the breadfruit 
leaves was more last- 
ing as well as more 
tasteful than the mod- 
ern French polish. The 
plates will show fully 
the various forms and 
texture of the more common polishing stones and a minute description is unnecessary. 
The patient application of whatever medium was the secret of the beautiful finish 
of the best of the old umeke or bowls. 

Door Stone. Not what is usually meant by that term, but here a literal 
translation of the Hawaiian name Pohaku puka. As the Hawaiian house made of a 
light frame covered with grass could not be safely bolted when the small entrance door 
was closed at night, an ingenious contrivance was sometimes used which, if it would 
not prevent housebreaking would probably wreak vengeance on the intruder. It may 
be stated that the door was very low, seldom exceeding three feet in height, and one 
entered as a quadruped. Across the way was stretched a cord over a short peg near 
the bottom of one door post and by this cord was suspended directly over the entrance 
a heavy stone. One in the Bishop Museum is shown in Fig. 13. It weighs 36.7 pounds 
and would be likely to disable if not kill outright any person on whose back it might 

fall. This is the only mantrap among the Hawaiians which has come to my notice. 

[350] 





4477 



4478 



4479 



FIG. 12. HAWAIIAN 1-II.KS FOR FISH HOOKS. 



SQUID-HOOK SINKERS. 



Squid-hook Sinkers. Among the products of the sea few were more gener- 
ally acceptable to the Hawaiians than the squid or hee. Both fresh and dried it was a 
favorite concomitant of poi the national 
dish. To capture it on the reefs where 
it abounds, a peculiar hook was used 
which will be more fully described in 
the chapter on the Fisheries, but here 
it must be shown (Fig. 14 ) to explain 
the use of the stone sinker. The spindle 
to which the bone hook is attached has 
at the opposite end the stone sinker 
bound face to face with a cowrie, usu- 
ally Cyprtea tigrina, which is a favorite 
bait for squid. When lowered to the 
bottom the stone falls beneath and is 
hidden by the shell : the hook is partly 
concealed by the blades of grass bound 
to the spindle near it. When the squid 
grasps the coveted shell, the fisher pulls 
the line and if all goes as planned, the 
hook enters the soft body of the mollusk 
which is then drawn in through the ink 
which it emits. In Tahiti, instead of 
a whole shell, fragments are bound like 
shingles over the sinker which is less 
carefully cut than by the old Hawaiians. 
Plates XXX VI.-XXXIX. show a large 
series of these sinkers which are of vari- 
ous material, even foreign stone from 
ship ballast. No relic of the old stone 
time is more abundant than these squid- 
hook sinkers, and the abundance is due 
to the fact that they were easily made, 
and like poi pounders their use continues 
to the present day. I have seen the old 
stones used as sinkers to a net as well. 




FIG. 13. HAWAIIAN DOOR STONE. 



Stone Knives. While the native bambu furnished convenient knives very 
generally in use whether to trim kapa or circumcise a lad, stone was also in use for 

heavier work such as carving a dog or pig. No specimens are known that show any 

[351] 



20 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



\ 



care in working; simply a split stone with a more or less sharp edge not enhanced by 
grinding and unprovided with any handle as shown in Fig. 15. Such a rude imple- 
ment could hardly be 
classed with edge tools. 
It was not so far advanced 
as the rough flensing 
knives of the Chatham 
islands Moriori, where the 

f 

stone is shaped to some 
extent and the handle is 
formed. Fig. 16 shows 
these knives used by the 
Moriori for cutting the 
blubber from whales or 
other oil yielding mam- 
mals. Still less could 
they compare with the 
more finished obsidian 
knives from the Admir- 
alty group shown in 
Fig. 4. Probably not 
much use was made of the 
Hawaiian stone knives 
for they are very rare. 
Knives of wood with in- 
serts of shark teeth will 
be described in the chap- 
ter on Tools and Manu- 
factures. They were less 
common on this group 
than on the Gilbert Isl- 
ands. The more impor- 
tant cutting tools, adzes 
and axes I leave for the 
I.-IG. 14. HAWAIIAN- SOUID-HOOK. present to be considered 

later as perhaps the most finished product among Hawaiian stone implements. 

Clubs and Pestles. Warfare and Peace. As with all primitive people these 
states were not long sundered in time or space, their symbols may be considered together. 

Clubs and pestles in Hawaii were often of very similar form, and whether a given example 

[352] 




CLUBS AND PESTLES. 



21 



as No. 4798 in Plate XL., or better still No. 4657 in Fig. 23, was weapon or tool must 
be decided by the finish and the abrasion of the grinding end. I believe this latter 
specimen to be a club (Newa) both from the superior finish, unusual on a pestle, 
and from the absence of any sign of abrasion at the butt. It was a heavy effective 
weapon made of compact lava. 

Another form of newa was free from any ambiguity. Formed of stone like the 
last, it had four wings or ridges at the head, and although this example (Plate XL., 
No. 4785) was not so carefully wrought as some, it was a favorite form and similar 
clubs of heavy kauila wood are in the Bishop Museum. What I believe to have been 



BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM. 



' 




FIG. 15. HAWAIIAN STONE KNIFE. 

a later adaptation of this pattern has been described* by Charles H. Read, Esq., 
F. A. S., from the Vancouver collection in the British Museum. A stone head with 
four ridges is bound to a baton of kauila wood by cords of olona. In the Bishop 
Museum are two heads of stone (Fig. 18) of which No. 4789 closely resembles 
the one in the Vancouver collection; it weighs 16 ox. The other, No. 4790, is barrel- 
shaped, 4.4 in. long, and weighs 19 oz. Four deep grooves receive the attaching cords 
and the base is slightly hollowed out to receive the end of the wooden handle. There 
is another head of much better finish in private hands in Honolulu, in which the at- 
tachment to the wood was facilitated by four knobs at the base. I have examined this 
through the kindness of a third party but have been unable to obtain either cast or 
photograph of the specimen which is said to have been found in the district of Kohala 
on Hawaii. It was brought to me for a name, and there may be other similar specimens 



*Journal of the Anthropological Institute, XXI., p* 105, pi, x. 



[353] 



22 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



BERN1CE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM. 






lying unknown and neglected in private hands. Those in the British Museum and 

those here figured from the Bishop Museum are the only specimens known in museums. 

On the same plate (XL.) is figured a club of far better finish than those hitherto 

attributed to the Hawaiians (No. 4786). It has, as can be seen on the plate, a smooth 

finish and no knob on the handle end, but instead is perforated by boring from each 

^ _____ ^^^^^^^^^^^ side. Through the bevelled 

hole thus formed a strong 
braided cord of olona is 
passed, showing that besides 
its use as a common club 
the weapon could be hurled 
as a bola to entangle the 
legs of an adversary. This 
latter use was a favorite one 
among the Hawaiian war- 
riors and in Fig. 19, No. 
4788, is shown a stone cut 
with some art to effect the 
same end. Its section is 
flat and the distal end is 
broadened and thickened at 
the edges; there is a suit- 
able knob by which to make 
fast the cord. To return to 
our club on PI. XL. The 
section is not round but 
elliptical, connecting it with 
the flattened clubs called 







PIO. .6. MORIOK. STONK .M.KX.SI NO KXIVKS. 



*"* 



greatly prize them ; indeed 

hey are often made of jade of considerable intrinsic value. The Bishop Museum pos- 
sesses one of beautifully clear light green jade 17.2 inches long. Of this flattened form 
are the Moriori clubs shown in Plate LXII. which seem to show the original form 
afterwards more or less modified by their Maori successors into/to/// and mar. 

Two other weapons, 4793 and 4794, are shown also on Fig. 19. These were 
grasped in the hand as a reinforcement and gave the fist a dangerous solidity. They 
could, according to other native authorities, be used as Mas, I have seen only these 
two which are quite distinct in material and finish, 

[354] 



CLUBS AND PESTLES. 



Stone club heads are common enough in other groups, especially in the western 
Pacific where the Solomon islanders make very elaborate short clubs with a round un- 
pierced stone head concealed within basket work. The wooden handle is often elabo- 
rately inlaid with pearl shell. The New Guinea men make the well-known spherical 
club heads fastened to the stick with gum in which are imbedded small shells or 
squares of pearl shell. Dr. Giglioli has described these clubs in a learned and com- 
plete essay.* The neighboring inhabitants of the Bismarck Archipelago make heads 
of various forms as shown in Fig. 20. 
The golegole (No. 1571) is rare, but 
the star-shaped forms are more com- 
mon and show great care and patience 
on the part of the maker. It should 
be noted that this last form is now fre- 
quently imitated and with modern tools 
is not difficult to shape, but the finish 
will generally betray the work to the 
initiated. I do not think that this star 
form has any connection with the stone 
stars of the Peruvians described by 
Squier and others. The stone stars 
described by Whymper as common in 
Ecuador and figured by himf have no 
cylindrical body from which the star 
arms radiate as in the club heads of the 
western Pacific. None have more than 
six rays, and in some these rays are 
very short. In weight they vary from 
five to twenty ounces, and while the 
Ecuadorean stars may have been used 
as club heads (at least the heavier 
ones), it is quite as likely they were ornaments or symbols connected with star worship. 
The disk clubs of the New Caledonians belong to the same class and are usually made 
of jade, although this is sometimes of the coarsest grade. 

And here I may be permitted to digress so far as to mention the jade working 
of the Maori and New Caledonian. Greenstone is not found on the Hawaiian islands, 
hence the material was not described with the Hawaiian stones in the earlier part of 
this chapter, but in New Zealand, New Caledonia and New Guinea the products in the 

* I,e Maz/.e con testa sferoidale di pietra della Nuova Brettagna, dett< 1'alao. Prof. Knrico H. Giglioli, Archivio per 1,'Antropologia 
e la Ktnologia, Vol. XXVII., p. 17. Kirenze, 1897. 

t Travels Amongst the Great Andes of the Kquator, by Edward Whymper, p. 269. 

[355] 




KIG 



COMPOUND HAWAIIAN CM"]!. 
Trolil Read. 



24 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

shape of adzes, clubs, amulets or ornaments are among the choicest of worked stone 
objects and are found in every museum. 

The middle island of the New Zealand group has been sometimes named for the 
greenstone or pounanni found there, but the name properly belongs only to the quar- 
ries, Te wai ponnannt. Many grades of greenstone are worked, but the choice, deli- 
cately colored and somewhat translucent varieties usually called jade are the ones of 
present interest. These are very hard and fine-grained and lend themselves to careful 
and patient work as few other stones. Dr. A. B. Meyer the distinguished Director of the 





FIG. l8. HAWAIIAN CLUB HEADS. 

Dresden Museum has published* full information on the physical and chemical char- 
acteristics of this stone which in its varieties has many names as jade, jadeite, melanite, 
nephrite, greenstone, serpentine, chloro-melanite, etc. From Dr. Meyer's fine work 
I borrow three analyses (by Frenzel) to show the constant proportion of silica in speci- 
mens from different localities: 

New (iiitnea Adze. A r cu' Zealand Ad~r. New Caledonian Adze. 

Silica, 56.80 56.30 55-So 

Alumina, 16.25 .... .... 

Iron oxide, 7.53 5.62 5.67 

trace .... .... 

5-6o 14.30 i5.cSo 

21.95 20.54 



Manganese, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

vSoda, 

Water, 



12.06 
0.25 



Sp. gr., 3.16 101.62 



2.90 
Sp.gr., 2. 98 101.07 



2.10 



Sp. gr., 3.06 99.91 

Jacleit und Ncphrit Objects. B. Asien, Oceanien und Africa. Konigliches elhnographischcs Museum zu Dresden. Leipzig, 1883. 

[356] 



CLUBS AND PESTLES. 25 

In the second and third specimens lime and magnesia take the place of alumina 
and soda in the first, otherwise the body material silica and the coloring element iron 
oxide remain essentially the same. 

In New Zealand the principal forms of the worked stone are mere, hei-tiki, toki or 
adze and ear ornaments ; in New Guinea chiefly the adze, and in New Caledonia adze, 
disk-club and beads of a spherical or flattened form. Dr. Meyer gives illustrations of 
these in Plates V. and VI. of the work cited, and the Maori articles are well shown in 
a work by Hamilton.* So slow was the abrasion in the rude grinding that it is said 
to have taken more than a generation to finish a mere. The tools were blocks of sand- 




FIG. 19. HAWAIIAN STONE WEAPONS. 

stone rubbed slowly by hand, water dropping on the stone meanwhile. One form of 
ear ornament resembling a capital J in the type called Gothic was of peculiarly difficult 
workmanship. The odd-looking heitikis with one-sided heads were worked largety 
with drills and sand; they had drilled holes for suspension from the neck. 

Of all these forms none seem closely related to the Hawaiian except certain clubs 
and pounders. I am in doubt whether to class a certain Hawaiian shell ornament in 
the Bishop Museum with the heitiki, but as it is an unique specimen I have decided to 
relegate it to the chapter on Ornament. 

An antique form of Maori club is shown in Fig. 21 which both in material and 
shape recalls the Hawaiian pestle, but the handle end is in both examples ornamented 
with human heads, and one (No. 1514) has two rude masks on the body as well, while 
both have the butt more rounded than in the Hawaiian pestle. Of better workmanship 

* Maori Art, by A.'Hamilton." N'ew Zealand Institute, Wellington, N. /-.: 4*-. Pis. XI,V., XLVI. 

[357] 



26 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 




I-IG. 20. CT.rilS OK NK\V C.riNKA AND THK HISMAKCK ARCHIPKI \C,() 



PES'ILES. 



27 



are the beaters shown in Fig. 22; both are of very dark greenstone and smoothly fin- 
ished. The first, No. 1513, is a paoi or pestle to crush fern root, a process for which 
wooden pestles are more commonly used, and the other, No. 131, comes to the Bishop 
Museum labelled "Hand 
Club", but it certainly 
could have been used as 
a pestle, while its short- 
ness (9.6 in.) would be 
inconvenient for a club. 

Pestles. On the Ha- 
waiian Group there was 
no corn to be ground so 
that we find neither the 
roller and metatc of the 
Mexican nor the long 
pestle of the Amerind; 
nor did the Hawaiian 
grind the fern root which 
he usually baked, but he 
had the nut of the Alcit- 
ritcs moluccana or kukui 
and the kamani Calophyl- 
I ii)ii inophyllum to crush 
both for food and for the 
oil. Here also, unlike the 
custom of the southern 
islands, the awa (Piper 
metkysticum) was ground, 
not chewed. The grind- 
ing of bait for fishes was 
always done with wooden 
pestles which will come 
properly under Fisheries. 

As a general thing the Hawaiian pestle had no knob at the handle end, but some 
of good workmanship, shown in Plates XLJ. and XLIL, have definite bosses. In some 
cases the knob is replaced by depressions on opposite sides of the stem as may be seen 
in No. 7999 of Fig. 23. The rudest form, which I believe to be very ancient, is shown 
in No. 4483 of the same figure; it is simply a convenient pebble worn by use, and I have 

[359] 




FIG. 21. ANCIENT MAORI CLt'KS. 



28 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



found it a suitable implement to crush kernels of nuts or the stems of medicinal plants 
Where choice intervened the kahuna lapaau or aboriginal "medicine-man" always 
selected ivory or bone pestles for comminuting his drugs, the material gave more 
power to the drug. Several ivory pounders are in the Bishop Museum as well as a 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^^^^^^^^^ medicine cup made from 

the vertebra of a small 
whale. 

Returning to Fig. 23, 
we have in No. 4660 an- 
other primitive pestle 
found in the ruins of an 
ancient heiau or temple. 
It is of hard cellular lava 
rudely wrought, but con- 
siderably worn by use. 
Next to it is a very choice 
specimen, No. 4657, which 
equals in the workman- 
ship the best Maori speci- 
mens; are we to consider 
this the newa or hand 
club of some chief? I have 
already mentioned the 
difficulty encountered in 
attempting to distinguish 
between the weapon and 
the tool. The curious fig- 
\\re in the lower right 
hand corner, No. 7947, 
is what remains of a brok- 
en pestle which by the 
hand of a modern forger 
has been converted into the semblance of an ancient god. Too man}' such occur, and 
the Portuguese or Japanese stonecutters make many a dishonest dollar from the in- 
experienced collector of Hawaiian curiosities, and the native of the soil is not free from 
this cheat. So closely are genuine stone dishes or idols imitated that it is one of the 
most difficult matters to pass judgment upon, even for the few experts, and it is safer 

for the tyro to reject any specimen even if be disinterred before his eyes. 

[360] 




FIG. 22. MAORI PAOI (NO. 1513) AND CLUB (NO. 131). 



PESTLES. 






BERNICE PAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM 




FIG. 23. HAWAIIAN PESTLES. 



30 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

The pestles in Plates XLL and XLIL, also in Figs. 24 and 25 are fair examples 
of the Hawaiian form, and while in modern times certain ones are often designated 
"noni-pounders" I doubt there was any distinction in ancient times and the same stone 
ground kukui nuts for oil or the awa root for the hot and exhilarating drink or, yet 
again, noni (Moriiicta citrifolia) for dye or medicine. Some, as will be seen, are 




FIG. 24. HAWAIIAN PESTLES. 

flattened at the butt, not always by long use ; most, however, are rounded to fit more 
closely the bottom of the mortar. 

A much more common class of pestles was shorter, conical in shape, and held in 
the hand. These mullers, shown in Fig. 26, were generally used to pulverize charcoal 
or to grind ochres for paints, or to crush berries or succulent stems for dyes. Often no 
mortar was required but a shallow dish or a flat rock served as nether millstone. Older 
in point of development than the taller brethren, they serve as a transitional form to 
the /w/Wv/ kni poi or poi pounders, one of the most characteristic of Hawaiian stone 
implements and one that survives to this da}- without a rival in the hand manufacture 
of the national food. 



PHALLIC EMBLEMS. 31 

Phallic Bmblems. The almost universal worship of the Phallus in early 
stages of human development extended to the tribes inhabiting the Pacific, and was 
prevalent among the Hawaiians. The worship is not to be considered here but the 
stone emblems of it must be noticed for some of them are liable to be mistaken for 
pestles. I have never found the curious nail which my friend Dr. Kramer describes 




Kid. 25. HAWAIIAN PESTLES. 

from Samoa* but there are in the Bishop Museum many phallic objects of undoubted 
antiquity. The stone lamps offer many illustrations and the pohaku eho are sometimes 
found buried or otherwise hidden. In one case only have I seen the female element 
represented and in that lingam it appeared as a well wrought ring through which 
passed, but wholly detached, a conical stone similar to the larger of those shown in 
Plate LXXV. Many of the objects in this plate are well made and some are of great 
size as if intended to occupy a temple, and not merely a private sanctuary. In the 
Berlin Museum ( Arning collection) is a male organ of such naturalistic treatment that 
I infer it was made in later times and not intended as an object of worship, for in all 
sacred phalli a very conventional treatment is shown. The images of the Hawaiian 

* Der Steinnatfel von Samoa, von I>r. AuK*ti Kramer, r.lobus lid. I, XXX., Nr. I (1901). 

[363] 



32 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS, 

gods, especially those carved from wood are often obscene to an extreme only equalled 
in New Zealand among the Maori or in Japan. 

Near Kalae on Molokai is a curious sculptured stone having at first glance the 
appearance of being waterworn. It is, however, on the top of a hill where no water 
could have done the work. I photographed it in 1889 (Fig. 27) and learned from the 
residents of the neighboring ranch that it was once the object of great veneration 
under the name of Kaulunanahoa. It has been carved to a great extent, but how much 
the natural conformation of the rock contributed to its present form cannot be told. 




FIG. 26. HAWAIIAN STONE MUIJ.KRS. 

Dr. Kramer has described* this also as phallic. It is in a region now depopulated but 
once with a large native population as the remains of temples and other structures 
indicate. In its present desolation and neglect, this once venerated stone is made the 
bearer of various names of tramps. It is as high as an ordinary man. 

Mortars. Before following this line of form development we must turn back 
to fit the pestles with their mortars. I do not know of any pot holes in the rocks out- 
side of torrent beds that were used for mortars as was so common among the Amerinds 
of New England. 

The simplest mortar in the Bishop Museum is shown in Plate XLIIL, No. 1227. 
It is 15 inches in its largest diameter and bears marks of considerable use. It seems 



Globus. Band I.XXIII. 



[364] 



MORTARS. 



33 



to have been a small boulder or nodule of very cellular lava, and was rudely fashioned 
more by use than in the original intent. It is considered an awa mortar, because of 
its chief use, but would have been convenient for any trituration. Of similar form, but 
better workmanship, are the mortars shown in the lower group on the same plate. The 
last one of the group has actually been worn out by long iise and the bottom has dropped 
a\vay.* The middle one shows an approach to the more finished specimens we will next 
consider, and which show a remarkable degree of patient and understanding work. 
Both inside and out the finish is good, but within the shape is very perfect, being 




FIG. 27. KAULUNANAHOA ON MOI.OKAI. 

almost almond-shape in section. The five mortars shown in Fig. 28 were all found on 
the island of Kauai, hidden in the eartli within the limits of the Kealia sugar planta- 
tion, and were turned up by the plow in cultivating for cane. Mr. George H. Dole was 
at the time manager of this plantation and added them to his private collection, most 
of which afterwards came to the Bishop Museum. The dimensions of these rare speci- 
mens, for I do not know of any similar in any of the museums, are as follows, in the 
order in which they are placed in the figure. Height and diameter in inches: 

No. 1222, 13.5X6.2; 1224, 8.5X7.2; 1221, 7.2X7.2; 1223, 8X8; 1225, 11.5X7. 

These were generally used for grinding kukui or kamani nuts for both oil and 
the relish called inamoiia. I have traced the place of their manufacture to a hill above 

* It is not impossible that the bottom has been broken intentionally to prevent subsequent use. 
MEMOIRS B. P. B. MUSKUM. VOL. I., No. 4. 3. l_3"5 J 



34 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



Makaweli on Kauai where there are many fragments both of the lava used for mortars 
and the clinkstone of which adzes were shaped. To this factory I shall have occasion 
to revert when describing the adze making. What the exact process of manufacture 
was I do not know, nor can any of the old natives satisfy me. Certainly the method 
was not a perfect one for many failures are recorded unintentionally among the refuse 
heaps of this factory. One that I brought from there is shown in Fig. 29 and it will 
be seen that the sides were split off uniformly all round, a condition that is rather 
puzzling, for the bottom of the cup seems about finished, and the accident must have 
occurred when the finishing touches were being applied. It can hardly have happened 




FIG. 28. HAWAIIAN STONE MORTARS. 

by a fall on to the stone ledge that crops out here and there within the limits of the 
workshop. There is the ruin and my readers may adopt such explanation as seems good. 
That the stone worker was often deceived in the quality of his selected stone is shown 
by the many failures after much work has been expended, but when the uncertain nature 
of volcanic rock is considered and its common want of homogeneity is known, it is not 
surprising. Many an experienced sculptor has been bitterly disappointed in his chosen 
block of Carrera marble and after much labor has come upon a hopeless flaw. 

The shallow cups or dishes to be used with the mullers are shown in Fig. 30. 
One (2979) is shown in reverse to exhibit the four legs. Most of the others are very 
shallow and were probably iised for the paints for the impression of the bambu stamps 
on kapa ; hence they are abundant, or at least their fragments are, for each kapa maker 

must have had at least three of these cups when printing. There is little variation in 

[366] 



MORTARS. 



35 



the form as they were objects of utility not ornament. The following table will give 
the length and weight of the Hawaiian stone pestles shown in the preceding figures: 

FIGURE 23. 

4483. Rude form, a mere pebble, which has been 7999. Compact lava, 7.5 in. long, 2 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

used considerably, 6.5 in. long, 2 Ibs. 8 ozs. 4660. Cellular lava, 9.5 in. long, 4 Ibs. 10 ozs. 

4657. Most finished specimen in the collection, 7947. Compact lava ; the broken pestle has been 

15.5 in. long, 6 Ibs. 2 ozs. converted into an idol. 





FIG. 2Q. MORTAR BROKEN IN MAKING. 

FIGURE 24. 

4652. Cellular lava, round, 12 in. long, weighs 7946. Cellular lava, 11.3 in. long, 5 Ibs. 

4 Ibs. 7 ozs. 4646. Compact lava, 19.5 in. long, 5 Ibs. 7 oz. 

4655. Cellular lava, n.6 in. long, 3 Ibs. 4 ozs. 4645. Cellular lava, 9.5 in. long, 3 Ibs. 12 ozs. 

FIGURE 25. 

4658. Very compact lava, scored on base, 13.7 4651. Cellular lava, W cut on side, 11.5 in., 5 

in. long, weighs 5 Ibs. 13 ozs. Ibs. 3 ozs. 

4644. Compact lava flattened, 12 in., 5 Ibs. 8 ozs. 4659. Compact lava, round, 11.5 in., 5 Ibs. 

4653. Cellular lava, four grooves on base, 11.9 / ozs. 
in., 5 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

[367] 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



4632. Compact lava, 6.2 in. long, 34.7 ozs. 

4633. Compact lava, 6.1 in. long, 42.5 ozs. 

4634. Compact lava, 6.7 in. long, 45 ozs. 

4635. Compact lava, 7 in. long, 37.2 ozs. 

4636. Compact lava, 6.1 in. long, 48 ozs. 

4637. Coral rock, 5.6 in. long, 28.5 ozs. 



FIGURE 26. 

4638- 
4 6 39- 



Cellular lava, 5 in. long, 32 ozs. 
Compact, well made, 5.7 in. long, 47 ozs. 

4640. Compact, 4 in. long, 23 ozs. 

4641. Compact, 4 in. long, 23 ozs. 
4656. Coarse lava, 4 in. long, 23 ozs. 

4114. Elliptical section, 4.5 in. long, 4<V 7 ozs. 







1 1C, . 30. STONE CUPS USED FOR GRINDING. 



4796. 

4797- 



PLATE XLI. 

Cellular lava, 13.2 in. long, 4 Ibs. 2 ozs. 4798. 
Cellular lava, 15.8 in. long, 6 Ibs. 9 ozs. 5148. 



Cellular lava, 14.7 in. long, 6 Ibs. 6 ozs. 
Cellular lava, 13.8 in. long, 4 Ibs. 5 ozs. 



Pl.ATK XIJI. 

4649. Cellular lava, 13 in. long, 5 Ibs. 3 ozs. 4^47- Cellular lava, 12.7 in. long, 6 Ibs. 

4654. Cellular lava, 12.5 in. long, 6 Ibs. 8 o/s. 4650. Cellular lava, 13.4 in. long, 6 Ibs. 4 o/.s. 

5149. Cellular lava, 11.7 in. long, 5 Ibs. 2 ozs. 

Poi Pounders (Na poliakn kit i poi). We come now to an implement very 
prominently identified with Polynesian life: one that had its beginnings with the race 
and which will perhaps be the last of ancient things to fall from the hands of the dying 
people. Wherever the making of poi reached there were the stone pounders of one 

e-eneral pattern but with many local variations. Where breadfruit takes the place of 
* 



POI POUNDERS. 37 

kalo, as in some Micronesian islands, the edible substance is pounded with similar 
pestles of wood or stone. The root of the kalo (Colocasia esadenta) is cooked and then 
pounded on large wooden dishes, with no inconsiderable labor, into a tough and pasty 
dough which is then in turn diluted with water and allowed to sour as a paste. This 
is the favorite food among the Polynesians both young and old, and it seems to confute 
the popular idea that tropical peoples will not by choice do hard work. Certainly poi 




KIG. 31. HAWAIIAN POI BOARD AND POUNDERS. 

pounding was the hardest bread-making known among the nations, and the labor fell 
to the lot of the men alone. 

But it is not so much the work done with these pounders, which will properly 
be considered in the chapter on Food, as the work expended in making them, and also 
the variation in forms that we are to study here. Every important group in Polynesia 
(using poi) had its own pattern, and as they have been somewhat mixed in museums 
and private collections, a very brief notice of these forms must be given here. The 
group with which in traditional times the Hawaiians had the closest connection through 
their long voyages, had a form quite distinct from any known to their visitors, and 
yet the Tahitian form is often attributed to the Hawaiian islands because the inter- 
course in the period when the whaling industry flourished in these waters brought 
many Tahitian things to Honolulu which became a point for their redistribution to the 

[369] 



3 8 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

rest of the world. I have traced other Tahitian objects, which in the museums of 
Europe and America were called Hawaiian, to the fact that the Reverend William Ellis 
was a missionary in the Society islands until his health suffered, and on his way home 
to recuperate, he was persuaded to tarry in the Hawaiian islands and help the earliest 
band of missionaries sent by the American Board of Foreign Missions. His knowledge 
of the Tahitian dialect enabled him to converse with the closely related Hawaiian, 
and thus his help was invaluable to the teachers on Hawaii who were struggling to 
master the language of the people they had come to instruct. Mr. Ellis was more than 




FIG. 32. TAHITIAN POI POUNDERS. 

an ordinary teacher as his most interesting 7 (fur of Hawaii in 1821, and his various 
works on Madagascar prove, and he not only studied manners and customs but collected 
specimens of the manufactures of the peoples with whom he sojourned, and the col- 
lections brought through Hawaii from Tahiti and now in the British Museum mainly, 
were sometimes confounded with those that Mr. Ellis collected in Hawaii. 

Evidently the Tahitians held their pounders in a different way to the Hawaiian 
bread-maker for the characteristic cross bar was the handle instead of the cylindrical 
stem of the pounder. While the cross bar was longer or shorter, and of differing curves, 
the specimens shown in Fig. 32 are good types of the southern form. Although the 
Marquesan group is much nearer the Society than the Hawaiian islands the pounder 

found there more resembles that used on the latter group, and was held in the same way. 

[370} 




FIG. 33. MARQUESAN POI POUNDERS. 



MARQUE SAN POI POUNDERS. 39 

Its distinguishing feature, on all the specimens that I have seen, was the small knob 
at the top which was either simply grooved (8004, 8005) or decorated with a head 

of the type common 
in Marquesan art. 
Both these forms are 
shown in Fig. 33, and 
the graceful curve of 
the stem should be 
noticed. The artistic 
outline is closer allied 
to the Tahitian than 
to the Hawaiian. A 
very ancient form of 
Marquesan pounder 
now in private hands 
in Honolulu is shown 

in Fig. 34. The double head is boldly modelled and the whole finish of the pounder is 
good. It perhaps favors my belief that 
the cannibals did better work, and had 
better taste, than the people who lived on 
poi and fish ; but any one may form his 
own theory if he has specimens enough 
of the work of each division of the 
Pacific islanders to make a fair com- 
parison. To me there is something 
very cannibalistic in the two faces on 
this pounder, and I am inclined to be- 
lieve that the poi pounded with it was 
often as the bread to the more im- 
portant meat. 

The pounders used by the can- 
nibals at the other end of the Pacific 
region, the Maori, have been already 
figured (Fig. 22, p. 28). The fern root 
and hinati berries (Elaocarpus denta- 
tus} were generally beaten in a wooden 
bowl with a wooden pestle, neither of FIG ' 34- ANCIENT MARQUESAN POI POUNDER. 

them having any connection with the Hawaiian poi board and pounder. Both the bowl 
and pestle were often carved in artistic forms as were so many of the humblest imple- 
ments of the Maori. [371] 




40 HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

Returning to the north Pacific we find in Micronesia a very distinct type of poi 
pounder. Both the cross bar and the boss have disappeared and a flattened disk termi- 
nates the stem otherwise quite like those of the Polynesian islanders already described. 
On many of the islands of Micronesia no stone is found ; coral and coral sand form the 
solid land and it is common to see implements that on the volcanic islands are made 
of lava on these atolls made of compact shell, or in the case of pounders, of coral rock 
solid and ringing. Such are shown in Fig. 35 where the excellent workmanship of the 
cannibals and the peculiar discoidal top may be seen. One or two conical points are in 




I'lCi. 35. COKAI. ROCK roi'XDKRS FROM RUK. 

some cases added apparently for ornament, or it may be to indicate an especial use, as 
the two specimens (3291, 3292) in the middle of the group have two points and are said 
to have been used for grinding laik, a red pigment greatly prized by the Ruk people. 

Also from the Caroline islands are the two pounders shown in Fig. 36. One 
(7075) is of wood painted red like many of the Carolinean objects of the same material: 
the other is of very compact lava and well made. These are used for pounding both 
kalo and breadfruit. 

I am not acquainted with any other form of importance outside the Hawaiian 
group, but on this group there was a variation in form greater than any of those already 
seen. However, we are getting on too fast and must return to the very primitive 

mullers from which have developed all these- forms. Any one of the mailers shown in 

[372] 



POI FOUNDERS. 41 

Fig. 26 would do for poi pounding but they all lack weight and the face surface is not 
of sufficient diameter to do well the needed pounding. In Fig. 37 we have a conical 
muller made of coral rock (coral sand conglomerate) which is fairly heavy (4 Ibs. 12 oz.), 
but while it would strike a forceful blow it would not be so easy on the recover, and in 
spite of the rather rough surface would be likely to slip from the hand. In this case 
the inventive genius of an intelligent people would soon devise the slender stem and 
knobbed top. I am able to show the intermediate shape when the stem had been 
diminished for the better clasping of the hand. Fig. 38 shows a very old muller or 

. 





KIC, . 36. WOOD AND STONE POUNDERS, CAROLINE ISLANDS. 

pounder found in the ruins of an old heiau or temple. It is roughly wrought and 
indicates an early age or little skill on the part of the maker. It almost gives the 
impression of a lump of clay being fashioned on the potter!s wheel. It is the only one 
of this form I have seen. 

Let not my reader suppose that I attach much importance to this development 
of the pounders; there is no chronological sequence so far as known, and while it is 
easy to arrange intermediate forms, it must be always remembered that we have nothing 
beyond our imagination to rest upon. We cannot prove that the simple form was not 
made long after the so-called intermediate for some special purpose. There are no 
bones of the cave bear or of any other extinct animal with which these stone tools have 
been found, and except tradition there is no possible help in dating any of the old speci- 
mens. Tradition seldom meddles with the common implements of vulgar life, and 

certainly does not in many of the ones which occupy our attention at present. 

[373] 



42 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



I am fortunately able to show how the Hawaiian poi pounder was made, and it 
is probable that this was the most ancient method. In Hilo in 1888 I found an old 
native at work with his son fashioning poi pounders for his neighbors and one of the 
photographs I then took is shown in Fig. 39. Sitting on the porch of his house on a 

mat (no longer Hawaiian 
but Chinese), clad in for- 
eign clothes, father and son 
still retained the native pos- 
ture and the native methods 
I had seen a quarter of a 
century before when a grass 
house and stone platform 
had served as background 
to a bronzed figure clad only 
in the unobtrusive malo or 
clout, working in the same 
way for the same end. Only 
a hard silicious pebble arm- 
ed with perseverence and pa- 
tience made produces fairly 
shown in the plates and fig- 
ures. Now it is said the 
modern pounders are often 
turned in a lathe,* and these 
substitutes are used by the 
Chinese to prepare the Ha- 
waiian's national food ! 

Not seldom when much 
of the hard rough shaping 

FIG. 37. HAWAIIAN MULLER OF CORAI. ROCK. ig done the work must bg 

abandoned because a flaw is discovered. Two such failures are shown in Fig. 40. The 
first (No. 8815) looks almost like a model of an eroded mountain for the hard pebble 
has cut away the stone much as the torrent washes out the valleys. The first stage 
was nearly finished. In the second example (No. 8043) more progress had been made: 
the concavity of the sides was marked and the face was nearly complete when the 
great crack from side to side appeared and the disappointed workman threw the block 
on to the refuse heap whence it found its way into a stone wall where the rejected stone 
was selected from the whole wall for the lesson it could teach. 

*I have recently seen tolerable poi pounders cut with a short-handled axe. It took nearly a day, and the result was rough. 

[374] 




POI POUNDERS. 



43 



I have wondered whether the Hawaiian priesthood was enough like other priest- 
hoods to cling tenaciously to the use of ancient implements as well as forms. I have 

~, no information at first hand on the matter, for the 
priests had ceased to perform their functions, at 
least in public, before my day, but in the ruins of 
a temple on the slopes of the Kaala range on Oahu, 
were found by Messrs. Bryan and Scale of the 
Museum staff, several pounders of antique form 
two of which are shown- in Fig. 41. No. 10,031 is 
made of a lava closely resembling stratified sand- 
stone, and is considerably flattened. No. 10,032 
is of a curiously shortened form. Both bear 
marks of long use. The Alii or Chiefs were par- 
ticular about their poi pounders, carrying their 
own on journeys, and some of the Moi or Kings 
placed a kapu on their private pounders. In the 
Bishop Museum is the "sacred" pounder of the 
great Kamehameha, a small form easily carried 
on a journey or war-like expedition. It escaped 




FIG. 38. 



ANCIENT HAWAIIAN POI 
POUNDER. 



being photograph- 
ed as it was in the 
case with relics 
and not with the 
other more ple- 
beian pounders. 
Under the circum- 
stances the priests, 
who by this same 
kapu ruled the 
Kings, probably 
were equally par- 
ticular about their 
own pounders. 

Another native 
custom had its in- 
fluence on the size 
if not the form of 




FIG. 39. HAWAIIAN'S MAKING POI POUNDERS. 



some pounders. The maka ainana or people, as distinguished from the chiefs and 

clergy, had neither any property nor any rights that their rulers were bound to respect. 

[375] 



44 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



Everything belonged to the King. The Hawaiian saying "O lima, a lalo, kai, o nka 
a o ka liao [>ae, k<> Xr V//" (All above, all below, the sea, the land, and iron cast 
upon the shore, all belong to the King) was so true that if a chief heard the noise 
of pounding poi, and was hungry, he could take the poi from the commoner to satisfy 
his own hunger even if he left the poor fellow starving. This was sufficiently com- 
mon in practice to induce the making of pounders of smaller size that would not 







FIG. 40. UNFINISHED POI POUNDERS. 

betray the preparation of food by the noise. Na poliaku km poi main. Such are 
several of the pounders shown in Figs. 43 and 44, and these lighter forms were the 
ones carried by the servants of a chief on a journey. 

On the island Kauai are found two peculiar forms : one in its various modifica- 
tions is shown in Plate XLIV.: the other in Plates XLV. and XLVI. Both of 
these forms are two-handed and the process is rather grinding than pounding. They 
were preferred for grinding the barks and berries used in dyeing kapa. The stirrup 
form may be regarded the older, certainly the easier to make, and the ring form 
(poliaku kni pnka or poliaktt f>iika} may have developed from this by wearing through 

the concavitv. This ring form is found among the old corn grinders of Mexico, and so 

[376] 



POI POUNDERS. 



45 



closely do these two remote implements resemble each other that I have seen in one of 
the principal ethnological museums of Europe a genuine Hawaiian ring poi pounder 
labeled as a Mexican corn grinder. Both are made of similar lava. In Plate XU V. the 
unusual form shown at the extreme right of the group (No. 6820) is a cast kindly sent me 
by Professor Frederick W. Putnam, the distinguished Curator of the Peabody Museum 
of American Archre- ^ __^_^____ 

ology at Cambridge, 
Mass., in whose charge 
is the unique original. 
It shows more elaborate 
design than any I have 
seen, although the pro- 
jections on the upper 
corners, so convenient for 
the thumbs, are indicated 
on No. 4113 of the same 
plate. I have never seen 
these stirrup pounders in 
use. The ring pounders 
seem to have become ob- 
solete in more recent 
times, perhaps because 
the Chinese, who pound 
much of the poi, prefer 
the common conical form of Fig. 42. The methods of holding the ring pounders, 
according as they are used for pounding (A) or grinding (B) is shown in Fig. 45. 
This was the usual, although the workmen doubtless varied the grip as their wrists 
became wearied, and different natives have shown me other methods as the only ones 
they ever knew. All such information is of little value. 

The very limited range of these stirrup and ring pounders is noteworthy. 
The island Kauai was not remote from the rest of the group, nor were her inhabitants 
hostile generally. That intercourse was not so common as between the islands to 
the southeast is shown by the provincial forms of words, the use of the sound repre- 
sented by k instead of that represented by t more generally on Kauai (a-Tooi of 
Cook) than on the other islands, and other dialectal peculiarities not necessary to 
discuss here. Notwithstanding there was a considerable intercourse and interchange 
of merchandise between the people of Kauai and even the distant Hawaii. Peculiar 
forms of kapa made only on the former island have been found buried in ancient 
caves in Kohala, Hawaii, but I do not remember that any poi pounders of the 

[377] 




FIG. 41. ANCIENT HAWAIIAN POI FOUNDERS. 



4 6 



HAWAIIAN STONE IMPLEMENTS. 



forms in question have ever been found on Hawaii. I am at a loss to explain the 
non-distribution and I cannot find that their use extended beyond the island of 
Kauai. When I first visited that island in 1864 they were already obsolete and were 
shown as curiosities. 




FIG. 42. HAWAIIAN I'OI POUNDERS. 

That the reader may obtain a better idea of the size and weight of these "bread 
makers" I give here a list of those figured, with their weight, height and the diameter 

at the largest end. 

Kir.rKK 42. 

4085. 5 Ibs. 8 ox., 8 in., 5.7 in. 4083. 9 Ibs., 9 in., 5.6 in. 

4081. 5 Ibs., 8.2 in., 5.5 in. 4093. 2 Ibs. 13 oz., 7.2 in., 3.8 in. 

4084. 3 Ibs. 4 oz., 8.5 in., 5.8 in. 7530. 6 Ibs., 7.2 in., 5.7 in. 

4089. 2 Ibs. 13 oz., 6.8 in., 3.7 in. 4082. 7 Ibs. 10 oz., 8.8 in., 6.1 in. 

6860. 5 Ibs. 4 oz., 8 in., 5.5 in. 7731- 6 Ibs. 2 07.., 8.5 in. 5.9 in. 

[378] 



POI POUNDERS. 



47 



4096. 

4097. 
4091. 
4092. 
4086. 
4099. 

4080. 
4106. 



4 Ibs., 7.5 in., 4.7 in. 

3 Ibs. 3 oz., 6.2 in., 3.3 in. 

5 in. 

3.1 in. 
, 7 in., 5 in. 
6 in., 3.5 in. 



4 Ibs. 8 oz., 7.1 in 
2 Ibs. i oz.,